OLI Analyzer Studio - OLI products

OLI Analyzer Studio - OLI products
A Guide to Using
OLI Analyzer Studio
Including Studio ScaleChem
Version 9.1
OLI Systems, Inc.
Copyright© 2014
OLI Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The enclosed materials are provided to the lessees, selected individuals and agents of OLI Systems,
Inc. The material may not be duplicated or otherwise provided to any entity without the expressed
permission of OLI Systems, Inc.
240 Cedar Knolls Road
Suite 301
Cedar Knolls, NJ 07927
973-539-4996
(Fax) 973-539-5922
Oli.support@olisystems.com
www.olisystems.com
Disclaimer:
This manual was produced using the OLI/Analyzer Studio version 9.1 build 2 (9.1.2).
As time progresses, new data and refinements to existing data sets can result in values
that you obtain being slightly different than what is presented in this manual. This is a
natural progress and cannot be avoided. When large systematic changes to the
software occur, this manual will be updated.
Chapter 1 Welcome to OLI
7
Who is OLI Systems? ................................................................................................................ 7
What does OLI Systems do? ...................................................................................................... 9
Aqueous Simulation .................................................................................................... 9
Oil-Field Chemistry ..................................................................................................... 9
Corrosion Chemistry ................................................................................................... 9
Process Modeling ...................................................................................................... 10
Chapter 2 Introduction to Aqueous Speciation
11
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 11
What is the pH of the Following Stream? ................................................................. 11
Answer: ..................................................................................................................... 22
Speciation in Sour Water ......................................................................................................... 23
Sour Water Species.................................................................................................... 23
Chemistry Summary (Molecular Equilibrium) .......................................................... 23
Chemistry Summary (Electrolyte Equilibrium) ......................................................... 23
Calculating Partial Pressures ..................................................................................... 24
Considering only the Vapor-Liquid equilibria........................................................... 26
Considering the full OLI Speciation Model .............................................................. 26
An Example of Speciation ....................................................................................................... 28
Summary:................................................................................................................................. 34
Chapter 3 Removing Nickel from Wastewater
35
The Removal of Nickel using OLI Analyzer Studio ................................................................ 35
How to run the tour? .................................................................................................. 36
The Tour Starts Here... .............................................................................................. 36
Scenario 1: Wastewater without additives ................................................................. 37
Scenario 2: Now, What about the Real Waste? ......................................................... 57
Scenario 3: Is All Really Lost? .................................................................................. 61
Final Thoughts... ...................................................................................................................... 62
Save, Save and then Save again................................................................................. 63
Chapter 4 The Mathematical Model
65
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 65
Specific Problem ...................................................................................................................... 65
Recipe for Writing the Model.................................................................................... 66
The Components of the Simulator ........................................................................................... 68
The Database ............................................................................................................. 68
The Chemistry Model ................................................................................................ 68
The Generator ............................................................................................................ 69
The OLI Engine ......................................................................................................... 69
Phase Selection ........................................................................................................................ 69
Chapter 5 Solids Precipitation
73
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 73
The Tour .................................................................................................................................. 73
Objectives .................................................................................................................. 73
Let’s begin ................................................................................................................. 73
Selecting the precipitation point calculation.............................................................. 76
Expanding the Chemistry .......................................................................................... 79
Removing Solids ....................................................................................................... 80
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 1
Repeating the precipitation point calculation ............................................................ 81
Removing Dolomite .................................................................................................. 84
Units manager new look ............................................................................................ 85
Now would be a good time to save your files. .......................................................... 87
Chapter 6 Aqueous Thermodynamics
89
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 89
The Equilibrium Constant ........................................................................................................ 89
Question: ................................................................................................................... 89
Principal Thermodynamic Properties ...................................................................................... 90
HKF (Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers)Equation of State, ............................................................. 91
The Helgeson Equation of State ................................................................................ 93
What is the standard State?........................................................................................ 94
Excess Properties ..................................................................................................................... 95
Ionic Strength ............................................................................................................ 95
Definition of Aqueous Activity Coefficients ............................................................. 96
Modern Formulations ................................................................................................ 97
Neutral Species ........................................................................................................ 101
Multiphase Model .................................................................................................................. 102
Solid-Aqueous Equilibrium ..................................................................................... 102
Solid Phase Thermodynamic Properties .................................................................. 103
Mixed EOS Model................................................................................................... 103
Limitations of the Current OLI Thermodynamic Model ....................................................... 104
Scaling Tendencies ................................................................................................................ 105
What is a scaling tendency?..................................................................................... 105
Calculating Osmotic Pressures .............................................................................................. 108
Summary ................................................................................................................................ 108
Chapter 7 Single Point Calculations
109
Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 109
Isothermal .............................................................................................................................. 110
Mix Calculations.................................................................................................................... 114
Bubble Point .......................................................................................................................... 121
Dew Point .............................................................................................................................. 125
Vapor Amounts/Fractions ...................................................................................................... 129
Chapter 8 Multiple Point Calculations
133
Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 133
Temperature ........................................................................................................................... 134
Pressure.................................................................................................................................. 145
Composition........................................................................................................................... 150
pH (Mixer) ............................................................................................................................. 154
Cascading Mixers .................................................................................................................. 160
Secondary Surveys................................................................................................................. 166
Contour Plots ......................................................................................................................... 170
Chapter 9 Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview
173
Overview: .............................................................................................................................. 173
An Example: .......................................................................................................................... 173
Summary ................................................................................................................................ 185
Chapter 10 Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
187
Welcome to OLI • 2
Reconciling a Brine from an Oil Field ................................................................................... 187
The Application ....................................................................................................... 187
Tour Conventions .................................................................................................... 188
The tour Starts here! ................................................................................................ 188
Calculating Alkalinity ............................................................................................. 199
Creating a stream from the sample .......................................................................... 202
Chapter 11 Petroleum Calculations
203
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 203
Assays...................................................................................................................... 203
Pseudocomponents .................................................................................................. 210
Chapter 12 Scope of Corrosion Analyzer
213
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 213
Thermodynamics of Corrosion ................................................................................ 213
Kinetics of general corrosion ................................................................................... 214
Other phenomena .................................................................................................... 214
Real-solution stability diagrams ............................................................................................ 214
Chapter 13 Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer
215
An Example ........................................................................................................................... 215
How to Use Stability Diagrams ............................................................................................. 222
Chapter 14 Generation of Stability Diagrams
227
Construction of real-solution stability diagrams .................................................................... 227
Construction of equilibrium equations .................................................................... 227
Examples ................................................................................................................. 228
Cases when both the metal and ligands are subject to redox equilibria ................... 228
Simulated titrations ................................................................................................................ 229
Equilibrium lines for chemical reactions ............................................................................... 229
Determination of predominance areas ................................................................................... 230
Chapter 15 A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer
231
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 231
Iron in Water .......................................................................................................................... 231
Adding Hydrogen Sulfide........................................................................................ 240
Chapter 16 Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion 245
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 245
High Temperature Iron in Water ............................................................................. 245
How does the prediction of passivation relate to corrosion rate data?..................... 248
Neutralization of Refinery Streams with Alkanolamines ........................................ 248
Chapter 17 Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion
253
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 253
Copper and Ammonia.............................................................................................. 253
Gold in the presence of Cyanides ............................................................................ 257
Chapter 18 Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion
261
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 261
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 3
Iron in the presence of chromates ............................................................................ 261
Iron in the presence of arsenates.............................................................................. 264
Chapter 19 Implications of Stability Diagrams on Cathodic Protection 267
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 267
Example: Iron at 25 and 300 degree centigrade ...................................................... 267
Chapter 20 Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry
269
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 269
Creating the default oxidation case ......................................................................... 269
Selective Redox, removing an undesired oxidation state. ....................................... 271
Chapter 21 Introduction to Rates of Corrosion
275
Chemistry............................................................................................................................... 275
Calculation types ................................................................................................................... 275
Metal Chemistry .................................................................................................................... 276
Flow conditions ..................................................................................................................... 277
Kinetics of general corrosion ................................................................................................. 278
Chapter 22 Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour
281
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 281
The Rates of Corrosion .......................................................................................................... 281
Setting up the calculation ........................................................................................ 283
Flow survey ............................................................................................................. 287
Chapter 23 Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition
Introduction
291
What can be simulated? ......................................................................................................... 291
Alloy Chemistry..................................................................................................................... 292
Calculation types ................................................................................................................... 292
Output specific to thermal aging ............................................................................................ 293
Chapter 24 Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition
295
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 295
Example 1: Thermal aging of alloy 600................................................................................. 296
Setting up the calculation ........................................................................................ 296
Analyzing the results ............................................................................................... 299
Example 2: Thermal aging of alloy 825................................................................................. 305
Setting up the calculation ........................................................................................ 306
Analyzing the results ............................................................................................... 308
Example 3: Localized corrosion of annealed and thermally aged duplex alloy 2205 ............ 310
Setting up the calculation ........................................................................................ 312
Analyzing the results ............................................................................................... 315
Setting up the calculation ........................................................................................ 317
Analyzing the results ............................................................................................... 318
Chapter 25 Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – Intro321
Extreme Value Statistics ........................................................................................................ 321
Input and Output .................................................................................................................... 322
Advantages and Disadvantages of EVS ................................................................................. 322
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 4
Chapter 26 Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A
Tour
323
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 323
Example 1: Corrosion of aluminum alloy in tap water .......................................................... 324
Setting up the calculation (Pit depth prediction) ..................................................... 327
Analyzing the results ............................................................................................... 328
Setting up the calculations for engineering tasks..................................................... 331
Example 2: Corrosion in Pipelines. ....................................................................................... 339
Example 3: Possible Case of Insufficient Data ...................................................................... 346
Chapter 27 Petroleum Fraction Thermodynamic Methods
351
Distillation Methods of the ASTM .......................................................................... 351
Average Bulk Density ............................................................................................. 351
Thermodynamic Methods ........................................................................................ 352
Chapter 28 How to create OLI Analyzers Chemical Diagrams
353
Chapter 29 Managing Private Databases in the OLI Analyzer
365
Selecting Databases ............................................................................................................... 365
How to load a private database into the OLI Analyzers ........................................................ 370
How to unload a database from the OLI Analyzers ............................................................... 377
Chapter 30 OLI Units Manager
379
Chapter 31 Tools | Options
387
Setting the Auto Save and Automatic Backup Features .......................................... 387
Changing the default file locations .......................................................................... 388
Turning off hardware acceleration .......................................................................... 391
Chapter 32 Modifying the plot, hiding curves
395
Chapter 33 Customizing the Report
403
Chapter 34 Displaying Transport Properties and Extra Thermodynamic
Parameters
409
Single Point Calculations ........................................................................................ 409
Survey Calculations ................................................................................................. 412
Chapter 35 Studio ScaleChem Overview
415
Why Use StudioScaleChem? ................................................................................................. 415
StudioScaleChem’s Development ......................................................................................... 415
Chapter 36 Studio ScaleChem Chemistry
417
Aqueous Chemistry ............................................................................................................... 417
StudioScaleChem Chemistry ................................................................................................. 417
The Standard Chemistry Model ............................................................................... 417
The Expanded Chemistry Model ............................................................................. 418
Hydrocarbon Petroleum Fractions ........................................................................... 418
Density .................................................................................................................... 419
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 5
Thermodynamic Methods (pseudo-components and petroleum fractions) .............. 419
Summary ................................................................................................................................ 419
Chapter 37 Studio ScaleChem Getting Started
421
Terminology .......................................................................................................................... 421
Analysis ................................................................................................................... 421
Reconciliation .......................................................................................................... 421
Calculating a Scaling Tendency .............................................................................. 422
Calculating a Scale Index ........................................................................................ 423
Putting together a calculation ................................................................................................ 423
Starting the StudioScaleChem Program .................................................................. 424
StudioScaleChem Tour ............................................................................................ 424
Brine and Gases ....................................................................................................... 433
Chapter 38 Studio ScaleChem Calculations
441
Calculations Overview........................................................................................................... 441
Calculations: Adding a new brine sample ............................................................... 441
Calculations: Adding a Gas Sample ........................................................................ 442
Calculations: Adding an Oil sample ........................................................................ 444
Calculations: Hydrocarbon - Pseudocomponent approach ...................................... 444
Mix Calculation: Overview ................................................................................................... 449
Mix Calculation: Set Up .......................................................................................... 449
Saturate Calculations: Overview............................................................................................ 454
Saturate Calculations: Set Up .................................................................................. 454
Facility Calculation: Overview .............................................................................................. 459
Create the above brines ........................................................................................... 459
Facility Calculation: Set Up .................................................................................... 459
Chapter 39 Studio ScaleChem Interpreting Results
463
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 463
Valid Water Analysis Data .................................................................................................... 463
Assumptions ............................................................................................................ 463
Electroneutrality ...................................................................................................... 463
pH/Alkalinity ........................................................................................................... 466
Speciation ................................................................................................................ 468
Supersaturation of Solids ......................................................................................... 470
Summary Content .................................................................................................................. 471
Reconciliation summary .......................................................................................... 471
Gas Analysis ............................................................................................................ 471
Node Summary ........................................................................................................ 472
Overview of StudioScaleChem Output .................................................................................. 473
Summaries ............................................................................................................................. 473
Plot ......................................................................................................................................... 474
Determining the Default Plot................................................................................... 474
Viewing Data........................................................................................................... 474
Data Available ......................................................................................................... 475
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 6
Chapter 1 Welcome to OLI
Who is OLI Systems?
OLI Systems was founded in 1971 by Dr. Marshall Rafal. During the past four decades OLI has developed, at a cost of
almost $30,000,000, commercial computer software which has established the company as the world leader in simulating
aqueous-based chemical systems
OLI's unique capability is providing the world with the only predictive thermodynamic framework for calculating the
physical and chemical properties of multi-phase, aqueous-based systems. This framework is applicable to most multicomponent mixtures of chemicals in water, and is predictive over almost any conceivable temperature, pressure and
concentration of interest.
Employing this unique and powerful framework, the OLI Engine, supported by a very large, in-place databank, allows
users to predict the chemical and phase behavior (including aqueous, vapor, non-aqueous liquid and multiple solids), of
most mixtures of inorganic or organic chemicals in water. The resulting phase separation into aqueous, vapor, organic
liquid and multiple solids is performed automatically. In the laboratory, in steady-state or dynamic process conditions or
in the natural environment, the OLI Engine is broad-based and accurate.
OLI's world leadership is reflected in many ways, including authorship of AIChE's Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte
Thermodynamics. OLI software is used by nearly all of the largest companies in the Chemicals and Oil & Gas sectors of
the Chemical Process Industries (CPI) as well as companies in other sectors such as Metals and Mining, Forest Products
and Pharmaceuticals. In addition, OLI software is used extensively in Environmental, E & C and Basic Research.
OLI has created several widely-used products:
OLI Engine
OLI's aqueous thermodynamics are at the heart of the OLI software. OLI
Engine refers to the thermodynamic database, thermodynamic framework, and
supporting numerical computation to simulate the chemical and phase behavior of
aqueous-based systems.
Analyzer Studio
Never has aqueous chemistry problem solving been easier. Analyzer Studio
combines ease of learning, ease of use with the power of the OLI Engine. It supports
single and multiple point calculations, utilizing OLI's extensive PUBLIC databanks.
Ionic input is possible. Analyzer Studio allows customers to input, store,
manipulate, adjust and reconcile laboratory data, with facilities to adjust laboratory
errors in pH and charge balance.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 7
OLI Express
Prior to the Analyzers, access to the OLI Engine was through OLI Express. It
supports single ScratchPad and parametric Survey calculations for investigating
chemical behavior, pH, solubility, multiple phases, speciation, and other phenomena.
Environmental Simulation Program (ESP)
ESP is OLI’s steady-state flowsheet simulation package capable of simulating
rigorous environmental unit operations including stripping/scrubbing, pH control,
ion exchange, biotreatment, clarification, UF/RO, electrodialysis, and many others.
Feedback control and recycle convergence are included.
Corrosion Analyzer (now part of the OLI Studio)
CSP provides a framework to analyze metal and alloy redox solution chemistry
for any mixture of chemicals at almost any condition of interest. The package
provides for real-solution stability diagrams (e.g., Pourbaix and Yield) and accurate
prediction of electrical conductivity and ORP. CSP supports calculation of
predictive rates of corrosion for a limited set of chemistry.
DynaChem
Dynamic is a flowsheet simulation package for time-dependent and transient
processes. DynaChem includes support for scheduled entry feeds, PID control, open
and closed loop, feedback and feed-forward, multi-cascade, adaptive gain, pH,
compositional control and many others. Operator intervention to introduce upsets,
manually adjust valves and control settings is also possible.
ScaleChem
ScaleChem is OLI’s solution for oil-field applications including surface and
subsurface mineral scale prediction, saturation profiles, and produced/formation
water mixing. ScaleChem is based upon accurate fitting of binary, ternary and
quaternary data up for several common scales, and many more "not-so-common"
scales!
OLI is comprised of an extraordinary staff of advanced degree scientists and
engineers who enable OLI to maintain a high-level of Research & Development
while offering a full range of Support Services and Professional Services.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 8
What does OLI Systems do?
As the recognized experts in modeling aqueous electrolyte thermodynamics, backed by a large in-place databank, we
provide computer software tools to solve your problems quickly and accurately for:
Aqueous Simulation
It is essential for scientists and engineers to understand the effects of aqueous chemistry of their processes. This includes
the effects of trace components, pH, temperature, and other factors on their process systems. Over the past 30 years, OLI
has refined software which accurately models multiphase, multi-component aqueous solutions for virtually any mixture
of chemicals. The basis for OLI’s Software is the "OLI Engine." The OLI Engine is made up of the Solvers and the
Databanks.
The OLI Databank contains proprietary coefficients for the prediction of thermodynamic, transport, and physical
properties for 80 inorganic elements of the periodic table, and their associated aqueous species, as well as over 8000
organic species. Thus, most mixtures of chemicals in water can be modeled, provided the solvent of the solution is
water.
Upon the user's request, the aqueous model can incorporate redox chemistry, co-precipitation and reaction kinetics. Also
available are surface phenomena such as ion exchange, surface complexation and molecular adsorption. Transport
properties such as electrical conductivity, viscosity and diffusivity are also available.
Oil-Field Chemistry
ScaleChem is software which assesses potential scaling problems for oil-field applications. The ability to calculate the
high temperature and pressure effects typically found in oil-field production is solved using the OLI Engine. OLI
Systems is a recognized leader in the world of aqueous chemistry, and has a generalized modeling capability, the OLI
Aqueous Thermodynamic Model which is being applied here specifically to the problems of the oil-field industry.
Corrosion Chemistry
Most corrosion problems are addressed by treating the symptoms. A treatment plan would constitute:
•
measuring corrosion rates,
•
determining life expectancy,
•
regularly replacement of corroded material and equipment.
Corrosion Analyzer and CSP are unique software used to investigate the Rate of Corrosion and determine the causes of
corrosion before they happen, allowing preventive actions to be evaluated and implemented. This includes choosing
correct operating conditions and corrosion resistant materials.
Elemental and alloy metal oxidation and reduction reactions for 79 inorganic elements and thousands of species are
available in the OLI Databank. The software automatically generates the redox reactions and the resulting species and
solves for the equilibrium conditions using its predictive thermodynamic model.
Because of OLI's unique, predictive aqueous model featuring accurate activity coefficients, the corrosion software offers
a few types of real-solution diagrams for your analysis. Our competitors only offer idealized solution diagrams and none
of a general prediction of rates of uniform corrosion.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 9
Real Solution Pourbaix Diagrams
Graphical depiction of EH vs. pH for any mixture of chemicals in water is available to evaluate stable and meta-stable
corrosion and redox products. This allows assessment of the effect of passivating species in real solutions without any
simplifying assumptions.
Real Solution Stability Diagrams
Flexible selection of independent variables and graphical depiction of local and global equilibria in various projections is
available in CSP. Depictions include EH vs. composition and composition vs. pH for any chemical mixture, including
trace components, to assess stable and meta-stable species in real solutions.
Uniform corrosion rates and predicted polarization curves are featured in OLI's unique Rates of Corrosion calculations.
Single-Point and Multiple-Point calculation points are available.
Process Modeling
The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) is a steady-state process simulator with a proven record in enhancing the
productivity of engineers and scientists. With applications industry-wide, the software is not only applied to
environmental applications but to any aqueous chemical processes.
A wide range of conventional and environmental unit operations are available:
Mix
Split
Separate
Neutralizer
Absorber
Stripper
Reactor
Exchanger
Precipitator
Extractor
Component Split
Incinerator
Compressor
Bioreactor
Manipulate
Controller
Feedforward
Crystallizer
Clarifier
Sensitivity
Membrane (UF, RO)
Electrodialysis
Saturator
Dehydrator
ESP provides the engineer or scientist accurate answers to questions involving complex aqueous systems. Design,
debottlnecking, retrofitting, troubleshooting and optimizing of existing or new processes is easy with ESP. Upstream
waste minimization, as well as the waste treatment itself, is possible with ESP. The dynamic response of a process can be
studied using the dynamic simulation program, DynaChem, to examine control strategy, potential upsets, scheduled
waste streams, controller tuning, and startup/shutdown studies.
Process Flow-sheeting and Control
Process flow-sheeting with multiple recycles and control loops are allowed. Feed-forward and feedback Controllers and
Manipulate blocks help to achieve process specifications.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Welcome to OLI • 10
Chapter 2 Introduction to
Aqueous Speciation
Overview
It is our belief that the predictive modeling of aqueous systems requires that the system be fully speciated. This allows
for smoother extrapolation of experimental data with less “Faith” placed on corrections.
The user, after completing this section, should have a better understanding of why full speciation is required and how
Analyzer Studio performs calculations.
What is the pH of the Following Stream?
Temperature
=
25 Centigrade
Pressure
=
1 Atmosphere
H2O
=
55.5081 moles
FeCl3
=
1.0 moles
We will now take our first look at the OLI Analyzer Studio2 software to answer this question.
We start by first clicking on the Analyzer Studio icon or by selecting the Analyzer Studio from the Start button.
Analyzer Studio will momentarily display:
1
This is 1 kilogram of water. All of OLI’s internal aqueous concentrations are based on the molal concentration scale.
You will see this value frequently in the course.
2
Also referred to as Analyzer Studio or simply Analyzer in the rest of this document.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 11
Figure 2-1 The Analyzer Studio Splash Screen
After a few moments, the main Analyzer Studio3 window will display. A tips box may also appear; you can close it.
This is the Navigator
pane, also known as the
Tree view. A list of
currently defined objects
is displayed here.
This is the Actions or Explorer
pane. Normally we start by
clicking on Add Stream.
Figure 2-2 The main Analyzer Studio window
3
This image shows the optional Studio-ScaleChem plug-in
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 12
Click on the Add Stream icon.
Figure 2-3 Adding a new stream
Note: Analyzer Studio now allows users to choose the type of thermodynamic framework used to perform simulations.
Two thermodynamic frameworks/models are available:
1. Aqueous (H+ ions): This is the traditional framework applicable to
most multi-component mixtures of chemicals in water and is predictive over
almost any conceivable temperature, pressure and concentration of interest.
2. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte / MSE (H30+ ion): The MSE
framework is OLI’s newly developed model capable of reproducing
speciation, chemical, and phase equilibria applicable to water-organic-salt
systems in the full range of concentrations as well as aqueous electrolytes
from dilute solutions to the fused salt limit.
Unless otherwise noted, all examples discussed in this guide use the Aqueous model. Make sure that the Aqueous Model
is being used by selecting Model Options… from the Chemistry menu.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 13
Figure 2-4: Selecting the thermodynamic framework used for simulation.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 14
The yellow fields indicate mandatory
components. We enter the data in the white
spaces in the grid. The component iron (III)
Chloride is entered here as FeCL3
Click on the Add Calculation button and
select Single Point to start a calculation.
Figure 2-5 Entering Stream Information
The shaded areas of the stream definition are required by the program. By default, we will start at 25 degrees centigrade,
1 atmosphere and 55.5082 moles of water. This amount of water is 1 kilogram of water. This effectively makes any
component concentration a molal concentration.
If a red X appears next to
the name you entered, then
the program does not
recognize the name. Please
check to see if the spelling
is correct. There will be
more about entering user
data later in this course.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
We enter the chemical formula of FeCl3 in the inflow grid and then enter a value of
1.0. You may use the mouse or tabs keys to move around the grid.
The concept employed here is that the user will define a stream (or import it from
another program or process) whose values will propagate throughout all subsequent
calculations.
Enter the chemical formula FeCl3 and then enter a value of 1.0 in mole units. Click
on the Add Calculation button and select Single Point when finished.
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 15
The tree view expands to
show the new calculation.
Figure 2-6 Starting the calculation
We are now ready to start the calculations but let us review some options on this screen.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 16
We can select from several types of
calculations.
The summary box indicates the current
status of the calculation.
Green means GO!
Click here to start.
Figure 2-7 Entering the calculation conditions.
The data in the Definition grid has been propagated from the stream that we just entered. You may change the values or
add to the list of species. This does not affect the original stream definition.
Please note: The names that you enter in the grid may be different from what is displayed depending on settings in the
Tools menu. This will be discussed later.
We will leave the values as is, click the Type of Calculation button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 17
Figure 2-8 Single Point Calculation Types
There are several types of calculations that can be performed. We will use the default calculation type of Isothermal for
this demonstration. The following types of calculations are defined:
Isothermal
A constant temperature and pressure calculation.
Isenthalpic
A constant heat loss/gain is applied to the calculation and
a temperature or pressure can be adjusted to meet this new
heat content.
Bubble Point
The temperature or pressure is adjusted to reach a
condition where a small amount of vapor begins to appear.
Dew Point
The temperature or pressure is adjusted to reach a
condition where a small amount of aqueous liquid appears.
Vapor Amount
The temperature or pressure is adjusted to produce a
specified amount of vapor.
Vapor Fraction
The temperature or pressure is adjusted to produce a
specified amount of vapor as a fraction of the total
quantity.
Set pH
The pH of the solution can be specified by adjusting the
flowrate of species.
Precipitation Point
The amount of a solid (solubility point) may be specified
by adjusting the flowrate of a species.
Composition Point
The aqueous concentration of a species may specified by
adjusting the flowrate of a species.
Reconcile Alkalinity
The alkalinity of a solution can be specified by adjusting
the flowrate of species.
Custom
Combinations of the above calculations can be created.
Select Isothermal calculations.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 18
We’re already to go, click
the green calculate button!
Figure 2-9 Let's GO! Click the Calculate button!
Click the green Calculate button.
The program will now start the calculation. After a moment, an “Orbit” will appear illustrating that the calculation is
proceeding. For long-time users of the OLI Software, the graphic might seem familiar.
Cancel will end the calculation.
Close hides this dialog and the
calculation keeps going.
For surveys a progress indicator
will show here.
The current operation is
displayed as well as the current
calculation point.
Figure 2-10 The OLI Calculation Status Dialog
The calculation may continue for several moments. When it is done, you will be returned to the same Definition screen.
Click on the Report tab.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 19
Here is our Answer, the pH is 2.215. We
also report some additional information.
We can scroll down to see more
information or use the Customize button
to tailor our report.
We can use the Windows Print commands
to print this information.
Figure 2-11 The Answer to our question
The answer to our question is that the pH of the solution is approximately 2.215. This is fairly acidic and a good question
to ask is why it is so acidic. To see the full list of species we need to modify the report.
Figure 2-12 Click on the customize button
Click on the Customize button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 20
Figure 2-13 Report content options
Locate the Speciation Summary check box and select it.
Click the OK button. Click on definition tab to refresh the report tab.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 21
These aqueous species are very stable, even
at low pH.
Figure 2-14 Modifying the report
Answer:
pH = 2.215
Why is the pH so low? The aqueous iron species form complexes with the hydroxide ion which shifts the water
dissociation in the direction to replenish the hydroxide ions4. This also produces hydrogen ions which do not have a
corresponding place to go and therefore remain free, lowering the pH.
This equilibrium is always present:
H2O = H+ + OH-
Speciation:
Fe+3
Cl-1
4
FeCl+2
FeCl2+1
FeOH+2
Fe(OH)2+1
Le Châtelier’s principle. P.W.Atkins. Physical Chemistry. W.H.Freeman and Company, San Francisco (1982) p 269.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 22
FeCl30
FeCl4-1
HCl0
H+1
OH-1
H2O0
Fe(OH)30
Fe(OH)4-1
Fe2(OH)2+4
This is a weak species at
25oC.
Speciation in Sour Water
Now we will look at a different system; the sour water system (NH3/H2S/CO2/H2O).
Sour Water Species
Vapor Species:
H2O, CO2, H2S and NH3
Aqueous Neutral Species:
H2O, CO2, H2S and NH3
Aqueous Ionic Species:
H+, OH-, NH4+, HS-, S2-, HCO3-, CO32-, and NH2CO2-
Chemistry Summary (Molecular Equilibrium)
Vapor - Liquid equilibrium reactions considered:
H2O(vap)
=
H2O
NH3(vap)
=
NH3(aq)
CO2(vap)
=
CO2(aq)
H2S(vap)
=
H2S(aq)
Chemistry Summary (Electrolyte Equilibrium)
Additional electrolyte reactions needed
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
H2O
=
H+ + OH-
NH3(aq) + H2O
=
NH4+ + OH-
CO2(aq) + H2O
=
H+ + HCO3Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 23
Notice that this is the
hydrolysis of an ion.
HCO3-
=
H+ + CO32-
NH2CO2- + H2O
=
NH3(aq) + HCO3-
H2S(aq)
=
H+ + HS-
HS-
=
H+ + S2-
Calculating Partial Pressures
In oil and gas refining, it is frequently important to remove impurities from the gas and oil. This may be done via a
scrubbing mechanism in which a gas is scrubbed with a liquid. Alternatively, a polluted waste stream may be stripped of
the pollutant using air. In either case, the calculating the partial pressures of the components is very important.
We now want to calculate the partial pressures of CO2, H2S, and NH3 with and without the aqueous phase equilibrium
considered.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 24
Data Summary5,6
Temperature 20oC & 60oC
Solution Composition
NH3:
1.126 - 2.160 molal
(1.8 - 3.3 wt %)
CO2:
0.424 - 1.601 molal
(1.8 - 6.4 wt %)
H2S:
0.040 - 0.407 molal
(0.1- 1.3 wt %)
H2O:
Balance
Table 2-1 Experimental and Calculated Partial Pressures of NH3, H2O and CO2
Liquid Concentration
(molality)
NH3
Temp
(C)
60
20
H2S
Experimental
OLI
NH3
CO2
2.076
1.516
0.064
14.744 12.388 121.6
2.098
1.601
0.052
13.604 10.792 129.2
1.954
2.16
1.231
1.236
1.45
1.439
1.132
1.234
1.238
1.234
1.235
1.126
1.471
1.581
0.424
0.507
0.517
0.665
0.681
0.694
0.712
0.725
0.771
0.794
0.04
0.05
0.196
0.201
0.407
0.396
0.1
0.199
0.203
0.199
0.2
0.095
11.476
13.68
4.104
2.888
2.432
1.52
1.368
1.292
1.292
0.912
0.912
0.684
11.172
12.92
3.648
2.66
2.736
1.444
1.216
1.216
1.064
0.988
0.836
0.684
VLE
114
129.2
12.16
12.16
14.44
14.44
11.4
12.16
12.16
12.16
12.16
11.4
Partial Pressure (mmHg)
CO2
Experim
ental
OLI
VLE
751.48
8 592.192 79594.8
738.11
2 744.572 84762.8
691.90
4
638.4 76820.8
705.28 590.52 83524
1.444
1.672 8580.4
3.496
3.42 10290.4
3.724
4.028 10526
13.072 13.148 13611.6
12.16 13.984 13892.8
13.072 16.036 14181.6
19
18.62 14561.6
20.444 20.672 14835.2
29.184 30.324 15808
35.188 36.252 16271.6
H2S
Experi
mental
OLI
VLE
31.616 36.936 1033.6
23.256 35.112
22.8
22.42
3.192
5.092
12.54
26.98
5.32
11.172
15.276
15.96
27.36
12.236
25.004
28.12
3.04
4.484
10.944
20.672
4.94
11.096
12.464
13.072
17.024
8.892
843.6
638.4
813.2
1292
1325.44
2690.4
2634.16
663.48
1322.4
1345.2
1079.2
1333.04
633.08
Table 2-1 Comparing Experimental Partial Pressures to Calculated values.
The data contained in Table 2-1compares the experimental partial pressures of carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide
against a VLE only model and the full OLI speciated model.
5
IGT Process Research Division, “HYGAS, 1972 to 1974 Pipeline Gas from Coal - Hydrogenation (IGT
Hydrogasification Process)” R & D Report No. 110; Interim Report No. 1. ERDA July 1975.
6
D.W.VanKrevelen, P.J.Hoftijzer, and F.J Juntjens. “Composition and Vapour Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of
Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulphide” Rec.Trav.Chem., Pay-Bas 68, 191-216 (1949)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 25
Considering only the Vapor-Liquid equilibria
Only the following equilibria are considered in these calculations:
H2O(vap) =
H2O
NH3(vap) =
NH3(aq)
CO2(vap) =
CO2(aq)
H2S(vap) =
H2S(aq)
Partial Pressures of Gases (VLE only)
100000
Calculated
10000
1000
CO2 (60 C)
H2S (60 C)
NH3 (60 C)
CO2 (20 C)
H2S (20 C)
NH3 (20 C)
Diagonal
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Experimental
Figure 2-15 Parity plot of the partial pressures of gases without aqueous reactions
In Figure 2-15, the calculated partial pressures of the gases are over predicted. In the case of ammonia (filled and open
diamonds), the over prediction may be as much a five orders of magnitude. This data can be improved with statistical
corrections or by applying a strong activity model. These corrections, however, are in effect performing most of the
“Work” in the calculation. If we desired conditions other than the conditions in these series of calculations, then perhaps
the corrections will over-correct.
Considering the full OLI Speciation Model
All of these equilibria are no considered in these new series of calculations:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
H2O(vap)
=
H2O
NH3(vap)
=
NH3(aq)
CO2(vap)
=
CO2(aq)
H2S(vap)
=
H2S(aq)
H2O
=
H+ + OH-
NH3(aq) + H2O
=
NH4+ + OH-
CO2(aq) + H2O
=
H+ + HCO3-
HCO3-
=
H+ + CO32Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 26
H2S(aq)
=
H+ + HS-
HS-
=
H+ + S2-
NH2CO2- + H2O
=
NH4+ + HCO3-
Partial Pressure of Gases (Full OLI Model)
100000
