Installation Guide - Oracle Help Center

Installation Guide - Oracle Help Center
Oracle® Database
Installation Guide
12c Release 2 (12.2) for Linux
E49784-20
July 2017
Oracle Database Installation Guide, 12c Release 2 (12.2) for Linux
E49784-20
Copyright © 2014, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Prakash Jashnani
Contributing Authors: Douglas Williams, Aparna Kamath
Contributors: David Austin, Janelle Simmons, Neha Avasthy, Sampath Ravindhran, Prasad Bagal,
Subhranshu Banerjee, Mark Bauer, Tammy Bednar, Eric Belden, Gavin Bowe, Robert Chang, Darcy
Christensen, Kiran Chamala, Jonathan Creighton, Benoit Dageville, Logeshwaran Rajan, Rajesh Dasari,
Angad Gokakkar , Anu Natarajan, Girdhari Ghantiyala, Bernard Clouse, John Haxby, Chandrasekharan Iyer,
David Jimenez, Sivaram Soma, Janet Stern, Vishal Saxena, Vasu Venkatasubramanian, Suman Palavalli,
Sameer Joshi, Malai Stalin, Markus Michalewicz, Subrahmanyam Kodavaluru, Khethavath Singh, Sudip
Datta, Madhu Hunasigi, Jim Erickson, Marcus Fallen, Joseph Francis, Mark Fuller, Allan Graves, Barbara
Glover, Asad Hasan, Thirumaleshwara Hasandka, Sagar Jadhav, Clara Jaeckel, Aneesh Khandelwal, Joel
Kallman, Eugene Karichkin, Jai Krishnani, Sangeeth Kumar, Ranjith Kundapur, Kevin Jernigan, Christopher
Jones, Simon Law, Bryn Llewellyn, Saar Maoz, Sreejith Minnanghat, Gopal Mulagund, Ankur Kemkar, Sue
Lee, Rich Long, Raunak Rungta, Barb Lundhild, Rolly Lv, Rudregowda Mallegowda, Padmanabhan
Manavazhi, Mughees Minhas, Krishna Mohan, Matthew McKerley, John McHugh, Gurudas Pai, Satish
Panchumarthy , Rajesh Prasad, Rajendra Pingte, Apparsamy Perumal, Srinivas Poovala, Mohammed
Shahnawaz Quadri, Hanlin Qian, Gurumurthy Ramamurthy, Hema Ramamurthy, Sunil Ravindrachar, Mark
Richwine, Dipak Saggi, Trivikrama Samudrala, Shachi Sanklecha, David Schreiner, Ara Shakian, Janelle
Simmons, Mohit Singhal, Dharma Sirnapalli, Akshay Shah, James Spiller, Roy Swonger, Binoy Sukumaran,
Kamal Tbeileh, Ravi Thammaiah, Shekhar Vaggu, Preethi Vallam, Ajesh Viswambharan, Peter Wahl, Terri
Winters, Sergiusz Wolicki, Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Zakia Zerhouni
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Contents
Preface .............................................................................................................................................................. xiii
Audience .....................................................................................................................................................
xiii
Documentation Accessibility ...................................................................................................................
xiii
Command Syntax ...................................................................................................................................... xiv
Related Documentation ............................................................................................................................ xiv
Conventions................................................................................................................................................. xv
Changes in this Release for Oracle Database ............................................................................. xvii
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) .................................................................................
xvii
New Features ....................................................................................................................................
xvii
Deprecated Features.......................................................................................................................... xxi
Desupported Features ...................................................................................................................... xxi
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) .................................................................................. xxi
New Features ....................................................................................................................................
xxii
Deprecated Features........................................................................................................................ xxiv
Desupported Features .................................................................................................................... xxiv
1 Oracle Database Installation Checklist
1.1 Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation ....................................................
1-1
1.2 Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux ..................................
1-2
1.3 Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation..............................................
1-4
1.4 Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation............
1-7
1.5 Storage Checklist for Oracle Database Installation......................................................................
1-8
1.6 Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database ........................................................................
1-9
1.7 Deployment Checklist for Oracle Database ................................................................................ 1-12
2 Checking and Configuring Server Hardware for Oracle Database
2.1 Logging In to a Remote System Using X Window System.........................................................
2-1
2.2 Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration ...........................................................
2-2
iii
3 Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3.1 Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle RPMs....................................................
3-1
3.2 Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support ..................................................
3-2
3.3 Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network ......................
3-3
3.4 Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images ...........................................
3-4
3.5 Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support ..............................................
3-5
3.6 Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates .................................................
3-6
3.7 Configure Additional Operating System Features ......................................................................
3-6
4 Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux
4.1 Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation...................................................................
4-2
4.1.1 Completing a Minimal Linux Installation .........................................................................
4-3
4.1.2 Completing a Default Linux Installation ...........................................................................
4-4
4.1.3 About Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel .......................................
4-4
4.1.4 About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM ...............................................................................
4-5
4.1.5 Restrictions for HugePages and Transparent HugePages Configurations...................
4-6
4.2 Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices .......................................
4-7
4.2.1 General Upgrade Best Practices ..........................................................................................
4-7
4.2.2 New Server Operating System Upgrade Option ..............................................................
4-8
4.2.3 Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications....................................................................................
4-8
4.3 Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices........................................................
4-9
4.4 About Installation Fixup Scripts.....................................................................................................
4-9
4.5 About Operating System Requirements...................................................................................... 4-10
4.6 Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z .......................................................... 4-10
4.7 Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms ................................................. 4-11
4.7.1 Supported Oracle Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64 ....................................................... 4-12
4.7.2 Supported Oracle Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64 ....................................................... 4-13
4.7.3 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64 ................................. 4-15
4.7.4 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64 ................................. 4-16
4.7.5 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for x86-64........................ 4-17
4.8 Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z ................................................ 4-20
4.8.1 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z .. 4-20
4.8.2 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z .. 4-21
4.8.3 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for IBM: Linux on
System z...................................................................................................................................... 4-22
4.9 Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux .............................................................. 4-23
4.9.1 Installing PAM for Login Authentication on Linux....................................................... 4-24
4.9.2 Installation Requirements for OCFS2............................................................................... 4-24
4.9.3 Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway.............................................................................. 4-25
4.9.4 Installation Requirements for ODBC and LDAP............................................................ 4-25
4.9.5 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux....................... 4-26
4.9.6 Installation Requirements for Web Browsers.................................................................. 4-27
iv
4.10 Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux ......................................................... 4-27
4.11 Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux ..................................................................................... 4-28
4.12 Confirming Host Name Resolution ........................................................................................... 4-29
4.13 Disabling Transparent HugePages............................................................................................. 4-29
4.14 Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation...................................................... 4-30
4.15 Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux ............................................................................. 4-31
5 Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle Database
5.1 Required Operating System Groups and Users ...........................................................................
5-1
5.1.1 Determining If an Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exist ......................
5-2
5.1.2 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist.............
5-3
5.1.3 About Oracle Installation Owner Accounts ......................................................................
5-3
5.1.4 Identifying an Oracle Software Owner User Account .....................................................
5-3
5.2 Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users ....................
5-4
5.2.1 About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation.......................................................
5-5
5.2.2 Standard Oracle Database Groups for Database Administrators ..................................
5-6
5.2.3
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation ..........................................
5-6
5.2.4 Creating an ASMSNMP User ..............................................................................................
5-7
5.2.5 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation....................
5-7
5.3 Creating Operating System Privileges Groups ............................................................................
5-8
5.3.1 Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group ................................................................................
5-9
5.3.2 Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group ..............................................................................
5-9
5.3.3 Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations ..................................................
5-9
5.3.4 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations..................................................
5-9
5.3.5 Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations................................ 5-10
5.3.6 Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations .......................................... 5-10
5.3.7 Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations.......................................... 5-10
5.3.8 Creating the OSRACDBA Group for Database Installations........................................ 5-10
5.4 Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts............................................... 5-11
5.4.1 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User ....................................................................... 5-11
5.4.2 Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners ............................................ 5-12
5.4.3 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments ............................ 5-12
5.4.4 Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups............................................................................ 5-14
5.4.5 Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users .............................. 5-15
5.4.6 Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration....................................... 5-16
5.4.7 Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands ................... 5-17
5.5 Creating Oracle Database Vault User Accounts ........................................................................ 5-17
5.6 Unsetting Oracle Installation Owner Environment Variables ................................................. 5-18
6 Configuring Networks for Oracle Database
6.1 About Oracle Database Network Configuration Options ..........................................................
6-1
6.2 About Assigning Global Database Names During Installation.................................................
6-2
v
6.3 Network Configuration for Computers Completed After Installation.....................................
6-3
6.4 Network Configuration for Multihome Computers....................................................................
6-3
6.5 Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable.......................................................
6-4
6.6 Network Configuration for Computers with Multiple Aliases .................................................
6-4
7 Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
7.1 Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database .........................................................................
7-2
7.2 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server ........................................................
7-3
7.3 About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances......................
7-4
7.4 About Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions ....................................................
7-4
7.5 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM ....................................................................................................
7-4
7.5.1 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux x86–64 ...........................................
7-5
7.5.2 Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS ...................................................................
7-6
7.6 File System Options for Oracle Database ......................................................................................
7-7
7.7 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files On a File System or Logical Volume ..............
7-8
7.8 About NFS Storage for Data Files ..................................................................................................
7-8
7.9 About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices .........................................................
7-9
8 Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database
8.1 Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database..................................................
8-1
8.2 Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client.................................................
8-2
8.3 Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client .........................................................................
8-2
8.4 Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS........................................................
8-5
8.5 Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client ..............................................
8-5
9 Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
9.1 Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ............................................
9-2
9.1.1 Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management .........
9-2
9.1.2 ASM Disk Group Options for Interactive and Noninteractive Installation..................
9-5
9.1.3 Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group ......................................................................
9-6
9.2 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD .......................................
9-6
9.2.1 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver .........................................................
9-7
9.3 Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ..............
9-7
9.4 Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files.............................................................................
9-7
9.5 Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management........
9-9
10 Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
10.1 About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation.................................................. 10-2
10.2 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database
Installation.......................................................................................................................................... 10-2
10.3 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing Database ... 10-4
10.4 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only
Installation.......................................................................................................................................... 10-5
vi
10.4.1 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software-Only Installations.................................. 10-5
10.4.2 Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
..................................................................................................................................................... 10-6
10.4.3 Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server .......................................................................................................................................... 10-7
10.5 Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation.......................................... 10-8
10.6 Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation
.............................................................................................................................................................. 10-8
10.7 Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA .......................... 10-10
10.8 Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations .................................................... 10-10
11 Installing Oracle Database
11.1 Accessing the Installation Software ........................................................................................... 11-2
11.1.1 Downloading Oracle Software ........................................................................................ 11-2
11.1.2 Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN .............................................. 11-2
11.1.3 Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Portal ............... 11-3
11.1.4 Copying the Software to the Hard Disk......................................................................... 11-3
11.2 About Character Set Selection During Installation.................................................................. 11-4
11.3 About Automatic Memory Management Installation Options.............................................. 11-5
11.4 Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages.................................................. 11-6
11.5 Installing the Oracle Database Software ................................................................................... 11-6
11.5.1 Running Oracle Universal Installer to Install Oracle Database.................................. 11-7
12 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
12.1 Required Postinstallation Tasks ................................................................................................. 12-2
12.1.1 Downloading and Installing Patch Updates ................................................................. 12-2
12.1.2 Unlocking and Resetting Oracle Database User Passwords ....................................... 12-2
12.2 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks ....................................................................................... 12-8
12.2.1 Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script.......................................................................... 12-8
12.2.2 Setting Language and Locale Preferences for Client Connections............................. 12-9
12.2.3 Recompiling All Invalid Objects ................................................................................... 12-10
12.2.4 Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool ................................. 12-10
12.3 About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database ..................................... 12-11
12.4 Checking Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location ............................. 12-11
12.5 Enabling and Disabling Oracle Database Options After Installation ................................. 12-11
12.5.1 Chopt Tool........................................................................................................................ 12-12
12.6 Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express......................................................... 12-12
12.7 About Deploying Oracle Database Using Rapid Home Provisioning................................ 12-13
12.8 Creating a Fast Recovery Area.................................................................................................. 12-13
12.8.1 About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ............... 12-13
12.8.2 Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group............................................................. 12-14
vii
13 Removing Oracle Database Software
13.1 About Oracle Deinstallation Options ........................................................................................ 13-1
13.2 Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall) ....................................................................................... 13-3
13.3 Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database .......................................................................... 13-6
13.4 Downgrading Oracle Restart ...................................................................................................... 13-7
13.5 Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home................................................................................ 13-7
A Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually
A.1 Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux ................................................................................... A-1
A.1.1 Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation.................................................................. A-1
A.1.2 Changing Kernel Parameter Values .................................................................................. A-3
A.1.3 Configuring Additional Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux............................................... A-5
A.1.4 Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually....................................................... A-5
A.2 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB..................................... A-6
A.2.1 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB ......................................................................... A-6
A.2.2 Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software .................................................... A-7
A.2.3 Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB .......................................................... A-9
A.2.4 Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks ..................................................................... A-11
A.2.5 Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Database ........................................................ A-12
A.3 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually ......................................................... A-13
A.3.1 Configuring Device Persistence Manually for Oracle ASM ........................................ A-13
B Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
B.1 How Response Files Work .............................................................................................................. B-2
B.2 Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode ............................................................. B-2
B.3 Using Response Files ....................................................................................................................... B-3
B.4 Preparing Response Files ................................................................................................................ B-3
B.4.1 Editing a Response File Template ...................................................................................... B-4
B.4.2 Recording Response Files ................................................................................................... B-5
B.5 Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File ....................................................... B-6
B.6 Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files.......................................................... B-7
B.6.1 Running Net Configuration Assistant Using Response Files ........................................ B-8
B.6.2 Running Database Configuration Assistant Using Response Files ............................... B-9
B.7 Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation............... B-10
B.7.1 Using the Installation Response File for Postinstallation Configuration.................... B-10
B.7.2 Running Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File..................................... B-11
B.8 Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script ......................... B-12
B.8.1 About the Postinstallation Configuration File................................................................ B-13
B.8.2 Creating a Password Response File ................................................................................. B-13
B.8.3 Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Password Response File ............... B-14
viii
C Optimal Flexible Architecture
C.1 About the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard.................................................................... C-1
C.2 About Multiple Oracle Homes Support ....................................................................................... C-2
C.3 About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation ............................................................. C-3
C.4 Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention................................................................................. C-4
C.5 Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention.............................................................................. C-4
C.6 Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples ..................................................................... C-5
D Cloning Oracle Database
D.1 Cloning an Oracle Home ................................................................................................................ D-1
D.2 Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home ................................. D-3
E Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
E.1 About Managing Ports .................................................................................................................... E-1
E.2 About Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs........................................................................ E-2
E.3 Oracle Database Component Port Numbers and Protocols....................................................... E-2
Index
ix
x
List of Tables
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
5-1
7-1
7-2
9-1
9-2
12-1
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
B-1
C-1
C-2
E-1
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation............................................... 1-2
Operating System General Checklist for Oracle Database on Linux................................... 1-2
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database............................................................. 1-4
User Environment Configuration for Oracle Database.......................................................... 1-7
Storage Checklist for Oracle Database...................................................................................... 1-8
Oracle Universal Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database Installation................ 1-9
Deployment Checklist for Oracle Database (single-instance)............................................. 1-12
x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements.................................. 4-12
x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements.................................. 4-13
x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements............ 4-16
x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements............ 4-17
x86-64 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System Requirements.. 4-18
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements........................ 4-20
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements........................ 4-21
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System Requirements............... 4-22
Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux X86–64.................................... 4-26
Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on System z.................. 4-27
Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges............................................... 5-15
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database.................................................................... 7-2
Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM.................................................... 7-5
Oracle ASM Disk Number and Space Requirements for an Oracle database (non-CDB)
................................................................................................................................................... 9-4
Oracle ASM Disk Number and Space Requirements for a multitenant container
database (CDB) with one pluggable database (PDB)....................................................... 9-4
Partial List of Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts Locked After Installation. 12-4
Minimum Operating System Resource Parameter Settings................................................. A-2
Commands to Display Kernel Parameter Values................................................................... A-3
Device Name Formats Based on Disk Type............................................................................ A-9
Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM.................................................................... A-11
Response Files for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure................................... B-4
Examples of OFA-Compliant Oracle Base Directory Names............................................... C-4
Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples......................................... C-5
Protocols and Default Port Numbers for Oracle Database Components........................... E-2
xi
xii
Preface
This guide explains how to install and configure single-instance Oracle Database.
This guide also provides information about Optimal Flexible Architecture, cloning an
Oracle home, and how to remove the database software.
Audience (page xiii)
This guide is intended for anyone responsible for installing Oracle
Database 12c Release 2 (12.2).
Documentation Accessibility (page xiii)
Command Syntax (page xiv)
Refer to these command syntax conventions to understand command
examples in this guide.
Related Documentation (page xiv)
Conventions (page xv)
Audience
This guide is intended for anyone responsible for installing Oracle Database 12c
Release 2 (12.2).
Additional installation guides for Oracle Database, Oracle Real Application Clusters,
Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database Examples, and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control are available at the following URL:
http://docs.oracle.com
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?
ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support
through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/
topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?
ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.
xiii
Command Syntax
Refer to these command syntax conventions to understand command examples in this
guide.
Convention
Description
$
Bourne or BASH shell prompt in a command example. Do not enter the
prompt as part of the command.
%
C Shell prompt in a command example. Do not enter the prompt as part
of the command.
#
Superuser (root) prompt in a command example. Do not enter the prompt
as part of the command.
monospace
UNIX command syntax
backslash \
A backslash is the UNIX and Linux command continuation character. It is
used in command examples that are too long to fit on a single line. Enter
the command as displayed (with a backslash) or enter it on a single line
without a backslash:
dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s6 of=/dev/rst0 bs=10b \ count=10000
braces { }
Braces indicate required items:
.DEFINE {macro1}
brackets [ ]
Brackets indicate optional items:
cvtcrt termname [outfile]
ellipses ...
Ellipses indicate an arbitrary number of similar items:
CHKVAL fieldname value1 value2 ... valueN
Italic type indicates a variable. Substitute a value for the variable:
italic
library_name
vertical line |
A vertical line indicates a choice within braces or brackets:
FILE filesize [K|M]
Related Documentation
The related documentation for Oracle Database products includes the following
manuals:
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
xiv
Oracle Database Concepts
Oracle Database New Features Guide
Oracle Database Licensing Information
Oracle Database Readme
Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux
Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xv
Changes in this Release for Oracle
Database
Changes in Oracle Database Installation Guide for Oracle Database 12c.
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) (page xvii)
New features, deprecated features, and desupported features in this
release.
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) (page xxi)
New features, deprecated features, and desupported features in this
release.
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2)
New features, deprecated features, and desupported features in this release.
The following are changes in Oracle Database Installation Guide for Oracle Database
12c Release 2 (12.2):
New Features (page xvii)
New features for Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2).
Deprecated Features (page xxi)
The following feature is deprecated in this release, and may be
desupported in a future release:
Desupported Features (page xxi)
New Features
New features for Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2).
•
Simplified Image based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software is available as an image file for download and installation.
You must extract the image software into the directory where you want your Grid
home to be located, and then run the gridSetup.sh script to start the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation.
For more information, see About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation (page 10-2)
•
Parallel NFS Support in Direct NFS Client
xvii
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Direct NFS Client
supports parallel NFS. Parallel NFS is an NFSv4.1 option that allows direct client
access to file servers, enabling scalable distributed storage.
For more information, see About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage
Devices (page 7-9)
•
Direct NFS Dispatcher Support
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Direct NFS Client
supports adding a dispatcher or I/O slave infrastructure. For very large database
deployments running Direct NFS client, this feature facilitates scaling of sockets
and TCP connections to multi-path and clustered NFS storage.
For more information, see About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage
Devices (page 7-9)
•
Kerberos Authentication for Direct NFS
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Database supports
Kerberos implementation with Direct NFS communication. This feature solves the
problem of authentication, message integrity, and optional encryption over
unsecured networks for data exchanged between Oracle Database and NFS
servers using Direct NFS protocols.
For more information, see Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
(page 8-2)
•
Separation of Duty for Administering Oracle Real Application Clusters
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Database provides
support for separation of duty best practices when administering Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by introducing the SYSRAC administrative
privilege for the clusterware agent. This feature removes the need to use the
powerful SYSDBA administrative privilege for Oracle RAC.
SYSRAC, like SYSDG, SYSBACKUP, and SYSKM, helps enforce separation of
duties and reduce reliance on the use of SYSDBA on production systems. This
administrative privilege is the default mode for connecting to the database by the
clusterware agent on behalf of the Oracle RAC utilities such as srvctl.
For more information, see Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role
Separation (page 5-6)
•
AL32UTF8 As the Default Database Character Set
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the default database character
set of a database created from the General Purpose/Transaction Processing or the
Data Warehousing template is Unicode AL32UTF8. Oracle recommends that you
use Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set.
For more information, see About Character Set Selection During Installation
(page 11-4)
•
Single-instance Configurations and Operations supported by Rapid Home
Provisioning
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Rapid Home
Provisioning adds support for installing and configuring single-instance Oracle
Databases. These may be on nodes with or without Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installed. Rapid Home Provisioning does not support single-instance databases
for Oracle Restart configurations.
xviii
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Rapid Home
Provisioning also supports Oracle Database upgrades.
For more information, see About Deploying Oracle Database Using Rapid Home
Provisioning (page 12-13)
•
Preserve Home Path during Updates with Rapid Home Provisioning
Rapid Home Provisioning leverages a new filesystem capability which allows for
separation of gold image software from the site-specific configuration changes, so
the home path remains unchanged throughout updates. This capability is
available starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), and combines the benefits of in-place and outof-place patching.
This feature does not apply to Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
or Oracle Restart configurations.
•
Postinstallation Configuration of Oracle Software using the -executeConfigTools
option
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can perform
postinstallation configuration of Oracle products by running the Oracle Database
or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer with the -executeConfigTools option.
You can use the same response file created during installation to complete
postinstallation configuration.
For more information, see Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using
Response Files (page B-1)
New Features for Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2)
•
Automatic Configuration of Oracle ASM Filter Driver
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can enable and automate
the configuration of Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) with a check box
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
For more information, see About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
(page 9-7)
•
Oracle ACFS Snapshot-Based Replication
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
snapshot-based replication feature uses Oracle ACFS snapshot technology to
transfer the differences between successive snapshots to the standby file system
using standard ssh transport protocol. Oracle ACFS Snapshot-based replication is
more efficient with higher performance, lower overhead, and ease of
management.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Compression
Oracle ACFS provides file system compression functionality, reducing storage
requirement, and resulting in lower costs. Oracle ACFS compression is managed
using the new acfsutil compress commands and updates to the acfsutil
info command.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
xix
•
Oracle ACFS Defragger
Databases that share storage with snapshots or with the base of the file system can
become fragmented under active online transaction processing (OLTP) workloads.
This fragmentation can cause the location of the data in the volume to be
discontiguous for sequential scans. Oracle ACFS automatically defragments these
files in the background.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Support for 4K Sectors
Oracle ACFS supports I/O requests in multiples of 4K logical sector sizes as well
as continued support for 512-byte logical sector size I/O requests. The i4096
option is provided with the acfsformat command on Microsoft Windows and
the mkfs command in Linux and Oracle Solaris environments.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Automatic Resize
Oracle ACFS provides an automatic resize option with the acfsutil size
command. This command enables you to specify an increment by which an Oracle
ACFS file system grows automatically if the amount of available free space in the
file system falls below a specified amount. There is also an option to specify the
maxiOracle ACFS plugins support file content data collection. Both polling and
interval based capture are supported with the file content collection.mum size
allowed when using the automatic resize option. The output of the acfsutil
info fs command displays the automatic resize increment and maximum
amounts.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Metadata Acceleration
Oracle ACFS supports accelerator metadata storage. This support enables many
critical Oracle ACFS metadata structures, including extent metadata, storage
bitmaps, volume logs, and some snapshot metadata to be placed on accelerator
storage.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Plugins for File Content Data Collection
Oracle ACFS plugins support file content data collection. Both, polling and
interval based capture are supported with the file content collection.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
Oracle ACFS Sparse Files
Oracle ACFS provides support for sparse files. Oracle ACFS sparse files greatly
benefit NFS client write operations, which are commonly received out of order by
the NFS server and the associated Oracle ACFS file system.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
xx
•
Oracle ACFS Scrubbing Functionality
Oracle ACFS provides scrubbing functionality with the acfsutil scrub
command to check for and report any inconsistencies in the metadata or file data.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
•
High Availability Common Internet File System
Release 12.2 enhances Oracle ACFS Common Internet File System (CIFS) features
to provide high availability for exported file systems with the Oracle ACFS NAS
Maximum Availability eXtensions (NAS MAX) technology. High Availability
Common Internet File System (HACIFS) and High Availability Network File
System (HANFS), both provide comprehensive Network Attach Storage solutions
for Oracle ACFS.
For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
Deprecated Features
The following feature is deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in a
future release:
•
Deprecation of the configToolAllCommands script
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the
configToolAllCommands script is deprecated and is subject to desupport in a
future release. The configToolAllCommands script runs in response file mode
to configure Oracle products after installation and uses a separate password
response file.
To perform postinstallation configuration of Oracle products, you can now run
the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer with the executeConfigTools option. You can use the same response file created
during installation to complete postinstallation configuration.
For a complete list of deprecated features, see:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Desupported Features
For a complete list of desupported features, see:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)
New features, deprecated features, and desupported features in this release.
The following are changes in Oracle Database Installation Guide for Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1):
New Features (page xxii)
New features for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
Deprecated Features (page xxiv)
The following features are deprecated in this release, and may be
desupported in a future release:
xxi
Desupported Features (page xxiv)
The following features are no longer supported by Oracle:
New Features
New features for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
•
Oracle ASM Filter Driver
The Oracle ASM filter driver (Oracle ASMFD) feature is available starting with
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Oracle ASMFD is a kernel module that resides in the I/O path of the Oracle ASM
disks.
Oracle ASMFD rejects any write requests that are not issued by Oracle software.
This action eliminates accidental overwrites of Oracle ASM disks that can cause
corruption in an Oracle ASM disk and files within the disk group.
The filter has additional functionality to fence I/Os from entities that are no
longer communicating with Oracle ASM.
For more information, see:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Root Scripts Automation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), Oracle Universal Installer
provides options to automatically run root configuration scripts required during a
grid infrastructure installation. You also have the option to manually run the root
configuration scripts.
•
Oracle Flex ASM
Oracle Flex ASM enables an Oracle ASM instance to run on a separate physical
server from the database servers. Many Oracle ASM instances can be clustered to
support a large number of database clients.
Oracle Database instances can be set up as clients to Oracle Flex ASM where
metadata is provided to the database instance by an Oracle Flex ASM instance
that may be on a different node than the database instance.
Note that Oracle Flex ASM can apply to a collection of databases, each one a
single instance but running in a Flex ASM Cluster.
For more information about Oracle Flex ASM, see:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
•
Deinstallation Tool Integrated with Installation Media
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the deinstallation tool is integrated with the
database installation media and is no longer provided on a separate installation
media.
For more information, see:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
•
Simplified Oracle Label Security Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Label Security is installed by default as
part of the Oracle Database installation. You can no longer select Oracle Label
xxii
Security as a custom component during an Enterprise Edition database
installation.
For more information, see:
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide
•
Simplified Oracle Database Vault Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Vault is installed by default as
part of the Oracle Database installation. However, you can configure, enable, or
disable Oracle Database Vault after the Oracle Database installation, either using
Oracle DBCA, or by running SQL statements. For more information, see:
•
–
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide, "Disabling and Enabling Oracle
Database Vault."
–
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide, "Registering Oracle Database
Vault with an Oracle Database"
Unified Database Audit Configuration
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you can create named audit policies. An audit
policy contains a set of audit options, which is stored in the database as an object.
The advantage of creating a named audit policy is that it reduces the number of
commands that are required to create a database audit policy, and it simplifies the
implementation of an audit configuration for security and compliance with
conditional auditing.
This new audit policy framework is included with the database installation.
For more information, see:
Oracle Database Security Guide
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c
Oracle Database 12c introduces Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c,
a web-based management tool built into Oracle Database without any need for
special installation or management. Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Express, you can perform basic administrative tasks such as user, performance,
memory, and space management. You can also view performance and status
information about your database.
For more information, see:
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
Note:
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control is no longer available. For more information, see:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
•
Multiprocess and Multithreaded Oracle Database
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database may use operating system
threads to allow resource sharing and reduce resource consumption. For more
information, see:
Oracle Database Concepts
xxiii
•
Support for Separation of Database Administration Duties
Oracle Database 12c provides support for separation of database administration
duties for Oracle Database by introducing task-specific and least-privileged
administrative privileges that do not require the SYSDBA administrative
privilege. These new privileges are: SYSBACKUP for backup and recovery,
SYSDG for Oracle Data Guard, and SYSKM for encryption key management. For
more information, see:
Oracle Database Security Guide
•
Oracle DBCA Support for CDBs and PDBs
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
(Oracle DBCA) allows you to create a a multitenant container database (CDB) or a
non-CDB. You can create the CDB with zero, one, or more user-created pluggable
databases (PDBs).
You can also create a CDB with one PDB during the database installation.
For more information, see:
•
–
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
–
About Common Users and Local Users
–
Managing Common Roles and Local Roles
–
Managing Commonly and Locally Granted Privileges
Support for NFS Version in Direct NFS Client
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you can specify the NFS protocol version to be
used by Direct NFS Client.
Deprecated Features
The following features are deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in a
future release:
•
Change for Standalone Deinstallation Tool
The deinstallation tool is now integrated with the database installation media.
•
Deprecation of -cleanupOBase
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), the -cleanupOBase flag of
the deinstallation tool is deprecated. There is no replacement for this flag.
For a complete list of deprecated features, see:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Desupported Features
The following features are no longer supported by Oracle:
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
•
CLEANUP_ORACLE_BASE Property Removed
For a complete list of desupported features, see:
xxiv
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
xxv
1
Oracle Database Installation Checklist
Use checklists to review system requirements, and to plan and carry out Oracle
Database installation.
Oracle recommends that you use checklists as part of your installation planning
process. Using checklists can help you to confirm that your server hardware and
configuration meet minimum requirements for this release, and can help you to ensure
you carry out a successful installation.
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation (page 1-1)
Use this checklist to check hardware requirements for Oracle Database.
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
(page 1-2)
Use this checklist to check minimum operating system requirements for
Oracle Database.
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation (page 1-4)
Use this checklist to check minimum server configuration requirements
for Oracle Database installations.
Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation (page 1-7)
Use this checklist to plan operating system users, groups, and
environments for Oracle Database management.
Storage Checklist for Oracle Database Installation (page 1-8)
Use this checklist to review storage minimum requirements and assist
with configuration planning.
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database (page 1-9)
Use this checklist to assist you to be prepared before starting Oracle
Universal Installer.
Deployment Checklist for Oracle Database (page 1-12)
Use this checklist to decide the deployment method for a single-instance
Oracle Database.
1.1 Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Use this checklist to check hardware requirements for Oracle Database.
Oracle Database Installation Checklist 1-1
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
Table 1-1
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Check
Task
Server Make
and
Architecture
Confirm that server make, model, core architecture, and host bus adaptors
(HBA) or network interface controllers (NICs) are supported to run with
Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Ensure the server has a DVD
drive, if you are installing from a DVD.
Runlevel
3 or 5
Server
Display
Cards
At least 1024 x 768 display resolution, which Oracle Universal Installer
requires.
Minimum
network
connectivity
Server is connected to a network
Minimum
RAM
•
•
At least 1 GB RAM for Oracle Database installations. 2 GB RAM
recommended.
At least 8 GB RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
1.2 Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
Use this checklist to check minimum operating system requirements for Oracle
Database.
Table 1-2
Operating System General Checklist for Oracle Database on Linux
Item
Task
Operating system
general
requirements
OpenSSH installed manually, if you do not have it installed already as
part of a default Linux installation.
1-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
A Linux kernel in the list of supported kernels and releases listed in this
guide.
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
Table 1-2
(Cont.) Operating System General Checklist for Oracle Database on Linux
Item
Task
Linux x86-64
operating system
requirements
The following Linux x86-64 kernels are supported:
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-35.3.1.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7.2 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-32.2.3.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7: 3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2:
2.6.39-400.211.1.el6uek.x86_64or later
Oracle Linux 6.6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-44.1.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.8 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-37.6.2.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4: 2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11.1 or later
Review the system requirements section for a list of minimum package
requirements.
IBM: Linux on
System z operating
system
requirements
The following IBM: Linux on System z kernels are supported:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2: 3.10.0-327.el7.s390x or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6: 2.6.32-504.el6.s390x or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11-default s390x or
later
Review the system requirements section for a list of minimum package
requirements.
Oracle
Preinstallation
RPM for Oracle
Linux
If you use Oracle Linux, then Oracle recommends that you run an
Oracle preinstallation RPM for your Linux release to configure your
operating system for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations.
Oracle RPM
Checker utility for
IBM: Linux on
System z
Oracle recommends that you use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to
verify that you have the required Red Hat Enterprise Linux or SUSE
packages installed on your IBM: Linux on System z operating system
before you start the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
Disable
Transparent
HugePages
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages and use
standard HugePages for enhanced performance.
Oracle Database Installation Checklist 1-3
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Related Topics:
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
(page 3-1)
Use Oracle Linux RPMs to simplify operating system configuration in
preparation for Oracle software installations.
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms (page 4-11)
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported
for this release on x86-64.
Disabling Transparent HugePages (page 4-29)
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages before you
start installation.
1.3 Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Use this checklist to check minimum server configuration requirements for Oracle
Database installations.
Table 1-3
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Disk space allocated to
the /tmp directory
At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.
Swap space allocation
relative to RAM (Oracle
Database)
Swap space allocation
relative to RAM (Oracle
Restart)
1-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Between 1 GB and 2 GB: 1.5 times the size of the RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB: Equal to the size of the RAM
More than 16 GB: 16 GB
Note: If you enable HugePages for your Linux servers,
then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating
swap space.
Between 8 GB and 16 GB: Equal to the size of the RAM
More than 16 GB: 16 GB
Note: If you enable HugePages for your Linux servers,
then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating
swap space.
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Table 1-3
(Cont.) Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Oracle Inventory
(oraInventory) and
OINSTALL Group
Requirements
•
For upgrades, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects an
existing oraInventory directory from the /etc/
oraInst.loc file, and uses the existing oraInventory.
•
For new installs, if you have not configured an
oraInventory directory, then the installer creates an Oracle
inventory that is one directory level up from the Oracle
base for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure install, and
designates the installation owner's primary group as the
Oracle Inventory group.
The Oracle Inventory directory is the central inventory of
Oracle software installed on your system. Users who have the
Oracle Inventory group as their primary group are granted the
OINSTALL privilege to write to the central inventory.
The OINSTALL group must be the primary group of all Oracle
software installation owners on the server. It should be
writable by any Oracle installation owner.
