Design Overview
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BYOD Design Overview
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Summary of Design Overview
Revised: August 7, 2013
This part of the CVD describes design considerations to implement a successful BYOD solution and
different deployment models to address diverse business cases. Other parts of the CVD provide more
details on how to implement unique use cases.
There are numerous ways to enable a BYOD solution based on the unique business requirements of a
specific organization. While some organizations may take a more open approach and rely on basic
authentication, other organizations will prefer more secure ways to identify, authenticate, and authorize
devices. A robust network infrastructure with the capabilities to manage and enforce these policies is
critical to a successful BYOD deployment.
The Cisco BYOD solution builds on the Cisco Borderless Network Architecture and assumes best
practices are followed in network infrastructure designs for campus, branch offices, Internet edge, and
converged access implementations. The solution showcases the critical components to allow secure
access for any device, ease of accessing the network, and centralized enforcement of company usage
policies. This robust architecture supports a multitude of wired or wireless devices, both
employee-owned and corporate-owned, accessing the network locally or from remote locations, as well
as on-premise guest users.
This part of the CVD includes the following chapters:
•
Cisco BYOD Solution Components—This section highlights the different network components used
in the design guide. These components provide a solid network infrastructure required as the
enforcement point for BYOD policies. Because of the reliance on digital certificates, a discussion
regarding the secure on-boarding of devices is included in this section.
•
BYOD Use Cases—This CVD addresses four different use cases based on the type of network
access allowed by an organization. These use cases vary from personal, corporate-owned, and guest
access. Permissions are enforced using Active Directory credentials, digital certificates, ISE
identity groups, and other unique identifiers.
•
Campus and Branch Network Design for BYOD—Policy enforcement is effective if and only if there
is a well-designed network infrastructure in place. This section describes different campus and
branch designs used to support BYOD, including WAN infrastructure, FlexConnect, and Converged
Access.
•
Mobile Device Managers for BYOD—The section introduces the ISE integration with different
third-party Mobile Device Managers and explores different deployment models.
•
Application Considerations and License Requirements for BYOD—This section highlights different
requirements that need to be present to provide the proper network service to applications. These
include features such as Quality of Service, Rate Limiting, Application Visibility and Control
(AVC), and others. The chapter also highlights Cisco Jabber and Virtual Desktop (VDI) architecture.
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Summary of Design Overview
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Cisco BYOD Solution Components
Revised: March 6, 2014
What’s New: A new Cisco Wireless Infrastructure section consolidates and provides a high-level
discussion about the Cisco Aironet access points, wireless LAN controllers, and Converged Access
switches discussed in this design guide. An introduction to the Cisco Mobility Services Engine (MSE)
has also been added.
Cisco provides a comprehensive BYOD solution architecture, combining elements across the network
for a unified approach to secure device access, visibility, and policy control. To solve the many
challenges described earlier, a BYOD implementation is not a single product, but should be integrated
into an intelligent network.
The following figures show a high-level illustration of the Cisco BYOD solution architecture. The
architecture has been separated into campus and branch diagrams simply for ease of viewing. These
infrastructure components are explained in detail in the following sections.
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Figure 3-1
Cisco BYOD Solution Components
HIgh-Level BYOD Solution Architecture—Campus View
Cisco Unified Wireless
Network (CUWN)
Centralized Design
Data Center
Services
Prime
Infrastructure
NTP
MSE
CAPWAP
Catalyst 3750X
Switch Stack
ISE
RSA
CT5508 and/or
CT5760 WLCs
CA
AD
Core
DNS and
DHCP
Applications
and File
Servers
Campus Building
Internet
Edge
Layer 2 Trunk
Connections
CT5508
Guest WLCs
Converged
Access Design
Wifi Connections
Ethernet Connections
CAPWAP Tunnels
ASA
CAPWAP
Mobility Tunnels
WAN
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
Off-Prem
DMVPN
Internet
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MDM
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On-Prem
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Cisco Wireless Infrastructure
Figure 3-2
High-Level BYOD Branch Solution Architecture—Branch View
Data Center
Prime
Infrastructure
Branch
Services
MSE
FlexConnect Design
NTP
ISE
RSA
Catalyst 3750X
Switch Stack
Flex7500
WLS
ACL
CAPWAP
CA
Core
AD
DNS and
DHCP
Applications
and File Servers
CAPWAP Tunnel
for FlexConnect
Design
WAN Edge
Old Mobility
Architecture
for FlexConnect
Design
Converged Access Design
Internet
Edge
New (Hierarchical)
Mobility Architecture
for Converged
Access Design
CT5508
Guest
WLCs
WAN
CAPWAP Tunnel
for Converged
Access Design
MPLS
WAN
ASA
CAPWAP
Off-Prem
DMVPN
Internet
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
MDM
Layer 2 Trunk Connections
Wifi Connections
Cloud-Based
MDM
294890
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
CAPWAP Tunnels
Mobility Tunnels
Ethernet Connections
Cisco Wireless Infrastructure
The Cisco wireless infrastructure discussed in this design guide consists of Cisco Aironet access points
(APs), Cisco wireless LAN controllers (WLCs), Cisco Converged Access switches, and the Cisco
Mobility Services Engine (MSE). Each is discussed in the following sections.
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Cisco Aironet Access Points
Cisco Aironet access points provide WiFi connectivity for the corporate network and handle
authentication requests to the network via 802.1X. The Cisco second generation (G2) access points in
this design guide include the Cisco Aironet 3600, 2600, and 1600 Series.
Cisco 3600 Series access points are ideal for midsize and large enterprise customers looking for
best-in-class performance in environments with high client density. They feature the industry’s first
802.11n 4x4 multiple input multiple output (MIMO) design with three spatial streams for a maximum
data rate of approximately 450 Mbps. The flexible, modular design of the Cisco 3600 Series provides
expansion capability for emerging technologies such as the 802.11ac module and advanced services such
as the Wireless Security and Spectrum Intelligence (WSSI) module.
The 802.11ac module protects the existing investment in wireless infrastructure by extending the
capabilities of the Cisco 3600 Series access point to provide 802.11ac Wave 1 support for wireless
clients. The field-upgradeable 802.11ac module has its own 5 GHz radio with internal antennas which
are separate from the client/data serving 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz radios within the Cisco 3600 Series access
point. The 802.11ac module provides 3x3 MIMO with three spatial streams, extending the maximum
data rate of the Cisco 3600 Series access point to approximately 1.3 Gbps with the 802.11ac module
installed.
The field-upgradeable WSSI module has a dedicated 2.4 and 5 GHz radio with its own antennas enabling
7x24 scanning of all wireless channels in the 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. The WSSI module requires no
additional configuration in order to enable it. It offloads concurrent support for monitoring and security
services, such as Cisco CleanAir spectrum analysis, wIPS security scanning, rogue detection,
context-aware location, and Radio Resource Management (RRM), from the internal client/data serving
radios within the Cisco 3600 Series access point to the security monitor module. This not only allows
for better client performance, but also reduces costs by eliminating the need for dedicated monitor mode
access points and the Ethernet infrastructure required to connect those devices into the network.
Note
The Cisco 3600 Series access point requires 18 Watts of power with the 802.11ac module and 17 Watts
of power with the WSSI module. When powering the access point from a Cisco Catalyst switch, the
switch port must support either IEEE 802.3at POE+ or Cisco Universal PoE (UPoE). If powered from a
switch port which only supports IEEE 802.11af PoE, the Cisco 3600 Series access point will boot up,
however the module will not be activated.
Cisco 2600 Series access points are dual band (5 GHz and 2.4 GHz) 802.11n access points ideal for
mid-market small, mid-size, or large enterprise customers looking for mission critical performance.
They feature a 3x4 multiple input multiple output (MIMO) design with three spatial streams for a
maximum data rate of approximately 450 Mbps.
Cisco Aironet 1600 Series are entry-level dual band (5 GHz and 2.4 GHz) 802.11n access points,
designed to address the wireless connectivity needs of small and mid-size enterprise customers. They
feature a 3x3 multiple input multiple output (MIMO) design with two spatial streams for a maximum
data rate of approximately 300 Mbps.
The Cisco 3600, 2600, and 1600 Series access points support additional technologies, such as Cisco
ClientLink, which help improve performance regardless of where client devices are located. The Cisco
3600 with the 802.11ac module also supports IEEE 802.11ac Wave 1 explicit beamforming for 802.11ac
clients which also support the functionality. Cisco CleanAir technology is enabled in silicon for both the
Cisco 2600 and 3600 Series Access Points.
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Cisco Aironet access points can operate as lightweight or autonomous access points. When functioning
as lightweight access points, a wireless LAN controller is required. In this design, the 802.11 MAC layer
is essentially split between the AP and the WLC. The WLC provides centralized configuration,
management, and control for the access points. All designs in this design guide assume lightweight
access points.
Further information regarding Cisco Aironet access points can be found in the following at-a-glance
document:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/ps5678/ps10981/at_a_glance_c45-636090.pdf
Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers
Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers (WLC) automate wireless configuration and management functions and
provide visibility and control of the WLAN. The WLC extends the same access policy and security from
the wired network core to the wireless edge while providing a centralized access point configuration.
The WLC interacts with the Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) to enforce authentication and
authorization policies across device endpoints. Multiple WLCs may be managed and monitored by Cisco
Prime Infrastructure. Wireless LAN Controller functionality can be within standalone appliances,
integrated within Catalyst switch products, or run virtually on Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS).
Integrated controller functionality is discussed in Converged Access Campus Design in Chapter 5,
“Campus and Branch Network Design for BYOD.”
The Cisco wireless LAN controller platforms discussed within this design guide include the Cisco 5508
wireless LAN controller (CT5508), the Cisco Flex 7510 wireless LAN controller, the Cisco 5760
wireless LAN controller (CT5760), and the Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series switch. The Cisco 5508 and Flex
7510 WLC platforms run Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) software (also referred as AireOS
software), while the Cisco 5760 WLC and Catalyst 3850 Series switch run Cisco IOS XE software.
The Cisco 5508 wireless LAN controller is targeted for mid-sized and large single-site enterprises.
Within the Cisco BYOD design guide it is deployed within the campus supporting access points
operating in centralized (local) mode. The Cisco 5508 WLC supports up to 500 access points and 7,000
clients per controller with a maximum capacity of approximately 8 Gbps.
The Cisco Flex 7510 wireless LAN controller is targeted for enterprise branch environments. Within the
Cisco BYOD design guide it is deployed as a remote controller supporting access points operating in
FlexConnect mode. The Cisco Flex 7510 WLC supports up to 6,000 access points and 64,000 clients per
controller with up to 2,000 FlexConnect groups, each of which can be configured for a branch location.
The Cisco 5760 wireless LAN controller is targeted for large multisite or single-site enterprises or
service providers. Within the Cisco BYOD design guide it is deployed within the campus, either
supporting access points operating in centralized mode or functioning as a Mobility Controller (MC) in
a Converged Access design. The Cisco 5670 WLC supports up to 1,000 access points and 12,000 clients
per controller with a maximum capacity of approximately 60 Gbps.
Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series switches are discussed in Cisco Converged Access Switches.
Further information regarding Cisco wireless LAN controller platforms can be found in the following
at-a-glance document:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/modules/ps2706/at_a_glance_c45-652653.pdf
Cisco Converged Access Switches
Cisco Converged Access switch platforms include the Catalyst 3850 Series and Catalyst 3650 Series.
This version of the BYOD design guide only discusses Catalyst 3850 Series switches deployed in both
campuses and branches.
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Cisco Wireless Infrastructure
Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series switches provide converged wired and wireless network access for devices.
As a switch, the Catalyst 3850 provides wired access to the network and handles authentication requests
to the network via 802.1X. In addition, the Catalyst 3850 contains wireless LAN controller functionality
integrated within the platform. As a wireless controller, it allows for the termination of wireless traffic
from access points directly attached to the Catalyst 3850 switch rather than backhauling wireless traffic
to a centralized wireless controller. This can provide greater scalability for wireless traffic, as well as
provide increased visibility of wireless traffic on the switch. The Catalyst 3850 Series switch supports
up to 25 access points and 1000 wireless clients on each switching entity (switch or stack) with a
maximum wireless capacity of approximately 40 Gbps (48-port models).
