NLTK Documentation

NLTK Documentation
NLTK Documentation
Release 3.2.4
Steven Bird
Aug 20, 2017
Contents
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Some simple things you can do with NLTK
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2
Next Steps
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Contents
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Python Module Index
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NLTK is a leading platform for building Python programs to work with human language data. It provides easy-to-use
interfaces to over 50 corpora and lexical resources such as WordNet, along with a suite of text processing libraries for
classification, tokenization, stemming, tagging, parsing, and semantic reasoning, wrappers for industrial-strength NLP
libraries, and an active discussion forum.
Thanks to a hands-on guide introducing programming fundamentals alongside topics in computational linguistics,
plus comprehensive API documentation, NLTK is suitable for linguists, engineers, students, educators, researchers,
and industry users alike. NLTK is available for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. Best of all, NLTK is a free, open
source, community-driven project.
NLTK has been called “a wonderful tool for teaching, and working in, computational linguistics using Python,” and
“an amazing library to play with natural language.”
Natural Language Processing with Python provides a practical introduction to programming for language processing.
Written by the creators of NLTK, it guides the reader through the fundamentals of writing Python programs, working
with corpora, categorizing text, analyzing linguistic structure, and more. The book is being updated for Python 3 and
NLTK 3. (The original Python 2 version is still available at http://nltk.org/book_1ed.)
Contents
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Contents
CHAPTER
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Some simple things you can do with NLTK
Tokenize and tag some text:
>>> import nltk
>>> sentence = """At eight o'clock on Thursday morning
... Arthur didn't feel very good."""
>>> tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(sentence)
>>> tokens
['At', 'eight', "o'clock", 'on', 'Thursday', 'morning',
'Arthur', 'did', "n't", 'feel', 'very', 'good', '.']
>>> tagged = nltk.pos_tag(tokens)
>>> tagged[0:6]
[('At', 'IN'), ('eight', 'CD'), ("o'clock", 'JJ'), ('on', 'IN'),
('Thursday', 'NNP'), ('morning', 'NN')]
Identify named entities:
>>> entities = nltk.chunk.ne_chunk(tagged)
>>> entities
Tree('S', [('At', 'IN'), ('eight', 'CD'), ("o'clock", 'JJ'),
('on', 'IN'), ('Thursday', 'NNP'), ('morning', 'NN'),
Tree('PERSON', [('Arthur', 'NNP')]),
('did', 'VBD'), ("n't", 'RB'), ('feel', 'VB'),
('very', 'RB'), ('good', 'JJ'), ('.', '.')])
Display a parse tree:
>>> from nltk.corpus import treebank
>>> t = treebank.parsed_sents('wsj_0001.mrg')[0]
>>> t.draw()
NB. If you publish work that uses NLTK, please cite the NLTK book as follows:
Bird, Steven, Edward Loper and Ewan Klein (2009), Natural Language Processing with Python. O’Reilly
Media Inc.
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Chapter 1. Some simple things you can do with NLTK
CHAPTER
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Next Steps
• sign up for release announcements
• join in the discussion
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Chapter 2. Next Steps
CHAPTER
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NLTK News
2017
NLTK 3.2.4 released: May 2017 Remove load-time dependency on Python requests library, Add support for Arabic
in StanfordSegmenter
NLTK 3.2.3 released: May 2017 Interface to Stanford CoreNLP Web API, improved Lancaster stemmer, improved
Treebank tokenizer, support custom tab files for extending WordNet, speed up TnT tagger, speed up FreqDist
and ConditionalFreqDist, new corpus reader for MWA subset of PPDB; improvements to testing framework
2016
NLTK 3.2.2 released: December 2016 Support for Aline, ChrF and GLEU MT evaluation metrics, Russian POS tagger model, Moses detokenizer, rewrite Porter Stemmer and FrameNet corpus reader, update FrameNet Corpus
to version 1.7, fixes: stanford_segmenter.py, SentiText, CoNLL Corpus Reader, BLEU, naivebayes, Krippendorff’s alpha, Punkt, Moses tokenizer, TweetTokenizer, ToktokTokenizer; improvements to testing framework
NLTK 3.2.1 released: April 2016 Support for CCG semantics, Stanford segmenter, VADER lexicon; Fixes to BLEU
score calculation, CHILDES corpus reader.
NLTK 3.2 released [March 2016] Fixes for Python 3.5, code cleanups now Python 2.6 is no longer supported, support
for PanLex, support for third party download locations for NLTK data, new support for RIBES score, BLEU
smoothing, corpus-level BLEU, improvements to TweetTokenizer, updates for Stanford API, add mathematical
operators to ConditionalFreqDist, fix bug in sentiwordnet for adjectives, improvements to documentation, code
cleanups, consistent handling of file paths for cross-platform operation.
2015
NLTK 3.1 released [October 2015] Add support for Python 3.5, drop support for Python 2.6, sentiment analysis
package and several corpora, improved POS tagger, Twitter package, multi-word expression tokenizer, wrapper
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for Stanford Neural Dependency Parser, improved translation/alignment module including stack decoder, skipgram and everygram methods, Multext East Corpus and MTECorpusReader, minor bugfixes and enhancements
For details see: https://github.com/nltk/nltk/blob/develop/ChangeLog
NLTK 3.0.5 released [September 2015] New Twitter package; updates to IBM models 1-3, new models 4 and 5,
minor bugfixes and enhancements
NLTK 3.0.4 released [July 2015] Minor bugfixes and enhancements.
NLTK 3.0.3 released [June 2015] PanLex Swadesh Corpus, tgrep tree search, minor bugfixes.
NLTK 3.0.2 released [March 2015] Senna, BLLIP, python-crfsuite interfaces, transition-based dependency parsers,
dependency graph visualization, NKJP corpus reader, minor bugfixes and clean-ups.
NLTK 3.0.1 released [January 2015] Minor packaging update.
2014
NLTK 3.0.0 released [September 2014] Minor bugfixes.
NLTK 3.0.0b2 released [August 2014] Minor bugfixes and clean-ups.
NLTK Book Updates [July 2014] The NLTK book is being updated for Python 3 and NLTK 3 here. The original
Python 2 edition is still available here.
NLTK 3.0.0b1 released [July 2014] FrameNet, SentiWordNet, universal tagset, misc efficiency improvements and
bugfixes Several API changes, see https://github.com/nltk/nltk/wiki/Porting-your-code-to-NLTK-3.0
NLTK 3.0a4 released [June 2014] FrameNet, universal tagset, misc efficiency improvements and bugfixes Several
API changes, see https://github.com/nltk/nltk/wiki/Porting-your-code-to-NLTK-3.0 For full details see: https:
//github.com/nltk/nltk/blob/develop/ChangeLog http://nltk.org/nltk3-alpha/
2013
NLTK Book Updates [October 2013] We are updating the NLTK book for Python 3 and NLTK 3; please see http:
//nltk.org/book3/
NLTK 3.0a2 released [July 2013] Misc efficiency improvements and bugfixes; for details see https://github.com/nltk/
nltk/blob/develop/ChangeLog http://nltk.org/nltk3-alpha/
NLTK 3.0a1 released [February 2013] This version adds support for NLTK’s graphical user interfaces. http://nltk.
org/nltk3-alpha/
NLTK 3.0a0 released [January 2013] The first alpha release of NLTK 3.0 is now available for testing. This version
of NLTK works with Python 2.6, 2.7, and Python 3. http://nltk.org/nltk3-alpha/
2012
Python Grant [November 2012] The Python Software Foundation is sponsoring Mikhail Korobov’s work on porting
NLTK to Python 3. http://pyfound.blogspot.hu/2012/11/grants-to-assist-kivy-nltk-in-porting.html
NLTK 2.0.4 released [November 2012] Minor fix to remove numpy dependency.
NLTK 2.0.3 released [September 2012] This release contains minor improvements and bugfixes. This is the final
release compatible with Python 2.5. For details see https://github.com/nltk/nltk/blob/develop/ChangeLog
NLTK 2.0.2 released [July 2012] This release contains minor improvements and bugfixes. For details see https:
//github.com/nltk/nltk/blob/develop/ChangeLog
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NLTK 2.0.1 released [May 2012] The final release of NLTK 2. For details see https://github.com/nltk/nltk/blob/
develop/ChangeLog
NLTK 2.0.1rc4 released [February 2012] The fourth release candidate for NLTK 2.
NLTK 2.0.1rc3 released [January 2012] The third release candidate for NLTK 2.
2011
NLTK 2.0.1rc2 released [December 2011] The second release candidate for NLTK 2. For full details see the
ChangeLog.
NLTK development moved to GitHub [October 2011] The development site for NLTK has moved from GoogleCode to GitHub: http://github.com/nltk
NLTK 2.0.1rc1 released [April 2011] The first release candidate for NLTK 2. For full details see the ChangeLog.
2010
Python Text Processing with NLTK 2.0 Cookbook [December 2010] Jacob Perkins has written a 250-page cookbook full of great recipes for text processing using Python and NLTK, published by Packt Publishing. Some of
the royalties are being donated to the NLTK project.
Japanese translation of NLTK book [November 2010] Masato Hagiwara has translated the NLTK book into
Japanese, along with an extra chapter on particular issues with Japanese language process. See http://www.
oreilly.co.jp/books/9784873114705/.
NLTK 2.0b9 released [July 2010] The last beta release before 2.0 final. For full details see the ChangeLog.
NLTK in Ubuntu 10.4 (Lucid Lynx) [February 2010] NLTK is now in the latest LTS version of Ubuntu, thanks to
the efforts of Robin Munn. See http://packages.ubuntu.com/lucid/python/python-nltk
NLTK 2.0b? released [June 2009 - February 2010] Bugfix releases in preparation for 2.0 final. For full details see
the ChangeLog.
2009
NLTK Book in second printing [December 2009] The second print run of Natural Language Processing with Python
will go on sale in January. We’ve taken the opportunity to make about 40 minor corrections. The online version
has been updated.
NLTK Book published [June 2009] Natural Language Processing with Python, by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and
Edward Loper, has been published by O’Reilly Media Inc. It can be purchased in hardcopy, ebook, PDF or
for online access, at http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596516499/. For information about sellers and prices, see
https://isbndb.com/d/book/natural_language_processing_with_python/prices.html.
Version 0.9.9 released [May 2009] This version finalizes NLTK’s API ahead of the 2.0 release and the publication
of the NLTK book. There have been dozens of minor enhancements and bugfixes. Many names of the form
nltk.foo.Bar are now available as nltk.Bar. There is expanded functionality in the decision tree, collocations,
and Toolbox modules. A new translation toy nltk.misc.babelfish has been added. A new module nltk.help gives
access to tagset documentation. Fixed imports so NLTK will build and install without Tkinter (for running on
servers). New data includes a maximum entropy chunker model and updated grammars. NLTK Contrib includes
updates to the coreference package (Joseph Frazee) and the ISRI Arabic stemmer (Hosam Algasaier). The book
has undergone substantial editorial corrections ahead of final publication. For full details see the ChangeLog.
3.1. NLTK News
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Version 0.9.8 released [February 2009] This version contains a new off-the-shelf tokenizer, POS tagger, and namedentity tagger. A new metrics package includes inter-annotator agreement scores and various distance and word
association measures (Tom Lippincott and Joel Nothman). There’s a new collocations package (Joel Nothman).
There are many improvements to the WordNet package and browser (Steven Bethard, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Paul
Bone), and to the semantics and inference packages (Dan Garrette). The NLTK corpus collection now includes
the PE08 Parser Evaluation data, and the CoNLL 2007 Basque and Catalan Dependency Treebanks. We have
added an interface for dependency treebanks. Many chapters of the book have been revised in response to
feedback from readers. For full details see the ChangeLog. NB some method names have been changed for
consistency and simplicity. Use of old names will generate deprecation warnings that indicate the correct name
to use.
2008
Version 0.9.7 released [December 2008] This version contains fixes to the corpus downloader (see instructions) enabling NLTK corpora to be released independently of the software, and to be stored in compressed format. There
are improvements in the grammars, chart parsers, probability distributions, sentence segmenter, text classifiers
and RTE classifier. There are many further improvements to the book. For full details see the ChangeLog.
Version 0.9.6 released [December 2008] This version has an incremental corpus downloader (see instructions) enabling NLTK corpora to be released independently of the software. A new WordNet interface has been developed
by Steven Bethard (details). NLTK now has support for dependency parsing, developed by Jason Narad (sponsored by Google Summer of Code). There are many enhancements to the semantics and inference packages,
contributed by Dan Garrette. The frequency distribution classes have new support for tabulation and plotting.
The Brown Corpus reader has human readable category labels instead of letters. A new Swadesh Corpus containing comparative wordlists has been added. NLTK-Contrib includes a TIGERSearch implementation for
searching treebanks (Torsten Marek). Most chapters of the book have been substantially revised.
The NLTK Project has moved [November 2008] The NLTK project has moved to Google Sites, Google Code and
Google Groups. Content for users and the nltk.org domain is hosted on Google Sites. The home of NLTK development is now Google Code. All discussion lists are at Google Groups. Our old site at nltk.sourceforge.net will
continue to be available while we complete this transition. Old releases are still available via our SourceForge
release page. We’re grateful to SourceForge for hosting our project since its inception in 2001.
Version 0.9.5 released [August 2008] This version contains several low-level changes to facilitate installation, plus
updates to several NLTK-Contrib projects. A new text module gives easy access to text corpora for newcomers
to NLP. For full details see the ChangeLog.
Version 0.9.4 released [August 2008] This version contains a substantially expanded semantics package contributed
by Dan Garrette, improvements to the chunk, tag, wordnet, tree and feature-structure modules, Mallet interface,
ngram language modeling, new GUI tools (WordNet? browser, chunking, POS-concordance). The data distribution includes the new NPS Chat Corpus. NLTK-Contrib includes the following new packages (still undergoing
active development) NLG package (Petro Verkhogliad), dependency parsers (Jason Narad), coreference (Joseph
Frazee), CCG parser (Graeme Gange), and a first order resolution theorem prover (Dan Garrette). For full details
see the ChangeLog.
NLTK presented at ACL conference [June 2008] A paper on teaching courses using NLTK will be presented at the
ACL conference: Multidisciplinary Instruction with the Natural Language Toolkit
Version 0.9.3 released [June 2008] This version contains an improved WordNet? similarity module using pre-built
information content files (included in the corpus distribution), new/improved interfaces to Weka, MEGAM and
Prover9/Mace4 toolkits, improved Unicode support for corpus readers, a BNC corpus reader, and a rewrite
of the Punkt sentence segmenter contributed by Joel Nothman. NLTK-Contrib includes an implementation of
incremental algorithm for generating referring expression contributed by Margaret Mitchell. For full details see
the ChangeLog.
NLTK presented at LinuxFest Northwest [April 2008] Sean Boisen presented NLTK at LinuxFest Northwest,
which took place in Bellingham, Washington. His presentation slides are available at: http://semanticbible.
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com/other/talks/2008/nltk/main.html
NLTK in Google Summer of Code [April 2008] Google Summer of Code will sponsor two NLTK projects. Jason
Narad won funding for a project on dependency parsers in NLTK (mentored by Sebastian Riedel and Jason
Baldridge). Petro Verkhogliad won funding for a project on natural language generation in NLTK (mentored by
Robert Dale and Edward Loper).
Python Software Foundation adopts NLTK for Google Summer of Code application [March 2008] The Python
Software Foundation has listed NLTK projects for sponsorship from the 2008 Google Summer of Code program.
For details please see http://wiki.python.org/moin/SummerOfCode.
Version 0.9.2 released [March 2008] This version contains a new inference module linked to the Prover9/Mace4
theorem-prover and model checker (Dan Garrette, Ewan Klein). It also includes the VerbNet? and PropBank?
corpora along with corpus readers. A bug in the Reuters corpus reader has been fixed. NLTK-Contrib includes
new work on the WordNet? browser (Jussi Salmela). For full details see the ChangeLog
Youtube video about NLTK [January 2008] The video from of the NLTK talk at the Bay Area Python Interest Group
last July has been posted at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keXW_5-llD0 (1h15m)
Version 0.9.1 released [January 2008] This version contains new support for accessing text categorization corpora,
along with several corpora categorized for topic, genre, question type, or sentiment. It includes several new
corpora: Question classification data (Li & Roth), Reuters 21578 Corpus, Movie Reviews corpus (Pang & Lee),
Recognising Textual Entailment (RTE) Challenges. NLTK-Contrib includes expanded support for semantics
(Dan Garrette), readability scoring (Thomas Jakobsen, Thomas Skardal), and SIL Toolbox (Greg Aumann).
The book contains many improvements in early chapters in response to reader feedback. For full details see the
ChangeLog.
2007
NLTK-Lite 0.9 released [October 2007] This version is substantially revised and expanded from version 0.8. The
entire toolkit can be accessed via a single import statement “import nltk”, and there is a more convenient naming
scheme. Calling deprecated functions generates messages that help programmers update their code. The corpus,
tagger, and classifier modules have been redesigned. All functionality of the old NLTK 1.4.3 is now covered by
NLTK-Lite 0.9. The book has been revised and expanded. A new data package incorporates the existing corpus
collection and contains new sections for pre-specified grammars and pre-computed models. Several new corpora
have been added, including treebanks for Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan and Dutch. A Macintosh distribution is
provided. For full details see the ChangeLog.
NLTK-Lite 0.9b2 released [September 2007] This version is substantially revised and expanded from version 0.8.
The entire toolkit can be accessed via a single import statement “import nltk”, and many common NLP functions accessed directly, e.g. nltk.PorterStemmer?, nltk.ShiftReduceParser?. The corpus, tagger, and classifier
modules have been redesigned. The book has been revised and expanded, and the chapters have been reordered.
NLTK has a new data package incorporating the existing corpus collection and adding new sections for prespecified grammars and pre-computed models. The Floresta Portuguese Treebank has been added. Release
0.9b2 fixes several minor problems with 0.9b1 and removes the numpy dependency. It includes a new corpus
and corpus reader for Brazilian Portuguese news text (MacMorphy?) and an improved corpus reader for the
Sinica Treebank, and a trained model for Portuguese sentence segmentation.
NLTK-Lite 0.9b1 released [August 2007] This version is substantially revised and expanded from version 0.8. The
entire toolkit can be accessed via a single import statement “import nltk”, and many common NLP functions
accessed directly, e.g. nltk.PorterStemmer?, nltk.ShiftReduceParser?. The corpus, tagger, and classifier modules
have been redesigned. The book has been revised and expanded, and the chapters have been reordered. NLTK
has a new data package incorporating the existing corpus collection and adding new sections for pre-specified
grammars and pre-computed models. The Floresta Portuguese Treebank has been added. For full details see the
ChangeLog?.
3.1. NLTK News
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NLTK talks in São Paulo [August 2007] Steven Bird will present NLTK in a series of talks at the First Brazilian
School on Computational Linguistics, at the University of São Paulo in the first week of September.
NLTK talk in Bay Area [July 2007] Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper will present NLTK at the Bay Area
Python Interest Group, at Google on Thursday 12 July.
NLTK-Lite 0.8 released [July 2007] This version is substantially revised and expanded from version 0.7. The code
now includes improved interfaces to corpora, chunkers, grammars, frequency distributions, full integration with
WordNet? 3.0 and WordNet? similarity measures. The book contains substantial revision of Part I (tokenization,
tagging, chunking) and Part II (grammars and parsing). NLTK has several new corpora including the Switchboard Telephone Speech Corpus transcript sample (Talkbank Project), CMU Problem Reports Corpus sample,
CONLL2002 POS+NER data, Patient Information Leaflet corpus sample, Indian POS-Tagged data (Bangla,
Hindi, Marathi, Telugu), Shakespeare XML corpus sample, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
corpus with text samples in 300+ languages.
NLTK features in Language Documentation and Conservation article [July 2007] An article Managing Fieldwork Data with Toolbox and the Natural Language Toolkit by Stuart Robinson, Greg Aumann, and Steven
Bird appears in the inaugural issue of ‘’Language Documentation and Conservation’‘. It discusses several small
Python programs for manipulating field data.
NLTK features in ACM Crossroads article [May 2007] An article Getting Started on Natural Language Processing
with Python by Nitin Madnani will appear in ‘’ACM Crossroads’‘, the ACM Student Journal. It discusses NLTK
in detail, and provides several helpful examples including an entertaining free word association program.
