User`s Guide, E82x7C PSG Signal Generators
User’s Guide
Agilent Technologies
PSG Signal Generators
This guide applies to the signal generator models listed below. Due to our continuing
efforts to improve our products through firmware and hardware revisions, signal generator
design and operation may vary from descriptions in this guide. We recommend that you
use the latest revision of this guide to ensure you have up-to-date product information.
Compare the print date of this guide (see bottom of this page) with the latest revision,
which can be downloaded from the website shown below.
E8247C PSG CW
E8257C PSG Analog
E8267C PSG Vector
www.agilent.com/find/signalgenerators
Part Number: E8251-90253
Printed in USA
September 2002
© Copyright 2002 Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Notice
The material contained in this document is provided “as is”, and is subject to being changed,
without notice, in future editions.
Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Agilent disclaims all warranties,
either express or implied with regard to this manual and to any of the Agilent products to
which it pertains, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and
fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent shall not be liable for errors or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this
document or any of the Agilent products to which it pertains. Should Agilent have a written
contract with the User and should any of the contract terms conflict with these terms, the
contract terms shall control.
Questions or Comments about our Documentation?
We welcome any questions or comments you may have about our documentation. Please send
us an E-mail at sources_manuals@am.exch.agilent.com.
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Contents
1. Signal Generator Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Signal Generator Models and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
E8247C PSG CW Signal Generator Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
E8257C PSG Analog Signal Generator Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
E8267C PSG Vector Signal Generator Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Front Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1. Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2. Softkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
3. Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
4. Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
5. Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
6. Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
7. Recall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
8. Trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
9. MENUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
10. Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
11. EXT 1 INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
12. EXT 2 INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
13. LF OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
14. Mod On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
15. ALC INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
16. RF On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
17. Numeric Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
18. RF OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
19. SYNC OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
20. VIDEO OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
21. Line Power LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
22. Power Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
23. Standby LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
24. Incr Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
25. GATE/PULSE/TRIGGER INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
26. Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
27. Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
28. Return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
29. Display Contrast Decrease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
30. Display Contrast Increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
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31. Local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32. Preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33. I/Q INPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34. DATA INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35. DATA CLOCK INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36. SYMBOL SYNC INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Panel Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Active Entry Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Frequency Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Amplitude Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Error Message Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Text Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Softkey Label Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. AC Power Receptacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. GPIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. AUXILIARY INTERFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. STOP SWEEP IN/OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Z-AXIS BLANK/MKRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. SWEEP OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. TRIGGER OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. TRIGGER IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. SOURCE SETTLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. EVENT 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. EVENT 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. PATTERN TRIG IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14. BURST GATE IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. AUXILIARY I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. DIGITAL I/Q I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17. WIDEBAND I INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18. WIDEBAND Q INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19. COH (COHERENT CARRIER OUTPUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20. I OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. I-bar OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22. Q OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23. Q-bar OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents
24. BASEBAND GEN REF IN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25. SMI (SOURCE MODULE INTERFACE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26. 10 MHz OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27. 10 MHz IN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28. 10 MHz EFC (Option UNR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
. . . . .36
. . . . .36
. . . . .36
. . . . .36
. . . . .36
2. Basic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
To Configure an RF Output Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
To Configure an RF Output Frequency Reference
and Frequency Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
To Configure an RF Output Amplitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
To Configure an RF Output Amplitude Reference
and Amplitude Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Configuring a Swept RF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Understanding Step Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
To Configure a Step Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
To Configure a Step Sweep, in Continuous Sweep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Understanding List Sweep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
To Configure a List Sweep,
in Single Sweep Mode, Using Step Sweep Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
To Edit List Sweep Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
To Configure a List Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
To Configure a List Sweep, in Continuous Sweep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
To Use Basic Ramp Sweep Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
To Configure a Ramp Sweep for a Master/Slave Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
To Use 8757D Pass-Thru Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Extending the Frequency Range
with a mm-Wave Source Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Connect the Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
To Configure the Signal Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Turning On Modulation Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
To Turn a Modulation Format On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Applying Modulation Formats to the RF Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
To Turn RF Output Modulation On. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
To Turn RF Output Modulation Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Using Tables to Edit Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
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Table Softkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Modify Existing Table Items in the Data Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Data Storage Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Use the Memory Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Use the Instrument State Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Enable a Software Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
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72
72
74
77
77
3. Optimizing Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Using External Leveling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
To Level with Detectors and Couplers/Splitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
To Level with a mm-Wave Source Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
To Create a User Flatness Correction Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
To Create a User Flatness Correction Array
with a mm-Wave Source Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Selecting ALC Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
To Select an ALC Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4. Analog Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Analog Modulation Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the RF Output Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the AM Depth and Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Turn on Amplitude Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the RF Output Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the RF Output Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the FM Deviation and Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Activate FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring ΦM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the RF Output Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the RF Output Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the FM Deviation and Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Activate FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Pulse Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the RF Output Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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To Set the RF Output Amplitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set the Pulse Period and Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Activate Pulse Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the LF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Configure the LF Output with an Internal Modulation Source . . .
To Configure the LF Output with a Function Generator Source. . . . .
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5. Custom Arb Waveform Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Overview of Using Custom Arb Waveform Generator Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Working with Predefined Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
To Select a Predefined Mode or Custom Digital Mod State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
To Select a Predefined Mode (EDGE Example) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
To Select a User-Defined Single-Carrier Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
To Select a User-Defined Multicarrier EDGE Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
To Recall a User-Defined Custom Digital Mod State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Working with Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Understanding FIR Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
To Select a Predefined Root Nyquist, Nyquist, or Gaussian Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
To Adjust the Filter Alpha of a Predefined Root Nyquist
or Nyquist Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
To Adjust the Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) Product
of a Predefined Gaussian Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
To Select a Predefined Rectangle Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
To Select an APCO 25-Specified C4FM Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
To Restore Default FIR Filter Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
To Modify Predefined FIR Coefficients for a Gaussian Filter
with the FIR Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
To Create a User-Defined FIR Filter with the FIR Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Working with Symbol Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Understanding Symbol Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
To Set a Symbol Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
To Restore the Default Symbol Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Working with Modulation Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
To Select a Predefined PSK Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
To Select a Predefined MSK Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
To Select a Predefined FSK Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
To Select a Predefined QAM Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Working with Configuration of Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
To Set a Delayed, Positive Polarity, External Single Trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
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To Set the ARB Reference to External or Internal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
To Set the External ARB Reference Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
6. Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Overview of Using Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Predefined Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Predefined Real Time Modulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Deselect a Predefined Real Time Modulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Data Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Data Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Predefined PN Sequence Data Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Predefined Fixed 4-bit Data Pattern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Predefined Data Pattern Containing
an Equal Number of 1’s & 0’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Create a Data Pattern User File with the Bit File Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Data Pattern User File from the Catalog of Bit Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Modify an Existing Data Pattern User File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Apply Bit Errors to an Existing Data Pattern User File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Supply an External Real-Time Data Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding FIR Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Predefined Root Nyquist, Nyquist, or Gaussian Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Adjust the Filter Alpha of a Predefined Root Nyquist
or Nyquist Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Adjust the Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) Product
of a Predefined Gaussian Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Optimize the FIR Filter for EVM or ACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select a Predefined Rectangle Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Select an APCO 25-Specified C4FM Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Restore Default FIR Filter Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Modify Predefined FIR Coefficients for a Gaussian Filter
with the FIR Values Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Create a User-Defined FIR Filter with the FIR Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Symbol Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Symbol Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set a Symbol Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Restore the Default Symbol Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Modulation Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Modulation Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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To Select a Predefined PSK Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
To Select a Predefined MSK Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
To Select a Predefined FSK Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
To Select a Predefined QAM Modulation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
To Create a 128QAM I/Q Modulation Type User File
with the I/Q Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
To Create a QPSK I/Q Modulation Type User File
with the I/Q Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
To Modify a Predefined I/Q Modulation Type (I/Q Symbols)
and Simulate Magnitude Errors and Phase Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
To Create an FSK Modulation Type User File
with the Frequency Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
To Modify a Predefined FSK Modulation Type User File
with the Frequency Values Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Working with Burst Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Understanding Burst Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
To Use a Predefined Burst Shape Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
To Create and Store User-Defined Burst Shape Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
To Select and Recall a User-Defined Burst Shape Curve
from the Memory Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Working with Configuration of Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
To Set the BBG Reference to External or Internal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
To Set the BBG Reference External Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
To Set the External DATA CLOCK to Receive Input
as Either Normal or Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
To Set the BBG DATA CLOCK to External or Internal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
To Adjust the I/Q Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Working with Phase Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
To Set Phase Polarity to Normal or Inverted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Working with Differential Data Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Understanding Differential Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
To Use Differential Encoding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
7. Dual Arbitrary Waveform Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Using the Waveform Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
To Create Waveform Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
To Store and Load Waveform Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
To Build a Waveform Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Using Waveform Clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
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To Configure Circular Clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Configure Rectangular Clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Apply Clipping Modifications to an Active Waveform Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waveform Clipping Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Power Peaks Develop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Peaks Cause Spectral Regrowth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Clipping Reduces Peak-to-Average Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Waveform Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Place a Marker at the First Point within a Waveform Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Place a Marker Across a Range of Points
within a Waveform Segment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Place Repetitively Spaced Markers within a Waveform Segment . . . . . . . . . . .
To Use Marker 2 to Blank the RF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Toggle Markers in an Existing Waveform Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Toggle Markers As You Create a Waveform Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Verify Marker Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waveform Marker Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Waveform Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Use Segment Advance Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming and Downloading Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Use Matlab to Create Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Download Waveforms from Matlab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Play Downloaded Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8. Multitone Waveform Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Overview of the Multitone Waveform Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Create a Custom Multitone Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To View a Multitone Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Edit the Multitone Setup Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Minimize Carrier Feedthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Determine Peak to Average Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9. Two-Tone Waveform Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Overview of the Two-Tone Waveform Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Create a Two-Tone Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To View a Two-Tone Waveform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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To Minimize Carrier Feedthrough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
To Change the Alignment of a Two-Tone Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
10. Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
If You Encounter a Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
Basic Signal Generator Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Cannot Turn Off Help Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
No RF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Signal Loss While Working with Mixers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Signal Loss While Working with Spectrum Analyzers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
RF Output Power too Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
No Modulation at the RF Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Sweep Appears to be Stalled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Cannot Turn Off Sweep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Incorrect List Sweep Dwell Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
List Sweep Information is Missing from a Recalled Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Signal Generator Lock-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Fail-Safe Recovery Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Upgrading Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Returning a Signal Generator to Agilent Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
xi
Contents
xii
1 Signal Generator Overview
This chapter describes the models, options, and features available for Agilent PSG signal
generators. The modes of operation, front panel user interface, as well as front and rear panel
connectors are also described.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Signal Generator Models and Features” on page 2
• “Options” on page 5
• “Modes of Operation” on page 9
• “Front Panel” on page 11
• “Front Panel Display” on page 20
• “Rear Panel” on page 25
1
Signal Generator Overview
Signal Generator Models and Features
Signal Generator Models and Features
Table 1-1 lists the available PSG signal generator models along with their output signal types
and frequency range.
Table 1-1
PSG Signal Generator Models
Model
Type
Frequency Range
E8247C PSG CW signal generator
CW
250 kHz to 20 GHz, or
250 kHz to 40 GHz
E8257C PSG analog signal generator
Analog
250 kHz to 20 GHz, or
250 kHz to 40 GHz
E8267C PSG vector signal generator
Vector
250 kHz to 20 GHz
E8247C PSG CW Signal Generator Features
The E8247C PSG CW signal generator includes the following features:
• CW output from 250 kHz to 20 GHz or 40 GHz
• frequency resolution to 0.001 Hz
• list and step sweep of frequency and amplitude, with multiple trigger sources
• user flatness correction
• external diode detector leveling
• automatic leveling control (ALC) on and off modes; power calibration in ALC-off mode is
available, even without power search
• 10 MHz reference oscillator with external output
• RS-232, GPIB, and 10Base-T LAN I/O interfaces
• a millimeter head interface that is compatible with Agilent 83550 Series millimeter heads
(for frequency extension up to 110 GHz)
2
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Signal Generator Models and Features
E8257C PSG Analog Signal Generator Features
The E8257C PSG analog signal generator provides all the functionality
of the E8247C PSG CW signal generator and adds the following features:
• open-loop or closed-loop AM
• dc-synthesized FM to 10 MHz rates; deviation depends on the carrier frequency
• phase modulation (ΦM)
• pulse modulation
• external modulation inputs for AM, FM, ΦM, and pulse
• simultaneous modulation configurations (except: FM with ΦM or Linear AM with
Exponential AM)
• an internal pulse generator that includes the following:
— selectable pulse modes: internal square, internal free-run, internal triggered,
internal doublet, internal gated, and external pulse; internal triggered,
internal doublet, and internal gated require an external trigger source
— adjustable pulse rate
— adjustable pulse period
— adjustable pulse width
— adjustable pulse delay
— selectable external pulse triggering: positive or negative
• dual function generators that includes the following:
— 50Ω low frequency output, 0 to 3 V p, available through LF OUTPUT
— selectable waveforms: sine, dual-sine, swept-sine, triangle, positive ramp,
negative ramp, square, uniform noise, Gaussian noise, and dc
— adjustable frequency modulation rates
— selectable triggering in list and step sweep modes: free run (auto), trigger key (single),
bus (remote), and external
Chapter 1
3
Signal Generator Overview
Signal Generator Models and Features
E8267C PSG Vector Signal Generator Features
The E8267C PSG vector signal generator provides all the functionality
of the E8257C PSG analog signal generator and adds the following features:
• internal I/Q modulator
• external analog I/Q inputs
• single-ended and differential analog I/Q outputs
4
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Options
Options
Table 1-2, Table 1-3, and Table 1-4 show the available hardware and accessory options for the
PSG signal generators.
Table 1-2
Options
E8247C PSG CW Signal Generator Hardware Options
Description
520
250 kHz to 20 GHz frequency coverage
540
250 kHz to 40 GHz frequency coverage
007
add ramp sweep and the following measurements can be made:
• Perform frequency sweeps to determine the frequency response,
power level accuracy, and flatness of a device under test.
• Perform power sweeps to measure an amplifier's saturation level and
determine its 1 dB compression point.
ABA
add user documentation set, English language (paper manuals)
CD1
add user documentation set, English language (CD containing .pdf files)
One copy of CD1 is included with each order for free.
0BW
add service guide, assembly level (paper manual)
1CM
add rack-mount kit
1CN
add handle kit
1CP
add rack-mount kit and handle kit
1E1
add 115 dB mechanical step attenuator
1EA
add high RF output power
1ED
add Type-N RF output connector (in place of APC 3.5 mm connector);
for use on Option 520 models only
1EM
move all front panel connectors to the rear panel
UK6
add commercial calibration certificate with test data
UNR
add enhanced close-in phase noise
Chapter 1
5
Signal Generator Overview
Options
Table 1-3
Options
E8257C PSG Analog Signal Generator Hardware Options
Description
520
250 kHz to 20 GHz frequency coverage
540
250 kHz to 40 GHz frequency coverage
007
add ramp sweep and the following measurements can be made:
• Perform frequency sweeps to determine the frequency response,
power level accuracy, and flatness of a device under test.
• Perform power sweeps to measure an amplifier's saturation level and
determine its 1 dB compression point.
6
ABA
add user documentation set, English language (paper manuals)
CD1
add user documentation set, English language (CD containing .pdf files)
One copy of CD1 is included with each order for free.
0BW
add service guide, assembly level (paper manual)
1CM
add rack-mount kit
1CN
add handle kit
1CP
add rack-mount kit and handle kit
1E1
add 115 dB mechanical step attenuator
1E6
add narrow pulse modulation (500 MHz − 3.2 GHz)
1EA
add high RF output power
1ED
add Type-N RF output connector (in place of APC 3.5 mm connector);
for use on Option 520 models only
1EM
move all front panel connectors to the rear panel
UK6
add commercial calibration certificate with test data
UNR
add enhanced close-in phase noise
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Options
Table 1-4
Optionsa
E8267C PSG Vector Signal Generator Hardware Options
Description
520
250 kHz to 20 GHz frequency coverage
002
add internal baseband generator (32 Msample memory)
The following modes of operation are then available:
• Dual-Arb Mode allows you to download waveform files through the
RS-232, GPIB, or LAN into the internal baseband generator and play
them
• Two Tone Mode is a personality that allows you to build a waveform
that has two equal-powered channels, or tones. The default waveform
has two tones that are symmetrically spaced from the center carrier
frequency and have user-defined amplitude, carrier frequency, and
frequency separation settings. You can also align the tones left or
right, relative to the carrier frequency. Two-tone waveforms are
created using the internal baseband generator and stored in memory
for playback.
• Multitone Mode is a personality that allows you to build a waveform
that has up to 64 channels, or tones. Using the Multitone Setup
table editor you can define, modify, and store waveforms for playback.
Multitone waveforms are created using the internal baseband
generator and stored in memory for playback.
• Custom Mode that allows both real time and arbitrary waveforms to
be created
— real time waveforms can be created by supplying random data
— arbitrary waveforms can be created and repeated using the
internal baseband generator (these waveforms could also be
generated externally and downloaded to the internal baseband
generator)
005
Chapter 1
add internal hard drive (6 GB non-volatile waveform storage)
7
Signal Generator Overview
Options
Table 1-4
Optionsa
007
E8267C PSG Vector Signal Generator Hardware Options
Description
add ramp sweep and the following measurements can be made:
• Perform frequency sweeps to determine the frequency response,
power level accuracy, and flatness of a device under test.
• Perform power sweeps to measure an amplifier's saturation level and
determine its 1 dB compression point.
015
add wideband external I/Q inputs
ABA
add user documentation set, English language (paper manuals)
CD1
add user documentation set, English language (CD containing .pdf files)
One copy of CD1 is included with each order for free.
0BW
add service guide, assembly level (paper manual)
1CM
add rack-mount kit
1CN
add handle kit
1CP
add rack-mount kit and handle kit
1E6
add narrow pulse modulation (500 MHz − 3.2 GHz)
1ED
add Type-N RF output connector (in place of APC 3.5 mm connector)
1EM
move all front panel connectors to the rear panel
UK6
add commercial calibration certificate with test data
UNR
add enhanced close-in phase noise
UNS
add 400 Hz power source operation
a. The functionality of both Option 1E1 (add 115 dB mechanical step attenuator) and
Option 1EA (add high RF output power) are included as standard features in the
E8267C PSG vector signal generator.
8
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Modes of Operation
Modes of Operation
PSG signal generator models can be used in CW mode:
• CW mode produces a single carrier signal.
— If you have an E8247C PSG CW signal generator, you can produce a CW single carrier
signal without modulation.
— If you have an E8257C PSG analog signal generator, you can produce a CW single
carrier signal without modulation or you can add AM, FM, ΦM, or Pulse modulation to
produce a single carrier modulated signal; some of these modulations can be used
together.
— If you have an E8267C PSG vector signal generator, you can produce a CW single
carrier signal without modulation or you can add AM, FM, ΦM, Pulse, or I/Q
modulation to produce a single carrier modulated signal; some of these modulations can
be used together.
In addition to CW mode, all of the following modes are also available to the E8267C PSG
vector signal generator:
• Custom Arb Waveform Generator mode can produce a single modulated carrier or multiple
modulated carriers. Each modulated carrier waveform must be calculated and generated
before it can be output; this signal generation occurs on the internal baseband generator
(Option 002). Once a waveform has been created, it can be stored and recalled which
enables repeatable playback of test signals. To learn more, refer to “Custom Arb Waveform
Generator” on page 111.
• Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband mode produces a single carrier, but it can be modulated
with real time data that allows real time control over all of the parameters that affect the
signal. The single carrier signal that is produced can be modified by applying various data
patterns, filters, symbol rates, modulation types, and burst shapes. To learn more, refer to
“Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband” on page 141.
• Two Tone mode produces two separate carrier signals without any kind of modulation; the
frequency spacing between the two carrier signals is adjustable as well as the amplitude of
both carriers. To learn more, refer to “Two-Tone Waveform Generator” on page 245.
• Multitone mode produces any number of carrier signals without any kind of modulation;
like Two Tone mode, the frequency spacing between all carrier signals is adjustable as well
as the amplitude of all carriers. To learn more, refer to “Multitone Waveform Generator” on
page 231.
• Dual ARB mode is used to control the playback sequence of waveform segments that have
Chapter 1
9
Signal Generator Overview
Modes of Operation
been written into the ARB memory located on the internal baseband generator
(Option 002). These waveforms can be generated using the internal baseband generator, in
Custom Arb Waveform Generator mode, or downloaded through a remote interface into the
ARB memory. To learn more, refer to “Dual Arbitrary Waveform Generator” on page 201.
10
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
Front Panel
Figure 1-1 shows the E8267C PSG vector signal generator front panel with a list of items
called out that enable you to define, monitor, and manage input and output characteristics.
The description of each item also applies to both the E8257C PSG analog signal generator and
the E8247C PSG CW signal generator front panels. Not all items being described are
available on every signal generator; the list of items that your particular signal generator has
is dependent on its model and options.
Figure 1-1
Front Panel Diagram (E8267C PSG Vector Signal Generator)
3. Knob
4. Amplitude
5. Frequency
6. Save
7. Recall
8. Trigger
9. MENUS
1. Display
2. Softkeys
10. Help
11. EXT 1 INPUT
E8267C PSG Only
33. I/Q INPUTS
34. DATA INPUT
35. DATA CLOCK
36. SYMBOL SYNC
12. EXT 2 INPUT
13. LF OUTPUT
14. Mod On/Off
15. ALC INPUT
16. RF On/Off
17. Numeric Keypad
18. RF OUTPUT
19. SYNC OUT
20. VIDEO OUT
21. Line Power LED
22. Power Switch
23. Standby LED
Chapter 1
24. Incr Set
25. GATE/PULSE/TRIGGER INPUT
26. Arrows
27. Hold
28. Return
29. Display Contrast Decrease
30. Display Contrast Increase
31. Local
32. Preset
11
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
1. Display
The LCD screen provides information on the current function. Information can include status
indicators, frequency and amplitude settings, and error messages. Labels for the softkeys are
located on the right-hand side of the display. For further descriptions of the front panel
display, refer to “Front Panel Display” on page 20.
2. Softkeys
Softkeys activate the displayed function to the left of each key.
3. Knob
Rotating the knob increases or decreases a numeric value or changes a highlighted digit or
character. You can also use the knob to step through lists or select items in a row.
4. Amplitude
Pressing this hardkey makes amplitude the active function. You can change the output
amplitude or use the menus to configure amplitude attributes such as power search, user
flatness, and leveling mode.
5. Frequency
Pressing this hardkey makes frequency the active function. You can change the output
frequency or use the menus to configure frequency attributes such as frequency multiplier,
offset, and reference.
6. Save
Pressing this hardkey accesses a menu of choices enabling you to save data in the instrument
state register. The instrument state register is a section of memory divided into 10 sequences
(numbered 0 through 9) each containing 100 registers (numbered 00 through 99).
It is used to store and recall:
• frequency and amplitude settings on an E8247C PSG CW signal generator
• frequency, amplitude, and modulation settings on an E8257C PSG analog signal generator
or E8267C PSG vector signal generator
The Save hardkey provides a quick alternative to reconfiguring the signal generator through
the front panel or SCPI commands when switching between different signal configurations.
12
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
Once an instrument state has been saved, all of the frequency, amplitude, and modulation
settings can be recalled with the Recall hardkey.
7. Recall
Pressing this hardkey restores any instrument state that you previously saved in a memory
register. Refer to the Save hardkey for further information.
8. Trigger
Pressing this hardkey initiates an immediate trigger event for a function such as a list, step,
or ramp sweep (Option 007 only).
Before this hardkey can be used to initiate a trigger event, the trigger mode must be set to
Trigger Key. For example, to set the signal generator to use trigger mode, press the Sweep/List
hardkey, then one of the following sequences of softkeys:
• More (1 of 2) > Sweep Trigger > Trigger Key
• More (1 of 2) > Point Trigger > Trigger Key
9. MENUS
Pressing these hardkeys access softkey menus enabling configuration of list and step sweeps,
utility functions, the LF output, and various analog modulation types.
There are five additional hardkeys available on the E8267C PSG vector signal generator
(Mode, Mode Setup, Mux, Aux Fctn, and I/Q) that enable configuration of digital modulation.
10. Help
Pressing this hardkey accesses a short description of any hardkey or softkey. There are two
help modes available on the signal generator: single and continuous. The single mode is the
factory preset condition. Toggle between single and continuous mode by pressing Utility >
Instrument Info/Help Mode > Help Mode Single Cont.
• When you press the Help hardkey in single mode, help text is provided for the next key you
press without activating the key’s function. Any key pressed afterward exits the help mode
and its function is activated.
• When you press the Help hardkey in continuous mode, help text is provided for each
subsequent key press until you press the Help hardkey again or change to single mode. In
addition, each key is active, meaning that the key function is executed (except for the
Preset key).
Chapter 1
13
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
11. EXT 1 INPUT
This female BNC input connector (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only)
accepts a ±1 Vp signal for AM, FM, and ΦM. For all these modulations, ±1 V p produces the
indicated deviation or depth.
When ac-coupled inputs are selected for AM, FM, or ΦM and the peak input voltage differs
from 1 V p by more than 3%, the HI/LO annunciators light on the display. The input
impedance is selectable as either 50Ω or 600Ω and the damage levels are 5 Vrms and 10 V p.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
12. EXT 2 INPUT
This female BNC input connector (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only)
accepts a ±1 Vp signal for AM, FM, and ΦM. With AM, FM, or ΦM, ±1 Vp produces the
indicated deviation or depth.
When ac-coupled inputs are selected for AM, FM, or ΦM and the peak input voltage differs
from 1 V p by more than 3%, the HI/LO annunciators light on the display. The input
impedance is selectable as either 50Ω or 600Ω and damage levels are 5 Vrms and 10 V p.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
13. LF OUTPUT
This female BNC output connector (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) is the output for
modulation signals generated by the low frequency (LF) source function generator. This
output is capable of driving 3 Vp (nominal) into a 50Ω load.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this output is relocated to a rear panel female
BNC connector.
14
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
14. Mod On/Off
Pressing this hardkey (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only)
enables or disables all active modulation formats (AM, FM, ΦM, Pulse, or I/Q) that are
applied to the output carrier signal available through the RF Output connector.
This hardkey does not set up or activate an AM, FM, ΦM, Pulse, or I/Q format; each
individual modulation format must still be set up and activated (for example, AM > AM On) or
nothing will be applied to the output carrier signal when the Mod On/Off hardkey is enabled.
The MOD ON/OFF annunciator, which is always present on the display, indicates whether active
modulation formats have been enabled or disabled with the Mod On/Off hardkey.
15. ALC INPUT
This female BNC input connector is used for negative external detector leveling. This
connector accepts an input of −0.2 mV to −0.5 V. The nominal input impedance is 120 kΩ and
the damage level is ±15 V.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
16. RF On/Off
Pressing this hardkey toggles the operating state of the RF signal present at the RF OUTPUT
connector. Although you can set up and enable various frequency, power, and modulation
states, the RF and microwave output signal is not present at the RF OUTPUT until RF On/Off
is set to On. An annunciator is always visible in the display to indicate whether the RF is
turned on or off.
17. Numeric Keypad
The numeric keypad consists of the 0 through 9 hardkeys, a decimal point hardkey, and a
backspace hardkey (
). The backspace hardkey enables you to backspace or alternate
between a positive and a negative value. When specifying a negative numeric value, the
negative sign must be entered prior to entering the numeric value.
18. RF OUTPUT
This connector is the output for RF and microwave signals. The nominal output impedance is
50Ω. The reverse-power damage levels are 0 Vdc, 0.5 watts nominal.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this output is relocated to a rear panel female
Chapter 1
15
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
BNC connector.
19. SYNC OUT
This female BNC output connector (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) outputs a
synchronizing TTL-compatible pulse signal that is nominally 50 ns wide during internal and
triggered pulse modulation. The nominal source impedance is 50Ω.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this output is relocated to a rear panel female
BNC connector.
20. VIDEO OUT
This female BNC output connector (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) outputs a TTL-level
compatible pulse signal that follows the output envelope in all pulse modes. The nominal
source impedance is 50Ω.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this output is relocated to a rear panel female
BNC connector.
21. Line Power LED
This green LED indicates when the signal generator power switch is set to the on position.
22. Power Switch
This switch activates full power to the signal generator when set to the on position and
deactivates all signal generator functions when in standby mode. In standby mode, the signal
generator remains connected to the line power and power is supplied to some internal circuits.
23. Standby LED
This yellow LED indicates when the signal generator power switch is set to the standby
condition.
24. Incr Set
Pressing this hardkey enables you to set the increment value of the current active function.
When this hardkey is pressed, the increment value of the current active function will appear
in the active entry area of the display. Use the numeric keypad, arrow hardkeys, or the knob
to adjust the increment value.
16
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
25. GATE/PULSE/TRIGGER INPUT
This female BNC input connector (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only)
accepts an externally supplied pulse signal for use as a pulse or trigger input. With pulse
modulation, +1 V is on and 0 V is off (trigger threshold of 0.5 V with a hysteresis of 10%; so
0.6 V would be on and 0.4 V would be off). The damage levels are ±5 Vrms and 10 Vp. The
nominal input impedance is 50Ω.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
26. Arrows
These up and down arrow hardkeys are used to increase or decrease a numeric value, step
through displayed lists, or to select items in a row of a displayed list. Individual digits or
characters may be highlighted using the left and right arrow hardkeys. Once an individual
digit or character is highlighted, its value can be changed using the up and down arrow
hardkeys.
27. Hold
Pressing this hardkey blanks the softkey label area and text areas on the display. Softkeys,
arrow hardkeys, the knob, the numeric keypad, and the Incr Set hardkey have no effect once
this hardkey is pressed.
28. Return
Pressing this hardkey will return the signal generator one level back from its current softkey
menu level to the previous softkey menu level. It enables you to step back through the menus
until you reach the first menu you selected.
29. Display Contrast Decrease
Pressing this hardkey causes the display background to darken.
30. Display Contrast Increase
Pressing this hardkey causes the display background to lighten.
Chapter 1
17
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
31. Local
Pressing this hardkey deactivates remote operation and returns the signal generator to front
panel control.
32. Preset
Pressing this hardkey sets the signal generator to a known state (factory or user-defined).
33. I/Q INPUTS
These female BNC input connectors (E8267C PSG only) accept an externally supplied, analog,
I/Q modulation; the in-phase component is supplied through the I INPUT and the
quadrature-phase component is supplied through the Q INPUT. The signal level is
= 0.5 Vrms for a calibrated output level. The nominal input impedance is 50Ω or 600Ω.
The damage level is 1 Vrms and 10 V peak.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, these inputs are relocated to rear panel female
BNC connectors.
34. DATA INPUT
This female BNC input connector (E8267C PSG only) is CMOS compatible and accepts an
externally supplied serial data input for digital modulation applications. The expected input
is a 3.3 V CMOS signal (which is also TTL compatible) where a CMOS high is equivalent to a
data 1 and a CMOS low is equivalent to a data 0. The maximum input data rate is 50 Mb/s.
The data must be valid on the falling edges of the data clock (normal mode) or the on the
falling edges of the symbol sync (symbol mode). The damage levels are > +5.5 and < −0.5 V.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
35. DATA CLOCK INPUT
This female BNC input connector (E8267C PSG only) is CMOS compatible and accepts an
externally supplied data-clock input signal to synchronize serial data for use with the internal
baseband generator (Option 002). The expected input is a 3.3 V CMOS bit clock signal (which
is also TTL compatible) where the rising edge is aligned with the beginning data bit. The
falling edge is used to clock the DATA and SYMBOL SYNC signals. The maximum clock rate
is 50 MHz. The damage levels are > +5.5 and < −0.5 V.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
18
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel
36. SYMBOL SYNC INPUT
This female BNC input connector (E8267C PSG only) is CMOS compatible and accepts an
externally supplied symbol sync signal for use with the internal baseband generator
(Option 002). The expected input is a 3.3 V CMOS bit clock signal (which is also TTL
compatible). SYMBOL SYNC might occur once per symbol or be a single one-bit-wide pulse
that is used to synchronize the first bit of the first symbol. The maximum clock rate is
50 MHz. The damage levels are > +5.5 and < −0.5 V.
SYMBOL SYNC may be used in two modes:
• When used as a symbol sync in conjunction with a data clock, the signal must be high
during the first data bit of the symbol. The signal must be valid during the falling edge of
the data clock signal and may be a single pulse or continuous.
• When the SYMBOL SYNC itself is used as the (symbol) clock, the CMOS falling edge is
used to clock the DATA signal.
If your model is equipped with Option 1EM, this input is relocated to a rear panel female BNC
connector.
Chapter 1
19
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel Display
Front Panel Display
Figure 1-2 shows the front panel display. The LCD screen will display data fields, annotations,
key press results, softkey labels, error messages, and annunciators that represent various
active functions of the signal generator. Descriptions are provided for each feature of this
interface.
Figure 1-2
1. Active Entry Area
Front Panel Display Diagram
2. Frequency Area
5. Error Message Area
20
3. Annunciators
6. Text Area
4. Amplitude Area
7. Softkey Label Area
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel Display
1. Active Entry Area
The current active function is shown in this area. For example, if frequency is the active
function, the current frequency setting will be displayed here. If the current active function
has an increment value associated with it, that value is also displayed.
2. Frequency Area
The current frequency setting is shown in this portion of the display. Indicators are also
displayed in this area when the frequency offset or multiplier is used, the frequency reference
mode is turned on, or a source module is enabled.
3. Annunciators
The display annunciators show the status of some of the signal generator functions and
indicate any error conditions. An annunciator position may be used by more than one
function. This does not create a problem, because only one function that shares an
annunciator position can be active at a time.
ΦM
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) appears when phase
modulation is turned on. If frequency modulation is turned on, the FM
annunciator will replace ΦM.
ALC OFF
This annunciator appears when the ALC circuit is disabled. A second
annunciator, UNLEVEL, will appear in the same position if the ALC is enabled
and is unable to maintain the output level.
AM
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) appears when
amplitude modulation is turned on.
ARMED
This annunciator appears when a sweep has been initiated and the signal
generator is waiting for the sweep trigger event.
ATTEN HOLD
This annunciator (Option 1E1 or E8267C PSG only) appears when the
attenuator hold function is turned on. When this function is on, the
attenuator is held at its current setting.
ERR
This annunciator appears when an error message is placed in the error
queue. This annunciator will not turn off until you have either viewed all of
the error messages or cleared the error queue. You can access error
messages by pressing Utility > Error Info.
EXT
This annunciator appears when external leveling is turned on.
EXT1 LO/HI
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) is displayed as
either EXT1 LO or EXT1 HI. This annunciator appears whenever the
Chapter 1
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Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel Display
ac-coupled signal to the EXT 1 INPUT is less than 0.97 Vp or greater than
1.03 Vp.
EXT2 LO/HI
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) is displayed as
either EXT2 LO or EXT2 HI. This annunciator appears whenever the
ac-coupled signal to the EXT 2 INPUT is less than 0.97 Vp or greater than
1.03 Vp.
EXT REF
This annunciator appears when an external frequency reference is applied.
FM
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) appears when
frequency modulation is turned on. If phase modulation is turned on, the ΦM
annunciator will replace FM.
I/Q
This annunciator (E8267C PSG with Option 002 only) appears when I/Q
modulation is turned on.
