The Super Bowl in HD - American Radio History

The Super Bowl in HD - American Radio History
An INTERTEC ® /PRIMEDIA Publication
www.broadcastengineering.com
FEBRUARY2000
THE JOUR/VAL OF
The Super Bowl in HD -
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February 2000
Volume 42
Number 2
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE JOURNAL OF O/G /TAL TELEV /S /ON
www.broadcastengineering.com
Features
86 HDTV, the Internet and the future
of editing
By Richard Cormier
A guide to building editing suites and systems today that meet
tomorrow's needs.
92 MPEG encoding
By Paul Black
Compression is the answer to sending more digital data through
existing pipelines.
98 HD Production: The Super Bowl
in HD
By Larry Bloom field
An in -depth look at the tools and techniques ABC used to broadcast
Super Bowl XXXIV in high definition.
Beyond the Headlines
NEWS
18
20
24
30
32
Around the world in 24 hours
Hollywood cheats movie goers
CEA offers antenna selection
DTV99 a success
FCC demands standards for consumer electronics
FCC UPDATE
34
Satellite Home Viewer Act
EXPERT'S CORNER/VENDOR VIEWS
36
PSIP: Looking for answers
Digital Handbook
TRANSITION TO DIGITAL
42
Video compression
COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
48
Conditional access for DTV
ASK DR. DIGITAL
54
Defining the problem vs. the solution
(i unhnued on page
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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PRODUCTION CLIPS
80
Effects and graphics
New Products & Reviews
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
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Business highlights from broadcast and production
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Editorial
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Advertisers' index
EOM
HDCAM equipment. Sony HD monitors. Panasonic HD5 and a G4
Macintosh computer. Photo by Anthony Nelson of Anthony Nelson
Photography.
FREEZE FRAME
WEBSITE DIRECTORY
www.broadcastengineering.com
Feature Articles
Reader Resources
Editorial calendar
Article archives
Departments
New Products &
Reviews
Classifieds/Jobs
Contact the Editors
Questions? Contact:
Jim Saladin
jim_saladin @intertec.com
913/967 -1905 fax
Marketing/
Advertising
Broadcast Engineering
A look at the technology that shaped this industry.
Today's digital world
requires sampling (A /D
conversion) of studio video
for both processing and
transmission. In order to
select the minimum Nyquest
sampling frequency, you'd
have to know the uppermost
frequency in the analog
source. What is the upper
limit specified in the SMPTE
170M studio video standard.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Mouse potatoes
recently released study, it appears that we're doomed to live most of our lives in
front of our computers. If you think Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan were "connected," just wait.
In a recently released study, the Fortino Group claims that, thanks to the PC and the Internet, our
lives will soon devolve to the point where we live our lives through a I5 -inch screen. No longer
will our focus he on personal interactions with humans, but rather on computer interfacing with
the rest of the world. The study lays claim to some data that's frankly shocking.
Baby boomers, those having just crossed 50, will spend five and one -half years of their lives on the
Internet. The only reason the baby boomers won't spend more time logged -on is that we just won't live
long enough to push up those numbers. We'll be dead before we can waste (my term) more of our lives
staring at that I5 -inch screen. If you think five years staring at the computer is a long time, just wait.
It gets worse.
The Fortino study claims that Generation Y, my son's age group, will spend more than 23 years
online 23 years! That represents nearly one -third of his life. He could take a job and retire in less
time. It's frightening to think of spending so much of one's life "pointing
and clicking." In reading this, the first thing I thought of was all the fun
he'll miss out on by not interacting in the real world: water skiing,
Based on a
-
skateboarding, fishing, meeting girls
having some fun!
The study claims our kids' lives will be cyberspace focused. Two thirds of all Generation Y marriages will originate from contacts first
made in cyberspace. I can see it now. "You've got mail" and "Sleepless
in Seattle" rolled into one. It sure doesn't sound like much fun to me.
The report also claims the average AO1. user will hear "You've got
mail" more than 400,000 times. Where's my hammer? I don't like
machines talking to me. It's had enough that they don't listen.
And talk about wasted time; Fortino's report claims that the average
Internet user will spend almost three years "lost" somewhere in
cyberspace. Three years! My company monitors how much time I
spend surfing the Net. If they think I'm wasting three years of my work
life, they may add an extra three years before I can retire.
The study also claims the average worker is wasting more than 400 hours a year cybersoaring
with "no apparent direction or constructive reason." That's two and a half months of no
productivity from every Internet worker. If that word gets out, you'll be able to hear the "sucking"
sound of Internet Explorer being yanked from office desktops all across the country.
The most disgusting claim from the study was that the average Internet user would click the mouse
more than 42 million times. If you've read my editorials for any time at all, you know I hate the
mouse. To think I'll he caressing that dumb thing's butt 42 million times ... I'm going to be sick.
Fortunately, the study did have some good news, at least for me: It says that I'm above average.
The study claims that the typical Internet user will misfile 120 pages of information and mislog
33 folders every month. The way I figure it, I've got those figures beat already and it's only the 10th
of January.
Brad Dick, editor
Send comments to:
[email protected]
website: www.broadcastengineering.com
10
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Its
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cable, satellite, MMDS, other wireless methods and of course the Internet.
The New Antenna-
We are aware that Internet broadcast is fraught with problems; or should I
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Use
screaming to get out. From the perspective of a broadcaster, the Internet may
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paralyzed with indecision as to whether to broadcast using the new antenna. Its a natural reaction to new
technology. Rather than wait for the skies to clear, shake off the indecision, start small and learn the new rules of
It?
Are You Ready To
the road.
Accepting the premise that the new antenna will be good for business someday, what steps are required to put it on
air today? Figure
shows a simple model that may be used as a guide. Four steps are needed to implement an
Interner broadcast. Let's call this the CRCS ( "circus") model for Capture, Repurpose, Convert and Stream.
1
The (R(S Model for Internet Broadcast
Insen Dala
t*Wm'
e.rw....
.
nr.r+s... ...w......
1
1
1
.
To
Capture
4
MwWW4Wistrftesiwwwww.iÌ
A/V
Content
Repurpose Content
Convert Content
Stream Content
select content
change style
compress for the Internet
intrant
pass thru
edit, archive
multi platform client support
Internet
odd web pages
prepare output la stream
private server
add interactive
archive
public server
store
t forward
Viewers
.
o
archive
odd
e
commerce
.
Capture
This is the portal to the Internet feed process. All of its components are familiar and readily available to the
broadcaster. This stage functions to capture or produce selected A/V content and archive if needed. This function
may be as simple as a video feed passthru switch or as complex as a live production studio. Really, this block
depends to a large extent on the nature of the video source that needs to be streamed to the web. At this point, the
A/V material may still need further modifications however.
Repurpose
This stage involves metamorphosing the captured or produced content in someway so that i t you, the broadcaster,
provide all the functionality of an A/V web server plus a high bandwidth connection to the Internet. Depending on
viewership, the Internet connection may require SONET /SDH rates (155Mb /s typically) or higher. This fact is
enough to unnerve most broadcasters.
The public server approach moves most of the streaming burden to a 3rd party service provider. Broadcast.com,
Real Networks and others operate such streaming services. There are tradeoffs using any public streaming service,
but at least the millstone of Internet high bandwidth connectivity is removed. Expect l0's or even 100's of
thousands of streams from these providers.
Conclusion
The CRCS model should help you to identify and categorize the design variables that need attention for Internet
broadcasting. Pinnacle Systems is creating products in all four spaces of the model. We offer products to capture,
repurpose, convert and stream A/V content to the web. Our Thunder line of servers and iThunder
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Al Kovalick
Chief Technical Officer, Broadcast Group
Pinnacle Systems
P SYSTEMS
PINNACLE
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:Specifications an subject to change without notice or obligation.
Circle (114) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Chain For Digital
'Ake:
The end is near
rarely write responses to editorials,
but I just happen to be on a flight to
Las Vegas for CES 2000 and found
some time to read the December issue
of BE. As a veteran of over 36 years
in the broadcast industry, I would like
to applaud your position on DTV and
your comments to station owners and
operators regarding the need to invest
now in the future.
Every time a new media delivery
system has come along in the past 50
years there have been those who have
predicted doom and gloom for the
existing media.
As we look back over the history of
our industry, we see that the media
I
delivery systems of the past are still in
place and most are doing quite well.
In fact, those that have invested in the
future, adapted to change, embraced
the new technologies and blended them
with their traditional businesses are
the ones that became the leaders of
today's industry. It is nothing more than
the age -old axiom of "adapt or die."
My hope for the next decade is that
more broadcasters will decide that it's
time to adapt rather than sit around
waiting to die.
Remember Quad?
Broadcast
UTV
test equipment
Monitoring the digital
environment
DTV
Also:
Solving EMI problem.
Loved the November
issue
Thank you for the November article
on lightning protection (Don Mark ley's Transmission & Distribution
column). I've always wondered whether those "lightning elimination"
schemes were actually useful devices
or just pseudo- science. It's good to
know that there's at least some unbiased anecdotal information attesting
to their effectiveness.
I also found the "Monitoring in the
Digital Environment" article very interesting. It's nice to have all of the
vitals laid out in one handy little
chart.
And I got a chuckle out of the editorial, "Everyone's an Expert." But I'm
a little mystified as to why no one has
announced their BLT or WLT technology yet!
Keep up the great work. Your magazine is such a pleasure to read.
Regards,
JOANNE BANDLOw
JAY C. ADRICK
CABLEVISION SYSTEMS
VICE PRESIDENT, BROADCAST SYSTEMS
INTEGRATION
HARRIS BROADCAST COMMUNICATIONS
DIVISION
MASON,
14
Srini Murthy, Larcan. (Srini says a
Kellogg's spot was the first commercial sourced on a quad? Anyone dispute that ?)
Marlin Jackson, KLEW-TV, Lewiston, ID. (This guy is still using one!)
Mike Plott, Oakland, CA
John Harris, Georgia State University
Howard Chasteen, Colorado Springs,
CO
Phil Titus, KUED, Salt Lake City
Louis Johnson, WGNX, Atlanta
Tim Stoffel, WXXI, Rochester, NY
Don Norwood, Digitrack, Hickory,
NC
Dennis Boswell, WLTZ-TV, Columbus, GA
It was interesting that half the entries
provided the math to prove their cal culations -even if they were wrong.
Thanks to all who entered. See page 8
for this month's question.
Send your
thoughts and
questions to
us at:
WWW.BROADCASTENGINEERING.COM
OH
Broadcast Engineering
It was great to see how many readers
were still up -to -speed on what's considered antiquated technology. December's Freezeframe question focused
on two -inch quad tape machines: What
was the equivalent linear writing speed
of the two -inch quad deck? While
most entries were correct, answers
included numbers from 91.24ips to
1200ips, the correct answer is, of
course, approximately 1500ips. The
exact speed depends upon the condition (wear) of mechanical parts.
The following readers provided correct answers and will receive a Broadcast Engineering T- shirt.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Paris and Berlin at exactly midnight
as they were all in the same time
zone; thus the 43 VTRs were put to
good use.
"This show was so complicated and
complex," said Patterson, that it
stands on it's own. After 30 years in
the business, 23 as of February at
ABC, I have never worked on a broadcast that came together technically
and editorially as well as this one
did."
Ann Moss, director of PBS's Technical Operations Center in Alexandria,
VA, said, "This was a once -in -a -lifetime broadcast. It was an amazing
coproduction that has never been attempted before on such a grand scale.
The on -air look was very smooth and
it proved the work of the behind scenes
The ABC 2000 control room oversaw satellite feeds from 63 remote locations
during the network's 24 -hour broadcast of New Year's festivities. Photo courtesy
of Ida Mae Astute/ABC.
people."
The on -air product was not the only
thing that concerned Moss, "Not only
did we have to worry about the worldwide program, but we also had Y2K
concerns, which could have hit us in
any of the countries as we were doing
the broadcast." A veteran broadcaster, but new in her post at PBS, Moss
marveled at the "ability of many countries to prepare and deliver a broadcast of this scope while dealing with
potential Y2K issues. It was truly ad-
mirable, in itself."
Key to the PBS operation were
WNET, New York, and WGBH,
which coproduced the program with
the BBC and the PBS operations
center in Alexandria, VA. Since PBS
only has distribution capabilities in
Alexandria, Atlantic Video was used
for the live segments of its network
programming.
"PBS received a semi -clean feed from
the BBC," Moss reported, "which allowed us and our member stations to
a add inserts of our own, as needed."
Moss said, "If you could have listened
in on the intercom, you would have
been amazed about the behind the
effort that went into getting this
broadcast on the air." Moss noted the
biggest feat was the ongoing live closed
captioning done by the Caption Center staff at WGBH for the entire 26hour broadcast.
Adding local flavor to the network
production were "Millennium Postcards" produced by some 52 of the
PBS member stations and aired during
scenes
20
Broadcast Engineering
the New Year's event.
According to the BBC, "12.8 million
people around the U.K. stayed indoors
to greet the new millennium in front of
their television sets. The showpiece
program, which cost $19.4 million,
captured the dawn of the new year
across the world
this year they
stayed and watched longer." Early
viewing figures indicated that rival
ITV had attracted about 4.1 million
viewers. No figures have been offered
for here in the U.S. or worldwide.
When it was all over, the comments
-
Hollywood cheats
movie goers
films have almainstay in television's repertoire of program material.
For nearly all of the first 35 years of
television's 50 -year history, the
telecine was the most important part
of the TV station besides the transmission system, but many newcomers to
the industry haven't even seen a film
chain, except as a museum piece.
Nonetheless, there is still a requirement to transfer film to whatever media
your station wants or needs. The task
of making these transfers has fallen to
a select few organizations scattered
around the country and to a group of
operators who formerly were known
as video operators and now choose to
call themselves "colorists."
Despite the demise of the local teleMovies and feature
ways been
a
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
and accolades weren't. Long -time Los
Angeles television engineer Don Sears
said, "The New Year's coverage by
ABC and PBS was some of the most
remarkable television I have ever seen."
The sheer number of fiber, satel-
lite, coax and operational centers
that went into this project, not to
mention the hundreds of local television stations and master controls
with their local spins on the New
Year's festivities gave the American viewing audience something
they will long remember.
cine, the machines that the colorists
operate are still a big business and
they command some of the highest
pay in the industry for their talents.
Colorists are called upon to not only
transfer film for later viewing on television stations and networks, but they
also are the crafts persons who do the
very specialized effects work that make
today's movies believable. With good
old chroma key and the skill of a
colorist, almost any effect is possible.
There are many players in the telecine machine business, but there are
three major companies that have the
lion's share of the business: Cinte!,
Philips and Sony. The differences come
from how each of these three companies approaches the process; how the
film is scanned and transferred. All
three companies, through a transfer
house with one of their machines, can
and will deliver to you a film, on tape,
in nearly any video format you choose:
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NTSC or ATSC. With the multiplicity
of ATSC "flavors" available, this becomes more important to the local
engineering staff.
The key to a good film -to -tape transfer is to get the most you can from the
typically 35mm print onto the tape.
With any of the current television
broadcast systems, we will never get
the maximum resolution from a piece
of 35mm film over the air and here's
why. According to Kodak, film has
4096 pixels x 3112 lines of resolution
per 35mm frame. That's over 12 megapixels. When you consider the movie
is in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, that works
out to 4096x2214 or more than nine
megapixels. Here in the U.S., the best
we can ever hope to transmit in ATSC
is 2,073,600 pixels (1080x1920).
But why should broadcasters balk?
Today's broadcaster can equal anything the film folks are projecting in
the theaters across the country.
At ShoWest in Las Vegas this past
year, George Lucas announced, that
his movie "Star Wars: Episode 1 - The
Phantom Menace" would he released
"digitally" and shown at four the-
aters: two on the East Coast and two
on the West Coast. Since then Hollywood has been gearing up to bring
you more movies in HDTV, but onto
the big screen. On the coattails of
"Star Wars," Miramax released "An
Ideal Husband" and "Shakespeare In
Love." Disney Studios also released
"Tarzan" in digital cinema, just a few
months ago.
Star Wars was transferred from its
Inter Positive (IP) on a Spirit telecine
machine to a Panasonic HD D -5 videotape machine. Industrial Light and
Magic then transferred those images
to a Pluto array for playback in the
theater. The arrays used 20 18GB
drives. Compression was a 5:1, using
the Panasonic HD D -5 format.
Display technology
Theaters have been projecting the
images with a well- touted Texas In-
struments Cinema projector that
"squeezes" the 1920x1080 raster images to fit the DMDs. DLP Cinema
projector, with its 1280x1024 DMD
arrays, projected those images onto
the big screen with the use of an
anamorphic lens to regain the 2.4:1
image. 1280x1024 only computes out
to slightly more than 1.3 megapixels.
Broadcast stations transmit HDTV at
1920x1080, which equals about two
megapixels. Both are a far cry from
the 12 megapixels Kodak claims for
its film product and the nine megapixels for a theatrical release on the big
screen.
In all fairness though, the images for
the Hughes /JVC projector were recorded to fill the 1920x1080 raster.
The images were played back from
the Pluto array and scanned onto the
infrared CRT's that illuminate the
Image Light Amplifiers (ILA). These
images were then collapsed so that the
image had the correct aspect ratio of
2.4:1.
What's wrong with all this is? Hollywood doesn't seem to realize that
today's DTV broadcasters are already
transmitting HDTV to the home.
What's being shown at a digital cinema theater near you is less than full
HDTV quality. The only differences
are that at the theater it's on a big
screen and you have to put up with the
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other members of the audience. The
resolution of theatrical presentations
does not equal the full capability of
either HDTV or 35mm quality.
If a station or network has one of
these movies on D -5 tape and has the
equipment to play it back on, it could
be one of the first in its market to show
a product that is as good or better than
what is being shown digitally in the
theaters.
Jim Mendrala, vice president of technology at Real Image Technology
Inc., said that in "Tarzan," RGB files
If
trial quality camcorders. The second
was the record setting `The Blair Witch
Project,' also shot with standard home
video equipment then transferred to
35mm film for theatrical release. In
this case, the original material was
only 640x480, or just over 307,200
pixels."
With the success of these two motion
pictures, does this mean that films
should be presented with less resolution than what has been traditionally
the norm? Films such as "Laurence of
Arabia" and "The Sound of Music,"
station or network has one of these movies
on D -5 tape and has the equipment to play it
back on, it could be one of the first in its market
to show a product that is as good or better than
a
what is being shown digitally in the theaters.
are converted to HDTV by using a
software program that rendered each
frame out in a HDTV format. For
"Toy Story 2" the images were then
color corrected for the Texas Instruments DLP Cinema projector and recorded in HDTV with the QuVis box.
both of which are on 70mm film, will
likely look poor when played back in
digital cinema on a screen with only
1.3 megapixel resolution. It 's likely
that films like these will need at least
12 megapixels to do them justice.
"Compression of these images,"
Mendrala continued, "is said to be
around 20:1 using a proprietary wavelet compression technology. These
HDTV 1920x1080 images are then
The future
uncompressed and played back from
the QuVis box to the TI DLP Cinema
projector in the theaters using a SMPTE
292M protocol."
Some in the film industry claim that
35mm release print film does not
have more than 2K resolution and that
a
projector weave further reduces the
resolution even further. In his "Star
Wars" presentation, Lucas ran everything through the computer at 2000
pixel resolution so everything would
be consistent. Even the movie "Pleasantville" was done at 2000 pixel resolution.
Mendrala noted, "Two other productions come to mind. The first one
is 'The Last Broadcast' that was shown
What do we have to look forward
to? "Bicentennial Man," which
opened mid -December, has been
showing in HD at theaters across
the U.S. and in Canada. You can
expect to see "Mission to Mars"
released in HD (or, at least, in higher- definition than is transmitted every day to your viewers) next month,
followed in May by "Dinosaur."
One of the fallacies of theatrical
HDTV color is that it is undersampled. The argument is that the eye
cannot see fine details in color. While
this is true, it depends on how far the
theaters, on large screens. It was a
film produced using home and indus-
viewer is from the image. The eye can
resolve about one minute of arc of
resolution. This means that if you
view an image at the correct distance,
(for HDTV that's about three screen
heights) then the eye cannot see any
finer color resolution in the image.
This is fine in the home where most
people sit at least 10 to 12 feet from
their screens. In many theaters, this
24
February 2000
in 1999 by Digital Projection in a few
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
means you would have to be sitting in
the back row of the auditorium. Most
people when they come into a theater
tend to sit about half way to two thirds
back from the screen. Therefore, the
images must have better color resolution than HDTV's 4:2:2 or 4:2:0. That
just won't cut it for the big screen;
equal resolution of RGB or 4:4:4 is
necessary.
"If you want to see the potential
image capability of HDTV, go to one
of the new films projected in digital
cinema," Mendrala says. "Sit about
three screen heights from the screen,
keeping in mind that the resolution
you'll see is slightly less than what
DTV stations are transmitting when
airing an HDTV show. HDTV for the
home is not only widescreen TV but
also big screen TV."
Doug Darrow, business manager for
DLP Cinema at Texas Instruments
says, "This is not the finished solution. We are taking the technology out
of the lab and putting it in a real -world
environment. We expect to see improvements as we go along. We want
the improvement we develop to be
derived from the movie industry and
the patrons; the people who pay the
money to see the movies."
All the networks and DirecTV are
transmitting HDTV programs daily.
If Hollywood continues to reduce image quality in theater releases, viewers may choose to stay home and
watch pay-per -view, rent or buy HDTV
recordings. Mendrala said, "If that's
the case, the movie theater industry
will be, like the passenger railroad
industry, a thing of the past. The
movie studios however will still make
movies and market the products that
movies promote."
CEA offers antenna
selection on the Web
The Consumer Electronics Association unveiled a new website de-
signed to help both retailers and consumers determine the type of antenna
they will need to receive DTV signals.
The website, which is can be found
at www.antennaweb.org, is a fast and
effective tool that will help the TV
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station engineer, retailer or viewer
choose the proper antenna to receive
off-air local television signals.
The site is designed to be fast and
user friendly. Users are asked to enter
the address and zip code where the
antenna is to be installed. A street map
showing the house location will appear in the center of the screen. The
display will also show a color code
indicating which kind of antenna will
do the job. The site reflects the same
color-coding scheme developed by the
CEA in the very early days of DTV for
its color -coded maps. The color-coded
area corresponds to a legend, which
spells out the appropriate type outdoor antenna that is needed to receive
local television signals.
CEA holds very tight standards when
it comes to antennas. Criteria for an
outdoor antenna can be found in the
Association's Engineering Bulletin EIA/
CEB-6 -C. Outdoor antennas that meet
or exceed these criteria are allowed to
carry the outdoor antenna mark, which
corresponds to the color -coded maps.
CEA's "AntennaWeb" also provides
the additional capability for calculating information about "distant signal
reception." For example, a Washington, D.C. resident who wants to receive a Baltimore signal can make use
of this "distant signal reception" fea-
The CEA does certify
indoor antennas
providing they meet or
exceed minimum
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Circle (118) on Free Info Card
28
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
The CEA plans to
begin displaying an
"indoor mark" at the
retail level starting
May 1.
ture. The user clicks on the station
they want to receive. A point -to -point
algorithm calculates and factors in
the more distant, outlying station, in
addition to the local ones. The same
map then indicates what type of antenna is needed to bring in the distant
signal, and also will show the direction of the TV tower transmit signal,
giving additional information for installing the antenna.
CEA first demonstrated this website
during the 2000 International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas
last month.
"AntennaWeb.org is the next logical
stage in our Antenna Selector Mapping Program," explained Gary Shapiro, president of CEA. "The paper
maps being introduced at the retail
level that show consumers what type
of outdoor antenna will work in their
geographic areas have been extremely well- received, but now we are tak-
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ing the program one step further. We
are using the power of the Internet to
bring the maps directly to consumers
and to retailers who have Web access.
It's as easy as a few clicks to find the
proper TV antenna, and retailers and
consumers alike will have the benefit
of this sophisticated mapping tool at
their fingertips."
CEA also spells out what is expected
of an indoor antenna in its Engineering Bulletin EIA/CEB -7. This bulletin
discusses antenna types and characteristic, packaging and marking specifications, as well as providing minimum performance requirements.
The indoor antenna is a different
breed of animal. CEA says that at this
time, the indoor antennas do not correspond to the outdoor antenna maps
or color-coding scheme. The reason
given was because there are multiple
factors involved in determining good
reception in a specific location. The
CEA does certify indoor antennas providing they meet or exceed minimum
industry -wide performance requirements as related to indoor antenna
exigencies. The CEA plans to begin
displaying an "indoor mark" at the
retail level starting May 1. This will
give manufacturers not yet in compliance an opportunity to make improvements to indoor products so as to meet
the CEA certification standards.
Neil Terk, president of Terk Technologies and chairman of CEA's Antenna Subdivision, commented, "So
far we have had over 500 retailers and
installers from all around the U.S. and
even overseas who are currently participating in the color -coding system.
Antenna manufacturers, retailers and
consumers are all benefiting from this
program which provides retailers with
the tools they need to increase antenna
sales and consumers with the tools
they need to make the right purchasing decision." Terk continued, "As
consumers continue to embrace digital satellite TV systems, and as they
are becoming more excited about high definition television, they are looking
for today's antennas to provide them
with that digital link
the reception
of local off -air signals. The initial
results of the CEA map program have
been phenomenal and we expect it to
grow given the cost -effective, space saving technology solution that antennas offer."
Those wishing to receive a copy of
any of the EIA standards may refer to
the CEA website at www.cea.org.
DTV99 a success
ees. At the recent Chicago conferences, editors from Broadcast Engineering magazine orchestrated three days
of intense discussion on DTV issues.
Thursday keynote speaker
On Thursday, a full day of sessions
began with the keynote address by
CBS vice president of engineering,
The conference began Wednesday
Robert P. Seidel. He challenged attendees to pursue digital television
with vigor and conviction. He used
the CBS experience as an example of
how the challenges of implementing
DTV can be overcome and the beneficial results to be obtained. The topic
of his encouraging presentation was
"Yes Virginia, there is HDTV."
Seidel noted the CBS experience,
The
sixth annual Broadcast Engi-
freering DTV conference was a
virtual DTV answer book for attend-
with half-day
sessions on two
leading
ildR
edge
topics; building
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digital studios
and creating interactive television programming. Broadcast Engineering editor, Brad
Dick, and industry author and
consultant, Jerry Whitaker,
moderated the
workshops.
Broadcast Engineering also
sponsored a
Wednesday
evening recep-
tion, allowing
attendees to
gather,
exchange notes,
meet old friends
and make new
For more information or to request our
800- 251 -4224
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530 -214 -2048
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Fax: 530 -274 -9442
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ing tips.
Circle (120) on Free Into Card
30
Broadcast Engineering
acquaintances
while sharing
problem -solv-
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
while challenging, was successful. All
19 CBS O &Os are on the air with
digital transmissions. Seidel says more
than 49 percent of the U.S. can receive
at least six DTV stations. He focused
on the successful DTV reception tests
he was familiar with, all the while not
mentioning the major detractor of the
8 -VSB system, avoiding a political
minefield. Those stations looking for
encouragement to begin a digital transition found it in Seidel's talk.
The other Thursday sessions focused
on the design and construction of digital studios. From infrastructure routing schemes to handing metadata, the
speakers combined to help attendees
understand both the basic design concepts and the importance of careful
implementation of those concepts into
a properly functioning TV station.
The Broadcast Engineering DTV
conference has traditionally provided
THE cori
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New Friday sessions
Two new tracks were
developed for Friday
morning. BE's sister publications Video Systems
and Millimeter organized separate session
tracks. The Video Systems track, "HD Production Tools and Formats" helped production
attendees identify key
factors in digital pro-
demands
standards for
consumer
FCC
electronics
Federal Communications Commis-
sion Chairman, William E. Kennard urged the cable industry and TV
set manufacturers to develop standards for DTV reception or face governmental reg-
ulation during
the 2000 Consumer Electronics Show
duction tools for program creation. Format
selection, acquisition
DIGIIRDQQ
and storage were CM' ered.
in Las Vegas.
Millimeter magazine
organized the HDTV
TELEVISIONdd
Business Opportunities"
Broadcast Engineering columnist and industry con-
workshop. The goal was
to show producers and
production house managers how to leverage
HD as a technology into a working
business model. Both sessions were
new to this year's DTV conference and
highly successful.
Friday's traditional sessions were
focused on RF issues. A common thread
among the morning's presenters was
sultant Don Markley trated DTV99 attendees to an
inside look at the sophisticated project to install new
DTV antennas on the Sears building.
more personal discussions in smaller
roundtable settings. This year, two well attended Thursday evening sessions covered consumer issues and consulting
engineering topics. The consumer
roundtable was moderated by BE columnist and consultant, Brad Gilmer.
Attendees sought answers to the other
half of the broadcast equation
what
are viewers doing and what will they be
watching my signal on next year. The
topic of formats and personal video
recorders also received wide coverage
in this meeting.
In the consultants' roundtable, BE
columnist and consultant, Don Markely; BE's Dr. Digital, Steve Epstein;
-
DTV
session organizer, Jerry
Whitak-
er; and BE editor Brad Dick orchestrated a lively discussion on a variety of
DTV
issues. These evening sessions are
as some of the most
of the conference.
This year, an additional workshop
typically described
"fun"
sessions
the use of multistation antennas. It
turns out that common sites can be
achieved in a wide variety of ways.
Typically, stations will combine signals and use a panel array for trans-
mission. Other techniques include
stacking antennas to allow both DTV
and NTSC operation from a common
mast. Well -known industry consultant, Don Markley, reviewed how the
stations on the Chicago Sears building
worked to develop some unique
solutions for DTV transmission despite shading and blocking issues. The
technology involves the use of multiple radiators carefully phased to create nulls in less desired areas and exten-
was organized by Intertec Publishing's
Millimeter magazine, The "HD Camera Workshop" focused on the selection, use and performance of HD cameras. Attendees were treated to an indepth discussion of HD camera issues,
and were allowed to question experts
on the application of HD technology
sions in patterns into those more important areas. If your station is in a challenged site, some of the solutions developed for Sears may be of interest to you.
for acquisition.
ference
The Broadcast Engineering DTV
conference has now been a hit among
engineers for six years. Mark you
calendar now. Next year's DTV con-
will again
Chicago.