NLTK-Lite 0.7.5 released [May 2007] This version contains improved interfaces for WordNet 3.0 and WordNetSimilarity, the Lancaster Stemmer (contributed by Steven Tomcavage), and several new corpora including the
Switchboard Telephone Speech Corpus transcript sample (Talkbank Project), CMU Problem Reports Corpus
sample, CONLL2002 POS+NER data, Patient Information Leaflet corpus sample and WordNet 3.0 data files.
With this distribution WordNet no longer needs to be separately installed.
NLTK-Lite 0.7.4 released [May 2007] This release contains new corpora and corpus readers for Indian POS-Tagged
data (Bangla, Hindi, Marathi, Telugu), and the Sinica Treebank, and substantial revision of Part II of the book
on structured programming, grammars and parsing.
NLTK-Lite 0.7.3 released [April 2007] This release contains improved chunker and PCFG interfaces, the Shakespeare XML corpus sample and corpus reader, improved tutorials and improved formatting of code samples,
and categorization of problem sets by difficulty.
NLTK-Lite 0.7.2 released [March 2007] This release contains new text classifiers (Cosine, NaiveBayes?, Spearman),
contributed by Sam Huston, simple feature detectors, the UDHR corpus with text samples in 300+ languages and
a corpus interface; improved tutorials (340 pages in total); additions to contrib area including Kimmo finite-state
morphology system, Lambek calculus system, and a demonstration of text classifiers for language identification.
NLTK-Lite 0.7.1 released [January 2007] This release contains bugfixes in the WordNet? and HMM modules.
2006
NLTK-Lite 0.7 released [December 2006] This release contains: new semantic interpretation package (Ewan Klein),
new support for SIL Toolbox format (Greg Aumann), new chunking package including cascaded chunking
(Steven Bird), new interface to WordNet? 2.1 and Wordnet similarity measures (David Ormiston Smith), new
support for Penn Treebank format (Yoav Goldberg), bringing the codebase to 48,000 lines; substantial new
chapters on semantic interpretation and chunking, and substantial revisions to several other chapters, bringing
the textbook documentation to 280 pages;
NLTK-Lite 0.7b1 released [December 2006] This release contains: new semantic interpretation package (Ewan
Klein), new support for SIL Toolbox format (Greg Aumann), new chunking package including cascaded chunking, wordnet package updated for version 2.1 of Wordnet, and prototype wordnet similarity measures (David
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Ormiston Smith), bringing the codebase to 48,000 lines; substantial new chapters on semantic interpretation and
chunking, and substantial revisions to several other chapters, bringing the textbook documentation to 270 pages;
NLTK-Lite 0.6.6 released [October 2006] This release contains bugfixes, improvements to Shoebox file format support, and expanded tutorial discussions of programming and feature-based grammars.
NLTK-Lite 0.6.5 released [July 2006] This release contains improvements to Shoebox file format support (by Stuart
Robinson and Greg Aumann); an implementation of hole semantics (by Peter Wang); improvements to lambda
calculus and semantic interpretation modules (by Ewan Klein); a new corpus (Sinica Treebank sample); and
expanded tutorial discussions of trees, feature-based grammar, unification, PCFGs, and more exercises.
NLTK-Lite passes 10k download milestone [May 2006] We have now had 10,000 downloads of NLTK-Lite in the
nine months since it was first released.
NLTK-Lite 0.6.4 released [April 2006] This release contains new corpora (Senseval 2, TIMIT sample), a clusterer,
cascaded chunker, and several substantially revised tutorials.
2005
NLTK 1.4 no longer supported [December 2005] The main development has switched to NLTK-Lite. The latest
version of NLTK can still be downloaded; see the installation page for instructions.
NLTK-Lite 0.6 released [November 2005] contains bug-fixes, PDF versions of tutorials, expanded fieldwork tutorial,
PCFG grammar induction (by Nathan Bodenstab), and prototype concordance and paradigm display tools (by
Peter Spiller and Will Hardy).
NLTK-Lite 0.5 released [September 2005] contains bug-fixes, improved tutorials, more project suggestions, and a
pronunciation dictionary.
NLTK-Lite 0.4 released [September 2005] contains bug-fixes, improved tutorials, more project suggestions, and
probabilistic parsers.
NLTK-Lite 0.3 released [August 2005] contains bug-fixes, documentation clean-up, project suggestions, and the
chart parser demos including one for Earley parsing by Jean Mark Gawron.
NLTK-Lite 0.2 released [July 2005] contains bug-fixes, documentation clean-up, and some translations of tutorials
into Brazilian Portuguese by Tiago Tresoldi.
NLTK-Lite 0.1 released [July 2005] substantially simplified and streamlined version of NLTK has been released
Brazilian Portuguese Translation [April 2005] top-level pages of this website have been translated into Brazilian
Portuguese by Tiago Tresoldi; translations of the tutorials are in preparation http://hermes.sourceforge.net/
nltk-br/
1.4.3 Release [February 2005] NLTK 1.4.3 has been released; this is the first version which is compatible with Python
2.4.
Installing NLTK
NLTK requires Python versions 2.7, 3.4, or 3.5
Mac/Unix
1. Install NLTK: run sudo pip install -U nltk
2. Install Numpy (optional): run sudo pip install -U numpy
3. Test installation: run python then type import nltk
3.2. Installing NLTK
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For older versions of Python it might be necessary to install setuptools (see http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools) and
to install pip (sudo easy_install pip).
Windows
These instructions assume that you do not already have Python installed on your machine.
32-bit binary installation
1. Install Python 3.5: http://www.python.org/downloads/ (avoid the 64-bit versions)
2. Install Numpy (optional):
python3.5)
http://sourceforge.net/projects/numpy/files/NumPy/ (the version that specifies
3. Install NLTK: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/nltk
4. Test installation: Start>Python35, then type import nltk
Installing Third-Party Software
Please see: https://github.com/nltk/nltk/wiki/Installing-Third-Party-Software
Installing NLTK Data
NLTK comes with many corpora, toy grammars, trained models, etc. A complete list is posted at: http://nltk.org/nltk_
data/
To install the data, first install NLTK (see http://nltk.org/install.html), then use NLTK’s data downloader as described
below.
Apart from individual data packages, you can download the entire collection (using “all”), or just the data required for
the examples and exercises in the book (using “book”), or just the corpora and no grammars or trained models (using
“all-corpora”).
Interactive installer
For central installation on a multi-user machine, do the following from an administrator account.
Run the Python interpreter and type the commands:
>>> import nltk
>>> nltk.download()
A new window should open, showing the NLTK Downloader. Click on the File menu and select Change Download
Directory. For central installation, set this to C:\nltk_data (Windows), /usr/local/share/nltk_data
(Mac), or /usr/share/nltk_data (Unix). Next, select the packages or collections you want to download.
If you did not install the data to one of the above central locations, you will need to set the NLTK_DATA environment
variable to specify the location of the data. (On a Windows machine, right click on “My Computer” then select
Properties > Advanced > Environment Variables > User Variables > New...)
Test that the data has been installed as follows. (This assumes you downloaded the Brown Corpus):
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>>> from nltk.corpus import brown
>>> brown.words()
['The', 'Fulton', 'County', 'Grand', 'Jury', 'said', ...]
Installing via a proxy web server
If your web connection uses a proxy server, you should specify the proxy address as follows. In the case of an
authenticating proxy, specify a username and password. If the proxy is set to None then this function will attempt to
detect the system proxy.
>>> nltk.set_proxy('http://proxy.example.com:3128', ('USERNAME', 'PASSWORD'))
>>> nltk.download()
Command line installation
The downloader will search for an existing nltk_data directory to install NLTK data. If one does not exist it
will attempt to create one in a central location (when using an administrator account) or otherwise in the user’s
filespace. If necessary, run the download command from an administrator account, or using sudo. The recommended
system location is C:\nltk_data (Windows); /usr/local/share/nltk_data (Mac); and /usr/share/
nltk_data (Unix). You can use the -d flag to specify a different location (but if you do this, be sure to set the
NLTK_DATA environment variable accordingly).
Run the command python -m nltk.downloader all. To ensure central installation, run the command sudo
python -m nltk.downloader -d /usr/local/share/nltk_data all.
Windows: Use the “Run...” option on the Start menu. Windows Vista users need to first turn on this option, using
Start -> Properties -> Customize to check the box to activate the “Run...” option.
Test the installation: Check that the user environment and privileges are set correctly by logging in to a user account,
starting the Python interpreter, and accessing the Brown Corpus (see the previous section).
Contribute to NLTK
The Natural Language Toolkit exists thanks to the efforts of dozens of voluntary developers who have contributed
functionality and bugfixes since the project began in 2000 (contributors).
In 2015 we extended NLTK coverage of: dependency parsing, machine translation, sentiment analysis, twitter processing. In 2016 we are continuing to refine support in these areas.
Other information for contributors:
• contributing to NLTK
• desired enhancements
• contribute a corpus
• nltk-dev mailing list
• GitHub Project
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NLTK Team
The NLTK project is led by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper. Individual packages are maintained by the
following people:
Semantics Dan Garrette, Austin, USA (nltk.sem, nltk.inference)
Parsing Peter Ljunglöf, Gothenburg, Sweden (nltk.parse, nltk.featstruct)
Metrics Joel Nothman, Sydney, Australia (nltk.metrics, nltk.tokenize.punkt)
Python 3 Mikhail Korobov, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Releases Steven Bird, Melbourne, Australia
NLTK-Users Alexis Dimitriadis, Utrecht, Netherlands
nltk Package
nltk Package
The Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) is an open source Python library for Natural Language Processing. A free
online book is available. (If you use the library for academic research, please cite the book.)
Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper (2009). Natural Language Processing with Python. O’Reilly Media Inc.
http://nltk.org/book
@version: 3.2.4
nltk.__init__.demo()
collocations Module
Tools to identify collocations — words that often appear consecutively — within corpora. They may also be used to
find other associations between word occurrences. See Manning and Schutze ch. 5 at http://nlp.stanford.edu/fsnlp/
promo/colloc.pdf and the Text::NSP Perl package at http://ngram.sourceforge.net
Finding collocations requires first calculating the frequencies of words and their appearance in the context of other
words. Often the collection of words will then requiring filtering to only retain useful content terms. Each ngram of
words may then be scored according to some association measure, in order to determine the relative likelihood of each
ngram being a collocation.
The BigramCollocationFinder and TrigramCollocationFinder classes provide these functionalities,
dependent on being provided a function which scores a ngram given appropriate frequency counts. A number of
standard association measures are provided in bigram_measures and trigram_measures.
class nltk.collocations.BigramCollocationFinder(word_fd, bigram_fd, window_size=2)
Bases: nltk.collocations.AbstractCollocationFinder
A tool for the finding and ranking of bigram collocations or other association measures. It is often useful to use
from_words() rather than constructing an instance directly.
default_ws = 2
classmethod from_words(words, window_size=2)
Construct a BigramCollocationFinder for all bigrams in the given sequence. When window_size > 2, count
non-contiguous bigrams, in the style of Church and Hanks’s (1990) association ratio.
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score_ngram(score_fn, w1, w2)
Returns the score for a given bigram using the given scoring function. Following Church and Hanks
(1990), counts are scaled by a factor of 1/(window_size - 1).
class nltk.collocations.TrigramCollocationFinder(word_fd, bigram_fd, wildcard_fd, trigram_fd)
Bases: nltk.collocations.AbstractCollocationFinder
A tool for the finding and ranking of trigram collocations or other association measures. It is often useful to use
from_words() rather than constructing an instance directly.
bigram_finder()
Constructs a bigram collocation finder with the bigram and unigram data from this finder. Note that this
does not include any filtering applied to this finder.
default_ws = 3
classmethod from_words(words, window_size=3)
Construct a TrigramCollocationFinder for all trigrams in the given sequence.
score_ngram(score_fn, w1, w2, w3)
Returns the score for a given trigram using the given scoring function.
class nltk.collocations.QuadgramCollocationFinder(word_fd, quadgram_fd, ii, iii, ixi, ixxi,
iixi, ixii)
Bases: nltk.collocations.AbstractCollocationFinder
A tool for the finding and ranking of quadgram collocations or other association measures. It is often useful to
use from_words() rather than constructing an instance directly.
default_ws = 4
classmethod from_words(words, window_size=4)
score_ngram(score_fn, w1, w2, w3, w4)
data Module
Functions to find and load NLTK resource files, such as corpora, grammars, and saved processing objects. Resource
files are identified using URLs, such as nltk:corpora/abc/rural.txt or http://nltk.org/sample/
toy.cfg. The following URL protocols are supported:
• file:path: Specifies the file whose path is path. Both relative and absolute paths may be used.
• http://host/path: Specifies the file stored on the web server host at path path.
• nltk:path: Specifies the file stored in the NLTK data package at path. NLTK will search for these files in
the directories specified by nltk.data.path.
If no protocol is specified, then the default protocol nltk: will be used.
This module provides to functions that can be used to access a resource file, given its URL: load() loads a given
resource, and adds it to a resource cache; and retrieve() copies a given resource to a local file.
nltk.data.path = [’/home/docs/nltk_data’, ‘/usr/share/nltk_data’, ‘/usr/local/share/nltk_data’, ‘/usr/lib/nltk_data’, ‘/usr/loca
A list of directories where the NLTK data package might reside. These directories will be checked in order
when looking for a resource in the data package. Note that this allows users to substitute in their own versions
of resources, if they have them (e.g., in their home directory under ~/nltk_data).
class nltk.data.PathPointer
Bases: object
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An abstract base class for ‘path pointers,’ used by NLTK’s data package to identify specific paths. Two subclasses exist: FileSystemPathPointer identifies a file that can be accessed directly via a given absolute
path. ZipFilePathPointer identifies a file contained within a zipfile, that can be accessed by reading that
zipfile.
file_size()
Return the size of the file pointed to by this path pointer, in bytes.
Raises IOError – If the path specified by this pointer does not contain a readable file.
join(fileid)
Return a new path pointer formed by starting at the path identified by this pointer, and then following the
relative path given by fileid. The path components of fileid should be separated by forward slashes,
regardless of the underlying file system’s path seperator character.
open(encoding=None)
Return a seekable read-only stream that can be used to read the contents of the file identified by this path
pointer.
Raises IOError – If the path specified by this pointer does not contain a readable file.
class nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: nltk.data.PathPointer, unicode
A path pointer that identifies a file which can be accessed directly via a given absolute path.
file_size()
join(fileid)
open(encoding=None)
path
The absolute path identified by this path pointer.
class nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: gzip.GzipFile
A GzipFile subclass that buffers calls to read() and write(). This allows faster reads and writes of data
to and from gzip-compressed files at the cost of using more memory.
The default buffer size is 2MB.
BufferedGzipFile is useful for loading large gzipped pickle objects as well as writing large encoded
feature files for classifier training.
MB = 1048576
SIZE = 2097152
close()
flush(lib_mode=2)
read(size=None)
write(data, size=-1)
Parameters
• data (bytes) – bytes to write to file or buffer
• size (int) – buffer at least size bytes before writing to file
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class nltk.data.GzipFileSystemPathPointer(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer
A subclass of FileSystemPathPointer that identifies a gzip-compressed file located at a given absolute
path. GzipFileSystemPathPointer is appropriate for loading large gzip-compressed pickle objects efficiently.
open(encoding=None)
class nltk.data.GzipFileSystemPathPointer(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer
A subclass of FileSystemPathPointer that identifies a gzip-compressed file located at a given absolute
path. GzipFileSystemPathPointer is appropriate for loading large gzip-compressed pickle objects efficiently.
open(encoding=None)
nltk.data.find(resource_name, paths=None)
Find the given resource by searching through the directories and zip files in paths, where a None or empty
string specifies an absolute path. Returns a corresponding path name. If the given resource is not found, raise a
LookupError, whose message gives a pointer to the installation instructions for the NLTK downloader.
Zip File Handling:
•If resource_name contains a component with a .zip extension, then it is assumed to be a zipfile; and
the remaining path components are used to look inside the zipfile.
•If any element of nltk.data.path has a .zip extension, then it is assumed to be a zipfile.
•If a given resource name that does not contain any zipfile component is not found initially, then find()
will make a second attempt to find that resource, by replacing each component p in the path with p.zip/p.
For example, this allows find() to map the resource name corpora/chat80/cities.pl to a zip
file path pointer to corpora/chat80.zip/chat80/cities.pl.
•When using find() to locate a directory contained in a zipfile, the resource name must end with the
forward slash character. Otherwise, find() will not locate the directory.
Parameters resource_name (str or unicode) – The name of the resource to search for.
Resource names are posix-style relative path names, such as corpora/brown. Directory
names will be automatically converted to a platform-appropriate path separator.
Return type str
nltk.data.retrieve(resource_url, filename=None, verbose=True)
Copy the given resource to a local file. If no filename is specified, then use the URL’s filename. If there is
already a file named filename, then raise a ValueError.
Parameters resource_url (str) – A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded
from. The default protocol is “nltk:”, which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package.
nltk.data.FORMATS = {u’cfg’: u’A context free grammar.’, u’raw’: u’The raw (byte string) contents of a file.’, u’fcfg’: u’A f
A dictionary describing the formats that are supported by NLTK’s load() method. Keys are format names, and
values are format descriptions.
nltk.data.AUTO_FORMATS = {u’cfg’: u’cfg’, u’txt’: u’text’, u’fcfg’: u’fcfg’, u’pcfg’: u’pcfg’, u’val’: u’val’, u’yaml’: u’yaml
A dictionary mapping from file extensions to format names, used by load() when format=”auto” to decide the
format for a given resource url.
nltk.data.load(resource_url, format=u’auto’, cache=True, verbose=False, logic_parser=None,
fstruct_reader=None, encoding=None)
Load a given resource from the NLTK data package. The following resource formats are currently supported:
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•pickle
•json
•yaml
•cfg (context free grammars)
•pcfg (probabilistic CFGs)
•fcfg (feature-based CFGs)
•fol (formulas of First Order Logic)
•logic (Logical formulas to be parsed by the given logic_parser)
•val (valuation of First Order Logic model)
•text (the file contents as a unicode string)
•raw (the raw file contents as a byte string)
If no format is specified, load() will attempt to determine a format based on the resource name’s file extension.
If that fails, load() will raise a ValueError exception.
For all text formats (everything except pickle, json, yaml and raw), it tries to decode the raw contents
using UTF-8, and if that doesn’t work, it tries with ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1), unless the encoding is specified.
Parameters
• resource_url (str) – A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded from.
The default protocol is “nltk:”, which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package.
• cache (bool) – If true, add this resource to a cache. If load() finds a resource in its cache,
then it will return it from the cache rather than loading it. The cache uses weak references,
so a resource wil automatically be expunged from the cache when no more objects are using
it.
• verbose (bool) – If true, print a message when loading a resource. Messages are not
displayed when a resource is retrieved from the cache.
• logic_parser (LogicParser) – The parser that will be used to parse logical expressions.
• fstruct_reader (FeatStructReader) – The parser that will be used to parse the
feature structure of an fcfg.
• encoding (str) – the encoding of the input; only used for text formats.
nltk.data.show_cfg(resource_url, escape=u’##’)
Write out a grammar file, ignoring escaped and empty lines.
Parameters
• resource_url (str) – A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded from.
The default protocol is “nltk:”, which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package.
• escape (str) – Prepended string that signals lines to be ignored
nltk.data.clear_cache()
Remove all objects from the resource cache. :see: load()
class nltk.data.LazyLoader(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: object
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class nltk.data.OpenOnDemandZipFile(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: zipfile.ZipFile
A subclass of zipfile.ZipFile that closes its file pointer whenever it is not using it; and re-opens it when
it needs to read data from the zipfile. This is useful for reducing the number of open file handles when many zip
files are being accessed at once. OpenOnDemandZipFile must be constructed from a filename, not a file-like
object (to allow re-opening). OpenOnDemandZipFile is read-only (i.e. write() and writestr() are
disabled.
read(name)
write(*args, **kwargs)
Raises NotImplementedError – OpenOnDemandZipfile is read-only
writestr(*args, **kwargs)
Raises NotImplementedError – OpenOnDemandZipfile is read-only
class nltk.data.GzipFileSystemPathPointer(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer
A subclass of FileSystemPathPointer that identifies a gzip-compressed file located at a given absolute
path. GzipFileSystemPathPointer is appropriate for loading large gzip-compressed pickle objects efficiently.
open(encoding=None)
class nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader(*args, **kwargs)
Bases: object
A stream reader that automatically encodes the source byte stream into unicode (like codecs.