Groups and users
Oracle recommends that you create groups and user accounts
required for your security plans before starting installation.
Installation owners have resource limits settings and other
requirements. Group and user names must use only ASCII
characters.
Mount point paths for the
software binaries
Oracle recommends that you create an Optimal Flexible
Architecture configuration as described in the appendix
"Optimal Flexible Architecture" in Oracle Database Installation
Guide for your platform.
Ensure that the Oracle home
(the Oracle home path you
select for Oracle Database)
uses only ASCII characters
The ASCII character restriction includes installation owner
user names, which are used as a default for some home paths,
as well as other directory names you may select for paths.
Unset Oracle software
environment variables
If you have an existing Oracle software installation, and you
are using the same user to install this installation, then unset
the following environment variables: $ORACLE_HOME,
$ORA_NLS10, and $TNS_ADMIN.
If you have set $ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable,
then unset it before starting an installation or upgrade. Do not
use $ORA_CRS_HOME as a user environment variable, except as
directed by Oracle Support.
Oracle Database Installation Checklist 1-5
Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Table 1-3
(Cont.) Server Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Determine superuser
(root) privilege delegation
option for installation
During a database or grid infrastructure installation, you are
asked to run configuration scripts as the root user.
During a grid infrastructure installation, you can either run
these scripts manually as root when prompted, or you can
provide configuration information and passwords using a root
privilege delegation option.
To run root scripts automatically, select Automatically run
configuration scripts during installation.
•
Use root user credentials
•
Provide the superuser password for cluster member node
servers.
Use Sudo
Sudo is a UNIX and Linux utility that allows members of
the sudoers list privileges to run individual commands as
root. Provide the username and password of an
operating system user that is a member of sudoers, and is
authorized to run Sudo on each cluster member node.
To enable Sudo, have a system administrator with the
appropriate privileges configure a user that is a member
of the sudoers list, and provide the username and
password when prompted during installation.
Set locale (if needed)
Specify the language and the territory, or locale, in which you
want to use Oracle components. A locale is a linguistic and
cultural environment in which a system or program is running.
NLS (National Language Support) parameters determine the
locale-specific behavior on both servers and clients. The locale
setting of a component determines the language of the user
interface of the component, and the globalization behavior,
such as date and number formatting.
Check Shared Memory File
System Mount
By default, your operating system includes an entry in /etc/
fstab to mount /dev/shm. However, if your Cluster
Verification Utility (CVU) or Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
checks fail, ensure that the /dev/shm mount area is of type
tmpfs and is mounted with the following options:
•
•
rw and exec permissions set on it
Without noexec or nosuid set on it
Note: These options may not be listed as they are usually set
as the default permissions by your operating system.
Related Topics:
Checking and Configuring Server Hardware for Oracle Database (page 2-1)
Verify that servers where you install Oracle Database meet the minimum
requirements for installation.
1-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and
Oracle Database (page 5-1)
Before installation, create operating system groups and users, and
configure user environments.
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide
1.4 Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation
Use this checklist to plan operating system users, groups, and environments for Oracle
Database management.
Table 1-4
User Environment Configuration for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Review Oracle Inventory
(oraInventory) and
OINSTALL Group
Requirements
The physical group you designate as the Oracle Inventory
directory is the central inventory of Oracle software installed
on your system. It should be the primary group for all Oracle
software installation owners. Users who have the Oracle
Inventory group as their primary group are granted the
OINSTALL privilege to read and write to the central inventory.
•
If you have an existing installation, then OUI detects the
existing oraInventory directory from the/etc/
oraInst.loc file, and uses this location.
•
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time, then
OUI creates an Oracle base and central inventory, and
creates an Oracle inventory using information in the
following priority:
–
In the path indicated in the ORACLE_BASE
environment variable set for the installation owner
user account.
–
In an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) path
(u[01–99]/app/owner where owner is the name of the
user account running the installation), if that user
account has permissions to write to that path.
–
In the user home directory, in the path /app/owner,
where owner is the name of the user account running
the installation.
Ensure that the group designated as the OINSTALL group is
available as the primary group for all planned Oracle software
installation owners.
Create operating system
groups and users for
standard or role-allocated
system privileges
Create operating system groups and users depending on your
security requirements, as described in this install guide.
Set resource limits settings and other requirements for Oracle
software installation owners.
Group and user names must use only ASCII characters.
Unset Oracle Software
Environment Variables
If you have had an existing installation on your system, and
you are using the same user account to install this installation,
then unset the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE,
ORACLE_SID, TNS_ADMIN environment variables and any
other environment variable set for the Oracle installation user
that is connected with Oracle software homes.
Oracle Database Installation Checklist 1-7
Storage Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Table 1-4
(Cont.) User Environment Configuration for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Configure the Oracle
Software Owner
Environment
Configure the environment of the oracle or grid user by
performing the following tasks:
•
•
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in
the shell startup file.
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Related Topics:
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and
Oracle Database (page 5-1)
Before installation, create operating system groups and users, and
configure user environments.
1.5 Storage Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Use this checklist to review storage minimum requirements and assist with
configuration planning.
Table 1-5
Storage Checklist for Oracle Database
Check
Minimum local
disk storage space
for Oracle software
Task
For Linux x86-64:
At least 8.6 GB for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server installation.
At least 7.5 GB for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition.
At least 7.5 GB for Oracle Database Standard Edition 2.
For IBM: Linux on System z:
At least 6.5 GB for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server installation.
At least 5.7 GB for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition.
At least 5.7 GB for Oracle Database Standard Edition 2.
Select Database
File Storage Option
Ensure that you have one of the following storage options available:
•
File system mounted on the server. Oracle recommends that the file
system you select is separate from the file system used by the
operating system or the Oracle software. Options include the
following:
–
•
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a
RAID device
–
A network file system (NFS) mounted on a certified networkattached storage (NAS) device
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
Oracle ASM is installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. If you plan to use Oracle ASM for storage, then you
should install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and
create the database.
1-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Table 1-5
(Cont.) Storage Checklist for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Determine your
recovery plan
If you want to enable recovery during installation, then be prepared to
select one of the following options:
•
File system: Configure a fast recovery area on a file system during
installation
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Review the storage configuration sections of this document for more
information about configuring recovery.
Related Topics:
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database (page 8-1)
Complete these procedures to use file system storage for Oracle
Database.
1.6 Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Use this checklist to assist you to be prepared before starting Oracle Universal
Installer.
Table 1-6 Oracle Universal Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation
Check
Task
Read the Release Notes
Review release notes for your platform, which are available for
your release at the following URL:
http://docs.oracle.com/en/database/database.html
Review Oracle Support
Certification Matrix
New platforms and operating system software versions may be
certified after this guide is published, review the certification
matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-to-date
list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions:
https://support.oracle.com/
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After
logging in, from the menu options, select the Certifications tab. On
the Certifications page, use the Certification Search options to
search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also search using
the Certification Quick Link options such as Product Delivery,
and Lifetime Support.
Review the Licensing
Information
You are permitted to use only those components in the Oracle
Database media pack for which you have purchased licenses. For
more information about licenses, refer to the following URL:
Oracle Database Licensing Information
Oracle Database Installation Checklist 1-9
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Table 1-6 (Cont.) Oracle Universal Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation
Check
Task
Run OUI with CVU
and use fixup scripts
Oracle Universal Installer is fully integrated with Cluster
Verification Utility (CVU), automating many CVU prerequisite
checks. Oracle Universal Installer runs all prerequisite checks and
creates fixup scripts when you run the installer. You can run OUI
up to the Summary screen without starting the installation.
You can also run CVU commands manually to check system
readiness. For more information, see:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
Download and run
ORAchk for runtime
and upgrade checks, or
runtime health checks
The ORAchk utility provides system checks that can help to
prevent issues before and after installation. These checks include
kernel requirements, operating system resource allocations, and
other system requirements.
Use the ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment to obtain an
automated upgrade-specific system health check for upgrades to
11.2.0.3, 11.2.0.4, 12.1.0.1, 12.1.0.2, and 12.2. For example:
•
Before you perform a fresh database installation:
•
./orachk -profile preinstall
To upgrade your existing database to a higher version or
release:
./orachk -u -o pre
The ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment automates many of
the manual pre- and post-upgrade checks described in Oracle
upgrade documentation. ORAchk is supported on Windows 2008
and Windows 2012 on a Cygwin environment only. Check My
Oracle Support Note 1268927.1 for more information about
ORAchk support.
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1268927.2
Verify if Oracle Grid
Infrastructure is
installed
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then install Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and
create the database. Otherwise, to use Oracle ASM, you must
complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, and then
manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
For Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) installations,
ensure that you have installed and configured Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster.
Check running Oracle
processes, and shut
down if necessary
•
•
•
1-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
On a standalone database not using Oracle ASM: You do not
need to shut down the database while you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
On a standalone database using Oracle ASM: The Oracle ASM
instances are restarted during installation.
On an Oracle RAC Database node: This installation requires an
upgrade of Oracle Clusterware, as Oracle Clusterware is
required to run Oracle RAC. As part of the upgrade, you must
shut down the database one node at a time as the rolling
upgrade proceeds from node to node.
Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Table 1-6 (Cont.) Oracle Universal Installer Planning Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation
Check
Task
Ensure cron jobs do
not run during
installation
If the installer is running when daily cron jobs start, then you may
encounter unexplained installation problems if your cron job is
performing cleanup, and temporary files are deleted before the
installation is finished. Oracle recommends that you complete
installation before daily cron jobs are run, or disable daily cron jobs
that perform cleanup until after the installation is completed.
Obtain your My Oracle
Support account
information.
During installation, you require a My Oracle Support user name
and password to configure security updates, download software
updates, and other installation tasks. You can register for My
Oracle Support at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/
Decide Oracle Database
management tool
By default, Oracle Database 12c is managed by Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Express.
If you have an existing Oracle Management Agent, and decide to
use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to centrally manage
your database, then obtain the following information to enter
during the database installation:
Review memory
allocation and
Automatic Memory
Management feature
•
•
•
•
•
See:
OMS host
OMS port
EM admin username
EM admin password
Specify password of ASMSNMP user
•
•
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrator’s Guide
You can enable automatic memory management either during, or
after Oracle Database installation. If you enable automatic memory
management after installation, then you must shut down and
restart the database.
With Automatic Memory Management, Oracle Database instances
automatically manage and tune memory. You choose a memory
target, and the instance automatically distributes memory between
the system global area (SGA) and the instance program global area
(instance PGA). As memory requirements change, the instance
dynamically redistributes memory between the SGA and instance
PGA.
For more information, see:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Oracle Database Client
and Oracle Database
interoperability
For information about interoperability between Oracle Database
Client and Oracle Database releases, see My Oracle Support Note
207303.1:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=207303.1
Related Topics:
Installing Oracle Database (page 11-1)
Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation software is
available in multiple media, and can be installed using several options.
Oracle Database Installation Checklist 1-11
Deployment Checklist for Oracle Database
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
(page 10-1)
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server includes Oracle
Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
1.7 Deployment Checklist for Oracle Database
Use this checklist to decide the deployment method for a single-instance Oracle
Database.
Table 1-7
Deployment Checklist for Oracle Database (single-instance)
Item
Task
To deploy singleinstance Oracle
Database software
Use one of the following deployment methods:
•
•
•
To Deploy singleinstance Oracle
Database software
and create
databases
To Create singleinstance Oracle
Database in an
already-installed
Oracle home
Install Oracle Database software using Oracle Universal Installer
(OUI).
Provision Oracle Database software using Rapid Home
Provisioning.
Clone Oracle Database.
Use one of the following deployment methods:
•
•
Install Oracle Database software using Oracle Universal Installer
(OUI).
Provision Oracle Database software using Rapid Home
Provisioning.
Clone Oracle Database.
•
•
Use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA).
Use Rapid Home Provisioning
•
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more
information about Rapid Home Provisioning
Related Topics:
Installing Oracle Database (page 11-1)
Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation software is
available in multiple media, and can be installed using several options.
About Deploying Oracle Database Using Rapid Home Provisioning (page 12-13)
You can use Rapid Home Provisioning to provision Oracle Database
software.
Cloning Oracle Database (page D-1)
Cloning an Oracle home involves creating a copy of the Oracle home
and then configuring it for a new environment.
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
1-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
2
Checking and Configuring Server Hardware
for Oracle Database
Verify that servers where you install Oracle Database meet the minimum
requirements for installation.
This section provides minimum server requirements to complete installation of Oracle
Database. It does not provide system resource guidelines, or other tuning guidelines
for particular workloads.
Logging In to a Remote System Using X Window System (page 2-1)
Use this procedure to run Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) by logging on
to a remote system where the runtime setting prohibits logging in
directly to a graphical user interface (GUI).
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration (page 2-2)
Use this procedure to gather information about your server
configuration.
2.1 Logging In to a Remote System Using X Window System
Use this procedure to run Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) by logging on to a remote
system where the runtime setting prohibits logging in directly to a graphical user
interface (GUI).
OUI is a graphical user interface (GUI) application. On servers where the runtime
settings prevent GUI applications from running, you can redirect the GUI display to a
client system connecting to the server.
Note:
If you log in as another user (for example, oracle or grid), then repeat this
procedure for that user as well.
1. Start an X Window System session. If you are using an X Window System terminal
emulator from a PC or similar system, then you many need to configure security
settings to permit remote hosts to display X applications on your local system.
2. Enter a command using the following syntax to enable remote hosts to display X
applications on the local X server:
# xhost + RemoteHost
RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:
# xhost + somehost.example.com
somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
Checking and Configuring Server Hardware for Oracle Database 2-1
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
3. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh
command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:
# ssh -Y RemoteHost
RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. The -Y flag ("yes") enables
remote X11 clients to have full access to the original X11 display. For example:
# ssh -Y somehost.example.com
4. If you are not logged in as the root user, and you are performing configuration
steps that require root user privileges, then switch the user to root.
Note:
For more information about remote login using X Window System, refer to
your X server documentation, or contact your X server vendor or system
administrator. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you
may have to complete the tasks in a different order.
2.2 Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
Use this procedure to gather information about your server configuration.
1. Use the following command to determine physical RAM size on the server:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size,
then you must install more memory before continuing.
2. Determine the size of the configured swap space:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about how
to configure additional swap space.
3. Determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory:
# df -h /tmp
If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then
complete one of the following steps:
•
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
•
When you set the Oracle user's environment, also set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables to the directory you want to use instead of /tmp.
4. Determine the amount of free RAM and disk swap space on the system:
# free
5. Determine if the system architecture can run the software:
# uname -m
2-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release to install.
For example, you should see the following for a x86-64 bit system:
x86_64
If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this
system.
6. Verify that shared memory (/dev/shm) is mounted properly with sufficient size:
df -h /dev/shm
The df-h command displays the filesystem on which /dev/shm is mounted, and
also displays in GB the total size and free size of shared memory.
Related Topics:
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation (page 1-1)
Use this checklist to check hardware requirements for Oracle Database.
Checking and Configuring Server Hardware for Oracle Database 2-3
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
2-4 Installation Guide
3
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux
with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
Use Oracle Linux RPMs to simplify operating system configuration in preparation for
Oracle software installations.
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Linux 7 or Oracle Linux 6 and use Oracle
RPMs to configure your operating systems for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installations. For Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7, run the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM.
Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle RPMs (page 3-1)
Use Oracle Linux RPMs to simplify operating system configuration, and
to ensure that you have required kernel packages.
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support (page 3-2)
Use this procedure to subscribe to Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
Oracle Linux channels for your Oracle software.
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
(page 3-3)
Use this procedure to subscribe to Oracle Linux channels, and to add the
Oracle Linux channel that distributes the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images (page 3-4)
Use this procedure to install a new Oracle Linux installation and to
perform system configuration with the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support (page 3-5)
Use this procedure to install Oracle Linux and configure your Linux
installation for security errata or bug fix updates using the Oracle Linux
yum server.
Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates (page 3-6)
You can configure Oracle Ksplice to perform zero downtime updates for
your operating system if you have an Oracle Linux Premier Support
subscription and an access key, which is available on Unbreakable Linux
Network (ULN).
Configure Additional Operating System Features (page 3-6)
Oracle recommends that you configure your operating system before
starting installation with additional features, such as IPMI or additional
programming environments.
3.1 Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle RPMs
Use Oracle Linux RPMs to simplify operating system configuration, and to ensure that
you have required kernel packages.
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM 3-1
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 7 and use Oracle
RPMs to configure your operating systems for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installations.
The Oracle RPMs for your Oracle Linux distributions and Oracle RDBMS releases
automatically install any additional packages needed for installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and configure your server operating system
automatically, including setting kernel parameters and other basic operating system
requirements for installation. For more information about what the Oracle RPMs do,
refer to the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
Configuring a server using Oracle Linux and the Oracle Preinstallation RPM consists
of the following steps:
1.
Install Oracle Linux.
2.
Register your Linux distribution with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
or download and configure the yum repository for your system using the Oracle
Linux yum server for your Oracle Linux release.
3.
Install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with the RPM for your Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database releases, and update your Linux release.
4.
Create role-allocated groups and users with identical names and ID numbers.
5.
Complete network interface configuration for each cluster node candidate.
6.
Complete system configuration for shared storage access as required for each
standard or Core node cluster candidate.
After these steps are complete, you can proceed to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC.
3.2 Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
Use this procedure to subscribe to Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) Oracle Linux
channels for your Oracle software.
To obtain Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) support, subscribe to Oracle Linux
channels, and to add the Oracle Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM:
1. Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
2. Log in to Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
3. Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens and displays the subscriptions for the server.
4. Click Manage Subscriptions to open the System Summary window.
5. From the Available Channels list, select the latest and update patch channels
corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution. For example, if your distribution
is Oracle Linux 7 for x86_64, then select Oracle Linux 7 Latest (x86_64).
3-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
6. Click Subscribe.
7. Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
•
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7:
# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall
Note: Use the -y option if you want yum to skip the package confirmation
prompt.
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
8. Check the RPM log file to review the system configuration changes. For example,
on Oracle Linux 7:
/var/log/oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall/backup/timestamp/orakernel.log
9. Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
3.3 Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux
Network
Use this procedure to subscribe to Oracle Linux channels, and to add the Oracle Linux
channel that distributes the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
1. Complete a default Oracle Linux workstation installation.
You can download Oracle Linux from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2. Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
3. Log in to Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
4. Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5. Click Manage Subscriptions to open the System Summary window.
6. From the Available Channels list, select the Latest and update patch channels
corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution. For example, if your distribution
is Oracle Linux 7 for x86_64, then select Oracle Linux 7 Latest (x86_64).
7. Click Subscribe.
8. Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM 3-3
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
•
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7:
# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall
Note: Use the -y option if you want yum to skip the package confirmation
prompt.
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed.
Oracle Linux automatically creates standard (not role-allocated) Oracle installation
owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as required for
Oracle installations.
9. Enter the following command as root to update the sysctl.conf settings:
# sysctl -p
Note: The RPM packages set the Oracle software user to oracle by default.
Before installing Oracle Database, you can update the Oracle user name in
the /etc/security/limits.d/oracle-database-server-12cR2preinstall.conf file and other configuration files.
10. Check the RPM log file to review the system configuration changes. For example,
on Oracle Linux 7:
/var/log/oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall/backup/timestamp/orakernel.log
Repeat these steps on all other servers in your cluster.
3.4 Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
Use this procedure to install a new Oracle Linux installation and to perform system
configuration with the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
1. Obtain Oracle Linux either by ordering the Oracle Linux media pack from Oracle
Store, or by downloading disk images from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
website for Oracle Linux and Oracle VM.
•
Oracle Store
https://shop.oracle.com
•
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2. Start the Oracle Linux installation and respond to installation screens with values
appropriate for your environment.
3. Review the first software selection screen, which lists task-specific software
options. At the bottom of the screen, there is an option to customize now or
customize later. Select Customize now, and click Next.
4. On Oracle Linux, select Servers on the left of the screen and System
administration tools on the right of the screen (options may vary between
releases).
3-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support
The Packages in System Tools window opens.
5. Select the Oracle Preinstallation RPM package box from the package list. For
example, for Oracle Linux 7, select a package similar to the following:
oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall-1.0-4.el7.x86_64.rpm
If you do not have an Oracle Preinstallation RPM package option that is current for
your Oracle Database release, because you are using an Oracle Linux installation
that is previous to your Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure release,
then install the RPM for your release manually after completing the operating
system installation.
6. Close the optional package window and click Next.
7. Complete the other screens to finish the Oracle Linux installation.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
8. Repeat steps 2 through 6 on all other cluster member nodes.
3.5 Installing Oracle Linux with Oracle Linux Yum Server Support
Use this procedure to install Oracle Linux and configure your Linux installation for
security errata or bug fix updates using the Oracle Linux yum server.
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux DVDs from Oracle Store, or download Oracle Linux from the
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:
Oracle Store:
https://shop.oracle.com
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Install Oracle Linux from the ISO or DVD image.
3.
Log in as root.
4.
Download the yum repository file for your Linux distribution from the following
URL using the instructions you can find on the Oracle Linux yum server website:
http://yum.oracle.com/
For example:
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
wget http://yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
Ensure that the public_olrelease_latest file (for example,
public_ol6_latest for Oracle Linux 6) is enabled, because this is the
repository that contains the Oracle Preinstallation RPM.
5.
(Optional) Edit the repo file to enable other repositories. For example, enable the
repository public_ol6_latest by setting enabled=1 in the file with a text
editor.
6.
Run the command yum repolist to verify the registered channels.
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM 3-5
Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates
7.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7:
# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall
Note: Use the -y option if you want yum to skip the package confirmation
prompt.
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations. If you plan to use job-role separation, then create
the extended set of database users and groups depending on your requirements.
After installation, run the command yum update as needed to obtain the most
current security errata and bug fixes for your Oracle Linux installation.
3.6 Configuring Oracle Ksplice to Perform Oracle Linux Updates
You can configure Oracle Ksplice to perform zero downtime updates for your
operating system if you have an Oracle Linux Premier Support subscription and an
access key, which is available on Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
For more information about Ksplice (including trial versions), refer to the Ksplice site:
http://ksplice.oracle.com/
To use Ksplice, you must register your system and create a Ksplice repository.
1. Check for your kernel distribution at the following URL:
http://ksplice.oracle.com/legacy#supported-kernels
2. Log in as root.
3. Ensure that you have access to the Internet on the server where you want to use
Ksplice. For example, if you are using a proxy server, then set the proxy server and
port values in the shell with commands similar to the following:
# export http_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
# export https_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
4. Download the Ksplice Uptrack repository RPM package:
https://www.ksplice.com/yum/uptrack/ol/ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
5. Run the following commands:
rpm -i ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
yum -y install uptrack
3.7 Configure Additional Operating System Features
Oracle recommends that you configure your operating system before starting
installation with additional features, such as IPMI or additional programming
environments.
3-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configure Additional Operating System Features
Review the preinstallation chapters to ensure that you have completed configuration
as needed for the features you want.
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM 3-7
Configure Additional Operating System Features
3-8 Installation Guide
4
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle
Database on Linux
Complete operating system configuration requirements and checks for Linux
operating systems before you start installation.
You must meet the minimum requirements such as the operating system distribution,
packages, and other software requirements for this release before you start an Oracle
Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation (page 4-2)
Operating system guidelines to be aware of before proceeding with an
Oracle installation.
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices (page 4-7)
These topics provide general planning guidelines and platform-specific
information about upgrades and migration.
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices (page 4-9)
Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system
security.
About Installation Fixup Scripts (page 4-9)
Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for
an installation are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts,
to finish incomplete system configuration steps.
About Operating System Requirements (page 4-10)
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you
have the required operating system kernel and packages installed.
Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z (page 4-10)
Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required
Red Hat Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating
system before you start the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation.
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms (page 4-11)
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported
for this release on x86-64.
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z (page 4-20)
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported
for this release on IBM: Linux on System z.
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux (page 4-23)
Information about optional drivers and software packages.
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-1
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux (page 4-27)
To check your kernel and packages to see if they meet minimum
requirements for installation, perform the following steps:
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux (page 4-28)
If you do not use an Oracle Preinstallation RPM, and you want to use the
Cluster Verification Utility, then you must install the cvuqdisk RPM.
Confirming Host Name Resolution (page 4-29)
Check to ensure that the host name for your server is resolvable.
Disabling Transparent HugePages (page 4-29)
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages before you
start installation.
Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation (page 4-30)
To install Oracle software, configure secure shell (SSH) connectivity
between all cluster member nodes.
Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux (page 4-31)
For best performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use
the Deadline I/O Scheduler.
4.1 Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Operating system guidelines to be aware of before proceeding with an Oracle
installation.
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution.
Complete the minimum hardware configuration before you install the operating
system.
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation (page 4-3)
Review information about minimal Linux operating system installation.
Completing a Default Linux Installation (page 4-4)
If you do not install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then Oracle
recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the
default software packages (RPMs).
About Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel (page 4-4)
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux provides the latest
innovations from upstream development to customers who run Oracle
Linux in the data center.
About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM (page 4-5)
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
and you are an Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most
preinstallation configuration tasks by using the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM for your release.
Restrictions for HugePages and Transparent HugePages Configurations
(page 4-6)
Review the following guidelines for HugePages and Transparent
HugePages.
Related Topics:
Oracle Linux Operating System Documentation
4-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
4.1.1 Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
Review information about minimal Linux operating system installation.
Review the topics in this section if you intend to complete a minimal Linux
installation.
About Minimal Linux Installations (page 4-3)
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal
installation options.
RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration (page 4-3)
You can use the following RPM packages to complete basic operating
system configuration.
Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation (page 4-4)
OpenSSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
4.1.1.1 About Minimal Linux Installations
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal installation
options.
A minimal Linux installation option is either a custom installation where you select
the Minimal option from Package Group Selection, or where you deselect all packages
except for the Base pack. A minimal Linux installation lacks many RPMs required for
database installation, so you must use an RPM package for your Oracle Linux release
to install the required packages. The package you use depends on your Linux release,
and your support status with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
Note:
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but it does not
install the X Window System server packages. To use graphical user interfaces
such as OUI, configuration assistants, and Oracle Enterprise Manager, set the
display to a system with X Window System server packages.
Refer to the following URL for documentation regarding installation of a reduced set
of packages:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=579101.1
If you are not a member of Unbreakable Linux Network or Red Hat Support network,
and you are a My Oracle Support customer, then you can download instructions to
configure a script that documents installation of a reduced set of packages from the
same My Oracle Support Note.
You can also search for "Linux reduced set of packages" to locate the instructions.
4.1.1.2 RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration
You can use the following RPM packages to complete basic operating system
configuration.
Oracle Linux Preinstallation RPM with ULN Support
Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 7 kernel
(oracle-rdbms-server-12cR2-preinstall).
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-3
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM by using yum.
Oracle Linux Preinstallation RPM Without ULN Support
Oracle Linux packages on the Oracle Linux yum server website:
http://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/x86_64//
http://yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL7/latest/x86_64
4.1.1.3 Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation
OpenSSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
OpenSSH should be included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. To
confirm that SSH packages are installed, enter the following command:
# rpm -qa | grep ssh
If you do not see a list of SSH packages, then install those packages for your Linux
distribution.
4.1.2 Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then Oracle recommends that you
install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs).
A default Linux installation includes most of the required packages and helps you
limit manual verification of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do
not customize the RPMs during installation.
For information about a default installation, log on to My Oracle Support:
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "default rpms linux installation," and look for your Linux distribution. For
example:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?
cmd=show&type=NOT&id=401167.1
After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you
have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks
required for your distribution and system configuration.
4.1.3 About Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux provides the latest innovations
from upstream development to customers who run Oracle Linux in the data center.
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is included and enabled by default starting with
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 and later Oracle Linux kernels. It is based on a recent stable
mainline development Linux kernel, and also includes optimizations developed in
collaboration with Oracle Database, Oracle middleware, and Oracle hardware
engineering teams to ensure stability and optimal performance for the most
demanding enterprise workloads.
Oracle highly recommends deploying the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel in your
Oracle Linux environment, especially if you run enterprise applications. However,
using Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is optional. If you require strict Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (RHEL) kernel compatibility, then Oracle Linux also includes a
4-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
kernel compatible with the RHEL Linux kernel, compiled directly from the RHEL
source code.
You can obtain more information about the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle
Linux at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/us/technologies/linux
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux is the standard kernel used with
Oracle products. The build and QA systems for Oracle Database and other Oracle
products use the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux exclusively. The
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux is also the kernel used in Oracle
Exadata and Oracle Exalogic systems. Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux
is used in all benchmark tests on Linux in which Oracle participates, as well as in the
Oracle Preinstallation RPM program for x86-64.
Oracle Ksplice, which is part of Oracle Linux, updates the Linux operating system
(OS) kernel, while it is running, without requiring restarts or any interruption. Ksplice
is available only with Oracle Linux.
4.1.4 About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are
an Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation configuration
tasks by using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your release.
Oracle Preinstallation RPMs are available from the Oracle Linux Network or available
on the Oracle Linux DVDs. Using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM is not required, but
Oracle recommends you use it to save time in setting up your cluster servers.
When installed, the Oracle Preinstallation RPM does the following:
•
Automatically downloads and installs any additional RPM packages needed for
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and resolves any
dependencies
•
Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA
(dba) groups for that user
•
As needed, sets sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, and driver
parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle RDBMS PreInstall program
•
Sets hard and soft resource limits
•
Sets other recommended parameters, depending on your kernel version
Note:
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM does not install OpenSSH, which is required
for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you perform a minimal Linux
installation and install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your release, then
you must also install the OpenSSH client manually. Using RSH is no longer
supported.
To become an Oracle Linux Network customer, contact your sales representative or
purchase a license from the Oracle Linux store:
https://shop.oracle.com/product/oraclelinux
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-5
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, see the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
If you are using Oracle Linux 5.2 or a higher release, then the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM is included on the install media.
Note:
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM designated for each Oracle Database release
sets kernel parameters and resource limits only for the user account oracle.
To use multiple software account owners, you must perform system
configuration for other accounts manually.
Related Topics:
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
(page 3-1)
Use Oracle Linux RPMs to simplify operating system configuration in
preparation for Oracle software installations.
4.1.5 Restrictions for HugePages and Transparent HugePages Configurations
Review the following guidelines for HugePages and Transparent HugePages.
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages, because they may
causes delays in accessing memory that can result in node restarts in Oracle RAC
environments, or performance issues or delays for Oracle Database single instances.
Oracle continues to recommend using standard HugePages for Linux.
Transparent HugePages memory is enabled by default with Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, SUSE 11, Oracle Linux 6, and Oracle Linux 7 with
earlier releases of Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2 (UEK2)
kernels. Transparent HugePages memory is disabled by default in later releases of
UEK2 and later UEK kernels.
Note: Although Transparent HugePages is disable on UEK2 and later UEK
kernels, Transparent HugePages may be enabled by default on your Linux
system.
Transparent Hugepages are similar to standard HugePages. However, while standard
HugePages allocate memory at startup, Transparent Hugepages memory uses the
khugepaged thread in the kernel to allocate memory dynamically during runtime,
using swappable HugePages.
HugePages allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memorymapped files. HugePages are not enabled by default. If you enable HugePages, then
you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from the available RAM
before calculating swap space. Refer to your distribution documentation and to Oracle
Technology Network and My Oracle Support for more information.
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the Grid Infrastructure Management
Repository (GIMR) is configured to use HugePages. Because the Grid Infrastructure
Management Repository database starts before all other databases installed on the
cluster, if the space allocated to HugePages is insufficient, then the System Global
4-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
Area (SGA) of one or more databases may be mapped to regular pages, instead of
Hugepages, which can adversely affect performance. Configure the HugePages
memory allocation to a size large enough to accommodate the sum of the SGA sizes of
all the databases you intend to install on the cluster, as well as the Grid Infrastructure
Management Repository.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
4.2 Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
These topics provide general planning guidelines and platform-specific information
about upgrades and migration.
General Upgrade Best Practices (page 4-7)
Be aware of these guidelines as a best practice before you perform an
upgrade.
New Server Operating System Upgrade Option (page 4-8)
You can upgrade your operating system by installing a new operating
system on a server, and then migrating your database using one of the
following options:
Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications (page 4-8)
Be aware of the following issues regarding Oracle ASM upgrades:
4.2.1 General Upgrade Best Practices
Be aware of these guidelines as a best practice before you perform an upgrade.
If you have an existing Oracle installation, then do the following:
•
Record the version numbers, patches, and other configuration information
•
Review upgrade procedures for your existing installation
•
Review Oracle upgrade documentation before proceeding with installation, to
decide how you want to proceed
Caution:
Always create a backup of existing databases before starting any configuration
change.
Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about required software
updates, pre-upgrade tasks, post-upgrade tasks, compatibility, and interoperability
between different releases.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-7
Reviewing Operating System and Software Upgrade Best Practices
4.2.2 New Server Operating System Upgrade Option
You can upgrade your operating system by installing a new operating system on a
server, and then migrating your database using one of the following options:
Note:
Confirm that the server operating system is supported, and that kernel and
package requirements for the operating system meet or exceed the minimum
requirements for the Oracle Database release to which you want to migrate.
Manual, Command-Line Copy for Migrating Data and Upgrading Oracle Database
You can copy files to the new server and upgrade it manually. If you use this
procedure, then you cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant. However, you
can revert to your existing database if you encounter upgrade issues.
1.
Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating system
to the one running the new operating system.
2.
Re-create the control files on the computer running the new operating system.
3.
Manually upgrade the database using command-line scripts and utilities.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide to review the procedure for upgrading the
database manually, and to evaluate the risks and benefits of this option
Export/Import Method for Migrating Data and Upgrading Oracle Database
You can install the operating system on the new server, install the new Oracle
Database release on the new server, and then use Oracle Data Pump Export and
Import utilities to migrate a copy of data from your current database to a new
database in the new release. Data Pump Export and Import are recommended for
higher performance and to ensure support for new data types.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide to review the Export/Import method for
migrating data and upgrading Oracle Database
4.2.3 Oracle ASM Upgrade Notifications
Be aware of the following issues regarding Oracle ASM upgrades:
•
You can upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) 11g
release 2 (11.2) and later without shutting down an Oracle RAC database by
performing a rolling upgrade either of individual nodes, or of a set of nodes in the
cluster. However, if you have a standalone database on a cluster that uses Oracle
ASM, then you must shut down the standalone database before upgrading.
4-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
•
The location of the Oracle ASM home changed in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g
release 2 (11.2) so that Oracle ASM is installed with Oracle Clusterware in the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (Grid home).
•
Two nodes of different releases cannot run in the cluster. When upgrading from
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2) or Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c
release 1 (12.1) to a later release, if there is an outage during the rolling upgrade,
then when you restart the upgrade, ensure that you start the earlier release of
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and bring the Oracle ASM cluster back in the rolling
migration mode.
4.3 Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security.
Ensure that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common
security practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.
4.4 About Installation Fixup Scripts
Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for an installation
are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system
configuration steps.
If Oracle Universal Installer detects an incomplete task, then it generates fixup scripts
(runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup script and click Fix and Check Again. The
fixup script modifies both persistent parameter settings and parameters in memory, so
you do not have to restart the system.
