General Year 12 sample assessment tasks - WACE

General Year 12 sample assessment tasks - WACE
SAMPLE ASSESSMENT TASKS
INTEGRATED SCIENCE
GENERAL YEAR 12
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2015/37624v4
1
Sample assessment task
Integrated Science – General Year 12
Task 1 – Unit 3
Assessment type: Science inquiry
Conditions
Period allowed for completion of the task
Research:
one week
Excursion:
one day
Analysis of data: two 60-minute lessons
Task weighting
6% of the school mark for this pair of units
__________________________________________________________________________________
Investigation – Measuring and comparing the abiotic factors of two aquatic ecosystems
(43 marks)
Background information
The abiotic or non-living factors in an ecosystem include: temperature, turbidity, pH, dissolved
oxygen, nitrate levels and phosphate levels. These non-living factors can have considerable impact
on freshwater ecosystems, particularly if they impact on autotrophic organisms (also known as
producers).
A summary of some abiotic factors is found below.
1.
Temperature
Organisms have an upper and a lower temperature limit beyond which growth and
reproduction will stop. There is an optimum temperature range within which maximum
growth occurs. Water temperature decreases as the depth of the water increases.
Temperature can also affect other abiotic factors, such as the amount of dissolved gases that
can be held within the water body. Most local fish prefer temperatures of between 15 oC and
25oC. Fish can survive warmer water, but only for short periods of time.
Temperature is measured with a thermometer.
2.
Turbidity
Turbidity is the measure of the amount of finely divided solids suspended in the water. These
suspended solids may consist of plankton, organic and inorganic detritus, sand, clay or silt.
These occur naturally in bodies of water, but may be added to by human activity. Increased
levels of turbidity can affect aquatic organisms in several ways. Turbidity can:
• reduce the amount of light available to photosynthetic organisms, reducing aquatic plant
growth
• affect food available for consumers
• affect gas exchange in organisms (silt blocking gas-exchange surfaces)
• act as a transporting medium for pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals.
Turbidity is measured with a turbidity tube.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
2
3.
pH
pH is the measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. The normal range of pH in a freshwater
system is between 6.0 and 9.0. A change in pH can have serious effects on the life in an
aquatic ecosystem. It can cause the death of fish, larvae and eggs and it may also reduce the
productivity of organisms. Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the water will lower the pH of the
water, making it more acidic. The ideal range for freshwater aquatic organisms is between 6.5
and 8.
pH is measured with universal indicator and a pH chart.
4.
Dissolved oxygen
Most organisms require oxygen for survival. Oxygen is available in the water in a dissolved
form. The oxygen is produced from photosynthetic activities of water-living autotrophs
(producers), diffusion at the air-water surface and mixing by wind. The level of oxygen is also
directly related to:
• temperature – as the temperature of the water rises, the dissolved oxygen (DO) level falls
and, as the temperature of the water falls, the DO level rises
• the amount of living material in a water body – the more organisms, including bacteria and
fungi, the higher the level of biochemical oxygen demand and the lower the level of
dissolved oxygen. Organisms are particularly sensitive to oxygen levels in their juvenile
stages.
DO is measured in units of mg/L. The ideal range of DO for stream fish is 7–11 mg/L.
DO is measured using a DO meter.
5.
Nitrate
About 80% of the air is nitrogen but most organisms cannot use it in this form. Nitrogen is
needed to build proteins. Nitrogen found in the air can be converted into a useable form and
released into the soil by organisms such as blue-green algae and some legumes. When an
animal consumes a plant, it can then use this form of nitrogen. Nitrates contain nitrogen and
usually enter aquatic ecosystems by the decomposition of dead plants and animals and their
wastes. Humans introduce nitrates into these systems by sewage and excessive fertiliser use
in gardens. The fertilisers end up in drains when sprinkler systems run onto roads and down
drains. In some instances, it can lead to significant plant growth called algal blooms. These
blooms initially produce greater quantities of DO; however, when they die, much more oxygen
is consumed by the decomposers, leaving little oxygen available for other aquatic organisms.
Nitrate levels are usually less than 1 mg/L. Concentrations over 10 mg/L will have an effect on
any freshwater environment.
Nitrate levels are measured by nitrate probes.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
3
6.
Phosphate
Plants and animals require small doses of phosphorus (phosphates) for healthy growth and
development. Freshwater ecosystems have very low supplies of phosphates compared with
other ecosystems. Problems arise when there is a slight increase in these levels as this can also
lead to algal blooms. Large streams have levels of phosphates around 0.1 mg/L while smaller
streams have levels of only 0.01 mg/L. The impact is, therefore, much greater in smaller
streams.
Phosphate levels are measured by the total orthophosphate test. The sample is added to
chemicals and allowed to react. The chemicals turn dark blue when phosphate levels are high.