StreamReader); but still supports the seek() and tell() operations correctly. This is in contrast to
codecs.StreamReader, which provide broken seek() and tell() methods.
This class was motivated by StreamBackedCorpusView, which makes extensive use of seek() and
tell(), and needs to be able to handle unicode-encoded files.
Note: this class requires stateless decoders. To my knowledge, this shouldn’t cause a problem with any of
python’s builtin unicode encodings.
DEBUG = True
bytebuffer = None
A buffer to use bytes that have been read but have not yet been decoded. This is only used when the final
bytes from a read do not form a complete encoding for a character.
char_seek_forward(offset)
Move the read pointer forward by offset characters.
close()
Close the underlying stream.
closed
True if the underlying stream is closed.
decode = None
The function that is used to decode byte strings into unicode strings.
encoding = None
The name of the encoding that should be used to encode the underlying stream.
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errors = None
The error mode that should be used when decoding data from the underlying stream. Can be ‘strict’,
‘ignore’, or ‘replace’.
linebuffer = None
A buffer used by readline() to hold characters that have been read, but have not yet been returned by
read() or readline(). This buffer consists of a list of unicode strings, where each string corresponds
to a single line. The final element of the list may or may not be a complete line. Note that the existence
of a linebuffer makes the tell() operation more complex, because it must backtrack to the beginning of
the buffer to determine the correct file position in the underlying byte stream.
mode
The mode of the underlying stream.
name
The name of the underlying stream.
next()
Return the next decoded line from the underlying stream.
read(size=None)
Read up to size bytes, decode them using this reader’s encoding, and return the resulting unicode string.
Parameters size (int) – The maximum number of bytes to read. If not specified, then read
as many bytes as possible.
Return type unicode
readline(size=None)
Read a line of text, decode it using this reader’s encoding, and return the resulting unicode string.
Parameters size (int) – The maximum number of bytes to read. If no newline is encountered
before size bytes have been read, then the returned value may not be a complete line of text.
readlines(sizehint=None, keepends=True)
Read this file’s contents, decode them using this reader’s encoding, and return it as a list of unicode lines.
Return type list(unicode)
Parameters
• sizehint – Ignored.
• keepends – If false, then strip newlines.
seek(offset, whence=0)
Move the stream to a new file position. If the reader is maintaining any buffers, then they will be cleared.
Parameters
• offset – A byte count offset.
• whence – If 0, then the offset is from the start of the file (offset should be positive), if 1,
then the offset is from the current position (offset may be positive or negative); and if 2,
then the offset is from the end of the file (offset should typically be negative).
stream = None
The underlying stream.
tell()
Return the current file position on the underlying byte stream. If this reader is maintaining any buffers,
then the returned file position will be the position of the beginning of those buffers.
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xreadlines()
Return self
downloader Module
The NLTK corpus and module downloader. This module defines several interfaces which can be used to download
corpora, models, and other data packages that can be used with NLTK.
Downloading Packages
If called with no arguments, download() will display an interactive interface which can be used to download and
install new packages. If Tkinter is available, then a graphical interface will be shown, otherwise a simple text interface
will be provided.
Individual packages can be downloaded by calling the download() function with a single argument, giving the
package identifier for the package that should be downloaded:
>>> download('treebank')
[nltk_data] Downloading package 'treebank'...
[nltk_data]
Unzipping corpora/treebank.zip.
NLTK also provides a number of “package collections”, consisting of a group of related packages. To download all
packages in a colleciton, simply call download() with the collection’s identifier:
>>> download('all-corpora')
[nltk_data] Downloading package 'abc'...
[nltk_data]
Unzipping corpora/abc.zip.
[nltk_data] Downloading package 'alpino'...
[nltk_data]
Unzipping corpora/alpino.zip.
...
[nltk_data] Downloading package 'words'...
[nltk_data]
Unzipping corpora/words.zip.
Download Directory
By default, packages are installed in either a system-wide directory (if Python has sufficient access to write to it);
or in the current user’s home directory. However, the download_dir argument may be used to specify a different
installation target, if desired.
See Downloader.default_download_dir() for more a detailed description of how the default download
directory is chosen.
NLTK Download Server
Before downloading any packages, the corpus and module downloader contacts the NLTK download server, to retrieve an index file describing the available packages. By default, this index file is loaded from https://raw.
githubusercontent.com/nltk/nltk_data/gh-pages/index.xml. If necessary, it is possible to create a new Downloader object, specifying a different URL for the package index file.
Usage:
python nltk/downloader.py [-d DATADIR] [-q] [-f] [-k] PACKAGE_IDS
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or:
python -m nltk.downloader [-d DATADIR] [-q] [-f] [-k] PACKAGE_IDS
class nltk.downloader.Collection(id, children, name=None, **kw)
Bases: object
A directory entry for a collection of downloadable packages. These entries are extracted from the XML index
file that is downloaded by Downloader.
children = None
A list of the Collections or Packages directly contained by this collection.
static fromxml(xml)
id = None
A unique identifier for this collection.
name = None
A string name for this collection.
packages = None
A list of Packages contained by this collection or any collections it recursively contains.
unicode_repr()
class nltk.downloader.Downloader(server_index_url=None, download_dir=None)
Bases: object
A class used to access the NLTK data server, which can be used to download corpora and other data packages.
DEFAULT_URL = u’https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nltk/nltk_data/gh-pages/index.xml’
The default URL for the NLTK data server’s index. An alternative URL can be specified when creating a
new Downloader object.
INDEX_TIMEOUT = 3600
The amount of time after which the cached copy of the data server index will be considered ‘stale,’ and
will be re-downloaded.
INSTALLED = u’installed’
A status string indicating that a package or collection is installed and up-to-date.
NOT_INSTALLED = u’not installed’
A status string indicating that a package or collection is not installed.
PARTIAL = u’partial’
A status string indicating that a collection is partially installed (i.e., only some of its packages are installed.)
STALE = u’out of date’
A status string indicating that a package or collection is corrupt or out-of-date.
clear_status_cache(id=None)
collections()
corpora()
default_download_dir()
Return the directory to which packages will be downloaded by default. This value can be overridden
using the constructor, or on a case-by-case basis using the download_dir argument when calling
download().
On Windows, the default download directory is PYTHONHOME/lib/nltk, where PYTHONHOME is
the directory containing Python, e.g. C:\Python25.
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On all other platforms, the default directory is the first of the following which exists or which can be
created with write permission: /usr/share/nltk_data, /usr/local/share/nltk_data, /
usr/lib/nltk_data, /usr/local/lib/nltk_data, ~/nltk_data.
download(info_or_id=None, download_dir=None, quiet=False, force=False, prefix=u’[nltk_data] ‘,
halt_on_error=True, raise_on_error=False)
download_dir
The default directory to which packages will be downloaded. This defaults to the value returned by default_download_dir(). To override this default on a case-by-case basis, use the
download_dir argument when calling download().
incr_download(info_or_id, download_dir=None, force=False)
index()
Return the XML index describing the packages available from the data server. If necessary, this index will
be downloaded from the data server.
info(id)
Return the Package or Collection record for the given item.
is_installed(info_or_id, download_dir=None)
is_stale(info_or_id, download_dir=None)
list(download_dir=None,
show_packages=True,
more_prompt=False, skip_installed=False)
show_collections=True,
header=True,
models()
packages()
status(info_or_id, download_dir=None)
Return a constant describing the status of the given package or collection.
INSTALLED, NOT_INSTALLED, STALE, or PARTIAL.
Status can be one of
update(quiet=False, prefix=u’[nltk_data] ‘)
Re-download any packages whose status is STALE.
url
The URL for the data server’s index file.
xmlinfo(id)
Return the XML info record for the given item
class nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI(dataserver, use_threads=True)
Bases: object
Graphical interface for downloading packages from the NLTK data server.
COLUMNS = [u’‘, u’Identifier’, u’Name’, u’Size’, u’Status’, u’Unzipped Size’, u’Copyright’, u’Contact’, u’License’, u’Auth
A list of the names of columns. This controls the order in which the columns will appear. If this is edited,
then _package_to_columns() may need to be edited to match.
COLUMN_WEIGHTS = {u’‘: 0, u’Status’: 0, u’Name’: 5, u’Size’: 0}
A dictionary specifying how columns should be resized when the table is resized. Columns with weight 0
will not be resized at all; and columns with high weight will be resized more. Default weight (for columns
not explicitly listed) is 1.
COLUMN_WIDTHS = {u’‘: 1, u’Status’: 12, u’Name’: 45, u’Unzipped Size’: 10, u’Identifier’: 20, u’Size’: 10}
A dictionary specifying how wide each column should be, in characters. The default width (for columns
not explicitly listed) is specified by DEFAULT_COLUMN_WIDTH.
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DEFAULT_COLUMN_WIDTH = 30
The default width for columns that are not explicitly listed in COLUMN_WIDTHS.
HELP = u’This tool can be used to download a variety of corpora and models\nthat can be used with NLTK. Each corpus o
INITIAL_COLUMNS = [u’‘, u’Identifier’, u’Name’, u’Size’, u’Status’]
The set of columns that should be displayed by default.
about(*e)
c = u’Status’
destroy(*e)
help(*e)
mainloop(*args, **kwargs)
class nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Bases: object
A status message object, used by incr_download to communicate its progress.
class nltk.downloader.DownloaderShell(dataserver)
Bases: object
run()
class nltk.downloader.ErrorMessage(package, message)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server encountered an error
class nltk.downloader.FinishCollectionMessage(collection)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has finished working on a collection of packages.
class nltk.downloader.FinishDownloadMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has finished downloading a package.
class nltk.downloader.FinishPackageMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has finished working on a package.
class nltk.downloader.FinishUnzipMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has finished unzipping a package.
class nltk.downloader.Package(id, url, name=None, subdir=u’‘, size=None, unzipped_size=None,
checksum=None, svn_revision=None, copyright=u’Unknown’, contact=u’Unknown’, license=u’Unknown’, author=u’Unknown’, unzip=True, **kw)
Bases: object
A directory entry for a downloadable package. These entries are extracted from the XML index file that is
downloaded by Downloader. Each package consists of a single file; but if that file is a zip file, then it can be
automatically decompressed when the package is installed.
author = None
Author of this package.
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checksum = None
The MD-5 checksum of the package file.
contact = None
Name & email of the person who should be contacted with questions about this package.
copyright = None
Copyright holder for this package.
filename = None
The filename that should be used for this package’s file. It is formed by joining self.subdir with
self.id, and using the same extension as url.
static fromxml(xml)
id = None
A unique identifier for this package.
license = None
License information for this package.
name = None
A string name for this package.
size = None
The filesize (in bytes) of the package file.
subdir = None
The subdirectory where this package should be installed. E.g., 'corpora' or 'taggers'.
svn_revision = None
A subversion revision number for this package.
unicode_repr()
unzip = None
A flag indicating whether this corpus should be unzipped by default.
unzipped_size = None
The total filesize of the files contained in the package’s zipfile.
url = None
A URL that can be used to download this package’s file.
class nltk.downloader.ProgressMessage(progress)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Indicates how much progress the data server has made
class nltk.downloader.SelectDownloadDirMessage(download_dir)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Indicates what download directory the data server is using
class nltk.downloader.StaleMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
The package download file is out-of-date or corrupt
class nltk.downloader.StartCollectionMessage(collection)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has started working on a collection of packages.
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class nltk.downloader.StartDownloadMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has started downloading a package.
class nltk.downloader.StartPackageMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has started working on a package.
class nltk.downloader.StartUnzipMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
Data server has started unzipping a package.
class nltk.downloader.UpToDateMessage(package)
Bases: nltk.downloader.DownloaderMessage
The package download file is already up-to-date
nltk.downloader.build_index(root, base_url)
Create a new data.xml index file, by combining the xml description files for various packages and collections.
root should be the path to a directory containing the package xml and zip files; and the collection xml files.
The root directory is expected to have the following subdirectories:
root/
packages/ ..................
corpora/ .................
grammars/ ................
taggers/ .................
tokenizers/ ..............
etc.
collections/ ...............
subdirectory for packages
zip & xml files for corpora
zip & xml files for grammars
zip & xml files for taggers
zip & xml files for tokenizers
xml files for collections
For each package, there should be two files: package.zip (where package is the package name) which
contains the package itself as a compressed zip file; and package.xml, which is an xml description of the
package. The zipfile package.zip should expand to a single subdirectory named package/. The base
filename package must match the identifier given in the package’s xml file.
For each collection, there should be a single file collection.zip describing the collection, where collection
is the name of the collection.
All identifiers (for both packages and collections) must be unique.
nltk.downloader.download_gui()
nltk.downloader.download_shell()
nltk.downloader.md5_hexdigest(file)
Calculate and return the MD5 checksum for a given file. file may either be a filename or an open stream.
nltk.downloader.unzip(filename, root, verbose=True)
Extract the contents of the zip file filename into the directory root.
nltk.downloader.update()
featstruct Module
Basic data classes for representing feature structures, and for performing basic operations on those feature structures. A
feature structure is a mapping from feature identifiers to feature values, where each feature value is either a basic value
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(such as a string or an integer), or a nested feature structure. There are two types of feature structure, implemented by
two subclasses of FeatStruct:
• feature dictionaries, implemented by FeatDict, act like Python dictionaries. Feature identifiers may be strings
or instances of the Feature class.
• feature lists, implemented by FeatList, act like Python lists. Feature identifiers are integers.
Feature structures are typically used to represent partial information about objects. A feature identifier that is not
mapped to a value stands for a feature whose value is unknown (not a feature without a value). Two feature structures
that represent (potentially overlapping) information about the same object can be combined by unification. When two
inconsistent feature structures are unified, the unification fails and returns None.
Features can be specified using “feature paths”, or tuples of feature identifiers that specify path through the nested
feature structures to a value. Feature structures may contain reentrant feature values. A “reentrant feature value” is
a single feature value that can be accessed via multiple feature paths. Unification preserves the reentrance relations
imposed by both of the unified feature structures. In the feature structure resulting from unification, any modifications
to a reentrant feature value will be visible using any of its feature paths.
Feature structure variables are encoded using the nltk.sem.Variable class. The variables’ values are tracked
using a bindings dictionary, which maps variables to their values. When two feature structures are unified, a fresh
bindings dictionary is created to track their values; and before unification completes, all bound variables are replaced
by their values. Thus, the bindings dictionaries are usually strictly internal to the unification process. However, it is
possible to track the bindings of variables if you choose to, by supplying your own initial bindings dictionary to the
unify() function.
When unbound variables are unified with one another, they become aliased. This is encoded by binding one variable
to the other.
Lightweight Feature Structures
Many of the functions defined by nltk.featstruct can be applied directly to simple Python dictionaries and
lists, rather than to full-fledged FeatDict and FeatList objects. In other words, Python dicts and lists can
be used as “light-weight” feature structures.
>>> from nltk.featstruct import unify
>>> unify(dict(x=1, y=dict()), dict(a='a', y=dict(b='b')))
{'y': {'b': 'b'}, 'x': 1, 'a': 'a'}
However, you should keep in mind the following caveats:
• Python dictionaries & lists ignore reentrance when checking for equality between values. But two FeatStructs
with different reentrances are considered nonequal, even if all their base values are equal.
• FeatStructs can be easily frozen, allowing them to be used as keys in hash tables. Python dictionaries and lists
can not.
• FeatStructs display reentrance in their string representations; Python dictionaries and lists do not.
• FeatStructs may not be mixed with Python dictionaries and lists (e.g., when performing unification).
• FeatStructs provide a number of useful methods, such as walk() and cyclic(), which are not available for
Python dicts and lists.
In general, if your feature structures will contain any reentrances, or if you plan to use them as dictionary keys, it is
strongly recommended that you use full-fledged FeatStruct objects.
class nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct
Bases: nltk.sem.logic.SubstituteBindingsI
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A mapping from feature identifiers to feature values, where each feature value is either a basic value (such as a
string or an integer), or a nested feature structure. There are two types of feature structure:
•feature dictionaries, implemented by FeatDict, act like Python dictionaries. Feature identifiers may be
strings or instances of the Feature class.
•feature lists, implemented by FeatList, act like Python lists. Feature identifiers are integers.
Feature structures may be indexed using either simple feature identifiers or ‘feature paths.’ A feature path is
a sequence of feature identifiers that stand for a corresponding sequence of indexing operations. In particular,
fstruct[(f1,f2,...,fn)] is equivalent to fstruct[f1][f2]...[fn].
Feature structures may contain reentrant feature structures. A “reentrant feature structure” is a single feature
structure object that can be accessed via multiple feature paths. Feature structures may also be cyclic. A feature
structure is “cyclic” if there is any feature path from the feature structure to itself.
Two feature structures are considered equal if they assign the same values to all features, and have the same
reentrancies.
By default, feature structures are mutable. They may be made immutable with the freeze() method. Once
they have been frozen, they may be hashed, and thus used as dictionary keys.
copy(deep=True)
Return a new copy of self. The new copy will not be frozen.
Parameters deep – If true, create a deep copy; if false, create a shallow copy.
cyclic()
Return True if this feature structure contains itself.
equal_values(other, check_reentrance=False)
Return True if self and other assign the same value to to every feature. In particular, return true if
self[p]==other[p] for every feature path p such that self[p] or other[p] is a base value (i.e.,
not a nested feature structure).
Parameters check_reentrance – If True, then also return False if there is any difference
between the reentrances of self and other.
Note the == is equivalent to equal_values() with check_reentrance=True.
freeze()
Make this feature structure, and any feature structures it contains, immutable. Note: this method does not
attempt to ‘freeze’ any feature value that is not a FeatStruct; it is recommended that you use only
immutable feature values.
frozen()
Return True if this feature structure is immutable. Feature structures can be made immutable with the
freeze() method. Immutable feature structures may not be made mutable again, but new mutable
copies can be produced with the copy() method.
remove_variables()
Return the feature structure that is obtained by deleting any feature whose value is a Variable.
Return type FeatStruct
rename_variables(vars=None, used_vars=(), new_vars=None)
See nltk.featstruct.rename_variables()
retract_bindings(bindings)
See nltk.featstruct.retract_bindings()
substitute_bindings(bindings)
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See nltk.featstruct.substitute_bindings()
subsumes(other)
Return True if self subsumes other. I.e., return true If unifying self with other would result in a
feature structure equal to other.
unify(other, bindings=None, trace=False, fail=None, rename_vars=True)
variables()
See nltk.featstruct.find_variables()
walk()
Return an iterator that generates this feature structure, and each feature structure it contains. Each feature
structure will be generated exactly once.
class nltk.featstruct.FeatDict(features=None, **morefeatures)
Bases: nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct, dict
A feature structure that acts like a Python dictionary. I.e., a mapping from feature identifiers to feature values,
where a feature identifier can be a string or a Feature; and where a feature value can be either a basic value
(such as a string or an integer), or a nested feature structure. A feature identifiers for a FeatDict is sometimes
called a “feature name”.
Two feature dicts are considered equal if they assign the same values to all features, and have the same reentrances.
See FeatStruct for information about feature paths, reentrance, cyclic feature structures, mutability, freezing, and hashing.
clear() → None. Remove all items from D.
If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
get(name_or_path, default=None)
If the feature with the given name or path exists, return its value; otherwise, return default.
has_key(name_or_path)
Return true if a feature with the given name or path exists.
pop(k[, d ]) → v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value.
If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
popitem() → (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair as a
2-tuple; but raise KeyError if D is empty. If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
setdefault(k[, d ]) → D.get(k,d), also set D[k]=d if k not in D
If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
unicode_repr()
Display a single-line representation of this feature structure, suitable for embedding in other representations.
update(features=None, **morefeatures)
class nltk.featstruct.FeatList(features=())
Bases: nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct, list
A list of feature values, where each feature value is either a basic value (such as a string or an integer), or a
nested feature structure.