Calculated
10000
1000
100
CO2 (60 C)
10
NH3 (60 C)
1
CO2 (20 C)
H2S (20 C)
0.1
NH3 (20 C)
H2S (60 C)
Diagonal
0.01
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Experimental
Figure 2-16 Parity plot of the partial pressures of gases with aqueous reactions
When all the equilibria are included in the calculations, the calculated partial pressure of the gases agrees with the
experimental values. This was done without specialized data regression to the general range of this data. We may now
have confidence that our predictions will hold at other conditions.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 27
An Example of Speciation
A 0.1 molal (moles/ Kg H2O) hydrofluoric acid sample is to be titrated with calcium chloride (CaCl2). What will the
titration curve look like?
a)
Figure 2-17 a mono protic acid titration curve
b)
Figure 2-18 a triprotic acid titration curve
c)
Something Else??
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 28
The Answer is “C”, Something Else
Before we investigate this problem, let’s look at some of the underlying parts to this problem. First, what is the pH of the
hydrofluoric acid stream at 30 oC? Let’s use the Analyzer Studio to find out.
The Stream definition would be:
Temperature
=
30 oC
Pressure
=
1 Atmosphere
H2O
=
55.5082 moles
HF
=
0.1
The input should look like this:
We have already
calculated the pH of this
stream. The value is
quickly available in the
summary box.
Figure 2-19 the pH of the HF stream
The calculated pH of this stream is approximately 2.13.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 29
Now let’s find the pH of the calcium chloride stream. The conditions are:
Temperature
Pressure
H2O
CaCl2
=
=
=
=
30 oC
1 Atmosphere
55.5082 moles
0.1
The calculated pH is close
to 6.8
Figure 2-20 The pH of the Calcium chloride stream.
The pH is approximately 6.8.
What happens if we mix equal volumes of the two streams? We have the Mix calculation to help us determine the
resultant pH.
We click on the “Add Mixer” icon to start adding streams together.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 30
We can mix several streams together
using the “Add Mixer” action
Figure 2-21 The main explorer window. Locating the Mix calculation.
These two streams
were added to the
calculation.
The relative amounts of each
stream can be changed.
Figure 2-22 The completed mix calculation.
We now need to click on the report tab to see the resultant pH.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 31
The resultant pH is 1.44. How can this be? An acid stream (the HF stream had a pH of approximately 2.11) and a
nominally basic stream (the CaCl2 stream had a pH of 6.8) are mixed and the pH is outside either stream.
Let’s use the Analyzer Studio to examine the chemistry in more detail. First we will perform a composition survey on the
HF stream. To do this we will titrate the stream with CaCl2.
We have switched back to the HF
stream and added a survey. We also
added the inflow of CaCl2
Figure 2-23 The composition survey prior to calculation.
We set the survey to automatically add CaCl2 in the range of 0.0 moles to 0.2 moles in 0.01 mole increments. When the
calculation was complete, we displayed the plot.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 32
Figure 2-24 pH response to CaCl2 titration
As you can see, adding CaCl2 to this solution lowers the pH initially. The pH does begin to slowly increase after 0.06
moles of CaCl2 have been added.
Why the unusual pH behavior? At low values of CaCl2 the hydrogen fluoride dissociates because of the formation of a
solid phase, CaF2(cr). This effectively removes fluoride ion from solution according to the following equation:
Ca 2 + + 2 F −1 → CaF2( cr )
Figure 2-25 the formation of CaF2
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 33
This shifts the following equilibrium to the right.
Is Hydrofluoric Acid a
strong Acid?
No, HF is a weak acid
with a pKa = 3.45.
Compare this to other
weak acids:
Acetic Acid: pKa=4.75
Citric Acid: pKa1=3.14
HF is between these values.
HFo → H+ + FAs CaF2 is formed, the amount of fluoride ion in solution is decreased. Le Chatlier’s
principle states that any equilibrium under stream which shift to relieve the stress.
Thus more hydrogen ion is produced, lowering pH.
What are the fluoride species doing in solution? The next figure illustrates this:
Figure 2-26 The dominant fluoride species in solution.
The neutral HF species continues to dissociate until almost 0.05 moles of calcium chloride. At the same time hydrogen
ion is produced. The fluoride ion in solution also decreased as the formation of CaF2 continues.
Summary:
1. Full aqueous Speciation is required to fully
simulate the chemistry
2. Frequently there is more chemistry involved than
simple acid/base chemistry.
3. Species concentrations can vary dramatically over
relatively small range of conditions.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Aqueous Speciation • 34
Chapter 3 Removing Nickel from
Wastewater
The Removal of Nickel using OLI Analyzer Studio
This tour of the OLI Analyzer Studio is based upon a typical wastewater treatment problem, removal of a trace heavy
metal ion (nickel) from a stream in which the presence of another chemical (cyanide) significantly alters the treatment
strategy. In this case, we are considering precipitation as an approach to removal of nickel.
In this application, a user is discharging a wastewater that contains nickel ion at a concentration of 0.002 moles/Kg H2O.
The existing treatment strategy is to precipitate the nickel ion as Nickel Hydroxide (Ni(OH)2). The soluble nickel
remaining after precipitation is less than 1 ppm, which is a design specification.
During the course the plant operation, some cyanide ion is inadvertently added to the waste stream. The soluble nickel is
now in excess of 1ppm. Sulfide salts were then added to hopefully precipitate the nickel and once again achieve the
design specification.
The power of OLI/Analyzer Studio becomes apparent when we are seeking to study the chemistry of individual streams.
We will illustrate the steps necessary to solve these problems in great detail. This section is designed to be used as a
guide for future reference.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 35
How to run the tour?
In this tour, and all subsequent tours, when action is required by the user, the instruction will be in Bold and Italic type.
When you are referred to a feature on a screen, the information will be Bold and underlined. Any mouse clicks are leftmouse button clicks unless otherwise noted. This is summarized below:
Type Face
User Action
Bold and Italic
The user is required to enter this
information
Bold and Underlined
The user is directed to look for this
feature in the program windows
Click
Left-mouse button
Right-Click
Right-mouse button
The Tour Starts Here...
We begin by starting the OLI/Analyzer Studio Program. This may be accomplished by clicking on the Analyzer Studio
icon or by using the Start button and finding Analyzer Studio under Programs.
Once started, the OLI Splash screen will appear momentarily.
After a few moments, the main OLI/Analyzer Studio window will appear.
Figure 3-1 The Analyzer Studio main window
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 36
We now need to define the wastewater stream.
Scenario 1: Wastewater without additives
Step 1: Add the Stream
Click on the Add Stream icon. This will display the Definition window.
Figure 3-2 The streams definition view.
We should add some descriptive information about this stream so we can later identify the stream.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 37
Step 2: Adding definitions
Click on the Description tab. This will display the description information
Figure 3-3 The Stream Description tab.
It is advisable to change the name of the stream from the default name. You may be entering many streams and will need
to sort them out at a later time.
Step 3: Enter Stream Names and Definition
Replace the name Stream with the name Nickel Waste.
Add the following text to the description box: “Nickel waste water for the OLI Aqueous modeling Course.”
The summary box will contain additional information as the calculations proceed. This information maybe the name of
additional databases or chemistry models imported from other OLI software packages.
The filled out windows will look like the following figure:
Nickel waste water for the OLI Aqueous modeling Course
Figure 3-4 The filled out description window
Click on the Definition tab.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 38
Step 4: Enter component inflows
Click in the white box in the grid below the Inflows line.
Add the formula Ni(OH)2.
Click in the white box next to the species you just entered and enter the value 0.002.
Press <Enter> to update the list.
After entering the values, the grid should look like the following:
Figure 3-5 The filled out grid, notice the name Ni(OH)2 changed.
OLI/Analyzer Studio will automatically change the name of the species to the default display name. In this instance, the
name you entered was Ni(OH)2 but the name displayed is Nickel (II) Hydroxide.
This may be confusing for some users. The default display name can be changed using a Menu Item called
Tool | Names Manager.
Step 4a: Select Tools from the Menu
Figure 3-6 the Tools Menu
Select Names Manager from the Tools list.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 39
Figure 3-7 The Names Manager
The components can be displayed using the Display Name (default) or by the Formula Name. Alternatively, the
traditional OLI Tag name7 can be used.
Select the Formula radio button.
Click on the Apply button.
Click on the OK button.
Figure 3-8 The filled out grid in with formula names.
The remainder of this tour will use this name display system.
Now enter the 0.002 moles of Ni(OH)2.
7
This is also known as the ESP name.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 40
We are now ready to begin the calculations. Our first task is to determine the pH of this solution.
OLI has added a new feature to the inflow grid. If you hover your cursor over the inflow components, you will see
information about that particular chemical.
Step 5: Add a Single Point calculation to the Stream
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 41
Figure 3-9 Selecting Single Point
Click on the Add Calculation Button and then select Single Point.
As with the stream definition, each calculation can have its own name and definition. We will add our definition for this
calculation to remind us of what we did here. Click on the Description Tab.
Replace the Calculation name with Base Case pH.
Add a description: Base Case pH without additives.
The summary box will update with the status of the calculation. The following window shows this information.
Figure 3-10 The filled out description
We can now start the calculation.
Click on the Definition tab.
The information on this page does not need to be changed Please refer to Chapter 2 for additional information about the
features on this page.
Click on the Calculate button.
When the program is completed (the orbiting e stops) we are ready to review the results. This may be done in several
ways. This tour will examine several of the methods.
Step 6: Obtaining results
Click on the Output tab.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 42
Next right-click anywhere in the gray field to display a pop-up menu.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 43
Figure 3-11 the advanced button
Select Additional Stream Parameters.
The grid will now change to yellow cells to indicate that these are calculated values. The pH can be found in the grid.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 44
3-12 Scroll down to see more data
The results are
displayed in yellow
cells. The resultant
pH is approximately
8.65. This number
may be different from
your value because
the database is
constantly updated.
Figure 3-13 the results, the pH is 8.65
Our primary interest in this application is finding the optimum pH for nickel removal. To create a plot of the data, we
will need to make a survey.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 45
Step 7: Adding a pH Survey
There are many ways to move around in the Analyzer Studio. We will constantly highlight them as we move around in
the tours. Remember that there is frequently more than one method to achieve a desired result.
Click on the Nickel Waste icon in the tree view on the left-hand side of the window.
This will bring you back to the top of the series of calculations by displaying just the stream information.
Click on the Add Calculation button and select Survey.
You can now add descriptive information about this calculation. We recommend the following (please note: We will
only display windows that require new explanations)
Enter a new Survey name of Base Survey.
Enter a Description: Base pH survey without additives.
Click on the Definition tab.
Figure 3-14 The Default Survey Definition Tab.
Since we do not want a temperature survey which is the default, we will need to change the survey type.
Click on the Survey by button and then select pH.
The calculate button light is red which indicates that the calculation is not yet ready to proceed. The Summary box
indicates that we require additional information.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 46
Figure 3-15 Survey Summary (not yet ready to go)
The acid titrant and the base titrant need to be defined. For this tour, these will be hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium
hydroxide (NaOH).
Add the component inflows HCl and NaOH to the grid. Do not add any values for them.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 47
Figure 3-16 Added new component inflows.
Click on the Specs… button
Figure 3-17 pH Survey Options
Select HCl from the Acid column and NaOH from the Base column.
Click on OK.
We are now ready to begin the calculations.
Step 8: Save, save, save!!!
We should now save our work. It is very frustrating to work for a long period of time and forget to save our work.
We will recommend that you save the name of the file as OLI AQ Course. Of course, you may use any name you want.
We also recommend that you create a working folder and save the file there. We will create a folder named OLI Calcs.
Select File and then Save As from the menu.
Step 9: Ok then, we’re ready to continue
Click on the Calculate button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 48
The program will run for a short time. When the orbit disappears, check the summary box to see if the calculation is
complete. In the tree-view, you can expand the survey to see if all the points converged.
A small calculation result window may appear. If it does, simply close it.
Step 10: Obtaining results
We can now obtain some graphical results.
Click on the Plot tab.
Figure 3-18 the default plot
For many calculations, the values on the plot extend over a very large range of numbers. The default linear axis may not
capture all the details we require.
Right-click anywhere in the plot window and select Plot Options
Figure 3-19 the plot right-click
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 49
Figure 3-20 Plot Options
Select Y-Axis from the Category List.
Figure 3-21 Setting log for Y-Axis
Check the Logarithmic Scale Box and then Click on the OK box.
The display will now change.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 50
You can select and drag
the legend to comfortable
positions.
Figure 3-22 log axis plot
Although this plot tells us a great deal, we require more specific information about nickel species. Remember, there is a
limit to the amount of soluble nickel that can be discharged. We need to clean this diagram up.
Click on the Curves button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 51
Scroll down this
list to find more
variables
Figure 3-23 The curves plot dialog
The Dominant Aqueous variable in the Y-Axis box should be displayed. Select it and then Click on the left doublearrow (<<) button which will remove it from the plot.
Scroll down the left-hand window to find MBG Aqueous Totals and expand the list by clicking the small “+” icon.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 52
Figure 3-24 Selecting more variables
MGB is an abbreviation for Material Balance Groups
The grid updates to show the material balance totals available to display. In this case we desire the Nickel (+2) species.
The variable displayed will be the sum of all nickel containing species in the aqueous phase.
Double-Click the NI(+2) item or select it and use the >> button. Click on the OK button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 53
This is the 1ppm limit
for Nickel.
Figure 3-25 The results of the pH survey.
The material balance group variable is a sum of all the species for that material in the phase requested. For example, in
this case all the NI(+2) –Aq variable is a sum of all nickel containing ions in solution. Any solids are excluded.
You can see that a minimum in aqueous solubility seems to occur in the pH=11 range. This is the result of nickel solids
forming and leaving the aqueous phase.
The limit of 1 ppm for Ni+2 is approximately 2 x 10-5 moles. At a pH=10, we are several orders of magnitude below this
limit.
What else is important in this solution?
Click on the Curves button and add the following species to the plot (you may need to scroll up or down to find all the
species).
Aqueous:
Ni(OH)2
NiOH+1
Ni+2
Ni(OH)3-1
Solids:
Ni(OH)2
Click on the OK button when done.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 54
Figure 3-26 Important nickel species
You can see that the soluble nickel (Ni(+2)-Aq) is a summation of the other species. The large drop in the value is
because most of the nickel leaves the aqueous solution as Ni(OH)2-Solid at pH’s greater than 7.0 with a maximum near
pH=11.
Plot Template Manager:
This newly added tool in OLI software is designed to help users save their most frequent plots. For example you may not
want to always look at the dominant Aqueous plot vs. pH in all cases. For example, if you are always using nickel
chemistry you can have a custom plot available. To create this template please follow the steps:
1. Create the case with desired chemistry and inflows
2. Add a survey depending on type of calculation
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 55
3. Customize the survey to your everyday parameters you are interested in, like mass/solids/MBG totals etc
Basically it could be any combination form the list below:
Right now it is set to the above mentioned example, Dominant Aqueous vs pH.
Save the description in the left hand corner panel named Plot Template Manager. AQ vs pH is the name in this case.
Hit save. Now here are two plots on that list now. First is default and second is AQ vs pH. You are now able to see these
plot conditions for any other analyzer object in this case when you add survey for that object.
Go to a different case which already has a survey.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 56
As you can see, AQ vs pH plot is selected (there is a cursor hovering above it) and the graph looks like above. If you
click on the option instead of hovering over, this look of the plot gets saved for those conditions, and you will see this
template every time you open the case.
Scenario 2: Now, What about the Real Waste?
The real importance of aqueous speciation modeling of this treatment is only really appreciated if we introduce the
cyanides, which brings us to the real waste treatment problem.
For this scenario, you will repeat many of the same steps as in the first scenario. We recommend that you create new
calculations below the Nickel Waste stream. This will keep the core composition the same without affecting the results
of other calculations.
Please follow these steps for this next scenario. Please note: we will only show the screens that are substantially different
from those that you have scene.
Step 1: Add a new Single Point calculation
Click on the Nickel Waste stream in the Tree view.
This will display the Actions pane in the bottom left corner of the Analyzer Studio window.
Click on the Add Single Point icon in the Actions pane.
Change the Name and description:
Name: Waste with CN.
Description: Nickel waste with cyanide added.
Click on the Definition tab.
Add NaCN to the grid and a value of 0.01 moles.
The grid should now look like this:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 57
Figure 3-27 Adding NaCN
When the Calculate Button light turns green, Click on the button.
Step 2: Getting results of the Single Point Calculation.
Next locate the “Output”mini-tab at the bottom of the definition:
Right-click anywhere in the grid.
The following pop-up menu will appear.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 58
Figure 3-28 Right-clicking on the grid
Select Additional Stream Parameters.
The resultant pH should be approximately 11.6.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 59
Figure 3-29The pH = 11.5484 which is close to 11.6
Step 3: Setup and run the pH survey.
Click on the Nickel Waste stream in the tree view in the left-hand window.
This will display the Actions pane in the bottom left corner of the Analyzer Studio window.
Click on the Add Survey icon in the Actions pane.
Click on the Description Tab.
Enter a New name: Waste Survey with CN.
Enter a Description: pH survey with both Nickel and CN.
Click on the Definition Tab
Add NaCN to the grid with a value of 0.01 moles
Add HCl to the grid with a value of 0.0 moles
Add NaOH to the grid with a value of 0.0 moles
We are adding the HCl and NaOH to the grid since we already know that they will be the pH titrants.
Click on the Survey By button and select pH.
Click on the Specs button and select HCl for the Acid and NaOH for the base.
Click on the OK button.
Click on the Calculate button.
Step 4: Reviewing results.
Review the steps in Scenario 1: Step 10 on page 3-49. We wish to plot the following variables, remove any variables
that we don’t want:
1.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The material balance group aqueous for Ni(+2)
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 60
2.
Aqueous Species: Ni(CN)4-2
3.
Aqueous Species: Ni+2
4.
Aqueous Species: NiOH+1
5.
Aqueous Species: Ni(OH)3-1
6.
Aqueous Species Ni(OH)2
7.
Solid Species: NiNi(CN)4-Solid
Toggle the view to Y-axis log. The plot should look like this:
1 ppm limit
Figure 3-30 Nickel Waste Stream with NaCN added
The results have changed very dramatically. The new optimum pH for Ni removal is around 4.0, rather than 10.0. The
lowest total Ni remaining in solution is now on the order of 10-4 which is actually well over 1 ppm.
The culprit is the Ni(CN)-2 complex of nickel and cyanide. Basically, the plot of the total Ni in solution and the Ni(CN)-2
complex overlap over the interval pH=5 to 12. This means that virtually all nickel in solution is in the form of this
complex.
This complex thus holds the Ni in solution and does not allow the nickel hydroxide to even form. Instead, a much
weaker precipitate, the NiNi(CN)4 salt forms over a narrow range of pH with 4.0 being the optimum.
Scenario 3: Is All Really Lost?
We can now make an attempt to influence nature by introducing a source of sulfide. We do this because nearly all metal
sulfide salts are highly insoluble.
Create a new single point calculation and survey as you did in the previous two scenarios.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 61
Add 0.01 moles of NaCN
Add HCl and NaOH to the grid to be used as pH titrants.
Add 0.01 moles of H2S
Plot the following variables when the calculations are complete:
1.
The material balance group aqueous for Ni(+2)
2.
Aqueous Species: Ni(CN)4-2
3.
Aqueous Species: Ni+2
4.
Solid Species: NiS-Solid
Toggle the view to Y-axis log. The plot should look like this:
1 ppm limit
Figure 3-31 Waste Stream pH with both NaCN and H2S added
The results reflect a "power struggle" between the Ni(CN)-2 which is holding the nickel in solution and the NiS solid
which clearly has a greater tendency to form than the NiNi(CN)4 solid. As a result, our optimum pH is still around 4.0
and we are now around 10-5 total nickel in solution which is a bit below 1 ppm.
Final Thoughts...
Aqueous speciation modeling can teach us a great deal about complex chemical systems and the interactions of
individual species.
The actual removal achieved with sulfide may not be quite enough to satisfy the regulators. This in itself is useful
information to have. In addition, with the power of OLI Analyzer Studio, one could now explore alternative treatment
methods such as ion exchange.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 62
Although such a simulation is beyond the scope of the tour, consider how vital it is to know that the dominant species to
be exchanged (removed from solution) is an anion Ni(CN)-2 and not the cation (Ni+2) as the conventional wisdom might
dictate.
Save, Save and then Save again
This would be a good time to save your work. You may use the File/Save As… menu item or use the Save icon on the
toolbar.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 63
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Removing Nickel from Wastewater • 64
Chapter 4 The Mathematical
Model
Overview
The user should become familiar with the components of the simulator. In addition, the user should have a basic
understanding of how the mathematical model is constructed.
Specific Problem
H2O, CO2, NH3,
H+, NH4+, HCO3-,
H2Oinflow, CO2inflow
NH3inflow
T, P
CO32-, NH2CO2-, OH-
For the practical purposes of this section, we will take an actual problem and work it through. The problem is described
as:
Given:
Temperature and pressure, represented by T and P respectively, water, carbon dioxide and ammonia, the relative
amounts of which are represented by H2OIN, CO2IN, and NH3IN respectively.
Calculate:
The nine unknowns:
The amount of water (H2O)
The concentration of hydrogen ion (mH+)8
The concentration of hydroxyl ion (mOH-)
The concentration of molecular carbon dioxide (mCO2)
The concentration of molecular ammonia (mNH3)
The concentration of bicarbonate ion (mHCO3-)
The concentration of carbonate ion (mCO2-2)
The concentration of ammonium ion (mNH4+)
The concentration of carbamate ion (mNH2CO2-)
8
The symbol m is used to denote Molality (moles of solute / Kg H2O)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 65
Recipe for Writing the Model
Step 1a: Write an equilibrium mass action for all of the independent aqueous intraphase equilibrium reactions.
H2O(aq)
CO2(aq) + H2O(aq)
HCO3NH3(aq) + H2O(aq)
NH2CO2- + H2O(aq)
=
=
=
=
=
H+ + OHH+ + HCO3H+ + CO3-2
NH4+ + OHNH3(aq) + HCO3-
Step 1b: Write an equilibrium K-equation for all of the independent aqueous intraphase equilibrium reactions.
For the example posed, these equations are:
KH2O = (γH+mH+)(γOH-mOH-)/a∗H2O
KCO2(AQ) = (γH+mH+)(γHCO3-mHCO3-)/((γCO2mco2)aH2O)
KHCO3- = (γH+mH+)(γCO3-2mCO3-2)/ (γHCO3-mHCO3-)
KNH3aq = (γNH4+mNH4+)(γOH-mOH-)/((γNH3aqmNH3)aH2O)
KNH2CO2-=(γNH3aqmNH3)(γHCO3-mHCO3-)/((γNH2CO2-mNH2CO2-)aH2O)
Note: This gives us the first 5 equations of the required set of 9 equations.
Step 2: Write an electroneutrality equation.
mH+ + mNH4+ = mHCO3- + mNH2CO2- + 2mCO3-2 + mOHThis gives us the sixth equation.
We multiply by a factor of 2
because of the divalent
charge on the carbonate ion
∗
In aqueous systems, it is more convenient to use the activity of water rather than the concentration. The concentration
of water on the molal concentration scale is always 55.508 moles/Kg H2O.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 66
Step 3: Write a sufficient number of material balances to complete the model.
Writing material balances in aqueous systems can be a bit tricky. Remembering the following rules can be quite helpful:
You can only write one of the following three balances:
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Overall.
For simplicity we will choose the hydrogen balance.
A separate material balance should be written for each remaining element. In this example, we will write material
balances for carbon and nitrogen. Some elements may be present in the chemistry model in several oxidation states.
Such an element is sulfur. In our sour water system presented in an earlier chapter, the sulfur was present in the S(-2)
oxidation state, also known as sulfide. Sulfur may also be present as the elemental sulfur – S(0), Sulfite – S(+4), and
Sulfate S(+6).
By default, the program will not consider changes in oxidation state thus in the case of sulfur, a separate material balance
will be written for each oxidation state. The only time that separate balances would not be written would be in a case
where there was REDOX. Such cases are beyond the scope of this present treatment.
H(+1) Balance:
2H2OIN + 3NH3IN = 2H2O +W(mH+ + mOH- + 3mNH3 + 4mNH4+ + mHCO3- + 2mNH2CO2-)
For each balance, the amount of each
species is multiplied by the number of
atoms. In this case, for Hydrogen, we
multiply by 4 for NH4+
N(-3) Balance:
NH3IN = W(mNH3 + mNH4+ + mNH2CO2-)
C(+4) Balance:
CO2IN = W(mCO2 + mHCO3- + mNH2CO3- + mCO32-)
W is a constant, approximately equal to H2O/55.508.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 67
We now have nine equations and nine unknowns.
The Components of the Simulator
For each OLI program, there are several components which we need to discuss.
The Database
The following databases are supplied with the software.
These databases are:
Public
This database contains the majority of thermochemical data. It is
used with every simulation.
Geochemical
This database contains minerals of geological importance. It is a
user selectable database.
Low Temperature This database extends the range of simulation of many solids to
well below 0oC. It is a user selectable database.
Corrosion
This database is provided for use with the Corrosion Analyzer
component of OLI Analyzer Studio. It is user selectable if the
user is a lessee of the Corrosion Analyzer.
Ceramics
A database used for the hydrothermal synthesis of ceramics
MSE
The mixed solvent electrolyte public database
MSE Corrosion
The MSE version of the Corrosion database
MSE Geochemical The MSE version of the Geochemical database
The database(s) contain the thermochemical data required to calculate a fully speciated model. The databases are userselectable which means chemical models can be tailored to specific situations.
The Chemistry Model
The Chemistry Model contains the equilibria corresponding to the user specified chemistry. This model is automatically
created for you by Analyzer Studio. Normally you will not be required to alter the chemistry.
The thermodynamic data stored in the database is retrieved via the Generator for all the specified chemistry and stored
in the chemistry model.
The chemistry model does not contain composition data, temperature, pressure or flowrates. It is a general model which
can be used in many calculations over a broad range of temperature, pressure and composition.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 68
The Generator
The Generator is a combination of programs which sort and retrieve data from the database based on the user-specified
chemistry and place that data into a format which allows subsequent simulation.
The generator creates the framework which the Analyzers use to simulate the conditions specified by the user.
The generator is used every time new chemistry is specified or when the chemistry is modified. Under normal operating
conditions, the user will not directly interact with the generator.
The OLI Engine
This is the heart of the program. All the user-specified chemistries and the resultant equilibrium stream simulations are
provided for by the OLI Engine.
All the OLI programs use the OLI/Engine in evaluating the specified conditions.
Phase Selection
The basic chemical model generally considers three types of phases:
i.
Vapor
ii.
Aqueous
iii.
Solid
9
The user may specify to exclude one of these default phases during the creation of the chemistry model. In addition, a
second liquid phase, normally an organic phase, may also be selected.
The phase selection can be found in the Chemistry menu item of Analyzer Studio.
9
Default is defined as the set of choices made by the program in the absence of any user input.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 69
The phase selection can be found
under the Chemistry Menu Item
Figure 4-1 The Welcome window for Analyzer Studio
Select Model Options…
Figure 4-2 Chemistry Menu Items
.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 70
Figure 4-3 Model Options
Click on the Phases tab
This is the phase selection
dialog. In addition, an
organic (non-aqueous
liquid) phase can be
selected.
Figure 4-4 Selecting phases
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 71
In this figure, the Aqueous, vapor and the solid phases are selected. For the electrolyte model, the aqueous phase is
always assumed to exist if the chosen thermodynamic framework is Aqueous. OLI currently offers two frameworks. The
Aqueous thermodynamic framework and the Mixed-Solvent-Electrolyte (MSE) thermodynamic framework. The check
box is used to indicate if a phase is included or not.
The organic liquid phase is a second phase in which water is not the dominant species. Some water must be present in
any organic phase.
When the organic liquid phase is selected it may be possible to “Dry Up” the aqueous phase.
It is also possible to select individual solid phases. Your simulation may depend on a solid being excluded since it will
not form in the time frame of your calculation. For example, the mineral Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) thermodynamically
stable if calcium, magnesium and carbonates are present in solution yet the solid does not form except under severe
conditions of temperature and pressure and with long (geologic) time frames.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
The Mathematical Model • 72
Chapter 5 Solids Precipitation
Overview
Equilibrium based simulators suffer from a potential problem, that the most stable solid will tend to be included over less
stable (meta-stable) solids. Such is the case of calcium carbonate. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is found in nature in
many forms. Two common forms are the more thermodynamically stable solids, Calcite and the less stable form
Aragonite.
It is sometimes desirable to determine the solubility of the less stable solid independently of the more stable solid. In this
tour, we will examine the solubility calcium carbonate as calcite in a solution containing magnesium and calcium
chloride and carbon dioxide.
In certain instances, the formation of calcite is prohibited kinetically and the less stable form of aragonite will form.
Such cases include coral reefs where aragonite is preferred to form via biological action.
In this tour we will take a solution of 0.1 molal CaCl2, 0.1 molal MgCl2 and 0.01 molal CO2 at 25 degrees centigrade and
1 atmosphere and determine the solubility of CaCO3 solids.
The Tour
Objectives
In this tour we wish to accomplish several objectives:
1.
Learn how to perform a precipitation point calculation.
2.
View and select an additional databank.
3.
Modify the chemistry to include and exclude individual solid phases.
4.
Units manager new look
Let’s begin
If you have not done so, please start Analyzer Studio. After a few moments, the main window will appear. If the Tip-ofthe-Day box appears, please close it.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 73
Double-click on the Add Stream icon.
At this point we are assuming that you are familiar with navigating through the software. We will only provide guidance
for new items of interest.
Click on the Description Tab.
You may enter a new name for the stream and a description. We recommend CaCO3 Solubility as a name for the stream.
Select the Definition Tab.
The input conditions are:
Temperature
25
°C
Pressure
1
Atmosphere
Water
55.5082 mol (this is the default value)
Calcium Chloride
0.1
mol
Magnesium Chloride
0.1
mol
Carbon Dioxide
0.01
mol
Calcium Carbonate
0.0
mol
The entry should look the same as in Figure 5-1
Figure 5-1 Component Inflows
It is frequently difficult to use the display name for the components. For this tour we will change the way the names are
displayed.
Select Tools from the Menu Bar.
Select Names Manager from the list.
The list of Tools are displayed in Figure 5-2
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 74
Figure 5-2 The Tools Menu
Selecting the Names Manager from the tools menu will display several options.
Figure 5-3 The Names Manager.
There are several items that can be changed. We will discuss each of them in turn.
Name Style Tab
The name of the component can be displayed in several ways.
Display name
This is the name is that is commonly displayed when a species is
entered. This is the default display. So the species CO2 is
displayed as carbon dioxide.
Formula
This is the chemical formula name. Species such as aluminum
nitrate are displayed as Al(NO3)3.
OLI name (TAG)This is the traditional name for the species stored internally in the
OLI software. Users who have used the older ESP software may be
more comfortable with this display.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 75
Search Criteria Tab
When a species is entered, the program may search in several ways to find the
corresponding data. Such areas that may be searched are Display Name, Formula,
OLI name, synonyms, IUPAC names, etc. It is recommended that the default options
be left as is.
Names Dictionary
The user may wish to define a species with a name that does not exist in the
software. For example, NaOH is frequently referred to as caustic. This can be
selected if required.
For this tour, we will use the OLI name.
Click the OLI name (TAG) radio button. Select OK when done.
Your display should have changed to that of Figure 5-4
Figure 5-4 The Input in the Traditional OLI names
There is only a small difference in this view. The OLI tag name is in all capital letters.
Selecting the precipitation point calculation
We are now ready to begin the precipitation point calculation.
Click on the Add Calculation button and select Single Point.
If you so desire, you may enter descriptive information about this calculation. It is recommended that you do so since the
default naming system will create a large number of calculations with very similar names (for example, single1, single2,
single3, etc.)
Click on the Description Tab and enter a name. We recommend Calcite Solubility.
Click on the Definition Tab.
The default calculation is the Isothermal calculation. We need to change this option.
Click on the Type of calculation button.
Select Precipitation Point
The input grid now has two new items. We need to have these filled out properly prior to the start of the calculation.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 76
Figure 5-5 The input grid before specifications added.
The Calc Parameters section on the grid in Figure 5-5 shows that the solid that is to be precipitated (Precipitant) is
unspecified and that the adjusted variable (Adjuster) is also unspecified.
The precipitation point calculation uses the user selected solid as a target. The user either enters an amount of solid that
they desire or uses the default value (indicated by a blank box). This value is 1.0x10-10 times the stream amount - a really
small number.
The inflow amount of the as of yet unspecified species is then adjusted to match that target value. The adjusted amount is
then the solubility of the species. Care should be taken in trying infeasible cases.
Click on the Specs… button.
You will be given a list of available solids and a list of available inflows. Depending on the display mode for names,
some of these species may look the same.
Select CACO3 – Sol from the Solids list and then select CACO3 from the component inflows list. Click OK when
done.
See Figure 5-6.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 77
Figure 5-6 Precipitation Point specifications
We are now ready to start the calculation.
Click on the Calculate button.
When the calculation is completed, the program will return to the same window. In the Summary Box you will see a
quick report.
Figure 5-7 Summary of Calcite Solubility
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 78
In this case, 0.00423 mol of CaCO3 was added to this solution (in 55.5082 mol of H2O, which makes this a molal
concentration) to precipitate out a very small amount of solid.
Save early and save often…
Now would be a good time to save our work. Any name will suffice. We recommend Chapter 5 Tour.
Expanding the Chemistry
Frequently there is more to the chemistry than what is covered in the PUBLIC database.10 The following is a partial list
of additional databases available from OLI:
Geochemical
This database contains thermodynamic data for species that appear
in geological time frames or are available for chemical weathering.
We do not normally expect to see these species under industrial
conditions.
Corrosion
This database is provided for use with the Corrosion Analyzer
component of OLI Analyzer Studio. It is user selectable if the user
is a lessee of the Corrosion Analyzer.
Back to the tour…
Select Chemistry from the menu.
Select Model Options… from the menu list.
Figure 5-8 The Chemistry Menu
We will now be given a selection of database to choose from. The Public Databank is always selected and must be used.
Select Geochemical Databank and click the right arrow. Click OK to continue.
10
The PUBLIC database is the main OLI database, containing nearly 70 percent of the thermodynamic data available
from OLI and 100 percent of the supporting information.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 79
You may have more or
less databanks
depending on previous
installations and
imported databases.
Figure 5-9 Selecting the Geochemical databank
Figure 5-10 Geochemical databank selected
Removing Solids
After we have selected the Geochemical databank, we now need to change the chemistry. The inclusion of the following
species: Ca+2, Mg+2, and CO2 in the chemical model will allow for many new solids to potentially form. Carbon dioxide,
of course, creates the carbonate and bicarbonate ions.
These new solids are:
Calcite
CaCO3
Aragonite
CaCO3
Dolomite
CaMg(CO3)2
Calcite is the most thermodynamically stable solid among the two calcium carbonates. In this scenario, we wish to
determine the solubility of the less thermodynamically stable solid, aragonite.
A problem with equilibrium based models is that we will always get the most thermodynamically stable solid unless we
modify the model.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 80
For this we will go back to the Chemistry Menu and Model Options… (See Figure 5-8 and
bring up a Select Phases dialog.
Figure 5-9). This will
Select the Phases tab.
Figure 5-11 Removing Calcite (CaCO3) from the chemistry model
The Include Solid Phases box lists the solids in the chemistry model. Unchecking these solids will mathematically
eliminate the solid from consideration. The Scaling Tendency, however, will still be calculated.
Click on the “+” next to the CA(+2) box to display all the calcium containing solids
Figure 5-12 Expanding Calcium Solids
Scroll down to find CACO3 and uncheck this solid. Click OK continue.
Repeating the precipitation point calculation
We have now modified the chemistry model to excluded calcite (CaCO3). We now want to determine the solubility of
aragonite (also a CaCO3 solid).
Repeat the steps to begin a precipitation point calculation.
From the Specs button, select ARAGONITE from the solids list.
CACO3 remains as the Component Inflows.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 81
Figure 5-13 Selecting Aragonite as a new precipitation solid
Click OK to continue.
You will be returned to the main input grid. When ready, click Calculate.
When the calculation finishes, we need to review how much aragonite is soluble in water. It would appear from the
summary box that approximately 0.2 moles of Aragonite is soluble in 1 kilogram of water (55.508 moles of water). This
is considerably larger than the 0.0044 moles of CaCO3 (calcite) case.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 82
Almost 0.2 moles of
Aragonite (CaCO3) is
soluble in 1 Kg of water
Figure 5-14 Summary of aragonite solubility
In general, when a large change in solubility is observed, we should check to see if other species have precipitated.
Click on the Output tab located below the grid.
Right-Click in the area below input grid and select Solid.
This will add a new section to the grid called Solid. Scroll down to see if there are any non-zero values.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 83
Figure 5-15 The Calculated results, showing that ORDDOL (Ordered Dolomite or CaMg(CO3)2) is present
This report shows that approximately 0.097 moles of Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) has also precipitated with the aragonite.
The solution must first become saturated with dolomite before aragonite will precipitate. This means that dolomite is
more thermodynamically stable, at these conditions, than aragonite.
Removing Dolomite
We will repeat the steps to select phases using the Chemistry Menu and Select Phases.
Select the Chemistry Menu Item.
Select Model Options… from the menu list. Then select the Phases tab. You can expand either the CA(+2) solids or
MG(+2) solids since dolomite contains both species.
Scroll down the list to find these three solids (CACO3 should remain excluded):
DOLOMITE
DISDOL
ORDDOL
The latter two solids are alternative forms of dolomite.
Click OK to continue.
Repeat the precipitation point calculation with only aragonite and record the solubility point.
Click Calculate when ready.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 84
Figure 5-16 Solubility with Dolomite Turned off
The solubility is now 0.0055 moles per kilogram of water. This is more in line with the calcite solubility.
The user should always remember that although a species is more thermodynamically stable, it may not form due to
kinetic limitations.
Units manager new look
We will now study the new Units manager look for builds 9.0.14 and onwards:
There are two ways to get to the units manager. One is through tools-> Units manager. Second is clicking on
this icon at the top toolbar. Both options should lead to the pop up window below.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 85
This Units manager gives more control at a higher level.
You can set your desired set of units from quick list option below.
Each combination has its own set of units for phases, inflows and stream parameters. If you want to alter the specific
units or create your own set of units, click on customize.
That takes you back to the old inter phase where you could use the dropdowns to set each variable. Once you set that,
you first layer of UI looks like the image below, it says custom because now you have altered one of the default variables
unit.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 86
Old Units manager second layer
Now would be a good time to save your files.
Save, save, save…
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 87
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Solids Precipitation • 88
Chapter 6 Aqueous
Thermodynamics
Overview
Understanding aqueous thermodynamics can be a daunting task. In this chapter we will describe some of the essential
topics in aqueous thermodynamics and present them in a logical, relatively easy to understand manner. We will be using
the AQ thermodynamic framework for these examples.
The Equilibrium Constant
The evaluation of the following equation is central to the OLI Software:
Δ R G o = − RT ln K
o
Where Δ R G is the partial molal, standard-state Gibbs Free Energy of Reaction, R is the Gas Constant (8.314
J/mole/K), T is the temperature (Kelvin) and K is the equilibrium constant. The subscript R refers not to the gas constant
but to an equilibrium reaction.
We define Δ R G as:
Δ R G =  vi Δ f Gi ( PRODUCTS ) −  vi Δ f Gi ( REACTANTS )
i
This refers to the
total free energy, not
just the standardstate portion.
i
Where νi is the Stoichiometric coefficient and Δ f Gi is the Gibbs Free Energy of
Formation for a species.
Question:
Consider the equilibrium:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Na2SO4 = 2Na+ + SO42-
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 89
What is the Gibbs Free Energy of Reaction? What is the equilibrium constant at 25 oC
(298.15K)11?
The reference state thermodynamic values are readily available:12
Δ f G R ( Na 2 SO4 ) = −1270100 J / mole 13
Δ f G R ( Na + ) = −261800 J / mole
Δ f G R ( SO42 − ) = −744460 J / mole
For the Gibbs Free Energy of reaction:
(
)
Δ R G R = 2 Δ f G R ( Na + ) + Δ f G R ( SO42 − ) − Δ f G R ( Na 2 SO4 )
Δ R G R = (2 ( − 261800 ) + ( − 744460 ) ) − ( − 1270100 ) = 2640 J / mole
By rearranging our equilibrium equation we get:
Δ RG R
ln K = −
RT
R
By now substituting the appropriate numbers we get:
ln KR = -(2640 J/mole) /((8.314 J/mole/K)(298.15K)) = -1.07
KR=0.34
Principal Thermodynamic Properties
Each thermodynamic property is composed of two parts. The first is the standard state part which is only a function of
temperature and pressure (denoted by the superscript o).
The second is the excess part which is a function of temperature and pressure as well as concentration (denoted by the
superscript E).
11
25oC (298.15K) is also known as the reference temperature.
NBS Tables of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties - Selected Values for Inorganic and C1-C2 Organic Substances
in SI Units, Wagman,D.D., et al, 1982
13
The subscript f refers the energy of formation from the elements. The superscript R refers to the reference state. This is
a special case of the standard state normally denoted with a superscript o.
12
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 90
Partial Molal Gibbs Free Energy
Gi = Gi o + Gi E
Partial Molal Enthalpy
H i = H io + H iE
Partial Molal Entropy
Si = Si o + Si E
Partial Molal Heat Capacity
Cpi = Cpio + CpiE
Partial Molal Volume
Vi = Vi o + Vi E
Note:
Superscript 0 = Standard State Property
Superscript E = Excess Property
HKF (Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers)Equation of State14,15
Working since 1968, Helgeson, et. al., have found that the standard-state thermodynamic property of any species in
water can be represented by a function with seven terms which have specific values for each species.
These seven terms (a1-4, c1-2, and ω) are integration constants for volume (a), heat capacity (c) and temperature and
pressure properties of water ( ω). They are independent of the data system used to obtain them.
H io = H iR + f Hi (a1 ,...., a4 , c1 , c2 ,ω )
(
)
Gio = GiR − SiR T − T R + f Gi (a1 ,...., a4 , c1 , c2 ,ω )
S io = S iR + f Si (a1 ,...., a4 , c1 , c2 ,ω )
Cpio = CpiR + f Cpi (a1 ,...., a 4 , c1 , c2 ,ω )
14
H.C.Helgeson, D.H.Kirkham, G.C.Flowers. Theoretical Prediction of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Aqueous
Electrolytes at High Pressures and Temperatures - Parts I through IV. American Journal of Science 1974, 1976, 1981.
15
J.C.Tanger, IV Doctorial Thesis. “Calculation of the Standard Partial Molal Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous
Ions and Electrolytes at High Pressures and Temperatures” University of California at Berkley, 1986 H.C.Helgeson
Advisor.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 91
Vi o = Vi R + fVi (a1 ,...., a4 , c1 , c2 ,ω )
Superscript R
Superscript o
a1...a4
c1, c2
ω
– Reference State Property (25°C, 1 bar)
– Standard State Property
– Pressure Effects
– Temperature Effects
– Pressure, Temperature Effects
The Helgeson Equation of State Parameters are used to predict equilibrium
constants.
Log K vs. Temperature
HCO3- = H+ + CO3-2
-9
-9.5
-10
-10.5
Log K
-11
-11.5
-12
-12.5
-13
-13.5
-14
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Temperature (C)
Figure 6-1 The logarithm of the equilibrium constant (LOG K) for the dissociation of the bicarbonate ion as a
function of temperature at saturation pressure. The symbols represent the data taken from the references listed
in the footnotes 16,17,18,19,20 but the line was generated from the equation of state.
16
H.S.Harned and S.R.Scholes. The Ionization Constant of HCO3 – from 0 to 50o. J.Am.Chem.Soc. 63,1706 (1941)
17
R.Nasanen. Zur Einwirkung der Saure und Basenzusatze auf die Fallungskurvevon Bariumcarbonate. Soumen
Kemistilehti 90,24 (1946)
18
F. Cuta and F.Strafelda. The second dissociation constant of carbonic acid between 60 and 90oC. Chem. Listy 48,1308
(1954)
19
B.N.Ryzhenko. Geochemistry International 1,8 (1963)
20
C.S.Patterson, G.H.Slocum, R.H.Busey and R.E.Mesmer. Carbonate equilibrium in hydrothermal systems: First
ionization of carbonic acid in NaCl media to 300oC. Geoch.Cosmoh.Acta 46,1653 (1982)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 92
The Helgeson Equation of State
Enthalpy
 1   1 
 Ψ+P
 + a1 (P − Pr ) + a 2 ln
= Δ H of + c1 (T − Tr ) − c 2 
 − 
 Ψ + Pr
 T − Θ   Tr − Θ 
Δ H Po ,T




