(see Agent Communication Channel) Access control, 447

(see Agent Communication Channel) Access control, 447
INDEX
A
Address resolution protocol, 213
Administrational layer, 195
AFS (see Andrew File System)
Agent, 173-178, 512-513
protection from, 455-460
protection of, 454-455
Agent communication channel, 176
Agent communication language, 176-178
Agreement, process, 371-375
Akamai, 675
Alias, 190
Andrew File System, 604
Anti-entropy model, 335
Apache server, 664
Append-only log, 454
Applet, 656
Application layer, 66-67
Application-level gateway, 453
Arbitrary failure, 365
Architecture
client-server, 50-53
Jini, 718-719
NFS, 576-578
TIB/rendezvous, 703-704
WWW, 654-657
ARP (see Address Resolution Protocol)
AS (see Authentication Server)
Asymmetric cryptosystem, 426
Absolute path name, 187
ACC (see Agent Communication Channel)
Access control, 447-460
Coda, 622-623
Lotus Notes, 690-691
NFS, 602-604
Access control list, 448
Access control matrix, 448-449
Access point, 184
Access right, 447
Access transparency, 5-6
Accessible volume storage group, Coda, 616
ACID properties
ACL (see Agent Communication Language)
ACL (see Access Control List)
Acquire operation, 310
Activation policy, 153
Active cache, WWW, 673
Active directory, DCOM, 539-540
Active goal, TIB/rendezvous, 715
Active message, xFS, 631
Active object map, 511
Active replication, 331, 341-343
ActiveX, 526
Address, 184
Address identifier, Globe, 558
785
786
INDEX
Asynchronous communication, 13, 101
Asynchronous RPC, 79-80
Asynchronous transmission mode, 121
At least once semantics, 377
At most once semantics, 377
At most once operation, 85
Atomic multicast, 371, 386-387, 391
Atomic property, 274
Atomicity, 67
Attribute certificate, 469
Attribute certification authority, 469
Authentication and privilege access client, 476
Authentication server, 472, 475
Authentication token, Coda, 621
Authentication, 433-440
key distribution center, 436-439
Lotus Notes, 688-690
Needham-Schroeder, 437-439
shared key, 434-436
using public-key cryptography, 439-440
Authorization, 447
Authorization management, 466-476
Automatic transaction, DCOM, 541
Automounting, NFS, 586-588
Availability, 362
Averaging algorithm, 250
AVSG (see Accessible Volume Storage Group)
B
Backward recovery, 401
Barrier, 311
Berkeley algorithm, 249-250
Berkeley sockets, 104-106
Big endian computer, 6, 74
Binary interface, 496
DCOM, 527
Binding, 81
Binding by identifier, 163
Binding by type, 163
Binding by value, 163
Binding handle, 95
Binding to an object, 86, 88-90
Blind signature, 485
Blocking commit protocol, 397
Browser, Web, 649
Bully algorithm, 262-263
Bus, 17
Byte code verifier, 456
Byzantine failure, 365
Byzantine generals problem, 373
C
Cache, 329
Cache equilibrium, Coda, 619
Cache hit, 330
Cache memory, 18
Cache-coherence protocol, 345-346
Caching, 15
Coda, 615-617
CORBA, 518-520
comparison of schemes, 569-570, 641-642
NFS, 594-597
Plan 9, 628-629
pointer, 221
TIB/rendezvous, 712
WWW, 672-676
xFS, 633-634
Call-by-copy/restore, 70
Call-by-reference, 70
Call-by-value, 70
Callback break, Coda, 615
Callback model, CORBA, 504
Callback promise, Coda, 615
Cancel object, DCOM, 532
Canonical name, 203
Capability, 449, 467
Amoeba, 467-469
Capture message, 488
Care-of address, 216
CASCADE, 518-520
Domain caching server, 519
Cascaded abort, 284
Causal consistency, 305-306
Causality, 256
Causally-consistent replication, 352-356
CDN (see Content Delivery Network)
Centralized system, 2
Centralized two-phase locking, 285
Certificate, 451
Certificate, revocation, 464-465
Certificate revocation list, 464
Certification authority, 462
Certified message delivery, TIB/rendezvous, 714
CGI (see Common Gateway Interface)
Challenge-response protocol, 434
Checkpoint, 401
Checkpointing, 404-407
Checksum, 61
Ciphertext, 425
Class, 87
Class identifier, DCOM, 528
Class loader, 456
Class object, DCOM, 527
Class repository, Globe, 551
Clear token, Coda, 622
INDEX
Client, 11, 34, 42, 145-148
CORBA, 508-510
DCOM, 534-536
example, 44-48, 82-85
Globe, 554
multithreaded, 142-143
NFS, 577
SFS, 635
WWW, 662-664
xFS, 630
Client caching
Coda, 615-616
NFS, 594-597
Client crash 380-381
Client stub, 71-73, 82-83
binding to object, 88-90
Client-based protocol, 332
Client-centric consistency, 319
Client-initiated replica, 329-330
Client-server architecture, 42-53, 50-53
Client-server communication, reliable, 375-381
Client-server TCP, 64-66
Clock skew, 244
Clock synchronization, 242-252
Clock tick, 243
Closure mechanism, 189-190
CLSID (see DCOM, Class Identifier)
Cluster replication, Lotus Notes, 688
Cluster, Lotus Notes, 681
Clusters of workstations , 20
Coda version vector, Coda, 617
Coda, 604-623
access control, 622-623
accessible volume storage group, 616
authentication token, 621
cache equilibrium, 619
caching, 615-617
callback break, 615
callback promise, 615
clear token, 622
client caching, 615-616
communication, 606-608
compared to NFS, 638-643
disconnected client, 616
disconnected operation, 618-620
equilibrium, 619
fault tolerance, 618-620
file identifier, 609-610
file sharing, 611-612
hoard database, 619
hoard walk, 620
hoarding, 618
multiRPC, 608
naming, 609-610
network partition, 612
787
Coda (continued)
one-copy serializability, 612
overview, 604-606
partition, 612
process, 608-609
recoverable virtual memory, 620
replicated volume identifier, 610
replication, server, 616-617
RPC2, 606
secret token, 622
security, 620-623
server replication, 616-617
side effect, 607
store, 613
synchronization, 610-615
transactional semantics, 612-615
Venus, 605
version vector, 617
Vice, 604
Virtue, 605
vnode, 610
volume, 609-610
volume location database, 610
volume replication database, 610
volume storage group, 616
Code migration, 158-173
in heterogeneous systems, 165-168
Code-signing, 457
Coherence detection strategy, 345