The Catalyst 3850 Series switch interacts with Cisco ISE to enforce authentication and authorization
policies across device endpoints, providing a single point of policy enforcement for wired and wireless
devices. When deployed at the access-layer within a branch location, the Catalyst 3850 can be
configured to function as both a Mobility Controller (MC) and a Mobility Agent (MA), providing full
wireless controller functionality. When deployed within a large campus, the Catalyst 3850 can be
configured to function as an MA, which allows for the termination of wireless traffic directly on the
switch itself. For increased scalability, the MC function, which handles Radio Resource Management
(RRM), Cisco CleanAir, and roaming functions, among other things, can be moved to a dedicated
CT5760 or CT5508 wireless controller. Both the Catalyst 3850 and the CT5760 wireless controller run
IOS XE software, allowing for the full feature richness of Cisco IOS platforms.
Appendix C, “Software Versions” discusses the feature sets and licensing required for wireless
controller functionality on the Catalyst 3850 Series platform.
Cisco Mobility Services Engine
The Cisco Mobility Services Engine (MSE) is a platform that helps organizations deliver innovative
mobile services and to improve business processes through increased visibility into the network,
customized location-based mobile services, and strengthened wireless security. The Cisco MSE supports
mobility services software in a modular fashion through applications. The following services are
supported along with the required licensing:
•
Cisco Base Location Services—Requires Location Services licensing.
•
Cisco Connected Mobile Experiences (CMX)—Requires Advanced Location Services licensing.
•
Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (wIPS)—Requires wIPS licensing.
The Cisco MSE is available as a physical appliance or as a virtual appliance with scalability shown in
Table 3-1. As of MSE software release 7.4 and above, licensing is based the number of access points
supported.
Table 3-1
Mobility Services Engine (MSE) Platforms and Scalability
Platform
Location Services
Licensing
Advanced Location
Services Licensing
Cisco 3355 MSE
Appliance
Up to 2,500 access
points
Up to 2,500 access
points
Up to 5,000 Monitor
Mode (MM) or
Enhanced Local Mode
(ELM) access points
Up to 25,000 devices
Cisco MSE Virtual
Appliance (High-end
Virtual Appliance)
Up to 5,000 access
points
Up to 5,000 access
points
Up to 10,000 MM or
ELM access points
Up to 50,000 devices
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wIPS Licensing
Maximum Number of
Tracked Devices
Chapter 3
Cisco BYOD Solution Components
Cisco Wireless Infrastructure
Chapter 28, “BYOD Network Management and Mobility Services” provides further discussion around
the Mobility Services Engine and Cisco wireless technologies that enable the MSE’s capabilities.
Cisco Identity Services Engine
Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) is a core component of the Cisco BYOD solution architecture. It
delivers the necessary services required by enterprise networks, such as Authentication, Authorization,
and Accounting (AAA), profiling, posture, and guest management on a common platform. The ISE
provides a unified policy platform that ties organizational security policies to business components.
The ISE also empowers the user to be in charge of on-boarding their device through a self-registration
portal in line with BYOD policies defined by IT. Users have more flexibility to bring their devices to
their network with features such as sponsor-driven guest access, device classification, BYOD
on-boarding, and device registration.
The ISE is able to integrate with third-party Mobile Device Managers (MDM) to enforce more granular
policies based on device posture received from the MDM compliance rules.
Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance
Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) provides traditional edge security functions, including
firewall and Intrusion Prevention System (IPS), as well as providing the critical secure VPN
(AnyConnect) termination point for mobile devices connecting over the Internet, including home offices,
public WiFi hotspots, and 3G/4G mobile networks. The ASA delivers solutions to suit connectivity and
mobility requirements for corporate-owned devices as well as employee-owned laptops, tablets, or
mobile devices.
Cisco AnyConnect Client
Cisco AnyConnectTM client provides 802.1X supplicant capability on trusted networks and VPN
connectivity for devices that access the corporate network from un-trusted networks, including public
Internet, public WiFi hotspots, and 3G/4G mobile networks. Deploying and managing a single
supplicant client has operational advantages as well as provides a common look, feel, and procedure for
users.
In addition, the AnyConnect client can be leveraged to provide device posture assessment of the BYOD
device, as well as a degree of policy enforcement and enforcing usage policies.
The AnyConnect client can be provisioned centrally with use of a third-party MDM. This enhances the
user experience and reduces the support costs. MDM policy can be configured to manage who is entitled
to use AnyConnect.
Cisco Integrated Services Routers
Cisco Integrated Services Routers (ISR), including the ISR 2900 and ISR 3900 families, provide WAN
and LAN connectivity for branch and home offices. The LAN includes both wired and wireless access.
In addition, ISRs may provide direct connectivity to the Internet and cloud services, application and
WAN optimization services, and may also serve as termination points for VPN connections by mobile
devices.
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Secure Access to the Corporate Network
Cisco Aggregation Services Routers
Cisco Aggregation Services Routers (ASR), available in various configurations, provide aggregate WAN
connectivity at the campus WAN edge. In addition, ASRs may provide direct connectivity to the Internet
and cloud services and may also serve as a firewall. The ASR runs Cisco IOS XE software and offers
Flexible Packet Matching (FPM) and Application Visibility and Control (AVC).
Cisco Catalyst Switches
Cisco Catalyst® switches, including the Catalyst 3000, Catalyst 4000, and Catalyst 6000 families,
provide wired access to the network and handle authentication requests to the network via 802.1X. In
addition, when deployed as access switches, they provide power-over-Ethernet (PoE) for devices such
as VDI workstations, IP phones, and access points.
Cisco Nexus Series Switches
Cisco Nexus switches, including the Nexus 7000 and 5000 families, serve as the data center switches
within the CVD. The Nexus 7000 switches provide 10GE Layer 3 connectivity between the Campus
Core, Data Center Core, and Aggregation Layers and 10GE Layer 2 connectivity, utilizing VPC, for the
Nexus 5000 switches in the Data Center Access Layer to which all servers are attached.
Cisco Prime Infrastructure
Cisco Prime Infrastructure (PI) is an exciting new offering from Cisco aimed at managing wireless and
wired infrastructure while consolidating information from multiple components into one place. While
allowing management of the infrastructure, Prime Infrastructure gives a single point to discover who is
on the network, what devices they are using, where they are, and when they accessed the network.
Cisco Prime Infrastructure 1.2 is the evolution of Cisco Prime Network Control System 1.1 (NCS). It
provides additional infrastructure and wired device management and configuration capabilities while
improving on existing capabilities in NCS 1.1.
Cisco Prime Infrastructure interacts with many other components to be a central management and
monitoring portal. Prime Infrastructure has integration directly with two other appliance-based Cisco
products, the Cisco Mobility Services Engine (MSE) and Identity Services Engine (ISE) for information
consolidation. Prime Infrastructure controls, configures, and monitors all Cisco Wireless LAN
Controllers (WLCs), and by extension, all Cisco access points (APs) on the network. Prime
Infrastructure also configures and monitors Cisco Catalyst switches and Cisco routers.
Secure Access to the Corporate Network
On-boarding for new devices (certificate enrollment and profile provisioning) should be easy for end
users with minimal intervention by IT, especially for employee owned devices. Device choice does not
mean giving up security. IT needs to establish the minimum security baseline that any device must meet
to access the corporate network. This baseline should include WiFi security, VPN access, and add-on
software to protect against malware. Proper device authentication is critical to ensure secure on-boarding
of new devices and to ensure secure access to other devices on the network. Hence, proper device
authentication protects the entire network infrastructure.
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Secure Access to the Corporate Network
Who is accessing the network, what device they are using, and where they are located need to be
considered before implementing a BYOD solution. The user can initiate the provisioning process from
a campus or a branch location. This design allows the user to provision and access resources from either
location. In the past, a username/password was all that was needed as most employees accessed the
network from a wired workstation. Often a simple server was used to collect and authenticate user
credentials. As organizations implemented wireless into their network, a unique SSID (Wireless
Network name) with a username and password was also needed.
Today, digital certificates and two-factor authentication provide a more secure method to access the
network. Typically the end user must download client software to request a certificate and/or provide a
secure token for access. One of the challenges with deploying digital certificates to client endpoints is
that the user and endpoint may need to access the company's certification authority (CA) server directly
(after being authenticated to the corporate network) to manually install the client certificate. This method
requires the end user manually install the client certificate and ensuring it is installed in the proper
certificate store on the local endpoint.
Deploying digital certificates on non-PC based devices requires a different process as many of these
devices do not natively support all the features and functionality needed to create/download and install
digital client certificates. As users become more and more mobile, authenticating users and devices
accessing the network is an important aspect of BYOD.
Certificate Enrollment and Mobile Device Provisioning
Deploying digital certificates to endpoint devices requires a network infrastructure that provides the
security and flexibility to enforce different security policies, regardless of where the connection
originates. This solution focuses on providing digital certificate enrollment and provisioning while
enforcing different permission levels. This design guide covers AndroidTM and Apple® iOSTM mobile
devices, in addition to Windows 7 and Mac OS X.
Figure 3-3 highlights the general steps that are followed for this solution when a mobile device connects
to the network:
1.
A new device connects to a provisioning SSID, referred to as the BYOD_Provisioning SSID. This
SSID (open or secured with PEAP) is configured to redirect the user to a guest registration portal.
2.
The certificate enrollment and profile provisioning begins after the user is properly authenticated.
3.
The provisioning service acquires information about the mobile device and provisions the
configuration profile, which includes a WiFi profile with the parameters to connect to a secure SSID,
called the BYOD_Employee SSID.
4.
For subsequent connections, the device uses the BYOD_Employee SSID and is granted access to
network resources based on different ISE authorization rules.
The design guide also covers a single SSID environment, where the same SSID is used for both
provisioning and secure access.
Employee devices that do not go through the provisioning process simply connect to a guest SSID, a or
dedicated guest-like SSID; which may be configured to provide Internet-only or limited access for guests
or employees.
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Figure 3-3
Enrollment and Provisioning for Mobile Devices
Internet Edge
Internet
Branch
ASA Firewall
CT5508
WLC
Step 1: On-boarding
Data Center and Services Module
Enrollment and
Provisioning
Catalyst 3750X or
Catalyst 3850
Access:
Full, Partial, Internet
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
ISE
Step 2: Secure Access
AD
CA
WAN
Flex 7500
CT5508 or
CT5760 WLC
Campus
Step 1: On-boarding
Catalyst 3750X or
Catalyst 3850
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
293994
Step 2: Secure Access
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BYOD Use Cases
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An organization’s business policies will dictate the network access requirements which their BYOD
solution must enforce. The following four use cases are examples of access requirements an organization
may enforce:
•
Enhanced Access—This use case provides network access for personal devices, as well as corporate
issued devices. It allows a business to build a policy that enables granular role-based application
access and extends the security framework on and off-premises.
•
Limited Access—This use case enables access exclusively to corporate-issued devices.
•
Advanced Access—This comprehensive use case also provides network access and for personal and
corporate issued devices. However it includes the posture of the device into the network access
control decision through integration with third party Mobile Device Managers (MDMs).
•
Basic Access—This use case is an extension of traditional wireless guest access. It represents an
alternative where the business policy is to not on-board/register employee wireless personal devices,
but still provides Internet-only or partial access to the network.
ISE evaluates digital certificates, Active Directory group membership, device type, etc. to determine
which network access permission level to apply. ISE provides a flexible toolset to identify devices and
enforce unique access based on user credentials and other conditions.
Figure 4-1 shows the different permission levels configured in this design guide. These access levels may
be enforced using access lists in the wireless controller or Catalyst switches, assigning Security Group
Tags (SGTs) to the device traffic or by relying on dynamic virtual LAN (VLAN) assignment. The design
guide shows different ways to enforce the desired permissions.