Feature lists may contain reentrant feature values. A “reentrant feature value” is a single feature value that can
be accessed via multiple feature paths. Feature lists may also be cyclic.
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Two feature lists are considered equal if they assign the same values to all features, and have the same reentrances.
See FeatStruct for information about feature paths, reentrance, cyclic feature structures, mutability, freezing, and hashing.
append(*args, **kwargs)
L.append(object) – append object to end If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
extend(*args, **kwargs)
L.extend(iterable) – extend list by appending elements from the iterable If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
insert(*args, **kwargs)
L.insert(index, object) – insert object before index If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
pop([index ]) → item – remove and return item at index (default last).
Raises IndexError if list is empty or index is out of range. If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
remove(*args, **kwargs)
L.remove(value) – remove first occurrence of value. Raises ValueError if the value is not present. If self is
frozen, raise ValueError.
reverse(*args, **kwargs)
L.reverse() – reverse IN PLACE If self is frozen, raise ValueError.
sort(*args, **kwargs)
L.sort(cmp=None, key=None, reverse=False) – stable sort IN PLACE; cmp(x, y) -> -1, 0, 1 If self is frozen,
raise ValueError.
nltk.featstruct.unify(fstruct1,
fstruct2,
bindings=None,
trace=False,
fail=None,
rename_vars=True, fs_class=u’default’)
Unify fstruct1 with fstruct2, and return the resulting feature structure. This unified feature structure is
the minimal feature structure that contains all feature value assignments from both fstruct1 and fstruct2,
and that preserves all reentrancies.
If no such feature structure exists (because fstruct1 and fstruct2 specify incompatible values for some
feature), then unification fails, and unify returns None.
Bound variables are replaced by their values. Aliased variables are replaced by their representative variable (if
unbound) or the value of their representative variable (if bound). I.e., if variable v is in bindings, then v is
replaced by bindings[v]. This will be repeated until the variable is replaced by an unbound variable or a
non-variable value.
Unbound variables are bound when they are unified with values; and aliased when they are unified with variables.
I.e., if variable v is not in bindings, and is unified with a variable or value x, then bindings[v] is set to x.
If bindings is unspecified, then all variables are assumed to be unbound. I.e., bindings defaults to an
empty dict.
>>> from nltk.featstruct import FeatStruct
>>> FeatStruct('[a=?x]').unify(FeatStruct('[b=?x]'))
[a=?x, b=?x2]
Parameters
• bindings (dict(Variable -> any)) – A set of variable bindings to be used and
updated during unification.
• trace (bool) – If true, generate trace output.
• rename_vars (bool) – If True, then rename any variables in fstruct2 that are also
used in fstruct1, in order to avoid collisions on variable names.
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nltk.featstruct.subsumes(fstruct1, fstruct2)
Return True if fstruct1 subsumes fstruct2. I.e., return true if unifying fstruct1 with fstruct2
would result in a feature structure equal to fstruct2.
Return type bool
nltk.featstruct.conflicts(fstruct1, fstruct2, trace=0)
Return a list of the feature paths of all features which are assigned incompatible values by fstruct1 and
fstruct2.
Return type list(tuple)
class nltk.featstruct.Feature(name, default=None, display=None)
Bases: object
A feature identifier that’s specialized to put additional constraints, default values, etc.
default
Default value for this feature.
display
Custom display location: can be prefix, or slash.
name
The name of this feature.
read_value(s, position, reentrances, parser)
unicode_repr()
unify_base_values(fval1, fval2, bindings)
If possible, return a single value.. If not, return the value UnificationFailure.
class nltk.featstruct.SlashFeature(name, default=None, display=None)
Bases: nltk.featstruct.Feature
read_value(s, position, reentrances, parser)
class nltk.featstruct.RangeFeature(name, default=None, display=None)
Bases: nltk.featstruct.Feature
RANGE_RE = <_sre.SRE_Pattern object>
read_value(s, position, reentrances, parser)
unify_base_values(fval1, fval2, bindings)
class nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader(features=(*slash*,
*type*),
fdict_class=<class
‘nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct’>,
flist_class=<class
‘nltk.featstruct.FeatList’>, logic_parser=None)
Bases: object
VALUE_HANDLERS = [(u’read_fstruct_value’, <_sre.SRE_Pattern object>), (u’read_var_value’, <_sre.SRE_Pattern objec
fromstring(s, fstruct=None)
Convert a string representation of a feature structure (as displayed by repr) into a FeatStruct. This
process imposes the following restrictions on the string representation:
•Feature names cannot contain any of the following: whitespace, parentheses, quote marks, equals
signs, dashes, commas, and square brackets. Feature names may not begin with plus signs or minus
signs.
•Only the following basic feature value are supported: strings, integers, variables, None, and unquoted
alphanumeric strings.
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•For reentrant values, the first mention must specify a reentrance identifier and a value; and any subsequent mentions must use arrows ('->') to reference the reentrance identifier.
read_app_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
Mainly included for backwards compat.
read_fstruct_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_int_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_logic_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_partial(s, position=0, reentrances=None, fstruct=None)
Helper function that reads in a feature structure.
Parameters
• s – The string to read.
• position – The position in the string to start parsing.
• reentrances – A dictionary from reentrance ids to values. Defaults to an empty dictionary.
Returns A tuple (val, pos) of the feature structure created by parsing and the position where the
parsed feature structure ends.
Return type bool
read_set_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_str_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_sym_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_tuple_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
read_value(s, position, reentrances)
read_var_value(s, position, reentrances, match)
grammar Module
Basic data classes for representing context free grammars. A “grammar” specifies which trees can represent the
structure of a given text. Each of these trees is called a “parse tree” for the text (or simply a “parse”). In a “context
free” grammar, the set of parse trees for any piece of a text can depend only on that piece, and not on the rest of the
text (i.e., the piece’s context). Context free grammars are often used to find possible syntactic structures for sentences.
In this context, the leaves of a parse tree are word tokens; and the node values are phrasal categories, such as NP and
VP.
The CFG class is used to encode context free grammars. Each CFG consists of a start symbol and a set of productions.
The “start symbol” specifies the root node value for parse trees. For example, the start symbol for syntactic parsing is
usually S. Start symbols are encoded using the Nonterminal class, which is discussed below.
A Grammar’s “productions” specify what parent-child relationships a parse tree can contain. Each production specifies
that a particular node can be the parent of a particular set of children. For example, the production <S> -> <NP>
<VP> specifies that an S node can be the parent of an NP node and a VP node.
Grammar productions are implemented by the Production class. Each Production consists of a left hand side
and a right hand side. The “left hand side” is a Nonterminal that specifies the node type for a potential parent; and
the “right hand side” is a list that specifies allowable children for that parent. This lists consists of Nonterminals
and text types: each Nonterminal indicates that the corresponding child may be a TreeToken with the specified
node type; and each text type indicates that the corresponding child may be a Token with the with that type.
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The Nonterminal class is used to distinguish node values from leaf values. This prevents the grammar from
accidentally using a leaf value (such as the English word “A”) as the node of a subtree. Within a CFG, all node values
are wrapped in the Nonterminal class. Note, however, that the trees that are specified by the grammar do not
include these Nonterminal wrappers.
Grammars can also be given a more procedural interpretation. According to this interpretation, a Grammar specifies
any tree structure tree that can be produced by the following procedure:
Set tree to the start symbol
Repeat until tree contains no more nonterminal leaves:
Choose a production prod with whose left hand side
lhs is a nonterminal leaf of tree.
Replace the nonterminal leaf with a subtree, whose node
value is the value wrapped by the nonterminal lhs, and
whose children are the right hand side of prod.
The operation of replacing the left hand side (lhs) of a production with the right hand side (rhs) in a tree (tree) is known
as “expanding” lhs to rhs in tree.
class nltk.grammar.Nonterminal(symbol)
Bases: object
A non-terminal symbol for a context free grammar. Nonterminal is a wrapper class for node values; it is
used by Production objects to distinguish node values from leaf values. The node value that is wrapped by a
Nonterminal is known as its “symbol”. Symbols are typically strings representing phrasal categories (such
as "NP" or "VP"). However, more complex symbol types are sometimes used (e.g., for lexicalized grammars).
Since symbols are node values, they must be immutable and hashable. Two Nonterminals are considered
equal if their symbols are equal.
See CFG, Production
Variables _symbol – The node value corresponding to this Nonterminal. This value must be
immutable and hashable.
symbol()
Return the node value corresponding to this Nonterminal.
Return type (any)
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation for this Nonterminal.
Return type str
nltk.grammar.nonterminals(symbols)
Given a string containing a list of symbol names, return a list of Nonterminals constructed from those
symbols.
Parameters symbols (str) – The symbol name string. This string can be delimited by either
spaces or commas.
Returns A list of Nonterminals constructed from the symbol names given in symbols. The
Nonterminals are sorted in the same order as the symbols names.
Return type list(Nonterminal)
class nltk.grammar.CFG(start, productions, calculate_leftcorners=True)
Bases: object
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A context-free grammar. A grammar consists of a start state and a set of productions. The set of terminals and
nonterminals is implicitly specified by the productions.
If you need efficient key-based access to productions, you can use a subclass to implement it.
check_coverage(tokens)
Check whether the grammar rules cover the given list of tokens. If not, then raise an exception.
classmethod fromstring(input, encoding=None)
Return the CFG corresponding to the input string(s).
Parameters input – a grammar, either in the form of a string or as a list of strings.
is_binarised()
Return True if all productions are at most binary. Note that there can still be empty and unary productions.
is_chomsky_normal_form()
Return True if the grammar is of Chomsky Normal Form, i.e. all productions are of the form A -> B C, or
A -> “s”.
is_flexible_chomsky_normal_form()
Return True if all productions are of the forms A -> B C, A -> B, or A -> “s”.
is_leftcorner(cat, left)
True if left is a leftcorner of cat, where left can be a terminal or a nonterminal.
Parameters
• cat (Nonterminal) – the parent of the leftcorner
• left (Terminal or Nonterminal) – the suggested leftcorner
Return type bool
is_lexical()
Return True if all productions are lexicalised.
is_nonempty()
Return True if there are no empty productions.
is_nonlexical()
Return True if all lexical rules are “preterminals”, that is, unary rules which can be separated in a preprocessing step.
This means that all productions are of the forms A -> B1 ... Bn (n>=0), or A -> “s”.
Note: is_lexical() and is_nonlexical() are not opposites. There are grammars which are neither, and grammars which are both.
leftcorner_parents(cat)
Return the set of all nonterminals for which the given category is a left corner. This is the inverse of the
leftcorner relation.
Parameters cat (Nonterminal) – the suggested leftcorner
Returns the set of all parents to the leftcorner
Return type set(Nonterminal)
leftcorners(cat)
Return the set of all nonterminals that the given nonterminal can start with, including itself.
This is the reflexive, transitive closure of the immediate leftcorner relation: (A > B) iff (A -> B beta)
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Parameters cat (Nonterminal) – the parent of the leftcorners
Returns the set of all leftcorners
Return type set(Nonterminal)
max_len()
Return the right-hand side length of the longest grammar production.
min_len()
Return the right-hand side length of the shortest grammar production.
productions(lhs=None, rhs=None, empty=False)
Return the grammar productions, filtered by the left-hand side or the first item in the right-hand side.
Parameters
• lhs – Only return productions with the given left-hand side.
• rhs – Only return productions with the given first item in the right-hand side.
• empty – Only return productions with an empty right-hand side.
Returns A list of productions matching the given constraints.
Return type list(Production)
start()
Return the start symbol of the grammar
Return type Nonterminal
unicode_repr()
class nltk.grammar.Production(lhs, rhs)
Bases: object
A grammar production. Each production maps a single symbol on the “left-hand side” to a sequence of symbols
on the “right-hand side”. (In the case of context-free productions, the left-hand side must be a Nonterminal,
and the right-hand side is a sequence of terminals and Nonterminals.) “terminals” can be any immutable
hashable object that is not a Nonterminal. Typically, terminals are strings representing words, such as
"dog" or "under".
See CFG
See DependencyGrammar
See Nonterminal
Variables
• _lhs – The left-hand side of the production.
• _rhs – The right-hand side of the production.
is_lexical()
Return True if the right-hand contain at least one terminal token.
Return type bool
is_nonlexical()
Return True if the right-hand side only contains Nonterminals
Return type bool
lhs()
Return the left-hand side of this Production.
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Return type Nonterminal
rhs()
Return the right-hand side of this Production.
Return type sequence(Nonterminal and terminal)
unicode_repr()
Return a concise string representation of the Production.
Return type str
class nltk.grammar.PCFG(start, productions, calculate_leftcorners=True)
Bases: nltk.grammar.CFG
A probabilistic context-free grammar. A PCFG consists of a start state and a set of productions with probabilities. The set of terminals and nonterminals is implicitly specified by the productions.
PCFG productions use the ProbabilisticProduction class. PCFGs impose the constraint that the set
of productions with any given left-hand-side must have probabilities that sum to 1 (allowing for a small margin
of error).
If you need efficient key-based access to productions, you can use a subclass to implement it.
Variables EPSILON – The acceptable margin of error for checking that productions with a given
left-hand side have probabilities that sum to 1.
EPSILON = 0.01
classmethod fromstring(input, encoding=None)
Return a probabilistic PCFG corresponding to the input string(s).
Parameters input – a grammar, either in the form of a string or else as a list of strings.
class nltk.grammar.ProbabilisticProduction(lhs, rhs, **prob)
Bases: nltk.grammar.Production, nltk.probability.ImmutableProbabilisticMixIn
A probabilistic context free grammar production. A PCFG ProbabilisticProduction is essentially just
a Production that has an associated probability, which represents how likely it is that this production will
be used. In particular, the probability of a ProbabilisticProduction records the likelihood that its
right-hand side is the correct instantiation for any given occurrence of its left-hand side.
See Production
class nltk.grammar.DependencyGrammar(productions)
Bases: object
A dependency grammar. A DependencyGrammar consists of a set of productions. Each production specifies a
head/modifier relationship between a pair of words.
contains(head, mod)
Parameters
• head (str) – A head word.
• mod (str) – A mod word, to test as a modifier of ‘head’.
Returns true if this DependencyGrammar contains a DependencyProduction mapping
‘head’ to ‘mod’.
Return type bool
classmethod fromstring(input)
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unicode_repr()
Return a concise string representation of the DependencyGrammar
class nltk.grammar.DependencyProduction(lhs, rhs)
Bases: nltk.grammar.Production
A dependency grammar production. Each production maps a single head word to an unordered list of one or
more modifier words.
class nltk.grammar.ProbabilisticDependencyGrammar(productions, events, tags)
Bases: object
contains(head, mod)
Return True if this DependencyGrammar contains a DependencyProduction mapping ‘head’ to
‘mod’.
Parameters
• head (str) – A head word.
• mod (str) – A mod word, to test as a modifier of ‘head’.
Return type bool
unicode_repr()
Return a concise string representation of the ProbabilisticDependencyGrammar
nltk.grammar.induce_pcfg(start, productions)
Induce a PCFG grammar from a list of productions.
The probability of a production A -> B C in a PCFG is:
count(A -> B C)
P(B, C | A) = ————— where * is any right hand side
count(A -> *)
Parameters
• start (Nonterminal) – The start symbol
• productions (list(Production)) – The list of productions that defines the grammar
nltk.grammar.read_grammar(input, nonterm_parser, probabilistic=False, encoding=None)
Return a pair consisting of a starting category and a list of Productions.
Parameters
• input – a grammar, either in the form of a string or else as a list of strings.
• nonterm_parser – a function for parsing nonterminals. It should take a (string,
position) as argument and return a (nonterminal, position) as result.
• probabilistic (bool) – are the grammar rules probabilistic?
• encoding (str) – the encoding of the grammar, if it is a binary string
help Module
Provide structured access to documentation.
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nltk.help.brown_tagset(tagpattern=None)
nltk.help.claws5_tagset(tagpattern=None)
nltk.help.upenn_tagset(tagpattern=None)
probability Module
Classes for representing and processing probabilistic information.
The FreqDist class is used to encode “frequency distributions”, which count the number of times that each outcome
of an experiment occurs.
The ProbDistI class defines a standard interface for “probability distributions”, which encode the probability of
each outcome for an experiment. There are two types of probability distribution:
• “derived probability distributions” are created from frequency distributions. They attempt to model the probability distribution that generated the frequency distribution.
• “analytic probability distributions” are created directly from parameters (such as variance).
The ConditionalFreqDist class and ConditionalProbDistI interface are used to encode conditional
distributions. Conditional probability distributions can be derived or analytic; but currently the only implementation
of the ConditionalProbDistI interface is ConditionalProbDist, a derived distribution.
class nltk.probability.ConditionalFreqDist(cond_samples=None)
Bases: collections.defaultdict
A collection of frequency distributions for a single experiment run under different conditions. Conditional
frequency distributions are used to record the number of times each sample occurred, given the condition under
which the experiment was run. For example, a conditional frequency distribution could be used to record the
frequency of each word (type) in a document, given its length. Formally, a conditional frequency distribution can
be defined as a function that maps from each condition to the FreqDist for the experiment under that condition.
Conditional frequency distributions are typically constructed by repeatedly running an experiment under a variety of conditions, and incrementing the sample outcome counts for the appropriate conditions. For example, the
following code will produce a conditional frequency distribution that encodes how often each word type occurs,
given the length of that word type:
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
...
...
from nltk.probability import ConditionalFreqDist
from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize
sent = "the the the dog dog some other words that we do not care about"
cfdist = ConditionalFreqDist()
for word in word_tokenize(sent):
condition = len(word)
cfdist[condition][word] += 1
An equivalent way to do this is with the initializer:
>>> cfdist = ConditionalFreqDist((len(word), word) for word in word_
˓→tokenize(sent))
The frequency distribution for each condition is accessed using the indexing operator:
>>> cfdist[3]
FreqDist({'the': 3, 'dog': 2, 'not': 1})
>>> cfdist[3].freq('the')
0.5
>>> cfdist[3]['dog']
2
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When the indexing operator is used to access the frequency distribution for a condition that has not been accessed
before, ConditionalFreqDist creates a new empty FreqDist for that condition.
N()
Return the total number of sample outcomes that have been recorded by this ConditionalFreqDist.
Return type int
conditions()
Return a list of the conditions that have been accessed for this ConditionalFreqDist. Use the
indexing operator to access the frequency distribution for a given condition. Note that the frequency
distributions for some conditions may contain zero sample outcomes.
Return type list
plot(*args, **kwargs)
Plot the given samples from the conditional frequency distribution. For a cumulative plot, specify cumulative=True. (Requires Matplotlib to be installed.)
Parameters
• samples (list) – The samples to plot
• title (str) – The title for the graph
• conditions (list) – The conditions to plot (default is all)
tabulate(*args, **kwargs)
Tabulate the given samples from the conditional frequency distribution.
Parameters
• samples (list) – The samples to plot
• conditions (list) – The conditions to plot (default is all)
• cumulative – A flag to specify whether the freqs are cumulative (default = False)
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ConditionalFreqDist.
Return type str
class nltk.probability.ConditionalProbDist(cfdist, probdist_factory, *factory_args, **factory_kw_args)
Bases: nltk.probability.ConditionalProbDistI
A conditional probability distribution modeling the experiments that were used to generate a conditional
frequency distribution. A ConditionalProbDist is constructed from a ConditionalFreqDist and a
ProbDist factory:
•The ConditionalFreqDist specifies the frequency distribution for each condition.
•The ProbDist factory is a function that takes a condition’s frequency distribution, and returns its probability distribution. A ProbDist class’s name (such as MLEProbDist or HeldoutProbDist) can be
used to specify that class’s constructor.