The Fixup script does the following tasks:
•
Sets kernel parameters, if necessary, to values required for successful installation,
including:
–
Shared memory parameters.
–
Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.
•
Creates and sets permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory)
directory.
•
Creates or reconfigures primary and secondary group memberships for the
installation owner, if necessary, for the Oracle Inventory directory and the
operating system privileges groups.
•
Sets shell limits, if necessary, to required values.
Note:
Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites for installing
Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the preinstallation
requirements are met to ensure a successful installation.
Oracle Universal Installer is fully integrated with Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)
automating many prerequisite checks for your Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) installation. You can also manually perform
various CVU verifications by running the cluvfy command.
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-9
About Operating System Requirements
Related Topics:
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually (page A-1)
Use these instructions to complete configuration tasks manually.
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation (page A-1)
Use this table to set parameters manually if you cannot use the fixup
scripts.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
4.5 About Operating System Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the
required operating system kernel and packages installed.
Requirements listed in this document are current as of the date listed on the title page.
To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, see the online
version at the following URL:
http://docs.oracle.com
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on your system to verify that it meets the
listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete
successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.
Note:
Oracle does not support running different operating system versions on
cluster members, unless an operating system is being upgraded. You cannot
run different operating system version binaries on members of the same
cluster, even if each operating system is supported.
4.6 Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z
Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating system before you start
the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility from the link in the My Oracle Support
note 1574412.1:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1574412.1
Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility for your IBM: Linux on System z
distribution, unzip the RPM, and install the RPM as root. Then, run the utility as
root to check your operating system packages. For example:
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:
# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:
# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-RH7-DB-12.1.0.2-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the utility checks and also installs all required RPMs.
For example:
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6:
4-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
# yum install ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:
# yum install ora-val-rpm-RH7-DB-12.1.0.2-1.s390x.rpm
4.7 Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on x86-64.
Identify the requirements for your Linux distribution, and ensure that you have a
supported kernel and required packages installed before starting installation.
Note:
•
Oracle Universal Installer requires an X Window System (for example,
libx). The libx packages are part of a default Linux installation. If you
perform an install on a system with a reduced set of packages, then you
must ensure that libx or a similar X Window System package is
installed.
•
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Oracle Linux can be installed on
x86-64 servers running either Oracle Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
As of Oracle Linux 5 Update 6, the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is the
default system kernel. An x86 (32-bit) release of Oracle Linux including
the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is available with Oracle Linux 5
update 7 and later.
•
32-bit packages in these requirements lists are needed only if you intend
to use 32-bit client applications to access 64-bit servers.
•
Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) and later does not require the
compiler packages gcc and gcc-c++ on Oracle Linux and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux for Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations.
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide
were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions may be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-todate list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions:
https://support.oracle.com/
Supported Oracle Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64 (page 4-12)
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 7
distributions:
Supported Oracle Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64 (page 4-13)
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 6
distributions:
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64 (page 4-15)
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 7 distributions:
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-11
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64 (page 4-16)
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 distributions:
Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for x86-64 (page 4-17)
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12 distributions:
See Also:
If you currently use, or plan to upgrade to, Oracle Linux 7.2 or Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 7.2, then see information about the RemoveIPC settings:
•
My Oracle Support Note 2081410.1:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=2081410.1
•
Oracle Linux 7 Update 2 Release Notes:
http://docs.oracle.com/en/operating-systems/
4.7.1 Supported Oracle Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 7 distributions:
Table 4-1
x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Oracle Linux 7
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 7 channel on the Unbreakable Linux
Network, or configure a yum repository from the Oracle Linux yum
server website, and then install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This
RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other
system configuration.
Supported distributions:
•
•
•
4-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-35.3.1.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7.2 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-32.2.3.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-1
(Cont.) x86-64 Oracle Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Oracle
Linux 7
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-12.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-3.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (i686)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
ksh
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (i686)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (i686)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (i686)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (x86_64)
make-3.82-19.el7 (x86_64)
nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.21.el7.x86_64 (for Oracle ACFS)
net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 (x86_64) (for Oracle RAC and
Oracle Clusterware)
smartmontools-6.2-4.el7 (x86_64)
sysstat-10.1.5-1.el7 (x86_64)
4.7.2 Supported Oracle Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 6 distributions:
Table 4-2
x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-13
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-2
(Cont.) x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
Oracle Linux 6
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 6 channel on the Unbreakable Linux
Network, or configure a yum repository from the Oracle Linux yum
server website, and then install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This
RPM installs all required kernel packages for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other
system configuration.
Supported distributions:
•
•
•
•
4-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2:
2.6.39-400.211.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 3:
3.8.13-44.1.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.8 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 4:
4.1.12-37.6.2.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 6.4 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:
2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-2
(Cont.) x86-64 Oracle Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Oracle
Linux 6
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.36.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
e2fsprogs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
e2fsprogs-libs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
ksh
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (i686)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (i686)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (i686)
make-3.81-19.el6
net-tools-1.60-110.el6_2.x86_64 (for Oracle RAC and Oracle
Clusterware)
nfs-utils-1.2.3-15.0.1 (for Oracle ACFS)
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)
smartmontools-5.43-1.el6.x86_64
4.7.3 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
distributions:
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-15
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-3 x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 7
Supported distributions:
Packages for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 7
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7: 3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-12.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-3.el7 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (i686)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (i686)
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7 (x86_64)
ksh
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (i686)
libxcb-1.9-5.el7 (x86_64)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (i686)
libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (i686)
libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7 (x86_64)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (i686)
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7 (x86_64)
make-3.82-19.el7 (x86_64)
net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 (x86_64) (for Oracle RAC and
Oracle Clusterware)
nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.21.el7.x86_64 (for Oracle ACFS)
smartmontools-6.2-4.el7 (x86_64)
sysstat-10.1.5-1.el7 (x86_64)
4.7.4 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
distributions:
4-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-4 x86-64 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6
Supported distributions:
Packages for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4: 2.6.32-358.el6.x86_64 or later
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.36.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
e2fsprogs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
e2fsprogs-libs-1.41.12-14.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.107.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.107.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.107.el6 (i686)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.107.el6 (x86_64)
ksh
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (i686)
libX11-1.5.0-4.el6 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (i686)
libXau-1.0.6-4.el6 (x86_64)
libXi-1.6.1-3.el6 (i686)
libXi-1.6.1-3.el6 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.2.1-2.el6 (i686)
libXtst-1.2.1-2.el6 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.4.7-3.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.7-3.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.7-3.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-4.4.7-3.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-3.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-3.el6 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (i686)
libxcb-1.8.1-1.el6 (x86_64)
make-3.81-20.el6 (x86_64)
net-tools-1.60-110.el6_2 (x86_64) (for Oracle RAC and Oracle
Clusterware)
nfs-utils-1.2.3-36.el6 (x86_64) (for Oracle ACFS)
smartmontools-5.43-1.el6 (x86_64)
sysstat-9.0.4-20.el6 (x86_64)
4.7.5 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
distributions:
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-17
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-5 x86-64 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server
Supported distributions:
4-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11.1 or later
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4-5 (Cont.) x86-64 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating
System Requirements
Item
Requirements
Package
requirements for
SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.24-2.165.x86_64
gcc-c++-32bit-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-c++-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc48-c++-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
gcc-32bit-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-info-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc-locale-4.8-6.189.x86_64
gcc48-32bit-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
gcc48-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
gcc48-info-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.noarch
gcc48-locale-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
glibc-2.19-17.72.x86_64
glibc-devel-2.19-17.72.x86_64
libaio-devel-0.3.109-17.15.x86_64
libaio1-0.3.109-17.15.x86_64
libaio1-32bit-0.3.109-17.15.x86_64
libgfortran3-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libX11-6-1.6.2-4.12.x86_64
libX11-6-32bit-1.6.2-4.12.x86_64
libXau6-1.0.8-4.58.x86_64
libXau6-32bit-1.0.8-4.58.x86_64
libXtst6-1.2.2-3.60.x86_64
libXtst6-32bit-1.2.1-2.4.1.x86_64
libcap-ng-utils-0.7.3-4.125.x86_64
libcap-ng0-0.7.3-4.125.x86_64
libcap-ng0-32bit-0.7.3-4.125.x86_64
libcap-progs-2.22-11.709.x86_64
libcap1-1.10-59.61.x86_64
libcap1-32bit-1.10-59.61.x86_64
libcap2-2.22-11.709.x86_64
libcap2-32bit-2.22-11.709.x86_64
libgcc_s1-32bit-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libgcc_s1-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libpcap1-1.5.3-2.18.x86_64
libstdc++6-32bit-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
libstdc++6-4.8.3+r212056-6.3.x86_64
make-4.0-2.107.x86_64
mksh-50-2.13.x86_64
net-tools-1.60-764.185.x86_64 (for Oracle RAC and Oracle
Clusterware)
nfs-kernel-server-1.3.0-6.9.x86_64 (for Oracle ACFS)
smartmontools-6.2-4.33.x86_64
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1.x86_64
xorg-x11-libs-7.6-45.14
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-19
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
4.8 Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on IBM: Linux on System z.
Identify the requirements for your IBM: Linux on System z distribution, and ensure
that you have a supported kernel and required packages installed before starting
installation.
Note: 32-bit packages in these requirements lists are needed only if you
intend to use 32-bit client applications to access 64-bit servers.
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide
were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions may be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-todate list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions:
https://support.oracle.com/
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
(page 4-20)
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 7 distributions:
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
(page 4-21)
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6 distributions:
Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for IBM: Linux on
System z (page 4-22)
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12 distributions:
4.8.1 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
distributions:
Table 4-6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2: 3.10.0-327.el7.s390x or later
4-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Table 4-6 (Cont.) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 7
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-55.el7 (s390x)
compat-libcap1-1.10-7.el7 (s390x)
gcc-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
glibc-2.17-105.el7 (s390)
glibc-2.17-105.el7 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.17-105.el7 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.17-105.el7 (s390x)
ksh-20120801-22.el7_1.2 (s390x)
libXaw-1.0.12-5.el7 (s390)
libXft-2.3.2-2.el7 (s390)
libXi-1.7.4-2.el7 (s390)
libXi-1.7.4-2.el7 (s390x)
libXmu-1.1.2-2.el7 (s390)
libXp-1.0.2-2.1.el7 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.109-13.el7 (s390)
libaio-0.3.109-13.el7 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7 (s390x)
libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390)
libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
libgfortran-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7 (s390x)
make-3.82-21.el7 (s390x)
sysstat-10.1.5-7.el7 (s390x)
4.8.2 Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
distributions:
Table 4-7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6: 2.6.32-504.el6.s390x or later
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-21
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Table 4-7 (Cont.) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.42.el6 (s390x)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390x)
gcc-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
glibc-static-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390x)
glibc-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390)
glibc-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.149.el6 (s390x)
ksh-20120801-21.el6 (s390x)
libXaw-1.0.11-2.el6 (s390)
libXft-2.3.1-2.el6 (s390)
libXi-1.7.2-2.2.el6 (s390)
libXi-1.7.2-2.2.el6 (s390x)
libXmu-1.1.1-2.el6 (s390)
libXp-1.0.2-2.1.el6 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el6 (s390)
libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el6 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libgcc-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390)
libgcc-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390)
libstdc++-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.7-11.el6 (s390x)
make-3.81-20.el6 (s390x)
sysstat-9.0.4-27.el6 (s390x)
4.8.3 Supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Distributions for IBM: Linux on
System z
Use the following information to check supported SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
distributions:
Table 4-8 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the
required SSH software.
SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1: 3.12.49-11-default s390x or later
4-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Table 4-8 (Cont.) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 Minimum Operating System
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Packages for SUSE
Linux Enterprise
Server 12
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.25.0-13.1 (s390x)
gcc-4.8-6.189 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.8-6.189 (s390x)
glibc-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
glibc-32bit-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
glibc-devel-32bit-2.19-31.9 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-17.15 (s390x)
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.109-17.15
libaio1-0.3.109-17.15 (s390x)
libaio1-32bit-0.3.109-17.15 (s390x) (DOUBT)
libX11-6-1.6.2-4.12 (s390x)
libX11-6-32bit-1.6.2-4.12 (s390x)
libXau6-1.0.8-4.58 (s390x)
libXau6-32bit-1.0.8-4.58 (s390x)
libXaw7-1.0.12-3.62 (s390x)
libXext6-1.3.2-3.61 (s390x)
libXext6-32bit-1.3.2-3.61 (s390x)
libXft2-2.3.1-9.32 (s390x)
libXft2-32bit-2.3.1-9.32 (s390x)
libXi6-1.7.4-9.2.s390x libXi6-1.7.4-9.2 (s390x )
libXi6-32bit-1.7.4-9.2 (s390x)
libXmu6-1.1.2-3.60 (s390x)
libXp6-1.0.2-3.58 (s390x)
libXp6-1.0.2-3.58.s390x (32bit)
libXtst6-1.2.2-3.60 (s390x)
libXtst6-32bit-1.2.2-3.60 (s390x)
libXmu6-1.1.2-3.60 (s390x) (32bit)
libcap2-2.22-11.709 (s390x)
libstdc++48-devel-32bit-4.8.5-24.1 (s390x) (DOUBT)
libstdc++48-devel-4.8.5-24.1 (s390x)
libstdc++6-32bit-5.2.1+r226025-4.1 (s390x)
libstdc++6-5.2.1+r226025-4.1 (s390x)
libxcb1-1.10-1.21 (s390x)
libxcb1-32bit-1.10-1.21 (s390x)
make-4.0-4.1 (s390x)
mksh-50-2.13 (s390x)
4.9 Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Information about optional drivers and software packages.
You are not required to install additional drivers and packages, but you may choose to
install or configure these drivers and packages.
Installing PAM for Login Authentication on Linux (page 4-24)
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that
handle user authentication tasks for applications.
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-23
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Installation Requirements for OCFS2 (page 4-24)
Review the following sections to install OCFS2.
Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway (page 4-25)
Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Enterprise Edition of Oracle
Database. However, you may require a CSD or Fix Packs.
Installation Requirements for ODBC and LDAP (page 4-25)
Review these topics to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
(page 4-26)
Review the following section to install programming environments:
Installation Requirements for Web Browsers (page 4-27)
Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control. Web browsers must support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and
CSS 1.0 standards.
4.9.1 Installing PAM for Login Authentication on Linux
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that handle user
authentication tasks for applications.
On Linux, external scheduler jobs require PAM. Oracle strongly recommends that you
install the latest Linux-PAM library for your Linux distribution.
Use a package management system (yum, up2date, YaST) for your distribution to
install the latest pam (Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux) library.
4.9.2 Installation Requirements for OCFS2
Review the following sections to install OCFS2.
About OCFS2 and Shared Storage (page 4-24)
You can use Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure. However, you are not required to use OCFS2.
Installing OCFS2 (page 4-24)
OCFS2 Release 1.6 is included with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
available with Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7.
4.9.2.1 About OCFS2 and Shared Storage
You can use Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2) with Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
However, you are not required to use OCFS2.
OCFS2 is a POSIX-compliant general purpose shared disk cluster file system for Linux.
OCFS2 is supported for this release only with Oracle Linux 7 and Oracle Linux 6.
4.9.2.2 Installing OCFS2
OCFS2 Release 1.6 is included with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel available with
Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7.
See the OCFS2 project page for additional information:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
4-24 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
4.9.3 Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database.
However, you may require a CSD or Fix Packs.
If you require a CSD or Fix Packs for IBM WebSphere MQ, then see the following
website for more information:
http://www.ibm.com
Note: Oracle Messaging Gateway does not support the integration of
Advanced Queuing with TIBCO Rendezvous on IBM: Linux on System z.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide
4.9.4 Installation Requirements for ODBC and LDAP
Review these topics to install Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database (page 4-25)
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs
that connect to the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on
the database.
Installing ODBC Drivers for Linux x86-64 (page 4-25)
If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver
Manager for Linux.
About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins (page 4-26)
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol
for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services
over IP networks.
Installing the LDAP Package (page 4-26)
LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.
4.9.4.1 About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that connect to
the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database.
An application that uses an ODBC driver can access non-uniform data sources, such as
spreadsheets and comma-delimited files.
4.9.4.2 Installing ODBC Drivers for Linux x86-64
If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux.
Download and install the ODBC Driver Manager and Linux RPMs from the following
website:
http://www.unixodbc.org
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-25
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Review the minimum supported ODBC driver releases, and install ODBC drivers of
the following or later releases for all Linux distributions:
unixODBC-2.3.1 or later
4.9.4.3 About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for accessing
and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP networks.
You require the LDAP package if you want to use features requiring LDAP, including
the Oracle Database scripts odisrvreg and oidca for Oracle Internet Directory, or
schemasync for third-party LDAP directories.
4.9.4.4 Installing the LDAP Package
LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, and you intend to use Oracle
scripts requiring LDAP, then use a package management system (up2date, YaST) for
your distribution to install a supported LDAP package for your distribution, and
install any other required packages for that LDAP package.
4.9.5 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
Review the following section to install programming environments:
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux x86-64
(page 4-26)
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming
environment you want to configure:
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on
System z (page 4-27)
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming
environment you want to configure:
4.9.5.1 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux x86-64
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment
you want to configure:
Table 4-9
Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux X86–64
Programming Environments
Support Requirements
Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface
(OCI)
JDK 8 (Java SE Development Kit) with the JNDI extension
with Oracle Java Database Connectivity.
Oracle C++
Intel C/C++ Compiler 12.0.5 or later, and the version of
GNU C and C++ compilers listed in the software
requirements section in this document for your platform.
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Pro*C/C++
Oracle XML Developer's Kit
(XDK)
Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) applications can be built
only with Intel C++ Compiler 12.0.5 used with the
standard template libraries of the gcc versions listed in the
software requirements section in this document for your
platform.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same
compilers as OCCI.
4-26 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux
Table 4-9
(Cont.) Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux X86–64
Programming Environments
Support Requirements
Pro*COBOL
•
•
Micro Focus Server Express 5.1
Micro Focus Visual COBOL for Eclipse 2.2 - Update 2
4.9.5.2 Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on
System z
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment
you want to configure:
Table 4-10
z
Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on System
Programming Environments
Support Requirements
Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface
(OCI)
JDK 8 (Java SE Development Kit) with the JNDI extension
with Oracle Java Database Connectivity.
Pro*COBOL
Micro Focus Server Express 5.1
4.9.6 Installation Requirements for Web Browsers
Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers must
support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards.
For a list of browsers that meet these requirements see the Enterprise Manager
certification matrix on My Oracle Support:
https://support.oracle.com
Related Topics:
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Basic Installation Guide
4.10 Checking Kernel and Package Requirements for Linux
To check your kernel and packages to see if they meet minimum requirements for
installation, perform the following steps:
1. To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter one of the
following commands:
#
#
#
#
cat /etc/oracle-release
cat /etc/redhat-release
cat /etc/SuSE-release
lsb_release -id
2. To determine if the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following
command:
# uname -r
The following is an example of the output this command displays on an Oracle
Linux 6 system:
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-27
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
2.6.39-100.7.1.el6uek.x86_64
Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is previous
to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest kernel
update from your Linux distributor.
3. To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar
to the following:
# rpm -q package_name
Alternatively, if you require specific system architecture information, then enter the
following command:
# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"
| grep package_name
You can also combine a query for multiple packages, and review the output for the
correct versions. For example:
# rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++ gcc glibc libaio libgcc libstdc++ \
make sysstat unixodbc
If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from your Linux distributor's website.
4.11 Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
If you do not use an Oracle Preinstallation RPM, and you want to use the Cluster
Verification Utility, then you must install the cvuqdisk RPM.
Without cvuqdisk, Cluster Verification Utility cannot discover shared disks, and you
receive the error message "Package cvuqdisk not installed" when you run Cluster
Verification Utility. Use the cvuqdisk rpm for your hardware (for example, x86_64).
1. Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is in the directory rpm on the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation media. If you have already installed Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, then it is located in the directory grid_home/cv/rpm.
2. Copy the cvuqdisk package to each node on the cluster. You should ensure that
each node is running the same version of Linux.
3. Log in as root.
4. Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the
cvuqdisk package:
# rpm -qi cvuqdisk
If you have an existing version of cvuqdisk, then enter the following command to
deinstall the existing version:
# rpm -e cvuqdisk
5. Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that owns
cvuqdisk, typically oinstall. For example:
# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
6. In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk rpm, use the command rpm
-iv package to install the cvuqdisk package. For example:
4-28 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Confirming Host Name Resolution
# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.10-1.rpm
4.12 Confirming Host Name Resolution
Check to ensure that the host name for your server is resolvable.
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to
a network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable, either through a Domain
Name System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained
TCP/IP host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your
computer host name is resolvable. For example:
ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56
Related Topics:
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database (page 6-1)
If you install Oracle Databases on servers with multiple Oracle homes,
multiple aliases, or without a static IP address, then review these
network configuration topics.
4.13 Disabling Transparent HugePages
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages before you start
installation.
Transparent HugePages memory differs from standard HugePages memory because
the kernel khugepaged thread allocates memory dynamically during runtime.
Standard HugePages memory is pre-allocated at startup, and does not change during
runtime.
Note: Although Transparent HugePages is disabled on UEK2 and later UEK
kernels, Transparent HugePages may be enabled by default on your Linux
system.
Transparent HugePages memory is enabled by default with Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, SUSE 11, Oracle Linux 6, and Oracle Linux 7 with
earlier releases of Oracle Linux with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 2 (UEK2)
kernels.
Transparent HugePages can cause memory allocation delays during runtime. To avoid
performance issues, Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages on
all Oracle Database servers. Oracle recommends that you instead use standard
HugePages for enhanced performance.
To check if Transparent HugePages is enabled, run one of the following commands as
the root user:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernels:
# cat /sys/kernel/mm/redhat_transparent_hugepage/enabled
Other kernels:
# cat /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-29
Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
The following is a sample output that shows Transparent HugePages are being used
as the [always] flag is enabled.
[always] never
Note:
If Transparent HugePages is removed from the kernel, then neither /sys/
kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage nor /sys/kernel/mm/
redhat_transparent_hugepage files exist.
To disable Transparent HugePages:
1.
Add the following entry to the kernel boot line in the /etc/grub.conf file:
transparent_hugepage=never
For example:
title Oracle Linux Server (2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64 ro root=LABEL=/
transparent_hugepage=never
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64.img
The file name may vary for operating systems. Check your operating system
documentation for the exact file name and the steps to disable Transparent
HugePages.
For example, for Oracle Linux 7.3 or later, the procedure to disable Transparent
HugePages involves editing the /etc/default/grub file and then running the
command grub2-mkconfig.
2.
Restart the system to make the changes permanent.
4.14 Using Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
To install Oracle software, configure secure shell (SSH) connectivity between all
cluster member nodes.
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) uses the ssh and scp commands during installation
to run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. You must
configure SSH so that these commands do not prompt for a password.
Note:
Oracle configuration assistants use SSH for configuration operations from
local to remote nodes. Oracle Enterprise Manager also uses SSH. RSH is no
longer supported.
You can configure SSH from the OUI interface during installation for the user account
running the installation. The automatic configuration creates passwordless SSH
connectivity between all cluster member nodes. Oracle recommends that you use the
automatic procedure if possible.
4-30 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
To enable the script to run, you must remove stty commands from the profiles of any
existing Oracle software installation owners you want to use, and remove other
security measures that are triggered during a login, and that generate messages to the
terminal. These messages, mail checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software
installation owners from using the SSH configuration script that is built into OUI. If
they are not disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation
can be run.
In rare cases, Oracle Clusterware installation may fail during the "AttachHome"
operation when the remote node closes the SSH connection. To avoid this problem, set
the following parameter in the SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/
sshd_config on all cluster nodes to set the timeout wait to unlimited:
LoginGraceTime 0
Related Topics:
Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands
(page 5-17)
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run
commands and copy files to the other nodes. During the installation,
hidden files on the system (for example, .bashrc or .cshrc) can cause
makefile and other installation errors if they contain terminal output
commands.
4.15 Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
For best performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use the Deadline
I/O Scheduler.
Disk I/O schedulers reorder, delay, or merge requests for disk I/O to achieve better
throughput and lower latency. Linux has multiple disk I/O schedulers available,
including Deadline, Noop, Anticipatory, and Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ).
On each cluster node, enter the following command to verify that the Deadline disk
I/O scheduler is configured for use:
# cat /sys/block/${ASM_DISK}/queue/scheduler
noop [deadline] cfq
In this example, the default disk I/O scheduler is Deadline and ASM_DISK is the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) disk device.
If the default disk I/O scheduler is not Deadline, then set it using a rules file:
1.
Using a text editor, create a UDEV rules file for the Oracle ASM devices:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/60-oracle-schedulers.rules
2.
Add the following line to the rules file and save it:
ACTION=="add|change", KERNEL=="sd[a-z]", ATTR{queue/rotational}=="0", ATTR{queue/
scheduler}="deadline"
3.
On clustered systems, copy the rules file to all other nodes on the cluster. For
example:
$ scp 60-oracle-schedulers.rules [email protected]:/etc/udev/rules.d/60-oracleschedulers.rules
4.
Load the rules file and restart the UDEV service. For example:
Configuring Operating Systems for Oracle Database on Linux 4-31
Verifying the Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
a.
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
# udevadm control --reload-rules
b.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
5.
Verify that the disk I/O scheduler is set as Deadline.
4-32 Oracle Database Installation Guide
5
Configuring Users, Groups and
Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle Database
Before installation, create operating system groups and users, and configure user
environments.
Required Operating System Groups and Users (page 5-1)
Oracle software installations require an installation owner, an Oracle
Inventory group, which is the primary group of all Oracle installation
owners, and at least one group designated as a system privileges group.
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
(page 5-4)
A job role separation configuration of Oracle Database and Oracle ASM
is a configuration with groups and users to provide separate groups for
operating system authentication.
Creating Operating System Privileges Groups (page 5-8)
The following sections describe how to create operating system groups
for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database:
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts (page 5-11)
Before starting installation, create Oracle software owner user accounts,
and configure their environments.
Creating Oracle Database Vault User Accounts (page 5-17)
If you intend to use Oracle Database Vault by default, then you must
create an Oracle Database Vault user account, and configure that user.
Unsetting Oracle Installation Owner Environment Variables (page 5-18)
Unset Oracle installation owner environment variables before you start
the installation.
5.1 Required Operating System Groups and Users
Oracle software installations require an installation owner, an Oracle Inventory group,
which is the primary group of all Oracle installation owners, and at least one group
designated as a system privileges group.
Review group and user options with your system administrator. If you have system
administration privileges, then review the topics in this section and configure
operating system groups and users as needed.
Determining If an Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exist
(page 5-2)
Determine if you have existing Oracle central inventory, and ensure that
you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-1
Required Operating System Groups and Users
Also ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for
installation have permissions to write to this directory.
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
(page 5-3)
Create an Oracle Inventory group manually as part of a planned
installation, particularly where more than one Oracle software product is
installed on servers.
About Oracle Installation Owner Accounts (page 5-3)
Select or create an Oracle installation owner for your installation,
depending on the group and user management plan you want to use for
your installations.
Identifying an Oracle Software Owner User Account (page 5-3)
You must create at least one software owner user account the first time
you install Oracle software on the system. Either use an existing Oracle
software user account, or create an Oracle software owner user account
for your installation.
5.1.1 Determining If an Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exist
Determine if you have existing Oracle central inventory, and ensure that you use the
same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations. Also ensure that all Oracle
software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this
directory.
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the
oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (by
default, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle central inventory directory. If you
have an existing Oracle central inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle
Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software
users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.
An oraInst.loc file contains lines in the following format, where
central_inventory_location is the path to an existing Oracle central inventory,
and group is the name of the operating system group whose members have
permissions to write to the central inventory:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
Use the more command to determine if you have an Oracle central inventory on your
system. For example:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
Use the command grep groupname /etc/group to confirm that the group
specified as the Oracle Inventory group still exists on the system. For example:
$ grep oinstall /etc/group
oinstall:x:54321:grid,oracle
5-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Operating System Groups and Users
Note: Do not put the oraInventory directory under the Oracle base
directory for a new installation, because that can result in user permission
errors for other installations.
5.1.2 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
Create an Oracle Inventory group manually as part of a planned installation,
particularly where more than one Oracle software product is installed on servers.
By default, if an oraInventory group does not exist, then the installer uses the primary
group of the installation owner for the Oracle software being installed as the
oraInventory group. Ensure that this group is available as a primary group for all
planned Oracle software installation owners.
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by
entering a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
5.1.3 About Oracle Installation Owner Accounts
Select or create an Oracle installation owner for your installation, depending on the
group and user management plan you want to use for your installations.
You must create a software owner for your installation in the following circumstances:
•
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system.
•
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to separate Oracle Grid
Infrastructure administrative privileges from Oracle Database administrative
privileges.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle Grid Infrastructure
software installations is called the Grid user (grid). This user owns both the Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management binaries. A user created to
own either all Oracle installations, or one or more Oracle database installations, is
called the Oracle user (oracle). You can have only one Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner, but you can have different Oracle users to own different
installations.
Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group,
so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory
(oraInventory), and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set
correctly. The database software owner must also have the OSDBA group and (if you
create them) the OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, OSRACDBA, and
OSKMDBA groups as secondary groups.
5.1.4 Identifying an Oracle Software Owner User Account
You must create at least one software owner user account the first time you install
Oracle software on the system. Either use an existing Oracle software user account, or
create an Oracle software owner user account for your installation.
To use an existing user account, obtain from you system administrator the name of an
existing Oracle installation owner. Confirm that the existing owner is a member of the
Oracle Inventory group.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-3
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
For example if you know that the name of the Oracle Inventory group is oinstall,
then an Oracle software owner should be listed as a member of oinstall:
$ grep "oinstall" /etc/group
oinstall:x:54321:grid,oracle
You can then use the ID command to verify that the Oracle installation owners you
intend to use have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group. For example:
$ id oracle
uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),
54323(oper),54324(backupdba),54325(dgdba),54326(kmdba),54327(asmdba),54330(racdba)
$ id grid
uid=54331(grid) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),
54327(asmdba),54328(asmoper),54329(asmadmin),54330(racdba)
For Oracle Restart installations, to successfully install Oracle Database, ensure that the
grid user is a member of the racdba group.
After you create operating system groups, create or modify Oracle user accounts in
accordance with your operating system authentication planning.
Related Topics:
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User (page 5-11)
If the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) does not exist, or if
you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as
described in this section.
Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups (page 5-14)
If you have created an Oracle software installation owner account, but it
is not a member of the groups you want to designate as the OSDBA,
OSOPER, OSDBA for ASM, ASMADMIN, or other system privileges
group, then modify the group settings for that user before installation.
5.2 Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups
and Users
A job role separation configuration of Oracle Database and Oracle ASM is a
configuration with groups and users to provide separate groups for operating system
authentication.
Review the following sections to understand more about a Job Role Separation
deployment:
About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation (page 5-5)
Job role separation requires that you create different operating system
groups for each set of system privileges that you grant through
operating system authorization.
Standard Oracle Database Groups for Database Administrators (page 5-6)
Oracle Database has two standard administration groups: OSDBA,
which is required, and OSOPER, which is optional.
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation (page 5-6)
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later releases provide an
extended set of database groups to grant task-specific system privileges
for database administration.
5-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
Creating an ASMSNMP User (page 5-7)
The ASMSNMP user is an Oracle ASM user with privileges to monitor
Oracle ASM instances. You are prompted to provide a password for this
user during installation.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation
(page 5-7)
Oracle Grid Infrastructure operating system groups provide their
members task-specific system privileges to access and to administer
Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
5.2.1 About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
Job role separation requires that you create different operating system groups for each
set of system privileges that you grant through operating system authorization.
With Oracle Grid Infrastructure job role separation, Oracle ASM has separate
operating system groups that provide operating system authorization for Oracle ASM
system privileges for storage tier administration. This operating system authorization
is separated from Oracle Database operating system authorization. In addition, the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner provides operating system user
authorization for modifications to Oracle Grid Infrastructure binaries.
With Oracle Database job role separation, each Oracle Database installation has
separate operating system groups to provide authorization for system privileges on
that Oracle Database. Multiple databases can, therefore, be installed on the cluster
without sharing operating system authorization for system privileges. In addition,
each Oracle software installation is owned by a separate installation owner, to provide
operating system user authorization for modifications to Oracle Database binaries.
Note that any Oracle software owner can start and stop all databases and shared
Oracle Grid Infrastructure resources such as Oracle ASM or Virtual IP (VIP). Job role
separation configuration enables database security, and does not restrict user roles in
starting and stopping various Oracle Clusterware resources.
You can choose to create one administrative user and one group for operating system
authentication for all system privileges on the storage and database tiers. For example,
you can designate the oracle user to be the installation owner for all Oracle software,
and designate oinstall to be the group whose members are granted all system
privileges for Oracle Clusterware; all system privileges for Oracle ASM; all system
privileges for all Oracle Databases on the servers; and all OINSTALL system privileges
for installation owners. This group must also be the Oracle Inventory group.
If you do not want to use role allocation groups, then Oracle strongly recommends
that you use at least two groups:
•
A system privileges group whose members are granted administrative system
privileges, including OSDBA, OSASM, and other system privileges groups.
•
An installation owner group (the oraInventory group) whose members are
granted Oracle installation owner system privileges (the OINSTALL system
privilege).
Note: To configure users for installation that are on a network directory
service such as Network Information Services (NIS), refer to your directory
service documentation.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-5
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
5.2.2 Standard Oracle Database Groups for Database Administrators
Oracle Database has two standard administration groups: OSDBA, which is required,
and OSOPER, which is optional.
•
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege).
If you do not create separate OSDBA, OSOPER, and OSASM groups for the Oracle
ASM instance, then operating system user accounts that have the SYSOPER and
SYSASM privileges must be members of this group. The name used for this group
in Oracle code examples is dba. If you do not designate a separate group as the
OSASM group, then the OSDBA group you define is also by default the OSASM
group.
•
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
OSOPER grants the OPERATOR privilege to start up and shut down the database
(the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
5.2.3 Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and later releases provide an extended set of
database groups to grant task-specific system privileges for database administration.
The extended set of Oracle Database system privileges groups are task-specific and
less privileged than the OSDBA/SYSDBA system privileges. They are designed to
provide privileges to carry out everyday database operations. Users granted these
system privileges are also authorized through operating system group membership.
You do not have to create these specific group names, but during interactive and silent
installation, you must assign operating system groups whose members are granted
access to these system privileges. You can assign the same group to provide
authorization for these privileges, but Oracle recommends that you provide a unique
group to designate each privilege.
The subset of OSDBA job role separation privileges and groups consist of the
following:
•
OSBACKUPDBA group for Oracle Database (typically, backupdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of database backup and recovery related administrative privileges
(the SYSBACKUP privilege).
•
OSDGDBA group for Oracle Data Guard (typically, dgdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of privileges to administer and monitor Oracle Data Guard (the
SYSDG privilege). To use this privilege, add the Oracle Database installation
owners as members of this group.