32
Broadcast Engineering
See
FCC Chairman
William Kennard
"The American public
will not let
the commission
wait
much longer
for you to
agree on stan-
dards,
and
the law gives
the Commission clear responsibility to act if you do not," he said.
Kennard told cable and set manufacturers that they must come up
with a solution by April or face
regulation. In his speech, Kennard
also reprimanded the industry for
creating bottlenecks that have
slowed the rollout of digital television for five years.
Kennard expressed concern that
the advanced model TV sets capable of both HD displays and data
exchange were not able to plugged
into cable because of the wrangling
over technology compatibility standards and piracy issues.
He noted there are more than 100
digital television stations on the air
and that these stations offer to over
50 percent of the American viewing
audience the option of better quality, free over -the -air digital and
HDTV signals. When these off -air
digital signals are put through ca-
ble converters, picture quality is
not much better than that in our
current analog system.
be held Dec. 6 -8 in
you there.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Send questions and comments to:
larry bloomfield @intertec.com
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Satellite Home Viewer Act
BY HARRY MARTIN
The new Satellite Home Viewer Im
provement Act of 1999 provides
for direct -to -home satellite transmissions of television broadcast signals
within the station's market (local -intolocal) and sets new standards for the
transmission of distant broadcast signals into local markets.
Local- into -local
The new legislation gives satellite
carriers a compulsory copyright license
to transmit local TV signals into local
markets. For these purposes, a local
market is a station's designated market
area as set forth in Nielsen's 1999 -2000
Station Index Directory, or any successor publication. In order to maintain
copyright licenses, satellite carriers must
Dateline
Television licensees and
applicants have until
March 17 to file the
following types of NTSC
applications or petitions:
(1) amendments (other
than channel changes) to
pending applications for
new stations on Channels
2 -59; (2) petitions for
rule making seeking new
channels below 60 for
NTSC Channel 60 -69
applicants; (3) petitions
for rule making for new
NTSC channels
to accom-
modate applicants in "TV
Freeze" areas; and (4)
amendments to pending
rule makings to add new
NTSC channels.
May 1, 2000 is the
deadline for the DTV
maximization applications which must be filed
to ensure protection
against new "Class A"
LPTVs.
comply with all FCC rules governing
television broadcast signal carriage and
must also comply with reporting requirements. The reporting requirements
state that satellite carriers who retransmit a network station's signal into the
station's local market must submit to
the network a list identifying all subscribers to such transmission and to
update that list with adds or drops on
the 15th of each month.
After Jan. 1, 2002, if an operator
carries any station in a particular
market, it must carry all stations within that market, subject to certain requirements. First, satellite carriers are
to designate a "local receive facility"
that is acceptable to at least one -half
of the stations with must -carry rights
in a particular local market. A station
asserting its must -carry rights is required to bear the costs associated
with delivering a good -quality signal
to that local receive facility. Furthermore, satellite carriers are not required to carry a signal of any local
station that substantially duplicates
the signal of another local station
already transmitted by the carrier
within that market, or to carry a
signal of more than one local station
in a local market that is affiliated with
a particular television network, unless such stations are licensed to communities in different states. Lastly,
satellite operators are not required to
carry a television station in that station's local market on any particular
channel number, except that the operator is required to carry stations in the
local market on contiguous channels,
and to provide access to such signals
at a non -discriminatory price and in a
non -discriminatory manner on any
navigation device or on- screen program guide or menu.
Carriage of distant signals into
local markets
The new legislation revises the terms
and conditions under which carriers
34
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
may import signals of distant television stations into different markets.
The general principle is (subject to
certain exceptions and exemptions)
that a satellite carrier may not deliver
a distant network signal to a subscriber unless that subscriber resides in an
"unserved household," the subscriber
receives a waiver from the local affiliate of that same network, or that
waiver is in effect due to the local
station's failure to act on a waiver
request within the required 30 days.
An "unserved household" is defined as
one that cannot receive, through the use
of a conventional, stationary, outdoor
rooftop antenna, a Grade B over-the -air
signal of a primary network station
affiliated with that network. In determining the boundaries of this Grade B
service area, the legislation requires
the Commission to use the Individual
Location Longley-Rice (ILLR) model.
Waiver process
As was the case before, subscribers
who do not live in unserved households who still wish to receive distant
network signals must obtain a waiver
from the affiliate of that network whose
signal they can receive over the air.
However, Congress has added complex new procedures to the waiver
process to which stations must pay
particular attention. Specifically, the
network station must accept or reject
a subscriber's request for a waiver within 30 days after receipt of the request. If
the station fails to accept or reject the
subscriber's request within that period,
either of which actions must be made
through the subscriber's carrier, the
station will be deemed to agree to the
waiver request. Accordingly, stations
should immediately review or set up
internal procedures to respond to waiver requests within 30 days.
Harry
Heald
C.
Martin
is an
attorney with Fletcher.
Arlington, VA.
it Hildreth, PLC,
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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Circle (121) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
PSIP: Looking for answers
BY JIM SALADIN, SENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Program and System Information
Protocol, or PSIP as it's commonly called, has dropped from the radar
of the average broadcaster. Most
have relegated its implementation to
the lower quarters of a mile -long
digital to -do list.
VENDOR
program and
James A. Kutzner
and Jean Macher,
mation Protocol
System Infor-
Thomcast Com- (PSIP), is the
munications
ATSC's standard
for carriage of basic information re-
quired within the DTV transport
he two most frequently asked
questions regarding PSIP are, "What
is it ?" and "Does it work" Both
questions are valid and both demand answers before PSIP can provide a comprehensive EPG and receiver tuning reference.
For answers, we turn to Thomcast
for a short course on the first question, and to Philip Titus, chief engineer at KUED, Salt Lake City, for
advice on the second.
vals begin at midnight of each day. The
first four tables are required meaning the
current three -hour block plus the next
four must be transmitted. Broadcasters
are allowed to carry up to 128 EITs or 16
days. The EFT of the current time span is
called EIT-0, with the following EITs
numbered from EIT-1 to EIT-127. Each
EIT-k also has as many instances as
therefore the 16 Errs (there are four sets
of an EIT-k, since there are four channels) represents 256Kb/s. The total amount
of data is approximately 268Kb/s. If the
maximum time cycles for each of the
tables are maintained and the broadcaster chooses to send EIT-1 to EIT-3
every two seconds, then the PSIP tables
require a data rate of approximately
240Kb/s. The major portion of this payload is the ETTs at 224Kb/s, whereas the
MGT, VCT, RRT and STT contribute to
the total rate with only 16Kb/s. In this
example the bandwidth allocated for
PSIP is about 1.2% of the total 19.39Mb/
s bandwidth. If EITs are empty, then the
PSIP bandwidth falls to around 0.1 %.
PSIP generation is typically either performed within an integrated encoding
and multiplexing system or in a standalone generator and then fed to the primary or emission multiplexer. Early implementations of PSIP generators created
simple tuning information and in some
cases created empty EIT tables. Since
the early DTV receivers generally did
not implement any EPG this was not an
issue. However, as the industry quickly
gains in sophistication, as do the viewers, PSIP generation needs to become
more integrated into the station's infrastructure. The traffic and automation
system data, or an external programming source needs to be provided to the
PSIP generation system in order to correctly set the EITs, ETTs, and as applicable the VCTs.
I
stream. The two basic goals of PSIP
are to provide to the decoder basic
tuning information to help parse and
decode the various services within the
stream, and information required to
feed the receiver's Electronic Program
Guide (EPG) creation system.
The PSIP data are carried via a
collection of hierarchically arranged
tables:
The System Time Table (STT) is a
small table that carries time information required by any application within the transport stream that may require synchronization.
The Master Guide Table (MGT)
provides information about the other
tables except for the SIT. It defines
table size allocation that is needed
during decoding.
The Virtual Channel Table (VCT)
lists all channels within the transport
stream. Brief information is provided
for each channel, such as tuning information and the channel name. The
Terrestrial VCT (TVCT) is used for
terrestrial broadcast.
The Rating Region Table (RRT)
defines rating rates for different regions or countries. The U.S. is defined
as RRT 1.
The Event Information Table (EIT)
contain information for events on defined channels. Each EIT covers a time
interval of three hours and those inter-
channels within the transport stream.
The Extended Text Table (ETT)
contains additional information for a
program or channel. ETTs can therefore
be linked to any of the EITs or VCTs.
One PID (Packet ID), called the base
PID, labels the MGT, the VCT, the RRT
and the STT. The EITs and ETTs are
labeled by PIDs that can be retrieved
from the MGT. Those tables, however,
shall not be thought as a unique entity.
The MGT and the VCT are used for
tuning, and the EITs and the ETTs
provide content information for the different programs within the transport
stream. If the RRT is unlikely to change
frequently, the MGT and the VCT change
whenever a change occurs in the multiplex configuration and, by nature, many
changes occur in the ETTs.
A broadcaster may only want to transmit the minimum PSIP information required by the standard for proper tuning
plus the minimum set of EIT tables. In
this case the MGT, the STT, the VCT,
and the RRT plus the first four EITs are
transmitted. As an example, four DTV
channels are to be transmitted and a
single rating region is defined. Typical
sizes are then 150 bytes for the MGT,
450 bytes for the VCT, 900 bytes for the
RRT and 20 bytes for the STT Each EIT
may have a typical size of 2Kb and
36
February 2000
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
James Kutzner is director of engineering for
Comark Digital Services; Jean Macher is the
product manager for Thomcast's CDS
Divisionin Alexandria VA.
DTV YOUR WAY.
kegami Has The "Universal" Solution.
Outputs are provided for HDTV and SDTV in
both digital and analog. NTSC signals can be
independently switched to 16:9, 4:3 side -cut
choosing production formats. It is now possible
or 4:3 letterbox aspect ratios. Return video
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from one camera system with no external converters. supports all these combinations as well, giving the
This is made practical by 2.2- million pixel 2/3- CCDs operator a consistent HDTV display in the viewfinder.
that provide selectable native -interlace and native Recent breakthroughs in advanced ASIC design
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be switched to provide 1080i, 720p and 480p.
and CCU. Introduction of new solid -type electrolytic
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A superior quality NTSC signal is always available
from the CCU for simulcast or dedicated applications Ikegami has again taken the lead in developing the
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Circle (122) on Free Info Card
i
Having only recently been
granted the status of
"expert" in the field
of PSIP, I thought it
wise to gain a little
more knowledge on
the subject. After going through the usual manufacturers'
promises and leafing
through the news -
EXPERT'
Phil Titus. KUED
group comments,
I
finally downloaded
and read the latest version of the ATSC
PSIP Standard. I must tell you, that was
the best nap I've had since my daughter
quit taking hers. Let's face it folks, while
PSIP comes from great minds on the
subject, it's gonna he tough to implement from scratch. Any new software or
hardware will have its share of bugs to
work out, and when you implement
barb at the same time, it's a lead -pipe
cinch there will he problems. Before
third party vendors can help us, they
need to have tools that work and a
station management willing to devote
the resources to PSIP.
\lame of us haven't added NIP to one
DTV facility, even though we know
most receivers require it. And, those of
us who have included PSIP in DTV plans
have purchased generators that are not
totally compliant. As a result, sets are
crashing. The broadcasting industry is
not alone in creating problems. Today's
sets have a wide range of PSIP compliance and user interfaces, which further
compounds things. I am the engineering director for a large rural market
station and we have our own challenges
with PSIP. Because one -third of our viewers live in rural areas served by over 100
translators and full -power relay stations, our challenge is to get rural TV
sets to recognize a signal translated from
its original frequency. This issue affects
a large portion of the Rocky Mountain
states and currently has no solution!
I've noticed that the door locks on my
car seem to have a combined IQ letter
than mine. This will not necessarily
surprise those who know me. Not only
did the locks automatically engage when
I moved forward and unlocked when
wanted out. What would happen if I
were to crash the car and confuse the
program that controls the door locks?
My
guess is that without a program
running to control them, I would he
locked inside with no way to get out.
That's why they prodived a mechanical
door lock release. The point is, if for any
reason, the DTV set gets a confused PSIP
a failsafe that will
allow the signal to he displayed. This
message, we need
can only come in the form of a routine
located within the sets that will allow it
a minimum, display the DTV
signal and channel number.
In the end, we will all need to be part
of the solution. Broadcasters must devote the resources to ensure that current,
to, at
compliant data
is being sent to the
multiplexer. Manufacturers must to develop generators, servers and multiplexers that are consistently, completely compliant. The ATSC must consider all
circumstances under which broadcasters operate, then publish standards to
meet those needs. Receiver manufacturers must build fully compliant receivers.
Will this happen? Not for a while. In the
meantime, let's put some old -fashioned,
mechanical solutions in place.
Phil Titus is the director of engineering for
RUED. KUI.0 and. RUER in Salt Lake City.
AUDIO CROSSPOINTS ARE Now OBSOLETE
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Circle (123) on Free Info Card
38
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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UMNEON
SUEONIC1 WORKS
Transition to Digital
Video compression
BY JIM BOSTON
Remember when we used to build
television facilities? We would
string coax around and terminate it
eventually in an AM transmitter. At the
same time we would lay an audio web
on top of the video. This audio layer
would eventually terminate in a FM
transmitter built into the same box that
housed the AM half. Today, it seems we
are building data facilities that happen
to be used for television. Sure, the
original two layers are still there, but
now they are wrapped with numerous
other layers. These new layers include
SD and HD digital video paths, AES
paths, and a web of data infrastructure.
Because these new paths contain digital
data, the bandwidth requirements have
exploded. It is likely that digital would
still be found only in a few niche
applications today if JPEG (followed
by MPEG) had not come along.
MPEG's place today
Not many have decided (yet) to move
MPEG around their facilities. But
MPEG can he found at most of the
bandwidth choke points that digital
creates. These points are generally any
paths into or out of the facility, along
with paths leading to or from digital
video storage. Digital baseband video
creates too many bits to cope with in
Digital baseband video creates too many bits
to cope with in some paths, at least from an
economical standpoint.
some paths, at least from an economical standpoint. Methods were devised to create hit streams with just
enough bits to adequately describe the
video or audio content. This is done
by throwing away some of the information in the picture, hence lossy
compression. Compression is done in
the spatial dimension (JPEG, MPEG I
frames), and in the temporal or time
FRAME GRAB
A look at
tomorrow's technology.
The networked home
Wireless networking technology will network home systems
SWS36%
P.w -r Lin-
40/
Wireless 9%
SWS
Power Line
Phone Line
Wireless
Power Line 4.2%
Ph.n- Lin- 1%
Phone Line 33.3%
\Wireless 49.8°
SOURCE: World Information 'Technologies I..ww.worldinfotech.com
42
Broadcast Engineering
dimension (MPEG B, P frames). Spatial compression is accomplished by
converting video from the time domain to the frequency domain, and
then eliminating frequency components that are not noticed (hopefully).
(See Figure 1.) In reality, some lossless
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
compression is also performed after
the lossy compression. Temporal compression is accomplished by looking
at differences between I (anchor)
frames. These differences are used to
create motion vectors. Video blocks
from earlier frames that have moved
are not sent again. Instead, motion
vectors describing where this earlier
video has moved are sent. Also a
differential picture is created between
the previous anchor and the current B
or P frame. Both these data sets are
then compressed. JPEG (I frame) spatial compression can deliver good
quality video at up to eight times
compression, MPEG temporal compression can increase the compression
rate by another factor of five.
However, there are issues before any
compression takes place that can play a
great part in the final quality of the
video in the compressed bitstream.
Noise makes compression engines work
very hard. Randomness breaks compression systems, and nothing is as
random as noise. Some MPEG encoders provide an indication of DCT coef-
ficient quantification. What does that
mean? DCT is the process that takes
blocks of video from the time domain
to the frequency domain. The coeffi-
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Video bit rates (active video)
4:4:4 bit rate (720'486) = (720 +720 +720) 486 ' 30 10 = 315 Mb /s
4:2:2 bit rate (720'486) = (720 +360 +360) ' 486 ' 30 ' 10 = 210 Mb /s
4:2:0 bit rate (720'486) = (720'486) + (360'243) + (360'243) 30 * 8 = 126 Mb /s
4:1:1 bit rate (720'486) = (720 +180 +180) 486 30 ' 8 = 126 Mb /s
Note: 4:2:084:1:1 are eight bit only Ito further reduce bit rate)whereas the othertwo are eight or 10bits.
Table 1. The uncompressed bit rate is based on the number of samples, the number of bits
per sample and the sampling structure used.
cients in essence are values that describe the values of frequencies needed to reproduce the video block. This
is much like the frequency values
produced by a Fourier transform. If
the DCT process creates too many
coefficients, the encoder increases the
value by which all the coefficients are
information (at least for chroma) to
compress. Or is it better to have more
chroma info to start with and to compress a little harder. The EBU and the
CBC addressed that issue a couple of
years ago. They found that picture
quality was essentially the same (4:2:2
slightly better) unless the bit rates got
divided or scaled.
The higher the dividing number, the
more likely that co-
efficients will
he
Randomn ess breaks compression systems,
and nothing is as random as noise.
rounded to zero after division. Noise
increases these coefficient values, with
the result being that everything must
be compressed further to fit within a
given bandwidth.
Sampling
Another issue that affects compression is chroma subsampling. SMPTE
259 subsamples the chroma at half the
luminance rate. We have always sent
less chroma information than luminance information. NTSC provides
considerably less chroma info than
luminance. This was done because
our eyes are less sensitive to chrominance than luminance. SMPTE 259
digital component uses the 4:2:2 sampling scheme. This means that there
are half the chroma samples of luminance samples per horizontal line. But
vertically there is no chroma subsampiing. To allow for chroma subsampling in both the horizontal and vertical directions 4:2:0 is offered. One
method is a quincunx pattern in that
on odd horizontal lines you throw
away even chroma samples, and on
extremely low. Then 4:2:0 had a slight
advantage.
But what was borne out in the test
was that with multiple compression/
decompression cycles 4:2:2 became
the clear winner. This illustrates that
starting out with more is still better
than starting with less. Sometimes we
forget why we buy broadcast -quality
equipment instead of industrial or con-
4:1:1 sample rate. (See Figure 2.)
4:2:0 sampling creates 25 percent less
data than 4:2:2 sampling. So an argument arose as to whether it is better to
under-sample the chroma information
up front and therefore end up with less
Broadcast Engineering
available for temporal (time)
compression, including I, B and P
frames. More B and P frames between I frames (long GOPs) means
that frames towards the end of the
sets
1
0r¢
w
zw
even lines the odd chroma samples are
dropped. This creates an interleaved
44
sumer stuff. The transfer function,
comparing the output to the input, is
never 1 to i in any analog box. Each
pass through a box creates a slight
reordering of frequencies and phase,
and usually some rolloff of the high
end of the spectrum. The more information you start with means the more
you will end up with. Now with digital, once we're in that domain and we
make no changes, we should incur no
change as we cascade through digital
boxes. But it is at points were we make
domain changes that we incur quality
degradation. Analog to digital, digital to analog, composite to component (digital or analog), component to
composite, baseband digital to compressed digital, and
vice versa, all these
domain changes impact the video.
When we talk levels
in MPEG we mean
sample structure and
hit rate. Sampling structure and bit
rate have a great effect on how
many times we can compress and
decompress before the quality gives
out. MPEG profiles refer to the tool
CO
Cl
C2
LL
C3
C4
C5
FREQUENCY
Figure 1. When discrete cosine transform (DCT) is performed on a signal, time domain
information is transformed into frequency domain data. In a typical video image, a
majority of the frequency components can be discribed by a single coefficient (CO),
harmonics are then described using additional coefficients (C1 -5). Each additional
coefficient requires extra bandwidth.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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iiiarconi
4:2:2
4:2:0 -2 methods
AVAV
1.i
2^^
(Quincunx pattern -interleaved 4:1:1)
A AV V VAV V
A
AVA
VA
A
VA
V 7 7 V
'VAVVVA
AVitiVA .:V4VA-4 AVVVAVV
AV4V4 777 7777 77 VV4VVVA
77
A
LUMINANCE SAMPLES
CHROMINANCE SAMPLES
Figure 2. Not all sampling structures use the same techniques for sampling video. The arrangement of the co -sited Cr/Y /Cb samples
depends on the way the sampling structure is defined.
GOP will become less exacting versions of the original video. Multiple
compression /decompression cycles
only exacerbate the situation. Required bitrates to get the job done
by the user and discarded. What
happens when DTV VCRs finally
come on the scene is an unanswered
question. Many are sending virtual
SD DTV programs at 8Mb/s, while
others think technology has reached
the point where 6Mb /s is good
enough. On the HD side 15Mb/s is
often used, but some are starting to
look to 12Mb /s as enough.
Many seem to think that working
with digital video today means the
technical quality judgements required
in the past are no longer needed. This
a rapidly moving target. Contribution rates are still generally high,
20Mb /s and above. These high bit
rates insure that the received video
can be acted upon, stored, taken to
are
baseband and back a few times and
stay reasonably intact. Bit rates sent
to the end user can be quite a bit less
because they are expected displayed
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simply is not true. What you do in the
analog, and digital domains, along
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Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle (124) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Conditional access for DTV
BY BRAD GILMER
Conditional access technology, that
is, technology
that allows only
authorized viewers to receive and view
program content, has been around for
many years. It has been widely employed in both cable and satellite
delivery systems. Until the advent of
DTV, there has been little reason to
use the technology for terrestrial
broadcasts.
As you may recall, Preston Padden of ABC spoke before Sen. John
McCain's congressional committee,
saying that subscription revenue
would be one way to offset the cost
of the transition to DTV. McCain
and others on the committee were
not at all impressed with the idea,
and Padden got his head served to
him on a platter. Because of this
incident, many in the industry have
been reluctant
to publicly ex-
plore
inverted the video, or scrambled the
audio. These systems usually required
a special decoder or set -top box to
remove the scrambling. While they
prevented most people from receiving
the scrambled signal, the fact is that
they were not very secure. Some of
these systems did not allow unscrambling on a per subscriber basis.
Later, better scrambling methods
were developed that addressed these
problems. In some systems, the video
was scrambled using a relatively weak
scrambling technique, but the audio
was scrambled digitally using an algorithm that was very hard to break.
Additionally, conditional access vendors developed techniques that allowed individual boxes to be enabled
or disabled.
All this work took place primarily
signal is scrambled so that it cannot
be received without some sort of
processing. However, the key to
descramble the signal is well known
by every decoder box out in the
field. As you can imagine, fixed -key
mode is not very secure and is seldom used. However, a broadcaster
may revert to fixed -key mode in the
case of a conditional access system
failure. Depending on what breaks
in a conditional access system, it
may be possible to keep the signal
scrambled, but drop back to this less
secure fixed -key mode.
The second method of scrambling
is variable -key mode. In variable key mode, the key has two parts.
The first part of the key, the public
key, is well known by everyone.
The second part of the key is pri-
vate. The pri-
condi-
tional access
CONDITIONAL
ACCESS
MODULE/
SCRAMBLER
for DTV. However, conditional access provides business
options
that
may be worth
exploring.
There are several fundamen-
tal things you
should know
about conditional
MPEG
MPEG
ELEMENTARY
STREAM
MPEG
MUX
CONDITIONAL
ACCESS
MODULE
STREAM SCRAMBLER
TRANSPORT
TO DTV
-110.
woo
MPEG ELEMENTARY STREAM
XMTR
cam
1.
Conditional
proposition. If you are running a DTV
multiplex of four program streams, it
is possible to scramble any one of the
program streams individually, or all
of them. It is also possible to scramble
the whole transport stream after the
multiplex (see Figure 1).
access.
access is not an all -or- nothing
in the area of cable television delivery, and to a lesser extent, the
(Ku /C -band ) backyard dish market. Over the past few years, substantial contributions have been
Scrambled signals
There have been many different
scrambling systems over the years.
Early analog methods removed the
sync pulses from the NTSC signal,
made in MPEG scrambling and
conditional access, in large part
due to the satellite dish market. As
a result, these advanced scrambling
systems are available, and in most
cases, directly applicable to terrestrial DTV broadcasting.
Current digital scrambling methods use two modes. The first is
fixed -key mode. In this method, the
48
February 2000
Broadcast Engineering
Control
Mes(ECM) as
part of the
MPEG stream.
sage
This key can be
changed as often as the user
desires,
even
changing several
times per second.
Not everyone can read the key in
the ECM however. Access to the key
is controlled via a subscriber management system or database. Each
conditional access decoder has a
unique serial number that is recorded
in this database. If the box is authorized to receive a particular service,
this information is encoded in an
Entitlement Management Message
(EMM) which is also sent as part of
the MPEG stream. When a scrambled MPEG signal is received by a
conditional access decoder, the box
first checks the EMM to see if it is
Conditional access modules can be located in a variety of locations in the
output chain depending on whether you want to scramble one or more channels,
or the entire output stream.
Figure
vate key generated by the encoder is sent via
an Entitlement
www.americanradiohistory.com
New Inscriber
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So what out of all of this is of
interest to you the DTV broadcaster?
First, you should know that, technically speaking, you can scramble
some or all of your DTV transmissions. Second, you can use either
relatively simple fixed -key scrambling where everyone with a box is
able to decode your signal, or you
can use variable -key scrambling, giving you the capability of addressing
each subscriber's box individually.
Third, if you opt for a variable -key
system, you will need to create and
maintain a subscriber management
database to keep track of who is
authorized to receive what and when.
From a management perspective, I
can tell you that this can be a big
deal, especially if half of your subscribers do not get the wrestling pay per -view event they ordered.
Finally, it may be important to look at
what the ATSC standard specifies and
what it leaves open for interpretation or
implementation. The ATSC standard
specifies the Point of Deployment or
POD interface for smart card technol-
NOVA has all
the
ai
tion.
ogy. So far, so good. We will use smart
cards, and one smart card will plug into
another vendor's box. The ATSC stan-
dard specifies the scrambling method
to be used as the DVD Common Scrambling Method, or Simulcrypt. Sounds
good to me
we will use a common
scrambling approach. However, that is
as far as it goes.
Where does this leave us? If one
DTV station in a market selects conditional access vendor A, and another station selects conditional access
vendor B, it is quite likely that viewers will have to swap smart cards as
they change channels between the
two stations. This could be good or
bad depending on your position in
the market. The average couch pota-
-
This can be a big deal,
especially if half
of your subscribers do
not get the wrestling
pay -per -view event
they ordered.
to is not going to get up to swap the
card. If you are the prevailing station
in the
ng switchers
ders /decoders
reduction
.r bution amps
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market, your smart card
going to be the one left in the TV set.
If you are the number two station in
the market, it will be much more
difficult to get viewers to watch your
subscription -based programming. The
good news is that there is nothing to
keep stations in the same market
from using the same conditional access vendor, thereby resolving this
problem.
Whether Sen. McCain likes it or
not, it is likely that conditional access will play some part in the DTV
rollout. There are many good sources
of information on conditional access systems. The first place to start
is to talk to your ATSC encoder
manufacturer. Also, for general information, you can contact satellite
IRD equipment manufacturers.
Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer & Associates, a management and technology firm.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Circle (126) on Free Into Card
JO
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
is
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Ask Dr. Digital
Defining the problem vs. the solution
BY STEVE EPSTEIN, TECHNICAL EDITOR
Iwork for
Rose State
College in Midwest
City, OK. Among my
responsibilities is the
maintenance of the
campus cable TV system as well as a feed to
the local cable TV com
pany. We are planning on
upgrading our cable system to digital
and fiber. However, we are finding it
difficult to get a quote for the equipment needed to do the job.
I have contacted several companies concerning the availability of
video servers that could be controlled from various classrooms as
well as software packages that
would allow selection of programs.
The system that we envision would
allow classroom instructors to access a central server from each classroom, request a program and have
it played at the time specified. The
software would have to search for
an available channel and inform the
instructor which channel would be
used for playback. Access to the
same program at different start times
would be required. We have hundreds of programs and they would
all need to he accessible. Of course,
fiber -based learning systems, I turned
to Robert Slutske at National TeleConsultants, a systems integrator.
Here is his reply:
While your question seems rather
straightforward, the response is not as
simple as it might appear.
The first thing that is needed is a
design that takes into account what
you are trying to do. Though it may
seem that selection of equipment is the
place to start, what's really needed is
an in -depth discussion of your operational needs, followed by a system
design, at least at the functional and
software specification level.
There is a wide range of equipment
available to meet your needs, but the
real issue is making the equipment do
what you want to have done operationally. This is where the software
comes in to play and a "plug -and-
54
February 2000
Harold L. Deitz
AudioNisual Dept.
Rose State College
Midwest City, OK
That is quite a question. More than a
single question; it pro-
13k, -
poses several answers
which
is some-
Broadcast Engineering
is, in fact,
essential to
develop the right solution to meet
your operational and budgetary
needs.
Robert Slutske
Vice President,
National TeleConsultants
Glendale, CA
Bob touches on something I have
run across before. Many times the
problem is presented to you along
with a proposed solution. But, because you have been given a pro-
essential to develop the right solution to meet
your operational and budgetary needs.
times less than desirable. As I am less than an expert in
be
needed.
Can you put me in touch with a
company or companies that could
provide us with such equipment, software, fiber and quotes?
luxury. It
Planning is far from a luxury. It is, in fact,
play" solution is far less likely. This is
no doubt why you are having trouble
getting an equipment quote for a system to meet your needs.
At first glance it may seem that
design is an expensive luxury. Nothing is further from the truth. Without solid planning you are less likely to achieve an effective solution
and will likely wind up spending
more, rather than less, money in the
long run. This is particularly true
where control and automation software is involved.