Figure 4-1
Permission Levels
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Enhanced Access—Personal and Corporate Devices
Enhanced Access—Personal and Corporate Devices
This use case builds on the Limited Access use case and provides the infrastructure to on-board personal
devices onto the network by enrolling digital certificates and provisioning configuration files. The use
case focuses on how to provide different access levels to personal devices based on authentication and
authorization rules.
Employees that have registered their devices using the self-registration portal and have received a digital
certificate are granted unique access based on their Active Directory group membership:
•
Full Access—If the employee belongs to the BYOD_Full_Access Active Directory group.
•
Partial Access—If the employee belongs to the BYOD_Partial_Access Active Directory group.
•
Internet Access—If the employee belongs to the Domain Users Active Directory group.
Corporate owned devices are granted full access in this use case.
The use case also explains how to prevent personal owned devices, for example Android devices, from
accessing the network. Some organizations may not be ready to allow employees to connect their
personal devices into the network and may decide to block their access until business or legal
requirements are met. Cisco ISE provides the capability of identifying (profiling) the device type and
preventing those devices from connecting to the network. As an example, this use case includes device
profiling in ISE to deny access to Android devices.
The use of Security Group Tags will be used as an alternative to ACLs for enforcing role-based policies
for campus wireless users and devices. Security Group Tags provide a complimentary technology
offering a scalable approach to enforcing policy and traffic restrictions with minimal and in some cases,
little or no ACLs at all if TCP/UDP port level granularity is not required.
Figure 4-2 highlights the connectivity flow for personal devices.
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Limited Access—Corporate Devices
Figure 4-2
Personal Devices BYOD Access
Personal
Device (Onboarded)
Wireless
EAP_TLS?
Valid
Certificate?
AD
Group?
Deny Access
Full Access
Partial Access
Internet Only
293699
In Active
Directory?
This use case provides an effective way for organizations to embrace a BYOD environment for their
employees and provide differentiated access to network resources.
Limited Access—Corporate Devices
This use case applies to organizations that decide to enforce a more restrictive policy that allows only
devices owned or managed by the corporation to access the network and denies access to employee
personal devices.
ISE grants devices full access to the network based on the device’s certificate and inclusion in the
Whitelist identity group. This use case introduces the use of a Whitelist, a list of corporate devices
maintained by the Cisco ISE that is evaluated during the authorization phase.
Figure 4-3 shows connectivity flow for corporate devices.
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Advanced Access—MDM Posture
Figure 4-3
Corporate Device BYOD Access
Corporate
Device (Onboarded)
In
Whitelist?
Wireless
EAP_TLS?
Deny Access
Full Access
293995
Valid
Certificate?
Advanced Access—MDM Posture
This use case applies to organizations that have invested in a Mobile Device Manager (MDM) to manage
and secure mobile endpoints. While MDMs are not able to enforce Network Access Control policies,
they provide unique device posture information not available on the ISE. Combining ISE policies with
additional MDM information, a robust security policy may be enforced on mobile endpoints.
The integration between ISE and third-party MDMs is through a REST API, allowing the ISE to query
the MDM for additional compliance and posture attributes.
Figure 4-4 shows the connectivity flow to obtain MDM compliance information and network access.
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BYOD Use Cases
Basic Access—Guest-Like
Figure 4-4
MDM Compliance
Personal
Device (Onboarded)
MDM
Registered?
ISE
Quarantine
ISE
Compliant?
MDM
Quarantine
MDM
Compliant?
API call
API call
API call
Continue AuthZ
Rules
Full Access
Partial Access
Internet Only
293989
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Until MDM
Basic Access—Guest-Like
Some organizations may implement a business policy which does not on-board wireless employee
personal devices, yet provides some access to corporate services and the Internet for such devices. Some
of the possible reasons include:
•
The organization does not have the desire or the ability to deploy digital certificates on employees’
personal devices.
•
The employees may be unwilling to allow the organization to “manage” their personal device.
•
The organization does not wish to manage and maintain separate lists of registered devices or
manage a user’s network access level when using personal devices.
The design for this use case is based around extending traditional guest wireless access and providing
similar guest-like wireless access for employee personal devices. The design guide focuses on two
methods for extending guest wireless access to allow employee personal devices access to the guest
network:
•
Allowing employees to provision guest credentials for themselves.
•
Extending guest web authentication (Web Auth) to also utilize the Microsoft Active Directory (AD)
database when authenticating guests or employees using personal devices.
In addition, the design guide discusses another option in which a second guest-like wireless SSID is
provisioned for employee personal devices.
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Basic Access—Guest-Like
The Basic Access use case builds on traditional wireless guest access. Figure 4-5 shows the typical
method for authenticating a device connecting to the guest wireless network.
Figure 4-5
Guest Wireless Access
Guest Device
Guest Portal
Authentication
Deny Access
Internet Only
293996
User in
Database?
This design guide discusses two approaches for modifying an existing guest wireless access
implementation to enable Basic Access for employee personal devices, as shown in Figure 4-6.
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Basic Access—Guest-Like
Basic Access
Employee Devices
Share Guest SSID
Employee Devices on
Separate Guest-Like SSID
Guest or
Employee
Personal Device
Guest Portal
Authentication
Employee
Personal Device
User in
Database?
Internet Only
User in
AD?
Internet Only or
Partial Access
User in
AD?
Internet Only or
s
Partial Access
DenyAccess
DenyAccess
293997
Figure 4-6
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CH AP TE R
5
Campus and Branch Network Design for BYOD
Revised: March 6, 2014
What’s New: A new section Link Aggregation (LAG) with the CT5508 WLC has been added. Also, the
Wireless LAN Controller High Availability section has been re-written to include 1:1 active/standby
redundancy with AP and client SSO on CUWN platforms, Catalyst 3850 switch stack resiliency, and
Cisco CT5670 wireless controller 1:1 stack resiliency.
Campus Network Design
As with the branch design, policy enforcement is effective if and only if there is a well-designed campus
network infrastructure in place. This section discusses the high-level key design elements of campus
LAN design.
The two wireless LAN designs for the campus which will be discussed within this design guide are
Centralized (Local Mode) and Converged Access designs.
Centralized (Local Mode) Wireless Design
Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) Local Mode designs, refer to wireless LAN designs in which
all data and control traffic is backhauled from the access point to a wireless controller before being
terminated and placed on the Ethernet network. This type of design is also referred to as a centralized
wireless design or centralized wireless overlay network. A typical recommended design within a large
campus is to place all of the wireless controllers into a separate services module connected to the campus
core.
The potential advantages of this design are:
•
Centralized access control of all wireless traffic from a single point within the campus network.
•
Less complexity for wireless roaming, since the wireless controllers can share larger IP address pool
for wireless clients.
The potential disadvantages of this design are:
•
Potential for scalability bottlenecks at the wireless controllers or the network infrastructure
connecting to the wireless controllers. This is because all wireless traffic is backhauled to a central
point within the campus network where the wireless controllers are deployed, before being
terminated on the Ethernet network. Note however, that this may be alleviated by deploying
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additional centralized wireless controllers, by upgrading to newer platforms such as the Cisco
CT5760 wireless controller, and/or by moving wireless controllers out to the building distribution
modules.
•
Less visibility of wireless traffic, since the wireless traffic is encapsulated within a CAPWAP tunnel
as it crosses the campus network infrastructure.
With a Local Mode design, access points that are connected to the access-layer switches within the
building distribution modules are configured and controlled via one or more centralized Wireless LAN
Controllers. In the case of this design guide, these controllers are a set of Cisco CT5508 wireless
controllers—dedicated for the campus—since they provide greater scalability for supporting Local
Mode access points than Cisco Flex 7500 wireless controllers. As mentioned previously, all data and
control traffic is backhauled from the access points to wireless controllers before being terminated and
placed onto the Ethernet network. Guest wireless traffic is backhauled across the campus infrastructure
to a dedicated CT5508 guest anchor controller located on a DMZ segment within the campus.
In order to implement the BYOD use cases, two separate methods of providing differentiated access
control for campuses utilizing a Local Mode wireless design are examined. These methods are:
•
Applying the appropriate dynamic ACL after the device is authenticated and authorized.
•
Applying the appropriate Security Group Tag (SGT) to the device after it is authenticated and
authorized.
When implementing access control via dynamic ACLs, the particular form of dynamic ACL chosen for
the design guide are RADIUS specified local ACLs, otherwise known as named ACLs. These named
ACLs must be configured on each CT5508 wireless controller. For example, a personal device which is
granted full access to the network is statically assigned to the same VLAN as a personal device which is
granted partial access. However different named ACLs are applied to each device, granting different
access to the network.
Figure 5-1 shows at a high level how a centralized (Local Mode) wireless BYOD design using named
ACLs for access control is implemented in the campus.
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Figure 5-1
High-Level View of the Centralized (Local Mode) Wireless Campus BYOD Design
Data Center
ISE
MSE
Building
Distribution
Prime
RSA
Infrastructure
CA
DNS,
DHCP,
NTP
CAPWAP Tunnel:
Control and Traffic
Applications
and File Servers
AD
Cloud-Based
MDM
Internet Edge
Campus
Core
Mobility Tunnel:
Guest Traffic
MDM
Internet
Services
CAPWAP
IT Devices
(MAB) SSID
Guest
VLAN
CT5508 Guest
Anchor WLCs
CT5508
WLCs
Employee
VLAN
Provisioning
VLAN
(optional)
Guest
SSID
Employee
SSID
Provisioning
SSID
(optional)
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Named
ACLs
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
Dynamic ACL (Named ACL) assignment applied at the wireless
controller for differentiated access control for wireless devices.
When implementing access control via Security Group Association (SGA), various source and
destination Security Group Tags (SGTs) must be configured within Cisco ISE. A personal device which
is granted full access to the network is statically assigned to the same VLAN as a personal device which
is granted partial access. However different SGTs are applied to each device, thereby granting different
access to the network.
Security Group Tag Overview
Throughout all versions of the BYOD CVD, policy enforcement has been accomplished through the use
of Access Control Lists and VLANs to restrict user traffic as appropriate upon successful authentication
and subsequent authorization. The use of ACLs can become a daunting administrative burden when
factoring the number of devices upon which they are applied and the continual maintenance required to
securely control network access.
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This design guide also uses a complimentary technology known as TrustSec and the use of Security
Group Tags (SGT). Security Group Tags offer a streamlined and alternative approach to enforcing
role-based policies with minimal and in some cases, little or no ACLs at all if TCP/UDP port level
granularity is not required.
The use of Security Group Tags are used as an alternative to ACLs for Campus wireless users and devices
where the Cisco Wireless Controllers have been centrally deployed in a shared services block and
configured for operation in local mode.
ACL Complexity and Considerations
To date, variations of named ACLs on wireless controllers, static and downloadable ACLs on various
routing and switching platforms, as well as FlexACLs for FlexConnect wireless traffic in the branch have
been used as a means of enforcing traffic restrictions and policies. In order to configure and deploy these
ACLs, a combination of either command line (CLI) access to each device via Telnet/SSH or network
management such as Prime Infrastructure have been required and used for statically configured ACLS
while the Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) has been used to centrally define and push downloadable
ACLs (DACL) to switching platforms.
•
Unique ACLs may be required for different locations such as branches or regional facilities, where
user permissions may need to be enforced for local resources such as printers, servers, etc.
•
The operational complexity of ACLs may be impacted by changes in business policies.
•
The risk of security breaches increases with potential device misconfigurations.
•
ACL definitions become more complex when policy enforcement is based on IP addresses.
•
Platform capabilities, such as processor memory, scalability, or TCAM resources may be impacted
by complex ACLs.
Cisco’s TrustSec provides a scalable and centralized model for policy enforcement by implementing
Cisco's Security Group Access architecture and the use of Security Group Tags.