5-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Installations with Standard and Job Role Separation Groups and Users
•
The OSKMDBA group for encryption key management (typically, kmdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of privileges for encryption key management such as Oracle Wallet
Manager management (the SYSKM privilege). To use this privilege, add the
Oracle Database installation owners as members of this group.
•
The OSRACDBA group for Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
(typically, racdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have
a limited set of Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) administrative privileges
(the SYSRAC privilege). To use this privilege:
–
Add the Oracle Database installation owners as members of this group.
–
For Oracle Restart configurations, if you have a separate Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation owner user (grid), then you must also add the
grid user as a member of the OSRACDBA group of the database to enable
Oracle Grid Infrastructure components to connect to the database.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Database Security Guide
5.2.4 Creating an ASMSNMP User
The ASMSNMP user is an Oracle ASM user with privileges to monitor Oracle ASM
instances. You are prompted to provide a password for this user during installation.
In addition to the OSASM group, whose members are granted the SYSASM system
privilege to administer Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you create a less
privileged user, ASMSNMP, and grant that user SYSDBA privileges to monitor the
Oracle ASM instance. Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the ASMSNMP user to monitor
Oracle ASM status.
During installation, you are prompted to provide a password for the ASMSNMP user.
You can create an operating system authenticated user, or you can create an Oracle
Database user called asmsnmp. In either case, grant the user SYSDBA privileges.
5.2.5 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation
Oracle Grid Infrastructure operating system groups provide their members taskspecific system privileges to access and to administer Oracle Automatic Storage
Management.
•
The OSASM group for Oracle ASM Administration (typically, asmadmin)
Create this group as a separate group to separate administration privileges groups
for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database administrators. Members of this group are
granted the SYSASM system privileges to administer Oracle ASM. In Oracle
documentation, the operating system group whose members are granted
privileges is called the OSASM group, and in code examples, where there is a
group specifically created to grant this privilege, it is referred to as asmadmin.
Oracle ASM can support multiple databases. If you have multiple databases on
your system, and use multiple OSDBA groups so that you can provide separate
SYSDBA privileges for each database, then you should create a group whose
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-7
Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
members are granted the OSASM/SYSASM administrative privileges, and create
a grid infrastructure user (grid) that does not own a database installation, so that
you separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure SYSASM administrative privileges from a
database administrative privileges group.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance
as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges
permit mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage administration
tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.
If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, but you do define
an OSDBA group for database administration, then by default the OSDBA group
you define is also defined as the OSASM group.
•
The OSOPER group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmoper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle instance administrative
privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping
the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.
5.3 Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
The following sections describe how to create operating system groups for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database:
Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group (page 5-9)
You must designate a group as the OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) group
during installation. Members of this group are granted access privileges
to Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group (page 5-9)
You can choose to designate a group as the OSOPER for ASM group
(asmoper) during installation. Members of this group are granted
startup and shutdown privileges to Oracle Automatic Storage
Management.
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations (page 5-9)
Each Oracle Database requires an operating system group to be
designated as the OSDBA group. Members of this group are granted the
SYSDBA system privileges to administer the database.
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations (page 5-9)
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of
operating system users with a limited set of database administrative
privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges).
Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations (page 5-10)
You must designate a group as the OSBACKUPDBA group during
installation. Members of this group are granted the SYSBACKUP
privileges to perform backup and recovery operations using RMAN or
SQL*Plus.
Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations (page 5-10)
You must designate a group as the OSDGDBA group during installation.
Members of this group are granted the SYSDG privileges to perform
Data Guard operations.
5-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations (page 5-10)
You must designate a group as the OSKMDBA group during
installation. Members of this group are granted the SYSKM privileges to
perform Transparent Data Encryption keystore operations.
Creating the OSRACDBA Group for Database Installations (page 5-10)
You must designate a group as the OSRACDBA group during database
installation. Members of this group are granted the SYSRAC privileges
to perform day–to–day administration of Oracle databases on an Oracle
RAC cluster.
5.3.1 Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group
You must designate a group as the OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) group during
installation. Members of this group are granted access privileges to Oracle Automatic
Storage Management.
Create an OSDBA for ASM group using the group name asmdba unless a group with
that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
5.3.2 Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group
You can choose to designate a group as the OSOPER for ASM group (asmoper)
during installation. Members of this group are granted startup and shutdown
privileges to Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
If you want to create an OSOPER for ASM group, use the group name asmoper
unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
5.3.3 Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
Each Oracle Database requires an operating system group to be designated as the
OSDBA group. Members of this group are granted the SYSDBA system privileges to
administer the database.
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
•
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
•
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
Create the OSDBA group using the group name dba, unless a group with that name
already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54322 dba
5.3.4 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system
users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator
privileges).
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-9
Creating Operating System Privileges Groups
For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. However, to use
an OSOPER group, create it in the following circumstances:
•
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
•
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
If the OSOPER group does not exist, or if you require a new OSOPER group, then
create it. Use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists. For
example:
# groupadd -g 54323 oper
5.3.5 Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSBACKUPDBA group during installation.
Members of this group are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges to perform backup and
recovery operations using RMAN or SQL*Plus.
Create the OSBACKUPDBA group using the group name backupdba, unless a group
with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54324 backupdba
5.3.6 Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSDGDBA group during installation. Members of
this group are granted the SYSDG privileges to perform Data Guard operations.
Create the OSDGDBA group using the group name dgdba, unless a group with that
name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54325 dgdba
5.3.7 Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSKMDBA group during installation. Members of
this group are granted the SYSKM privileges to perform Transparent Data Encryption
keystore operations.
If you want a separate group for Transparent Data Encryption, then create the
OSKMDBA group using the groups name kmdba unless a group with that name
already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54326 kmdba
5.3.8 Creating the OSRACDBA Group for Database Installations
You must designate a group as the OSRACDBA group during database installation.
Members of this group are granted the SYSRAC privileges to perform day–to–day
administration of Oracle databases on an Oracle RAC cluster.
Create the OSRACDBA group using the groups name racdba unless a group with
that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54330 racdba
5-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
5.4 Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
Before starting installation, create Oracle software owner user accounts, and configure
their environments.
Oracle software owner user accounts require resource settings and other environment
configuration. To protect against accidents, Oracle recommends that you create one
software installation owner account for each Oracle software program you install.
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User (page 5-11)
If the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) does not exist, or if
you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as
described in this section.
Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners (page 5-12)
You must make the following changes to configure Oracle software
owner environments:
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments (page 5-12)
Configure each Oracle installation owner user account environment:
Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups (page 5-14)
If you have created an Oracle software installation owner account, but it
is not a member of the groups you want to designate as the OSDBA,
OSOPER, OSDBA for ASM, ASMADMIN, or other system privileges
group, then modify the group settings for that user before installation.
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users (page 5-15)
For each installation software owner user account, check the resource
limits for installation.
Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration (page 5-16)
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local system has only one visual
(which is typical), then use the following syntax to set your user account
DISPLAY environment variable:
Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands
(page 5-17)
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run
commands and copy files to the other nodes. During the installation,
hidden files on the system (for example, .bashrc or .cshrc) can cause
makefile and other installation errors if they contain terminal output
commands.
5.4.1 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
If the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) does not exist, or if you require a
new Oracle software owner user, then create it as described in this section.
The following example shows how to create the user oracle with the user ID 54321;
with the primary group oinstall; and with secondary groups dba, asmdba,
backupdba, dgdba, kmdba, and racdba:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba,racdba
oracle
You must note the user ID number for installation users, because you need it during
preinstallation.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-11
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations, user IDs and group IDs must be identical
on all candidate nodes.
5.4.2 Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners
You must make the following changes to configure Oracle software owner
environments:
•
Set the installation software owner user (grid, oracle) default file mode
creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022
ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644
permissions.
•
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the installation software
owner (grid, oracle).
•
Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for running an Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI) installation.
Caution:
If you have existing Oracle installations that you installed with the user ID
that is your Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner, then unset all Oracle
environment variable settings for that user.
5.4.3 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
Configure each Oracle installation owner user account environment:
1. Start an X terminal session (xterm) on the server where you are running the
installation.
2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on
this system, where hostname is the fully qualified name of the local host from
which you are accessing the server:
$ xhost + hostname
3. If you are not logged in as the software owner user, then switch to the software
owner user you are configuring. For example, with the user grid:
$ su - grid
On systems where you cannot run su commands, use sudo instead:
$ sudo -u grid -s
4. To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
5. Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:
•
Bash shell (bash):
$ vi .bash_profile
•
Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):
5-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
$ vi .profile
•
C shell (csh or tcsh):
% vi .login
6. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode
creation mask:
umask 022
7. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variables are
set in the file, then remove these lines from the file.
8. Save the file, and exit from the text editor.
9. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
•
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
•
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
•
C shell:
% source ./.login
10. Use the following command to check the PATH environment variable:
$ echo $PATH
Remove any Oracle environment variables.
11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command
similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:
•
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
•
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your
workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.
12. If the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free space, then identify a file system
with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables
to specify a temporary directory on this file system:
Note:
You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the temporary file
directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installations. If you place /tmp on a
shared file system, then the installation fails.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-13
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
a. Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free
space.
b. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
$
#
#
#
sudo - s
mkdir /mount_point/tmp
chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
exit
c. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TMP TMPDIR
C shell:
% setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following
commands:
$ umask
$ env | more
Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the
environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.
5.4.4 Modifying Oracle Owner User Groups
If you have created an Oracle software installation owner account, but it is not a
member of the groups you want to designate as the OSDBA, OSOPER, OSDBA for
ASM, ASMADMIN, or other system privileges group, then modify the group settings
for that user before installation.
Warning:
Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory
group. Do not modify the primary group of an existing Oracle software owner
account, or designate different groups as the OINSTALL group. If Oracle
software owner accounts have different groups as their primary group, then
you can corrupt the central inventory.
During installation, the user that is installing the software should have the OINSTALL
group as its primary group, and it must be a member of the operating system groups
appropriate for your installation. For example:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba,racdba[,oper]
oracle
5-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
5.4.5 Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
For each installation software owner user account, check the resource limits for
installation.
On Oracle Linux systems, Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Preinstallation
RPMs to meet preinstallation requirements like configuring your operating system to
set the resource limits in the limits.conf file. Oracle Preinstallation RPM only
configures the limits.conf file for the oracle user. If you are implementing Oracle
Grid Infrastructure job role separation, then copy the values from the oracle user to
the grid user in the limits.conf file.
Use the following ranges as guidelines for resource allocation to Oracle installation
owners:
Table 5-1
Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges
Resource Shell Limit
Resource
Soft Limit
Hard Limit
Open file descriptors
nofile
at least 1024
at least 65536
Number of processes
available to a single user
nproc
at least 2047
at least 16384
Size of the stack segment
of the process
stack
at least 10240 KB
at least 10240 KB, and at
most 32768 KB
Maximum locked
memory limit
memlock
at least 90 percent of the
current RAM when
HugePages memory is
enabled and at least
3145728 KB (3 GB) when
HugePages memory is
disabled
at least 90 percent of the
current RAM when
HugePages memory is
enabled and at least
3145728 KB (3 GB) when
HugePages memory is
disabled
To check resource limits:
1. Log in as an installation owner.
2. Check the soft and hard limits for the file descriptor setting. Ensure that the result
is in the recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Sn
1024
$ ulimit -Hn
65536
3. Check the soft and hard limits for the number of processes available to a user.
Ensure that the result is in the recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Su
2047
$ ulimit -Hu
16384
4. Check the soft limit for the stack setting. Ensure that the result is in the
recommended range. For example:
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-15
Creating Operating System Oracle Installation User Accounts
$ ulimit -Ss
10240
$ ulimit -Hs
32768
5. Repeat this procedure for each Oracle software installation owner.
If necessary, update the resource limits in the /etc/security/limits.conf
configuration file for the installation owner. However, the configuration file may be
distribution specific. Contact your system administrator for distribution specific
configuration file information.
Note:
If you make changes to an Oracle installation user account and that user
account is logged in, then changes to the limits.conf file do not take effect
until you log these users out and log them back in. You must do this before
you use these accounts for installation.
5.4.6 Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local system has only one visual (which is
typical), then use the following syntax to set your user account DISPLAY environment
variable:
Remote Display
Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells
$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0
C shell
$ setenv DISPLAY hostname:0
For example, if you are using the Bash shell and if your host name is local_host,
then enter the following command:
$ export DISPLAY=node1:0
X11 Forwarding
To ensure that X11 forwarding does not cause the installation to fail, use the following
procedure to create a user-level SSH client configuration file for Oracle installation
owner user accounts:
1.
Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner's ~/.ssh/
config file.
2.
Ensure that the ForwardX11 attribute in the ~/.ssh/config file is set to no.
For example:
Host *
ForwardX11 no
3.
Ensure that the permissions on ~/.ssh are secured to the Oracle installation
owner user account. For example:
5-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Oracle Database Vault User Accounts
$ ls -al .ssh
total 28
drwx------ 2
drwx------ 19
-rw-r--r-- 1
-rwx------ 1
-rwx------ 1
-rwx------ 1
grid
grid
grid
grid
grid
grid
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
4096
4096
1202
668
601
1610
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
21
21
21
21
21
21
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
authorized_keys
id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
known_hosts
5.4.7 Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and
copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for
example, .bashrc or .cshrc) can cause makefile and other installation errors if
they contain terminal output commands.
To avoid this problem, you must modify hidden files in each Oracle installation owner
user home directory to suppress all output on STDOUT or STDERR (for example, stty,
xtitle, and other such commands) as in the following examples:
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
if [ -t 0 ]; then
stty intr ^C
fi
C shell:
test -t 0
if ($status == 0) then
stty intr ^C
endif
Note:
If the remote shell can load hidden files that contain stty commands, then
OUI indicates an error and stops the installation.
5.5 Creating Oracle Database Vault User Accounts
If you intend to use Oracle Database Vault by default, then you must create an Oracle
Database Vault user account, and configure that user.
You must create the Database Vault Owner account before you can use Oracle
Database Vault. You can also create a Database Vault Account Manager administrative
account.
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers
the access control configuration information stored in Oracle Database Vault database
tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so
on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you
install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters
are initialized with default values.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 5-17
Unsetting Oracle Installation Owner Environment Variables
5.6 Unsetting Oracle Installation Owner Environment Variables
Unset Oracle installation owner environment variables before you start the
installation.
The environment variables you have set for the Oracle installation owner account you
use to run the installation can cause issues if they are set to values that conflict with
the values needed for installation.
If you have set ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable, following instructions
from Oracle Support, then unset it before starting an installation or upgrade. You
should never use ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable except under explicit
direction from Oracle Support.
If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the same
user account to install this installation, then unset the following environment
variables: ORA_CRS_HOME, ORACLE_HOME, ORA_NLS10, TNS_ADMIN, and any
other environment variable set for the Oracle installation user that is connected with
Oracle software homes.
Also, ensure that the $ORACLE_HOME/bin path is removed from your PATH
environment variable.
5-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
6
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database
If you install Oracle Databases on servers with multiple Oracle homes, multiple
aliases, or without a static IP address, then review these network configuration topics.
If you are installing Oracle Database on a server with a static host name and IP
address and at least one network interface, then no special network configuration is
required.
About Oracle Database Network Configuration Options (page 6-1)
You can enable database clients to connect to servers associated with
multiple IP addresses, and you can install Oracle Database on servers
with no network connections, and set up database services after
installation.
About Assigning Global Database Names During Installation (page 6-2)
The database name input field is used to set the DB_NAME,
DB_UNIQUE_NAME, and DB_DOMAIN Oracle initialization parameter
values.
Network Configuration for Computers Completed After Installation (page 6-3)
You must confirm that a non-networked computer can connect to itself
to ensure that you can configure client network resolution after
installation. A non-networked computer is a computer that does not
have a fixed network address, such as a computer using DHCP.
Network Configuration for Multihome Computers (page 6-3)
You must set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to install
Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer is
associated with multiple IP addresses.
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable (page 6-4)
Run the commands shown in this example as the Oracle user account to
set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable.
Network Configuration for Computers with Multiple Aliases (page 6-4)
You must set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to install
Oracle Database on a multialias computer. A multialias computer is one
to which multiple aliases resolve.
6.1 About Oracle Database Network Configuration Options
You can enable database clients to connect to servers associated with multiple IP
addresses, and you can install Oracle Database on servers with no network
connections, and set up database services after installation.
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is a server
running a single database instance, with a single host name that is resolvable on a
network. Oracle Universal Installer uses the host name and Oracle Database instance
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database 6-1
About Assigning Global Database Names During Installation
information to set up network services automatically. The database provides database
services to clients using a connect descriptor that resolves to the host name where the
database instance is running.
However, you can configure Oracle Database on servers with the following
nonstandard configurations:
•
Multihomed Computers: Servers with multiple Oracle Database installations
•
Multiple Alias Computers: Servers with multiple aliases, so that more than one
host name resolves to the computer
•
Non-Networked computers: Servers that do not have network connectivity at the
time of installation
6.2 About Assigning Global Database Names During Installation
The database name input field is used to set the DB_NAME, DB_UNIQUE_NAME, and
DB_DOMAIN Oracle initialization parameter values.
The Oracle Database software identifies a database by its global database name. A
global database name consists of the database name and database domain. Usually,
the database domain is the same as the network domain, but it need not be. The global
database name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same
network. You specify the global database name when you create a database during the
installation or using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
Here:
•
sales.us is the name of the database. The database name, DB_UNIQUE_NAME,
portion is a string of no more than 30 characters that can contain alphanumeric
characters, underscore (_), dollar sign ($), and pound sign (#) but must begin with
an alphabetic character. No other special characters are permitted in a database
name.
•
sales.us is also the DB_NAME. The DB_NAME initialization parameter specifies a
database identifier of up to eight characters.
•
example.com is the database domain in which the database is located. In this
example, the database domain equals the network domain. Together, the database
name and the database domain make the global database name unique. The
domain portion is a string of no more than 128 characters that can contain
alphanumeric characters, underscore (_), and pound sign (#). The DB_DOMAIN
initialization parameter specifies the database domain name.
However, the DB_NAME parameter need not necessarily be the first eight characters of
DB_UNIQUE_NAME.
The DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter and the DB_DOMAIN name parameter combine to
create the global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in
the initialization parameter file.
The system identifier (SID) identifies a specific database instance. The SID uniquely
distinguishes the instance from any other instance on the same computer. Each
database instance requires a unique SID and database name. In most cases, the SID
equals the database name portion of the global database name.
6-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Network Configuration for Computers Completed After Installation
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Reference
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
6.3 Network Configuration for Computers Completed After Installation
You must confirm that a non-networked computer can connect to itself to ensure that
you can configure client network resolution after installation. A non-networked
computer is a computer that does not have a fixed network address, such as a
computer using DHCP.
You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such
as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the
network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the
computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can
connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the
fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.
If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database
instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer
can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.
When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the ping command should
return the IP address of the computer. If the ping command fails, then contact your
network administrator.
6.4 Network Configuration for Multihome Computers
You must set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to install Oracle Database
on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer is associated with multiple IP
addresses.
Typically, a server configured to run multiple Oracle Database Oracle homes is
configured with multiple network interface cards. A host name resolves to an IP
address configured for one network card for each Oracle Database. You can also set up
aliases for host names. By default, during installation, Oracle Universal Installer uses
the value set for the environment variable ORACLE_HOSTNAME set for the Oracle
installation user account running the installation to find the host name. If the user
environment variable ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set for the Oracle user, and you are
installing on a computer that has multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal
Installer determines the host name from the /etc/hosts file and the information you
provide during the installation session.
Oracle Database clients connecting to the database must be able to access the computer
by using either the alias for the host name, or by using the host name associated with
that instance. To verify that the client can resolve to the database using both alias and
host name, use the ping command to check connectivity to the host name both for the
database on the server (host name only), and for the fully qualified domain name (host
name and domain name).
Note:
Clients must be able to obtain a response using the ping command both for
the host name and for the fully qualified domain name. If either test fails, then
contact your network administrator to resolve the issue.
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database 6-3
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable
6.5 Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable
Run the commands shown in this example as the Oracle user account to set the
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable.
The following example shows the commands to run on the Oracle user account to set
the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. In this example, the fully qualified
host name is somehost.example.com.
Bourne, Bash or Korn Shell
$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME
C Shell
% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.example.com
6.6 Network Configuration for Computers with Multiple Aliases
You must set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to install Oracle Database
on a multialias computer. A multialias computer is one to which multiple aliases
resolve.
A computer with multiple aliases is a computer that is registered with the naming
service under a single IP address, but which resolves multiple aliases to that address.
The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the same computer. Before
installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the Oracle installation owner
environment variable ORACLE_HOSTNAME to the computer whose host name you
want to use.
6-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
7
Supported Storage Options for Oracle
Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Review supported storage options as part of your installation planning process.
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database (page 7-2)
The following table shows the storage options supported for Oracle
Database binaries and files:
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server (page 7-3)
If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM),
then you must install Oracle Restart before installing your database.
About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
(page 7-4)
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) upgrades are
carried out during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
About Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions (page 7-4)
Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and
modify disk groups when you install earlier Oracle databases on Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installations.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM (page 7-4)
This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM).
File System Options for Oracle Database (page 7-7)
If you install Oracle Database files on a file system, then Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file
system mounted on the computer.
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files On a File System or Logical Volume
(page 7-8)
If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use
the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:
About NFS Storage for Data Files (page 7-8)
Review this section for NFS storage configuration guidelines.
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices (page 7-9)
Direct NFS Client integrates the NFS client functionality directly in the
Oracle software to optimize the I/O path between Oracle and the NFS
server. This integration can provide significant performance
improvements.
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 7-1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database
7.1 Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database
The following table shows the storage options supported for Oracle Database binaries
and files:
Table 7-1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database
Storage Option
Oracle Database
Binaries
Oracle Database
Data Files
Oracle Database
Recovery Files
Oracle Automatic
Storage Management
(Oracle ASM)
No
Yes
Yes
Oracle Automatic
Storage Management
Cluster File System
(Oracle ACFS)
Yes
Yes (Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1)
and later)
Yes (Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1)
and later
Local file system
Yes
Yes, but not
recommended
Yes, but not
recommended
Network file system
(NFS) on a certified
network-attached
storage (NAS) filer
Yes
Yes
Yes
Direct-attached
storage (DAS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Shared disk
partitions (block
devices or raw
devices)
No
No
No
Note: Loopback
devices are not
supported for use
with Oracle ASM
Guidelines for Storage Options
Use the following guidelines when choosing storage options:
•
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
•
You can use Oracle ASM to store Oracle Clusterware files.
•
Direct use of raw or block devices is not supported. You can only use raw or block
devices under Oracle ASM.
If you do not have a storage option that provides external file redundancy, then
you must configure at least three voting files locations and at least two Oracle
Cluster Registry locations to provide redundancy.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
7-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
7.2 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you
must install Oracle Restart before installing your database.
Starting with release 12.2, Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is known
as Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server is a version of Oracle Grid Infrastructure that supports single
instance databases. This support includes volume management, file system, and
automatic restart capabilities. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management. Oracle combined
the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is installed into an
Oracle Restart home.
Oracle Restart is a feature provided as part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle
Restart monitors and can restart Oracle Database instances, Oracle Net Listeners, and
Oracle ASM instances. Oracle Restart is currently restricted to manage single instance
Oracle Databases and Oracle ASM instances only.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management is a volume manager and a file system for
Oracle database files that supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage
Management also supports a general purpose file system for your application needs,
including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is Oracle's
recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to
conventional volume managers, and file systems.
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the
following services:
•
When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts
all Oracle components, including the Oracle database instance, Oracle Net
Listener, database services, and Oracle ASM.
•
Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is
restarted.
•
Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the status of Oracle components. If
a check operation fails for a component, then the component is shut down and
restarted.
Note the following restrictions for using Oracle Restart:
•
You can neither install Oracle Restart on an Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster
member node, nor add an Oracle Restart server to an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
cluster member node. Oracle Restart supports single-instance databases on one
server, while Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster supports single-instance or
Oracle RAC databases on a cluster.
•
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you should install Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the
database. Otherwise, you must install Oracle Restart, and then manually register
the database with Oracle Restart.
•
You can use the Oracle Restart implementation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure only
in single-instance (nonclustered) environments. Use Oracle Grid Infrastructure
with Oracle Clusterware for clustered environments.
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 7-3
About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
7.3 About Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Instances
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) upgrades are carried out during
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
If you are upgrading from Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) or later, then Oracle
ASM is always upgraded with Oracle Grid Infrastructure as part of the upgrade, and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is
started by the root scripts during upgrade. Subsequently, you can use Oracle ASMCA
(located in Grid_home/bin) to configure failure groups, Oracle ASM volumes, and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
Oracle ASMCA cannot perform a separate upgrade of Oracle ASM from a prior release
to the current release.
Upgrades of Oracle ASM from releases prior to 11g Release 2 (11.2) are not supported.
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
7.4 About Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk
groups when you install earlier Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations.
Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting
with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed as part of an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to perform
administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for details about
configuring disk group compatibility for databases using Oracle Database 11g
or earlier software with this release of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
7.5 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM).
Oracle ACFS extends Oracle ASM technology to support of all of your application data
in both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle ADVM provides volume
management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System communicates with Oracle ASM
through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager
interface.
7-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux x86–64 (page 7-5)
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS (page 7-6)
Review these topics as part of your storage plan for using Oracle ACFS
for single instance and cluster configurations.
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
7.5.1 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux x86–64
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
Table 7-2
Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Platform / Operating System Kernel
Oracle Linux 7
•
•
•
Oracle Linux 6
•
•
•
•
Oracle Linux 7 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel:
3.8.13-35 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel:
4.1.12-32 and later 4.1.12 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel
Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
Release 2: 2.6.39-100 and later UEK 2.6.39 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
Release 3: 3.8.13 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel:
4.1.12-32 and later 4.1.12 kernels
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux compatible kernels
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
All Red Hat Enterprise Linux compatible kernels
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
12
All SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 kernels
Linux Containers
Not supported
Note:
If you use Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) in enforcing mode with Oracle
ACFS, then ensure that you mount the Oracle ACFS file systems with an
SELinux default context. Refer to your Linux vendor documentation for
information about the context mount option.
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 7-5
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
See Also:
•
My Oracle Support Note 1369107.1 for more information and a complete
list of platforms and releases that support Oracle ACFS and Oracle
ADVM:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1369107.1
•
Patch Set Updates for Oracle Products (My Oracle Support Note 854428.1)
for current release and support information:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=854428.1
7.5.2 Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS
Review these topics as part of your storage plan for using Oracle ACFS for single
instance and cluster configurations.
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
provides a general purpose file system.
•
You can only use Oracle ACFS when Oracle ASM is configured.
•
Note the following general guidelines and restrictions for placing Oracle Database
and Oracle Grid Infrastructure files on Oracle ACFS:
•
–
You can place Oracle Database binaries, data files, and administrative files
(for example, trace files) on Oracle ACFS.
–
Oracle ACFS does not support replication or encryption with Oracle Database
data files, tablespace files, control files, and redo logs.
–
You can place Oracle Database homes on Oracle ACFS only if the database
release is Oracle Database 11g Release 2, or more recent releases. You cannot
install earlier releases of Oracle Database on Oracle ACFS.
–
For installations on Oracle Clusterware, you cannot place Oracle Clusterware
files on Oracle ACFS.
–
For policy-managed Oracle Flex Cluster databases, Oracle ACFS can run on
Hub Nodes, but cannot run on Leaf Nodes. For this reason, Oracle RAC
binaries cannot be placed on Oracle ACFS located on Leaf Nodes.
Oracle Restart does not support root-based Oracle Clusterware resources. For this
reason, the following restrictions apply if you run Oracle ACFS on an Oracle
Restart Configuration:
–
Oracle Restart does not support Oracle ACFS resources on all platforms.
–
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Restart configurations do not
support the Oracle ACFS registry.
–
You must manually load Oracle ACFS drivers after a system restart.
–
You must manually mount an Oracle ACFS file system, and unmount it after
the Oracle ASM instance has finished running.
7-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
File System Options for Oracle Database
–
•
Creating Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported in
Oracle Restart configurations. Creating Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS
file system is supported on Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
configurations.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are not supported on IBM AIX Workload
Partitions (WPARs).
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
7.6 File System Options for Oracle Database
If you install Oracle Database files on a file system, then Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system
mounted on the computer.
Oracle recommends that the file system be separate from the file systems used by the
operating system or the Oracle Database software.
The file system can be any of the following:
Standard Oracle Database Creation Options
•
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system.
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID
devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over many
disks.
•
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device.
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle
recommends that you use the Stripe and Mirror Everything (S.A.M.E)
methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology,
you do not have to specify multiple file system mount points for the database
storage.
•
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network-attached storage
(NAS) device. You also have the option to use Direct NFS Client, which simplifies
the administration of NFS configurations and also improves performance.
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on
them.
Advanced Oracle Database Creation Options
•
The three file system options available to standard Oracle Database installations.
•
With Oracle Managed Files, you specify file system directories in which the
database automatically creates, names, and manages files at the database object
level.
If you use the Oracle Managed Files feature, then you must specify only the
database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database
files.
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 7-7
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files On a File System or Logical Volume
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
7.7 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files On a File System or
Logical Volume
If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following
guidelines when deciding where to place them:
•
The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.
•
You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the
database files:
–
If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical
device that is dedicated to the database.
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical
volume on more than one physical device, and implement a stripe-andmirror-everything (SAME) storage policy.
–
If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on
separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.
This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and
create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It
also enables you to fully implement Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture
(OFA) guidelines. Choose the Advanced database creation option to
implement this method.
•
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the
file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk
space.
For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement
depending on the use of the database.
•
For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose must be on physical
devices that are used only by the database.
•
The Oracle user running the Oracle Database installation must have write
permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.
7.8 About NFS Storage for Data Files
Review this section for NFS storage configuration guidelines.
Network-Attached Storage and NFS Protocol
Network-attached storage (NAS) systems use the network file system (NFS) protocol
to to access files over a network, which enables client servers to access files over
networks as easily as to storage devices attached directly to the servers. You can store
data files on supported NFS systems. NFS is a shared file system protocol, so NFS can
support both single instance and Oracle Real Application Clusters databases.
7-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
Note:
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS devices
depends on the performance of the network connection between the servers
and the network-attached storage devices.For better performance, Oracle
recommends that you connect servers to NAS devices using private dedicated
network connections. NFS network connections should use Gigabit Ethernet
or better.
Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS configuration and mounting.
Requirements for Using NFS Storage
Before you start installation, NFS file systems must be mounted and available to
servers.
7.9 About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
Direct NFS Client integrates the NFS client functionality directly in the Oracle
software to optimize the I/O path between Oracle and the NFS server. This integration
can provide significant performance improvements.
Direct NFS Client supports NFSv3, NFSv4, NFSv4.1, and pNFS protocols to access the
NFS server. Direct NFS Client also simplifies, and in many cases automates, the
performance optimization of the NFS client configuration for database workloads.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2, when you enable Direct NFS, you can also
enable the Direct NFS dispatcher. The Direct NFS dispatcher consolidates the number
of TCP connections that are created from a database instance to the NFS server. In
large database deployments, using Direct NFS dispatcher improves scalability and
network performance. Parallel NFS deployments also require a large number of
connections. Hence, the Direct NFS dispatcher is recommended with Parallel NFS
deployments too.
Direct NFS Client can obtain NFS mount points either from the operating system
mount entries, or from the oranfstab file.
Direct NFS Client Requirements
•
NFS servers must have write size values (wtmax) of 32768 or greater to work with
Direct NFS Client.
•
NFS mount points must be mounted both by the operating system kernel NFS
client and Direct NFS Client, even though you configure Direct NFS Client to
provide file service.
If Oracle Database cannot connect to an NFS server using Direct NFS Client, then
Oracle Database connects to the NFS server using the operating system kernel
NFS client. When Oracle Database fails to connect to NAS storage though Direct
NFS Client, it logs an informational message about the Direct NFS Client connect
error in the Oracle alert and trace files.
•
Follow standard guidelines for maintaining integrity of Oracle Database files
mounted by both operating system NFS and by Direct NFS Client.
Direct NFS Mount Point Search Order
Direct NFS Client searches for mount entries in the following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure 7-9
About Direct NFS Client Mounts to NFS Storage Devices
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
Direct NFS Client uses the first matching entry as the mount point.
Note:
You can have only one active Direct NFS Client implementation for each
instance. Using Direct NFS Client on an instance prevents another Direct NFS
Client implementation.
See Also:
•
Oracle Database Reference for information about setting the
enable_dnfs_dispatcher parameter in the initialization parameter
file to enable Direct NFS dispatcher
•
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for performance benefits of
enabling Parallel NFS and Direct NFS dispatcher
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for guidelines
about managing Oracle Database data files created with Direct NFS Client
or kernel NFS
Related Topics:
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client (page 8-2)
Direct NFS uses a configuration file, oranfstab, to determine the
available mount points.
Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database (page 8-1)
Set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to
32768.
7-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
8
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle
Database
Complete these procedures to use file system storage for Oracle Database.
For optimal database organization and performance, Oracle recommends that you
install data files and the Oracle Database software in different disks.
If you plan to place storage on Network File System (NFS) protocol devices, then
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle Direct NFS (dNFS) to take advantage of
performance optimizations built into the Oracle Direct NFS client.
Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database (page 8-1)
Set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to
32768.
Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client (page 8-2)
Check your TCP network buffer size to ensure that it is adequate for the
speed of your servers.
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client (page 8-2)
Direct NFS uses a configuration file, oranfstab, to determine the
available mount points.
Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS (page 8-5)
Use these commands to enable or disable Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk
Manager Control of NFS:
Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client (page 8-5)
Perform these steps to enable Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) on
Direct NFS Client:
8.1 Configuring NFS Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Database
Set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to 32768.
For example, to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768 for an
Oracle Database data files mount point, set mount point parameters to values similar
to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Direct NFS Client issues writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.
Related Topics:
My Oracle Support note 359515.1
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database 8-1
Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
8.2 Checking TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
Check your TCP network buffer size to ensure that it is adequate for the speed of your
servers.
By default, the network buffer size is set to 1 MB for TCP, and 2 MB for UDP. The TCP
buffer size can set a limit on file transfers, which can negatively affect performance for
Direct NFS Client users.
To check the current TCP buffer size, enter the following command:
# sysctl -a |grep -e net.ipv4.tcp_[rw]mem
The output of this command is similar to the following:
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096
87380
16384
1048576
1048576
Oracle recommends that you set the value based on the link speed of your servers. For
example, perform the following steps:
1.
As root, use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change the
following:
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096
2.
87380
16384
4194304
4194304
Apply your changes by running the following command:
# sysctl -p
3.
Restart the network:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart
8.3 Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
Direct NFS uses a configuration file, oranfstab, to determine the available mount
points.
Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server that you
want to access using Direct NFS Client:
•
server
The NFS server name.
•
local
Up to four paths on the database host, specified by IP address or by name, as
displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host.
•
path
Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by
name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the NFS server.
•
export
The exported path from the NFS server.