The first argument to the ProbDist factory is the frequency distribution that it should model; and the remaining
arguments are specified by the factory_args parameter to the ConditionalProbDist constructor. For
example, the following code constructs a ConditionalProbDist, where the probability distribution for
each condition is an ELEProbDist with 10 bins:
>>> from nltk.corpus import brown
>>> from nltk.probability import ConditionalFreqDist
>>> from nltk.probability import ConditionalProbDist, ELEProbDist
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>>> cfdist = ConditionalFreqDist(brown.tagged_words()[:5000])
>>> cpdist = ConditionalProbDist(cfdist, ELEProbDist, 10)
>>> cpdist['passed'].max()
'VBD'
>>> cpdist['passed'].prob('VBD')
0.423...
class nltk.probability.ConditionalProbDistI
Bases: dict
A collection of probability distributions for a single experiment run under different conditions. Conditional
probability distributions are used to estimate the likelihood of each sample, given the condition under which the
experiment was run. For example, a conditional probability distribution could be used to estimate the probability of each word type in a document, given the length of the word type. Formally, a conditional probability
distribution can be defined as a function that maps from each condition to the ProbDist for the experiment
under that condition.
conditions()
Return a list of the conditions that are represented by this ConditionalProbDist. Use the indexing
operator to access the probability distribution for a given condition.
Return type list
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ConditionalProbDist.
Return type str
class nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist(freqdists, bins)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
The cross-validation estimate for the probability distribution of the experiment used to generate a set of frequency distribution. The “cross-validation estimate” for the probability of a sample is found by averaging the
held-out estimates for the sample in each pair of frequency distributions.
SUM_TO_ONE = False
discount()
freqdists()
Return the list of frequency distributions that this ProbDist is based on.
Return type list(FreqDist)
prob(sample)
samples()
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ProbDist.
Return type str
class nltk.probability.DictionaryConditionalProbDist(probdist_dict)
Bases: nltk.probability.ConditionalProbDistI
An alternative ConditionalProbDist that simply wraps a dictionary of ProbDists rather than creating these from
FreqDists.
class nltk.probability.DictionaryProbDist(prob_dict=None, log=False, normalize=False)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
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A probability distribution whose probabilities are directly specified by a given dictionary. The given dictionary
maps samples to probabilities.
logprob(sample)
max()
prob(sample)
samples()
unicode_repr()
class nltk.probability.ELEProbDist(freqdist, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist
The expected likelihood estimate for the probability distribution of the experiment used to generate a frequency
distribution. The “expected likelihood estimate” approximates the probability of a sample with count c from an
experiment with N outcomes and B bins as (c+0.5)/(N+B/2). This is equivalent to adding 0.5 to the count for
each bin, and taking the maximum likelihood estimate of the resulting frequency distribution.
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ProbDist.
Return type str
class nltk.probability.FreqDist(samples=None)
Bases: collections.Counter
A frequency distribution for the outcomes of an experiment. A frequency distribution records the number of
times each outcome of an experiment has occurred. For example, a frequency distribution could be used to
record the frequency of each word type in a document. Formally, a frequency distribution can be defined as a
function mapping from each sample to the number of times that sample occurred as an outcome.
Frequency distributions are generally constructed by running a number of experiments, and incrementing the
count for a sample every time it is an outcome of an experiment. For example, the following code will produce
a frequency distribution that encodes how often each word occurs in a text:
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
...
from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize
from nltk.probability import FreqDist
sent = 'This is an example sentence'
fdist = FreqDist()
for word in word_tokenize(sent):
fdist[word.lower()] += 1
An equivalent way to do this is with the initializer:
>>> fdist = FreqDist(word.lower() for word in word_tokenize(sent))
B()
Return the total number of sample values (or “bins”) that have counts greater than zero. For the total
number of sample outcomes recorded, use FreqDist.N(). (FreqDist.B() is the same as len(FreqDist).)
Return type int
N()
Return the total number of sample outcomes that have been recorded by this FreqDist. For the number of
unique sample values (or bins) with counts greater than zero, use FreqDist.B().
Return type int
Nr(r, bins=None)
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copy()
Create a copy of this frequency distribution.
Return type FreqDist
freq(sample)
Return the frequency of a given sample. The frequency of a sample is defined as the count of that sample
divided by the total number of sample outcomes that have been recorded by this FreqDist. The count of a
sample is defined as the number of times that sample outcome was recorded by this FreqDist. Frequencies
are always real numbers in the range [0, 1].
Parameters sample (any) – the sample whose frequency should be returned.
Return type float
hapaxes()
Return a list of all samples that occur once (hapax legomena)
Return type list
max()
Return the sample with the greatest number of outcomes in this frequency distribution. If two or more
samples have the same number of outcomes, return one of them; which sample is returned is undefined. If
no outcomes have occurred in this frequency distribution, return None.
Returns The sample with the maximum number of outcomes in this frequency distribution.
Return type any or None
pformat(maxlen=10)
Return a string representation of this FreqDist.
Parameters maxlen (int) – The maximum number of items to display
Return type string
plot(*args, **kwargs)
Plot samples from the frequency distribution displaying the most frequent sample first. If an integer parameter is supplied, stop after this many samples have been plotted. For a cumulative plot, specify cumulative=True. (Requires Matplotlib to be installed.)
Parameters
• title (bool) – The title for the graph
• cumulative – A flag to specify whether the plot is cumulative (default = False)
pprint(maxlen=10, stream=None)
Print a string representation of this FreqDist to ‘stream’
Parameters
• maxlen (int) – The maximum number of items to print
• stream – The stream to print to. stdout by default
r_Nr(bins=None)
Return the dictionary mapping r to Nr, the number of samples with frequency r, where Nr > 0.
Parameters bins (int) – The number of possible sample outcomes. bins is used to calculate
Nr(0). In particular, Nr(0) is bins-self.B(). If bins is not specified, it defaults to
self.B() (so Nr(0) will be 0).
Return type int
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setdefault(key, val)
Override Counter.setdefault() to invalidate the cached N
tabulate(*args, **kwargs)
Tabulate the given samples from the frequency distribution (cumulative), displaying the most frequent
sample first. If an integer parameter is supplied, stop after this many samples have been plotted.
Parameters
• samples (list) – The samples to plot (default is all samples)
• cumulative – A flag to specify whether the freqs are cumulative (default = False)
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this FreqDist.
Return type string
update(*args, **kwargs)
Override Counter.update() to invalidate the cached N
class nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist(freqdist, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
SimpleGoodTuring ProbDist approximates from frequency to frequency of frequency into a linear line under
log space by linear regression. Details of Simple Good-Turing algorithm can be found in:
•Good Turing smoothing without tears” (Gale & Sampson 1995), Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, vol.
2 pp. 217-237.
•“Speech and Language Processing (Jurafsky & Martin), 2nd Edition, Chapter 4.5 p103 (log(Nc) = a +
b*log(c))
•http://www.grsampson.net/RGoodTur.html
Given a set of pair (xi, yi), where the xi denotes the frequency and yi denotes the frequency of frequency, we
want to minimize their square variation. E(x) and E(y) represent the mean of xi and yi.
•slope: b = sigma ((xi-E(x)(yi-E(y))) / sigma ((xi-E(x))(xi-E(x)))
•intercept: a = E(y) - b.E(x)
SUM_TO_ONE = False
check()
discount()
This function returns the total mass of probability transfers from the seen samples to the unseen samples.
find_best_fit(r, nr)
Use simple linear regression to tune parameters self._slope and self._intercept in the log-log space based
on count and Nr(count) (Work in log space to avoid floating point underflow.)
freqdist()
max()
prob(sample)
Return the sample’s probability.
Parameters sample (str) – sample of the event
Return type float
samples()
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smoothedNr(r)
Return the number of samples with count r.
Parameters r (int) – The amount of frequency.
Return type float
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ProbDist.
Return type str
class nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist(base_fdist, heldout_fdist, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
The heldout estimate for the probability distribution of the experiment used to generate two frequency distributions. These two frequency distributions are called the “heldout frequency distribution” and the “base frequency
distribution.” The “heldout estimate” uses uses the “heldout frequency distribution” to predict the probability of
each sample, given its frequency in the “base frequency distribution”.
In particular, the heldout estimate approximates the probability for a sample that occurs r times in the base
distribution as the average frequency in the heldout distribution of all samples that occur r times in the base
distribution.
This average frequency is Tr[r]/(Nr[r].N), where:
•Tr[r] is the total count in the heldout distribution for all samples that occur r times in the base distribution.
•Nr[r] is the number of samples that occur r times in the base distribution.
•N is the number of outcomes recorded by the heldout frequency distribution.
In order to increase the efficiency of the prob member function, Tr[r]/(Nr[r].N) is precomputed for each value
of r when the HeldoutProbDist is created.
Variables
• _estimate – A list mapping from r, the number of times that a sample occurs in the base
distribution, to the probability estimate for that sample. _estimate[r] is calculated by
finding the average frequency in the heldout distribution of all samples that occur r times in
the base distribution. In particular, _estimate[r] = Tr[r]/(Nr[r].N).
• _max_r – The maximum number of times that any sample occurs in the base distribution.
_max_r is used to decide how large _estimate must be.
SUM_TO_ONE = False
base_fdist()
Return the base frequency distribution that this probability distribution is based on.
Return type FreqDist
discount()
heldout_fdist()
Return the heldout frequency distribution that this probability distribution is based on.
Return type FreqDist
max()
prob(sample)
samples()
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Return type str
Returns A string representation of this ProbDist.
class nltk.probability.ImmutableProbabilisticMixIn(**kwargs)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn
set_logprob(prob)
set_prob(prob)
class nltk.probability.LaplaceProbDist(freqdist, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist
The Laplace estimate for the probability distribution of the experiment used to generate a frequency distribution.
The “Laplace estimate” approximates the probability of a sample with count c from an experiment with N
outcomes and B bins as (c+1)/(N+B). This is equivalent to adding one to the count for each bin, and taking the
maximum likelihood estimate of the resulting frequency distribution.
unicode_repr()
Return type str
Returns A string representation of this ProbDist.
class nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist(freqdist, gamma, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
The Lidstone estimate for the probability distribution of the experiment used to generate a frequency distribution.
The “Lidstone estimate” is parameterized by a real number gamma, which typically ranges from 0 to 1. The
Lidstone estimate approximates the probability of a sample with count c from an experiment with N outcomes
and B bins as c+gamma)/(N+B*gamma). This is equivalent to adding gamma to the count for each bin, and
taking the maximum likelihood estimate of the resulting frequency distribution.
SUM_TO_ONE = False
discount()
freqdist()
Return the frequency distribution that this probability distribution is based on.
Return type FreqDist
max()
prob(sample)
samples()
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ProbDist.
Return type str
class nltk.probability.MLEProbDist(freqdist, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
The maximum likelihood estimate for the probability distribution of the experiment used to generate a frequency
distribution. The “maximum likelihood estimate” approximates the probability of each sample as the frequency
of that sample in the frequency distribution.
freqdist()
Return the frequency distribution that this probability distribution is based on.
Return type FreqDist
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max()
prob(sample)
samples()
unicode_repr()
Return type str
Returns A string representation of this ProbDist.
class nltk.probability.MutableProbDist(prob_dist, samples, store_logs=True)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
An mutable probdist where the probabilities may be easily modified. This simply copies an existing probdist,
storing the probability values in a mutable dictionary and providing an update method.
logprob(sample)
prob(sample)
samples()
update(sample, prob, log=True)
Update the probability for the given sample. This may cause the object to stop being the valid probability
distribution - the user must ensure that they update the sample probabilities such that all samples have
probabilities between 0 and 1 and that all probabilities sum to one.
Parameters
• sample (any) – the sample for which to update the probability
• prob (float) – the new probability
• log (bool) – is the probability already logged
class nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist(freqdist, bins=None, discount=0.75)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
Kneser-Ney estimate of a probability distribution. This is a version of back-off that counts how likely an n-gram
is provided the n-1-gram had been seen in training. Extends the ProbDistI interface, requires a trigram FreqDist
instance to train on. Optionally, a different from default discount value can be specified. The default discount is
set to 0.75.
discount()
Return the value by which counts are discounted. By default set to 0.75.
Return type float
max()
prob(trigram)
samples()
set_discount(discount)
Set the value by which counts are discounted to the value of discount.
Parameters discount (float (preferred, but int possible)) – the new value
to discount counts by
Return type None
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ProbDist
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Return type str
class nltk.probability.ProbDistI
Bases: object
A probability distribution for the outcomes of an experiment. A probability distribution specifies how likely it is
that an experiment will have any given outcome. For example, a probability distribution could be used to predict
the probability that a token in a document will have a given type. Formally, a probability distribution can be
defined as a function mapping from samples to nonnegative real numbers, such that the sum of every number in
the function’s range is 1.0. A ProbDist is often used to model the probability distribution of the experiment
used to generate a frequency distribution.
SUM_TO_ONE = True
discount()
Return the ratio by which counts are discounted on average: c*/c
Return type float
generate()
Return a randomly selected sample from this probability distribution. The probability of returning each
sample samp is equal to self.prob(samp).
logprob(sample)
Return the base 2 logarithm of the probability for a given sample.
Parameters sample (any) – The sample whose probability should be returned.
Return type float
max()
Return the sample with the greatest probability. If two or more samples have the same probability, return
one of them; which sample is returned is undefined.
Return type any
prob(sample)
Return the probability for a given sample. Probabilities are always real numbers in the range [0, 1].
Parameters sample (any) – The sample whose probability should be returned.
Return type float
samples()
Return a list of all samples that have nonzero probabilities. Use prob to find the probability of each
sample.
Return type list
class nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn(**kwargs)
Bases: object
A mix-in class to associate probabilities with other classes (trees, rules, etc.).
To use the
ProbabilisticMixIn class, define a new class that derives from an existing class and from ProbabilisticMixIn. You will need to define a new constructor for the new class, which explicitly calls the constructors of
both its parent classes. For example:
>>> from nltk.probability import ProbabilisticMixIn
>>> class A:
...
def __init__(self, x, y): self.data = (x,y)
...
>>> class ProbabilisticA(A, ProbabilisticMixIn):
...
def __init__(self, x, y, **prob_kwarg):
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A.__init__(self, x, y)
ProbabilisticMixIn.__init__(self, **prob_kwarg)
...
...
See the documentation for the ProbabilisticMixIn constructor<__init__> for information about the
arguments it expects.
You should generally also redefine the string representation methods, the comparison methods, and the hashing
method.
logprob()
Return log(p), where p is the probability associated with this object.
Return type float
prob()
Return the probability associated with this object.
Return type float
set_logprob(logprob)
Set the log probability associated with this object to logprob. I.e., set the probability associated with
this object to 2**(logprob).
Parameters logprob (float) – The new log probability
set_prob(prob)
Set the probability associated with this object to prob.
Parameters prob (float) – The new probability
class nltk.probability.UniformProbDist(samples)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
A probability distribution that assigns equal probability to each sample in a given set; and a zero probability to
all other samples.
max()
prob(sample)
samples()
unicode_repr()
class nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist(freqdist, bins=None)
Bases: nltk.probability.ProbDistI
The Witten-Bell estimate of a probability distribution. This distribution allocates uniform probability mass to as
yet unseen events by using the number of events that have only been seen once. The probability mass reserved
for unseen events is equal to T / (N + T) where T is the number of observed event types and N is the total
number of observed events. This equates to the maximum likelihood estimate of a new type event occurring.
The remaining probability mass is discounted such that all probability estimates sum to one, yielding:
•p = T / Z (N + T), if count = 0
•p = c / (N + T), otherwise
discount()
freqdist()
max()
prob(sample)
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samples()
unicode_repr()
Return a string representation of this ProbDist.
Return type str
nltk.probability.add_logs(logx, logy)
Given two numbers logx = log(x) and logy = log(y), return log(x+y). Conceptually, this is the same as
returning log(2**(logx)+2**(logy)), but the actual implementation avoids overflow errors that could
result from direct computation.
nltk.probability.log_likelihood(test_pdist, actual_pdist)
nltk.probability.sum_logs(logs)
nltk.probability.entropy(pdist)
text Module
This module brings together a variety of NLTK functionality for text analysis, and provides simple, interactive interfaces. Functionality includes: concordancing, collocation discovery, regular expression search over tokenized strings,
and distributional similarity.
class nltk.text.ContextIndex(tokens, context_func=None, filter=None, key=<function <lambda>>)
Bases: object
A bidirectional index between words and their ‘contexts’ in a text. The context of a word is usually defined to
be the words that occur in a fixed window around the word; but other definitions may also be used by providing
a custom context function.
common_contexts(words, fail_on_unknown=False)
Find contexts where the specified words can all appear; and return a frequency distribution mapping each
context to the number of times that context was used.
Parameters
• words (str) – The words used to seed the similarity search
• fail_on_unknown – If true, then raise a value error if any of the given words do not
occur at all in the index.
similar_words(word, n=20)
tokens()
Return type list(str)
Returns The document that this context index was created from.
word_similarity_dict(word)
Return a dictionary mapping from words to ‘similarity scores,’ indicating how often these two words occur
in the same context.
class nltk.text.ConcordanceIndex(tokens, key=<function <lambda>>)
Bases: object
An index that can be used to look up the offset locations at which a given word occurs in a document.
offsets(word)
Return type list(int)
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Returns A list of the offset positions at which the given word occurs. If a key function was
specified for the index, then given word’s key will be looked up.
print_concordance(word, width=75, lines=25)
Print a concordance for word with the specified context window.
Parameters
• word (str) – The target word
• width (int) – The width of each line, in characters (default=80)
• lines (int) – The number of lines to display (default=25)
tokens()
Return type list(str)
Returns The document that this concordance index was created from.
unicode_repr()
class nltk.text.TokenSearcher(tokens)
Bases: object
A class that makes it easier to use regular expressions to search over tokenized strings.
The
tokenized string is converted to a string where tokens are marked with angle brackets – e.g.,
'<the><window><is><still><open>'. The regular expression passed to the findall() method
is modified to treat angle brackets as non-capturing parentheses, in addition to matching the token boundaries;
and to have '.' not match the angle brackets.
findall(regexp)
Find instances of the regular expression in the text. The text is a list of tokens, and a regexp pattern to
match a single token must be surrounded by angle brackets. E.g.
>>> from nltk.text import TokenSearcher
>>> print('hack'); from nltk.book import text1, text5, text9
hack...
>>> text5.findall("<.*><.*><bro>")
you rule bro; telling you bro; u twizted bro
>>> text1.findall("<a>(<.*>)<man>")
monied; nervous; dangerous; white; white; white; pious; queer; good;
mature; white; Cape; great; wise; wise; butterless; white; fiendish;
pale; furious; better; certain; complete; dismasted; younger; brave;
brave; brave; brave
>>> text9.findall("<th.*>{3,}")
thread through those; the thought that; that the thing; the thing
that; that that thing; through these than through; them that the;
through the thick; them that they; thought that the
Parameters regexp (str) – A regular expression
class nltk.text.Text(tokens, name=None)
Bases: object
A wrapper around a sequence of simple (string) tokens, which is intended to support initial exploration of texts
(via the interactive console). Its methods perform a variety of analyses on the text’s contexts (e.g., counting,
concordancing, collocation discovery), and display the results. If you wish to write a program which makes use
of these analyses, then you should bypass the Text class, and use the appropriate analysis function or class
directly instead.
A Text is typically initialized from a given document or corpus. E.g.:
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>>> import nltk.corpus
>>> from nltk.text import Text
>>> moby = Text(nltk.corpus.gutenberg.words('melville-moby_dick.txt'))
collocations(num=20, window_size=2)
Print collocations derived from the text, ignoring stopwords.
Seealso find_collocations
Parameters
• num (int) – The maximum number of collocations to print.
• window_size (int) – The number of tokens spanned by a collocation (default=2)
common_contexts(words, num=20)
Find contexts where the specified words appear; list most frequent common contexts first.
Parameters
• word (str) – The word used to seed the similarity search
• num (int) – The number of words to generate (default=20)
Seealso ContextIndex.common_contexts()
concordance(word, width=79, lines=25)
Print a concordance for word with the specified context window. Word matching is not case-sensitive.
:seealso: ConcordanceIndex
count(word)
Count the number of times this word appears in the text.
dispersion_plot(words)
Produce a plot showing the distribution of the words through the text. Requires pylab to be installed.
Parameters words (list(str)) – The words to be plotted
Seealso nltk.draw.dispersion_plot()
findall(regexp)
Find instances of the regular expression in the text. The text is a list of tokens, and a regexp pattern to
match a single token must be surrounded by angle brackets. E.g.
>>> print('hack'); from nltk.book import text1, text5, text9
hack...