 Ψ + P    2T − Θ 
 1  ∂ω 
1 
+ ω  − 1 + ωTY − T  − 1
+  a 3 (P − Pr ) + a 4 ln 

  
2 
 ∂T  P
ε

ε
 Ψ + Pr    (T − Θ ) 

 1

− ω Pr,Tr 
− 1 − ω Pr,Tr Tr Yr
 ε Pr,Tr

Gibbs Free Energy
 T 

 Ψ + P  Ψ + P 
o
  −T + Tr  + a1 (P − Pr ) + a2 ln


ΔGPo,T = ΔGof − SPr,
Tr (T − Tr ) − c1 T ln
Ψ
+
Ψ
+
T
P
P
r 
r 

  r

  1   1   Θ − T  T  Tr (T − Θ ) 
 1 
 



 − c 2  
 − 
 Θ  − Θ 2 ln T (T − Θ ) 
T
−
Θ
T
−
Θ
T
−
Θ




r

 r




 1

1 
+ ω  − 1 − ω Pr,Tr 
− 1 + ω Pr,Tr YPr,Tr (T − Tr )
ε

 ε Pr,Tr


 Ψ+P
+ a3 (P − Pr ) + a 4 ln
 Ψ + Pr

Volume
 1  
 1  1 
 1  ∂ω 
V o = a1 + a2 
 +  a3 + a 4 

 − ωQ +  − 1

Ψ+P 
 Ψ + P  T − Θ 
 ε  ∂P T
Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure
2
2
 Ψ + P 
 ∂ω 
 1  ∂ ω 
 1   2T  



(
)
ln
2
1
ω
a
P
P
a
TX
TY
−
T
−
Cp = c1 + c2 
−
+
+
+




 −
r
4
3  3
 2 
 Ψ + P 
 ∂T  P
 ε  ∂T  p
 T − Θ   (T − Θ )  
r 

o
Entropy
o
S o = S Pr,
Tr + c1 ln
2
 Ψ+P
T c 2  1   1  1  Tr (T − Θ )    1  
 + ln 
  + 
− 
 − 
  a 3 (P − Pr ) + a 4 ln 
Tt Θ  T − Θ   Tr − Θ  Θ  T (Tr − Θ )    T − Θ  
 Ψ + Pr

 

 1  ∂ω 
+ ωY −  − 1
 − ω Pr,Tr YPr,Tr
 ∂T  P
ε
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 93
Where,
H
G
V
Cp
S
T
P
Θ
Ψ
ω
=
Enthalpy
=
Gibbs Free Energy
=
Volume
=
Heat Capacity at constant Pressure
=
Entropy
=
Temperature
=
Pressure
=
228 K
=
2600 Bar
=
Temperature and Pressure dependent term for electrostatic nature
of the electrolytes
Q
=
Pressure functions of the dielectric constant
ε
=
Dielectric constant of water
a1…a4 =
Pressure dependent terms
c1, c2 =
Temperature dependent terms
What is the standard State?
The standard state refers to a thermodynamic value at a defined state (temperature, pressure and concentration)21.
Aqueous:
The hypothetical 1.0 molal solution extrapolated from infinite dilution.
P
r
o
p
e
r
t
y
1.0
Molal
Vapor:
The Ideal Gas Pure Component (mole fraction = 1.0)
Organic Liquid:
The Ideal Gas Pure Component (mole fraction = 1.0)
Solid:
The pure component solid.
21
M.Rafal, J.W.Berthold, N.C.Scrivner and S.L.Grise.”Chapter 7:Models for Electrolyte Solutions”, Models for
Thermodynamic and Phase Equilibria Calculations. Stanley I Sandler, ed. Marcel-Dekker, Inc. New York: 1994. pp. 686.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 94
Excess Properties
Excess properties are a function of temperature, pressure and composition. It is with the excess properties that we begin
to introduce the concept of activities and activity coefficients.
The excess property that we are most concerned with is the excess Gibbs Free Energy.
The activity of a species in solution can be defined as:
ai = γ i mi
o
G i = G + RT ln ai
o
G i = G + RT ln mi + RT ln γ i
E
G i = RT ln γ i
Note:
Other excess properties involve various partial derivatives of γi with respect to temperature and/or pressure.
H iE = RT 2
δ ln γ i 
δT  P
Ionic Strength
Ionic Strength is defined by the following equation:
nI
I = 1/2  ( z i2 m i )
i= 1
where,
nI = number of charged species
For Example, a 1.0 molal solution of NaCl has 1.0 moles of Na+1 ion and 1.0 moles of Cl-1 ion per Kg H2O.
I=
(
) (
)
1
1 2
2
2
2
(
Z Na +1 ) (m Na +1 ) + (Z Cl −1 ) (mCl +1 ) = (1) (1) + (− 1) (1) = 1
2
2
Therefore the ionic strength is 1.0 molal.
For Example, a 1.0 molal solution of CaCl2 has 1.0 moles of Ca+2 ion and 2.0 moles of Cl-1 ion per Kg of H2O.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 95
I=
(
) (
)
1
1 2
2
2
2
(
Z Ca+2 ) (mCa+ 2 ) + (Z Cl −1 ) (mCl +1 ) = (2) (1) + (− 1) (2) = 3
2
2
There for the ionic strength is 3.0 molal, or we can say that a 1.0 Molal solution of CaCl2 behaves similar to a 3.0 molal
Solution of NaCl
Definition of Aqueous Activity Coefficients
log γi = long range + short range
Long Range:
Highly dilute solutions (e.g., 0.01 m NaCl). The ions are
separated sufficiently such that the only interactions are between
the ions and the solvent.
Short Range:
Increased concentrations. The ions are now beginning to interact
with themselves (oppositely charged species attract, like charged
species repel) in addition to the interactions with the solvent.
Long Range Terms
ln γ i =
− z 2 A(T ) I
1 + Å B(T ) I
Where,
Å
ion size parameter
A(T), B(T)
Debye-Huckel parameters related to dielectric constant of
water.
At 25 oC and 1 Atmosphere22:
22
A(T) =
0.5092 kg1/2/mole1/2
B(T)
0.3283 kg1/2/mole1/2-cm x10-8
=
H.C.Helgeson and D.H.Kirkham. American Journal of Science Vol. 274, 1199 (1974)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 96
Short Range Terms
no
 ( b (T,I) m )
ij
j
j=1
Where,
no
=
Number of oppositely charged species.
For example, consider H2O/CO2/NH3
Cations: H+, NH4+
Anions: OH-, HCO3-1, CO3-2, NH2CO2-
Short Range Term for NH4+:
b11(T,I) * mHCO3 + b12(T,I) * mCO3 + b13 (T,I) * mOH + b14(T,I) * mNH2CO2
11 = NH4:HCO3
12 = NH4:CO3
13 = NH4:OH
14 = NH4:NH2CO2
Modern Formulations
1. Bromley - Meissner : Semi-Correlative23,24
Can predict and extrapolate excess properties when data is limited or unavailable.
2. Pitzer: Highly Interpolative25
Somewhat model dependent. Considerable caution is required when using the large
amount of published data to verify the standard state model employed.
3. Helgeson: Limited in Scope26
23
L.A.Bromley. J.Chem.Thermo.,4,669 (1972)
H.P.Meissner. AIChE Symp.Ser.No. 173,74,124 (1978)
25
K.S.Pitzer,et.al. J.Soln.Chem,4,249(1975); J.Phys.Chem.,81,1872(1977); J.Soln.Chem. 7,327(1978);
J.Am.Chem.Soc.96,5701(1974)
26
H.C.Helgeson, D.H.Kirkham and G.C.Flowers. Am.J.Sci. 281,1249(1981)
24
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 97
4. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte: OLI’s New Framework
Bromley
Log γ ± =
Where,
A =
I =
B =
γ =
Z+ =
Z- =
− A | Z+Z− | I
1+ I
+
(0.06 + 0.6 B ) | Z + Z − | I

1.5I
1 +
 | Z+Z−


| 
2
+ BI
Debye-Huckel Constant
Ionic Strength
Bromley parameter
Mean activity coefficient
Charge of the cation
Charge of the anion
Meissner
Γ = γ ±1 / Z
+Z−
(
)
Γ o = 1.0 + B (1.0 + 0.1I ) − B Γ *
q
B = 0.75 − 0.065q
LogΓ * =
− 0.5107 I
1+ C I
C = 1.0 + 0.055q exp(−0.02312 I 3 )
Where Γ is the reduced activity coefficient, q is the Meissner q value, I is the ionic
strength.
The family of q values are:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 98
Reduced Gamma v. I
100
q=4.0
Reduced Gamma
q=4.0
10
q=2.0
q=1.0
1
q=0
q=-1.0
q=-2.6
0.1
1
10
100
Ionic Strength
Figure 6-2 The Meissner q lines
Bromley-Zematis
Joseph Zematis, of OLI Systems, Inc., now deceased, extended the work of Bromley
in that he added two new terms27. The Bromley-Zematis activity model is:
Log γ ± =
− A | Z + Z − | I (0.06 + 0.6 B ) | Z + Z − | I
+
+ BI + CI 2 + DI 3
2
1+ I

1 .5 
1 +

 | Z+Z− | I 
Where C and D are new terms. Each of the B, C, and D terms have the following
temperature functionality.
B
=
B1 + B2T + B3T 2
(Where T is temperature in centigrade)
The other coefficients have the same form:
C
= C1 + C 2T + C 3T 2
D
=
D1 + D2T + D3T 2
27
Zemaitis, J.F., Jr, Clark, D.M., Rafal, M. and Scrivner, N.C., Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Thermodynamics,
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, 1986.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 99
Pitzer
 2(ν +ν − )
ln γ ± = | Z + Z − | f + m
ν

γ
Where,
fγ
ν+
νν
m
B±γ
γ
C±
 γ
 2(ν +ν − )1.5  γ
 B± + m 2 
C ±



ν



The “Debye-Huckel” term.28
Stoichiometric coefficient for the cation
Stoichiometric coefficient for the anion
=
=
=
=
=
Concentration in molal
=
Pitzer B term, containing the adjustable parameters
=
Pitzer C term, containing adjustable parameters
ν+ + ν-
Helgeson
Log γ ± =
− Aγ | Z i Z l | I
1 + a0 Bγ I
ω
+ Γγ +  k
νk

 bk Yk I +
k
ν i ,k
νk
b Y I ν
l il Ψl + νl ,k
l
k
bil Yi I 
i Ψ 
i

Where,
Aγ
Zi
Zl
a0
Bγ
=
=
=
=
=
Debye-Huckel constant according to Helgeson
Charge on the cation
Charge on the anion
ion size parameter
Extended Debye-Huckel term according to Helgeson
I
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
True ionic strength which includes the effects of complexation
Conversion of molal activity to mole fraction activity
Electrostatic effects on the solvent due to the species k
moles of electrolyte (summation)
moles of cation per mole of electrolyte
moles of anion per mole of electrolyte
adjustable parameter for the ion-ion interaction.
=
fraction of ionic strength on a true basis attributed to the cation
=
=
=
=
=
fraction of ionic strength on a true basis attributed to the anion
½ the cation charge
½ the anion charge
the cation charge
the anion charge
Γγ
ωk
νk
νi,k
νl,k
bi,l
Yi
Yl
Ψi
Ψl
Zi
Zl
28
IBID, Page 74
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 100
Neutral Species
Neutral molecules in water are affected by other species in solution. The salting in and out of a gas is a typical example.
When Oxygen is dissolved into pure water, it has a typical solubility. When salt is added, the solubility decreases. This
is most-likely due to an interaction between the sodium ions and the neutral oxygen molecule and the interaction
between the chloride ions and the neutral oxygen molecule.
Figure 6-3 The solubility of oxygen in NaCl solutions at 25 C, 1 Atmosphere
1. Setschenow29
This characterizes a phenomena known as salting in/out. The formulation is in terms of the ratio of solubilities in pure
water to an aqueous salt solution at a constant temperature.
Ln γ aq =
S0
= km S
SS
Where,
S0
=
Solubility of the gas in pure water
SS
=
Solubility of the gas in a salt solution
K
=
Setschenow coefficient
ms
=
Concentration of the salt.
In this case, the K is approximately equal to -0.0002.
Unfortunately, this approach is limited to a single temperature.
29
J.Setchenow., Z.Physik.Chem., 4,117 (1889)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 101
2. Pitzer30
A more rigorous approach than Setschenow. Effects of temperature and composition can be modeled.
Ln γ aq = 2 β 0( m−m) mm + 2 β 0( m− s ) ms
Where,
β0(m-m) =
The adjustable parameter for molecule – molecule interactions.
(a function of temperature)
β0(m-s) =
The adjustable parameter for molecule – ion interactions.
(A function of temperature)
mS
=
The concentration of the neutral species.
Multiphase Model
Solid-Aqueous Equilibrium
General Equilibrium Form:
Si = p1 P1 + p2 P2 + ... pp Pp
Examples:
NaCl(cr) = Na+ (aq) + Cl-(aq)
CaSO4.2H2O(cr) = Ca+2(aq) + SO4-2(aq) + 2H2O
30
K.S.Pitzer,et.al. J.Soln.Chem,4,249(1975); J.Phys.Chem.,81,1872(1977); J.Soln.Chem. 7,327(1978);
J.Am.Chem.Soc.96,5701(1974)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 102
Solid Phase Thermodynamic Properties
T
P
TR
PR
GSi = G + S ( T − T ) +  CpdT +  VdP
R
Si
R
Si
R
Cp = a1 + a2T + a3T-2
Under the typical
simulation
conditions, the
compressibility of
the solid remains
constant.
V = b1
Log10Ksp(T,P) = A + B/TK + CTK + DT2K + E + FP + GP2
Mixed EOS Model
General Thermodynamic Equation:
Vapor-Aqueous
GV i = G Aqi
GVio + RTln( φVi yi P) = GoAqi + RTln( γ i mi )
a Aqi = γ i mi
The reference state
for the vapor is the
ideal gas.
f Vi = φVi yi P
GVio + RTln( f Vi ) = G oAqi + RTln( a Aqi )
( G oAqi - GVio )
a Aqi
K = EXP [
] =
f Vi
RT
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 103
Non-Aqueous Liquid-Aqueous
G Li = G Aqi
Notice that the
reference state for
the non-aqueous
liquid is the ideal
gas vapor.
GVio + RTln( φ Li xi P) = GoAqi + RTln( γ i mi )
f
Li
= φ Li X i P
GVio + RTln( f Li ) = GoAqi + RTln( a Aqi )
( G oAqi - G oLi )
a Aqi
K = EXP [
] =
f Li
RT
Limitations of the Current OLI Thermodynamic Model31
Aqueous Phase
XH2O > 0.65
-50oC < T < 300oC
0 Atm < P < 1500 Atm
0 < I < 30
Non-aqueous Liquid
Currently no separate activity coefficient Model (i.e., no NRTL, Unifaq/Uniqac)
Non-aqueous and vapor fugacity coefficients are determined from the Enhanced
SRK32 Equation of State.
Vapor critical parameters (Tc, Pc, Vc, and ω33) are correlated to find a Fugacity
coefficient.
31
32
This refers only to the traditional OLI Aqueous Model and not the MSE model.
G.Soave.Chem.Eng.Sci.27,1197(1972)
33
This is the acentric factor which is not the same as Helgeson’s ω term)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 104
Scaling Tendencies
What is a scaling tendency?
It is the ratio of the real-solution solubility product to the thermodynamic limit based on the thermodynamic equilibrium
constant.
For Example, Consider this dissolution:
NaHCO3(s) = Na+ + HCO3
-
The Ion Activity Product (IAP) is defined as the product of specific ions (in this case the ions resulting from the
dissociation of a particular solid).
Let’s consider a 1.0 molal NaHCO3 solution:
IAP = γNamNaγHCO3mHCO3
Assuming Ideal Solution Activities:
γNa
=
1.0
γHCO3
mna
=
1.0
=
1.0
mHCO3 =
1.0
IAP = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)
IAP = 1.0
The Solubility Product (KSP) is the thermodynamic limit of ion availability:
KSP = 0.403780
The Scaling Tendency is then the ratio of available ions to the thermodynamic limit.
ST = IAP/KSP
ST = 1.0/0.403780
ST = 2.48
Was assuming ideal conditions valid??
The actual species concentration and activity coefficients are:
γNa
=
0.598
mNa
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
=
0.894
γHCO3 =
0.596
mHCO3 =
0.866
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 105
This results in a different IAP:
IAP= (0.598)(0.894)(0.596)(0.866)
IAP=0.276
The new Scaling Tendency is therefore:
ST = IAP/Ksp
ST = 0.276/0.40378
ST = 0.683
Why are the concentrations not equal to 1.0? Speciation and chemical equilibria tend to form complexes which provide a
“Sink” for carbonate species. In this example:
CO2o
=
0.016 molal
NaHCO3o
CO32NaCO3-
=
0.101 molal
=
0.012 molal
=
0.004 molal
What does the Scaling Tendency Mean?
If ST < 1, then the solid is under-saturated
If ST > 1, then the solid is super-saturated
If ST = 1, then the solid is at saturation
Scaling Index = Log (ST)
What is the TRANGE?
TRANGE is a nomenclature for solids that have been fit to a polynomial form rather than pure thermodynamics.
The polynomial has this functional form:
Log K = A + B/T + CT + DT2
It is known that polynomials may not extrapolate well. Incorrect predictions of Scaling Tendency may result. Therefore
the applicable range is generally limited to data set.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 106
Consider Na2CO3/H2O
There are 4 solids of interest in this system. They are:
Table 6-1 Sodium Carbonate hydrate transition ranges
Solid
Temperature Range (C)
Na2CO3•10H2O
0-35
Na2CO3•7H2O
35-37
Na2CO3•1H2O
37-109
Na2CO3
109-350
This table implies that these solids change their form as the temperature increases. Each solid was fit to the above
polynomial. There may be problems if the extrapolated values from higher number hydrates extend to the regions where
the lower number hydrates are stable.
4
LOG K v Temperature for Na2CO3 solids
5
0
LOG
K10
LOG K7
-5
Log K
LOG K1
Na2CO3.10H
Na2CO3.1H2O
-10
LOG
KPPT
Series5
Na2CO3ppt
Series6
-15
Na2CO3.7H2O
-20
273
293
313
333
353
373
393
413
Temperature (K)
Figure 6-4 Plot of Log K vs. Temperature. The Log K's have been extrapolated.
It can be seen that the deca-hydrate species does not extrapolate well to high temperatures. If we concern ourselves with
350K, we can see that if the solid was allows to be in the model, the equilibrium based solver will attempt include it over
the actual solid which is the mono-hydrate.
Since the deca-hydrate species is outside its temperature range, it will be mathematically eliminated from the equations.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 107
Calculating Osmotic Pressures
OLI is asked frequently how the osmotic pressure calculated in the software. We use a very
traditional method of calculating the osmotic pressure.
Where
π is the osmotic pressure
R is the gas constant
T is the temperature
aH2O is the activity of water at temperature T
VH2O is the partial molal volume of water at temperature T
Summary
We have seen that the evaluation of the equilibrium constant is an important factor in
simulating aqueous systems. A rigorous thermodynamic framework has been
developed to support the simulation.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Aqueous Thermodynamics • 108
Chapter 7 Single Point
Calculations
Objectives
By this point we have learned a great deal about the thermodynamics of the OLI
Software and the internal workings of the simulation engine. We have also learned
how to enter data and perform useful calculations.
We now wish to explore some of the other calculations in the OLI Analyzer Studio.
In the process of exploring these calculations, we will introduce some additional
features.
In this chapter we will learn about:
1.
Isothermal Calculations
•
2.
Adiabatic Calculation
•
3.
4.
•
Using new custom units
•
Modifying the report
Dew Point Calculations
Modifying model options
Vapor Amount/Fraction Calculations
•
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Using the Names Manager
Bubble Point Calculations
•
5.
Using Custom Units
Using custom report units
Single Point Calculations • 109
Isothermal
In this example we will explore an isothermal calculation. We wish to determine the pH of a 10 weight percent acetic
acid solution. The temperature and pressure will be 75 oC and 1 atmosphere.
We have already entered stream and calculation data in previous examples so we will not dwell on them here. If you
have not done so, please start the Analyzer Studio.
1.
Select the Add Stream icon.
2.
Select the Description tab.
3.
Replace Stream1 with Acetic Acid Solutions.
4.
Select Definition. The following grid list should be displayed.
Figure 7-1 Stream Definition Input Grid
Since we wish to determine the pH of a 10 weight percent solution (a fraction type of unit) we should change our input
units.
5.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
From the Tools menu item, select Units Manager.
Single Point Calculations • 110
Figure 7-2 Menu Item/Tools/Units Manager
We can now modify the default set of units. The window, displayed in the following figure, shows that the Standard set
of units are selected. We need to change these units.
Figure 7-3 Units Manager Dialog
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
6.
Click on the Customize radio button.
7.
Locate the Inflows line Mass Fraction.
Single Point Calculations • 111
Figure 7-4 Selecting Mass Fraction
8.
Click OK to close the units manager second layer.
9.
We are now ready to enter the conditions. When using mass-fraction units, it is
assumed that the amount of water will be the difference of the components
entered. In this case, the value field is highlighted in yellow to inform you that
the value will be determined from the values of the other components.
Enter a value of 0.1 g/g for acetic acid, 75 oC, 1 atmosphere pressure.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 112
Figure 7-5 the filled out grid for 10 % Acetic Acid
10. Click on the Add Calculation button and select Single Point. Select the default
calculation type – Isothermal.
11. Right-click the new object in the tree-view (usually with a name similar to
SinglePoint1).
Right click this new
object
Figure 7-6 Right-click the new object
This will display a menu.
Figure 7-7 Right-click menu choices for the tree-view
Select Rename from the list. (Double click on the object name works too)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 113
Figure 7-8 Renaming the object
The original text is now high-lighted so you can edit this field. Rename the value to
pH.
Figure 7-9 The renamed object
12. Click on the Calculate button to start the calculation.
13. After the calculation is complete you may:
a.
Click on the Output mini-tab display Calculated values.
b.
Right-click on the grid to display Additional Stream Parameters
Figure 7-10 Results, the pH is approximately 2.3
The resultant pH is approximately 2.3.
Mix Calculations
In this example we are going to mix two streams of different compositions. In doing so we will determine the
temperature rise of a 10 weight percent solution of calcium hydroxide mixed with pure 10 weight percent HCl. To do
this, we will need to create both streams separately. Along the way, we will rename a species to a more useful name.
If you have not already done so, please start the Analyzer Studio. We will be adding a 10 weight-percent calcium
hydroxide slurry. By now you should be familiar with adding these components.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
1.
Create a stream named Lime Slurry.
2.
Click on the Definition Tab.
Single Point Calculations • 114
Figure 7-11 Standard Stream Definition
3.
Click on the Tools/Names Manager menu item (see next figure).
Figure 7-12 Menu Item/Tools/Names Manager
4.
Click on the Names Dictionary tab.
We can now enter a name of a species already defined in the software. This will be entered in the Component column.
We can then rename the species in the User Name column.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 115
Figure 7-13 Names Dictionary (Some components are predefined)
5.
Scroll down to find an empty cell.
Figure 7-14 Scroll down to find an empty cell
6.
Enter Ca(OH)2 in the Component column. Left-click on the User Name
column and enter LimeSlurry. (Note: Do not use spaces or special characters)
Figure 7-15 Defining Calcium Hydroxide as "Lime Slurry"
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
7.
Click on Apply and then OK.
8.
As you did in the previous example for the “Isothermal” calculation. Select
Mass-Fraction units from the units manager for inflows and mass for stream
amount. Your units should look like this:
Single Point Calculations • 116
Figure 7-16 Setting up units for this problem.
9.
Enter the following conditions:
•
Temperature
=
25 °C
•
Pressure
=
1 atmosphere
•
Stream Amount
=
1000 g
•
LimeSlurry
=
0.10 g/g
Figure 7-17 Lime Slurry Stream Definition (using display name from Names Manager Tool)
We will now repeat these steps but using a 10 weight percent Hydrochloric acid solution. The input for this step is shown
in the following figure.
10. Create a new Stream named Acid.
11. Enter the following conditions:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
Temperature
=
25 °C
•
Pressure
=
1 atmosphere
•
Stream Amount
=
1000 g
•
HCl
=
0.1 g/g
Single Point Calculations • 117
Figure 7-18 Standard stream definition for 0.10 g/g HCl
We will now have to add a mix calculation to determine the temperature raise.
Click on the Add Mixed
Stream icon.
Figure 7-19 Adding a mix calculation.
12. Click on the Add Mixer icon in the Actions panel.
This will display all possible streams for the mix calculation. There is no limit to the number of streams to be mixed. We
will only select two streams.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 118
Figure 7-20 The input for the mix calculations.
13. Select the Limeslurry stream from the available list and click on the >> button.
14. Select the Acid stream and click on the >> button. The display should look like
this:
Figure 7-21 Selecting streams. You may have a different list.
The default calculation is to hold a single point calculation at isothermal conditions.
15. Click on the second Type of Calculation button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 119
Figure 7-22 Changing the type of calculation
Figure 7-23 Selecting the mix calculation type.
Select Adiabatic.
16. Click on the Calculate button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 120
Figure 7-24 The results of the mix.
The Summary Box shows the results of the calculation. You can see that the temperature increased from 25 degrees
centigrade to approximately 48.1 degrees centigrade. There was a considerable heat of reaction.
Bubble Point
Bubble points calculations are a calculation where the temperature or pressure of the system is adjusted such that a very
small amount of vapor will form. This is another way of saying that the bubble point calculation is a determination of
the boiling point.
Normally we determine the temperature at which a solution will boil. If the pressure is set to 1 atmosphere, then we are
calculating the Normal Boiling Point. If we hold the temperature constant then we can determine the bubble point
pressure.
Bubble point calculations are useful for determining the saturation pressure or temperature of a system. Many systems
will have a vapor phase when we least expect it. Calculating the saturation pressure or temperature will allow us to set
our conditions appropriately.
In this example we are using a 1 molar Acetone solution in water. Remember the molal concentration scale has moles of
solute per kilogram of water. So we have 1.0 moles of Acetone and 1 liter of solution.
We are going to let you set up this calculation primarily on your own. The following is a set of steps to help you along.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 121
1.
Define a new stream and call it Bubble.
2.
Click on the Definition tab.
3.
Create a new set of units (see the Isothermal example for more details).
4.
Select Tools/Units Manager from the Tools menu item.
5.
Select the Customize button.
6.
Set the Inflows to Molar Concentration
7.
Click on Apply, OK or Close as appropriate.
8.
Enter the following conditions:
9.
•
Stream Amount
=
1L
•
Temperature
=
25 C
•
Pressure
=
1 Atmosphere
•
Water
=
(adjusted)
•
Acetone
=
1.0 molarity
Add a Single Point calculation.
10. From the Type of Calculation button, select Bubble Point.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 122
Figure 7-25 Selecting Bubble point calculations
11. Previously grayed out radio buttons are now active. Make sure that the
Temperature radio button is selected.
Notice the presence of a “Free Dot” next to Temperature to indicate that value will
be adjusted.
Figure 7-26 Bubble point temperatures are selected
12. Click on the Calculate button.
13. Click on the Report tab to see the results. The temperature is 89.4 C.
14. Scroll down to see more information.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 123
Figure 7-27 The bubble point is 89.4 C
There is a lot of information that is displayed just for this relatively simple case. The user does have the option to limit
the display of data. Remember that the data is not lost, merely not displayed.
15. Click on the Customize button.
16. By default, all the options are selected. Clear all the Check Boxes leaving only
Calculation Summary, Stream Inflows and Stream Parameters selected.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 124
Figure 7-28 Customizing information displayed in a Report
17. Click the OK button. Scroll down to see that some of the information has been
suppressed.
Dew Point
It is frequently useful to determine the temperature or pressure at which a gas will condense. In this example we have a
simple hydrocarbon laden gas. We wish to determine the condensation temperature otherwise known as the dew point
temperature.
In this example we have the following conditions:
Initial Temperature
=
25
°C
(This is an initial guess)
Pressure
=
1
atmosphere
H2O
=
1
mole
CO2
=
1
mole
CH4
=
95
moles
H2S
=
3
moles
In previous examples you have entered data for the stream. We will not repeat them here. The following figure is the set
up for the Dew Point calculation. Please enter the data.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 125
Click on the Calculate button when ready.
Figure 7-29 Bubble Point Temperature Stream Definition
After the calculation is complete, the resultant temperature is approximately 7.0274 C.
Figure 7-30 Results with standard model options
The mathematical model that the Analyzer Studio uses is the Helgeson equation of state (see Chapter 6). To evaluate this
equation of state, the OLI software has “pre-generated” a set of values for each equilibrium constant as a function of
temperature.
Occasionally, the operating temperature may be outside the default temperature and pressure ranges. These default
ranges are: 25 – 225 °C and 1 – 200 Atmospheres. In this example, the new temperature is lower than the defaults. This
may have caused some offset in our answer.
To check to see if our answer changes we need to modify the model options.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
1.
Click on the Menu Item: Chemistry
2.
Click on Model Options
Single Point Calculations • 126
Figure 7-31 Menu Item: Chemistry
Below is the default Model Options screen.
Figure 7-32 The Model Options screen.
3.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Click on the T/P Span tab.
Single Point Calculations • 127
Figure 7-33 The Temperature and pressure span model options
4.
Change the lower temperature from 25 to 0 and then click OK.
Figure 7-34 Modified temperature model options
5.
From the Definition screen, re-calculate the problem.
o
The new temperature is 7.03 C. This is only slightly different from our original value of 7.016 oC.
Please note that once you change the Temperature or Pressure span, you are going to see a message in the summary
section
This just means that you have changed the default setting. All Studio ScaleChem objects have this because the pressure
range has been changed up to a 1500 atm internally.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 128
Figure 7-35 Results with modified model options
Vapor Amounts/Fractions
In this example we have a brine in which we want to evaporate to concentrate the brine. To do this we will adjust the
temperature (or pressure) to create a specified amount of vapor (or vapor fraction).
In this case we want to adjust the temperature such that our system is 95 percent vapor (on a mole basis). Please enter the
following conditions into a stream definition:
Temperature
=
25
o
Pressure
=
1
Atmosphere
NaCl
=
0.09
g/g
CaSO4
=
0.01
g/g
Vapor Fraction
=
0.95
mole/mole
C
The component compositions are grams of species per gram of solution (a weight fraction). The vapor fraction is in
moles of vapor per mole of solution and is a mole fraction.
You must change the units for this example. You already have done this previously.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 129
Remember to add the
0.95 vapor fraction
Figure 7-36 Vapor Fraction Stream Definition
Click on Calculate to start.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 130
After the program finishes the calculation, the temperature is approximately 109 oC. At this temperature, 95 percent of
the system will be vapor.
Figure 7-37 Summary of Vapor Fraction
Desalinating brines often create solids known as scales. These scales are often detrimental to the operation of the
desalination unit. We should review the reports to see how much solid has been produced.
Click on the Report tab.
The following figure shows that both solid sodium chloride (halite) and calcium sulfate (anhydrite) have scaled out. The
operator may wish to divide the desalination unit into smaller units to prevent scaling.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 131
Figure 7-38 Vapor Fraction results
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Single Point Calculations • 132
Chapter 8 Multiple Point
Calculations
Objectives
We now continue to explore some of the other calculations in OLI Analyzer Studio.
In this chapter we’ll explore multiple point calculations. As in chapter 7, we will
introduce some additional features.
1.
Temperature
•
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Additional Specifications
2.
Pressure
3.
Composition
4.
pH
5.
Secondary Surveys
6.
Mixer Surveys
7.
Cascading Mixers
Multiple Point Calculations • 133
Temperature
Many thermodynamic properties are strong functions of temperature. It is useful to plot our systems as a function of
temperature. In this example, we will determine the solubility of benzoic acid in the temperature range of 0 to 100
degrees centigrade.
As we do this, the aqueous composition of the solution will change as some of the benzoic acid in the solid phase will
dissolve into the aqueous phase.
By now you should be very familiar with entering data into the grids. For this example enter the following:
Stream Amount
=
55.508 mol
Temperature
=
25
C
Pressure
=
1.0
Atm
Water
=
55.508 mol
Benzoic Acid
=
0.0
mol
The Definition should look like the figure below.
Click Survey By
button to select
calculation types
Click on Specs… to select
options for this calculation
Figure 8-1 Stream Definition for Temperature survey
The temperature survey is the default. Now click on the Specs button to display this figure. We will be using a
temperature range of 0 to 100 C.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 134
Figure 8-2 Spec Options - Range
Make sure the Increment is set to 5 degrees C.
Now Click on Calculation Type
We will now set up a secondary calculation to determine the amount of benzoic acid necessary to saturate the solution
(See Chapter 7 – Precipitation Point calculation)
Figure 8-3 the default calculation type dialog.
Click on the Type of Calculation button.
The list of calculations is similar to ones found in the single point calculations chapter (see chapter 7).
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 135
Figure 8-4 Specifying calculation type.
Select Precipitation Point.
You will now be given a choice of which solid to “FIX”. In this case, there is only one possible choice, Benzoic Acid –
Sol. You will also be given a choice of an inflow to adjust. The inflow species is adjusted such that the scaling tendency
of the selected solid is exactly 1.0. It is generally a good idea to pick an inflow with the same materials as the selected
solid.
Figure 8-5 Selecting benzoic acid solid
Select Benzoic acid – Sol and Benzoic acid as the components.
Click on the OK button when you are ready.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 136
The calculation is now set up correctly. Click on the Calculate button to start the calculation. This will now take more
time than in the single point calculations since we are calculating many points.
When the program is finished, click on the Plot Tab.
Figure 8-6 The Default Plot
This is the default plot. The dominant aqueous species are displayed. In this case we can see that the neutral benzoic
acid molecule is the dominant species over the temperature range.
Sometimes you may wish to add more information to this plot (as in the case of placing the data in a report). We will
modify the plot now.
Figure 8-7 Selecting the Curves Button
Click on the Curves button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 137
Figure 8-8 Curves Selection
This is the default plot options. We want to remove the our Dominant Aqueous variable from the Y-Axis . Either
double-click the name Dominant Aqueous in the Y Axis box or select it and use the << button.
Scroll up or down to find Inflows.
Figure 8-9 Locating the "Inflows" Section
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 138
Select Benzoic Acid and use the >> button.
Figure 8-10 Selecting the adjusted inflow variables.
Since we allowed the program to adjust the amount of benzoic acid that inflows into the calculation, we should select
that variable.
Click the OK button to display the plot.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 139
Figure 8-11 The solubility of benzoic acid as a function of temperature.
This plot shows the amount of benzoic acid required to saturate the solution as a function of temperature. The plot has
many defaults which you may want to change.
Click the Options button.
Figure 8-12 Plot Options
For example you can Click on the Y-Axis category.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 140
Figure 8-13 Y-axis options
To change the scale on the Y-axis.
Click on the Title tab.
Figure 8-14 Y-Axis title
Enter the text in the below box. Click on OK when ready.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 141
Figure 8-15 Entering a new Y-axis title.
You can see that the Preview box automatically updates with the new text and the Auto check box is automatically
turned off.
The Y Axis title has changed. You can also change the font, scaling and grid lines as you require.
Figure 8-16 Revised Plot
You can directly change the axis properties by right-clicking the axis. For example if you wanted to change the Y-axis to
logarithmic right-click anywhere on the Y-axis:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 142
Figure 8-17Right-Click on axis and select Logarithmic
Figure 8-18 Now on a logarithmic scale
You can also display the data in table form. Click the View Data button:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 143
Figure 8-19 Select View Data
Figure 8-20 Table format
This table view has the same units as displayed in the plot. The data can be copied to
the clipboard and pasted into other programs such as Microsoft’s Excel.
To copy all the data click the empty box in the upper left-hand corner:
Figure 8-21
Next use the Menu and select Edit > Copy to copy the data:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 144
Figure 8-22
Now paste this data into the program of your choice.
Please save your file now!
Pressure
Many thermodynamic properties are less dependent on pressure than they are temperature. In this case, vapor-liquid
equilibrium is more affected by pressure. In this example, a large amount of carbon dioxide will be placed under
pressure. This simulates the charging of a pressure vessel.
Enter this Definition:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Temperature
=
25
°C
Pressure
=
1
Atm.
H2O
=
55.508 mole
CO2
=
2.0
mole
Multiple Point Calculations • 145
Figure 8-23 Stream Definition for Pressure Survey
Click on the Survey by button and then select Pressure.
The Summary box will display the current calculation options and status. The default range is from 1 to 10 atmospheres
with increment of 1 atmospheres. We need to change the range to 100 atmospheres with an increment of 5 atmospheres.
Click on the Specs button.
Figure 8-24 Changing the range
Change the increment from 1 to 5 as shown in the above figure. Change the end value to 100.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 146
Click the OK button if you are ready. The calculation is now ready. Click the Calculate button to start the calculations.
When the program stops, click on the Plot tab to display the default plot.
Figure 8-25 Default Dominant Aqueous species
The dominant species is the neutral carbon dioxide (CO2o). The concentration (moles) increases with increasing
pressure. This indicates that the CO2 is dissolving into the aqueous phase as the pressure increases. At approximately 70
atmospheres, the value of CO2o becomes constant. This indicates that all of the carbon dioxide has dissolved into
solution.
There are other properties to view besides the dominant aqueous species. Click on the Curves button.
We no longer need to view the Dominant Aqueous species. Double click the entry to remove it or select it and click the
left double arrow.
Scroll up/down to find Additional Stream Parameters.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 147
Figure 8-26 Classes of variables, select Additional Stream Parameters
From the new list, select pH
Figure 8-27 Locate and select pH
Then click on the Right double-arrow or double click the entry.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 148
Figure 8-28 Final Variables selection
Click on the OK button to display pH as a function of pressure.
Figure 8-29 Final Plot
The pH decreases with pressure because of the increased solubility of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is an acid gas. The
pertinent equilibria are:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 149
CO2(vap) = CO2(aq)
CO2(aq) + H2O = H+ + HCO3HCO3- = H+ + CO32Thus as the amount of carbon dioxide in the aqueous phase increases, more of it can dissociate producing hydrogen ions.
Please save your work now!
Composition
Often is in necessary to determine the effect of adding a species to a solution. One such case is the solubility of calcite
(CaCO3) as carbon dioxide is added to solution. Calcite is a scale that forms very easily in the production of oil. Carbon
Dioxide is also produced in the production of oil. The addition of carbon dioxide frequently makes the formation of
calcite scale unlikely.
In this example we will add carbon dioxide at high pressure to a saturated calcium carbonate solution. Please enter the
following:
Stream Amount34
=
55.558 moles
Temperature
=
25
C
Pressure
=
75.0
Atm
H2O
=
55.508 mole
CaCO3 (Calcite)
=
0.05
mole
CO2
=
0
mole
The following figure is filled out for this example.
Figure 8-30 Composition Survey Definition
34
The stream amount will be automatically calculated from the sum of the component inflows. To indicate that the
summation has occurred, the grid will highlight the stream amount cell in green.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 150
Click on the Survey by button and select Composition.
Next click on the Specs button and select the Component tab.
Figure 8-31 Selecting the component CO2
Select Carbon dioxide, CO2 from this list. Next, click on the Survey Range tab.
We only want to see a narrow range of compositions for carbon dioxide. Enter an
increment of 0.05, and an ending value of 1.0.
Figure 8-32 Narrowing the range of the calculation
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 151
Click OK when ready.
Click the Calculate button when ready.
Click on the Plot tab.
The default plot is not what we need to see. Click on the Curves button.
Figure 8-33 The default composition survey plot
Remove the existing entry. Scroll up or down to find and select Solids. Select Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from the
list. Click on OK when ready.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 152
Figure 8-34 Removing dominant species and replacing it with the solid CaCO3
Figure 8-35 Our desired plot.
The amount of calcium carbonate decreases with increasing carbon dioxide. In an oil production setting, when there is a
pressure drop (see previous tour) carbon dioxide will be lost. This will decrease the solubility of calcium carbonate and
increase the likelihood of scale formation.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 153
Please save this file now. We will be using the file in a later tour.
pH (Mixer)
We have already covered the pH survey in earlier chapter. In this example we wish to discuss the dissociation of a triprotic acid, citric acid. Citric Acid has the structure:
OH
|
HOOC-CH2-C-CH2-COOH
|
COOH
There are three acid hydrogen atoms and hence three pKa’s.
We will use the MIX calculation to perform an actual titration curve.
We need to create two new streams. You have already done this many times. Create the following two streams.
Stream Name
=
Citric Acid
Temperature
=
25 oC
Pressure
=
1 Atmosphere
H2O
=
55.5082 moles (default)
Citric Acid
=
0.1 moles
Stream Name
=
NaOH
Temperature
=
25 oC
Pressure
=
1 Atmosphere
H2O
=
55.5082 moles (default)
NaOH
=
0.1 moles.
Choose Add Mixer from the Action area.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 154
Figure 8-36 The Mixed Stream Input
We now have many stream from which to select. Select the newly created Citric Acid and NaOH streams. Highlight the
stream and use the double-arrow (>>) to select them.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 155
Figure 8-37 Selected Streams
The two streams (and more than two may be selected) are summarized in the grid below the selector box. We now want
to vary the amount of the NaOH stream to simulate adding a base titrant to our acid system. Each solution is
approximately 1 liter. We will add up to 2 liters of the NaOH stream.
Click the first Type of Survey Button
Figure 8-38
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 156
Then select Multiplier.
This will add the varied stream in a specific amount. Now select the Specs… button.
Figure 8-39 Selecting the NaOH stream.
Select the NaOH stream. This will tell the program we will adjust the mutiplier of the two streams by adjusting the
NaOH stream.
Now click on the Survey Range Tab.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 157
Figure 8-40 Setting the range of the ratio variable.
We will set the ratio range from 0 to 2 in 0.1 increments.
What this means is that we will start off with the 1 liter of the citric acid solution and 0 liters of the NaOH stream. We
will continue to increase the amount of NaOH stream until we have 2 volumes of the NaOH stream to 1 volume of the
citric acid stream.
Click the OK button.
Click the Calculate button. When the calculation has completed, click on the Plot tab.
Figure 8-41 The default plot.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 158
This is the dominant ions in solution. Let’s check the pH response. Click the Curves button and select pH as the variable
to display.
Figure 8-42 pH v. NaOH
The pH increases with adding NaOH. Now we want to select the following ions to see the changes in the citrate ion.35
Figure 8-43 species to select
35
You may find it easier to locate the ion names if you switch the Names Manager to Display Name.
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Figure 8-44 Citric Acid species v. NaOH
This plot shows that as the amount of NaOH is titrated the dominant citric acid species changes.
The resulting plot shows the various ions of citric acid changing form. The pH where each ion changes dominance is the
pKa of that acid dissociation. For example, the change from H2 Citrate-1 to H citrate-2- occurs slightly above a ratio of 0.5.
Another interpretation is that this is the amount of the NaOH stream necessary to make this change ~ 500 mL or 0.5 L.
Cascading Mixers
. In this example we will mix two streams, one basic and one acidic, and mix them together under adiabatic conditions.
The output of this mixer will then be used as the input to a second mixer where a new caustic stream is added. The
schematic in Figure 8-45 below illustrates the layout.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 160
Figure 8-45 Schematic of cascading mixers
For this example we need to create three streams. You have already done this in other examples so we will only give you
the input data (for all streams, we will use the AQ – default – thermodynamic framework)
Stream: Base Waste
Temperature
Pressure
H2O
CO2
NH3
SO2
25.0
1.0
55.5082
0.1
0.01
0.01
C
Atmospheres
moles (default value)
moles
moles
moles
Stream: Acid Waste
Temperature
Pressure
H2O
HCL
H2SO4
25.0
1.0
55.5082
0.1
1.0
o
C
Atmospheres
moles (default value)
moles
moles
Stream: Caustic
Temperature
Pressure
H2O
NaOH
25.0
1.0
55.5082
1.0
o
o
C
Atmospheres
moles (default value)
moles
To test that our streams are representing their respective names, perform a single point isothermal flash on each stream.
When you are done you should have a window that looks similar to Figure 8-46 below:
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Multiple Point Calculations • 161
Figure 8-46 completed inputs for cascading mixer
Now we are ready to begin. Click on the “Streams” at the top of the tree-view in the left hand window and then select
Add Mixer from the actions panel.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 162
Figure 8-47 Adding a mixer
We can now add the “Base Waste” and “Acid Waste” stream as we have done in previous examples. The only difference
here is that we are selecting an Isenthalpic calculation instead of the default isothermal calculation.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 163
Figure 8-48 Selecting the Base and Acid waste stream
Let’s calculate this mixer. Click the Calculate button. If everything is set up correctly the resultant mixed pH should be
approximately 0.336
In the stream tree-view panel, locate your mixer and click the “+” sign.
Figure 8-49 Click the "+" sign to expand the tree
Click the “+” sign to expand the tree.
Figure 8-50 Expanded tree view
You can see that the program has performed an equilibrium calculation on each of our input streams as well as calculated
the mixer. The results of the mixer are stored in the object “1 of 1”.
We will now add a second mixer from the actions panel.
36
You can use the Report Tab to find the pH value.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 164
Figure 8-51 Adding the second mixer
When we add a subsequent mixer we will see all of our previous objects still displayed. It is possible to reuse a stream
that we already used (this is not possible in OLI’s other simulators such as ESP or OLI Pro.) We want to connect the
output from our first mixer (Mixer1) to the inlet of the Caustic Reagent stream. Click the object Mixer1 as highlighted
by the red arrow in Figure 8-51 above.
Then add the Caustic Reagent.
Figure 8-52 connecting the output of mixer 1 to the new mixer
We are now ready to calculate the second mixer. Press the calculate button.
The resultant pH should be approximately 0.95. We want to increase this value. Change the Multiplier value for Caustic
Reagent from 1.0 to 2.4
Figure 8-53 Changing the proportion value
Click the calculate button again. The new pH should be approximately 12.1.
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The real value of the cascading mixer is the quick ability to re-calculate the objects if we want to change something.
Let’s add some diethanolamine to the series of calculations. Click the Acid Waste stream and add the component
DEXH37 to the grid with a value of 10.0 moles.
Figure 8-54 Adding diethanolamine, note that the Acid Waste Stream is highlighted.
To recalculate all the objects at once, press the control-F9 keys and all objects will be calculated. Now if you look at the
summary of Mixer2 you will see that the pH has changed to 9.7
Secondary Surveys
On many occasions we wish to study a system that varies two independent variables at the same time. This can be
accomplished via the secondary survey. In this example, we will re-use the composition survey entered earlier.
We are not only interested in the solubility of calcium carbonate as a function of carbon dioxide; we also are interested in
the temperature effects.
If you re-open this file you can skip down to the section “Starting from a saved case” below.
As a review, enter the Definition below.
Figure 8-55 Composition survey definition
Select Composition from the Survey by button. Select the Specs button and then select CO2.
Select the Range tab and adjust the increment to 0.05, the ending value is 1.0.
Starting from a saved case
Click on the Definition tab for the survey.
Now select the Then by button.
37
This is the OLI Tag name for diethanolamine, which is easier to type if you know the name.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 166
Figure 8-56
Figure 8-57 Selecting the Secondary Survey
Select Temperature.
We are making no changes to the default range.
Click the Calculate button when ready.
This will now launch a very large series of calculations. Essentially we multiple the range of the composition survey by
the range of the temperature survey to get the number of calculations. The following figure shows the large number of
points being calculated
When the calculation completes, click on the Plot tab. The plot options should be the same if you opened the file that
was previously saved. If not click the Curves button and select the plot variables as shown below.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 167
Figure 8-58 Setting the plot variables
Click on OK to return to the plot. The plot now has points from 0 to 100 °C. Unfortunately the legend is covering a
large part of the graph.
Figure 8-59 A family of Curves, the legend is in the way.
Right-clicking anywhere on the plot brings up the following menu:
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Multiple Point Calculations • 168
Figure 8-60 Right-Click on the plot to pop this up.
You may toggle the axes between linear and logarithmic, suppress the legend, allow changes to placement of titles
(Allow Layout Changes) and save the design.
For now, click on Hide Legend to turn off the legend.
Figure 8-61 The uncluttered view.
The solubility of calcium carbonate increases with temperature. The lower temperatures are the bottom curves.
When the mouse-pointer is positioned over a point on one of the curves, the message box at the top of the plot indicates
the variable and the coordinates of that point.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 169
Please save the file now (you may want to use a different name since this is different from the previous composition
survey).
Contour Plots
If you have created a dual survey you can then create a contour plot. To do this you simply have to click the contour plot
button:
Figure 8-62 the contour plot button
This dramatically changes the display.
Figure 8-63 the contour plot
The plot shows a lot of information at once. The position of the mouse pointer is shown in the information bar at the top.
In this case the x,y coordinate of 0.25 moles of CO2 and a temperature of 75 oC reports 0.037 moles of CaCO3 solid
forming. The colors are indication of minimum (blue) and maximum (red) values on the plot.
Unlike the standard plot, we have limited some of the variables that can be plotted at once. For example you can only
plot a single variable and the axis variables cannot be changed. If you click the Contour button (notice that the name
changed from “Curves” to “Contour”)
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Multiple Point Calculations • 170
Figure 8-64 the contour button
You will see the following dialog:
Figure 8-65 Contour variables
Only a single variable can be selected. If you expand some categories such as “Aqueous” you will find that the
“Dominant” species is not present since that will attempt to plot more than a single variable.
To change back to the standard plot you need click the plot button:
Figure 8-66 The standard plot button
Please save your file.
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Multiple Point Calculations • 171
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Multiple Point Calculations • 172
Chapter 9 Water Analysis in
Analyzer Studio: An Overview
Overview:
Due to the nature of water analysis, most, if not all, samples entered in Analyzer Studio are incomplete and/or are
inaccurate in some manner. Thus, most samples will not be electrically neutral. This requires Analyzer Studio to
reconcile the sample for electroneutrality.
Many samples also have a measured pH. The sample that has been reconciled for electroneutrality will probably not have
the same calculated pH as the measured pH. Normally this is a result of the incomplete or inaccurate description of the
sample. The WaterAnalyzer will adjust the pH of the calculated sample to match the measured pH.
An Example:
We have been given a sample of ground water with the following composition:
Table 9-1Ground Water Concentrations
Temperature
Pressure
pH (measured)
Cation
mg/L
Ba+2
0.46
Ca+2
773.00
Fe+2
62.10
K+
50.00
Mg+2
177.00
Mn+2
2.80
Na+1
1060.00
Al+3
0.74
Sr+2
0.18
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
25.00 C
1.00 Atm.
6.70
Anion
Mg/L
Dissolved mg/L
Cl3896.00 Gas
B(OH)42.60 CH4
15.50
SO3-2
6.30 CO2
150.00
SO4-2
54.00 Benzene
1.40
NH3
4.60
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 173
Let’s use Analyzer Studio to examine this sample. First we double-click the icon on the desktop or use the Start menu to
start the program. Please note that with build 9.1.2 Re-running water analyzer case saved in an old
version does not automatically rebuild chemistry model. Also double clicking an old case will not automatically open it
with new version.
Figure 9-1 The main window.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 174
As with the other Analyzer calculations, we start by define the conditions.
Figure 9-2 The icons available for the analysis
We will enter the concentrations listed on the previous page.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 175
Figure 9-3 A list of the conditions, cations, anions and neutrals
Enter the concentrations from the table above. Enter the cations in the Cations section; the anions in the Anions section.
Enter the dissolved gases in the inflow section. You will have to use the scroll bar to move the grid.
Click on the Add Reconciliation button.
Click on
this button!
Figure 9-4 click on the Add Reconciliation button
This will automatically update the tree view on the left and place you in the description tab for the reconciliation.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 176
Figure 9-5 The reconciliation panel.
It is highly unlikely that this sample is electrically neutral. We need to make absolutely sure that there is no net charge to
this sample. The Program will automatically balance the Electroneutrality. To view how this is done, click the Specs…
button.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 177
Figure 9-6 The Reconciliation Data dialog.
This window dialog has a great deal of information. The available cations are listed in the Cations list box and the
anions are listed in the Anions list box. The current Cation charge is 0.102945 equivalents/L (or eq/L). The current
Anion charge is –0.111207 eq/L. There is too much anion charge by –0.008262 eq/L.
There are several methods of reconciling the Electroneutrality. The default method is the Dominant Ion method. In this
method, the imbalance in charge is determined. In this example there is an excess of negative charge.
Figure 9-7 The largest concentration of cation to be entered.
We will now change the type of balance to Na/Cl.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 178
Figure 9-8 Na/Cl reconciliation method
This reconciliation is the same as the dominant ion method since sodium is the largest concentration of cation (the
counter charge). The conversion of equivalents to milligrams occurred as follows:
eq  1moleNa +  22.99 gramsNa +  103 mgNa + 
mgNa +