A lighter shade of blue would indicate less phosphate in the sample.
Task
This task requires you to research the use of two different aquatic ecosystems (as directed by your
teacher), attend an excursion, and present your findings in a scientific report. The two aquatic
ecosystems have different surrounding land or water use. One of these is an area that has not been
disturbed greatly by human activity and the other has significant development surrounding the area
or catchment.
There are three phases to this assessment: pre-excursion, excursion and post-excursion.
Pre-excursion – Research and planning
In your research, you will determine to what extent the abiotic factors may be affected by the use of
the land surrounding the aquatic ecosystem.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Research the history of the two ecosystems. Research should include:
 the use of the land surrounding the ecosystem
 the possible effects of the land use on water quality
 rainfall data for the ecosystem.
Draw a landscape sketch of the two aquatic ecosystems, noting natural landforms and evidence
of human activity. You may use Google Earth or any other suitable program or software.
You will be allocated into a group of three. In your group:
 practise using the following pieces of equipment:
o
thermometer (in air, water and mud)
o
turbidity tube
o
universal indicator and a pH chart
o
dissolved oxygen meter
o
nitrate probe
 practise conducting the orthophosphate test on known concentrates.
These pieces of equipment and tests will be used to measure six abiotic factors at your
ecosystem.
You must take readings at five different locations at each site. Discuss how your group will
record the readings for each abiotic factor at the five different locations around the aquatic
ecosystem. Remember you must average the data collected at each of the five locations at each
ecosystem. Draw a table of results for the excursion.
Each group must determine task responsibilities for each group member, at each ecosystem, to
maximise the time available for the measurement of abiotic factors.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
4
Excursion – Collection of data
Look at the first aquatic ecosystem and, in your group, decide on your five locations. You will take
readings of the following six physical (abiotic) factors: temperature (air, water and mud),
turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and phosphate. On your landscape sketch, mark the five
locations that you will collect physical data from.
•
•
•
•
Before you commence, take notice of any disturbances caused by land use or evidence of
human activity that you observe at the site. Record this information.
Move to the first location and take and record the six abiotic factor measurements. Record this
data.
Continue until you have recorded the data for all five locations
Repeat at the second ecosystem.
Post-excursion
Process, evaluate and communicate findings in a scientific report
1. Introduction:
• provide a brief history of the land use and development of the area surrounding each
ecosystem
• discuss the possible effects of the land use on water quality
• include rainfall data for the two locations
• include a landscape sketch or photograph/s of each aquatic ecosystem
(8 marks)
2.
Materials: outline the equipment used (include quantities)
3.
Method: describe the method used for gathering the data on the six abiotic factors
4.
Results:
• collate all the results for the physical measurements and land use observations
• represent all the data in a table
• include appropriate titles and headings
• include a column for the average of the abiotic factors taken at the five sites at each
ecosystem
(6 marks)
5.
Discussion:
• identify any differences between the two ecosystems
• support your findings with data from the table
• relate these differences to the history and land use surrounding the two ecosystems
• account for any anomalous results
• suggest ways in which the collection of data could have been improved
(8 marks)
6.
Conclusion:
• summarise your findings
• suggest why there were differences between the two ecosystems
• discuss how the differences in three physical factors can affect the organisms living in each
ecosystem
(5 marks)
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
(2 marks)
(14 marks)
5
Marking key for sample assessment task 1 – Unit 3
1.
Introduction:
• provide a brief history of the land use and development of the area surrounding each
ecosystem
• discuss the possible effects of the land use on water quality
• include rainfall data for the two locations
• include a landscape sketch or photograph/s of each aquatic ecosystem
Description
Marks
Brief history of the land use and development of the area surrounding each ecosystem
1–2
Possible effects of land use on the water quality of each ecosystem
1–2
Impact of rainfall data on physical factors at each ecosystem
1–2
Landscape sketch or photograph/s of each ecosystem
1–2
Answer could include, but is not limited to:
Possible effects of land use and rainfall:
• run off from farms or agricultural systems may increase phosphate and nitrate levels
• constant movement of water may increase dissolved oxygen levels
• shaded area may reduce water and mud temperature
• deeper aquatic ecosystem may have lower temperatures
• a high rainfall may dilute the impact of phosphate and nitrate run off
• a low rainfall may concentrate nutrients and increase temperature as the ecosystem dries out
Total
/8
2.
Materials: outline the equipment used (include quantities)
Description
Provides a comprehensive list of materials and quantities
OR
List of materials and quantities included, but some omitted
Marks
2
1
Total
/2
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
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3.