>>> text5.findall("<.*><.*><bro>")
you rule bro; telling you bro; u twizted bro
>>> text1.findall("<a>(<.*>)<man>")
monied; nervous; dangerous; white; white; white; pious; queer; good;
mature; white; Cape; great; wise; wise; butterless; white; fiendish;
pale; furious; better; certain; complete; dismasted; younger; brave;
brave; brave; brave
>>> text9.findall("<th.*>{3,}")
thread through those; the thought that; that the thing; the thing
that; that that thing; through these than through; them that the;
through the thick; them that they; thought that the
Parameters regexp (str) – A regular expression
generate(words)
Issues a reminder to users following the book online
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index(word)
Find the index of the first occurrence of the word in the text.
plot(*args)
See documentation for FreqDist.plot() :seealso: nltk.prob.FreqDist.plot()
readability(method)
similar(word, num=20)
Distributional similarity: find other words which appear in the same contexts as the specified word; list
most similar words first.
Parameters
• word (str) – The word used to seed the similarity search
• num (int) – The number of words to generate (default=20)
Seealso ContextIndex.similar_words()
unicode_repr()
vocab()
Seealso nltk.prob.FreqDist
class nltk.text.TextCollection(source)
Bases: nltk.text.Text
A collection of texts, which can be loaded with list of texts, or with a corpus consisting of one or more texts,
and which supports counting, concordancing, collocation discovery, etc. Initialize a TextCollection as follows:
>>> import nltk.corpus
>>> from nltk.text import TextCollection
>>> print('hack'); from nltk.book import text1, text2, text3
hack...
>>> gutenberg = TextCollection(nltk.corpus.gutenberg)
>>> mytexts = TextCollection([text1, text2, text3])
Iterating over a TextCollection produces all the tokens of all the texts in order.
idf(term)
The number of texts in the corpus divided by the number of texts that the term appears in. If a term does
not appear in the corpus, 0.0 is returned.
tf(term, text)
The frequency of the term in text.
tf_idf(term, text)
toolbox Module
Module for reading, writing and manipulating Toolbox databases and settings files.
class nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat(filename=None, encoding=None)
Bases: object
Class for reading and processing standard format marker files and strings.
close()
Close a previously opened standard format marker file or string.
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fields(strip=True, unwrap=True, encoding=None, errors=’strict’, unicode_fields=None)
Return an iterator that returns the next field in a (marker, value) tuple, where marker and value
are unicode strings if an encoding was specified in the fields() method. Otherwise they are nonunicode strings.
Parameters
• strip (bool) – strip trailing whitespace from the last line of each field
• unwrap (bool) – Convert newlines in a field to spaces.
• encoding (str or None) – Name of an encoding to use. If it is specified then the
fields() method returns unicode strings rather than non unicode strings.
• errors (str) – Error handling scheme for codec. Same as the decode() builtin string
method.
• unicode_fields (sequence) – Set of marker names whose values are UTF8 encoded. Ignored if encoding is None. If the whole file is UTF-8 encoded set
encoding='utf8' and leave unicode_fields with its default value of None.
Return type iter(tuple(str, str))
open(sfm_file)
Open a standard format marker file for sequential reading.
Parameters sfm_file (str) – name of the standard format marker input file
open_string(s)
Open a standard format marker string for sequential reading.
Parameters s (str) – string to parse as a standard format marker input file
raw_fields()
Return an iterator that returns the next field in a (marker, value) tuple. Linebreaks and trailing white space
are preserved except for the final newline in each field.
Return type iter(tuple(str, str))
class nltk.toolbox.ToolboxData(filename=None, encoding=None)
Bases: nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat
parse(grammar=None, **kwargs)
class nltk.toolbox.ToolboxSettings
Bases: nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat
This class is the base class for settings files.
parse(encoding=None, errors=’strict’, **kwargs)
Return the contents of toolbox settings file with a nested structure.
Parameters
• encoding (str) – encoding used by settings file
• errors (str) – Error handling scheme for codec. Same as decode() builtin method.
• kwargs (dict) – Keyword arguments passed to StandardFormat.fields()
Return type ElementTree._ElementInterface
nltk.toolbox.add_blank_lines(tree, blanks_before, blanks_between)
Add blank lines before all elements and subelements specified in blank_before.
Parameters
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• elem (ElementTree._ElementInterface) – toolbox data in an elementtree structure
• blank_before (dict(tuple)) – elements and subelements to add blank lines before
nltk.toolbox.add_default_fields(elem, default_fields)
Add blank elements and subelements specified in default_fields.
Parameters
• elem (ElementTree._ElementInterface) – toolbox data in an elementtree structure
• default_fields (dict(tuple)) – fields to add to each type of element and subelement
nltk.toolbox.demo()
nltk.toolbox.remove_blanks(elem)
Remove all elements and subelements with no text and no child elements.
Parameters elem (ElementTree._ElementInterface) – toolbox data in an elementtree
structure
nltk.toolbox.sort_fields(elem, field_orders)
Sort the elements and subelements in order specified in field_orders.
Parameters
• elem (ElementTree._ElementInterface) – toolbox data in an elementtree structure
• field_orders (dict(tuple)) – order of fields for each type of element and subelement
nltk.toolbox.to_settings_string(tree, encoding=None, errors=’strict’, unicode_fields=None)
nltk.toolbox.to_sfm_string(tree, encoding=None, errors=’strict’, unicode_fields=None)
Return a string with a standard format representation of the toolbox data in tree (tree can be a toolbox database
or a single record).
Parameters
• tree (ElementTree._ElementInterface) – flat representation of toolbox data
(whole database or single record)
• encoding (str) – Name of an encoding to use.
• errors (str) – Error handling scheme for codec. Same as the encode() builtin string
method.
• unicode_fields (dict(str) or set(str)) –
Return type str
translate Module
Experimental features for machine translation. These interfaces are prone to change.
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tree Module
Class for representing hierarchical language structures, such as syntax trees and morphological trees.
class nltk.tree.ImmutableProbabilisticTree(node, children=None, **prob_kwargs)
Bases: nltk.tree.ImmutableTree, nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn
classmethod convert(val)
copy(deep=False)
unicode_repr()
class nltk.tree.ImmutableTree(node, children=None)
Bases: nltk.tree.Tree
append(v)
extend(v)
pop(v=None)
remove(v)
reverse()
set_label(value)
Set the node label. This will only succeed the first time the node label is set, which should occur in
ImmutableTree.__init__().
sort()
class nltk.tree.ProbabilisticMixIn(**kwargs)
Bases: object
A mix-in class to associate probabilities with other classes (trees, rules, etc.).
To use the
ProbabilisticMixIn class, define a new class that derives from an existing class and from ProbabilisticMixIn. You will need to define a new constructor for the new class, which explicitly calls the constructors of
both its parent classes. For example:
>>> from nltk.probability import ProbabilisticMixIn
>>> class A:
...
def __init__(self, x, y): self.data = (x,y)
...
>>> class ProbabilisticA(A, ProbabilisticMixIn):
...
def __init__(self, x, y, **prob_kwarg):
...
A.__init__(self, x, y)
...
ProbabilisticMixIn.__init__(self, **prob_kwarg)
See the documentation for the ProbabilisticMixIn constructor<__init__> for information about the
arguments it expects.
You should generally also redefine the string representation methods, the comparison methods, and the hashing
method.
logprob()
Return log(p), where p is the probability associated with this object.
Return type float
prob()
Return the probability associated with this object.
Return type float
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set_logprob(logprob)
Set the log probability associated with this object to logprob. I.e., set the probability associated with
this object to 2**(logprob).
Parameters logprob (float) – The new log probability
set_prob(prob)
Set the probability associated with this object to prob.
Parameters prob (float) – The new probability
class nltk.tree.ProbabilisticTree(node, children=None, **prob_kwargs)
Bases: nltk.tree.Tree, nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn
classmethod convert(val)
copy(deep=False)
unicode_repr()
class nltk.tree.Tree(node, children=None)
Bases: list
A Tree represents a hierarchical grouping of leaves and subtrees. For example, each constituent in a syntax tree
is represented by a single Tree.
A tree’s children are encoded as a list of leaves and subtrees, where a leaf is a basic (non-tree) value; and a
subtree is a nested Tree.
>>> from nltk.tree import Tree
>>> print(Tree(1, [2, Tree(3, [4]), 5]))
(1 2 (3 4) 5)
>>> vp = Tree('VP', [Tree('V', ['saw']),
...
Tree('NP', ['him'])])
>>> s = Tree('S', [Tree('NP', ['I']), vp])
>>> print(s)
(S (NP I) (VP (V saw) (NP him)))
>>> print(s[1])
(VP (V saw) (NP him))
>>> print(s[1,1])
(NP him)
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP I) (VP (V saw) (NP him)))")
>>> s == t
True
>>> t[1][1].set_label('X')
>>> t[1][1].label()
'X'
>>> print(t)
(S (NP I) (VP (V saw) (X him)))
>>> t[0], t[1,1] = t[1,1], t[0]
>>> print(t)
(S (X him) (VP (V saw) (NP I)))
The length of a tree is the number of children it has.
>>> len(t)
2
The set_label() and label() methods allow individual constituents to be labeled. For example, syntax trees use
this label to specify phrase tags, such as “NP” and “VP”.
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Several Tree methods use “tree positions” to specify children or descendants of a tree. Tree positions are defined
as follows:
•The tree position i specifies a Tree’s ith child.
•The tree position () specifies the Tree itself.
•If p is the tree position of descendant d, then p+i specifies the ith child of d.
I.e., every tree position is either a single index i, specifying tree[i]; or a sequence i1, i2, ..., iN, specifying
tree[i1][i2]...[iN].
Construct a new tree. This constructor can be called in one of two ways:
•Tree(label, children) constructs a new tree with the specified label and list of children.
•Tree.fromstring(s) constructs a new tree by parsing the string s.
chomsky_normal_form(factor=u’right’, horzMarkov=None, vertMarkov=0, childChar=u’|’, parentChar=u’^’)
This method can modify a tree in three ways:
1.Convert a tree into its Chomsky Normal Form (CNF) equivalent – Every subtree has either two nonterminals or one terminal as its children. This process requires the creation of more”artificial” nonterminal nodes.
2.Markov (vertical) smoothing of children in new artificial nodes
3.Horizontal (parent) annotation of nodes
Parameters
• factor (str = [left|right]) – Right or left factoring method (default = “right”)
• horzMarkov (int | None) – Markov order for sibling smoothing in artificial nodes
(None (default) = include all siblings)
• vertMarkov (int | None) – Markov order for parent smoothing (0 (default) = no
vertical annotation)
• childChar (str) – A string used in construction of the artificial nodes, separating the
head of the original subtree from the child nodes that have yet to be expanded (default =
“|”)
• parentChar (str) – A string used to separate the node representation from its vertical
annotation
collapse_unary(collapsePOS=False, collapseRoot=False, joinChar=u’+’)
Collapse subtrees with a single child (ie. unary productions) into a new non-terminal (Tree node) joined
by ‘joinChar’. This is useful when working with algorithms that do not allow unary productions, and
completely removing the unary productions would require loss of useful information. The Tree is modified
directly (since it is passed by reference) and no value is returned.
Parameters
• collapsePOS (bool) – ‘False’ (default) will not collapse the parent of leaf nodes (ie.
Part-of-Speech tags) since they are always unary productions
• collapseRoot (bool) – ‘False’ (default) will not modify the root production if it is
unary. For the Penn WSJ treebank corpus, this corresponds to the TOP -> productions.
• joinChar (str) – A string used to connect collapsed node values (default = “+”)
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classmethod convert(tree)
Convert a tree between different subtypes of Tree. cls determines which class will be used to encode the
new tree.
Parameters tree (Tree) – The tree that should be converted.
Returns The new Tree.
copy(deep=False)
draw()
Open a new window containing a graphical diagram of this tree.
flatten()
Return a flat version of the tree, with all non-root non-terminals removed.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> print(t.flatten())
(S the dog chased the cat)
Returns a tree consisting of this tree’s root connected directly to its leaves, omitting all intervening non-terminal nodes.
Return type Tree
freeze(leaf_freezer=None)
classmethod fromstring(s, brackets=u’()’, read_node=None, read_leaf=None, node_pattern=None,
leaf_pattern=None, remove_empty_top_bracketing=False)
Read a bracketed tree string and return the resulting tree. Trees are represented as nested brackettings,
such as:
(S (NP (NNP John)) (VP (V runs)))
Parameters
• s (str) – The string to read
• brackets (str (length=2)) – The bracket characters used to mark the beginning
and end of trees and subtrees.
• read_leaf (read_node,) – If specified, these functions are applied to the substrings
of s corresponding to nodes and leaves (respectively) to obtain the values for those nodes
and leaves. They should have the following signature:
read_node(str) -> value
For example, these functions could be used to process nodes and leaves whose values
should be some type other than string (such as FeatStruct). Note that by default, node
strings and leaf strings are delimited by whitespace and brackets; to override this default,
use the node_pattern and leaf_pattern arguments.
• leaf_pattern (node_pattern,) – Regular expression patterns used to find node
and leaf substrings in s. By default, both nodes patterns are defined to match any sequence
of non-whitespace non-bracket characters.
• remove_empty_top_bracketing (bool) – If the resulting tree has an empty node
label, and is length one, then return its single child instead. This is useful for treebank
trees, which sometimes contain an extra level of bracketing.
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Returns A tree corresponding to the string representation s. If this class method is called using
a subclass of Tree, then it will return a tree of that type.
Return type Tree
height()
Return the height of the tree.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> t.height()
5
>>> print(t[0,0])
(D the)
>>> t[0,0].height()
2
Returns The height of this tree. The height of a tree containing no children is 1; the height of a
tree containing only leaves is 2; and the height of any other tree is one plus the maximum of
its children’s heights.
Return type int
label()
Return the node label of the tree.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring('(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))')
>>> t.label()
'S'
Returns the node label (typically a string)
Return type any
leaf_treeposition(index)
Returns The tree position of the index-th leaf in this tree.
I.e., if tp=self.
leaf_treeposition(i), then self[tp]==self.leaves()[i].
Raises IndexError – If this tree contains fewer than index+1 leaves, or if index<0.
leaves()
Return the leaves of the tree.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> t.leaves()
['the', 'dog', 'chased', 'the', 'cat']
Returns a list containing this tree’s leaves. The order reflects the order of the leaves in the tree’s
hierarchical structure.
Return type list
node
Outdated method to access the node value; use the label() method instead.
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pformat(margin=70, indent=0, nodesep=u’‘, parens=u’()’, quotes=False)
Returns A pretty-printed string representation of this tree.
Return type str
Parameters
• margin (int) – The right margin at which to do line-wrapping.
• indent (int) – The indentation level at which printing begins. This number is used to
decide how far to indent subsequent lines.
• nodesep – A string that is used to separate the node from the children. E.g., the default
value ':' gives trees like (S: (NP: I) (VP: (V: saw) (NP: it))).
pformat_latex_qtree()
Returns a representation of the tree compatible with the LaTeX qtree package. This consists of the string
\Tree followed by the tree represented in bracketed notation.
For example, the following result was generated from a parse tree of the sentence The announcement
astounded us:
\Tree [.I'' [.N'' [.D The ] [.N' [.N announcement ] ] ]
[.I' [.V'' [.V' [.V astounded ] [.N'' [.N' [.N us ] ] ] ] ] ] ]
See http://www.ling.upenn.edu/advice/latex.html for the LaTeX style file for the qtree package.
Returns A latex qtree representation of this tree.
Return type str
pos()
Return a sequence of pos-tagged words extracted from the tree.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> t.pos()
[('the', 'D'), ('dog', 'N'), ('chased', 'V'), ('the', 'D'), ('cat', 'N')]
Returns a list of tuples containing leaves and pre-terminals (part-of-speech tags). The order
reflects the order of the leaves in the tree’s hierarchical structure.
Return type list(tuple)
pprint(**kwargs)
Print a string representation of this Tree to ‘stream’
pretty_print(sentence=None, highlight=(), stream=None, **kwargs)
Pretty-print this tree as ASCII or Unicode art. For explanation of the arguments, see the documentation
for nltk.treeprettyprinter.TreePrettyPrinter.
productions()
Generate the productions that correspond to the non-terminal nodes of the tree. For each subtree of the
form (P: C1 C2 ... Cn) this produces a production of the form P -> C1 C2 ... Cn.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> t.productions()
[S -> NP VP, NP -> D N, D -> 'the', N -> 'dog', VP -> V NP, V -> 'chased',
NP -> D N, D -> 'the', N -> 'cat']
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Return type list(Production)
set_label(label)
Set the node label of the tree.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> t.set_label("T")
>>> print(t)
(T (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the) (N cat))))
Parameters label (any) – the node label (typically a string)
subtrees(filter=None)
Generate all the subtrees of this tree, optionally restricted to trees matching the filter function.
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> for s in t.subtrees(lambda t: t.height() == 2):
...
print(s)
(D the)
(N dog)
(V chased)
(D the)
(N cat)
Parameters filter (function) – the function to filter all local trees
treeposition_spanning_leaves(start, end)
Returns The tree position of the lowest descendant of this tree that dominates self.
leaves()[start:end].
Raises ValueError – if end <= start
treepositions(order=u’preorder’)
>>> t = Tree.fromstring("(S (NP (D the) (N dog)) (VP (V chased) (NP (D the)
˓→(N cat))))")
>>> t.treepositions()
[(), (0,), (0, 0), (0, 0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 1, 0), (1,), (1, 0), (1, 0, 0), ...]
>>> for pos in t.treepositions('leaves'):
...
t[pos] = t[pos][::-1].upper()
>>> print(t)
(S (NP (D EHT) (N GOD)) (VP (V DESAHC) (NP (D EHT) (N TAC))))
Parameters order – One of: preorder, postorder, bothorder, leaves.
un_chomsky_normal_form(expandUnary=True,
unaryChar=u’+’)
This method modifies the tree in three ways:
childChar=u’|’,
parentChar=u’^’,
1.Transforms a tree in Chomsky Normal Form back to its original structure (branching greater than two)
2.Removes any parent annotation (if it exists)
3.(optional) expands unary subtrees (if previously collapsed with collapseUnary(...) )
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Parameters
• expandUnary (bool) – Flag to expand unary or not (default = True)
• childChar (str) – A string separating the head node from its children in an artificial
node (default = “|”)
• parentChar (str) – A sting separating the node label from its parent annotation (default = “^”)
• unaryChar (str) – A string joining two non-terminals in a unary production (default =
“+”)
unicode_repr()
nltk.tree.bracket_parse(s)
Use Tree.read(s, remove_empty_top_bracketing=True) instead.
nltk.tree.sinica_parse(s)
Parse a Sinica Treebank string and return a tree.
Trees are represented as nested
brackettings, as shown in the following example (X represents a Chinese character):
S(goal:NP(Head:Nep:XX)|theme:NP(Head:Nhaa:X)|quantity:Dab:X|Head:VL2:X)#0(PERIODCATEGORY)
Returns A tree corresponding to the string representation.
Return type Tree
Parameters s (str) – The string to be converted
class nltk.tree.ParentedTree(node, children=None)
Bases: nltk.tree.AbstractParentedTree
A Tree that automatically maintains parent pointers for single-parented trees. The following are methods for
querying the structure of a parented tree: parent, parent_index, left_sibling, right_sibling,
root, treeposition.
Each ParentedTree may have at most one parent. In particular, subtrees may not be shared. Any attempt to
reuse a single ParentedTree as a child of more than one parent (or as multiple children of the same parent)
will cause a ValueError exception to be raised.
ParentedTrees should never be used in the same tree as Trees or MultiParentedTrees. Mixing tree
implementations may result in incorrect parent pointers and in TypeError exceptions.
left_sibling()
The left sibling of this tree, or None if it has none.
parent()
The parent of this tree, or None if it has no parent.
parent_index()
The index of this tree in its parent. I.e., ptree.parent()[ptree.parent_index()] is
ptree. Note that ptree.parent_index() is not necessarily equal to ptree.parent.
index(ptree), since the index() method returns the first child that is equal to its argument.
right_sibling()
The right sibling of this tree, or None if it has none.
root()
The root of this tree. I.e., the unique ancestor of this tree whose parent is None. If ptree.parent() is
None, then ptree is its own root.
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treeposition()
The tree position of this tree, relative to the root of the tree.
treeposition] is ptree.