•
mount
8-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
•
mnt_timeout
Specifies (in seconds) the time Direct NFS Client should wait for a successful
mount before timing out. This parameter is optional. The default timeout is 10
minutes (600).
•
nfs_version
Specifies the NFS protocol version used by Direct NFS Client. Possible values are
NFSv3, NFSv4, NFSv4.1, and pNFS. The default version is NFSv3. If you select
NFSv4.x, then you must configure the value in oranfstab for nfs_version.
Specify nfs_version as pNFS, if you want to use Direct NFS with Parallel NFS.
•
security_default
Specifies the default security mode applicable for all the exported NFS server
paths for a server entry. This parameter is optional. sys is the default value. See
the description of the security parameter for the supported security levels for
the security_default parameter.
•
security
Specifies the security level, to enable security using Kerberos authentication
protocol with Direct NFS Client. This optional parameter can be specified per
export-mount pair. The supported security levels for the security_default
and security parameters are:
sys: UNIX level security AUTH_UNIX authentication based on user identifier
(UID) and group identifier (GID) values. This is the default value for security
parameters.
krb5: Direct NFS runs with plain Kerberos authentication. Server is
authenticated as the real server which it claims to be.
krb5i: Direct NFS runs with Kerberos authentication and NFS integrity.
Server is authenticated and each of the message transfers is checked for
integrity.
krb5p: Direct NFS runs with Kerberos authentication and NFS privacy. Server
is authenticated, and all data is completely encrypted.
The security parameter, if specified, takes precedence over the
security_default parameter. If neither of these parameters are specified, then
sys is the default authentication.
For NFS server Kerberos security setup, review the relevant NFS server
documentation. For Kerberos client setup, review the relevant operating system
documentation.
•
dontroute
Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the operating system,
but instead sent using the IP address to which they are bound.
Note:
The dontroute option is a POSIX option, which sometimes does not work on
Linux systems with multiple paths in the same subnet.
•
management
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database 8-3
Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client
Enables Direct NFS Client to use the management interface for SNMP queries.
You can use this parameter if SNMP is running on separate management
interfaces on the NFS server. The default value is the server parameter value.
•
community
Specifies the community string for use in SNMP queries. Default value is public.
The following examples show three possible NFS server entries in oranfstab. A
single oranfstab can have multiple NFS server entries.
Example 8-1
Using Local and Path NFS Server Entries
The following example uses both local and path. Because they are in different subnets,
you do not have to specify dontroute.
server: MyDataServer1
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.1
local: 192.0.100.0
path: 192.0.100.1
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
Example 8-2
Using Local and Path in the Same Subnet, with dontroute
Local and path in the same subnet, where dontroute is specified:
server: MyDataServer2
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.128
local: 192.0.2.1
path: 192.0.2.129
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
Example 8-3 Using Names in Place of IP Addresses, with Multiple Exports,
management and community
server: MyDataServer3
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5
export: /vol/oradata6
management: MgmtPath1
community: private
Example 8-4
mount:
mount:
mount:
mount:
/mnt/oradata3
/mnt/oradata4
/mnt/oradata5
/mnt/oradata6
Using Kerberos Authentication with Direct NFS Export
The security parameter overrides security_default:
server: nfsserver
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.2
local: 192.0.2.3
path: 192.0.2.4
8-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
export: /private/oracle1/logs mount: /logs security: krb5
export: /private/oracle1/data mount: /data security: krb5p
export: /private/oracle1/archive mount: /archive security: sys
export: /private/oracle1/data1 mount: /data1
security_default: krb5i
8.4 Enabling and Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
Use these commands to enable or disable Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager
Control of NFS:
By default, Direct NFS Client is installed in a disabled state with single-instance Oracle
Database installations. Before enabling Direct NFS, you must configure an oranfstab
file.
Enabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
1.
Change the directory to $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib.
2.
Enter the following command:
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
Disabling Direct NFS Client Control of NFS
1.
Log in as the Oracle software installation owner, and disable Direct NFS Client
using the following commands:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_off
2.
Remove the oranfstab file.
Note:
If you remove an NFS path that an Oracle Database is using, then you must
restart the database for the change to take effect.
8.5 Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client
Perform these steps to enable Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) on Direct NFS
Client:
1. Ensure that SNMP is enabled on the ZFS storage server. For example:
$ snmpget -v1 -c public server_name .1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.225.1.4.2.0
SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.42.2.225.1.4.2.0 = STRING: "Sun Storage 7410"
2. If SNMP is enabled on an interface other than the NFS server, then configure
oranfstab using the management parameter.
3. If SNMP is configured using a community string other than public, then configure
oranfstab file using the community parameter.
4. Ensure that libnetsnmp.so is installed by checking if snmpget is available.
Configuring File System Storage for Oracle Database 8-5
Enabling Hybrid Columnar Compression on Direct NFS Client
8-6 Installation Guide
9
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Complete these procedures to use Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server,
which includes Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, also known as Oracle Restart,
provides system support for a single-instance Oracle Database. Oracle ASM is a
volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that supports singleinstance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management also supports a general
purpose file system for your application needs, including Oracle Database binaries.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management is Oracle's recommended storage management
solution. It provides an alternative to conventional volume managers and file systems.
Note:
•
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and
create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database
with Oracle Restart.
•
You can neither install Oracle Restart on an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
cluster member node, nor add an Oracle Restart server to an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster member node. Oracle Restart supports singleinstance databases on one server, while Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Cluster supports single-instance or Oracle RAC databases on a cluster.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management (page 9-2)
Identify storage requirements and Oracle ASM disk group options.
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD (page 9-6)
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) maintains storage file path
persistence and helps to protect files from accidental overwrites.
Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(page 9-7)
You can use direct-attached storage (DAS) and storage area network
(SAN) disks with Oracle ASM.
Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files (page 9-7)
Perform this procedure to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on
a separate file system from the Oracle base directory.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 9-1
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (page 9-9)
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zeropadded files in an NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk
devices in an Oracle ASM disk group.
9.1 Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Identify storage requirements and Oracle ASM disk group options.
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(page 9-2)
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must
determine the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that
you require. To complete this task, follow these steps:
ASM Disk Group Options for Interactive and Noninteractive Installation
(page 9-5)
You can select new disk groups during interactive installations, but you
must use existing disk groups for noninteractive installations.
Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group (page 9-6)
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or the Oracle ASM
command line tool (asmcmd) to identify existing disk groups, and to
determine if sufficient space is available in the disk group.
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
9.1.1 Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the
number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete
this task, follow these steps:
1. Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both. Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo
log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.
During the database installation, you have the option to select either a file system
or Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for Oracle Database files. Similarly, you
also have the option to select either a file system or Oracle ASM as the storage
mechanism for your recovery files.
Note:
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for both Oracle Database
files and recovery files. You can use a file system for one file type and Oracle
ASM for the other.
If you select Oracle ASM as your storage option for Oracle Database files, then
depending on your choice in the Specify Recovery Options screen, you have the
following recovery options:
9-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
•
If you select the Oracle ASM option for your recovery files, then Oracle
Universal Installer provides you with only the option to use the same disk
group for both Oracle Database files and recovery files.
•
If you decide not to enable recovery during the database installation, then,
after the database installation, you can modify the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter to enable the fast recovery area.
2. Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for each Oracle ASM disk group
that you create.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines
how Oracle ASM mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of
disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:
•
External redundancy
This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk
group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when
the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own
data protection or when the database does not require uninterrupted access to
data.
•
Normal redundancy
To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group,
Oracle ASM uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring for
control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring
characteristics for individual files in a disk group. You can use two-way
mirroring or no mirroring.
A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups
(or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk
space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space of
all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy
disk groups.
•
High redundancy
The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a
disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure
groups (a minimum of three devices).
Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data
protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices
before deciding to use this redundancy level.
•
Flex redundancy
A flex redundancy disk group is a new disk group type with features such as
flexible file redundancy, mirror splitting, and redundancy change. A flex disk
group can consolidate files with different redundancy requirements into a
single disk group. It also provides the capability for databases to change the
redundancy of its files.
For database data, you can choose no mirroring (unprotected), two-way
mirroring (mirrored), or three-way mirroring (high). A flex redundancy disk
group requires a minimum of three disk devices (or three failure groups).
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 9-3
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files and
recovery files.
If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing
disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to
an existing disk group during the database installation.
Table 9-1 Oracle ASM Disk Number and Space Requirements for an Oracle
database (non-CDB)
Redundancy
Level
Minimum
Number of
Disks
Data Files
Recovery Files
Both File Types
External
1
2.7 GB
8.1 GB
10.8 GB
Normal
2
5.2 GB
15.6 GB
20.8 GB
High
3
7.8 GB
23.4 GB
31.2 GB
Flex
3
7.8 GB
23.4 GB
31.2 GB
Table 9-2 Oracle ASM Disk Number and Space Requirements for a multitenant
container database (CDB) with one pluggable database (PDB)
Redundancy
Level
Minimum
Number of
Disks
Data Files
Recovery Files
Both File Types
External
1
4.5 GB
13.5 GB
18 GB
Normal
2
8.6 GB
25.8 GB
34.4 GB
High
3
12.9 GB
38.7 GB
51.6 GB
Flex
3
12.9 GB
38.7 GB
51.6 GB
Note:
•
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid
installation.
Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by
Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the
redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then select
Normal for the redundancy.
•
Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An
allocation unit is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group.
You can select the AU Size value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB,
depending on the specific disk group compatibility level. The default
value is set to 4 MB.
4. Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices
9-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its own failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
To protect against failures of this type, use two SCSI controllers, each with two
disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This
configuration enables the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.
Consider the following guidelines while defining custom failure groups:
•
Starting with release 12.2, you can specify custom failure groups in the Create
ASM Disk Group screen during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
•
You can also define custom failure groups after installation, using the GUI tool
ASMCA, the command line tool asmcmd, or SQL commands.
•
If you define custom failure groups, then for failure groups containing
database files only, you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for
normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy
disk groups.
5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group.
Use the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
•
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation.
•
All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
•
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group
device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate
physical disk.
•
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk
group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of
complexity that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if
you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use the logical volume
manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or
mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the
additional storage layer.
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
9.1.2 ASM Disk Group Options for Interactive and Noninteractive Installation
You can select new disk groups during interactive installations, but you must use
existing disk groups for noninteractive installations.
Select from the following choices to store either database or recovery files in an
existing Oracle ASM disk group, depending on installation method:
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 9-5
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD
•
•
Installation method that runs Database Configuration
Assistant in interactive mode (either during installation or
after installation)
–
Select new Disk Group
–
Select existing Disk Group
Installation method that runs Database Configuration
Assistant in noninteractive mode (either during installation
or after installation)
Select an existing Disk Group only. You cannot create a disk group during
noninteractive installations.
You can add disk devices to an existing disk group if it has insufficient free space.
Note:
The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group can be running
in a different Oracle home directory.
9.1.3 Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or the Oracle ASM command line tool
(asmcmd) to identify existing disk groups, and to determine if sufficient space is
available in the disk group.
1. Connect to the Oracle ASM instance and start the instance if necessary:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd
ASMCMD> startup
2. Enter one of the following commands to view the existing disk groups, their
redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
ASMCMD> lsdg
or
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd -p lsdg
3. From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
4. If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements for your installation.
Note: If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then Oracle
recommends that you use devices that have the same size and performance
characteristics as the existing devices in that disk group.
9.2 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMFD
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) maintains storage file path persistence and
helps to protect files from accidental overwrites.
The following references introduce you to Oracle ASMFD:
9-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver (page 9-7)
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can choose to install
and configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management Filter Driver
(Oracle ASMFD). Oracle ASMFD helps prevent corruption in Oracle
ASM disks and files within the disk group.
9.2.1 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can choose to install and configure
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD). Oracle ASMFD
helps prevent corruption in Oracle ASM disks and files within the disk group.
Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) rejects write I/O requests that are not
issued by Oracle software. This write filter helps to prevent users with administrative
privileges from inadvertently overwriting Oracle ASM disks, thus preventing
corruption in Oracle ASM disks and files within the disk group. For disk partitions,
the area protected is the area on the disk managed by Oracle ASMFD, assuming the
partition table is left untouched by the user.
Oracle ASMFD simplifies the configuration and management of disk devices by
eliminating the need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the
system is restarted.
If Oracle ASMLIB exists on your Linux system, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB before
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, so that you can choose to install and configure
Oracle ASMFD during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Note: Oracle ASMFD is supported on Linux x86–64 and Oracle Solaris
operating systems.
Related Topics:
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB (page A-6)
To use Oracle ASMLIB to configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the
following tasks:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
9.3 Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
You can use direct-attached storage (DAS) and storage area network (SAN) disks with
Oracle ASM.
To use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle
recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk.
Note:
You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, if it is partitioned.
9.4 Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files
Perform this procedure to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file
system from the Oracle base directory.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 9-7
Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files
1. Use the following command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system:
# df -h
2. Identify the file systems to use, from the display:
Option
Description
Database Files
Select one of the following:
•
•
Recovery Files
A single file system with at least 1.5 GB
of free disk space
Two or more file systems with at least
3.5 GB of free disk space in total
Choose a file system with at least 2 GB of
free disk space
If you are using the same file system for multiple file types, then add the disk space
requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.
3. Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
4. If the user performing installation has permissions to create directories on the disks
where you plan to install Oracle Database, then DBCA creates the Oracle Database
file directory, and the Recovery file directory. If the user performing installation
does not have write access, then you must create these directories manually.
For example, given the user oracle and Oracle Inventory Group oinstall, and
using the paths /u03/oradata/wrk_area for Oracle Database files, and /u01/
oradata/rcv_area for the recovery area, these commands create the
recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the
appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
•
Database file directory:
# mkdir /u01/oradata/
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/oradata/
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/
oradata.
•
Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):
# mkdir /u01/oradata/rcv_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /u01/oradata/rcv_area
The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area.
Oracle recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate physical
disk than that of the database file directory. This method enables you to use
the fast recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable
for any reason.
9-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
9.5 Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files in an
NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk
group.
Ensure that you specify the ASM discovery path for Oracle ASM disks.
During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) can create files in the NFS mounted directory you specify. The
following procedure explains how to manually create files in an NFS mounted
directory to use as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk group.
1. If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
2. Switch user to root.
3. Create a mount point directory on the local system.
For example:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
4. To ensure that the NFS file system is mounted when the system restarts, add an
entry for the file system in the mount file /etc/fstab.
5. Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS on the local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6. Choose a name for the disk group to create, and create a directory for the files on
the NFS file system, using the disk group name as the directory name.
For example, if you want to set up a disk group for a sales database:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/sales1
7. Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of zero-
padded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero
of=/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/disk1 bs=1024k
count=1000
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS file system. You must create one, two,
or three files respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy disk
group.
Note: Creating multiple zero-padded files on the same NAS device does not
guard against NAS failure. Instead, create one file for each NAS device and
mirror them using the Oracle ASM technology.
8. Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and
permissions on the directory and files that you created:
Configuring Storage for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 9-9
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
# chown -R grid:asmadmin /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
In this example, the installation owner is grid and the OSASM group is
asmadmin.
9. During Oracle Database installations, edit the Oracle ASM disk discovery string to
specify a regular expression that matches the file names you created.
For example:
/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/
Related Topics:
My Oracle Support Note 359515.1
9-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
10
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server includes Oracle Restart and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management.
If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and then create your
database, then the database is automatically added to the Oracle Restart configuration.
Oracle Restart automatically restarts the database when required.
If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server on a host computer on
which a database already exists, then you must manually add the database, the
listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other components to the Oracle Restart
configuration before you are able to configure automatic database restarts.
Note:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server can support multiple singleinstance databases on a single host computer.
About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation (page 10-2)
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), installation
and configuration of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is simplified
with image-based installation.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New
Database Installation (page 10-2)
Complete these steps to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server and then create a database that is managed by Oracle
Restart.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing
Database (page 10-4)
Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server and configure it for an existing
Oracle Database.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a SoftwareOnly Installation (page 10-5)
A software-only installation only installs the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server binaries at the specified location. You must
complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after
you install the software.
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation (page 10-8)
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a single instance, use the
ASMCMD command-line utility to test the Oracle ASM installation.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 10-1
About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After
Installation (page 10-8)
After installation, if you do not patch binaries using OPatch with the
opatchauto flag, then you must stop the stack, modify the software,
and and then restart the stack.
Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA
(page 10-10)
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, you
can also use Oracle ASMCA to create and configure disk groups, Oracle
ADVM, and Oracle ACFS.
Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations (page 10-10)
You must enable root access to use Oracle ACFS.
10.1 About Image-Based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), installation and
configuration of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is simplified with image-based
installation.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, create the new Grid home with the necessary
user group permissions, and then extract the image file into the newly-created Grid
home, and run the setup wizard to register the Oracle Grid Infrastructure product.
Using image-based installation, you can do the following:
•
Install and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure for cluster configurations.
•
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart).
•
Install only Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, and register the software with
Oracle inventory.
•
Add nodes to your existing cluster, if the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is
already installed or configured.
This installation feature streamlines the installation process and supports automation
of large-scale custom deployments. You can also use this installation method for
deployment of customized images, after you patch the base-release software with the
necessary Patch Set Updates (PSUs) and patches.
Note: You must extract the image software into the directory where you want
your Grid home to be located, and then run the gridSetup.sh script to start
the Grid Infrastructure setup wizard. Ensure that the Grid home directory
path you create is in compliance with the Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture
recommendations.
10.2 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a
New Database Installation
Complete these steps to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and
then create a database that is managed by Oracle Restart.
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, which installs Oracle Restart
and Oracle ASM, and creates one disk group.
10-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database Installation
You should have your network information, storage information, and operating
system users and groups available to you before you start the installation. You should
also be prepared to run root scripts.
1. Log in as the Oracle Restart software owner user (oracle).
2. Download the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation image
files, create the Grid home directory, and extract the image files in this Grid home
directory.
For example:
$
$
$
$
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
unzip -q /tmp/grid_home.zip
Note: Ensure that the Grid home directory path you create is in compliance
with the Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations. Also, unzip
the installation image files only in this Grid home directory that you created.
3. Configure and provision the shared disks for use with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
(Oracle ASMFD).
a. Log in as root and set $ORACLE_HOME to the grid home location and
$ORACLE_BASE to a temporary location.
su root
# set ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
# set ORACLE_BASE=/tmp
You set $ORACLE_BASE to a temporary location to avoid creating diagnostic or
trace files in the Grid home before the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
b. Use the ASMCMD afd_label command to provision disk devices for use with
Oracle ASM Filter Driver. For example:
#
#
#
#
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/bin
./asmcmd afd_label DATA1 /dev/sdb --init
./asmcmd afd_label DATA2 /dev/sdc --init
./asmcmd afd_label DATA3 /dev/sdd --init
c. Use the ASMCMD afd_lslbl command to verify the device has been marked
for use with Oracle ASMFD. For example:
# ./asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdb
# ./asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdc
# ./asmcmd afd_lslbl /dev/sdd
d. Unset $ORACLE_BASE.
# unset ORACLE_BASE
4. Log in as the Oracle Restart software owner user amd run gridSetup.sh to start
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation wizard:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 10-3
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing Database
5. In the Select Configuration Option screen, select the Configure Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server (Oracle Restart) option to install and
configure Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.
6. During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and registered on Oracle
ASMFD with the string ORCL:* are listed as default database storage candidate
disks.
7. Configure Oracle ASM as needed with additional disk groups.
•
The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the
disk group, or use the default name.
•
Any additional disk devices that you create must be owned by the user
performing the grid installation.
8. If you want to use Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) to manage your
Oracle ASM disk devices, then select Configure Oracle ASM Filter Driver on the
Create ASM Disk Group screen.
On Linux, if you want to use Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) to manage
your Oracle ASM disk devices, then you must deinstall Oracle ASM library driver
(Oracle ASMLIB) before you start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
9. Respond to the configuration prompts as needed to configure Oracle Grid
Infrastructure. Click Help for information.
10. Provide information to automate root scripts, or run scripts as root when prompted
by OUI.
If you configure automation for running root scripts, and a root script fails, then
you can fix the problem manually, and click Retry to run the root script again.
11. Start the Oracle Database installation, and select Oracle ASM disk groups for
Oracle Database files storage. For assistance during installation, click Help on the
Oracle Universal Installer page where you need more information.
Related Topics:
Optimal Flexible Architecture (page C-1)
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules are a set of
configuration guidelines created to ensure well-organized Oracle
installations, which simplifies administration, support and maintenance.
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Database (page A-12)
If Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) is installed but you do not
use it for device path persistence, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
10.3 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an
Existing Database
Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server and configure it for an existing Oracle Database.
Oracle Restart 12c Release 2 (12.2) can only manage resources from the same release.
For this reason, you can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server to
10-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation
provide services only for Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2). However, previous
release Oracle Databases can coexist on the same server without being managed by
Oracle Restart.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server for a database that is
already installed:
1.
On the same host computer as the database, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for
a standalone server, and select Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server (Oracle Restart) as the installation option. See, “Installing
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database
Installation” in Oracle Database Installation Guide.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server components are installed in
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Oracle home (Grid home), which is in a different
location from existing Oracle Database homes.
2.
If you have an existing Oracle Database, then register it for High Availability with
Oracle Restart using the srvctl command:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ srvctl add database -db dbname -o oracle_home_path -dbtype SINGLE
Related Topics:
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New
Database Installation (page 10-2)
Complete these steps to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server and then create a database that is managed by Oracle
Restart.
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
10.4 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a
Software-Only Installation
A software-only installation only installs the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server binaries at the specified location. You must complete a few manual
configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after you install the software.
About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software-Only Installations (page 10-5)
Manually installing and configuring the software binaries for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure.
Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server (page 10-6)
Use this procedure to do a software-only installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server.
Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server (page 10-7)
Use these steps to configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server installation for Oracle Restart.
10.4.1 About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software-Only Installations
Manually installing and configuring the software binaries for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 10-5
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation
Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform software-only installations,
because this installation method provides no validation of the installation, and this
installation option requires manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server software.
Performing a software-only installation requires the following steps:
1.
Installing the software binaries.
2.
Configuring the software binaries.
10.4.2 Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
Use this procedure to do a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for
a standalone server.
1. Log in as the Oracle Restart software owner user (oracle).
2. Download the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation image
files, create the Grid home directory, and extract the image files in this Grid home
directory.
For example:
$
$
$
$
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
unzip -q /tmp/grid_home.zip
Note: Ensure that the Grid home directory path you create is in compliance
with the Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations. Also, unzip
the installation image files only in this Grid home directory that you created.
3. Ensure that you complete all the storage and server preinstallation requirements.
Verify that your server meets the installation requirements using the following
command:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
$ runcluvfy.sh stage -pre hacfg
4. Run gridSetup.sh to start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation wizard:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh
Note: You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
5. In the Select Configuration Option screen, select the Set Up Software Only option
to perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server. Click Next.
6. Respond to the prompts as needed to set up Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Click Help
for information.
7. The Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation wizard prompts you to run the
root.sh script and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh script.
10-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation
8. The root.sh script output provides information about how to proceed,
depending on the configuration you plan to complete in this installation. Note this
information.
10.4.3 Configuring Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
Use these steps to configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server installation for Oracle Restart.
Configuring With Oracle Automatic Storage Management
1.
Install the software binaries. See, “Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server” in Oracle Database Installation Guide.
2.
Run gridSetup.sh to start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation wizard.
See, “Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New
Database Installation” in Oracle Database Installation Guide.
Configuring Without Oracle Automatic Storage Management
1.
Log in as the root user and run the roothas.pl script located in the Grid_home
path, using the following syntax:
Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I
Grid_home/crs/install Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl
For example, if the path of your Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
home is u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid, then run the script using
the following command:
# /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/perl/lib -I /u01/app/oracle/product
/12.2.0/grid/crs/install
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl
2.
Change directory to the path Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.
3.
Log in as the Oracle Restart software owner user and use the following command
syntax, where Grid_home is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server home.
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName
CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
For example:
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
-defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
4.
Use the SRVCTL utility along with Oracle Network Configuration Assistant to add
the listener to the Oracle Restart configuration.
Note: This procedure does not work for Oracle Restart upgrades from
previous releases.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 10-7
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Related Topics:
Installing Software Binaries for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server (page 10-6)
Use this procedure to do a software-only installation of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New
Database Installation (page 10-2)
Complete these steps to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server and then create a database that is managed by Oracle
Restart.
10.5 Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a single instance, use the ASMCMD
command-line utility to test the Oracle ASM installation.
1. Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM
instance to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is
located in the grid subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the
following commands to create the required settings:
Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid
2. Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg
If the Oracle ASM instance is running, then ASMCMD connects by default as the
SYS user with SYSASM privileges, and is available.
3. If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, then start the Oracle ASM instance using
the following command:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl/ start asm
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
10.6 Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
After Installation
After installation, if you do not patch binaries using OPatch with the opatchauto
flag, then you must stop the stack, modify the software, and and then restart the stack.
10-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation
You must first stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software installed in your
Grid home. For example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any of the dynamic link
libraries (DLLs) used by Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, you must stop the stack
manually, modify the software, and then restart the stack.
However, if you run the OPatch utility with the auto option, opatchauto, then
OPatch stops and starts the software stack for you. If you run OPatch with the apply
option, opatch apply, then you must also stop and restart the stack manually .
You must relink the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply an
operating system patch or after an operating system upgrade.
Caution: Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables
that run in the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut
down applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server software owner
user and change the directory to the path Grid_home/bin, where Grid_home is
the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
2.
Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:
$ crsctl stop has -f
3.
Log in as root and unlock the grid home:
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# roothas.sh -unlock
4.
Apply the patches using opatch apply.
5.
Relink the binaries.
$ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
$ Grid_home/bin/relink
6.
Lock the grid home:
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# roothas.sh -lock
7.
Enter the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:
$ crsctl start has
Relinking the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM Binaries
1. Log in as root and unlock the grid home:
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# roothas.sh -unlock
2. Log in as the grid user and relink the binaries:
$ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
$ Grid_home/bin/relink
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 10-9
Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA
3. Log in as root again and perform the following steps:
#
#
#
#
cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
./rootadd_rdbms.sh
cd Grid_home/crs/install
roothas.sh -lock
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.sh
script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
Related Topics:
Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX
10.7 Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, you can also use
Oracle ASMCA to create and configure disk groups, Oracle ADVM, and Oracle ACFS.
During Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation, Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) utility
creates a new Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no Oracle
ASM instance currently configured on the computer. After installation, you can create
and configure additional disk groups, and you can configure Oracle ADVM and
Oracle ACFS.
To create disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks, start Oracle ASMCA,
where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
$ ./asmca
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
10.8 Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations
You must enable root access to use Oracle ACFS.
To enable root access, log in as root, navigate to the path Grid_home/crs/install,
and run the script roothas.sh —lockacfs. For example:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/crs/install
# roothas.sh -lockacfs
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.sh
script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
10-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
11
Installing Oracle Database
Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation software is available in
multiple media, and can be installed using several options.
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by
Oracle Universal Installer to install the software. However, you can also use Oracle
Universal Installer to complete silent mode installations, without using the GUI. You
can also use rapid home provisioning for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure (clusterware) deployments.
Note:
To install Oracle Database files on Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(Oracle ASM), you must first complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server installation. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server includes Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM.
To upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, upgrade Oracle ASM by
running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle
ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then
you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
You cannot use Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to
install components from this release.
Accessing the Installation Software (page 11-2)
Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can
download it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle
Software Delivery Cloud portal.
About Character Set Selection During Installation (page 11-4)
Review character set options before you start installation.
About Automatic Memory Management Installation Options (page 11-5)
Decide if you want to configure Automatic Memory Management
during installation.
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages (page 11-6)
Describes how to run Oracle Universal Installer in other languages.
Installing the Oracle Database Software (page 11-6)
These topics explain how to run Oracle Universal Installer to perform
most database installations.
Installing Oracle Database 11-1
Accessing the Installation Software
11.1 Accessing the Installation Software
Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download it
from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
portal.
To install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it and unpack it,
or copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
Downloading Oracle Software (page 11-2)
Select the method you want to use to download the software.
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN (page 11-2)
Download installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network.
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Portal
(page 11-3)
You can download the software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud as
Media Packs.
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk (page 11-3)
Oracle recommends that you copy the installation software to the hard
disk to enable the installation to run faster.
11.1.1 Downloading Oracle Software
Select the method you want to use to download the software.
You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal and extract them on
your hard disk. Ensure that you review and understand the terms of the license. Most
downloads include the development license.
11.1.2 Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
Download installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network.
1. Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology
Network:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/downloads/index.html
2. Go to the download page for the product to install.
3. On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for
each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
4. Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the
archive files.
5. On the file system, , create a parent directory for each product (for example,
OraDB12c) to hold the installation directories.
6. Download all of the installation archive files to the directory you created for the
product.
11-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
7. Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files on
Oracle Technology Network. Also verify the checksums are the same as noted on
Oracle Technology Network using a command similar to the following, where
filename is the name of the file you downloaded:
cksum filename.zip
8. Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
11.1.3 Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Portal
You can download the software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud as Media Packs.
A Media Pack is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle
customers on CD-ROM or DVD.
1. Use any browser to access the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/
2. Complete the export validation process by entering information (name, company,
email address, and country) in the online form.
3. In the Media Pack Search page, specify the product pack and platform to identify
the media pack that you want to download. If you do not know the name of the
product pack, then you can search for it using the license list.
4. Optionally, select the relevant product to download from the Results list.
5. In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the readme file
for download instructions and product information.
6. After you review the readme file, select the media pack that you want to download
from the search results to download the individual zip files for the media pack, and
follow the Download Notes instructions in this page. After you download and
extract the contents of the zip files, you can install the software.
Note: Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a list of
part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you may refer during
the installation process.
7. After you download the files, click View Digest to verify that the MD5 or SHA-1
checksum matches the value listed on the media download page.
11.1.4 Copying the Software to the Hard Disk
Oracle recommends that you copy the installation software to the hard disk to enable
the installation to run faster.
Before copying the installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the
disk. Review these sections if you need instructions for how to mount the installation
media and copy its contents to the hard disk.
Mounting Disks on Linux Systems (page 11-4)
On most Linux systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert
it into the disk drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then
follow these steps to mount it.
Installing Oracle Database 11-3
About Character Set Selection During Installation
11.1.4.1 Mounting Disks on Linux Systems
On most Linux systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the
disk drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount
it.
1. If necessary, log in as the root user and enter a command similar to one of the
following to eject the currently mounted disk, then remove it from the drive:
•
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# eject /mnt/dvd
•
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# eject /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories for
the installation media.
2. Insert the appropriate installation media into the disk drive.
3. To verify if the disk is mounted automatically, enter one of the following
commands depending on the platform:
•
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# ls /mnt/dvd
•
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# ls /media/dvd
If this command fails to display the contents of the installation media, then enter a
command similar to the following to mount it, depending on the platform:
•
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /mnt/dvd
•
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories for
the installation media.
Note: Ensure that the /mnt/dvd directory exists on Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. If it does not, then create the /mnt/dvd mount point to mount the
installation media.
11.2 About Character Set Selection During Installation
Review character set options before you start installation.
After a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in
terms of time and resources. Such operations may require converting all character data
by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that
you carefully select the database character set at installation time.
Oracle Database uses character sets for the following:
11-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About Automatic Memory Management Installation Options
•
Data stored in SQL character data types (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
•
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
•
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this
code.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the default database character set of
a database created from the General Purpose/Transaction Processing or the Data
Warehousing template is Unicode AL32UTF8. Oracle recommends that you use
Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set.
Unicode is the universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken
languages of the world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is
the native encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML,
ECMAScript, and LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the
Internet and the global economy.
Because AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data
may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as
WE8ISO8859P1 or WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most
languages that use characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8
compared to legacy character sets supporting the language. English data may require
more space only if stored in CLOB (character large object) columns. Storage for noncharacter data types, such as NUMBER or DATE, does not depend on a character set. The
universality and flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Consider legacy character sets only when the database need to support a single group
of languages and the use of a legacy character set is critical for fulfilling compatibility,
storage, or performance requirements. The database character set to be selected in this
case is the character set of most clients connecting to this database.
The database character set of a multitenant container database (CDB) determines
which databases can be plugged in later. Ensure that the character set you choose for
the CDB is compatible with the database character sets of the databases to be plugged
into this CDB.
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more information
about choosing a database character set for a multitenant container database
(CDB)
11.3 About Automatic Memory Management Installation Options
Decide if you want to configure Automatic Memory Management during installation.
During a Typical installation, you create your database with Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant (DBCA), and automatic memory management is enabled. If
you choose advanced installation, then you can either specify memory allocation
manually, or enable automatic memory management.
With automatic memory management, the Oracle Database instances automatically
manage and tune memory for you. With automatic memory management, you choose
a memory target, and the instance automatically distributes memory between the
system global area (SGA) and the instance program global area (instance PGA). As
memory requirements change, the instance dynamically redistributes memory
between the SGA and instance PGA.
Installing Oracle Database 11-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
You can enable automatic memory management either during, or after the database
installation. Enabling automatic memory management after installation involves a
shutdown and restart of the database.
Note: By default, automatic memory management is disabled when you
perform typical installation on a node that has more than 4 GB of RAM.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
11.4 Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Describes how to run Oracle Universal Installer in other languages.
Your operating system locale determines the language in which Oracle Universal
Installer runs. You can run Oracle Universal Installer in one of these languages:
•
Brazilian Portuguese (pt_BR)
•
French (fr)
•
German (de)
•
Italian (it)
•
Japanese (ja)
•
Korean (ko)
•
Simplified Chinese (zh_CN)
•
Spanish (es)
•
Traditional Chinese (zh_TW)
To run Oracle Universal Installer in a supported language, change the locale in which
your operating system session is running before you start Oracle Universal Installer.
If the selected language is not one of the supported languages, then Oracle Universal
Installer runs in English.
11.5 Installing the Oracle Database Software
These topics explain how to run Oracle Universal Installer to perform most database
installations.
11-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Note:
•
If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, then you must install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and
create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database
with Oracle Restart.
•
You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you start the
database installation.
•
You can install Oracle Database by using the silent or response file
installation method, without the GUI. This method is useful to perform
multiple installations of Oracle Database.
Running Oracle Universal Installer to Install Oracle Database (page 11-7)
Use the runInstaller command to start the installation. At any time
during installation, if you have a question about what you are being
asked to do, click Help.
11.5.1 Running Oracle Universal Installer to Install Oracle Database
Use the runInstaller command to start the installation. At any time during
installation, if you have a question about what you are being asked to do, click Help.
Have all the information you need to provide regarding users groups, and storage
paths before you start installation.
Oracle recommends that you have your My Oracle Support credentials available
during installation. During installation, Oracle Universal Installer requests you to
provide your My Oracle Support credentials for the following purpose:
•
To inform you of security bulletins and updates, and to use Oracle Configuration
Manager to support your installation
1. Log in as the Oracle installation owner user account that you want to own the
software binaries.
2. On the installation media, or where you have downloaded the installation binaries,
run the runInstaller command to start Oracle Universal Installer.