Coherence enforcement strategy, 346
Coherent memory, 17
Collaborative agent, 173
collaborative caching, xFS, 634
Collection service, CORBA, 499
COM (see Component Object Model)
COM+, 530-541
Command stack, 172
Common gateway interface, WWW, 654
Common object request broker architecture, 494-525
collection service, 499
communication, 501-508
compared to Globe, 565-571
compared to DCOM, 531, 565-571
concurrency control service, 499
dynamic invocation interface, 497
event service, 499
externalization, 499
horizontal facility, 495
implementation repository, 498
interface definition language, 496
interface repository, 498
licensing service, 500
life cycle service, 499
naming service, 500, 517-518
notification service, 499
788
INDEX
Common object request broker arch. (continued)
object group, 520-521
object model, 496-497
overview, 495-501
persistence service, 500
property service, 500
pull model, 503
push model, 503
query service, 499
relationship service, 501
repository, 498
security service, 501
services, 499-501
time service, 501
trading service, 500
transaction service, 499
vertical facility, 495
Communication, 57-132
asynchronous, 13, 101
Coda, 606-608
CORBA, 501-508
DCOM, 531-534
Globe, 553-554
Jini, 719-721
Lotus Notes, 680-681
message-oriented, 99-119
NFS, 581-582
persistent, 100-101
Plan 9, 624-626
point-to-point, 375
SFS, 636
stream-oriented, 119-130
synchronous, 11, 101
TIB/rendezvous, 704-708
transient, 101
WWW, 657-663
xFS, 630-631
Communication facility, 39
Communication subobject, Globe, 549
Compile-time object, 87-88
Complex stream, 121
Component Object Model, 525
Composite local object, Globe, 547
Compound document, 146-147, 526
Compound procedure, NFS, 581
Concurrency control service, CORBA, 499
Concurrency transparency, 6-7
Concurrent operations, 253, 305
Concurrent server, 149
Condition variable, 27
Conditional anonymity, 483
Confidential group communication, 444
Confidentiality, 414, 441-444
Conflict resolution, Lotus Notes, 686-687
Conflicting operation, 283
Connectable object, DCOM, 532
Connection document, Lotus Notes, 685
Connection-oriented, 59
Connectionless communication, 59
Consistency, 15, 291-358
causal, 305-306
client-centric, 316-326
comparison, 315-316
data-centric, 297-316
entry, 313-315
eventual, 317-319
FIFO, 306-308
implementation, 324-326
introduction, 292-297
monotonic read, 319-320
monotonic-write, 320-321
PRAM, 306-308
read-your-writes, 322-323
release, 310-313
sequential, 300-305
strict, 299-300
weak, 308-310
writes-follow-reads, 323
Consistency property, 275
Consistency protocol, 337-346
local-write, 339-341
primary-based, 337-341
quorum-based, 343-345
remote-write, 337-339
replicated-write, 341-345
Contact address, Globe, 550
Content delivery network, 675
Content-aware request distribution, 667
Continuous media, 120-122
Control subobject, Globe, 549
Cookie, 152
Cooperative caching, 673
Coordinated checkpointing, 407
Coordination model
direct, 700
generative, 701
introduction, 700-701
Jini, 717-718
mailbox, 700
meeting-oriented, 701
publish/subscribe, 701
TIB/rendezvous, 702-703
Coordination-based distributed systems, 699-734
CORBA (see Common Object Request Broker Arch.)
Counter, 243
COW (see Cluster Of Workstations)
Crash failure, 364
Cristian’s algorithm, 247-249
CRL (see Certificate Revocation List)
Cross certificate, 690
INDEX
Crossbar switch, 18
Crosspoint switch, 18
Cryptographic seal, 475
Cryptography, 425-432
Cut, 259
D
D’Agents, 168-173
DAS (see Distributed ASCI Supercomputer)
Data coherence, 304
Data encryption standard, 428
Data link layer, 61-62
Data manager, 280
Data note, Lotus Notes, 679
Data store, 297
Data stream, 121-123
Database ID, Lotus Notes, 684
DCE (see Distributed Computing Environment)
DCE daemon, 84
DCE remote object, 93-95
DCOM (see Distributed Component Object Model)
DCS (see CASCADE, Domain caching server)
Death certificate, 336
Declarative security, DCOM, 542-544
Decryption, 425
Deferred remote procedure call, 80
Deferred synchronous request, 502
Deferred synchronous RPC, 80
Delegation, 469-471
Deletion stub, Lotus Notes, 686
Dependable system, 362
DES (see Data encryption standard)
Destination queue, 111
DIB (see Directory Information Base)
Diffie-Hellman key exchange, 461
Digital money, 481
Direct coordination, 700
Directory export, NFS, 583
Directory information base, 207
Directory information tree, 207
Directory node, 186
Directory service, 81, 206
Directory service agent, 209
Directory table, 186
Directory user agent, 209
Disconnected client, Coda, 616
Disconnected operation, Coda, 618-620
Discrete media, 120
Dispatched, TIB/rendezvous, 706
Dispatcher, 143
Distinguished name, Lotus Notes, 683
Distributed ASCI supercomputer, 21
789
Distributed commit, 393-401
Distributed component object model, 525-545
active directory, 539-540
automatic transaction, 541
binary interface, 527
cancel object, 532
class identifier, 528
class object, 527
client, 534-536
COM+, 530-541
communication, 531-534
compared to CORBA, 531, 565-571
compared to Globe, 565-571
connectable object, 532
declarative security, 542-544
domain, 539
domain controller, 539
domain forest, 540
domain tree, 540
event class, 532
event processing, 532-533
fault tolerance, 541-542
global catalog, 540
interface identifier, 527
JIT activation, 536
messaging service, 533-534
Microsoft IDL, 527
moniker, 537-539
naming, 537-540
object invocation model, 531-532
object model, 527-529
process, 534-537
programmatic security, 544-545
queued component, 533
replication, 541
running object table, 538
security, 542-545
server, 536-537
service, 530-531
service control manager, 529, 536
synchronization, 541
transactional queue, 534
type library, 529
Distributed computing environment, 80-85
Distributed document, 38
Distributed dynamic object, 93
Distributed file service, 81