L
This annunciator appears when the signal generator is in listener mode and
is receiving information or commands over the RS-232, GPIB, or VXI-11
LAN interface.
MOD ON/OFF
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) which is always
present on the display, indicates whether active modulation formats have
been enabled or disabled with the Mod On/Off hardkey.
Pressing the Mod On/Off hardkey enables or disables all active modulation
formats (AM, FM, ΦM, Pulse, or I/Q) that are applied to the output carrier
signal available through the RF Output connector.
The Mod On/Off hardkey does not set up or activate an AM, FM, ΦM, Pulse,
or I/Q format; each individual modulation format must still be set up and
activated (for example, AM > AM On) or nothing will be applied to the output
carrier signal when the Mod On/Off hardkey is enabled.
M-TONE
This annunciator (E8267C PSG with Option 002 only) appears when the
signal generator’s Multitone personality is turned on.
OVEN COLD
This annunciator (Option UNR only) appears when the temperature of the
internal oven reference oscillator has dropped below an acceptable level.
When this annunciator is on, frequency accuracy is degraded. This condition
should occur only if the signal generator is disconnected from line power.
PULSE
This annunciator (E8257C PSG and E8267C PSG only) appears when pulse
modulation is turned on.
R
This annunciator appears when the signal generator is remotely controlled
over the GPIB, RS-232, or VXI-11/Sockets LAN interface (TELNET
operation does not activate the R annunciator). When the R annunciator is
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Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel Display
on, the front panel keys are disabled, except for the Local key and the line
power switch. For information on remote operation, refer to the
Programming Guide.
RF ON/OFF
This annunciator indicates when the RF and microwave signal is present
(RF ON) at the RF OUTPUT, or if the RF and microwave signal is not present
(RF OFF) at the RF OUTPUT. Either condition of this annunciator is always
visible in the display.
S
This annunciator appears when the signal generator has generated a
service request (SRQ) over the RS-232, GPIB, or VXI-11 LAN interface.
SWEEP
This annunciator appears when the signal generator is in list, step, or
ramp sweep mode; ramp sweep is available with Option 007 only.
List mode is when the signal generator can jump from point to point in a list
(hop list); the list is traversed in ascending or descending order. The list can
be a frequency list, a power level list, or both.
Step mode is when a start, stop, and step value (frequency or power level)
are defined and the signal generator produces signals that start at the start
value and increment by the step value until it reaches the stop value.
Ramp sweep mode (Option 007 only) is when a start and stop value
(frequency or power level) are defined and the signal generator produces
signals that start at the start value and produce a continuous output until it
reaches the stop value.
T
This annunciator appears when the signal generator is in talker mode and
is transmitting information over the GPIB, RS-232, or VXI-11 LAN
interface.
T-TONE
This annunciator (E8267C PSG with Option 002 only) appears when the
signal generator’s Two-Tone personality is turned on.
UNLEVEL
This annunciator appears when the signal generator is unable to maintain
the correct output level. The UNLEVEL annunciator is not necessarily an
indication of instrument failure. Unleveled conditions can occur during
normal operation. A second annunciator, ALC OFF, will appear in the same
position when the ALC circuit is disabled.
UNLOCK
This annunciator appears when any of the phase locked loops are unable to
maintain phase lock. You can determine which loop is unlocked by
examining the error messages.
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Signal Generator Overview
Front Panel Display
4. Amplitude Area
The current output power level setting is shown in this portion of the display. Indicators are
also displayed in this area when amplitude offset is used, amplitude reference mode is turned
on, external leveling mode is enabled, a source module is enabled, and when user flatness is
enabled.
5. Error Message Area
Abbreviated error messages are reported in this space. When multiple error messages occur,
only the most recent message remains displayed. Reported error messages with details can be
viewed by pressing Utility > Error Info.
6. Text Area
This text area of the display is used for the following:
• show status information about the signal generator such as the modulation status, sweep
lists, and file catalogs
• display the tables
• enables you to perform functions such as managing information, entering information, and
displaying or deleting files
7. Softkey Label Area
The labels in this area define the function of the softkeys located immediately to the right of
the label. The softkey label may change depending upon the function selected.
24
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
Rear Panel
Figure 1-3 shows the signal generator rear panel. The signal generator rear panel provides
input, output, and remote interface connections. Descriptions are provided for each rear panel
connector. When Option 1EM is added, all front panel connectors are moved to the real panel;
refer to “Front Panel” on page 11 for a description of these additional connectors.
Figure 1-3
Rear Panel Diagram
16. DIGITAL I/Q I/O
17. WIDEBAND I INPUT
15. AUXILIARY I/O
18. WIDEBAND Q INPUT
20. I OUT
21. I-bar OUT
19. COH
22. Q OUT
23. Q-bar OUT
24. BASEBAND GEN
25. SMI
26. 10 MHz OUT
27. 10 MHz IN
28. 10 MHz EFC
(Option UNR)
1. AC Power Receptacle
2. GPIB
3. AUXILIARY INTERFACE
4. LAN
14. BURST GATE IN
13. PATTERN TRIG IN
12. EVENT 2
11. EVENT 1
5. STOP SWEEP IN/OUT
6. Z-AXIS BLANK/MKRS
7. SWEEP OUT
8. TRIGGER OUT
9. TRIGGER IN
10. SOURCE SETTLED
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Signal Generator Overview
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1. AC Power Receptacle
The ac line voltage is connected here. The power cord receptacle accepts a three-pronged
power cable that is shipped with the signal generator.
2. GPIB
This GPIB interface allows listen and talk capability with compatible IEEE 488.2 devices.
3. AUXILIARY INTERFACE
This 9-pin D-subminiature female connector is an RS-232 serial port that can be used for
serial communication and Master/Slave source synchronization. Table 1-5 describes the
function of each pin. Figure 1-4 on page 27 shows the pin configuration.
Table 1-5
26
Auxiliary Interface Connector
Pin Number
Signal Description
Signal Name
1
No Connection
2
Receive Data
RECV
3
Transmit Data
XMIT
4
+5 V
5
Ground, 0 V
6
No Connection
7
Request to Send
RTS
8
Clear to Send
CTS
9
No Connection
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
Figure 1-4
4. LAN
This LAN interface allows ethernet local area network communication through a
10Base-T LAN cable. The yellow LED on the interface illuminates when data transmission
(transfer/receive) is present. The green LED illuminates when there is a delay in data
transmission or no data transmission is present.
5. STOP SWEEP IN/OUT
This female BNC connector (Option 007 only) provides an open-collector, TTL-compatible,
input/output signal that is used during ramp sweep operation. It provides low level
(nominally 0 V) output during sweep retrace and band-cross intervals. It provides high level
(nominally +5 V) output during the forward portion of sweep. Sweep will stop when this
input/output connector is grounded externally.
6. Z-AXIS BLANK/MKRS
This female BNC connector (Option 007 only) supplies a +5 V (nominal) level during retrace
and band-switch intervals of a step, list, or ramp sweep. During ramp sweep, this female BNC
connector supplies a –5 V (nominal) level when the RF frequency is at a marker frequency and
intensity marker mode is on.
This connection is most commonly used for interfacing with the Agilent 8757D scalar network
analyzer.
Chapter 1
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Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
7. SWEEP OUT
This female BNC connector outputs a voltage proportional to the RF power or frequency
sweep ranging from 0 V at the start of sweep and goes to +10 V (nominal) at the end of sweep,
regardless of sweep width.
The output impedance is less than 1Ω and can drive a 2 kΩ load.
When connected to an Agilent Technologies 8757D network analyzer, it generates a selectable
number of equally spaced 1 ms 10 V pulses (nominal) across a ramp (analog) sweep. The
number of pulses can be set from 101 to 1601 by remote control through the 8757D.
8. TRIGGER OUT
This female BNC connector, in step/list sweep mode, outputs a TTL signal that is high at the
start of a dwell sequence or when waiting for a point trigger in manual sweep mode. The
signal is low when the dwell is over or when a point trigger is received.
In ramp sweep mode, the output provides 1601 equally-spaced 1 µs pulses (nominal) across a
ramp sweep. When using LF Out, the output provides a 2 µs pulse at the start of LF sweep.
9. TRIGGER IN
This female BNC connector accepts a TTL signal used for point-to-point triggering in manual
sweep mode or a low-frequency (LF) sweep in external sweep mode. Triggering can occur on
either the positive or negative edge of the TTL signal start.
The damage level is ≤ −4 V or ≥ +10 V.
10. SOURCE SETTLED
This female BNC connector provides an indication when the signal generator has settled to a
new frequency or power level. A low indicates that the source has settled.
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Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
11. EVENT 1
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with an internal baseband generator
(Option 002); on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
In real-time mode, the EVENT 1 connector outputs a pattern or frame synchronization pulse
for triggering or gating external equipment. It may be set to start at the beginning of a
pattern, frame, or timeslot and is adjustable to within ± one timeslot with one bit resolution.
In arbitrary waveform mode, the EVENT 1 connector outputs a timing signal generated by
Marker 1.
A marker (3.3 V CMOS high when positive polarity is selected; 3.3 V CMOS low when
negative polarity is selected) is output on the EVENT 1 connector whenever a Marker 1 is
turned on in the waveform. The damage levels for this connector are > +8 V and < −4 V.
12. EVENT 2
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with an internal baseband generator
(Option 002); on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
In real-time mode, the EVENT 2 connector outputs a data enable signal for gating external
equipment. This is applicable when external data is clocked into internally generated
timeslots. Data is enabled when the signal is low.
In arbitrary waveform mode, the EVENT 2 connector outputs a timing signal generated by
Marker 2.
A marker (3.3 V CMOS high when positive polarity is selected; 3.3 V CMOS low when
negative polarity is selected) is output on the EVENT 2 connector whenever a Marker 2 is
turned on in the waveform. The damage levels for this connector are > +8 V and < −4 V.
13. PATTERN TRIG IN
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with an internal baseband generator
(Option 002); on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
This connector accepts a signal that triggers an internal pattern or frame generator to start
single pattern output. Minimum pulse width is 100 ns. Damage levels are > +5.5 and < −0.5 V.
14. BURST GATE IN
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with an internal baseband generator
(Option 002); on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
This connector accepts a signal for gating burst power. Burst gating is used when you are
Chapter 1
29
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
externally supplying data and clock information. The input signal must be synchronized with
the external data input that will be output during the burst. The burst power envelope and
modulated data are internally delayed and re-synchronized. The input signal must be CMOS
high for normal burst RF power or CW RF output power and CMOS low for RF off.
Damage levels are > +5.5 and < −0.5 V.
15. AUXILIARY I/O
This female 37-pin connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with an internal baseband generator
(Option 002); on units without Option 002, this female 37-pin connector is non-functional.
This auxiliary I/O connector enables you to access the inputs and outputs of Option 002.
Figure 1-5 shows the AUX I/O pin connector configuration.
Connector
Description
Alternate Power Input
(ALT PWR IN)
Pin-16 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with
an internal baseband generator (Option 002); on units without
Option 002, this pin is non-functional.
The ALT PWR IN pin accepts a CMOS signal for
synchronization of external data and alternate power signal
timing.
Damage levels are > +8 V and < −4 V.
Data Clock Output
(DATA CLK OUT)
Pin-6 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with
an internal baseband generator (Option 002); on units without
Option 002, this pin is non-functional.
The DATA CLK OUT pin relays a CMOS bit clock signal for
synchronizing serial data.
Data Output
(DATA OUT)
Pin-7 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with
an internal baseband generator (Option 002); on units without
Option 002, this pin is non-functional.
The DATA OUT pin outputs data (CMOS) from the internal data
generator or the externally supplied signal at data input.
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Chapter 1
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Rear Panel
Connector
Description
Event 3 Output
(EVENT 3)
Pin-19 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with
an internal baseband generator (Option 002); on units without
Option 002, this pin is non-functional.
In arbitrary waveform mode, the EVENT 3 pin outputs a timing
signal generated by Marker 3.
A marker (3.3 V CMOS high when positive polarity is selected;
3.3 V CMOS low when negative polarity is selected) is output on
the EVENT 3 connector whenever a Marker 3 is turned on in the
waveform.
The reverse damage levels for this connector
are > +8 V and < −4 V.
Event 4 Output
(EVENT 4)
Pin-18 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with
an internal baseband generator (Option 002); on units without
Option 002, this pin is non-functional.
In arbitrary waveform mode, the EVENT 4 pin outputs a timing
signal generated by Marker 4.
A marker (3.3 V CMOS high when positive polarity is selected;
3.3 V CMOS low when negative polarity is selected) is output on
the EVENT 3 connector whenever a Marker 3 is turned on in the
waveform.
The reverse damage levels for this connector
are > +8 V and < −4 V.
Pattern Trigger In 2
(PATT TRIG IN 2)
Pin-17 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) accepts a
signal that triggers an internal pattern or frame generator to
start single pattern output. Minimum pulse width is 100 ns.
Damage levels are > +5.5 and < −0.5 V.
Symbol Sync Output
(SYM SYNC OUT)
Pin-5 of the Aux I/O connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with
an internal baseband generator (Option 002); on units without
Option 002, this pin is non-functional.
The SYM SYNC OUT pin outputs the CMOS symbol clock for
symbol synchronization, one data clock period wide.
Chapter 1
31
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
Figure 1-5
32
Auxiliary I/O Connector (Female 37-Pin)
Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
16. DIGITAL I/Q I/O
Figure 1-6 shows the DIG I/Q I/O pin connector configuration. This connector is inactive, but
will be available at a future signal generator release.
Figure 1-6
Chapter 1
Digital I/O Connector (80-pin)
33
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
17. WIDEBAND I INPUT
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with wideband external I/Q inputs
(Option 015); on units without Option 015, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
This female BNC connector accepts wide-band AM and allows direct high-bandwidth analog
inputs to the I/Q modulator in the 3.2 to 20 GHz frequency range. This input is not calibrated
and accepts a 0 dBm maximum power.
18. WIDEBAND Q INPUT
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with wideband external I/Q inputs
(Option 015); on units without Option 015, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
This female BNC connector allows direct high-bandwidth analog inputs to the I/Q modulator
in the 3.2 to 20 GHz frequency range. This input is not calibrated and accepts a 0 dBm
maximum power.
19. COH (COHERENT CARRIER OUTPUT)
This female SMA connector (E8267C PSG only) outputs an RF signal that is phase coherent
with the signal generator carrier.
The coherent carrier connector outputs RF that is not modulated with AM, pulse, or I/Q
modulation, but is modulated with FM or ΦM (when FM or ΦM are on). The output power is
nominally 0 dBm. The output frequency range is from 249.99900001 MHz to 3.2 GHz; this
output is not useful for output frequency > 3.2 GHz.
If the RF output frequency is below 249.99900001 MHz, the coherent carrier output signal
will have the following frequency:
• Frequency of coherent carrier = (1E9 − Frequency of RF output) in Hz.
• Damage levels are 20 Vdc and 13 dBm reverse RF power.
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Chapter 1
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
20. I OUT
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) can be used with an internal baseband
generator (Option 002) to output the analog, in-phase component of I/Q modulation; on units
without Option 002, this female BNC connector can be used to output the in-phase component
of an external I/Q modulation that has been fed into the I input connector. The nominal
output impedance of the I OUT connector is 50Ω, dc-coupled.
21. I-bar OUT
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) can be used with an internal baseband
generator (Option 002) to output the complement of the analog, in-phase component of I/Q
modulation; on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector can be used to output
the complement of the in-phase component of an external I/Q modulation that has been fed
into the I input connector.
I-bar OUT is used in conjunction with I OUT to provide a balanced baseband stimulus.
Balanced signals are signals present in two separate conductors that are symmetrical relative
to ground and are opposite in polarity (180 degrees out of phase). The nominal output
impedance of the I-bar OUT connector is 50Ω, dc-coupled.
22. Q OUT
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) can be used with an internal baseband
generator (Option 002) to output the analog, quadrature-phase component of I/Q modulation;
on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector can be used to output the
quadrature-phase component of an external I/Q modulation that has been fed into the Q input
connector. The nominal output impedance of the Q OUT connector is 50Ω, dc-coupled.
23. Q-bar OUT
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) can be used with an internal baseband
generator (Option 002) to output the complement of the analog, quadrature-phase component
of I/Q modulation; on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector can be used to
output the complement of the quadrature-phase component of an external I/Q modulation
that has been fed into the Q input connector.
Q-bar OUT is used in conjunction with Q OUT to provide a balanced baseband stimulus.
Balanced signals are signals present in two separate conductors that are symmetrical relative
to ground and are opposite in polarity (180 degrees out of phase). The nominal output
impedance of the Q-bar OUT connector is 50Ω, dc-coupled.
Chapter 1
35
Signal Generator Overview
Rear Panel
24. BASEBAND GEN REF IN
This female BNC connector (E8267C PSG only) is used with an internal baseband generator
(Option 002); on units without Option 002, this female BNC connector is non-functional.
This connector accepts a 0 to +20 dBm sine wave or TTL square wave signal from an external
timebase reference. This external timebase reference clock is used by the internal baseband
generator for both component and receiver test applications (only the internal baseband
generator can be locked to this external reference; the RF frequency remains locked to the
10 MHz reference).
This connector accepts rates from 250 kHz through 100 MHz; the nominal input impedance is
50Ω. at 13 MHz, ac-coupled. The internal clock for the arbitrary waveform generator is locked
to this signal when external reference is selected in the ARB setup. The minimum pulse width
must be > 10 ns. The damage levels are > +8 V and < −8 V.
25. SMI (SOURCE MODULE INTERFACE)
This interface is used to connect to compatible Agilent Technologies 83550 Series mm-wave
source modules.
26. 10 MHz OUT
This female BNC connector outputs a nominal signal level of > +4 dBm and has an output
impedance of 50Ω. The accuracy is determined by the timebase being used.
27. 10 MHz IN
This female BNC connector accepts an external timebase reference input signal level of
greater than −3 dBm. The reference must be 1, 2, 2.5, 5, or 10 MHz, within ±1 ppm. The signal
generator detects when a valid reference signal is present at this connector and automatically
switches from internal to external reference operation. The nominal input impedance is 50Ω.
For Option UNR, this BNC connector accepts a signal with a nominal input level of 5 ±5 dBm.
The external frequency reference must be 10 MHz, within ±1 ppm. The nominal input
impedance is 50Ω with a damage level of ≥ 10 dBm.
28. 10 MHz EFC (Option UNR)
This female BNC input connector accepts an external dc voltage, ranging from −5 to +5 V, for
electronic frequency control (EFC) of the internal 10 MHz reference oscillator. This voltage
inversely tunes the oscillator about its center frequency approximately −0.0025 ppm/V. The
input resistance is greater than 1 MΩ. When not in use, this connector should be shorted
using the supplied shorting cap to assure a stable operating frequency.
36
Chapter 1
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Rear Panel
.
Chapter 1
37
Signal Generator Overview
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38
Chapter 1
2 Basic Operation
This chapter describes operations common to all Agilent PSG signal generators and includes
the following major sections:
• “Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output” on page 40
• “Configuring a Swept RF Output” on page 44
• “Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)” on page 50
• “Extending the Frequency Range with a mm-Wave Source Module” on page 63
• “Turning On Modulation Formats” on page 67
• “Applying Modulation Formats to the RF Output” on page 69
• “Using Tables to Edit Parameters” on page 70
• “Using Data Storage Functions” on page 72
• “Enabling Options” on page 77
39
Basic Operation
Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output
Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output
This section shows you how to create continuous wave RF output. Using these procedures, you
will learn how to perform the following:
• “To Configure an RF Output Frequency” on page 40
• “To Configure an RF Output Frequency Reference and Frequency Offset” on page 41
• “To Configure an RF Output Amplitude” on page 42
• “To Configure an RF Output Amplitude Reference and Amplitude Offset” on page 42
To Configure an RF Output Frequency
The following procedure sets the RF output frequency to 700 MHz and demonstrates how to
increment or decrement the output frequency in 1 MHz steps.
1. Press Preset.
This returns the signal generator to the factory-defined state.
NOTE
You can change the preset condition of the signal generator to a user-defined
state. For these examples, however, use the factory-defined preset state (the
Preset Normal User softkey in the Utility menu must be set to Normal).
2. Observe the FREQUENCY area of the display (in the upper left-hand corner).
The value displayed is the maximum specified frequency of the signal generator.
3. Press RF On/Off.
The RF On/Off hardkey must be pressed before the RF signal is available at the
RF OUTPUT connector. The display annunciator changes from RF OFF to RF ON. The
maximum specified frequency should be output at the RF OUTPUT connector (at the
signal generator’s minimum power level).
4. Press Frequency > 700 > MHz.
The 700 MHz RF frequency should be displayed in the FREQUENCY area of the display and
also in the active entry area.
5. Press Frequency > Incr Set > 1 > MHz.
This changes the frequency increment value to 1 MHz.
40
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output
6. Press the up arrow key.
Each press of the up arrow key increases the frequency by the increment value last set
with the Incr Set hardkey. The increment value is displayed in the active entry area.
7. The down arrow decreases the frequency by the increment value set in the previous step.
Practice stepping the frequency up and down in 1 MHz increments.
You can also adjust the RF output frequency using the knob. As long as frequency is the
active function (the frequency is displayed in the active entry area), the knob will increase
and decrease the RF output frequency.
8. Use the knob to adjust the frequency back to 700 MHz.
To Configure an RF Output Frequency Reference
and Frequency Offset
The following procedure sets the RF output frequency as a reference frequency to which all
other frequency parameters are relative. The frequency initially shown on the display will be
0.00 Hz (the frequency output by the hardware minus the reference frequency). Although the
display changes, the frequency output does not change. Any subsequent frequency changes
are shown as incremental or decremental to 0 Hz.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency > 700 > MHz.
3. Press Freq Ref Set.
This activates the frequency reference mode and sets the current output frequency
(700 MHz) as the reference value. The FREQUENCY area displays 0.00 Hz, which is the
frequency output by the hardware (700 MHz) minus the reference value (700 MHz). The
REF indicator is activated and the Freq Ref Off On softkey has toggled to On.
4. Press RF On/Off.
The display annunciator has changed from RF OFF to RF ON. The RF frequency at the
RF OUTPUT connector is 700 MHz.
5. Press Frequency > Incr Set > 1 > MHz.
This changes the frequency increment value to 1 MHz.
6. Press the up arrow key.
This increments the output frequency by 1 MHz. The FREQUENCY area display changes to
show 1.000 000 00 MHz, which is the frequency output by the hardware
(700 MHz + 1 MHz) minus the reference frequency (700 MHz). The frequency at the
RF OUTPUT changes to 701 MHz.
Chapter 2
41
Basic Operation
Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output
7. Press Freq Offset > 1 > MHz.
This enters a 1 MHz offset. The FREQUENCY area displays 2.000 000 00 MHz, which is the
frequency output by the hardware (701 MHz) minus the reference frequency (700 MHz)
plus the offset (1 MHz). The OFFS indicator is activated. The frequency at the RF OUTPUT
connector is still 701 MHz.
To Configure an RF Output Amplitude
1. Press Preset.
2. Observe the AMPLITUDE area of the display.
The display reads the minimum power level of the signal generator. This is the normal
preset RF output amplitude.
3. Press RF On/Off.
The display annunciator changes from RF OFF to RF ON. The RF signal should be output at
the minimum power level at the RF OUTPUT connector.
4. Press Amplitude > −20 > dBm.
This changes the amplitude to −20 dBm. The new −20 dBm RF output power should be
displayed in the AMPLITUDE area of the display and also in the active entry area.
Amplitude is still the active function until you press another front panel function key. You
can also change the amplitude using the up and down arrow keys and the knob.
To Configure an RF Output Amplitude Reference
and Amplitude Offset
The following procedure sets the RF output power as an amplitude reference to which all
other amplitude parameters are relative. The amplitude initially shown on the display will be
0 dB (the power output by the hardware minus the reference power). Although the display
changes, the output power does not change. Any subsequent power changes are shown as
incremental or decremental to 0 dB.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Amplitude > −20 > dBm.
3. Press More (1 of 2) > Ampl Ref Set.
This activates the amplitude reference mode and sets the current output power (−20 dBm)
as the reference value. The AMPLITUDE area displays 0.00 dB, which is the power output
by the hardware (−20 dBm) minus the reference value (−20 dBm). The REF indicator is
42
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Configuring a Continuous Wave RF Output
activated and the Ampl Ref Off On softkey has toggled to On.
4. Press RF On/Off.
The display annunciator has changed from RF OFF to RF ON. The power at the
RF OUTPUT connector is −20 dBm.
5. Press Incr Set > 10 > dB.
This changes the amplitude increment value to 10 dB.
6. Use the up arrow key to increase the output power by 10 dB.
The AMPLITUDE area displays 10.00 dB, which is the power output by the hardware
(−20 dBm plus 10 dBm) minus the reference power (−20 dBm). The power at the
RF OUTPUT connector changes to −10 dBm.
7. Press Ampl Offset > 10 > dB.
This enters a 10 dB offset. The AMPLITUDE area displays 20.00 dB, which is the power
output by the hardware (−10 dBm) minus the reference power (−20 dBm) plus the offset
(10 dB). The OFFS indicator is activated. The power at the RF OUTPUT connector is still
−10 dBm.
Chapter 2
43
Basic Operation
Configuring a Swept RF Output
Configuring a Swept RF Output
This section will show you how to create swept RF outputs. Each signal generator has up to
three sweep types: step sweep, list sweep, and ramp sweep (Option 007). For ramp sweep,
refer to “Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)” on page 50.
NOTE
List sweep data cannot be saved within an instrument state, but can be saved
to the memory catalog. For instructions on saving list sweep data, see “Storing
Files to the Memory Catalog” on page 73.
During swept RF output, the FREQUENCY and AMPLITUDE areas of the signal
generator’s display are deactivated, depending on what is being swept.
This section provides an explanation of the differences between step sweep and list sweep.
You will learn two ways to configure the signal generator’s RF output to sweep a defined set of
frequency and amplitude points. You will create a step sweep and then you will use these
points as the basis for a new list sweep.
Using these procedures, you will learn how to perform the following:
• “Understanding Step Sweep” on page 44
• “To Configure a Step Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode” on page 45
• “To Configure a Step Sweep, in Continuous Sweep Mode” on page 46
• “Understanding List Sweep” on page 46
• “To Configure a List Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode, Using Step Sweep Data” on page 47
• “To Edit List Sweep Points” on page 47
• “To Configure a List Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode” on page 48
• “To Configure a List Sweep, in Continuous Sweep Mode” on page 49
Understanding Step Sweep
Step sweep provides a linear progression through the start-to-stop frequency and/or
amplitude values. You can toggle the direction of the sweep, up or down. When the Sweep
Direction Down Up softkey is set to Up, values are swept from the start amplitude/frequency to
the stop amplitude/frequency. When set to Down, values are swept from the stop
44
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Configuring a Swept RF Output
amplitude/frequency to the start amplitude/frequency.
When a step sweep is activated, the signal generator sweeps the RF output based on the
values entered for RF output start and stop frequencies and amplitudes, a number of equally
spaced points (steps) to dwell upon, and the amount of dwell time at each point; dwell time is
the minimum period of time after the settling time that the signal generator will remain at its
current state. The frequency, amplitude, or frequency and amplitude of the RF output will
sweep from the start amplitude/frequency to the stop amplitude/frequency, dwelling at
equally spaced intervals defined by the # Points softkey value.
To Configure a Step Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode
In this procedure, you will create a step sweep with nine, equally-spaced points, and the
following parameters:
• frequency range from 500 MHz to 600 MHz
• amplitude from −20 dBm to 0 dBm
• dwell time 500 ms at each point
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Sweep/List.
This opens a menu of sweep softkeys.
3. Press Sweep Repeat Single Cont.
This toggles the sweep repeat from continuous to single.
4. Press Configure Step Sweep.
5. Press Freq Start > 500 > MHz.
This changes the start frequency of the step sweep to 500 MHz.
6. Press Freq Stop > 600 > MHz.
This changes the stop frequency of the step sweep to 600 MHz.
7. Press Ampl Start > -20 > dBm.
This changes the amplitude level for the start of the step sweep.
8. Press Ampl Stop > 0 > dBm.
This changes the amplitude level for the end of the step sweep.
9. Press # Points > 9 > Enter.
This sets the number of sweep points to nine.
Chapter 2
45
Basic Operation
Configuring a Swept RF Output
10. Press Step Dwell > 500 > msec.
This sets the dwell time at each point to 500 milliseconds.
11. Press Return > Sweep > Freq & Ampl.
This sets the step sweep to sweep both frequency and amplitude data. Selecting this
softkey returns you to the previous menu and turns on the sweep function.
12. Press RF On/Off.
The display annunciator changes from RF OFF to RF ON.
13. Press Single Sweep.
A single sweep of the frequencies and amplitudes configured in the step sweep is executed
and available at the RF OUTPUT connector. On the display, the SWEEP annunciator
appears for the duration of the sweep and a progress bar shows the progression of the
sweep. The Single Sweep softkey can also be used to abort a sweep in progress. To see the
frequencies sweep again, press Single Sweep to trigger the sweep.
To Configure a Step Sweep, in Continuous Sweep Mode
Press Sweep Repeat Single Cont.
This toggles the sweep from single to continuous. A continuous repetition of the frequencies
and amplitudes configured in the step sweep are now available at the RF OUTPUT connector.
The SWEEP annunciator appears on the display, indicating that the signal generator is
sweeping and progression of the sweep is shown by a progress bar.
Understanding List Sweep
List sweep allows you to create a list of arbitrary frequency, amplitude, and dwell time values
and sweep the RF output based on the entries in the List Mode Values table.
Unlike a step sweep that contains linear ascending/descending frequency and amplitude
values, spaced at equal intervals throughout the sweep, list sweep frequencies and
amplitudes can be entered at unequal intervals, nonlinear ascending/descending, or random
order.
For convenience, the List Mode Values table can be copied from a previously configured step
sweep. Each step sweep point’s associated frequency, amplitude and dwell time values are
entered into a row in the List Mode Values table, as the following example illustrates.
46
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Configuring a Swept RF Output
To Configure a List Sweep,
in Single Sweep Mode, Using Step Sweep Data
In this procedure, you will leverage the step sweep points and change the sweep information
by editing several points in the List Mode Values table. For information on using tables, see
“Using Tables to Edit Parameters” on page 70.
1. Press Sweep Repeat Single Cont.
This toggles the sweep repeat from continuous to single. The SWEEP annunciator is turned
off. The sweep will not occur until it is triggered.
2. Press Sweep Type List Step.
This toggles the sweep type from step to list.
3. Press Configure List Sweep.
This opens another menu displaying softkeys that you will use to create the sweep points.
The display shows the current list data. (When no list has been previously created, the
default list contains one point set to the signal generator’s maximum frequency, minimum
amplitude, and a dwell time of 2 ms.)
4. Press More (1 of 2) > Load List From Step Sweep > Confirm Load From Step Data.
The points you defined in the step sweep are automatically loaded into the list.
To Edit List Sweep Points
1. Press Return > Sweep > Off.
Turning the sweep off allows you to edit the list sweep points without generating errors. If
sweep remains on during editing, errors occur whenever one or two point parameters
(frequency, power, and dwell) are undefined.
2. Press Configure List Sweep.
This returns you to the sweep list table.
3. Use the arrow keys to highlight the dwell time in row 1.
4. Press Edit Item.
The dwell time for point 1 becomes the active function.
5. Press 100 > msec.
This enters 100 ms as the new dwell time value for row 1. Note that the next item in the
table (in this case, the frequency value for point 2) becomes highlighted after you press the
terminator softkey.
Chapter 2
47
Basic Operation
Configuring a Swept RF Output
6. Using the arrow keys, highlight the frequency value in row 4.
7. Press Edit Item > 545 > MHz.
This changes the frequency value in row 4 to 545 MHz.
8. Highlight any column in the point 7 row and press Insert Row.
This adds a new point between points 7 and 8. A copy of the point 7 row is placed between
points 7 and 8, creating a new point 8, and renumbering the successive points.
9. Highlight the frequency item for point 8, then press Insert Item.
Pressing Insert Item shifts frequency values down one row, beginning at point 8. Note that
the original frequency values for both points 8 and 9 shift down one row, creating an entry
for point 10 that contains only a frequency value (the power and dwell time items do not
shift down).
The frequency for point 8 is still active.
10. Press 590 > MHz.
11. Press Insert Item > -2.5 > dBm.
This inserts a new power value at point 8 and shifts down the original power values for
points 8 and 9 by one row.
12. Highlight the dwell time for point 9, then press Insert Item.
A duplicate of the highlighted dwell time is inserted for point 9, shifting the existing value
down to complete the entry for point 10.
To Configure a List Sweep, in Single Sweep Mode
1. Press Return > Sweep > Freq & Ampl
This turns the sweep on again. No errors should occur if all parameters for every point
have been defined in the previous editing process.
2. Press Single Sweep.
The signal generator will single sweep the points in your list. The SWEEP annunciator
activates during the sweep.
3. Press More (1 of 2) > Sweep Trigger > Trigger Key.
This sets the sweep trigger to occur when you press the Trigger hardkey.
4. Press More (2 of 2) > Single Sweep.
This arms the sweep. The ARMED annunciator is activated.
48
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Configuring a Swept RF Output
5. Press the Trigger hardkey.
The signal generator will single sweep the points in your list and the SWEEP annunciator
will be activated during the sweep.
To Configure a List Sweep, in Continuous Sweep Mode
Press Sweep Repeat Single Cont.
This toggles the sweep from single to continuous. A continuous repetition of the frequencies
and amplitudes configured in the list sweep are now available at the RF OUTPUT connector.
The SWEEP annunciator appears on the display, indicating that the signal generator is
sweeping and progression of the sweep is shown by a progress bar.
Chapter 2
49
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Ramp sweep provides a linear progression through the start-to-stop frequency and/or
amplitude values. Ramp sweep is much faster than step or list sweep and is designed to work
with an 8757D scalar network analyzer.
This section describes the ramp sweep capabilities available in PSG signal generators with
Option 007. You will learn how to configure the PSG to work with an 8757D scalar network
analyzer to perform basic ramp sweep operations. This section comprises the following topics:
• “To Use Basic Ramp Sweep Functions” on page 50
• “To Configure a Ramp Sweep for a Master/Slave Setup” on page 58
• “To Use 8757D Pass-Thru Commands” on page 60
To Use Basic Ramp Sweep Functions
This procedure comprises the tasks listed below. Each task builds upon the previous.
• “Configuring a Frequency Sweep” on page 50
• “Using Markers” on page 53
• “Adjusting Sweep Time” on page 55
• “Using Alternate Sweep” on page 56
• “Configuring an Amplitude Sweep” on page 57
Configuring a Frequency Sweep
1. Set up the equipment as shown in Figure 2-1 on page 51.
NOTE
50
The PSG signal generator is not compatible with the GPIB system interface in
the 8757A, 8757C, or 8757E. For those older scalar network analyzers, do not
connect the GPIB cable in Figure 2-1 on page 51. This method provides only a
subset of 8757D functionality. See the PSG Data Sheet for details. Use the
8757A/C/E documentation instead of this procedure.