Security Group Tag
Security Group Tags, or SGT as they are known, allow for the abstraction of a host’s IP Address through
the arbitrary assignment to a Closed User Group represented by an arbitrarily defined SGT. These tags
are centrally created, managed, and administered by the ISE. The Security Group Tag is a 16-bit value
that is transmitted in the Cisco Meta Data field of a Layer 2 Frame as depicted in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2
Layer 2 SGT Frame Format
Authenticated
Encrypted
SMAC
802.1AE Header
CMD EtherType Version
Cisco Meta Data
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Length
802.1Q
CMD
SGT Opt Type
ETYPE
PAYLOAD
SGT Value
ICV
CRC
Other CMD Options
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The Security Group Tags are defined by an administrator at Cisco ISE and are represented by an arbitrary
name and a decimal value between 1 and 65,535 where 0 is reserved for “Unknown”. Security Group
Tags allow an organization to create policies based on a user’s or device’s role in the network providing
a layer of abstraction in security policies based on a Security Group Tag as opposed to IP Addresses in
ACLs.
For a complete overview of the Security Group Access architecture and Security Group Tags and how it
will be incorporated within the CVD, refer to Chapter 23, “BYOD Policy Enforcement Using Security
Group Access.”
SGT Deployment Scenarios in this CVD
Security Group Tags will be used as a means of policy enforcement in both the Limited and Enhanced
Access Use Case where a campus wireless user/device can either be terminated centrally at a Wireless
Controller in Local Mode or a Converged Access Catalyst 3850 switch and is granted either full or partial
access to the network. Different classes of servers will be defined to which those users may or may not
have access. The CVD also defines a class that has access to the Internet only through the use of an ACL
on the wireless controller to deny access to all internal addresses. The Converged Access products such
as the Catalyst 3850 and CT-5760 are addressed relative to SGT in this CVD as IOS-XE 3.3.0 introduced
support for Security Group Tags and Security Group ACL enforcement. More about SGT and the
Enhanced Use Case is discussed in the ensuing sections discussing the actual authorization policies.
Two deployment scenarios will be depicted within this CVD. The first will make use of Security Group
ACLs (SGACLs) to enforce policies at the Nexus 7000 Data Center switches as well as at a Catalyst 6500
VSS switch in the Services block, Catalyst 3850, and the CT-5760 wireless controller, whereas the
second scenario will enforce policies configured at a Cisco ASA configured as a Security Group Firewall
(SGFW). SGACLs are role-based policies enforced on Catalyst switching platforms and specifically
define whether traffic is permitted or denied based on source and destination SGT values. Again, these
deployment scenarios are not mutually exclusive and can be used together. This first scenario can be seen
in Figure 5-3 and the second scenario in Figure 5-4.
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Figure 5-3
Policy Enforcement Using SGACL
Aggregation/Access and
Campus Wireless
Data Center
Application
and File
Servers
SGT50
ISE
RSA
AD
CA
DC Agg
DC Agg
STOP
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
STOP
CAPWAP
ASA HA
Primary
ASA HA
Secondary
DC Core
Catalyst
3750X
SGT12
DNS
and
DHCP
DC Core
Catalyst
STOP 3850
Core
Services
STOP
SGT12
5760
5508
STOP
CAPWAP
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Figure 5-4
Policy Enforcement Using SG-FW
Aggregation/Access and
Campus Wireless
Data Center
SGT50
Application
and File
Servers
ISE
RSA
AD
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
CA
STOP
CAPWAP
STOP
ASA HA
Primary
SXP
Peering*
Catalyst
3750X
SGT12
DNS
and
DHCP
DC Agg
DC Agg
ASA HA
Secondary
DC Core
DC Core
Catalyst
3850
Core
Services
SGT12
5760
5508
SXP
SXP Connections*
(Only required to ASA HA Primary
294917
SGT12
CAPWAP
Campus Wired Design
Figure 5-5 shows the wired design for a campus which does not implement Converged Access Catalyst
3850 Series switches. In other words, this is the wired design for a campus which implements switches
such as the Catalyst 3750X and 4500 series at the access-layer of building distribution modules, along
with a centralized (Local Mode) wireless design.
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Figure 5-5
High-Level View of Non-Converged Access Wired Campus Design
Data Center
ISE
Prime
RSA
Infrastructure
CA
DNS,
DHCP,
NTP
Cloud-Based
MDM
Internet Edge
AD
Campus
Core
Building
Distribution
MDM
Internet
Employee
VLAN
Services
Downloadable
ACLs
On-Prem
MDM
Dynamic ACL (Downloadable ACL) applied at the access-layer
switch for differentiated access control for wired devices.
Wired
802.1X
294918
MDM
This design guide assumes Catalyst switches deployed as Layer 2 devices within the access-layer of the
campus building modules. Wired devices authenticate using 802.1X against the ISE server located
within the campus data center. For this design, wired devices are all statically assigned to a single
VLAN, the Employee VLAN. Differentiated access control for wired devices is provided by different
RADIUS downloadable ACLs applied to the access-layer switch, which override a pre-configured static
ACL on each Catalyst switch port.
Converged Access Campus Design
The Converged Access campus BYOD design highlights multiple Catalyst 3850 Series switches or
switch stacks deployed at the access layer of each building distribution module of a large sized campus.
Switch stacks form Switch Peer Groups (SPGs) in which all switches contain the Mobility Agent (MA)
function. Roaming within a SPG is handled through a full mesh of mobility tunnels between MAs within
the SPG. Multiple SPGs exist within the large sized campus.
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Campus Network Design
This design guide will assume Catalyst 3850 Series switches deployed as Layer 2 access switches within
the campus location. Layer 3 connectivity within each campus building distribution module is provided
by Catalyst 6500 distribution switches. In keeping with campus design best practices for minimizing
spanning-tree issues, VLANs are assumed not to span multiple Catalyst 3850 Series switch stacks
deployed in separate wiring closets. Future design guidance may address Catalyst 3850 Series switches
deployed as Layer 3 switches within the branch location.
Cisco CT5760 wireless controllers deployed within a centralized service module within the campus
contains the Mobility Controller (MC) function. Multiple SPGs connecting to a single MC form a
Mobility Sub-Domain. Multiple Mobility Sub-Domains exist within the large sized campus. Roaming
between SPGs within a Mobility Sub-Domain is done through the Cisco CT5760 wireless controller.
The CT5760 wireless controllers also manage Radio Resource Management (RRM), WIPs, etc.
Multiple Cisco CT5760 wireless controllers form a Mobility Group. Hence a Mobility Group also
consists of multiple Mobility Sub-Domains. Roaming between Mobility Sub-domains is done through
the Cisco CT5760 wireless controllers within the Mobility Group. The design within this design guide
assumes a single Mobility Group and hence a single Mobility Domain extends across and is entirely
contained within the large campus.
Note
Cisco CT5508 wireless controllers can also implement the Mobility Controller (MC) function within the
Converged Access campus design. However the CT5508, being an older platform has less overall
throughput than the newer CT5760 platform. This version of the design guide only discusses the CT5760
wireless controller functioning as the Mobility Controller within a Converged Access campus
deployment. Future versions of this design guide may include the CT5508 wireless controller deployed
in this manner.
Access points within the campus building distribution modules are configured and controlled via the
wireless controller Mobility Agent (MA) functionality integrated within the Catalyst 3850 Series switch.
Guest wireless traffic is still backhauled to a dedicated CT5508 guest anchor controller located on a
DMZ segment within the campus. Provisioning traffic (i.e., traffic from devices attempting to on-board
with ISE) is terminated locally on the Catalyst 3850 Series switch with the Converged Access campus
design. When implementing a dual-SSID design, provisioning traffic is terminated on a separate VLAN.
All on-boarded devices terminate on a single VLAN with this design.
Note
This design guide only discusses wireless guest access. Wired guest access may be discussed within
future revisions of this design guide.
The potential advantages of this design are as follows:
•
Increased scalability of the wireless deployment, since wireless traffic is terminated on every
access-layer Catalyst 3850 Series switch within the campus, instead of being backhauled to one or
more centralized wireless controllers.
•
Increased visibility of the wireless traffic, since wireless traffic is terminated on every access-layer
Catalyst 3850 Series switch within the campus.
The potential disadvantages of this design are as follows:
•
Less centralized access control of wireless traffic from a single point within the campus network.
Access control is spread out to each Catalyst 3850 Series access switch. Note however, that with
Converged Access designs, traffic from a particular WLAN can still be backhauled to a centralized
CT5760 wireless controller and switched centrally. This is touched upon in Campus Migration Path.
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•
Increased potential for more complexity for wireless roaming, since each Catalyst 3850 Series
switch implements the Mobility Agent (MA) functionality, effectively functioning as a wireless
controller.
In order to implement the BYOD use cases, the method adopted in this design guide for a campus
utilizing a Converged Access design is to apply the appropriate named ACL after the device is
authenticated and authorized. This applies to both wired and wireless devices. These named ACLs,
which must be configured on each Catalyst 3850 Series switch, provide differentiated access control.
For example, a personal device which is granted full access to the network is statically assigned to the
same VLAN as a personal device which is granted partial access. However different named ACLs are
applied to each device, granting different access to the network.
Figure 5-6 shows at a high level a simplified Converged Access BYOD design with a single Catalyst
3850 Series switch functioning as a Mobility Agent (MA) and a single CT5760 wireless controller
functioning as a Mobility Controller (MC) in the campus.
Figure 5-6
High-Level View of the Converged Access Campus BYOD Design
Data Center
ISE
MSE
Building
Distribution
Prime
RSA
Infrastructure
CA
DNS,
DHCP,
NTP
CAPWAP Tunnel:
Control and Traffic
Applications
and File Servers
AD
Cloud-Based
MDM
Internet Edge
Campus
Core
Mobility Tunnel:
Guest Traffic
MDM
Internet
Services
CAPWAP
IT Devices
(MAB) SSID
Guest
VLAN
CT5508 Guest
Anchor WLCs
CT5508
WLCs
Employee
VLAN
Provisioning
VLAN
(optional)
Dynamic ACL (Named ACL) assignment applied at the wireless
controller for differentiated access control for wireless devices.
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SSID
Employee
SSID
Provisioning
SSID
(optional)
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MDM
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Note
The Converged Access campus BYOD design may also be referred to as the External Controller Large
Campus BYOD design within this document. Future versions of this design guide may address small
campus and/or large branch Converged Access designs, in which multiple Catalyst 3850 switch stacks
implement both the Mobility Controller (MC) and Mobility Agent (MA) functionality. In such a design,
referred to as the Integrated Controller Small Campus / Large Branch design, no external CT5760
wireless controllers are needed.
Note that in the case of this design guide, on-boarded wired devices are also statically assigned to the
same VLAN as wireless devices. Hence on-boarded wired and wireless devices will share the same
VLAN, and hence the same IP subnet addressing space. It is recognized that customers may implement
separate subnets for wired and wireless devices due to issues such as additional security compliance
requirements for wireless devices. This is not addressed within this version of the design guidance.
Dynamically assigned named ACLs provide differentiated network access for wired devices.
Assuming all campus switches implement the same set of ACLs for access control, RADIUS
downloadable ACLs may alternatively be deployed within the campus. The benefit of implementing a
downloadable ACL within the campus is that changes to the access control entries only have to be
configured once within the Cisco ISE server versus having to touch all campus Catalyst 3850 Series
switches. However this option also requires separate ISE policy rules for campus and branch Converged
Access deployments, assuming named ACLs are still deployed within branch locations.
Implementing downloadable ACLs within branch locations presents scaling issues if access to local
branch servers is required within the ACL. In such scenarios, each branch would require a separate
downloadable ACL and, therefore, a separate Cisco ISE policy rule to identify that ACL for that branch.
This becomes administratively un-scalable as the number of deployed branches increases.