Distributed file system, 38, 575-644
Distributed garbage collector, 225
Distributed named object, 94
Distributed object, 38, 86-88
Java, 96-98
Distributed operating system, 22
Distributed shared memory, 30-33
Distributed shared object, Globe, 546
790
Distributed snapshot, 259, 404
Distributed system, 1-735
definition, 2
Distributed systems, goals, 4-15
Distributed time service, 81
Distributed transaction, 39, 271-288
Distributed two-phase locking, 285
Distribution, 13
Distribution protocol, 326-337
DIT (see Directory Information Tree)
DNS (see Domain Name System)
Document based distributed systems, 647-697
Document model
Lotus Notes, 679-680
WWW, 649-652
Document object model, WWW, 651
Document type, WWW, 653-654
DOM (see Document Object Model)
Domain controller, DCOM, 539
Domain forest, DCOM, 540
Domain name system, 201-206
implementation, 203-206
Domain name, 202
Domain security server, 475
Domain tree, DCOM, 540
Domain, 13, 202, 218
DCOM, 539
Domino directory, Lotus Notes, 683
Domino effect, 405
Domino server, Lotus Notes, 679, 681
Door, 77-79
DOS (see Distributed Operating System)
Drag-and-drop, 146
DSA (see Directory Service Agent)
DSM (see Distributed Shared Memory)
DSS (see Domain Security Server)
DTC (see Microsoft Distributed Transaction
Coordinator)
DUA (see Directory User Agent)
Dual signature, 487
Duplicate-request cache, NFS, 598
Durability property, 275
Dynamic HTML, 651
Dynamic invocation, 91
Dynamic invocation interface, 497
E
E-cash, 484-486
Eager release consistency, 312
ECL (see execution control list)
Election algorithm, 262-271
bully, 262-263
ring, 263-264
INDEX
Electronic payment system, 478-488
Encryption, 425
End-to-end argument, 258
Endpoint, 84, 149
Entry consistency, 313-315
Epidemic protocol, 334
Equilibrium, Coda, 619
Error, 363
Event channel, CORBA, 503
Event class, DCOM, 532
Event dispatching, TIB/rendezvous, 706
Event object, TIB/rendezvous, 706
Event processing
DCOM, 532-533
Jini, 719-720
TIB/rendezvous, 706-708
Event queue group, TIB/rendezvous, 708
Event service, CORBA, 499, 502
Eventual consistency, 317-319
Exactly once semantics, 378
Exception, 376
Execution control list, Lotus Notes, 690
Expiration, orphan, 381
Explicit binding, 88
Export, NFS, 583
Extensible markup language, 651
Extensible style language, 652
Extermination of orphans, 380
Externalization, CORBA, 499
F
Factory object, 499
Fail-safe, 366
Fail-silent system, 366
Fail-stop failure, 366
Failing system, 363
Failure masking, 366-368, 370-371
Failure model, 364-366
Failure transparency, 7
Failure, remote procedure call, 375-381
False sharing, 32
Fastened resource, 163
Fault, 363
Fault tolerance, 361-411
basic concepts, 362-364
Coda, 618-620
communication, 381-393
DCOM, 541-542
distributed commit, 393-401
Globe, 563
Lotus Notes, 688
NFS, 597-600
INDEX
Fault tolerance (continued)
process, 368-381
recovery, 401-410
TIB/rendezvous, 713-715
WWW, 676
xFS, 634
Faulty system, agreement, 371-375
Feedback suppression, 383
FIFO consistency, 306-308
File attribute, NFS, 588-590
File handle, NFS, 578, 585-586
File identifier, Coda, 609-610
File locking, NFS, 592-594, 599-600
File server, 34
File sharing
Coda, 611-612
NFS, 578, 581, 590-592, 612-615
session semantics, 590
transactional semantics, 592, 612-615
UNIX semantics, 590
File system model, NFS, 578-581
File transfer protocol, 67
Filter, 123
FIPA (see Foundation for Intelligent
Physical Agents)
Firewall, 451-453
Fixed resource, 164
Flat group, 369
Flat transaction, 275-276
Flow specification, 123
Flush message, 392
Forward recovery, 401
Forwarding pointer, 214-216
Foundation for intelligent physical agents, 175
Frame, 61
FTP (see File Transfer Protocol)
G
Garbage collection, 225-238
General Inter-ORB Protocol, 506
Generation reference counting, 230
Generic security service API, 476, 601
Gentle reincarnation, 380
GIOP (see General inter-ORB protocol)
Global catalog, DCOM, 540
Global layer, 195
Global name, 187
Global name service, 193
Global object-based environment, 545
Global state, 258-262
791
Globe, 545-565
address identifier, 558
class repository, 551
client, 554
communication, 553-554
communication subobject, 549
compared to CORBA, 565-571
compared to DCOM, 565-571
composite local object, 547
contact address, 550
control subobject, 549
distributed shared object, 546
fault tolerance, 563
instance address, 558
local object, 546
local representative, 546
modify method, 560
naming, 557-559
object handle, 550, 557
object model, 546-549
object reference, 557-558
overview, 545-553
persistent local object, 556
primitive local object, 547
principal object, 564
process, 554-557
process-to-object binding, 549-551
read method, 560
replication, 560-653
replication subobject, 549
security, 563-565
security subobject, 563
semantics subobject, 547
server, 555-557
services, 551-553
stacked address, 558
synchronization, 559
transient local object, 557
Globedoc, 547
Globus, 416-420
GNS (see Global Name Service)
Gossiping, 335
Grace period, NFS, 599
Grandorphan, 380
Group, 450
Group communication
reliable, 381-393
secure, 444-447
Group management, secure, 465-466
Group membership, 369-370
Group server, 369
Group view, 387
Groupware, 4
Growing phase, 283
GSS-API (see Generic Security Service API)
792
H
Handler, WWW, 664
Happens-before, 252
Hard link, 190
Hardware concepts, 16-19
Hash function, 427
Header, 60
Heartbeat message, TIB/rendezvous, 715
Helper application, WWW, 657
Heterogeneous system, 17
Hierarchical approach, 217-218
Hierarchical feedback control, 385-388
Hierarchical group, 369
History, operation, 304
Hit rate, 18
Hoard database, Coda, 619
Hoard walk, Coda, 620
Hoarding, Coda, 618
Holding register, 243
Home agent, 216
Home location, 216
Home-based approach, 216-217
Homogeneous system, 17
Horizontal distribution, 52
HTML (see HyperText Markup Language)