 = 189.944

 0.007138 
+ 
L  1eq 
moleNa +
L

 gramsNa 
There are other options for reconciliation. Click on the Type of Balance button to see the list.
Electroneutrality
Dominant Ion
The largest species concentration of the deficient charge is added.
In this case Na+ ion was added since there is an excess of negative charge.
Proration
An equal percentage of all deficient species is added.
Na/Cl
Sodium is added when there is an excess of negative charge, chloride is added when
there is an excess of positive charge.
User Specification
The user specifies the cation or anion required to balance the sample.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 179
Figure 9-9 User choice option
Since there is an excess of negative charge, only the cations are available for
selection with this option. 165.563 mg/L of Ca+2 is needed to balance the sample.
Make Up Ion
The specified ion is either added or subtracted to balance the charge.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 180
Figure 9-10 Make Up Ion Option
With the make-up ion option, either a cation or anion can be used to adjust the Electroneutrality. Since in this example,
there is an excess of negative charge, selecting a cation has the same result as the User Choice option. In the figure
above, chloride ion has been selected. Since there is an excess of negative charge, 292.914 mg of Cl- must be removed.
Make sure the Type of Balance button is set to Na/Cl and then click on the OK
button.
The Summary box is now updated with the current Electroneutrality.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 181
Figure 9-11 The updated summary box.
We can now either automatically reconcile the pH of the sample or first calculate the natural pH.
Click the No pH Reconcile radio button in the Reconcile pH options box.
Now click the Calculate button.
When the calculation has finished, scroll down the text in the Summary box to find pH.
Figure 9-12 The pH is approximately 5.1
This pH is much less than the reported pH of 6.7. What is the reason for this value? That will be explained in a moment.
Right now we wish to adjust the pH back to the reported value of 6.7.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 182
Click on the Reconcile pH radio button.
Click on the Reconcile
pH radio button.
Double check the
Known: pH value.
Figure 9-13 Choosing the Reconcile pH option.
We’ll add HCl and NaOH in the neutral species list as titrants for the reconciliation calculation. After adding the titrants,
click Specs… and choose HCl and NaOH as the acid and base in the pH Titrants tab.
You should double-check that the Known pH value is actually the value you want. The program automatically copies
the value from the Recorded pH value. On occasion, you may want to reconcile the pH to a value other than the
recorded pH.
For this example, the initial pH is 5.1 and will be increased to 6.7 using NaOH. Click the Calculate button.
When the calculation is complete, scroll the Summary box down to find the amount of titrant required.
Figure 9-14 The amount of NaOH added.
Most OLI programs cannot use ionic inflows. This sample must be converted into a “Neutral” stream. In other words, a
neutral molecular representation is required.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 183
Fortunately Analyzer Studio does the conversion automatically. The molecular stream displayed below was converted
from the preceding sample after electroneutrality and pH have been reconciled. To find these values, click on the
Molecular Basis tab.
Click the Add as
Stream button to save
as a molecular
(neutral) stream.
Figure 9-15 Molecular basis. The grid has been scrolled down to see some values
The molecular view can be saved as a new stream for use in other OLI program.
Click the Add as Stream button.
The program automatically adds a new stream. Click on the new stream and then
select the Definition tab.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 184
Figure 9-16 The molecular stream
Summary
Analyzer Studio provides for alternative feed stream
definition based upon a "Raw" Laboratory Analysis:
Flagging of Inconsistencies
• Determines the amount of imbalance with respect
to electroneutrality
• Calculates pH based upon sample information
Reconciliation of Inconsistencies
• Adds or subtracts mass to balance electroneutrality
• Adds and acid or base to adjust pH
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 185
Simulation Options
• Surveys
• Single Point Calculations
• Conversion to Molecular streams
• Using CorrosionAnalyzer plug-in
• Rates of Corrosion
• Stability Diagrams
Sample Management
• Weight-averaging of samples
• Composite samples
• Mixed streams
Analyzer Studio’s Lab Analysis module is an invaluable tool
to correct deficiencies in laboratory analyses. Water
Analysis is also essential for converting ionic flows to
neutral.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: An Overview • 186
Chapter 10 Water Analysis in
Analyzer Studio: A Tour
Reconciling a Brine from an Oil Field
The Application
This application involves reconciliation of a water sample from an oil well. Reconciliation is done for both
electroneutrality and pH.
In this application we will take brine from an oil well that is producing water along with the oil. We will not consider the
oil phase in this example.
It is quite common when reviewing lab analysis of water samples for the positive ions in solution (cations) and the
negatively charged ions (anions) not to balance each other. This may be due to the precision limits of the various
experimental procedures used to measure the ions and/or due to the fact that some ions may not have been analyzed. In
reality, these solutions must have a neutral charge. OLI Analyzer Studio will reconcile the charges to make a solution
that is neutral.
The pH of the solution is frequently measured. However, since the analysis is experimental and subject to errors, the pH
that is calculated by the LabAnalyzer may be different from what is measured experimentally. Analyzer Studio can
reconcile this difference.
Finally, the reconciled sample can be converted into a molecular representation which can be used in other simulators.
We will use Analyzer Studio to perform a simple calculation on our reconciled sample.
The power of the Analyzer Studio becomes apparent as we consider different reconciling options and pH
considerations.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 187
Tour Conventions
In this tour, we will use the following conventions:
Type Face
User Action
Bold and Italic
The user is required to enter this
information
Bold and Underlined
The user is directed to look for this
feature in the program windows
Click
Left-mouse button
Right-Click
Right-mouse button
The tour Starts here!
We have been given the produced water sample from an oil well in Thailand. The
sample is listed below:
Table 10-1 Thailand Brine Sample data
Cations
Concentration
(mg/L)
Anions
Concentration
(mg/L)
Ba+2
0.7
Cl-1
37000
+2
-1
Ca
3800
HCO3
715
Fe+2
9.5
HS-1
4.0
K
+1
402
Mg+2
+1
NH4
+1
Na
-2
SO4
2200
pH
7.1
829
104
20400
Start the Analyzer Studio program by double-clicking the OLI Analyzer Studio icon on the desktop or by using the Start
menu.
The main window for the OLI/StreamAnalyzer will display after the splash screen. The main window is similar to other
OLI Analyzer products. There is a Tree-view or Navigator displayed on the left-hand side of the window. This shows
all the objects currently in the document. Currently the display shows no objects. The bottom-left panel is the Actions or
the Explorer view and shows the icons of the objects.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 188
Figure 10-1 the OLI/LabAnalyzer main window.
To set up this tour, we need to change some settings. Please locate and click on the Tools menu in the menu bar.
This will display a drop-down menu. We will not dwell on each of the items in this tour. Please select Names Manager
by Clicking on the item.
Figure 10-2 The Tools menu items.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 189
There are several methods of displaying component names. For the moment we wish to use the formula names for our
ions. Click the Formula radio button. Click the OK button when done.
Figure 10-3 The Names Manager
When you return to the main window, locate the Add Water Analysis icon in the explorer view and double-click on the
icon.
A “Water Analysis” object will be added to the Tree View. The Explorer view will now shows three new icons. You
should now be on the Analysis tab, if not, please click it.
For this tour, we want you to rename the default analysis to the name Thailand.
Right-click the new object in the tree-view and select Rename. Enter the name Thailand.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 190
Figure 10-4 The Water Analysis Definition.
This window has several parts. The main part is the input grid in the center of the window. Here the user will enter the
species concentrations as well as reportable items such as density. The field is scrollable and is divided into several
sections:
Analysis Parameters
This section has the total stream amount, the temperature and pressure of the sample. The default values are 1 liter, 25 oC
and 1 Atmosphere.
Recorded Properties
These are values reported from the lab. The pH of the solution, density, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity
may be entered.
Inflows
These are the molecular (neutral) species in solution. Water is entered by default but the user may not alter this value.
Other neutrals such as dissolved gases (e.g., methane) may be entered in this section.
Cations
These are the positively charged species in solution.
Anions
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 191
These are the negatively charged species in solution.
Enter the cations listed in the table. The grid will scroll down to accept more entries.
Begin to enter the
cations in this grid
Figure 10-5 Entering the cations
Scroll down the grid and enter the anions:
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 192
Enter the anions
here!
Figure 10-6 Entering the anions
We are now ready to perform some reconciliation calculations for this sample.
Figure 10-7 Finished data entry
Click on the Add Reconciliation Button.
This will display more tabs for entering data about the reconciliation. A new object will appear under the Thailand
object in the tree view. This is an indication that the new object, in this case a reconciliation, is related to the parent
object.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 193
There are several items on this display. The entered analysis is displayed in the input grid. It is important to note that this
is a copy of what you originally input. The values may be changed without altering the values in the parent analysis.
Figure 10-8 Starting the reconciliation.
In addition to the input grid, there is a Reconciliation box and a Summary box.
Reconciliation
This box sets up both the electroneutrality reconciliation and the pH reconciliation. The user may allow the program to
pick the species to adjust for reconciliation or they may manually choose the adjustment.
The pH of the solution may be adjusted (automatically by adding either hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide) or the
user may adjust these acids and bases.
The pH and alkalinity can also be calculated from this box or if the Calculate Alkalinity check box is selected then just
the alkalinity is reported.
Summary
This box will display a quick list of what was performed in this section.
Please click on the Specs… button. We will now review the options for electroneutrality.
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Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 194
Figure 10-9 choosing electroneutrality
The default option for reconciling electroneutrality is the Dominant Ion method. This method determines the amount of
imbalance in charge then uses the counter ion with the largest concentration on an equivalent basis. This sample
currently has too much positive charge (approximately 0.060 equivalents). The largest counter charge will be added. In
this case the value is 2138.2 mg/L of Cl1-.
There are other options that may be used:
To see all options for balancing charge Click the Type of balance button. The options are:
Dominant Ion
This is the default method. The largest counter ion is used to adjust the electroneutrality, as was noted.
Prorate Ion
In our example, there is too much positive charge. The Prorate Ion method, if employed, would keep the relative
amounts of all the negatively charged species the same and add a percentage multiplier to all such species until the
electroneutrality was achieved.
Na/Cl
This method chooses either sodium ion or chloride ion as the adjusting species (depending on imbalance) regardless of
the largest species concentration.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 195
Make-up Ion
This option allows for a single ion species to be adjusted. In this example, there is too much positive charge. If the
Magnesium ion was chosen, then it would be reduced in concentration to make the sample electrically neutral.
User Choice
The user may pick the cation/anion pair to use for adjusting. Unlike the Make-up ion method, this method always adds
material since both a cation and an anion are provided.
For this tour, we will use the default method of Dominant Ion.
Click the OK button to continue.
Figure 10-10 the summary box
The summary box will update to show our selection.
We now want to reconcile for pH. We know that the measured pH is 7.1. We want to ensure that the solution pH is 7.1
when we are done. This will involve adding either an acid or a base to adjust the pH.
We need to add the pH value to two locations in the grid. The first is the target pH and this is required for the calculation.
The second location is the reported pH. The reported pH may differ from the target pH. The user may want to see the
effects on the solution at some other condition than the reported pH, hence the need for two locations.
In the Reconcile pH box, Click on the Reconcile pH radio buton. We’ll add HCl and NaOH in the neutral species list as
titrants for the reconciliation calculation. After adding the titrants, click Specs… and choose HCl and NaOH as the acid
and base in the pH Titrants tab.
Enter a pH value of 7.1 in the Recorded Properties pH - Aqueous section.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 196
Figure 10-11 Entering pH information
Click on the Calculate button to start the calculation.
When the calculation has finished, scroll down the Summary box to see that NaOH was added. Also, click on the
Calculated tab to see the results of the calculation.
Click on the Report tab.
Notice that the Calculated pH is now 7.1. You can scroll down to see additional information for the sample
You may want to highlight the report area with your mouse in order to refresh the page. Even though the
report is calculated, sometimes it is not visible immediately. This is a known issue and OLI is working on fixing
it.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 197
Figure 10-12 The Report tab
Click on the Molecular Basis tab.
This will display the sample in terms of molecular (neutral species). You can scroll down to see additional information.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 198
Figure 10-13 The molecular view.
Calculating Alkalinity
Let us now determine the alkalinity of this pH reconciled sample. On the Reconciliation Tab locate the Calculate
Alkalinity check box.
Figure 10-14 Calculate Alkalinity
Check the box
The input grid updates with a new set of parameters in the Calc Parameters section.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 199
Figure 10-15 Added the Alkalinity titrant H2SO4
The OLI Analyzer will perform a pH titration for total Alkalinity. This means the sample will be titrated down to a pH of
4.5 and the amount of acid used is converted into Alkalinity.
It is important to note that although a real equilibrium calculation is being performed, no species (such as the added
H2SO4) is being added to the stream.
Click the Calculate button.
Figure 10-16 Calculated Alkalinity
From the summary box we can see that the solution’s calculated alkalinity is approximately 668 mg/L as HCO3.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 200
Figure 10-17 reconciling both pH and alkalinity
Figure 10-18 User entered values note that the original pH of 7.1 is still used
Figure 10-19 The red box shows the alkalinity values
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 201
Creating a stream from the sample
We now need to convert this sample to a molecular stream. Click the Add as Stream button.
The program will allocate the ion concentrations into molecules. The combination of these species is usually not unique,
but however allocated; the elemental material balances will be preserved. The tree-view will be updated to display a new
stream.
Figure 10-20 A new stream object is displayed.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Water Analysis in Analyzer Studio: A Tour • 202
Chapter 11 Petroleum
Calculations
Overview
Calculations with the OLI Software can be used to characterize crude oils. Here is a
quote from the OLI Tricks of the Trade manual (AQSim)
Crude oils are complex groups of organic molecules containing hundreds, perhaps
thousands of pure components in a single oil. Modeling crude oils using pure
components is impractical, because analyzing for each pure component is cost
prohibitive and the number of species would make calculations overwhelming. A
convenient solution to this problem and to modeling the properties of a crude oil is to
create pseudo components. Crude Oil properties may be defined through a distillation
curve, where each boiling point range is a progression of molecular weights, densities,
solubilities, viscosities and other properties associated with that section. It is
reasonable for low boiling point molecules to be low molecular weight, low density, low
viscosity, and more soluble in water. We can dice boiling point curves using well
accepted methods standard to create pseudocomponents that in combination reflect
the property of the whole oil.
There are two ways to create a crude oil stream on the Analyzers. The first is to start
with a PVT curve and create pseudocomponents using one of the three
thermodynamic methods coded into the software. The second is to enter the
pseudocomponent data directly and using the same thermodynamic methods to
predict the component properties.
The three thermodynamic methods are API, Lee Kesler, and Cavett. At the time of
writing, the software implementation specifications for these methods were not in
hand.
This involves taking distillation data (such as ASTM D86) and converting that
information into properties that the OLI software can use. This is generally referred
to as “Creating Pseudo Components.”
There are two classes of this type of data. Actual assay (or distillation data) in which
we cut the boiling point curves up into individual components or the actual entering
of a pseudocomponent.
This section shows you how to enter each method.
Assays
For this example we will enter a distillation curve for a sample crude oil. This
sample used ASTM method D86 to characterize the crude oil (see Chapter 27 on
page 351 for a description of the distillation methods). The data for the distillation
curve can be found in Table 11-1 on page 204.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 203
Table 11-1 Sample Distillation data using ASTM method D86, API Gravity of 31
Distillation Data
Volume Percent Distilled
Temperature, C
1
20
5
30
10
50
20
60
40
80
60
120
80
150
90
180
95
200
99
220
100
240
Create a standard OLI Studio stream at the following conditions
Stream Name
Crude
Temperature
25
o
Pressure
1.0
atmospheres
H2O
5
moles
C
You will need to enter the name of the assay. In our example we are using the name
“Assay”. You are limited to only 5 characters for the name of the assay.
After entering the name Assay Do Not (repeat Do Not) press any other
key! See Figure 11-1
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 204
Figure 11-1 Entering a petroleum sample, Don't press ENTER yet!
The OLI Analyzer requires a different series of key strokes to enable the entering of
the assay data.
After typing the name “Assay” you will need to use the following key combination
Shift – Enter
Press both of these keys together. You should be able to view the screen as shown in
Figure 11-2 on page 206.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 205
Figure 11-2 Blank Assay input grids
We will begin by defining the type of assay data. Click in the cell next to the
Assay Data Type to see a list of distillation types.
Figure 11-3Assay Data Types
There are four types, select ASTM D86
Next click in the cell next to the
Average Bulk Density Type
Figure 11-4 Average Bulk Density options
There are three types (see Chapter 27 on page 351)
Select API Gravity
Finally we need to select the thermodynamic method. Click in the cell next to
Thermo Method
There are four types (see Chapter 27 on page 351)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 206
Figure 11-5 Thermodynamic methods
Select API-8 (Default)
We are now ready to enter the distillation data. Click the Edit button next to the
Distillation Data cell. You should see Figure 11-6 below
Figure 11-6 Blank Distillation Data, cut and paste works here!
Enter the data from Table 11-1on page 204
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 207
Figure 11-7 Completed Data
When done click the OK button.
We can now finish the entering of the data.
o
Temperature
25.0
C
Pressure
1.0
Atm
H2O
5.0
mole
Assay
1000.0 mole
Density (API)
31
Distillation Curve Cuts
5
Figure 11-8 Completed Assay Data Entry
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 208
The Distillation Curve Cuts will eventually become individual pseudocomponents,
each with its own critical parameters and thermodynamic reference data.
After entering the data, select an Isothermal calculation and click the Calculate
button.
Figure 11-9 below shows the range of composition.
Figure 11-9 Results of a single point Calculation
You can see that the program calculated a Liquid-Liquid case in which we have
some organic liquid and some aqueous liquid. Our crude oil named “Assay” has
been split apart into 5 individual components (remember the “Cuts” above?). Each
component has the parent assay name and temperature of the cut in Kelvin.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 209
Pseudocomponents
There are times when the user does not have (or does not want to use) distillation
data. Rather the user had the individual properties for a single pseudocomponent.
OLI allows the user to enter the individual pseudocomponents.
We will start by creating a standard stream. On the input grid we will enter our
pseudocomponent name. In Figure 11-10 below we are entering the name PC1.
Press the Control-Enter keys to open the dialog.
Figure 11-10 Starting to enter a pseudocomponent
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 210
This will create an empty data grid for the pseudocomponent. As with the assays, we
need to enter some data for the pseudocomponent.
Figure 11-11 An empty Pseudocomponent grid
For this example we will have 100 moles of the component which has a normal
boiling point of 20oC and a specific gravity of 0.72. The third parameter, molecular
weight, will be calculated in this example. In general, only two of the three
parameters need be entered.
Figure 11-12 Entering data for PC1, note only 2 of 3 parameters entered
After entering the pseudocomponent, please enter the remaining pseudocomponents
as found in Table 11-2 below.
Table 11-2 Sample pseudocomponent data
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Pseudocompo
nent
Amount
(moles)
Method
Normal
Boiling Point,
C
Specific
Gravity
PC1
100
API
20
0.72
PC2
200
API
60
0.76
PC3
250
API
100
0.8
PC4
250
API
140
0.85
PC5
180
API
190
0.9
Petroleum Calculations • 211
Figure 11-13 below shows the completed input grid.
Figure 11-13 Completed PC input grid
Set the conditions to 15oC and 1.0 atmospheres and press the calculate button.
Figure 11-14 PC Output
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Petroleum Calculations • 212
Chapter 12 Scope of Corrosion
Analyzer
Overview
Corrosion Analyzer™ is a component of OLI Studio, which is OLI’s Microsoft Windows™ based simulation software.
Corrosion Analyzer has evolved from the Corrosion Simulation Program (CSP) developed in the latter half of the
1990’s.
The purpose of the CSP project was multifold:
•
To create generalized “real-solution” stability diagrams.
•
Develop a comprehensive redox databank.
•
To create a thermodynamic model for alloys.
•
To develop a rates-of-corrosion model.
•
Create a model for growth and breakdown of passive films.
•
Create a model for localized corrosion.
•
Create a model for predicting the time evolution of corrosion using
extreme value statistics.
Much of the projected goals of the original CSP project have been completed but there is still much to do. Starting in
year 1999, the CSP program was converted, with much effort, to Corrosion Analyzer.
This course assumes that the user is familiar with the basic functionality of OLI Analyzer Studio. Many of the
calculation techniques described in the OLI Analyzer Studio User Guide are also used in Corrosion Analyzer.
Thermodynamics of Corrosion
The thermodynamics of corrosion is predicted using the traditional OLI
thermodynamic model along with specific enhancements required for the Corrosion
Analyzer. Specifically, the thermodynamics of corrosion answers the following
questions:
1.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
When are metals immune to corrosion?
Scope of Corrosion Analyzer • 213
2.
When can they passivate?
The tool that answers these questions is Stability diagrams.
Kinetics of general corrosion
Once the thermodynamics of corrosion have been determined, we would like to be
able to predict rate of corrosion. Extensive research has been completed by OLI
Systems, Inc. in this area and will be discussed in later chapters. Specifically the
question asked is:
What is the rate of corrosion?
A large database of corrosion data has been fit for this question. The program will
determine amount of material that will corrode, in a generalized setting.
Other phenomena
Several other thermodynamic properties (not required to solve the equilibrium based
model) were also developed for both the stability and rate of corrosion. Some of
these phenomena are:
•
Electrical conductivity
•
Viscosity
•
Diffusivity
Real-solution stability diagrams
The design goals of real-solution stability diagrams are:
•
To predict the stability of metals, metal ions, oxides, etc. as a function
of T, P and solution composition.
•
Draw conclusions about the ranges of immunity to corrosion, possible
passivation and dissolution of metals in the presence of species that
promote or inhibit corrosion.
Some of the features of a real-solution stability diagram are:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
Potential versus pH with other variables fixed (a real-solution analog of
the Pourbaix diagrams)
•
Potential versus concentrations of active species (either inflows or
species in equilibrium)
•
Predominance areas as functions of concentrations of selected species
without using E as an independent variable
Scope of Corrosion Analyzer • 214
Chapter 13 Generating Stability
Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer
An Example
Before we go into detail on how the diagram is created and how to interpret the
results, we will walk through a sample stability diagram calculation for metallic iron
in pure water at 25 oC and 1 atmosphere.
We begin by double-clicking the Analyzer Studio icon on the desktop or by using the
Start menu.
•
Click on the Add Stream icon.
Figure 13-1 The OLI Studio main window.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 215
•
Click on the Description tab.
The Description tab is similar in functionality to other OLI software products. It is
recommended that the user enter descriptive information to later identify the
calculation and the streams.
Figure 13-2 The Description tab.
•
Enter some descriptive information.
•
Click on the Definition tab.
You may use the Tools->Names Manager menu option to change the display of the species.
If the units are not in moles, centigrade and atmospheres, select Tools->Units Manager and then select the Standard
radio button. Select Metric, moles from the drop down box.
Figure 13-3 Units Manager
Enter Iron, Sodium Hydroxide and Sulfuric Acid to the grid as shown in Figure 13-438.
38
Depending on the settings for names manager, the displayed names may be formulas or names.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 216
Figure 13-4 The stream definition tab.
We are now ready to add a stability diagram to the calculation.
Click on the Add Stability Diagram icon in the Explorer/Actions panel.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 217
Figure 13-5 Adding a stability diagram.
Add a description if necessary by clicking on the Description tab. Otherwise, click on the Definition tab.
The diagram definition is not complete when you first enter the grid. The metal of interest (in this case iron) must be
defined to the calculation as the surface metal. The pH titrants must also be defined (The defaults are HCl and NaOH)
Enter Fe as the Contact Surface
The surface metals can
be searched by clicking
the down-arrow.
Figure 13-6 The stability diagram Definition tab.
Now we need to set up the titrants and ranges of calculations. We do not want to use HCl (hydrochloric acid) since the
chloride ion complexes with both ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) ions and will clutter our diagram.
Click on the Specs… button
The Specs… button has several tabs that should be reviewed.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 218
Figure 13-7 The X-variable Tab
Click on the Axes category. Choose the Select radio button in the Titrants section. This will enable the pH Titrants
button.
Figure 13-8 enabling the titrants button.
We wish to use sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to adjust the pH.
Click on the pH Titrants button
As will other OLI applications, you can select an acid and a base.
Select Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) as the acid titrant
Select Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the base titrant
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 219
Figure 13-9 Selecting sulfuric Acid and sodium hydroxide as titrants
Click on the OK button
Click on the Display category. Look for the Display Subsystems section.
Figure 13-10 Selecting displayed subsystems (using defaults)
The display of particular oxidation and reduction species and be turned on and off with the subsystems options. We want
to see the various oxidation states of iron.
Check Iron and Water.
Look for the Shading section. Ensure that Shade subsystems: is selected.
.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 220
The user as some control over how the stability diagram will display. In this case we will accept the defaults.
Click OK
We are now returned to the Definition. The Calculate light should now be green.
Click Calculate
The program will run for several moments and finish.
Click on the Stability Diagram tab.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 221
The following diagram is the stability diagram for Iron in pure water at 25 centigrade and 1 atmosphere. These diagrams
are also referred to as Pourbaix diagrams.39
Figure 13-11 The finished stability diagram
How to Use Stability Diagrams
What is a redox subsystem?
•
A set of species that contain a given element in all possible oxidation
states.
•
Example: The iron subsystem consists of all species that contain Fe ,
Fe2+ and Fe3+.
•
Boundaries between stability areas of a solid and an aqueous species or
two aqueous species.
•
Boundary between an aqueous and a solid species: A solid starts to
precipitate or dissolve in an aqueous phase.
•
Boundary between two aqueous species: The conditions for which the
activities of the species are equal.
o
What are the solid lines?
39
Marcel Pourbaix, “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions”. Translated from the French by James.
A. Franklin. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1965).
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 222
What are the dashed lines?
•
Boundaries between stability areas of two aqueous species that coexist
with at least one solid phase.
•
They are found only within the stability ranges of solids.
What are the areas delimited by the solid lines?
•
Stability fields of solid or aqueous species.
•
If the conditions are within the stability field of a solid, the solid is
stable and usually coexists with an aqueous phase
•
If the conditions are within the stability field of an aqueous species, no
solid can be stable and this species is predominant in the solution.
What are the areas delimited by dashed lines?
•
Stability fields of predominant aqueous species that coexist with one or
more solid phases.
•
Dashed lines can be found only within the stability fields of solid
species.
•
Names of aqueous species that are predominant only in the presence of
a solid phase but not in a homogeneous solution are printed with small
characters. What is the line denoted by a?
•
Equilibrium state between H+ and H20:
•
The oxidized form (i.e., H+) is stable above this line;
•
The reduced form (i.e., H20) is stable below it.
What is the line denoted by b?
•
•
Equilibrium state between O20 and O2-:
•
The oxidized form (i.e., O20) is stable above this line;
•
The reduced form (i.e., O2-) is stable below it.
Water (which is a combination of H+ and O2-) is stable between a and
b.
Why is it useful to view a superposition of diagrams for selected subsystems?
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
Corrosion is observed when oxidation of the metal of interest leads to
the formation of soluble metal species and can occur simultaneously
with some reduction reaction.
•
Similarly, passivation is observed when the oxidation of the metal leads
to the formation of a protective layer of a sparingly soluble compound.
•
A line that represents a reduction reaction (e.g., reduction of
atmospheric oxygen to water) must lie above the line that represents an
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 223
oxidation reaction (e.g., oxidation of a metal to aqueous ions or a
potentially passivating oxide).
•
The corrosion potential will establish itself somewhere between the
equilibrium potentials for the oxidation and reduction reactions.
•
Thus, it is possible to find out whether a certain species from one
subsystem can be oxidized and, simultaneously, a certain species from
the other system can be reduced.
What is the range of immunity to corrosion?
Stability field of elemental metal.
What is the range of corrosion?
Stability fields of dissolved (ionic or neutral) metal species in which neither
the metal nor passivating solids are stable.
What is the range of possible passivation?
Stability field of a sparingly soluble compound (usually an oxide or
hydroxide or salt).
•
This compound will form a layer on the surface of the metal,
which may protect the metal from corrosion.
•
Having determined that a layer is formed, it is necessary to verify
whether it is protective or not because this depends on the
crystalline structure of the sparingly soluble compound.
How to determine whether corrosion in the absence of oxygen is possible?
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
In the absence of oxygen, the most common reduction reaction is the
reduction of the proton to elemental hydrogen (as shown by line a)•For
a corrosion process to proceed, the line a must lie above a line that
corresponds to an equilibrium between the metal and metal-containing
ions.
•
In oxygen-containing solutions, O20 can be reduced to H2O (line b)
•
For a corrosion process to occur, the line b must lie above a line that
corresponds to an equilibrium between the metal and metal-containing
ions.
•
Passivation is likely if b lies above a line that corresponds to an
equilibrium between the metal and a sparingly soluble compound.
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 224
Figure 13-12 Stability diagram for Copper
Some conclusion about the copper diagram to be inserted
Features of real-solution stability diagrams
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
Incorporation of solution non-ideality effects; there is no need to
assume arbitrary values for the activities of species.
•
Applicability to concentrated solutions.
•
Applicability over wide temperature and pressure ranges.
•
Usefulness for studying effects of various complexing, oxidizing and
reducing agents because of OLI’s comprehensive data bank.
•
Facility to superimpose two or more stability diagrams to study
interactions between different redox systems.
•
Facility to screen various independent variables to find which one is
really important.
•
In contrast to the classical Pourbaix diagrams, pH variations result from
adding realistic acids or bases.
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 225
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generating Stability Diagrams in Corrosion Analyzer • 226
Chapter 14 Generation of Stability
Diagrams
Construction of real-solution stability diagrams
For each redox subsystem:
1.
Construction of equilibrium equations.
2.
Simulated titration to cover the whole range of independent variables.
3.
Calculation of equilibrium lines for chemical reactions.
4.
Calculation of equilibrium lines for electrochemical reactions.
5.
Determination of predominance areas.
Construction of equilibrium equations
For each pair of species X and Y in a particular redox subsystem:
ν X + ν A = Y +ν e−
k
i
X
i
e
i =1
where: Ai – basis species
General Formula:
X ≡ M X1 H X 2 OX 3 C X 4 DX 5 E X 6 ....
Y ≡ M Y1 H Y2 OY3 CY4 DY5 EY6 ....
M-element associated with the redox system.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generation of Stability Diagrams • 227
Basis species: Species that contain H, O, C, D, E, etc., but do not contain M:
(a) H+ is the basis species that contains H,
(b) H2O is the basis species that contains O,
(c) The basis species containing C, D, E, etc. are the ones with the minimum possible
number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms in addition to C, D, E...
Examples
For a system composed of Cu, NH3 and H2O:
X ≡ Cu X1 H X 2 OX 3 N X−34
Basis species: H+, H2O, NH3(aq)
For a system composed of Fe, H2O and sulfur-bearing species:
X ≡ Fe X 1 H X 2 OX 3 S X−24 S X0 5 S X+66
Basis species: H+, H2O, S2-, S0(s), SO42-
Cases when both the metal and ligands are subject to redox equilibria
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
1.
Determine which basis species are stable in which area of the stability
diagram.
2.
Retain only the stable species in the basis and delete the remaining
ones. The deleted species are not used for constructing the equilibrium
equations.
Generation of Stability Diagrams • 228
Simulated titrations
1.
Titrate with a selected reactant (an acid, base, complexing agent) to
vary the independent variable of interest.
2.
Equilibrium calculations at each titration point involve the
simultaneous solution of chemical (acid-base and redox) equilibria as
well as phase equilibria.
3.
Calculate the equilibrium compositions and activity coefficients for
each titration point.
4.
Use the compositions and and activity coefficients to calculate
equilibrium lines.
Equilibrium lines for chemical reactions
Affinity of a reaction between X and Y:
k
1 
A