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Figure 2-1
Equipment Setup
2. Turn on both the 8757D and the PSG.
3. On the 8757D, press SYSTEM > MORE > SWEEP MODE > and verify that the SYSINTF softkey
is set to ON.
This ensures that the system interface mode is activated on the 8757D. The system
interface mode allows the instruments to work together as a system.
4. Press Utility > GPIB/RS-232 LAN to view the PSG’s GPIB address under the GPIB Address
softkey. If you want to change it, press GPIB Address and use the front panel knob or
numeric key pad to change the value.
5. On the 8757D, press LOCAL > SWEEPER to verify that the GPIB address matches that of
the PSG. If it doesn’t match, use the numeric keypad and press ENT to change the value.
Chapter 2
51
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
6. Preset either instrument.
Presetting one of the instruments should automatically preset the other as well. If both
instruments do not preset, check the GPIB connection, GPIB addresses, and ensure the
8757D is set to system interface mode (SYSINTF set to ON).
The PSG automatically activates a 2 GHz to maximum frequency ramp sweep with a
constant amplitude of 0 dBm. Notice that the RF ON, SWEEP, and PULSE annunciators
appear on the PSG display. The PULSE annunciator appears because the 8757D is
operating in AC mode.
The PSG also switches its remote language setting to 8757D System, allowing the PSG to
talk to the 8757D during ramp sweep operations. You can confirm this by pressing Utility >
GPIB/RS-232 LAN and observing the selection under the Remote Language softkey.
NOTE
During swept RF output, the FREQUENCY and/or AMPLITUDE areas of the signal
generator’s display are deactivated, depending on what is being swept. In this
case, since frequency is being swept, nothing appears in the FREQUENCY area of
the display.
7. Press Frequency > Freq CW.
The current continuous wave frequency setting now controls the RF output and ramp
sweep is turned off.
8. Press Freq Start.
The ramp sweep settings once again control the RF output and the CW mode is turned off.
Pressing any one of the softkeys Freq Start, Freq Stop, Freq Center, or Freq Span activates a
ramp sweep with the current settings.
NOTE
In a frequency ramp sweep, the start frequency must be lower than the stop
frequency.
9. Adjust the settings for Freq Center and Freq Span so that the frequency response of the
device under test (DUT) is clearly seen on the 8757D display.
Notice how adjusting these settings also changes the settings for the Freq Start and
Freq Stop softkeys. You may need to rescale the response on the 8757D for a more accurate
evaluation of the amplitude. Figure 2-2 on page 53 shows an example of a bandpass filter
response.
52
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Figure 2-2
Bandpass Filter Response on 8757D
Using Markers
1. Press Markers.
This opens a table editor and associated marker control softkeys. You can use up to 10
different markers, labeled 0 through 9.
2. Press Marker Freq and select a frequency value within the range of your sweep.
In the table editor, notice how the state for marker 0 automatically turns on. The marker
also appears on the 8757D display.
3. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor in the table editor to marker 1 and select a
frequency value within the range of your sweep, but different from marker 0.
Notice that marker 1 is activated and is the currently selected marker, indicated by the
marker arrow pointing down. As you switch between markers, using the arrow keys, you
will notice that the selected marker’s arrow points down, while all others point up.
Notice also that the frequency and amplitude data for the currently selected marker is
displayed on the 8757D.
Chapter 2
53
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
4. Move the cursor back to marker 0 and press Delta Ref Set > Marker Delta Off On to On.
In the table editor, notice that the frequency values for each marker are now relative to
marker 0. Ref appears in the far right column (also labeled Ref) to indicate which marker
is the reference. Refer to Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3
Marker Table Editor
5. Move the cursor back to marker 1 and press Marker Freq. Turn the front panel knob while
observing marker 1 on the 8757D.
On the 8757D, notice that the displayed amplitude and frequency values for marker 1 are
relative to marker 0 as the marker moves along the trace. Refer to Figure 2-4.
54
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Figure 2-4
Delta Markers on 8757D
6. Press Turn Off Markers.
All active markers turn off. Refer to the Key Reference for information on other marker
softkey functions.
Adjusting Sweep Time
1. Press Sweep/List.
This opens a menu of sweep control softkeys and displays a status screen summarizing all
the current sweep settings.
2. Press Configure Ramp/Step Sweep.
Since ramp is the current sweep type, softkeys in this menu specifically control ramp
sweep settings. When step is the selected sweep type, the softkeys control step sweep
settings. Notice that the Freq Start and Freq Stop softkeys appear in this menu in addition
to the Frequency hardkey menu.
Chapter 2
55
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
3. Press Sweep Time to Manual > 5 > sec.
In auto mode, the sweep time automatically sets to the fastest allowable value. In manual
mode, you can select any sweep time slower than the fastest allowable. The fastest
allowable sweep time is dependent on the number of trace points and channels being used
on the 8757D and the frequency span.
4. Press Sweep Time to Auto.
The sweep time returns to its fastest allowable setting.
Using Alternate Sweep
1. Press the Save hardkey.
This opens the table editor and softkey menu for saving instrument states. Notice that the
Select Reg softkey is active. (For more information on saving instrument states refer to “To
Use the Instrument State Register” on page 74.)
2. Turn the front panel knob until you find an available register and press SAVE. Remember
this saved register number. If no registers are available, you can write over an in-use
register, by pressing Re-SAVE.
NOTE
When you are using the PSG in a system with an 8757 network analyzer, you
are limited to using registers 1 through 9 in sequence 0 for saving and recalling
states.
3. Press Sweep/List > Configure Ramp/Step Sweep and enter new start and stop frequency
values for the ramp sweep.
4. Press Alternate Sweep Register and turn the front panel knob to select the register number
of the previously saved sweep state.
5. Press Alternate Sweep Off On to On.
The signal generator alternates between the original saved sweep and the current sweep.
You may need to adjust 8757D settings to effectively view both sweeps, such as setting
channel 2 to measure sensor A. Refer to Figure 2-5.
56
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Figure 2-5
Alternating Sweeps on 8757D
Configuring an Amplitude Sweep
1. Press Return > Sweep > Off.
This turns off both the current sweep and the alternate sweep from the previous task. The
current CW settings now control the RF output.
2. Press Configure Ramp/Step Sweep.
3. Using the Ampl Start and Ampl Stop softkeys, set an amplitude range to be swept.
4. Press Return > Sweep > Ampl.
The new amplitude ramp sweep settings control the RF output and the CW mode is turned
off.
Chapter 2
57
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
To Configure a Ramp Sweep for a Master/Slave Setup
This procedure shows you how to configure two PSGs and an 8757D to work in a master/slave
setup.
1. Set up the equipment as shown in Figure 2-6. Use a 9-pin, D-subminiature, male RS-232
cable with the pin configuration shown in Figure 2-7 on page 59 to connect the auxiliary
interfaces of the two PSGs. You can also order the cable (part number 8120-8806) from
Agilent Technologies.
By connecting the master PSG’s 10 MHz reference standard to the slave PSG’s 10 MHz
reference input, the master’s timebase supplies the frequency reference for both PSGs.
Figure 2-6
58
Master/Slave Equipment Setup
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Figure 2-7
RS-232 Pin Configuration
2. Set up the slave PSG’s frequency and power settings.
By setting up the slave first, you avoid synchronization problems.
3. Set up the master PSG’s frequency, power, and sweep time settings.
The two PSGs can have different frequency and power settings for ramp sweep.
4. Set the slave PSG’s sweep time to match that of the master.
Sweep times must be the same for both PSGs.
5. Set the slave PSG to continuous triggering.
The slave must be set to continuous triggering, but the master can be set to any triggering
mode.
6. On the slave PSG, press Sweep/List > Sweep Type > Sweep Control > Slave.
This sets the PSG to operate in slave mode.
7. On the master PSG, press Sweep/List > Sweep Type > Sweep Control > Master.
This sets the PSG to operate in master mode.
Chapter 2
59
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
To Use 8757D Pass-Thru Commands
Pass-thru commands allow you to temporarily interrupt ramp sweep system interaction so
that you can send operating instructions to the PSG. This section provides setup information
and an example program for using pass-thru commands in a ramp sweep system.
Equipment Setup
To send pass-thru commands, set up the equipment as shown in Figure 2-8. Notice that the
GPIB cable from the computer is connected to the GPIB interface bus of the 8757D.
Figure 2-8
60
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
GPIB Address Assignments
Table 2-1 describes how GPIB addresses should be assigned for sending pass-thru commands.
These are the same addresses used in Example 2-1.
Table 2-1
Instrument
GPIB
Address
Key Presses/Description
PSG
19
Press Utility > GPIB/RS-232 LAN > GPIB Address > 19 > Enter.
8757D
16
Press LOCAL > 8757 > 16 > Enter.
8757D
(Sweeper)
19
This address must match the PSG.
Press LOCAL > SWEEPER > 19 > Enter.
Pass Thru
17
The pass thru address is automatically selected by the 8757D
by inverting the last bit of the 8757D address. Refer to the
8757D documentation for more information. Verify that no
other instrument is using this address on the GPIB bus.
Example Pass-Thru Program
Example 2-1 on page 62 is a sample Agilent BASIC program that switches the 8757D to
pass-thru mode, allowing you to send operating commands to the PSG. After the program
runs, control is given back to the network analyzer. The following describes the command
lines used in the program.
Line 30
PT is set to equal the source address. C1 is added, but not needed, to specify
the channel.
Lines 40, 90
The END statement is required to complete the language transition.
Lines 50, 100
A WAIT statement is recommended after a language change to allow all
instrument changes to be completed before the next command.
Lines 70, 80
This is added to ensure that the instrument has completed all operations
before switching languages.
Line 110
This takes the network analyzer out of pass-thru command mode, and puts
it back in control. Any analyzer command can now be entered.
Chapter 2
61
Basic Operation
Using Ramp Sweep (Option 007)
Example 2-1
Pass-Thru Program
10 ABORT 7
20 CLEAR 716
30 OUTPUT 716;"PT19;C1"
40 OUTPUT 717;"SYST:LANG SCPI";END
50 WAIT .5
60 OUTPUT 717;"POW:STAT OFF"
70 OUTPUT 717;"*OPC?"
80 ENTER 717; Reply
90 OUTPUT 717;"SYST:LANG COMP";END
100 WAIT .5
110 OUTPUT 716;"C2"
120 END
62
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Extending the Frequency Range with a mm-Wave Source Module
Extending the Frequency Range
with a mm-Wave Source Module
The RF output frequency of the signal generator can be multiplied using an Agilent 83550
Series millimeter-wave source module. The signal generator/mm-wave source module’s output
is automatically leveled when the instruments are connected. The output frequency range
depends on the specific mm-wave source module.
NOTE
To ensure adequate RF amplitude at the mm-wave source module RF input,
when using an E8267C PSG, E8247C PSG with Option 1EA, or E8257C PSG
with Option 1EA, maximum amplitude loss through the adapters and cables
connected between the signal generator’s RF output and the mm-wave source
module’s RF input should be less than 1.5 dB.
Required Equipment
• Agilent 83550 Series millimeter-wave source module
• Agilent 8349B microwave amplifier
Signal generators without Option 1EA (E8247C PSG and E8257C PSG) require an
Agilent 8349B microwave amplifier. Signal generators with Option 1EA can drive the
output of millimeter-wave source modules to maximum specified power without a
microwave amplifier.
• cables and adapters as required
Chapter 2
63
Basic Operation
Extending the Frequency Range with a mm-Wave Source Module
Connect the Equipment
CAUTION
To prevent damage to the signal generator, turn off the line power to the signal
generator before connecting the source module interface cable to the rear panel
SOURCE MODULE interface connector.
1. Turn off the signal generator’s line power.
2. Connect the equipment as shown.
• E8247C PSG and E8257C PSG without Option 1EA, use the setup in Figure 2-1.
• E8267C PSG or E8247C PSG and E8257C PSG with Option 1EA, use the setup in
Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-9
64
Setup for E8247C PSG and E8257C PSG without Option 1EA
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Extending the Frequency Range with a mm-Wave Source Module
Figure 2-10
Setup for E8267C PSG or E8247C PSG and E8257C PSG
with Option 1EA
To Configure the Signal Generator
1. Turn on the signal generator’s line power.
Upon power-up, the signal generator automatically:
• senses the mm-wave source module,
• switches the signal generator’s leveling mode to external/source module (power is
leveled at the mm-wave source module output),
• sets the mm-wave source module frequency and amplitude to the source module’s
preset values, and
• in the FREQUENCY and AMPLITUDE areas of the signal generator, displays the RF output
frequency and amplitude values available at the mm-wave source module output.
The MMMOD indicator in the FREQUENCY area and the MM indicator in the AMPLITUDE area of
the signal generator’s display indicate that the mm-wave source module is active.
NOTE
Chapter 2
Refer to the mm-wave source module specifications for the specific frequency
and amplitude ranges.
65
Basic Operation
Extending the Frequency Range with a mm-Wave Source Module
2. If the RF OFF annunciator is displayed, press RF On/Off.
Leveled power should be available at the output of the millimeter-wave source module.
To obtain flatness-corrected power, refer to “Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction”
on page 85.
66
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Turning On Modulation Formats
Turning On Modulation Formats
A modulation format can be turned on prior to or after setting your signal parameters.
To Turn a Modulation Format On
1. Access the first menu within the modulation format.
This menu will show a softkey that has the format’s name associated with off and on. For
example, AM > AM Off On. For some formats, the off/on key may appear in additional menus
other than the first one.
2. Press the modulation format off/on key until On is highlighted.
Figure 2-11 shows the AM modulation format’s first menu with off as the format status,
and Figure 2-12 shows an example of the PSG display when the format is active.
The modulation format should be generated, however the carrier signal is still not modulated
until the Mod On/Off key has been set to On.
Depending on the modulation format, the signal generator may require a few seconds to build
the signal. Within the digital formats (E8267C PSG with Option 002 only), you may see a
BaseBand Reconfiguring status bar appear on the display. Once the signal is generated, an
annunciator showing the name of the format will appear on the display indicating that the
modulation format is active. For digital formats (E8267C PSG with Option 002 only), the I/Q
annunciator will appear in addition to the name of the modulation format.
Figure 2-11
Example of AM Modulation Format Off
First AM Menu
Modulation Format is Off
Chapter 2
67
Basic Operation
Turning On Modulation Formats
Figure 2-12
Modulation Format On
Active Modulation Format Annunciator
First AM Menu
Modulation format is On
68
Chapter 2
Basic Operation
Applying Modulation Formats to the RF Output
Applying Modulation Formats to the RF Output
The carrier signal is modulated when the Mod On/Off key is set to On and an individual
modulation format is active. When the key is set to On, the MOD ON annunciator shows in the
display. The MOD OFF annunciator appears when the key is set to Off. The MOD ON annunciator
may be showing even when there are no active modulation formats; this merely indicates that
the carrier signal will be modulated when a modulation format is turned on.
To Turn RF Output Modulation On
Press the Mod On/Off key until the MOD ON annunciator appears in the display.
The carrier signal should be modulated with all active modulation formats. This is the factory
default.
To Turn RF Output Modulation Off
Press the Mod On/Off key until the MOD OFF annunciator appears in the display.
The carrier signal is no longer modulated or capable of being modulated when a modulation
format is active.
Figure 2-13
Carrier Signal Modulation Status
Mod Set to On—Carrier is Modulated
AM Modulation Format is Active
Mod Set to Off—Carrier is
not Modulated
AM Modulation Format is Active
Mod Set to On—Carrier is
not Modulated
No Active Modulation Format
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Basic Operation
Using Tables to Edit Parameters
Using Tables to Edit Parameters
Tables enable you to perform configuration tasks such as: create a list sweep, modify the
Memory Catalog, modify existing parameters for modulations, as well as others.
The following example shows a table of parameters being edited for List Mode.
Figure 2-14
Active Function Area
Table Name
Cursor
Table Items
Table Softkeys
Active Function Area
displays the active table item while its value is edited
Cursor
an inverse video identifier used to highlight specific table
items for selection and editing
Table Softkeys
select table items, preset table values, and modify table
structures
Table Items
values arranged in numbered rows and titled columns
(The columns are also known as data fields. For example,
the column below the Frequency title is known as the
Frequency data field).
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Using Tables to Edit Parameters
Table Softkeys
The following table softkeys are used to load, navigate, modify, and store table item values.
Edit Item
displays the selected item in the active function area of the display where
the item’s value can be modified
Insert Row
inserts an identical row of table items above the currently selected row
Delete Row
deletes the currently selected row
Goto Row
opens a menu of softkeys ( Enter, Goto Top Row, Goto Middle Row, Goto Bottom
Row, Page Up, and Page Down) used to quickly navigate through the table
items
Insert Item
inserts an identical item in a new row below the currently selected item
Delete Item
deletes the item from the bottom row of the currently selected column
Page Up and
Page Down
displays table items that occupy rows outside the limits of the ten-row table
display area
More (1 of 2)
accesses Load/Store and its associated softkeys
Load/Store
opens a menu of softkeys (Load From Selected File, Store To File, Delete File,
Goto Row , Page Up, and Page Down) used to load table items from a file in the
memory catalog, or to store the current table items as a file in the memory
catalog
To Modify Existing Table Items in the Data Fields
1. Press Preset > Sweep/List > Configure List Sweep.
The signal generator displays the List Mode Values table, as shown.
2. Use the arrow keys or the knob to move the table cursor over the desired item.
In Figure 2-14 on page 70, the first item in the Frequency data field has been selected.
3. Press Edit Item.
The selected item is displayed in the active function area of the display.
4. Use the knob, arrow keys, or the numeric keypad to modify the value.
5. Press Enter.
The modified item should be displayed in the table.
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Basic Operation
Using Data Storage Functions
Using Data Storage Functions
This section explains how to use the two forms of signal generator data storage:
the memory catalog and the instrument state register.
To Use the Memory Catalog
The Memory Catalog is the signal generator’s interface for viewing, storing, and saving files;
it can be accessed through the signal generator’s front panel or a remote controller.
(For information on performing these tasks remotely, see the Programming Guide.)
Table 2-2
Memory Catalog File Types and Associated Data
Binary
binary data
State
instrument state data (controlling instrument operating
parameters, such as frequency, amplitude, and mode)
LIST
sweep data from the List Mode Values table including
frequency, amplitude, and dwell time
User Flatness
user flatness calibration correction pair data
(user-defined frequency and corresponding amplitude
correction values)
FIR
Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter coefficients
ARB Catalog Types
(E8267C PSG with Option 002 only) user created files Waveform Catalog Types: WFM1 (waveform file),
NVARB Catalog Types:
NVWFM (non-volatile, ARB waveform file),
NVMKR (non-volatile, ARB waveform marker file),
Seq (ARB sequence file),
MTONE (ARB multitone file),
DMOD (ARB digital modulation file),
MDMOD (ARB multicarrier digital modulation file)
Modulation Catalog Types
(E8267C PSG with Option 002 only) associated data for
I/Q and FSK (frequency shift keying) modulation files
Shape
burst shape of a pulse
Bit
Bit
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Storing Files to the Memory Catalog
To store a file to the memory catalog, first create a file. For this example, use the default list
sweep table.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Sweep/List > Configure List Sweep > More (1 of 2) > Load/Store.
This opens the “Catalog of List Files”.
3. Press Store to File.
This displays a menu of alphabetical softkeys for naming the file. Store to: is displayed
in the active function area.
4. Enter the file name LIST1 using the alphabetical softkeys and the numeric keypad (for the
numbers 0 to 9).
5. Press Enter.
The file should be displayed in the “Catalog of List Files”, showing the file name, file type,
file size, and the date and time the file was modified.
Viewing Stored Files in the Memory Catalog
1. Press Utility > Memory Catalog > Catalog Type.
All files in the memory catalog are listed in alphabetical order, regardless of which catalog
type you select. File information appears on the display and includes the file name, file
type, file size, and the date and time the file was modified.
2. Press List.
The “Catalog of List Files” is displayed.
3. Press Catalog Type > State.
The “Catalog of State Files” is displayed.
4. Press Catalog Type > All.
The “Catalog of All Files” is displayed. For a complete list of file types, refer to Table 2-2 on
page 72.
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To Use the Instrument State Register
The instrument state register is a section of memory divided into 10 sequences (numbered 0
through 9) each containing 100 registers (numbered 00 through 99). It is used to store and
recall instrument settings. It provides a quick way to reconfigure the signal generator when
switching between different signal configurations. Once an instrument state has been saved,
you can recall the instrument settings for that state with minimum effort.
NOTE
List sweep data is not saved within an instrument state. For instructions on
saving list sweep data, see “Storing Files to the Memory Catalog” on page 73.
Saving an Instrument State
Using this procedure, you will learn how to save current signal generator settings to the
instrument state register.
1. Press Preset.
2. Configure the signal generator with the following settings:
a. Press Frequency > 800 > MHz.
b. Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
c. Press AM > AM Off On.
This enables amplitude modulation (the AM annunciator should be on).
3. Press Save > Select Seq.
The sequence number becomes the active function. The signal generator displays the last
sequence that you have used. Set the sequence to 1 using the arrow keys.
4. Press Select Reg.
The register number in sequence 1 becomes the active function. The signal generator
displays either the last register used, accompanied by the text: (in use), or (if no
registers are in use) register 00, accompanied by the text: (available). Use the arrow
keys to select register 01.
5. Press Save Seq[1] Reg[01].
This will save this instrument state in sequence 1, register 01 of the instrument state
register.
6. Press Add Comment to Seq[1] Reg[01].
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This allows you to add a descriptive comment to sequence 1 register 01.
7. Enter your comment using the alphanumeric softkeys or the knob and press Enter.
8. Press Edit Comment In Seq[1] Reg[01].
This allows you to change the descriptive comment for sequence 1 register 01, if desired.
Change your comment using the alphanumeric softkeys and press Enter.
After making changes to an instrument state, you may save it back to a specific register by
highlighting that register and pressing Re-SAVE Seq[n] Reg[nn].
Recalling an Instrument State
Using this procedure, you will learn how to recall instrument settings saved to an instrument
state register.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press the Recall hardkey.
Notice that the Select Seq softkey shows sequence 1. (This is the last sequence that you
used.)
3. Press RECALL Reg.
The register to be recalled in sequence 1 becomes the active function. Press the up arrow
key once to select register 1. Your stored instrument state settings should have been
recalled.
Deleting Registers and Sequences
Using this procedure, you will learn how to delete registers and sequences saved to an
instrument state register.
To Delete a Specific Register within a Sequence
1. Press Preset.
2. Press the Recall or Save hardkey.
Notice that the Select Seq softkey shows the last sequence that you used.
3. Press Select Seq and enter the sequence number containing the register you want to delete.
4. Press Select Reg and enter the register number you want to delete.
Notice that the Delete Seq[n] Reg[nn] should be loaded with the sequence and register you
want to delete.
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5. Press Delete Seq[n] Reg[nn].
This deletes the chosen register.
To Delete All Registers within a Sequence
1. Press Preset.
2. Press the Recall or Save hardkey.
Notice that the Select Seq softkey shows the last sequence that you used.
3. Press Select Seq and enter the sequence number containing the registers you want to
delete.
4. Press Delete all Regs in Seq[n].
This deletes all registers in the selected sequence.
To Delete All Sequences
CAUTION
This will delete the contents of all registers and all sequences contained in the
instrument state register.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press the Recall or Save hardkey.
Notice that the Select Seq softkey shows the last sequence that you used.
3. Press Delete All Sequences.
This deletes all of the sequences saved in the instrument state register.
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Enabling Options
Enabling Options
You can retrofit your signal generator after purchase to add new capabilities. Some new
optional features are implemented in hardware that you must install. Some options are
implemented in software, but require the presence of optional hardware in the instrument.
This example shows you how to enable software options.
To Enable a Software Option
1. A license key is required to enable each software option. This license key is provided on the
license key certificate that you receive when you purchase the software option. Access the
Software Options menu by pressing Utility > Instrument Adjustments > Instrument Options >
Software Options . An example of the signal generator display follows:
Verify that the host ID shown on the display matches the host ID on the license key
certificate. The host ID is a unique number for every instrument. If the host ID on the
license key certificate does not match your instrument, the license key cannot enable the
software option.
2. On the display is a list of software options that are already enabled (if any) and the
software options that can be enabled. Some software options are linked to specific
hardware options. Before a software option can be enabled, the appropriate hardware
option must be installed. For example, Option 420, RADAR SIMULATION
PERSONALITY, requires that Option 002, Internal Baseband Generator, be installed. If
the software option that you intend to install is listed in a grey font, the required hardware
may not be installed. (Look for an X in the “Selected” column of the appropriate hardware
option in the Hardware Options menu.)
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Basic Operation
Enabling Options
3. To enable the software option, highlight the desired option using the up/down arrow keys
or the front panel knob.
4. Press Modify License Key. Enter the 12-character license key (from your license key
certificate) using the softkeys and numeric keypad. When you have finished, press the
Enter terminator softkey.
5. Press Proceed With Reconfiguration > Confirm Change to verify that you do want to
reconfigure the signal generator with the options for which you have provided a license
key. The instrument will enable the options and reboot.
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Chapter 2
3 Optimizing Performance
This chapter describes procedures that improve the performance of the Agilent PSG signal
generator.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Using External Leveling” on page 80
• “Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction” on page 85
• “Selecting ALC Bandwidth” on page 100
79
Optimizing Performance
Using External Leveling
Using External Leveling
The PSG signal generator can be externally leveled by connecting an external sensor at the
point where leveled RF output power is desired. This sensor detects changes in RF output
power and returns a compensating voltage to the signal generator’s ALC input. The ALC
circuitry raises or lowers (levels) the RF output power based on the voltage received from the
external sensor, ensuring constant power at the point of detection.
There are two types of external leveling available on the PSG. You can use external leveling
with a detector and coupler/power splitter setup, or a millimeter-wave source module.
To Level with Detectors and Couplers/Splitters
Figure 3-1 illustrates a typical external leveling setup. The power level feedback to the ALC
circuitry is taken from the external negative detector, rather than the internal signal
generator detector. This feedback voltage controls the ALC system, leveling the RF output
power at the point of detection.
To use detectors and couplers/splitters for external leveling at an RF output frequency of
10 GHz and an amplitude of 0 dBm, follow the instructions in this section.
Required Equipment
• Agilent 8474E negative detector
• Agilent 87301D directional coupler
• cables and adapters, as required
Connect the Equipment
Set up the equipment as shown in Figure 3-1.
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Optimizing Performance
Using External Leveling
Figure 3-1
External Detector Leveling with a Directional Coupler
Configure the Signal Generator
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency > 10 > GHz.
3. Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
4. Press RF On/Off.
5. Press Leveling Mode > Ext Detector.
This deactivates the internal ALC detector and switches the ALC input path to the front
panel ALC INPUT connector. The EXT indicator is activated in the AMPLITUDE area of the
display.
NOTE
For signal generators with Option 1E1, notice that the ATTN HOLD (attenuator
hold) annunciator is displayed. During external leveling, the signal generator
automatically uncouples the attenuator from the ALC system for all external
leveling points. While in this mode, RF output amplitude adjustment is limited
to −20 to +25 dBm, the adjustment range of the ALC circuitry. For more
information, see “External Leveling with Option 1E1 Signal Generators” on
page 84.
6. Observe the coupling factor printed on the directional coupler at the detector port.
Typically, this value is −10 to −20 dB.
Enter the positive dB value of this coupling factor into the signal generator.
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7. Press More (1 of 2) > Ext Detector Coupling Factor > 16 (or the positive representation of the
value listed at the detector port of the directional coupler) > dB.
Leveled output power is now available at the output of the directional coupler.
NOTE
While operating in external leveling mode, the signal generator’s displayed RF
output amplitude is affected by the coupling factor value, resulting in a
calculated approximation of the actual RF output amplitude.
To determine the actual RF output amplitude at the point of detection, measure
the voltage at the external detector output and refer to Figure 3-2 or measure
the power directly with a power meter.
Determining the Leveled Output Power
Figure 3-2 shows the input power versus output voltage characteristics for typical Agilent
Technologies diode detectors. Using this chart, you can determine the leveled power at the
diode detector input by measuring the external detector output voltage. You must then add
the coupling factor to determine the leveled output power. The range of power adjustment is
approximately −20 to +25 dBm.
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Using External Leveling
Figure 3-2
Chapter 3
Typical Diode Detector Response at 25° C
83
Optimizing Performance
Using External Leveling
External Leveling with Option 1E1 Signal Generators
Signal generators with Option 1E1 contain a step attenuator prior to the RF output connector.
During external leveling, the signal generator automatically holds the present attenuator
setting (to avoid power transients that may occur during attenuator switching) as the RF
amplitude is changed. A balance must be maintained between the amount of attenuation and
the optimum ALC level to achieve the required RF output amplitude. For optimum accuracy
and minimum noise, the ALC level should be greater than −10 dBm.
For example, leveling the CW output of a 30 dB gain amplifier to a level of −10 dBm requires
the output of the signal generator to be approximately −40 dBm when leveled. This is beyond
the amplitude limits of the ALC modulator alone, resulting in an unleveled RF output.
Inserting 45 dB of attenuation results in an ALC level of +5 dBm, well within the range of the
ALC modulator.
NOTE
In the example above, 55 dB is the preferred attenuation choice, resulting in an
ALC level of +15 dBm. This provides adequate dynamic range for AM or other
functions that vary the RF output amplitude.
To achieve the optimum ALC level at the signal generator RF output of −40 dBm for an
unmodulated carrier, follow these steps:
1. Press Set Atten > 45 > dB.
2. Press Set ALC Level > 5 > dBm.
This sets the attenuator to 45 dB and the ALC level to +5 dBm, resulting in an RF output
amplitude of −40 dBm, as shown in the AMPLITUDE area of the display.
To obtain flatness-corrected power, refer to “Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction”
on page 85.
To Level with a mm-Wave Source Module
Millimeter-wave source module leveling is similar to external detector leveling. The power
level feedback signal to the ALC circuitry is taken from the millimeter-wave source module,
rather than the internal signal generator detector. This feedback signal levels the RF output
power at the mm-wave source module output through the signal generator’s rear panel
SOURCE MODULE interface connector.
For instructions and setups, see “Extending the Frequency Range with a mm-Wave Source
Module” on page 63.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
User flatness correction allows the digital adjustment of RF output amplitude for up to 1601
frequency points in any frequency or sweep mode. Using an Agilent E4416A/17A or
E4418B/19B power meter (controlled by the signal generator through GPIB) to calibrate the
measurement system, a table of power level corrections is created for frequencies where power
level variations or losses occur. These frequencies may be defined in sequential linear steps or
arbitrarily spaced.
If you do not have an Agilent E4416A/17A or E4418B/19B power meter, or if your power meter
does not have a GPIB interface, the correction values can be manually entered into the signal
generator.
To allow different correction arrays for different test setups or different frequency ranges, you
may save individual user flatness correction tables to the signal generator’s memory catalog
and recall them on demand.
Follow the steps in the next sections to create and apply user flatness correction to the signal
generator’s RF output.
Afterward, follow the steps in “Recalling and Applying a User Flatness Correction Array” on
page 90 to recall a user flatness file from the memory catalog and apply it to the signal
generator’s RF output.
To Create a User Flatness Correction Array
In this example, you will create a user flatness correction array. The flatness correction array
contains ten frequency correction pairs (amplitude correction values for specified frequencies),
from 1 to 10 GHz in 1 GHz intervals.
An Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter (controlled by the signal generator via GPIB)
and E4413A power sensor are used to measure the RF output amplitude at the specified
correction frequencies and transfer the results to the signal generator. The signal generator
reads the power level data from the power meter, calculates the correction values, and stores
the correction pairs in the user flatness correction array.
If you do not have the required Agilent power meter, or if your power meter does not have a
GPIB interface, you can enter correction values manually.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Required Equipment
• Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter
• Agilent E4413A E Series CW power sensor
• GPIB interface cable
• adapters and cables, as required
NOTE
If the setup has an external leveling configuration, the equipment setup in
Figure 3-3 assumes that the steps necessary to correctly level the RF output
have been followed. If you have questions about external leveling, refer to
“Using External Leveling” on page 80.
Configure the Power Meter
1. Select SCPI as the remote language for the power meter.
2. Zero and calibrate the power sensor to the power meter.
3. Enter the appropriate power sensor calibration factors into the power meter as
appropriate.
4. Enable the power meter’s cal factor array.
NOTE
For operating information on your particular power meter/sensor, refer to its
operating guide.
Connect the Equipment
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 3-3.
NOTE
86
During the process of creating the user flatness correction array, the power
meter is slaved to the signal generator via GPIB. No other controllers are
allowed on the GPIB interface.
Chapter 3
Optimizing Performance
Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Figure 3-3
User Flatness Correction Equipment Setup
Configure the Signal Generator
1. Press Preset.
2. Configure the signal generator to interface with the power meter.
a. Press Amplitude > More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > More (1 of 2) > Power Meter > E4416A,
E4417A, E4418B , or E4419B.
b. Press Meter Address > enter the power meter’s GPIB address > Enter.
c. For E4417A and E4419B models, press Meter Channel A B to select the power meter’s
active channel.
d. Press Meter Timeout to adjust the length of time before the instrument generates a
timeout error if unsuccessfully attempting to communicate with the power meter.
3. Press More (2 of 2) > Configure Cal Array > More (1 of 2) > Preset List > Confirm Preset.
This opens the User Flatness table editor and presets the cal array frequency/correction
list.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
4. Press Configure Step Array.
This opens a menu for entering the user flatness step array data.
5. Press Freq Start > 1 > GHz.
6. Press Freq Stop > 10 > GHz.
7. Press # of Points > 10 > Enter.
Steps 4, 5, and 6 enter the desired flatness-corrected frequencies into the step array.
8. Press Return > Load Cal Array From Step Array > Confirm Load From Step Data.
This populates the user flatness correction array with the frequency settings defined in the
step array.
9. Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
10. Press RF On/Off.
This activates the RF output and the RF ON annunciator is displayed on the signal
generator.
Perform the User Flatness Correction
NOTE
If you are not using an Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter, or if your
power meter does not have a GPIB interface, you can perform the user flatness
correction manually. For instructions, see “Performing the User Flatness
Correction Manually” on page 89.
1. Press More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > Do Cal.
This creates the user flatness amplitude correction value table entries. The signal
generator enters the user flatness correction routine and a progress bar is shown on the
display.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
2. Press Done.
This loads the amplitude correction values into the user flatness correction array.
If desired, press Configure Cal Array.
This opens the user flatness correction array, where you can view the stored amplitude
correction values. The user flatness correction array title displays User Flatness:
(UNSTORED) indicating that the current user flatness correction array data has not been
saved to the memory catalog.
Performing the User Flatness Correction Manually
If you are not using an Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter, or if your power meter does
not have a GPIB interface, complete the steps in this section and then continue with the user
flatness correction tutorial.
1. Press More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > Configure Cal Array.
This opens the User Flatness table editor and places the cursor over the frequency value
(1 GHz) for row 1. The RF output changes to the frequency value of the table row
containing the cursor and 1.000 000 000 00 is displayed in the AMPLITUDE area of the
display.