Method: describe the method used for gathering the data on the six abiotic factors
Description
Marks
Description of the procedure is clearly outlined in steps that can be followed
2
OR
Description of the procedure is brief, but includes relevant aspects
1
Provides a description of the six sampling techniques
1–6
Answer could include, but is not limited to:
• temperature – place the thermometer in the water and, after two minutes, read the scale (repeat
this procedure for air and water)
• turbidity – take a sample of water from the water source and pour it into the turbidity tube. Hold the
tube in one hand and look into the open end with your head about 10 to 20 cm above the tube, so
that you can clearly observe the black mark on the bottom of the tube. Stop pouring the water when
mark on the bottom of the tube just disappears and read scale marked on the side
• pH – take a sample of water in a mini vial and add five drops of the universal indicator. Using the
universal indicator colour chart, match the colour to the pH chart
• dissolved oxygen concentration – place the probe into the sample of water and record the dissolved
oxygen concentration
• nitrate level – place the probe into the sample of water and record the nitrate concentration
• phosphate level – take a water sample and add the first reagent (ammonium heptamolybdate) and
shake vigorously. Add the second reagent (stannous chloride). The chemicals turn dark blue when
phosphate levels are high. A lighter shade of blue would indicate less phosphate in the sample
Indicates the equipment used to measure the six abiotic factors
1–6
Answer could include, but is not limited to:
• temperature – measured with a thermometer
• turbidity – measured with a turbidity tube
• pH – measured with universal indicator
• dissolved oxygen concentration – measured with a dissolved oxygen meter
• nitrate level – measured with a nitrate probe
• phosphates – measured by the total orthophosphate test
Total
/14
4.
Results:
• collate all the results for the physical measurements and land use observations
• represent all the data in a table
• include appropriate titles and headings
• include a column for the average of the abiotic factors taken at the five sites at each
ecosystem
Description
Data included from all groups
Data represented in a well-constructed table
Appropriate titles for table
Column for each factor
Column for averages
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
Total
Marks
1
1–2
1
1
1
/6
7
5.
Discussion:
• identify any differences between the two ecosystems
• support your findings with data from the table
• relate these differences to the history and land use surrounding the two ecosystems
• account for any anomalous results
• suggest ways in which the collection of data could have been improved
Description
Lists differences between the two locations
Supports the trends with data from the table
Relates the differences to the land use history
Accounts for anomalous results
Suggests ways in which the collection of data could be improved
6.
Total
Marks
1–2
1–2
1–2
1
1
/8
Conclusion:
• summarise your findings
• suggest why there were differences between the two ecosystems
• discuss how the differences in three physical factors can affect the organisms living in
each ecosystem
Description
Provides a summary of the findings at each ecosystem
Relates land use to the differences in physical factors
Relates differences in three physical factors to the organisms living in each
ecosystem
Marks
1–2
1–2
1–3
Total
5
Answer could include, but is not limited to:
One mark for one point from three physical factors
• higher temperature can lower dissolved oxygen concentration
AND/OR
• turbidity – increased turbidity can reduce the amount of available light for photosynthetic organisms
• this reduces aquatic plant growth which, in turn, affects food availability and oxygen concentration
• the suspended particles can also help transport pesticides and heavy metals
AND/OR
• pH – lower pH values can be a result of increased carbon dioxide levels which can affect the enzyme
action of aquatic organisms, leading to death
AND/OR
• most organisms require oxygen for survival so lower oxygen levels caused by increased water
temperatures or an increase in the number of organisms can be lethal
AND/OR
• increased nitrate levels can lead to significant plant growth called algal blooms (initially, the blooms
produce greater quantities of dissolved oxygen; however, when they die, much more oxygen is
consumed by the decomposers, leaving little oxygen available for other aquatic organisms)
AND/OR
• increased phosphate levels lead to algal blooms
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
8
Sample assessment task
Integrated Science – General Year 12
Task 3 – Unit 3
Assessment type: Test
Conditions
Time for the task: 50 minutes
Task weighting
4% of the school mark for this pair of units
__________________________________________________________________________________
Earth systems/cycles in nature and structure and function of biological systems
(54 marks)
Part A: Multiple-choice
(10 marks)
This section has 10 questions. Answer all questions on the separate multiple-choice answer sheet.
1.
The long-tailed mouse eats fungi, insects, spiders and fruits and is, therefore
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2.
Which of the following is an example of predation?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3.
an autotroph.
a detritivore.
a herbivore.
an omnivore.
A flea sucks the blood of a dog.
A spider traps and eats a fly.
A sea anemone hitchhikes on the shell of a crab.
A lion kills a leopard in a fight.
An aquarium containing plants and invertebrates is completely sealed so that no organisms,
gases or other matter can enter or leave. It is placed so that it receives six to eight hours of
sunlight daily. After three months, living plants and invertebrates are still present in the
aquarium. Which of these statements about the aquarium is correct?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
No energy has entered or left the aquarium.
The total amount of carbon in the aquarium is reduced.