For example:
•
On installation media:
/dev/dvd-rw/media/runInstaller
•
On a hard disk:
$ cd /home/oracle_sw/
$ ./runInstaller
3. On the Configure Security Updates screen, Oracle recommends that you provide
your My Oracle Support credentials to receive security updates.
4. Select your installation type.
Installation screens vary depending on the installation option you select. Respond
to the configuration prompts as needed.
Installing Oracle Database 11-7
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Note: Click Help if you have any questions about the information you are
asked to submit during installation.
11-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
12
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
Complete configuration tasks after you install Oracle Database.
You are required to complete some configuration tasks after Oracle Database is
installed. In addition, Oracle recommends that you complete additional tasks
immediately after installation. You must also complete product-specific configuration
tasks before you use those products.
Note: This chapter describes basic configuration only. Refer to product-
specific administration and tuning guides for more detailed configuration and
tuning information.
Required Postinstallation Tasks (page 12-2)
Download and apply required patches for your software release after
completing your initial installation.
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks (page 12-8)
Oracle recommends that you complete these tasks after installation.
About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database (page 12-11)
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1), by default,
permissions to read and write to the System Global Area (SGA) are
limited to the Oracle software installation owner.
Checking Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
(page 12-11)
Use these steps to check the contents and directory location of an Oracle
Database installation:
Enabling and Disabling Oracle Database Options After Installation (page 12-11)
The chopt tool changes your database options after installation.
Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (page 12-12)
Use these steps to log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
(EM Express).
About Deploying Oracle Database Using Rapid Home Provisioning
(page 12-13)
You can use Rapid Home Provisioning to provision Oracle Database
software.
Creating a Fast Recovery Area (page 12-13)
During an Oracle Restart installation, you can create only one disk
group. During an Oracle Clusterware installation, you can create
multiple disk groups. If you plan to add an Oracle Database for a
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-1
Required Postinstallation Tasks
standalone server or an Oracle RAC database, then you should create the
fast recovery area for database files.
12.1 Required Postinstallation Tasks
Download and apply required patches for your software release after completing your
initial installation.
Downloading and Installing Patch Updates (page 12-2)
Download and install patch updates for your Oracle software after you
complete installation.
Unlocking and Resetting Oracle Database User Passwords (page 12-2)
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS,
SYSTEM, and DBSMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a
locked account, you must unlock it and reset its password.
12.1.1 Downloading and Installing Patch Updates
Download and install patch updates for your Oracle software after you complete
installation.
Check the My Oracle Support website for required patch updates for your installation.
1. Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:
https://support.oracle.com
2. Log in to My Oracle Support website.
Note: If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, then click Register
for My Oracle Support and register.
3. On the main My Oracle Support page, click Patches & Updates.
4. In the Patch Search region, select Product or Family (Advanced).
5. On the Product or Family (Advanced) display, provide information about the
product, release, and platform for which you want to obtain patches, and click
Search.
The Patch Search pane opens, displaying the results of your search.
6. Select the patch number and click ReadMe.
The README page is displayed. It contains information about the patch set and
how to apply the patches to your installation.
7. Use the unzip utility provided with the software to uncompress the Oracle patch
updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located
in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
12.1.2 Unlocking and Resetting Oracle Database User Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM, and
DBSMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account, you must
unlock it and reset its password.
12-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Postinstallation Tasks
If you created a preconfigured database during the installation, but you did not unlock
accounts required to use the database, then you must unlock and reset those accounts
using these procedures.
Requirements for Database Passwords (page 12-3)
To secure your database, use passwords that satisfy the Oracle
recommended password requirements, even the passwords for
predefined user accounts.
Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts and Passwords (page 12-3)
Review these system privileges accounts after installation in preparation
for unlocking accounts and changing passwords.
Guidelines for Changing System Privileges Account Passwords (page 12-7)
Follow these rules for changing Oracle Database system privileges
account passwords.
Locking and Unlocking User Accounts (page 12-7)
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords (page 12-8)
Use this SQL*Plus procedure to unlock and reset user account
passwords.
12.1.2.1 Requirements for Database Passwords
To secure your database, use passwords that satisfy the Oracle recommended
password requirements, even the passwords for predefined user accounts.
Oracle Database provides a set of predefined user accounts. Create passwords in a
secure fashion. If you have default passwords, change these passwords to secure
passwords.
You can manage the security for Oracle Database users in various ways:
•
Enforce restrictions on the way that passwords are created
•
Create user profiles
•
Use user resource limits to further secure user accounts
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Security Guide
12.1.2.2 Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts and Passwords
Review these system privileges accounts after installation in preparation for unlocking
accounts and changing passwords.
All databases created by the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) include the
SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP database accounts. In addition, Oracle Database provides
several other administrative accounts. Before using these accounts, you must unlock
them and reset their passwords.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), only the HR sample schema is
automatically installed after a database installation. All sample schemas, including
HR, are distributed on GitHub:
https://github.com/oracle/db-sample-schemas
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-3
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Note:
This list contains some of the important system privileges user accounts, but it
is not complete. Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c to view
the complete list of database accounts.
Table 12-1 Partial List of Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts Locked
After Installation
User Name
Description
For More Information
ANONYMOUS
Enables HTTP access to Oracle XML DB.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
APEX_050000
The account that owns the Oracle
Application Express schema and
metadata.
Oracle Application Express
App Builder User’s Guide
APEX_PUBLIC_US
ER
The minimally privileged account used
for Oracle Application Express
configuration with Oracle Application
Express Listener or Oracle HTTP Server
and mod_plsql.
Oracle Application Express
App Builder User’s Guide
APPQOSSYS
Used for storing and managing all data
and metadata required by Oracle Quality
of Service Management.
None
AUDSYS
The account where the unified audit data
trail resides.
Oracle Database Security
Guide
CTXSYS
The Oracle Text account.
Oracle Text Application
Developer's Guide
DBSFWUSER
The account used to run the
DBMS_SFW_ACL_ADMIN package.
Oracle Database PL/SQL
Packages and Types Reference
DBSNMP
The account used by the Management
Agent component of Oracle Enterprise
Manager to monitor and manage the
database.
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Cloud Control
Administrator's Guide
DIP
The account used by the Directory
Integration Platform (DIP) to
synchronize the changes in Oracle
Internet Directory with the applications
in the database.
None
12-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Table 12-1 (Cont.) Partial List of Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts
Locked After Installation
User Name
Description
For More Information
DVSYS
There are two roles associated with this
account. The Database Vault owner role
manages the Database Vault roles and
configurations. The Database Vault
Account Manager is used to manage
database user accounts.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user
interface text is stored in database tables
in the DVSYS schema. By default, only
the English language is loaded into these
tables. You can use the
DVSYS.DBMS_MACADM.ADD_NLS_DATA
procedure to add other languages to
Oracle Database Vault.
DVF
The account owned by Database Vault
that contains public functions to retrieve
the Database Vault Factor values.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
FLOWS_FILES
The account owns the Oracle
Application Express uploaded files.
Oracle Application Express
App Builder User’s Guide
GGSYS
The internal account used by Oracle
GoldenGate. It should not be unlocked
or used for a database login.
None
GSMADMIN_INTE
RNAL
The internal account that owns the
Global Data Services schema. It should
not be unlocked or used for a database
login.
Oracle Database Global Data
Services Concepts and
Administration Guide
GSMCATUSER
The account used by Global Service
Manager to connect to the Global Data
Services catalog.
Oracle Database Global Data
Services Concepts and
Administration Guide
GSMUSER
The account used by Global Service
Manager to connect to the database.
Oracle Database Global Data
Services Concepts and
Administration Guide
HR
The account that owns the Human
Resources schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
LBACSYS
The Oracle Label Security administrator
account.
Oracle Label Security
Administrator’s Guide
MDDATA
The schema used by Oracle Spatial and
Graph for storing geocoder and router
data.
Oracle Spatial and Graph
Developer's Guide
MDSYS
The Oracle Spatial and Graph, and
Oracle Multimedia Locator
administrator account.
Oracle Spatial and Graph
Developer's Guide
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-5
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Table 12-1 (Cont.) Partial List of Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts
Locked After Installation
User Name
Description
For More Information
ORDPLUGINS
The Oracle Multimedia user. Plug-ins
supplied by Oracle and third-party plugins are installed in this schema.
Oracle Multimedia User's
Guide
ORDSYS
The Oracle Multimedia administrator
account.
Oracle Multimedia User's
Guide
ORDDATA
This account contains the Oracle
Multimedia DICOM data model.
Oracle Multimedia DICOM
Developer's Guide
OUTLN
The account that supports plan stability.
Plan stability enables you to maintain the
same execution plans for the same SQL
statements. OUTLN acts as a role to
centrally manage metadata associated
with stored outlines.
None
ORACLE_OCM
This account contains the
instrumentation for configuration
collection used by the Oracle
Configuration Manager.
Oracle Configuration Manager
Installation and
Administration Guide
REMOTE_SCHED
ULER_AGENT
The account to disable remote jobs on a
database. This account is created during
the remote scheduler agent
configuration. You can disable the
capability of a database to run remote
jobs by dropping this user.
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
SI_INFORMTN_SC
HEMA
The account that stores the information
views for the SQL/MM Still Image
Standard.
Oracle Multimedia User's
Guide
SPATIAL_CSW_A
DMIN_USR
The Catalog Services for the Web (CSW)
account. It is used by the Oracle Spatial
and Graph CSW cache manager to load
all record type metadata, and record
instances from the database into the
main memory for the record types that
are cached.
Oracle Spatial and Graph
Developer's Guide
SYS
The account used to perform database
administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
SYSTEM
Another account used to perform
database administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
SYSBACKUP
The account used to perform backup and
recovery tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
SYSKM
The account used to perform encryption
key management.
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
SYSDG
The account used to administer and
monitor Oracle Data Guard.
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
12-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Table 12-1 (Cont.) Partial List of Oracle Database System Privileges Accounts
Locked After Installation
User Name
Description
For More Information
SYSRAC
The account used to administer Oracle
Real Application Clusters (RAC).
Oracle Database
Administrator’s Guide
SYS$UMF
The account used to administer Remote
Management Framework, including the
remote Automatic Workload Repository
(AWR).
Oracle Database Performance
Tuning Guide
WMSYS
The account used to store the metadata
information for Oracle Workspace
Manager.
Oracle Database Workspace
Manager Developer's Guide
XDB
The account used for storing Oracle XML
DB data and metadata.
Oracle XML DB Developer’s
Guide
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Sample Schemas
12.1.2.3 Guidelines for Changing System Privileges Account Passwords
Follow these rules for changing Oracle Database system privileges account passwords.
Before you use a locked account, you must unlock it and reset its password.
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM, and
DBSNMP are revoked after installation. If you created a starter database during the
installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant displays a screen with your
database information and the Password Management button. Use the Password
Management button to unlock only the user names you use.
For more information about how to create a secure password, see:
Oracle Database Security Guide
12.1.2.4 Locking and Unlocking User Accounts
To temporarily deny access to the database for a particular user account, you can lock
the user account. If the user then attempts to connect, then the database displays an
error message and does not allow the connection. You can unlock the user account
when you want to permit database access again for that user. You can use Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express) to lock and unlock user accounts.
To lock or unlock a user account:
1.
In EM Express, go to the Users page, as described in the “Viewing User Accounts"
topic.
2.
Click the desired user account.
3.
From the Actions menu, select Alter Account.
The Alter Account page appears.
4.
Do one of the following:
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-7
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
•
To lock the account, enable the Account Locked option, and then click OK.
•
To unlock the account, disable the Account Locked option, and then click
OK.
12.1.2.5 Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
Use this SQL*Plus procedure to unlock and reset user account passwords.
1. Start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2. Enter the command ALTER USER account IDENTIFIED BY password
ACCOUNT UNLOCK; to unlock an account.
Note: If you unlock an account but do not reset the password, then the
password remains expired. The first time someone connects as that user, they
must change the user's password.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
12.2 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you complete these tasks after installation.
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script (page 12-8)
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you
complete an installation.
Setting Language and Locale Preferences for Client Connections (page 12-9)
Configure client applications connecting to an Oracle Database
according to your locale preferences and your I/O device character set.
Recompiling All Invalid Objects (page 12-10)
Oracle recommends you run the utlrp.sql script after you install,
patch, or upgrade a database, to identify and recompile invalid objects.
Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool (page 12-10)
Download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath
checks for the Oracle software stack.
12.2.1 Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation.
If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory subsequent to this
installation, then Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing
root.sh script during the installation. If you require information contained in the
original root.sh script, then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.
12-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
12.2.2 Setting Language and Locale Preferences for Client Connections
Configure client applications connecting to an Oracle Database according to your
locale preferences and your I/O device character set.
You must configure client applications connecting to an Oracle Database according to
your locale preferences and your I/O device character set. If your applications do not
have their own specific methods to configure locale preferences, then the method you
use to configure an Oracle database client connection depends on the access API you
use to connect to the database. Check your application documentation, before you
configure locale preferences for your applications.
For applications that connect to Oracle Databases using Oracle Call Interface (OCI) use
NLS_LANG and other client settings with names that start with NLS_ to set the locale
conventions and client character set for Oracle Database sessions. It is important that
you set the character set part of the NLS_LANG value properly. The character set you
set must correspond to the character set used by your I/O devices, which in case of
Microsoft Windows is either the ANSI Code Page (for GUI applications), such as
WE8MSWIN1252, or the OEM Code Page (for Console mode applications), such as
US8PC437. By doing this, the OCI API is notified about the character set of data that it
receives from the application. OCI can then convert this data correctly to and from the
database character set.
NLS_LANG and the other NLS settings can be specified either as environment
variables or as Windows Registry settings. Environment variable values take
precedence over Registry values.
Oracle Universal Installer sets a default value for the NLS_LANG setting in Registry
when it creates a new Oracle home. The NLS_LANG value is based on the language of
the Windows user interface, which is the language of Windows menu items and
dialog box labels.
Caution: Failure to set the client character set correctly can cause data loss.
Java applications that connect to Oracle Databases by using Oracle JDBC do not use
NLS_LANG. Instead, Oracle JDBC maps the default locale of the Java VM in which the
application runs to the Oracle Database language and territory settings. Oracle JDBC
then configures the connected database session using these settings. Because Java
works internally in Unicode, the client character set is always set to Unicode. Unless
an application explicitly changes it, the default locale of the Java VM is set based on
the locale of the user operating system on which the Java VM runs. Check your Java
VM documentation for information about configuring the Java VM default locale.
Note: In 3-tier architecture deployments, application servers that are database
clients can have settings in their configuration files that specify the
NLS_LANG value or the Java VM locale. Check the documentation
accompanying these servers.
See Also:
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more information about
configuring user locale preferences
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-9
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows
12.2.3 Recompiling All Invalid Objects
Oracle recommends you run the utlrp.sql script after you install, patch, or upgrade
a database, to identify and recompile invalid objects.
The utlrp.sql script recompiles all invalid objects. Run the script immediately after
installation, to ensure that users do not encounter invalid objects.
1. Start SQL*Plus:
sqlplus "/ AS SYSDBA"
2. Run the utlrp.sql script, where Oracle_home is the Oracle home path:
SQL> @Oracle_home/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
The utlrp.sql script automatically recompiles invalid objects in either serial or
parallel recompilation, based on both the number invalid objects, and on the number
of CPUs available. CPUs are calculated using the number of CPUs (cpu_count)
multiplied by the number of threads for each CPU (parallel_threads_per_cpu).
On Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), this number is added across all
Oracle RAC nodes.
12.2.4 Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool
Download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath checks for the
Oracle software stack.
ORAchk replaces the RACCheck utility. ORAchk extends health check coverage to the
entire Oracle software stack, and identifies and addresses top issues reported by
Oracle users. ORAchk proactively scans for known problems with Oracle products
and deployments, including the following:
•
Standalone Oracle Database
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters
•
Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) Validation
•
Upgrade Readiness Validations
•
Oracle Golden Gate
Oracle is continuing to expand checks, based on customer requests.
ORAchk is supported on Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2016 on a
Cygwin environment only.
Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of ORAchk from
My Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring and running
ORAchk utility, refer to My Oracle Support note 1268927.2:
https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/DocContentDisplay?
id=1268927.2&parent=DOCUMENTATION&sourceId=USERGUIDE
12-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database
Related Topics:
Oracle ORAchk and EXAchk User’s Guide
12.3 About Changes in Default SGA Permissions for Oracle Database
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1), by default, permissions to read
and write to the System Global Area (SGA) are limited to the Oracle software
installation owner.
In previous releases, both the Oracle installation owner account and members of the
OSDBA group had access to shared memory. The change in Oracle Database 12c
Release 2 (12.2) to restrict access by default to the Oracle installation owner account
provides greater security than previous configurations. However, this change may
prevent DBAs who do not have access to the Oracle installation owner account from
administering the database.
The Oracle Database initialization parameter ALLOW_GROUP_ACCESS_TO_SGA
determines if the Oracle Database installation owner account (oracle in Oracle
documentation examples) is the only user that can read and write to the database
System Global Area (SGA), or if members of the OSDBA group can read the SGA. In
Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the default value for this parameter is FALSE, so
that only the Oracle Database installation owner has read and write permissions to the
SGA. Group access to the SGA is removed by default. This change affects all Linux
and UNIX platforms.
If members of the OSDBA group require read access to the SGA, then you can change
the initialization parameter ALLOW_GROUP_ACCESS_TO_SGA setting from FALSE to
TRUE. Oracle strongly recommends that you accept the default permissions that limit
access to the SGA to the oracle user account.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Reference
12.4 Checking Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
Use these steps to check the contents and directory location of an Oracle Database
installation:
1. Start Oracle Universal Installer.
2. Click Installed Products to display the Inventory dialog box on the Welcome
screen.
3. Select an Oracle Database product from the list to check the installed contents.
4. Click Details to find additional information about an installed product.
5. Click Close to close the Inventory dialog box.
6. Click Cancel to close Oracle Universal Installer, and then click Yes to confirm.
12.5 Enabling and Disabling Oracle Database Options After Installation
The chopt tool changes your database options after installation.
When you install Oracle Database, some options are enabled and others are disabled.
To enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, shut down the
database and use the chopt tool
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-11
Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
Chopt Tool (page 12-12)
Use the chopt tool after installation to add or remove Oracle Database
options.
12.5.1 Chopt Tool
Use the chopt tool after installation to add or remove Oracle Database options.
Purpose
The chopt tool is a command-line utility that enables and disables database options.
Prerequisites
You must complete installation before you can use the chopt tool.
File Path
The tool is located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory
Syntax
chopt [enable | disable] db_option
Options
Command Option
Description
oaa
Oracle Advanced Analytics
olap
Oracle OLAP
partitioning
Oracle Partitioning
rat
Oracle Real Application Testing
Examples
To use the chopt tool to modify your Oracle Database, you must shut down the
database before you run the chopt tool, and then start up the database after you add
or remove database options.
Example 12-1
Enabling Oracle Data Mining Using Chopt
The following example shows how to use the chopt tool to enable the Oracle Data
Mining option in an Oracle Database called Sales:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
srvctl stop database -d Sales
chopt enable oaa
srvctl start database -d Sales
12.6 Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
Use these steps to log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express).
To start Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, use the EM Express URL
provided by Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) during the
12-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About Deploying Oracle Database Using Rapid Home Provisioning
database installation and creation. For information about logging in to Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Express see Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
If Oracle DBCA did not provide the EM Express URL during the database installation
and creation, or if you need to change the EM Express port later on, then see Oracle
Database 2 Day DBA.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
Configuring the HTTPS Port for EM Express
12.7 About Deploying Oracle Database Using Rapid Home Provisioning
You can use Rapid Home Provisioning to provision Oracle Database software.
With Rapid Home Provisioning, you create, store, and manage templates of Oracle
homes as images (called gold images) of Oracle software, such as databases,
middleware, and applications. You can make a working copy of any gold image and
then you can provision that working copy to any node in the data center or cloud
computing environment.
You can use Rapid Home Provisioning to provision, patch, and upgrade singleinstance databases running on clusters or on single, standalone nodes. These may be
on nodes with or without Oracle Grid Infrastructure installed.
Note: Rapid Home Provisioning is not supported on Microsoft Windows and
HP-UX Itanium systems.
Related Topics:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
12.8 Creating a Fast Recovery Area
During an Oracle Restart installation, you can create only one disk group. During an
Oracle Clusterware installation, you can create multiple disk groups. If you plan to
add an Oracle Database for a standalone server or an Oracle RAC database, then you
should create the fast recovery area for database files.
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
(page 12-13)
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle
Database files related to recovery. Enabling rapid backups for recent
data can reduce requests to system administrators to retrieve backup
tapes for recovery operations.
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group (page 12-14)
Procedure to create the fast recovery area disk group.
12.8.1 About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related
to recovery. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system
administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-13
Creating a Fast Recovery Area
Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to the
path for the fast recovery area to enable on disk backups and rapid recovery of data.
When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, Oracle Database writes all
RMAN backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to
the fast recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by
deleting obsolete backups and archiving files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle
Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and
you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle
recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage
device contention.
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter. The size of the fast recovery area is set with
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general rule, the larger the fast recovery area,
the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast
recovery area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least three days of
recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area is large enough to hold a copy of
all of your data files and control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log
files needed to recover your database using the data file backups kept under your
retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have
created a fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by 3
different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database
depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your least
important database, database2 is of greater importance, and database3 is of greatest
importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for
each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for database1, 50
GB for database2, and 70 GB for database3.
12.8.2 Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
Procedure to create the fast recovery area disk group.
1. Go to the Grid_home/bin directory, and start Oracle ASM Configuration
Assistant (ASMCA).
For example:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab.
2. Click Create to create a new disk group.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
3. Provide configuration information for the fast recovery area as prompted:
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area
group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use. For
example: Normal
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks you want to add to the fast
recovery area, and click OK.
12-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating a Fast Recovery Area
The Diskgroup Creation window opens and provides disk group creation status.
4. When the Fast Recovery Area disk group creation is complete, click OK, and then
click Exit.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 12-15
Creating a Fast Recovery Area
12-16 Installation Guide
13
Removing Oracle Database Software
These topics describe how to remove Oracle software and configuration files.
You can remove Oracle software in one of two ways: Use Oracle Universal Installer
with the deinstall option, or use the deinstallation tool (deinstall) that is
included in Oracle homes. Oracle does not support the removal of individual products
or components.
Caution:
If you have a standalone database on a node in a cluster, and if you have
multiple databases with the same global database name (GDN), then you
cannot use the deinstall tool to remove one database only.
About Oracle Deinstallation Options (page 13-1)
You can stop and remove Oracle Database software and components in
an Oracle Database home with Oracle Universal Installer.
Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall) (page 13-3)
The deinstall tool is a script that you can run separately from Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI).
Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database (page 13-6)
Use these examples to help you understand how to run deinstallation
using OUI (runinstaller) or as a standalone tool (deinstall).
Downgrading Oracle Restart (page 13-7)
Use this procedure to deconfigure and downgrade Oracle Restart, or to
troubleshoot Oracle Restart if you receive an error during installation.
Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home (page 13-7)
Use this procedure to deinstall the previous release Grid home.
13.1 About Oracle Deinstallation Options
You can stop and remove Oracle Database software and components in an Oracle
Database home with Oracle Universal Installer.
You can remove the following software using Oracle Universal Installer or the Oracle
deinstallation tool:
•
Oracle Database
•
Oracle Grid Infrastructure, which includes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
•
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
Removing Oracle Database Software 13-1
About Oracle Deinstallation Options
•
Oracle Database Client
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the deinstallation tool is integrated with the
database installation media. You can run the deinstallation tool using the
runInstaller command with the -deinstall and -home options from the base
directory of the Oracle Database or Oracle Database Client installation media.
The deinstallation tool is also available as a separate command (deinstall) in Oracle
home directories after installation. It is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall
directory.
The deinstallation tool creates a response file by using information in the Oracle home
and using the information you provide. You can use a response file that you generated
previously by running the deinstall command using the -checkonly option. You
can also edit the response file template.
If you run the deinstallation tool to remove an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation,
then the deinstaller prompts you to run the deinstall script as the root user. For
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster, the script is rootcrs.sh, and for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart), the script is roothas.sh.
Note:
•
You must run the deinstallation tool from the same release to remove
Oracle software. Do not run the deinstallation tool from a later release to
remove Oracle software from an earlier release. For example, do not run
the deinstallation tool from the 12.2 installation media to remove Oracle
software from an existing 11.2.0.4 Oracle home.
•
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.sh
script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home for Oracle Restart, and the rootcrs.sh script replaces the
rootcrs.pl script in the Grid home for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster.
If the software in the Oracle home is not running (for example, after an unsuccessful
installation), then the deinstallation tool cannot determine the configuration, and you
must provide all the configuration details either interactively or in a response file.
In addition, before you run the deinstallation tool for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations:
•
Dismount Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle
ACFS) and disable Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume
Manager (Oracle ADVM).
•
If Grid Naming Service (GNS) is in use, then notify your DNS administrator to
delete the subdomain entry from the DNS.
Files Deleted by the Deinstallation Tool
When you run the deinstallation tool, if the central inventory (oraInventory)
contains no other registered homes besides the home that you are deconfiguring and
removing, then the deinstall command removes the following files and directory
contents in the Oracle base directory of the Oracle Database installation owner:
•
admin
13-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
•
cfgtoollogs
•
checkpoints
•
diag
•
oradata
•
fast_recovery_area
Oracle strongly recommends that you configure your installations using an Optimal
Flexible Architecture (OFA) configuration, and that you reserve Oracle base and
Oracle home paths for exclusive use of Oracle software. If you have any user data in
these locations in the Oracle base that is owned by the user account that owns the
Oracle software, then the deinstallation tool deletes this data.
Caution: The deinstallation tool deletes Oracle Database configuration files,
user data, and fast recovery area (FRA) files even if they are located outside of
the Oracle base directory path.
13.2 Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
The deinstall tool is a script that you can run separately from Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI).
Purpose
The deinstall tool stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system for a specific Oracle home.
Syntax
The standalone deinstallation tool uses the following syntax:
(./deinstall [-silent] [-checkonly] [-paramfile complete path of input response
file]
[-params name1=value name2=value . . .]
[-o complete path of directory for saving files]
[-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory to use]
[-logdir complete path of log directory to use] [-skipLocalHomeDeletion] [skipRemoteHomeDeletion] [-help]
The deinstall tool run as a command option from OUI uses the following syntax,
where path is the complete path to the home or file you specify:
./runInstaller -deinstall -home path [-silent] [-checkonly]
[-paramfile path] [-params name1=value name2=value . . .]
[-o path] [-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory to use]
[-logdir complete path of log directory to use] [-skipLocalHomeDeletion] [skipRemoteHomeDeletion] [-help]
Removing Oracle Database Software 13-3
Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
-home
Use this flag to indicate the home path of the
Oracle home to check or deinstall.
To deinstall Oracle software using the
deinstall command, located in the Oracle
home you plan to deinstall, provide a
response file located outside the Oracle home,
and do not use the -home flag.
If you run the deinstallation tool from the
$ORACLE_HOME/deinstall path, then
the -home flag is not required because the
tool identifies the location of the home where
it is run. If you use runInstaller deinstall from the installation media,
then -home is mandatory.
-silent
Use this flag to run the deinstallation tool in
noninteractive mode. This option requires
one of the following:
•
A working system that it can access to
determine the installation and
configuration information. The -silent
flag does not work with failed
installations.
•
A response file that contains the
configuration values for the Oracle home
that is being deinstalled or deconfigured.
You can generate a response file to use or
modify by running the tool with the checkonly flag. The tool then discovers
information from the Oracle home to
deinstall and deconfigure. It generates the
response file that you can then use with the silent option.
You can also modify the template file
deinstall.rsp.tmpl, located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/
response directory.
-checkonly
13-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Use this flag to check the status of the Oracle
software home configuration. Running the
deinstallation tool with the -checkonly flag
does not remove the Oracle configuration.
The -checkonly flag generates a response
file that you can use with the deinstallation
tool and -silent option.
Oracle Deinstallation Tool (Deinstall)
Parameter
Description
-paramfile complete path of input response
Use this flag to run the deinstallation tool
with a response file in a location other than
the default. When you use this flag, provide
the complete path where the response file is
located.
file
The default location of the response file
depends on the location of the deinstallation
tool:
•
•
From the installation media or stage
location: /response
After installation from the installed
Oracle home: $ORACLE_HOME/
deinstall/response
-params [name1=value name2=value
name3=value . . .]
-o complete path of directory for saving response
files
Use this flag with a response file to override
one or more values to change in a response
file you have created.
Use this flag to provide a path other than the
default location where the response file
(deinstall.rsp.tmpl) is saved.
The default location of the response file
depends on the location of the deinstallation
tool:
•
•
From the installation media or stage
location: /response
After installation from the installed
Oracle home: $ORACLE_HOME/
deinstall/response
-tmpdircomplete path of temporary directory
to use
Use this flag to specify a non-default location
where Oracle Deinstallation Tool writes the
temporary files for the deinstallation.
-logdircomplete path of log directory to use
Use this flag to specify a non-default location
where Oracle Deinstallation Tool writes the
log files for the deinstallation.
-local
Use this flag on a multinode environment to
deinstall Oracle software in a cluster.
When you run deinstall with this flag, it
deconfigures and deinstalls the Oracle
software on the local node (the node where
deinstall is run). On remote nodes, it
deconfigures Oracle software, but does not
deinstall the Oracle software.
Removing Oracle Database Software 13-5
Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database
Parameter
Description
-skipLocalHomeDeletion
Use this flag in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations on a multinode environment to
deconfigure a local Grid home without
deleting the Grid home.
-skipRemoteHomeDeletion
Use this flag in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations on a multinode environment to
deconfigure a remote Grid home without
deleting the Grid home.
-help
Use this option to obtain additional
information about the command option flags.
13.3 Deinstallation Examples for Oracle Database
Use these examples to help you understand how to run deinstallation using OUI
(runinstaller) or as a standalone tool (deinstall).
If you run the deinstallation tool from the installation media using runInstaller deinstall, then help is displayed that guides you through the deinstallation process.
You can also use the -home flag and provide a path to the home directory of the
Oracle software to remove from your system. If you have a response file, then use the
optional flag -paramfile to provide a path to the response file.
You can generate a deinstallation response file by running the deinstallation tool with
the -checkonly flag. Alternatively, you can use the response file template located at
$ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/response/deinstall.rsp.tmpl.
In the following example, the runInstaller command is in the path/
directory_path, where /directory_path is the path to the database directory on
the installation media, and /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/ is
the path to the Oracle home you want to remove:
$ cd /directory_path/
$ ./runInstaller -deinstall -home /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/
The following example uses a response file called my_db_paramfile.tmpl in the
software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /directory_path/
$ ./runInstaller -deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
If you run the deinstallation tool using deinstall from the $ORACLE_HOME/
deinstall directory, then the deinstallation starts without prompting you for the
Oracle home path.
In the following example, the deinstall command is in the path/u01/app/
oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall. It uses a response file called
my_db_paramfile.tmpl in the software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
To remove the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, use the deinstallation script in the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
13-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Downgrading Oracle Restart
In this example, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is /u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/grid:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/deinstall$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/
oracle/my_grid_paramfile.tmpl
13.4 Downgrading Oracle Restart
Use this procedure to deconfigure and downgrade Oracle Restart, or to troubleshoot
Oracle Restart if you receive an error during installation.
To downgrade Oracle Restart, you must first downgrade Oracle Database, deconfigure
Oracle Restart, and then reconfigure Oracle Restart.
Also, running the roothas.sh with the command flags -deconfig -force
enables you to deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing the installed binaries.
This feature is useful if you encounter an error during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server installation. For example, when you run the root.sh
command, you find a missing operating system package. By running roothas.sh deconfig -force, you can deconfigure Oracle Restart, correct the cause of the
error, and then run root.sh again.
Note: Stop all databases, services, and listeners that are running before you
deconfigure or downgrade Oracle Restart.
1. Log in as the root user.
2. Downgrade Oracle Database.
3. Downgrade the Oracle Restart resources:
$ srvctl downgrade database -d db_unique_name -o oraclehome -t to_version
4. Go to the Grid_home/crs/install directory:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/grid/crs/install
5. Run roothas.sh with the -deconfig -force flags to deconfigure Oracle
Restart.
# roothas.sh -deconfig -force
6. Deinstall Oracle Restart using the deinstallation tool (deinstall).
7. Run root.sh manually in the earlier release Oracle Restart home to configure
Oracle Restart.
If you do not have an earlier release Oracle Restart on your system, then perform
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation for the respective
release to install Oracle Restart.
Related Topics:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
13.5 Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home
Use this procedure to deinstall the previous release Grid home.
Removing Oracle Database Software 13-7
Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home
For upgrades from previous releases, if you want to deinstall the previous release Grid
home, then perform the following steps:
1. Log in as the root user.
2. Manually change the permissions of the previous release Grid home.
3. Run the deinstall command.
For example, on Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
In this example:
•
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid is the previous release Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home
•
oracle is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner user
•
oinstall is the name of the Oracle Inventory group (OINSTALL group)
For example, on Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01/app/grid/11.2.0
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
In this example:
•
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid is the previous release clusterware home
•
grid is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner user
•
oinstall is the name of the Oracle Inventory group (OINSTALL group)
13-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
A
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually
Use these instructions to complete configuration tasks manually.
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle Universal Installer and Cluster Verification
Utility fixup scripts to complete minimal configuration settings. If you cannot use
fixup scripts, then complete minimum system settings manually.
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux (page A-1)
These topics explain how to configure kernel parameters manually for
Linux if you cannot complete them using the fixup scripts.
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB (page A-6)
To use Oracle ASMLIB to configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the
following tasks:
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually (page A-13)
You can maintain storage file path persistence by creating a rules file.
A.1 Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
These topics explain how to configure kernel parameters manually for Linux if you
cannot complete them using the fixup scripts.
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation (page A-1)
Use this table to set parameters manually if you cannot use the fixup
scripts.
Changing Kernel Parameter Values (page A-3)
Use these instructions to display and change the kernel parameter values
if they are different from the minimum recommended value.
Configuring Additional Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux (page A-5)
Additional kernel parameter settings configuration is required on SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server systems.
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually (page A-5)
If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set
TCP/IP ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral
ports for the anticipated server workload.
A.1.1 Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
Use this table to set parameters manually if you cannot use the fixup scripts.
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-1
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Note:
•
Unless otherwise specified, the kernel parameter and shell limit values
shown in the following table are minimum values only. For production
database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to
optimize the performance of the system. See the operating system
documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.
•
If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value listed in
this table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of that
parameter.
Table A-1
Minimum Operating System Resource Parameter Settings
Parameter
Value
File
semmsl
semmns
semopm
semmni
250
/proc/sys/
kernel/sem
shmall
40 percent of the size of
physical memory in pages
32000
100
128
/proc/sys/kernel/
shmall
Note: If the server supports
multiple databases, or uses a
large SGA, then set this
parameter to a value that is
equal to the total amount of
shared memory, in 4K pages,
that the system can use at one
time.
shmmax
Half the size of physical
memory in bytes
/proc/sys/kernel/
shmmax
See My Oracle Support Note
567506.1 for additional
information about
configuring shmmax.