=−
 GY −ν X G X − ν i G Ai  =
RT
RT 
i =1

k


= ln K −  ln aY − ν X ln a X − ν i ln a Ai 
i =1


•
Construct a discrete function of the independent variable:
Ap = f(varp) ,
•
p = 1…N
Find the root:
f(var0) = 0
•
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Check which species are stable at var < var0 and which at var > var0.
Generation of Stability Diagrams • 229
Calculate equilibrium potentials for each pair of species X and Y:
E = E0 +
k
RT 

ln
a
−
ν
ln
a
−
ν i ln a Ai 


Y
X
X
Fν e 
i =1

k
E0 =
GY0 − ν X G X0 − ν i G A0i
Fν e
i =1
Construct a discrete function of the independent variable:
Ep = g(varp)
p=1,…N
Approximate the function using splines.
Determination of predominance areas
For each species:
1) Determine the boundaries:
a)
Upper boundaries: Equilibria with species in higher oxidation
states
b) Lower boundaries: Equilibria with species in lower oxidation states
c)
Right-hand side boundaries: Other species are more stable at
higher independent variables
d) Left-hand side boundaries: Other species are more stable at lower
independent variables
2) Find intersections between boundaries
3) Determine which boundaries are active
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Generation of Stability Diagrams • 230
Chapter 15 A Tour of Corrosion
Analyzer
Overview
We will now take a brief tour of the Corrosion Analyzer. We will first study the
stability diagram for iron in pure water and then the stability diagram for iron in the
presence of hydrogen sulfide.
Iron in Water
Double-Click on the Analyzer Studio icon on the desktop or select it from the
Programs menu.
After the splash screen displays you will see main screen for analyzers.
Click the Add Stream icon to begin.
Select the Definition tab of the newly created stream. This is the default view for all
new streams. You can use the default name or use the Description tab to rename the
stream.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
Click on the Description tab.
•
Enter the name Generic Iron.
•
Enter the description Generic iron with H2S.
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 231
Figure 15-1 The Description tab.
As in other Analyzer Studio modules, you may perform single point and multiple point (survey) calculations. You may
also study stability diagrams and perform rate calculations.
For this tour, we will first define the stream.
•
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Click on the Definition tab.
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 232
Figure 15-2 Default stream definition grid.
The units for this stream may not be in the set required for the tour.
•
Click on the Tools menu item.
The Tools menu will be displayed. Select Units Manager the list.
Figure 15-3 Tools Menu
We wish to use metric units. Click the down-arrow in the drop-down list box under the Standard radio button.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 233
Figure 15-4 Default Units Manager
Scroll down and select Metric, moles.
We now have the correct units for the tour. Enter the following species into the grid:
Fe
NaOH
H2SO4
Note: The display name may change these to a “Spelled out” display. You can use the Names Manager in the Tools
menu to alter the display as you desire.
Figure 15-5 Stream definition in correct units.
Water is the default species and defaults to a value of 55.5087 moles.
Leave the remaining fields blank. Thus, we will simulate the behavior of iron in water at ambient conditions. Note that it
is not necessary to include any Fe (i.e., iron) in the stream composition. Although it is permissible to include a corroding
metal in the stream, it would not correspond to reality (e.g., a steel pipe is not a component of a stream) and would
markedly increase the computation time.
We now need to verify that oxidation and reduction have been turned on in the chemistry model.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 234
•
Click on the Chemistry menu item and then select Model Options…
Figure 15-6 Chemistry Menu Items
This will display the model options.
•
Click on the Redox tab.
Figure 15-7 Model Options
We will now verify that the iron subsystems have been selected.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 235
Figure 15-8 The selected redox subsystems.
Another way to make sure Redox is turned on is look at the top toolbar. Re button should be selected.
Figure 15-9 Shortcut to switch Redox On
You are free to choose all redox subsystems; this will usually result in longer computation times. It is advisable to
choose the redox systems that are relevant to the studied corrosion processes.
In our example, we will choose the iron and sulfur systems. This means that the program will consider all redox states of
iron (i.e., 0, +2 and +3) and those for sulfur (-2 to +6). You have the ability to turn individual redox elements on or off
by expanding the element tag.
For the moment, leave the sulfur subsystem unchecked. We will eventually select sulfur when we add the hydrogen
sulfide.
•
Click on the OK button to return to the definition.
•
Now click on the Add Stability Diagram Icon in the
Explorer/Actions panel.
We have now defined the stream.
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A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 236
You can enter descriptive information if you want. Otherwise, click on the Definition tab.
Figure 15-10 Diagram Definition
We now have some work to do to set up the calculation. The Calculate button is red indicating that we need additional
information before we start calculating. We need to set some additional parameters for this tour.
We need to specify our surface metal. Frequently this will be Iron, as it is in this case, but we may use other metals. We
also need to specify the titrants that will adjust the pH of the solution.
The summary box displays the current information about the calculation.
•
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Add the species Fe to the Contact Surface grid.
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 237
Figure 15-9 Adding Fe to the Contact Surface list.
Click on the Specs… button to fill out the remaining information.
•
Click on the Axes category.
Figure 15-102 Select Titrants
Choose the Select radio button in the Titrants box. This will enable the pH Titrants button.
We now need to select an acid and a base. Select H2SO4 as the acid (Sulfuric Acid) and NaOH as the base (sodium
hydroxide).
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 238
Figure 15-1311 Choose an acid and base
•
Click OK
The Y-Variable specifies voltage (E) as the variable; we wish to continue using it so will skip the category.
•
Click on the Display category.
Figure 15-1412 Make sure the Sulfur subsystem is unchecked.
Notice the Display Subsystems list. This tab will only display the selected subsystems. In this case only iron and water
will be displayed. The subsystems are still calculated if they are not checked, merely not displayed.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 239
Accept the default entries for the other options in this category.
•
Click on the OK button.
We are now ready to calculate. Click the Calculate button and wait for the calculation to finish.
Once the calculation has finished, click on the Stability Diagram tab.
Figure 15-135 A Pourbaix diagram for iron with H2S
The obtained diagram is useful for assessing the corrosion behavior of iron. First, the equilibrium lines between
elemental iron (i.e., Fe(s)) and other species can be found.
As shown in the diagram, elemental iron can be oxidized to the Fe2+ ions (i.e., FE+2) in acidic, neutral and weakly
alkaline solutions (for pH below ca. 9.5) and to the Fe(OH)3-1 ions (i.e., FEIIOH3-1) in alkaline environments (for pH
above ca. 11.5).
The oxidation of iron can be coupled with the reduction of the H+ ions because the H+/H2o equilibrium line (denoted by
a) lies always above the lines that represent the oxidation of iron. Therefore, corrosion of iron can occur with the
evolution of hydrogen and formation of soluble iron-containing ions (either Fe2+ or Fe(OH)3-).
Adding Hydrogen Sulfide
We will now add 1.0 x 10-4 moles of H2S to the stream.
Click on the Definition tab.
In the grid, add hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the stream at a rate of 1.0000E-04 moles.
Click on the Chemistry menu item and select Model Options…
•
Click on the Redox tab.
Select Sulfur from the list; Iron should also be checked.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 240
Figure 15-14 Enabling the sulfur redox subsystem.
Figure 15-15 Add Hydrogen Sulfide
Though calculation is set up, use the Specs… button to review the settings. The only change will be in the subsystems.
Since we are now calculating the sulfur redox subsystems, we want to make sure that we aredisplaying them. Check the
sulfur subsystems.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 241
Figure 15-16 Turn display on for Sulfur.
•
Click the OK button
Click the Calculate button when you are ready. When the calculation finishes, click the Stability Diagram Tab.
Figure 15-17 The stability diagram with Sulfur.
Inspection of the diagram reveals a profound effect of H2S on the corrosion of iron. In addition to the species that were
present in the first diagram, new stability fields of FeS and FeS2 are observed. In particular, elemental Iron is found to be
in equilibrium with FeS over for pH values ranging from ca. 6.0 to 12.5.
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A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 242
Since the Fe/FeS equilibrium line lies below the H+ reduction line (a), a process consisting of the reduction of H+ to H0
and oxidation of Fe to FeS is likely in de-aerated environments. FeS forms a passive film and offers some protection
against corrosion.
In fact, the protection due to the formation of FeS is possible over a much wider pH range than that due to the formation
of Fe3O4 (magnetite) in the absence of H2S. This has important implications for corrosion in refinery installations,
where H2S frequently occurs.
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A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 243
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
A Tour of Corrosion Analyzer • 244
Chapter 16 Modeling the Effects of
Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion
Overview
In this section we take a brief look at the effects of acidity and alkalinity on
corrosion. You should already be familiar with many of the features and controls of
the Corrosion Analyzer; thus we will not dwell on the intricate details.
In this section we will generate a stability diagram for iron in water at high
temperature, simulating a high temperature boiler. We then create a stability diagram
for alkaline neutralization in an oil refinery.
High Temperature Iron in Water
Using the skills you already know, create a stream and stability diagram definition
for the following condition:
Temperature
300 oC
Pressure
150 Atmospheres
H2O
55.5082 moles (Default)
Fe
0 (contact surface)
NaOH
0 (base titrant)
HCl
0 (acid titrant)
As with the previous tour, the contact surface will be iron (Fe). The titrants will be
hydrochloric acid (HCl) for the acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for the base.
Allow for only the iron subsystem to be displayed.
The input grid should look like the following figure:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 245
Figure 16-1 The stream definition.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 246
Figure 16-2: The definition grid prior to calculation.
Click the Calculate button. When the calculation has finished, click the Stability
Diagram tab.
Figure 16-3 Iron in water at 300 °C and 150 atmospheres.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 247
We can see from the diagram that passivation is only possible at moderate pH’s.
How does the prediction of passivation relate to corrosion rate
data?40
Approximate
pH at 25C
Relative
metal attack
Figure 16-4 Relative metal attack v. pH and titrant concentration
The hatched area corresponds to the stability of a passivation layer. The corrosion
rate is greatly reduced when a passivation layer is present.
Neutralization of Refinery Streams with Alkanolamines
Create a Stream Definition for the following conditions
40
Temperature
50
o
Pressure
1
Atmosphere
H2O
55.5082 mole
C8H18
2E-07
mole
C7H16
8E-07
mole
C3H8
1.2E-04 mole
C4H10
2E-05
mole
C5H12
7E-06
mole
C6H14
2E-06
mole
HCL
0.09
mole (acid titrant)
H2S
0.01
mole
NaOH
0
mole
C
Relative corrosion rate data as a function of HCl and NaOH added to Solution (Partridge and Hall, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. 1939, 61, 597)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 248
Fe
41
DEA
0
mole (contact surface)
0
mole (base titrant)
The input grid should look approximately like this:
This species is DEA
Figure 16-5 Stream input grid.
Create a stability diagram as in previous chapters
41
The “ESP” name for this species is DEXH, which can be used as an input to make your life easier. The formula name
is: HN(C2H4OH)2
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 249
Figure 16-6: The stability diagram definition.
Remember to use the Specs… button to select the pH titrants. You are using HCL
and DEA as the titrants.
Let’s review the redox subsystems via Chemistry | Model Options | Redox
Make sure Sodium is not checked in the list of included subsystems and that Sulfur
is checked in the Redox section of the chemistry model options.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 250
16-7: Selecting the redox subsystems from the chemistry model options.
Click the Calculate button when you are ready. When the calculation finishes, click
on the Stability Diagram tab.
Figure 16-8 The stability of iron in DEA solutions.
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Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 251
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Acidity & Alkalinity on Corrosion • 252
Chapter 17 Modeling the Effects
of Complexation on Corrosion
Overview
We continue to review the CorrosionAnalyzer and its capabilities in modeling
corrosion. In this section we will simulate the reaction of Copper with Ammonia and
Gold metal with Cyanide.
This section attempts to answer the question of how strong complexing agents affect
the passivation of these metals.
Copper and Ammonia
Create a stream with the following conditions:
Temperature
25
°C
Pressure
1
atmosphere
H2O
55.5082 moles (default)
Copper
0
(Contact Surface)
HCL
0
(acid titrant)
NaOH
0
(base titrant)
NH3
0
(complexing agent)
As with the other tours, please set the names manger to suit your personal
preferences for names display.
Create a stability diagram using the above stream.
Verify that only Copper is the selected redox subsystem using the Chemistry menu
item and Model Options.
The completed grid should look similar to the following figure:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 253
Figure 17-1 The Cu-Ammonia stability diagram definition.
Click on the Calculate button when ready. When the calculation has finished, click
on the Stability Diagram tab.
The following diagram should be displayed.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 254
Figure 17-2 The stability diagram of Copper in the presence of Ammonia at 25° C and 1 atm.
In the absence of oxygen (looking at only the a line). We can see that the copper
equilibrium line lays above the hydrogen a line. This means there is insufficient
oxidizing power in the water to corrode copper metal in pure water.
We now wish to see the effects of ammonia on the stability of copper. Click on the
Definition tab and enter 0.1 moles of NH3. The diagram should still be set up, click
on the Calculate button to start. When the calculation has finished, click on the
Stability Diagram tab once again.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 255
Figure 17-3 The effect of adding 0.1 moles of ammonia on the stability diagram.
A large area of corrosive liquid has appeared in the stability field for the copper
oxides. This means that it is thermodynamically possible for the ammonia to break
down the passivation layer of copper oxide in the presence of oxygen. Notice that in
the absence of oxygen (the a line only), copper is still stable.
Now repeat the exercise with 1.5 moles of NH3.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 256
Figure 17-4 The effect of adding 1.5 moles of ammonia on the stability diagram.
At this concentration of ammonia, most, if not all the passivating copper oxide has
been reacted away. Only at very high pH values are there any stable oxides.
Gold in the presence of Cyanides
Create a new stream with the following composition:
Temperature
25
°C
Pressure
1
atmosphere
H2O
55.5082 moles
Au
0
(gold, contact surface)
HCL
0
(acid titrant)
NaOH
0
(base titrant)
NaCN
0
(complexing agent)
The input grid should be similar to this:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 257
Figure 17-5 The Gold-Cyanide stability diagram definition.
Click on the Calculate button when you are ready. When the calculation has
finished, click on the Diagram tab.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 258
Figure 17-6 The stability diagram of Gold in the presence of Cyanide at 25° C and 1 atm.
You can see that without oxygen, gold metal is immune to corrosion. The hydrogen
line a is below the gold equilibrium line. In the presence of oxygen, gold is still
immune to corrosion except at very low pH.
Now repeat the exercise with 1.0E-04 moles of NaCN.
The figure should look like this:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 259
Figure 17-7 The effect of adding 1.0E-04 moles of NaCN on the stability diagram.
In the presence of oxygen, gold completely corrodes with cyanide. This is primarily
due to the gold complex: Au(CN)2-1.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effects of Complexation on Corrosion • 260
Chapter 18 Modeling the Effect of
Oxidizing Inhibitors on
Corrosion
Overview
In this chapter we will look at the effect of modeling corrosion inhibitors. We will do
this by superimposing two stability diagrams over one another. If one solid field
overlaps the corrosion range of the other system, then passivation is likely.
Iron in the presence of chromates
Create a stream with the following composition:
Temperature
25 C
Pressure
1
H2O
55.5082 moles (default)
Fe
0
(contact surface)
Cr
0
(contact surface)
K2CRO4
0.001
(inhibitor)
HCl
0
(acid titrant)
NaOH
0
(base titrant)
atmosphere
Create a stability diagram using the above stream. Select both Fe and Cr oxidation
and reduction subsystems. In this case, the two metals will be used in addition to
water in the redox subsystems.
Use the Chemistry model item and Model Options > Redox to ensure that
Chromium and Iron are selected in the Included Subsystems list.
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Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion • 261
Figure 18-1 Selecting subsystems.
The filled out definition for the stability diagram should look like the following
figure:
Figure 18-2 The filled out grid. Note that two metals user used.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion • 262
We want to shade the chromium subsystem instead of the default iron subsystem.
Click the Specs… button and then select the Display category.
Figure 18-3 Selecting chromium to be shaded.
Click on the OK button, and then click Calculate. When the calculation has
finished, click the Stability Diagram tab.
Corrosive iron is
overlaid by passivated
chromium.
Figure 18-4 The stability diagram with both iron and chromium.
As you can see in the diagram, the shaded chrome passivating solid (Cr(OH)3ppt)
overlays the corrosive region of the iron system. This means that there is potential
for passivating the metal in that region.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion • 263
The Cr(OH)3 field overlaps with the corrosion range of Fe in most of the pH range.
This causes inhibition because of the coupling of:
Oxidation of Fe to Fe+2, reduction of chromates to Cr(OH)3, deposition of a
protective layer of Cr(OH)3.
Iron in the presence of arsenates
Create a stream with the following composition:
Temperature
25
°C
Pressure
1
atmosphere
H2O
55.5082 moles
Fe
0
(contact surface)
As
0
(contact surface)
Na3AsO4
0.001
(inhibitor)
HCl
0
(acid titrant)
NaOH
0
(base titrant)
Create a stability diagram using the above stream. Select both Fe and As oxidation
and reduction subsystems. In this case, the two metals will be used in addition to
water in the subsystems.
The stability diagram definition should look similar to this:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion • 264
Figure 18-5 Input for Iron/Arsenate diagram
Use the Specs… button and select the Display category to select Arsenic as the
subsystem to shade.
Click the Calculate button when ready. Click on the Stability Diagram tab when
finished.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion • 265
Figure 18-6 Iron with arsenates, arsenates are shaded
The elemental arsenic field overlaps with the corrosion range of Fe in most of the pH
range provided that the conditions are reducing (absence of oxygen). This promotes
inhibition because of the coupling of:
Oxidation of Fe to Fe+2, reduction of arsenates to elemental As, deposition of a
protective layer of As. This can only work in reducing environments; otherwise the
protective layer of As will oxidize and dissolve.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Modeling the Effect of Oxidizing Inhibitors on Corrosion • 266
Chapter 19 Implications of Stability
Diagrams on Cathodic Protection
Overview
Cathodic protection works by shifting the potential of the metal into its immunity
range. Stability diagrams can answer the questions:
•
What is the potential range that ensures that the metal stays in the immunity
range?
•
What is the effect of environmental variables on the immunity domain?
Example: Iron at 25 and 300 degree centigrade
Figure 19-1 Iron in water at 25 °C and 1 Atm.
In the whole pH range, cathodic protection will require shifting the
potential to moderately negative values.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Implications of Stability Diagrams on Cathodic Protection • 267
Figure 19-2 Iron in water at 300 °C and 100 Atm.
The immunity range in acidic and neutral solutions is weakly affected by
temperature. However, the immunity range in alkaline solutions is shifted to much
lower potentials which makes cathodic protection much more difficult.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Implications of Stability Diagrams on Cathodic Protection • 268
Chapter 20 Selective Oxidation
and Reduction Chemistry
Overview
Occasionally the user may want to remove a particular oxidation state for an element in the simulation. There are a
variety of reasons to perform such an activity, one being that a particular oxidation state may be kinetically unavailable
for the reaction. Another case is that perhaps a user needs to compare and contrast two systems. That is what we have
here in this example.
Creating the default oxidation case
In this example we will create a Stability diagram for iron in water at ambient conditions. See Chapter 15 for details on
how to create this stream. In Figure 20-1 we have created the input for our standard Iron stability diagram.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry • 269
Figure 20-1 Generating a standard Stability Diagram for Iron
Calculate this diagram as you have done in previous examples. Figure 20-2 is the result of the standard diagram. This
diagram is frequently referred to as a Pourbaix diagram42.
42
Named after Marcel Pourbaix, who in the 1960’s created a series of such diagrams. The latest reference is: Pourbaix,
M., Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in aqueous solutions. 2d English ed. 1974, Houston, Tex.: National Association
of Corrosion Engineers
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry • 270
Figure 20-2 Standard OLI E-pH diagram for Iron
The issue here is that Pourbaix did not consider the FeO42- ion in his work. This is iron in the +6 oxidation state for
which there was little thermodynamic data available in the1960s. To reproduce his work we will need to remove the
redox subsystem that pertains to Fe(+6).
Selective Redox, removing an undesired oxidation state.
To remove the undesired Fe(+6) oxidation state for this example we need to enter the model options for this diagram. To
do that
Chemistry | Model Options…
Figure 20-3 Selecting Chemistry | Model Options
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry • 271
Next select the Redox Tab.
Figure 20-4 Selecting subsystems
Figure 20-4 shows the standard subsystems (collection of oxidation states) for each element. Please note that Hydrogen
and Oxygen are automatically included and cannot be removed.
Expand the iron subsystem by clicking on the “+” next to the Iron subsystem.
Figure 20-5 Expanding the individual oxidation states
This has expanded the iron subsystem. You can see in our example that we have all the oxidation states from Fe(0) to Fe
(+6).
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry • 272
Uncheck the Fe(+6) oxidation state to remove it from consideration. Note that if you have an inflow component with
this oxidation state it will remain in the calculation.
Figure 20-6 Unchecking the Fe(+6) oxidation state
Click the OK button to save your changes.
Rerun the calculation for the diagram. You can always press the F9 key to calculate the object that you are currently
viewing.
Figure 20-7 A more traditional Pourbaix diagram
Here you can see in Figure 20-7 that the region dominated by the FeO42- ion is not present.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry • 273
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Selective Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry • 274
Chapter 21 Introduction to Rates
of Corrosion
Chemistry
The rates of corrosion use a subset of the OLI chemistry43:
Neutral Species
H2O, O2, CO2, H2S, N2, Cl2 and all inert gases, SO2 and NH3, and organic molecules
that do not undergo electrochemical reactions.
Anions
OH-, Cl-, Br-, I-, HCO3-, CO32-, HS-, S2-, SO42-, HSO4-, NO2-, MoO42-, ClO-, ClO4-,
Cr(VI) anions, As(III) anions, P(V) anions, W(VI) anions, and Si(IV) anions.
Cations
H+, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, Fe(II) cations, Fe(III) cations, Al(III) cations,
Cd(II) cations, Sn(II) cations, Zn(II) cations, Pb(II) cations and NH4+.
Calculation types
Single Point
The single point calculation will determine the rates of corrosion at only a single
temperature and pressure.
The system may be flowing or static. If the system is flowing, only a single flowrate
will be considered. Flowing systems also require the specification of diameter for
the pipe or rotating cylinder.
43
These species are subject to change with time, most-likely to increase in number
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Rates of Corrosion • 275
pH Survey
This calculation is analogous to the pH Survey found in other Analyzer Studio
components. The specification requires a titrant acid and base.
Temperature Survey
A survey in temperature can be performed. The default range is from 25 to 100
degrees Centigrade. Any range may be used by changing the Range option.
The user should consider that some points in the survey may not converge due to
phase changes (e.g., boiling off of aqueous liquids).
Composition Survey
A single titrant can be added to the solution and the effects of corrosion determined.
The range of the component defaults to 0 to 1 mole with an increment of 0.1 moles.
This range can be changed via the Range option.
Care should be taken when adding salts that can form hydrates (e.g., CaCl2.6H2O).
When these hydrated salts begin to precipitate from solution, large amounts of water
may be complexed with the crystal. The solution may desiccate and nonconvergence may be the result.
Pressure Survey
The pressure of solution may be varied. The default range can be changed via the
Range option.
Care should be taken when working at very low pressures since the solution may
inadvertently boil off the liquid and non-convergence may results.
Flow Velocity Survey
In systems that are flowing, the flowrate of the stream can be varied.
Metal Chemistry
The default metal is the generic mild steel (G10100). The user can select from
several classes of metals:
Iron/Mild Steels
•
Fe (Zone Refined)
•
Fe (Pure)
•
Fe (ARMCO)
•
Carbon Steel A212B
•
Carbon Steel A216
•
Carbon Steel 1018
•
Carbon Steel G10100 (Generic)
•
Stainless Steel 304
300/400 Stainless
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Rates of Corrosion • 276
•
Stainless Steel 316
•
Alloy 254SMO
•
Duplex Stainless 2205
•
13% Cr
•
Aluminum 1199 (Pure)
•
Aluminum 1100
•
Ni
•
Alloy 600
•
Alloy 690
•
Alloy 825
•
Alloy 625
•
Alloy C-276
•
Alloy C-22
•
Cu
•
CuNi 9010
•
CuNi 7030
Aluminum
Nickel Based
Copper
Flow conditions
There are five flow conditions:
•
Static Conditions
•
Pipe Flow
•
Rotating Disk
•
Rotating Cylinder
•
Complete Agitation
Static Conditions
The solution is not flowing in this calculation.
Pipe Flow
The fluid is flowing through a pipe. The pipe diameter and flow velocity must be
defined.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Introduction to Rates of Corrosion • 277
The default pipe diameter is 0.1 meters and the default flow velocity is 2
meters/second.
Rotating disk
This reproduces a type of experiment that is used quite frequently. A disk is rotated
to bring fluid to the surface of the electrode in a predictable manner. The diameter of
the disk is specified as well as the revolutions per minute (RPM).
The default diameter is 0.01 meters and the default RPM is 5000 RPM.
Rotating Cylinder
This reproduces a type of experiment that is used quite frequently. A cylindrical
rotor is rotated to bring fluid to the surface of the electrode in a predictable manner.
The diameter of the rotor is specified as well as the revolutions per minute (RPM).
The default diameter is 0.01 meters and the default RPM is 5000 RPM.
Complete Agitation
In this calculation, the liquid phase is completely agitated and no mass transfer
limitations apply.
Kinetics of general corrosion
Elements of the approach:
•
Electrode processes under activation control (Butler-Volmer kinetics)
•
Reaction orders according to plausible reaction mechanisms
•
Limiting current densities due to diffusion processes and homogeneous reactions
in solution
•
Effects of adsorption
•
A model for the passive current density and the active-passive transition
•
Effect of solution species on corrosion in the passive state
•
Synthesis of the partial processes to obtain a total polarization curve and, hence,
corrosion rate
Butler-Volmer kinetics
i = io exp [ αF (E - Eo) / RT ]
Exchange current density depends on concentrations of active species:
io = i* aKk aLl aMm …
Reaction orders depend on various mechanisms
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Introduction to Rates of Corrosion • 278
E0 = E00 + (RT/zF) Π aiνi
Activities of species that participate in the reaction:
ai (i = 1, 2 …)
Parameters that result from reaction mechanism:
Electrochemical transfer coefficients Reaction orders with respect to active species.
Parameters that depend only on the metal:
•
Exchange current density after factoring out the chemical contribution (i.e., i*).
•
Temperature dependence of i*, i.e., the activation energy.
Limiting current density due to the diffusion of species X to the interface:
ilim = z km F aX, bulk
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
The mass transfer coefficient km depends on:
•
Diffusivity of species X
•
Viscosity
•
Flow geometry (pipe, rotating cylinder, etc.)
•
Flow velocity
Introduction to Rates of Corrosion • 279
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Introduction to Rates of Corrosion • 280
Chapter 22 Rates of General
Corrosion – A Tour
Overview
In this tour we will simulate the corrosion rate of generic mild steel in a carbon
dioxide containing brine. This is representative of a fluid recovered from oil
production.
At this point you should be very familiar with entering data into Analyzer Studio.
We will now focus on the rates of corrosion.
The Rates of Corrosion
Create a stream with the following composition.
Temperature
20
°C
Pressure
30
Atmospheres
H2O
55.5082 moles
CO2
1.0
moles
NaCl
1.0
moles
Fe
0
moles (Contact Surface)
Verify that only iron is selected in the redox subsystems list using the Chemistry
menu item in the Model Options/Redox item. The definition grid of the stream
should look similar to the following figure:
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 281
Figure 22-1 The stream definition.
Notice that there are no titrants for this type of diagram. We also have not specified
any alloys. This will be done in the rates calculations. We did have to specify a base
metal of iron.
With the above stream selected in the tree view, double-click on the Add Corrosion
Rates icon in the Actions/Explorer pane.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 282
Figure 22-2 Click on the Add Corrosion Rates icon.
Click on the Add Corrosion Rates icon in the Actions pane.
Click on the Definition tab.
Setting up the calculation
We will first perform a temperature survey. We would change the default
temperature range to 0 to 200 °C in 10 °C increments.
The contact surface is specified in the definition grid. For this tour we will consider
the mild steel - Carbon Steel G10100 (generic).
We will simulate in static conditions. The current default Flow Condition (which is
“Static”) is acceptable.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 283
Figure 22-3 Specifying contact surface and flow conditions.
Click on the Specs… button. Select the Var. 1 – Temperature category.
Figure 22-4 Specifying temperature range for the survey.
This dialog is analogous to the range display in the other Analyzer Studio modules.
Set the Start temperature to 0°C, the End temperature to 200 °C and the increment
to 10°C.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 284
Click on OK then click the Calculate button.
When finished, click on the General Corr. Rate tab.
Figure 22-5 The rate of corrosion versus temperature plot.
This diagram shows that the rate of corrosion increases with increasing temperature
till about 80 °C. Then the rate decreases. Further analysis would reveal that the solid
FeCO3 (Siderite) has precipitated and has formed a passivating layer.
Now click on the Report Tab. (You may have to use the scroll-arrow to see this tab)
Figure 22-6 Locating Scroll Arrows
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 285
Figure 22-7 Tabulated results
The report displays the tabulated results. You may have to scroll down to see the
same information as displayed above.
Now click on the Polarization Curve
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 286
Figure 22-8 Polarization Curve at 0° C
The curve displayed corresponds to 0oC. The customize button can be used to
display the polarization curve at a different temperature.
The  symbol represents the mixed potential point. It is this point that determines
the rates of corrosion calculation. The  appears to be on the “3” and “2” lines. This
means that carbon dioxide and water is controlling the rates of corrosion. If the
appeared on a vertical line, then we could say that the current had reached a
limiting or passivating amount.
Flow survey
We will now repeat our calculations but only at 20 °C. This time we will perform a
flow survey. We will simulate the movement of a fluid through a pipe. We will need
to specify the diameter of the pipe and the fluid flow.
Click on the Definition tab.
Click on the Types of rates calculation and select Pipe Flow.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 287
Figure 22-9 Selecting Pipe Flow
The flow specifications entered in the Corrosion Values section of the definition
grid.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 288
Figure 22-10 Specifying the Pipe Flow Diameter.
We will use the default Pipe Diameter of 10 cm (0.1 m). The Flow velocity will be
adjusted by the Specs > Survey Range tab.
Figure 22-11 Range setting
The range of values indicates the lowest and highest velocity. The radio buttons in
the Step Size section allow the user to perform quick conversion.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 289
The Increment option allows for the starting and ending values to be entered along
with the number of steps and then the increment between points will be
automatically determined.
Optionally, the user may specify the Number of Steps by selecting the appropriate
radio button, in which case the increment value will be calculated automatically.
We will enter a Start value of 0 and an End value of 20. The Increment will be 1.0.
Click on the OK button then click on the Calculate Button.
Click on the General Corrosion Rate tab when the calculation completes.
Figure 22-12 The flow survey
The asymptotic behavior of the rate is due to mass-transfer phenomena. At low flow
rates, there is sufficient time for the corrosive agents to reach the pipe. At higher
flows, a steady-state condition exists.
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Rates of General Corrosion – A Tour • 290
Chapter 23 Thermal Aging and
Variations in Alloy Composition
Introduction
What can be simulated?
Localized corrosion of engineering alloys is a complex function of metallurgical
factors and environmental conditions. Among metallurgical factors, effects of
thermal instabilities are of interest for assessing the performance and expected
service life of industrial components fabricated from nominally corrosion-resistant
stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. Fabrication processes such as heat treatment
and welding are known to introduce microstructural changes that may affect both the
mechanical and corrosion performance of an alloy. In particular, thermal instability
of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys may lead to the formation of complex metal
carbides of the type M3C2, M7C3, M6C, or M23C6 in which the metallic component M
represents Cr, Mo, W, and Fe. The carbide is chromium- or molybdenum-rich
depending on the carbide type, which in turn depends on the alloy composition and
temperature. Also, various chromium-rich intermetallic phases can form in many
alloys. Precipitation of such phases may occur at temperatures ranging from 500 to
900 °C depending on alloy composition. Formation of grain boundary carbides often
results in the depletion of chromium and, possibly, molybdenum in the vicinity of the
grain boundary because of the slow diffusion of substitutional elements such as
chromium relative to the interstitial carbon. Similarly, the corrosion resistance of
welded components may be affected by the segregation of alloying elements and
precipitation of intermetallic phases, carbides or nitrides in the solidified weld and
unmixed zones as well as the precipitation of carbides and other phases in the heataffected zone adjacent to the weld.
Sensitization of Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo alloys and its effects on intergranular attack and
intergranular stress corrosion cracking is the most directly observed effect of Cr
depletion. It may result in intergranular attack and intergranular stress corrosion
cracking. Localized corrosion can be also affected by Cr and Mo depletion.
Corrosion Analyzer contains the following technology that can help address these
issues:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition Introduction • 291
(1) A grain boundary microchemistry model for predicting the chromium and
molybdenum depletion in the vicinity of grain boundaries as a result of carbide
formation;
(2) An electrochemical model for calculating the repassivation potential of Fe-NiCr-Mo-W alloys as a function of alloy composition and environmental
conditions including temperature and concentrations of aqueous solution
species;
(3) A procedure for calculating the observable repassivation potential that
corresponds to macroscopic localized corrosion by applying the electrochemical
model to the depletion profiles and performing suitable integration.
More details about this technology are described by Anderko et al. (2008), Tormoen
et al. (2009), Anderko et al. (2009), and Sridhar et al. (2009).
Alloy Chemistry
Simulations can be performed, in general, for alloys that belong to the Fe-Ni-Cr-MoW-N-C family (i.e., for stainless steels and nickel-base alloys).
Depletion profiles in the vicinity of grain boundaries and depletion parameters can
be obtained for austenitic alloys (including stainless steels and Ni-base alloys). Also,
the effect of Cr and Mo depletion on localized corrosion can be calculated. This
effect can be examined using the repassivation potential, which provides a threshold
potential for the stabilization of localized corrosion (Anderko et al., 2009).
For other alloys from the Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-W-N-C family, the repassivation potential
can be calculated if the alloy composition is known. This also includes experimental
alloys and separate phases that may be formed as a result of various forms of heat
treatment (Sridhar et al., 2009).
Calculation types
Thermal aging is an additional phenomenon that can be simulated within the
framework of corrosion kinetics. All calculations types and, in particular, survey
types, that are supported for corrosion kinetics are also supported in conjunction with
the study of thermal aging.
If it is desired to make calculations on a thermally aged sample, the thermal aging
temperature and time need to be specified in the Calc Parameters section in the
Definition tab. The default values are 399 °C for the thermal aging temperature and
0.0 hours for the thermal aging time. If either of these default values is used, no
thermal aging effects will be predicted. Thus, by default, Corrosion Analyzer
performs calculations on samples that have not been thermally aged.
Thermal Aging Temperature Survey
This calculation makes it possible to vary the thermal aging temperature within a
certain range. A fixed value of thermal aging time is assumed as specified by the
user. Typically, the temperatures for which thermal aging effects can be observed
range from ~500 °C to ~900 °C, with the effects being most pronounced in the
middle of this range.
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition Introduction • 292
Thermal Aging Time Survey
This calculation can be used to examine the effect of aging time at a fixed thermal
aging temperature.
Output specific to thermal aging
The following output can be generated:
(1) Chromium and molybdenum depletion profiles, i.e., the variation of Cr and Mo
concentration within the grain as a function of grain boundary
(2) The depletion parameter, which provides compact information on the extent to
which the depletion process reduces the grain boundary concentration below a
certain critical value of, which can be defined by well-known criteria for
maintaining passivity (e.g. x *Cr = 0.11 or 0.12). This parameter can be calculated
as the area of the depletion profile below the threshold concentration x *Cr ,
0
divided by bulk Cr concentration, x Cr
:
δ ( x*Cr
1
)= 0
xCr
where
z*
z*
 (xCr − xCr ( z ))dz
*
0
is the distance from the grain boundary that corresponds to the
threshold concentration x *Cr .
(3) The repassivation potential, which is a key parameter for determining whether
localized corrosion can occur, may be affected by thermal aging in a rather
complex way.
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition Introduction • 293
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition Introduction • 294
Chapter 24 Thermal Aging and
Variations in Alloy Composition
Overview
In this tour we will show examples of simulating the effects of thermal aging on FeNi-Cr-Mo-W-C-N alloys (i.e., stainless steels and nickel-base alloys). Specifically,
we show how to predict:
•
Chromium and molybdenum depletion profiles in the vicinity of grain
boundaries, which result from heat treatment of austenitic alloys;
•
Depletion parameters for sensitized austenitic alloys, which provide an indicator
of whether the alloy is susceptible to intergranular corrosion
•
Effect of thermal aging on the repassivation potential of austenitic alloys, which
provides a threshold condition for localized corrosion (pitting or crevice
corrosion)
•
The repassivation potential of alloys with compositional variations that may or
may not result from thermal aging. This facility can also be used for bulk alloys
that are not in the database or to hypothetical or experimental alloys as long as
they belong to the Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-W-C-N family. An example will be given for a
duplex ally, either annealed or thermally treated.
At this point you should be very familiar with entering data into Analyzer Studio.
Also, you need to know the foundations of the use of the repassivation potential to
predict the occurrence of localized corrosion (Anderko et al., 2004 and papers cited
therein).
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 295
Example 1: Thermal aging of alloy 600
We will be studying the behavior of thermally aged alloy 600 in a dilute aqueous
solution of sodium chloride. Therefore, click on Add Stream and start by creating a
stream with the following conditions:
Temperature
60
°C
Pressure
1
Atmospheres
H2O
55.5082 moles
NaCl
0.04
moles
The definition grid of the stream should look similar to the following figure:
Figure 24-1: The stream definition.
With the above stream selected in the tree view, double-click on the Add Corrosion
Rates icon in the Actions/Explorer pane. Even though the thermal aging simulation
facilities do not predict corrosion rates per se, they belong to the category of
corrosion kinetics and, therefore, they are included in the Corrosion Rates section of
the Corrosion Analyzer.
Then, click on the Definition tab.
Setting up the calculation
We will be simulating how the time of thermal aging affects alloy 600 at a fixed
thermal aging temperature of 700 °C. For this purpose:
Select Alloy 600 from the drop-down Contact Surface menu.
In the Calc Parameters section, replace the default value for the Thermal Aging
Temperature with 700 °C.
Note that the default value for the Thermal Aging Temperature is 399 °C, which is
a low value so that, in the default case, no effects of thermal aging will be calculated.
Then, from the Type of rates calculation drop-down menu, select Thermal Aging
Time.
The definition grid for the Corrosion Rates should look similar to the following
figure. The key specifications are highlighted using red ovals:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 296
Figure 24-2 Specifying contact surface, thermal aging temperature and type of calculations.