2. Observe and record the measured value from the power meter.
3. Subtract the measured value from 0 dBm.
4. Move the table cursor over the correction value in row 1.
5. Press Edit Item > enter the difference value from step 3 > dB.
The signal generator adjusts the RF output amplitude based on the correction value
entered.
6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 until the power meter reads 0 dBm.
7. Use the down arrow key to place the cursor over the frequency value
for the next row. The RF output changes to the frequency value of the table row containing
the cursor, as shown in the AMPLITUDE area of the display.
8. Repeat steps 2 through 7 for every entry in the User Flatness table.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Save the User Flatness Correction Data to the Memory Catalog
This process allows you to save the user flatness correction data as in the signal generator’s
memory catalog. With several user flatness correction files saved to the memory catalog, any
file can be recalled, loaded into the correction array, and applied to the RF output to satisfy
specific RF output flatness requirements.
1. Press Load/Store.
2. Press Store to File.
3. Enter the file name FLATCAL1 using the alphanumeric softkeys, numeric keypad, or the
knob.
4. Press Enter.
The user flatness correction array file FLATCAL1 is now stored in the memory catalog as a
UFLT file.
Applying a User Flatness Correction Array
Press Return > Return > Flatness Off On.
This applies the user flatness correction array to the RF output. The UF indicator is activated
in the AMPLITUDE section of the signal generator’s display and the frequency correction data
contained in the correction array is applied to the RF output amplitude.
Recalling and Applying a User Flatness Correction Array
Before performing the steps in this section, complete “To Create a User Flatness Correction
Array” on page 85.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Amplitude > More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > Configure Cal Array > More (1 of 2) >
Preset List > Confirm Preset.
3. Press More (2 of 2) > Load/Store.
4. Ensure that the file FLATCAL1 is highlighted.
5. Press Load From Selected File > Confirm Load From File.
This populates the user flatness correction array with the data contained in the file
FLATCAL1. The user flatness correction array title displays User Flatness: FLATCAL1.
6. Press Return > Flatness Off On.
This applies the user flatness correction data contained in FLATCAL1.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Returning the Signal Generator to GPIB Listener Mode
During the user flatness correction process, the power meter is slaved to the signal generator
via GPIB, and no other controllers are allowed on the GPIB interface. The signal generator
operates in GPIB talker mode, as a device controller for the power meter. In this operating
mode, it cannot receive SCPI commands via GPIB.
NOTE
If the signal generator is to be interfaced to a remote controller after
performing the user flatness correction, its GPIB controller mode must be
changed from GPIB talker to GPIB listener. This is accomplished by presetting
the signal generator.
If an RF carrier has been previously configured, you must save the present
instrument state before returning the signal generator to GPIB listener mode.
1. Save your instrument state to the instrument state register.
For instructions, see “Saving an Instrument State” on page 74.
2. Press GPIB Listener Mode.
This presets the signal generator and returns it to GPIB listener mode. The signal
generator can now receive remote commands executed by a remote controller connected to
the GPIB interface.
3. Recall your instrument state from the instrument state register.
For instructions, see “Saving an Instrument State” on page 74.
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To Create a User Flatness Correction Array
with a mm-Wave Source Module
In this example, a user flatness correction array is created to provide flatness-corrected power
at the output of an Agilent 83554A millimeter-wave source module driven by an E8247C
signal generator.
The flatness correction array contains 28 frequency correction pairs (amplitude correction
values for specified frequencies), from 26.5 to 40 GHz in 500 MHz intervals. This will result in
28 evenly spaced flatness corrected frequencies between 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz at the output
of the 83554A millimeter-wave source module.
An Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter (controlled by the signal generator via GPIB)
and R8486A power sensor are used to measure the RF output amplitude of the
millimeter-wave source module at the specified correction frequencies and transfer the results
to the signal generator. The signal generator reads the power level data from the power meter,
calculates the correction values, and stores the correction pairs in the user flatness correction
array.
If you do not have the required Agilent power meter, or if your power meter does not have a
GPIB interface, you can enter correction values manually.
Required Equipment
• Agilent 83554A millimeter-wave source module
• Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter
• Agilent R8486A power sensor
• Agilent 8349B microwave amplifier (required for signal generators without Option 1EA)
• GPIB interface cable
• adapters and cables as required
NOTE
92
The equipment setups in Figure 3-4 and Figure 3-5 assume that the steps
necessary to correctly level the RF output have been followed. If you have
questions about leveling with a millimeter-wave source module, refer to “To
Level with a mm-Wave Source Module” on page 84.
Chapter 3
Optimizing Performance
Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Configure the Power Meter
1. Select SCPI as the remote language for the power meter.
2. Zero and calibrate the power sensor to the power meter.
3. Enter the appropriate power sensor calibration factors into the power meter as
appropriate.
4. Enable the power meter’s cal factor array.
NOTE
For operating information on your particular power meter/sensor, refer to their
operating guides.
Connect the Equipment
CAUTION
To prevent damage to the signal generator, turn off the line power to the signal
generator before connecting the source module interface cable to the rear panel
SOURCE MODULE interface connector.
1. Turn off the line power to the signal generator.
2. Connect the equipment. For standard signal generators, use the setup in Figure 3-4. For
Option 1EA signal generators, use the setup in Figure 3-5.
NOTE
Chapter 3
During the process of creating the user flatness correction array, the power
meter is slaved to the signal generator via GPIB. No other controllers are
allowed on the GPIB interface.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Figure 3-4
User Flatness with mm-Wave Source Module for a Signal
Generator without Option 1EA
Figure 3-5
User Flatness with mm-Wave Source Module and Option 1EA
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Signal Generator
NOTE
Chapter 3
To ensure adequate RF amplitude at the mm-wave source module RF input
when using Option 1EA signal generators, maximum amplitude loss through
the adapters and cables connected between the signal generator’s RF output
and the mm-wave source module’s RF input should be less than 1.5 dB.
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Optimizing Performance
Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Configure the Signal Generator
1. Turn on the signal generator’s line power.
Upon power-up, the signal generator automatically does the following:
• senses the mm-wave source module
• switches the signal generator’s leveling mode to external/source module
• sets the mm-wave source module frequency and amplitude to the source module’s
preset values
• displays the RF output frequency and amplitude values available at the mm-wave
source module output
The MMMOD indicator in the FREQUENCY area and the MM indicator in the AMPLITUDE area of
the signal generator’s display indicate that the mm-wave source module is active
NOTE
Refer to the mm-wave source module specifications for the specific frequency
and amplitude ranges.
2. Configure the signal generator to interface with the power meter.
a. Press Amplitude > More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > More (1 of 2) > Power Meter > E4416A,
E4417A, E4418B , or E4419B.
b. Press Meter Address > enter the power meter’s GPIB address > Enter.
c. For E4417A and E4419B models, press Meter Channel A B to select the power meter’s
active channel.
d. Press Meter Timeout to adjust the length of time before the instrument generates a
timeout error if unsuccessfully attempting to communicate with the power meter.
3. Press More (2 of 2) > Configure Cal Array > More (1 of 2) > Preset List > Confirm Preset.
This opens the User Flatness table editor and resets the cal array frequency/correction list.
4. Press Configure Step Array.
This opens a menu for entering the user flatness step array data.
5. Press Freq Start > 26.5 > GHz.
6. Press Freq Stop > 40 > GHz.
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7. Press # of Points > 28 > Enter.
This enters the desired flatness-corrected frequencies (26.5 GHz to 40 GHz in 500 MHz
intervals) into the step array.
8. Press Return > Load Cal Array From Step Array > Confirm Load From Step Data.
This populates the user flatness correction array with the frequency settings defined in the
step array.
9. Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
10. Press RF On/Off.
This activates the RF output and the RF ON annunciator is displayed on the signal
generator.
Perform the User Flatness Correction
NOTE
If you are not using an Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter, or if your
power meter does not have a GPIB interface, you can perform the user flatness
correction manually. For instructions, see Performing the User Flatness
Correction Manually below.
1. Press More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > Do Cal.
This creates the user flatness amplitude correction value table entries. The signal
generator begins the user flatness correction routine and a progress bar is shown on the
display.
2. When prompted, press Done.
This loads the amplitude correction values into the user flatness correction array.
If desired, press Configure Cal Array.
This opens the user flatness correction array, where you can view the list of defined
frequencies and their calculated amplitude correction values. The user flatness correction
array title displays User Flatness: (UNSTORED) indicating that the current user flatness
correction array data has not been saved to the memory catalog.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Performing the User Flatness Correction Manually
If you are not using an Agilent E4416A/17A/18B/19B power meter, or if your power meter does
not have a GPIB interface, complete the steps in this section and then continue with the user
flatness correction tutorial.
1. Press More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > Configure Cal Array.
This opens the User Flatness table editor and places the cursor over the frequency value
(26.5 GHz) for row 1. The RF output changes to the frequency value of the table row
containing the cursor and 26.500 000 000 00 is displayed in the AMPLITUDE area of the
display.
2. Observe and record the measured value from the power meter.
3. Subtract the measured value from 0 dBm.
4. Move the table cursor over the correction value in row 1.
5. Press Edit Item > enter the difference value from step 3 > dB.
The signal generator adjusts the RF output amplitude based on the correction value
entered.
6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 until the power meter reads 0 dBm.
7. Use the down arrow key to place the cursor over the frequency value for the next row. The
RF output changes to the frequency value highlighted by the cursor, as shown in the
AMPLITUDE area of the display.
8. Repeat steps 2 through 7 for every entry in the User Flatness table.
Save the User Flatness Correction Data to the Memory Catalog
This process allows you to save the user flatness correction data as a file in the signal
generator’s memory catalog. With several user flatness correction files saved to the memory
catalog, specific files can be recalled, loaded into the correction array, and applied to the RF
output to satisfy various RF output flatness requirements.
1. Press Load/Store.
2. Press Store to File.
3. Enter the file name FLATCAL2 using the alphanumeric softkeys and the numeric keypad.
4. Press Enter.
The user flatness correction array file FLATCAL2 is now stored in the memory catalog as a
UFLT file.
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Creating and Applying User Flatness Correction
Applying the User Flatness Correction Array
1. Press Return > Return > Flatness Off On.
This applies the user flatness correction array to the RF output. The UF indicator is
activated in the AMPLITUDE section of the signal generator’s display and the frequency
correction data contained in the correction array is applied to the RF output amplitude of
the mm-wave source module.
Recalling and Applying a User Flatness Correction Array
Before performing the steps in this section, complete the section “To Create a User Flatness
Correction Array with a mm-Wave Source Module” on page 92.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Amplitude > More (1 of 2) > User Flatness > Configure Cal Array > More (1 of 2) >
Preset List > Confirm Preset.
3. Press More (2 of 2) > Load/Store.
4. Ensure that the file FLATCAL2 is highlighted.
5. Press Load From Selected File > Confirm Load From File.
This populates the user flatness correction array with the data contained in the file
FLATCAL2. The user flatness correction array title displays User Flatness: FLATCAL2.
6. Press Return > Flatness Off On.
This activates flatness correction using the data contained in the file FLATCAL2.
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Optimizing Performance
Selecting ALC Bandwidth
Selecting ALC Bandwidth
For internal leveling, the signal generator uses automatic leveling control (ALC) circuitry
prior to the RF output. ALC bandwidth has five selections: automatic, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz,
and 100 kHz.
At signal generator preset, the ALC bandwidth selection is set to Auto. In this configuration,
the signal generator automatically adjusts the ALC bandwidth between three of the four
possible settings, depending on which functions are currently active. Figure 3-6 shows the
signal generator’s automatic ALC bandwidth selection decision tree.
Figure 3-6
Decision Tree for Automatic ALC Bandwidth Selection
RF OUTPUT No
< 2 MHz
No
AM OFF
PULSE OFF
Yes
Yes
ALC BW
100 Hz
ALC BW
1 kHz
No
AM OFF
PULSE ON
AM ON
PULSE ON
Yes
ALC BW
10 kHz
No
AM ON
PULSE OFF
Yes
Yes
ALC BW
100 kHz
To Select an ALC Bandwidth
Press Amplitude > ALC BW > 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, or 100 kHz.
This overrides the automatic ALC bandwidth selection with your specific selection.
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4 Analog Modulation
This chapter describes the analog modulation capability in Agilent E8257C PSG Analog and
E8267C PSG Vector Signal Generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Analog Modulation Waveforms” on page 102
• “Configuring AM” on page 103
• “Configuring FM” on page 104
• “Configuring FM” on page 105
• “Configuring Pulse Modulation” on page 106
• “Configuring the LF Output” on page 107
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Analog Modulation
Analog Modulation Waveforms
Analog Modulation Waveforms
The signal generator can modulate the RF carrier with four types of analog modulation:
amplitude, frequency, phase, and pulse.
Available internal waveforms include:
Sine
sine wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Dual-Sine
dual-sine waves with individually adjustable frequencies and a percent-ofpeak-amplitude setting for the second tone (available from function
generator only)
Swept-Sine
swept-sine wave with adjustable start and stop frequencies, sweep rate, and
sweep trigger settings (available from function generator only)
Triangle
triangle wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Ramp
ramp with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Square
square wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Noise
noise with adjustable amplitude generated as a peak-to-peak value (RMS
value is approximately 80% of the displayed value)
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Configuring AM
Configuring AM
In this example, you will learn how to generate an amplitude-modulated RF carrier.
To Set the Carrier Frequency
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency > 1340 > kHz.
To Set the RF Output Amplitude
Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
To Set the AM Depth and Rate
1. Press the AM hardkey.
2. Press AM Depth > 90 > %.
3. Press AM Rate > 10 > kHz.
The signal generator is now configured to output a 0 dBm, amplitude-modulated carrier at
1340 kHz with the AM depth set to 90% and the AM rate set to 10 kHz. The shape of the
waveform is a sine wave (notice that sine is the default for the AM Waveform softkey).
To Turn on Amplitude Modulation
Follow these remaining steps to output the amplitude-modulated signal.
1. Press the AM Off On softkey to On.
2. Press the front panel RF On Off key.
The AM and RF ON annunciators are now displayed. This indicates that you have enabled
amplitude modulation and the signal is now being transmitted from the RF OUTPUT
connector.
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Analog Modulation
Configuring FM
Configuring FM
In this example, you will learn how to create a frequency-modulated RF carrier.
To Set the RF Output Frequency
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency > 1 > GHz.
To Set the RF Output Amplitude
Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
To Set the FM Deviation and Rate
1. Press the FM/ΦM hardkey.
2. Press FM Dev > 75 > kHz.
3. Press FM Rate > 10 > kHz.
The signal generator is now configured to output a 0 dBm, frequency-modulated carrier at
1 GHz with a 75 kHz deviation and a 10 kHz rate. The shape of the waveform is a sine wave.
(Notice that sine is the default for the FM Waveform softkey. Press More (1 of 2) to see the
softkey.)
To Activate FM
1. Press FM Off On to On.
2. Press RF On/Off.
The FM and RF ON annunciators are now displayed. This indicates that you have enabled
frequency modulation and the signal is now being transmitted from the RF OUTPUT
connector.
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Configuring ΦM
Configuring ΦM
In this example, you will learn how to create a phase-modulated RF carrier.
To Set the RF Output Frequency
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency > 3 > GHz.
To Set the RF Output Amplitude
Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
To Set the ΦM Deviation and Rate
1. Press the FM/ΦM hardkey.
2. Press the FM ΦM softkey.
3. Press ΦM Dev > .25 > pi rad.
4. Press ΦM Rate > 10 > kHz.
The signal generator is now configured to output a 0 dBm, phase-modulated carrier at 3 GHz
with a 0.25 π radian deviation and 10 kHz rate. The shape of the waveform is a sine wave.
(Notice that sine is the default for the ΦM Waveform softkey. Press More (1 of 2) to see the
softkey.)
To Activate ΦM
1. Press ΦM Off On.
2. Press RF On/Off.
The ΦM and RF ON annunciators are now displayed. This indicates that you have enabled
phase modulation and the signal is now being transmitted from the RF OUTPUT connector.
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Analog Modulation
Configuring Pulse Modulation
Configuring Pulse Modulation
In this example, you will learn how to create a pulse-modulated RF carrier.
To Set the RF Output Frequency
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency > 2 > GHz.
To Set the RF Output Amplitude
Press Amplitude > 0 > dBm.
To Set the Pulse Period and Width
1. Press Pulse > Pulse Period > 100 > usec.
2. Press Pulse > Pulse Width > 24 > usec.
The signal generator is now configured to output a 0 dBm, pulse-modulated carrier at 2 GHz
with a 100-microsecond pulse period and 24-microsecond pulse width. The pulse source is set
to Internal Free Run. (Notice that Internal Free Run is the default for the Pulse Source
softkey.)
To Activate Pulse Modulation
Follow these remaining steps to output the pulse-modulated signal.
1. Press Pulse Off On to On.
2. Press RF On/Off.
The Pulse and RF ON annunciators are now displayed. This indicates that you have enabled
pulse modulation and the signal is now being transmitted from the RF OUTPUT connector.
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Configuring the LF Output
Configuring the LF Output
The signal generator has a low frequency (LF) output. The LF output’s source can be switched
between Internal 1 Monitor, Internal 2 Monitor, Function Generator 1, or Function Generator 2.
Using Internal 1 Monitor or Internal 2 Monitor as the LF output source, the LF output provides a
replica of the signal from the internal source that is being used to modulate the RF output.
The specific modulation parameters for this signal are configured through the AM, FM, or ΦM
menus.
Using Function Generator 1 or Function Generator 2 as the LF output source, the function
generator section of the internal modulation source drives the LF output directly. Frequency
and waveform are configured from the LF output menu, not through the AM, FM, or ΦM
menus. You can select the waveform shape from the following choices:
Sine
sine wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Dual-Sine
dual-sine waves with individually adjustable frequencies and a percent-ofpeak-amplitude setting for the second tone (available from function
generator 1 only)
Swept-Sine
a swept-sine wave with adjustable start and stop frequencies, sweep rate,
and sweep trigger settings (available from function generator 1 only)
Triangle
triangle wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Ramp
ramp with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Square
square wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency
Noise
noise with adjustable amplitude generated as a peak-to-peak value (RMS
value is approximately 80% of the displayed value)
DC
direct current with adjustable amplitude
NOTE
The LF Out Off On softkey controls the operating state of the LF output.
However when the LF output source selection is Internal Monitor, you have three
ways of controlling the output. You can use the modulation source (AM, FM, or
ΦM) on/off key, the LF output on/off key, or the Mod On/Off softkey.
The RF On/Off hardkey does not apply to the LF OUTPUT connector.
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Analog Modulation
Configuring the LF Output
To Configure the LF Output with an Internal Modulation Source
In this example, the internal FM modulation is the LF output source.
NOTE
Internal modulation (Internal Monitor) is the default LF output source.
Configuring the Internal Modulation as the LF Output Source
1. Press Preset.
2. Press the FM/ΦM hardkey.
3. Press FM Dev > 75 > kHz.
4. Press FM Rate > 10 > kHz.
5. Press FM Off On.
You have set up the FM signal with a rate of 10 kHz and 75 kHz of deviation. The FM
annunciator is activated indicating that you have enabled frequency modulation.
Configuring the Low Frequency Output
1. Press the LF Out hardkey.
2. Press LF Out Amplitude > 3 > Vp.
3. Press LF Out Off On.
You have configured the LF output signal for a 3 volt sine wave (default wave form) output
which is frequency modulated using the Internal 1 Monitor source selection (default source).
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Configuring the LF Output
To Configure the LF Output with a Function Generator Source
In this example, the function generator is the LF output source.
Configuring the Function Generator as the LF Output Source
1. Press Preset.
2. Press the LF Out hardkey.
3. Press LF Out Source > Function Generator 1.
Configuring the Waveform
1. Press LF Out Waveform > Swept-Sine.
2. Press LF Out Start Freq > 100 > Hz.
3. Press LF Out Stop Freq > 1 > kHz.
4. Press Return > Return.
This returns you to the top LF Output menu.
Configuring the Low Frequency Output
1. Press LF Out Amplitude > 3 > Vp.
This sets the LF output amplitude to 3 Vp.
2. Press LF Out Off On.
The LF output is now transmitting a signal using Function Generator 1 that is providing a
3 Vp swept-sine waveform. The waveform is sweeping from 100 Hz to 1 kHz.
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Analog Modulation
Configuring the LF Output
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Chapter 4
5 Custom Arb Waveform Generator
This chapter describes the Custom Arb Waveform Generator mode which is available only in
E8267C PSG vector signal generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Overview of Using Custom Arb Waveform Generator Mode” on page 112
• “Working with Predefined Modes” on page 113
• “Working with Filters” on page 119
• “Working with Symbol Rates” on page 131
• “Working with Modulation Types” on page 135
• “Working with Configuration of Hardware” on page 137
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Overview of Using Custom Arb Waveform Generator Mode
Overview of Using Custom Arb Waveform Generator Mode
Custom Arb Waveform Generator mode can produce a single modulated carrier or multiple
modulated carriers. Each modulated carrier waveform must be calculated and generated
before it can be output; this signal generation occurs on the internal baseband generator
(Option 002). Once a waveform has been created, it can be stored and recalled which enables
repeatable playback of test signals.
To begin using the Custom Arb Waveform Generator mode, select whether to create a single
modulated carrier or a multiple modulated carrier waveform:
• If you want to create a single modulated carrier waveform, start by selecting a
Digital Modulation Setup from a set of predefined modes (setups). Once a predefined mode
is selected, you can modify the Modulation Type, the Filter being used, the Symbol Rate,
and the type of Triggering; the Data Pattern is random by default. This modified setup can
then be stored and reused.
• If you want to create a multiple modulated carrier waveform, start by selecting a
Multicarrier Setup from a set of predefined modes (setups). Once a predefined mode is
selected, you can modify the number of carriers to be created, the frequency spacing
between each carrier, whether the phase offset between each carrier is to be fixed or
random, and the type of Triggering; the Data Pattern is random by default, the Filter is set
to 40 MHz by default, and the Symbol Rate is automatically specified by the selected
Modulation Type being used.
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Predefined Modes
Working with Predefined Modes
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• Using Predefined Mode
When you select a predefined mode, default values for components of the setup (such as
the data pattern, filter, symbol rate, modulation type, and the burst shape) are
automatically specified.
— “To Select a Predefined Mode or Custom Digital Mod State” on page 114
— “To Select a Predefined Mode (EDGE Example)” on page 114
• Using User-Defined Mode
— “To Select a User-Defined Single-Carrier Setup” on page 115
— “To Select a User-Defined Multicarrier EDGE Setup” on page 116
— “To Recall a User-Defined Custom Digital Mod State” on page 118
Chapter 5
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Predefined Modes
To Select a Predefined Mode or Custom Digital Mod State
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator.
3. Press Setup Select > select one of the following:
• Either press one of the predefined modes: NADC, PDC, PHS, GSM, DECT, EDGE,
APCO 25 w/C4FM, APCO 25 w/CQPSK , CDPD, PWT, or TETRA.
This selects a predefined mode where filtering, symbol rate, and modulation type are
defined by the predefined mode that you selected and returns you to the top-level
custom modulation menu; it does not include bursting or channel coding.
• or press Custom Digital Mod State
This selects a custom setup from the Catalog of DMOD Files displayed; these are files
that you would have previously created by modifying a predefined mode and then saved
to the Memory Catalog.
To Select a Predefined Mode (EDGE Example)
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator.
3. Press Setup Select > EDGE.
4. Press Digital Modulation Off On.
This generates a waveform with the predefined EDGE state; the display changes to
Dig Mod Setup: EDGE. During waveform generation, the DIGMOD and I/Q annunciators
appear and the predefined digital modulation state is stored in volatile memory.
5. Set the RF output frequency to 891 MHz.
6. Set the output amplitude to −5 dBm.
7. Press RF On/Off.
The predefined EDGE waveform should be available at the signal generator’s RF OUTPUT
connector.
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Working with Predefined Modes
To Select a User-Defined Single-Carrier Setup
In this procedure, you learn how to start with a single-carrier NADC digital modulation and
modify it to a custom waveform with customized modulation type, symbol rate, and filtering.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Setup Select > NADC.
3. Press Digital Mod Define > Modulation Type > PSK > QPSK and OQPSK > QPSK.
4. Press Symbol Rate > 56 > ksps.
5. Press Filter > Select > Nyquist.
6. Press Return > Return.
7. Press Digital Modulation Off On.
This generates a waveform with the custom single-carrier NADC digital modulation state.
The display changes to Dig Mod Setup: NADC (Modified). During waveform generation,
the DIGMOD and I/Q annunciators appear and the custom single-carrier digital modulation
state is stored in volatile memory.
8. Set the RF output frequency to 835 MHz.
9. Set the output amplitude to 0 dBm.
10. Press RF On/Off.
The user-defined NADC signal is now available at the RF OUTPUT connector.
11. Press Return > Return.
This returns to the top-level Digital Modulation menu, where Digital Modulation Off On is
the first softkey.
12. Press Digital Mod Define > Store Custom Dig Mod State > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of DMOD Files occupying the active
entry area, press the following keys:
Edit Keys > Clear Text
13. Enter a file name (for example, NADCQPSK) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
14. Press Enter.
The user-defined single-carrier digital modulation state should now be stored in
non-volatile memory. The RF output amplitude, frequency, and operating state settings are
not stored as part of a user-defined digital modulation state file.
Chapter 5
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Predefined Modes
To Select a User-Defined Multicarrier EDGE Setup
In this procedure, you learn how to customize a predefined multicarrier digital modulation
setup by creating a custom 3-carrier EDGE digital modulation state.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator.
3. Press Multicarrier Off On.
4. Press Multicarrier Define > Initialize Table > Carrier Setup > EDGE > Done.
5. Highlight the Freq Offset value (500.000 kHz) for the carrier in row 2.
6. Press Edit Item > −625 > kHz.
7. Highlight the Power value (0.00 dB) for the carrier in row 2.
8. Press Edit Item > −10 > dB.
You should have a custom 2-carrier EDGE waveform with a carrier at a frequency offset of
−625 kHz and a power level of −10.00 dBm, as shown in the following figure.
9. Press Return > Digital Modulation Off On.
This generates a waveform with the custom multicarrier EDGE state. The display changes
to Dig Mod Setup: Multicarrier (Modified). During waveform generation, the DIGMOD
and I/Q annunciators appear and the new custom multicarrier EDGE state is stored in
volatile memory.
10. Set the RF output frequency to 890.01 MHz.
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Predefined Modes
11. Set the output amplitude to −10 dBm.
12. Press RF On/Off.
The custom multicarrier EDGE waveform should be available at the RF OUTPUT
connector; it does not include bursting or channel coding.
13. Press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator, where Digital Modulation Off On is the first
softkey.
14. Press Multicarrier Off On > Multicarrier Define > More (1 of 2) > Load/ Store > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of MDMOD Files occupying the active
entry area, press the following keys:
Edit Keys > Clear Text
15. Enter a file name (for example, EDGEM1) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
16. Press Enter.
The user-defined multicarrier digital modulation state is now stored in non-volatile
memory.
NOTE
Chapter 5
The RF output amplitude, frequency, and operating state settings (such as
RF On/Off) are not stored as part of a user-defined digital modulation state file.
For more information, refer to “Using Data Storage Functions” on page 72.
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Predefined Modes
To Recall a User-Defined Custom Digital Mod State
In this procedure, you learn how to select (recall) a Custom Digital Mod State from the
Memory Catalog. The custom modulation state had to be previously stored in
the Catalog of DMOD Files.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Setup Select.
3. Press More (1 of 2) > Custom Digital Mod State.
4. Press Select File to select a custom modulation state from the Catalog of DMOD Files.
The user-defined custom digital modulation state should now be recalled from non-volatile
memory. Because the RF output amplitude, frequency, and operating state settings are not
stored as part of a user-defined digital modulation state file, they must still be set or
recalled separately. For more information, refer to “Using Data Storage Functions” on
page 72.
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Filters
Working with Filters
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “Understanding FIR Filters” on page 120
• Using a Predefined FIR Filter
— “To Select a Predefined Root Nyquist, Nyquist, or Gaussian Filter” on page 122
— “To Adjust the Filter Alpha of a Predefined Root Nyquist or Nyquist Filter” on page 122
— “To Adjust the Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) Product of a Predefined Gaussian Filter” on
page 122
— “To Select a Predefined Rectangle Filter” on page 122
— “To Select an APCO 25-Specified C4FM Filter” on page 122
— “To Restore Default FIR Filter Parameters” on page 123
• Using a User-Defined FIR Filter
FIR filters can be created and modified by defining the FIR coefficients or by defining the
oversample ratio (number of filter coefficients per symbol) to be applied to your own
custom FIR filter.
— “To Modify Predefined FIR Coefficients for a Gaussian Filter with the FIR Values
Editor” on page 123
— “To Create a User-Defined FIR Filter with the FIR Values Editor” on page 126
Chapter 5
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Filters
Understanding FIR Filters
Filter allows you to select the type of filter to be applied to the signal being generated, define
your own Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter parameters, change the filter alpha being used
for Root Nyquist or Nyquist, change the BbT for Gaussian, and restore all of the filter
parameters back to their original default state.
NOTE
These procedures only work for FIR filters created
within Custom Arb Waveform Generator mode and will not work with
downloaded user files such as Matlab files.
• Select (predefined filters):
— Root Nyquist selects a root-raised cosine pre-modulation FIR filter.
Root Nyquist filters can be used when you want to place half of the filtering in the
transmitter and the other half of the filtering in the receiver. The ideal root-raised
cosine filter frequency response consists of unity gain at low frequencies, the square
root of raised cosine function in the middle, and total attenuation at high frequencies.
The width of the middle frequencies are defined by the roll off factor or Filter Alpha (0
< Filter Alpha < 1).
— Nyquist selects a raised cosine pre-modulation FIR filter.
Nyquist filters can be used to reduce the amount of bandwidth required by the signal be
produced without loosing information. The ideal raised cosine filter frequency response
consists of unity gain at low frequencies, a raised cosine function in the middle, and
total attenuation at high frequencies. The width of the middle frequencies are defined
by the roll off factor or Filter Alpha (0 < Filter Alpha < 1).
— Gaussian selects a Gaussian pre-modulation FIR filter.
— User FIR allows you to select a FIR filter from a Catalog of FIR filters; this selection is
used if the predefined FIR filters (Root Nyquist, Nyquist, Gaussian, etc.) do not meet
your filtering needs. For further information, refer to the Define User FIR softkey.
— Rectangle selects a rectangular pre-modulation FIR filter.
— APCO 25 C4FM selects an APCO 25-specified C4FM filter; this is a Nyquist filter with
an alpha of 0.200 which is combined with a shaping filter.
• Filter Alpha allows you to adjust the filter alpha when Nyquist or root Nyquist filters are
selected. This feature applies only to Root Nyquist and Nyquist filters. If a Gaussian filter
is in use, you will see Filter BbT; the softkey is grayed out when any other filter is selected.
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• Define User FIR is used if the predefined FIR filters do not meet your filtering needs. You
can define your own FIR coefficients for a FIR filter and set the oversample ratio (number
of filter coefficients per symbol) to be applied to a your own custom FIR filter.
• Restore Default Filters allows you to replace the current FIR filter with the default
FIR filter for the selected format.
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To Select a Predefined Root Nyquist, Nyquist, or Gaussian Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter > Select > and
select one of the following: Root Nyquist | Nyquist | Gaussian.
To Adjust the Filter Alpha of a Predefined Root Nyquist
or Nyquist Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter > Filter Alpha.
3. Enter a new Filter Alpha value and press Enter.
To Adjust the Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) Product
of a Predefined Gaussian Filter
1. Press Filter > Select > Gaussian.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter >
Select > Gaussian.
3. Press Filter BbT.
4. Enter a new Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) product filter parameter and press Enter.
To Select a Predefined Rectangle Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter >
Select > More (1 of 2) > Rectangle.
To Select an APCO 25-Specified C4FM Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter > Select >
(More 1 of 2) > APCO 25 C4FM.
This selects a Nyquist filter with an alpha of 0.200 which is combined with a shaping filter.
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To Restore Default FIR Filter Parameters
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter >
Restore Default Filter.
This replaces the current FIR filter with the default filter for the selected modulation
format.
To Modify Predefined FIR Coefficients for a Gaussian Filter
with the FIR Values Editor
You can define from 1 to 32 FIR coefficients, where the maximum combination of symbols and
oversample ratio is 1024 coefficients.
The FIR Values editor allows a maximum filter length of 1024 coefficients, but the PSG
hardware is limited to 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform generation. The number of
symbols equals the number of coefficients divided by the oversample ratio. If you enter more
than 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform generation, the PSG cannot use the filter; it will
decimate the filter (throw away coefficients) until this condition is met. It will use the filter,
but fine resolution may be lost from the impulse response.
FIR filters stored in signal generator memory can easily be modified using the FIR Values
editor. In this example, you will load the FIR Values editor with coefficient values from a
default FIR filter (or, if one has been defined, a user-defined FIR file that has been stored in
the Memory Catalog), modify the coefficient values, and store the new file to the
Memory Catalog.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter.
3. Press Define User FIR > More (1 of 2) > Load Default FIR > Gaussian.
4. Press Filter BbT > 0.300 > Enter.
5. Press Filter Symbols > 8 > Enter.
6. Press Generate.
NOTE
Chapter 5
The actual oversample ratio during modulation is automatically selected by the
instrument. A value between 4 and 16 is chosen dependent on the symbol rate,
the number of bits per symbol of the modulation type, and the number of
symbols.
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7. Press Display Impulse Response.
You should see a graph that shows the impulse response of the current set of FIR
coefficients.
Figure 5-1
8. Press Return.
9. Highlight coefficient 15.
10. Press 0 > Enter.
11. Press Display Impulse Response.
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Figure 5-2
The graphic display can provide a useful troubleshooting tool (in this case, it indicates that
a coefficient value is set incorrectly, resulting in an improper Gaussian response).
12. Press Return.
13. Highlight coefficient 15.
14. Press 1 > Enter.
15. Press Load/Store > Store To File.
16. Name the file NEWFIR2.
17. Press Enter.
The contents of the current FIR Values editor are stored to a file in the Memory Catalog
and the Catalog of FIR Files is updated to show the new file.
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To Create a User-Defined FIR Filter with the FIR Values Editor
In this procedure, you use the FIR Values editor to create and store an 8-symbol, windowed,
sinc function filter with an oversample ratio of 4. The Oversample Ratio (OSR) is the number
of filter coefficients per symbol.
You can define from 1 to 32 FIR coefficients, where the maximum combination of symbols and
oversample ratio is 1024 coefficients.
The FIR Values editor allows a maximum filter length of 1024 coefficients, but the PSG
hardware is limited to 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform generation. The number of
symbols equals the number of coefficients divided by the oversample ratio. If you enter more
than 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform generation, the PSG cannot use the filter; it will
decimate the filter (throw away coefficients) until this condition is met. It will use the filter,
but fine resolution may be lost from the impulse response.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Filter.
3. Press Define User FIR > More (1 of 2).
4. Press Delete All Rows > Confirm Delete Of All Rows > More (2 of 2).
This brings up the FIR Values editor and clears the table of existing values.