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/
shmmni
panic_on_oops
1
/proc/sys/kernel/
panic_on_oops
file-max
6815744
/proc/sys/fs/filemax
aio-max-nr
1048576
/proc/sys/fs/aiomax-nr
Note: This value limits
concurrent outstanding
requests and should be set to
avoid I/O subsystem
failures.
ip_local_port_range
Minimum: 9000
Maximum: 65500
A-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/
ip_local_port_range
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Table A-1
(Cont.) Minimum Operating System Resource Parameter Settings
Parameter
Value
File
rmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/
rmem_default
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/
rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/
wmem_default
wmem_max
1048576
/proc/sys/net/core/
wmem_max
Related Topics:
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually (page A-5)
If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set
TCP/IP ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral
ports for the anticipated server workload.
A.1.2 Changing Kernel Parameter Values
Use these instructions to display and change the kernel parameter values if they are
different from the minimum recommended value.
Use the following commands to display the current values of the kernel parameters:
Table A-2
Commands to Display Kernel Parameter Values
Parameter
Command
semmsl, semmns, semopm, and semmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
This command displays the value of the
semaphore parameters in the order listed.
shmall, shmmax, and shmmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
This command displays the details of the
shared memory segment sizes.
file-max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
This command displays the maximum
number of file handles.
ip_local_port_range
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep
ip_local_port_range
This command displays a range of port
numbers.
rmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep
rmem_default
rmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
wmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep
wmem_default
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-3
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Table A-2
(Cont.) Commands to Display Kernel Parameter Values
Parameter
Command
wmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
aio-max-nr
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep aio-maxnr
If you used the Oracle Preinstallation RPM to complete you preinstallation
configuration tasks, then the Oracle Preinstallation RPM sets these kernel parameters
for you. However, if you did not use the Oracle Preinstallation RPM or the kernel
parameters are different from the minimum recommended value, then to change these
kernel parameter values:
1. Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracle-
database-sysctl.conf file, and add or edit lines similar to:
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
Note:
•
If you used the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then your kernel parameter
settings reside in the /etc/sysctl.d/99-oracle-databaseserver-12cR2-preinstall-sysctl.conf file.
•
Include lines only for the kernel parameter values to change. For the
semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you must specify all four values. If
any of the current values are larger than the minimum value, then specify
the larger value.
•
The /etc/sysctl.conf file has been deprecated.
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracle-databasesysctl.conf file, the values persist on system restarts.
2. To change the current values of the kernel parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl --system
Review the output. If the values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.d/97oracle-database-sysctl.conf file, then enter this command again.
3. Confirm that the values are set correctly:
# /sbin/sysctl -a
A-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
4. Restart the computer, or run sysctl --system to make the changes in
the /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracle-database-sysctl.conf file available in the
active kernel memory.
A.1.3 Configuring Additional Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
Additional kernel parameter settings configuration is required on SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server systems.
Perform these steps on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems only:
1. Enter the following command to enable the system to read the /etc/
sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2. Enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter /proc/sys/vm/
hugetlb_shm_group.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
Use vi to add the following text to /etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the
boot.sysctl script to run on system restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
Note: Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_group.
A.1.4 Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set TCP/IP
ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral ports for the
anticipated server workload.
Ensure that the lower range is set to at least 9000 or higher, to avoid Well Known
ports, and to avoid ports in the Registered Ports range commonly used by Oracle and
other server ports. Set the port range high enough to avoid reserved ports for any
applications you may intend to use. If the lower value of the range you have is greater
than 9000, and the range is large enough for your anticipated workload, then you can
ignore Oracle Universal Installer warnings regarding the ephemeral port range.
For example, with IPv4, use the following command to check your current range for
ephemeral ports:
$ cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
32768 61000
In the preceding example, the lowest port (32768) and the highest port (61000) are set
to the default range.
If necessary, update the UDP and TCP ephemeral port range to a range high enough
for anticipated system workloads, and to ensure that the ephemeral port range starts
at 9000 and above. For example:
# echo 9000 65500 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-5
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle recommends that you make these settings permanent. For example, as root,
use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change to the following:
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500, and then restart the network:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart
Refer to your Linux distribution system administration documentation for information
about automating ephemeral port range alteration on system restarts.
A.2 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
To use Oracle ASMLIB to configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the following tasks:
Note:
To create a database during the installation using the Oracle ASM library
driver, you must choose an installation method that runs ASMCA in
interactive mode. You must also change the disk discovery string to ORCL:*.
Oracle ASMLIB is not supported on IBM:Linux on System z.
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB (page A-6)
Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are persistent
on the storage device, so that the label is available even after an
operating system upgrade.
Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software (page A-7)
Review this information to install and configure the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver software manually.
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB (page A-9)
Configure disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group.
Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks (page A-11)
Review this information to administer the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver and disks.
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Database (page A-12)
If Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) is installed but you do not
use it for device path persistence, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB:
A.2.1 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are persistent on the
storage device, so that the label is available even after an operating system upgrade.
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver simplifies the configuration
and management of block disk devices by eliminating the need to rebind block disk
devices used with Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) each time the
system is restarted.
With Oracle ASMLIB, you define the range of disks you want to have made available
as Oracle ASM disks. Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are
persistent on the storage device, so that the label is available even after an operating
system upgrade.
A-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Note:
If you configure disks using Oracle ASMLIB, then you must change the disk
discovery string to ORCL:*. If the diskstring is set to ORCL:*, or is left empty
(""), then the installer discovers these disks.
A.2.2 Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software
Review this information to install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver software manually.
Oracle ASMLIB is included with the Oracle Linux packages, and with SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server. If you are a member of the Unbreakable Linux Network, then you
can install the Oracle ASMLIB RPMs by subscribing to the Oracle Linux channel, and
using yum to retrieve the most current package for your system and kernel. For
additional information, see the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index-101839.html
To install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver
software manually, perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
2.
If necessary, download the required Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver packages from the Oracle Technology Network website:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/linux/
downloads/index-088143.html
Note:
You must install oracleasm-support package version 2.0.1 or later to use
Oracle ASMLIB on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Advanced Server. Oracle
ASMLIB is already included with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server distributions.
See Also:
My Oracle Support note 1089399.1 for information about Oracle ASMLIB
support with Red Hat distributions:
https://support.oracle.com/rs?type=doc&id=1089399.1
3.
Switch to the root user:
$ su -
4.
Install the following packages in sequence, where version is the version of the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system
architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-7
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# rpm -ivh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 AS kernel on an
AMD64 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# rpm -ivh oracleasm-support-2.1.3-1.el5.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasm-2.6.18-194.26.1.el5xen-2.0.5-1.el5.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasmlib-2.0.4-1.el5.x86_64.rpm
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure -i
Note:
The oracleasm command in /usr/sbin is the command you should use.
The /etc/init.d path is not deprecated, but the oracleasm binary in that
path is now used typically for internal commands.
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script
displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default user to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the Oracle
software owner user (for example,
oracle)
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the Grid
Infrastructure software owner (for
example, grid)
Default group to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSDBA
group for the database (for example,
dba).
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSASM
group for storage administration (for
example, asmadmin).
Start Oracle ASM Library driver on boot
(y/n):
Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver
when the system starts.
Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n)
Enter y to scan for Oracle ASM disks
when the system starts.
The script completes the following tasks:
A-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
•
Creates the /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm configuration file
•
Creates the /dev/oracleasm mount point
•
Mounts the ASMLIB driver file system
Note:
The Oracle ASMLIB file system is not a regular file system. It is used only by
the Oracle ASM library to communicate with the Oracle ASMLIB.
7.
Enter the following command to load the oracleasm kernel module:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm init
A.2.3 Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB
Configure disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group.
To configure the disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group, perform the following steps:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then perform the following steps:
a.
Install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the disk group
and restart the system.
b.
Enter the following command to identify the device name for the disks to use:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary.
Table A-3
Device Name Formats Based on Disk Type
Disk Type
Device Name Format
Description
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a
letter that identifies the
IDE disk, and n is the
partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the
first disk on the first IDE
bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a
letter that identifies the
IDE disk, and n is the
partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the
first disk on the first IDE
bus.
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-9
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Table A-3
(Cont.) Device Name Formats Based on Disk Type
Disk Type
Device Name Format
Description
RAID disk
/dev/rd/cxdypz
/dev/ida/cxdypz
Depending on the RAID
controller, RAID devices
can have different device
names. In the examples
shown, x is a number that
identifies the controller, y
is a number that identifies
the disk, and z is a
number that identifies the
partition. For
example, /dev/ida/
c0d1 is the second logical
drive on the first
controller.
To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device
names or partition device names.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk partition on each disk
to use.
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the
disk devices.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is a name assigned to the disk.
Note:
3.
•
The disk names you specify can contain uppercase letters, numbers, and
the underscore character. They must start with an uppercase letter.
•
To create a database during the installation using the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver, you must change the disk discovery
string to ORCL:*.
•
If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Oracle ASM, then make
sure that you specify the correct logical device name for the disk.
To make the disk available on the other nodes in the cluster, enter the following
command as root on each node:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm scandisks
A-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
This command identifies shared disks attached to the node that are marked as
Oracle ASM disks.
A.2.4 Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks
Review this information to administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver and disks.
To administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use
the /usr/sbin/oracleasm initialization script with different options, as described
in the following table:
Table A-4
Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
Task
Command Example
Description
Configure or reconfigure
ASMLIB
oracleasm configure i
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver, if
necessary.
To see command options, enter oracleasm
configure without the -i flag.
Change system restart load
options for ASMLIB
oracleasm enable
Load or unload ASMLIB
without restarting the
system
oracleasm restart
Mark a disk for use with
ASMLIB
oracleasm createdisk
VOL1 /dev/sda1
Options are disable and enable.
Use the disable and enable options to change
the actions of the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver when the system
starts. The enable option causes the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver to
load when the system starts.
Options are start, stop, and restart.
Use the start, stop, and restart options to
load or unload the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver without restarting the
system.
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device
for use with the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver and give it a name,
where labelname is the name you want to use to
mark the device, and devicepath is the path to
the device:
oracleasm createdisk labelname
devicepath
Unmark a named disk
device
oracleasm deletedisk
VOL1
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named
disk device, where diskname is the name of the
disk:
oracleasm deletedisk diskname
Caution: Do not use this command to unmark
disks that are being used by an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk group. You must delete
the disk from the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group before you unmark it.
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-11
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Table A-4
(Cont.) Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
Task
Command Example
Description
Determine if ASMLIB is
using a disk device
oracleasm querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk
device or disk name is being used by the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver,
where diskname_devicename is the name of the
disk or device that you want to query:
oracleasm querydisk
diskname_devicename
List Oracle ASMLIB disks
oracleasm listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names
of marked Oracle ASM library driver disks.
Identify disks marked as
ASMLIB disks
oracleasm scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes
to identify which shared disks have been marked
as ASMLIB disks on another node.
Rename ASMLIB disks
oracleasm renamedisk
VOL1 VOL2
Use the renamedisk option to change the label of
an Oracle ASM library driver disk or device by
using the following syntax, where manager
specifies the manager device, label_device
specifies the disk you intend to rename, as
specified either by OracleASM label name or by
the device path, and new_label specifies the new
label you want to use for the disk:
oracleasm renamedisk [-l manager] [-v]
label_device new_label
Use the -v flag to provide a verbose output for
debugging.
Caution: You must ensure that all Oracle Database
and Oracle ASM instances have ceased using the
disk before you relabel the disk. If you do not do
this, then you may lose data.
A.2.5 Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB On Oracle Database
If Oracle ASM library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) is installed but you do not use it for
device path persistence, then deinstall Oracle ASMLIB:
1. Stop Oracle ASM and any running database instance:
$ srvctl stop asm
$ srvctl stop instance -d db_unique_name
2. Log in as root.
3. Stop the Oracle Restart stack:
# cd Grid_home/bin
# crsctl stop has
4. Stop Oracle ASMLIB:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm disable
A-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
5. Remove the oracleasm library and tools RPMs:
# rpm -e oracleasm-support
# rpm -e oracleasmlib
6. Check if any oracleasm RPMs are remaining:
# rpm -qa| grep oracleasm
7. If any oracleasm configuration files are remaining, remove them:
# rpm -qa| grep oracleasm | xargs rpm -e
Oracle ASMLIB and associated RPMs are now removed.
Start the Oracle Restart stack. Optionally, you can install and configure Oracle ASM
Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) before starting the Oracle Restart stack.
Related Topics:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
A.3 Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
You can maintain storage file path persistence by creating a rules file.
By default, the device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device file names
when the server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev applies
default settings, then it changes Oracle device file names and owners for the disks,
making the disks inaccessible when the server is restarted. For example, a voting disk
on a device named /dev/sdd owned by the user grid may be on a device
named /dev/sdf owned by root after restarting the server.
If you use Oracle ASMFD, then you do not have to ensure permissions and device
path persistence in udev.
If you do not use Oracle ASMFD, then you must create a custom rules file. Linux
vendors customize their udev configurations and use different orders for reading
rules files. For example, on some Linux distributions when udev is started, it
sequentially carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files. These
files are in the path /etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order. For
example, rules in the file 10-wacom.rules are parsed and carried out before rules in
the rules file 90-ib.rules.
When specifying the device information in the udev rules file, ensure that the
OWNER, GROUP, and MODE are specified before all other characteristics in the order
shown. For example, to include the characteristic ACTION on the UDEV line, specify
ACTION after OWNER, GROUP, and MODE.
Where rules files describe the same devices, on the supported Linux kernel versions,
the last file read is the one that is applied.
Configuring Device Persistence Manually for Oracle ASM (page A-13)
Complete these tasks to create device path persistence manually for
Oracle ASM.
A.3.1 Configuring Device Persistence Manually for Oracle ASM
Complete these tasks to create device path persistence manually for Oracle ASM.
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-13
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
1.
On existing systems (single instance or clustered), to obtain current mount paths,
run the command scsi_id (/sbin/scsi_id) on storage devices on a server to
obtain their unique device identifiers. When you run the command scsi_id with
the -s argument, the device path and name you provide should be relative to the
sysfs directory /sys (for example, /block/device) when referring to /sys/
block/device.
For example:
# /sbin/scsi_id -g -s /block/sdb/sdb1
360a98000686f6959684a453333524174
# /sbin/scsi_id -g -s /block/sde/sde1
360a98000686f6959684a453333524179
Record the unique SCSI identifiers, so you can provide them when required.
Note:
The command scsi_id should return the same device identifier value for a
given device, regardless of which node the command is run from.
2.
Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices (white listed), by editing the /etc/
scsi_id.config file and adding options=-g to the file. For example:
# cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
options=-g
3.
Using a text editor, create a UDEV rules file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting
permissions to 0660 for the installation owner and the operating system group
you have designated the OSASM group, whose members are administrators of the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure software. For example, on Oracle Linux, to create a
role-based configuration rules.d file where the installation owner is grid and
the OSASM group asmadmin, enter commands similar to the following:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
KERNEL=="sdb1, OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660",
BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id", RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000"
KERNEL=="sdc1", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660",
BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id", RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000001"
KERNEL=="sdd1", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660",
BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id", RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000002"
4.
On clustered systems, copy the rules.d file to all other nodes on the cluster. For
example:
# scp 99-oracle-asmdevices.rules [email protected]:/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracleasmdevices.rules
5.
As root, run the partprobe command using the syntax /sbin/partprobe
devicename.
For example:
#
#
#
#
/sbin/partprobe
/sbin/partprobe
/sbin/partprobe
/sbin/partprobe
A-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
/dev/sdc1
/dev/sdd1
/dev/sde1
/dev/sdf1
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
6.
Run the command udevtest (/sbin/udevtest) to test the UDEV rules
configuration you have created. The output should indicate that the devices are
available and the rules are applied as expected. For example, for /dev/ssd1:
# udevtest /block/sdd/sdd1
main: looking at device '/block/sdd/sdd1' from subsystem 'block'
udev_rules_get_name: add symlink
'disk/by-id/scsi-360a98000686f6959684a453333524174-part1'
udev_rules_get_name: add symlink
'disk/by-path/ip-192.168.1.1:3260-iscsi-iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.887085-part1'
udev_node_mknod: preserve file '/dev/.tmp-8-17', because it has correct dev_t
run_program: '/lib/udev/vol_id --export /dev/.tmp-8-17'
run_program: '/lib/udev/vol_id' returned with status 4
run_program: '/sbin/scsi_id'
run_program: '/sbin/scsi_id' (stdout) '360a98000686f6959684a453333524174'
run_program: '/sbin/scsi_id' returned with status 0
udev_rules_get_name: rule applied, 'sdd1' becomes 'data1'
udev_device_event: device '/block/sdd/sdd1' validate currently present symlinks
udev_node_add: creating device node '/dev/data1', major = '8', minor = '17',
mode = '0640', uid = '0', gid = '500'
udev_node_add: creating symlink
'/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-360a98000686f6959684a453333524174-part1' to '../../data1'
udev_node_add: creating symlink
'/dev/disk/by-path/ip-192.168.1.1:3260-iscsi-iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.84187085
-part1' to '../../data1'
main: run: 'socket:/org/kernel/udev/monitor'
main: run: '/lib/udev/udev_run_devd'
main: run: 'socket:/org/freedesktop/hal/udev_event'
main: run: '/sbin/pam_console_apply /dev/data1
/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-360a98000686f6959684a453333524174-part1
/dev/disk/by-path/ip-192.168.1.1:3260-iscsi-iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.84187085part1'
In the example output, note that applying the rules renames OCR device /dev/
sdd1 to /dev/data1.
7.
Load the rules and restart the UDEV service. For example:
•
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
# udevadm control --reload-rules
•
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
Verify that the device permissions and ownerships are set correctly.
Completing Preinstallation Tasks Manually A-15
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Manually
A-16 Installation Guide
B
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
Review the following topics to install and configure Oracle products using response
files.
How Response Files Work (page B-2)
Response files can assist you with installing an Oracle product multiple
times on multiple computers.
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode (page B-2)
Review this section for use cases for running the installer in silent mode
or response file mode.
Using Response Files (page B-3)
Review this information to use response files.
Preparing Response Files (page B-3)
Review this information to prepare response files for use during silent
mode or response file mode installations.
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File (page B-6)
After creating the response file, run Oracle Universal Installer at the
command line, specifying the response file you created, to perform the
installation.
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files (page B-7)
You can run configuration assistants in response file or silent mode to
configure and start Oracle software after it is installed on the system. To
run configuration assistants in response file or silent mode, you must
copy and edit a response file template.
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
(page B-10)
Use response files to configure Oracle software after installation. You
can use the same response file created during installation to also
complete postinstallation configuration.
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
(page B-12)
You can create and run a response file configuration after installing
Oracle software. The configToolAllCommands script requires users
to create a second response file, of a different format than the one used
for installing the product.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-1
How Response Files Work
B.1 How Response Files Work
Response files can assist you with installing an Oracle product multiple times on
multiple computers.
When you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), you can use a response file to
automate the installation and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or partially.
OUI uses the values contained in the response file to provide answers to some or all
installation prompts.
Typically, the installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it prompts you to
provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When you use response
files to provide this information, you run the installer from a command prompt using
either of the following modes:
•
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting the installer, then it runs in silent mode. During a
silent mode installation, the installer does not display any screens. Instead, it
displays progress information in the terminal that you used to start it.
•
Response file mode
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then the installer runs in response file mode. During a
response file mode installation, the installer displays all the screens, screens for
which you specify information in the response file, and also screens for which you
did not specify the required information in the response file.
You define the settings for a silent or response file installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For example, to specify the Oracle home name,
provide the Oracle home path for the ORACLE_HOME environment variable:
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
Another way of specifying the response file variable settings is to pass them as
command-line arguments when you run the installer. For example:
-silent directory_path
In this command, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
installation media, or the path of the directory on the hard drive.
B.2 Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Review this section for use cases for running the installer in silent mode or response
file mode.
B-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Using Response Files
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode for the following installations:
•
Complete an unattended installation, which you schedule using
operating system utilities such as at.
•
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without
user interaction.
•
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it.
The installer displays progress information on the terminal that you used
to start it, but it does not display any of the installer screens.
Response file
Use response file mode to complete similar Oracle software installations on
more than one system, providing default answers to some, but not all of
the installer prompts.
If you do not specify information required for a particular installer screen
in the response file, then the installer displays that screen. It suppresses
screens for which you have provided all of the required information.
B.3 Using Response Files
Review this information to use response files.
Use the following general steps to install and configure Oracle products using the
installer in silent or response file mode:
Note:
You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a system before
running the installer in silent or response file mode.
1. Create the oraInst.loc file if it is not present on the server.
2. Prepare a response file.
3. Run the installer in silent or response file mode.
4. Run the root scripts as prompted by Oracle Universal Installer.
5. If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration Assistant
and DBCA in silent or response file mode.
B.4 Preparing Response Files
Review this information to prepare response files for use during silent mode or
response file mode installations.
Editing a Response File Template (page B-4)
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation
type, and for each configuration tool.
Recording Response Files (page B-5)
You can use OUI in interactive mode to record response files, which you
can then edit and use to complete silent mode or response file mode
installations. This method is useful for Advanced or software-only
installations.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-3
Preparing Response Files
B.4.1 Editing a Response File Template
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool.
For Oracle Database, the response file templates are located in the database/
response directory on the installation media and in the Oracle_home/
inventory/response directory after the software in installed. For Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, the response file templates are located in the Grid_home/install/
response directory after the software is installed.
Note:
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response files are located in
the /response directory.
All response file templates contain comment entries, sample formats, examples, and
other useful instructions. Read the response file instructions to understand how to
specify values for the response file variables, so that you can customize your
installation.
The following table lists the response files provided with this software:
Table B-1
Response Files for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Response File
Description
db_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Database.
dbca.rsp
Silent creation and configuration of Oracle Database using Oracle DBCA.
netca.rsp
Silent configuration of Oracle Net using Oracle NETCA.
grid_setup.rsp
Silent configuration of Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Caution:
When you modify a response file template and save a file for use, the response
file may contain plain text passwords. Ownership of the response file should
be given to the Oracle software installation owner only, and permissions on
the response file should be changed to 600. Oracle strongly recommends that
database administrators or other administrators delete or secure response files
when they are not in use.
To copy and modify a response file:
1. Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
$ cp /Oracle_home/install/response/product_timestamp.rsp local_directory
2. Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
B-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Response Files
3. Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note:
The installer or configuration assistant fails if you do not correctly configure
the response file. Also, ensure that your response file name has the .rsp
suffix.
4. Secure the response file by changing the permissions on the file to 600:
$ chmod 600 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
Ensure that only the Oracle software owner user can view or modify response files
or consider deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Note:
A fully-specified response file for an Oracle Database installation contains the
passwords for database administrative accounts and for a user who is a
member of the OSDBA group (required for automated backups).
Related Topics:
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide
B.4.2 Recording Response Files
You can use OUI in interactive mode to record response files, which you can then edit
and use to complete silent mode or response file mode installations. This method is
useful for Advanced or software-only installations.
You can save all the installation steps into a response file during installation by
clicking Save Response File on the Summary page. You can use the generated
response file for a silent installation later.
When you record the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from the installer on the Summary page, before OUI starts to copy the software to
the system.
If you use record mode during a response file mode installation, then the installer
records the variable values that were specified in the original source response file into
the new response file.
Note:
You cannot save passwords while recording the response file.
To record a response file:
1.
Complete preinstallation tasks as for a standard installation.
When you run the installer to record a response file, it checks the system to verify
that it meets the requirements to install the software. For this reason, Oracle
recommends that you complete all of the required preinstallation tasks and record
the response file while completing an installation.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
2.
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user (typically oracle) has permissions to
create or write to the Oracle home path that you specify when you run the
installer.
3.
On each installation screen, specify the required information.
4.
When the installer displays the Summary screen, perform the following steps:
a.
Click Save Response File. In the window, specify a file name and location for
the new response file. Click Save to write the responses you entered to the
response file.
b.
Click Finish to continue with the installation.
Click Cancel if you do not want to continue with the installation. The
installation stops, but the recorded response file is retained.
Note: Ensure that your response file name has the .rsp suffix.
5.
If you do not complete the installation, then delete the Oracle home directory that
the installer created using the path you specified in the Specify File Locations
screen.
6.
Before you use the saved response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes. Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
B.5 Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
After creating the response file, run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line,
specifying the response file you created, to perform the installation.
Run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying the response file you
created. The Oracle Universal Installer executables, runInstaller and
gridSetup.sh, provide several options. For help information on the full set of these
options, run the gridSetup.sh or runInstaller command with the -help option.
For example:
•
For Oracle Database:
$ directory_path/runInstaller -help
•
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh -help
The help information appears in a window after some time.
To run the installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks for a normal installation.
2.
Log in as the software installation owner user.
3.
If you are completing a response file mode installation, then set the operating
system DISPLAY environment variable for the user running the installation.
B-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
Note:
You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if you are
completing a silent mode installation.
4.
To start the installer in silent or response file mode, enter a command similar to
the following:
•
For Oracle Database:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
•
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
$ Grid_home/gridSetup.sh [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Note:
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you specify a relative
path, then the installer fails.
In this example:
5.
•
directory_path is the path of the DVD or the path of the directory on the
hard drive where you have copied the installation binaries.
•
-silent runs the installer in silent mode.
•
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during
installation, and a software-only installation is performed instead.
•
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation
response file that you configured.
When the installation completes, log in as the root user and run the root.sh
script. For example
$ su root
password:
# /oracle_home_path/root.sh
6.
If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system, then
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the orainstRoot.sh script.
Log in as the root user and run the orainstRoot.sh script:
$ su root
password:
# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
B.6 Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
You can run configuration assistants in response file or silent mode to configure and
start Oracle software after it is installed on the system. To run configuration assistants
in response file or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file template.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-7
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
Note:
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response file template is
located in the /response directory.
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using Response Files (page B-8)
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and
start an Oracle Net Listener on the system, configure naming methods,
and configure Oracle Net service names.
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using Response Files (page B-9)
You can run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in
response file mode to configure and start an Oracle database on the
system.
B.6.1 Running Net Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net Listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names.
To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy and edit a response
file template. Oracle provides a response file template named netca.rsp in the
response directory in the database/response directory in the installation media.
Note:
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response file template is
located in the database/response directory.
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1. Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
2. Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3. Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note:
Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly configure the
response file.
4. Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
B-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
5. Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca -silent -responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
•
The -silent option indicates to run Net Configuration Assistant in silent
mode.
•
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
B.6.2 Running Database Configuration Assistant Using Response Files
You can run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in response file
mode to configure and start an Oracle database on the system.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must copy and
edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
dbca.rsp in the ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca directory and also in the /
response directory on the installation media. To run Oracle DBCA in response file
mode, you must use the -responseFile flag in combination with the -silent flag.
You must also use a graphical display and set the DISPLAY environment variable.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode:
1. Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
As an alternative to editing the response file template, you can also create a
database by specifying all required information as command line options when
you run Oracle DBCA. For information about the list of options supported, enter
the following command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
2. Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3. Follow the instructions in the file to edit the file.
Note:
Oracle DBCA fails if you do not correctly configure the response file.
4. Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5. To run Oracle DBCA in response file mode, set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
6. Use the following command syntax to run Oracle DBCA in silent or response file
mode using a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
In this example:
•
-silent option indicates that Oracle DBCA runs in silent mode.
•
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
During configuration, Oracle DBCA displays a window that contains status
messages and a progress bar.
B.7 Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During
Installation
Use response files to configure Oracle software after installation. You can use the same
response file created during installation to also complete postinstallation
configuration.
Using the Installation Response File for Postinstallation Configuration
(page B-10)
Starting with Oracle Database 12c release 2 (12.2), you can use the
response file created during installation to also complete postinstallation
configuration.
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File (page B-11)
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
executeConfigTools command.
B.7.1 Using the Installation Response File for Postinstallation Configuration
Starting with Oracle Database 12c release 2 (12.2), you can use the response file created
during installation to also complete postinstallation configuration.
Run the installer with the -executeConfigTools option to configure configuration
assistants after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle Database. You can use
the response file located at Oracle_home/install/response/
product_timestamp.rsp to obtain the passwords required to run the configuration tools.
You must update the response file with the required passwords before running the executeConfigTools command.
Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain security with a password response
file:
•
Permissions on the response file should be set to 600.
•
The owner of the response file should be the installation owner user, with the
group set to the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
Example B-1
Response File Passwords for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
oracle.install.crs.config.ipmi.bmcPassword=password
oracle.install.asm.SYSASMPassword=password
oracle.install.asm.monitorPassword=password
oracle.install.config.emAdminPassword=password
B-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File Created During Installation
If you do not have a BMC card, or you do not want to enable IPMI, then leave the
ipmi.bmcPassword input field blank.
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager for management, then leave
the emAdminPassword password field blank.
Example B-2 Response File Passwords for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server
oracle.install.asm.SYSASMPassword=password
oracle.install.asm.monitorPassword=password
oracle.install.config.emAdminPassword=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager for management, then leave
the emAdminPassword password field blank.
Example B-3
Response File Passwords for Oracle Database
This example illustrates the passwords to specify for use with the database
configuration assistants.
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYS=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYSTEM=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.DBSNMP=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.PDBADMIN=password
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.emAdminPassword=password
oracle.install.db.config.asm.ASMSNMPPassword=password
You can also specify
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.ALL=password to use the
same password for all database users.
Oracle Database configuration assistants require the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP
passwords for use with DBCA. You must specify the following passwords, depending
on your system configuration:
•
If the database uses Oracle ASM for storage, then you must specify a password for
the ASMSNMPPassword variable. If you are not using Oracle ASM, then leave the
value for this password variable blank.
•
If you create a multitenant container database (CDB) with one or more pluggable
databases (PDBs), then you must specify a password for the PDBADMIN variable.
If you are not using Oracle ASM, then leave the value for this password variable
blank.
B.7.2 Running Postinstallation Configuration Using Response File
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
executeConfigTools command.
1. Edit the response file and specify the required passwords for your configuration.
You can use the response file created during installation, located at
ORACLE_HOME/install/response/product_timestamp.rsp. For example:
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
oracle.install.asm.SYSASMPassword=password
oracle.install.config.emAdminPassword=password
2. Change directory to the Oracle home containing the installation software. For
example, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-11
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
cd Grid_home
3. Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
gridSetup.sh -executeConfigTools -responseFile Grid_home/install/response/
product_timestamp.rsp
For Oracle Database:
runInstaller -executeConfigTools -responseFile ORACLE_HOME/install/response/
product_timestamp.rsp
For Oracle Database, you can also run the response file located in the directory
ORACLE_HOME/inventory/response/:
runInstaller -executeConfigTools -responseFile ORACLE_HOME/inventory/response/
db_install.rsp
The postinstallation configuration tool runs the installer in the graphical user
interface mode, displaying the progress of the postinstallation configuration.
Specify the [-silent] option to run the postinstallation configuration in the
silent mode.
For example, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
$ gridSetup.sh -executeConfigTools -responseFile /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/install/
response/grid_2016-01-09_01-03-36PM.rsp [-silent]
For Oracle Database:
$ runInstaller -executeConfigTools -responseFile ORACLE_HOME/inventory/
response/db_2016-01-09_01-03-36PM.rsp [-silent]
B.8 Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands
Script
You can create and run a response file configuration after installing Oracle software.
The configToolAllCommands script requires users to create a second response file,
of a different format than the one used for installing the product.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the configToolAllCommands
script is deprecated and may be desupported in a future release.
About the Postinstallation Configuration File (page B-13)
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide
information about your servers in a response file that you otherwise
provide manually during a graphical user interface installation.
Creating a Password Response File (page B-13)
Review this information to create a password response file.
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Password Response File
(page B-14)
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
configToolAllCommands script.
B-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
B.8.1 About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about
your servers in a response file that you otherwise provide manually during a graphical
user interface installation.
However, the response file does not contain passwords for user accounts that
configuration assistants require after software installation is complete. The
configuration assistants are started with a script called configToolAllCommands.
You can run this script in response file mode by using a password response file. The
script uses the passwords to run the configuration tools in succession to complete
configuration.
If you keep the password file to use for clone installations, then Oracle strongly
recommends that you store the password file in a secure location. In addition, if you
have to stop an installation to fix an error, then you can run the configuration
assistants using configToolAllCommands and a password response file.
The configToolAllCommands password response file has the following syntax
options:
•
oracle.crs for Oracle Grid Infrastructure components or oracle.server for
Oracle Database components that the configuration assistants configure
•
variable_name is the name of the configuration file variable
•
value is the desired value to use for configuration.
The command syntax is as follows:
internal_component_name|variable_name=value
For example:
oracle.crs|S_ASMPASSWORD=myPassWord
Oracle Database configuration assistants require the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP
passwords for use with DBCA. You may need to specify the following additional
passwords, depending on your system configuration:
•
If the database is using Oracle ASM for storage, then you must specify a password
for the S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD variable. If you are not using Oracle ASM, then
leave the value for this password variable blank.
•
If you create a multitenant container database (CDB) with one or more pluggable
databases (PDBs), then you must specify a password for the
S_PDBADMINPASSWORD variable. If you are not using Oracle ASM, then leave the
value for this password variable blank.
Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain security with a password response
file:
•
Permissions on the response file should be set to 600.
•
The owner of the response file should be the installation owner user, with the
group set to the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
B.8.2 Creating a Password Response File
Review this information to create a password response file.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-13
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
To create a password response file to use with the configuration assistants, perform
the following steps:
1. Create a response file that has a name of the format filename.properties, for
example:
$ touch pwdrsp.properties
2. Open the file with a text editor, and cut and paste the sample password file
contents, as shown in the examples, modifying as needed.
3. Change permissions to secure the password response file. For example:
$ ls -al pwdrsp.properties
-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 0 Apr 30 17:30 pwdrsp.properties
Example B-4
Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
oracle.crs|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_OMSPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_BMCPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
If you do not have a BMC card, or you do not want to enable IPMI, then leave the
S_BMCPASSWORD input field blank.
Example B-5 Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server
oracle.crs|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_OMSPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
Example B-6
Password response file for Oracle Database
This example provides a template for a password response file to use with the
database configuration assistants.
oracle.server|S_SYSPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_SYSTEMPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_EMADMINPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_DBSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.server|S_PDBADMINPASSWORD=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager for management, then leave
those password fields blank.
B.8.3 Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Password Response File
Complete this procedure to run configuration assistants with the
configToolAllCommands script.
1. Create a password response file as described in Creating a Password File.
2. Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs.
3. Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/path/name.properties
For example:
B-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/home/oracle/pwdrsp.properties
Related Topics:
Creating a Password Response File (page B-13)
Review this information to create a password response file.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files B-15
Postinstallation Configuration Using the ConfigToolAllCommands Script
B-16 Installation Guide
C
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules are a set of configuration guidelines
created to ensure well-organized Oracle installations, which simplifies administration,
support and maintenance.