Hence this design guide only discusses the use of named ACLs for access control of on-boarded devices
both within the Converged Access branch and campus designs. Because named ACLs are used for both
designs, the same Cisco ISE policies rules can be used for both Converged Access campus and branch
deployments. Hence one set of policy rules can be used for Converged Access designs regardless of
where the device is located. This reduces the administrative complexity of the Cisco ISE policy; albeit
it at the expense of increased complexity of having to configure and maintain ACLs at each campus
Catalyst 3850 Series switch.
Note
Management applications such as Cisco Prime Infrastructure may ease the burden of ACL administration
by providing a point of central configuration and deployment of named ACLs for the Converged Access
BYOD branch and campus designs.
Campus Migration Path
For large campus designs, a migration path from a traditional CUWN centralized (Local Mode) wireless
overlay network design to a Converged Access design is necessary. It is considered unfeasible for a
customer to simply “flash cut” a large campus over to a Converged Access design. There are many
potential migration paths from a traditional CUWN centralized design to a Converged Access design.
This section discusses one possible migration path. The steps of the migration path from the initial
overlay model are as follows:
1.
Local/Centralized Mode Only
2.
Hybrid Converged Access and Centralized
3.
Full Converged Access
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Each is discussed in the following sections.
Initial Overlay Model
Figure 5-7 shows the logical components for the initial state in the migration path - the Initial Overlay
Model.
Figure 5-7
Initial State in the Migration Path—Initial Overlay Model
Data Center
Prime
Infrastructure
MSE
Internet Edge
Cisco ISE
Guest
Wireless
Controller
DNS and
DHCP
Services
CA
AD
Internet
Core
ASA
Firewall
CT5508
Campus
Building
CAPWAP Tunnels
Mobility Tunnels
(Old Mobility Architecture)
294920
Catalyst
3750
The initial overlay model consists of access points, operating in Local Mode, connected to Catalyst
3750-X series switches at the access-layer of individual building modules within the campus. The access
points are controlled by a CT5508 wireless controller located within a services module within the
campus. CAPWAP tunnels extend from individual access points to the CT5508 wireless controller. A
second CT5508 wireless controller on a DMZ segment within the Internet edge module functions as a
dedicated wireless guest anchor controller. A mobility tunnel extends from the campus (foreign) CT5508
wireless controller to the guest (anchor) CT5508 wireless controller.
This is the campus BYOD design which is discussed in Centralized (Local Mode) Wireless Design.
Centralized/Local Mode Only
Figure 5-8 shows the logical components for the first step in the migration path—Centralized/Local
Mode Only.
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Figure 5-8
First Step in Migration Path—Centralized/Local Mode Only
Data Center
Prime
Infrastructure
MSE
Internet Edge
Guest
Wireless
Controller
Cisco ISE
DNS and
DHCP
CA
AD
Internet
Services
Core
ASA
Firewall
CT5508
Mobility
Group
CAPWAP Tunnels
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
CT5760
Campus
Building
Catalyst
3750
Catalyst
3750
294921
Campus
Building
Note
Note that the term “Local Mode” is used with CUWN controllers, while the term “Centralized Mode” is
used with Converged Access controllers within Cisco documentation. Both refer to the same model with
a centralized data and control plane for wireless traffic. In other words, all traffic is backhauled to the
wireless controller before being placed on the Ethernet network.
In this step of the migration path, the customer simply adds more wireless controller capacity. Since the
CT5760 is a newer platform and offers higher aggregate throughput, the customer may decide to begin
transitioning to this platform by adding them to the existing campus wireless overlay design. The
CT5760 supports up to 1,000 access points and up to 12,000 clients with up to 60 Gbps throughput per
wireless controller.
Note
The wireless capabilities of the CT5760 are not identical to Cisco Unified Wireless Network controllers
running software version 7.6. The network administrator must ensure that all the necessary features exist
in the CT5670 before migrating access points from existing CT5508 wireless controllers to CT5760
wireless controllers. For a list of supported features, refer to the CT5760 Controller Deployment Guide
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at:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/technology/5760_deploy/CT5760_Controller_Deployment
_Guide.html.
At this point, it is assumed that the access-layer switches within the building module wiring closets have
not reached their replacement cycle. Hence the access points, operating in local mode, are still connected
to Catalyst 3750-X series switches at the access-layer of individual building modules within the campus.
The access points are controlled by either the CT5508 or the CT5760 wireless controller located within
a services module within the campus. Both are members of the same Mobility Group. CAPWAP tunnels
extend from individual access points to either the CT5508 or CT5760 wireless controller. A mobility
tunnel extends between the CT5508 and CT5760.
A logical choice for migration to the CT5760 wireless controller would initially be at the building level.
In other words, one building of a campus could be migrated—potentially floor by floor—from an
existing CT5508 to a CT5760 wireless controller.
In order to maintain mobility across the campus, the existing CT5508 wireless controllers need to be
upgraded to CUWN software version 7.5 or higher. CUWN software versions 7.5 and higher support the
new mobility tunneling method, which uses CAPWAP within UDP ports 16666 and 16667, instead of
Ethernet-over-IP. This is compatible with IOS XE 3.2.0 and higher software running on CT5760 wireless
controllers. Note that this includes upgrading the CT5508 wireless controller dedicated for wireless
guest access. Mobility tunnels extend from the foreign CT5508 and CT5760 wireless controllers to the
anchor CT5508 wireless controller.
Note
Centralized management of CT5760 wireless LAN controllers and Catalyst 3850 Series switches
running IOS XE software 3.3.0SE and higher currently requires Cisco Prime Infrastructure 2.0.1.
Centralized management of CUWN wireless LAN controllers running software version 7.6 currently
requires Cisco Prime Infrastructure 1.4.1. In other words, two instances of Cisco Prime Infrastructure
may be required currently if the customer wishes to support a model in which both CUWN and
Converged Access infrastructure is deployed within the network and centralized management via Cisco
Prime Infrastructure is a requirement.
Hybrid Converged Access and Local Mode
Figure 5-9 shows the logical components for the second step in the migration path—a Hybrid Converged
Access and Local Mode model.
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Figure 5-9
Second Step in Migration Path—Hybrid Converged Access and Local Mode
CAPWAP Tunnels
Data Center
Prime
Infrastructure
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
MSE
Internet Edge
Guest
Wireless
Controller
Cisco ISE
DNS and
DHCP
CA
AD
Internet
Services
Core
ASA
Firewall
CT5508
Mobility
Group
MC MA
CT5760
Campus
Building
Campus
Building
Campus
Building
Catalyst
3750
Catalyst
3750
Switch Peer
Group
MA
MA
Catalyst
3850
294922
Catalyst
3850
At this point in the migration path, it is assumed that the access-layer switches within the building
module wiring closets have begun to reach their replacement cycle. In this scenario, the customer has
chosen to deploy Catalyst 3850 Series switches at the access-layer of their building modules and begin
migrating to a converged access model. Again, a logical choice for migration would be at the building
level. In other words, one building of a campus would be migrated—potentially floor by floor—from
access points operating in centralized mode connected to a Catalyst 3750-X Series switch and controlled
by the CT5760, to access points operating in converged mode connected to and controlled by a Catalyst
3850 Series switch.
With this design, the Catalyst 3850 Series switches function as the Mobility Agent (MA), while the
CT5760 wireless controller functions as the Mobility Controller (MC) and possibly the Mobility Oracle
(MO). However during the migration of floors, the CT5760 wireless controller will still have to function
in centralized mode as well for access points still connected to Catalyst 3750-X series switches. Hence
the design is a “hybrid” of centralized and converged access designs.
CAPWAP tunnels extend from individual access points which are connected to Catalyst 3750-X Series
switches to either the CT5508 or CT5760 wireless controller. CAPWAP tunnels also extend from
individual access points which are connected to Catalyst 3850 Series switches to the Catalyst 3850
Series switches. Mobility tunnels extend from the MA within the Catalyst 3850 Series switches to the
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MC within the CT5760 wireless controller. Finally, mobility tunnels extend between MAs within the
Catalyst 3850 Switches which are part of a Switch Peer Group (SPG). SPGs offload mobility traffic for
groups of switches in which a large amount of mobility is expected. When roaming between access
points connected to Catalyst 3850 Series switches which are part of the same SPG, the MC located
within the CT5760 is not involved in the roam. A SPG may extend across part of a floor within a
building, the entire floor, or in some cases multiple floors. A mobility tunnel (using the new mobility
architecture) also extends between the CT5508 and CT5760. Finally, mobility tunnels (using the new
mobility architecture) extend from the foreign CT5508 and CT5760 back to the anchor CT5508 for
wireless guest access.
Full Converged Access
Figure 5-10 shows the logical components for the third step in the migration path—the Full Converged
Access model.
Figure 5-10
Third Step in Migration Path—Full Converge Access
CAPWAP Tunnels
Data Center
Prime
Infrastructure
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
MSE
Internet Edge
Guest
Wireless
Controller
Cisco ISE
DNS and
DHCP
CA
AD
Internet
Services
Mobility
Group
Core
ASA
Firewall
CT5760
MC MA
MC MA
CT5760
Campus
Building
Campus
Building
Switch Peer
Group
MA
MA
Catalyst
3850
MA
Catalyst
3850
MA
Catalyst
3850
294923
Catalyst
3850
SPG
SPG
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This design assumes the customer has retired existing CT5508 wireless controllers operating in Local
Mode and moved to a converged access design with CT5670 wireless controllers. At this point in the
migration path, it is assumed that the access-layer switches within the building module wiring closets
have completed their replacement cycle. In this scenario, the customer has chosen to deploy only
Catalyst 3850 Series switches at the access-layer of their building modules and completely migrate to a
converged access model.
Note
We realize that some customers may never fully migrate to a full Converged Access model, while others
may take years to reach a full Converged Access deployment.
With this design, the Catalyst 3850 Series switches function as the Mobility Agent (MA), while the
CT5760 wireless controller functions as the Mobility Controller (MC) and possibly the Mobility Oracle
(MO).
CAPWAP tunnels extend from individual access points which are connected to Catalyst 3850 Series
switches to the Catalyst 3850 Series switches. Mobility tunnels extend from the MA within the Catalyst
3850 Series switches to the MC within the CT5760 wireless controller. Mobility tunnels extend between
MAs within the Catalyst 3850 Switches which are part of a Switch Peer Group (SPG). A mobility tunnel
also extends between the two CT5760 wireless controllers. Finally, mobility tunnels (using the new
mobility architecture) extend from the foreign CT5760 wireless controllers back to the anchor CT5508
for wireless guest access.
Note
Roaming between sub-domains (i.e., roaming between two CT5760 wireless controllers functioning as
MCs) has not been validated with this version of the design guide.
Link Aggregation (LAG) with the CT5508 WLC
Cisco CT5508 wireless controllers have eight Gigabit Ethernet distribution system ports, for a maximum
platform throughput of approximately 8 Gbps. Typically one or more WLANs—which correspond to
SSIDs—are mapped to a dynamic interface, which is then mapped to a physical distribution system port.
In a campus centralized (local mode) deployment, wireless traffic is backhauled across the campus
network infrastructure and terminated on the Gigabit Ethernet distribution ports of the CT5508 WLC.
With the use of a single physical distribution system port per WLAN, the throughput of each WLAN is
limited to the throughput of the 1 Gbps physical distribution system port. Hence an alternative is to
deploy link aggregation (LAG) across the distribution system ports, bundling them into a single high
speed interface, as shown in Figure 5-11.
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Figure 5-11
Link Aggregation (LAG) Between the CT5508 WLC and Attached Catalyst 6500 VSS
Pair
Cisco 5508 WLC
Catalyst 6500 VSS Pair
294924
Single LAG Group:
Distribution Ports 1-8
• Management Interface
• Dynamic Interfaces
Cisco 5508 wireless controllers support the ability to configure all eight Gigabit Ethernet distribution
system ports into a single LAG group. This is the load-balancing mechanism validated for CT5508
WLCs within the campus deployed as centralized (local mode) controllers within the design guide.
Note
This discussion of LAG does not include CT5508 wireless LAN controllers deployed in a 1:1
active/standby redundancy pair at this time.