HTTP (see HyperText Transfer Protocol)
Human-friendly name, 186
Hypercube, 20
Hyperlink, 649
Hypertext markup language, 650
Hypertext transfer protocol, 67, 657-662
connection, 657-658
message, 658-662
message tag, 659
nonpersistent connection, 658
persistent connection, 658
pipelining, 658
redirect message, 662
request line, 660
status line, 660
WWW, 657
INDEX
IIOP (see Internet inter-ORB protocol)
IL (see Internet link, Plan 9)
Imap, xFS, 631
Immutable file, 576
Implementation handle, 90
Implementation repository, CORBA, 498
Implicit binding, 88
In-place editing, 146
Inbox name, TIB/rendezvous, 705
Incremental snapshot, 407
Independent checkpointing, 406
Infected server, 335
Information agent, 174
Information bus, TIB/rendezvous, 702
Instance address, Globe, 558
Integrity, 414, 441-444
Interceptor, 509
Interface agent, 174
Interface definition language, 8, 77, 82
CORBA, 496
Interface Identifier, DCOM, 527
Interface repository, CORBA, 498
Interface, 8, 86
Intermittent fault, 363
International atomic time, 245
Internet engineering task force, 670
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol, 506
Internet link, Plan 9, 624
Internet policy registration authority, 464
Internet protocol, 63
Interoperability, 8
Interoperable object group reference, 520
Intruder, 426
Invalidation protocol, 330
IOGR (see Interoperable object group reference)
IP (see Internet Protocol)
IPRA (see Internet Policy Registration Authority)
ISO OSI, 58
Isochronous transmission mode, 121
Isolation property, 275
Item, Lotus Notes, 679
Iterative name resolution, 197-198
Iterative server, 149
I
IBM MQseries, 115-119
Idempotent, 85, 185, 231, 379
Identifier, 185
Lotus Notes, 684-685
Identity, Lotus Notes, 688
IDL (see Interface Definition Language)
IETF (see Internet Engineering Task Force)
IID (see DCOM, Interface Identifier)
J
JAAS (see Java Authentication and Authorization Service)
Java authentication and authorization service, Jini, 729
Java remote method invocation, 95-98
Java virtual machine, 456
Javascript, WWW, 650
Javaspace, 717
INDEX
Jini, 716-730
architecture, 718-719
communication, 719-721
compared to TIB/rendezvous
coordination model, 717-718
event processing, 719-720
Java authentication and authorization service, 729
Javaspace, 717
lease, 726-727
listener object, 720
lookup service, 724-726
lookup service, 725
naming, 724-727
overview, 717-719
pluggable authentication module, 729
process, 721-724
security, 729-730
service identifier, 725
service item, 725
synchronization, 727-728
template, 717
transaction, 727-728
tuple, 717
JIT activation, DCOM, 536
JVM (see Java Virtual Machine)
K
K fault tolerant, 371
KDC (see Key Distribution Center)
KDS (see Key Distribution Server)
Kerberos, 472-473
Kernel mode, 23
Key distribution center, 437
Key distribution server, 475
Key distribution, 462-464
Key establishment, 461-462
Key management, 461-465
L
Lamport timestamp, 252-256
LAN (see Local-Area Network)
Layered protocol, 58-68
Lazy release consistency, 312
Lazy replication, 352-356
LDAP (see Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol)
Leaf domain, 218
Leaf node, 186
Leap second, 245
793
Lease, 232, 333
Jini, 726-727
Ledger, TIB/rendezvous, 714
LFS (see Log-structured File System)
Life cycle service, CORBA, 499
Lightweight directory access protocol, 209
Lightweight process, 140
Linearizability, 301
Linking, 190-194
LIPKEY, NFS, 602
Listener event, TIB/rendezvous, 706
Listener object, Jini, 720
Little endian computer, 6, 74
Local alias, 118
Local name, 187
Local object, Globe, 546
Local representative, Globe, 546
Local write protocol, 339-341
Local-area network, 1
Locating mobile entities, 210-224
hierarchical approach, 217-218
home-based approach, 216-217
Location independence, 185
Location record, 218
Location server, 89
Location service, 212
Location transparency, 6
Locking, 283
Log-structured file system, 631
Logical clock, 252-258
Lookup service, Jini, 724-726
Lotus Notes, 678-691
access control, 690-691
authentication, 688-690
cluster, 681
cluster replication, 688
communication, 680-681
compared to WWW, 691-695
conflict resolution, 686-687
connection document, 685
cross certificate, 690
data note, 679
database ID, 684
deletion stub, 686
distinguished name, 683
document model, 679-680
Domino directory, 683
Domino server, 679, 681
execution control list, 690
fault tolerance, 688
identifier, 684-685
identity, 688
item, 679
naming, 683-685
note, 678, 679
794
Lotus notes (continued)
note ID, 684
notelink, 680
Notes object service, 679
originator ID, 684
overview, 678-680
process, 681-683
replica ID, 684
replication, 685-688
security, 688-691
server task, 681
synchronization, 685
universal ID, 684
LWP (see LightWeight Process)
M
Maintainability, 363
Manager map, xFS, 632
Managerial layer, 195
Mark-and-sweep algorithm
Massively parallel processor, 20
Maximum drift rate, 247
MCA (see Message Channel Agent)
MD5 (see Message Digest-5)
Mean solar second, 245
Mechanism vs. policy, 9
Memory coherence, 304
Memory, cache, 18
Memory, coherent, 17
Message broker, 113-114
Message channel, 115
Message channel agent, 116
Message confidentiality, 441-444
Message digest, 431
Message digest-5, 431-432
Message integrity, 441-444
Message logging, 407-410
Message ordering, 389-391
Message passing, 28
Message queue interface, 118
Message queuing system, 108-119
Message-oriented communication, 99-119
Message-oriented middleware, 108-119
IBM MQseries, 115-119
Message-passing interface, 106-108
Messaging service
CORBA, 504
DCOM, 533-534
TIB/rendezvous, 705-706
Metadata manager, xFS, 630
Method, 86
Microdata, 482
INDEX
Microkernel, 24
Microsoft DCOM (see Distributed Component Object Model)
Microsoft distributed transaction coordinator, 542
Microsoft IDL, 527
Microsoft Message-Queuing, 533-534
Middleware protocol, 67-68