About the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard (page C-1)
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules help you to organize
database software and configure databases to allow multiple databases,
of different versions, owned by different users to coexist.
About Multiple Oracle Homes Support (page C-2)
Oracle Database supports multiple Oracle homes. You can install this
release or earlier releases of the software more than once on the same
system, in different Oracle home directories.
About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation (page C-3)
The directory that you designate as the Oracle Inventory directory
(oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the
system.
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention (page C-4)
This section describes what the Oracle base is, and how it functions.
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention (page C-4)
By default, Oracle Universal Installer configures Oracle home directories
using these Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions.
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples (page C-5)
This topic shows examples of hierarchical file mappings of an Optimal
Flexible Architecture-compliant installation.
C.1 About the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) rules help you to organize database
software and configure databases to allow multiple databases, of different versions,
owned by different users to coexist.
In earlier Oracle Database releases, the OFA rules provided optimal system
performance by isolating fragmentation and minimizing contention. In current
releases, OFA rules provide consistency in database management and support, and
simplifies expanding or adding databases, or adding additional hardware.
By default, Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database components in directory
locations and with permissions in compliance with OFA rules. Oracle recommends
that you configure all Oracle components on the installation media in accordance with
OFA guidelines.
Oracle recommends that you accept the OFA default. Following OFA rules is
especially of value if the database is large, or if you plan to have multiple databases.
Optimal Flexible Architecture C-1
About Multiple Oracle Homes Support
Note:
OFA assists in identification of an ORACLE_BASE with its Automatic
Diagnostic Repository (ADR) diagnostic data to properly collect incidents.
C.2 About Multiple Oracle Homes Support
Oracle Database supports multiple Oracle homes. You can install this release or earlier
releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home
directories.
Careful selection of mount point names can make Oracle software easier to administer.
Configuring multiple Oracle homes in compliance with Optimal Flexible Architecture
(OFA) rules provides the following advantages:
•
You can install this release, or earlier releases of the software, more than once on
the same system, in different Oracle home directories. However, you cannot
install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home
directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database
12c software into an existing Oracle 11g Oracle home directory.
•
Multiple databases, of different versions, owned by different users can coexist
concurrently.
•
You must install a new Oracle Database release in a new Oracle home that is
separate from earlier releases of Oracle Database.
You cannot install multiple releases in one Oracle home. Oracle recommends that
you create a separate Oracle Database Oracle home for each release, in accordance
with the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines.
•
In production, the Oracle Database server software release must be the same as
the Oracle Database dictionary release through the first four digits (the major,
maintenance, and patch release number).
•
Later Oracle Database releases can access earlier Oracle Database releases.
However, this access is only for upgrades. For example, Oracle Database 12c
release 2 can access an Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2.0.4) database if the
11.2.0.4 database is started up in upgrade mode.
•
Oracle Database Client can be installed in the same Oracle Database home if both
products are at the same release level. For example, you can install Oracle
Database Client 12.2.0.1 into an existing Oracle Database 12.2.0.1 home but you
cannot install Oracle Database Client 12.2.0.1 into an existing Oracle Database
12.1.0.2 home. If you apply a patch set before installing the client, then you must
apply the patch set again.
•
Structured organization of directories and files, and consistent naming for
database files simplify database administration.
•
Login home directories are not at risk when database administrators add, move,
or delete Oracle home directories.
•
You can test software upgrades in an Oracle home in a separate directory from the
Oracle home where your production database is located.
C-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation
C.3 About the Oracle Inventory Directory and Installation
The directory that you designate as the Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory)
stores an inventory of all software installed on the system.
All Oracle software installation owners on a server are granted the OINSTALL
privileges to read and write to this directory. If you have previous Oracle software
installations on a server, then additional Oracle software installations detect this
directory from the /etc/oraInst.loc file, and continue to use that Oracle
Inventory. Ensure that the group designated as the OINSTALL group is available as a
primary group for all planned Oracle software installation owners.
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time, then OUI creates an Oracle base
and central inventory, and creates an Oracle inventory using information in the
following priority:
•
In the path indicated in the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set for the
installation owner user account
•
In an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) path (u[01–99]/app/owner where
owner is the name of the user account running the installation), and that user
account has permissions to write to that path
•
In the user home directory, in the path /app/owner, where owner is the name of
the user account running the installation
For example:
If you are performing an Oracle Database installation, and you set ORACLE_BASE for
user oracle to the path /u01/app/oracle before installation, and grant 755
permissions to oracle for that path, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle
Inventory directory one level above the ORACLE_BASE in the path
ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory, so the Oracle Inventory path is /u01/app/
oraInventory. Oracle Universal Installer installs the software in the ORACLE_BASE
path. If you are performing an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster installation,
then the Grid installation path is changed to root ownership after installation, and
the Grid home software location should be in a different path from the Grid user
Oracle base.
If you create the OFA path /u01, and grant oracle 755 permissions to write to that
path, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /u01/app/
oraInventory, and Oracle Universal Installer creates the path /u01/app/oracle,
and configures the ORACLE_BASE environment variable for the Oracle user to that
path. If you are performing an Oracle Database installation, then the Oracle home is
installed under the Oracle base. However, if you are installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster, then be aware that ownership of the path for the Grid
home is changed to root after installation and the Grid base and Grid home should be
in different locations, such as /u01/grid for the Grid home path, and /u01/app/
grid for the Grid base. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory, owned by grid:oinstall
/u01/app/oracle, owned by oracle:oinstall
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/, owned by
oracle:oinistall
/u01/app/grid, owned by grid:oinstall
/u01/app/12.2.0/grid, owned by root
Optimal Flexible Architecture C-3
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
If you have neither set ORACLE_BASE, nor created an OFA-compliant path, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation, and the Oracle software is installed in the path /app/
owner, where owner is the Oracle software installation owner. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
/home/oracle/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
C.4 Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
This section describes what the Oracle base is, and how it functions.
The Oracle Base directory is the database home directory for Oracle Database
installation owners, and the log file location for Oracle Grid Infrastructure owners.
Name Oracle base directories using the syntax /pm/h/u, where pm is a string mount
point name, h is selected from a small set of standard directory names, and u is the
name of the owner of the directory.
You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations. If different
operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then you must
create a separate Oracle base directory for each installation owner. For ease of
administration, Oracle recommends that you create a unique owner for each Oracle
software installation owner, to separate log files.
Because all Oracle installation owners write to the central Oracle inventory file, and
that file mountpoint is in the same mount point path as the initial Oracle installation,
Oracle recommends that you use the same /pm/h path for all Oracle installation
owners.
Table C-1
Examples of OFA-Compliant Oracle Base Directory Names
Example
Description
Oracle Database Oracle base, where the Oracle Database software
installation owner name is oracle. The Oracle Database binary home is
located underneath the Oracle base path.
/u01/app/oracle
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Oracle base, where the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software installation owner name is grid.
/u01/app/grid
Caution: The Oracle Grid Infrastructure Oracle base should not contain
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure binaries for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a cluster installation. Permissions for the file path to the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure binary home is changed to root during installation.
C.5 Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
By default, Oracle Universal Installer configures Oracle home directories using these
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions.
The directory pattern syntax for Oracle homes is /pm/s/u/product/v/type_[n]. The
following table describes the variables used in this syntax:
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name.
C-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
Variable
Description
s
A standard directory name.
u
The name of the owner of the directory.
v
The version of the software.
type
The type of installation. For example: Database (dbhome), Client
(client), or Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid)
n
An optional counter, which enables you to install the same product more
than once in the same Oracle base directory. For example: Database 1 and
Database 2 (dbhome_1, dbhome_2)
For example, the following path is typical for the first installation of Oracle Database
on this system:
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
C.6 Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
This topic shows examples of hierarchical file mappings of an Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation.
This example shows an Optimal Flexible Architecture-compliant installation with
three Oracle home directories and three databases, as well as examples of the
deployment path differences between a cluster install and a standalone server install
of Oracle Grid Infrastructure. The database files are distributed across three mount
points: /u02, /u03, and /u04.
Note:
•
The Grid homes are examples of Grid homes used for an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server deployment (Oracle Restart), or a
Grid home used for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
deployment (Oracle Clusterware). You can have either an Oracle Restart
deployment, or an Oracle Clusterware deployment. You cannot have both
options deployed at the same time.
•
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is included as part
of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Oracle recommends that you
use Oracle ASM to provide greater redundancy and throughput.
Table C-2
Directory
/
/u01/
Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples
Description
Root directory
User data mount point 1
Optimal Flexible Architecture C-5
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
Table C-2
(Cont.) Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples
Directory
/u01/app/
/u01/app/
oraInventory
/u01/app/oracle/
Description
Subtree for application software
Central OraInventory directory, which maintains information about
Oracle installations on a server. Members of the group designated as
the OINSTALL group have permissions to write to the central
inventory. All Oracle software installation owners must have the
OINSTALL group as their primary group, and be able to write to this
group.
Oracle base directory for user oracle. There can be many Oracle
Database installations on a server, and many Oracle Database
software installation owners.
Oracle software homes that an Oracle installation owner owns should
be located in the Oracle base directory for the Oracle software
installation owner, unless that Oracle software is Oracle Grid
Infrastructure deployed for a cluster.
/u01/app/grid
Oracle base directory for user grid. The Oracle home (Grid home)
for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation is located
outside of the Grid user. There can be only one Grid home on a
server, and only one Grid software installation owner.
The Grid home contains log files and other administrative files.
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/TAR
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/db_sales/
/u01/app/oracle/
admin/db_dwh/
/u01/app/oracle/
fast_recovery_area/
/u01/app/oracle/
fast_recovery_area/
db_sales
C-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Subtree for database administration files
Subtree for support log files
admin subtree for database named “sales”
admin subtree for database named “dwh”
Subtree for recovery files
Recovery files for database named “sales”
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
Table C-2
(Cont.) Optimal Flexible Architecture Hierarchical File Path Examples
Directory
/u01/app/oracle/
fast_recovery_area/
db_dwh
/u02/app/oracle/
oradata
/u03/app/oracle/
oradata
/u04/app/oracle/
oradata
/u01/app/oracle/
product/
/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/
dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/
dbhome_2
/u01/app/oracle2/
product/12.2.0/
dbhome_2
Description
Recovery files for database named “dwh”
Oracle data file directories
Common path for Oracle software products other than Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 1, owned by Oracle
Database installation owner account oracle
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 2, owned by Oracle
Database installation owner account oracle
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 2, owned by Oracle
Database installation owner account oracle2
/u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/grid
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server, owned by Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner oracle.
/u01/app/12.2.0/
grid
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster
(Grid home), owned by user grid before installation, and owned by
root after installation.
Optimal Flexible Architecture C-7
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Path Examples
C-8 Installation Guide
D
Cloning Oracle Database
Cloning an Oracle home involves creating a copy of the Oracle home and then
configuring it for a new environment.
If you are performing multiple Oracle Database installations, then you may want to
use cloning to create each Oracle home, because copying files from an existing Oracle
Database installation takes less time than creating a new version of them. This method
is also useful if the Oracle home that you are cloning has had patches applied to it.
When you clone the Oracle home, the new Oracle home has the patch updates.
Cloning an Oracle Home (page D-1)
Follow these steps to clone an Oracle home.
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
(page D-3)
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager for a cloned Oracle home
depends on its configuration in the original Oracle home.
D.1 Cloning an Oracle Home
Follow these steps to clone an Oracle home.
Note: During cloning, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) prompts you to run
scripts that require root privileges.
1. Verify that the installation of Oracle Database to clone is successful.
You can do this by reviewing the installActionsdate_time.log file for the
installation session, which is typically located in the /u01/app/oracle/
oraInventory/logs directory.
If you install patches, then check their status using the following:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
Include $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch in $PATH
$ opatch lsinventory
2. Stop all processes related to the Oracle home.
3. Create a ZIP or TAR file with the Oracle home (but not the Oracle base) directory.
For example, if the source Oracle installation is in the path /u01/app/oracle/
product/12.2.0/dbhome_1, then you zip the dbhome_1 directory by using the
following command:
# zip -r dbhome_1.zip /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
Cloning Oracle Database D-1
Cloning an Oracle Home
You can also use the TAR command. For example:
# tar -cvf dbhome_1.tar /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
Do not include the admin, fast_recovery_area, and oradata directories that
are under the Oracle base directory. These directories are created in the target
installation later, when you create a new database there.
4. Copy the ZIP or TAR file to the root directory of the target computer. If you use
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), then transfer the ZIP or TAR file in binary mode only.
5. Extract the ZIP or TAR file content using the following command:
# unzip -d / dbhome_1.zip
# tar -xvf dbhome_1.tar
6. On the target computer, change the directory to the unzipped Oracle home
directory, and remove all the .ora (*.ora) files present in the unzipped
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
7. Delete unnecessary files from the unzipped Oracle home directory.
The unzipped Oracle home directory contains files that are relevant only to the
source Oracle home. Remove the unnecessary files from the unzipped Oracle home
in the log, crs/init, crf, and cdata directories. The following example shows
how to remove these unnecessary files from the unzipped Oracle home directory:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
cd $ORACLE_HOME
rm -rf log/host_name
rm -rf gpnp/host_name
find gpnp -type f -exec rm -f {} \;
rm -rf cfgtoollogs/*
rm -rf crs/init/*
rm -rf cdata/*
rm -rf crf/*
rm -rf network/admin/*.ora
rm -rf crs/install/crsconfig_params
find . -name '*.ouibak' -exec rm {} \;
find . -name '*.ouibak.1' -exec rm {} \;
rm -rf root.sh*
rm -rf rdbms/audit/*
rm -rf rdbms/log/*
rm -rf inventory/backup/*
8. From the $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin directory, run the clone.pl file for the
unzipped Oracle home.
Use the following syntax (you can also include one or more of the extended Oracle
Database groups in the syntax):
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin/clone.pl
ORACLE_BASE="target_oracle_base"
ORACLE_HOME="target_oracle_home"
OSDBA_GROUP=OSDBA_privileged_group
OSOPER_GROUP=OSOPER_privileged_group
OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP=OSBACKUPDBA_privileged_group
OSRACDBA_GROUP=OSRACDBA_privileged_group -defaultHomeName
For example:
D-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin/clone.pl ORACLE_BASE="/u01/app/
oracle/" ORACLE_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1"
OSDBA_GROUP=dba OSOPER_GROUP=oper OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP=backupdba
OSRACDBA_GROUP=racdba -defaultHomeName
Note:
•
In this command, if you do not provide the parameters for the operating
system groups, then clone.pl uses the operating system group values
from the source home.
•
Run the $ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl $ORACLE_HOME/
clone/bin/clone.pl -help command for more information about
the command option flags.
OUI starts, and then records the cloning actions in the
cloneActionstimestamp.log file. This log file is typically located
in /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory/logs directory.
9. Use the following commands to run Net Configuration Assistant to configure the
connection information for the new database:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./netca
10. Use the following commands to run Database Configuration Assistant to create a
new Oracle Database for the newly-cloned oracle home:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./dbca
Related Topics:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide
D.2 Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager for a cloned Oracle home depends on its
configuration in the original Oracle home.
If you have already installed but not configured Oracle Configuration Manager in the
original Oracle home, then follow these steps:
1.
Run the following commands from the cloned Oracle home:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin
$ setupCCR
2.
Provide your My Oracle Support credentials to proceed.
If you have already configured Oracle Configuration Manager in the original Oracle
home, then follow these steps:
1.
Run the following commands from the cloned Oracle home:
Cloning Oracle Database D-3
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin
$ ./deriveCCR
2.
deriveCCR prompts for your My Oracle Support (MOS) credentials to proceed
only if it cannot find the original configuration; else it does not prompt.
D-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
E
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
Review default port numbers. If needed, use these steps to change assigned ports after
installation.
About Managing Ports (page E-1)
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to
components from a set of default port numbers.
About Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs (page E-2)
In most cases, the port number of an Oracle Database component is
displayed in the tool used to configure the port.
Oracle Database Component Port Numbers and Protocols (page E-2)
This table lists the port numbers and protocols configured for Oracle
Database components during a single-instance installation. By default,
the first port in the range is assigned to the component, if it is available.
E.1 About Managing Ports
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers.
Many Oracle Database components and services use ports. As an administrator, it is
important to know the port numbers used by these services, and to ensure that the
same port number is not used by two services on your host. Enter the following
command to identify the ports currently used on your computer:
$/bin/netstat -a
Most port numbers are assigned during installation. Every component and service has
an allotted port range, which is the set of port numbers Oracle Database attempts to
use when assigning a port. Oracle Database starts with the lowest number in the range
and performs the following checks:
•
Is the port used by another Oracle Database installation on the host?
The installation may be up or down at the time. Oracle Database can still detect if
the port is used.
•
Is the port used by a process that is currently running?
This can be any process on the host, even a non-Oracle Database process.
•
Is the port listed in the /etc/services file?
If the answer to any of the preceding questions is yes, then Oracle Database moves to
the next highest port in the allotted port range, and continues checking until it finds a
free port.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-1
About Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
E.2 About Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
In most cases, the port number of an Oracle Database component is displayed in the
tool used to configure the port.
In addition, ports for some Oracle Database applications are listed in the
portlist.ini file. This file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/install directory.
If you change a port number after installation, that port number is not updated in the
portlist.ini file. For this reason, the portlist.ini file is an accurate record of
ports configured at the time of installation.
E.3 Oracle Database Component Port Numbers and Protocols
This table lists the port numbers and protocols configured for Oracle Database
components during a single-instance installation. By default, the first port in the range
is assigned to the component, if it is available.
Table E-1
Protocols and Default Port Numbers for Oracle Database Components
Component Description
Default Po Port Range
rt Number
Protocol
Oracle Net
Services
Listener
Enables Oracle client
connections to the
database over the
Oracle Net Services
protocol. You can
configure it during
installation. To
reconfigure this port,
use Net Configuration
Assistant.
1521
TCP
Oracle
Connection
Manager
Listening port for
Oracle client
connections to Oracle
Connection Manager.
It is not configured
during installation,
but can be configured
manually by editing
the cman.ora
parameter file. This
file is located under
the /network/
admin directory.
1630
1630
TCP
Oracle XML
DB
The Oracle XML DB
HTTP port is used if
web-based
applications must
access an Oracle
database from an
HTTP listener. You
must configure this
port manually.
0
Configured Manually
HTTP
E-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Port number changes
to the next available
port.
Modifiable manually
to any available port.
Oracle Database Component Port Numbers and Protocols
Table E-1 (Cont.) Protocols and Default Port Numbers for Oracle Database
Components
Component Description
Default Po Port Range
rt Number
Protocol
Oracle XML
DB
The Oracle XML DB
FTP is used when
applications must
access an Oracle
database from an FTP
listener. You must
configure this port
manually.
0
Configured Manually
FTP
Cluster
Synchroniz
ation
Service
(CSS)
CSS daemon internode
connection for the GM
layer. The port
number is assigned
automatically. You
cannot view or modify
it.
42424
Dynamic
UDP
Oracle
Cluster
Registry
The port number is
assigned automatically
during installation.
You cannot view or
modify it afterward.
Dynamic
Dynamic
UDP
Related Topics:
Using HTTP(S) on a Standard Port
Using FTP on the Standard Port
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Advanced Installation and Configuration
Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-3
Oracle Database Component Port Numbers and Protocols
E-4 Installation Guide
Index
A
aliases, multiple on computers, 6-4
asmdba groups
creating, 5-9
asmoper group
creating, 5-9
Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), C-1
Automatic Memory Management
about, 1-9
B
backupdba group
creating, 5-10
Bash shell
default user startup file, 5-12
bash_profile file, 5-12
binary files
supported storage options for, 7-2
Bourne shell
default user startup file, 5-12
C
C shell
default user startup file, 5-12
CDBs
character sets, 11-4
central inventory, C-5
See also Oracle inventory directory
See also OINSTALL directory
changing kernel parameter values, A-3
character sets, 11-4
checklists
and installation planning, 1-1
client-server configurations, C-2
cloning, D-1
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS), E-2
command syntax conventions, xiv
commands
asmcmd, 9-6
df -h, 2-2
commands (continued)
free, 2-2
grep MemTotal, 2-2
grep SwapTotal, 2-2
root.sh, 12-8
runcluvfy.sh, 10-6
setup.exe, 10-6
sysctl, 8-2
umask, 5-12
uname —m, 2-2
useradd, 5-11
computers with multiple aliases, 6-4
computers, non-networked, 6-3
cron jobs, 1-9
custom database
failure groups for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 9-2
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 9-2
D
DAS (direct attached storage) disks, 9-7
data files
minimum disk space for, 7-8
recommendations for file system, 7-8
supported storage options for, 7-2
data loss
minimizing with Oracle ASM, 9-2
database cloning, D-1
Database Configuration Assistant
running in silent mode, B-7
databases
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 9-2
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST, 12-13
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE, 12-13
dba group
creating, 5-9
description, 5-6
SYSDBA privilege, 5-6
dba groups
creating, 5-10
Index-1
DBCA
configuring Automatic memory Management,
11-5
dbca.rsp file, B-4
DBSNMP user
password requirements, 12-3
default file mode creation mask
setting, 5-12
default Linux installation
recommendation for, 4-4
deinstall
See removing Oracle software
deinstallation
examples, 13-6
previous releases, 13-7
upgrades, 13-7
deinstallation tool, 13-1
device names
IDE disks, A-9
RAID, A-9
SCSI disks, A-9
df command, 5-12
dgdba group
creating, 5-10
diagnostic data, C-1
Direct NFS
disabling, 8-5
enabling, 8-5
oranfstab file, 8-2
directory
creating separate data file directories, 9-7
database file directory, 7-8
disk group
Oracle ASM, 9-2
disk group corruption
preventing, 9-7
disk groups
checking, 9-6
recommendations for, 9-2
disk space
requirements for preconfigured database in
Oracle Automatic Storage Management,
environment variables (continued)
ORACLE_HOME, 5-12
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 6-3
ORACLE_SID, 5-12
removing from shell startup file, 5-12
SHELL, 5-12
TEMP and TMPDIR, 5-12
errors
X11 forwarding, 5-16
examples
Oracle ASM failure groups, 9-2
executeConfigTools, B-11
external redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management level, 9-2
F
failure group
characteristics of Oracle ASM failure group, 9-2
examples of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure groups, 9-2
Oracle ASM, 9-2
fast recovery area
filepath, C-5
Grid home
filepath, C-5
fdisk command, A-9
file mode creation mask
setting, 5-12
file system
using for data files, 7-8
file system options, 7-7
files
bash_profile, 5-12
dbca.rsp, B-4
editing shell startup file, 5-12
enterprise.rsp, B-4
login, 5-12
profile, 5-12
response files, B-3
filesets, 4-10
9-2
disks
checking availability for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, A-9
displaying attached disks, A-9
mounting, 11-4
supported for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 9-7
display variable, 1-7
E
EM Express, 12-12
enterprise.rsp file, B-4
environment variables
ORACLE_BASE, 5-12
Index-2
G
globalization
localization for client connections, 12-9
NLS_LANG
and client connections, 12-9
Grid user
creating, 5-11
groups
creating an Oracle Inventory Group, 5-3
creating the asmdba group, 5-9
creating the asmoper group, 5-9
creating the backupdba group, 5-10
creating the dba group, 5-9
creating the dgdba group, 5-10
groups (continued)
creating the kmdba group, 5-10
creating the racdba group, 5-10
OINSTALL group, 1-4
OSBACKUPDBA (backupdba), 5-6
OSDBA (dba), 5-6
OSDBA group (dba), 5-6
OSDGDBA (dgdba), 5-6
OSKMDBA (kmdba), 5-6
OSOPER (oper), 5-6
OSOPER group (oper), 5-6
H
hardware requirements
display, 1-1
host name resolution, 4-29
host name, setting before installation, 6-4
hugepages, 1-4
Hugepages,, 4-6
I
IDE disks
device names, A-9
image
install, 10-2
init.ora
and SGA permissions, 12-11
installation
accessing installation software, 11-2
computer aliases, multiple, 6-4
laptops, 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 9-2
response files
preparing, B-3, B-5
templates, B-3
silent mode, B-6
installation option
Automatic Memory Management, 11-5
installation planning, 1-1
installation software, accessing, 11-2
installation types
and Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 9-2
installer screens
ASM Storage Option, 9-7
Installing
Oracle Restart, 10-2
invalid objects
recompiling, 12-10
J
JDK requirements, 4-10
K
kernel parameters
changing, A-3
displaying, A-3
SUSE Linux, A-5
tcp and udp, A-5
kernel parameters configuration, A-1
kmdba group
creating, 5-10
Korn shell
default user startup file, 5-12
L
laptops, installing Oracle Database on, 6-3
licensing, 1-9
Linux kernel parameters, A-1
local device
using for data files, 7-8
locking and unlocking users, 12-7
login file, 5-12
loopback adapters
non-networked computers, 6-3
lsdev command, A-9
LVM
recommendations for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 9-2
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 5-12
mixed binaries, 4-10
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 5-12
multihomed computers, installing on, 6-3
multihomed Oracle servers
resolving to,, 6-4
multiple aliases, computers with, 6-4
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
advantages, C-2
multitenant container database
character sets, 11-4
multiversioning, C-2
My Oracle Support credentials, 11-7
N
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, B-8
running at command prompt, B-8
netca.rsp file, B-4
network adapters
computers with multiple aliases, 6-4
non-networked computers, 6-3
primary, on computers with multiple aliases, 6-4
Index-3
network adapters (continued)
See also loopback adapters
network cards, multiple, 6-3
network setup
computers with multiple aliases, 6-4
host name resolution, 4-29
network topics
laptops, 6-3
multiple network cards, 6-3
non-networked computers, 6-3
NFS
and data files, 7-8
buffer size requirements, 8-1
for data files, 7-8
NFS mounts
Direct NFS Client
requirements, 7-9
mtab, 7-9
oranfstab, 7-9
non-networked computers, 6-3
noninteractive installation
Oracle ASM requirements, 9-5
noninteractive mode
See response file mode
O
OFA, C-1
See also Optimal Flexible Architecture
OINSTALL directory, C-5
oinstall group
creating, 5-3
OINSTALL groupl, 1-7
See also Oracle Inventory directory
oper group
description, 5-6
operating system
configuring, 4-1
different on cluster members, 4-10
parameters, A-1
requirements, 4-10
operating system privileges groups, 1-7
operating system requirements, 1-2
Optimal Flexible Architecture
about, C-1
ORAchk
and Upgrade Readiness Assessment, 1-9
Oracle ACFS
enabling, 10-10
Installing Oracle RAC binaries not supported on
Oracle Flex Cluster, 7-6
restrictions for Oracle Restart, 7-6
supported Linux x86-64 kernels, 7-5
Oracle ASM
disk groups, 9-2
failure groups, 9-2
recommendations for disk groups, 9-2
Index-4
Oracle ASM (continued)
See also Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Oracle ASM Filter Driver
about, 9-7
Oracle ASM library driver (oracleasm)
installing, A-7
Oracle ASMLIB
about, A-6
configuring, A-6
deinstalling on database, A-12
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
allocation units (AU) and ASM disks, 9-2
characteristics of failure groups, 9-2
checking disk availability, A-9
DAS disks, 9-7
disks, supported, 9-7
displaying attached disks, A-9
failure groups
examples, 9-2
identifying, 9-2
identifying available disks, A-9
identifying disks, A-9
part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server installation, 11-1
part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, 7-4
partition creation, 9-7
performance, 4-31
redundancy levels, 9-2
SAN disks, 9-7
space required for preconfigured database, 9-2
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver
See Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle base, C-1, C-5
Oracle Configuration Manager, 11-7
Oracle Connection Manager, E-2
Oracle Database
minimum disk space requirements, 7-8
requirements with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 9-2
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
response file, B-4
Oracle Database deployment, 1-12
Oracle Disk Manager
and Direct NFS, 8-5
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, 12-12
Oracle Flex Clusters
Oracle Restart
restrictions for, 7-6
restrictions for Oracle ACFS, 7-6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
restrictions for Oracle ACFS, 7-6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, 7-3
Oracle home
ASCII path restriction for, 1-4
file path, C-5
Grid home
filepath, C-5
Oracle home (continued)
naming conventions, C-4
Oracle home directory
multiple homes, network considerations, 6-3
Oracle host name, setting before installation, 6-4
Oracle Inventory
identifying existing, 5-2
Oracle Inventory Directory
OINSTALL group, C-3
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, B-4
Oracle Net Services Listener, E-2
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture
See Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Restart
deconfiguring, 13-7
downgrading, 13-7
gridSetup.sh, 10-2
Installing, 10-2
troubleshooting, 13-7
Oracle Software Owner user
creating, 5-3, 5-11
Oracle Software Owner users
determining default shell, 5-12
Oracle Universal Installer
response files
list of, B-4
supported languages, 11-6
Oracle Upgrade Companion, 4-7
oracle user
creating, 5-3
Oracle user
determining default shell, 5-12
modifying, 5-14
Oracle XML DB, E-2
ORACLE_BASE environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 5-12
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 5-12
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 6-3
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable
computers with multiple aliases, 6-4
multihomed computers, 6-3
setting before installation, 6-4
ORACLE_SID environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 5-12
oracle-rdbms-server preinstallation RPM, 3-2
oracleasm RPM
installing, A-7
oraInventory, C-5
oranfstab configuration file, 8-2
oranfstab file, 8-5
OSBACKUPDBA group
creating, 5-10
OSBACKUPDBA group (backupdba), 5-6
OSDBA, 1-7
OSDBA for ASM
OSDBA for ASM (continued)
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 5-9
OSDBA groups
creating, 5-9
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 5-9
description for database, 5-6
SYSDBA privilege, 5-6
OSDGDBA group
creating, 5-10
OSDGDBA group (dgdba), 5-6
OSKMDBA group
creating, 5-10
OSKMDBA group (kmdba), 5-6
OSOPER group
creating, 5-9
OSOPER groups
description for database, 5-6
SYSOPER privilege, 5-6
OSRACDBA group
creating, 5-10
OTN website
downloading installation software from, 11-2
P
packages
oracle-rdbms-server preinstallation package, 3-2
parameter file
and permissions to read and write the SGA, 12-11
partition
using with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 9-2
partitions
creation for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disks, 9-7
passwords
change after install, 12-3
resetting
with SQL*Plus, 12-8
unlocking
with SQL*Plus, 12-8
patch updates, 12-2
PGA
and memory management, 1-9
portlist.ini
location of, E-2
ports
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS), E-2
how to find, E-2
Oracle Cluster Registry, E-2
Oracle Connection Manager, E-2
Oracle Net Services Listener, E-2
Oracle XML DB, E-2
postinstallation
recommended tasks
root.sh script, backing up, 12-8
postinstallation -executeConfigTools option, B-10
postinstallation configToolAllCommands script, B-13
Index-5
preconfigured database
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk space
requirements, 9-2
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 9-2
profile file, 5-12
proxy realm, 1-9
R
racdba group
creating, 5-10
RAID
device names, A-9
using for Oracle data files, 7-8
Rapid Home Provisiong
Databases, 12-13
recommendations
on performing software-only installations, 10-5
recompiling invalid objects
on a non-CDB, 12-10
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 9-2
for Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 9-2
redundant array of independent disks
See RAID
releases
multiple, C-2
removing Oracle software
examples, 13-6
requirements, 9-2
resource parameters, A-1
response file, B-9
response file installation
preparing, B-3
response files
templates, B-3
silent mode, B-6
response file mode
about, B-2
reasons for using, B-2
See also response files, silent mode
response files
about, B-2
creating with template, B-4
database configuration assistant, B-9
dbca.rsp, B-4
enterprise.rsp, B-4
general procedure, B-3
Net Configuration Assistant, B-8
netca.rsp, B-4
passing values at command line, B-2
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, B-6
See also silent mode.
RHP, 12-13
root user
Index-6
root user (continued)
logging in as, 2-1
root.sh script
backing up, 12-8
rootcrs.sh, 13-1
roothas.pl, 10-7, 10-10
roothas.sh, 10-8, 10-10, 13-1
RPMS
for completing operating system configuration,
4-3
running multiple Oracle releases, C-2
S
SAN (storage area network) disks, 9-7
SCSI disks
device names, A-9
security
selecting passwords, 12-3
SELinux
restrictions on Oracle ACFS, 7-5
SGA
and memory management, 1-9
shell
determining default shell for Oracle user, 5-12
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 5-12
shell startup file
editing, 5-12
removing environment variables, 5-12
silent mode
about, B-2
reasons for using, B-2
silent mode installation, B-6
software requirements, 4-10
software security updates, 11-7
ssh
and X11 Forwarding, 5-16
starting, 12-12
startup file
for shell, 5-12
storage area network disks, 9-7
stty
suppressing to prevent installation errors, 5-17
supported languages
Oracle Universal Installer, 11-6
swap space
allocation, 1-4
SYS user
password requirements, 12-3
SYSBACKUPDBA system privileges, 5-6
SYSDBA privilege
associated group, 5-6
SYSDGDBA system privileges, 5-6
SYSKMDBA system privileges, 5-6
SYSOPER privilege
associated group, 5-6
system global area
permissions to read and write, 12-11
system privileges
SYSBACKUPDBA, 5-6
SYSDGDBA, 5-6
SYSKMDBA, 5-6
system privileges accounts
locked after install, 12-3
system requirements, 1-1
SYSTEM user
password requirements, 12-3
T
tcp_rmem, 8-2
tcp_wmem, 8-2
TEMP environment variable
commands
env, 5-12
env command, 5-12
environment
checking settings, 5-12
setting, 5-12
umask, 5-12
umask command, 5-12
terminal output commands
suppressing for Oracle installation owner
accounts, 5-17
TMPDIR environment variable
setting, 5-12
Transparent Hugepages
disable for Oracle Database servers, 4-6, 4-29
troubleshooting
cron jobs and installation, 1-9
disk space errors, 1-4
environment path errors, 1-4
garbage strings in script inputs found in log files,
5-17
host name resolution for multihomed servers, 6-3
I/O lags, 4-29
installation owner environment variables and
installation errors, 5-18
troubleshooting (continued)
inventory corruption, 5-14
ocssd.log threads blocked, 4-29
ssh errors, 5-17
stty errors, 5-17
unset environment variables, 1-4
typographic conventions, xv
U
umask command, 5-12
uninstall
See removing Oracle software
UNIX commands
fdisk, A-9
lsdev, A-9
xhost, 2-1
UNIX workstation
installing from, 2-1
unset installation owners environment variables, 5-18
upgrade
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 7-4, 11-1
upgrades
best practices, 4-7
upgrading
and ORAchk Upgrade Readiness Assessment, 1-9
options, 4-8
useradd command, 5-11
users
creating the oracle user, 5-3
locking and unlocking, 12-7
utlrp.sql
on a non-CDB, 12-10
X
X Window System
enabling remote hosts, 2-1
X11 forwarding errors, 5-16
xhost command, 2-1
xtitle
suppressing to prevent installation errors, 5-17
Index-7
Index-8
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