Our advice is to take the time at the
beginning to define your functional
requirements. Only then can you develop an appropriate system design
and select the proper equipment with
which to achieve the desired results.
compatible televisions would
Planning is
far from a
www.americanradiohistory.com
it may distract you
from a clear understanding of the
problem. For example, someone
might say "The tire is flat, we need
to change it." The problem might
indeed he that the tire is flat, or it
could be that the real problem is
that someone needs to be somewhere soon and the flat tire is preventing them from getting there on
time. In that case a better solution
might be to offer them a ride. It
doesn't fix the tire, but it solves the
real problem. The next time someone has a problem and proposes a
solution, make sure you understand
the underlying problem. Consider
their solution, it may be the best,
but until you understand the problem you can't be sure.
If you have a problem, comment or
a question, you know where to find
me: drdigital @compuserve.com.
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'
WETA-TV
builds new
digital multichannel-1
broadcast facili
h-wid
Within master control, WETA's "virtual" monitor wall was designed to display 4:3 (SD) and 16:9 (HD) images.
56
0
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
i
I
By Steve Lewis
eater Washington Educational
Telecommunications Association
Inc., known as WETA Washington,
D.C., to its public television and radio audience, has extended its digital
transition with a newly developed
broadcast origination facility. WETA
acquired a six -story office building in
Arlington, VA, in 1995 to expand its
present television and radio capabilities after evaluating Numerous facility
alternatives for HDTV and digital
broadcast transmission. The result is
a state -of- the -art broadcasting facility
that provides origination and transmission services for WETA's existing
television (TV 26) and radio stations
as well as its digital channel (TV 27).
The WETA organization, a major
producer of renowned public televiFebruary 2000
lion programming such as "The New sHour with Jim Lehrer," "Washington Week in Review" and "In Performance at the White House," will utilize the new digital facility to build
upon its leadership role within the
PBS community.
As an early producer of HDTV
programming for local and national
distribution (beginning in 1997),
WETA also considered the development of new production studios and
edit rooms as part of its digital television development plans. WETA assigned a high priority to the development of digital origination and transmission capabilities and is now considering the buildout of new studios
and production areas. The nearby
WETA production studios and control
Broadcast EnBM
rfny
WETA-TV
control switching system and SMS routing. A multichannel SD and HD master
control switcher is integrated with a
Tektronix SMS -7000 digital video and
AES audio routing system currently
supporting one SD channel with plans
to easily expand to additional broadcast channels. A Tektronix HD routing
system is also integrated with the master
control room to support WETA's HD
switches from NVision and 3Com.
Shared infrastructure systems. The
HVAC, UPS and generator backup power systems in the facility were designed
to support the television and radio technical spaces. The second floor space
received substantial acoustic treatment
to address the adjacency to noisy mechanical areas such as the elevators,
machine rooms, etc., as well as the
building location next to
interstate highway and
plant allows higher sample rate
digital signals and longer cable lengths
within the plant and is outfitted with
impedance-matched jackfield panels
from ADC.
WETA's multichannel server and
data tape library system. Virtually all
programming at WETA is originated
from servers. The system is comprised
of an ingest and playout servers utilizing Tektronix 4:2:2 Profiles. The server
systems transfer data via fibre channel
between Profiles, and to and from a
StorageTek 9740 Timberwolf Automated DLT Tape Library system. The fibre
channel data is converted to SCSI via
Dell Data Mover computers for transfer to the StorageTek DLT library. This
combination of technology allows for
the ready access to over 1800 hours of
programming with thousands more
hours easily accessible. Additional components include an Odetics TCS -45
Cart Machine, and a high definition
ATSC I9.39Mb /s server from Sencore.
3 cable
Multichannel automation systems.
Louth automation systems located in
the media prep area are used to create
a database and prepare the program
content for later playout. Louth is integrated with master control's technology systems to support automated onair transmissions. Extensive RS -422 and
TCP /IP data control signals are routed
through the WETA facility utilizing
62
Broadcast Engineering
a
major
helicopter
WETA has been
channel 27.
Tektronix AES /EBU synchronous
routing system. The audio infrastructure is shared with WETA 90.0 FM with
separate controls and matrix crosspoints
for each independent operation. CEI
designed and integrated a fully digital
and synchronous audio plant with 7511
AES 3 cable, instead of traditional 11051
twisted pair for plant signals. The AES
a
primarily broadcasting
a
single HDTV stream but
has
tested multicasting
four channels of
well as one
SD
SD as
channel
and one HD channel.
channel and one HD channel.
Datacasting has also been tested and
WETA is exploring opportunities while
awaiting further development and sales
as one SD
of DTV receiver cards for personal computers. Washington, D.C. has a significant population of DTV early adopter
consumers who provide very useful feedback that has impacted WETA's DTV
strategy. DTV is not only here to stay but
is key to WETA's future and mission as
a public broadcaster.
A key lesson learned by the WETA
organization during its digital transition so far is the realization that trav-
eling DTV's bumpy road involves
many important choices that cannot
be pre -ordained. It is also understood
that the digital broadcasting transition resembles the phrase, "it's not
over until it's over." WETA's initial
pragmatic steps have prepared the
technical foundation to reach audiences with superior digital services.
However they plan to "stay tuned" for
the next expected or unexpected event
in the unfolding DTV and digital
media marketplace.
flight path to and from the Pentagon.
While sharing the global positioning
system (GPS) time reference system,
WETA television runs an independent
clock system from the radio operation
due to differences resulting from their
respective satellite transmission paths
from PBS and NPR signal sources.
Steve Lewis is director of marketing for Communication Engineering Inc., Newington, VA.
The Facility
Design Team:
WETA
Keeping an eye on the future
WETA continues to follow the numerous DTV technical and business issues
that have surfaced to date. Future considerations will evolve from many of the
unanswered questions including:
How will the public broadcaster
manage the expected competing demands of multiple SDTV streams,
HDTV and datacasting within the
I9.39Mb /s bitstream?
With DTV consumer receivers still
in development and issues such as DTV
must-carry still unresolved, how can
the broadcaster plan for an uncertain
DTV penetration timetable?
How should future plant design
reflect the needs to handle the both
traditional video production and distribution and internet type content?
WETA has been primarily broadcasting a single HDTV stream but has tested
multicasting four channels of SD as well
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sharon Percy Rockefeller, President
and CEO
Joe Widoff, Executive Vice
President/Chief Operating Officer
N. William Jarvis, Executive Vice
President for the Greater
Washington Broadcast Group and
General Counsel
Fran Trachtenberg, Vice President oí
Educational Services and
Outreach
Lew Zager, Vice President,
Technology
Bob Ham, Director of Engineering
Marilyn Pierce, Manager and
Senior Technology Specialist
Cathy Christovich, Supervisor,
Broadcast Operations
Communications Engineering Inc.
(CEI)
Lawrence Brody, President
Herman Reynolds, Project Manager
Murdoch MacNeil, Senior Design
Engineer
Bob Bieberdorf, Senior Design
Engineer
We're evotvin9.
Watch the transformation at
www.mediacentral.com
You've been with
us
from the beginning, but we've only just begun.
www.mediacentral.com
Your one -click resource for media tools, news and community.
Circle (129) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
-dir
(iii 7111YT7
:,
From high definition video and surround
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Digital TV offers
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Philips Semiconductors we're ready with the
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up to two processors and on -chip peripherals to provide
never been easier to build highly- featured digital televisions and advanced
a
www.americanradiohistory.com
digital television
than just TV
sel
op boxes. That handle everything from basic DTV programmes to
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Nis betlev.
Special Report
Media asset
management:
A primer
By David George, Jeremy Bancroft
and Andy loannou
A'though it may sometimes be
difficult for those of us with
roots in engineering to concede
it, the business of broadcasting
has much more to do with content than with technology. Business success or failure in broadcasting is
rarely decided by the choice of equipment,
but almost always by the choice of programming and the skill with which it is presented.
Likewise, the magnitude of the long-term
cost of technology pales in comparison to the
short -term investment broadcasters make in
intellectual property. The achievements of a
broadcasting venture are measured and rewarded, largely, by the skills the broadcaster
exhibits in the choice of material and the
decisions as to when and how it is displayed.
In the ever- expanding universe of alternative delivery options, the ability to gener-
ate the greatest benefit from the media
whose rights are owned or leased by the
presenter of the programming becomes
increasingly critical to success.
Media asset management holds the key
to maximizing the returns on the investments in intellectual properties broadcasters make at the core of their business. Also
referred to as asset management, or digital
asset management when the media is limited to digital platforms, it is an umbrella
term used to describe the objectives and
underlying functions for maintaining and
managing media, the assets stored on that
media, and the metadata associated with
those assets. It is more than automation,
Media asset management is increasingly a necessary newsroom utility at stations seeking to compete
in a digital world. Stations that are able to repurpose content reap economic benefits. WSB photo
courtesy Concept: Benson & Rice.
66
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
though automation plays a crucial
role in supporting operations and
play -out; it also has to do with
providing an ability to re- examine,
manipulate and re- purpose the material, whose costs are already sunk,
to maximize the return on that investment by the broadcaster.
Media -based assets are typically
audio, video, still images, text, software code, or any other substantive
"content," considered either alone or
in combination with others elements
Data about data
within the asset category. The medium upon which content is stored is
typically magnetic tape or disk, optivircal disk, or photographic film
tually any medium where the neutral
or native state of the storage device
can be altered to permit the capture
and subsequent regeneration of information substantially in its original
form.
Metadata is the associated, descriptive data related directly to the stored
content. In a sense it's the data about
-
the stored data. Examples of metadata range from contractual (rights and
permissions) and financial (costs and
value), to social (credits and language), format (aspect ratio, frame
rate, version) and play -out or processing directions (edit transitions and
color information).
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
67
Media asset
management:
A primer
Tv *, ;r;,l tar -r!
Flow
Enter data once
Move media as required
Track Media Location
Servers: On -line, Browse, Archive
Tape: Machine, Robot, Shelf
Maintain Metadata Association
Historically, content and its metadata have been related to each other by
rudimentary methods of association;
relational storage was typically very
difficult as conditions for co- mingling
the two were haphazard and limited
at best, if not physically impossible.
Traditionally, content was stored on
bulky or fragile media (video /audio
cassettes, film /acetates, etc.) and it's
associated metadata was printed on
EDITING
T: ttrve
ARCHIVE
paper and then buried in file cabinets
(or more recently, on local disk drives).
Access to those records was limited to
the few persons knowledgeable about
its whereabouts, authorized to access
it or located physically adjacent to the
material. The development of more
accessible and sophisticated databases allowed many elements of the meta data to become relational hut, more
often than not, they were limited to
single functional areas such as legal,
Typical media flow in a asset management environment. Content and associated
metadata are entered into the system only once and are kept in the managed archive
environment even after their originally intended use.
libraries to find anything of relevance. Often programmers simply
re- create the same or similar material rather than waste more time
looking for
the original
footage.
Media asset management holds the key to
In this envi-
maximizing the returns on the investments in
ronment repurposing -
intellectual properties broadcasters make at
taking existing material
and re -using
the core of their business.
it for different
programms
accounting, or programming, with
data handshaking and transfer between departmental systems limited if
at all. The migration of these departmental systems to wide area systems,
either through large common databases, or through "modular" databases glued together with sophisticated
management systems, has been a key
objective for the media industry or has
enjoyed some success.
The larger the media company, the
more difficult it is to know exactly
what is contained within its extensive
program archives. They may be extremely well catalogued, but anyone
needing reference material might have
to spend hours pulling tapes from the
68
Broadcast Engineering
or audiences
with different edits and approaches is not really practical. This could, for
example, happen within a multimedia operation where a television
soundtrack could be used for radio
transmission or offered on the Web.
Any re -use affords greater cost effectiveness by getting the optimum use
out of media and rights that already
exist.
Ease of access
Effective access to valuable media
becomes essential in this setting. In the
earlier example, access to the pictures
as well as the sound allows radio
program people to get a better 'feel for
the story so they can translate the
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
images into additional, descriptive,
and supporting words. Material for
the Web can be selected for content
and suitability. As such, media asset
management is not only about being
able to find the media and information about it, but also about providing
the type of access that will support reuse in a variety of ways.
When archives were kept on videotape, programs could he taken off the
shelf, put on or into a machine and
shuttled to quickly find what was
wanted. On the other hand, this 'old'
approach involved the time- consuming process of restoring a large amount
of data from a large archive and tying
up some form of broadcast device to
do it. Data tape, however, needs format translation and transfer to a readable format before it can even be used
in a similar way. As such, it is not as
easy go through an archive copy and
pull relevant material for re -use.
Nevertheless, as TV stations began
to reap the benefits of server -based
technology, they soon also turned their
attention to the advantages offered by
data archiving over storage on tape.
In turn, that posed other problems,
namely how to know exactly what an
archive contains, how to properly select that material and how to get the
very best use out the archive itself
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Media asset
management:
A primer
which, in the current broadcast
environment, has become
ly profitable resource?
a
potential-
you could hold in your hand and say
"here it is" has been replaced by bytes
scattered among various disk drives.
Individual elements of content are
becoming invisible, raising the questions," where is it," and, "is it really
there ?" The translation of content to
data significantly increases the need
for a sophisticated, risk -averting, enterprise -wide management system to
offset the loss of visceral, if not phys-
Seeing what you have
Iraditi ono Ily, broad-
tain. Suppliers of media asset management software provide browsing
online with a range of browsers, including Internet versions that use the
same sort of technology that everyday people use to watch everything
from news bulletins to movie trailers
on the Web. The Internet permits
browsing of material off -site as well
as on, and access to the wide- ranging
archives of the media enterprise all
over the globe.
casting organizations
kept archives and online
media within the station
itself and if someone
wanted to see something
that was stored that way
- in order to make editorial decisions on the media or for research purposes - they requested a
VHS copy. Copies of the
relevant material were
made and taken away
for viewing. Later, a request would be made for
selected material or a se-
Asset
gement
pmIications
I
Internet
Search
engines
Party
cations
Ad
A
Essentially, program
browser users use similar technology to obtain access to media
online. The same types
of encryption, coding,
viewing capability and
database technology
are utilized, though in
a friendlier format that
permits operators to
view material virtually
instantaneously,
rather than having to
wait several minutes
for a few frames to
download, as is com-
of shots, and much
mon on the Web. But
later the material would An overview of a typical media asset management architecture. After
there's little radical or
eventually be assembled the initial encoding process, content resides in a networked server
cutting edge about it;
array, allowing users to browse among like clips without wading
it's established, secure
and presented. This can
a library of tapes. Digitized clips can also be made available
- and did - take weeks through
and in -use millions of
for Internet users and third -party content consumers.
and any large -scale attimes a day throughtempt at practical re -purout the world. Media
posing was significantly frustrated.
ical, control over content. The implebrowsers just harness it for proIt's much easier if the programmer
mentation of a media asset manage- grammers to use in a more profesknows exactly what lies in the archive
ment system presents an opportunity
sional and more efficient manner.
before a search begins. Without that, to solve both the content/metadata
The underlying belief is that if you
gaining commercial - as well as edi- relationship issue and the "what do can give people adequate access to
tonal - advantage from the archive is we have and where is it" issue so the online media without jeoparrestricted not only by the
dizing other online ac-out
of
drawn
process
activities in the facility, you
cessing it, but also by findshould do that. HowevThe loss of the content as a tangible,
ing somewhere suitable to
er, the browser should be
sufficiently competent to
view it efficiently.
physical asset - the cassette containing a
he a primary rather than
The development of high hold
in
your
hand
program
that
you
could
bandwidth computer ina secondary operational
frastructure complementoption.
and say "here it is" has been replaced by
To support that aped by large capacity disk
proach, the browse constorage has encouraged
bytes scattered among various disk drives.
troller should be capable
the migration of content
of showing people a
to digital platforms. In the
case of content, more acute than with
critical to making the most fiscally broadcast -quality version of the media, if there are devices that are
the metadata consolidation, this evoefficient use of the media asset.
lution also comes with a significant
Developing a competent browse ca- available and that have the media
"emotional" cost: The loss of the con- pability is key to accessing large online. If you can provide a researchtent as a tangible, physical asset - the media
archives and making er with access to a broadcast server
cassette containing a program that
intelligent use of the assets they con- that doesn't tie -up scarce resources
ries
70
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Media asset
management:
A primer
Browse Main Screen (GAMMA Browse)
needed for other purposes then the
choice should be to do it. Resorting to
a lesser, but still very respectable,
browse- quality would take place if
the media is no longer online on the
server, or if there were no suitable
server facilities immediately available for browsing.
Utilizing a browse quality with a
data rate in the order 1.5Mb /s, MPEGencoded and allowing 30 frames a
second, frame -accurate play -out, including timecode, provides more than
adequate spatial and temporal quality and allows programmers to make
editorial and qualitative decisions on
the material. While it is not possible to
stream 1.5Mb/s video across a network -between London and New York,
for example - that can be reduced to
something like the Real Video technology, where it will encode material
at any rate from 20 to 100Kb/s. The
Aforeign correspondent
in Los
Angeles, for
example, can view the
contents of the news
archive in New Delhi and
select a shot for the story
he or she is compiling.
spatial quality is obviously reduced
and frames can he dropped, but one
can easily browse the media and make
content decisions before ordering a
broadcast version of the clip, also
electronically and automatically. All
this browse capability can be incorporated within a newsroom or a desktop
system.
Server-based operations soon came
to appreciate the need to view online
material. Those that recognized the
advantage introduced the bandwidth
to allow many people simultaneous
72
Broadcast Engineering
A
system's browser interface allows users to select from a readily accessible palette
a managed asset environment: readily accessible
of content clips. This is the heart of
content at the user's fingertips.
LAN -based
control capability of the automation
browse technology. However, that, by
itself, did not fulfil the demands of a
mass market and wider audience. The
next step was to find the Internet
equivalent of obtaining a VHS copy.
Widespread Internet accessibility facilitates a process by which content
providers grant access to their online
and archive material. For example, a
foreign correspondent in Los Angeles,
for example, can view the contents of
the news archive in New Delhi and
select a shot for the story he or she is
compiling. A request across the Internet causes that material to be played
out of a server, de- archived and made
available for play -out, automatically
recorded on tape, or transferred a
designated Internet site.
Servers, however, do not traditionally
store the "heads and tails" of the media
clip. In a tape -world, those tend to
include a clock and identification to tell
you what the material is, and include
bars and tone references. This information has to he restored before the material returns to the linear tape environment at the other end. Using metadata,
a system can accomplish this as part of
its resource management operation in
order to produce a complete package
from the raw material.
Likewise, the machine and device
of the media asset management
package deals with activating the systems and services necessary to implement the program and re-purposing
decisions that have been made, taking
into account, also, the dictates of the
operation's program, sales and traffic
systems. In this fashion, the whole
process of generating, re- purposing
and presenting programming is incorporated into one integrated system
that permits, controls and tracks the
media assets, their manipulation and
their effective use.
The implementation of media asset
management is a key component in
the continued evolution of broadcast
operators as they strive to make the
most of their investment in intellectual property, reduce overhead expense
and shrink the incremental cost of
providing new program offerings. The
access to the server via
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
side
widespread digitization of entertainment media both demands and permits media asset management be considered a basic operating tool of the
twenty -first century.
David George is a director and senior consultant with IMMAD ECVS, and past president
of the SMPTE; Jerenvy Bancroft is president of
OmniBus Systems Inc; Andy loannou is trice
president of OmniBns Systems Inc.
A -Head Of The Pack.
Photo courtesy Jim Jabara. Our Small Planet Productions.
The Vision 100 being used in a wildlife documentary shot in Sri Lanka.
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Circle (143) on Free Info Card
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Systems Design & Integration
Transmission & Distribution
When the lights go out
BY DON MARKLEY
There is one truth that must he
observed by all of us. Regardless
of how well we maintain or operate
our systems, we still depend mainly
on wires coming into the site to keep
us in operation. With very few exceptions, stations don't make their own
power in the U.S. When the big ice or
windstorm hits, the station goes off the
air. The only way to prevent this is to
provide for backup power.
Generators and UPS
Iraditirmalh, generators have been
the sole source of backup power for
large broadcast facilities. This is still
essentially true, although the use of
uninterruptable power supplies (UPS)
is growing rapidly. The ideal situation is a combination of the two. At a
minimum, such items as the microwave system and remote control equipment should he on a UPS. That equip-
ment draws relatively low power and
can he supplied by the type of UPS
systems available from local electronics dealers. The PC revolution has
made such equipment widely available at very low prices. The use of a
UPS here will keep the control circuits
and program source operating smoothly even during short -term power interruptions. In addition, the UPS acts as
a line filter; assuring that the equipment receives a clean, filtered source
of power at a constant voltage.
Going one giant step further, UPS
systems are now available which will
easily handle a large transmitter facility. Transmitters of 220kW or more
are on UPS systems along with the
associated heating and air conditioning systems, tower lights, terminal
equipment and building needs. This
assures no transients to the equipment, no brown outs and constant
FRAME GRAB
A look at the consumer side of DTV.
Digital recorder's are headed to cable boxes
1
2000
34%
11%
DVR
DVSDVR
CABLE
DVR
10
20
30
40
50
2000
2003
TOTAL UNIT SALES
SOURCE: Yankee Group
76
Broadcast Engineering
easily handled by
a UPS
system.
If the
power is down for more than a minute
and the recycling seems not to be
solving the problem, one of two things
needs to occur: either shut the transmitter off or start up a generator. A
good UPS will easily keep the facility
on line while the generator starts and
the load is transferred from the main
service. Before the scream is raised,
yes, a UPS will handle the instantaneous high-current demand for a crowbar trip in the case of a transmitter
fault. According to the manufacturers, their normal protective circuit
adjustments would shut things down.
However, as experience has been
gained with klystron type transmitters, they have been able to adjust the
DVRs headed for explosive growth
STANDALONE
supply voltage for a short period of
time. Theoretically, the UPS system
could provide power for as long as is
required, limited only by the number
of batteries that are purchased. For
practical purposes, it is adequate if the
UPS maintains the system for two or
three minutes of operation.
Most power failures are very momentary in nature. Lightning strikes a
line, a circuit breaker trips at a substation, and everything goes dark. At
that point the circuit breaker resets
and the lights come hack on - and
maybe it repeats. That is the life cycle
of most power failures and that is
exactly the type of situation that is
I
www.yankeegroup.com
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
protective circuits to permit crowbar
trips without melting down the UPS.
Furthermore, modern UPS systems will
easily handle the short -term high current draw that occurs as transmitters,
motors, etc. are initially energized.
So, everything is great for a minute
or two. The next step is to take care
of the rest of the day or week. A
majority of stations will need to work
with a good electrical designer and
contractor to select the right standby
Our experience
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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system and install it correctly. One
nice thing about using a UPS in asso-
ciation with a generator is that it
takes away all of the hurry about
getting the system on line. In some
very large data -handling systems and
in many medical applications, the
generator must be up almost immediately. In other applications where
synchronous motors are in the sys
tem, the switching between systems
must either be done very carefully or
after the motors have come to a stop.
Otherwise, massive destruction can
occur. Such requirements don't occur
in broadcast facilities with a UPS. A
delay of a minute or so can be built
into the system before the generator
starts to eliminate responding to rel-
atively short -term outages. Then,
when the generator comes up to speed,
a standard transfer switch can make
the switchover with no unusual requirements. Again, work with an experienced designer in setting up the
transfer switch equipment.
Fuel for the long term
The big question in determining
the type of generator to use is the
fuel source. Basically, the available fuels are gasoline, diesel, LPG
and natural gas. Gasoline has an
obvious major problem. It tends to
blow up when leaks occur, so lets
rule it out at the beginning. LPG
and natural gas are wonderful except that they cause significantly
tll,11'/AK ti7
4111,
Fuel storage systems need to be installed
in accordance with local regulations.
These regulations vary, so check with
local authorities and consultants to de-
termine compliance.
higher cost for the generator itself.
(In this instance, significantly means
a whole bunch.) That leaves diesel
fuel, which has problems of its own.
Primarily, bugs grow in diesel fuel
mean, nasty and tough bugs to
be sure to be ab e to survive in that
stuff. They form
all
sorts of
growths inside
the tank causing
-
to the point where
the
generator
shuts down and
the tank must be
opened
cleaned
`d Best
Power
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YOUR BROADCAST
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and
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There are chemicals that can be
added to prevent
the growth of such
fungi but some
steps should still
be taken to rotate the fuel stock.
The
simplest
thing to do is run
the generator oc-
casionally.
One manufac-
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turer of generators
suggests that the
fuel be totally cycled at least every two years.
This shouldn't be
Circle (146) on Free Into Card
78
Broadcast Engineering
station maintains a two -day supply of
fuel, the generator only needs to be
operated two hours per month to cycle
through the fuel in the two year period. In reality, the system probably
should be run more than that to keep
it in good order. At least once a month,
preferably more often, the system
should be started and run under load
for some time. This is good for the
engine and ensures that the overall
system will operate properly when
needed. Of course, Murphy's law states
that
on that terrible day when the
system is needed
the starter switch
will break.
Now as to what to do with all of that
fuel. This will be greatly influenced
by what the state and local regulations may be at each given site. In
some cases, it will be possible to have
an above ground storage tank (with
an ice shield please). In others, a
buried tank will be needed in which
case some monitoring will probably
be needed to meet EPA requirements.
Again, this is best worked out with
your local designer and contractor
who will be familiar with the local
restrictions. Oh yes, one more little
thing. Put a good residential type
muffler on the generator. If you think
that the neighbors are upset about
your strobe lights, just wait until you
fire up that 500kW generator and
dump it through a three -inch straight
pipe pointed toward the nearest housing area.
One more suggestion: Check with
the local power company to see if
some load sharing is possible in your
area. In some parts of the country, the
power company will participate in
the purchase and installation of a
generator if they can put it on line
during periods of very high power
demand. This can even reach the
point of having the generator paid for
by the utility in reduced demand
charges, etc. The result can be the
installation of a good standby power
system at no actual cost to the station. The suits will love you
they
like free things.
-
fuel filters to clog
1
a major problem. For example, if the
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
-
Don Markley is president of D.L. Markley and
Associates, Peoria, IL.
Send questions and comments to:
don_markley @ intertec. com
No problem.
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Circle (138) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Production Clips
Effects and graphics: Merging of the terms
BY PAUL BLACK
In the early days of television, it was
easy to define the difference between a graphic and an effect. The
line between these had specific boundaries due as much to the technology
available at the time as to the terminology adopted by the industry.
Graphics were pictures created from
other than "live" shots, such as hand drawn artwork that was shot with a
camera under a key light. Because
television pictures look better when
the images are moving, techniques to
create movement and action evolved
early on. Tricks such as shooting a
rear -projection screen with a camera
or using two slide projectors to dissolve between different images sound
crude today, but they were once considered state-of -the -art. These methods satisfied the most important need:
to provide some action to keep the
viewer interested in the program.
Effects were those methods used to
alter a natural picture's look by electronic means. Early switchers had
keying capability, which allowed titling and other word -related inserts.
positioning a picture. Visually attractive techniques remained in general
use. Distractive effects, such as certain "wavy" border effects around
keys, fell into disuse.
Evolving technology ultimately
time passed, the
differences between these two terms
began to blur.
The arrival of the inexpensive computer blurred those differences even
further. By necessity, a computer out-
When considering purchasing graphics systems, production facilities, such as
Bavaria Production Services in Munich. Germany, should carefully consider processing speed, ease of maintenance and interoperabilty. Photo courtesy of Chyron.
caused the industry to come to a new
realization about how the two terms
The editor, producer, director or other
professional faces the challenge of choosing
the right hardware and software. So much
capability is available, from so many
manufacturers, under so may different
platforms, that obtaining the correct gear can
be a serious problem.
Higher -end switchers contained built in effects generators that had certain
predictable features, such as dissolves,
split- screens, subject spotlighting or
graphics and effects are intertwined.
To put a graphic on the air requires
use of a video effect. Conversely, many
effects require some form of graphic
80
February 2000
Broadcast Engineering
as the subject. As
puts video. The jump from using the
video to merely monitor the computer's functions to using the computer to
create images by means of its video
capabilities was rapid. Today, the
term graphics usually means computer-generated graphics. Other methods
of rendering graphics gradually became obsolete.
In addition to being used as a creative tool, the computer also started to
be used extensively as the executive
tool. It would execute the effect by
controlling the switcher or character
generator's ability to do the keying,
place the background, move the box,
etc. In other words, the computer was
now doing both the effects as well as
the graphics. This last capability truly
blurred the line between graphics and
effects. Now a single machine did all
the work or at least controlled the
machines that did the work.
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The TCR8 recorder is positioned for the demands of today's taping, post -production, and sports play -out.
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For more
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(8181991 -0360
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360 Systems. DigiCart. TCR. TCR8. TCRI and the 360 Systems logo are trademarks of 360 Systems 'Suggested U.S. retail
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wew.360slstems.com
Today, most manufacturers have
dealt with defining the two terms by
simply ignoring any difference. Many
modern systems are touted as having
"graphics and effects capability." An
M/E (mix- effects) bus in a switcher
may very well take all its data from a
computer -controlled device. Many stations use a PC to collect data, output
this data to a character generator, and
tell the CG when to key in the data on
the air. Some CGs can not be used
without a PC connected to them.
This can be very helpful to the production specialist working to create
elements. Now, thanks to the capabilities of these machines, the creation
and execution can be done much faster and easier. When time is tight, a
faster machine can mean the difference between getting a graphic on the
air or not getting it there at all.
However, the editor, producer, director or other professional faces the
challenge of choosing the right hardware and software. So much capability is available, from so many manufacturers, under so may different
RGB- Video,
platforms, that obtaining the correct
gear can be a serious problem. There
are myriad opportunities but where
should you start? The answer lies in
taking the time to define the needs you
have within your facility. Some of the
major points to consider are:
Speed: Are you always creating
new material minutes before a show,
or do you operate in a less frantic
environment? If speed is important,
then you need fast computers, short
operational steps (such as one -key
macros to move things around quickly) and lots of memory to store many
things.