An example of the configuration of LAG on a CT5508 wireless controller is shown in Figure 5-12.
Figure 5-12
Configuration of Link Aggregation (LAG) on a CT5508 Wireless LAN Controller
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When using LAG, the switch or switches (in the case of a VSS group) to which the CT5508 wireless
controller is attached must be configured for EtherChannel support. The following shows an example
configuration on a Catalyst 6500 Series VSS pair in which the eight GigabitEthernet interfaces are split
across both switches within the VSS pair.
!
vlan 2
name BYOD-Employee
!
vlan 3
name BYOD-Provisioning
!
vlan 45
name ua28-wlc5508-3-mgmt
!
vlan 450
name ua28-5508-3-users
!
interface Port-channel45
description LAG to ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/2/45
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/2/46
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/2/47
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/2/48
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/2/45
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
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channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/2/46
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/2/47
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/2/48
description ua28-wlc5508-3
switchport
switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3,45,450
switchport mode trunk
load-interval 30
channel-group 45 mode on
!
interface Vlan2
description BYOD-Employee VLAN for Functional Testing
ip address 1.231.2.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 1.230.1.61
ip helper-address 1.225.42.15
ip helper-address 1.225.49.15
!
interface Vlan3
description BYOD-Provisioning VLAN for Functional Testing
ip address 1.231.3.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 1.230.1.61
ip helper-address 1.225.42.15
!
interface Vlan45
description AP-Manager IP for ua28-wlc5508-3
ip address 1.225.45.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Vlan450
ip address 1.228.128.1 255.255.192.0
ip helper-address 1.230.1.61
!
Wireless LAN Controller High Availability
High availability of the wireless infrastructure is becoming increasingly important as more devices with
critical functions move to the wireless medium. Real-time audio, video, and text communication relies
on the corporate wireless network and the expectation of zero downtime is becoming the norm. The
negative impacts of wireless network outages are just as impactful as outages of the wired network.
Implementing high availability within the wireless infrastructure involves multiple components and
functionality deployed throughout the overall network infrastructure, which itself must be designed for
high availability. This section discusses wireless LAN controller platform level high availability specific
to the implementation of wireless controller platforms within the Cisco BYOD design. Platform-level
(box-to-box) redundancy refers to the ability to maintain wireless service when connectivity to one or
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more physical wireless LAN controller platforms within a site is lost. Figure 5-13 shows the WLC
platforms within the Cisco BYOD design.
Figure 5-13
Wireless LAN Controller Platform High-Availability
CUWN Centralized Campus Building Design
Data Center
Services
Prime
Infrastructure
1
CAPWAP
Catalyst 3750X
Switch Stack
CUWN Converged Access Campus
Building Design
4
CAPWAP
MSE
CT5508 WLCs
2
RSA
Flex 7510 WLCs
ISE
CA
3
AD
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
CUWN FlexConnect Design
CT5760 WLCs
DNS,
DHCP, NTP
Applications and
File Servers
WAN Edge
Internet Edge
CAPWAP
1
CT5508
WLCs
Core
Catalyst 3750X
Switch Stack
ASA
WAN
4
CAPWAP
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
MPLS
WAN
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
DMVPN
Internet
Cloud-Based MDM
MDM
294926
Branch Converged Access Design
The platforms highlighted in Figure 5-13 are as follows:
•
Cisco CT5508 wireless LAN controllers (Circle 1) servicing campus APs operating in centralized
(local) mode and/or functioning as dedicated guest controllers.
•
Cisco Flex 7510 wireless LAN controllers (Circle 2) servicing branch APs operating in FlexConnect
mode.
•
Cisco CT5760 wireless LAN controllers (Circle 3) servicing campus APs operating in centralized
mode and/or functioning as Mobility Controllers (MCs) in a campus Converged Access design.
•
Catalyst 3850 Series switches (Circle 4) functioning as Mobility Agents (MAs) servicing APs in a
campus converged access design and/or functioning as Mobility Agents (MAs) and Mobility
Controllers (MCs) in a branch Converged Access design.
Table 5-1 shows the methods of providing platform level redundancy of Cisco WLC platforms discussed
within this design guide.
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Table 5-1
Wireless Controller Platform Redundancy
Platform
Platform (Box-to-Box) Redundancy
Cisco CT5508 Wireless LAN Controller 1:1 Active/Standby Redundancy
with AP & Client SSO
Cisco Flex 7510 Wireless LAN
Controller
1:1 Active/Standby Redundancy
with AP & Client SSO
Cisco CT5760 Wireless LAN Controller 1:1 Stack Resiliency—Cisco IOS
Software SSO
Cisco 3850 Series Switch Stack
Stack Resiliency—Cisco IOS
Software SSO
The following sections discuss the deployment of platform-level high availability on specific Cisco
wireless LAN controllers as they are deployed within the Cisco BYOD design.
Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) Controllers
This section discusses platform high availability mechanisms for the following CUWN wireless LAN
controller platforms:
•
Cisco CT5508 WLC platforms deployed within the campus of the Cisco BYOD design servicing
campus APs operating in centralized (local) mode.
•
Cisco Flex 7510 WLC platforms deployed within the campus of the Cisco BYOD design servicing
remote branch APs operating in FlexConnect mode.
CUWN platforms support two forms of platform redundancy:
•
1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP and client SSO
•
The older form of high availability known as N+1 redundancy
This design guide has not validated N+1 redundancy as a means of achieving platform high availability.
Instead, it utilizes 1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP and client SSO. The N+1 High Availability
Deployment Guide provides guidance around N+1 redundancy:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/technology/hi_avail/N1_High_Availability_Deployment_G
uide.pdf
1:1 Active/Standby Redundancy with AP and Client SSO
In CUWN software release 7.3, the ability to have a 1:1 active/standby pair of wireless LAN controllers
with AP stateful switch over (SSO) was introduced. This capability allows access points to perform a
rapid stateful switch over to a hot-standby wireless LAN controller—with an identical configuration to
the primary WLC—in the event of a failure of the active WLC. All unique configuration parameters and
groupings specific to individual APs and AP groups are retained. An example of retained configuration
is FlexConnect grouping, which applies different restrictions and settings to sub-sets of APs based on
branch location.
An example of 1:1 active/standby redundancy (using a single physical distribution system port) with AP
SSO is shown in Figure 5-14.
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Figure 5-14
Example of 1:1 Active/Standby Redundancy with AP SSO
Local HA Pair
Redundant Port
Ethernet Cable
RP: 169.254.147.103
RP: 169.254.147.104
Active
CWN
WLC
Standby
CUWN
WLC
Distribution System Port
Mgmt. Interface: 10.225.147.4
RMI 10.225.147.104
Dynamic Interfaces
Distribution System Port
Mgmt. Interface: 10.225.147.3
RMI 10.225.147.103
Dynamic Interfaces
Management Interface and
Redundancy Management Interface
(RMI) must be on the same IP subnet
(Layer 2 VLAN connectivity). Last two
octets of the RMI address is used in
the RP address.
Network
Infrastructure
CAPWAP
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In CUWN software release 7.5, the ability to have a 1:1 active/standby pair of wireless controllers was
extended to allow both APs and wireless clients to perform a rapid stateful switch over. As with the
previous version of SSO, unique configuration parameters and groupings specific to individual APs and
AP groups are retained. With CUWN software releases 7.5 and higher, wireless clients in the RUN state
also remain associated when a failover occurs.
An example 1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP and client SSO (using a single physical distribution
system port) is shown in Figure 5-15.
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Figure 5-15
Example of 1:1 Active/Standby Redundancy with AP and Client SSO
Local or Remote HA Pair
Redundant Port
Ethernet Cable or Switch Connection
Active
CUWN WLC
Standby
CUWN WLC
RP: 169.254.147.103
Management Interface and
Redundancy Management Interface
(RMI) must be on the same IP subnet
(Layer 2 VLAN connectivity). Last two
octets of the RMI address is used in
the RP address.
Note
Distribution System Port
Mgmt. Interface: 10.225.147.4
RMI 10.225.147.104
Dynamic Interfaces
Network
Infrastructure
CAPWAP
294928
Distribution System Port
Mgmt. Interface: 10.225.147.3
RMI 10.225.147.103
Dynamic Interfaces
In Figure 5-15, the redundant ports are connected to the same switch as the distribution system ports.
However the redundant ports can be connected via a completely different switch (or switches) depending
on the deployment.
1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP and Client SSO is supported on the following CUWN WLC
platforms:
Note
•
Cisco 5500 Series
•
Cisco Flex 7500 Series
•
Cisco 8500 Series
•
Cisco WiSM2
1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP SSO is not supported on the virtual wireless LAN controller
(vWLC) platform or the Cisco 2500 Series wireless LAN controller platform. 1:1 active/standby
redundancy with AP and client SSO is also currently not supported by the new (hierarchical) mobility
architecture. Hence 1:1 active/standby with AP and client SSO cannot be supported in the hybrid design
discussed in Hybrid Converged Access and Local Mode.
With 1:1 active/standby redundancy, the active and standby WLCs use a dedicated redundant port (RP).
In CUWN software releases 7.3 and 7.4, it is highly recommended that the redundant ports (RP) of both
WLCs be directly connected by an Ethernet cable. With CUWN software releases 7.5 and higher, the
requirement that the wireless controllers be connected via a dedicated cable between the redundant ports
(RPs) has been removed. The redundant ports (RPs) can now be connected via one or more Layer 2
switches. The following are the requirements for connectivity between WLC when in a 1:1 HA remote
configuration:
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Note
•
Redundant Port (RP) round trip time (RTT) must be less than 80 milliseconds if the keepalive timer
is left to its default of 100 milliseconds OR 80% of the keepalive timer if the keepalive timer is
configured within the range of 100-400 milliseconds.
•
Failure detection time is 3 * 100 = 300 + 60 = 360 + jitter (12 milliseconds) = ~400 milliseconds
•
Bandwidth between redundant ports (RPs) must be 60 Mbps or higher
•
MTU: 1500 bytes or larger
Because the direct connectivity requirement has been removed, 1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP
and client SSO could be used for platform (box-to-box) redundancy and/or for site-to-site redundancy,
since both the active and standby controllers no longer need to be in physical proximity to each other.
Site-to-site redundancy, in which the 1:1 active/standby CUWN wireless controllers are located in
separate data centers, has not been validated as part of the Cisco BYOD design guide.
UDP keepalive messages are sent every 100 milliseconds by default from the standby WLC to the active
WLC via the redundant port (RP). Configuration, operational data synchronization, and role negotiation
information are also synchronized between the active and standby WLCs via the redundant port (RP).
The IP address of the RP is not user-configurable. The first two octets are always “169.254”. The last
two octets are the same as the redundancy management interface (RMI).
The RMI is an additional interface which must be configured to be on the same IP subnet as the
management interface. The active WLC checks to see if the gateway is available by sending an ICMP
ping on the management interface every second. Likewise, the standby WLC checks to see if the gateway
is available by sending an ICMP ping on the RMI every second. The standby WLC will also check the
health of the active WLC via the RMI if the active WLC stops responding to keepalive messages sent
via the redundant port (RP).
Failovers are triggered by loss of keepalive messages as well as network faults. Hence the rate at which
UDP keepalive messages are sent has a direct influence on how fast failover occurs. The loss of three
UDP keepalive messages (along with three ICMP packets which are immediately sent across the RMI
when packet loss is detected across the RP) causes the standby controller to assume the active role. The
UDP keepalive messages can be sent between every 100 milliseconds to 400 milliseconds, in 50
millisecond increments.
CUWN WLCs implement a 1:1 active/standby model for both the control plane and the data plane. Only
the active WLC is up from a control and data plane perspective until a failure occurs. APs do not go into
the DISCOVERY state and therefore do not need to establish a new CAPWAP connection or download
new configuration before accepting wireless client associations. When the previous active WLC
recovers, it will negotiate with the current active WLC to become the standby WLC. In other words,
there is no preempt functionality.