The invertebrates in the aquarium cannot be competing.
Some of the energy in the plants has moved to the invertebrates.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
9
4. Use the pyramid of biomass below to answer the question that follows.
Trophic level
4
Trophic level
3
Trophic level
2
Trophic level
1
Approximately what proportion of the energy fixed in the bodies of primary producers in the
food pyramid will be available to the first order consumers?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5.
Examples of decomposers include
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
6.
bacteria.
fungi.
bacteria and fungi.
producers.
Which of the following is the best example of symbiosis?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
7.
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
Fungi and algae live together. The algae provide food for the fungi and the fungi provide
habitat for the algae.
A tapeworm lives within the gut of a dog. The dog’s health declines as a result of the
tapeworm and the tapeworm derives nutrients from the dog.
Ants live and work together to benefit the colony.
Mistletoe provides fruit and nesting sites for the mistletoe bird.
After a trip to a lake, four students each drew a food chain showing the feeding relationships
between four of the organisms. Which of the students drew the chain correctly?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
marsh harrier
algae
snails
sun
algae
algae
snails
blue-billed duck
snails
algae
blue-billed duck
marsh harrier
snails
marsh harrier
blue-billed duck
blue-billed duck
marsh harrier
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
10
8.
Which of the following would contribute to the turbidity of water?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
9.
Which of the following are abiotic factors?
(i)
trees
(ii)
reeds
(iii) water
(iv) pH
(v)
ducks
(vi) air
(vii) fish
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
10.
fine materials such as clay
stains that have come out of plants
microscopic algae that grow in the water
all of the above
(i), (ii), (iii)
(iii), (iv) and (v)
(iii), (iv) and (vi)
(iv), (v), (vi) and (vii)
Some ants live in Acacia trees. The trees provide shelter and food for the ants. The ants attack
animals that attempt to eat the Acacia trees. The relationship between the ants and Acacia
trees is an example of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
mutualism.
competition.
parasitism.
collaboration.
End of Part A
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
11
Part B: Short answer
(44 marks)
This section has six questions. Answer all questions in the spaces provided.
11.
The diagram below shows how carbon cycles through an ecosystem.
A
Respiration
B
Higher order
consumers
C
D
E
Waste material
and dead plants
and animals
F
The following terms are missing from the diagram: herbivores (primary consumers), photosynthesis,
the burning of fossil fuels, decomposers, plants (autotrophs), carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Match the terms with the correct label.
(6 marks)
A _________________________________________________________________________________
B _________________________________________________________________________________
C _________________________________________________________________________________
D ________________________________________________________________________________
E _________________________________________________________________________________
F _________________________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
12
12.
This question relates to the following diagram showing a simplified food web occurring in a
freshwater lake community in Southern Australia.
(a)
Write one food chain from this food web.
(1 mark)
_______________________________________________________________________
(b)
For the food chain in (a), explain the following:
(i)
the original source of energy
(7 marks)
_________________________________________________________________
(ii)
the way that energy became trapped and usable in the food web
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(iii)
the way that energy passed through the food chain
__________________________________________________________________
(iv)
three different ways that energy may be lost in the food chain.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
13
(c)
Using the food web, describe three impacts of an increase in nutrients flowing in the
waterway.
(3 marks)
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(d)
Indicate whether each of the following statements about the relationships between
organisms in the freshwater lake community is true or false by circling the correct
answer. Give one reason for each of your answers.
(8 marks)
(i)
Heron and bream are competitors.
True/False
Reason:____________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(ii)
Minnows are predators to trout.
True/False
Reason:____________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
(iii)
A decrease in the number of minnows in the freshwater lake community is likely
to result in an increase in the number of trout in the lake.
True/False
Reason:____________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
14
(iv)
A decrease in the number of heron in the freshwater lake community is likely to
result in an increase in the number of marron in the reserve.
True/False
Reason:____________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
13.
Distinguish between the following terms:
(a)
competition and predation
(2 marks)
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
(b)
parasitism and commensalism
(2 marks)
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
14.
Seagrass meadows support diverse communities of organisms. The organisms in the seagrass
meadows acquire nutrients in a variety of ways. State whether each of the following
organisms is an autotroph, a herbivore, a carnivore, an omnivore or a detritivore. (4 marks)
(a)
marine worms that feed on dead pieces of seagrass plants _______________________
(b)
photosynthetic algae that live attached to the seagrass plants_____________________
(c)
fish that feed only on other fish _____________________________________________
(d)
dugongs (sea cows) that eat only seagrass plants _______________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
15
15.
Some students in a class were investigating the relationship between water temperature and
dissolved oxygen. They got some frozen ice blocks of distilled water and placed them in a
container with a large opening at the top. They left the ice blocks until they melted and
reached a temperature of 60C. Using an oxygen probe, they measured the level of dissolved
oxygen in the water as the temperature of the water rose. The data is shown below.