Quality: You may not need that
$100,000 system if you are working in
a non -digital, NTSC -based composite
video environment, and using the system mostly for simple key -ins, box
inserts, etc. But if you're producing
expensive promotional material or
commercials for exacting clients, then
the state -of- the -art, high -resolution,
digital products may make the difference between keeping or losing a
client.
Maintenance: Some manufacturers make their products such that only
they can provide spare parts. That
disk drive from the CG may look the
same as the one at the local computer
outlet, but it might not work due to
any number of subtle differences. The
more economical systems use off-theshelf parts, which can greatly reduce
maintenance costs as the system ages.
Interoperability: Will the system
output files or data that can be used by
other, similar systems or products?
Will it network into, say, a 100BaseT
system? More importantly, does the
manufacturer encourage and support
third -party software? This can he an
important source of improved performance and capability.
No single product will do everything.
To ensure you get the right equipment,
define your needs, study the available
products, create a budget. Then, once
you are certain you are on the right
track, go shopping.
Paul Black is an engineering supervisor for
KPIX -TV, San Francisco.
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Circle (140) on Free Info Card
82
Broadcast Engineering
San Diego, CA 92121
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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for: Radar,
h. ;th speed. error -free data communication
Lie-Code Encryption, D4 channel -Bank & Military
8nd links. Available in stand alone unit or interface
c.ird for 19" rack mount chassis.
The Opticomm Models DS- 150 /XXX Mini Modem series
family are designed to link data communication equipment through fiber optic multimode and single mode.
T1 & E1 AMI /B8ZS
DS- 150í1-1 /E2
EIA -422A, 530 Full Duplex
DS- 150/422
DS- 150/232
EIA -232C & V.35 CCITT
TTL Control Contact Level
DS- 150/TTL
Tri -State RS -485 Link
DS- 150/485
DS- 100/TR
Ethernet F/0 Transceiver
Multi -drop system
DS -120DR
T
Los Angeles Traffic Transportation System
Circle (141) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Models DMX- 781 /Micro is a full duplex fiber optic
link capable of transmitting between 4/8 channels of
Async, Sync RS- 232/422 W /O, full duplex voice, or
Dry Contact Closure at a rate of up to 38.4Kb/s per
channel. Data order comes in bank of four channel.
One Bi- Directional Voice channel takes the place of 4
Data channels. Modules are flexible, easy to upgrade.
Available in Multimode 865nm & Single Mode
1310nm. All unit cable versions require a 12 VDC PS.
DMX -781 comes stand alone or in CC -10 19" rack.
CCTV Video Mini/Micro/Std
Composite & Mono /Sync Link
The Opticomm MMV -110 Mini or Micro or standard
consist of 15 Mhz video bandwidth. The MMV -110
Micro is the smallest fiber optic video module able to
transmit a computer-generated signal. These units can
also transmit camera video signals that comply with
RS -170, RS -170A standards. The MMV-110 is the latest in fiber optic design for short distances. Product
using IM technique with AGC mode. MMV -110 support
external TTL/Sync. A RGB color graphics system can
be fully supported by combining three links.
The advantage
of digital
technology
New features and
better performance
Internet
and the future
of editing
86
MPEG Encoding
92
The Super Bowl in HD
98
HDTV, The
addition to keeping their SD skills honed, editors at the Creative Group,
New York, have been steadily gaining experience on the HD front. The room
shown above features a Sony HDS 7000 switcher and BVE 9100 editor, as
well as a Pluto HyperSpace and a Chyron Duet. Photo by Concept: Benson
& Rice. courtesy of Sony.
In
4
Broadcast Engineering
Februar; 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
February 2000 M
Broadca
ometimes engineers are accused of
not understanding the creative
process or those with "talent." This
dispositional thinking occasionally
leads the technical staff to insufficiently consider the needs of those
charged with creating and editing
the very content that we transmit. In other
k
words, we sometimes end up building too much
capability into rooms, which wastes time and
money, or even worse, don't build in enough
capability, which limits creativity. Both
mistakes eventually translate to the bottom
line, and that affects everyone.
To help bridge this potential communication
gap, Broadcast Engineering asked Richard
Cormier, managing director of Riot, a high -tïnd
editing facility, to preview the future of
for us technical types. The goal is to
understand where editing technology is oñg
and what functionality editors may require as
the demands for more content increase. With
change on the horizon, should you build for HD
or plan on working in DV and consumer
formats? Is linear dead?
The answers aren't obvious, but with some
careful planning, technical managers can
ensure they are building rooms and suites that
meet both today's SD needs but still provide the
capability to support other formats when
business and technology require it.
Finally, the author notes that as editing
technology continues to evolve, editors will
become increasingly dependent upon "skilled
engineering staffs." Now that sounds like an
opportunity to me.
r
Brad Dick, editor
86
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
By Richard Cormier
Biting is editing. From the beginning
of film production a century ago, through the
p sent day and into the future, the skills required to assemble images have been, are and
.. ill be essentially the same. You have to know
..'here to put a cut and where to put a dissolve.
Yet at the same time, the editor works in an
industry where rapid change is the norm, an
in ustry where new tools and technologies are
et tinually being introduced, where the media
the editor works with and the methods used to
distribute that media are in an almost constant
state of flux.
TFfeCreative Group, New York, uses new digital
technology to provide clients with the latest in
performance enhancements and benefits. This
production control room is features a Sony HDS
7000 production switcher and BE 9100 editor,
supported by a Pluto HyperSpace video server
and a Chyron Duet. Photo by Concept: Benson
& Rice, courtesy of Sony.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
87
Nonlinear editing capabilities at Texas Cable News, Dallas, include Sony DNE-1000 editors networked to a central server system.
This kind of arrangement allows non -technical staff to edit the news content they are producing. Photo courtesy Concept: Benson
& Rice.
Today, the editor's world is changing faster than ever. The advent of
HDTV marks a fundamental change
in the way editors prepare media for
broadcast. The emergence of new
distribution channels, including the
Internet,
is
creating additional out-
lets for the editor's work. Highspeed networks promise to dramatically alter the way editors work
with their clients and colleagues.
The potential of interactive media
may even change the way editors
tell stories.
ization costs for post houses, but it is
unlikely that HDTV will cause a
major revolution in editing equipment. Manufacturers of HDTV
equipment have done a good job in
replicating the SD workflow so that,
in terms of the editing process, the
impact of the transition is low. For
long -form programming, the linear
Some may contend that
today's editors lack
Where is technology going?
Today, the most highly anticipated event for editors working in
broadcast media is the long- delayed
depth, but that is not true.
arrival of HDTV. From the perspective of editors, HDTV will have
little impact on the way they assemble imagery
it will still be
cuts and dissolves, but HDTV rais-
bay is likely to survive for a long
time; there is no reason for it to
disappear. Platform -based tools will
continue to dominate in commercial editing, although they will become more open. The biggest change
will involve the convergence of computers and the Internet. Editors, for
example, will have access via the
-
several key issues that have an
enormous impact on the periphery
of the editor's role.
HDTV mandates huge recapitales
88
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Internet to an enormous variety of
plug -ins. These new tools will be
available quite cheaply.
The biggest issues in HDTV will
be the existence of multiple formats
and the growing need for version ing. Prior to editing a show, it will
be necessary to determine if it is
going to be 1080i, 720p or some
other HDTV variation. The existence of both interlaced and progressive formats may mean editing
twice, doubling the workload. This
is a very important consideration
as the cost is significant. Editors
will also have to consider aspect
ratio. Will it be 4:3 or 16:9? The
choice impacts how the image is
positioned as well as the placement
of animation and graphics. Version ing will involve similarly complex
choices. When posting television commercials in the future, editors may
have to provide an HDTV version,
an SD version and an MPEG- encoded version for the Internet.
Multiple formats and versions will
have little effect on how editors go
about their work. However, those
is,ues will make it all the more
important for editors to be associated with a large organization, one
with strengths in all aspects of post
pi oduction. Editors will become inci.nsingly dependent upon skilled
ei gineering staffs, duplication speci ilists, compressionists and a multi:aceted technical infrastructure to
st.pport their clients' needs. If a
pi oducer asks for a 16:9 version, an
SD version and an Internet version,
editor will need to be able to
ft fill those requests quickly and
a.:urately. The breadth of resources required will only he available
though full -service post- production
facilities.
Not having these services readily
at ailable will limit the market an
et tor can serve. The ability to compress video and compress it well will
h, as important in the future as it is
a duplication facility to
la ow how to make copies that conform to broadcast specs. An editor
th it cannot provide this expertise will,
today for
therefore, find it difficult to work in
broadcast. The future, like the present,
will be all about support and value added services.
There will be good stuff,
bad stuff and crazy
stuff, but all of it will
have to be edited in
some form or another.
New tools for new programs
Along with HDTV, the other major
development to affect editing will
of new distribution channels, including Internet and
be the emergence
server -based mechanisms. The de-
mand to fill those pipes will be
so big, that it will lead
enormous
to the birth of a new industry. The
-
harriers to entry for this type of low res production will be virtually nonexistent, allowing many new players to emerge.
A lot of the content these new
producers create will be reminiscent of the movie "Wayne's World."
Someone hoping to become a superstar will buy a couple of cameras,
shoot a show, edit it, encode it and
put it on a server. There will be
good stuff, bad stuff and crazy stuff,
but all of it will have to he edited in
some forni or another. It won't, however, be edited in a high -end post
house or editorial boutique; it wi!I
be edited by the producers themselves on Pentium Ills.
Because the tools will be cheap
and widely available, it will give
rise to editors who will not come up
through the usual path of apprenticing at a post house. And, these peo-
will be focused totally on creativity. They will be less concerned
with technical specs because there is
no such thing as technical specs on
the Internet. As long as the material
ple
Because of the increasingly user -friendly nature of production equipment, the editor's learning curve is shortening drastically
in Dlaces like Image Group Post, where equipment like Sony DVS -7250 digital switchers, DME -7000 digital multi- effects systems
ar i Chyron's MAX' are in regular use. Photo by Benjamin Luzon. courtesy of Sony.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
89
can be encoded, it can be "broadcast." The tools will be very easy to
use, they will be available at Radio
Shack and they will work on a desktop computer. People will spend $300
on software and go for it.
High -end facilities may end up
supporting a portion of this market
as a service bureau.
Producers will still require special gear or
expensive equipment
that they won't want
to buy. Producers will
come to post houses to
have the resolution of
their material lowered
for the Internet or to
have versions made for
a variety of different
media.
Networked
environments
The Internet will also
make it possible for
achieved when people are in the
same room.
The facility environment offers
other, irreplaceable benefits to editors. It provides an environment
for training, a place where artists
are exposed to one another and
have the technical infrastructure to
will disappear in
few years. Yet,
there are some very talented people
working in linear bays. They know
where a cut goes. They know where
a dissolve goes. They know editing.
What they need to do is simply to
move to the next platform. In fact,
they will need to be able to do so
consistently. It may be
difficult to master five
or six systems, but to
be confined to one is
no longer tenable. It
limits an editor's caa
pability and career
potential because it is
impossible to predict
where tomorrow's software will come from.
Fortunately, tomorrow's tools will make
it far easier to make
this transition. AlAs seen on the cover, this edit suite at Riot. Santa Monica, includes Sony
HD 24- frame, progressive. HDCAM equipment and HD monitors, as well
as Panasonic HD5 and a G4 Macintosh computer.
ready tools have begun to appear with truly user -friendly interfaces. They do not require a long learning
editors to collaborate
in new ways. Already
high -speed networking systems al- support their work. There is great curve. In addition, a degree of consislow clients and artists to go beyond value in having a mass of artists in tency has begun to develop in how these
physical boundaries and work to- one place where they can interact, tools function. Will editing tools evengether without being together. Edi- share ideas and experiment togeth- tually be as uniform as Microsoft Oftors and clients can exchange ideas er. Large facilities are and will fice? No, that is impossible because the
and comments from a continent continue to be a must in order to tools come from all directions. But it is
away. One day, edilikely that further stantors may be able to
dardization will occur.
work from home while
Vendors will be obliged
tapping into the reto satisfy the user's strong
Editors will become increasingly depen dent
sources of a full -serdesire for a uniform invice post house.
terface because it will be
upon skilled engineering staffs.
Although the technolthe only way to sell their
ogies that make reproducts.
mote collaboration
Tools that are easier
possible are important,
to use are a boon for
useful and good, their value is lim- consistently push the envelope, cre- editors. When I became an editor,
ited. There will be a continuing atively and technically.
the learning curve was tremendous.
need for the editor and client to
Flexibility and adaptability will It took years to learn video signals,
work together under one roof. Work- be key qualities for editors in the how to read the scopes, how to use
ing from home may provide editors future. Editors will need the ability complex VTRs and switchers. Now,
with some flexibility, but it prevents to quickly acquire new skills and the learning curve is six weeks, a
them from fully engaging in the become proficient in new platforms month, a weekend. As a result,
creative process. Because of this, and new software. Editors will no today's editors have less backmost work will continue to be done longer be tagged a Flame artist or a ground than editors typically had
in an environment that brings peo- Henry artist -such confining labels
in the past. Some may contend that
ple together, and provides for inter- will not make sense. They will sim- today's editors lack depth, but that
action between the client and the ply be artists.
is not true. They are the MTV
artist. People need to be able to sit
generation. They learn quickly.
down and talk to each other. Col- New editing tools
Give them a new piece of machinlaborative work can be done reIn the commercial industry, it is ery and within minutes or hours
motely, but the best results will be very likely that the linear edit bay they get it.
90
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
E
E
lit
Z at American Production Services it Seattle offers a Sony BVE -9100 edit controller, an HDVS -7000 video switcher, and an
DME -7000 video effects system with a Chyron Duet handling CG duties. This kind equipment offers users features previously
-,fen only on wish lists. Photo by Concept: Benson & Rice.
became an editor, I had to
plete and makes sense if it is com- opportunity. The challenges will inthrough a lot of pain in order to piled in a totally nonlinear format. clude mastering the intricacies of
Until the product is fully authored, formats and versions, acquiring new
} ut my creative thoughts onto tape.
I
had to worry about thousands of the editor may have little clue as to skills and providing additional valnes of timecode. I had to worry
how it holds up. The editor may ue -added services to clients. The
have 50 minutes of images or a opportunities will come in the form
a )out syncing 20 machines. I was
of new markets to sertarrying a ton of baggage
vice and tools that exevery step of the way. It
very
be
tend and facilitate the edas
difficult to
creAtr
uly
revolutionary
change
in
the
editor's
a -ive at the same time. Toitor's job. What will not
t ty's editors don't have that
change is the paramount
'orkwill occur if and when interactive
I. arden and that is a good
importance of creativity
programming becomes a reality.
in editing. The talent for
t ring.
When
I
I
A
truly revolutionary
change in the editor's work
c ill occur if and when int.ractive programming becomes
assembling sound and
images in a meaningful
a
r.ality. Interactive storytelling could
h.' a mystifying, and perhaps con t
sing, medium for editors used to
e.liting and viewing material comrosed in a linear format. It will he
difficult to say if something is corn-
of sequences, but how can he
make sense of it, tell if it is well
packaged or determine if it tells a
story? It could he pretty disturbing
for the editor.
The future, then, for editing will
be a time of both challenge and
series
way will remain an editor's most valuable asset.
Richard Cormier is senior rice president /managing director at Riot in Santa Monica, CA.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
91
LjI
CZ
.-
In MI
El
.
IPI
r.
®
In today's largely digital world, the demand for useful metho of
transmitting, storing and manipulating digital data has greatly
increased. For broadcast and professional video users, included in
that digital data are large amounts of video and associated audio.
These large amounts of data, combined with the need for high -speed
transmissions, have led to the use of compression as a cost-effective
solution. Many, including early HDTV adopters, have already had
experience with compression encoding and decoding for RF transmission of digital data. Among other things, HDTV has introduced
a requirement of substantially increased data throughput.
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
Re IN
111
® ®
With the proliferation of cmputer -based systems,
MPEG has found its way i o a variety of broadcast
and production applicatio
Photo of S+ Studio E
courtesy of IMMAD.
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
93
MPEG encoding
Level
Max. sampling
Because
can be
Max. bitrate
Application
Low
352 x 240 x 30
4 Mb/s
CIF, consumer
Main
720 x 480 x 30
15 Mb/s
CCIR 601,
High
1440x1152x30
60 Mb/s
4 x 601, consumer HD
High
1920x1080x30
80 Mb/s
production SMPTE 240
Profile
Simple
studio TV
Comments
Same as Main, B- frames. Intended for software
applications.
Main
Most decoder chips, no cable, satellite
Main+
Main with spatial and SNR scalability
Next
Main+ with 4:2:2 macro blocks
Figure 1. The various profiles and levels of MPEG -2 define pixel counts, bandwidths
and sampling structures.
Creating digital data through the
standard methods of sampling analog information and digitizing it
creates a problem; more bandwidth
is needed to accommodate the digitized data than was needed for the
analog information. Existing transmission bandwidths do not easily
accommodate the higher data rates
needed for transmitting higher quality or high -definition television.
Over -the -air television is still limited to 6MHz, and STL systems, along
with other microwave channel bandwidths, remain unchanged. So while
the need to transmit digital data has
increased, the available pipes remain the same. For many, the answer is compression.
Bit -rate reduction
The term compression actually describes what data specialists would
call hit rate reduction, or BRR. To
make the digitized data useable (so
it can be efficiently stored and transported), the bit rate is reduced. Today's compression standards and
implementations have allowed a variety of practical applications in
94
Broadcast Engineering
professional and consumer devices.
These devices include video servers, digital VTRs, and nonlinear
editing systems to name but a few.
Compression schemes work because video tends to have considerable redundancy and the human visual system has limitations, especially in its ability to interpret motion. Were it not for the latter, even
analog video and film reproduction
wouldn't produce the illusion of moving pictures. When encoding (compressing) a series of images, the task
becomes a tradeoff between image
quality, bit rate, and the time it
takes to do the encoding.
Currently, the BRR scheme of choice
for the entertainment industry, television broadcasting, and computer
applications is MPEG, named after
the Moving Picture Experts Group
that developed it. Properly, this is
called ISO /IEC Standard #11172.
MPEG differs from many standards
in that it mainly defines bit streams
and the way in which they are decoded back into video and audio.
Specific algorithms are not defined,
nor are specific encoding methods.
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
of this, encoding methods
improved over time, and
manufacturers have a way to differentiate their products. The only real
specification for MPEG streams is
that they are decodable using the
appropriate MPEG decoder.
Of the various MPEG standards,
MPEG -2 is of the most interest to
broadcasters, mainly due to its ability to accommodate the wide range
of quality and bit -rate requirements
that exist. Although other compression methods are available, MPEG2 has the universality that is needed
to allow the encoded transmission
(or storage) and decoded recovery
of video and audio to meet the requirements for SDTV, HDTV, production, and editing environments.
MPEG standards define characteristics common to many compression schemes. Among these are intraframe and interframe compression. Intraframe compression is basically a JPEG -type compression,
where all of the information is based
on a single frame. Intraframe -only
compression is used for many editing applications and results in a
limited amount of compression. To
increase the amount of compression, interframe compression modes
(those that span more than one
frame) are used.
Interframe compression takes advantage of the redundancy found
through a series of frames. Within
MPEG, the series of frames is called
a group of pictures or GOP. GOP
sizes can vary; the longer the GOP,
the more a signal can typically be
compressed. In addition to the I
( intraframe) -frames, B and P frames
are used in the GOP. These frames
consist of data that, when properly
decoded, translate to pictures viewable by humans.
The I frame is the primary self reference; it contains information to
build a complete picture. Information from the I frame is used to
reconstruct the subsequent P and B
frames. The P frame is based mainly
on forward motion estimation and
compensation, while the B frame is
based on bi- directional compensation information.
The toolkit approach
The first iteration of the MPEG
standard, MPEG -1, was a big step
forward for compression technology. It has been described as a toolkit
approach, as opposed to the strict,
regimented approach most standards
demand. However, within the
MPEG -1 standard, there exist some
constraints, including only one sampling structure (4:2:0), a maximum
picture size of 720 pixels by 576
lines, capability of only 30 pictures
per second (these are frames only,
interlaced fields are not supported),
aid a constrained bit rate on the
order of 1.85Mb /s.
MPEG -2 corrects these difficulties in several ways. Other sampling structures are included (including 4:4:4 for very high quality). Both progressive and interlaced
scanning are added, which allows
n otion prediction based on an ana og frame, or combinations of interlaced fields that create a frame.
( oncealment techniques not available in MPEG -1 can be included in
ÌsIPEG -2, with the drawback of adding to the overhead (which manifests itself in longer delays). Meta-
A
Edited NTSC or CCIR 601
Video /Audio Out
"RAW"
NTSC
or
CCIR
601
Video /Audio
Source
Non -Linear
Editor
(Real -Time
Acquisition
and Output)
To VTR
Recorder or
-0. Other
Routing
System
Edited MPEG -2
Data Stream
Audio and Video
3 -4 x
Play
Speed
"RAW"
MPEG -2
Data Stream
(AudioNideo) Source
Non- Linear
Editor
(Rapid
Acquisition
Time)
To Server
or Other
Destination
3 -4 x Play
Speed
Output
Figures 2A and B. Depending on the technology used,
nonlinear editing systems may be capable of inputting/
outputting footage in a compressed manner at (a) material might need to be loaded at real time or possibly
even slower or (b) faster than real time.
data is also allowable within
MPEG -2. In storage and retrieval,
it can be critical to proper opera tion. Transmission methods are less
n liant on this information, howevei. there may be some application
for it within receivers.
Interestingly enough, MPEG -1 is actually a subset of MPEG -2, as MPEG 2 standards were designed to include
the MPEG -1 toolkit. This may sound
illogical, but there is a good reason for
it it allows MPEG -1 to be decoded by
MIPEG -2 compliant decoders. MPEG 1 s therefore not made obsolete by its
own extension.
As it is a toolkit approach, MPEG 2 has another interesting aspect to
it It is a layered data standard. The
v:.rious layers are defined as pro fi es and levels (see Figure 1). The
intention on the part of the Experts
Group was to allow the standard to
be useful in a variety of applicati.,ns. For example, the level and
pr ofile needed to compress and
trinsmit video and audio from a
monochrome security camera would
br much less than that needed to do
-
Video Inputs
CCIR 601
NTSC
Component
Out #
1
Main
Standards
Conversion
Profile at
Low
Level
and MPEG -2
-2 Out # 2
Compression MPEG -2 MPEG
>
Based
Audio + Servers High
Sync
Profile at
Video
To
Computer
Network
R
To
B-
On -air
G-'
High
Level
Audio Inputs
Stereo
Out #3
R
1/2
3/4
To HD
System
4.2.2
Profile
L
AES/EBU
System
at High
-i
Level
-o-
Figure 3. Within a broadcast facility, audio and video
from a variety of sources can be compressed, stored on
a server, and output as needed. Most, if not all, servers
require additional storage space for each version stored,
as transcoding from one profile /level is typicallay not
done.
February 2000
Broadcast Engineering
95
MPEG encoding
the same for
a movie mastered to
70mm motion picture film with multichannel audio tracks. MPEG -2's
hierarchy allows it to be used for the
least critical, lowest resolution
needs, as well as the most demanding needs.
MPEG as a standard continues to
evolve. The Pro -MPEG Committee,
which charges itself with bringing the
standard (and it's associated profiles
and levels) into the future, has already
defined further potential uses for this
technology. The major thrust of the
effort is to ensure that the standard
will continue to evolve to meet the
needs of the users and the capability of
the hardware and software that imple-
ments it.
MPEG -2 today
Many manufacturers have turned to
MPEG as a way to get digital video
products into the marketplace. Some
companies converted from proprietary
compression and storage schemes, or
upgraded from MPEG -1 to MPEG -2.
Others struck out to tackle the challenge of integrating the needs of the
existing marketplace with the capabilities of the existing hardware and
software.
The four primary areas where video
compression is useful in today's environments are:
Storage and retrieval of un- edited
programming (such as acquisition and
playback of syndicated shows)
Transportation of the video stream
Low -resolution non -critical viewing (for content establishment)
Servers, such as these Sony MAV -70s, use varying levels of MPEG compression,
reducing the need for expansive tape libraries. Keeping large archives available
electronically allows content can be recalled to individual workstations for use by
working journalists and editors. Photo courtesy Concept: Benson & Rice.
the largest facilities. MPEG -2 allows efficient use of computer -based
disk drive storage and playback for
current NTSC needs. MPEG -2, because of its flexibility, gives manufacturers the ability to allow the
customer (facilities) to define what
level of playback resolution and
overall quality it wants to use on
Editing/production
Each of these can take
advantage of MPEG -2
to provide capability
that otherwise couldn't
be utilized.
file to a higher one can allow for an
increase in quality. The trade -off in
this case is likely to he the reduction in
overall storage time on a given set of
disk drives. However, this may be a
small penalty to pay for the resulting
quality increase.
Transportation: Bandwidth availability in transit streams is similar to
money; there never seems to be
enough to meet the
While th e need to transmit digital data has increased,
current needs. Any
method that can
the available pipes remain the same.
increase a transit
Storage /retrieval:
stream's capacity
Compression allows a
is useful.
tremendous increase in disk drive computerized video servers. QualiHere, however, is where tradeoffs
storage capacity. Without compres- ty that is at least as good as the
truly have to he carefully scrutision, the huge amount of storage playback from a professional -grade nized. The reason is video delay.
space (and bandwidth) needed for analog cassette -based VTR format
Any form of compression, even a
real -time record and playback would
is readily achievable, under even
mild one, will introduce some form
outstrip both the available space one of the lower profiles.
of delay into the overall transit time
and the budgetary capability of even
Later, if desired, changing the pro(due to compression processing at
96
Broadcast Engineering
--
February 2000
th
ends). When combined, delays
can add up to anything from minor
iritants (such as delay echo in talb,
ent IFB earpieces) to major challenges (such as massive lip -sync
problems on -air). Careful application of compression schemes and
appropriate fixes are necessary to
a' oid these pitfalls.
\IPEG is uniquely suited to this
purpose as it can be invoked to the
le el necessary to get the job done,
but without violating the standard.
Most other forms of compression
don't have this advantage. This
mikes it difficult to implement them
in an environment where the band w dth can't be altered to fit the
ci mpression scheme. MPEG -2's toolbox approach is extremely useful in
this situation.
I.ow- resolution viewing: Most stations have archival or acquisition
needs that necessitate rapid checks for
content purposes. The recent tendency
of some people and organizations to
sue the media over its reporting style
has added to this need. Legal counsels
m -w frequently want to view video
clips so they can find items to use as
court evidence.
l'robably the largest need, however,
exists in news operations. The ability
to see incoming news stories from a
joirnalist's workstation is more than
just a convenience. It's a competitive
ne.:essity in some places, such as an
all-news cable network.
because compression by its very
nature allows more data through
less bandwidth, a LAN meeting the
11 0 BaseT standards (common in
today's office environments) can he
us.d to select and view real -time
fu I- motion video from a personal
computer. PCs can therefore replace
V''R -based viewing stations. PCs
ca i also have software capable of
searching and cataloging video clips
to lower the time necessary to find
a particular clip (see the Media
asset management Special Report
on p. 66). After selection by a producer or writer, the clip can be
m: rked for editing, or simply delivend for on -air playback, at full
resolution, to an on -air video server.
An MPEG -2 based server is unique
in its ability to perform this func-
different profiles and levels
can be utilized for different purposes within the same hardware (hut
typically not without using additional storage space). Outputting of
video in different forms is easily
achievable when using MPEG -2, as
it can be readily adapted to current
tion,
as
needs (see Figure 3).
Editing/production: Most nonlinear
editing systems ultimately output video in an NTSC -usable form, such as
composite analog, or CCIR 601 (serial digital). Internal manipulation of
the information put into the system is
usually proprietary to a particular
system. The need to utilize a compres-
Because compression by
its very nature allows
more data through less
bandwidth,
a LAN
meeting
the 100 BaseT standards
(common in today's office
editor and output faster to the final
destination. Taking this one step
further, facilities that are equipped
with some form of high- speed, high capacity networking (such as a fiber
optic link) can output from an editor
to a server, and then to air, in a
single operation.
However, within compressed environments, there is a risk of cascading algorithms. When different compression schemes are combined within a single facility, problems can
arise. Differing methods of encoding and decoding can cause problems in both video and audio. The
most common unwanted artifacts
are similar to those seen in analog
systems; white or black "sparkles"
in the video, pixellation, chroma
levels and qualities not correct.
Sometimes, a complete lack of interoperability will keep streams or
video files from transferring at all.
This usually makes it necessary to
fall back on a tape medium to transport the show to air. Dedication to a
single compression scheme can eliminate this.
environments) can often
be used to select and
view real -time full motion video from
a
personal computer.
sion algorithm within a nonlinear
editor is usually a decision made by
the particular software writers who
wrote the code for that system.
The challenge usually faced by
users on nonlinear systems is the
time it takes to digitize the audio
and video (the data, that is) before
the system can do any editing. Most
editors require a show he input in
real time, making the first requirement for editing a half -hour show to
digitize all the elements in real time.
Following the completion of the editing, a real -time playback has to be
initiated to the final destination (frequently a VTR).
Using a compression scheme on
the I/O of the editor allows the
program to be input faster to the
February 2000
Down the road: MPEG's future
The need for high -speed transmis-
sion in today's world is well known.