Now, click on the Specs… button. The Survey Range category allows you to
specify the range for the thermal aging time survey. Change the range is from 0 to
10 hours with a step of 2.0 hours.
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 297
Figure 24-3 Default Thermal Aging Survey Range
Then, click on the Thermal Aging category.
Figure 24-4 Thermal Aging Parameters
In this category, you can change all parameters that are necessary for calculating
chromium and (if applicable) molybdenum depletion profiles. In particular, you can
change:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
•
The alloy composition (for example, to analyze the effect of a different carbon
content);
•
The stoichiometry of the carbide phase that may form at the grain boundary; the
typical carbide stoichiometry is M7C3 or M23C6 (where M = Cr, Mo) but can be
adjusted
Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 298
•
The parameters that define the equilibrium constant for the formation of the
carbide
•
The diffusion coefficient of Cr and, if applicable, Mo
•
The threshold concentration of Cr for sensitization. This threshold concentration
is used for calculating the depletion parameter.
•
The average grain size, which affects the process of healing of chromium
depletion as a function of time
Also, you can indicate whether the repassivation potential (Erp) should be calculated
directly from the correlation developed by Anderko et al. (2008), which expresses Erp
as a function of alloy composition or not. If it is not calculated directly, then the
repassivation potential is calculated first using the alloy-specific parameters for the
alloy of interest and only the decrement of Erp (i.e., Erp, thermally aged – Erp, bulk alloy) is
obtained from the correlation. This decrement is then added to the alloy-specific Erp
value. This option is set by default to “No” because this maximizes the accuracy of
calculations for alloys that are already in the database.
For now, we will accept the default settings but we will return to them later in the
tour. Therefore, click OK to close this window.
Then click the Calculate button.
Analyzing the results
When the calculations are finished, click on the Depletion Profile tab44. You will see
a plot of concentrations of chromium and molybdenum within a grain as a function
of the distance from the grain boundary (in μm). You will see that, for each
condition, there are four lines:
Cr weight %
: concentration of Cr in weight %
Mo+W weight % : sum of the concentrations of molybdenum and tungsten in weight
%
Corrected Cr weight % - concentration of Cr corrected for beam scattering and
related effects so that it can be directly compared with experimental results. The
procedure for calculating the correction is described by Anderko et al. (2009).
Corrected Mo+W weight % sum of the concentrations of Mo and W corrected in the
same way as those for Cr.
Since alloy 600 does not contain any molybdenum, the molybdenum curves will
always be equal to zero. The plot will look similar to the following one:
44
Remember to use the scroll-arrows if necessary
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 299
Figure 24-5 The plot of predicted depletion profiles for alloy 600 thermally aged at 700 °C as a function of time.
Let us customize the plot now by clicking on the Options button.
Since alloy 600 does not contain Mo or W, let us eliminate the Mo+W curves. To do
this, select the Curves category from the left-hand side pane (NOTE: this is not the
same as the Curves Button!)
Figure 24-6 Plot Options | Curves Category
Then, highlight the Mo+W weight % curves by pressing the Shift key and moving
the cursor. After highlighting these curves, check the Hidden button. The
Customize Plot portion of the screen will look as follows:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 300
Figure 24-7 The window for customizing the display of depletion profiles.
After hiding the Mo+W weight % curves, do the same for the Corrected Mo+W
weight % curves. Then, press OK. The plot will look as follows:
Figure 24-8 A customized depletion profile plot that shows only Cr depletion profiles
Now, let us focus on the differences between the uncorrected and corrected depletion
profiles. To have a clear picture of the difference between them, let us focus on only
one depletion profile – for 2 hours. For this purpose, click on Options again, then
select the Curves category. Highlight all curves except the ones labeled
Cr Weight % - Thermal Aging Time = 2.00000 hr, and
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 301
Corrected Cr Weight % - Thermal Aging Time = 2.00000 hr
Check the Hidden box. Then, you will see a plot that looks similar to the following
one:
Figure 24-9 A customized depletion profile plot that shows uncorrected and corrected Cr depletion profiles only for 2 hours of
thermal aging
In the obtained plot, you can see the difference between the two curves for small
distances from the grain boundary (roughly below 30 μm). The corrected
concentration is much more rounded in the vicinity of the minimum because
instrumental measurement effects. At larger distances from the grain boundary, there
is no difference between the two curves.
After analyzing the depletion profiles, let us focus on the effects of Cr depletion on
corrosion. We will do it by analyzing two parameters – the depletion parameter and
the repassivation potential.
To have more meaningful results, let us expand the range of thermal aging time and
reduce the interval for calculations. To do it, go back to the Definition tab and click
on Specs. In the Thermal Aging Time category, change the End to 60 hours and the
Increment to 1 hour. The screen should look similar to the following one:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 302
Figure 24-10 Changing the survey range for thermal aging.
After making the change, click OK.
Then, click Calculate.
After the calculations are complete, click on the Localized Corr. tab. By default, this tab will show a plot of the
corrosion potential and repassivation potential.
Let us add a new parameter – the depletion parameter to the plot. To do this, click on Curves. A new window titled
“Select Data to Plot” will appear. Under Corrosion Values in the left-hand side pane, highlight Depletion Parameter
and click on the >> button under Y2 Axis. The screen will look like:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 303
Figure 24-11 Including the depletion parameter in the plot on the Y2 axis.
Click OK. You will see a plot that should look like:
Figure 24-12 A plot of the repassivation potential and depletion parameter for thermally aged alloy 600 as a function of aging time.
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 304
It is clear that the depletion parameter reaches a maximum for aging time of about 10
hours. Since the depletion parameter is a measure of the susceptibility of an alloy to
intergranular corrosion, we can expect that the alloy will be most susceptible to
intergranular corrosion at intermediate aging times. When the depletion parameter is
zero, intergranular corrosion or intergranular stress corrosion cracking are unlikely.
The decrease of the depletion parameter as a function of time is a manifestation of
the phenomenon of healing of Cr depletion.
The repassivation potential shows a minimum as a function of aging time. This
indicates that the tendency of the alloy to undergo localized corrosion is enhanced as
a result of thermal aging. However, the effect of thermal aging on the repassivation
potential of alloy 600 is small (cf. Tormoen et al., 2009, Anderko et al., 2009). The
repassivation potential shows a minimum at low aging times (ca. 1-2 hours).
Therefore, the susceptibility to localized corrosion is enhanced the most for these
aging times. It is noteworthy that the maximum in the depletion parameter does not
coincide with the minimum in the repassivation potential. This is due to the fact that
intergranular corrosion (which is related to the depletion parameter) and localized
corrosion (which is controlled by the repassivation potential) are subject to different
mechanisms. A general discussion of these differences is given by Tormoen et al.
(2008).
In general, the alloy will be susceptible to localized corrosion if the corrosion
potential exceeds the repassivation potential. In the above example, the corrosion
potential is low because we have no oxidizing agents in the system. Therefore, the
alloy will not undergo localized corrosion at the conditions of this example.
However, a rise in the corrosion potential due to the presence of oxidizing agents
may cause localized corrosion. We will return to this topic later in this chapter.
Example 2: Thermal aging of alloy 825
In the second example, we will be studying the behavior of thermally aged alloy 825.
Alloy 825 is appreciably different from alloy 600 because it contains molybdenum
and, also, substantially more chromium in addition to other alloying elements. To
make this simulation, click on Add Stream and create a stream with the following
conditions:
Temperature
95
°C
Pressure
1
Atmospheres
H2O
55.5082 moles
NaCl
2.846e-3 moles
The definition grid of the stream should look similar to the following figure:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 305
Figure 24-13 Stream definition for studying the effect of thermal aging on alloy 825.
Double-click on the Add Corrosion Rates icon in the Actions/Explorer pane.
Then, click on the Definition tab.
Setting up the calculation
In this example, we will simulate how the temperature of thermal aging affects alloy
825 at a fixed thermal aging time of 15 hours. For this purpose:
Select alloy 825 from the drop-down Contact Surface menu.
In the Calc Parameters section, replace the default value for the Thermal Aging
Time with 15 h.
Note that the default value for the Thermal Aging Temperature is 0, which means
that no thermal aging is considered by default.
Then, from the Type of rates calculation drop-down menu, select Thermal Aging
Temperature.
The definition grid for the Corrosion Rates should look similar to the following
figure. The key specifications are highlighted using red ovals:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 306
Figure 24-14 Specifying the type of calculation, thermal aging time, and contact surface.
Then, click on Specs to define the survey range.
In the Thermal Aging Temp. category, specify the start of the survey as 550 °C, the
end of the survey as 900 °C, and the increment as 50 °C. The Rates Definition
screen should look as follows:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 307
Figure 24-15 Defining the range for a thermal aging temperature survey.
Click OK to close this window. We will keep the other parameters at their default
values. Then, click Calculate.
Analyzing the results
When the calculations are finished, click on the Depletion Profile tab.
Since alloy 825 contains Mo in addition to Cr, you will see the depletion profiles for
both Cr and Mo. For clarity, customize the plot by removing the corrected depletion
profiles and leaving only the uncorrected (or directly calculated) ones.
For this purpose, click on Options, select the Curves category, highlight the
Corrected curves and check the hidden box as described in the previous example.
The resulting plot should look similar to the following one:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 308
Figure 24-16 Predicted Cr and Mo depletion profiles for alloy 825 as a function of thermal aging temperature.
As shown in this plot, the depletion profile is very narrow at the lowest temperature,
i.e., 550 °C. On the other hand, it becomes flat at high temperatures and it has a high
minimum. The high minimum value is particularly important because it indicates
that the local depletion of Cr and Mo is much less severe at high temperatures (due
to much faster diffusion of substitutional elements and subsequent healing).
It should be noted that the Mo profile qualitatively parallels the Cr profile but has
somewhat different slopes because of differences in diffusion coefficients of Cr and
Mo.
To look at the effect of Cr and Mo depletion on corrosion, click on the Localized
Corrosion tab and add the Depletion Parameter to the plot as described in the
previous example. The plot should look similar to the following one:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 309
Figure 24-17 Calculated repassivation potential and depletion parameter for alloy 825 as a function of thermal aging temperature.
It is evident that both the depletion parameter and repassivation potential show their
extreme values at intermediate temperatures of thermal aging. In the case of the
depletion parameter, it is a maximum and, in the case of the repassivation potential,
it is a minimum. This is in agreement with experimental data (Anderko et al., 2009).
Non-zero values of the depletion parameter indicate the possibility of intergranular
corrosion. A depression in the repassivation potential indicates an increased tendency
for localized corrosion.
Example 3: Localized corrosion of annealed and
thermally aged duplex alloy 2205
In the first and second tour, we used the Corrosion Analyzer’s capabilities to predict
the Cr and Mo depletion profiles for austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys.
However, we are not limited to such calculations. We can also use the Corrosion
Analyzer to predict the localized corrosion behavior of other alloys and other phases,
including those that are not stored in the database. This facility is based on a
generalized correlation for predicting the repassivation potential of Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-WN alloys as a function of alloy composition (Anderko et al., 2008). This correlation
can be applied to both bulk alloys that are not in the database and to phases that may
result from thermal aging.
In this example, we will make two simulations:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 310
•
First, we will predict the tendency for localized corrosion for the duplex alloy
2205 in an aerated chloride solution. Alloy 2205 is not in the database, so the
repassivation potential will be calculated from the generalized correlation
(Anderko et al., 2008). The corrosion potential will be calculated for a similar
alloy because the corrosion potential does not differ much for many Fe-Cr-NiMo alloys in the passive state in neutral solutions.
•
Second, we will predict the localized corrosion tendency for alloy 2205 after
thermal aging. Thermal aging of duplex steels in the temperature range of 900°C
to 600°C leads to the formation of various phases - χ, σ, M23C6-type carbide,
and secondary austenite (γ2). The secondary austenite phase is primarily
responsible for the increased tendency of the alloy for localized corrosion. This
is due to a very significant depletion of chromium in the secondary austenite
over relatively wide spatial areas (Sridhar et al., 2009). Since the composition of
the secondary austenite cannot be predicted at present, we will use experimental
microstructural data (Sridhar et al., 2009) in conjunction with the generalized
correlation for the repassivation potential.
Click on Add Stream and create a stream with the following conditions:
Temperature
60
°C
Pressure
1
Atmospheres
H2O
55.5082 moles
NaCl
0
moles
Oxygen
0.02
moles
Nitrogen
0.08
moles
The oxygen and nitrogen have been added to simulate the presence of air.
The definition grid of the stream should look similar to the following figure:
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 311
Figure 24-18 Stream composition for simulating localized corrosion of alloy 2205.
Double-click on the Add Corrosion Rates icon in the Actions/Explorer pane.
Then, click on the Definition tab.
Setting up the calculation
Since alloy 2205 is not available in the database, we will select stainless steel 316 as
the contact surface. This will ensure that the predicted corrosion potential is very
similar to that for alloy 2205.
Select 316 Stainless Steel from the drop-down Contact Surface menu.
Unlike in the previous examples, do not make any changes in the Calc Parameters
section. We will not make Cr depletion calculations; rather, we will be specifying the
compositions of the phases.
From the Type of rates calculation drop-down menu, select Composition.
The definition grid for the Corrosion Rates should look similar to the following
figure. The key specifications are highlighted using red ovals:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 312
Figure 24-19 Selection of contact surface and survey type.
We will be running a composition survey to see how the concentration of NaCl
affects the propensity for localized corrosion. To define the survey type, click on
Specs.
Figure 24-20 Selecting the component for the survey (NACL)
In the Var. 1 – Composition category, select Sodium Chloride in the Component
tab.
Then, click on the Survey Range tab and enter:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 313
Start
0.0001
End
6
Number of steps 20
Click the “Log” radio button
The screen should look similar to:
Figure 24-21 Defining the survey range for the NaCl concentration survey.
Then, click on the Thermal Aging category on the left-hand side pane. The screen
will be populated with default parameters for type 316 stainless steel.
First, click on the Yes button next to Erp directly from correlation.
Figure 24-22 Thermal Aging Parameters
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 314
This is necessary because no parameters for alloy 2205 are stored in the databank
and we have to rely exclusively on the correlation to predict the repassivation
potential.
Then, enter the composition of alloy 2205 by replacing the default values for alloy
316.
Enter the following composition of alloy 2205:
Fe
68.319 wt. % (which is the balance that includes many minor elements)
Cr
22.5
wt. %
Ni
5.8
wt. %
Mo+W 3.2
wt. %
C
0.017
wt. %
N
0.164
wt. %
The remaining parameters in the Thermal Aging screen can remain the same because
we will not be using them in this example (i.e., we will not be calculating any
depletion profiles). After entering the values, the screen should look as follows:
Figure 24-23 Defining the composition of alloy 2205 and specifying the direct use of the correlation for predicting the repassivation
potential.
Click OK to accept the changes.
Then, click Calculate.
Analyzing the results
When the calculations are finished, click on the Localized Corrosion tab.
The same results can be also viewed in a numerical form by clicking on the Report
tab. You will see a plot of the corrosion and repassivation potentials as a function of
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 315
NaCl concentration. To visualize the results better, change the horizontal axis to a
logarithmic scale.
For this purpose, click on Options, select the X Axis category, check the
Logarithmic Scale box and click OK. Then, the plot should look similar to the
following one:
Figure 24-24 Changing the X-Axis to Log
Figure 24-25 Predicted repassivation potential and corrosion potential for alloy 2205.
The plot indicates that alloy 2205 is susceptible to localized corrosion in aerated
solutions when the chloride concentration exceeds ca. 0.3 molal. Above this
concentration, the repassivation potential drops below the corrosion potential and,
therefore, localized corrosion can be stabilized at these conditions.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 316
Setting up the calculation
Now, we will perform the same calculations for thermally aged alloy 2205. We will
use the experimental data of Sridhar et al. (2009), which show that the formation of a
chromium-depleted secondary austenite phase is responsible for a much increased
tendency for localized corrosion. This phase was identified after aging at 700 °C for
24 hours.
To make this simulation, click on the stream name that you used in the previous
simulation. Then, double-click on the Add Corrosion Rates icon in the
Actions/Explorer pane and click on the Definition tab.
As in the previous simulation, select 316 Stainless Steel from the drop-down
Contact Surface menu.
We will run the same concentration survey as in the previous case so that we can
compare the results for bulk alloy 2205 with those for a heat-treated sample. To
define the survey type, click on Specs. In the Var. 1 – Composition category, select
Sodium Chloride in the Component tab. Then, click on the Survey Range tab and
enter:
Start
0.0001
End
6
Number of steps 20
The screen should look similar to Figure 24-20 Selecting the component for the
survey (NACL)
Then, click on the Thermal Aging category on the left-hand side pane. The screen
will be populated with default parameters for type 316 stainless steel.
Click on the Yes button next to Erp directly from correlation because we will be
running calculations for a completely new phase.
Then, enter the composition of the secondary austenite phase by replacing the default
values for alloy 316. For more details how these compositions were determined, see
the paper of Sridhar et al. (2009). Enter the following values:
Fe
80.774 wt.% (which is the balance that includes many minor elements)
Cr
12.512 wt.%
Ni
5.134 wt.%
Mo+W 1.399 wt.%
C
0.017 wt.%
N
0.164 wt.%
After entering the values, the screen should look as follows:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 317
Figure 24-26 Entering the composition of secondary austenite phase in a heat-treated sample of alloy 2205.
Click OK to save this information.
Then, click Calculate.
Analyzing the results
When the calculations are finished, click on the Localized Corrosion tab. You will
see a plot of the corrosion and repassivation potentials as a function of NaCl
concentration. As in the previous example, change the horizontal axis to a
logarithmic scale. For this purpose, click on Options, select the X Axis category,
check the Logarithmic Scale box and click OK. Then, the plot should look similar
to the following one:
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 318
Figure 24-27 Predicted repassivation potential and corrosion potential for thermally aged alloy 2205. The calculations were made
using the composition of the secondary austenite phase.
The obtained plot shows that the repassivation potential is much lower than that for
bulk alloy 2205 (cf. Figure 24-25). Because of the strong depression of the
repassivation potential, the corrosion potential exceeds the repassivation potential at
chloride concentrations of ca. 0.0007 m. Thus, localized corrosion is predicted to be
possible at concentrations above 0.0007 m. This indicates a very strong increase in
the propensity for localized corrosion compared with bulk alloy 2205, for which the
predicted threshold is ca. 0.3m.
In general, you can use this facility to predict the repassivation potential for any
alloys, including unknown and experimental ones, as long as they belong to the FeNi-Cr-Mo-W-N-C family.
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 319
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Thermal Aging and Variations in Alloy Composition • 320
Chapter 25 Extreme Value
Statistics for Predicting Pitting
Damage – Intro
Extreme Value Statistics
Engineering systems may have a large number of pits and corroded areas of varying
degree of severity. The first perforation, whose time and location will be a matter of
probability, may cause the failure of the construction. Accordingly the probability of
such failure must be known as accurately as possible.
Extreme value statistics (EVS) is one of the most powerful statistical techniques that
have been used extensively to extrapolate damage (maximum pit depth) from small
samples in the laboratory to larger area samples in the field (see, for example,
Eldridge G. 1957, Shibata T. et al. 1988, Kowaka et al. 1994). Thus it was shown
(Shibata T. et al. 1988) that probability of failure of a construction, Pf, i.e. the
probability that at least one pit reaches the critical dimension, d, (for example wall
thickness) in the system with area S is described by the equation:
Pf = 1 − exp{− exp[ − d − (u + α ln( S / s ))] / α }
(1)
where location parameter, u, and scale parameter, α, are measured by using small
samples with constant area, s. Equation (1) is to extrapolate corrosion damage from a
small reference area, such as a coupon to a larger operation area, S. This is the
classical use of Extreme Value Statistics. Experimental studies demonstrate that both
the shape and location parameters are time-dependent. However, those dependencies
must be established empirically and since no theory contained within classical EVS
is available for the functional forms of u(t) and α(t), it is necessary to know answer
(prediction) in advance for predicting the damage at long times. This has proven to
be a severe constrains of the applicability of classical EVS.
This problem can be overcome by applying damage function analysis (DFA) method
that considers propagation of corrosion damage by drawing an analogy between the
growth of a pit and the movement of a particle (Engelhardt and Macdonald, 2004). In
many cases DFA yields an analytical expressions for u and α in terms of time of the
hyperbolic form:
u=
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
a1t
and α = a3t
1+ a2t
(2)
Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – Intro • 321
where a1, a2, and a3 are readily determined by calibration from short term data in
order to predict damage over the longer time. Namely, equations (2) are used now by
OLI software for predicting damage in corroding systems. It must be noted that a
different (power) form of such dependencies has been used by Laycock et al. 1990.
Input and Output
For applying this technique the user has to provide a set of experimental data (xi, ti,
si), i = 1,2,…,N, where xi is the depth of the deepest pit over area si, of a metal
exposed to corrosion attack. The separate area, si, could be distinct coupons from a
designed experiment or random samples at various times from different locations in
the system. Experiments must be performed for at least two different times.
The output of the code yields the probability of failure as a function of time for a
large system with area S. The code also allows the user to answers on several
engineering questions, for example, what service life, t, will have the pipe with the
width, d, and length L in order to ensure acceptable performance (probability of
failure, Pf ).
Advantages and Disadvantages of EVS
The advantage of this approach is self-evident. The prediction of corrosion damage
for long times will be done by using experimental data for short times without
requiring the explicit determination of any information about the kinetic parameters
of the system. However such approach has evident disadvantages, as follows:
a)
The results of the analysis cannot be transferred for predicting corrosion damage
to other systems (for example pipelines) due to the different technological and
environmental conditions that generally exist. The results cannot be used for
predicting damage in the same system if technological and environmental
conditions change.
b) We can expect that when the depth of the pit increases some critical value, the
nucleation of cracks can occur. It is clear that a purely statistical method cannot
predict such a transition. This method also cannot predict any catastrophic event.
c)
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
This method cannot be used for design of new constriction, because it relies
upon calibration upon a pre-existing system.
Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – Intro • 322
Chapter 26 Extreme Value
Statistics for Predicting Pitting
Damage – A Tour
Overview
In this tour we will show examples of applications of Extreme Value Statistics for
predicting pitting damage. Specifically we will show how to predict
•
The depth of the deepest pit in the engineering structure or laboratory systems as
a function of time and the surface area of the system;
•
Probability of failure for a given penetration depth and the area of the system as
a function of observation time.
•
Probability of failure for a given observation time and the area of the system as a
function of penetration depth.
•
Probability of failure for a given penetration depth and observation time as a
function of the area of the system.
At this point you should be very familiar with entering data into Analyzer Studio.
Also you need to know the foundation of Extreme Value Statistics (Aziz, 1956,
Kowaka et al. 1994, Laycock et al. 1990, Engelhardt and Macdonald, 2004).
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 323
Example 1: Corrosion of aluminum alloy in tap water
In this example we will consider the classical data for pitting corrosion (Aziz, 1956).
In this paper we can find particularly the experimental data for the maximum pit
depths developed on Alcan 2S-O coupons with area s ≈ 129 cm2 immersed in
Kingston tape water at 25 0C (see Table 26-1).
Table 26-1 Maximum pit depth (in μm) developed on Alcan 2S-O coupons with immersed in
Kingston tape water for different observation time
Coupon
#
One
Week
One
Month
Three
Months
Six
Month
One
Year
1
180
460
480
620
640
2
266
500
578
620
680
3
290
510
610
620
700
4
306
580
610
680
760
5
334
580
610
680
800
6
340
640
660
720
810
7
340
654
690
740
820
8
410
680
718
740
840
9
410
692
760
760
840
10
545
692
798
760
900
Double-Click the Add Standard EVS Calculation icon
Figure 26-1 Starting EVS
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 324
Click on Definition tab and start by inputting experimental data.
Because all samples have the same area s = 129 cm2 we input this value into Default
Value Area. Other possible unit for area is m2. The default value of pit depth is
chosen to be in μm. Other possible units are Å, mm, ft, m, ft.
Because, in the first step, we will predict propagation of pitting damage in the same
system (for the same coupons) we choose S = s = 0.129 cm2.
The definition grid of the system should look similar to Figure 26-2.
Figure 26-2: The system definition.
There are experimental data for 5 different times (5 groups). Click on the button
inside the red oval (see Figure 26-2) and chose time 7 days in the drop-down menu
(Figure 26-3).
Figure 26-3: Drop down-table for adding groups.
Insert data from the second column in Table 26-1 into the Sample Group 01. Group
01 is representing 1 week.
After that, click on Add Group button (inside green oval), and in drop-down menu
choose elapsed time = 90 days and insert all data from the third column for Sample
Group 02. After inserting thedata from Table 1 (from columns 1 and 3) the definition
grid for EVS calculations should look similar to Figure 26-4.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 325
Figure 26-4: Specifying experimental data for depths of deepest pits.
Note the following:
•
Here for the description of different experiments we simply used the
number of the corresponding row in Table 1. However this description can
be done in an arbitrary form.
•
For each group, the order of samples relative depth can be arbitrary (not
necessary in ascending order as in Table 1 or Figure 26-4).
•
If coupons have different areas each area must be specified in the column
Area.
•
Radio button Elapsed (red ellipse in Figure 26-4) means the time after
corrosion attack is used in calculations and namely this time is used usually
in scientific publication. However it is possible to use also Actual Time of
the experiments.
Enter the remaining data from Table 26-1 as new groups (columns 2,4 & 5),
make sure the “Include boxes” are unchecked.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 326
Group 03 was entered but by un-checking
the box we are not considering it in the
calculation.
Figure 26-5 Adding more data, un-checking groups not to be considered in the calculation
Setting up the calculation (Pit depth prediction)
We will simulate the results of Aziz’s experiments assuming that only data for shorttime experiments (for 1 week and 1 month) are available. To include these data into
calculations we must mark the boxes (black ovals in Figure 26-4). It can be done also
by using the drop-down menu for adding groups (see Figure 26-4). All others group
(Groups 03 – 05) must not be marked.
Since we will predict corrosion on the samples with the same area, the value of 129
cm2 must be inserted into the property window Surface Area.
Figure 26-6 Setting Surface Area
In the drop-down menu for the Type of calculations (inside the blue oval) we choose
Pit Depth Prediction. Now, click on the Specs… button.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 327
The Survey Range category allows you to specify the range for the pit depth
prediction survey. The default range is from 0 to 365 days that corresponds the
available experimental data (Groups 01-05).
Then click Calculate button.
Analyzing the results
When the calculations are finished, click on the Plot tab.
You will see a plot of the predicted mean value of the depth of the deepest pit, xm
and the plots of values xm – σ and xm + σ, where σ is the standard deviation of xm.
It is important to note that only data for short term experiments (for 1 week and 1
month) denoted by black circles are included in calculations. Other data, denoted by
red diamonds are shown only for demonstrating the accuracy of prediction. Of
course these additional data may be included in calculations by marking the
corresponding boxes.
Figure 26-7: Predicted depth of the deepest pit. The experimental data for t = 1 week and 1 month are included into consideration. S
= 129 cm2.
Of course, the accuracy of prediction increases when additional group of
experiments are included into consideration.
Click back on the Definition tab.
Include (check) 30 days so that you now have 7 days (1 week), 30 days (1 month)
and 90 days (3 months).
Click Calculate
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 328
Figure 26-8:Predicted depth of the deepest pit. The experimental data for t = 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months are included into
consideration. S = 129 cm2.
For predicting depth of the deepest pit in the system with a substantially larger area
(say, 10 m2) for the period of observation time of 2 years we have to input S = 10
(m2) into Surface Area window and to specify the range [0, 2] (years) for
observation time by clicking on Specs… button.
Figure 26-9 Changing the surface area, note the unit change from sq-cm to sq-m
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 329
Figure 26-10 Changing the end time to 2 years (730 days)
The results of calculations are shown below.
Figure 26-11: Predicted depth of the deepest pit. S = 10 m2.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 330
Setting up the calculations for engineering tasks
Here for the given system we consider some important engineering tasks.
First task:
Which thickness, d, does an the aluminum pipe with the area of S (say, 1 m2) have to
have in order to ensure acceptable performance (probability of failure, Pf , say, Pf<
5%) at design service life, ts, (say, 5 years)?
In order to do so we have to choose in drop-down menu Fail Probability: Depth,
and insert into the window Surface Area, S = 1 (m2) and insert into the window
Service Life, t = 5 (years).
The definition grid for calculating the acceptable pipe wall width should look similar
to Figure 26-18
Figure 26-12: Specifying data for calculating probability of failure as a function of the width of the wall at given observation time and
area of the pipe.
Then click Calculate button.
When the calculations are finished, click on the Plot tab. You will see a plot of
predicted probability of failure
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 331
Figure 26-13: Probability of failure as a function of the width of the wall at given observation time and area of the pipe.
Click on the tab Report. From the Table: “Calculation Results” you can conclude
that acceptable performance is reached at d > 1950 μm.
Second Task:
What service life, t, will have the aluminum pipe with the width, d, (say, 2300 μm),
with area S (say, 10 m2) in order to ensure acceptable performance (probability of
failure, Pf , say Pf< 5 %).
In order to do so we have to choose in drop-down menu Fail Probability: Life, and
insert into the window Surface Area, S = 10 (m2) and insert into the window
Critical Pit Depth, d = 2300 (μm).
We also wish to cover a sufficient period of time for the simulation. Click the
Specs…button and change the range to 3 years in 0.2 year increments.
Also we need to deselect Groups 04 and 05 so un-check the appropriate group boxes.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 332
Figure 26-14 Changing the time to 3 years. Note the change in units from days to years
Click OK
The definition grid for calculating the acceptable pipe wall width should look similar
to Figure 26-15
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 333
Figure 26-15: Specifying data for calculating probability of failure as a function of the width of the wall at given observation time and
area of the pipe.
Then click Calculate button.
When the calculation is finished, click on the Plot tab. You will see a plot of
predicted probability of failure (Figure 26-16). (You may need to change the axis
ranges via the Options Button)
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 334
Figure 26-16: Probability of failure as a function of service life for a given width of the wall and given area of the pipe.
Click on the tab Report. From the Table: “Calculation Results” you can conclude
that acceptable performance is reached at t < 657 days.
Third Task:
What area, S, can have the aluminum pipe with the width, d, (say, 2000 μm), and
service life, t, (say, 5 years) in order to ensure acceptable performance (probability of
failure, Pf , say, Pf< 5 %).
In order to do so we have to choose in the drop-down menu Fail Probability: Area,
and insert into the cell Critical Pit Depth the value 2000 (μm) and into cell Service
Life, 5 (years).
We need to set the range for the area from 0 to 100 sq-m in 0.1 sq-m increments.
Click the Specs… button.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 335
Figure 26-17 Setting the area range for Failure Probability
The definition grid for calculating the acceptable pipe wall width should look similar
to Figure 26-18.
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 336
Figure 26-18: Specifying data for calculating probability of failure as a function of area of the pipe at given width o f the wall and
given service life.
For this simulation we will only be using Group 01 and Group 02. Un-check the
remaining groups.
Then click Calculate button.
When the calculation is finished, click on the Plot tab. You will see a plot of
predicted probability of failure (Figure 26-19).
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 337
Figure 26-19: Probability of failure as a function of the area of the pipe at given width of the wall and given service life.
Click on the tab Report. From the Table: “Calculation Results” you can conclude
that acceptable performance is reached at S < 14000 cm2 = 1.4 m2.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 338
Example 2: Corrosion in Pipelines.
By using this example we would like to demonstrate that in some cases reliable
prediction of corrosion damage can be done by using a very limited number of
experimental points.
In Figure 26-21 you can see the results of direct measurements of the depth of the
deepest pits in the pipeline between Samara and Moscow [Zikerman, 1972]. The data
has been inserted, by the way, as was described in Example 1.
Table 26-2 Pit depths(mm) for pipeline between Samara and Moscow
Group 1
Group
2
Group
3
Group
4
Group
5
Group
6
Group
7
Group
8
Sample
1440
hrs
5040
hrs
5760
hrs
8959
hrs
12624
hrs
17688
hrs
28032
hrs
28272
hrs
1
0.1
1.4
1.7
1.9
2.1
0.49
1.95
2.1
2.08
2.25
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.65
1.88
2
3
0.3
4
0.4
5
0.9
1.57
2.1
2.21
2.4
2.4
6
0.3
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.55
1.71
We would like to simulate for 30,000 hours so we need to change the Specs…button.
Start 0.0 hrs
End 30000 hrs
Increment 2000 hrs
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 339
Figure 26-20 Setting the range to 30,000 hours, Note the units for time
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 340
Figure 26-21: Specifying experimental data for depths of deepest pits for corrosion in pipelines. Only 3 observation times are used
Because the area of the pipelines metal was not changed with time the information
about this area is not needed for extrapolation of corrosion damage in time. That is
why all data for Area in Figure 26-21 are arbitrary.
Check only Groups 1 through 3 are used.
Click the Calculate button.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 341
Figure 26-22: Predicted depth of the deepest pit with calibration on three observation times.
Click on the Definition tab and Check Groups 1 through 5.
Recalculate the diagram.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 342
Figure 26-23: Predicted depth of the deepest pit with calibration on five observation times.
Figure 26-22 and Figure 26-23 show how the predicted results improved with
increasing number of subsequent inspections. As previously, only points in black
were used for predicting propagation of corrosion damage and other data, denoted by
red diamonds, are shown only for demonstrating the accuracy of prediction
The predictions can be substantially improved if they were obtained on the same part
of the pipe where conditions are approximately the same (see Figure 26-25and
Figure 26-26).
Table 26-3Pit depth from measurements a single location.
Time (hours)
Pit depth (mm)
1440
0.9
5040
5760
1.57
8959
2.1
12624
17688
2.21
28032
2.4
28272
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 343
Figure 26-24: Specifying experimental data for depths of deepest pits for corrosion in pipeline. Experimental data are taken from one
location on the pipe.
Only Groups 1 and 3 were used in the calculation.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 344
Figure 26-25: Predicted depth of the deepest pit with calibration on two observation times. Data are taken from one location on the
pipe.
Figure 26-26: Predicted depth of the deepest pit with calibration on three observation times (groups 1,3 and 4). Data are taken from
one location on the pipe.
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Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 345
Figure 26-27: Predicted depth of the deepest pit with calibration on four observation times(groups 1, 3, 4, and 6). Data are taken
from one location on the pipe.
Example 3: Possible Case of Insufficient Data
In some cases the data that provided by the user may be insufficient for reliable
prediction of corrosion damage. Thus Figure 15-20 shows a part of experimental data
that can be found in the paper (Laycock et al. 1990) for depths of the deepest pits
that were measured on 316L coupons (2x2x1/2 in. thick) in a 10% ferric chloride
solution at 50 0C. The full set of data from this paper is seen in Figure 26-28, which
shows the predicted maximum pit depth for this system by using measurements at
first three observation times.
Table 26-4 Pit depth data for 25.8 sq-cm, depth in micrometers
Sample
1
2
3
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
Grp 1
Grp 2
Grp3
Grp 4
Grp 5
Grp 6
Grp 7
Grp 8
Grp 9
40.5
hrs
144.1
7 hrs
215.3
3 hrs
292.5
hrs
331.0
hrs
378.5
hrs
453.2
5 hrs
477.0
hrs
528.0
hrs
775
1326
1036
912
1361
1613
2101
1722
1714
1176
1199
1173
1534
1641
2024
1798
1767
1496
1775
Extreme Value Statistics for Predicting Pitting Damage – A Tour • 346
Figure 26-28: Specifying experimental data for depths of deepest pits for corrosion of 316L coupons in 10% ferric chloride solution.
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Figure 26-29: Predicted depth of the deepest pit on the stainless steel with calibration on the first four observation times (groups 1
through 4)
We see that in this case the prediction cannot be considered satisfactory. The reason
is that for the second, third and fourth observation times the observed mean value of
deepest pit decreases. Obviously such behavior of maximum pit depth has no
physical foundation. Generally speaking such situation is the results of an
insufficient numbers of experiments (used coupons) for given observation times.
Accordingly, we can expect that after increasing the number of used coupons the
situation can improve.
All of this does not mean that a full set of already available data cannot be used for
predicting propagation of corrosion damage. Thus Figure 26-30 shows that the
results of approximation of the full set of available experimental data from (Laycock
et al. 1990) can be reasonably approximated by using EVS approach.
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Figure 26-30: Predicted depth of the deepest pit on the stainless steel with calibration on full set of available data.
It means that sometimes the insufficient number of coupons (measurements at given
observation times) can be compensated by increasing numbers of observation at
different times.
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Chapter 27 Petroleum Fraction
Thermodynamic Methods
Distillation Methods of the ASTM
ASTM D86
Used for light and medium petroleum products and is carried out at
atmospheric pressure. The results are converted internally in the OLI model
generator to a TBP (True Boiling Point Curve). This curve is then fit to a
spline to smooth the curve. The cuts are taken from the spline.
ASTM D1160
Used for heavier petroleum products and is often carried out under vacuum.
Sometimes as low as 1 mm Hg. The results are converted internally in the
OLI model generator to a TBP (True Boiling Point Curve). This curve is
then fit to a spline to smooth the curve. The cuts are taken from the spline
ASTM D2887
Uses gas chromatography to produce the distillation curve and is applicable
to a wide range of petroleum products. The results are always reported on a
volume percent basis. The results are converted internally in the OLI model
generator to a TBP (True Boiling Point Curve). This curve is then fit to a
spline to smooth the curve. The cuts are taken from the spline
TBP
This is the true boiling point curve. These curves, in practice, are difficult to
obtain. The other methods are usually used instead.
Average Bulk Density
Specific Gravity
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351
Degrees API (oAPI). This is calculated via the following equation:
API Gravity
o
 141.5 
 − 131.5
API (60F ) = 
 SG(60F ) 
Equation 27-1
SG is the specific gravity at 60 oF.
The Watson K has no units but is calculated via:
Watson K
 NBP1 / 3 