(A gap in the data indicates the students failed to measure dissolved oxygen at this
temperature.)
Solubility of Oxygen in Pure Water Saturated with Oxygen
Temperature
(°C)
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
(a)
Dissolved Oxygen
(mg/L)
12.0
11.8
11.5
10.9
10.7
10.4
Temperature
(°C)
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Dissolved Oxygen
(mg/L)
10.0
Draw a line graph using all of the data above on the grid below.
9.6
9.4
9.0
(5 marks)
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
16
(b)
Use your graph to find the:
(i)
amount of dissolved oxygen present in water of 15°C in mg/L _________
(ii)
amount of dissolved oxygen present in water of 25°C in mg/L_________
(iii)
temperature at which water would contain 10.20 mg/L of oxygen in °C _______.
(3 marks)
(c)
Explain how an increase in temperature would affect the survival of organisms in a
freshwater lake.
(3 marks)
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
End of test
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
17
Marking key for sample assessment task 3 – Unit 3
Part A: Multiple-choice
Description
Question
Answer
1
d
2
b
3
d
4
b
5
c
6
a
7
d
8
d
9
c
10
a
Total
Marks
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
/10
Part B: Short answer
11.
The following terms are missing from the diagram: herbivores (primary consumers),
photosynthesis, the burning of fossil fuels, decomposers, plants (autotrophs), carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere. Match the terms with the correct label.
Description
A: carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
B: photosynthesis
C: the burning of fossil fuels
D: herbivores (primary consumers)
E: plants (autotrophs)
F: decomposers
12.
Marks
1–6
Total
/6
This question relates to the following diagram showing a simplified food web occurring in a
freshwater lake community in Southern Australia.
(a)
Write one food chain from this food web
Description
Answer must start with a producer and the arrow must show the direction of
movement of energy from organism to organism
Answer could include, but is not limited to;
blue-green algae
copepods
trout
heron
Marks
1
Total
(b)
/1
For the food chain in (a), explain the following:
(i)
the original source of energy
Description
Marks
1
the sun
Total
/1
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
18
(ii)
the way that energy became trapped and usable in the food web
Description
Photosynthesis
Light energy is trapped by the sun and incorporated into the plant tissue
OR
Carbon dioxide + water (in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll)
sugar + oxygen
Marks
1
1
1
1
Total
(iii)
the way that energy passed through the food chain
Description
By being eaten by another organism (the copepod’s energy is passed to the trout when
it is eaten)
Total
(iv)
Marks
1
/1
three different ways that energy may be lost in the food chain
Description
Any three ways that energy is lost
Answer could include, but is not limited to:
• lost as heat to the atmosphere
• movement
• cell metabolism
• when body products are lost (skin cells, feathers)
• parts of the body are inedible
(c)
/2
Marks
1–3
Total
/3
Using the food web, describe three impacts of an increase in nutrients flowing in the
waterway.
Description
Any three impacts of an increase in nutrients
Answer could include, but is not limited to:
• (initially) more growth of producers/consumers
• lack of light penetration
• reduced producers/consumers
• more decomposers
• declining levels of dissolved oxygen
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
Marks
1–3
Total
/3
19
(d)
Indicate whether each of the following statements about the relationships between
organisms in the freshwater lake community is true or false by circling the correct
answer. Give one reason for each of your answers.
(i)
Heron and bream are competitors.
(ii)
Minnows are predators to trout.
(iii) A decrease in the number of minnows in the freshwater lake community is likely
to result in an increase in the number of trout in the lake.
(iv) A decrease in the number of heron in the freshwater lake community is likely to
result in an increase in the number of marron in the reserve.
Description
(i)
True
The heron and bream both eat trout/compete for food
(ii)
False
Trout eat minnows so are the predator to the minnow, not the other way around
(iii) False
Trout eat minnows and, therefore, if the number of minnows decreased, there
would be less food for the trout (which is likely to lead to a decrease in trout
numbers, rather than an increase)
(iv) True
Heron eat/are a predator of marron and, therefore, a reduction in the numbers
of this predator would mean fewer marron would be killed (and therefore the
number of marron would increase)
Total
13.
Marks
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
/8
Distinguish between the following terms.
(a)
competition and predation
Description
Competition occurs when two organisms require the same resource.
Predation occurs when one organism captures and feeds on another.
Marks
1
1
Total
(b)
/2
parasitism and commensalism
Description
Parasitism occurs when one organism harms another organism while obtaining
nutrients by living on or in the body of that organism.
Commensalism occurs when two species share a relationship in which one organism
benefits but does not harm the other organism/the other organism is not affected.
Total
Marks
1
1
/2
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
20
14.