As audio and video is viewed in-
creasingly as data, transmission of
entertainment and information will
tend to merge. This could result in
something as unique as over -the -air
distribution to the public of everything from home shopping information to purchase of power from utility providers, all via insertion into
the DTV datastream. As mentioned,
the Pro -MPEG Committee, composed
of manufacturers, users, engineers
and scientists from all over the industry are continuing to bring MPEG
forward as time passes. MPEG in all
its forms is likely to lead the way in
the new millennium for compression of what today we call entertainment. Tomorrow, however, it's
entirely possible that it will all just
be referred to as data.
Paul Black is the engineering supervisor at
KPIX, San Francisco, CA
Broadcast Engineering
97
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98
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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SINUS et NAB Booth #8475
The
SUPER BOWL
in HD
Three venues
You can't put together an event of
this size without significant planning.
Gary Reed, assistant chief engineer at
NFL Films, described the layout at
this year's Super Bowl as being three
compounds outside and adjacent to
the Super Bowl /Georgia Dome: inter-
national, domestic (non -live coverage) and network live coverage. In
addition to this there were 18 different
production booths within the Georgia
Dome, all feeding different audiences
around the world.
Reed said of the three compounds,
the international compound was where
NFL Films was located and fed the
world Super Bowl XXXIV in whatev-
Panasonic's HD truck, which also saw use during a full season of Monday Night
Football broadcasts, features a complement of Panasonic AJ- HD2700 HD -D -5
multiformat VTRs.
er format each destination needed.
The Japanese television network NHK
had its own NTSC truck in the inter-
XXXIV took
national compound as well. NFL films
provided NHK with feeds for its live
broadcast in addition to its own preparatory cameras. NHK also did the
ABC -TV certainly would be a correct
answer and it was here, in this third
compound, that ABC -HD and its
NTSC counterparts were located.
With 30 years of televising the now
legendary Monday Night Football,
ABC -TV capped off its first season of
doing football in high definition with
Super Bowl XXXIV. There is no clues-
game in HD.
The domestic compound is where
everyone who was not involved in the
"live game" coverage was located. It
was in this compound that the "stand-
place.
If asked, "Who
has extensive experience at successfully televising football games in HD ?"
With 30 years of televising the now legendary
Monday Night Football, ABC -TV capped off its first
season of doing football in high definition with Super
Bowl XXXIV.
ups" were done for the "non- live"
coverage teams and where sports reporters for independents, NBC, CBS,
FOX and the other outlets held court.
Also competing for space in the domestic compound were "George
Michael's Sports Machine" show and
QVC Shopping Network, which did
interstitial bits while hawking its
wares.
The third compound is where the
"live network" coverage of Super Bowl
1
00
Broadcast Engineering
tion that ABC brought a considerable
amount of experience, talent and ability to the table and airwaves for its
season's grand finale
and what a
finale it was.
-
Long equipment list
To preserve the integrity of the old
fashioned 4:3 NTSC format and be
able to offer digital television viewers
mise, ABC actually did two football
games simultaneously for each of the
17 games, including Super Bowl XXXIV. At each venue there were two
television remote production trucks,
one digital high definition, the other
digital component 525.
Because of the number of venues
involved in covering sports events in
general and the ever -changing requirements of each, it isn't practical to have
any permanent infrastructure in place,
so the infrastructure equipment is rented on a "game -by- game" or "eventby- event" bases, according to the requirements of each.
A rental house provided a large
amount of Telecast Fiber equipment
so NFL Films could interconnect the
compounds to the field, compound to
compound, and so on. The mix of gear
included a Viper-800 (eight -channel
video card frame), a Viper Mussel
AudioNideo System (four video, eight
audio with dual -channel intercom and
data), a DiamondBack (eight video
channel multiplexer), an Adder -162
(32- channel audio frame with dual channel intercom and data), and the
Adder -I61 (16- channel unidirectional
audio frame). NFL Films was also
provided with Sony ENG (DVW700WS) packages, which included a
all the advantages of the superior' full compliment of accessories.
HDTV 16:9 format, without compro"The total camera count and
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
See us at NAB Booth #L 7051.
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The
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XXXIV in both HDTV and NTSC on
their sister channels.
SUPER BOWL
in HD
Producing in
organizational representation was truly impressive," says Reed. He counted a total of 48 cameras for ABC (this
was both NTSC and HD), and NFL
Films' "world feed" had five cameras.
These 53 cameras were pooled, feeding all compounds and other authorized recipients. In addition to these
53 cameras, there were proprietary
cameras as well: NHK had three cameras, as did Televisa (Mexico and
South America), SatOne (Germany)
and B Sky B (England, direct -to -home
satellite). There were six ENG crews,
of which three were exclusively Disney's.
Here in the U.S., more than 25 ABC
affiliates, including O &O's, from
KIN-DT Channel 40 in Honolulu,
the nation's first commercially licensed
DTV station, to WCVB -DT, Channel
HD
The HD parts of these football games
were made possible through a unique
collaboration between ABC -TV and
Panasonic.
Warren Allgyer, president of Panasonic Broadcast said, "Super Bowl
XXXIV and the entire Monday Night
Football season stand as a testament
to the real -world performance that the
Panasonic HDTV production truck
and equipment can deliver.
"Game conditions, which included
six inches of snow in Denver to heat
that surpassed 120 degrees on field in
Phoenix, attested to the ruggedness of
Panasonic's HDTV equipment," Allgyer said. "Our partnership with ABC
was pioneering and proved memorable, challenging and highly successful."
All 17 HD football games, including
the Super Bowl, were produced using
the year-old, 58 -foot Panasonic/ABC-
HDTV studio production truck, which
was designed and engineered by Panasonic's system integrator, Synergistic Technologies Inc. (STI) of Canonsburg, PA. Sil had staff on hand at
each game to keep things in proper
repair and to lend occasional technical support.
Heading up the engineering team for
ABC -TV in the HD truck, was technical manager Kathleen Skinski, a veteran of HD Monday Night Football.
Calling the shots for ABC -TV's HD
game was director Norman Samet,
who was assisted by associate director, Valerie Fischler and production
manager Beth Guilaini -Gatto.
The HD truck
The Panasonic/ABC remote production truck is crammed with feature
after feature, including some television systems "firsts." Topping the list
is the first all- widescreen 16:9 monitor wall that uses flat panel plasma
and LCD displays. Up until now,
HDTV trucks have done most production monitoring on less costly
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102
Broadcast Engineering
See us at NAB booth L13275
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle (151) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
The
SUPER BOWL
in HD
4:3 NTSC monitors. Two Panasonic
PT-42P1 42 gas plasma 480p 852x480
displays serve as the monitor wall's
centerpiece. A third Panasonic 42"
plasma display is used in the announcers' booth. The remainder of the monitors consisted of 10 Panasonic BTS915DA 9" switchable color monitors, and 34 SGI 1600SW 17" HD
LCD displays that were set to
1600x1024 resolution.The acquisition
backbone and original compliment of
the Panasonic /ABC HDTV production truck consists of four AQ -7200P
720p full- featured studio cameras and
three AQ -720p hand -held cameras.
This is the same equipment that was
used to shoot the HD version all 17
regular season games. These are 720p
cameras that operate at 60fps progressive. The pictures from the cameras
were carried by Mohawk/CDT fiber
optic camera cable running the several thousand feet to the HD truck.
The studio cameras were equipped
with Fujinon HA66x9.5 BESN and
HA66x13.5 BESN HD lenses. The
ABC's TD Michael Karman at the Snell & Wilcox HD 1024 production switcher viewing
feeds on the all 16:9 monitor wall. which uses Panasonic PT-42P1 plasma and
Panasonic BT- S915DA and SGI 1600SW HD LCD monitors.
XXXIV. Karman sat at a Snell &
Wilcox HD 1024 production switcher
that has 24 inputs, 11/2 M/E banks, two
DVE channels, four still stores, one
effects deck with two keyers, and a
program/preset deck that has one key er. All 24 inputs to the HD 1024 are
programmable. In addition to the Snell
& Wilcox 1024 switcher already in
the truck, Snell &Wilcox provided an eight input 1010 switcher to
The U.S. HO audio feed was every bit
act as a sub -switcher
to carry the additional
as good as the pristine 720p pictures.
tape resources for the
game.
Other feeds came
handhelds were outfitted with both
Canon HA20X7.5BEVM HH HD and
HJ9X5.5B wide -angle lenses for handheld cameras.
In addition to this normal compliment of cameras, ABC added two
Philips LDK 9000 -720P cameras for
Super Bowl XXXIV. One had a Canon
HD 40X lens and the other had an
Angeniux HD 18X, rounding out the
camera inventory to a total of nine.
Eight of these cameras were in the
Georgia Dome and one was used for
beauty shots from the Coca Cola Building. This feed was beamed to the
compound by a Lucent Laser Link.
Technical director Michael Karman
cut the HD version of Super Bowl
1
04
Broadcast Engineering
from ABC -1, the NTSC remote truck.
Samet said, "We got both a dirty (with
Mattes) and a clean feed (no Mattes),
which were both upconverted by a
Leitch Juno. We also had an output
from ABC -1's Sony router so that we
could take any of their facilities direct: for instance, the show opening
from their (NTSC) tape machine.
These were, of course upconverted by
a Leitch Juno also."
Graphics and tape
Graphics and character generators
are always an intricate part of any
sports event. The clock and "score
bug" were upconverted by two Leitch
Juno HDU- 3800s. One Juno was used
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
for video and the other for key. The
Leitch Junos pre -set to position left
and right so the bug would fly in and
fly off the wider HD screen; otherwise
the clock and score bugs flew in and
out relative to the 4:3 screen instead of
the 16:9 HD screen.
Instant replay and archiving are
major parts of any sports event. Riding
herd on VTRs and servers' storage
devices were Ray Soroka out of ABC New York, along with Lee Nowell
and Allen Pierce.
The ABC/Panasonic HD truck has
six Panasonic AJ- HD2700 HD -D5 multiformat VTRs, but can accommodate
a total of 10 VTRs. Samet said ABC
added an additional D -5 machine to
record, do slow- motion replays and
playback of other pre -recorded elements.
These VTRs were kept busy throughout the entire game and after. They
were used for instant replays, editing
and the integration of moving graphics. More VTRs would have been
necessary were it not for the four Pluto
Hyperspace HDTV disk recorders that
were interfaced with Panasonic AJHDP510 720p HDTV processors. This
interface allowed the truck's HD digital disk recorders to record their 720p
signal.
In addition to this framework of
VTRs, the short and long -term storage
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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The
SUPER BOWL
in HD
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106
Broadcast Engineering
UFC1800 Universal Format Converter. The UFC1800s can cross convert between all recognized ATSC
standard digital video formats, and the truck is
equipped with three.
NHK had two additional VTRs added to the HD
truck for the purpose of recording the game in 1080i
for air in Japan. NHK's NTSC audio was fed to these
1080i HD machines to round out that package.
The U.S. HD audio feed was every bit as good as the
pristine 720p pictures. The production employed two
Panasonic Ramsa WR -DA7V digital audio mixers
that were linked together in the truck's audio suite.
The pair of WR -D7Vs provided 64 input channels and
5.1 capability.
With multichannel audio, proper phasing is critical.
ABC used a Holophone microphone to pick up five
channels of audio to enhance the 5.1 channel audio
experience.
Keeping track of the proper stereo polarities, was the
Tektronix 764 serial /digital audio monitor, which
gave not only level indications, but displayed the
proper phasing as well.
A Leader LV 5836B was used for the all- encompassing 5.1 channels of audio. The LV 5836B provides a
polar display of the five channels and a bar graph of
the low- frequency effects channel.So the crew could
hear what was going on, the ABC /Panasonic HD
truck is equipped with Genelec's 1030/1031/1092 self powered audio monitors.
An RTS ADAM Intercom is used throughout the
system.
The intercom system was configured so that communication between the director, cameras, VTR, audio,
TD, video operators, the production assistant, graphics operator, the AD in the NTSC truck and the AD in
the HDTV control room in New York was possible. At
the same time, technical staff members are able to
listen only to the producer, director, production assistant and graphics operators in the 525 NTSC truck.
The 525 NTSC truck directed the announcers.
Although Panasonic supplied the lion's share of the
equipment, there were other equipment manufacturers whose gear was indispensable. Routing of the HD
signals was handled by an NVision -ADC Envoy 6128
(64 channels in by 128 out) routing switcher. The
Envoy is capable of carrying uncompressed 1.5Gb /
svideo even in large configurations. This unit is
expandable to 128x128.
Routing was supplemented by a Grass Valley Group
SMS -7000 in a 64x64 configuration, which includes
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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The
Keeping track of the SMPTE 292
signals was a Leader LV 5152DAs, a
SUPER BOWL
IN HD
multiformat HD waveform/vector /picture /audio X/Y monitor. The LV
5152DA has automatic setup recognition and will display any of 14 ATSC
serial -digital interface, analog audio and stereo audio I/O. Also under
the category of routers is a purely
digital product by Grass Valley Group,
their 7500 NB, narrowband router,
which is a 256x256 synchronous AESdigital audio device, that fits into a
video formats.
SMPTE 259 signals were monitored
on Tektronix WFM-601M scopes permitting the technical types to drill
right down to the bit level. The WFM601M also has an arrowhead presentation that gives equivalent NTSC/
PAL gamut limits, which lets the
a
show, the game itself, the halftime
extravaganza, the post -game wrap up and, although not actually a part of
the gridiron action itself, the commer-
cials.
Samet said, "We (the HDTV truck)
did nothing for the pre -game show due
to all the clips that they used. It would
have been impossible to duplicate them
in HDTV." With regard to the Super
Bowl's halftime and post game shows,
that's a different story. Samet said "...
nothing different in equipment. What
we had is what we used. We covered
the halftime show with our own HD
cameras, where possible. Same with
the post -game show. "With regard to
the commercials, the HDTV control
room in New York, downconverted
the HD commercials and fed them to
the NTSC master control for insertion. Samet said, "NTSC spots were
upconverted and mixed with the HD
spots." Commercial integration was
all done in New York at the ABC HD
Release Center.
For more information about the ABC/
Panasonic truck, log on to their web
pages at www.panasonic.com/broad-
cast or www.STlDigital.com. The
NFL also has a website at
www.NFL.com.
Mohawk/CDT fiber optic cable carried camera images fromthe field and broadcast
booth to the truck. An additional camera feed was carried from the Coca -Cola Building
via a Lucent Technologies Laser Link.
compact 12 rack unit space.
Digital television wouldn't be digital were it not for the encoders/decoders. Tiernan Communications THE1
encoder was used in its HD configuration. Complimenting the THE1 was
Tiernan's TDR6H, a modular receiver /decoder.
Test and measurement
Even HD needs test and measure-
ment equipment. Keeping
time was a pair of identical
TG -2000 generators, with
changeover and an HDVG1
things in
Tektronix
automatic
HD mod-
multiformat test signal generator that provides three each 1.485 Gb/
ule,
a
serial/digital video outputs in 1080i/
60, 59.94, 1O80p/25 and 24Hz rates
and 720p formats in 60 and 59.95
field rates. In addition to these outputs, analog feeds for NTSC, color
black and tri -level sync were also
s
available.
108
Broadcast Engineering
engineers know which colors will be
"legal" in subsequent composite
formats.
Feeding the network
The final hurdle in getting the Super
Bowl to the world was to get the feed
from the Georgia Dome to the New
York HD release center where it was
distributed to the affiliates of ABC's
DT network. The ultimate responsibility for this feat rested with Richard
Wolf, vice president of telecommunications at ABC. Wolf said: "We relied
on the Williams Vyvx Services Venue Net, a 45Mb/s infrastructure at the
Georgia Dome for continued DS3
conductivity into ABC -New York. ABC
utilizes a Tiernan encoder 720p, Tiernan encode /decode hardware and Tiernan protocol conversion equipment
that interfaces with the DS3 network."
Super Bowl Sunday is really several
shows in one. There's the pre -game
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
HD Equipment
Providers
Angeniux
Bexel
Canon
Control Dynamics Corporation
Fujinon
Genelec
Grass Valley Group
Leader LV-5152 scopes
Leitch
Lucent
Mohawk Cable
Nvision
Panasonic Broadcast &
Television Systems Company
Philips
Pluto
RTS
SatOne
SGI
Snell & Wilcox
Sony ENG
Synergistic Technologies, Inc.
Tektronix
Tiernan
Tower America
DBE4100 Encoders
Performing -Flexible- Interoperable
Thomson DBE4100 MPEG encoders will satisfy your needs
and safely take you to the future of digital TV.
User -selectable 422P @ML or MP @ML modes, true built -in re-
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modulator, statistical multiplexing, helper channel1M for top
performance on circuits involving cascaded compression
processes, interoperability with DVB- compliant equipment,
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versions,
Whether in
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DBE4100 encoders offer a great price /performance.
multiplexer,
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Tel: 1770) 977 -8980
Applied Technology
Grass Valley Group's Profile XP video server
BY SCOTT LIBERT
In just
one generation, information
systems have evolved from centralized, monolithic mainframes to distributed, globally -interconnected computers. More important, these flexible, scalable, and inexpensive systems offer an ever -growing array of
software
software that continues to
decrease in cost while increasing in
-
capability.
The development of similarly networked and application -rich systems
for video is well under way. Simply
put, these systems will make more
content available to more people at a
lower cost. And with less expensive,
more integrated and more software rich facilities, digital broadcasters and
video professionals will realize greater profits that can be reinvested in
even more content for traditional and
new digital media distribution.
As these new video systems evolve to
enable greater content creation and
distribution opportunities, broadcasters, video production professionals,
equipment developers and a new generation of system/software integrators
must ensure that everyone in this highly networked environment keeps pace
with a rate of innovation sure to be
rapid. To do so, they must work together to develop open systems which
address several challenges:
To be competitive in the digital
content era, production margins must
be increased through comprehensive
workflow management tools that effi-
ciently link users and their digital
media assets, including newsroom
databases, video archives, the Internet, billing systems, traffic applications and more.
Systems supporting broadcast
facilities
must be dynamically
configurable to reduce support and
maintenance costs.
The return on investment in advertising and program content must be
maximized by repurposing content
for an ever- increasing number of
digital distribution pipelines.
Large computer networks incorporated into broadcast facilities must
EDITING AND
CAPTURE
APPLICATIONS
I
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ASSET MANAGEMENT AGENTS
RESOLVER API
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CAPTURE-APIAAP
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EDITING & ASSET
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APPLICATIONS
USER
AGENT
USER AGENT API
RESOLVER
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SYNCH.
SERVICE
ASK
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STORAGE, DATABAS
AND SEARCH
SERVERS
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RESOURCE
BROKER
NAIVE
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BROKER
CAPTURE
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ENCODERS AND,
METADATA
EXTRACTORS
SYSTEM AGENTS
ARM
FRAMEWORK
ARM INFRASTRUCTURE
1-
CAPTURE
SERVICES
CONTENTSHARE ASSET MANAGEMENT PLATFORM
The Grass Valley Group's user agent API allows applications to access ContentShare platform functionality.
1 1
0
Broadcast Engineering
Februar; 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Cover all the bases with
Portable One Dual Domain
Interface
Digita
Today's audic testing requires a comprehensive audio analyzer. A hand -held jitter meter or
audio monitor just won't do. Whether you're facing a new high performance a/d converter,
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routine week of maintaining a mixture of digital and analog equipment, you'll need to make
three types of measurements: digital audio, digital interface, and analog audio.
The Portable One Dual Domain does all three.
Digital Interface aigital Audio ::enerate signals and measure: Measure key interface
parameters, including:
a Level & Ratio
MITHD +N
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MI
Frequency
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Sample rate
AES signal voltage
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Delay relative to house sync
Noise & Amplitude
Crosstalk
IMD
Flexible digital interface testing is vital for
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of digital audio at the systems level. Portable
One Dual Domain impairment signals allow
simulation of real world transmission and
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Frequency
Phase
Noise
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Wow & Flutter
Crosstalk
IMD
Save 30 test setups internally in non -volatile memory.
True Dual Domain instrument with independent analog & digital generators and analyzers.
Monitor - Listen to all measurements in the digital and analog domains over
the internal loudspeaker or a pair of headphones.
Pass Mode - Sends input to output while modifying status
A lifesaver for diagnosing equipment incompatibilities.
bytes, validity bit, etc.
Rugged purpose -built case protects the instrument.
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2209
Beaverton, Oregon 97075-2209
Tel: (503) 627 -0832, Fax: (503) 641-8906
US Toll Free: 1-800-231-7350
Web Site: www.audioprecision.com
Circle (157) on Free Info Card
Cover your bases by requesting an immediate demo of the Portable One Dual Domain from
one of our worldwide force of Audio Precision representatives.
95o.í A.
Austria
ELSwr,
Belgium. Heynen NV Tel: 11 60 09 09. Brasil: INTERWAVE LTDA..
TERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS:
Australia: VICOM Autralei Vty Lw Tel
I (21)494- 2155: Bulgaria:ELSINCC Rep. Office Sofia Tel i2)958 12 45. Canada: GERRAUDIO Distribution. Tel i613134í car! China. MOng Kong. AL Ellntll Go Ltd. Tel 2424 -0387:58 V Instruments Co. Lic.Teh 23339987.
ELSINCO Rep. Once Zagreb. Tel 61534 50. Czech Republic: ELSINCO Praha spol s ro.. Tel. ßl496689. Denmark: npn Elektromk aps. Tel 86 57 15 11. Finland: Genelec OY.. Tel- 17813311. Franc: ETS Mesureur.
t 1. (1) 45 83 66 41. Germany: RTW GmbH & Co. KG.. Tel. 221 70913 -0. Greg.: KEM Electronics Ltd.. Tel 1 674851415. Hungary: ELSINCO Budapest KFT, Tel (1) 339 0000. India: Comcon Industries. Tel- 11 6311606.
- -ael: Dan -El Technologies Ltd Tel 3.647 8770.IUly: Audio Link s r Tel- 521 648723 Japan: TOVO Corpore6on. Tel 3 (5688)6800: Kona: B&P International Co., Ltd_ Tel 2 546 -1457. Malaysia: Test Measurement & Ergmeenng
ir.(Selangor). Tel 3 734 1017. Test Measurement & Engineering Sdn. (Penang). Tel 4 6422088. Netherlands: Heynen B V. Tel 485 55 09 09. New Zealand: Audio & Video Wholesalers. Tel. 9 279 7206. Norway: Lydconsult.
t
47-69- 178050, Poland: ELSINCO Polska sp. z o B. Tel- (22) 39 69 79. Portugal: Aculron Electroacustica Ida. Tel 1 940 1785, Singapore: THE Systems Pte Ltd. Tel. 747-7234. Slovakia: ELSINCO Slovensko s r o
t -C (7)784 165. Slovenia: ELSINCOd o o.. (61)1336279 South Atha: SOUNDFUSION MFG.. Tel. 11 477 -1315: Spain: Alava Inggeen ros
Tel- 91 567 97 00. Sweden: TTS Tat & Ton Studioteknik AB.Tet' 31 52 51 50. Switzerland:
W.A.Gunther Audio Systems AG, Tel. 1 910 45 45. Taiwan, R.O.C.: Double Advance Tech_ Tel 2 2596 0696. Thailand: Masswodd Company Ltd.. Tel, 2.294-4930. United Kingdom: Thuriby Thandar Irstruments. Ltd
t :V1480)412451
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www.americanradiohistory.com
enable global scalability, security and
support for numerous hardware and
operating system platforms, as well as
various high- powered computing
format or definition their customers
may choose, eliminating the need to
develop different applications for each
format type.
devices.
Software bus speeds creation of
complex applications
With the proliferation of digital storage technology, developers of broadcast and new media -oriented software
are finding it necessary to create more
complex and reliable applications in
less time. Thus the servers and media
storage platforms that provide the
easiest application -development tools
will become the most pervasive.
Building on the widely accepted Pro-
file
Application
Programming
ContentShare offers Internet technology -based access to media assets
Complementing the opennc,, of the
Software Bus architecture is the ContentShare platform for media access.
A horizontal layer of support software
sometimes referred to as middle ware
it offers an open, Internet
standards -based approach that lets
- -
applications communicate easily.
Using the same core technologies that
power portals on the World Wide
Web, the ContentShare platform lets
users easily access digital media as-
As the broadcast industry embraces computer
industry models, the emphasis shifts from
hardware requirements to application
capabilities.
Interface (API) and similar computer
and software industry API models such
as JAVA, the Grass Valley Software
Bus provides an easy -to -use tool set
designed to speed the design and delivery of new, richer server -based ap-
plications. This ability is made possible by providing low -level engines
that developers can use to offload
significant portions of their code development to the digital video server
platform. Whether for news or other
production applications, transmission,
media management, or any other video application, the Grass Valley Software Bus supports the easy extension
of existing applications and programmer- friendly creation of new ones.
The Profile Software Bus includes
access to the current low -level API but
also provides abstractions for managing movement of material to and from
a data tape archive, event scheduling
and timeline management, diagnostics, monitoring, and error reporting.
Ultimately, the Profile Software Bus is
a set of tools that provide various
levels of abstraction. Since the API is
format independent, developers need
not worry about what compression
1 1
2
Broadcast Engineering
without having to worry about
geographic location, the formats in
which they are stored, or the applications that created them.
The ContentShare approach has far reaching implications for broadcasters and video professionals. It overcomes the need for
and eliminates
the cost of
custom software to bind
together different programs by offering standard tools for cross -platform,
cross- application communication. It
gives developers a common framework for media asset management,
without compromising the features,
integrity, or competitiveness of their
individual applications. And it speeds
the production process, increasing the
amount of content that can be created
and maximizing a user's creativity.
In other words, instead of trying to
solve media- management problems
one application at a time, it offers an
industry-standard framework that any
application can use.
Based on research performed under
a grant from the National Institute for
Science and Technology (NIST), the
ContentShare platform is based upon
an agent -oriented architecture. It prosets
-
-
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
vides a middle layer of software (including a few active processes known
as system agents) for exchanging
content and associated information
between distributed computers. Each
computing device runs its own proprietary software as well as a small
ContentShare software agent known
as either a broker, if the device provides services, or a user agent, if the
software is an application that uses
other services in the system.
At the same time, this revolutionary
platform enables an evolutionary migration path -supplementing existing
systems, not displacing them. The
ContentShare platform is designed
from the ground up for extensibility so
that developers may quickly add new
types of information and content and
new services that operate upon them
without affecting existing software. It
also enables new versions of software
to be integrated without impacting the
entire system.
Key to success in an increasingly
software- centric world are the Grass
Valley Group's Software Bus architecture and ContentShare platform for
media access. These two solutions
enable the creation of greater and
more sophisticated system and application -level software
programs that
leverage open standards to work together and share information easily,
and provide the ability to create more
complex and reliable applications in
less time.
For more information on Grass Valley Group's Profile XP video server,
circle 450 on the Free Info Card.
-
Scott Lihert is chief software architect for
Grass Valley Group.
Wanted
Technical
Writers
Contact Brad Dick, Editor
913 -967 -1737
brad dick @intertec.com
14,000 transmitters
110
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isit our web lite at w ww.itelco- usa.com /he
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itelco,
See us at NAB Booth #L3243
As flied Technolo
Panasonic's new 24 -frame video production tools
BY DAVID WISWELL
The ATSC television system allows
Transmitting at 24fps
multiple frame rate and multiple
Because film is produced at 24
image format video. Consumer Elecframes per second, transmitting the
tronic Association (CEA) members film images at 30 frames per sechave pledged that DTV receivers ond is a waste of bandwidth. 24will have the ability to receive any frame rate video is 4/5 of the data
of the ATSC image
formats. A CEA -compliant DTV receiver
will have the burden
of converting the
ATSC image formats
to the display image
format of the viewer's receiver. Most
ATSC display devices will not be able to
display all ATSC images without converting them to a "native"
display image format.
Panasonic's AJ- HD3700 D -5HD Mastering VTR
When NTSC television is transmitted, baseband video rate for 30 -frame rate video. Reis applied to an AM modulator,
peated images, when 3:2 pulldown
band shaped, amplified and com- is added, contribute nothing to the
bined with the FM modulated au- process and should be eliminated,
dio transmission signal to form the thus saving 1/5 the transmitted data
complete transmitted TV channel. rate. This freed -up bandwidth can be
In the ATSC television system, vidused to either reduce the required
eo and audio are combined in a
compression ratio or to make room
19.4Mb /s transport stream and for additional services to be multitransmitted using 8 -VSB modula- plexed into the transport stream.
tion of the broadcaster's transmisThe conversion process from 24sion RF carrier.
frame film to 30 -frame video involves
The video portion of the ATSC the addition of a third field for every
transport stream can be high- defini- two frames of film (four fields). The
tion or standard -definition, one pro- process is, 3:2 pulldown, is a convergram at a time or multiple pro- sion ratio of 24/30 (4/5 - hence a
grams. The digital video signal must bandwidth savings of 1/5). The term
be compressed using MPEG com"pulldown" is left over from film
pression before it is combined in the projection: the film frame is flashed
transport stream. Data and audio twice with a shutter to reduce flicker,
can be transmitted which may or then the next film frame is pulled
may not be related to the video down by the projector intermittent
program in a multiple- program -per- mechanism into the aperture gate and,
channel scenario.
in its turn, is flashed twice.
1
14
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Restoring frame rate
When a consumer TV receives a
24Hz video signal, it must restore
the signal to a higher frame rate to
reduce the displayed image's flicker
rate. To restore the 3:2 pulldown,
all CEA- endorsed consumer DTV set-top boxes and
receivers are capable of in-
serting the 3:2 pulldown
sequence into video transport streams received with
24Hz video. The ability to
receive a 24Hz video transport stream was included
in the ATSC system to minimize the required transmission bandwidth, thereby optimizing the picture quality
of film -originated material.