Middleware, 3, 22, 36-42
models, 37-39
positioning, 36-37
services, 39-40
MIDL (see Microsoft Interface Definition Language)
Migration stack, 166
Migration transparency, 6
Migration
code, 158-173
in heterogeneous systems, 165-168
MIME (see Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension)
Mime, WWW, 653
Mirror site, 327
Mirror, WWW, 675
Mirroring, 327, 675
Mobile agent, 173-178
Mobile code, 453-460
Mobile entities, locating, 210-224
Modify method, Globe, 560
MOM (see Message-Oriented Middleware)
Moniker, DCOM, 537-539
Monitor, 26
Monotonic-read consistency, 319-320
Monotonic-write consistent, 320-321
Motion picture experts group, 129
Mount point, 191
Mounting, 190-194
Mounting point, 191
MPEG (see Motion Pictures Experts Group)
MPI (see Message Passing Interface)
MPP (see Massively Parallel Processor)
MQI (see Message Queue Interface)
MQseries, IBM, 115-119
MSMQ (see Microsoft Message-Queuing)
Multicast
atomic, 386-387
reliable, 389-391
unordered, 389-391
reliable, 381-383
Multicomputer, 16
Multicomputer
heterogeneous, 21
homogeneous, 19-21
Multicomputer operating system, 22, 28-30
Multiprocessor 16
Multiprocessor operating system, 22, 25-28
Multipurpose internet mail extension, 653
MultiRPC, Coda, 608
Multithreading, 142-144
795
INDEX
Multitiered architecture, 50-52
Mutex variable, 28
Mutual exclusion, 265-271
centralized algorithm, 265-266
comparison of algorithms, 270-271
distributed algorithm, 266-269
token ring algorithm, 269-270
N
Name, 184-189
Name resolution, 189-194, 197-201
iterative, 197-198
recursive, 198-201
Name resolver, 197
Name space, 186-189
Name space distribution, 194-197
Name space management, 460
Naming, 39, 183-239
Coda, 609-610
CORBA, 514-518
DCOM, 537-540
Globe, 557-559
Jini, 724-727
locating mobile entities, 210-224
Lotus Notes, 683-685
naming entities, 184-210
NFS, 583-585
Plan 9, 627-628
removing unreferenced, 225-238
SFS, 636-637
TIB/rendezvous, 709-710
WWW, 668
xFS, 633
Naming entities, 184-210
Naming service, CORBA, 517-518
Needham-Schroeder protocol, 437-439
Nested transaction, 276
Network file system, 192, 576-604
access control, 602-604
architecture, 576-578
automounting, 586-588
caching, 594-597
client, 577
client caching, 594-597
communication, 581-582
compared to Coda, 638-643
directory export, 583
export, 583
fault tolerance, 597-600
file attribute, 588-590
file handle, 578, 585-586
file locking, 592-594, 599-600
Network file system (continued)
file sharing, 590-592, 612-615
file system model, 578-581
grace period, 599
naming, 583-585
open delegation, 596, 600
overview
process, 582-583
remote access model, 577
remote file service, 576
replica server, 597
replication, 594-597
root file handle, 586
RPC failure, 598-599
secure NFS, 601
secure RPC, 600-602
security, 600-604
server, 577
session semantics, 591
share reservation, 594
synchronization, 590-592
transaction identifier, 598
UNIX semantics, 590
upload/download model, 577
Network layer, 62-63
Network news, 256
Network operating system, 22, 33-36
Network partition, 612
Network time protocol, 250
NFS (see Network File System)
Nonce, 438
Nonhierarchical feedback control, 383-385
Nonpersistent connection, 658
Nonuniform memory access, 19
NOS (see Network Operating System)
NOS (see Notes Object Service)
Note ID, 684
Note, Lotus Notes, 678, 679
Notelink, 680
Notes object service, 679
Notification
CORBA, 499
callback model, 504
polling model, 505
NTP (see Network Time Protocol)
NUMA (see NonUniform Memory Access)
O
Object, 447
compile-time, 87-88
distributed, 38
Orca, 349-352
796
INDEX
Object (continued)
persistent, 88
runtime, 87-88
transient, 88
unreferenced, 225-238
Object adapter, 87, 153-158
Object-based distributed system, 493-572
Object group, CORBA, 520-521
Object handle, Globe, 550, 557
Object invocation model, DCOM, 531-532
Object linking and embedding, 526
Object management group, 494
Object model
CORBA, 496-497
DCOM, 526-531
Globe, 546-549
Object reference, 89-90
Globe, 557-558
Object replication, 293-296
Object request broker, 495
Object server, 152-158
Object wrapper, 154
OID (see Originator ID, Lotus Notes)
OLE (see Object Linking and Embedding)
Omega network, 18
OMG (see Object Management Group)
Omission failure, 365
ONC (see Open Network Computing)
One-copy serializability, 612
One-phase commit protocol, 393
One-way function, 427
One-way request, 502
One-way RPC, 80
Open delegation, NFS, 596, 600
Open distributed system, 8
Open network computing, 581
Open systems interconnection model, 58-68
Operating system
multicomputer, 22, 28-30
multiprocessor, 22, 25-28
network, 22, 33-36
uniprocessor, 23-25
Operation, 347
Optimistic concurrency control, 287
Optimistic logging protocol, 410
ORB (see Object Request Broker)
Orca, 347-352
Ordered message delivery, 258
Originator ID, Lotus Notes, 684
Orphan extermination, 380
Orphan process, 408
Orphan, 380
OSI model (see Open Systems Interconnection
Model)
Out-of-band data, 150
Overlay network, 111
TIB/rendezvous, 704
Overview
Coda, 604-606
CORBA, 495-501
DCOM, 526-531
Globe, 545-553
Jini, 717-719
Lotus Notes, 678-680
NFS, 576-581
Plan 9, 623-624
SFS, 635-636
TIB/rendezvous, 702-704
WWW, 648-649
xFS, 629-630
Owner capability, 468
P
PAC (see Privilege Attribute Certificate)
PAC validation facility, 476
Packet, 63
Packet-filtering gateway, 452
PAM (see Pluggable Authentication Module)
Parameter marshaling, 73
Parameter passing, 91-93
Parameter passing, RPC, 73-77
Parity fragment, xFS, 631
Partition, Coda, 612
PAS (see Privilege Attribute Server)
Path name, 187
Path, Plan 9, 628
PCA (see Policy Certification Authority)
Peer-to-peer distribution, 53
PEM (see Privacy Enhanced Mail)
Permanent fault, 364
Permanent replica, 327
Persistence, 39
Persistence transparency, 7
Persistent communication, 100-101
Persistent connection, 658
Persistent data, 49-50