I.e., ptree.root[ptree.
class nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree(node, children=None)
Bases: nltk.tree.AbstractParentedTree
A Tree that automatically maintains parent pointers for multi-parented trees. The following are methods for
querying the structure of a multi-parented tree: parents(), parent_indices(), left_siblings(),
right_siblings(), roots, treepositions.
Each MultiParentedTree may have zero or more parents. In particular, subtrees may be shared. If a single
MultiParentedTree is used as multiple children of the same parent, then that parent will appear multiple
times in its parents() method.
MultiParentedTrees should never be used in the same tree as Trees or ParentedTrees. Mixing tree
implementations may result in incorrect parent pointers and in TypeError exceptions.
left_siblings()
A list of all left siblings of this tree, in any of its parent trees. A tree may be its own left sibling if it is used
as multiple contiguous children of the same parent. A tree may appear multiple times in this list if it is the
left sibling of this tree with respect to multiple parents.
Type list(MultiParentedTree)
parent_indices(parent)
Return a list of the indices where this tree occurs as a child of parent. If this child does not occur as a
child of parent, then the empty list is returned. The following is always true:
for parent_index in ptree.parent_indices(parent):
parent[parent_index] is ptree
parents()
The set of parents of this tree. If this tree has no parents, then parents is the empty set. To check if a
tree is used as multiple children of the same parent, use the parent_indices() method.
Type list(MultiParentedTree)
right_siblings()
A list of all right siblings of this tree, in any of its parent trees. A tree may be its own right sibling if it is
used as multiple contiguous children of the same parent. A tree may appear multiple times in this list if it
is the right sibling of this tree with respect to multiple parents.
Type list(MultiParentedTree)
roots()
The set of all roots of this tree. This set is formed by tracing all possible parent paths until trees with no
parents are found.
Type list(MultiParentedTree)
treepositions(root)
Return a list of all tree positions that can be used to reach this multi-parented tree starting from root. I.e.,
the following is always true:
for treepos in ptree.treepositions(root):
root[treepos] is ptree
class nltk.tree.ImmutableParentedTree(node, children=None)
Bases: nltk.tree.ImmutableTree, nltk.tree.ParentedTree
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class nltk.tree.ImmutableMultiParentedTree(node, children=None)
Bases: nltk.tree.ImmutableTree, nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree
treetransforms Module
A collection of methods for tree (grammar) transformations used in parsing natural language.
Although many of these methods are technically grammar transformations (ie. Chomsky Norm Form), when working
with treebanks it is much more natural to visualize these modifications in a tree structure. Hence, we will do all
transformation directly to the tree itself. Transforming the tree directly also allows us to do parent annotation. A
grammar can then be simply induced from the modified tree.
The following is a short tutorial on the available transformations.
1. Chomsky Normal Form (binarization)
It is well known that any grammar has a Chomsky Normal Form (CNF) equivalent grammar where CNF is
defined by every production having either two non-terminals or one terminal on its right hand side. When we
have hierarchically structured data (ie. a treebank), it is natural to view this in terms of productions where the
root of every subtree is the head (left hand side) of the production and all of its children are the right hand side
constituents. In order to convert a tree into CNF, we simply need to ensure that every subtree has either two
subtrees as children (binarization), or one leaf node (non-terminal). In order to binarize a subtree with more
than two children, we must introduce artificial nodes.
There are two popular methods to convert a tree into CNF: left factoring and right factoring. The following
example demonstrates the difference between them. Example:
Original
A
/ | \
˓→OR
A|<B-C>
Right-Factored
A
A
/
\
/
B
C
D
==>
B
A|<C-D>
C
D
D
/
B
˓→
Left-Factored
\
/
C
2. Parent Annotation
In addition to binarizing the tree, there are two standard modifications to node labels we can do in the same
traversal: parent annotation and Markov order-N smoothing (or sibling smoothing).
The purpose of parent annotation is to refine the probabilities of productions by adding a small amount of
context. With this simple addition, a CYK (inside-outside, dynamic programming chart parse) can improve
from 74% to 79% accuracy. A natural generalization from parent annotation is to grandparent annotation and
beyond. The tradeoff becomes accuracy gain vs. computational complexity. We must also keep in mind data
sparcity issues. Example:
Original
Parent Annotation
A
/ | \
˓→is the
A^<?>
/
B
/
C^<A>
C
\
D^<A>
D
==>
B^<A>
A|<C-D>^<?>
where ?
parent of A
3. Markov order-N smoothing
Markov smoothing combats data sparcity issues as well as decreasing computational requirements by limiting
the number of children included in artificial nodes. In practice, most people use an order 2 grammar. Example:
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Original
No Smoothing
__A__
A
/ /|\ \
/
\
˓→B
A|<C-D-E-F> ==>
/
˓→
C
...
Markov order 1
Markov order 2
A
A
/
B
A|<C>
==>
\
C
...
etc.
\
B
/
/
A|<C-D>
\
C
...
B C D E F
==>
/
Annotation decisions can be thought about in the vertical direction (parent, grandparent, etc) and the horizontal
direction (number of siblings to keep). Parameters to the following functions specify these values. For more
information see:
Dan Klein and Chris Manning (2003) “Accurate Unlexicalized Parsing”, ACL-03. http://www.aclweb.org/
anthology/P03-1054
4. Unary Collapsing
Collapse unary productions (ie. subtrees with a single child) into a new non-terminal (Tree node). This is useful
when working with algorithms that do not allow unary productions, yet you do not wish to lose the parent
information. Example:
A
|
B
/ \
==>
A+B
/
C
D
C
D
nltk.treetransforms.chomsky_normal_form(tree, factor=’right’, horzMarkov=None, vertMarkov=0, childChar=’|’, parentChar=’^’)
nltk.treetransforms.un_chomsky_normal_form(tree, expandUnary=True, childChar=’|’, parentChar=’^’, unaryChar=’+’)
nltk.treetransforms.collapse_unary(tree, collapsePOS=False, collapseRoot=False, joinChar=’+’)
Collapse subtrees with a single child (ie. unary productions) into a new non-terminal (Tree node) joined by
‘joinChar’. This is useful when working with algorithms that do not allow unary productions, and completely
removing the unary productions would require loss of useful information. The Tree is modified directly (since
it is passed by reference) and no value is returned.
Parameters
• tree (Tree) – The Tree to be collapsed
• collapsePOS (bool) – ‘False’ (default) will not collapse the parent of leaf nodes (ie.
Part-of-Speech tags) since they are always unary productions
• collapseRoot (bool) – ‘False’ (default) will not modify the root production if it is
unary. For the Penn WSJ treebank corpus, this corresponds to the TOP -> productions.
• joinChar (str) – A string used to connect collapsed node values (default = “+”)
util Module
class nltk.util.Index(pairs)
Bases: collections.defaultdict
nltk.util.bigrams(sequence, **kwargs)
Return the bigrams generated from a sequence of items, as an iterator. For example:
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>>> from nltk.util import bigrams
>>> list(bigrams([1,2,3,4,5]))
[(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5)]
Use bigrams for a list version of this function.
Parameters sequence (sequence or iter) – the source data to be converted into bigrams
Return type iter(tuple)
nltk.util.binary_search_file(file, key, cache={}, cacheDepth=-1)
Return the line from the file with first word key. Searches through a sorted file using the binary search algorithm.
Parameters
• file (file) – the file to be searched through.
• key (str) – the identifier we are searching for.
nltk.util.breadth_first(tree, children=<built-in function iter>, maxdepth=-1)
Traverse the nodes of a tree in breadth-first order. (No need to check for cycles.) The first argument should be
the tree root; children should be a function taking as argument a tree node and returning an iterator of the node’s
children.
nltk.util.choose(n, k)
This function is a fast way to calculate binomial coefficients, commonly known as nCk, i.e. the number of
combinations of n things taken k at a time. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_coefficient).
This is the scipy.special.comb() with long integer computation but this approximation is faster, see https://github.
com/nltk/nltk/issues/1181
>>> choose(4, 2)
6
>>> choose(6, 2)
15
Parameters
• n (int) – The number of things.
• r (int) – The number of times a thing is taken.
nltk.util.clean_html(html)
nltk.util.clean_url(url)
nltk.util.elementtree_indent(elem, level=0)
Recursive function to indent an ElementTree._ElementInterface used for pretty printing. Run indent on elem
and then output in the normal way.
Parameters
• elem (ElementTree._ElementInterface) – element to be indented. will be modified.
• level (nonnegative integer) – level of indentation for this element
Return type ElementTree._ElementInterface
Returns Contents of elem indented to reflect its structure
nltk.util.everygrams(sequence, min_len=1, max_len=-1, **kwargs)
Returns all possible ngrams generated from a sequence of items, as an iterator.
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>>> sent = 'a b c'.split()
>>> list(everygrams(sent))
[('a',), ('b',), ('c',), ('a', 'b'), ('b', 'c'), ('a', 'b', 'c')]
>>> list(everygrams(sent, max_len=2))
[('a',), ('b',), ('c',), ('a', 'b'), ('b', 'c')]
Parameters
• sequence (sequence or iter) – the source data to be converted into trigrams
• min_len (int) – minimum length of the ngrams, aka. n-gram order/degree of ngram
• max_len (int) – maximum length of the ngrams (set to length of sequence by default)
Return type iter(tuple)
nltk.util.filestring(f )
nltk.util.flatten(*args)
Flatten a list.
>>> from nltk.util import flatten
>>> flatten(1, 2, ['b', 'a' , ['c', 'd']], 3)
[1, 2, 'b', 'a', 'c', 'd', 3]
Parameters args – items and lists to be combined into a single list
Return type list
nltk.util.guess_encoding(data)
Given a byte string, attempt to decode it. Tries the standard ‘UTF8’ and ‘latin-1’ encodings, Plus several
gathered from locale information.
The calling program must first call:
locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, '')
If successful it returns (decoded_unicode, successful_encoding). If unsuccessful it raises a
UnicodeError.
nltk.util.in_idle()
Return True if this function is run within idle. Tkinter programs that are run in idle should never call Tk.
mainloop; so this function should be used to gate all calls to Tk.mainloop.
Warning This function works by checking sys.stdin. If the user has modified sys.stdin,
then it may return incorrect results.
Return type bool
nltk.util.invert_dict(d)
nltk.util.invert_graph(graph)
Inverts a directed graph.
Parameters graph (dict(set)) – the graph, represented as a dictionary of sets
Returns the inverted graph
Return type dict(set)
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nltk.util.ngrams(sequence,
n,
pad_left=False,
pad_right=False,
left_pad_symbol=None,
right_pad_symbol=None)
Return the ngrams generated from a sequence of items, as an iterator. For example:
>>> from nltk.util import ngrams
>>> list(ngrams([1,2,3,4,5], 3))
[(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (3, 4, 5)]
Wrap with list for a list version of this function. Set pad_left or pad_right to true in order to get additional
ngrams:
>>> list(ngrams([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_right=True))
[(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, None)]
>>> list(ngrams([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_right=True, right_pad_symbol='</s>'))
[(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, '</s>')]
>>> list(ngrams([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_left=True, left_pad_symbol='<s>'))
[('<s>', 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5)]
>>> list(ngrams([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_left=True, pad_right=True, left_pad_symbol='
˓→<s>', right_pad_symbol='</s>'))
[('<s>', 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, '</s>')]
Parameters
• sequence (sequence or iter) – the source data to be converted into ngrams
• n (int) – the degree of the ngrams
• pad_left (bool) – whether the ngrams should be left-padded
• pad_right (bool) – whether the ngrams should be right-padded
• left_pad_symbol (any) – the symbol to use for left padding (default is None)
• right_pad_symbol (any) – the symbol to use for right padding (default is None)
Return type sequence or iter
nltk.util.pad_sequence(sequence, n, pad_left=False, pad_right=False, left_pad_symbol=None,
right_pad_symbol=None)
Returns a padded sequence of items before ngram extraction.
>>> list(pad_sequence([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_left=True, pad_right=True, left_pad_
˓→symbol='<s>', right_pad_symbol='</s>'))
['<s>', 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, '</s>']
>>> list(pad_sequence([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_left=True, left_pad_symbol='<s>'))
['<s>', 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> list(pad_sequence([1,2,3,4,5], 2, pad_right=True, right_pad_symbol='</s>'))
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, '</s>']
Parameters
• sequence (sequence or iter) – the source data to be padded
• n (int) – the degree of the ngrams
• pad_left (bool) – whether the ngrams should be left-padded
• pad_right (bool) – whether the ngrams should be right-padded
• left_pad_symbol (any) – the symbol to use for left padding (default is None)
• right_pad_symbol (any) – the symbol to use for right padding (default is None)
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Return type sequence or iter
nltk.util.pr(data, start=0, end=None)
Pretty print a sequence of data items
Parameters
• data (sequence or iter) – the data stream to print
• start (int) – the start position
• end (int) – the end position
nltk.util.print_string(s, width=70)
Pretty print a string, breaking lines on whitespace
Parameters
• s (str) – the string to print, consisting of words and spaces
• width (int) – the display width
nltk.util.py25()
nltk.util.py26()
nltk.util.py27()
nltk.util.re_show(regexp, string, left=’{‘, right=’}’)
Return a string with markers surrounding the matched substrings. Search str for substrings matching regexp
and wrap the matches with braces. This is convenient for learning about regular expressions.
Parameters
• regexp (str) – The regular expression.
• string (str) – The string being matched.
• left (str) – The left delimiter (printed before the matched substring)
• right (str) – The right delimiter (printed after the matched substring)
Return type str
nltk.util.set_proxy(proxy, user=None, password=’‘)
Set the HTTP proxy for Python to download through.
If proxy is None then tries to set proxy from environment or system settings.
Parameters
• proxy – The HTTP proxy server to use. For example: ‘http://proxy.example.com:3128/‘
• user – The username to authenticate with. Use None to disable authentication.
• password – The password to authenticate with.
nltk.util.skipgrams(sequence, n, k, **kwargs)
Returns all possible skipgrams generated from a sequence of items, as an iterator. Skipgrams are ngrams that
allows tokens to be skipped. Refer to http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/ballison/pdf/lrec_skipgrams.pdf
>>> sent = "Insurgents killed in ongoing fighting".split()
>>> list(skipgrams(sent, 2, 2))
[('Insurgents', 'killed'), ('Insurgents', 'in'), ('Insurgents', 'ongoing'), (
˓→'killed', 'in'), ('killed', 'ongoing'), ('killed', 'fighting'), ('in', 'ongoing
˓→'), ('in', 'fighting'), ('ongoing', 'fighting')]
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>>> list(skipgrams(sent, 3, 2))
[('Insurgents', 'killed', 'in'), ('Insurgents', 'killed', 'ongoing'), ('Insurgents
˓→', 'killed', 'fighting'), ('Insurgents', 'in', 'ongoing'), ('Insurgents', 'in',
˓→'fighting'), ('Insurgents', 'ongoing', 'fighting'), ('killed', 'in', 'ongoing'),
˓→ ('killed', 'in', 'fighting'), ('killed', 'ongoing', 'fighting'), ('in',
˓→'ongoing', 'fighting')]
Parameters
• sequence (sequence or iter) – the source data to be converted into trigrams
• n (int) – the degree of the ngrams
• k (int) – the skip distance
Return type iter(tuple)
nltk.util.tokenwrap(tokens, separator=’ ‘, width=70)
Pretty print a list of text tokens, breaking lines on whitespace
Parameters
• tokens (list) – the tokens to print
• separator (str) – the string to use to separate tokens
• width (int) – the display width (default=70)
nltk.util.transitive_closure(graph, reflexive=False)
Calculate the transitive closure of a directed graph, optionally the reflexive transitive closure.
The algorithm is a slight modification of the “Marking Algorithm” of Ioannidis & Ramakrishnan (1998) “Efficient Transitive Closure Algorithms”.
Parameters
• graph (dict(set)) – the initial graph, represented as a dictionary of sets
• reflexive (bool) – if set, also make the closure reflexive
Return type dict(set)
nltk.util.trigrams(sequence, **kwargs)
Return the trigrams generated from a sequence of items, as an iterator. For example:
>>> from nltk.util import trigrams
>>> list(trigrams([1,2,3,4,5]))
[(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (3, 4, 5)]
Use trigrams for a list version of this function.
Parameters sequence (sequence or iter) – the source data to be converted into trigrams
Return type iter(tuple)
nltk.util.unique_list(xs)
nltk.util.usage(obj, selfname=’self’)
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wsd Module
nltk.wsd.lesk(context_sentence, ambiguous_word, pos=None, synsets=None)
Return a synset for an ambiguous word in a context.
Parameters context_sentence (iter) – The context sentence where the ambiguous word
occurs, passed as an iterable of words. :param str ambiguous_word: The ambiguous word that requires WSD.
:param str pos: A specified Part-of-Speech (POS). :param iter synsets: Possible synsets of the ambiguous word.
:return: lesk_sense The Synset() object with the highest signature overlaps.
This function is an implementation of the original Lesk algorithm (1986) [1].