Conversion
In the future, devices will be capable
of addressing pixels individually instead of scanning. These devices will
be able to display any ATSC frame
rate without the need for 3:2 pull -
down. The decision to display the
pixels directly or to add 3:2 pulldown
viewer's decoder and
depends on the viewer's display device capability. The MPEG encoder
used to create the ATSC transport
stream can automatically detect and
remove the extra video in 3:2 pull down. But, to do it automatically, the
modulo 4 (four film frame) sequence
of the 3:2 pulldown must remain intact. If in the video editing process an
edit is performed in the middle of a
video frame sequence, the MPEG encoder will suffer a disturbance because
it is expecting a coherent sequence.
is made in the
for production
The complexity of editing with 3:2
pulldown is the reason why interest is
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very mild filter is required compared to interlaced and
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segmented video).
Segmented frame video
GENERATOR/READER /INSERTER
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Continuous size adjustments
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Large LED Display
1/30 - 30x play speed
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48sF video created from cameras with CCD imagers
designed for interlaced video sacrifice image performance for the convenience of using existing CCD
imagers rather than designing new ones specifically for
progressive video. If a 24p camera generates a progressive frame by combining two 48Hz fields, the video
quality cannot be optimum. True progressive CCDs
yield images with higher vertical resolution and fewer
motion artifacts.
Is
it true that stepping
up 601 video
with a line doubler and
upconverting it to an HD image
format is "good enough ?"
User Bits
YEAR WARRANTY
(310) 322 -2136 FAX (310) 322 -8127
142 Sierra St. El Segundo, CA. 90245
Circle (168) on Free Info Card
bV5 fr-cIllao RATING MONITOR
When 48sF video is processed in a digital effects generator, penalties in motion quality and resolution will
appear that are not present when progressive video is
processed as a full frame. The effects generator will have
to "re- interlace" back to 48sF, resulting in lowered image
resolution. 24 -frame HDTV mastering is intended to
produce the highest quality HDTV image possible;
video should not be compromised with artifacts or
resolution reductions imposed by treating progressive
video like interlaced video.
What does this all come to?
Is HDTV really just NTSC on steroids? Is it
I-
171
I
1I
I
I
VC-2
The economical VC -2 provides broadcasters with an
instant, visual display of Content Advisory ratings
Transparent video specifications
Operates from loop- through composite video
Extracts, decodes and processes V -chip data
carried on line 21, field 2 of the Vertical Blanking Interval
Six, 14 segment LED displays provide a graphic,
alpha- numeric readout of both Age and Content
rating as per EIA -744 -A
Supports the following rating systems: M.P.A.A. /
U.S. TV Parental Guideline / Canadian English Language /
Canadian French Language
Housed in 3;" x 3" x 1 " steel minibox
9V DC adapter supplied
Up to 5 VC -2's may be mounted in a 1RU frame (FR715)
broadcast video systems corp.
40 West Wilmot St., Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1H8
Ph(905)764 -1584 Fax(905)764 -7438 E -mail: bvs @bvs.on.ca
true
that stepping up 601 video with a line doubler
and upconverting it to an HD image format is
"good enough ?" Is it true that "good enough" is
a great marketing ploy that will win the attention of DTV content providers? Perhaps time will
prove once again that only true quality can
survive the test of the critical eye. The performance and quality of consumer display devices
will improve rapidly over the next few years.
Studies show that consumers can see the quality
of high- definition. In the broadcast and post
industry, those who do not prepare for a future
when there is a sophisticated and critical viewing audience risk having to start all over with
the financial penalties that will result.
For more information on Panasonic's AJ- HD3700
and AJ- UFC1800, circle 451 on the Free Info Card.
David Wiswell is group manager, high -definition products
at Panasonic Broadcast.
Website: www.bvs.on.ca
Circle (167) on Free Info Card
118
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
`)G INPUTS?
76 OUTPUTS?
SMALI. FOOTPRINT?
THE ANSWER
IS
COMING.
Circle (165) on Free Info Card
Y
ha Corporation
of America
6600 Orangethorpe Avenue
Buena Park, CA 90620
.2000 Yamaha Corporation of America. Yamaha
714 -522 -9000
is a registered trademark
Yamaha PA Web Site
- www.yamaha.com/proaudio
of Yamaha Corporation. www.yamaha.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
Technolo.
In Transition
Video routing switchers
BY JOHN LUFF
any chief engineer about the
first component he picks when
planning a new facility and I would
bet that routing systems are high on
the list. As systems become more complex a well thought out routing system
will he a key link in stitching together
a fabric that allows multiple signal
types to be used in flexible ways.
Today, routing systems are becoming predominantly digital. Analog
systems are still being installed, but
as the universe of analog equipment
continues to shrink in the next decade, we will see the development
and sale of all analog products reduce to a very small percentage of
our industry. Table I shows the most
important digital data rates and the
signals they carry. You should conAsk
sider a variety of data rates and
signals you may need to carry when
specifying a routing system.
In general, it is fair to assume a
routing system that works for analog will not pass digital signals, and
digital routing systems will not pass
analog signals. A few wideband
analog routers can be used at lower
data rates for digital signals. There
also are classes of routing that handle data at the extremes of the range
of data rates. For instance there are
special purpose routing switchers
available for AES signals, for compressed and uncompressed signals
below 360Mb/s, and for HDTV at
rates above 360Mb /s.
AES routing is available as simple
crosspoint switching or with enhanced features. These might include the ability to reverse the channels in an AES pair or produce a
mono signal from the two channels. You might also, in some manufacturers' equipment, feed the
right (or left) channel of an input to
both channels of an output. Some
even allow the channels inside a
pair to be freely swapped to the
channels of nearby outputs, usual-
120
Broadcast Engineering
ly in blocks of eight outputs. This
can provide considerable produc-
tion flexibility. Similar capabilities exist in a few analog products
where the stereo pair is processed
on a single crosspoint card. One
manufacturer achieves this by putting the two halves of an analog
tems with analog to digital converters in the circuit. The management of these tie lines (sometimes
called path finding) is done by the
control system without the operator intervening. This is a very powerful technique when well executed. It is worth exploring carefully
with any manufacturer you are
Digital video routing is
becoming less
complex, with some
routers capable of
switching the full
range from 19Mb /s to
1.5Gb /s.
audio pair on the two sides of a
crosspoint circuit card and combining hardware and control cir-
cuitry
as necessary.
In the digital
domain at least one manufacturer
does this by first decoding the AES
signal into discrete signals and assigning them to individual time
slots in a time domain processor
system. Crosspoint selections are
made by selecting the time slot and
reconstructing the signal at the output, allowing total flexibility in reassigning signals.
This becomes a little more complicated when Dolby AC -3 and Dolby E
signals are routed. These signals cannot be processed, and all of the information in the stream must he passed
exactly as it is received if it is to be
useable downstream. The AES header
indicates when the signal is being used
for data.
Digital routing, either video or
audio, is often today coupled with
analog routing. This can be done
by using tie lines between the sysFebruary 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
considering.
Digital video routing is becoming
less complex, with some routers capable of switching the full range from
19Mb/s to 1.5Gb/s. You should be
.autious to ask a few critical questions
when considering this class of system.
Be sure reclocking is available at the
data rates you will be processing and
that the return loss for HDTV signals
is not compromised.
It is probably most important to
explore the control system fully before
you make a decision. Installing routing in complex system can lead to a
very lengthy exercise in programming
the control system. Generally, manufacturers have beefed up the programming tools considerably in the last
two years, and most are now available on Windows NT (or Windows
2000). Consider that the system could
include layers for analog video, digital video, HDTV, AES, stereo analog
audio, timecode, machine control and
perhaps other layers in a production
environment (key signals, component
analog video, etc.). The selection of
mnemonics that the operators will use
in controlling the system is critical,
and with the limited buttons available
on most control panels the management of a complex matrix is a mind bending task.
Control systems usually operate over
either coax or CAT 5 cable, with
some manufacturers choosing Ethernet and IP addressing to make system
management easier. Some manufacturers have recently begun making
the control system accessible through
a
standard web browser interface,
It would take
a
lengthy
scientific explanation
to describe how
"Pipeline" affects time.
So let's
stick to
a
subject
we all understand:
Money.
Sure.We could trot out our technical types
to clue you in on the aspects of quantum
physics and relativity theory that allow
"Pipeline" to do its thing. (Which is delay
both audio and video- together or separately,
in the same or different amounts, for
anywhere from one to ten seconds, in any
worldwide standard, without data
compression.) But that would soon
become tedious.
However, when we say that it does so for a
fraction of the cost of any device with
comparable capabilities, your interest (and
your ears) will perk right up.The Pipeline is
currently being used to correct today's
overprocessing problem of audio/video delay
offset; multi -path transmission audio/video
delay offset; censorship; and large screen
sports and entertainment lip sync.
Call Prime Image for more information -the
only company going that gives you
top -of- the -line digital video equipment and
improves your bottom line.We'd tell you
more. But it would take some dry economics
professor and lots of arcane financial
language to explain it.
l
e
110
`.
Elf
tfil
See us at NAB
Booth # L10186
The Digital Video People
662 Giguere
Court #C, San Jose, CA 95133
Tel (408)867 -6519 Fax (408) 926 -7294 Service (408)926 -5177
Primeimagein @earthlink.net
Circle (166) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
www.primeimageinc.com
both for programming and for control panel emulation.
Lastly, don't make the mistake of
assuming a single monolithic switch
will be the best option. If you have 1/O
for 25 HDTV signals, 75 SMPTE 259
Company
Model
Chyron
Eclipse
Pro -Bel
HD/SD
Freeway
Series
Evertz
Extron
X-HD9504/12
MAV Cross-
point/ Matrix
Formats
Supported
signals and 10 DVB ASI signals you
could choose a switcher with a 128x128
structure to leave room for growth.
This would yield over 16,000 crosspoints, when the sum of three smaller
matrices would only be less than 7000
Video
frame rates
Restocking
data rates
Analog
Digital
I/O
I/O
525/60;
140Mb/s to
1.485Gb/s
NA
625/50
Analog video;
Analog audio;
SMPTE 292/259M
525/60 and
140- 360Mb /s
SMPTE 292/259M
crosspoints. The burden of higher priced HD crosspoints in this case
could be a budget buster.
Lull' is president of Synergistic Technologies Inc. in Canonsburg, PA.
John
Controllable
levels
Combine/
Control
split audio protocols
pairs
128x128
more than
16
NA
Win 9x/NT
Yes
401
128x128
128x128
Eight
Yes
Win 9x/NT
Yes
402
Series 7000
Group
Free
other
into
products?
625/50
SMPTE 310/292
59.94, 60,
12x12
Two
No
Windows 9x,
Linux,
Windows NT
Yes
403
24, 25, 30
19.4Mb /s to
1.5Gb/s
NA
AES; 9504 -AES
Analog video;
Analog audio
NA
NA
64x64
NA
Six
No
RS-232;
RS-422; NT4;
Win 9x
No
404
Analog video
Analog audio;
SMPTE 310/ 292
24. 50,
143- 540Mb /s,
1.485Gb/s
1024x1024
1024x1024
32
Yes
Win 9x/NT
Yes
405
59.94, 60
Series
Grass Valley
Controls
Knox Video
Chameleon
HD
Analog video
Analog audio
Any
Any baud rate
256x128
NA
Seven
No
Win 9x/NT
No
406
Leitch
Integrator
Analog video;
Analog audio;
SMPTE 310/292
Any
143.360Mb/s;
256x256
256x256
Eight
Yes
Win 9x/NT
Yes
407
Digipath 16x
/ 32x
Analog video
analog audio
25, 29.97
32x32
32x32
Eight
No
Windows,
Yes
408
DAS -1000
Analog video
Analog audio;
SMPTE 310/292
All formats
No
409
Analog video
Analog audio
All formats
No
410
SW10S
Analog video
analog audio
All formats
NA
10x1
NA
One
NA
NA
No
411
All standard
frame rates
143- 360Mb /s;
NA
64x64
Four
NA
Win NT /API
Yes
Any
143.360Mb/s
144x144
144x144
16
Yes
Win 9x/NT
Yes
412
(up to
(up to
1200x1200)
1200x1200)
64x64
64x64
16
Yes
Win 9x/NT
Yes
413
(up to
(up to
1200x1200)
1200x1200)
Miranda
Multidyne
VAS-100
NVision
PESA
ENVOY6064/
SMPTE 310/292
6128/6256
259
Tiger
Analog video;
Analog audio
Switching
Jaguar
Philips
Venus 2001
Analog video
Analog audio
1.5Gb /s
NA
Mac
143- 360MB /s
1.485Gb/s
10x3
NA
10x3
10x1
Three
No
Terminal
control
NA
Three
No
Terminal
control
143-360Mb/s
Any
Analog video
Analog audio;
SMPTE 310/292
All
270- 360Mb /s, 2048x2048
1.5Gb/s
2048x2048
96
Yes
Standard
Yes
communication
protocols
414
Sierra Video
Systems
Analog video
Analog audio;
SMPTE 310/292
25/30
270- 360Mb /s
128x128
15
Yes
ASCII, DOS,
Yes
415
Sigma
Analog video;
Analog audio;
SMPTE 310
60
143.360Mb/s
128x128
128x128
Eight
Yes
Win 9x/NT
No
416
Analog video;
analog audio
SMPTE 292/259M
59.94, 60
143- 540Mb/s
1.5Gb/s
16x16
16x16
16
No
Sony,
Yes
417
143- 360Mb /s,
1.485Gb /s
512x512
Yes
418
Electronics
Sony
HDSX -3400/
3600/3700
Utah
Comteck
AVS Series
128x128
Windows
Analog video;
Analog audio,
SMPTE 310/292
Automation
vendors
512x512
16
Yes
Router
Management
System
For more information on these products, circle the corresponding number on the Free Info Card.
1
22
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
The new Venus 2001 modular universal router is the next generation in
routing sw:tcher technology from Philips. It fits perfectly with any existing
Venus system, so you are assured of instant compatibility. Mix and match
your choice of new signal modules (SD /HD video, AES audio, data, etc.)
all within the same chassis. Just plug in the card you want and build to any
siz:
There are no limits with Venus 2001. To learn more, call us toll free at
14 )0- 962 -4287, or visit our web site at www.hroadcast.philips.com.
Fat
2K information about Philips, BTS, and Mamar products, please refer to our websíre www.broadcur.philipsmm
Circle (1 59) on Free Info Card
-g
PHILIPS
Le#s mate, Aio45
bettee
New Products
Remultiplexer
processor
platform
Catalog
and PSIP
LeCroy
Thomcast/Comark
Amber: this processing family supports remultiplexing
of multiple input streams to create new customized
services, the PSIP processor to the filtering, injection or
extraction of PSIP tables with MPEG -2 ATSC transport
streams; can input up to eight input transport streams
with a payload bit rate of up to 50Mb/s; creates a fully
MPEG -2 DVB or ATSC -compliant output multiplex and
has the ability to scramble the output services; 413569 -0116; fax: 413 -569-0679; thomcastcom.com
T &M
Catalog: this
catalog features complete
descriptions of LeCroy's latest
digital and analog oscilloscopes, probes and accessories, signal sources, waveform
digitizers and high- energy
physics instrumentation, as
well as informative application briefs that are references
for engineers; 800 -553 -2769; 914 -425 -2000; fax: 914578 -5985; www.lecroy.com
Circle (358) on Free Info Card
Circle (362) on Free Into Card
Universal format converter
Panasonic AJ- UFC1800: this format converter
enables broadcasters to convert TV signals between
any two user -selectable
ATSC -DTV formats; is a
self- contained unit; 800528 -8601; 323 -436 -3500;
fax: 323 -436 -3660;
www.panasonic.com /broadcast
Circle (359) on Free Info Card
Frequency agile demodulator
Videotek DDM -500 8VSB: demodulates
an 8VSB
air signal to SMPTE 310M serial and synchronous
parallel LVDS transport streams; DVB /ASI output
off -
Power distribution system
Pulizzi Engineering TPC 2365/LT: this power
distribution
system auto-
matically
senses which
voltage (115
VAC or 230
VAC) is being
applied to the IEC 60320 C20 power inlet; internal
circuitry auto -selects the appropriate components
of the TPC 2365/LT, adjusting for the input voltage;
714 - 540 -4229; fax: 714 -641 -9062; www.pulizzi.com
Circle (363) on Free Into Card
is
optional; control
can be achieved
through the front
panel or external
communications remote control through the RS -232/
RS- 422 -485 serial port; front panel LEDs display the
current channel number, the SNR/SER and lock or
error conditions for the signal received; 800 -800 -5719;
610 -327 -2292; fax: 610 -327 -9295; www.videotek.com
Circle (360) on Free Into Card
Lipsync timing system
Queue Systems "What A Coincidence! ": this
lipsync timing system consists of a transmitter and a
receiver; the transmitter is placed at the origination
point and the
receiver at the
reception site; the
transmitter is
enabled and a
signal path consisting of one video channel and
four audio channels can be tested; any AN timing
discrepancy is displayed in less than a second; 818895 -8510; fax: 818 -895 -8510; www.queusystems.com
New Sikliftive
Real -time uncompressed
digital editing system
Accom Affinity: a real -time uncompressed digital 601 editing, effects,
compositing and finishing system
designed for high -end broadcast television and
video post
production;
compressed and
uncompressed
clips can be
mixed in any
project, allowing
the user to
optimize image
quality vs. storage time for each job; 650 -328 -3818;
fax: 650 -327 -2511; www.accom.com
Circle (361) on Free Info Card
124
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (350) on Free Info Card
Welcome to the world of electronic media communications,
where today's hot idea is tomorrow's old news.
Capitalizing on digital technology is the
new game in town and we want you
to be
a player. Your
survival has
everything to do with what
and how
you know
-
well you're prepared
to implement that
knowledge.
Tomorrow is here already at NAB2000.
Shouldn't you be, too?
THE FUTURE DOESN'T SNEAK UP ON YOU, IT RUNS YOU OVER.
Register at www.nab.org/conventions, or call 888 -740 -4622 or +1- 301 -682 -7962.
April 8 -13, 2000 Exhibits April 10 -13 Las Vegas, Nevada USA
s
Media platform
Grass Valley Group Profile XP: a new
multiformat, high- bandwidth product
designed to help broadcasters make the
transition to becoming multimedium video providers;800- 998-3588; 800 -547 -8949; fax: 503 -627 -7275;
www.grassvalleygroup.com
Circle (351) on Free Info Card
Digital nonlinear editing
and finishing system
Avid Media Composer XL: includes
first -time support for Apple's PowerMac
G4 systems, offering customers performance gains
including faster media management, transcoding and
special effects rendering; includes the option of
creating broadcast -quality productions with dual
streams of real -time uncompressed ITU -R 601 video;
800 -949 -AVID; 978 -640 -6789; fax: 978-851 0418;www.avid.com
Circle (352) on Free Info Card
Digital nonlinear and
finishing system
Avid Xpresss Version 3.1: this broadcast- quality video editing system
Digital nonlinear editing and
finishing system
Avid Symphony 2.0:
WindowsNTbased, high -end, uncompressed,
nonlinear system for TV post- production; supports a highly collaborative environment
through strong links to Avid's audio and effects
products and to third -party applications; the user
interface contains specific optimizations for higher end finishing while retaining the familiar Avid
interface; 800 -949 -AVID; 978 -640 -6789; fax: 978851 -0418; www.avid.com
a
Circle (354) on Free Info Card
Media network
Avid Unity MediaNet 1.1:
a
set of
open networking and central storage
technologies based on an advanced
media file system that enables real time, concurrent sharing of high- bandwidth
media; features Windows NT support that allows
direct connection of all of Avid's professional
editing applications; 800 -949 -AVID; 978 -640 -6789;
fax: 978 -851 -0418; www.avid.com
Circle (355) on Free Info Card
is
designed for video and multimedia professionals; this release includes significant enhancements to
graphics and titling, audio, effects, overall editing and
interoperation with third -party products; 800-949 -AVID;
978-640 -6789; fax: 978 -851 -0418; www.avid.com
Circle (353) on Free Info Card
SCSI host adapter
ATTO Ultra3: this dual channel host
adapter allows users in data -intensive
environments such as digital video,
pre-press, broadcast, digital audio and
imaging to take advantage of new levels of speed,
BROADCAST TOWERS
Guyed Towers & Self- Supporting Towers
efficiency and reliability;
employs next -generation SCSI
technology offering data
transfer rates of up to 320Mb/s
(160 Mb /s per channel); 716691 -1999; fax:716- 691 -9353;
www.attotech.com
Circle (356) on Free Info Card
Interactive
graphics software
Genetic Graphics
GenShade Software: this interactive software
application enables artists to
create a large variety of shaders
for Pixar's RenderMan and Side
Effects Houdini v4.0 mantra
Communications
Corporation
'Built to a Higher Standard"
Sabre
rommun,catont Cor .oration
Phone, 712)758 6690
1
126
2101 Murra
Street
P.O.
Far'712,256 8250
-e
.
www.,abremn rom
-800- 369 -6690
Circle (161) on Free Info Card
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
photo -realistic rendering
software; uses genetic algorithm techniques that are
custom made for the shader
generation, allowing artists
without any programming
background or awareness of the
shader making process to create
shaders; 912- 898-5915
Circle (357) on Free Info Card
74e
MATCH
IT!!
HENRY ENGINEERING
503 Key Vista D'rve
Sierra Madre, CA 91024 JSA
TEL (626) 355-3656 FA.. (626) 355.0077
FAX -on- Demand Doc *102 (626) 355-4210
i
WVW L
OWL STEREO LEVEL
A
E
Twinmatch is the "one -way
Matchbox" that's perfect for
matching unbalanced CD players
and other "play- only" devices.
There are four channels of -10 to +4
conversion, so you can match two
stereo CD players with one
Twinmatch! Direct -coupled
circuitry and lots of headroom for
absolute sonic transparency.
[J
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We Build Solutions.
http://www.henryeng.com
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Design and Mix
a
Cable Channel with
Revolutionary Multimedia -Insertion Technology!
CURRENT
TEMPERATURES
t
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MPEG-2 an.
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Berlin
28°
Cairo
36°
Dallas
32°
Geneva
24°
Johannesourg
25°
London
29"
Los Angeles
31°
Back -to -back MPEG audio/video playback
Munich
28°
with genlock for seamless ad insertion
New York City
27°
Nice
26°
Paris
24°
Concurrent display of analog video input and
MPEG -2 video in scalable, movable windows
Scalable, 24 -bit graphics overlays with 256
levels of transparency
Hardware -assisted scrolling and crawling of
multiple graphics windows
graphic overlay with transpared
NTSC /PAL composite video support,
optional S -video
support
to Rome and Venice. Call Travel Network now for current holiday packa,
horizontally crawling text or graphics
Single -slot PCI card
Supports multiple boards in
a
single system
Windows NT 4.0 support
SPECIALIZED TECHNOLOGY GROUP
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February 2000
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Broadcast Engineering
131
Business Wire
Business highlights from broadcast and production
BY SANDRA FERGUSON. EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
McGraw -Hill Broadcasting Group
selected Leitch's HDTV conversion
and processing solutions for its stations in Denver, Indianapolis and San
College Graphics sold and installed
its first Clarity HD graphics systems
to Complete Post in Los Angeles and
to HD Vision in Dallas.
PEOPLE
Panasonic's
Diego. Cogeco Cable selected Leitch
DigiBus synchronizers and noise reducers for its Quebec division. CTV
Television Network, Toronto, recently purchased a Leitch VR Newsroom
,.z.
ti
.
+''
t.,
server.
Denver's KMGH selected an NVISION ENVOY routing system for its
new digital infrastructure.
Johann Safar,
senior manager/ industry liaison and technology, was
named a 1999
SMPTE Fellow.
DDG announced that Ron Bardach
will join the company
as
director of
sales.
World Wrestling Federation Entertainment ordered a 48 -fader Euphonix
System 5 digital mixing console for its
Stanford, CT, studio facility.
Rapid Broadcasting chose ADC to
supply complete transmission systems
for its Sioux Falls and Rapid City
stations.
3i PLC recently purchased Solid State
Logic. SSL will continue to concentrate
on its core designing and manufacturing business.
Harris provided a
Sigma CD -lI DTV transmitter with CD Eye to WPBT in
Miami. Harris recently acquired
Louth Automation.
Video Productions Group appointArt Franco to vice president of
ed
operations.
Xyratex appointed Don Lefebvre
its director of worldwide sales.
The Outdoor Channel in Temecula,
CA, invested in JVC's D -9 equipment.
Mark J. Jeffers is Orad's
new senior
360 Systems recently expanded its
manufacturing facility in Westlake Village, CA.
vice president
of
Taiwan cable television network, SuperTV, purchased a SeaChange International Broadcast MediaCluster digital video server system.
recently entered into an exclusive agreement to sell MCI to a joint
partnership between Dr. Paul D. Smith,
CNN placed
an order with
FloriCal Systems for new
system -to -air
commercials
Fluke acquired Wavetek Wandel Goltermann's Precision Measurement division in addition to its Test Tools product line.
WUTB - Baltimore
CNN
Headline
News
and
the CNN Airport Channel. FloriCal Systems installed asset management and control at WWOR in
New York and WUTB in Baltimore.
Broadcast Engineering
velopment.
Pesa
MCI's director of product development,
and the Rymsa Corp. of Madrid.
Orad and sports.com recently agreed
to a deal composed of an annual license
and an advertising revenue sharing
model.
Cable News Network recently took delivery of a dual band flyaway antenna
system from Advent Communications.
132
sports
sales and de-
Jeffers
for
as
February 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Wilson. Jones, Mohajer
Matthey Microfilters recently made
the following appointments: Preston
son as engineer; Justine Jones as sales
office supervisor and Reza Mohajer as
engineer.
RT-SET appointed Christopher S.
Webster as its sales manager for the
East Coast.
Ed Glass
was
as
appointed
Crown Audio's
vice president of
engineering.
Glass
TASCAh1
re-
c?ntly appointed
Jace Nuzback as
Irsproduct
alist.
spe-
Nuzback
]
Highpoint recentappointed Ed-
ward R. Boyd as its
xclusive representative nationwide.
e
Boyd
Y/VIM
ist.'\7Yti:
ScreenShot
ABC O &O station WLS
selects Canon lenses for
'
.7
digital, HD
,
govailol
"
Lr,
One tough performer
you can count on.
Chicago's ABC
0 &O station
WLS
The Telex RTS TW intercom system. The performance
recently invested in a host of new
Canon lenses for production. The
lenses included four Digi Super X.25x
lenses, a new HDTV lens ideal for
you need day in and day out. The flexibility you need
to meet changing conditions. More than 25 different
companies planning to upconvert to
HDTV without straining their budget.
Currently in the process of converting WLS to an all -digital facility, tie
mode for up to 50 user stations. Solid state circuitry
enables dual channels through a standard 3 -pin XLR.
The system's high quality ecuipment is broadcast standard
for production with IFB and camera ISO. For solid
performance and thick -skinned durability, depend
station chose the Canon Digi Super
XJ25 for pictures provided both when
shooting its high -profile newscast in
SD and in the subsequent
upconversion to HD. The Canon
lenses are attached to Sony 900
Series studio cameras.
components give you an almost infinite variety of
configurations The RTS TW operates in full duplex
on the RTS TW by Telex.
0 1999 Telex Communications. Inc.
Telex®
Circle (162) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Windows to the Web
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Not
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EAST. MATIVI VIDEO
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www.pinnaclesys.com
www.commscope.com
Pinnacle Systems: Pinnacle Systems' broadcast products give
CommScope, Inc. is the world's leading manufacturer of coaxial
professionals the cutting edge tools needed to create dazzling
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professional with over 30 years of experience in the manufacture
of high performance transmission media.
ENGINEERING
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www.broadcastengineering.com
Folsom Research: Folsom Research offers
a complete line of
scan converters, video format converters, scalers, and other
image processing products. Our easy -to-navigate website
features detailed product specifications, including downloadable
files and articles. The site is continuously updated and is
always full of new information. To get more information visit
www.folsom.com or call toll free at 888- 414 -7226. Come see
us at NAB 2000, Booth #M8532.
Broadcast Engineering: Broadcast Engineering
is the only
technology- driven online magazine in the industry. Its editorial
environment delivers practical, informative articles on digital
technology, systems integration, management. how -to installation, and systems and equipment maintenance. It is a package
geared toward TV stations, cable /telcom, production, post production, business TV, satellite and interactive television.
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Upgrading equipment? Need to remarket the replaced
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For more information on advertising in the Windows to the Web
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Broadcast Engineering
February
2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
PHOTO - VIDEO - PRO AUDIO
420 9th Ave.
Between 33rd & 34th Streets
New York, N.Y. 10001
Store and Mail Order Hours:
Sun. 10 -5, Mon. thru Thurs. 9 -7
Fri. 9 -1, Sat. Closed
For Orders Call:
800-947-9928
212 - 444 -5028
or FAX (24 Hours):
800-947-9003
212 - 444 -5001
On the Web:
www. bh photovid eo. corn
We Ship
Worldwide
212
www.americanradiohistory.com
EIRIIE
NIHE
PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE"
FOR ORDERS CALL:
oR
FAX
Store it Mail Order Hours:
Sunday 10 -5
Monday thru Thursday 9 -7
Friday 9 -1 Saturday Closed
(24 HouRS):
0- 947 -9928 800 -947 -9003
212- 444 -5028
212 -444 -5001
20 Ninth Ave. (Bet. 33rd & 34th St.)
-law"
;D
zontal resolution.
d minimum illuminae 16.9'4:3 capability.
%e operation.
Mgr direct digital out locus. iris. gain white balance and shutter speed.
m
n
°s
mera
vShol
low it
Hooting
'10115
idea fade over-
dsh
cus ins shutter. gain and
.istable in 12 levels from F1.6
4 10 1,10.000 of a second in 12
3dB to .18dB in 8 steps
tucator. butt -in ND filter.
-.rt tunction lets you preset store and recall
0
cusir
settings tor color intensity white balance
(blur-
or reddish). sharpness and brightness
DSR -20/40
Stores Photo. Date/Time. Shutter Speed. Iris. Gain and
F -stop for easy recall So if you have to re- shoot. you
know your original settings for every scene and frame.