Figure 5-3
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Working with Filters
5. Press Edit Item.
The Value field for coefficient 0 should be highlighted.
6. Use the numeric keypad to type the first value (−0.000076) from Table 5-1 and press Enter.
As you press the numeric keys, the numbers are displayed in the active entry area. (If you
make a mistake, you can correct it using the backspace key.)
7. Continue entering the coefficient values from the table until all 16 values have been
entered:
Table 5-1
Coefficient
Value
Coefficient
Value
0
−0.000076
8
−0.035667
1
−0.001747
9
−0.116753
2
−0.005144
10
−0.157348
3
−0.004424
11
−0.088484
4
0.007745
12
0.123414
5
0.029610
13
0.442748
6
0.043940
14
0.767329
7
0.025852
15
0.972149
8. Press Mirror Table.
In a windowed sinc function filter, the second half of the coefficients are identical to the
first half in reverse order. Since the signal generator provides a mirror table function that
automatically duplicates the existing coefficient values in the reverse order, the last 16
coefficients (16 through 31) are automatically generated and the first of these coefficients
(number 16) highlights, as shown in Figure 5-4.
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Figure 5-4
9. You can define from 1 to 32 FIR coefficients, where the maximum combination of symbols
and oversample ratio is 1024 coefficients.
The FIR Values editor allows a maximum filter length of 1024 coefficients, but the PSG
hardware is limited to 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform generation. The number of
symbols equals the number of coefficients divided by the oversample ratio. If you enter
more than 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform generation, the PSG cannot use the filter; it
will decimate the filter (throw away coefficients) until this condition is met. It will use the
filter, but fine resolution may be lost from the impulse response.
For this example, the desired OSR is 4, which is the default, so no action is necessary.
10. Press More (1 of 2) > Display FFT (fast Fourier transform).
You will see a graph that shows the fast Fourier transform of the current set of FIR
coefficients. The signal generator has the capability of graphically displaying the filter in
both time and frequency dimensions.
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Figure 5-5
11. Press Return.
12. Press Display Impulse Response.
You should see a graph that shows the impulse response of the current set of FIR
coefficients.
Figure 5-6
13. Press Return.
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14. Press Load/Store > Store To File.
The Catalog of FIR Files appears along with the amount of memory available.
15. If there is already a file name occupying the active entry area, press the following keys:
Edit Keys > Clear Text
16. Using the alphabetic menu and the numeric keypad, enter NEWFIR1 as the file name.
17. Press Enter.
The NEWFIR1 file is the first file name listed. (If you have previously stored other FIR
files, additional file names are listed below NEWFIR1.) The file type is FIR and the size of
the file is 260 bytes. The amount of memory used is also displayed. The number of files
that can be saved depends on the size of the files and the amount of memory used.
Figure 5-7
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Working with Symbol Rates
Working with Symbol Rates
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• Understanding Symbol Rates
• Using Symbol Rates
— “To Set a Symbol Rate” on page 134
— “To Restore the Default Symbol Rate” on page 134
Understanding Symbol Rates
Symbol Rate allows you to access a menu from which you can set the rate at which
I/Q symbols are fed to the I/Q modulator. The default transmission symbol rate can also be
restored in this menu.
• Symbol Rate (displayed as Sym Rate) is the number of symbols per second that are
transmitted using the modulation (displayed as Mod Type) along with the filter and filter
alpha (displayed as Filter). Symbol rate directly influences the occupied signal
bandwidth.
Symbol Rate is the Bit Rate divided by the number of bits that can be transmitted with
each symbol; this is also known as the Baud Rate.
• Bit Rate is the frequency of the system bit stream. The internal baseband generator
(Option 002) automatically streams the selected Data Pattern at the appropriate rate to
accommodate the symbol rate setting (Bit Rate = Symbols/s x Number of Bits/Symbol).
• Occupied Signal Bandwidth = Symbol Rate x (1 + Filter Alpha); therefore, the occupied
signal bandwidth is dependent on the filter alpha of the Nyquist or Root Nyquist filter
being used. (To change the filter alpha, refer to the procedure, “To Adjust the Filter Alpha
of a Predefined Root Nyquist or Nyquist Filter” on page 122.)
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Bits Per
Symbol
Bit Rate
= Symbols/s
x Number of
Bits/Symbol
Internal
Symbol
Rate
(Minimum
Maximum)
QPSK and OQPSK
(quadrature phase
shift keying and
offset quadrature
phase shift keying)
which include: QPSK
IS95 QPSK,
Gray Coded QPSK,
OQPSK,
IS95 OQPSK
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
BPSK
(binary
phase shift keying)
1
45 bps
50 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
π/4 DQPSK
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
8PSK
(eight phase state
shift keying)
3
135 bps
150 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
16PSK
(sixteen phase state
shift keying)
4
180 sps
200 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
D8PSK
(eight phase state
shift keying)
3
135 bps
150 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
MSK
1
45 bps
50 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
Modulation
Type
PSK
Phase Shift
Keying
MSK
Minimum
Shift Keying
132
(GSM - Global
System for Mobile
Communications)
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Custom Arb Waveform Generator
Working with Symbol Rates
Modulation
Type
Bits Per
Symbol
Bit Rate
= Symbols/s
x Number of
Bits/Symbol
Internal
Symbol
Rate
(Minimum
Maximum)
FSK
2-Lvl FSK
1
45 bps
50 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
Frequency
Shift Keying
4-Lvl FSK
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
8-Lvl FSK
3
135 bps
150 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
16-Lvl FSK
4
180 bps
200 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
C4FM
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
QAM
4QAM
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
Quadrature
Amplitude
Modulation
16QAM
4
180 bps
200 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
32QAM
5
225 bps
250 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
64QAM
6
270 bps
300 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
128QAM
(There is no preset
value for this
modulation, it must
be user defined.)
7
315 bps
350 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
256QAM
8
360 bps
400 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
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Working with Symbol Rates
To Set a Symbol Rate
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Symbol Rate.
3. Enter a new symbol rate and press Msps, ksps, or sps.
To Restore the Default Symbol Rate
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Symbol Rate >
Restore Default Symbol Rate.
This replaces the current symbol rate with the default symbol rate for the selected
modulation format.
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Working with Modulation Types
Working with Modulation Types
Modulation Type is used to specify the type of modulation that will be applied to the carrier
signal when the Mod On Off hardkey is set to On.
In addition, when the Custom Off On softkey is set to On, the BBG creates a sampled version
of the I/Q waveform based on a random data pattern and the modulation type that has been
selected.
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• Using a Predefined Modulation Type
— “To Select a Predefined PSK Modulation Type” on page 136
— “To Select a Predefined MSK Modulation Type” on page 136
— “To Select a Predefined FSK Modulation Type” on page 136
— “To Select a Predefined QAM Modulation Type” on page 136
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To Select a Predefined PSK Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Modulation Type >
Select > PSK.
3. Press one of the following:
BPSK, π/4 DQPSK, 8PSK, 16PSK, D8PSK
or QPSK and OQPSK (if you select QPSK and OQPSK, press one of the following:
QPSK , IS95 QPSK, Gray Coded QPSK , OQPSK, or IS95 OQPSK ).
To Select a Predefined MSK Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Modulation Type >
Select > MSK.
To Select a Predefined FSK Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Modulation Type >
Select > FSK.
3. Press one of the following:
2-Lvl FSK, 4-Lvl FSK, 8-Lvl FSK, 16-Lvl FSK, C4FM,
or Freq Dev (if you select Freq Dev, enter a new frequency deviation in Hertz.)
To Select a Predefined QAM Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > ARB Waveform Generator > Digital Mod Define > Modulation Type >
Select > QAM.
3. Press one of the following:
4QAM, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM
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Working with Configuration of Hardware
Working with Configuration of Hardware
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “To Set a Delayed, Positive Polarity, External Single Trigger” on page 138
• “To Set the ARB Reference to External or Internal” on page 139
• “To Set the External ARB Reference Frequency” on page 139
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To Set a Delayed, Positive Polarity, External Single Trigger
Using this procedure, you learn how to utilize an external function generator to apply a
delayed single-trigger to a custom multicarrier waveform.
1. Connect an Agilent 33120A function generator or equivalent
to the signal generator PATT TRIGGER IN port, as shown in Figure 5-8.
Figure 5-8
2. On the signal generator, press Preset.
3. Press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator.
4. Press Multicarrier Off On until On is highlighted.
5. Press Trigger > Single.
6. Press Trigger > Trigger Setup >Trigger Source > Ext.
7. Press Ext Polarity Neg Pos until Pos is highlighted.
8. Press Ext Delay Off On until On is highlighted.
9. Press Ext Delay Time > 100 > msec.
The Custom Arb Waveform Generator has been configured to play a single multicarrier
waveform 100 milliseconds after it detects a change in TTL state from low to high at the
PATT TRIG IN rear panel connector.
10. Set the function generator waveform to a 0.1 Hz square wave at an output level of 0 to 5 V.
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11. On the signal generator,
press Mode > Custom > Arb Waveform Generator > Digital Modulation Off On until On is
highlighted.
This generates a waveform with the custom multicarrier state and the display changes to
Dig Mod Setup: Multicarrier.
During waveform generation, the DIGMOD and I/Q annunciators activate and the new
custom multicarrier state is stored in volatile ARB memory. The waveform should be
modulating the RF carrier.
12. Press RF On/Off.
The externally single-triggered custom multicarrier waveform should be available at the
signal generator’s RF OUTPUT connector 100 ms after receiving a change in TTL state
from low to high at the PATT TRIG IN.
To Set the ARB Reference to External or Internal
1. Press Custom > Arb Waveform Generator > More (1 of 2).
2. Press ARB Reference Ext Int to select either external or internal as the waveform sample
clock reference.
• If you select Ext, you must enter the reference frequency (250 kHz to 100 MHz) and the
reference signal must be applied to the BASEBAND GEN REF IN rear panel connector.
• If you select Int, the internal clock is used for the arbitrary waveform (ARB) frequency
reference.
To Set the External ARB Reference Frequency
The external Arb reference frequency is only used when the ARB Reference Ext Int softkey has
been set to Ext (external).
1. Press Custom > Arb Waveform Generator > More (1 of 2).
2. Press Reference Freq, enter a desired frequency (250 kHz to 100 MHz),
and press MHz, kHz, or Hz.
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140
Chapter 5
6 Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband
This chapter describes the Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband mode which is available only in
E8267C PSG vector signal generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Overview of Using Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband Mode” on page 142
• “Working with Predefined Modes” on page 143
• “Working with Data Patterns” on page 144
• “Working with Filters” on page 153
• “Working with Symbol Rates” on page 165
• “Working with Modulation Types” on page 169
• “Working with Burst Shapes” on page 180
• “Working with Configuration of Hardware” on page 187
• “Working with Phase Polarity” on page 189
• “Working with Differential Data Encoding” on page 190
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Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband
Overview of Using Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband Mode
Overview of Using Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband Mode
Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband mode can produce a single carrier, but it can be modulated
with real time data that allows real time control over all of the parameters that affect the
signal. The single carrier signal that is produced can be modified by applying various data
patterns, filters, symbol rates, modulation types, and burst shapes.
To begin using the Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband mode, start by selecting from a set of
predefined modes (setups) or specify a setup by selecting a Data Pattern, Filter, Symbol Rate,
Modulation Type, Burst Shape, Configure Hardware, Phase Polarity, and whether Diff Data
Encode is off or on.
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Working with Predefined Modes
Working with Predefined Modes
To Select a Predefined Real Time Modulation Setup
When you select a predefined mode, default values for components of the setup (such as the
data pattern, filter, symbol rate, modulation type, and the burst shape) are automatically
specified.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband.
3. Press More (1 of 3) > More (2 of 3) > Predefined Mode > APCO 25 w/C4FM.
4. Press More (3 of 3).
This selects a predefined mode where filtering, symbol rate, and modulation type are
defined by the APCO 25 w/C4FM digital modulation standard and returns you to the
top-level custom modulation menu.
To Deselect a Predefined Real Time Modulation Setup
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband.
3. Press More (1 of 3) > More (2 of 3) > Predefined Mode > None.
4. Press More (3 of 3).
This deselects any predefined mode that has been previously selected.
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Working with Data Patterns
Working with Data Patterns
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “Understanding Data Patterns” on page 145
• Using a Predefined Data Pattern
— “To Select a Predefined PN Sequence Data Pattern” on page 146
— “To Select a Predefined Fixed 4-bit Data Pattern” on page 146
— “To Select a Predefined Data Pattern Containing an Equal Number of 1’s & 0’s” on
page 146
• Using a User-Defined Data Pattern
User Files (user-defined data pattern files) can be created and modified using the signal
generator’s Bit File Editor or they can be created on a remote computer and moved to
the signal generator for direct use; these remotely created data pattern files can also be
modified with the Bit File Editor. For information on creating user-defined data files on
a remote computer, see the programming guide.
These procedures teaches you how to use the Bit File Editor to create, edit, and store
user-defined data pattern files for use within the custom real-time I/Q baseband generator
modulation. For this example, a user file is defined within a custom digital communication.
— “To Create a Data Pattern User File with the Bit File Editor” on page 147
— “To Select a Data Pattern User File from the Catalog of Bit Files” on page 149
— “To Modify an Existing Data Pattern User File” on page 150
— “To Apply Bit Errors to an Existing Data Pattern User File” on page 152
• Using Externally Supplied Data Patterns
— “To Supply an External Real-Time Data Pattern” on page 152
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Working with Data Patterns
Understanding Data Patterns
Data allows you to select from predefined and user defined data patterns. Data Patterns are
used for transmitting continuous streams of unframed data. When the Custom Off On softkey
is set to On, the real-time custom I/Q symbol builder creates I/Q symbols based on the data
pattern and modulation type that has been selected. Refer to “Working with Modulation
Types” on page 169 to learn about selecting a modulation type.
You can select a data pattern from the following list:
• PN sequence allows you to access a menu (PN9, PN11, PN15, PN20, PN23) for internal
data generation of pseudorandom sequences (pseudorandom noise sequences); a
pseudorandom noise sequence is a periodic binary sequence approximating, in some sense,
a Bernoulli “coin tossing” process with equiprobable outcomes.
• FIX4 0000 allows you to define a 4-bit repeating sequence data pattern and make it the
active function. The selected 4-bit pattern will be repeated as necessary to provide a
continuous stream of data.
• Other Patterns allows you to access a menu of choices (4 1’s & 4 0’s, 8 1’s & 8 0’s,
16 1’s & 16 0’s, 32 1’s & 32 0’s, or 64 1’s & 64 0’s) from which you can select a data pattern.
Each pattern contains an equal number of ones and zeroes. The selected pattern will be
repeated as necessary to provide a continuous stream of data.
• User File allows you to access a menu of choices from which you can create a file and store
it to the Catalog of Bit Files, select from a Catalog of Bit Files and use it, or select from a
Catalog of Bit Files, edit the file, and resave the file.
• Ext allows data patterns to be fed into the I/Q symbol builder, through the DATA port, in
real-time.
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Working with Data Patterns
To Select a Predefined PN Sequence Data Pattern
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Data > PN Sequence.
3. Press one of the following: PN9, PN11, PN15, PN20, PN23.
To Select a Predefined Fixed 4-bit Data Pattern
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Data > FIX4.
3. Press 1010 > Enter > Return.
To Select a Predefined Data Pattern Containing
an Equal Number of 1’s & 0’s
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Data > Other Patterns.
3. Press one of the following:
4 1’s & 4 0’s, 8 1’s & 8 0’s, 16 1’s & 16 0’s, 32 1’s & 32 0’s, or 64 1’s & 64 0’s.
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Working with Data Patterns
To Create a Data Pattern User File with the Bit File Editor
In this procedure, you will use the Bit File Editor to create a Data Pattern User File and store
the resultant file in the Memory Catalog; the Memory Catalog is a catalog of user files that has
associated file management functions and a menu for choosing file types.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Data > User File > Create File.
This opens the Bit File Editor which contains three columns:
Offset, Binary Data, and Hex Data, as well as cursor position (Position), file size (Size),
and file name (Name) indicators, as shown in the following figure.
Offset
(in Hex)
NOTE
Chapter 6
Bit Data
Cursor
Position
indicator
(in Hex)
Hexadecimal Data
File Name indicator
When you create a new file, the default name appears as UNTITLED, or
UNTITLED1, and so forth. This prevents overwriting previous files.
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Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband
Working with Data Patterns
3. Enter the 32 bit values shown using the numeric keypad.
Bit data is entered into the Bit File Editor in 1-bit format. The current hexadecimal
value of the binary data is shown in the Hex Data column and the cursor position
(in hexadecimal) is shown in the Position indicator.
Enter These Bit Values
Cursor
Position
Indicator
Hexadecimal Data
4. Press More (1 of 2) > Rename > Editing Keys > Clear Text.
5. Enter a file name (for example, USER1) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
6. Press Enter.
The user file should be renamed and stored to the Memory Catalog with the name USER1.
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To Select a Data Pattern User File from the Catalog of Bit Files
In this procedure, you learn how to select a data pattern user file from the Catalog of Bit Files.
If you have not created and stored a user-defined data file, complete the steps in the previous
section, “To Create a Data Pattern User File with the Bit File Editor” on page 147.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Data > User File.
3. Highlight the file to be selected (for example, USER1).
4. Press Edit File.
The Bit File Editor should open the selected file (for example, USER1).
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To Modify an Existing Data Pattern User File
In this example, you learn how to modify an existing data pattern user file by navigating to a
particular bit position and changing its value. Next, you will learn how to invert the bit values
of an existing data pattern user file.
If you have not already created, stored, and recalled a data pattern user file, complete the
steps in the previous sections, “To Create a Data Pattern User File with the Bit File Editor” on
page 147 and “To Select a Data Pattern User File from the Catalog of Bit Files” on page 149.
Navigating the Bit Values of an Existing Data Pattern User File
1. Press Goto > 4 > C > Enter.
This moves the cursor to bit position 4C, of the table, as shown in the following figure.
Cursor moves to new position
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Inverting the Bit Values of an Existing Data Pattern User File
1. Press 1011.
This inverts the bit values that are positioned 4C through 4F. Notice that hex data in this
row has now changed to 76DB6DB6, as shown in the following figure.
Bits 4C through 4F inverted
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To Apply Bit Errors to an Existing Data Pattern User File
In this example, you learn how to apply bit errors to an existing data pattern user file. If you
have not created and stored a data pattern user file, complete the steps in the previous
section, “To Create a Data Pattern User File with the Bit File Editor” on page 147.
1. Press Apply Bit Errors.
2. Press Bit Errors > 5 > Enter.
3. Press Apply Bit Errors.
Notice both Bit Errors softkeys change value as they are linked.
To Supply an External Real-Time Data Pattern
In this procedure, an external real time data pattern is supplied
through DATA, DATA CLOCK, and SYMBOL SYNC connectors.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Data > Ext.
3. Connect your real-time data to the DATA input.
4. Connect your data clock trigger signal to DATA CLOCK input.
5. Connect your symbol sync trigger to the SYMBOL SYNC input.
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Working with Filters
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “Understanding FIR Filters” on page 154
• Using a Predefined FIR Filter
— “To Select a Predefined Root Nyquist, Nyquist, or Gaussian Filter” on page 156
— “To Adjust the Filter Alpha of a Predefined Root Nyquist or Nyquist Filter” on page 156
— “To Adjust the Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) Product of a Predefined Gaussian Filter” on
page 156
— “To Optimize the FIR Filter for EVM or ACP” on page 156
— “To Select a Predefined Rectangle Filter” on page 156
— “To Select an APCO 25-Specified C4FM Filter” on page 157
— “To Restore Default FIR Filter Parameters” on page 157
• Using a User-Defined FIR Filter
FIR filters can be created and modified by defining the FIR coefficients or by defining the
oversample ratio (number of filter coefficients per symbol) to be applied to your own
custom FIR filter.
— “To Modify Predefined FIR Coefficients for a Gaussian Filter with the FIR Values
Editor” on page 157
— “To Create a User-Defined FIR Filter with the FIR Values Editor” on page 160
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Understanding FIR Filters
Filter allows you to select the type of filter to be applied to the signal being generated, define
your own Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter parameters, change the filter alpha being used
for Root Nyquist or Nyquist, change the BbT for Gaussian, optimize your FIR filter for Error
Vector Magnitude (EVM) or Adjacent Channel Power (ACP), and restore all of the filter
parameters back to their original default state.
NOTE
These procedures only work for FIR filters created
within Custom Real Time I/Q Baseband mode and will not work with
downloaded user files such as Matlab files.
• Select (predefined filters):
— Root Nyquist selects a root-raised cosine pre-modulation FIR filter.
Root Nyquist filters can be used when you want to place half of the filtering in the
transmitter and the other half of the filtering in the receiver. The ideal root-raised
cosine filter frequency response consists of unity gain at low frequencies, the square
root of raised cosine function in the middle, and total attenuation at high frequencies.
The width of the middle frequencies are defined by the roll off factor or Filter Alpha (0
< Filter Alpha < 1).
— Nyquist selects a raised cosine pre-modulation FIR filter.
Nyquist filters can be used to reduce the amount of bandwidth required by the signal be
produced without loosing information. The ideal raised cosine filter frequency response
consists of unity gain at low frequencies, a raised cosine function in the middle, and
total attenuation at high frequencies. The width of the middle frequencies are defined
by the roll off factor or Filter Alpha (0 < Filter Alpha < 1).
— Gaussian selects a Gaussian pre-modulation FIR filter.
— User FIR allows you to select a FIR filter from a Catalog of FIR filters; this selection is
used if the predefined FIR filters (Root Nyquist, Nyquist, Gaussian, etc.) do not meet
your filtering needs. For further information, refer to the Define User FIR softkey.
— Rectangle selects a rectangular pre-modulation FIR filter.
— APCO 25 C4FM selects an APCO 25-specified C4FM filter; this is a Nyquist filter with
an alpha of 0.200 which is combined with a shaping filter.
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• Define User FIR is used if the predefined FIR filters do not meet your filtering needs. You
can define your own FIR coefficients for a FIR filter and set the oversample ratio (number
of filter coefficients per symbol) to be applied to a your own custom FIR filter.
• Filter Alpha allows you to adjust the filter alpha when Nyquist or root Nyquist filters are
selected. This feature applies only to Root Nyquist and Nyquist filters. If a Gaussian filter
is in use, you will see Filter BbT; the softkey is grayed out when any other filter is selected.
• Optimize FIR for EVM ACP allows you to optimize the FIR filter being used for minimized
error vector magnitude (EVM) or for minimized adjacent channel power (ACP). This
feature applies only to Nyquist and root Nyquist filters; the softkey is grayed out when any
other filter is selected.
• Restore Default Filters allows you to replace the current FIR filter with the default
FIR filter for the selected format.
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To Select a Predefined Root Nyquist, Nyquist, or Gaussian Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Select > and select one of the
following: Root Nyquist | Nyquist | Gaussian.
To Adjust the Filter Alpha of a Predefined Root Nyquist
or Nyquist Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Filter Alpha.
3. Enter a new Filter Alpha value and press Enter.
To Adjust the Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) Product
of a Predefined Gaussian Filter
1. Press Filter > Select > Gaussian.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Select > Gaussian.
3. Press Filter BbT.
4. Enter a new Bandwidth-Bit-Time (BbT) product filter parameter and press Enter.
To Optimize the FIR Filter for EVM or ACP
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Optimize FIR For EVM or ACP.
The FIR filter is then optimized for minimum error vector magnitude (EVM) or for
minimum adjacent channel power (ACP). This feature applies only to Nyquist and root
Nyquist filters; the softkey is grayed out when any other filter is selected.
To Select a Predefined Rectangle Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Select > More (1 of 2) > Rectangle.
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To Select an APCO 25-Specified C4FM Filter
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Select >
(More 1 of 2) > APCO 25 C4FM.
This selects a Nyquist filter with an alpha of 0.200 which is combined with a shaping filter.
To Restore Default FIR Filter Parameters
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter > Restore Default Filter.
This replaces the current FIR filter with the default filter for the selected modulation
format.
To Modify Predefined FIR Coefficients for a Gaussian Filter
with the FIR Values Editor
You can define from 1 to 32 FIR coefficients, where the maximum combination of symbols and
oversample ratio is 1024 coefficients.
The FIR Values editor allows a maximum filter length of 1024 coefficients, but the PSG
hardware is limited to 64 symbols for real-time and 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform
generation. The number of symbols equals the number of coefficients divided by the
oversample ratio. If you enter more than 64 symbols for real-time and 512 symbols for
arbitrary waveform generation, the PSG cannot use the filter.
FIR filters stored in signal generator memory can easily be modified using the FIR Values
editor. In this example, you will load the FIR Values editor with coefficient values from a
default FIR filter (or, if one has been defined, a user-defined FIR file that has been stored in
the Memory Catalog), modify the coefficient values, and store the new file to the
Memory Catalog.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter.
3. Press Define User FIR > More (1 of 2) > Load Default FIR > Gaussian.
4. Press Filter BbT > 0.300 > Enter.
5. Press Filter Symbols > 8 > Enter.
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6. Press Generate.
NOTE
The actual oversample ratio during modulation is automatically selected by the
instrument. A value between 4 and 16 is chosen dependent on the symbol rate,
the number of bits per symbol of the modulation type, and the number of
symbols.
7. Press Display Impulse Response.
You should see a graph that shows the impulse response of the current set of FIR
coefficients.
Figure 6-1
8. Press Return.
9. Highlight coefficient 15.
10. Press 0 > Enter.
11. Press Display Impulse Response.
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Figure 6-2
The graphic display can provide a useful troubleshooting tool (in this case, it indicates that
a coefficient value is set incorrectly, resulting in an improper Gaussian response).
12. Press Return.
13. Highlight coefficient 15.
14. Press 1 > Enter.
15. Press Load/Store > Store To File.
16. Name the file NEWFIR2.
17. Press Enter.
The contents of the current FIR Values editor are stored to a file in the Memory Catalog
and the Catalog of FIR Files is updated to show the new file.
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To Create a User-Defined FIR Filter with the FIR Values Editor
In this procedure, you use the FIR Values editor to create and store an 8-symbol, windowed,
sinc function filter with an oversample ratio of 4.
You can define from 1 to 32 FIR coefficients, where the maximum combination of symbols and
oversample ratio is 1024 coefficients.
The FIR Values editor allows a maximum filter length of 1024 coefficients, but the PSG
hardware is limited to 64 symbols for real-time and 512 symbols for arbitrary waveform
generation. The number of symbols equals the number of coefficients divided by the
oversample ratio. If you enter more than 64 symbols for real-time and 512 symbols for
arbitrary waveform generation, the PSG cannot use the filter.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Filter.
3. Press Define User FIR > More (1 of 2).
4. Press Delete All Rows > Confirm Delete Of All Rows > More (2 of 2).
This brings up the FIR Values editor and clears the table of existing values.
Figure 6-3
5. Press Edit Item.
The Value field for coefficient 0 should be highlighted.
6. Use the numeric keypad to type the first value (−0.000076) from Table 6-1 and press Enter.
As you press the numeric keys, the numbers are displayed in the active entry area. (If you
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make a mistake, you can correct it using the backspace key.)
7. Continue entering the coefficient values from the table until all 16 values have been
entered:
Table 6-1
Coefficient
Value
Coefficient
Value
0
−0.000076
8
−0.035667
1
−0.001747
9
−0.116753
2
−0.005144
10
−0.157348
3
−0.004424
11
−0.088484
4
0.007745
12
0.123414
5
0.029610
13
0.442748
6
0.043940
14
0.767329
7
0.025852
15
0.972149
8. Press Mirror Table.
In a windowed sinc function filter, the second half of the coefficients are identical to the
first half in reverse order. Since the signal generator provides a mirror table function that
automatically duplicates the existing coefficient values in the reverse order, the last 16
coefficients (16 through 31) are automatically generated and the first of these coefficients
(number 16) highlights, as shown in Figure 6-4.
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Figure 6-4
9. For this example, the desired OSR is 4, which is the default, so no action is necessary.
The Oversample Ratio (OSR) is the number of filter coefficients per symbol. Acceptable
values range from 1 through 32; the maximum combination of symbols and oversampling
ratio allowed by the FIR Values editor is 1024. The instrument hardware, however, is
actually limited to 32 symbols, an oversample ratio between 4 and 16, and 512 coefficients.
So if you enter more than 32 symbols or 512 coefficients, the instrument is unable to use
the filter. If the oversample ratio is different from the internal, optimally selected one, then
the filter is automatically resampled to an optimal oversample ratio.
10. Press More (1 of 2) > Display FFT (fast Fourier transform).
You will see a graph that shows the fast Fourier transform of the current set of FIR
coefficients. The signal generator has the capability of graphically displaying the filter in
both time and frequency dimensions.
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Figure 6-5
11. Press Return.
12. Press Display Impulse Response.
You should see a graph that shows the impulse response of the current set of FIR
coefficients.
Figure 6-6
13. Press Return.
14. Press Load/Store > Store To File.
The Catalog of FIR Files appears along with the amount of memory available.
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15. If there is already a file name occupying the active entry area, press the following keys:
Edit Keys > Clear Text
16. Using the alphabetic menu and the numeric keypad, enter NEWFIR1 as the file name.
17. Press Enter.
The NEWFIR1 file is the first file name listed. (If you have previously stored other FIR
files, additional file names are listed below NEWFIR1.) The file type is FIR and the size of
the file is 260 bytes. The amount of memory used is also displayed. The number of files
that can be saved depends on the size of the files and the amount of memory used.
Figure 6-7
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Working with Symbol Rates
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• Understanding Symbol Rates
• Using Symbol Rates
— “To Set a Symbol Rate” on page 168
— “To Restore the Default Symbol Rate” on page 168
Understanding Symbol Rates
Symbol Rate allows you to access a menu from which you can set the rate at which
I/Q symbols are fed to the I/Q modulator. The default transmission symbol rate can also be
restored in this menu.
• Symbol Rate (displayed as Sym Rate) is the number of symbols per second that are
transmitted using the modulation (displayed as Mod Type) along with the filter and filter
alpha (displayed as Filter). Symbol rate directly influences the occupied signal
bandwidth.
Symbol Rate is the Bit Rate divided by the number of bits that can be transmitted with
each symbol; this is also known as the Baud Rate.
• Bit Rate is the frequency of the system bit stream. The internal baseband generator
(Option 002) automatically streams the selected Data Pattern at the appropriate rate to
accommodate the symbol rate setting (Bit Rate = Symbols/s x Number of Bits/Symbol).
• Occupied Signal Bandwidth = Symbol Rate x (1 + Filter Alpha); therefore, the occupied
signal bandwidth is dependent on the filter alpha of the Nyquist or Root Nyquist filter
being used. (To change the filter alpha, refer to the procedure, “To Adjust the Filter Alpha
of a Predefined Root Nyquist or Nyquist Filter” on page 156.)
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Bits Per
Symbol
Bit Rate
= Symbols/s
x Number of
Bits/Symbol
Internal
Symbol
Rate
(Minimum
Maximum)
External
Symbol
Rate
(Minimum
Maximum)
QPSK and OQPSK
(quadrature phase
shift keying and
offset quadrature
phase shift keying)
which include: QPSK
IS95 QPSK,
Gray Coded QPSK,
OQPSK,
IS95 OQPSK
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
25 Msps
BPSK
(binary
phase shift keying)
1
45 bps
50 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
50 Msps
π/4 DQPSK
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
25 Msps
8PSK
(eight phase state
shift keying)
3
135 bps
150 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
16.67 Msps
16PSK
(sixteen phase state
shift keying)
4
180 sps
200 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
12.5 Msps
D8PSK
(eight phase state
shift keying)
3
135 bps
150 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
16.67 Msps
MSK
1
45 bps
50 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
50 Msps
Modulation
Type
PSK
Phase Shift
Keying
MSK
Minimum
Shift Keying
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Modulation
Type
Bits Per
Symbol
Bit Rate
= Symbols/s
x Number of
Bits/Symbol
Internal
Symbol
Rate
(Minimum
Maximum)
External
Symbol
Rate
(Minimum
Maximum)
FSK
2-Lvl FSK
1
45 bps
50 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
50 Msps
Frequency
Shift Keying
4-Lvl FSK
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
25 Msps
8-Lvl FSK
3
135 bps
150 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
16.67 Msps
16-Lvl FSK
4
180 bps
200 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
12.5 Msps
C4FM
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
25 Msps
QAM
4QAM
2
90 bps
100 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
25 Msps
Quadrature
Amplitude
Modulation
16QAM
4
180 bps
200 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
12.5 Msps
32QAM
5
225 bps
250 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
10 Msps
64QAM
6
270 bps
300 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
8.33 Msps
128QAM
(There is no preset
value for this
modulation, it must
be user defined.)
7
315 bps
350 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
7.14 Msps
256QAM
8
360 bps
400 Mbps
45 sps
50 Msps
45 sps
6.25 Msps
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To Set a Symbol Rate
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Symbol Rate.
3. Enter a new symbol rate and press Msps, ksps, or sps.
To Restore the Default Symbol Rate
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Symbol Rate > Restore Default Symbol Rate.
This replaces the current symbol rate with the default symbol rate for the selected
modulation format.
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Working with Modulation Types
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “Understanding Modulation Types” on page 170
• Using a Predefined Modulation Type
— “To Select a Predefined PSK Modulation Type” on page 171
— “To Select a Predefined MSK Modulation Type” on page 171
— “To Select a Predefined FSK Modulation Type” on page 171
— “To Select a Predefined QAM Modulation Type” on page 171
• Using a User-Defined Modulation Type
Before a user-defined modulation type can be used, it must be created and stored to the
Memory Catalog. Once a user-defined modulation type has been created and stored, it is
available through the Select menu.
— “To Create a 128QAM I/Q Modulation Type User File with the I/Q Values Editor” on
page 172
— “To Create a QPSK I/Q Modulation Type User File with the I/Q Values Editor” on
page 175
— “To Modify a Predefined I/Q Modulation Type (I/Q Symbols) and Simulate Magnitude
Errors and Phase Errors” on page 177
— “To Create an FSK Modulation Type User File with the Frequency Values Editor” on
page 178
— “To Modify a Predefined FSK Modulation Type User File with the Frequency Values
Editor” on page 179
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Understanding Modulation Types
Modulation Type is used to specify the type of modulation that will be applied to the carrier
signal when the Mod On Off hardkey is set to On.
In addition, when the Custom Off On softkey is set to On, the real-time custom I/Q symbol
builder creates I/Q symbols based on the data pattern and modulation type that has been
selected. Refer to “Working with Data Patterns” on page 144 to learn about selecting a data
pattern.
You can select a modulation type from the following list:
• Select allows you to access a menu from which you can select predefined modulations
(PSK, MSK, FSK, QAM) or user-defined modulation types (I/Q and FSK) that have been
previously defined and saved in the Memory Catalog.
• Define User I/Q allows you to create user-defined I/Q modulation types that can be used
immediately or saved to the Memory Catalog for reuse. Once these user-defined I/Q
modulation types have been defined and saved, they are available through the Select
menu.