Within the BYOD campus local mode design, all wireless clients connected to APs managed by a local
Cisco 5508 WLC were de-authenticated and dis-associated upon failover to the standby WLC with
CUWN software releases 7.3 and 7.4. Wireless clients had to re-associate and re-authenticate since client
state information was not maintained. Thus the overall recovery time was dependent upon the number
of wireless clients and the authentication mechanism. With CUWN software releases 7.5 and higher,
existing wireless clients in the RUN state remain authenticated and associated since client state
information is maintained between the active and standby WLCs. Therefore the overall recovery time
can be much faster.
Within the BYOD branch FlexConnect design, APs operating in FlexConnect mode managed by a
remote Flex 7510 wireless controller went into standalone mode when the connection to the wireless
controller was lost with CUWN software releases 7.3 and 7.4. Existing wireless clients were not
de-authenticated and dis-associated, as is the case with wireless clients connected to APs operating in
centralized (local mode) managed by a Cisco 5508 wireless controller. However new wireless clients
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cannot associate and authenticate to the branch wireless network when centralized authentication is
configured for the WLAN and the access point is in standalone mode. Hence 1:1 active/standby
redundancy with AP and client SSO may also provide benefits to a branch FlexConnect wireless
deployment. However unless the 1:1 active/standby pair of Flex 7510 wireless controllers are deployed
in separate sites with a Layer 2 connection between them, site-to-site redundancy will not be
accomplished. In this case, N+1 redundancy may provide an alternative form of high availability (both
platform and site-to-site) for branch FlexConnect designs.
Configuring 1:1 Active/Standby Redundancy with AP and Client SSO
The steps for configuring 1:1 active/standby redundancy with AP and client SSO are the same as for
configuring 1:1 active/standby redundancy with only AP SSO. There is only a single configuration
option which enables both AP and client SSO. There is no option for enabling one without the other.
Before enabling SSO, the management interfaces of the primary (active) and secondary (hot standby)
wireless LAN controllers must be configured to be on the same subnet. Figure 5-16 shows an example
of the configuration of the IP address of the management interface of a CUWN wireless controller.
The IP address for the management interface in the example in Figure 5-16 is configured to be
10.225.147.3/24. Assuming this is to be the primary (active) wireless controller of the HA pair, the IP
address of the management interface of the secondary (standby) wireless controller would need to be
configured to also be on the 10.225.147.0 subnet. For example the management interface of the
secondary (standby) wireless controller could be configured to be 10.224.147.4/24.
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Figure 5-16
Configuring the IP Address of the Management Interface
Next, the IP address of the Redundancy Management Interface (RMI) of each wireless LAN controller
(the primary and the secondary) in the HA pair must be configured to be in the same IP subnet as the
Management Interface. This is done through the Redundancy-->Global Configuration screen.
Figure 5-17 shows an example of the configuration of the IP address of the RMI and the IP address of
the peer RMI on the primary CUWN wireless controller.
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Figure 5-17
Configuring the IP Addresses of the Redundancy Management Interface (RMI) and the
Peer RMI
The IP address for the RMI in the example in Figure 5-17 is configured to be 10.225.147.103. Assuming
this is to be the primary (active) wireless controller of the HA pair (as selected in the figure), the IP
address of the RMI of the peer (standby) wireless controller would need to be configured to also be on
the 10.225.147.0 subnet. For example the RMI of the peer (standby) wireless controller is shown to be
10.224.147.104.
Note that the configuration of the peer RMI shown above simply informs the wireless controller of the
IP address of the RMI of the peer wireless controller. It does not configure the IP address of the RMI of
the peer. The same configuration step needs to be done on the secondary (standby) wireless controller.
However, on the secondary (standby) wireless controller, its RMI would be configured with an IP address
of 10.224.147.104 given the example above. Likewise, the secondary (standby) wireless controller peer
RMI would be configured with an IP address of 10.224.147.103.
After configuring the IP addresses of the RMI and the peer RMI on both wireless controllers and
selecting one unit as the primary (active) wireless controller and the other unit as the secondary (standby)
wireless controller, the network administrator must click the Apply button before enabling SSO.
Note
As of CUWN software release 7.3 and above, a factory ordered HA SKU is orderable. If a factory
ordered HA SKU is part of the HA pair, it will automatically default to the role of the standby wireless
controller when paired with an active wireless controller with a valid AP count license.
After clicking the Apply button the network administrator can then enable SSO by selecting Enabled
from the drop down menu next to the SSO field, as shown in Figure 5-18.
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Figure 5-18
Enabling AP and Client SSO on CUWN Wireless Controllers
The wireless controllers will reboot upon clicking the Apply button and negotiate their respective HA
roles based upon their configuration. Once the wireless controllers have rebooted, the secondary
(standby) WLC will proceed to download its configuration from the primary (active) WLC. Upon
downloading its configuration, the secondary (standby) WLC will reboot again. Once the secondary
(standby) WLC has rebooted for the second time, it will verify its configuration is synchronized with the
primary (active) WLC, and assume the role of the standby wireless controller. Note that default
information such as the IP address of the Redundancy Port (RP) and the IP address of the peer RP will
be automatically populated once SSO has been enabled.
Finally, Figure 5-19 shows how the keepalive timer can be modified in order to influence the failover
time.
Figure 5-19
Configuring the Keepalive Timer to Influence Failover Time
As mentioned previously, UDP keepalive messages can be sent between every 100 milliseconds to every
400 milliseconds, in 50 millisecond increments.
For more information regarding active/standby redundancy with AP SSO, refer to the High Availability
(AP SSO) Deployment Guide:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/products_tech_note09186a0080bd3504.shtml
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Wireless LAN Controller High Availability
Converged Access Controllers
This section discusses platform high availability mechanisms for the following Converged Access (IOS
XE based) WLC platforms:
•
Catalyst 3850 switches functioning as Mobility Agents (MAs) and Mobility Controllers (MCs)
deployed within a branch Converged Access design.
•
Catalyst 3850 switches functioning as MAs along with Cisco 5760 WLCs functioning as MCs
deployed within a campus Converged Access design.
•
Cisco 5760 wireless controllers servicing APs operating in local mode within a campus centralized
(non-Converged Access) design.
Catalyst Switch Stack Resiliency
Catalyst 3850 Series switches support StackWise technology along with Cisco IOS software SSO for
providing resiliency within the switch stack. Catalyst switch stack resiliency is the method of providing
high availability for Catalyst 3850 Series switches deployed in a Converged Access branch design. This
is shown in Figure 5-20.
Figure 5-20
Catalyst 3850 Switch Stack Resiliency
Active and Standby
Cisco ISR G2 Routers
Redundant Connections
Across the Switch Stack
Stack Cables
Standby
Stack Master
MA
CAPWAP
Up to nine Catalyst 3850 switches per
stack with IOS XE 3.3.0SE and higher
294933
CAPWAP
MC
Active
Stack Master
In the Converged Access campus design, Catalyst switch stack resiliency also provides high availability
for the Catalyst 3850 Series switches functioning as MAs. Cisco CT5760 wireless controller 1:1 stack
resiliency provides high availability for the MC function. This is discussed in the next section.
Catalyst switch stack resiliency has been supported for Catalyst 3850 Series switches since IOS XE
software release 3.2.0SE. Catalyst 3850 Series switches support Cisco StackWise-480 stacking ports
along with copper-based Cisco StackWise cabling for a stack bandwidth of approximately 480 Gbps.
Note
N+1 platform redundancy is not supported for access points connected to Catalyst 3850 switches
operating in a converged access deployment.
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Wireless LAN Controller High Availability
With IOS XE software release 3.3.0SE and higher, the number of Catalyst 3850 Series switches which
can be supported in a single switch stack has been increased from four to nine switches. The stack
behaves as a single switching unit that is managed by an “active” switch elected by the member switches.
The active switch automatically elects a standby switch within the stack. The active switch creates and
updates all the switching/routing/wireless information and constantly synchronizes that information
with the standby switch. If the active switch fails, the standby switch assumes the role of the active
switch and continues to the keep the stack operational. Access points continue to remain connected
during an active-to-standby switchover. Wireless clients are dis-associated and need to re-associate and
re-authenticate. Hence the recovery time is dependent upon how many wireless clients need to be
re-associated and re-authenticated, as well as the method of authentication. No configuration commands
are required in order to enable switch stack resiliency on Catalyst 3850 and/or 3650 Series switches; it
is enabled by default when the switches are connected via stack cables.
Cisco CT 5670 Wireless Controller 1:1 Stack Resiliency
As of IOS XE software release 3.3.0SE and higher, Cisco CT5760 wireless controllers support 1:1 stack
resiliency, similar to that supported by Catalyst 3850 Series switches. However only two CT5760
wireless controllers can be connected in a high availability stack. An example of 1:1 stack resiliency on
the CT5760 is shown in Figure 5-21.
Figure 5-21
Cisco CT5760 WLC 1:1 Stack Resiliency
Centralized Campus Deployment
Converged Access Campus Deployment
Active WLC
Standby WLC
MC
CT 5760 HA Pair
Stack Cable
Stack Cable
Active WLC
CT 5760 HA Pair
Standby WLC
MC
Network Infrastructure
Stack Cable
CT 5760 HA Pair
Network Infrastructure
CAPWAP
MA
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
294934
CAPWAP
1:1 stack resiliency is the method of providing platform-level high availability for CT5760 wireless
controllers servicing APs operating in a centralized campus design within this design guide because it
can provide faster overall recovery for wireless clients. Prior to IOS XE software release 3.3.0SE, N+1
redundancy defined at the access point (which is still supported) was the only method of providing
platform-level redundancy when the CT5760 was operating as a centralized controller within a campus
design.
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Branch Wide Area Network Design
Note that high availability on the CT 5760 wireless controller is different than high availability on
CUWN wireless controllers. With CT 5760 1:1 stack resiliency, the data planes of both WLCs are active
although the maximum throughput of the stack is still approximately 80 Gbps. The control plane of one
of the CT 5760s is active, while the control plane of the other is in standby. The active WLC creates and
updates all the switching/routing/wireless information and constantly synchronizes that information
with the standby WLC. If the active CT 5760 fails, the standby CT 5760 assumes the role of the active
WLC and continues to the keep the stack operational. Access points continue to remain connected during
an active-to-standby switchover. Wireless clients are dis-associated and need to re-associate and
re-authenticate. Hence the recovery time is dependent upon how many wireless clients need to be
re-associated and re-authenticated, as well as the method of authentication.
1:1 stack resiliency is also the method of providing high availability of CT5760 wireless controllers
which function as Mobility Controllers (MCs) in the Converged Access campus design, as shown in
Figure 5-21. Prior to IOS XE software release 3.3.0SE, the only way of providing high availability of
the MC function in a Converged Access campus design was to manually re-configure each Catalyst 3850
Series switch stack (functioning as an MA) to point to a different CT 5760 wireless controller
(functioning as an MC) upon failure of the original CT5760. Hence IOS XE software release 3.3.0SE
and higher provides a significant step forward in providing high availability in a Converged Access
campus design.
No configuration commands are required in order to enable 1:1 stack resiliency on CT5760 wireless
controllers; it is enabled by default when two WLCs are connected via a stack cable.
Branch Wide Area Network Design
Many network administrators will re-examine the wide area network (WAN) prior to deploying a BYOD
solution at the branch. Guest networks in particular have the ability to increase loads to a rate that can
consume WAN bandwidth and compromise corporate traffic. While wired rates have increased from 10
Mbps to 1 Gbps and cellular networks have increase bandwidth from 30 Kbps for GPRS to around 20
Mbps for LTE, traditional branch WAN bandwidths have not experienced the same increase in
performance. Employees and guests expect bandwidth, delay, and jitter on the corporate network to be
at least as good as they experience at home or on the cellular network.