Records Drop /Non -Drop Frame lime code. Time code can
be read either as RC time code or as SMPTE time code
Has a large 1 -inch B &W viewfinder with 550 lines of
resolution for easy focusing even in low contrast lighting situations. Separate information sub panel displays
time code. battery time. tape remaining and other camcorder functions without cluttering up the viewfinder
Records 16-biti48kHz audio on one stereo track or
t2- brt32kHz with two pairs of stereo tracks (LI R 1.
12'R2). so you can add stereo music or narration
One -point stereo electret condenser mic for clear stereo
separation Dnectmny can be selected from 0°. 90° & 120°
Automatic & manual 120-step) audio level record controls. Monitor audio with headphones or from the LCD
panel which has an active VU meter
XLR input connectors for mics and audio equipment.
DVCAM Player /Recorders
The D: It -20 and DSR -40 are versatile DVCAM VCRs with compact chassis and a variety of convenient functions for
record g. playback and simple editing. They feature Auto Repeat Playback. Power -On Recording /Playback. multiple
control interfaces and i.Link (IEEE13941 input and output. And. of course. they offer the stunning image and
macho
r
unity inherent to the DVCAM formal.
i.LINK
sounc
They
ia at
.Th offer LINK
O.
(
(1EEE1394) input and output.
Imo in the "Digital dubbing including TC Copy"
mud- full information of video, audio and time code of
the n final tape can be copied to another tape
Esa( illy useful when making working copies of the
Doge
They
oulpi
term
011101
nent
log e
RCA
rions
I.
Inputs and Outputs
ruvide a full range of analog video inputs and
is for integration into current analog-based sysThey both offer composite and S -Video
"Opt. while the DSR -40 (only) offers a campoinput as well. The DSR-20 is equipped with anato inputs and outputs (RCA). the DSR -40 with
rpuls and XLR -balanced output These connecis combination with their LINK interlace allow a
m transition to an all digital system in the future
Record/Playback Functions
alit repeat function for repeated playback After
nq either the end of the tape. the first blank pori
sec
Attu
mac
lion or the first index point. the DSR -20'40 automat,
tally rewinds the tape then starts playing back the sepment again
They are capable of searching for Index Points. which
are recorded on the tape as "in- point" marks every lime
a recording starts. They can also search for photo data
recorded on a DVCAM cassette by the DSR200A300(PD -100 or where the recording date has
been changed
Reference Input
External sync input enables synchronized playback with
other VCRs Especially important in A.B Roll configuralions In addition. the DSR -40 only allows adjustment
-sync and SC phase via the menu
Control S Interface
The DSR- 20,DSR -40 have a Control S input allowing
control via the optional DSRM -20 Remote Control.
The DSR -20 adds a Control S output connector allowmg two or more (up to 50) DSR -20s to be daisychained and controlled from one DSRM -20.
of
SR -20 can be powered by AC or DC.
Equ ,oeil with Control L interface. the DSR -20 can per foru ample Time Code -based editing when connected
tc a else DSR -20 or other similarly equipped
The
VCF .'cameras
fort
It a
n
las
a
simple recording function which can be
DSR -30
soma.
iar poi
inter(
DSR-
tinuo
other
digit(
(WC,/
Re(
cha
Ego
basBui
'
vide
By
roc
dra
Tae
Cat
Aur
mtl
controlled either manually or via its RS -422A interlace
a synchronization capabdediting accuracy is performed by pm-roll and play.
The DSR-40 is not equipped with
fay the
3 -CCD
Digital recording delivers 500 lines of hormontalresolution with no noise. (S'N ratio is 54dB).
10.1 power and 20:1 digital zoom lens. Both zooms are
adjustable in four speeds (3.5 -15 sec ) For extreme
close -ups the lens can focus up to 1/4" from the subject
Audio is also digital. using PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) for quality that rivals CDs Choose between two channel 16 -brl recording or Iwo sets of 12 -bit stereo.
with the second set reserved for uses such as narration
Huge 1.5- 180.000 pixel color viewfinder provides 400
lines of resolution and displays all automatic and manual functions on demand
Variable speed shunter from 1/60-1/8000 of a second
Built -in SMPTE time code generator
Digital Electronic Image Stabilizer (DEIS) compensates for
priory Videoespeciaily sudi the digital zoom rs enrploved
Digital Video Camcorder
Digital
AIM `Photo -Shot
lets you
record a
sun -frame
for six seconds. while audio
continues as normal
290 still pictures can be recorded [ n a single 30- minute lape
Three ways to easily find previously recorded scenes
TopScan plays back the first few seconds of each seg-
$1695
-
-
ment. pros/ding a handy way to review an entire tape.
Record/Review rewinds the camcorder and plays the
last 10 seconds of the last recorded scene
Indexing encodes the first scene shot on a given day. to
quickly find the starting point of each day's shooting
O N YDSR -300
3 -CCD
Digital (DVCAM) Camcorder
The most advanced DVCAM camcorder. the incredibly affordable DSR-300
incorporates three 112 -inch CCD5. DSP digital technology and is the only onepiece camcorder in its class with 100° - total digital transfer between the camera
section and the VCR section
High Performance:
Three 1)2 -inch 410.000 pixel PowerHAD CUM provide
high quality acquisition with increased sensitivity plus
"FIT like" reduced vertical smear of -110dB
Delivers high quality artifact-free images. Offers an out standing 800 lines of horizontal resolution. a sensitivity
of FI I at 2000 lux and a true minimum illumination of
0 5 lux It also features an advanced LSI Digital Signal
Processor (the same one used by the DXC -D301 tor a
high SA ratio of 62dB.
Hyper Gain mode using DPR (dual pixel readout) allows
shooting in extremely low light vnth virtually no noise.
Digital Signal Processing:
Skm Tone Detail and Correction- Offers a more natural
appearance by smoothing details in the picture A feature normally found in much higher priced cameras.
Skin Tone Detail and Correction reduces and controls
wrinkles in the selected skin area without changing the
other areas of the image
TruEye and DynaLatlude- Just like in the DXC030 this
feature allows the camera to n- vnnl.me calms, des
with a wide dynamic range of
contrast
Black Stretch and Compress'. Emphasizes the contrast
in dark areas of the picture without any color changes
that would require color correction in the editing
process
Digital Functions:
Very similar to the DSR-1. the VCR section includes
Setuplog. FreezeMix and EditSearch functions.
SetupLog automatically records status of the camera
settings onto the DVCAM cassette throughout the
shooting process. FreezeMix aid EdifSearch allow you
to search for a certain scene aid retake if necessary b,.
superimposing the recorded image to the live image in
the viewfinder.
is also avolatle using the optional
DSBK -301 interlace board. CIiOLink records index pictures on the tape as well as. snot list data. logging
function (reel
time cone late
and OK. NG (No
Ga -b Oat. iii11nnil nn
Cliplmk logging
JVC GY-DV500
1/2 -Inch 3-CCD Professional DV Camcorder
The worlds first DV camcorder designed from the ground up for professional
ENG work. the GY-DV500 combines the convenience and cost -effectiveness 01
Mini DV with the performance and features you need II incorporate three 2inch 380,000 pixel IT CCDS for superior picture performance lequivalent
to 750 lines of resolution) superb sensitivity of F11 at 2000 lux and min-
imum illumination of 0.75lux ILOLux model Ruggedly constructed with
the durability processiona rigid diecast magnesium housing providing
lesss than
als crave. the GY- DV500's compact design and light weight
11 lbs fully loaded) makes it extremely portable. Additional features like the menu dial
and Super Scene Finder assure ease -of -use and shooting flexibility. while the IEEE1394 and FS -232 interface allow
integration into various non-linear and post -production systems A professional camcorder it every sense. the compact. lightweight GY-DV500 redefines acquisition for corporate. educational. cable and broadcast production as well as
wedding vrdeography and multimedia applications
Prolnsional Specifications
DVCAM Digital VCR
-30 is an industrial grade DVCAM VCR that can be used for
playback and editing. DV standard 4:1 1 sampling digital
rent recording with a 5:1 compression ratio provides spectacuue quality and multi -generation performance It has a Control L
a for editing with other Control L based recorders such as the
IDA DVCAM Camcorder or another DSR -30 It also has a conauto repeat playback function making it ideal for kiosks and
o of of information displays. Other features include high quality
oidio. IEEE -1394 Digital interlace and external tinier recording. The DSR -30 can accept both Mini and Standard
.1 cassettes for up to 184 minutes of recording time. and can playback consumer DV tapes as viell.
ds PCM digital audio at either 48kHz (16-bit 2
Built -in control tray has a jog /shuttle dial. VCR and edit
function buttons. The jog/shuttle dial allows picture
el) or at 32kHz 112 -bit 4 channel)
pod with Control L. capable of SMPTE Time Code
search at x1/5 to 155 normal speed and controls not
accurate editing even without an edit controller
only the DSR -30 but also a player hooked up through
n editing functions include assemble and separate
its LANG interface
and audio insert.
DV In 'Out (IEEE 1394) for digital dubbing of video.
aiching for either an Index point or Photo Data
audio and data ID with no loss in quality
fed by the DSR -200A camcorder. the DSR -30
Analog audio and video mputoutputs make it tully
clay cuts the time usually required for editing
compatible with non -digital equipment Playback corn ER-30 can record up to 135 Index points on the
patrbuBty with consumer DV tapes allows you to work
its
16K
'-re Memory thanks to
bits capability
with footage recorded on consumer -grade equipment.
lock ensures audio is fully synchronized with the
Tapes recorded in the DSR-30 are also compatible with
far absolute precision when dmnq an insert edit
Sony's )ugh -end DVCAM VCR's
R
f
reran
Broadcast &Television Systems
1
addition to Control L. the DSR -20 also incorporates
an RS -232 interface for remote control of basic VCR
functions from a PC.
Supplied with the RMT -DS20 Wireless Remote for con trot of basic VCR functions.
In
DSR-40 Only
zed with an RS-422A interface the DSR -40 can peris the editing player in A B roll or cut editing system
Equ
Panasonic
H
DSR-20 Only
the Web: http:/ /www.bhphotovideo.com
New York, N.Y. 10001
AG -EZ 1
Digital (DVCAM) Camcorder
ror picture quality
the DSR-200A rs
wedding vrdeogra-
On
Applies JVC's DSP with advanced 14 -bit video processing
Is bring out more natural details eliminate spot noise
accurately reproduce dark areas and restore color information on dark areas
CCD5 are equipped with advanced circuitry to virtually
eliminate vertical smear when shooting bright lights in a
dark room Ensures efficient light conversion with a sensitivity of F11 al 2000 lux
CCD Defect Correction function evaluates white defects
with Ise lens closed and then stores their addresses in
memory When the camera is turned on the data is sent to
the DSP for storage and real-time correction
Black Stretch /Compress function ensures accurate reproduction of black areas on the screen Advanced color
matrix circuits give wen difficult images a very natural
appearance
Multi -stream parallel digital pipeline processing at 40 MHz
creates an ultra- smooth gamma curve calculated using a
true log scale algorithm The result is a dynamic range of
600 °° to accurately reproduce line details and colors in
shadows or highlights
Proleesional Performance
Multi-zone iris weighting system gives priority to objects
and
lower portions of the picture for accucentral
rate auto exposure under any condition. even a bright
sublecl moves into th+ picture
at the
01
Atllustable gamma for adjusting the "feet of the picture
according to taste. Adjustable retail frequency tor setting
picture sharpness for a bolder sr finer look
Viewfinder status display uses characters and menus to
diplay selected information inoudrng audio indicator, tape
and battery remaining lime. VCR operation and warning
indicators. Camera settings and setup parameters can also
be checked at a glance. A built in menu dial lets you quickly navigate through the wewln der menu
Hrghhght Chroma Processing maintains color saturation in
highlights The result is natural color reproduction. even in
bright highlight portions of the picture
Smooth Transition mode ensures a smooth transition with
no lump in color OF light levee taking place when manually
changing gain or white balance settings
Proleulonal Audio
To complement its superior video performance. the GYDV500 offers outstanding digits' PCM sound You can
choose between two 16 -bit 48 kHz channels or two 12 -bit
32 -kHz channels with a dynamic range of 85 dB
In addition to camera mounted mic. has two XLR -bal anted audio inputs with 48v ahantom power and manual audio control. Phantom power can be switched off
when not in use.
Side- mounted speaker lets you monitor audio in playback
and recording modes without Yeadphanes The speaker
also delivers audible warnings
Il
Circle (169) on Free Info Card
-
THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURct,
FOR ORDERS CALL:
anlvtiauer
800- 947 -9003
212- 444 -5028
212- 444 -5001
sachtler
©
DV Systems -Digital
Battery
HyTRON 50
Tripods and
Fluid Heads
Support for Every Budget
versatile camera support syslen,
:.t about every conceivable digital Conmr.I ;.,:s,',
'
.
'
.stern
roar,
DV2 System
t
9
Long
cana
lbs r881,01
3
10 75).
limn,
a 17
lams
DV4XD System
-
M221NIBr
PE30HMP
DV4 %O
:
on
4.99
6.29
8.29
--BONMP
70HMP
Shst.M (0610) consists oc
12M ,Mec
0P121
.'dta
19.99
30.99
7.49
941
DV8 System
1
Head (DV 6/ Long Tripod IDA 75).
spreader (SP 751
Same as OVB PLUS
-
L
.11
I
I. 10omm tripods
P6 -30 CMBI.
P6 -120 HM
15" and 17" On Camera Prompters
The 15- and 17' On Camera prompter a Inc .' dusfr, standard and desauen for use ,um
any camera. for any application The high contrast. high resolution monitor created by OTV.
is the result of state of the art components and design. The monitor permits a much greater
degree of tilt because of its cutaway feature Its VPS Eyelrne feature superimposes copy
over the camera lens enabling the reader to maintain maximum eye-to -eye contact It's
easy and comfortable to read ON s On Camera prompter will make sure the talent has
clear access to the prompter. The 17" model has a viewing area of 123 sq inches. 39 °°
more than the 15- model The 15" On Camera prompter rs also available in a tree standing
pedestal model. which can be utilized both in the studio and In remote situations
^orating the same
principles as its
Oscar and Emmy
rig Steadicam
.Is the Video SK 2
purled for cameras
mg from 9.19 lbs
-are compact and
,nnplex the crams SK2 system -sled.
er arm and vest.,
a mere 21 lbs
e neatly Into the
,
a Car
mg Is easier than
Id a single battery operates both camera and
slam In fact. the 51(2 is the only Steadicam simple
;ri to be operated without workshop training A corm
d
I
539
PLUS
;
r'tormo like
a
on the move
true heavyweight
effortlessly without cranes booms or
The sled-mounted monitor offers a crystal-dear
so your eyes are no longer glued to your camera s
And with the weight spread comfortably over
wso you can shoot on the run climbing stairs or
'rom a moving vehicle With one smooth tracking
apture what used 10 require live or six setups. An
.n low-mode bracket can further enhance your creWhether you shoot commercials. industrials on
Ientanes. the SK2 lets you alter more flexibility that
etore. It you can Imagine a shot. you can shoot it
efficiently. more economically and more creatively
Ili any other other equipment
rr
.e
'
PVW-
type NP -1 or Anton Bauer 13-14 volt batteries allowing onlocation as well as studio prompting. It weighs only 19 lbs
including Ore quick release roller plate for last mounting and
balancing Below the lens mounting Is ulrbzed resulting ideal
counter balancing for ease of operation
Meath away
adding tughprolooting
value to every scene l
¢tats industrials dosunieraa., olusic videos
in Lull length moron pictures Ilre Gld
n -V" series
in,. ripis have traveler
Im
t1
O0YOb0 MR (Eacept
M
I A) OLIO,
op to
1
Ib. Add 759 for each
cameras. the VP -9 weighs only 17 /2Ibs and both the
monitor and camera mount set up quickly and easily As with
the other units the VP5 Eyeline feature assures maximum ere
contact with lens while easily reeding the script It packs up
very tightly. making it easy to fake anywhere
1
SONY
2600
2650
/PVW-
*NUM N. For I-.
5.99
6.99
U.99
-
29.95
Panasonic
:'
Mini 0V Tape
6.49
7.99
12.99
D.T.Ldu
AY OVM-60
AV-OVM80
.
-
"
-
ea
ea
9.99
19.49
29.99
38.95
SONY
AJ-P126L
Ni-u Professional Metal Video Cassettes
4.59
7.99
6.09
10.99
P6-120HMPv
8.49
10,99
PR Series Professional Grade MIS
2.39
2.59
TJOPR
2 .79
PM Series Premier Grade Professional VHS
T.60PM
3.99
M Series Premier 11.'6rade Broadcast VHS On Bog
T-30BA
T120Be
4.79
3.59
3.99
Mg Master Duality S.VNS Ile Baal
MOST-30
7.49
''
7.79
7,99
MOST -120
MS 3/0" U.matic Broadcast Standard (In Beal
KCS-10 BRS
8.69
mi
8.99
KCA-10 BRS
8,19
8.69
KCA -30 BRS
9.60
.
13.39
UR 314" 0-matic Broadcast Master On 4a)
KCS-10 MP in
8.79
KBR rum10.59
3(3R
KCA -10 %BR
9.29
10.69
OEA
KCA30 %BR
11.99
15.69
p6 -30 HMO,
P6-60 HMPI
/PVW -2800
w 500 ow 61M. 01M0 060 Rob - YIBao.
5.99
7.49
20.95
DVCPRO
A3P66L ILarne
'
..
-
MICROPHONE SYSTEMS
nlbas¡noutl
IB01)
AJ-P33M
Consisting of 5 handheld and bodypack transmitters and 6 different
receivers. Sony's UHF is recognized as the outstanding wireless uric system for professional applications Operating in the 800 MHz band range.
they are barely affected by edema] noise and interference They Incorporate a PLL (Phase Locked Loop) synthesized control system that makes it
easy to choose hour up to 282 operating Irequenc¡es and with the use of
Sony's pre-programmed channel plan it is simple to choose the correct
operating Inequencres for simultaneous multichannel operation
Additional features like space diversity reception LCD indicators. reliable
and sophist cared circuit technology ensure low noise, wide dynamic
range and extremely stable signal transit scion and reception Ideal tot
broadcasletg BtAUms IIn1 l'- ulnctron facilities and ENG work
a shots Mal hi.,
:.rdiences and
VMS
/U-P12M Medium
800 SERIES UHF WIRELESS
for shc,.': I..;
Broadcast Ouallly
Professional S/VIIS (In Bos)
6.79
31-62 BC
zls Si-162 B0.
Betacam SP
..
19.99
13.d9
B90t.h-
B3r"'
..
,rids r.
2.99
3.99
MG%T160 Pp.
ST-126 BO
... ... ..
'
HG%T-60 Pus
ST-31 BO
-
V-16 AND V-20
2.09
2.69
219
BO
Betacam SP Pro Series
Camera Stabilization Systems
VIS
1.99
T-30 BG
Whenever versatility and no compromise performance is needed there is only one
choice. Legendary reliability and comprehensive support for its many users has established the PVw series as the standard in broadcast and post production The PVW
Sexes includes the PVW -2600 Player. PVW-2650 Player with Dynamic Tracking and the
PVW -2800 (riding Recorder They feature built -in TBCs. LTCNITC time code operation
.
Ind RS -422 serial interlace They also offer composite S'Wdeo and component video
riputs and outputs. Most nnportant they are built for heavy every day duty
Built -in TBCS and digital dropout compensation assure conTwo types of compown
srstent ptclure performance. Remote TBC adlustment can
vent connection. three BNC connectors or a Betacam 12 -pin
Ire done using the optional BVR -50 TBC Remote Control
dub connector They have composite and S'Vrdeo signals as
the PVW'2600. PVW -2650 and PVW'2800 (generates as
well
Nell) read VITC. LTC time code as well as Usen Bits Ent Mt
PVW -2650 Only
time code, Regen'Preset. or RecRun Free -Run selections
Dynamic Tracking ¡DTI playback from -1 to .3 times
Built-in character generator displays time code or CTL dala
¡normal speed
Sei-up menu for presetting many tunchonal parameters
PVW -2800 Only
Two longitudinal audio channels with Dolby C- type NR
Built -in comprehensive editing facilities.
Dynamic Motion Control with memory provides slow
Recognizable monochrome pictures at up to 24% normal
motion editing capability
speed in forward and reverse. Color at speeds up to lox
.
1.69
BO
Min i Videoprompter
The MVP -9 mini videoprompter Is designed for use with
smaller cameras and small spaces The same level of performance is achieved as the larger CRT based units but in a
smaller configuration that is powered by AC or DC current has
above) Created for the new generation of smaller. lighter
vve instructional video will have you up and runMoms. But make no mistake. the lightweight Video
3
:
MVP -9
3
1
HGxPLUS nos ¡Boa)
MVP-12
The MVP-12 incorporates OTV s latest design technology for
studio and EFP prompting. The MVP-12 features the most
advanced circuitry Ion a prompter of this size Fully sell-contooled it offers high brightness and high resolution That
ensotes unmatched ease of readability for the speaker. The
MVP -12 is powered by AC or DC current utilizing the Sony
8.70
64L rLg
123L
Metal Particle 101MI
Nre
P 1
Steadicam Video SK2
24.115
Broadcast Quality Me Metal Particle
Plus
T-120 Plus
SK
12.41
OK PM
maxell
751
T -30
VID O
E61
P6-120 %RM
DV12
Great
E
M3215P Metal
11.99
14.99
Same as OOP PLUS
Greater load capacliy
OV8 System )0810) consists 0f:
Tripod IDA 751 floor spreader (SP
b'Ii of dynanuc counterbalance
-y of vertical .und nmrnona( drag
I
6.69
Metal Particles
63M
Same as the DV4 PLUS
Four -Position Power /Chargers
3,29
51-30
751
QUAD 2702/2401
2.39
Broa
Built in bubble for horizontal leveling
Single stage 75mm long tripod DA 75
Lightweight floor spreader SP 75
DV4 Sysbra (0410) consists 0f:
fluid Head IDV -4). Long Tripod IDA 751 floor
spreader (SP 75)
This system (0210) Consists of:
PG-30
BGR-30
H471S S-
Vlbraivnless vertical horizontal brakes
Vibrationless vertical 'horizontal brakes
¡Wad Hours)
25 Watts
-
one levels of drag
one levels of drag
I
50 WH
all the
I
Sliding balance plate
Touch and Go quick release with automatic
camera lock and safety lever drop protection
One step of dynamic counterbalance
Frictionless leak proof fluid damping with
,
I
111
2
:
.rule today All
lunch and Ge wedge plates And all e.ceut the DV2 feature sliding cam
DV4 System
aviurnaa
nn. .I rit. and sale).
level drop protection
One step 01 dynamic counterbalance
Frictionless leak proof fluid damping with
-
'
,m(1
Camera.
cessible by recent advancements or a cell technolon.
resigned tor the mobile computing industry it rnco'
metal hydride cells prat provide me highest energl p
- rechargeable cylindrical cell available High perform,-r assured through me integration of Anton Bauer
-Ahwe digital technology
ped with an on -board fuel computer which monitors
out and output as well as Critical operating characters
auditions Tres data rs communicated to the IM.N.u.
.t to ensure safety and opmnue reliability
litron remaining battery capacity rnlorirration rs avarie
al an LCD display On each battery and III the view
popular broadcast 6 professional camcorders
:,iost
low voltage limiter prevents potentially damaging
Specifications.
lu,lll:ri:
(.'.I
800 -947 -9928
f
PHOTO - VIDEO - PRO AUDIO
FAX
IF'
,
-
'
Broadcast do Boni
RSP 3)4- U-matiC SP
KSP -Sig
9,59
11.09
10.09
11.59
'
12.99
16.99
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ens manutaLturers to
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n iota to
size an,
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until e
a
minimum
fir' J
illy With Asphenc
Techno (ty IAr2) Fupnon has su.ceeded -r ianulactunng superior qu., t.
lenses
a are both smaller and lighter than lenses ut can
ventom sdhencal design From the widest angle to the
!ugliest .11 photo. Fupnons broadcast hand-held style lenses
otter uu Inlleled features and performance. In tact they are
so adva, Rd and so optically superb they roll reshape your
Minkin, bout hoot well a lens can pedutm
Al5X8EVM
A20X8EVM
Standard /Telephoto Zoom Lens
11499.95
Duo,
RS4x4 /8x8/ 16x 16/ 1 6x8/ 1 2x2
Video /Audio Matrix Routing Switchers
Ar, 01,
al.
family of llryll pet lnllllanlI. 1 -, 11.1011el noutmg S:. it(. IA
saille easy-to-use and very affordable Housed In all ullyd-lmn tack
mount chaslss They accept and route ton the vertical Intervall virtually any video Signal including on-the-air and non- tnnebase
corrected video They also route balanced or unbalanced stereo
audio The audio lollOevs the video or you can roule the audio sec
arately (breakaway audio) Each of the switches offers manual
control via Iront panel operation They can also be controlled
remotely by a PC. a Knox RS Remote Conboller or by a Knox
Remote Keypad via their RS -232 port Front panel LEDs indicate tin nuer.t'aut : µ0I. III at
all times Knox switehers are ideal for applications such as studio -teed umbol ana u'ntcllen Input tog_
Col. plus they have an Internal timer allowng timed sequence of patterns for sur vellance apphcatiers as well
Knox
Text and Graphics Generator and Video Titling Software
-
-
6
Iuhased displays Display and non -display butlers
ir 10 nanosecond ellective poet resolution
lion color selections Fast reallnne operations
Ir. Logo and PC% Image transparency
loges border mop shadow and offset
tit on and lustily control of character and row
fi able nnncharacter spacing ¡squeeze 8 expand)
Automatic character kerning
noll cra,:`I speeds
li tattle tab/template fields
backgrounds of variable sizes and transparency
le controlled video tinting
7
Cher(
`Jana.
hull p
User
Mu ti
UsI
I
n
Shad
Sotte'
,lntiaNIMIL
-User definable
read effects playback wipes pushes. fades
NTSC or PAL sync generator vnth genlock
Board addressabdny for mullechannel applications
Auto display sequencing Local messagerpage memory
Preview: output with sate -title -cursor menu overlay
Composite and S -video input stilb auto-genlock select
et lords is vutuale/ unlimited. Also supports most
-
intern,
and tl
Adjust
comp
Chata
oral language character sels Fonts load Instantl'7
level of anti- alia50g applied is selectable
vide range of character attributes Wide choice al
don tools
!r
nords. rows and fields can color flash
Ohara.
.
table
manu
,
d
Z
xrails crawls and reveal modes Speed is seleccan be auto timed with pauses Messages can be
advanced or put into sequences afono :nth nage
Ilarsn n.
Multiple preview: windows can be displayed simultaneously
Transitions effects include cul fade. push vape reveal.
peel zoom matrix, wipe. spiral. spllt. 0:nave and alter
Import elements to build graphics This includes OLE
objects INFiNiTi ROBA and MA with alpha channel Scribe
also (moons and exports TIFF. JPEG. PC% TUA. BMP GIF
CLP. ASCII. IMO. SG, PICT and EPS ton ais
Housed in a thin mottle nackmou-t 1 chassis.
Also ecep' the RSI2x2 are available m S-Video versions
with without audio
Models RS16x8 and RS1616 are also available in
ROB component version
With optional Remote Video Reacout. the RS16x8 and
RS16x16 can display active routes on a monitor al remote
locations via a composite signal tram a BNC connector On
the tear panel
RS44. 9584 and RS16x16 are also available wrath
balanced stereo audio They operate at 660 ohms and handle the full range of balanced audio up to .4 dB vnth pro
lesson!al quickCOnnect self-locking bare-wire ConnectOrS
The
-
Manufacturing test and measurement egmpo- lu; is the standard which others are measured against tot reLaONt, uedm,n,u¢e .mil
most important -cost effectiveness.
5860C
5850C
WAVEFORM MONITOR
VECTORSCOPE
two-input waveform monitor the 5860C features
silly and 2V mag time bases as well
vertical ampldiel response choices of flat IRE Ilmv
pass). chroma and DIF-STEP The latter facilitates
easy checks of luminance linearity using the staircase
signal. A PI% MON output lack feeds observed IA on
BI signals to a picture monitor. and the mil accepts
The ideal companion for the
external sync reference Built-in calibrator and onott control of the DC restorer is also provided
selecting Me phase reference holm either A
external timing reference
A
1H. 1V 2H 21/.
PC-0001 and PCSeribe Bundle
srulclung
LEADER
PC- Scribe Software:
punt
Internal vertical udetval switching hrmware allows on-au
Accept and routes vmually any one-volt NTSC or PAL video
signal input to any or all video outputs
Accept and route Iwo -voll mono or stereo unbalanced
audio inputs tu any on all audio outputs
Video and audio inputs can he routed Independently they
dun t need to have the same destination
Can store and recall preset cross -point patterns. INOI available on RS12x2 I
Front panel key-pad operation Ion easy manual Operation
Can also be controlled via RS -232 interlace with optional
RS Remote Controller or Remote Keypad
Front panel LEO hedrcaturs display the present routing patterns at all tintes
An Infernal battery remembers and restores the curent
pattern in case of pourer tadme
Jlporales a trroanlc,nl (pally too oiler and a :ride Dena:'. edlll
linear k -fr lot Me highest quality, realtme video character generation
and gra. ins display. A video graphics software engine running under
Window 95 NT PC Scribe otters a new approach and cost ettective
solution it composing titles and graphics that is ideal for video production arc is play applications Combined their a total solution for real
tune ch liter generation with the qualm you expect from Cnyron
FollyLess
S
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PC -UUI
Hardware:
PRO AUDIO
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ON PC -CODI & PC Scribe
e IHIM0/
PC -COD(
-
wiTV
Standard Zoom Lens
7495 95
VIDEO
KNOX VIDEO
Fulinon's broadcast hand -held lenses lealure the very lat.
est in optical and mechanical design. and manufacturing
techniques. New EBC (Electron Beam Coaling) reduces
flare and morons contrast. while AT2 Asphertc
Techndlegy improves corner resolution and reduces chromatic abberation. And all except the 361 Super Telephoto
oiler the exclusive "V-Grip" and Ouick Zoom.
leapmill. JJ.