Persistent local object, 556
Persistent object, 88
Personal identification number, 481
Pessimistic concurrency control, 283
Pessimistic logging protocol, 410
PGM (see Pragmatic General Multicast)
Physical clocks, 243-246
Physical layer, 61
Piecewise deterministic model, 408
PIN (see Personal Identification number)
Pipelining, WWW, 658
INDEX
Plaintext, 425
Plan 9, 623-629
Internet Link, 624
caching, 628-629
communication, 624-626
compared to other systems, 638-643
naming, 627-628
path, 628
process, 626-627
replication, 628-629
security, 629
synchronization, 628
union directory, 627
version number, 628
Playground, 457
Plug-in, Web browser, 663
Pluggable authentication module, Jini, 729
Pointer caching, 221
Policy certification authority, 464
Policy vs. mechanism, 9
Polling model, CORBA, 505
Pony express, 100-101
Port, 84, 149
Port, 84
Portability, 8
Portable object adapter, 510
Pragmatic general multicast, 713
PRAM consistency, 306-308
Presentation layer, 66
Primary two-phase locking, 285
Primary-based protocol, 337-341
Prime factor, 430
Primitive local object, Globe, 547
Principal object, Globe, 564
Privacy enhanced mail, 464
Privacy, 482-484
Privilege attribute certificate, 475, 477-478
Privilege attribute server, 475
Process, 136-180
agent, 173-178
client, 145-148
Coda, 608-609
CORBA, 508-513
DCOM, 534-537
Globe, 554-557
Jini, 721-724
Lotus Notes, 681-683
migration, 158-183
NFS, 582-583
Plan 9, 626-627
server, 149-158
SFS, 636
TIB/rendezvous, 708-709
WWW, 662-668
xFS, 631-633
797
Process-to-object binding
Globe, 549-551
DCOM, 534-537
Process group, 368-370
flat, 369
hierarchical, 369
TIB/rendezvous, 715
Process migration, 158
Process resilience, 368-375
Process table, 136
Program stream, 130
Programmatic security, DCOM, 544-545
Protected data, 311
Protection domain, 450-451
Protocol stack, 60
Protocol suite, 60
Protocol, 59
address resolution protocol, 213
ARP, 213
blocking commit, 397
cache-coherence, 345-346
challenge-response, 434
client-based, 332
consistency, 337-346
distribution, 326-337
epidemic, 334
file transfer protocol, 67
FTP, 67
general inter-ORB, 506
HTTP, 67, 657-662
hypertext transfer, 67, 657-662
Internet, 63
invalidation, 330
IP, 63
LDAP, 209
lightweight directory access protocol, 209
local-write, 339-341
middleware, 67-68
Needham-Schroeder, 437-439
network time protocol, 250
NTP,
one-phase commit, 393
optimistic logging, 410
pessimistic logging, 410
primary-based, 337-341
pull-based, 332
push-based, 331
quorum-based, 343-345
real-time transport, 64
remote-write, 337-339
replicated-write, 341-345
replication, 326-337
resource reservation, 126
RTP, 64
server-based, 331
798
Protocol (continued)
TCP, 64
three-phase commit, 399-401
two-phase commit, 393-398
transport layer security, 677
transmission control, 64
transport 4, 64
UDP, 64
universal datagram, 64
update, 330-331
X, 146
Proxy, 86, 469
Proxy cache, 672-674
Proxy gateway, 453
Public-key certificate, 462
Public-key cryptosystem, RSA, 430-431
Public-key system, 426-427
Publish/subscribe model, 701
TIB/rendezvous, 702-716
Pull model, CORBA, 503
Pull-based protocol, 332
Push cache, 327
Push model, CORBA, 503
Push-based protocol, 331
PVF (see PAC Validation facility)
Q
QC (see DCOM, Queued Component)
QoS (see Quality of Service)
Quality of service, 123-127
Query service, CORBA, 499
Queue group, TIB/rendezvous, 708
Queue manager, 111, 115
Queue name, 111
Queued component, DCOM, 533
Quorum-based protocol, 343-345
R
RDN (see Relative Distinguished Name)
Read method, Globe, 560
Read quorum, 344
Read-one, write-all, 345
Read-only state, 454
Read-write conflict, 283
Read-your-writes consistency, 322-323
Real-time transport protocol, 64
Receiver-based logging, 403
Receiver-initiated migration, 161
INDEX
Recoverable virtual memory, 620
Recovery, 401-410
Recovery line, 405
Recursive name resolution, 198-201
Redirect, WWW, 662
Reduced interfaces for secure system component, 424
Reference counting, 227-231
Reference list, 231
Reference monitor, 448
Reflection attack, 435
Reincarnation, 380
Relative distinguished name, 207
Relative path name, 187
Relay, 111
Release consistency, 310-313
eager, 312
lazy, 312
Reliability, 362
Reliable causally-ordered multicast, 390
Reliable communication, TIB/rendezvous, 713-714
Reliable FIFO-ordered multicast, 390
Reliable group communication, 381-393
Reliable multicast, 389-391
Relocation transparency, 6
Remote access model, NFS, 577
Remote file service, NFS, 576
Remote method invocation, 90
dynamic, 90-91
parameter passing, 91-93
static, 90-91
Remote object, 87
DCE, 93-95
Remote object invocation 85-98
DCE, 94
Java, 95-98
Remote procedure call, 38, 68-85
asynchronous, 79-80
DCE, 80-85
deferred, 80
door, 77-79
extended, 77-80
failure, 375-381
parameter passing, 73-77
Remote-write protocol, 337-339
Rendezvous daemon, TIB/rendezvous, 703
Rendezvous router daemon, TIB/rendezvous, 703
Replica
client-initiated, 327-329
permanent, 327
server-initiated, 327-329
Replica ID, Lotus Notes, 684
Replica placement, 326-330
Replica server, NFS, 597
Replicated volume identifier, Coda, 610
Replicated-write protocol, 341-345
INDEX
799
Sandbox, 455
Scalability, 10-15, 223-224
problems, 10-13
Scalable reliable multicasting, 384
Schedule, 281
Scheduler activation, 141
Scheduler, 280
Scheme, WWW, 668
SCM (see DCOM, Service Control Manager)
Secret sharing, 445
Secret token, Coda, 622
Secure association context management, 476
Secure channel, 432-447
Coda, 621-622
Secure electronic transaction, 488
Secure file system, 635-638
client, 635
communication, 636
compared to other systems, 638-643
naming, 636-637
overview, 635-636
process, 636
security, 637-638
self-certifying pathname, 636
server, 636
user agent, 635
Secure group communication, 444-447
Secure group management, 465-466
Secure mobile code, 453-460
Secure NFS, 601