K = 
 SG 
Equation 27-2
Where NBP is the normal Boiling point and SG is the specific gravity.
Thermodynamic Methods
API
Uses the specific gravity to estimate the critical parameters. The specific gravity, if not
entered, can be estimated from the API gravity or the Watson K. The boiling points are taken
from the assay data. API version 5 (API-5) and API version 8 (API-8) are currently
supported.
Cavett
This method uses the API gravity method to determine the critical properties. The API
gravity, if not entered can be estimated from the actual specific gravity or the Watson K. The
boiling points for the pseudo-components are taken from the assay.
Lee-Kesler
This method uses the Watson K and the specific gravity (which can be estimated via the
Watson K) to determine the critical parameters.
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Chapter 28 How to create OLI
Analyzers Chemical Diagrams
The OLI Analyzers have a feature that is seldom used which allows for a user to create a stability map for species based
on concentration and other parameters such as pH. A contour map is created showing the user where some solids are
stable and where others are not.
For this example we are reproducing work found in a paper that was published in Materials Research Innovations,
Volume 14, Number 1, February 1010 pp 9-15 by T. Andelman, M.C. Tan, and R.E. Riman.
Specifically we are going to investigate the stability fields where lanthanum acetate - La(C2H3O2)3 and potassium
phosphate - K3PO4 are precursors to the plot.
To begin we start the OLI Analyzers and select a New Stream
Figure 28-1 Selecting a new stream
We will not enter the conditions of the stream at this point. Don't worry, we can make modifications to the stream
conditions later. For the moment we are using the display name for the species. Enter the names "Lanthanum(III)
acetate", "Potassium orthophosphate(V)", "Nitric Acid", and "Sodium Hydroxide".
The initial temperature and pressure will be the default values of 25 oC and 1 atmosphere. We will also use the default
value for water of 55.5082 moles (which is 1 Kg)
The inflow amounts of the two precursor species will be set to 0.1 moles each. This keeps the molar ratio 1:1.
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Figure 28-2 Entering starting conditions
As a side note, you could have also entered the chemical formula names for the species. The formula names are:
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Figure 28-3 Switching the names to Formula view
As you press the enter key or click a new cell, the name changes to the display name.
After entering the required values, click the Add Calculation button and select Chemical Diagram
Figure 28-4 Selecting Chemical Diagrams
This will display a new object below the stream. Notice that all the stream values have been copied to this new object.
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A chemical diagram requires the user to make some choices. Please click the Specs... button to start the selection
process.
Figure 28-5 Selecting the Specs... button
The initial specification option is the Display Dialog. For this demonstration we only want to display
the boundaries between the solid phases and the liquid phases. We do not want to see both the solid
phase boundaries and the boundaries between liquid species. Click here to see what the diagram
looks like with aqueous lines enabled.
Click the No Aqueous Lines radio button. Also keep the Shade selected subsystem button selected.
Finally we need to tell the program which chemical subsystem to plot. We can plot more than one
but it gets very complicated. Since we are only interested in the lanthanum species, click the
Lanthanum Check Box. Only one subsystem may be selected at a time.
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Now click on the Axes category. The dialog changes to display the X Axis.
To reproduce the diagram in the above paper, we need to change the X axis to be based on pH. Click
the pH radio button.
When pH is selected, we need to choose our titrants. We previously entered nitric acid and sodium
hydroxide. We now need to tell the program to use these species.
Click on the Titrants button.
The Select Titrants dialog is displayed. All of the inflows are displayed in both the Acid and Base
selections. The reason that this occurs is that at this point in time the OLI Analyzer does not know if
the species listed will act as an acid or a base. While it is true that nitric acid always acts as an acid,
the same cannot be said of weak acids such as many organic acids.
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Weak acids function like an acid when the concentration results in pH's less than the pKa of the acid.
Conversely, weak acids function like a base when the pH is greater than the pKa. Thus, we display
all the available species in both columns since we don't know the solution pH.
Select nitric acid in the Acid column and sodium hydroxide in the Base column.
Click the OK button to close the dialog. We now have to decide on the pH range to cover. The
default is 0 to 14. This is acceptable for this demonstration.
We are now ready to specify the Y axis. Click the Y Axis tab.
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We will be adjusting the inflow species lanthanum acetate - La(C2H3O2)3 and potassium phosphate K3PO4.
Since we specified the initial concentrations at 0.1 moles each, the ratio of the species will be 1:1.
We must now select these species from the scroll box. We are keeping the default concentration
range from 1E-14 to 1.0 moles on a log scale. This means we will have initially 1.0E-14 moles of
La(C2H3O2)3 and 1.0E-14 moles of K3PO4 increasing equally until we have 1.0 moles of each.
Scroll down and check the box next to lanthanum(III) acetate - or La(C2H3O2)3
Continue to scroll down to find potassium phosphate - K3PO4 and check that box.
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Please note that in later versions and builds, you might not see the species field populated with
related inflows. You will see only the actual inflows you have input.
We are now done, click the OK button to exit the Specifications for this calculation.
The calculation is now ready to start. Click the Calculate button.
When the calculation is complete, click the Chemical Diagram tab.
This displays the Species - pH diagram for this calculation.
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This diagram is very similar to the diagram in the above paper. It does different slightly since the
author of the paper made some changes to the chemistry model that is not reflected here.
We can change the ratio of the precursor species very easily. For the second example we will use the
same calculation except we will be adding 5 % more to the lanthanum acetate species. To do this
click back on the Definition tab and change the inflow amount for lanthanum acetate from 0.1000 to
0.10500.
Re-Calculate and then click on the Chemical Diagram tab again.
Notice that the diagram is essentially the same. The Y axis label has changed to reflect the increased
amount of the lanthanum acetate.
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We can also run at different temperatures quite easily. Return to the Definition tab and change the
temperature to 200 oC and 25 atmospheres. We have also reset the Lanthanum Acetate value back to
0.1 moles.
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Re-calculate and then click on the Chemical Diagrams tab. You can see that the diagram is
significantly different reflecting the change in solubility with respect to temperature.
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This concludes the demonstration.
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Chapter 29 Managing Private
Databases in the OLI Analyzer
Selecting Databases
Data bases are OLI’s store house of thermodynamic data. Not all the data is suitable for every
calculation. Therefore the data is compartmentalized into many databases. In addition, data service
work provided by OLI Systems, Inc. may also be a database.
There is architecture to using databases in the Analyzers. If you want a database to be used in all
streams and calculations, you must specify the database at the topmost stream of the software. The
top level dialog is displayed below. To use a database in only a stream or calculation, specify the
database only in that object. The PUBLIC database is automatically specified and cannot be
changed.
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Click on the Chemistry menu item.
This will display the chemistry options. Select Model Options…
The currently loaded databases will be displayed as well as the current thermodynamic framework
(AQ or MSE)
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Highlight Geochemical
When the desired database is highlighted, click the right arrow to select it. We are also selecting the
Corrosion Database for example purposes.
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Databases have priority. If a species exists in both of these selected database, then only the
thermodynamic properties found in the first database will be used. You can change the priority of the
database by highlighting it and clicking the up button.
Click the down-arrow to reorder the list:
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You can remove a database if it is not required. This does not delete the data from the program but
makes it unavailable. Select the database and click the left arrow.
Click the left-arrow and the Corrosion database will not be used in this calculation.
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The database has been removed. Click the Apply button and then OK to continue.
How to load a private database into the OLI Analyzers
Currently OLI Systems, Inc. only supplies user databases (formerly known as private databases) in
the OLI/ESP format. This is not directly usable by the OLI/Analyzers. These databases are normally
compressed using a program such as WinZip. Please decompress (unzip) the file into a working
folder.
You will then need to load and convert the supplied database. Fortunately there is a tool to do this
for you. Please follow these steps:
Start the Analyzers
Select the Chemistry Menu Item
Select Model Options
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You can load both Aqueous databases and MSE databases from the same screen.
Click the Import Databank button.
If you know the exact location of the ESP "dic" file, you can enter the location directly. It is usually
easier to browse for this file. Click the Browse button
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Locate the folder that has the decompressed ESP format file.
Click to select.
The available database will be displayed. The DIC file (short for dictionary) is the file required.
Click the file in the open dialog and then click the Open button.
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The full path of the "Dic" file is displayed along with the display name of the database. You can
rename this database if you desire. It is recommended that for most uses that the default name be
used.
Click the Next button.
The process of converting and uploading the file starts.
If all the lines are checked, then click the Finish button
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Your imported database is now ready for use. If your database was for the MSE framwork, as it is in
this example, you will need to switch Thermodynamic Framework to use the database. Click the
drop-down arrow.
If your database is in the MSE framework, select MSE
The newly imported MSE framework database is displayed.
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Click it to select it. Then click the right-arrow.
Click the OK button to continue.
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The newly imported database is now being used as indicated in the Summary window.
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How to unload a database from the OLI Analyzers
Sometimes a user will want to remove a database from consideration. To do this locate the
Databanks Tab via the Chemistry Menu Item > Model Options path.
There is no pop up warning to make sure you want to do this. Be careful
Click the Unload Databank button
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This removes the selected databank.
The database has been removed. As you can see AMI databank is unavailable in the above screen
capture.
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Chapter 30 OLI Units Manager
The default units for the OLI Studio are moles, centigrade, atmospheres, calories and liters. In many
(if not most) cases the user will need to change both the input and output units. In this example we
have entered a simple case in the default units.
You can change the units of individual fields by clicking the blue unit. This is a hyperlink to the
units manager dialog. Below we are going to change the unit field for temperature.
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Click on the blue oC
This displays the units manager with the selected unit already highlighted. To change the unit to
Fahrenheit, click the drop down menu and make the appropriate selection.
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You can select from a range of units For this example we are choosing Fahrenheit.
As you can see the 25 C value is now 77 F.
It would be cumbersome to do this for each and every field. You can make systematic changes to the
stream or to the calculation by using the Units Manager.
There are two ways to access the units manager in the Analyzers. The first is from the Tools menu
and the second is from the tool bar. The figure below shows the location of each item.
For our example we are going to use the tool bar. Once selected, we will have a range of selections
to make. Select Units Manager...
Below is the units manager dialog with the default standard units selected.
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For a quick units change we can click one of the radio buttons. Click the Customize button
Click the drop-down menu next to Inflows under the basis column:
Next select Mass Fraction and the grid updates:
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Notice that the units for Mass Fraction are set to g/g in this example. Lower in the grid displays the
current setting for Mass Fraction. You can change this value by clicking its drop-down menu.
Select mass % from this list:
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After updating the mass fraction value, the Inflow portion of the grid is also updated. Click OK to
update the stream:
As you can see, the definition grid is updated with the new units set.
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Chapter 31 Tools | Options
Setting the Auto Save and Automatic Backup Features
Even though modern computers are very reliable, some software packages were written without full
consideration of what else may be running. This may cause system crashes and you may lose your
work.
OLI has provided a method to help recover lost data. By default OLI will backup any file you open
with the OLI Analyzers so that you have the previous version saved. OLI will also automatically
save your file every 5 minutes. You can change these settings.
To begin, select Tools from the menu line.
Next select Options...
Select the General category
By default, the OLI Analyzers will create a back up copy of the file (if it was previously saved). If
this was a large file you may want to disable this feature but unchecking the Always create backup
copy check box.
Also by default, the OLI Analyzers will save your file every 5 minutes. You can decrease or increase
this time as you require.
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If you need to recover a file that you accidentally saved (or it got corrupted) OLI creates a file with
essentially the same name except the extension "backup" is appended. You should copy or rename
this file and then open it as you would any other OLI Analyzer file.
Changing the default file locations
Sometime a user will need to change the default file locations for the OLI Analyzers. There are
many reasons to do this but frequently it is because the user is on a multi-user system with multiple
user logins. To change or verify the file locations the user needs to select the Tools menu item:
Next select Options...
Next select File Locations and then click on the Configuration tab.
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This will display the current file locations. You may want to verify these locations (some OLI
programs will inadvertently modify these locations). Here are the locations:
For Windows XP
Configuration file
C:\Documents and Settings\<user>\Application Data\OLI Systems\OLIAnalyzer 9.1\Analyzer.cfg
Names Dictionary File
C:\Documents and Settings\<user>\Application Data\OLI Systems\OLIAnalyzer 9.1\NameDict.ond
Access Database File
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\OLI Systems\Analyzer
9.1\Databanks\AccessDB\OLI Database.mdb
ESP Databanks Directory
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\OLI Systems\Analyzer 9.1\Databanks\
Where <user> is the individual user login id.
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For Windows Vista and Windows 7
Configuration file
C:\Users\<user>\AppData\Roaming\OLI Systems\OLIAnalyzer 9.0\Analyzer.cfg
Names Dictionary File
C:\Users\<user>\AppData\Roaming\OLI Systems\OLIAnalyzer 9.0\NameDict.ond
Access Database File
C:\ProgramData\OLI Systems\Databanks\9.0.12\Analyzer 9.0\OLI Database.mdb
ESP Databanks Directory
C:\ProgramData\OLI Systems\Databanks\9.0.12\
If you need to change the file location, click on the "..." to open the dialog.
Search for the correct file based on the above information.
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Turning off hardware acceleration
The OLI Analyzer program uses OpenGL to plot stability diagrams. To speed up the rendering of the
plot, the OpenGL drivers will use some of your video cards hardware acceleration features. Some
video drivers do not support this ability and will result in a crash when attempting to display a
diagram such as the feature shown below.
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To remedy this error we need to turn off hardware acceleration for the OpenGL drivers. This affects
the current document only.
Select Tools from the menu.
Then select Options from the drop down menu.
This will display the options available for the Analyzers. Select Chemical/Stability diagrams.
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You can change the way your plots look. To turn off hardware acceleration click the Options tab.
Uncheck the User graphics hardware acceleration box.
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Click the OK button and then save the document. Reopen it and redisplay the diagram.
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Chapter 32 Modifying the plot,
hiding curves
One nice feature of the OLI Analyzers is that you can generate a lot of points to plot many variables.
You can also perform multiple series of plots such as plotting temperature curves as a function of
pressure. This is what we are showing below. This is a pre-run temperature survey with pressure
selected as the secondary (then by...) survey.
As you can see there is a lot of data, the plot is very hard to read. Fortunately we have created a tool
to clean up the plot. Click the Options button in the upper right-hand corner.
This will display the Customize Plot dialog. Select the Curves category.
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Each data series in the current plot is displayed. As you can see in the dialog below there are many
series currently displayed. You could hide each one individually or select groups to hide. We are
first going to hide all the curves. Select the first item in the list and hold the Shift Key.
Scroll down to the last item in the list
We have now selected all the items. Click the Hidden check box to hide these curves.
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Click the Apply and then OK buttons to see the plot.
This is not very helpful. We need to "Unhide" some curves. Once again, click the Options button
and then reselect the Curves category.
For this example we want to see the highest pressure for this dual survey. Scroll to the bottom of the
list and then uncheck the Hidden box.
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Click the Apply and OK buttons to display the plot.
We now have our plot without all the clutter of extra points. We can now go back an add (or unhide)
additional curves.Once again, click the Options button and then reselect the Curves category.
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Locate a curve midway in the list (here we have chosen a different variable also at the highest
pressure). Uncheck the Hidden check box. Click the Apply and OK buttons to display the plot.
We now have to curves displayed. It is helpful to note that all the other curves are still present in the
diagram. If you export this plot to a spreadsheet, all the data, not just the displayed values, will be
used.
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We can modify the plot directly without the use of the Options button. Right-click any displayed
curve. We have chosen the upper curve.
This will display a pop-up menu. The name of the series is displayed. Select Hide Series.
This removed the series from display. Unfortunately the only method to "Unhide" the series is to use
the Options button as we did above.
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Chapter 33 Customizing the
Report
The default report does not include some calculated values since they tend not to be used by most
users. The extra thermodynamic values such as Gibb's Free Energy as well as diffusivity coefficients
are not displayed. To display them click on the Customize button.
This will display the Report Contents dialog. The categories on the left will allow you to set options
for each category. To display the hidden categories you will need to scroll down in the right-hand
window.
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Eventually you will find the unchecked categories.
Check the boxes you wish to display and then click the OK button.
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By default, the newly displayed categories will appear at the end of the report. You can use the
Customize Button to move these categories higher in the report if you desire.
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If you can not see the above table, please right click on the single point calculation in the tree diagram under Navigator
panel
Click on calculation options
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Make sure you have Gibbs Free Energy selected.
Then you will be able to see Gibbs Free energy in the report tab. Please remember to recalculate.
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Chapter 34 Displaying Transport
Properties and Extra
Thermodynamic Parameters
Single Point Calculations
The OLI Analyzer program generates a lot of data. The program has attempted to sort out the most
important data for you but some values are still hidden. You can expose those values by using the
Customizing the Report as discussed on page 403
Other values, such as the Gibb's Free Energy of a species are not automatically calculated since it
can impart a large time burden on the calculation. To enable these types of calculations (Gibb's,
Entropy and Heat Capacity) you need to enable them prior to starting the calculation.
For our example we have taken a simple chemistry and created a SinglePoint calculation.
Click the Specs... button to enable the extra thermodynamic calculations.
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This will display the Calculation Options dialog. You will notice that we have left unchecked those
calculations which take extra time to complete. You can enable any or all of them by checking the
box.
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Here we have enabled all of the extra calculations.
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Click the OK button to continue
Click the Calculate button to continue. When the program finishes click on the Report tab and then
the Customize button to enable the new values to be displayed.
Survey Calculations
To specify the extra thermodynamic values in a survey you need to follow similar steps as with the single point
calculation. Here we have added a temperature survey. Click the Specs... button to add the additional calculations.
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The Survey Options dialog is different from the single point dialog. You now must select
Calculation Options to select the new calculations.
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Once selected, the Calculation Options dialog is very similar to the single point dialog. Select the
desired values. You will need to calculate (or recalculate) the survey when you are done.
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Chapter 35 Studio ScaleChem
Overview
Why Use StudioScaleChem?
Scale problems arise in high rate gas wells for the same basic reason that they occur
in water flood operations: produced brines become supersaturated with mineral
scales as a result of changing conditions between the reservoir and the point of
deposition.
A complicating factor in the assessment of these scale problems is that significant
changes in the brine composition may occur between the reservoir and the surface
conditions, due to the exchange of water between the liquid and vapor phases.
Thus, scaling tendencies that are important at downhole conditions may not be
evident based on the produced brine composition.
The StudioScaleChem program estimates scale formation under CO2 and water flood
conditions. StudioScaleChem can be used to evaluate stimulation compatibility
amongst formation waters.
StudioScaleChem’s Development
Shell Oil originally developed the technology for the high temperature and pressure
effects used in StudioScaleChem’s calculations and linked this technology to the
OLI’s unique, predictive aqueous model. A consortium of companies which cofunded and steered StudioScaleChem's development include
BP
Conoco-Phillips in its entirety
Shell.
Initial development phase for StudioScaleChem started in 2007. One of the reasons
to formulate this product was to unify the code base. Prior to StudioScaleChem, there
were two separate products viz. Stream analyzer and StudioScaleChem. Each
program with different source codes, two different numerical engines and two data
banks. To eliminate that, OLI needed a new feature added to existing stream
analyzer.
A second reason wasthat at that time new best practices were emerging for
performing scaling calculations. StudioScaleChem had multistep procedures for such
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calculations. OLI wanted to target the new approach for optimized calculations. To
mention a few of the fixes offered by StudioScaleChem product:
Unit handling
Report writing
Graphical reports
Cumbersome calculations
StudioScaleChem has a completely new calculation type in addition to other
improvements. It is called contour plot.
Flexibility of the analyzer code enabled OLI to add features and calculations which
were impossible in StudioScaleChem.
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Chapter 36 Studio ScaleChem
Chemistry
Aqueous Chemistry
The StudioScaleChem chemistry uses the OLI Aqueous Model as well as the MSE
model to predict the distribution of species. The OLI Aqueous Model is unique
because it can predicatively model the speciation of a wide range of chemicals in
water. Like other process simulation software, the OLI Aqueous and MSE Model
consider the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of a given chemistry for the molecular
species.
StudioScaleChem Chemistry
StudioScaleChem was developed with a specifically defined chemistry set. It is
known as the Standard Chemistry Model.
As StudioScaleChem use grew, users requested additional chemistry. From this
development work, an Expanded Chemistry Model was created.
The Standard Chemistry Model
As originally developed, the Standard Chemistry model contained a vapor phase, an
aqueous phase and a limited number of solid phases.
Standard Chemistry: Aqueous phase
Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+2, Ba+2, Sr+2
Cl-, SO4-2, HCO3-, HS-, B(OH)4-, CH3COOH2So, CO2o, SiO2, B(OH)3, CH4o
Standard Chemistry: Vapor phase
H2O, H2S, CO2, CH4
Standard Chemistry: Solid phases
anhydrite
calcite
siderite
halite
CaSO4
CaCO3
FeCO3
NaCl
barite
gypsum
pyrrhotite
celestite
BaSO4
CaSO4.2H2O
FeS
SrSO4
Disordered Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), or simply dolomite is not the Standard
Chemistry but is represented as an inflow only species in the expanded chemistry.
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Dolomite is not considered to be a possible scaling solid under most oil field
operations.
The Expanded Chemistry Model
Expanded Chemistry: Aqueous phase
This includes the Standard model plus:
Cations: H+, Cs+, Zn+2 Pb+2, Ni+2, Cu+, Cu+2, NH4+, Fe+3, Al+3,
Anions: OH-, F-, Br-, H2SiO4-, H3SiO4-, SO3-2, S-2, CO3-2, NO3-, NO2-,
COOH-, C3H7COO- C4H9COO- C5H11COOOrganic acids: formic, acetic, propanoic, butanoic, pentanoic
Alcohols: methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol,
Mineral Acids: HF, HCl, H2SO4, HBr, HNO3, H2SO4,
Hydrocarbons: methane, ethane, and propane
Other: NH3, N2, CO2
Expanded Chemistry: Vapor phase
This includes the Standard Model plus:
Ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, pentane, isopentane, hexane,
cyclohexane, heptanes, octane, isooctane, nonane, and decane
Expanded Chemistry: Solid phases
The Expanded Solids phases include fifty-nine solids that are practical to oilfield
operations. This allows solids analysis from the new cations and anions which have
been added.
Expanded solids is automatically accessed when using the expanded chemistry. It
can also be accessed for the standard chemistry by using the radio buttons on the
Precipitates Page, in any Scaling request.
Scaling tendencies for every solid with a scaling tendency > 1.0E-05 are reported for
a calculation using expanded solids.
Hydrocarbon Petroleum Fractions
Frequently a hydrocarbon analysis is the only data available for entry into the
software. This analysis is usually a distillation curve where the volume distilled as a
function of temperature of a petroleum fraction has been analyzed. This information
must be turned into a vapor, organic and aqueous component for use in the simulator.
ASTM D86
Used for light and medium crudes, and is carried out at atmospheric pressure. The
results are converted internally in the OLI model generator to a TBP (True Boiling
Point) Curve. This curve is fit to a spline to smooth the curve. The cuts are taken
from the spline.
ASTM D1160
Used for heavier crudes, and is carried out under vacuums as low as 1 mm Hg. The
results are converted internally in the OLI model generator to a TBP Curve. This
curve is fit to a spline. The cuts are taken from the spline.
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ASTM D2887
Uses gas chromatography to produce the distillation curve and is applicable to a wide
range of petroleum products. The results are reported on a volume percent basis. The
results are converted internally in the OLI model generator to a TBP Curve. This
curve is fit to a spline. The cuts are taken from the spline
TBP
This is the true boiling point curve. These curves, in practice, are difficult to obtain.
The other methods are usually used instead.
Density
The density units for the average bulk density are:
Specific Gravity
Unitless
Degrees API (oAPI)
This is calculated via the following equation:
°
(60 ) =
141.5
− 131.5
. . (60 )
where, SG is the specific gravity at 60 oF.
Watson K
The Watson K has no units but is calculated via:
=
where NBP is the normal Boiling point.
Thermodynamic Methods (pseudo-components and petroleum fractions)
API
Cavett
Lee-Kesler
Uses the specific gravity to estimate the critical parameters. The specific gravity, if not
entered, can be estimated from the API gravity or the Watson K. The boiling points are taken
from the assay data.
This method uses the API gravity method to determine the critical properties. The API
gravity, if not entered can be estimated from the actual specific gravity or the Watson K. The
boiling points for the pseudo-components are taken from the assay.
This method uses the Watson K and the specific gravity (which can be estimated via the
Watson K) to determine the critical parameters.
Summary
The use of a full speciation model allows for more accurate calculations. Using just a
simple vapor-liquid equilibrium approach is not valid for aqueous systems.
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Chapter 37 Studio ScaleChem
Getting Started
Terminology
Before we can discuss how to use StudioScaleChem we must first discuss some
terms. This will help us define some of the concepts in StudioScaleChem that will be
expanded in later sections.
Analysis
There are three analysis types, brines gases, and Oils. Each type must be reconciled.
Brines
StudioScaleChem refers to all waters and aqueous samples as brines. A brine can be
a surface water, an injection water, a formation water, a production water or any
other type of aqueous fluid you can create. Brine compositions are entered in terms
of ionic concentrations. In addition, the brine pH, density and alkalinity are also
specified.
A brine is entered by means of the Add Water function, located in the Analyses
menu.
Gases
A gas is any hydrocarbon mixture which may or may not contain water, carbon
dioxide or hydrogen sulfide. The default hydrocarbon is methane (CH4) but the
hydrocarbon list may be expanded to include higher carbon numbers.
A gas is entered by means of the Add Gas function, located in the Analyses menu.
Oils
An oil is a non-aqueous phase. The oil sample may consist of pure component
hydrocarbons (e.g., alkanes), distillation data, pseudocomponent or all three.
A hydrocarbon is entered by means of the Hydrocarbon function, located in the
Analyses menu.
Reconciliation
Corrections must be made for deficiencies in the sample measurements.
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Electroneutrality
Due to the nature of experimentation, most, if not all water analyses are incomplete
or inaccurate in some manner. Thus, no analysis is electrically neutral. Yet, a real
water must be. To solve this problem StudioScaleChem reconciles each brine
analysis for Electroneutrality or charge balance. The reconciliation method will be
discussed in a later section.
pH
Many brines have a measured pH. This pH may or may not match the
StudioScaleChem-calculated pH. The cause may be an incomplete and/or inaccurate
brine description. StudioScaleChem reconciles this difference by adding or
removing HCl and CO2 to match the measured pH.
Alkalinity
Alkalinity is a brine’s capacity to absorb acid to a given pH. In oilfield applications,
this pH is 4.5, and the alkalinity is referred to as the Carbonate alkalinity.
The standard alkalinity measurement involves titrating the brine with a known acid
to 4.5 pH. StudioScaleChem performs a mini-titration on the brine to 4.5 (or
specified) pH. It then:
1. Calculates the alkalinity for the given water analysis
2.
Adjusts HCl and CO2 inflow to match the calculated
alkalinity with the reported alkalinity
CO2 Fraction in Gas
Frequently it is simpler and more stable to measure the gas-phase CO2 that is
separated from the brine at the sampling point. When matched with another
measured variable, usually alkalinity, the concentration of the carbonate species and
the pH can be calculated. StudioScaleChem performs a CO2 gas fraction calculation
by taking the PCO2 and the calculated alkalinity (based on the water analysis data)
to reconcile the system for pH and carbonate properties.
Scaling Tendency
The scaling tendency is defined as the ratio of the activity product to the solubility
product for a particular solid. This ratio is related to the saturation index.
When this ratio is greater than 1.0, then there is a thermodynamic tendency for this
solid to form. When less than 1.0 then there is no thermodynamic tendency for the
solid to form.
The Activity product is the product of all the species on the right hand side of the
equation, also known as the Available ions.
The solubility product, usually represented as Ksp is the thermodynamic equilibrium
constant and is a function of temperature and pressure.
Calculating a Scaling Tendency
The Scaling Tendency is defined as the ratio of the activity product of an equilibrium
equation to the solubility product for the same equation. We define the activity
product as Q, therefore the Scaling Tendency (ST) = Q/Ksp.
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As an example, consider the equilibrium for gypsum solubility. The chemical
formula for gypsum is CaSO4•2H2O and the equilibrium expression is:
CaSO4•2H2O = Ca2+ + SO42- + 2H2O
The activity product, Q, is defined as:
Q = aca++ aso4-2 a2H2O
Where ai is the activity of the species.
ai = γi mi
Where γi is the activity coefficient for species i. and mi is the molal concentration.
The solubility product, Ksp is a thermodynamic quantity and is a function of
temperature and pressure (although in most cases, the pressure functionality for
solids can be ignored). StudioScaleChem has stored the Ksp for all of the solids used
in the chemistry model.
When the ratio Q/Ksp is greater than 1.0, then the solid has tendency to form. When
the ratio is less than 1.0, then there is little tendency to form.
For example: consider a 0.01 molal solution of calcium sulfate at 25 C and 1
atmosphere.
The equilibrium concentrations are:
[Ca+2]
[SO4-2]
γCa
γSO4
aH2O
Ksp
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.008 molal
0.008 molal
0.5
0.5
0.99977
2.68 x 10-5
The Q value is:
Q = (0.5)(0.008)(0.5)(0.008)(0.99977)2
The Scaling Tendency is Q/Ksp
ST = 0.000016/(2.68E-05) = 0.596
Thus the solution is under-saturated with respect to calcium sulfate.
Why are the concentrations of the ions not exactly equal to 0.01 molal (which is the
feed concentration)? The neutral complex CaSO4o exists and ties up 0.002 moles of
each ion. The ions are not available for precipitation and thus do not appear in the
scaling tendency calculation.
Calculating a Scale Index
The scale index is very much related to the Scaling Tendency. The relationship is:
Scale Index (SI) = Log10(ST).
When the SI is less than zero (SI < 0), then the solid is said to be undersaturated.
When the SI is greater than zero (SI > 0) then solid is said to be oversaturated.
Putting together a calculation
Now that we have defined some terms we are now ready to begin entering the
information required to run a calculation. In this calculation we will be entering the
concentrations of a single brine. This sample will be calculated at a range of
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temperatures and pressures. The amount of any solids produced will be displayed
graphically.
Starting the StudioScaleChem Program
StudioScaleChem can be accessed via stream analyzers. Objects for
StudioScaleChem are Brine, Gas, Oil, Saturator and Contour plots.
To access these objects click on Streams in the Navigator and you will see these
objects amongst others in the Actions Panel.
Figure 37-1 StudioScaleChem objects.
StudioScaleChem Tour
In this tour we will create a brine (water analysis) and calculate its scale tendency.
Let’s begin.
Add Brine Analysis from Actions Panel.
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Figure 37-2 Brine Analysis
Brine Analysis Data
The chemistry of the brine needs to be entered. This information includes
concentrations, alkalinity, pH and density.
Entering a brine description
Click on the description Tab. If the Description tab is not currently displayed, click
on the tab.
Figure 37-3 Brine description tab
We can fill several items on this screen. All of the items (except the name) are optional.
Well
Date
Comments
This name, if entered in a Well View calculation, is the name of
the well. It is frequently blank.
The date of the sample. Defaults to the current date.
Up to 256 characters may be entered as text to describe the well.
Brief, direct comments are recommended.
Entering Brine Species
The Design Tab is where you enter the cations, anions and dissolved gases (or
neutrals). The species formulas (default) or species names may be displayed. This
display By Formula or By Name can be changed by clicking the names manager
logo on the toolbar which looks like this:
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A window will pop up where you can choose to select what display method you
prefer. The pop up window will look like below:
Data entry tab under Design tab is designed to provide means to input cation/anion
and neutrals composition.
Figure 37-4 Brine data entry
Fields
Cations:
Anions:
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The positive ions are entered in grid. The units may be changed by clicking on the
Units button under entry options. The default units are mg/l (milligrams per liter).
This field is similar to the Cations field except that negative ions are added.
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Neutrals:
Neutral gases such as dissolved CO2, H2S and methane (CH4) are added. These
dissolved gases do not affect the Electroneutrality of the sample but can have an
overall affect on pH and alkalinity.
Reconcile tab: This tab gives options from three calculation types:Equilibrium calculation
CO2 Fraction in Gas
pH Alkalinity Reconcile
Entering Brine Species - Balance Button
It is highly unusual for the data to be electrically neutral. Therefore. samples are
reconciled for Electroneutrality. After entering each species concentrations, you will
notice that Balanced values show up in the column next to values. The Column
header says Balanced.
Ionic samples measured experimentally are almost always not electrically neutral.
Before we can proceed we must reconcile this sample for Electroneutrality.
Figure 37-5 Electroneutrality balance column
When adding or removing ions to balance charge, the solute mass is altered. We
must make a decision as to whether we keep the mass of the solution constant
(thereby adjusting the amount of water) or keeping the amount of water constant and
adjusting the solution mass.
Dominant Ions
Proration
Make Up Ion
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The user can select from a variety of balancing methods
The deficient charged species with the largest concentration is added.
Equal ratios of the deficient charge is added.
The selected ion is either added or removed to balance the solution.
427
Figure 37-6 Balance Options
Reconciling a brine
We are now ready to reconcile the sample for pH and alkalinity.
Click the Reconciliations tab. Make sure if you are choosing the pH and Alkalinity
type of calculation, you need to specify the HCO3 concentration in the grid under
reconciliation tab.
Figure 37-7 The reconciliations tab
Reconciliations (Select one).
Equilibrium Calculation
CO2 Fraction in Gas
pH and Alkalinity
Due to experimental uncertainty and error, the measured values for a water sample
may not match the calculated values. Therefore, we need to reconcile the calculated
values. There are three reconciliation types.
Using the entered ionic and neutral compositions, the pH, density and alkalinity are
calculated for this sample.
The CO2 is adjusted to match a saturated gas composition
This adds or removes Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) to match the specified pH and
alkalinity. This is default calculation.
Radio buttons for the above three types can be found under reconciliation options