I
beull lc
tri'nmk
ENG LENSES
PHOTO
2995.00
TRUEVISION/AVid
1
an
Professional Video Production Workstation
5860C. the 5850C ands
as
5100
rile (bal preclel.
phase adjust
made foi
puts Or a separat
Lean Is
ti
B
4-Channel Component / Composite WAVEFORM
The 5100 handles three channels oI component signals pus a fourth channel for connuvsite signals in wined component
composite facilities Features are overlaid and parade wavelorm displays component acton displays and automatic Sow -In:
'shark lin- displays for timing checks Menu-driven options select rornat 1525 60 625 50 and 112t160 HDTVi fun line9,
.
aatmn meet- :n,: n.rd:, L
.
:ate
pArr...
umnwnicawu- ecuWlms
and mlerr ti
armors
source. Cursor time
TARGA 1000 Features:
'Al
n.
;a. 1000 delivers high processing sae
luck 11 r orlon lull resolution 60 fields per second drylla
Conn Soon can be adlusted on the fly to optimize lot
mage odd, and 'or minimum storage space Has comp's
le an rvideo Inputs /outputs Also available with compo
lent
ut output TARGA 1000 PRO(
The
-
`
:
effects titling and compositrng Capture edit and play
ill 'idly synchronized CD-quality audio
iellock using separate sync input for working in proles
siunal video suites
Audio rs digitized at 44 1KHZ or 48KHZ sampling rates for
professional quality stereo sound Delivers perfectly synchromzed audio and vides
dr
5100D
-
-
Digital Waveform/Vectorscope
dig
,.sen li
ha wavelet
III a and Ir
In..reiii. L .n m plank SAV'EAV Signal:.
observations into highly specialized areas did illl Indy In nr canoeehrn ont
both the waveform and picture the ability to monitor digital signals in GBR Or VCOM loot line sein I )with an adlustable v.
u ,
rr. sun v -ris nitnmatic
doe /I memory storage of test setups :nth Vlv andd: Io arovub` m , n e thels , ,
525,60 ana 625/50 operation and morn n
The 5I DOD can won;
hens ive wavelorm. vertu
t
ao
,
'
r
MCXpress Features:
idl tool for video and multimedia producers Nho require predictable pmlect throughput and nigh quality results when
-.reatin. oleo and digital media for training promotional markelmg material local television and cable commercials. CD -ROM
Ind Inn ut Intranet distnbubon Based on Avid s industry leading technology It combines a robust editing Iunchonallty with a
streamr ell interlace Offers integration vuth third party Windows applications pofessional editing features powerful media
rianag 'lent. title tool arid a plug-in effects architect. II also features multiple Output options illcludnig 50 you Save time
old rot oy by reusing media assets across a range of video and multimedia protects
The
5870 Waveform/Vectorscope
.
-
w /SCH and Line Select
:ruproeessot :w, 58 E0 peri l.ds,r.,, liai w setcrir and vector mspays
A two-channel WaveformNector inona
amplitude and hnnng phase matching Use of decoded R -V allows rein
as well as overlaid A and 8 inputs toi ;.
lively high -resolution DG and OP meas ,,,means. The 5870 adds a ptecismn SCI measurement wmh omsoleen 11,
readout of error with an analog display ul SCH error over field and fine toes Full-taster line seed is also lea,
on-screen readout of selected lines, a strobe on the PIX MON output signal to highlight the selected line. ana ;
.'
up lo nine lines for routine checks
TARGA 1000 /MCXpress Turnkey Systems:
300 nett 6 -Bay toll tu Net At % chasm.
Pere an ATX motherboard with 512K cache
Pen on Ill- 450 MHz Processor
Ma o Millenium II AGP 4MB WRAM display card
128 rB 10ns 168 -Pin (DIMMI S -DRAM
IBM (GB IDE System Drive
Sea, Itoo Barracuda External 9 1GB SCSI-3 ultra -wide capture drive
Ada ec AHA-2940U2W Ultra Wide SCSI -3 controller card
Tea` J3-532e 32X FIDE internal CD -ROM drive
3.5 loopy drive
Alte Lansing ACS -48 3 -piece deluxe speaker system
Vie, .cric G771 17 11280 e 10241 monitor 10 27nfm dot pitch)
Focus 2001A keyboard
Mu soft MS Mouse
Avin rACXpress for Winnows NT Winaowts NT 4 0 operating system
Trai .(Sion TARGA 1000 or 1000 Pro Video Capture Cat,'
With TnRGA 1000
$5995.00
With I ORCA 1000 Pro (component tnpuVaulput)
$6495.00
5872A
All the operating advantages
01
Combination Waveform/Vectorscope
me 5870 except SCH is deleted
in
-.,rod
5854
Waveform Monitor
Iwo-input wavelorm monitor that oilers lull monitoring
Iaclhl,es for cameras. VCRs and video tiansmissinn links The
5864A ollens Punt panel selection of A or B inputs. the (Awe
and flat tteo1 2H or 2V display with sweep magnification
quency response or the nlsertion of an IRE tiller In addition
a swnlchable gain boost of 04 magnons setup to 30 IRE
units, and a dashed graticule Tine at 30 units on screen la( iblates easy setting of master pedestal Intensity and focus ale
toed and automatic tor optimum dlspla'r Signified nth an
inhtiuclrmi manual and DC pourer cable
A
..
A
a
,d
et
-
Vectorscope
(tall hIIillllrl compact vectorsci n
own
checkout of camera encoders ana
well as the means tot precise genleck ad' --'
mote video sources Fiant panel controls Inns, Letraen A
and B inputs for display and between A and B for decoder relerence Gain is hoe(( or variable 'nth front panel controls lot
gam and phase adluslmenls A gain boost of 5% taciMdles
prei.lise camera balance adlestmen's In Ille field Supplied
with a DC power cable
I
I
Designed for EFP and ENG (electronic field production and electronic news gathering' upeiatrons. :rey lealure compact site
light weight and 12 V DC power operation Thus lull monitoring facmlles can be centred Into the bete and powered from NP -T
batteries. battery bells and vehicle power Carelul thought has been given to Me reduction of opera to controls to lacditate
rnannrum m nIDnllonnq optimis strut (lie operating simplicity demanded to field nark
TE ACCOUNTS
www.americanradiohistory.com
Is
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ENCORE!
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If vz1u were featured in this
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Evertz HDTV Tool Box
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HDTV D to A Converter 7730DAC -HD
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HD Coax to Fiber
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HD Test Generator 7750TG -HD
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Audio Embedder 7720AE -HD
HD
2
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Audio De- embedder 7720AD -HD
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Monitoring Downconverter 7710MD
HD
confidence monitoring of
HD on NTSC SDI
monitors
Distribution Amplifiers 7700DA -HD
HD
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10 by 1 Serial Digital Routing Switcher
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Optic Transport System for Broadcast, STL,
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Tel:
Circle (174) on Free Info Card
140
Broadcast Engineering
February 2000
Circle (175) on Free Into Card
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Janudty 2000
Broadcast Engineering
141
Services
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Discover the Advantages
of Reprints!
For a quote or to discuss how
reprints from this magazine
can work for you --call me!
Jenny Eisele, Intertec Publishing
Phone: 913- 967 -1966 Fax: 913- 967 -1901
142
Broadcast Engineering
January
2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Make your ad
stand out!
Try color!
Call Brian at 800 -896 -9939
Help Wanted
Univision
i.DTV 14 in San Francisco the Spanish
nguage television station is seeking a
1:ighly skilled individual for a full-time hands
,n supervisory position in the maintenance
id operation of a television broadcast
c ility.
This position requires knowledge of
itellite reception, digital and analog audio
id video, and RF distribution systems. The
iccessful candidate will have strong
Jmmunication and leadership skills. The
andidate must be customer service
and will service the News,
r oriented
Production, and Sales clients of the station
i a fast-paced environment. To qualify, a
andidate should possess a Bachelor's
Ilegree in a related field (or commensurate
experience).
A minimum of five years
experience in the maintenance and repair of
electronic systems and video equipment is
squired. Excellent people, technical, and
computer skills a must. The ideal candidate
will have strong organizational skills, and be
of maintaining
administrative
Capable
systems, parts inventories, and compliance
will
have
ecords.
The
candidate
emonstrated knowledge and experience in
High -power UHF
tie following areas:
"ansmitter operation and maintenance
omputer systems and computer based
ideo production equipment Digital video
news
.ystems
Studio and field
Aerations FCC and /or SBE certification
Component-level
degree in Electronics
, oubleshooting and repair experience
Salary
.xperience
with AutoCAD
'ommensurate with experience. Please fax
esume to Human Resources Manager
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER:
We can't stop
1
1
it!
We are continuing to grow and we are looking for energetic self-motivated people who ore looking
to grow with us. If you are interested in working for a highly recognized network in beautiful sunny
South Florida, this could be your opportunity We currently hove the following positions available
in our Engineering department:
Assistant Engineering Manager, Systems
This position requires hands -on maintenance, as well os employee supervision and training. The
Systems Engineering Staff is responsible for the maintenance and support of all master control and
post- production suites, os well as core equipment. We ore looking for a self-motivated team ployer
with a minimum of 5 years' Television/Broadcasting systems experience, including significant
experience in a digital environment; ability to diagnose to the component level; and familiarity
with test signals and equipment. This is not an IS position. Minimum of 3 years' supervisory
or management experience. Excellent communications skills, both written and oral, are a must. SBE
certification and /or general classes license and knowledge of Spanish and/or Portuguese is a plus.
Systems Engineer
part of a team of engineers responsible for but not limited to, the preventative and corrective
maintenance of all television equipment in regards to the Television Center. Requires o minimum
of 3 years Television /Broadcasting systems experience, including significant experience in a digital
environment; the ability to diagnose to the component level; and
familiarity with test signals and equipment. This is not an IS
position. SBE certification and FCC general class license and
knowledge of Spanish and /or Portuguese is a plus.
Be
Dis ouerg.
TELEVISION
CENTER
Strategix Human Resources,
6505 Blue Lagoon Drive, Miami, FL 33126; FAX: (305)
507 -1583; e-mail: bobby [email protected]
Please send your resume to:
t
-
115.538.8053 E/O/E M/F
lajor Westcoast production /distribution comNETWORK AFFILIATE ENGIVEER. Responsibilities include working diectly with affiliates pertaining to resolution of
,,roblems both site related and transmission
elated, develop operational procedures as
equired, and implement changes in technol-,ry as required. Must be experienced in opration and installation of VideoCipher 11.1RDs
nd stand alone descramblers, Affiliate Management System and Channel Control Computers for the VideoCipher II. encryption sysem, PowerVu IRDs and PowerVu Authorizaion Computer system. Must have knowledge
of RF transmission systems and application of
satellite link budgets in analog and digital donains. Candidate must have an intermediate
evel of experience regarding baseband anaig video and audio signals, as well as, opera ions in both analog and digital playout faciliies. Must also have knowledge of operational
eference levels and subcarrier deviation.
lease fax resumes to 310-235-5898.
''
eany seeks a
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER
BROADCAST ENGINEER: WHTZ -FM in
New York City has an immediate opening
for a Broadcast Engineer to join our engineering team in our brand new digital facility. The successful candidate will have
a solid understanding of digital equipment,
studio repair and maintenance in the digital (AES /EBU) domain, remote broadcasts,
and troubleshooting digital and analog
systems. RF and LAN /Netware5 /NT workstation knowledge a plus, but not required. You must possess a "What can I
do to help ?" attitude and be friendly and
personable.
Respond via e-mail:
[email protected] or Josh Hadden, Chief
Engineer, WHIZ -FM, 101 Hudson Street.
36th Floor, Jersey City, NJ 07302. WHTZFM is an equal Opportunity Employer.
BROADCAST ENGINEER: Position requires a minimum of 2 years broadcast
experience trouble shooting studio equipment to component level, also needed experience with computer networks and
Windows NT. Must be able to operate independently as well as part of a team under pressure and deadlines. FCC license
or SBE certification a plus. This position
would require being on call 24/7, and some
travel. NO CALLS PLEASE. Send resume
and cover to Frank A. Glowacki Chief Engineer, NBC News Channel, 925 Wood
Ridge Center Dr., Charlotte, NC 28217.
Email: frank.glowacki @nbc.coni EOE
January 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
ENGINEERING:
C -SPAN is
seeking an En-
gineering Director to manage daily
ac-
tivities of engineering department. Primarily responsible for project management and staff supervision and direction.
Department involved with digital and analog television technology including installation, repairs and maintenance of television origination and transmission equipment; support of radio facilities and transmitters; and plant HVAC operations.
Bachelor's degree with 6 years related
work experience and 2 years supervisory
experience with emphasis on management
skills including problem solving and effective communications. Send resume
and salary requirements to C -SPAN, Human Resources /BE, 400 N. Capitol Street,
NW, Suite 650, Washington, DC 20001,
or
e-mail
FAX
202- 737 -3823
[email protected] EOE
STUDIO ENGINEER- Dominant NBC station in Bristol VA/TN has opening for qualified studio engineer. Experienced in the
maintenance, repair and operation of
state of the art studio equipment, WCYBTV is located in the beautiful Appalachian
Mountains. Excellent local public education system and quality of life with low
crime rate. Competitive salary and excellent benefits. Resume to Judy Baker,
WCYB -TV, 101 Lee Street, Bristol, VA
24201. EOE /M /F /H/V
Broadcast Engineering
143
Help Wanted
Technical Support
i
Representative Product Specialist
/
360 Systems
is a respected
manufacturer of professional digital audio equipment for the
Broadcast and Post Production industries.
We are looking for a Product Specialist with
experience in these industries, as well as general audio production experience, including:
Timecode and Video Sync references, and synchronization of digital audio
with video
immediate consideration, send your
resume to: CORPLEX, 203 Northfield
Road Northfield, IL 60093. Email:
Digital Audio Interfacing
Hard Disk audio systems
Good problem solving and customer handling skills are a primary requirement. Electronics
and computer knowledge are also desirable.
are minimal (1 -2 trade shows a year).
is
located in Westlake Village, (A, approximately 35 miles west of Los
Angeles. We offer
a
competitive benefit package including medical and dental.
Please submit resume and salary history to Brad Cox by mail, FAX or email at
360 Systems, 5321 Sterling (enter Drive, Westlake Vilage
FAX
(818) 991 -1360
144
Broadcast Engineering
CA,
91361
MASTER CONTROL SUPERVISOR. Paramount O&O has an opening for a highly motivated individual with experience in television
master control operations. Duties include supervising, training, and scheduling master
control operators. This position requires
strong leadership and computer skills. Send
resume to KTXH UPN20, Attn. Chief Engineer,
8950 Kirby Drive, Houston, TX 77054. EOE
Email [email protected]
PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR (TV Studio
Operations) KRWG -TV, Las Cruces, NM.
Bachelor's degree (in hand by hire date)
in TV Production or related field required
(Masters's Degree Preferred). Five years
professional experience in TV production,
three of which should be University related. Must know production /editing techniques, lighting, set construction, production equipment operation. Will train and
supervise student crews, nightly newscast,
non -technical studio maintenance, lighting,
building sets, and teach one production
class. $25,250.40- $30,000 salary range plus
benefits. Send cover letter, resume and
names of three professional references to:
J.D. Jarvis, KRWG -TV /NMSU, Box 30001,
MSC TV22, Las Cruces, NM 88003. Do not
send video tape until requested. Deadline
is 5:00 pm February 18, 2000. New Mexico
State University is an EEO /AA Employer.
Position contingent upon funding.
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: Television
broadcast operation seeks qualified technician with a solid electronics background
and component level repair skills, including analog and digital. Computer/Network
skills a plus. KXAN-TV/ LIN Television is an
Equal Opportunity Employer. Send resume
to: Assistant Chief Engineer* KXAN -TV *
PO Box 490 * Austin, TX * 78767 * Fax
(512) 482-0330 * employment @kxan.com
[email protected] www.corplextv.com EOE
Position includes training on our entire
product line, which includes audio editors and multi -track recorders. Travel requirements
360 Systems
PRODUCTION ENGINEER (EIC) $80,000 to
$100,000 GUARANTEE plus benefits. Midwest mobile production company has excellent opportunity for engineer with 3 plus
years experience. EIC will manage technical operations for remote broadcasts and
travel extensively. Position requires experience with set up and maintenance of cameras, switchers, VTRs, and audio equipment, component level maintenance, systems design and installation. Live broadcast of sports and entertainment events. For
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: WCPO TV /
WCPO DT in Cincinnati, Ohio has an opening for a full time maintenance engineer
with 3 - 5 years experience in the installation and maintenance of all types of stu-
dio equipment, including switchers, DVE,
CG, SS, cameras, audio boards, and VTRs.
Should also be able to maintain ENG/SNG
trucks, satellite equipment, STL/TSL and
other microwave systems. Digital, computer networking or RF experience a plus.
Valid FCC General Class License or SBE
certification preferred. Send cover letter and resume to Larry Pozzi Director of
Engineering, WCPO TV, 500 Central Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 or FAX resume to (513) 852 -4914.
P
NE,
EvnwE MW 'WWII/MOM
EUVpsw
NETWORKS NETWORKS uE
NETWORKS
AA.
DIRECTOR TECHNICAL
FACILITIES
A &E Television Networks is seeking a Director,
Technical Facilities to oversee usage and mainte-
nance of in-house technical facilities.
Oversee
evaluation and acquisition of corporation wide
media equipment.
Evaluate technologies imple-
mented on behalf of AETN by third patty facilities
providers. Support the duties of
VP
Engineering
Planning & Development.
Requirements include a College degree (Commu-
WE PLACE ENGINEERS
Employer Paid Fees.
20 Years personalized &
confidential service.
All USA States & Canada
CV'
MAIL & FAX:
nications or Engineering). Only candidates with
apply. For immediate consideration, please forward OR fax your resume (with salary history) to:
A &E Television Networks
KEYSTONE INTL., INC.
Attn.: Human Resources Dept. /DirTF
Dime Bank 49 S. Main St., Pittston, PA 18640 USA
235 East 45th Street,
Phone (570) 655 -7143 Fax (570) 654-5765
website: keystoneint.com
New York, NY 10017
,
FAX:
We respond to all
Employee & Employer Inquiries
ALAN CORNISH / MARK KELLY
January
2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
a
minimum of 7-10 years technical experience need
(212) 907-9402
EMAIL: [email protected]
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NA VI( rr o
Audio
recision
121 .. 81X) -726 -1266
120 ...
III
137 ...
;30-_'74 -2148
800-'31-7350
39
131 ...
770-390-1600
BARC:
Beck A.arciatcs
35
30
141
136-139
Vickn Systems
118
1'11Ao-Video
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Broads,
t
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52 -5
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Digibid tom
ticrosystens
baron
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128 ....800.321 -4388
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145....65( }592 -122_1
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113 ....514-111-1772
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I40
175 .... 8(X)-I1V-TEST
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Inc.
125
202-029-5350
78
50
107
40-41
82
83
146 .... 934--921-5868
126 ... 80035&NTSC
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530265-I(00
15
105 .... 408-944 -67(X)
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71
142 .... 415445 -5(XX)
Pesa
26 -2 7
117 ....213-874-3411
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23
118
140
115 ....6(1(.371 -5533
Philips Semiconductors
64-65
130
168 .... 110 -522 -2136
Pima( e Systems
12-1
114 .... 650-526-1600
174....905 -335 -3780
Play, Inc.
Company
i
Electronics
106
..
Everiz
Multidva
NAB Broadcasters
201 .... 301 -571 -0790
152
Miranda Technologies Inc
212-239-75011
77
131 .... 8110-333-2836
105
Omneon
Opticomm Corp
Opticomm Corp
DNF I-:lustries
ESE
Irdet0 Access
,port
169.1A)
141
DiviCon
Dolby alas
Doren- Labs
D P S..
3
Maxell Corp.
202 ... 512 -252 -7555
167
10.3
Brad Dick, Editor
Steve Epstein, Technical Editor
Jim Saladin, Senior Associate Editor
Patrick Murphy, Associate Editor
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Mine
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Service
Page
Folsom Research
33
142
115
25
Fujinon Inc.
1111
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204 ... 408-297-27(1)
163 ... 916-859-25(X)
116 .... 972- 385-8902
111 .... 800-998.3588
104 ... 606-282 -480)
1
3
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2
140 .... 858-15(4)13
141 .... 858-850-0143
16-17
69
123
Switching
800-528-86111
137 .... MO-128-10M
159 .... 8(10-962-0287
ol
119 .... 916-631-1865
Plat. Inc.
Prime Image Inc.
Rocket Network
47
124 ....916-631-18565
121
166 .... 4118-867-65 19
79
138 .... 415-5384)123
Sabre Communications
126
Sony
4-5
712-25816'K)
144 .... 408-260-10(0
800472-SONY
171 .... 626-333-4656
Sony
39
80K)-172-SONi'
140
106
37
12
173...949 -489.0240
Studio Exchange
141
200 .... 818-&401351
127
61
136 .... 949-725-2552
108....816-3(X) -0324
Tadiran Scopus
Tandberg
Telecast Fiber Systems
51
Click
63
129 .... 816-3(1)-0323
Telemelrics, Inc.
Inscrdx! Technology
Intent Publishing
49
125
135
80X12884360,
Itelco
113
138....303 -464 -8000
TeraNex
142
203 .... 303 -784-8809
-elecexnmunications ... 21
107 .... 818 -361 -2248
Thomson Broadcast
Tiernan Communications
Videok& Inc.
i alley Group
Harris) orpJBroackast Div.
Henry ngineering
131
Horila
-COM rdustry
Ikegar
Indust- Click
Grass
I
Indusir,
Imes
nh Segment, Inc.
:
KTech
Leader Instruments
Leitch )rorporatcd
Leitch
vorporaled
Lem.)
Ligh
h
Louth
3
I
122....201 -368-9171
....800363-34M
01
148,149. /114)45 -5114
4
1
3
33 .... 80X1231 -967 3
,-4--5
Wilu,x
Vinten
Wheatstone (oeprration
)SA
55
135....80X444 -5366
Wink ms
)se Digital Sys.
18
123 .... 916272 -8240
Yamaha Corp
9
112 .... 650843 -3665
3DFX
45
134....914-592 -6050
360 Systems
Iomation
Applied Tech.
Matro Electronic Sys.
1
17
I'
Duan. Hefner
5236 .:olodny Ave., Suite 108
Agour.. Hills, CA 91301
(818) 707 -6476
Fax: 18) 707 -2313
dnhe- [email protected]
EAST
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335 ( tort Street. Suite #9
Brooklyn, NY 11231
(718) 302 -0488
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Joann Melton
1775 Broadway, Suite 730
New 'r ork, NY 10019
1212) 333 -4655
FAX: 1212) 459 -0395
joann '[email protected]
164 ....
102
Telestream
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103 .... 800-211-9673
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WES
154 .... 703- 707'094
Snell &
148
'.c
Marto
7
1511
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28
99
118 .... 201448-9818
13S
162 .... 8(XF342-3497
31
109 .... 407-517-1086
109
156 .... 80X1882-1824
19
106 .... 619-587-025'
147
73
102 .... 80X-8015719
2
to the Web
161 ....
1
147 .... ;10-470-1300
143 .... 914-2680101
101
..
25 2-6 38J0(X)
34
119
163 ....8101937-7171
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172 .... 972-234 -8750
81
139 .... 818-991-0360
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February
2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
145
The Internet genie is free
BY PAUL MCGOLDRICK
Now that TV station consolidation
is a reality and the industry is
about to enter into a feeding frenzy, it's
nice to see other commentators agree
that it's going to happen. I felt alone
there for quite a while. Still on the
horizon is a move toward multicasting
as a business model for that 6MHz of
DTV bandwidth. That's not a surprise
in an era where no other moneymaking
opportunity is visible. Of course, transmitting two or three digital video signals in one channel condemns stations
to a non -HD future.
But even with consolidation and the
movement away from the transmission
point for the program source, there are
factors that broadcasters consider. The
path to profits for a terrestrial TV
station is ever narrower. Whether a
station multicasts or not, other media
will be a force to deal with.
Many broadcasters are confused as to
their position in the entertainment food
chain. When they regard themselves
merely as purveyors of programming
through an affiliate chain, they are dooming themselves. They should be thinking
only in terms of program production.
Consolidation may well change affliarions as we know them; multicasting,
satellite broadcasting and cable will further provide alternatives to today's conventional networks; the Internet may
end up being the killer application.
Squashing the competition
Each jump in delivery technology has
resulted in broadcasters declaring the
newcomer a competitor who must be
squashed. The wars with cable over the
years have left the networks as the old
guard with expensive programming,
defending the castle with fewer viewers
to pay for it. The re- invention of cheap to- produce game shows can hardly be
thought of as an advance for cultural
entertainment, but today that is where
the industry is presently pointed. Cable
probably wouldn't even exist if the
146
Broadcast Engineering
broadcasters had provided viewers with
reliable signals quickly enough; they
did, after all, have nearly two decades
in which to do it.
The wars with satellite have been a
similar disaster; how can you possibly
succeed as a business if you insist that
a customer can only get your product if
he goes through one particular distrib-
This is a genie that the
networks will not be
able to push back into
the bottle.
utor? It's the basics again: You are
supposed to be delivering a product not
a channel.
Now we have the Internet. Movement of streaming video to the Internet
is not esoteric any longer, with the
arrival of iCraveTV.com on the Web.
The company (TVRadioNow Corp.)
was rebroadcasting several networks,
local U.S. stations and Canadian channels from its offices in Ontario, Canada. While claiming that the action is
legal in Canada, the site is fully accessible to viewers worldwide, provided
you know a Canadian telephone area
code and lie twice when clicking in.
Not surprisingly, the networks are
miffed and have filed lawsuits to stop
the practice. Whether it is legal to
rebroadcast the signals is not in my
purview, but it is interesting that the
Internet was specifically mentioned in
the initial Satellite Home Viewer Act
signed into law at the end of last year.
The original words specifically excludedthe Internet as "not being eligible for
the compulsory -license right" to rebroadcast. After a lot of lobbying from
the computer world that language was
removed, but a more generic "nobody
February 2000
else" clause was inserted.
This is a genie that the networks will
not be able to push back into the bottle.
Whether or not they succeed in frightening off iCraveTV.com, there will be
copycats. Opinion is that the rebroadcast in Canada is legal, and the company has placed a four-page terms of use
in the access path to actual streaming
reception to protect itself. At the moment it would seem that the only legal
direction the networks can go in
although they may of course try actions
in Canada
is to act against any
viewers in the U.S. That is, against
every individual user. Even if they do,
these services will be mirrored by those
who believe in total information being
available to all at no cost.
Any retransmission sites in the U.S.,
would certainly be targeted for legal
action and tat might simply increase the
number that spring up. Instead of entering into another war, one that they will
lose, the networks need to completely
re- address their distribution agreements,
just traditional vendors already have
with the Internet. A product manufacturer who insists that a customer go to
one of his brick and mortar stores in-
-
-
stead of an Internet supplier will lose
that sale. The broadcast industry and its
products are no different, and the anachronism of such a huge business trying to
defend its old -guard position while be-
ing backed off a cliff is almost funny.
The Internet is a medium of distribution that the broadcast industry needs
to embrace so as not to lose that
revenue source
and, just as importantly, to maintain control of the key
products of these networks and stations: program material.
-
Paul McGoldrick is an industry consultantbased
on the West Coast.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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Series call one of our sales engineers at
1- 800 -800 -5719 or visit our web site at
www.videotek.com.
Premium Quality, Intelligent Design,
Total Value...That's Videotek.
-
VIDEOTEKTM
I8a9001 Certified
A Zero Defects Company
Five Year Warranty
243 Shoemaker Road, Pottstown, PA 19464 Toll Free: 800 800 -5719 610 327 -2292 Fax: 610 327 -9295
Visit us on the Worldwide Web: www.videotek.com
Circle (102) on Frio Info Card
No need to trash
your analog equipment.
Video Recorder
Analog
Video
Analog
Video
with
Audio
with
Audio
SDI with
AES Audio
SDI with
Recycle it for your digital environment
with Leitch's multiformat synchronizer.
Protect your analog investment by interfacing analog equipment with Leitch's DFS -3005 multiformat
synchronizer. Designed for hybrid conversion and synchronization in the broadcast, production, mobile,
teleport and telco environments, the DFS -3005 lets you manage multiple signal formats within your
facility. Input a digital combined video and audio signal, for example, and the DFS outputs an analog
signal for VTR recording. When you're ready for playout simply run the VTR's analog output again through
the DFS -3005, and you're back in the digital domain. What's more, you can have simultaneous conversions
and the convenience of local or remote control and networking capability. Composite, component or serial
digital video plus analog or AES/EBU audio -Leitch's DFS -3005 multiformat synchronizer handles them all!
Learn more about recycling analog equipment by calling (800) 231 -9673 (er wisitionny
leitlxibictoron.
..111M ammo
'-lit
Distribution
Sync
&
Test
Routing
Digital Glue
Production
Servers
Compression
Circle (103) on Free Info Card
>
LEITCH
International/Canada
ENGINEERING THE BIG PICTURE'"
+1 (416) 445 -9640, (800) 387 -0233
Hong Kong +(852) 2776 -0628
USA. East
Japan +81 (3) 5423-3631
+1 (757)
Australia
548-2300,1600) 231 -9673, USA. West +1 (818/888) 843 -7004
+61 (2) 9939 -3355
Latin America
www.americanradiohistory.com
+1 (305) 591 -0611
Europe +44 (0) 1483 -591000
Brazil +55 (11) 867 -0218
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