Seagrass meadows support diverse communities of organisms. The organisms in the seagrass
meadows acquire nutrients in a variety of ways. State whether each of the following
organisms is an autotroph, a herbivore, a carnivore, an omnivore or a detritivore.
(4 marks)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
marine worms that feed on dead pieces of seagrass plants
photosynthetic algae that live attached to the seagrass plants
fish that feed only on other fish
dugongs (sea cows) that eat only seagrass plants
Description
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Marks
1
1
1
1
detritivore
autotroph
carnivore
herbivore
Total
15.
(a)
/4
Draw a line graph using all of the data on the grid below.
Description
Marks
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L)
The effect of temperature
on dissolved oxygen levels
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Dissolved Oxygen
(mg/L)
0
5
10
15
20
25
Temperature oC
Title – appropriate title that shows the relationship between the two variables
A line graph showing the changes in oxygen solubility as temperature increases
o
Axes labelled correctly with correct units – temperature ( C) and dissolved oxygen
(mg/L)
o
Variables on correct axes – horizontal axis temperature ( C) and dissolved oxygen
(mg/L) on the vertical axis
Correct plotting of data from the table
Appropriate scale used
Total
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
1
1
1
1
1
/5
21
(b)
Use your graph to find the:
(i)
amount of dissolved oxygen present in water of 15°C in mg/L
(ii) amount of dissolved oxygen present in water of 25°C in mg/L
(iii) temperature at which water would contain 10.20 mg/L of oxygen in °C.
Description
Marks
1
1
1
9.8
7.6–7.8
13
Total
(c)
/3
Explain how an increase in temperature would affect the survival of organisms in a
freshwater lake.
Description
An increase in temperature causes a decrease in the amount of oxygen available for
the organisms.
This would decrease the survival rate of organisms.
Oxygen required for respiration is no longer available.
Total
Marks
1
1
1
/3
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
22
Sample assessment task
Integrated Science – General Year 12
Task 7 – Unit 4
Assessment type: Extended response
Conditions
Period allowed for completion of the task:
One week for research
Two 60-minute lessons to create the response
Task weighting
10% of the school mark for this pair of units
__________________________________________________________________________________
Materials used in the manufacture of safety design features in vehicles
(29 marks)
Secondary safety design features of vehicles provide increased occupant protection. These include
seatbelts, airbags and crumple zones. The materials used in the construction of these features must
match the design and purpose of the feature.
Part A – Research phase
1. (a) Research and take notes on each of the following safety design features in vehicles –
seatbelts, airbags and crumple zones. Your research should include the following:
• a definition and description of the safety feature
• an explanation of how it works
• the type of materials from which it is constructed.
(3 marks)
You may include diagrams in your research.
(b) Reference your research using a standard referencing format of your choice; for example,
APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago. Hand this in as a separate sheet attached to your
note-taking sheet.
(2 marks)
Part B – Extended response
You will produce a response based on the notes you have researched. This response is to be
completed under test conditions. You may use the note-taking sheet as a reference when creating
your response.
(24 marks)
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
23
Part B
You have been asked to make a presentation on why the materials currently used to make seatbelts,
airbags and crumple zones are well suited to their purpose.
Using your notes, discuss the following four points for each of the three safety design features:
(a) a brief description of each safety design feature
(6 marks)
(b) a description of how each safety design feature operates to ensure the safety of the occupants
of the vehicle
(6 marks)
(c) a description of the material used to construct each safety feature
(3 marks)
(d) an explanation of why the material used in the construction of each safety design feature
is well suited to its purpose.
(9 marks)
You may present your response in any format you like. Examples could include a poster, an oral
presentation, a slide presentation or pod cast. You may use your notes and your response must be
completed by the end of the two 60-minute sessions.
Marking key for sample assessment task 7 – Unit 4
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
24
Part A
1.
(a) Research and take notes on each of the following safety design features in vehicles –
seatbelts, airbags and crumple zones. Your research should include the following:
• a definition and description of the safety feature
• an explanation of how it works
• the type of materials from which it is constructed.
Description
Research presented in a note-taking format
Notes are concise and do not include irrelevant information
Notes cover all recommended research areas
Marks
1
1
1
Total
/3
(b) Reference your research using a standard referencing format of your choice; for example,
APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago. Hand this in as a separate sheet attached to your
note-taking sheet.
Description
Marks
1
1
Minimum of four references
Correct format used for selected referencing type
Total
/2
Part B
You have been asked to make a presentation on why the materials currently used to make seatbelts,
airbags and crumple zones are well suited to their purpose.