• Define User FSK allows you to create user-defined FSK modulation types that can be used
immediately or saved to the Memory Catalog for reuse. Once these user-defined FSK
modulation types have been defined and saved, they are available through the Select
menu.
• Restore Default Modulation Type allows you to restore all of the modulation parameters
back to their original default state.
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To Select a Predefined PSK Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Select > PSK.
3. Press one of the following:
BPSK, π/4 DQPSK, 8PSK, 16PSK, D8PSK
or QPSK and OQPSK (if you select QPSK and OQPSK, press one of the following:
QPSK , IS95 QPSK, Gray Coded QPSK , OQPSK, or IS95 OQPSK ).
To Select a Predefined MSK Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Select >
MSK > Phase Dev.
3. Enter a new phase deviation angle and press deg.
To Select a Predefined FSK Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Select > FSK.
3. Press one of the following:
2-Lvl FSK, 4-Lvl FSK, 8-Lvl FSK, 16-Lvl FSK, C4FM,
or Freq Dev (if you select Freq Dev, enter a new frequency deviation in Hertz.)
To Select a Predefined QAM Modulation Type
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Select > QAM.
3. Press one of the following:
4QAM, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM
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To Create a 128QAM I/Q Modulation Type User File
with the I/Q Values Editor
In I/Q modulation schemes, symbols appear in default positions in the I/Q plane. Using the I/Q
Values editor, you can define your own symbol map by changing the position of one or more
symbols.
Use the following procedure to create and store a 128-symbol QAM modulation.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Define User I/Q >
More (1 of 2) > Load Default I/Q Map > QAM > 256QAM.
This loads a default 256QAM I/Q modulation into the I/Q Values editor.
3. Press More (2 of 2) > Display I/Q Map.
Figure 6-8
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In the next steps, you will delete specific portions of this I/Q constellation and change it
into a 128QAM with 128 I/Q states.
NOTE
Although this procedure shows you a quick way to implement a 128QAM
modulation format, it has a slight drawback.
This approach does not take full advantage of the I/Q modulator’s dynamic
range. This occurs because, in this procedure, all of the deleted points are
simply deleted from a 256QAM constellation. The remaining points that make
up the 128QAM constellation are then all that is left; the points that are left
are closer together than if you were to map out each point specifically.
In addition, this approach does not allow you to define the bit pattern
associated with each symbol point. To do this, the 128QAM constellation must
be defined one point at a time.
4. Press Return > Goto Row > 0011 0000 > Enter; this is row 48.
5. Press the Delete Row softkey 16 times.
Repeat this pattern of steps while using the following table:
Goto Row ...
Press the Delete Row softkey...
0110 0000 (96)
16 times
1001 0000 (144)
16 times
1100 0000 (192)
16 times
0001 0000 (16)
4 times
0001 0100 (20)
4 times
0001 1000 (24)
8 times
0011 0000 (48)
4 times
0011 0100 (52)
4 times
0011 1000 (56)
4 times
0101 1000 (88)
8 times
0111 0000 (112)
4 times
0111 0100 (116)
4 times
0111 1000 (120)
8 times
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6. Press Display I/Q Map to view the new constellation that has been created. The
I/Q State Map in this example has 128 symbols.
Figure 6-9
7. Press Return.
When the contents of an I/Q Values table have not been stored, I/Q Values (UNSTORED)
appears on the display.
8. Press More (1 of 2) > Load/Store > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of IQ Files occupying the active entry
area, press the following keys:
Editing Keys > Clear Text
9. Enter a file name (for example, 128QAM) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
10. Press Enter.
The user-defined I/Q State Map should now be stored in the Catalog of IQ Files.
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To Create a QPSK I/Q Modulation Type User File
with the I/Q Values Editor
In I/Q modulation schemes, symbols appear in default positions in the I/Q plane. Using the I/Q
Values editor, you can define your own symbol map by changing the position of one or more
symbols.
Use the following procedure to create and store a 4-symbol unbalanced QPSK modulation.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Define User I/Q >
More (1 of 2) > Delete All Rows > Confirm Delete All Rows.
This loads a default 4QAM I/Q modulation and clears the I/Q Values editor.
3. Enter the I and Q values listed in the following table:
Symbol
Data
I Value
Q Value
0
0000
0.500000
1.000000
1
0001
-0.500000
1.000000
2
0010
0.500000
-1.000000
3
0011
-0.500000
-1.000000
a. Press 0.5 > Enter.
b. Press 1 > Enter.
c. Enter the remaining I and Q values.
As the I value updates, the highlight moves to the first Q entry (and provides a default
value of 0) and an empty row of data appears below the first row. As the Q value updates,
the highlight moves to the next I value. As you press the numeric keys, the numbers
display in the active entry area. If you make a mistake, use the backspace key and retype.
Also note that 0.000000 appears as the first entry in the list of Distinct Values, and
that 0.500000 and 1.000000 are listed as the distinct values.
4. Press More (2 of 2) > Display I/Q Map.
An I/Q State Map is displayed from the current values in the I/Q Values table.
The I/Q State Map in this example has four symbols. The I/Q State Map uses the following
four unique values: 0.5, 1.0, −0.5, and −1.0 to create the four symbols. It is not the number
of values that defines how many symbols a map has, but how those values are combined.
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5. Press Return.
When the contents of an I/Q Values table have not been stored, I/Q Values (UNSTORED)
appears on the display.
6. Press More (1 of 2) > Load/Store > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of IQ Files occupying the active entry
area, press the following keys:
Editing Keys > Clear Text
7. Enter a file name (for example, NEW4QAM) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
8. Press Enter.
The user-defined I/Q State Map should now be stored in the Catalog of IQ Files and
can be recalled even after the E8267C PSG signal generator has been turned off.
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To Modify a Predefined I/Q Modulation Type (I/Q Symbols)
and Simulate Magnitude Errors and Phase Errors
Use the following procedure to manipulate symbol locations which simulate magnitude and
phase errors. In this example, you edit a 4QAM constellation to move one symbol closer to the
origin.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Define User I/Q >
More (1 of 2) > Load Default I/Q Map > QAM > 4QAM.
This loads a default 4QAM I/Q modulation into the I/Q Values editor.
3. Press More (2 of 2).
4. In the I/Q Values editor, navigate to Data 00000000 and press Edit Item.
5. Press .235702 > Enter.
6. Press .235702 > Enter.
As you enter the numbers using the numeric keypad, they are displayed in the active entry
area. If you make a mistake, use the backspace key and retype. The I value updates and
the highlight moves to the first Q entry. Next, the Q value updates and the highlight
moves to the following I entry.
7. Press Display I/Q Map.
Note that one symbol has moved, as shown.
Figure 6-10
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To Create an FSK Modulation Type User File
with the Frequency Values Editor
During this procedure, you will set the frequency deviation for data 00, 01, 10, and 11 to
configure a user-defined FSK modulation.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Define User FSK >
More (1 of 2) > Delete All Rows > Confirm Delete All Rows.
This accesses the Frequency Values editor and clears the previous values.
3. Press 600 > Hz.
4. Press 1.8 > kHz.
5. Press −600 > Hz.
6. Press −1.8 > kHz.
Each time you enter a value, the Data column increments to the next binary number, up to
a total of 16 data values (from 0000 to 1111). An unstored file of frequency deviation
values is created for your custom 4-level FSK file.
7. Press Load/Store > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of FSK Files occupying the active entry
area, press the following keys:
Edit Keys > Clear Text
8. Enter a file name (for example, NEWFSK) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
9. Press Enter.
The user-defined FSK modulation should now be stored in the Catalog of FSK Files.
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To Modify a Predefined FSK Modulation Type User File
with the Frequency Values Editor
Using the Frequency Values editor, you can define, modify, and store user-defined frequency
shift keying modulation.
The Frequency Values editor is available for custom Real-Time I/Q Baseband mode, but is
not available for waveforms generated in custom Arb Waveform Generator mode.
In this example, you learn how to add errors to a default FSK modulation.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Define User FSK >
More (1 of 2) > Load Default FSK .
3. Press Freq Dev > 1.8 > kHz.
4. Press 4-Lvl FSK.
This sets the frequency deviation and opens the Frequency Values editor with the
4-level FSK default values displayed. The frequency value for data 0000 is highlighted.
5. Press −1.81 > kHz.
6. Press −590 > Hz.
7. Press 1.805 > kHz.
8. Press 610 > Hz.
As you modify the frequency deviation values, the cursor moves to the next data row. An
unstored file of frequency deviation values is created for your custom 4-level FSK file.
9. Press Load/Store > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of FSK Files occupying the active entry
area, press the following keys:
Edit Keys > Clear Text
10. Enter a file name (for example, NEWFSK) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
11. Press Enter.
The user-defined FSK modulation should now be stored in the Catalog of FSK Files.
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Working with Burst Shapes
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “Understanding Burst Shapes” on page 181
• Using a Predefined Burst Shape
— “To Use a Predefined Burst Shape Curve” on page 183
• Using a User-Defined Burst Shape
You can adjust the shape of the rise time curve and the fall time curve using the Rise
Shape and Fall Shape editors. Each editor allows you to enter up to 256 values,
equidistant in time, to define the shape of the curve. The values are then resampled to
create the cubic spline that passes through all of the sample points.
The Rise Shape and Fall Shape editors are available for custom real-time I/Q baseband
generator waveforms. They are not available for waveforms generated by the dual
arbitrary waveform generator.
You can also design burst shape files externally and download the data to the signal
generator. For more information, see the programming guide.
— “To Create and Store User-Defined Burst Shape Curves” on page 183
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Understanding Burst Shapes
Burst Shape allows you to access a menu from which you can modify the rise and fall time,
rise and fall delay, and the burst shape (either sine or user file defined). In addition, you can
define the shape of the burst and preview the burst shape through a Rise Shape Editor, or
restore all of the burst shape parameters back to their original default state.
Rise time
the period of time, specified in bits, where the burst
increases from a minimum of −70 dB (0) to full power (1).
Fall time
the period of time, specified in bits, where the burst
decreases from full power (1) to a minimum of −70 dB (0).
Rise delay
the period of time, specified in bits, that the start of the
burst rise is delayed. Rise delay can be either negative or
positive. Entering a delay other than zero shifts the full
power point earlier or later than the beginning of the first
useful symbol.
Fall delay
the period of time, specified in bits, that the start of the
burst fall is delayed. Fall delay can be either negative or
positive. Entering a delay other than zero shifts the full
power point earlier or later than the end of the last useful
symbol.
User-defined burst shape
up to 256 user-entered values which define the shape of
the curve in the specified rise or fall time. The values can
vary between 0 (no power) and 1 (full power) and are
scaled linearly. Once specified, the values are resampled
as necessary to create the cubic spline that passes through
all of the sample points.
The default burst shape of each format is implemented according to the standards of the
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format selected. You can, however, modify the following aspects of the burst shape:
User-Defined
Values
User-Defined
Values
Power
1
0
Rise
Delay
Rise
Time
Fall
Delay
Fall
Time
Time
Burst shape maximum rise and fall time values are affected by the following factors:
• the symbol rate
• the modulation type
When the rise and fall delays equal 0, the burst shape attempts to synchronize the maximum
burst shape power to the beginning of the first valid symbol and the ending of the last valid
symbol.
If you find that the error vector magnitude (EVM) or adjacent channel power (ACP) increases
when you turn bursting on, you can adjust the burst shape to assist with troubleshooting.
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To Use a Predefined Burst Shape Curve
1. Press Burst Shape > Rise Time.
2. Press 5.202 > bits.
3. Press Rise Delay > .667 > bits.
4. Press Fall Time > 4.8 > bits.
5. Press Fall Delay > .667 > bits.
To Create and Store User-Defined Burst Shape Curves
Using this procedure, you learn how to enter rise shape sample values and mirror them as fall
shape values to create a symmetrical burst curve.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Burst Shape.
3. Press Define User Burst Shape > More (1 of 2) > Delete All Rows > Confirm Delete Of All Rows.
4. Enter values similar to the sample values in the following table:
Rise Shape Editor
Sample
Value
Sample
Value
0
0.000000
5
0.900000
1
0.400000
6
0.950000
2
0.600000
7
0.980000
3
0.750000
8
0.990000
4
0.830000
9
1.000000
a. Highlight the value (1.000000) for sample 1.
b. Press .4 > Enter.
c. Press .6 > Enter.
5. Enter the remaining values for samples 3 through 9 from the table above.
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a. Press More (2 of 2) > Edit Fall Shape > Load Mirror Image of Rise Shape >
Confirm Load Mirror Image of Rise Shape.
This changes the fall shape values to a mirror image of the rise shape values.
Figure 6-11
6. Press More (1 of 2) > Display Burst Shape.
This displays a graphical representation of the waveform’s rise and fall characteristics.
Figure 6-12
To return the burst to the default conditions, press the following keys:
Return > Return > Confirm Exit From Table Without Saving > Restore Default Burst Shape.
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7. Press Define User Burst Shape > More (1 of 2) > Load/Store > Store To File.
If there is already a file name from the Catalog of SHAPE Files occupying the active
entry area, press the following keys:
Editing Keys > Clear Text
8. Enter a file name (for example, NEWBURST) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
9. Press Enter.
The contents of the current Rise Shape and Fall Shape editors are stored to the
Catalog of SHAPE Files. This burst shape can now be used to customize a modulation or
as a basis for a new burst shape design.
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To Select and Recall a User-Defined Burst Shape Curve
from the Memory Catalog
Once a user-defined burst shape file is stored in the Memory Catalog, it can be recalled for use
with real-time I/Q baseband generated digital modulation.
This example requires a user-defined burst shape file stored in memory. If you have not
created and stored a user-defined burst shape file, complete the steps in the previous sections.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Burst Shape > Burst Shape Type > User File.
3. Highlight the desired burst shape file (for example, NEWBURST).
4. Press Select File.
The selected burst shape file is now applied to the current real-time I/Q baseband digital
modulation state.
5. Press Return > Custom Off On.
This generates the custom modulation with user-defined burst shape created in the
previous steps. During waveform generation, the CUSTOM and I/Q annunciators activate.
The waveform is now modulating the RF carrier.
6. Press RF On/Off.
The current real-time I/Q baseband digital modulation format with user-defined burst
shape should be available at the signal generator’s RF OUTPUT connector.
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Working with Configuration of Hardware
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “To Set the BBG Reference to External or Internal” on page 187
• “To Set the BBG Reference External Frequency” on page 187
• “To Set the External DATA CLOCK to Receive Input as Either Normal or Symbol” on
page 188
• “To Set the BBG DATA CLOCK to External or Internal” on page 188
• “To Adjust the I/Q Scaling” on page 188
To Set the BBG Reference to External or Internal
1. Press Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > More (1 of 3) > Configure Hardware.
Configure Hardware allows you to access a menu from which you can set the BBG
Reference is set to External or Internal.
2. Press BBG Ref Ext Int to select either external or internal as the bit-clock reference for the
data generator.
If the external choice is selected, the external frequency value must be applied to the
BASEBAND GEN REF IN rear panel connector.
To Set the BBG Reference External Frequency
The BBG reference external frequency is only used when the BBG Ref Ext Int softkey has been
set to Ext (external).
1. Press Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > More (1 of 3) > Configure Hardware.
Configure Hardware allows you to access a menu from which you can set the external
BBG reference frequency.
2. Press Ext BBG Ref Freq.
3. Using the numeric keypad, enter a desired frequency and press MHz, kHz, or Hz.
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To Set the External DATA CLOCK to Receive Input
as Either Normal or Symbol
1. Press Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > More (1 of 3) > Configure Hardware.
Configure Hardware allows you to access a menu from which you can set the external
DATA CLOCK to receive input as either Normal or Symbol.
2. Press Ext Data Clock to select either Normal or Symbol; this setting has no effect in internal
clock mode.
• When set to Normal, the DATA CLOCK input connector requires a bit clock.
• When set to Symbol, a one-shot or continuous symbol sync signal must be provided to
the SYMBOL SYNC input connector.
To Set the BBG DATA CLOCK to External or Internal
1. Press Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > More (1 of 3) > Configure Hardware.
Configure Hardware allows you to access a menu from which you can
set the BBG DATA CLOCK to receive input from External or Internal.
2. Press BBG Data Clock Ext Int to select either external or internal.
• When set to Ext (external), the DATA CLOCK connector is used to supply
the BBG Data Clock.
• When set to Int (internal), the internal data clock is used.
To Adjust the I/Q Scaling
Adjusting the I/Q Scaling (amplitude of the I/Q outputs) multiplies the I and Q data by the I/Q
scaling factor that is selected and can be used to improve the Adjacent Channel Power (ACP).
Lower scaling values equate to better ACP. This setting has no effect with MSK or FSK
modulation.
1. Press Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > More (1 of 3) > Configure Hardware.
Configure Hardware allows you to access a menu from which you
can adjust the I/Q Scaling.
2. Press I/Q Scaling, enter a desired I/Q scaling level, and press %.
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Working with Phase Polarity
Working with Phase Polarity
To Set Phase Polarity to Normal or Inverted
1. Press Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > More (1 of 3) > Phase Polarity Normal Invert.
Phase Polarity Normal Invert allows you to leave the selection as Normal (so that the
phase relationship between the I and Q signals is not altered by the phase polarity
function) or set to Invert and invert the internal Q signal, reversing the rotation direction
of the phase modulation vector.
When you choose Invert, the in-phase component lags the quadrature-phase component by
90° in the resulting modulation. Inverted phase polarity is required by some radio
standards and it is useful for lower sideband mixing applications. The inverted selection
also applies to the I, I-bar, Q, and Q-bar output signals.
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Working with Differential Data Encoding
Diff Data Encode Off On allows you to toggle the operational state of the signal generator’s
differential data encoding.
• When set to Off, data bits are not encoded prior to modulation.
• When set to On, data bits are encoded prior to modulation. Differential encoding uses an
exclusive-OR function to generate a modulated bit. Modulated bits will have a value of 1 if
a data bit is different from the previous bit or they will have a value of 0 if a data bit is the
same as the previous bit.
In this section, you will learn about the following:
• “Understanding Differential Encoding” on page 191
• “To Use Differential Encoding” on page 196
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Understanding Differential Encoding
Differential encoding is a digital-encoding technique whereby a binary value is denoted by a
signal change rather than a particular signal state. Using differential encoding, binary data in
any user-defined I/Q or FSK modulation can be encoded during the modulation process via
symbol table offsets defined in the Differential State Map.
For example, consider the signal generator’s default 4QAM I/Q modulation. With a
user-defined modulation based on the default 4QAM template, the I/Q Values editor
contains data that represent four symbols (00, 01, 10, and 11) mapped into the I/Q plane using
two distinct values, 1.000000 and -1.000000. These four symbols can be differentially encoded
during the modulation process by assigning symbol table offset values associated with each
data value. Figure 6-13 shows the 4QAM modulation in the I/Q Values editor.
Figure 6-13
NOTE
The number of bits per symbol can be expressed using the following formula.
Because the equation is a ceiling function, if the value of x contains a fraction,
x is rounded up to the next whole number.
Where x = bits per symbol, and y = the number of differential states.
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The following illustration shows a 4QAM modulation I/Q State Map.
2nd Symbol
Data = 00000001
Distinct values: -1, +1
3rd Symbol
Data = 00000010
Distinct values: -1, -1
1st Symbol
Data = 00000000
Distinct values: +1, +1
2
1
3
4
4th Symbol
Data = 00000011
Distinct values: +1, -1
Differential Data Encoding
In real-time I/Q baseband digital modulation waveforms, data (1’s and 0’s) are encoded,
modulated onto a carrier frequency and subsequently transmitted to a receiver. In contrast to
differential encoding, differential data encoding modifies the data stream prior to I/Q
mapping. Where differential encoding encodes the raw data by using symbol table offset
values to manipulate I/Q mapping at the point of modulation, differential data encoding uses
the transition from one bit value to another to encode the raw data.
Differential data encoding modifies the raw digitized data by creating a secondary, encoded
data stream that is defined by changes in the digital state, from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1, of the
raw data stream. This differentially encoded data stream is then modulated and transmitted.
In differential data encoding, a change in a raw data bit’s digital state, from 1 to 0 or from 0 to
1, produces a 1 in the encoded data stream. No change in digital state from one bit to the next,
in other words a bit with a value of 1 followed by another bit with a value of 1 or a bit with a
value of 0 followed by the same, produces a 0 in the encoded data. For instance, differentially
encoding the data stream containing 01010011001010 renders 1111010101111.
Differential data encoding can be described by the following equation:
transmittedbit ( i ) = databit ( i – 1 ) ⊕ databit ( i )
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For a bit-by-bit illustration of the encoding process, see the following illustration:
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
raw (unencoded) data
change =
no change =
1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
differentially encoded data
How Differential Encoding Works
Differential encoding employs offsets in the symbol table to encode user-defined modulation
schemes. The Differential State Map editor is used to introduce symbol table offset values
which in turn cause transitions through the I/Q State Map based on their associated data
value. Whenever a data value is modulated, the offset value stored in the Differential State
Map is used to encode the data by transitioning through the I/Q State Map in a direction and
distance defined by the symbol table offset value.
Entering a value of +1 will cause a 1-state forward transition through the I/Q State Map, as
shown in the following illustration.
The following I/Q State Map illustrations show all of the possible state
transitions using a particular symbol table offset value. The actual
state-to-state transition would depend upon the state in which the modulation
had started.
NOTE
As an example, consider the following data/symbol table offset values.
Data
Offset Value
00000000
+1
00000001
−1
00000010
+2
00000011
0
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These symbol table offsets will result in one of the transitions, as shown.
Data Value 00000000
with Symbol Table Offset +1
transition 1 state forward
Data Value 00000010
with Symbol Table Offset +2
transition 2 states forward
194
Data Value 00000001
with Symbol Table Offset -1
transition 1 state backward
Data Value 00000011
with Symbol Table Offset 0
no transition
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1st
1st Symbol
3rd Symbol
5th
{
{
Data = 0011100001
2nd Symbol
3rd
{
{
{
2nd
5th Symbol
4th Symbol
4th
Data Value
00
01
10
11
Symbol Table Offset
+1
-1
+2
+0
When applied to the user-defined default 4QAM I/Q map, starting from the 1st symbol
(data 00), the differential encoding transitions for the data stream (in 2-bit symbols)
0011100001 appear in the previous illustration.
As you can see, the 1st and 4th symbols, having the same data value (00), produce the same
state transition (forward 1 state). In differential encoding, symbol values do not define
location; they define the direction and distance of a transition through the I/Q State Map.
For instructions on configuring differential encoding, see “Understanding Differential
Encoding” on page 191.
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To Use Differential Encoding
Differential encoding is a digital-encoding technique that denotes a binary value by a signal
change rather than a particular signal state. It is available for Custom Real Time
I/Q Baseband mode. It is not available for waveforms generated by Arb Waveform Generator
mode.
The signal generator’s Differential State Map editor enables you to modify the differential
state map associated with user-defined I/Q and user-defined FSK modulations. In this
procedure, you create a user-defined I/Q modulation and then configure, activate, and apply
differential encoding to the user-defined modulation. For more information, see
“Understanding Differential Encoding” on page 191.
This section teaches you how to perform the following tasks:
• “Configuring User-Defined I/Q Modulation” on page 197
• “Accessing the Differential State Map Editor” on page 198
• “Editing the Differential State Map” on page 198
• “Activating Differential Data Encoding” on page 199
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Configuring User-Defined I/Q Modulation
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Custom > Real Time I/Q Baseband > Modulation Type > Define User I/Q >
More (1 of 2) > Load Default I/Q Map > QAM > 4QAM.
This loads a default 4QAM I/Q modulation and displays it in the I/Q Values editor.
The default 4QAM I/Q modulation contains data that represent 4 symbols (00, 01, 10, and 11)
mapped into the I/Q plane using 2 distinct values (1.000000 and −1.000000). These 4 symbols
will be traversed during the modulation process by the symbol table offset values associated
with each symbol of data.
Figure 6-14
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Accessing the Differential State Map Editor
1. Press Configure Differential Encoding.
This opens the Differential State Map editor. At this point, you see the data for the 1st
symbol (00000000) and the cursor prepared to accept an offset value.You are now prepared to
create a custom differential encoding for the user-defined default 4QAM I/Q modulation.
Figure 6-15
Data
Symbol Table Offset Values Entry Area
Editing the Differential State Map
1. Press 1 > Enter.
This encodes the first symbol by adding a symbol table offset of 1. The symbol rotates
forward through the state map by 1 value when a data value of 0 is modulated.
2. Press +/- > 1 > Enter.
This encodes the second symbol by adding a symbol table offset of −1. The symbol rotates
backward through the state map by 1 value when a data value of 1 is modulated.
NOTE
198
At this point, the modulation has one bit per symbol. For the first two data
values (00000000 and 00000001) only the last bits (the 0 and the 1,
respectively) are significant.
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3. Press 2 > Enter.
This encodes the third symbol by adding a symbol table offset of 2. The symbol rotates
forward through the state map by 2 values when a data value of 10 is modulated.
4. Press 0 > Enter.
This encodes the fourth symbol by adding a symbol table offset of 0. The symbol does not
rotate through the state map when a data value of 11 is modulated.
NOTE
At this point, the modulation has two bits per symbol. For the data values
00000000, 00000001, 00000010, 00000011, the symbol values are 00, 01, 10,
and 11 respectively.
5. Press Return > Differential Encoding Off On.
This applies the custom differential encoding to a user-defined modulation.
NOTE
Notice that (UNSTORED) appears next to Differential State Map on the
signal generator’s display. Differential state maps are associated with the
user-defined modulation for which they were created.
In order to save a custom differential state map, you must store the
user-defined modulation for which it was designed. Otherwise the symbol table
offset data is purged when you press the Confirm Exit From Table Without Saving
softkey when exiting from the I/Q or FSK editor.
Activating Differential Data Encoding
1. Press Return.
2. Press More (1 of 3) > Diff Data Encode Off On.
This activates differential data encoding for the current real-time I/Q baseband digital
modulation format.
To generate and output the custom digital modulation, complete the steps in the following
sections.
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7 Dual Arbitrary Waveform Generator
This chapter describes the Dual Arb mode, which is available only in E8267C PSG vector
signal generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Using the Waveform Sequencer” on page 202
• “Using Waveform Clipping” on page 207
• “Waveform Clipping Concepts” on page 209
• “Using Waveform Markers” on page 215
• “Waveform Marker Concepts” on page 221
• “Using Waveform Triggers” on page 225
• “Programming and Downloading Waveforms” on page 227
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Using the Waveform Sequencer
Using the Waveform Sequencer
The waveform sequencer is used to build and “play” a sequence of waveform segments. The
waveform sequencer also enables you to define the playback time and duration for each
waveform segment. You can generate waveforms using the internal arbitrary waveform
generator, store them to memory as “waveform segments,” and use them to build user-defined
waveform sequences. The waveform sequencer is not available for real-time I/Q baseband
generated waveforms.
Waveform sequencer features include waveform clipping, markers, and triggering, which is
useful for synchronizing the output of the signal generator with other devices.
To Create Waveform Segments
There are two ways to provide waveform segments for use by the waveform sequencer. You
can either download a waveform through the remote interface or generate a waveform using
the internal arbitrary waveform generator. For information on downloading waveforms, see
“Programming and Downloading Waveforms” on page 227.
The following procedure shows you how to create waveform segments using internally
generated two tone and multitone waveforms.
In this example, you will generate a left-aligned two tone waveform segment and a nine tone
multitone waveform segment. After renaming the two waveform segments, you will use them
to build a waveform sequence.
This section teaches you how to perform the following tasks:
• “Generating the First Waveform” on page 203
• “Creating the First Waveform Segment” on page 203
• “Generating the Second Waveform” on page 203
• “Creating the Second Waveform Segment” on page 204
• “To Store and Load Waveform Segments” on page 204
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Using the Waveform Sequencer
Generating the First Waveform
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Two Tone.
3. Press Alignment Left Cent Right to Right.
4. Press Two Tone Off On to On.
5. Press Two Tone Off On to Off.
This generates a two tone waveform with the tone on the right placed at the carrier
frequency. During waveform generation, the T-TONE and I/Q annunciators activate. The
waveform is stored in volatile ARB memory with the default file name AUTOGEN_WAVEFORM,
as you will see in the next section. The Two Tone mode was turned off after generation
because a waveform cannot be renamed as a segment while it is in use.
NOTE
There can only be one AUTOGEN_WAVEFORM waveform in ARB memory at any
given time. Therefore, you must rename this file, clearing the way for a second
waveform.
Creating the First Waveform Segment
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB .
2. Press Waveform Segments.
3. Press Load Store to Store.
4. Highlight the default segment AUTOGEN_WAVEFORM.
5. Press More (1 of 2) > Rename Segment > Editing Keys > Clear Text.
6. Enter a file name (for example, TTONE) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
7. Press Enter.
The waveform segment is now stored in volatile ARB memory as a WFM1 file.
Generating the Second Waveform
1. Press Mode > Multitone.
2. Press Initialize Table > Number Of Tones > 9 > Enter > Done.
3. Press Multitone Off On to On.
4. Press Multitone Off On to Off.
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This generates a new multitone waveform with nine tones. During waveform generation, the
T-TONE and I/Q annunciators activate. The waveform is stored in volatile ARB memory with
the default file name AUTOGEN_WAVEFORM. The Multitone mode was turned off after generation
because a waveform cannot be renamed as a segment while it is in use.
Creating the Second Waveform Segment
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB .
2. Press Waveform Segments.
3. Press Load Store to Store.
4. Highlight the default segment AUTOGEN_WAVEFORM.
5. Press More (1 of 2) > Rename Segment > Editing Keys > Clear Text.
6. Enter a file name (for example, MTONE) using the alpha keys and the numeric keypad.
7. Press Enter.
The waveform segment is now stored in volatile ARB memory as a WFM1 file.
To Store and Load Waveform Segments
Waveform segments can reside in volatile ARB memory as WFM1 files, or they can be stored
to non-volatile memory as NVWFM files, or both. To use a waveform segment for building a
waveform sequence, the segment must reside in volatile ARB memory.
This section teaches you how to perform the following tasks:
• “Storing Waveform Segments to Non-volatile Memory” on page 204
• “Loading Waveform Segments from Non-volatile Memory” on page 205
Storing Waveform Segments to Non-volatile Memory
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB .
2. Press Waveform Segments.
3. Press Load Store to Store.
4. Press Store All To NVWFM Memory.
Copies of all WFM1 waveform segment files have been stored in non-volatile memory as
NVWFM files. You can also store files individually by highlighting the file and pressing
Store Segment To NVWFM Memory.
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Loading Waveform Segments from Non-volatile Memory
1. Power cycle the instrument.
This will clear out the volatile ARB memory and delete all WFM1 files.
2. Press Mode > Dual ARB .
3. Press Waveform Segments.
4. Press Load Store to Load.
5. Press Load All From NVWFM Memory.
Copies of all NVWFM waveform segment files have been loaded into volatile memory as
WFM1 files. You can also load files individually by highlighting the file and pressing
Load Segment From NVWFM Memory.
To Build a Waveform Sequence
In this example, you learn how to build a waveform sequence using two waveform segments.
If you have not created the waveform segments used to build a waveform sequence, complete
the steps in the previous section, “To Create Waveform Segments” on page 202.
This section teaches you how to perform the following tasks:
• “Creating a Waveform Sequence Using Waveform Segments” on page 205
• “Editing Waveform Segment Repetition” on page 206
Creating a Waveform Sequence Using Waveform Segments
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Sequences
2. Press Build New Waveform Sequence > Insert Waveform.
3. Highlight the first waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Insert Selected Waveform.
5. Highlight the second waveform segment (for example, MTONE).
6. Press Insert Selected Waveform.
7. Press Done Inserting.
8. Press Name and Store.
9. Enter a file name (for example, TTONE+MTONE) using the alpha keys and the numeric
keypad.
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10. Press Enter.
11. Press Mode Setup > Select Waveform.
12. Highlight the waveform sequence you just created (for example, TTONE+MTONE).
13. Press Select Waveform.
14. Press ARB Off On to On.
You have now defined the sequence as one repetition of the two-tone waveform segment
followed by one repetition of the nine-tone multitone waveform segment. The sequence has
been stored under a new name to the Catalog of Seq Files in the signal generator’s
memory catalog, and the sequence was played to generate the waveform.
Editing Waveform Segment Repetition
1. Press Waveform Sequences > Edit Selected Waveform Sequence.
2. Highlight the first waveform segment entry (for example, WFM1:TTONE).
3. Press Edit Repetitions > 100 > Enter.
4. Press Edit Repetitions > 200 > Enter.
5. Press Name And Store.
6. Enter a file name (for example, TTONE100+MTONE200) using the alpha keys and the
numeric keypad.
7. Press Enter.
8. Press Mode Setup > Select Waveform.
9. Highlight the waveform sequence you just stored.
10. Press Select Waveform.
11. Press ARB Off On to On.
You have now changed the number of repetitions for each waveform segment entry from 1 to
100 and 200, respectively. The sequence has been stored under a new name to the Catalog of
Seq Files in the signal generator’s memory catalog, and the sequence was played to generate
the new waveform.
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Using Waveform Clipping
Using Waveform Clipping
Clipping limits power peaks in waveform segments by clipping the I and Q data to a selected
percentage of its highest peak. Circular clipping is defined as clipping the composite I/Q data
(I and Q data are equally clipped). Rectangular clipping is defined as independently clipping
the I and Q data. For more information, see “Waveform Clipping Concepts” on page 209.
In this section, you learn how to clip waveform segments. If you have not created waveform
segments, complete the steps in the previous section, “To Create Waveform Segments” on
page 202.
To Configure Circular Clipping
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Segments.
2. Press Load Store to Store.
3. Highlight the first waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Waveform Utilities > Clipping.
5. Press Clip |I+jQ| To > 80 > %.
During waveform generation, the I and Q data are both clipped by 80%. You will see 80.0%
displayed below the Clip |I+jQ| To softkey.
6. Press Return > Return > Return > Arb Off On to On to generate the clipped waveform
segment.
To Configure Rectangular Clipping
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Segments.
2. Press Load Store to Store.
3. Highlight the second waveform segment (for example, MTONE).
4. Press Waveform Utilities > Clipping.
5. Press Clipping Type |I+jQ| |I|,|Q|.
This activates the Clip |I| To and Clip |Q| To softkeys that allow you to configure rectangular
(independent) I and Q data clipping.
6. Press Clip |I| To > 80 > %.
7. Press Clip |Q| To > 40 > %.
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8. Press Return > Return > Return > Arb Off On to On to generate the clipped waveform
segment.
To Apply Clipping Modifications to an Active Waveform Sequence
If the waveform segment is currently in use (ARB Off On set to On) while changes are made to
clipping values, you must apply the changes before the updated waveform will be generated.
Press Apply To Waveform.
This applies the modified clipping values and regenerates the waveform segment based on the
updated values.
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Waveform Clipping Concepts
Waveform Clipping Concepts
Waveforms with high power peaks can cause intermodulation distortion, which generates
spectral regrowth (a condition that interferes with signals in adjacent frequency bands). The
clipping function allows you to reduce high power peaks.
The clipping feature is available only with the Dual Arb mode.