Secure replicated servers, 445-447
Secure RPC, 600-602
Secure socket layer, 423,, 676
Security, 40, 413-490
access control, 447-460
Coda, 620-623
CORBA, 522-525
DCOM, 542-545
design issues, 420-425
electronic payment system, 478-488
Globe, 563-565
Globus, 416-420
introduction, 414-432
Jini, 729-730
Kerberos, 472-473
Lotus Notes, 688-691
management, 460-471
NFS, 600-604
Plan 9, 629
secure channel, 832-447
S
SESAME, 473-478
SFS, 637-638
S-box, 428
SACM (see Secure Association Context Management) TIB/rendezvous, 715-716
WWW, 676-678
Safety, 363
xFS, 634-635
SAN (see System Area Network)
Replication, 14, 291-358
Globe, 560-563
Coda, 616-617
DCOM, 541
lazy, 352-356
Lotus Notes, 685-688
NFS, 594-597
object, 293-296
Plan 9, 628-629
TIB/rendezvous, 712
WWW, 672-676
Replication protocol, 326-337
Replication subobject, Globe, 549
Replication transparency, 6
Repository, CORBA, 498
Request line, WWW, 660
Request-reply behavior, 43
Resource manager, 22
Resource proxy, 418
Resource record, 202
Resource reservation protocol, 126
Response failure, 365
Revocation of certificates, 464
Ring algorithm, 263-264
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, 430-431
RMI (see Remote Method Invocation)
Role, 420, 451
Rollback, 280
Root (directory) node, 218
Root (node), 186
Root file handle, NFS, 586
Root set, 226
ROT (see DCOM, Running Object Table)
Routing, 63
ROWA (see Read One, Write All)
RPC (see Remote Procedure Call)
RPC failure, NFS, 598-599
RPC2, Coda, 606
RSA (see Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm)
RSVP (see Resource reSerVation Protocol)
RTP (see Real-time transport protocol)
Rumor spreading, 335
Running object table, DCOM, 538
Runtime object, 87-88
RVID (see Replicated Volume Identifier)
RVM (see Recoverable Virtual Memory)
800
Security association, 525
Security context, 524
Security management, 460-471
Security management information base, 475
Security manager, 456
Security mechanism, 414-416
Security policy, 414-416
Security service, 81
Security subobject, Globe, 563
Security threat, 414-416
Selective revealing, 455
Self-certifying pathname, SFS, 636
Semantics subobject, Globe, 547
Semaphore, 25
Sender-based logging, 402
Sender-initiated migration, 161
Sequencer, 341, 351
Sequential consistency, 300-305
Serializability, 97, 275, 281-283
Server, 42, 149-158
DCOM, 536-537
example, 44-48, 82-85
failure to locate, 376
Globe, 555-557
multithreaded, 143-144
NFS, 577
object, 152-158
SFS, 636
stateful, 151
stateless, 151
WWW, 664-668
Server-based protocol, 331
Server crash, 377-379
Server-initiated replica, 327-329
Server port, 467
Server replication
Coda, 616-617
WWW, 674-676
Server-side script, WWW, 655
Server stub, 71-73
Server task, Lotus Notes, 681
Serverless operation, 629-635
Service control manager, DCOM, 529, 536
Service identifier, Jini, 725
Service item, Jini, 725
Services, CORBA, 499-501
Services, DCOM, 530-531
Services, Globe, 551-553
Servlet, WWW, 656
SESAME, 473-478
Session key, 434, 443-444
Session layer, 66
Session semantics, NFS, 591
SET (see Secure Electronic Transaction)
SFS (see Secure File System)
INDEX
Shadow, 447
Shadow block, 278
Share reservation, NFS, 594
Shared object, 349-352
Shared-nothing architecture, 327
Shrinking phase, 283
Side effect, Coda, 607
Simple stream, 121
Single-processor system, 2
Skeleton, 86
SMDS (see Switched Multimegabit Data Service)
SMIB (see Security Management Information Base)
Socket, 104-106
Socket interface, 104
Software agent, 173
Solar day, 244
Solar second, 244
Source queue, 111
SRM (see Scalable Reliable Multicasting)
SSl (see Secure Socket Layer)
SSL (see Secure Sockets Layer)
SSP chain, 214
Stable storage, 403-404
Stack introspection, 459
Stacked address, Globe, 558
State, 86
State transition failure, 365
Stateful server, 151
Stateless server, 151
Static invocation, 90
Status line, WWW, 660
Storage server, xFS, 630
Store, Coda, 613
Stream synchronization, 127-130
Stream-oriented communication, 119-130
Strict consistency, 299-300
Strict two-phase locking, 284
Stripe group, xFS, 631
Striping, xFS, 631
Strong collision resistance, 427
Strong mobility, 161
Subject name, TIB/rendezvous, 702
Subject, 447
Subject-based addressing, 702
TIB/rendezvous, 702-703
Substream, 121
Superserver, 150
Switched multi-megabit data service, 422
Switched interconnection, 17
Symbolic link, 190
Symmetric cryptosystem, 426
Synchronization, 241-289
clock, 242-258
Coda, 610-615
comparison in object systems, 569
INDEX
Synchronization (continued)
CORBA, 518
DCOM, 541
election algorithm, 262-264
Globe, 559
Jini, 727-728
logical clock, 252-258
Lotus Notes, 685
mutual exclusion, 265-271
NFS, 590-592
physical clock, 242-252
Plan 9, 628
stream, 127-130
TIB/rendezvous, 710-712
transaction, 271-288
WWW, 671
Synchronization variable, 308
Synchronized clocks, 251-252
Synchronous communication, 11, 101
Synchronous transmission mode, 121
System area network, 19
T
Tag, WWW, 659
TAI (see International Atomic Time)
TCB (see Trusted Computing Base)
TCP (see Transmission Control Protocol)
TCP for Transactions, 65
Template, Jini, 717
Termination detection, 261-262
TGS (see Ticket Granting Service)
Thread, 136-144
Thread context, 137
Three-phase commit protocol, 399-401
Three-tiered architecture, 52
Threshold scheme, 447
TIB/rendezvous, 702-716
active goal, 715
architecture, 703-704
caching, 712
certified message delivery, 714
communication, 704-708
compared to Jini
coordination model, 702-703
dispatched, 706
event object, 706
event processing, 706-708
event queue group, 708
fault tolerance, 713-715
heartbeat message, 715
inbox name, 705
801
TIB/rendezvous (continued)
information bus, 702
ledger, 714
listener event, 706
messaging, 705-706
naming, 709-710
overlay network, 704
overview, 702-704
process, 708-709
process group, 715
publish, 703
queue group, 708