Using your notes, discuss the following four points for each of the three safety design features:
(a) a brief description of each safety design feature
Description
Marks
Two marks for the description of each safety design feature
1–6
Answer could include, but is not limited:
seat belts
• to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result from a collision or a
sudden stop
• consists of a lap belt over the pelvis and a shoulder belt (sash) across the chest, secured to the frame of
the car
air bags
• a flexible envelope which inflates rapidly during a collision to prevent occupants from striking interior
objects
• the bag consists of a thin nylon fabric, folded into the steering wheel, dashboard, back of seat or door;
a crash sensor which tells the bag to inflate, and chemicals which react to produce nitrogen gas
crumple zones
• areas of a vehicle that are designed to deform and crumple in a collision
• front and rear and side impact, design varies, combination of materials or design, strong frame
encloses the occupants
• steel and titanium is reinforced with notched metal inserts which cause the metal to crush upwards or
downwards to ensure the engine does not move and this keeps the occupants of the vehicle safe
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
25
(b) a description of how each safety design feature operates to ensure the safety of the occupants
of the vehicle
Description
Marks
Two marks for how each safety design feature operates
1–6
Answer could include, but is not limited:
seat belts
• most of the stopping force is applied to the rib cage and pelvis, not concentrated in one area, so it
doesn’t do as much damage
• the webbing stretches a little bit so the stop isn’t so abrupt
air bags
• when the sensor detects that there is a collision force equal to running into a brick wall at
16–24 km h-1, the airbag’s inflation system reacts sodium azide (NaN 3 ) with potassium nitrate (KNO 3 )
to produce nitrogen gas (N 2 )
• N 2 inflates the airbag as it bursts from its storage site. The gas dissipates through tiny holes in the bag
so that it deflates
• it stops an occupant’s momentum with little damage to the occupant
crumple zones
• the structure of the car gives way during a collision; the car material will dent, bend and fold during
collision; extends the time it takes to stop
• they reduce the initial force of the crash, and they redistribute the force before it reaches the vehicle's
occupants
(c) a description of the material used to construct each safety feature
Description
One mark for a description of the material used to make each safety feature
Answer could include, but is not limited:
seat belts
• synthetic fibres such as nylon, polypropylene or polyester
air bags
• nylon 6.6 yarn
crumple zones
• steel or titanium
• polymeric foam (high and low density)
Marks
1–3
(d) an explanation of why the material used in the construction of each safety design feature is well
suited to its purpose
Description
Marks
Three marks for why the material used is well suited to its purpose
1–9
Answer could include, but is not limited:
seat belts
• a moderate amount of stretch in the webbing of the seatbelt extends the stopping distance
• nylon is easily woven into webbing, increasing its strength
• nylon is durable and long lasting
air bags
• nylon has high strength
• nylon has heat stability so it ages well
• nylon has energy-absorbing characteristics and can be coated to make air bags
crumple zones
• steel and titanium are easily coated with paint
• steel and titanium are long lasting/durable
• steel and titanium are strong
• polymeric foam in the crumple zone has air spaces that absorb the energy from the impact
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
26
Sample assessment task
Integrated Science – General Year 12
Task 11 – Unit 4
Assessment type: Science Inquiry
Conditions
Period allowed for completion of the task: Two weeks
Task weighting
6% of the school mark for this pair of units
__________________________________________________________________________________
Investigation: Factors affecting the severity of collisions
(48 marks)
There are many factors which can influence the severity of a vehicle collision and its effects on the
people in the car. These include factors such as:
• speed
• road surface – gravel or smooth bitumen, wet or dry
• crash barriers on the sides of roads
• seat belts
• tyres
• crumple zones in cars
• brake efficiency
• air bags
• driver’s reaction time.
Task
You are going to design an investigation to determine how one factor will influence the forces
generated by a collision. You can investigate the effects of these forces on the vehicle or on the
driver and passengers.
Decide which measurements you will make and how you will process the data in your analysis (do
calculations to determine force, acceleration or deceleration).
Preparation
Research how far a car will travel after the driver decides to fully apply the brakes. This is called
stopping distance and will depend on the initial speed of the car and other factors like the driver’s
reaction time, tyres, road surface, vehicle type and loading.
Present your information in a table.
Include two sources of your information.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
27
Suggestions
•
•
•
Use trolleys and ramps to alter the speed of a trolley. Test the effects of increasing speed on
plasticine dummies or a barrier.
Use trolleys and plasticine to model people in vehicles. Create crumple zones, air bags, seat
belts or padded dashboards with other materials and conduct crash tests.
Design your own procedure.
Remember that if you are testing one factor (your independent variable), everything else (such as
the mass and speed of the trolley) must be the same. These are your controlled variables.
Use the following Planning and Report Worksheet for Science Investigations to assist with writing up
your investigation.
Stages of the Investigation
Preparation: Research into stopping distance
Part A – Planning
In your group, plan the investigation and decide which equipment you will need.
(6 marks)
(16 marks)
Part B – Conducting
Conduct the investigation and collect the data.