How Power Peaks Develop
To understand how clipping reduces high power peaks, it is important to know how the peaks
develop as the signal is constructed.
I/Q waveforms can be the summation of multiple channels (refer to Figure 7-1). Whenever
most or all of the individual channel waveforms simultaneously contain a bit in the same
state (high or low), an unusually high power peak (negative or positive) occurs in the summed
waveform. This does not happen frequently because the high and low states of the bits on
these channel waveforms are random, which causes a cancelling effect.
Figure 7-1
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The I and Q waveforms combine in the I/Q modulator to create an RF waveform. The
magnitude of the RF envelope is determined by the equation
, where the squaring of I
and Q always results in a positive value. Notice how simultaneous positive and negative
peaks in the I and Q waveforms do not cancel each other, but combine to create an even
greater peak (refer to Figure 7-2).
Figure 7-2
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How Peaks Cause Spectral Regrowth
Because of the relative infrequency of high power peaks, a waveform will have a high
peak-to-average power ratio (refer to Figure 7-3). Because a transmitter’s power amplifier
gain is set to provide a specific average power, high peaks can cause the power amplifier to
move toward saturation. This causes intermodulation distortion, which generates spectral
regrowth.
Figure 7-3
Peak-to-Average Power
Spectral regrowth is a range of frequencies that develops on each side of the carrier (similar to
sidebands) and extends into the adjacent frequency bands (refer to Figure 7-4). Consequently,
spectral regrowth interferes with communication in the adjacent bands. Clipping can provide
a solution to this problem.
Figure 7-4
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How Clipping Reduces Peak-to-Average Power
You can reduce peak-to-average power, and consequently spectral regrowth, by clipping the
waveform to a selected percentage of its peak power. The PSG vector signal generator
provides two different methods of clipping: circular and rectangular.
During circular clipping, clipping is applied to the combined I and Q waveform (|I + jQ|).
Notice in Figure 7-5 that the clipping level is constant for all phases of the vector
representation and appears as a circle. During rectangular clipping, clipping is applied to the
I and Q waveforms separately (|I|, |Q|). Notice in Figure 7-6 on page 213 that the clipping
level is different for I and Q; therefore, it appears as a rectangle in the vector representation.
With either method, the objective is to clip the waveform to a level that effectively reduces
spectral regrowth, but does not compromise the integrity of the signal. Figure 7-7 on page 214
uses two complementary cumulative distribution plots to show the reduction in
peak-to-average power that occurs after applying circular clipping to a waveform.
The lower you set the clipping value, the lower the peak power that is passed (or the more the
signal is clipped). Often, the peaks can be clipped successfully without substantially
interfering with the rest of the waveform. Data that might be lost in the clipping process is
salvaged because of the error correction inherent in the coded systems. If you clip too much of
the waveform, however, lost data is irrecoverable. You may have to try several clipping
settings to find a percentage that works well.
Figure 7-5
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Circular Clipping
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Figure 7-6
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Rectangular Clipping
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Figure 7-7
214
Reduction of Peak-to-Average Power
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Using Waveform Markers
Using Waveform Markers
Waveform markers provide auxiliary output signals that are synchronized with a waveform
segment. You can place up to four markers on a waveform segment. However, only Marker 1
and Marker 2 can be placed using the waveform sequencer’s user interface (for more
information, refer to “Waveform Marker Concepts” on page 221).
Using markers, you can construct an output signal as a trigger to synchronize another
instrument to a given portion of a waveform. You can also place markers into a waveform
sequence, either as the sequence is being built or within an existing waveform sequence.
To Place a Marker at the First Point within a Waveform Segment
If you have not created a waveform segment, complete the steps in the previous sections,
“Generating the First Waveform” on page 203 and “Creating the First Waveform Segment” on
page 203.
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Segments.
2. Press Load Store.
3. Highlight a waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Waveform Utilities > Set Markers > Set Marker On First Point.
This sets Marker 1 (selected by default) on the first point in the selected waveform segment.
For instructions on verifying marker operation, see “To Verify Marker Operation” on
page 219.
To Place a Marker Across a Range of Points
within a Waveform Segment
If you have not created a waveform segment, complete the steps in the previous sections,
“Generating the First Waveform” on page 203 and “Creating the First Waveform Segment” on
page 203.
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Segments.
2. Press Load Store.
3. Highlight a waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Waveform Utilities > Set Markers > Set Marker On Range Of Points.
5. Press First Mkr Point > 10 > Enter.
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6. Press Last Mkr Point > 163830 > Enter.
7. Press Apply To Waveform.
NOTE
The last marker point must be greater than or equal to the first marker point.
This activates Marker 1 (selected by default) from point 10 to point 163830 in the selected
waveform segment.
For instructions on verifying marker operation, see “To Verify Marker Operation” on
page 219.
To Place Repetitively Spaced Markers within a Waveform Segment
If you have not created a waveform segment, complete the steps in the previous sections,
“Generating the First Waveform” on page 203 and “Creating the First Waveform Segment” on
page 203.
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Segments.
2. Press Load Store.
3. Highlight a waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Waveform Utilities > Set Markers > Set Marker On Range Of Points.
5. Press First Mkr Point > 10 > Enter.
6. Press Last Mkr Point > 163830 > Enter.
7. Press # Skipped Points > 2 > Enter.
8. Press Apply To Waveform.
NOTE
The last marker point must be greater than or equal to the first marker point.
This activates Marker 1 (selected by default) every three points from point 10 to point 163830
in the selected waveform segment.
For instructions on verifying marker operation, see “To Verify Marker Operation” on
page 219.
To Use Marker 2 to Blank the RF Output
If you have not created a waveform segment, complete the steps in the previous sections,
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“Generating the First Waveform” on page 203 and “Creating the First Waveform Segment” on
page 203.
NOTE
RF blanking applies to Marker 2 only. Marker 1 does not blank the RF output.
For more information, see “Waveform Marker Concepts” on page 221.
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Select Waveform.
3. Highlight a waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Select Waveform.
5. Press Mode > Dual ARB > ARB Setup > Mkr 2 To RF Blank Off On .
6. Press Return > Arb On Off to On.
7. Press Waveform Segments > Load Store > Waveform Utilities > Set Markers > Marker 1 2 >
Set Marker On Range of Points.
8. Press First Mkr Point > 10 > Enter.
9. Press Last Mkr Point > 163830 > Enter.
10. Press Apply To Waveform.
To learn about verifying marker operation, see “To Verify Marker Operation” on page 219.
To Toggle Markers in an Existing Waveform Sequence
In a waveform sequence, you can independently toggle the operating state of the markers on
each waveform segment. When you build a waveform sequence, the markers on each segment
are toggled to the last marker operating state that was used.
In this example, you learn how to toggle markers within an existing waveform sequence. If
you have not created waveform segments, used them to build and store a waveform sequence,
and configured markers for the waveform sequence, complete the steps in the previous
sections, “To Create Waveform Segments” on page 202, “To Build a Waveform Sequence” on
page 205, and “To Place a Marker at the First Point within a Waveform Segment” on
page 215.
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Sequences.
2. Highlight the desired waveform sequence (for example, TTONE+MTONE).
3. Press Edit Selected Waveform Sequence.
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4. Highlight the desired waveform segment (for example, WFM1:TTONE).
5. Press Toggle Markers > Toggle Marker 1 or Toggle Marker 2.
6. Highlight the next desired waveform segment.
7. Press Toggle Marker 1 or Toggle Marker 2.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you have finished modifying the desired waveform segments.
9. Press Return.
10. Press Name And Store.
11. Press Enter.
The markers are toggled per your selections, and the changes have been saved to the selected
sequence file.
An entry (1,2, or 12) in the Mk column indicates that a marker is active. No entry in that
column means that both markers are off, as shown in Figure 7-8.
Figure 7-8
Marker
Column
This entry
shows both
markers on.
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To Toggle Markers As You Create a Waveform Sequence
You can combine waveform segments to create a waveform sequence while independently
toggling the markers of each waveform segment.
In this example, you learn how to toggle markers while building a waveform sequence. If you
have not created waveform segments, complete the steps in the previous section, “To Create
Waveform Segments” on page 202.
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Waveform Sequences > Build New Waveform Sequence.
2. Press Insert Waveform.
3. Highlight the desired waveform segment (for example, TTONE).
4. Press Insert Selected Waveform > Insert Selected Waveform > Done Inserting.
5. Highlight the first waveform segment.
An entry (1, 2 or 12) in the Mk column indicates that a marker is active. No entry in that
column means that both markers are off.
6. Press Toggle Markers.
7. Press Toggle Marker 1 and Toggle Marker 2 until only 2 is showing in the Mk column.
8. Highlight the next waveform segment.
9. Press Toggle Marker 1 and Toggle Marker 2 until both 1 and 2 are showing in the Mk column.
10. Press Return.
You now have a waveform sequence that contains two TTONE waveform segments. Marker 2
is on for the first waveform segment and markers 1 and 2 are on for the second waveform
segment.
To Verify Marker Operation
In this example, you learn how to verify marker operation. If you have not created waveform
segments and applied makers, complete the steps in the previous sections, “To Create
Waveform Segments” on page 202 and “To Place a Marker at the First Point within a
Waveform Segment” on page 215.
Once you set a marker on a waveform segment, you can detect the marker pulse at the
EVENT 1 or EVENT 2 connectors (EVENT 1 for this example). For more information, see
“Waveform Marker Concepts” on page 221
1. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Select Waveform.
2. Highlight the desired waveform segment or sequence.
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3. Press ARB Off On to On.
4. Connect an oscilloscope input to the EVENT 1 connector, and trigger on the Event 1 signal.
When a marker is present, a marker pulse is displayed on the oscilloscope.
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Waveform Marker Concepts
Waveform Marker Concepts
The Dual Arb mode of the signal generator has four markers that you can place on a
waveform segment. Marker 1 and Marker 2 provide auxiliary output signals to the rear-panel
EVENT 1 and EVENT 2 connectors, respectively. Markers 3 and 4 are available only for
custom-programmed waveforms, and they provide auxiliary output signals to pins 19 and 18
of the rear-panel AUXILIARY I/O connector, respectively. You can construct these output
signals as a trigger signal to synchronize another instrument to a given portion of a
waveform. For more information about waveform markers, refer to the Programming Guide.
The following timing diagrams describe the effects of Markers 1 and 2 on the state of the
signal at the EVENT 1 and EVENT 2 rear panel connectors.
NOTE
Marker polarity selection may not be available in your version of the firmware.
In this case, marker polarity is always positive.
Marker 1 and EVENT 1
Marker File
Bit 1
Signal At
EVENT 1
Connector
Waveform
point n
point n+1
point n+2
point n+3
...
For Marker Polarity = Positive
For Marker Polarity = Negative
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Positive
±
Marker File
Bit 1
Marker
Polarity
EVENT 1
Negative
Marker 2 and EVENT 2
Marker File
Bit 2
Signal At
EVENT 2
Connector
Waveform
point n
point n+1
point n+2
point n+3
...
For Marker Polarity = Positive
For Marker Polarity = Negative
RF Output
RF Unblanked (low)
Mkr 2 to RF Blank = Off
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Marker 2 and EVENT 2
RF Unblanked
RF Output
RF Blanked
RF Blanked
Mkr 2 to RF Blank = On
Marker Polarity = Positive
RF Output
RF Unblanked
Mkr 2 to RF blank = On
Marker Polarity = Negative
RF
Unblanked
RF Blanked
Positive
EVENT 2
Marker File
Bit 2
±
Marker
Polarity
Marker 2
Blanks RF
when Marker
is Low
Negative
Marker 2 to
RF Blank
Off On
A waveform sequence comprises waveform segments. When you combine segments to form a
sequence, you can enable or disable Marker 1 and/or Marker 2 on a segment-by-segment
basis.
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When you select a sequence to output, the markers embedded in any one segment of that
sequence are output only if the sequence marker for that segment is enabled (toggled on). This
makes it possible to output markers for some segments in a sequence, but not for others.
±
Marker File
Bit 1
Sequence
Marker 1
EVENT 1
Marker
Polarity
EVENT 2
±
Marker File
Bit 2
Sequence
Marker 2
RF Blanking
Marker 2
to RF
Blank
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Using Waveform Triggers
Using Waveform Triggers
The dual arbitrary waveform generator includes several different triggering options: single,
gated, segment advance, and continuous. The trigger source can be the Trigger hardkey, a
command sent through the remote interface, or an external signal applied to the TRIGGER
IN rear panel connector.
To Use Segment Advance Triggering
Using this procedure, you learn how to control sequence playback of two waveform segments
using segment advance triggering.
If you have not created and stored a waveform sequence, complete the steps in the previous
sections, “To Create Waveform Segments” on page 202, and “To Build a Waveform Sequence”
on page 205.
This section teaches you how to perform the following tasks:
• “Configuring the Waveform Sequence Trigger” on page 225
• “Triggering the Second Waveform” on page 226
Configuring the Waveform Sequence Trigger
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Mode > Dual ARB > Select Waveform.
3. Highlight a waveform sequence file (for example, TTONE100+MTONE200).
4. Press Select Waveform.
5. Press Trigger > Segment Advance.
6. Press Trigger > Trigger Setup > Trigger Source > Trigger Key.
7. Press Return > Return > ARB Off On to On.
The first waveform segment in the sequence (TTONE) is now playing and modulating the
RF carrier. The waveform sequencer has been programmed to stop the playback of the
current waveform segment and start the playback of the next waveform segment in the
sequence when a trigger is received from the front panel Trigger hardkey.
You can now enable the RF output and use your signal.
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Triggering the Second Waveform
1. Press the Trigger hardkey.
2. Observe the second waveform segment in the sequence (MTONE) is now playing.
Pressing the Trigger hardkey stops the playback of the first waveform segment and starts the
playback of the second waveform segment. Pressing the Trigger hardkey again will return the
waveform sequencer to the first waveform segment.
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Programming and Downloading Waveforms
Programming and Downloading Waveforms
The dual arbitrary waveform generator can play waveforms that you create on a PC and
download to the instrument’s memory.
In this section, you will see an example of a pulse sequence that was created on a PC using
Matlab, and you will learn how to download the resulting waveform file to the PSG vector
signal generator’s memory using Download Assistant.
Waveform files can also be downloaded by other methods, such as FTP and Intuilink. For
more information on downloading files, refer to the Programming Guide.
To Use Matlab to Create Waveforms
Matlab is a programming tool that can be used to create specialized waveforms, such as radar
and pulse sequences. Using Matlab and Agilent’s integrated Download Assistant utility, you
can create a single function that will build a waveform, preconfigure the waveform with
playback setting information, and download the waveform to the signal generator’s volatile
memory for playback or sequencing.
The following Matlab M-file programming example generates and downloads a pulse pattern
waveform file through the PSG vector signal generator’s GPIB interface. A copy is also
available on the PSG Documentation CD-ROM as pulsepat.m.
% Script file: pulsepat.m
%
% Purpose:
%To calculate and download an arbitrary waveform file that simulates a
%simple antenna scan pulse pattern to the PSG vector signal generator.
%
% Define Variables:
% n -- counting variable (no units)
% t -- time (seconds)
% rise -- raised cosine pulse rise-time definition (samples)
% on -- pulse on-time definition (samples)
% fall -- raised cosine pulse fall-time definition (samples)
% i -- in-phase modulation signal
% q -- quadrature modulation signal
n=4;
% defines the number of points in the rise-time and fall-time
t=-1:2/n:1-2/n;
% number of points translated to time
rise=(1+sin(t*pi/2))/2;
% defines the pulse rise-time shape
on=ones(1,120);
% defines the pulse on-time characteristics
fall=(1+sin(-t*pi/2))/2;
% defines the pulse fall-time shape
off=zeros(1,896);
% defines the pulse off-time characteristics
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% arrange the i-samples and scale the amplitude to simulate an antenna scan
% pattern comprised of 10 pulses
i = .707*[rise on fall off...
[.9*[rise on fall off]]...
[.8*[rise on fall off]]...
[.7*[rise on fall off]]...
[.6*[rise on fall off]]...
[.5*[rise on fall off]]...
[.4*[rise on fall off]]...
[.3*[rise on fall off]]...
[.2*[rise on fall off]]...
[.1*[rise on fall off]]];
% set the q-samples to all zeroes
q = zeros(1,10240);
% define a composite iq matrix for download to the PSG using the
% PSG/ESG Download Assistant
IQData = [i + (j * q)];
% define a marker matrix and activate a marker to indicate the beginning of the waveform
Markers = zeros(2,length(IQData));
% fill marker array with zero, i.e no markers set
Markers(1,1) = 1;
% set marker to first point of playback
% make a new connection to the PSG over the GPIB interface
io = agt_newconnection('gpib',0,19);
% verify that communication with the PSG has been established
[status, status_description,query_result] = agt_query(io,'*idn?');
if (status < 0) return; end
% set the carrier frequency and power level on the PSG using the PSG Download Assistant
[status, status_description] = agt_sendcommand(io, 'SOURce:FREQuency 20000000000');
[status, status_description] = agt_sendcommand(io, 'POWer 0');
% define the ARB sample clock for playback
sampclk = 40000000;
% download the iq waveform to the PSG baseband generator for playback
[status, status_description] = agt_waveformload(io, IQData, 'pulsepat', sampclk, 'play',
'no_normscale', Markers);
% turn on RF output power
[status, status_description ] = agt_sendcommand( io, 'OUTPut:STATe ON' )
You can test your program by performing a simulated plot of the in-phase modulation signal
in Matlab (see Figure 7-9 on page 229). To do this, enter plot (i) at the Matlab command
prompt.
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Figure 7-9
Simulated Plot of In-Phase Signal
The following additional Matlab M-file programming examples are available on the
PSG Documentation CD-ROM:
barker.m
This programming example calculates and downloads an arbitrary
waveform file that simulates a simple 7 bit barker RADAR signal to the PSG
vector signal generator.
chirp.m
This programming example calculates and downloads an arbitrary
waveform file that simulates a simple compressed pulse RADAR signal
using linear FM chirp to the PSG vector signal generator.
FM.m
This programming example calculates and downloads an arbitrary
waveform file that simulates a single tone FM signal with a rate of 6 KHz,
deviation of =/- 14.3 KH, Bessel null of dev/rate=2.404 to the PSG vector
signal generator.
nchirp.m
This programming example calculates and downloads an arbitrary
waveform file that simulates a simple compressed pulse RADAR signal
using non-linear FM chirp to the PSG vector signal generator.
pulse.m
This programming example calculates and downloads an arbitrary
waveform file that simulates a simple pulse signal to the PSG vector signal
generator.
Chapter 7
229
Dual Arbitrary Waveform Generator
Programming and Downloading Waveforms
pulsedroop.m
This programming example calculates and downloads an arbitrary
waveform file that simulates a simple pulse signal with pulse droop to the
PSG vector signal generator.
To Download Waveforms from Matlab
This procedure describes how to download a waveform file from Matlab to the PSG vector
signal generator’s volatile memory.
When using the Download Assistant with Matlab, the I/O interface definition and the
download command are embedded in the M-file program (see the programming example in
“To Use Matlab to Create Waveforms” on page 227). To download the waveform to the signal
generator, execute the program in the Matlab command window by entering the name of the
M-file (for example, pulsepat) at the command prompt. The Download Assistant will be
instructed to download the waveform file to the signal generator.
For more information about the Download Assistant, go to www.agilent.com and search for
“Download Assistant” in Test & Measurement.
NOTE
In our example, we use the GPIB interface to download waveforms. Make sure
that the GPIB interface is working properly between the signal generator and
the computer before downloading. See the programming guide for more
information about using GPIB and other interfaces.
To Play Downloaded Waveforms
Waveform files are downloaded to the signal generator’s volatile memory as WFM1 files. They
can be used by the waveform sequencer as segments or stored to non-volatile memory, just
like internally created waveform files. For more information on using the waveform
sequencer, see “Using the Waveform Sequencer” on page 202.
230
Chapter 7
8 Multitone Waveform Generator
This chapter describes the Multitone mode, which is available only in E8267C PSG vector
signal generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Overview of the Multitone Waveform Generator” on page 232
• “Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms” on page 233
231
Multitone Waveform Generator
Overview of the Multitone Waveform Generator
Overview of the Multitone Waveform Generator
The multitone mode builds a waveform that has up to 64 CW signals, or tones. Using the
Multitone Setup table editor, you can define, modify, and store waveforms for playback.
Multitone waveforms are generated by the internal I/Q baseband generator.
The multitone waveform generator is typically used for testing the intermodulation distortion
characteristics of multi-channel devices, such as mixers or amplifiers. Intermodulation
distortion (IMD) occurs when non-linear devices with multiple input frequencies cause
unwanted outputs at other frequencies or interfere with adjacent channels. The multitone
waveform generator supplies a waveform with a user-specified number of tones whose IMD
products can be measured using a spectrum analyzer and used as a reference when
measuring the IMD generated by a device-under-test.
Multitone waveforms are created using the internal I/Q baseband generator and stored in
ARB memory for playback. Although the multitone mode generates a high-quality waveform,
a small amount of IMD, carrier feedthrough, and feedthrough-related IMD occurs. Carrier
feedthrough may be observed when an even number of tones are generated, since there are no
tones at the center carrier frequency to mask the feedthrough. To minimize carrier
feedthrough for an even-numbered multitone signal, it is necessary to manually adjust the I
and Q offsets while observing the center carrier frequency with a spectrum analyzer.
For measurements that require more than 64 tones or the absence of IMD and carrier
feedthrough, you can create up to 1024 distortion-free multitone signals using Agilent
Technologies Signal Studio software Option 408.
NOTE
232
For more information about multitone waveform characteristics and the PSG
vector signal generator multitone personality, download Application Note 1410
from our website by going to www.agilent.com and searching for “AN 1410” in
Test & Measurement.
Chapter 8
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
This section describes how to set up, generate, and optimize a multitone waveform while
viewing it with a spectrum analyzer. Although you can view a generated multitone signal
using any spectrum analyzer that has sufficient frequency range, an Agilent Technologies
PSA high-performance spectrum analyzer was used for this demonstration. Before generating
your signal, connect the spectrum analyzer to the signal generator as shown in Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-1
Chapter 8
Spectrum Analyzer Setup
233
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
To Create a Custom Multitone Waveform
Using the Multitone Setup table editor, you can define, modify and store user-defined
multitone waveforms. Multitone waveforms are generated by the dual arbitrary waveform
generator.
1. Preset the signal generator.
2. Set the signal generator RF output frequency to 20 GHz.
3. Set the signal generator RF output amplitude to 0 dBm.
4. Press Mode > Multitone > Initialize Table > Number of Tones > 9 > Enter.
5. Press Freq Spacing > 1 > MHz.
6. Press Initialize Phase Fixed Random to Random.
7. Press Done.
8. Press Multitone Off On to On.
9. Turn on the RF output.
The multitone signal should be available at the signal generator RF OUTPUT connector.
Figure 8-2 on page 235 shows what the signal generator display should look like after all
steps have been completed. Notice that the M-TONE, I/Q, RF ON, and MOD ON annunciators are
displayed and the parameter settings for the signal are shown in the status area of the signal
generator display. The multitone waveform is stored in volatile ARB memory.
The waveform has nine tones spaced 1 MHz apart with random initial phase values. The
center tone is placed at the carrier frequency, while the other eight tones are spaced in 1 MHz
increments from the center tone. If you create an even number of tones, the carrier frequency
will be centered between the two middle tones.
234
Chapter 8
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
Figure 8-2
Chapter 8
235
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
To View a Multitone Waveform
This procedure describes how to configure the spectrum analyzer to view a multitone
waveform and its IMD products. Actual key presses will vary, depending on the model of
spectrum analyzer you are using.
1. Preset the spectrum analyzer.
2. Set the carrier frequency to 20 GHz.
3. Set the frequency span to 20 MHz.
4. Set the amplitude for a 10 dB scale with a 4 dBm reference.
5. Adjust the resolution bandwidth to sufficiently reduce the noise floor to expose the IMD
products. A 9.1 kHz setting was used in our example.
6. Turn on the peak detector.
7. Set the attenuation to 14 dB, so you’re not overdriving the input mixer on the spectrum
analyzer.
You should now see a waveform with nine tones and a 20 GHz center carrier frequency that is
similar to the one shown in Figure 8-3 on page 237. You will also see IMD products at 1 MHz
intervals above and below the highest and lowest tones.
236
Chapter 8
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
Figure 8-3
Multitone
Channels
Intermodulation
Distortion
Chapter 8
237
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
To Edit the Multitone Setup Table
This procedure builds upon the previous procedure.
1. Press Initialize Table > Number of Tones > 10 > Enter.
2. Press Done.
3. Highlight the value (On) in the State column for the tone in row 2.
4. Press Toggle State.
5. Highlight the value (0 dB) in the Power column for the tone in row 4.
6. Press Edit Item > −10 > dB.
7. Highlight the value (0) in the Phase column for the tone in row 4.
8. Press Edit Item > 123 > deg.
9. Press Apply Multitone.
NOTE
Whenever a change is made to a setting while the multitone generator is
operating (Multitone Off On set to On), you must apply the change by pressing
the Apply Multitone softkey before the updated waveform will be generated.
When you apply a change, the baseband generator creates a multitone
waveform using the new settings and replaces the existing waveform in ARB
memory.
You have now changed the number of tones to 10, disabled tone 2, and changed the power and
phase of tone 4. Figure 8-4 on page 239 shows what the multitone setup table display on the
signal generator should look like after all steps have been completed. The spectrum analyzer
should display a waveform similar to the one shown in Figure 8-5 on page 239. Notice that
even-numbered multitone waveforms have a small amount of carrier feedthrough at the
center carrier frequency.
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Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
Figure 8-4
Figure 8-5
Tone 1
Tone 10
Carrier
Feedthrough
Intermodulation
Distortion
Chapter 8
Carrier
Feedthrough
Distortion
239
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
To Minimize Carrier Feedthrough
This procedure describes how to minimize carrier feedthrough and measure the difference in
power between the tones and their intermodulation distortion products. Carrier feedthrough
can only be observed with even-numbered multitone waveforms.
This procedure builds upon the previous procedure.
1. On the spectrum analyzer, set the resolution bandwidth for a sweep rate of about
100-200 ms. This will allow you to dynamically view the carrier feedthrough spike as you
make adjustments.
2. On the signal generator, press I/Q > I/Q Adjustments > I/Q Adjustments Off On to On.
3. Press I Offset and turn the rotary knob while observing the carrier feedthrough with the
spectrum analyzer. Changing the I offset in the proper direction will reduce the
feedthrough level. Adjust the level as low as possible.
4. Press Q Offset and turn the rotary knob to further reduce the carrier feedthrough level.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have reached the lowest possible carrier feedthrough level.
6. On the spectrum analyzer, return the resolution bandwidth to its previous setting.
7. Turn on waveform averaging.
8. Create a marker and place it on the peak of one of the end tones.
9. Create a delta marker and place it on the peak of the adjacent intermodulation product,
which should be spaced 10 MHz from the marked tone.
10. Measure the power difference between the tone and its distortion product.
You should now see a display that is similar to the one shown in Figure 8-6 on page 241. Your
optimized multitone signal can now be used to measure the IMD products generated by a
device-under-test.
Note that carrier feedthrough changes with time and temperature. Therefore, you will need to
periodically readjust your I and Q offsets to keep the signal optimized.
240
Chapter 8
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
Figure 8-6
Tone 1
Tone 10
Minimized
Carrier
Feedthrough
Intermodulation
Distortion
Chapter 8
Carrier
Feedthrough
Distortion
241
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
To Determine Peak to Average Characteristics
This procedure describes how to set the phases of the tones in a multitone waveform and
determine the peak to average characteristics by plotting the complementary cumulative
distribution function (CCDF).
1. Press Mode > Multitone > Initialize Table > Number of Tones > 64 > Enter.
2. Press Freq Spacing > 20 > kHz.
3. Press Initialize Phase Fixed Random to Fixed.
4. Press Done.
5. Press Apply Multitone.
6. Press More (1 of 2) > Waveform Statistics > Plot CCDF.
You should now see a display that is similar to the one shown in Figure 8-7. The CCDF plot
displays the peak to average characteristics of the waveform with all phases set to zero.
Figure 8-7
CCDF Plot with Fixed Phase Set
Peak
Power
242
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Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
7. Press Mode Setup > Initialize Table.
8. Press Initialize Phase Fixed Random to Random.
9. Press Random Seed Fixed Random to Random.
10. Press Done.
11. Press Apply Multitone.
12. Press More (1 of 2) > Waveform Statistics > Plot CCDF.
You should now see a display that is similar to the one shown in Figure 8-8. The CCDF plot
displays the peak to average characteristics of the waveform with randomly generated
phases and a random seed.
The random phase setup simulates the typically random nature of multitone waveforms.
Notice that randomly distributed phases result in a much lower peak to average ratio than
fixed phases. An increase in the number of tones with random phases will decrease the
probability of a maximum peak power occurrence.
Figure 8-8
CCDF Plot with Random Phase Set
Peak
Power
Chapter 8
243
Multitone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Optimizing Multitone Waveforms
244
Chapter 8
9 Two-Tone Waveform Generator
This chapter describes the Two Tone mode, which is available only in E8267C PSG vector
signal generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “Overview of the Two-Tone Waveform Generator” on page 246
• “Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms” on page 247
245
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Overview of the Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Overview of the Two-Tone Waveform Generator
The two-tone mode builds a waveform that has two equal-powered CW signals, or tones. The
default waveform has two tones that are symmetrically spaced from the center carrier
frequency, and have user-defined amplitude, carrier frequency, and frequency separation
settings. The user can also align the tones left or right, relative to the carrier frequency.
The two-tone waveform generator is designed for testing the intermodulation distortion
characteristics of non-linear devices, such as mixers or amplifiers. Intermodulation distortion
(IMD) occurs when non-linear devices with multiple input frequencies interfere with adjacent
channels or cause unwanted outputs at other frequencies. The two-tone waveform generator
supplies a signal whose IMD products can be measured using a spectrum analyzer and used
as a reference when measuring the IMD generated by a device-under-test.
Two-tone waveforms are created using the internal I/Q baseband generator and stored in ARB
memory for playback. Although the two-tone mode generates a high-quality waveform, a
small amount of IMD occurs. In addition to IMD, a small amount of carrier feedthrough and
feedthrough-related IMD may be present when the spacing between the tones is centered on
the carrier frequency. To minimize carrier feedthrough for a two-tone signal, it is necessary to
manually adjust the I and Q offsets while observing the center carrier frequency with a
spectrum analyzer. For measurements that require the absence of IMD and carrier
feedthrough, you can create distortion-free multitone signals using Agilent Technologies
Signal Studio software Option 408.
NOTE
246
For more information about two-tone waveform characteristics and the PSG
vector signal generator two-tone personality, download Application Note 1410
from our website by going to www.agilent.com and searching for “AN 1410” in
Test & Measurement.
Chapter 9
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
This section describes how to set up, generate, and modify a two-tone waveform while viewing
it with a spectrum analyzer. Although you can view a generated two-tone signal using any
spectrum analyzer that has sufficient frequency range, an Agilent Technologies PSA Series
High-Performance Spectrum Analyzer was used for this demonstration. Before generating
your signal, connect the spectrum analyzer to the signal generator as shown in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1
Chapter 9
Spectrum Analyzer Setup
247
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
To Create a Two-Tone Waveform
This procedure describes how to create and a basic, center-aligned, two-tone waveform.
1. Preset the signal generator.
2. Set the signal generator RF output frequency to 20 GHz.
3. Set the signal generator RF output amplitude to 0 dBm.
4. Press Mode > Two Tone > Freq Separation > 10 > MHz.
5. Press Two Tone Off On to On.
6. Turn on the RF output.
The two-tone signal is now available at the signal generator RF OUTPUT connector. Figure
9-2 shows what the signal generator display should look like after all steps have been
completed. Notice that the T-TONE, I/Q, RF ON, and MOD ON annunciators are displayed and
the parameter settings for the signal are shown in the status area of the signal generator
display.
Figure 9-2
248
Chapter 9
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
To View a Two-Tone Waveform
This procedure describes how to configure the spectrum analyzer to view a two-tone waveform
and its IMD products. Actual key presses will vary, depending on the model of spectrum
analyzer you are using.
1. Preset the spectrum analyzer.
2. Set the carrier frequency to 20 GHz.
3. Set the frequency span to 60 MHz.
4. Set the amplitude for a 10 dB scale with a 4 dBm reference.
5. Adjust the resolution bandwidth to sufficiently reduce the noise floor to expose the IMD
products. A 9.1 kHz setting was used in our example.
6. Turn on the peak detector.
7. Set the attenuation to 14 dB, so you’re not overdriving the input mixer on the spectrum
analyzer.
You should now see a two-tone waveform with a 20 GHz center carrier frequency that is
similar to the one shown in Figure 9-3 on page 250. You will also see IMD products at 10 MHz
intervals above and below the generated tones, and a carrier feedthrough spike at the center
frequency with carrier feedthrough distortion products at 10 MHz intervals above and below
the center carrier frequency.
Chapter 9
249
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
Figure 9-3
Two-Tone
Channels
Carrier
Feedthrough
Intermodulation
Distortion
Carrier
Feedthrough
Distortion
250
Chapter 9
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
To Minimize Carrier Feedthrough
This procedure describes how to minimize carrier feedthrough and measure the difference in
power between the tones and their intermodulation distortion products. Carrier feedthrough
only occurs with center-aligned two-tone waveforms.
This procedure builds upon the previous procedure.
1. On the spectrum analyzer, set the resolution bandwidth for a sweep rate of about
100-200 ms. This will allow you to dynamically view the carrier feedthrough spike as you
make adjustments.
2. On the signal generator, press I/Q > I/Q Adjustments > I/Q Adjustments Off On to On.
3. Press I Offset and turn the rotary knob while observing the carrier feedthrough with the
spectrum analyzer. Changing the I offset in the proper direction will reduce the
feedthrough level. Adjust the level as low as possible.
4. Press Q Offset and turn the rotary knob to further reduce the carrier feedthrough level.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have reached the lowest possible carrier feedthrough level.
6. On the spectrum analyzer, return the resolution bandwidth to its previous setting.
7. Turn on waveform averaging.
8. Create a marker and place it on the peak of one of the two tones.
9. Create a delta marker and place it on the peak of the adjacent intermodulation product,
which should be spaced 10 MHz from the marked tone.
10. Measure the power difference between the tone and its distortion product.
You should now see a display that is similar to the one shown in Figure 9-4 on page 252. Your
optimized two-tone signal can now be used to measure the IMD products generated by a
device-under-test.
Note that carrier feedthrough changes with time and temperature. Therefore, you will need to
periodically readjust your I and Q offsets to keep your signal optimized.
Chapter 9
251
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
Figure 9-4
Main Marker
Minimized
Carrier
Feedthrough
Delta Marker
252
Chapter 9
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
To Change the Alignment of a Two-Tone Waveform
This procedure describes how to align a two-tone waveform left or right, relative to the center
carrier frequency. Left or right alignment eliminates carrier feedthrough, since the frequency
of one of the tones is the same as the carrier frequency. However, image frequency
interference caused by left or right alignment may cause minor distortion of the two-tone
signal.