Usage example:
>>> lesk(['I', 'went', 'to', 'the', 'bank', 'to', 'deposit', 'money', '.'], 'bank
˓→', 'n')
Synset('savings_bank.n.02')
[1] Lesk, Michael. “Automatic sense disambiguation using machine readable dictionaries: how to tell a pine
cone from an ice cream cone.” Proceedings of the 5th Annual International Conference on Systems Documentation. ACM, 1986. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=318728
Subpackages
• genindex
• modindex
• search
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Python Module Index
_
nltk.__init__, 16
c
nltk.collocations, 16
d
nltk.data, 17
nltk.downloader, 23
f
nltk.featstruct, 28
g
nltk.grammar, 34
h
nltk.help, 39
p
nltk.probability, 40
t
nltk.text, 51
nltk.toolbox, 54
nltk.translate, 56
nltk.tree, 57
nltk.treetransforms, 66
u
nltk.util, 67
w
nltk.wsd, 73
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Python Module Index
Index
A
chomsky_normal_form() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 59
choose() (in module nltk.util), 68
claws5_tagset() (in module nltk.help), 40
clean_html() (in module nltk.util), 68
clean_url() (in module nltk.util), 68
clear() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
clear_cache() (in module nltk.data), 20
clear_status_cache()
(nltk.downloader.Downloader
method), 24
close() (nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile method), 18
close()
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
B
method),
21
B() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 43
close() (nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat method), 54
base_fdist() (nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist method),
closed (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader at46
tribute), 21
bigram_finder() (nltk.collocations.TrigramCollocationFinder
collapse_unary()
(in module nltk.treetransforms), 67
method), 17
collapse_unary()
(nltk.tree.Tree method), 59
BigramCollocationFinder (class in nltk.collocations), 16
Collection
(class
in
nltk.downloader), 24
bigrams() (in module nltk.util), 67
collections() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 24
binary_search_file() (in module nltk.util), 68
collocations() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
bracket_parse() (in module nltk.tree), 64
COLUMN_WEIGHTS (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI
breadth_first() (in module nltk.util), 68
attribute), 25
brown_tagset() (in module nltk.help), 39
COLUMN_WIDTHS
(nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI
BufferedGzipFile (class in nltk.data), 18
attribute),
25
build_index() (in module nltk.downloader), 28
COLUMNS (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI attribute),
bytebuffer (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader at25
tribute), 21
common_contexts() (nltk.text.ContextIndex method), 51
common_contexts() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
C
concordance() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
c (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI attribute), 26
ConcordanceIndex (class in nltk.text), 51
CFG (class in nltk.grammar), 35
ConditionalFreqDist (class in nltk.probability), 40
char_seek_forward() (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
ConditionalProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 41
method), 21
ConditionalProbDistI (class in nltk.probability), 42
check()
(nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist conditions()
(nltk.probability.ConditionalFreqDist
method), 45
method), 41
check_coverage() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
conditions()
(nltk.probability.ConditionalProbDistI
checksum (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 26
method), 42
children (nltk.downloader.Collection attribute), 24
conflicts() (in module nltk.featstruct), 33
chomsky_normal_form() (in module nltk.treetransforms), contact (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
67
about() (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI method), 26
add_blank_lines() (in module nltk.toolbox), 55
add_default_fields() (in module nltk.toolbox), 56
add_logs() (in module nltk.probability), 51
append() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
append() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
author (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 26
AUTO_FORMATS (in module nltk.data), 19
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contains() (nltk.grammar.DependencyGrammar method), discount() (nltk.probability.ProbDistI method), 49
38
discount() (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist
contains() (nltk.grammar.ProbabilisticDependencyGrammar
method), 45
method), 39
discount() (nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist method),
ContextIndex (class in nltk.text), 51
50
convert() (nltk.tree.ImmutableProbabilisticTree class dispersion_plot() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
method), 57
display (nltk.featstruct.Feature attribute), 33
convert() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticTree class method), 58
download() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
convert() (nltk.tree.Tree class method), 59
download_dir (nltk.downloader.Downloader attribute), 25
copy() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 30
download_gui() (in module nltk.downloader), 28
copy() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 43
download_shell() (in module nltk.downloader), 28
copy() (nltk.tree.ImmutableProbabilisticTree method), 57 Downloader (class in nltk.downloader), 24
copy() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticTree method), 58
DownloaderGUI (class in nltk.downloader), 25
copy() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 60
DownloaderMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 26
copyright (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
DownloaderShell (class in nltk.downloader), 26
corpora() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 24
draw() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 60
count() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
E
CrossValidationProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 42
cyclic() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 30
elementtree_indent() (in module nltk.util), 68
ELEProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 43
D
encoding (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader attribute), 21
DEBUG (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader atentropy() (in module nltk.probability), 51
tribute), 21
decode (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader at- EPSILON (nltk.grammar.PCFG attribute), 38
equal_values() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 30
tribute), 21
ErrorMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 26
default (nltk.featstruct.Feature attribute), 33
errors (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader atDEFAULT_COLUMN_WIDTH
tribute), 21
(nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI attribute),
everygrams() (in module nltk.util), 68
25
default_download_dir()
(nltk.downloader.Downloader extend() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
extend() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
method), 24
DEFAULT_URL
(nltk.downloader.Downloader
atF
tribute), 24
default_ws (nltk.collocations.BigramCollocationFinder FeatDict (class in nltk.featstruct), 31
attribute), 16
FeatList (class in nltk.featstruct), 31
default_ws (nltk.collocations.QuadgramCollocationFinder FeatStruct (class in nltk.featstruct), 29
attribute), 17
FeatStructReader (class in nltk.featstruct), 33
default_ws (nltk.collocations.TrigramCollocationFinder Feature (class in nltk.featstruct), 33
attribute), 17
fields() (nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat method), 54
demo() (in module nltk.__init__), 16
file_size() (nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer method), 18
demo() (in module nltk.toolbox), 56
file_size() (nltk.data.PathPointer method), 18
DependencyGrammar (class in nltk.grammar), 38
filename (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
DependencyProduction (class in nltk.grammar), 39
filestring() (in module nltk.util), 69
destroy() (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI method), 26 FileSystemPathPointer (class in nltk.data), 18
DictionaryConditionalProbDist (class in nltk.probability), find() (in module nltk.data), 19
42
find_best_fit() (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist
DictionaryProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 42
method), 45
discount()
(nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist findall() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
method), 42
findall() (nltk.text.TokenSearcher method), 52
discount() (nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist method), 46 FinishCollectionMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 26
discount() (nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist method), FinishDownloadMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 26
48
FinishPackageMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 26
discount() (nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist method), FinishUnzipMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 26
47
flatten() (in module nltk.util), 69
78
Index
NLTK Documentation, Release 3.2.4
flatten() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 60
ImmutableParentedTree (class in nltk.tree), 65
flush() (nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile method), 18
ImmutableProbabilisticMixIn (class in nltk.probability),
FORMATS (in module nltk.data), 19
47
freeze() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 30
ImmutableProbabilisticTree (class in nltk.tree), 57
freeze() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 60
ImmutableTree (class in nltk.tree), 57
freq() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
in_idle() (in module nltk.util), 69
FreqDist (class in nltk.probability), 43
incr_download() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method),
freqdist() (nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist method), 47
25
freqdist() (nltk.probability.MLEProbDist method), 47
Index (class in nltk.util), 67
freqdist() (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist index() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
method), 45
index() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
freqdist() (nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist method), INDEX_TIMEOUT
(nltk.downloader.Downloader
50
attribute), 24
freqdists()
(nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist induce_pcfg() (in module nltk.grammar), 39
method), 42
info() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
from_words() (nltk.collocations.BigramCollocationFinder INITIAL_COLUMNS (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI
class method), 16
attribute), 26
from_words() (nltk.collocations.QuadgramCollocationFinderinsert() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
class method), 17
INSTALLED (nltk.downloader.Downloader attribute), 24
from_words() (nltk.collocations.TrigramCollocationFinder invert_dict() (in module nltk.util), 69
class method), 17
invert_graph() (in module nltk.util), 69
fromstring() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader method), is_binarised() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
33
is_chomsky_normal_form()
(nltk.grammar.CFG
fromstring() (nltk.grammar.CFG class method), 36
method), 36
fromstring() (nltk.grammar.DependencyGrammar class is_flexible_chomsky_normal_form() (nltk.grammar.CFG
method), 38
method), 36
fromstring() (nltk.grammar.PCFG class method), 38
is_installed() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
fromstring() (nltk.tree.Tree class method), 60
is_leftcorner() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
fromxml() (nltk.downloader.Collection static method), 24 is_lexical() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
fromxml() (nltk.downloader.Package static method), 27
is_lexical() (nltk.grammar.Production method), 37
frozen() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 30
is_nonempty() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
is_nonlexical() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
G
is_nonlexical() (nltk.grammar.Production method), 37
is_stale() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
generate() (nltk.probability.ProbDistI method), 49
generate() (nltk.text.Text method), 53
J
get() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
join() (nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer method), 18
guess_encoding() (in module nltk.util), 69
GzipFileSystemPathPointer (class in nltk.data), 18, 19, 21 join() (nltk.data.PathPointer method), 18
H
K
hapaxes() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
has_key() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
height() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 61
heldout_fdist()
(nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist
method), 46
HeldoutProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 46
HELP (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI attribute), 26
help() (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI method), 26
KneserNeyProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 48
I
id (nltk.downloader.Collection attribute), 24
id (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
idf() (nltk.text.TextCollection method), 54
ImmutableMultiParentedTree (class in nltk.tree), 65
Index
L
label() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 61
LaplaceProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 47
LazyLoader (class in nltk.data), 20
leaf_treeposition() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 61
leaves() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 61
left_sibling() (nltk.tree.ParentedTree method), 64
left_siblings() (nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree method), 65
leftcorner_parents() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
leftcorners() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 36
lesk() (in module nltk.wsd), 73
lhs() (nltk.grammar.Production method), 37
79
NLTK Documentation, Release 3.2.4
license (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
LidstoneProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 47
linebuffer (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader attribute), 22
list() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
load() (in module nltk.data), 19
log_likelihood() (in module nltk.probability), 51
logprob() (nltk.probability.DictionaryProbDist method),
43
logprob() (nltk.probability.MutableProbDist method), 48
logprob() (nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn method),
50
logprob() (nltk.probability.ProbDistI method), 49
logprob() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticMixIn method), 57
nltk.downloader (module), 23
nltk.featstruct (module), 28
nltk.grammar (module), 34
nltk.help (module), 39
nltk.probability (module), 40
nltk.text (module), 51
nltk.toolbox (module), 54
nltk.translate (module), 56
nltk.tree (module), 57
nltk.treetransforms (module), 66
nltk.util (module), 67
nltk.wsd (module), 73
node (nltk.tree.Tree attribute), 61
Nonterminal (class in nltk.grammar), 35
nonterminals() (in module nltk.grammar), 35
M
NOT_INSTALLED
(nltk.downloader.Downloader
attribute), 24
mainloop() (nltk.downloader.DownloaderGUI method),
Nr() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 43
26
max() (nltk.probability.DictionaryProbDist method), 43
O
max() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
max() (nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist method), 46
offsets() (nltk.text.ConcordanceIndex method), 51
max() (nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist method), 48
open() (nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer method), 18
max() (nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist method), 47
open() (nltk.data.GzipFileSystemPathPointer method),
max() (nltk.probability.MLEProbDist method), 47
19, 21
max() (nltk.probability.ProbDistI method), 49
open() (nltk.data.PathPointer method), 18
max()
(nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist open() (nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat method), 55
method), 45
open_string() (nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat method), 55
max() (nltk.probability.UniformProbDist method), 50
OpenOnDemandZipFile (class in nltk.data), 20
max() (nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist method), 50
P
max_len() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 37
MB (nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile attribute), 18
Package (class in nltk.downloader), 26
md5_hexdigest() (in module nltk.downloader), 28
packages (nltk.downloader.Collection attribute), 24
min_len() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 37
packages() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
MLEProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 47
pad_sequence() (in module nltk.util), 70
mode (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader at- parent() (nltk.tree.ParentedTree method), 64
tribute), 22
parent_index() (nltk.tree.ParentedTree method), 64
models() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
parent_indices() (nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree method),
MultiParentedTree (class in nltk.tree), 65
65
MutableProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 48
ParentedTree (class in nltk.tree), 64
parents() (nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree method), 65
N
parse() (nltk.toolbox.ToolboxData method), 55
N() (nltk.probability.ConditionalFreqDist method), 41
parse() (nltk.toolbox.ToolboxSettings method), 55
N() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 43
PARTIAL (nltk.downloader.Downloader attribute), 24
name
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
at- path (in module nltk.data), 17
tribute), 22
path (nltk.data.FileSystemPathPointer attribute), 18
name (nltk.downloader.Collection attribute), 24
PathPointer (class in nltk.data), 17
name (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
PCFG (class in nltk.grammar), 38
name (nltk.featstruct.Feature attribute), 33
pformat() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
next()
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader pformat() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 61
method), 22
pformat_latex_qtree() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 62
ngrams() (in module nltk.util), 69
plot() (nltk.probability.ConditionalFreqDist method), 41
nltk.__init__ (module), 16
plot() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
nltk.collocations (module), 16
plot() (nltk.text.Text method), 54
nltk.data (module), 17
pop() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
80
Index
NLTK Documentation, Release 3.2.4
pop() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
pop() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
popitem() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
pos() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 62
pprint() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
pprint() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 62
pr() (in module nltk.util), 71
pretty_print() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 62
print_concordance()
(nltk.text.ConcordanceIndex
method), 52
print_string() (in module nltk.util), 71
prob()
(nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist
method), 42
prob() (nltk.probability.DictionaryProbDist method), 43
prob() (nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist method), 46
prob() (nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist method), 48
prob() (nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist method), 47
prob() (nltk.probability.MLEProbDist method), 48
prob() (nltk.probability.MutableProbDist method), 48
prob() (nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn method), 50
prob() (nltk.probability.ProbDistI method), 49
prob()
(nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist
method), 45
prob() (nltk.probability.UniformProbDist method), 50
prob() (nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist method), 50
prob() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticMixIn method), 57
ProbabilisticDependencyGrammar
(class
in
nltk.grammar), 39
ProbabilisticMixIn (class in nltk.probability), 49
ProbabilisticMixIn (class in nltk.tree), 57
ProbabilisticProduction (class in nltk.grammar), 38
ProbabilisticTree (class in nltk.tree), 58
ProbDistI (class in nltk.probability), 49
Production (class in nltk.grammar), 37
productions() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 37
productions() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 62
ProgressMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 27
py25() (in module nltk.util), 71
py26() (in module nltk.util), 71
py27() (in module nltk.util), 71
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
method), 22
read_app_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_fstruct_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_grammar() (in module nltk.grammar), 39
read_int_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_logic_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_partial() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader method),
34
read_set_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_str_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_sym_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_tuple_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
read_value() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader method),
34
read_value() (nltk.featstruct.Feature method), 33
read_value() (nltk.featstruct.RangeFeature method), 33
read_value() (nltk.featstruct.SlashFeature method), 33
read_var_value()
(nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
method), 34
readability() (nltk.text.Text method), 54
readline()
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
method), 22
readlines()
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
method), 22
remove() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
remove() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
remove_blanks() (in module nltk.toolbox), 56
remove_variables() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method),
30
rename_variables() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method),
30
retract_bindings() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 30
Q
retrieve() (in module nltk.data), 19
QuadgramCollocationFinder (class in nltk.collocations), reverse() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
reverse() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
17
rhs() (nltk.grammar.Production method), 38
right_sibling() (nltk.tree.ParentedTree method), 64
R
right_siblings() (nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree method), 65
r_Nr() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
RANGE_RE (nltk.featstruct.RangeFeature attribute), 33 root() (nltk.tree.ParentedTree method), 64
roots() (nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree method), 65
RangeFeature (class in nltk.featstruct), 33
run() (nltk.downloader.DownloaderShell method), 26
raw_fields() (nltk.toolbox.StandardFormat method), 55
re_show() (in module nltk.util), 71
S
read() (nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile method), 18
samples()
(nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist
read() (nltk.data.OpenOnDemandZipFile method), 21
method), 42
Index
read()
81
NLTK Documentation, Release 3.2.4
samples() (nltk.probability.DictionaryProbDist method), sort() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
43
sort_fields() (in module nltk.toolbox), 56
samples() (nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist method), 46 STALE (nltk.downloader.Downloader attribute), 24
samples() (nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist method), StaleMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 27
48
StandardFormat (class in nltk.toolbox), 54
samples() (nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist method), 47 start() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 37
samples() (nltk.probability.MLEProbDist method), 48
StartCollectionMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 27
samples() (nltk.probability.MutableProbDist method), 48 StartDownloadMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 27
samples() (nltk.probability.ProbDistI method), 49
StartPackageMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 28
samples() (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist StartUnzipMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 28
method), 45
status() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
samples() (nltk.probability.UniformProbDist method), 50 stream (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader atsamples() (nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist method),
tribute), 22
50
subdir (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
score_ngram() (nltk.collocations.BigramCollocationFinder substitute_bindings() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method),
method), 16
30
score_ngram() (nltk.collocations.QuadgramCollocationFinder
subsumes() (in module nltk.featstruct), 33
method), 17
subsumes() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 31
score_ngram() (nltk.collocations.TrigramCollocationFinder subtrees() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 63
method), 17
sum_logs() (in module nltk.probability), 51
seek()
(nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader SUM_TO_ONE (nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist
method), 22
attribute), 42
SeekableUnicodeStreamReader (class in nltk.data), 21
SUM_TO_ONE
(nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist
SelectDownloadDirMessage (class in nltk.downloader),
attribute), 46
27
SUM_TO_ONE (nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist atset_discount()
(nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist
tribute), 47
method), 48
SUM_TO_ONE (nltk.probability.ProbDistI attribute), 49
set_label() (nltk.tree.ImmutableTree method), 57
SUM_TO_ONE (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist
set_label() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 63
attribute), 45
set_logprob() (nltk.probability.ImmutableProbabilisticMixInsvn_revision (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
method), 47
symbol() (nltk.grammar.Nonterminal method), 35
set_logprob()
(nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn
T
method), 50
set_logprob() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticMixIn method), 57
tabulate() (nltk.probability.ConditionalFreqDist method),
set_prob() (nltk.probability.ImmutableProbabilisticMixIn
41
method), 47
tabulate() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 45
set_prob() (nltk.probability.ProbabilisticMixIn method), tell() (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader method),
50
22
set_prob() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticMixIn method), 58
Text (class in nltk.text), 52
set_proxy() (in module nltk.util), 71
TextCollection (class in nltk.text), 54
setdefault() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
tf() (nltk.text.TextCollection method), 54
setdefault() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 44
tf_idf() (nltk.text.TextCollection method), 54
show_cfg() (in module nltk.data), 20
to_settings_string() (in module nltk.toolbox), 56
similar() (nltk.text.Text method), 54
to_sfm_string() (in module nltk.toolbox), 56
similar_words() (nltk.text.ContextIndex method), 51
tokens() (nltk.text.ConcordanceIndex method), 52
SimpleGoodTuringProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 45 tokens() (nltk.text.ContextIndex method), 51
sinica_parse() (in module nltk.tree), 64
TokenSearcher (class in nltk.text), 52
SIZE (nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile attribute), 18
tokenwrap() (in module nltk.util), 72
size (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
ToolboxData (class in nltk.toolbox), 55
skipgrams() (in module nltk.util), 71
ToolboxSettings (class in nltk.toolbox), 55
SlashFeature (class in nltk.featstruct), 33
transitive_closure() (in module nltk.util), 72
smoothedNr() (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist Tree (class in nltk.tree), 58
method), 45
treeposition() (nltk.tree.ParentedTree method), 64
sort() (nltk.featstruct.FeatList method), 32
82
Index
NLTK Documentation, Release 3.2.4
treeposition_spanning_leaves() (nltk.tree.Tree method),
63
treepositions() (nltk.tree.MultiParentedTree method), 65
treepositions() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 63
TrigramCollocationFinder (class in nltk.collocations), 17
trigrams() (in module nltk.util), 72
unicode_repr() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 64
UniformProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 50
unify() (in module nltk.featstruct), 32
unify() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 31
unify_base_values() (nltk.featstruct.Feature method), 33
unify_base_values()
(nltk.featstruct.RangeFeature
method), 33
U
unique_list() (in module nltk.util), 72
un_chomsky_normal_form()
(in
module unzip (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
unzip() (in module nltk.downloader), 28
nltk.treetransforms), 67
un_chomsky_normal_form() (nltk.tree.Tree method), 63 unzipped_size (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
update() (in module nltk.downloader), 28
unicode_repr() (nltk.downloader.Collection method), 24
update() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
unicode_repr() (nltk.downloader.Package method), 27
update() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
unicode_repr() (nltk.featstruct.FeatDict method), 31
update() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 45
unicode_repr() (nltk.featstruct.Feature method), 33
update() (nltk.probability.MutableProbDist method), 48
unicode_repr() (nltk.grammar.CFG method), 37
unicode_repr()
(nltk.grammar.DependencyGrammar upenn_tagset() (in module nltk.help), 40
UpToDateMessage (class in nltk.downloader), 28
method), 38
url (nltk.downloader.Downloader attribute), 25
unicode_repr() (nltk.grammar.Nonterminal method), 35
url (nltk.downloader.Package attribute), 27
unicode_repr() (nltk.grammar.ProbabilisticDependencyGrammar
usage() (in module nltk.util), 72
method), 39
unicode_repr() (nltk.grammar.Production method), 38
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.ConditionalFreqDist V
method), 41
VALUE_HANDLERS (nltk.featstruct.FeatStructReader
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.ConditionalProbDistI
attribute), 33
method), 42
variables() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 31
unicode_repr() (nltk.probability.CrossValidationProbDist vocab() (nltk.text.Text method), 54
method), 42
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.DictionaryProbDist W
method), 43
walk() (nltk.featstruct.FeatStruct method), 31
unicode_repr() (nltk.probability.ELEProbDist method), WittenBellProbDist (class in nltk.probability), 50
43
word_similarity_dict() (nltk.text.ContextIndex method),
unicode_repr() (nltk.probability.FreqDist method), 45
51
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.HeldoutProbDist write() (nltk.data.BufferedGzipFile method), 18
method), 46
write() (nltk.data.OpenOnDemandZipFile method), 21
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.KneserNeyProbDist writestr() (nltk.data.OpenOnDemandZipFile method), 21
method), 48
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.LaplaceProbDist X
method), 47
xmlinfo() (nltk.downloader.Downloader method), 25
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.LidstoneProbDist xreadlines() (nltk.data.SeekableUnicodeStreamReader
method), 47
method), 22
unicode_repr() (nltk.probability.MLEProbDist method),
48
unicode_repr() (nltk.probability.SimpleGoodTuringProbDist
method), 46
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.UniformProbDist
method), 50
unicode_repr()
(nltk.probability.WittenBellProbDist
method), 51
unicode_repr() (nltk.text.ConcordanceIndex method), 52
unicode_repr() (nltk.text.Text method), 54
unicode_repr()
(nltk.tree.ImmutableProbabilisticTree
method), 57
unicode_repr() (nltk.tree.ProbabilisticTree method), 58
Index
83
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