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Figure 37-8 Radio buttons
Variables
Temperature
Pressure
pH
Density
Alkalinity
Titration pH
CO2 Fraction in Gas
HCl Added
CO2 Added
Total Dissolved Solids
Electrical Conductivity
The following variables are part of the Reconciliation step. Several variables are
user-entered and other are calculated.
The default temperature is at ambient conditions. The user may change these values
as required.
The default pressure is at ambient conditions. The user may change these values as
required.
A measured pH is considered to be an unreliable value.. Therefore, users enter the
measured pH and compares it to the calculated pH. A user can also force
StudioScaleChem to adjust the concentrations so that the calculated pH matches the
measured pH.
The water density is a very reliable number. The program can adjust the total volume
or amount of water to match this value. If no density information has been entered,
then a calculated density will be used.
This is generally a reliable value, unless solids have precipitated in the sample.
Alkalinity is often but not always the same value as the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-).
StudioScaleChem can reconcile on a measured alkalinity by adjusting the solution
composition.
This is the end point for the experiment used by the lab to determine the Alkalinity.
The default value is 4.5.
This is the gas phase, partial pressure of CO2 on a mole-fraction basis.
StudioScaleChem adjusts the dissolved CO2 concentration to match this measured
CO2 mole fraction. The CO2 value is assumed to be on a dry basis (no water) and
that the complimentary gas is methane (CH4).
This is the amount of HCl either added or removed to match the measured pH and
Alkalinity. This value is calculated by StudioScaleChem.
This is the amount of carbon dioxide either added or removed to match the measured
pH and alkalinity. This value is calculated by StudioScaleChem.
This is the calculated TDS as reported by StudioScaleChem. It is used as a check to
see if all the solutes were properly accounted for in the analysis. This value is
calculated by StudioScaleChem.
This is the solution electrical conductivity. This value is calculated by
StudioScaleChem.
.
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Once the reconciliation options have been selected, the Calculate button is clicked.
Buttons
Allow Solids to form
Calculate Button
This button begins the reconciliation calculation.
This check box allows solids to form
Enter a value of pH = 7.1 and alkalinity = 715 as HCO3-, mg/L
Figure 37-9 Entering pH and alkalinity
Click the Calculate button.
The OLI calculation orbit will now display.
Figure 37-20 the revolving electron
This dialog will close automatically.
Super saturation Warning
Experimental inaccuracies in sample measurement may, on occasion, result in a
calculation that indicates that solid is supersaturated. This can normally be ignored
providing that the super saturation is not excessive.
Figure 37-31 Super saturation warning.
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Figure 37-4 Reconciled Brine report
The results show that the pH has been reconciled to 7.18 and the alkalinity to 715 mg HCO3-/L.
To do this approximately 20 mg/L of HCl was removed (i.e., H+ and Cl-) and approximately
24.66mg/L CO2 was added.
Report is one of the peculiar features of StudioScaleChem. Navigation and
customization of the output data has been made much easier in this format.
Now that we have specified the flow rate of the brine, we need to specify the
temperatures and pressures that we wish to simulate as shown in the following
example.
Scaling Scenario
Once the Brine Analysis data is entered and the sample reconciled, we can begin
the scaling calculation. We now begin to describe the conditions of the
calculation.
Select Add Scale Scenario from Actions panel.
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Figure 37-53 Scaling Scenario object
Click on the description tab and rename the Scale Scenario as " SSC-Brine Scale
Scenario".
Your screen should now look like image 3-14
Figure 37-14 Scaling Scenario Design tab
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Brine and Gases
The brines and gases that are to be considered for this calculation must now be
selected.
Click the Drop-Down arrow in the box next to the word “Select” under the “Type”
heading.
This will display all the available brines in this document.
Figure 37-15 Selecting a brine
In this example we are going to use only a single Brine SSC- Brine at 1000L/hr.
Figure 37-16 The completed case
Input Box
Type
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You can select the brine, gas or hydrocarbon of interest
433
Name
Flow
Click in the Name field. As you position the cursor in the field, a Down Arrow will
appear. You can then select from a list of brines, gases or oils already entered into
this StudioScaleChem document.
Enter the flow rate for the gas, hydrocarbon or brine.
Conditions
Now that we have specified the flow rate of the brine, we need to specify the
temperatures and pressures that we wish to simulate as shown in the following
example.
Click on the Conditions tab.
For our example we are going to perform a temperature survey at constant pressure.
Figure 37-67 The empty conditions tab.
Click on surface and move on to the temperature tab. Change the units by clicking the
hyperlinked (0C) and (atm) via units manager second layer. Input the temperature as 77 0F.
Change the Pressure field to 250 psia. Add second point at a temperature of 300 F.
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Figure 37-18 The first and second point added.
We now want to add additional points between the two we’ve just entered.
Click the Auto Step button.
Figure 37-19 The completed conditions tab.
Sort options
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Temperature/Pressure
Sort the list according to the temperature or pressure fields.
The graphical view clearly shows the five locations and their Temperature and
pressure conditions. The Drop Solids checkbox column at the very end of the grid is
designed to help the users decide if they want to carry forward solids from certain
locations or not.
Do not Carry Solids to the Next Point
If checked, any solids that form will be mathematically removed from the next point
on the list. This changes to the total mass for each point and partially simulates the
buildup of scaling solids while fluid moves up the well.
Precipitates
StudioScaleChem allows for many solid phases to be considered in the actual
calculation. For this example we want to consider all the available solids
In StudioScaleChem , you have to manually turn the solids on at the top of the
toolbar in order to enable the solids tab.
Figure 37-20 possible precipitates
All the possible precipitates could be seen if + sign before all is clicked.
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Figure 37-71 All solids selected.
Calculate
We are now ready to calculate
Click on the Calculate tab.
Results
After StudioScaleChem has finished calculating, there will be information of the
type shown below available for review. Click on any report tab to display more
information.
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Figure 37-82 The report tab.
Information in reports
Reprint of individual brines
Input brine mixture
Each brine as it was entered and reconciled will appear in the report. All known
information about the brine will be displayed. Input gases will also be displayed.
Prior to each calculation, brines may be mixed with other brines and gases. The sum
of these mixtures is displayed in the report.
After each calculation, the resultant brine and gas compositions are displayed.
Output brine and gas mixture
Pre and Post Scaling tendencies
and solids
The resultant formation of solids and their tendency to form is displayed.
Location reports
Parameters like Temperature, pressure, viscosity etc will be calculated for both
aqueous and solid phase existing at each individual location is calculated and
reported.
Plot
This tab when selected, will display a plot of scaling scenario.
Go to plot and click on Curves.
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A window will pop up named Select Data to plot. Get rid of the pre-scaling tendencies and plot
Solids against Temperature on X-axis.
Figure 37-93 Editing the plot.
Plot looks as below:
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Figure 37-104 The resultant plot.
Most importantly name your file SSC_tutorial and save!save!save!
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Chapter 38 Studio ScaleChem
Calculations
Calculations Overview
StudioScaleChem can be used to calculate scaling at one or more user specified
temperatures and pressures. Other calculation options include the ability to mix
waters at user specified ratios to find compatible waters, and the ability to saturate a
water with respect to one or more solids to simulate reservoir conditions.
We have already entered a scaling calculation in the StudioScaleChem Tour, you are
referred there to review that information
We will need to add some additional brines, gases and oils to continue.
Calculations: Adding a new brine sample
Position the mouse on the Actions Panel and select object name Add brine analysis
which looks like a logo above and double click. Rename the brine in Descriptions tab
Figure 38-1 The default brine sample description
You must reconcile the sample for both electroneutrality, pH and alkalinity.
Name
Type of water
Comment:
Species:
Na+
Ca+2
Mg+2
Fe+2
Cl-1
SO4-2
HS-1
HCO3-
WTXWTR
Aquifer Water
West Texas Water Supply
3074
910
249
0.77
4474
2960
146.2
439
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
Conditions:
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pH
Alkalinity
Titration pH
Temperature
Pressure
Density 0
7.98
439 mg/L as HCO34.5
77 F
14.7
PSI
(will be estimated)
Calculations: Adding a Gas Sample
From the Actions Panel click on Add Gas Analysis. Input the name in the description
tab. We recommend that you use a suitable name
Figure 38-2 Entering a gas sample
To add more descriptive information, click on the Design tab.
Figure 38-3 The blank gas entry. Initially 100 % methane (CH4)
Please enter the following composition
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
10
mole %
Water (H2O)
15
mole %
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Figure 38-4 Entered gas.
Gas
Normalizing
Displaying Gases
The gas composition is entered as mole% or volume% (these are equivalent for an
ideal gas). The total must be 100% and can be adjusted by normalizing, or by letting
the program determine the amount of hydrocarbon gases present. The gases that are
displayed here will be either the standard gases or expanded gases . Toggling from
the standard to expanded can be achieved by clicking the Gases button.
You can enter just the amounts of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water and let
the program Calculate Hydrocarbon Percent (default) or enter all values and then
normalize to 100%.
You can display the name of the gases by Name (the default) or by Formula.
StudioScaleChem will assume that all of the hydrocarbon gas is methane (CH4). If
you want to use a more detailed list of hydrocarbon gases, click on Gases to expand
the list.
Frequently the data received by the user refers to gas compositions that are reported
on a "Dry" Basis. Any water that was present in the actual gas has been removed
mathematically and reported as a dry sample.
The dew point corresponds to the temperature or pressure where a gas will begin to
condense and form a liquid (aqueous) phase. The Dew Point calculation will allow
you to determine the amount of water that could be contained in the gas at the stated
temperature, pressure and composition.
Figure 38-5 Reconcile tab
Type of Calculation
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Saturated water Content
At the entered conditions, the amount of water that the gas can contain before an
aqueous liquid will form is determined. If the Water Vapor field is entered, then that
value is used as an initial guess to the calculation.
Dew point temperature
The calculated value is NOT updated in the actual gas composition. The user must
enter that value manually if desired.
At the entered conditions, the temperature is calculated such that an aqueous liquid
will form. If the Temperature field is entered, then that value is used as an initial
guess to start the calculations.
Dew point pressure
The calculated value is NOT updated in the actual gas composition. The user must
enter that value manually if desired.
At the entered conditions, the pressure is calculated such that an aqueous liquid will
form. If the Pressure field is entered, then that value is used as an initial guess to start
the calculations.
At Conditions
The calculated value is NOT updated in the actual gas composition. The user must
enter that value manually if desired.
Enter the temperature, pressure and water content of the gas. Click the Calculate
button to start the calculation.
You can change the units of the calculation by clicking the Units button. When the
calculation is complete, you may view the internal files by clicking the View Files
button (currently grayed-out in the above example).
Calculations: Adding an Oil sample
From the Actions Panel click Add Oil Analysis. Enter the name in the Description
Tab.
Figure 38-6 Input name for the Oil Analysis
Input the composition information in the design tab.
Calculations: Hydrocarbon - Pseudocomponent approach
There are three entry types. The first is pure components (organic and inorganic), the
second is pseudocomponents, and the third is a distillation curve (termed petroleum
fraction. StudioScaleChem groups the pseudocomponent and assays together.
For this example we will enter pure component and pseudocomponent data.
Entering Pseudocomponent data
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Figure 38-7 Starting to add compositions.
We will start by entering the following composition:
Methane (C1)
Hexane (C6)
CO2
20.53mole %
8.595mole %
6.09mole %
(you will have to scroll down to find the CO2 entry).
Figure 38-8 C1 to C20 entered. Scroll down to find CO2
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Figure 38-9 Entering pseudocomponents.
Type the name PC1 in the section <Enter Name> below column heading
Component. Please enter the following information. Add a mole percentage of 27.57
%
Figure 38-10 Adding the first pseudocomponent.
We have now entered the first pseudocomponent. Keep typing in the Enter Name section to add
more pseudocomponents. We have 3 additional entries.
Name
PC2
PC3
PC4
MW (g/mol)
170.34
282.55
506.0
nBP (F)
216.32
343.78
645.00
Method
API
API
API
mole %
29.35
7.19
0.68
The completed input looks like this:
Figure 38-112 Completed input
Reconciling the Pseudocomponent
Click on the Reconciliation tab to see how well the pseudocomponent will predict
the phase behavior of the hydrocarbon sample. You will be presented with the
following display:
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Figure 38-122 Reconciliation Tab
We will hold the temperature constant at 204 F and vary the pressure from 200 to
2000 PSI in 100 PSI increments.
Click the Boiling point button. A new calculation appears in the navigation panel
below OIL1 Object.
This is a survey by Pressure. Click on the specs button and specify the conditions
below.
Enter a fixed value of 204 deg F
Enter a pressure range:
Start
200 psia
End
2000 psia
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Start
100 psia
Click the Calculate button.
Click on the plot tab, you will see the following graph: You could adjust the
parameters by clicking on curves.
Figure 38-133 Boiling point curve
If the curve does not meet expectations, you will have to adjust the mole percentages or the
pseudocomponent properties. This is a manual iterative approach. You can see the actual data by
clicking the View data button.
Saturating the hydrocarbon with water
Frequently the hydrocarbon was saturated with water.
Click on the Saturate with drop down. Select H20
In this example we are saturating the hydrocarbon sample at 77 F and 14.7 PSI. The
program requires an initial "Guess" for the concentration of the water. When done,
we will save the saturated hydrocarbon as the object SatOIL1.
Click on the Calculate button.
The results are show above:
The saturated amount of water is .0477210 mole %.
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Mix Calculation: Overview
The Mixer calculation determines if two waters (brines) can be mixed. Frequently the mixing of two waters will cause
precipitates to form which were not present in original brines. This can lead to the plugging of a formation when an
injection water is mixed with the natural fluids in the formation.
Mix Calculation: Set Up
From the Actions Panel, click on the Add Mixing Water logo. After double clicking
the logo, you will the object in the Navigation Panel.
Click on the design tab to enter more information.
Selecting objects for the calculation
Figure 38-144 Setting up the mix calculation.
Select your brines, gases and oils as shown in the next figure. Enter the indicated
brine flow rate of 1000 bbl/day, gas flow of 230 kscf/day and oil flow of 7 bbl/day.
There are two ways to change the units.
Method 1: To change units on brine, oil and gas, click on the hyperlinked ( blue)
units inside of the bracket next to Inlets First Brine, Second Brine etc. This is under
the column heading Type.
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This should pop the following window up. Click on Parameters tab and change the
Time to per day instead of per hour. Click on Inlets tab.
Inlets tab looks like below. Changing units on Brine:
Method 2: This can also be done in one other way, that is through the units manager
button on the toolbar. which looks like
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When you click on units manager, second layer for inlets pops up.
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Figure 38-15 Mixer with inflows entered (Inlets Tab)
In this example we will mix two brines, created in other sections at a total brine flow
rate of 1000 barrels per day. In addition, we will add a gas and a hydrocarbon to the
calculation.
Entering Conditions
In this example, we are mixing the brines at 100 F and 200 PSIA. The first brine
specified (brine1 in the example) is the one we compare to when evaluating the
ratios. In this case we start out with all brine1 and none of the brine WTXWTR and
end up with none of brine1 and all of WTXWTR.
Figure 38-16 the mixing conditions (Conditions tab)
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Selecting Precipitates
Figure 38-157 Selecting a few solids. ( Solids tab)
For this calculation we are only selecting a few of the possible solids. Mark a check
box next to desired solids.
Click on the Calculate button.
View the report. Click on the Plot tab and view Plot
Figure 38-168 Mixing results
To study the effects better go to the curves button and eliminate other solids precipitated by the
<< arrow. Keep only one solid (in this case BaSO4). The ratio is relative to the first brine
specified. This means at a ratio of 0.0 (all the first brine and none of the second) we have no
BaSO4 scaling. As we add the second brine, the amount of BaSO4 increases. These waters are
perhaps incompatible.
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Figure 38-179 Editing the plot via curves button
You could choose to select any of the other solids that could be precipitated from the
above pre-scaling tendencies. The red marked << arrow removes the existing
component from Y1-axis and >> arrow adds components to axis. Simply double
clicking the component/parameter name under axis works for removing it from the
list to display on plot too.
Saturate Calculations: Overview
Water and gas samples at the surface are not necessarily representative of conditions
in the reservoir. The processing of the samples may involve significant changes in
the chemistry.
The Saturate option (often referred to as "Saturate at reservoir conditions") allows
the user to "Back" calculate the conditions down hole.
Saturate Calculations: Set Up
Select Add Saturator from the Actions Panel. Rename the object in the descriptions
tab.
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Figure 38-18 Description tab
The default location will be the Component tab.
We will select objects that we have already defined.
Figure 38-19 Selecting saturating components
For the Gas and Brine flow and Conditions units for temperature and pressure, we
have to make sure to have bbl/day, Mft3/day and F, PSIA respectively. Set these
units as custom units for all new objects in Units manager.
We have to select solids inflow to vary for Saturator1. Under the solids tab select the solids
allowed to be formed. Under the table select inflows to vary, choose the solid to vary from the
dropdown list.
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Figure 38-22 Selecting solids to vary
To study the saturator brine at various locations we need to add a Scaling Scenario from the
saturator.
Figure 38-23 Adding a scaling Scenario
We have to make sure when we add brine under the inlets tab, under Type column,
that we are selecting brine from Saturator1 and not SSC brine or WTXWTR brine.
Flow will be automatically controlled. Locations can be input under the conditions
tab.
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Figure 38-204 Conditions set up
We will start at 77 oF and 14.696 PSIA and end at 200 oF and 300 PSIA. We will use
5 steps.
This case differs from the other calculations in that we will force a scale to appear just at its
solubility limit. The scaling tendency is forced to be equal to 1.0 exactly. See report tab and Pre
and Post Scaling Tendency table for more details.
Figure 38-215 Pre and post Scaling tendencies at location one-surface
We want to force the BaSO4 (barite) solid to appear. It is generally a good idea to
select a maximum of one or two solids. As we can see above, BaSO4 has a scaling
tendency of exactly one.
After the calculation is complete, the plot shows that other solids are appearing. In this case both
Anhydrite and calcite and disordered dolomite are appearing.
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Figure 38-26 The plotted results
At this point it may be beneficial to saturate with other solids. We will leave that as an exercise
for the user.
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Facility Calculation: Overview
StudioScaleChem has the ability to link together several individual calculations to
create a flow sheet facility. An example of a facility calculation is shown in the
figure below.
Water Supply
3,000 bwpd
77F, 30 psia
Field 1
11,000 bwpd
100 F, 100 psia
Field 2
6,000 bwpd
125 F, 125 psia
5,000 bbl
Skim Tank
5,000 bbl
Suction
Tank
Skim Tank
110 F, 100 psia
Discharge
90 F, 30 psia
It is a simple process in
which two field brines mix in a skim tank. The discharge from this tank then mixes with a water
supply in a discharge tank. Below are the compositions and conditions of the inlet fluids
Name
Na+
Ca+2
Mg+2
Fe+2
Cl-1
SO4-2
HS-1
HCO3Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Alkalinity (As HCO3 mg/L)
Titration pH
Sample pH
Field1
38209
6600
1531
120
73150
2453
244
421
100F
100 PSI
421
4.5
6.97
.
Field2 .
27078
4480
1191
6.6
51134
1840
146.2
677
Water Supply
3074
910
249
0.77
4474
2960
0
439
125 F
125 PSI
677
4.5
7.53
77 F
30 PSI
439
4.5
7.98
Create the above brines
You start this example by first creating the above three brines:. Use the Add Brine
Analysis object as you have done before to create them.
Facility Calculation: Set Up
The facilities calculation is based upon transferring information between calculations
through nodes. These nodes can be thought of as pseudo brines and gases.. These
pseudo brines are not stored as individual brine rather they are used internally in the
calculation. The concentration and flow rates for these nodes can be viewed in the
output.
Select Add Facilities from the Action Panel.
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Figure 38-22 The Description tab for the Facilities
Under design tab, within Inflow Specs, we can add Nodes via Node input options. In
the section <enter name> after Name, type SkimTank and click Add Button. That
populates the field below add button with conditions and type.
At the start the panel contains Node #1. It has default conditions and no inlet
streams. This node will be the Skim Tank.
Figure 38-238 Node input Screen
Enter the name, description, conditions, and streams for the Skim Tank shown above. When
complete, your screen should look like this.
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Figure 38-249 Node 1 is entered
The temperature and pressure of the calculation is 110 F and 100 PSI. A default node
name is supplied and it is sufficient for our use. The output of this calculation will go
to the next node. Make sure to select drop solids checkbox at the Skim Tank node.
Next, enter the information for the second node, Suction Tank. We will select the
output brine of the Skim tank, which is a brine from node The temperature and
pressure as well as the flow of the brine are calculated.
When a brine is calculated in a facilities calculation, we have the option of allowing
any produced solids to be considered (that is they traveled along with the brine) or to
eliminate them as they precipitate out. We will eliminate the solids in this case. The
orange downward arrow from Skim Tank indicate dropped solids.
We are also adding the Water Supply to this tank.
Figure 38-30 Node 2 is entered
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The program assigns a default node name of Node2 which is sufficient for our use.
We have added the description "Suction Tank".
Click on the Calculate button. Or press Ctrl+F9.
Figure 38-31 the reports tab
Figure 38-32 Results for nodes
Figure 38-25 Scaling tendencies
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Chapter 39 Studio ScaleChem
Interpreting Results
Overview
StudioScaleChem reports and displays data in a variety of forms. This information
can be confusing to a new user. In this chapter we will examine the various types of
output and interpret the meaning of that output.
Some of the data that is reported are reported in summaries and other data are
reported in dialog boxes. We will look at several examples of each.
Valid Water Analysis Data
Using valid water (brine) analysis data is the key concept behind using
StudioScaleChem. If the water analysis is not valid then the resulting calculations are
not valid.
Assumptions
Reconciliations within the Water Analysis are assumed to be at ambient conditions,
77oF and 14.7 PSIA (25 oC and 1 atmosphere). The default temperature and pressure
are set to ambient conditions.
Electroneutrality
Ionic concentrations, even when measured with the best available techniques, tend to
have some degree of uncertainty associated with them. These uncertainties will
results in an aqueous solution which, when the concentrations are summed together,
appears to be not electrically neutral.
In addition to having uncertainties in the measured concentration, some ions may be
misreported. For example, the pH of a solution may indicate that the dominant form
of carbonate ion in solution should be bicarbonate ion but the reported value is
carbonate ion. For the same mass, there is approximately twice as much negative
charge in misreporting the carbonate ion.
Correcting for the Electroneutrality of a solution is essential for proper simulations.
The following sample is not electrically neutral.
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Figure 39-1 A non-electrically neutral sample
In StudioScaleChem we will receive a report of the required amount of material
required to balance the sample in the yellow column headed as Balanced. Stream is
balanced as soon as the components are entered.
Figure 39-2 Switching of dominant ion
If Cl- quantity is change from 4474 to 447.4 then automatically SO4-2 ion becomes
the dominant ion. And its balanced quantity increases by almost 5464
mg/L as opposed to 2960mg/L of SO4-2 ions.
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Figure 39-2a Balance options
This report shows us that 5464mg/l of SO4-2 ions must be added. Since the original
sample only had 2960 mg/l of SO4-2 ion (see Figure 39-12a) there is probably an
error.
In general, an added value of less than 10% of an ion concentration is acceptable. In
this case we would have expected a value of less than 45 mg/l and that of chloride
ion rather than Sulfate ion.
Another consideration is the type water that this analysis represents. This water is an
aquifer water. The concentration of the sodium and chloride ions, on a mole basis,
tends to be roughly equal. If we have 3074 mg/l of sodium (see Figure 39-1) or 134
mmoles (1000 mmoles =1 mole), then we would expect 4481 mg/l of chloride.
Therefore the concentration of the chloride seems to be in error. Perhaps a
typographical error occurred either in the analysis or in the input. Change the value
of the chloride concentration by increasing the number one order of magnitude from
447.4 mg/l chloride ion to 4474 mg/l chloride ion.
Figure 39-3 Reconcile tab when Chloride ion quantity is 4474 mg/L and Chloride ion is 447.4
mg/L(SO4-2 becomes adjustment parameter in the second image on the right).
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Each species
concentration has been
altered.
Only the chloride
concentration value
changed
Figure 39-4 The chloride ion has been increased to 4474 mg/l
pH/Alkalinity
The pH of a solution is related to the alkalinity of the solution. In the simplest terms,
the alkalinity is the acid neutralizing capacity of the solution. In practice we often
refer to the alkalinity as the concentration of carbonate species in the sample.
The actual alkalinity experiment involves the titration of a known acid concentration
against the sample. A predetermined Titration End Point (usually a pH of 4.5) is the
end of the experiment. The Titration End Point is set sufficiently low to ensure that
all of the neutralizing species in solution have been neutralized.
The pH/Alkalinity reconciliations have many options.
Reconciling pH/Alkalinity
Alkalinity
Titration pH
The measured pH and alkalinity can be reconciled The user enters a measured pH
and an alkalinity.
The alkalinity can be entered as:
meq/l
mg/l as HCO3
mg/l as CaCO3
The units meq/l is the actual base capacity of the solution regardless of speciation.
The units mg/l as HCO3 are the most common unit in the industry. It is important to
note however, that the sample does not have to contain carbonates to have the
alkalinity reported as HCO3-. The last unit, mg/l as CaCO3 is also used frequently.
The titration pH is the end point of the actual alkalinity experiment. Normally this
value is a pH of 4.5. The only requirement here is that the alkalinity pH must be less
than the measured pH. An error will occur if this is not true.
Clicking on Calculate will execute the procedure.
When the calculation is complete, StudioScaleChem will report the values required
to reconcile the sample.
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466
The reconciled values
are approximately
159 mg/l HCl added
and 183 mg/l of CO2
removed
Figure 39-5 Reconciled pH and alkalinity
Calculating pH and Alkalinity
Sometimes it is desirable to determine the pH and alkalinity of the solution prior to
reconciling.
Select the Equilibrium option
Click on Calculate to begin.
StudioScaleChem will then return the calculated pH and alkalinity.
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The calculated pH is
somewhat higher than the
measured pH. HCl will have
to be added to adjust the pH.
The calculated alkalinity is
approximately 700 mg/l as
HCO3-
Figure 39-6 Calculated pH and alkalinity.
Speciation
The display of the ionic species can be altered to meet user requirements. By default
the display of the ionic species are the standard list and the reconciled values.
Figure 39-7 The default species display
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468
Default Speciation Display
See Chapter 2: Thermodynamics for a more complete description of the standard
chemistry.
Figure 39-8 The standard display
Expanded Species Display
The expanded species lists
are scrollable
Click on Customize under the report tab. Click on Species output and then by
checking boxes before the species name will display Species List. Click on OK to
redisplay the Report tab.
Figure 39-9 Displaying the Expanded Species lists
The complete list of the expanded ions can be found in Chapter 2:
Thermodynamics.
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The Non-Zero species Display
Sometimes viewing species with zero concentrations can be difficult to read. The
Species Display dialog allows the user to mask zero valued species. Customize
report-> Species Output->Options leads to display options where we can select to
view species only greater than value 0. Column and rows are adjustable according to
the user's preference.
Figure 39-30 Water Analysis with zero values masked
Supersaturation of Solids
Frequently a measurement of a water sample (brine) may have a small uncertainty
associated with the measurement. This uncertainty, especially when the sample was
in contact with solid minerals, may lead to StudioScaleChem reporting that the
sample is supersaturated.
Figure 39-11 A warning that the sample is supersaturated.
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Summary Content
This is a scrollable field.
You can page down to
see more information.
Reconciliation summary
Water Analysis
The results of a reconciliation for pH, alkalinity and neutrality are reported for each
sample.
Figure 39-12 The summary for a water analysis
Gas Analysis
The information that can be displayed for a gas analysis is rather limited. Unless a
Dew Point calculation had been performed, the output is an echo of the input.
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This field has been
“Scrolled Down” to
display the dew point
temperature
Figure 39-43 Gas Analysis Summary and the Dew Point summary
Node Summary
The brines and/or gases collected at the node are displayed along with the flow rate
of each item. The temperature and pressure of the node is also displayed.
Figure 39-14 Node Summary Report
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Overview of StudioScaleChem Output
There are three types of output which a user can request after a StudioScaleChem
calculation: Plot, Reports, or File Viewer.
Summaries
Summaries is the default StudioScaleChem output. It is located on the right most
corner of the software window under the calculate button.
After a successful calculation, internal files produced by the OLI Solver are scanned
for available sections of data which can be viewed. A list of the available sections is
displayed when customize section is clicked open under the reports tab. This
includes check boxes which can include, or eliminate a section in the report.
Report Section Selection
Clicking on the individual check boxes toggles between including and eliminating
that section from the report.
Facilities Summary
Report for each node and dropped phases are shown.
Pre-Scaling tendencies
Solids to be displayed can be chosen from an extensive list of possible precipitants.
Scaling Tendencies
Sorting options are more to choose from. TRANGES can be displayed. The solids
analysis gives a report of the solids which precipitated (Scaled out), and of the preprecipitation and post-precipitation scaling tendency.
If the solid was not selected as a possible precipitate, but if the scaling tendency is
greater than 1.0E-04, the solid is included in the analysis list. The amount of solid
precipitated is left as 0.0, and the scaling tendency is reported.
Survey Parameters
Stream Amount, Temperature, pressure etc is reported.
OLI Speciation Report
When this report is available, the full speciation which the OLI Solver uses to
perform an equilibrium calculation is given. This report is activated by requesting
detailed output, using the Tools… Options menu choice.
Convergence Pattern
When this report is available, the mathematical convergence pattern which was used
in performing the equilibrium calculation is given. This report is not normally
requested. It is included as a debugging aid when trying to identify convergence
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473
problems. This report is activated by requesting detailed output, using the Tools..
Option menu choice.
Plot
To view StudioScaleChem Plot Option click on Plot tab. This is located next to the
design tab. This will show a default plot..
Figure 39-1 Displaying the Default plot
Determining the Default Plot
After returning from the OLI Solver, StudioScaleChem analyzes the output file to
determine an acceptable default plot. The precedence followed is this:
X axis Variable
Y axis variable
If the temperature varying, use Temperature
If any precipitates, use the solids
else if Pressure varying, use Pressure else use
else user any pre-scaling indices > 0
Case number or Mix Ratio
to a maximum of 8 variables
Viewing Data
The data which is used to create the plot can be viewed by using the View Data
button. In general, the View Data button shows the report which has been created.
Use the View Plot button to return to the plot.
Selecting Data
To add to the variables displayed or to change the variables which are displayed, use
the Select Data button, which is to the right of the Plot. Right click on the X or Y
axis will pop up a format plot window. It has options like Format X-axis, Adjust
Scale, Label Axes etc. Curves Button will prompt a Select data window.
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Figure 39-16 Selecting Data
Data Available
The list of variables which can be displayed are shown as Data Available. Stream
parameters include Temperature and Pressure etc. Additional Stream parameters
contain density, viscosity etc.
Selecting Data
To select different X and Y axis variables, highlight the variable in the Data
Available box, and then click on >> button either before X or Y Axis. Of course,
variables can also be removed from the axis variables by highlighting the selected
variable, and clicking the << button.
Minimum Data Required
A minimum of one X variable and one Y variable must be selected from the Select
Data facility, in order to leave Select Data. Of course, you always have the option of
canceling, and returning to the original plot.
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Index
A
Activity Coefficients, 9, 95, 96, 105
Add Single Point Calc, 42, 76
Add Survey, 46
Adiabatic, 18, 109, 114
Alkalinity, 421–22, 425, 427, 428–31, 441, 459, 466–67, 471
Anions, 418, 425–26
API, 203, 204, 206, 207, 352
API Gravity, 204, 206, 352, 419
Aqueous Model, 415, 417
aqueous thermodynamics, 89
aragonite, 73, 80–84
assay, 204
Assay Data Type, 206
ASTM, 203, 204, 206, 351
ASTM D1160, 351, 418
ASTM D2887, 351, 419
ASTM D86, 351, 418
Average Bulk Density, 206, 351
Average Bulk Density Type, 206
B
basis species, 227, 228
Brines, 415, 421–22, 429, 449–52, 438, 441, 449–52, 459,
472, 473
Bromley, 97–99
Bubble Point, 18, 109, 121, 122–24, 126
Butler-Volmer, 278
C
Calcium Carbonate, 73–74, 150, 153, 166, 169
calcium phosphate, 28, 34
calculate button, 19, 42, 46, 48, 58–60, 78, 114, 119, 123,
126, 137, 147, 167
Cations, 418, 425–26
Cavett, 352, 419
Chemistry, 9–10, 23, 34, 35, 38, 67–70, 73, 79–84, 126
Chemistry Model, 68, 69, 81
CO2 Fraction in Gas, 422, 428–29
Complete Agitation, 277–78
Composition Point, 18
Composition Survey, 276
CORROSION, 68, 79
Corrosion Simulation Program, 213
Critical Pit Depth, 332, 335
CSP, 213
current density, 278–79
Customize button, 51–54, 137, 152
D
Debye-Huckel, 96, 98–100
density, 419, 421, 425, 442
Depletion parameters, 295
Depletion Profile, 299, 308
Description tab, 216, 232
Description Tab, 38, 60, 74, 76, 110
Dew Point, 18, 109, 125
Dew Point, 443–44
Dew Point, 471
Diagram tab, 221, 240, 242, 247, 251, 254, 258, 263, 265
Display Name, 39, 74–75
Dolomite, 417
Dominant Ions, 427
E
Electroneutrality, 422, 425–27, 441, 463
enthalpy, 91, 93–94
Entropy, 91, 93, 94
Equation of State, 91–93, 104, 126
equilibrium, 9, 22–23, 34, 66, 69, 73, 80, 89–90, 92, 102, 105,
107–8, 126, 145
EVS, 321
Excess properties, 95, 97
Exclude these solid phases, 81
Expanded Chemistry, 417
explorer tab, 15, 42
Extreme Value Statistics, 321, 323
F
Facility Calculation, 459
Fail Probability
Area, 325, 326, 335, 341
Depth, 331, 332, 335
Life, 332
Flow Velocity Survey, 276
Formula Name, 40, 75
G
Gases, 421, 425–27, 438, 441, 443, 459, 472
Generator, 68–69
Geo Chem, 79–80
GEOCHEM, 68
Gibbs Free Energy, 89–90, 93–95
H
Heat Capacity, 91, 93, 94
Helgeson, 91–93, 97–100, 126
hydrocarbon, 418, 421, 433, 443, 444, 446, 448, 452
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hydrofluoric acid, 28–29, 34
I
Ion Activity Product, 105
ionic strength, 95, 98, 100
Isothermal, 18, 76, 109–10, 122
K
K-equation, 66
L
Lee-Kesler, 352, 419
LOWTEMP, 68
M
Make Up Ion, 427
material balances, 67
mathematical model, 65, 126
Meissner, 97
Metal Chemistry, 276, 283
meta-stable, 73
Mixing Waters, 449
multi-component, 7–9, 7–9
N
Names Manager, 39, 74–75, 109, 115, 216, 234
Neutrals, 427
O
Oxidation/Reduction, 253, 261, 281
P
Partial Pressures, 24, 25–27
passivate, 214
passivation, 214, 223–24, 248, 253, 261
Petroleum, 203, 351
Petroleum Fractions, 418–19
pH, 9–10, 11, 18, 20, 22, 29–32, 41, 44–46, 48, 54–55, 29–32,
110, 133, 148–49, 154, 160, 173–85, 425, 427, 148–49,
441, 459, 463, 466–67, 471
pH Survey, 276, 292
PHASE SELECTION, 69–71
Pipe Flow, 277, 289
Pit Depth Prediction, 327
pKa, 34, 154, 160
Plot Tab, 49, 137–40, 147, 167
Polarization Curve, 278, 286
Pourbaix, 8, 10, 214, 222, 225, 240, 270, 273
Pourbaix diagrams, 222
Precipitation Point, 18, 73, 76–78, 81–84
Pressure Survey, 276
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Proration, 427
pseudo-components, 419
PUBLIC, 68, 79
R
Range tab, 151, 166
rate of corrosion, 214, 285
Rates Definition Tab, 283, 287, 296, 306, 312
real-solution, 214, 225, 227
REDOX, 9, 67
reference state, 90, 92, 103
Report tab, 19, 123, 131
Rotating Cylinder, 275, 277–78, 279
Rotating disk, 277
S
Samples, 441–42, 427, 441–42, 454
Saturate Calculations, 454
Saturated water, 444
scale index, 423
scaling tendencies, 415, 418, 438
scaling tendency, 81, 105–6
Scaling Tendency, 418, 422–23, 457, 473
Selective Redox, 271
Service Life, 331, 335
Set pH, 18
Setschenow, 101–2
Shift – Enter, 205
single point, 232, 275
SinglePoint Definition tab, 42, 76
Solubility Product, 105
speciation, 11, 22–23, 26–28, 34, 57, 62, 106
Specific Gravity, 351
Specs, 48, 60, 77, 81, 134, 146, 151, 166, 238, 241
SRK, 104
Stability Diagram, 214, 215, 217, 221, 222, 225, 228, 231,
236, 242, 245, 263
Standard Chemistry, 417, 469
Static Conditions, 277, 283
Steel, 234, 276, 281, 283
Stream, 11–12, 24, 29–33, 35, 37–39, 41, 57, 59–62, 69, 74,
77, 110, 117–22, 122, 129, 134, 147, 150, 166
Stream Definition, 216, 234, 240, 248, 282, 296
Stream Definition Grid, 17
Stream Definition Tab, 39, 74, 114, 122
Subsystems tab, 220, 239
Surface Area, 327, 329, 331, 332
survey, 45–48, 54, 60–61, 150–52, 154, 166–67, 170
Survey by, 46, 60, 146, 151, 166, 167
T
TBP, 351, 418
Temperature Survey, 276, 283, 293
thermal aging, 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 302, 303, 305, 306,
307, 308, 309, 310, 311
478
Thermal Aging, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 298, 301, 302, 306,
307, 314, 315, 317
Thermo Method, 206
thermodynamic framework, 7–9, 108
Tip-of-the-Day, 73
Titrants button, 219, 238
Total dissolved solids, 429
TRANGE, 106
tree view, 46, 60
Type of Calculation, 17–18, 76, 122
V
Vapor Amount, 18, 109
Vapor Fraction, 18, 129–32
Volume, 91, 93, 94
W
Watson K, 352, 419
Z
Zematis, 99
A Guide to Using the OLI Studio
479
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