This procedure builds upon the previous procedure.
1. On the signal generator, press Mode Setup > Alignment Left Cent Right to Left.
2. Press Apply Settings to regenerate the waveform.
NOTE
Whenever a change is made to a setting while the two-tone generator is
operating (Two Tone Off On set to On), you must apply the change by pressing
the Apply Settings softkey before the updated waveform will be generated. When
you apply a change, the baseband generator creates a two-tone waveform using
the new settings and replaces the existing waveform in ARB memory.
3. On the spectrum analyzer, temporarily turn off waveform averaging to refresh your view
more quickly.
You should now see a left-aligned two-tone waveform that is similar to the one shown in
Figure 9-5 on page 254.
Chapter 9
253
Two-Tone Waveform Generator
Creating, Viewing, and Modifying Two-Tone Waveforms
Figure 9-5
Two-Tone
Channels
Upper Tone
Aligned with
Carrier
Frequency
Intermodulation
Distortion
Carrier
Frequency
254
Chapter 9
10 Troubleshooting
This chapter provides troubleshooting information for Agilent PSG signal generators.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
• “If You Encounter a Problem” on page 256
• “Basic Signal Generator Operations” on page 257
• “Signal Generator Lock-Up” on page 265
• “Upgrading Firmware” on page 267
• “Returning a Signal Generator to Agilent Technologies” on page 268
255
Troubleshooting
If You Encounter a Problem
If You Encounter a Problem
If the signal generator is not operating properly, refer to the proper section in this chapter for
a possible solution. If you do not find a solution, refer to the Service Guide.
NOTE
256
If the signal generator displays errors, always read the error message text by
pressing Utility > Error Info.
Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
Basic Signal Generator Operations
Cannot Turn Off Help Mode
1. Press Utility > Instrument Info/Help Mode
2. Press Help Mode Single Cont until Single is highlighted.
The signal generator has two help modes; single and continuous.
When you press Help in single mode (the factory preset condition), help text is provided for the
next key you press. Pressing another key will exit the help mode and activate the key’s
function.
When you press Help in continuous mode, help text is provided for the next key you press and
that key’s function is also activated (except for Preset). You will stay in help mode until you
press Help again or change to single mode.
No RF Output
Check the RF ON/OFF annunciator on the display. If it reads RF OFF, press RF On/Off to toggle
the RF output on.
The Power Supply has Shut Down
If the power supply is not working, it requires repair or replacement. There is no
user-replaceable power supply fuse. Refer to the Service Guide for instructions.
Signal Loss While Working with Mixers
If you experience signal loss at the signal generator’s RF output during low-amplitude coupled
operation with a mixer, you can solve the problem by adding attenuation and increasing the
RF output amplitude of the signal generator.
Figure 10-1 on page 258 shows a hypothetical configuration in which the signal generator
provides a low amplitude signal to a mixer.
Chapter 10
257
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
Figure 10-1
Effects of Reverse Power on ALC
SIGNAL GENERATOR
OUTPUT CONTROL
ALC LEVEL
= - 8 dBm
RF OUTPUT
= - 8 dBm
MIXER
RF LEVEL
CONTROL
DETECTOR
MEASURES
- 8 dBm
ALC LEVEL
LO
DETECTOR
MEASURES
- 5 dBm
REVERSE
POWER
LO FEEDTHRU
= - 5 dBm
LO LEVEL
= +10 dBm
IF
The internally leveled signal generator RF output (and ALC level) is -8 dBm. The mixer is
driven with an LO of +10 dBm and has an LO-to-RF isolation of 15 dB. The resulting LO
feedthrough of -5 dBm enters the signal generator’s RF output connector and arrives at the
internal detector.
Depending on frequency, it is possible for most of this LO feedthrough energy to enter the
detector. Since the detector responds to its total input power regardless of frequency, this
excess energy causes the ALC to reduce the RF output of the signal generator. In this
example, the reverse power across the detector is actually greater than the ALC level, which
may result in loss of signal at the RF output.
Figure 10-2 on page 259 shows a similar configuration with the addition of a 10 dB attenuator
connected between the RF output of the signal generator and the input of the mixer. The
signal generator’s ALC level is increased to +2 dBm and transmitted through a 10 dB
attenuator to achieve the required -8 dBm amplitude at the mixer input.
258
Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
Figure 10-2
Reverse Power Solution
SIGNAL GENERATOR
OUTPUT CONTROL
ALC LEVEL/
RF OUTPUT
= +2 dBm
RF INPUT
= - 8 dBm
10 dB
ATTEN
RF LEVEL
CONTROL
DETECTOR
MEASURES
+2 dBm
ALC LEVEL
MIXER
DETECTOR
MEASURES
- 15 dBm
REVERSE
POWER
LO
LO LEVEL
= +10 dBm
LO FEEDTHRU
= - 5 dBm
IF
Compared to the original configuration, the ALC level is 10 dB higher while the attenuator
reduces the LO feedthrough (and the RF output of the signal generator) by 10 dB. Using the
attenuated configuration, the detector is exposed to a +2 dBm desired signal versus the
-15 dBm undesired LO feedthrough. This 17 dB difference between desired and undesired
energy results in a maximum 0.1 dB shift in the signal generator’s RF output level.
Signal Loss While Working with Spectrum Analyzers
The effects of reverse power can cause problems with the signal generator’s RF output when
the signal generator is used with a spectrum analyzer that does not have preselection
capability.
Some spectrum analyzers have as much as +5 dBm LO feedthrough at their RF input port at
some frequencies. If the frequency difference between the LO feedthrough and the RF carrier
is less than the ALC bandwidth, the LO’s reverse power can cause amplitude modulation of
the signal generator’s RF output. The rate of the undesired AM equals the difference in
frequency between the spectrum analyzer’s LO feedthrough and the RF carrier of the signal
generator.
Reverse power problems can be solved by using one of two unleveled operating modes: ALC off
or power search.
ALC Off Mode
ALC off mode deactivates the automatic leveling circuitry prior to the signal generator’s RF
Chapter 10
259
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
output. In this mode, a power meter is required to measure the output of the signal generator
and assist in achieving the required output power at the point of detection.
To set the signal generator to the ALC off mode, follow these steps:
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency, enter the required frequency, and terminate the entry with the
appropriate terminator softkey.
3. Press Amplitude, enter the required amplitude, and terminate the entry with the
appropriate terminator softkey.
4. Press RF On/Off.
5. Press Amplitude > ALC Off On.
This deactivates the signal generator’s automatic leveling control.
6. Monitor the RF output amplitude as measured by the power meter.
7. Press Amplitude and adjust the signal generator’s RF output amplitude until the desired
power is measured by the power meter.
Power Search Mode
Power search mode executes a power search routine that temporarily activates the ALC,
calibrates the power of the current RF output, and then disconnects the ALC circuitry.
To set the signal generator to manual fixed power search mode, follow these steps:
1. Press Preset.
2. Press Frequency, enter the required frequency, and terminate the entry with the
appropriate terminator softkey.
3. Press Amplitude, enter the required amplitude, and terminate the entry with the
appropriate terminator softkey.
4. Press ALC Off On.
This deactivates the ALC circuitry.
5. Press RF On/Off.
6. Press Do Power Search.
This executes the manual fixed power search routine.
There are two power search modes: manual and automatic.
When Power Search Manual Auto is set to Manual, pressing Do Power Search executes the power
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Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
search calibration routine for the current RF frequency and amplitude. In this mode, if there
is a change in RF frequency or amplitude, you will need to press Do Power Search again.
When Power Search Manual Auto is set to Auto, the calibration routine is executed whenever
the frequency or amplitude of the RF output is changed.
RF Output Power too Low
1. Look for an OFFS or REF indicator in the AMPLITUDE area of the display.
OFFS tells you that an amplitude offset has been set. An amplitude offset changes the value
shown in the AMPLITUDE area of the display but does not affect the output power. The
amplitude displayed is equal to the current power output by the signal generator hardware
plus the value for the offset.
To eliminate the offset, press the following keys:
Amplitude > More (1 of 2) > Ampl Offset > 0 > dB .
REF tells you that the amplitude reference mode is activated. When this mode is on, the
displayed amplitude value is not the output power level. It is the current power output by
the signal generator hardware minus the reference value set by the Ampl Ref Set softkey.
To exit the reference mode, follow these steps:
a. Press Amplitude > More (1 of 2).
b. Press Ampl Ref Off On until Off is highlighted.
You can then reset the output power to the desired level.
2. If you are using the signal generator with an external mixer, see “Signal Loss While
Working with Mixers” on page 257.
3. If you are using the signal generator with a spectrum analyzer, see “Signal Loss While
Working with Spectrum Analyzers” on page 259.
No Modulation at the RF Output
Check the MOD ON/OFF annunciator on the display. If it reads MOD OFF, press Mod On/Off to
toggle the modulation on.
Although you can set up and enable various modulations, the RF carrier is modulated only
when you have also set Mod On/Off to On.
For digital modulation, make sure that I/Q Off On is set to On.
Chapter 10
261
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
Sweep Appears to be Stalled
The current status of the sweep is indicated as a shaded rectangle in the progress bar. You can
observe the progress bar to determine if the sweep is progressing. If the sweep appears to
have stalled, check the following:
❏ Have you turned on the sweep by pressing any of the following key sequences?
Sweep/List > Sweep > Freq
Sweep/List > Sweep > Ampl
Sweep/List > Sweep > Freq & Ampl
❏ Is the sweep in continuous mode? If the sweep is in single mode, be sure that you have
pressed the Single Sweep softkey at least once since completion of the prior sweep. Try
setting the mode to continuous to determine if the missing single sweep is blocking the
sweep.
❏ Is the signal generator receiving the appropriate sweep trigger? Try setting the
Sweep Trigger softkey to Free Run to determine if a missing sweep trigger is blocking the
sweep.
❏ Is the signal generator receiving the appropriate point trigger? Try setting the Point Trigger
softey to Free Run to determine if a missing point trigger is blocking the sweep.
❏ Is the dwell time appropriate? Try setting the dwell time to one second to determine if the
dwell time was set to a value which was too slow or too fast for you to see.
❏ Do you have at least two points in your step sweep or list sweep?
Cannot Turn Off Sweep Mode
Press Sweep/List > Sweep > Off.
In the sweep mode menu you can choose to set the sweep to various sweep types or to turn
sweep off.
Incorrect List Sweep Dwell Time
If the signal generator does not dwell for the correct period of time at each sweep list point,
follow these steps:
1. Press Sweep/List > Configure List Sweep.
This displays the sweep list values.
2. Check the sweep list dwell values for accuracy.
262
Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
3. Edit the dwell values if they are incorrect.
NOTE
The effective dwell time at the RF OUTPUT connector is the sum of the value
set for the dwell plus processing time, switching time, and settling time. This
additional time added to the dwell is generally a few milliseconds. The
TTL/CMOS output available at the TRIG OUT connector, however, is asserted
high only during the actual dwell time.
If the list dwell values are correct, continue to the next step.
4. Observe if the Dwell Type List Step softkey is set to Step.
When Step is selected, the signal generator will sweep the list points using the dwell time
set for step sweep rather than the sweep list dwell values.
To view the step sweep dwell time, follow these steps:
a. Press Configure Step Sweep.
b. Observe the value set for the Step Dwell softkey.
List Sweep Information is Missing from a Recalled Register
List sweep information is not stored as part of the instrument state in an instrument state
register. Only the current list sweep is available to the signal generator. List sweep data can
be stored in the instrument catalog. For instructions, see “Storing Files to the Memory
Catalog” on page 73.
Data Storage
Registers With Previously Stored Instrument States are Empty
The save/recall registers are backed-up by a battery when line power to the signal generator is
not connected. The battery may need to be replaced.
To verify that the battery has failed, follow these steps:
1. Turn off line power to the signal generator.
2. Unplug the signal generator from line power.
3. Plug in the signal generator.
4. Turn on the signal generator.
Chapter 10
263
Troubleshooting
Basic Signal Generator Operations
5. Observe the display for error messages.
If either error message −311 or −700 is stored in the error message queue, the signal
generator’s battery has failed.
6. Refer to the Service Guide for battery replacement instructions.
Saved an Instrument State in a Register but the Register is Empty or Contains the
Wrong State
If you have selected a register number that is greater than 99, the signal generator will
automatically select register 99 to save your instrument state.
If the register number you intended to use is empty or contains the wrong instrument state,
press the following keys:
Recall > 99 > Enter.
This recalls register 99. The lost instrument state may be saved there.
264
Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
Signal Generator Lock-Up
Signal Generator Lock-Up
If the signal generator is locked up, check the following:
• Make sure that the signal generator is not in remote mode. (In remote mode, the R
annunciator will appear on the display.) Press Local to exit remote mode and unlock the
front panel keypad.
• Make sure that the signal generator is not in local lockout condition. Local lockout will
prevent front panel operation of the signal generator. For more information on local
lockout, refer to the Programming Guide.
• Check for a progress bar on the signal generator display which indicates that an operation
is in progress.
• Press Preset.
• Cycle power on the signal generator.
Fail-Safe Recovery Sequence
The fail-safe recovery sequence should only be used if the previous suggestions do not resolve
the problem.
NOTE
This process will reset the signal generator, but it will destroy data.
The fail-safe recovery sequence will destroy the following types of data:
• all user files (instrument state and data files)
• DCFM/DCΦM calibration data
• persistent states
Do not attempt to perform any other front panel or remote operations during the fail-safe
sequence.
To run the fail-safe sequence, follow these steps:
1. Hold down the Preset key while cycling power.
Chapter 10
265
Troubleshooting
Signal Generator Lock-Up
2. Continue to hold down the Preset key until the following message is displayed:
WARNING
You are entering the diagnostics menu which can cause unpredictable
instrument behavior. Are you sure you want to continue?
CAUTION
Carefully read the entire message! It may list additional risks with this
procedure.
3. Release the Preset key.
4. Press Continue to continue with the sequence (or Abort to abort with no lost files).
At the conclusion of the sequence, follow these steps:
1. Cycle power.
Cycling power restores all previously installed options. You should expect to see several
error messages resulting from calibration files being restored from EEPROM.
2. Perform the DCFM/DCΦM calibration.
Refer to the DCFM/DCΦM Cal softkey description in the Key and Data Field Reference
Volume 1.
3. Agilent Technologies is interested in the circumstances that made it necessary for you to
initiate this procedure. Please contact us at the appropriate telephone number listed in
Table 10-1 on page 268. We would like to help you eliminate any repeat occurrences.
266
Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
Upgrading Firmware
Upgrading Firmware
The firmware in your signal generator may be upgraded when new firmware is released. New
firmware releases may contain signal generator features and functionality not available in
previous firmware releases.
To inquire about the availability of new signal generator firmware, contact Agilent at
http://www.agilent.com/find/upgradeassistant, or call the appropriate number listed
in Table 10-1 on page 268.
Chapter 10
267
Troubleshooting
Returning a Signal Generator to Agilent Technologies
Returning a Signal Generator to Agilent Technologies
To return your signal generator to Agilent Technologies, follow these steps:
1. Be prepared to give your service representative as much information as possible regarding
the signal generator’s problem.
2. Call the phone number listed in Table 10-1 appropriate to the signal generator’s location.
After sharing information regarding the signal generator and its condition, you will
receive information regarding where to ship your instrument for repair.
3. Ship the signal generator in the original factory packaging materials, if they are available.
If not, use similar packaging to properly protect the instrument.
Table 10-1 Contacting Agilent
Online assistance: www.agilent.com/find/assist
United States
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
Latin America
(tel) (305) 269 7500
(fax) (305) 269 7599
Canada
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
(fax) (905) 282-6495
New Zealand
(tel) 0 800 738 378
(fax) (+64) 4 495 8950
Japan
(tel) (+81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (+81) 426 56 7840
Australia
(tel) 1 800 629 485
(fax) (+61) 3 9210 5947
Europe
(tel) (+31) 20 547 2323
(fax) (+31) 20 547 2390
Asia Call Center Numbers
Country
Phone Number
Fax Number
Singapore
1-800-375-8100
(65) 836-0252
Malaysia
1-800-828-848
1-800-801664
Philippines
(632) 8426802
1-800-16510170 (PLDT
Subscriber Only)
(632) 8426809
1-800-16510288 (PLDT
Subscriber Only)
Thailand
(088) 226-008 (outside Bangkok)
(662) 661-3999 (within Bangkok)
(66) 1-661-3714
Hong Kong
800-930-871
(852) 2506 9233
Taiwan
0800-047-866
(886) 2 25456723
People’s Republic
of China
800-810-0189 (preferred)
10800-650-0021
10800-650-0121
India
1-600-11-2929
000-800-650-1101
268
Chapter 10
Index
Symbols
ΦM
annunciator, 21
configuring, 105
deviation, 105
hardkey, 13
rate, 105
Numerics
10 MHz
EFC connector, 36
IN connector, 36
OUT connector, 36
128QAM example, 172
A
AC power receptacle, 26
ACP optimizing, 120
activating a signal, 67
active entry area, 21
adjusting I/Q scaling, 188
Agilent
contacting, 268
returning product to, 268
ALC
annunciator, 21
attenuation and ALC level, balancing, 84
bandwidth selection, 100
level, 84
limitations, amplitude, 81
alternate ramp sweep, 56
AM
annunciator, 21
depth, 103
modulation, 103
rate, 103
amplifier, microwave
external leveling setup, 63
mm-wave source module setup, 63
user flatness calibration setup, 92
amplitude
display area, 24
hardkey, 12
LF output, 108, 109
modulation. See AM
offset, 42
ramp sweep, 57
reference, 42
Index
analog modulation, 101–109
configuring, 102
waveform, 102
annunciators
ΦM, 21
ALC OFF, 21
AM, 21
ARMED, 21
ATTEN HOLD, 21
ERR, 21
EXT, 21
EXT REF, 22
EXT1 LO/HI, 21
EXT2 LO/HI, 22
FM, 22
L (listener mode), 22
MOD ON/OFF, 22
OVEN COLD, 22
PULSE, 22
R (remote), 22
RF ON/OFF, 23
S (service request), 23
SWEEP, 23
T (talker mode), 22, 23
UNLEVEL, 23
UNLOCK, 23
APCO 25-Specified C4FM filters, 122, 157
ARB reference, setting external frequency, 139
ARB reference, setting to external, 139
ARMED annunciator, 21
arrow keys, 17
ATTEN HOLD annunciator, 21
attenuator
configuration, 84
automatic leveling control. See ALC
AUXILIARY INTERFACE connector, 26
B
basic operation, 39–78
BBG DATA CLOCK
setting to external or internal, 188
BBG reference
setting external frequency, 187
setting to external or internal, 187
BbT adjustment, 122, 156
binary, 72
Bit, 72
bits per symbol, equation, 191
269
Index
burst shape
Real Time I/Q, 180
recalling from Memory Catalog, 186
using predefined, 183
using user defined, 183
C
carrier feedthrough, minimizing , 240, 242, 251
carrier signal modulation, 69
ceiling function, bits per symbol, 191
certificate, license key , 77
circular clipping, 207, 212
clipping
circular, 207, 212
intermodulation distortion, 211
peak-to-average power, 212
power peaks, 209
rectangular, 207, 212
spectral regrowth, 211
coefficients, 123, 157
comments (instrument state register), 74, 75
configuration of hardware
Custom Arb, 137
Real Time I/Q, 187
connectors
input
10 MHz EFC, 36
10 MHz IN, 36
AC power receptacle, 26
DATA CLOCK, 18
DATA INPUT, 18
EXT 1 INPUT , 14
EXT 2 INPUT , 14
I/Q INPUTS, 18
PULSE/TRIGGER GATE INPUT, 17
SYMBOL SYNC INPUT, 19
TRIGGER IN, 28 , 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36
interface
AUXILIARY INTERFACE, 26
GPIB , 26
LAN, 27
RS-232, 26
output
10 MHz OUT, 36
LF OUTPUT, 14
PULSE SYNC OUT, 16
PULSE VIDEO OUT, 16
RF OUTPUT, 15
270
connectors (continued)
output
SOURCE SETTLED OUTPUT, 28
SWEEP OUT, 28
TRIGGER OUT, 28
continuous step sweep example, 46, 49
continuous wave output, 40
contrast hardkeys
decrease, 17
increase, 17
correction array (user flatness)
configuration, 87
load from step array, 88
viewing, 89
See also user flatness correction
correction, flatness. See user flatness correction
coupling
factor, external detector, 81
D
DATA CLOCK connector, 18
data fields
editing, 71
DATA INPUT connector, 18
data pattern creation, 147
data pattern user file
apply bit errors, 152
modify, 150
selecting, 149
supply an external real-time, 152
data patterns
Real Time I/Q, 144
data storage
file types, 72
troubleshooting, 263
using, 72
See also instrument state register
See also memory catalog
default FIR filter, 123, 157
Delete Item softkey, 71
Delete Row softkey, 71
detector, external
coupling factor configuration, 82
diode response, typical, 82
diagrams
display, 20
front panel, 11
rear panel, 25
Index
Index
differential encoding, bits per symbol, 191
differential state map, bits per symbol, 191
digital modulation
IQ map, QAM, 192
display
active entry area , 21
amplitude area, 24
annunciators, 21
contrast
decrease hardkey , 17
increase hardkey, 17
diagram, 20
error message area, 24
frequency area, 21
text area , 24
DMOD , 72
Download Assistant, 227
dual arbitrary waveform personality, 201
dwell time, 44
E
Edit Item softkey , 71
ERR annunciator, 21
error messages
display area, 24
EVM optimizing, 120
examples
ΦM, configuring , 105
AM, configuring, 103
continuous wave output, 40
files
recalling, 75
saving, 74
storing, 73
viewing, 73
FM, configuring, 104
leveling, external
detectors and couplers/splitters, with, 80
mm-wave source module, with, 63, 84
LF output, configuring, 107
Matlab waveform download, 227
multitone signals
example, 233
multitone waveforms
minimizing carrier feedthrough, 240, 242
options, enabling, 77
pulse modulation, configuring, 106
ramp sweep, 50
Index
examples (continued)
registers, deleting, 75
RF output
mm-wave source module, configuring with, 63
RF output, configuring, 40–66
sequences, deleting, 75
swept output, 44
table editor, list mode values, 70
table editors, editing, 71
two-tone waveforms
example, 247
minimizing carrier feedthrough, 251
signal alignment, 253
user flatness correction
correction array, creating automatically, 85
correction array, creating manually, 89
description, 85
mm-wave source module, with, 92
recalling data from memory, 90
saving data to memory , 90
EXT 1 INPUT connector, 14
EXT 2 INPUT connector, 14
EXT annunciator, 21
EXT REF annunciator, 22
EXT1 annunciators
HI, 21
LO, 21
EXT2 annunciators
HI, 22
LO, 22
External DATA CLOCK
setting to Normal or Symbol, 188
F
fail-safe recovery sequence, 265
failures. See troubleshooting
features
PSG-A, 3, 4
PSG-L, 2
files
using, 73–76
See also instrument state register
See also memory catalog
filters
Custom Arb, 119
gaussian, loading default, 123, 157
Real Time I/Q, 153
FIR, 72
271
Index
FIR filter optimizing, 156
FIR filters, 120
firmware, upgrading, 267
flatness correction. See user flatness correction
FM
annunciator, 22
configuration example, 104
deviation, 104
hardkey, 13
rate, 104
format, generating , 67
frequency
display area, 21
hardkey, 12
LF output, 108
start and stop, swept-sine, 109
modulation. See FM
offset, 41
ramp sweep, 50
reference, 41
RF output, setting, 40
front panel
diagram, 11
display , 20
knob, 12
FSK , 72
FSK modulation type creation , 178
FSK modulation type modified, 179
FSK selection, 136 , 171
fundamental operation See basic operation
G
Gaussian BbT adjustment, 122, 156
gaussian filter, loading default, 123, 157
Gaussian selection , 122, 156
Goto Row softkey, 71
GPIB
connector, 26
listener mode, 91
H
hardkeys, 17
ΦM, 13
Amplitude, 12
arrow, 17
contrast
decrease, 17
increase, 17
272
hardkeys, 17 (continued)
FM, 13
Frequency, 12
Help, 13
Hold, 17
Incr Set, 16
Local, 18
MENUS group, 13
Mod On/Off, 15
numeric, 15
Preset, 18
Recall, 13
Return, 17
RF On/Off, 15
Save, 12
Trigger, 13
hardware
Custom Arb, 137
Real Time I/Q, 187
Help hardkey, 13
Hold hardkey, 17
I
I/Q, 72
I/Q INPUTS connector, 18
I/Q scaling, adjusting, 188
IMD. See intermodulation distortion
Incr Set hardkey, 16
input connectors
10 MHz IN, 36
DATA CLOCK, 18
DATA INPUT, 18
EXT 1 INPUT, 14
EXT 2 INPUT, 14
I/Q INPUTS, 18
PULSE/TRIGGER GATE INPUT, 17
SYMBOL SYNC INPUT, 19
TRIGGER IN, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36
Insert Item softkey , 71
Insert Row softkey , 71
instrument state register
comments, 74, 75
troubleshooting, 263
using, 74
See also memory catalog
instrument states
recalling, 75
saving, 74
Index
Index
interface connectors
AUXILIARY INTERFACE, 26
GPIB , 26
LAN, 27
RS-232, 26
interface, remote
GPIB
listener mode, 91
intermodulation distortion
creating distortion-free signals, 246
from high peaks, 211
testing non-linear devices, 232, 246
IQ map, QAM modulation, 192
K
key, license, 77
keypad, numeric, 15
knob, 12
L
L (listener mode) annunciator, 22
label area, softkey, 24
LAN
connector, 27
LEDs
line power (green), 16
standby (yellow), 16
leveling, external
description, 80
detectors and couplers/splitters, using, 80
attenuation and ALC level, balancing , 84
connection diagram, 81
diode detector response, typical, 82
equipment required, 80
external detector coupling factor
configuration, 82
leveling mode configuration, 81
Option 1E1 signal generators, with, 84
signal generator configuration, 81
mm-wave source modules, using, 63, 84
connection diagrams, 64, 65
equipment, required, 63
signal generator configuration, 65
LF output
amplitude, 108, 109
configuration example, 108, 109
description, 107
frequency, 108
Index
LF output (continued)
source
function generator, 109
internal modulation monitor, 108
swept-sine
start frequency, 109
stop frequency, 109
waveform, 107, 109
LF OUTPUT connector, 14
LFO. See LF output
license key, 77
line power LED, 16
LIST, 72
list mode values table editor example, 70
list sweep examples, 46–49
listener mode annunciator, 22
Load/Store softkey, 71
Local hardkey, 18
low frequency output. See LF output
lowering ACP, 156, 182
lowering EVM, 156, 182
M
magnitude error simulation, 177
markers, ramp sweep, 53
markers, waveform, 215
master/slave setup, 58
Matlab download example, 227
MDMOD, 72
Memory Catalog, 72
memory catalog
troubleshooting, 263
using, 72
See also instrument state register
menu
hardkey group, 13
microwave amplifier
external leveling setup, 63
mm-wave source module setup, 63
user flatness calibration setup, 92
millimeter head. See mm-wave source module
millimeter-wave source module. See mm-wave
source module
mm-wave source module
connection diagrams, 64, 65
external leveling with, 84
models, 63, 92
required equipment, 63
273
Index
mm-wave source module (continued)
signal generator configuration with, 65
user flatness correction with, 92
MOD ON/OFF annunciator, 22
Mod On/Off hardkey , 15, 69
modes of operation, 9
modify I/Q modulation type, 177
modulation
amplitude. See AM
analog, configuring, 102
annunciators, 22
carrier signal, 69
format generation, 67
frequency. See FM
phase. See ΦM
pulse, 106
modulation types
Custom Arb, 135
Real Time I/Q, 169
MSK selection, 136, 171
MTONE, 72
multitone signals
creating more than 64 tones, 232
example, 233
minimizing carrier feedthrough , 240, 242
overview, 232
N
non-linear devices, testing intermodulation
distortion, 232, 246
numeric keypad, 15
NVMKR, 72
NVWFM, 72
Nyquist
Alpha adjustment, 122, 156
Nyquist selection, 122, 156
O
off/on key usage, modulation format, 67
offset
amplitude, 42
frequency, 41
on/off switch, 16
operation, basic, 39–78
options
descriptions, hardware/software, 5
enabling, 77
274
output
connectors
10 MHz OUT, 36
LF OUTPUT, 14
PULSE SYNC OUT, 16
PULSE VIDEO OUT, 16
RF OUTPUT, 15
SOURCE SETTLED OUTPUT, 28
SWEEP OUT, 28
TRIGGER OUT, 28
output. See LF output and RF output
OVEN COLD annunciator, 22
overview, signal generator, 1–37
P
Page Down softkey , 71
Page Up softkey , 71
pass-thru commands, 60
peak-to-average power, reducing, 212
performance, optimizing signal generator,
79–100
personalities
dual arbitrary waveform, 201
multitone waveform, 231
two-tone waveform, 245
phase error simulation, 177
phase modulation. See ΦM
phase polarity
Real Time I/Q, 189
PN sequence, 146
power
clipping peaks, 209
meter
models, 85
receptacle, AC, 26
sensor, models, 86, 92
switch, 16
power supply, troubleshooting, 257
predefined modes
adjusting BbT, 122, 156
adjusting FIR Alpha, 122, 156
Custom Arb, 113
deselecting modulation setup, 143
modify FIR coefficients for Gaussian, 123, 157
Real Time I/Q, 143, 190
restoring default filters, 123, 157
restoring symbol rate, 134, 168
selecting, 114
Index
Index
predefined modes (continued)
selecting APCO 25-Specified C4FM filters, 122,
157
selecting data patterns, 146
selecting equal number of 1’s & 0’s data pattern,
146
selecting FIR filters, 122, 156
selecting fixed 4-bit data patterns, 146
selecting FSK , 136, 171
selecting modulation setup, 143
selecting MSK, 136, 171
selecting PN sequence, 146
selecting PSK , 136, 171
selecting QAM, 136, 171
selecting rectangle filters, 122, 156
selecting symbol rate, 134, 168
Preset hardkey, 18
problems. See troubleshooting
PSG-A features, 3, 4
PSG-L features, 2
PSK selection, 136 , 171
PULSE annunciator, 22
pulse modulation
period, 106
width, 106
Q
QAM
128QAM example, 172
QAM modulation IQ map, 192
QAM selection, 136, 171
QPSK I/Q modulation type, 175
R
R (remote) annunciator, 22
ramp sweep, 50–62
adjusting sweep time, 55
configuring a frequency sweep, 50
configuring a master/slave setup, 58
configuring an amplitude sweep, 57
equipment setup, 51
using alternate sweep, 56
using markers, 53
using pass-thru commands, 60
rear panel
description, 25
diagram, 25
Index
Recall
hardkey, 13
recalling
user-defined modes, 118
recovery sequence, fail-safe, 265
rectangle filter, 122, 156
rectangular clipping, 207, 212
reference
amplitude, 42
frequency, 41
registers, deleting, 75
registers, using, 74
remote control
GPIB
listener mode, 91
remote operation annunciator, 22
repair return instructions, 268
Return hardkey, 17
RF ON/OFF annunciator, 23
RF On/Off hardkey, 15
RF output
configuring, 40–66
connector, 15
leveling, external
description, 80
detectors and couplers/splitters, using, 80
mm-wave source modules, using , 84
mm-wave source module, using, 63
troubleshooting, 257
user flatness correction
creating and applying , 85
description, 85
mm-wave source module, using, 92
RF OUTPUT connector, 15
Root Nyquist
Alpha adjustment, 122, 156
Root Nyquist selection, 122, 156
RS-232
connector, 26
S
S (service request) annunciator, 23
Save
hardkey, 12
selecting
custom digital mod state, 114
predefined modes, 114
user-defined modes, 115, 116
275
Index
Seq, 72
sequences, deleting, 75
sequences, description, 74
service
contacting Agilent, 268
repair return instructions, 268
service request annunciator, 23
setting external trigger, 138
Shape, 72
signal generation, 67
signal generator
analog modulation, 101–109
features, 2
firmware, upgrading, 267
operation, basic, 39–78
options, 5
overview, 1–37
performance, optimizing , 79–100
returning, 268
signal generator lock up, 265
Signal Studio software, option 408, 232, 246
single step sweep example, 45
softkeys
label area, 24
location
on front panel, 12
table editor, 71
SOURCE SETTLED OUTPUT connector, 28
spectral regrowth, 211
standby LED , 16
state, 72
step array (user flatness)
number of points configuration, 88
start and stop frequency configuration, 88
See also user flatness correction
step sweep, 44–46
sweep
annunciator, 23
trigger, 48
troubleshooting, 262
SWEEP annunciator, 23
sweep modes, 44
list sweep, 44
ramp sweep, 50
step sweep, 44
SWEEP OUT connector, 28
sweep time, ramp sweep, 55
swept output examples, 44–62
switch, power, 16
276
symbol rates
Custom Arb, 131
Real Time I/Q, 165
SYMBOL SYNC INPUT connector, 19
T
T (talker mode) annunciator, 22, 23
table editors
modifying, 71
softkeys, 71
using, 70
talker mode annunciator, 22, 23
text area, 24
TRIGGER
IN connector, 28, 29, 30 , 33, 34, 35, 36
OUT connector, 28
trigger
connectors, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36
hardkey, 13
setting, 48
waveform, 225
trigger, setting, 138
troubleshooting
data storage, 263–264
fail-safe recovery sequence, 265
help mode, 257
RF output, 257–261
service contacts, 268
signal generator lock up, 265
sweep, 262–263
two-tone waveforms
example, 247
minimizing carrier feedthrough, 251
overview, 246
signal alignment, 253
U
understanding
FIR filters, 120
UNLEVEL annunciator, 23
UNLOCK annunciator, 23
User Flatness, 72
user flatness correction
applying to the RF output, 90
connection diagram, 87
correction arrays
automatic creation, 88
description, 85
Index
Index
user flatness correction (continued)
correction arrays
manual creation, 89
correction data
recall from memory catalog, 90
save to memory catalog , 90
description, 85
equipment required, 86
GPIB listener mode, 91
mm-wave source module, using
applying correction data, 99
calibration process, performing the, 97
connection diagrams, 94, 95
description, 92
equipment required, 92
power meter configuration, 93
recall correction data, 99
save correction data, 98
signal generator configuration, 96
power meter
configuration, 86
models, 85
signal generator configuration, 87
user-defined
FIR filter, 126
FIR filter creation, 160
user-defined modes
recalling, 118
selecting multicarrier, 116
selecting single-carrier, 115
waveforms (continued)
two-tone
example, 247
minimizing carrier feedthrough, 251
overview , 246
signal alignment, 253
WFM1, 72
W
waveforms
clipping, 207
downloading, 227
markers, 215
multitone
creating more than 64 tones, 232
example, 233
minimizing carrier feedthrough, 240, 242
overview, 232
playing downloaded, 230
segments, creating, 202
segments, storing and loading , 204
sequence, building, 205
sequencer, overview , 202
triggers, 225
Index
277
Index
278
Index
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