reliable communication, 713-714
rendezvous daemon, 703
rendezvous router daemon, 703
replication, 712
security, 715-716
subject name, 702
subject-based addressing, 702-703
subscribe, 703
synchronization, 710-712
transaction daemon, 711
transactional messaging, 710
transport, 705
Ticket, 437, 472
Ticket granting service, 472
Time server, 247
Timer, 243
Timing failure, 365
TLS (see Transport Layer Security)
TMR (see Triple Modular Redundancy)
Token, 269
Token bucket algorithm, 123
Total-ordered delivery, 390
Totally-ordered multicast, 255-256
TP4 (see Transport Protocol 4)
Tracing-based garbage collection, 232
Transaction
classification, 275-277
concurrency control, 280-288
distributed, 39, 271-288
flat, 275-276
implementation, 278-280
Jini, 727-728
model, 272-275
nested, 276
serializability, 281-283
Transaction daemon, TIB/rendezvous, 711
Transaction identifier, NFS, 598
Transaction service, CORBA, 499
Transactional messaging, TIB/rendezvous, 710
Transactional queue, DCOM, 534
Transactional semantics, Coda, 612-615
Transient communication, 101
Transient fault, 363
802
Transient local object, Globe, 557
Transient object, 88
Transit of the sun, 244
Transmission control protocol, 64
Transparency, 5
access, 5-6
concurrency, 6-7
degree, 7-8
failure, 7
location, 6
migration, 6
persistence, 7
relocation, 6
replication, 6
Transport layer security, 676-677
Transport layer, 63-64
Transport protocol 4, 64
Triple modular redundancy, 367
Trust model, 464
Trusted computing base, 423
Tuple, Jini, 717
Two-army problem, 372
Two-phase commit protocol, 393-398
Two-phase locking, 283-285
Two-tiered architecture, 51
Type library, DCOM, 529
INDEX
V
Vault object, CORBA, 525
Vector timestamp, 256-258
Venus, Coda, 605
Version number, Plan 9, 628
Version vector, Coda, 617
Version, Plan 9, 628
Vertical distribution, 52
VFS (see Virtual File System)
Vice, Coda, 604
VID (see Volume Identifier)
View change, 388
Virtual channel, 63
Virtual file system, 577, 606
Virtual ghost, 675
Virtual machine, 23
Virtual path, 63
Virtual synchrony, 387-389
implementation, 391-393
Virtue, Coda, 605
Vnode, Coda, 610
Volume identifier, Coda, 610
Volume location database, Coda, 610
Volume replication database, Coda, 610
Volume Storage Group, Coda, 616
Volume, Coda, 609
Voting, 343
VSG (see Volume Storage Group)
U
UDP (see Universal Datagram Protocol)
Unattached resource, 163
UNID (see UNiversal ID)
Uniform resource identifier, 665, 668
Uniform resource locator, 4, 648, 668-670
Uniform resource name, 668, 670
Union directory, Plan 9, 627
Uniprocessor operating system, 23-25
Universal coordinated time, 245
Universal datagram protocol, 64
Universal ID, Lotus Notes, 684
UNIX semantics, NFS, 590
Unreferenced objects, 225-238
Update protocol, 330-331
Upload/download model, NFS, 577
URI (see Uniform Resource Identifier)
URL (see Uniform Resource Locator)
URN (see Uniform Resource Name)
User agent, SFS, 635
User mode, 24
User proxy, 418
User sponsor, 476
UTC (see Universal Coordinated Time)
W
WAN (see Wide-Area Network)
Weak collision resistance, 427
Weak consistency, 308-310
Weak mobility, 161
Web browser, 649, 662
helper application, 657
plug-in, 663
Web distributed authoring and versioning, WWW, 671
Web proxy, 663
WebDAV (see Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning)
Weighted reference counting, 228
Wide-area network, 2
Window manager, 146
Worker thread, 143
World wide web, 3-4, 9, 648-678
active cache, 673
Akamai, 675
Apache server, 664
applet, 656
architecture, 654-657
browser, 649, 662-663
803
INDEX
World wide web (continued)
caching, 672-676
client, 662-664
cluster server, 666-668
common gateway interface, 654
communication, 657-663
compared to Lotus Notes, 691-695
content delivery network, 675
content-aware request distribution, 667
cooperative caching, 673
document model, 649-652
document type, 653-654
dynamic HTML, 651
extensible markup language, 651
extensible style language, 652
fault tolerance, 676
helper application, 657
hyperlink, 649
hypertext markup language, 650
hypertext transfer protocol, 657
Internet engineering task force, 670
Javascript, 650
mime type, 653
mirror, 675
multipurpose Internet mail extension, 653
naming, 668
nonpersistent connection, 658
overview, 648-649
persistent connection, 658
pipelining, 658
plug-in, 663
process, 662-668
proxy, 663
proxy cache, 672-674
redirect, 662
replication, 672-676
scheme, 668
secure socket layer, 676
security, 676-678
server, 664-666
server replication, 674-676
server-side script, 655
servlet, 656
synchronization, 671
tag, 659
TLS protocol layer, 677
transport layer security, 676
uniform resource identifier, 665, 668
uniform resource identifier, scheme, 668
uniform resource locator, 648, 668-670
uniform resource name, 668, 670
virtual ghost, 675
WebDAV, 671
XML, 651
XSL, 652
WORM (see Write-Once, Read-Many)
Wrapper, 510
Write once, read many, 626
Write quorum, 344
Write-back cache, 346
Write-through cache, 346
Write-write conflict, 283
Writeahead log, 279
Writes-follow-reads, 323
WWW (see World Wide Web)
X
X.500, 206-210
implementation, 209-210
X kernel, 145
X/open transport interface, 104
X protocol, 146
X terminal, 146
X windows, 145-146
XFS, 629-635
active message, 631
caching, 633-634
client, 630
collaborative caching, 634
communication, 630-631
compared to other systems, 638-643
fault tolerance, 634
imap, 631
manager map, 632
metadata manager, 630
naming, 633
overview, 629-630
parity fragment, 631
process, 631-633
security, 634-635
server, 630
storage server, 630
stripe group, 631
striping, 631
Zebra file system, 631
XID (see NFS, transaction IDentifier)
XML (see Extensible Markup Language)
XSL (see Extensible Style Language)
XTI (see X/open Transport Interface)
Z
Zebra file system, 631
Zone, 13, 195
Zone transfer, 204
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