(6 marks)
Part C– Processing
Record your group’s results and process them.
(11 marks)
Part D – Evaluating
Evaluate your investigation and suggest how it could be improved.
(6 marks)
Part E – Concluding
Write a conclusion for the investigation.
(3 marks)
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
28
Planning and Report Worksheet for Science Investigations
Student name
_____________________________
Other members of your group
_____________________________
_____________________________
Part A – Planning
(16 marks)
What is the problem you are investigating?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
What do you know about this topic from personal experience and from science?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Which variables may affect the phenomenon you are investigating?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the variables are you going to investigate as your independent variable?
__________________________________________________________________________________
How will the independent variable be changed in the experiment?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Name the dependent variable (the variable that responds to changes in the independent variable).
__________________________________________________________________________________
How will you measure the dependent variable?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
29
Which hypothesis are you testing? State your hypothesis as a relationship between the independent
and dependent variables.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Which variables are to be controlled (kept constant) to make it a fair test?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
List your required equipment.
Draw a labelled diagram of your experimental set-up.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
30
Clearly describe your method.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Are there any special safety precautions?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Part B – Conducting
(6 marks)
Carry out some preliminary trials. Were there any problems?
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
How did you modify your experiment to fix the problems?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
31
A data table is used to collect and record the data during the investigation. Draw your data table
here.
Title of table: _______________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
32
Part C – Processing
(11 marks)
What is the best way to process your data? Are there calculations you need to perform?
Use this space to work out any relevant calculations.
Is it appropriate to represent your results in a graph? What type of graph is most suitable? Use the
graph paper provided.
Remember to plot the independent variable on the horizontal axis and that the title of the graph
should mention both the independent and dependent variables.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
33
Graph title: _______________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
34
Analyse your data. Are there any patterns or trends in your data? What is the relationship between
the variables you have investigated?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Use science concepts to explain the patterns, trends or relationships you have identified in your
data. What is your conclusion?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
35
Part D – Evaluating
(6 marks)
What were the main sources of experimental error?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
How confident are you with your conclusions? How much uncertainty/error is associated with your
data?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
How could the design of the experiment have been improved to reduce error?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
What have you learned about the topic of your investigation? Was the outcome different from your
expectation? Explain.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
36
Part E – Concluding
(3 marks)
What is your conclusion? Relate the results back to the hypothesis.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Does your conclusion support or disprove the hypothesis? Explain.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Planning and Report Worksheet questions
Adapted from: Hackling, M. W. (2005). Working scientifically: Implementing and assessing open
investigation work in science (Rev. ed.) (Appendices 2 & 3: Planning and report worksheet for science
investigations). Perth: Department of Education and Training, pp. 27–38.
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
37
Marking key for sample assessment task 11 – Unit 4
Preparation: Research into stopping distance
Research how far a car will travel after the driver decides to fully apply the brakes. This is called
stopping distance and will depend on the initial speed of the car and other factors like the driver’s
reaction time, tyres, road surface, vehicle type and loading.
Present your information in a table.
Include two sources of your information.
Description
Marks
Constructs an appropriate table to present the research information
•
appropriate title
•
appropriate column headings
•
columns for each type of factor affecting stopping distance
•
succinct summary of research
1–4
Includes two sources of information
1–2
Total
/6
Part A – Planning
Description
Marks
1
1
1
1
1
1–2
1
1
1
1–5
1
Clearly describes the aim of the investigation
Identifies controlled variables
Identifies the independent variable
Identifies the dependent variable
Writes an hypothesis
States how controlled variables were controlled
Lists all materials required
Includes quantities
Shows a labelled diagram or photograph of equipment set-up
Clearly lists the procedure/method to be used
Lists safety precautions
Total
/16
Part B – Conducting
Description
Marks
Plans for repeat trials
Selects appropriate equipment and collects valid results
Displays data in suitable table
Includes a column for averages
1–2
1–2
1
1
Total
/6
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
38
Part C – Processing
Description
Marks
Calculates speed, acceleration or deceleration where appropriate
Displays data in a suitable graph
•
title
•
axes labelled with units
•
correct plotting of points
•
suitable type of graph
Makes a valid statement about trends in the data
Discusses the relationship between the variables
Uses science concepts and terminology to explain the trends
1–2
1–4
1–2
1
1–2
Total
/11
Part D – Evaluating
Description
Marks
Discusses sources of error in the investigation
1–2
Discusses uncertainty in the investigation
1–2
Makes reasonable suggestions for improvements to procedure
1–2
Total
/6
Part E – Concluding
Description
Marks
Writes a conclusion and relates it to the hypothesis
1–2
Identifies if the hypothesis has been supported or disproved by the data
1
Total
Sample assessment tasks | Integrated Science | General Year 12
/3
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