Furthermore, because WiFi access is typically free for corporate users and because most hand held
devices will prefer WiFi over cellular, corporate users will likely continue using the guest or corporate
SSID for Internet access, even when the LTE network offers faster speeds. This is forcing network
administrators to explore new WAN transport mechanisms such as Metro Ethernet and VPN-over-Cable
to meet user expectations. Another approach is to offload guest Internet traffic at the branch in an effort
to preserve WAN bandwidth for corporate traffic. Corporate Security Policy will need to be considered,
however, before providing direct Internet access from the branch. As a result, the WAN is experiencing
increased loads. While there are no new WAN requirements for branch BYOD services, some areas such
as transport technology, access speeds, and encryption should be reviewed.
Branch WAN Infrastructure
The branch WAN infrastructure within this design includes Cisco ASR 1006s as the head-end routers.
Two different WAN connections are terminated on these devices; the first router is configured as a
service provider MPLS circuit and the second router is configured with an Internet connection. These
head-end routers are both placed in a “WAN edge” block that exists off of the campus core. The ASR
that terminates the Internet connection also makes use of IOS Zone-Based Firewall (ZBFW) and only
tunneled traffic towards the branch is permitted.
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Branch Wide Area Network Design
Within the branch, two different designs have been validated. The first design consists of two Cisco 2921
ISR-G2 routers. One of the two routers terminates the SP MPLS circuit, while the second router
terminates the Internet connection which can be utilized as a branch backup exclusively or as an alternate
path for corporate traffic. The second design consists of a single Cisco 2921 ISR-G2 router that
terminates both circuits.
In both deployment modes, the Cisco IOS Zone-Based Firewall (ZBFW) has been implemented to
protect the branch's connection to the Internet. Although entirely feasible, local Internet access from the
branch is not permitted. For this purpose as well as for corporate data, DMVPN has been implemented
and only tunnel access granted for secure connectivity back to the campus head-end routers. This
provides for access to the data center. Internet access is available through the corporate firewall/gateway.
DMVPN is additionally used to secure traffic across the service provider's MPLS circuit.
It is beyond the scope of this document to provide configuration information and design guidance around
DMVPN, ZBFW configuration, QOS, and other aspects of the WAN infrastructure.
For detailed reference information around Next Generation Enterprise WAN (NGEW) design, refer to
the documentation on Design Zone:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns816/networking_solutions_program_home.html.
For additional QOS Design Guidance, refer to the Medianet Design Guide at:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/ns340/ns414/ns742/ns819/landing_vid_medianet.html.
Branch WAN Bandwidth Requirements
This design guide presents two branch wireless LAN designs—FlexConnect and Converged Access. In
FlexConnect designs, branch access points are managed by a wireless LAN controller in the campus data
center or services module. A CAPWAP tunnel is established between the wireless controller and each of
the access points within the branch locations. This CAPWAP tunnel is used for control traffic and
possibly data traffic during the on-boarding process in some designs. This traffic is transported over the
WAN. Even though devices may use a FlexConnect design to locally terminate traffic onto local VLANs
within the branch, a large percentage of traffic will continue to flow over the WAN to the corporate data
center.
In Converged Access designs, branch access points are managed by the integrated wireless LAN
controller functionality within the Catalyst 3850 Series switch. A CAPWAP tunnel is established
between the Catalyst 3850 Series switch and the access points within the branch locations. This
CAPWAP tunnel is used for all wireless control and data traffic. However, even though devices may use
a Converged Access design to locally terminate traffic onto local VLANs within the branch, a large
percentage of traffic will again continue to flow over the WAN to the corporate data center.
Since both branch wireless LAN designs presented in this document utilizes a centralized AAA server
(such as Cisco ISE), there may be an increase in authentication and authorization traffic as more
employee managed devices are on-boarded. These new endpoints may also generate additional new
traffic. Further, guest Internet access is carried back to an anchor controller in the campus DMZ with
both branch wireless LAN designs. All of this may result in increased loads on the WAN circuit as a
result of the BYOD deployment.
It may be difficult to forecast the additional amount of traffic loading because the level of participation
may not be well known prior to deploying BYOD. Wireless guest traffic in particular can be difficult to
budget and may vary substantially depending on local events. A reasonable design goal is to provision
a minimum of 1.5 Mbps at each branch that offers BYOD. The head-end WAN aggregation circuits
should be provisioned to follow traditional oversubscription ratios (OSR) for data. This will allow
adequate bandwidth for smaller deployments. Larger branch locations will likely need additional
bandwidth, especially if the guest users are likely to expect the use of high bandwidth applications such
as streaming video traffic. The WAN architecture should offer enough flexibility to adjust service levels
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Branch LAN Network Design
to meet demand. Sub-rate MPLS access circuits or a dedicated WAN router with incremental bandwidth
capabilities can accomplish this. Address space adequate for each branch should also be considered
because both FlexConnect and Converged Access designs can allow wireless DHCP clients to pull from
local scopes. Additional information concerning bandwidth management techniques such as
rate-limiting is discussed in Chapter 21, “BYOD Guest Wireless Access.”
Encryption Requirement
Another component of both BYOD enabled branch wireless LAN designs is local termination of branch
wireless traffic. This allows branch wireless devices to directly access resources located on the branch
LAN without the need to traverse a CAPWAP tunnel to a centralized wireless controller. This reduces
the amount of traffic that needs to be carried by the WAN by eliminating the hair-pinning of traffic from
the branch location, back to the wireless controller within the campus, and then back to the branch server.
The effect reduces load in both directions-upstream within a CAPWAP tunnel and downstream outside
of the CAPWAP tunnel. The benefits are realized when a wireless branch device is connecting to a server
located in the same branch. If the traffic is destined for the data center, it still transits the WAN but
outside of a CAPWAP tunnel, benefiting from the same level of security and performance as wired
traffic. Depending on the application, it may not be encrypted so additional WAN security might be
needed. If the branch is using a broadband connection as either the primary or backup path, then
obviously encryption technologies such as DMVPN should be deployed. However, even if an MPLS
VPN service is being used, the enterprise may still want to consider encrypting any traffic that passes
off premise.
Transport
With both the FlexConnect and Converged Access designs, not all wireless traffic is terminated locally.
In this design guide guest traffic is still tunneled within a mobility tunnel to a central controller at a
campus location. Also, depending upon the on-boarding design implemented (single SSID versus dual
SSID), traffic from devices which are in the process of being on-boarded may also remain in the
CAPWAP tunnel to the central controller with the FlexConnect design. This traffic may compete for
bandwidth with the corporate traffic also using the WAN link, but not inside a CAPWAP tunnel. These
concerns are addressed with a mix of traditional QoS services and wireless rate-limiting. In some
situations, the transport will determine what is appropriate.
If Layer 2 MPLS tunnels are in place, destination routing can be used to place CAPWAP traffic on a
dedicated path to the wireless controllers. This may be useful as an approach to isolate guest traffic from
the branch towards the campus since FlexConnect with local termination will pass most corporate traffic
outside of a CAPWAP tunnel directly to its destination. Return traffic from the campus towards the
branch is more difficult to manage without more complex route policies, but may be possible with careful
planning.
Figure 3-2 illustrates at a high level a typical WAN architecture.
Branch LAN Network Design
The anywhere, any device requirement of BYOD implies that employees can use either corporate or
personal devices at either campus or branch locations. When they do, the pertinent component of the
BYOD architecture is the ability to enforce policies on these devices at either the branch or at the campus
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location. Policy enforcement is effective if and only if there is a well-designed branch network
infrastructure in place. This branch network infrastructure can be categorized into WAN and LAN
components. This section discusses the high level key design elements of branch LAN design.
Cisco access points can currently operate in one of two implementation modes in the Cisco Unified
Wireless Network (CUWN) architecture:
•
Local mode (also referred to as a centralized controller design)
•
FlexConnect mode
In addition, Cisco has recently integrated wireless LAN controller functionality directly into the latest
generation access-layer switches—the Catalyst 3850. Hence there is a now a third implementation
choice:
•
Converged Access
FlexConnect is a wireless design which primarily applies to branch locations and is discussed in this
section. Local mode is a wireless design which primarily applies to campus locations within this design
guide and is discussed in Campus Network Design. Converged Access designs apply to both wired and
wireless designs within both the branch and campus and hence are discussed in both sections of this
chapter.
Note
Local mode can be deployed within branches which are large enough to justify the requirement for
wireless controllers deployed within the branch itself. In such cases, the BYOD design for the large
branch is similar to the campus design.
FlexConnect Wireless Design
FlexConnect is an innovative Cisco technology which provides more flexibility in deploying a wireless
LAN. For example, the wireless LAN may be configured to authenticate users using a centralized AAA
server, but once the user is authenticated the traffic is switched locally on the access point Ethernet
interface. Alternatively, the traffic may be backhauled and terminated on the wireless controller Ethernet
interface if desired. The local switching functionality provided by FlexConnect eliminates the need for
data traffic to go all the way back to the wireless controller when access to local resources at the branch
is a requirement. This may reduce the Round Trip Time (RTT) delay for access to applications on local
branch servers, increasing application performance. It can also reduce unnecessary hair-pinning of
traffic when accessing resources local to the branch.
Access points connected to the access-layer switches within branch locations are still configured and
controlled via one or more centralized wireless LAN controllers. In the case of this design guide, these
controllers are a set of Cisco Flex 7500 wireless controllers—dedicated for branches—since they
provide greater scalability for supporting access points in FlexConnect mode than Cisco CT5508
wireless controllers. Note also that with this design, guest wireless traffic is backhauled across the WAN
to a dedicated CT5508 guest anchor controller located on a DMZ segment within the campus.
Provisioning traffic (i.e. traffic from devices attempting to on-board with ISE) may also be backhauled
across the WAN to the Flex7500 wireless controllers located within the campus.
Figure 5-22 shows at a high level how FlexConnect is implemented in the branch design.
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Figure 5-22
High-Level View of the FlexConnect Wireless Branch Design
Dynamic VLAN assignment with a FlexConnect ACL applied at
the wireless access point for differentiated access control.
VLAN Name
Description
Wireless_Full
Full Internal and Internet Access for On-Boarded Wireless Devices
Wireless_Partial
Partial Internal Access and Internet Access for On-Boarded Wireless
Devices
Wireless_Internet
Internet Only Access for On-Boarded Wireless Devices
Dynamic Mapping of Employee SSID to Local VLAN Based on
Authentication and Authorization from ISE
CAPWAP: AP Control, Guest and Provisioning Traffic
Flex7500
WLCs
Campus
Network
Infrastructure
ISE
Guest
VLAN
DMZ
CT5508 Guest
Anchor WLCs
Campus
CAPWAP
WAN
FlexConnect
ACLs
Prime
Infrastructure
Internet
IT Devices
(MAB)
SSID
MDM
DMZ
Cloud-Based
MDM
Guest
SSID
Employee
SSID
Provisioning
SSID
(optional)
Branch
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
CAPWAP Tunnels
Mobility Tunnels
(Old Mobility Architecture)
294935
Provisioning
VLAN
(optional)
Mobility Tunnel:
Guest Traffic
MSE
To implement the BYOD use cases for on-boarded devices, the method presented in this design guide
for branch locations utilizing a FlexConnect wireless design is to place the device into an appropriate
VLAN after it is authenticated and authorized. Statically configured FlexConnect ACLs applied per
access point (or access point group) and per VLAN, provide differentiated access control for wireless
devices. For example, a personal device which needs full access to the network is placed into a VLAN
in which a FlexConnect ACL is configured on the access point with the right permissions. Personal
devices that are granted partial access are placed in a different VLAN which has a different FlexConnect
ACL.
Branch Wired Design
Figure 5-23 shows the wired design for a branch which does not implement Converged Access Catalyst
3850 Series switches. In other words, this is the wired design for a branch which implements switches
such as the Catalyst 3750X, along with a FlexConnect wireless design.
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Figure 5-23
High-Level View of Non-Converged Access Wired Branch Design
Dynamic VLAN assignment and downloadable ACL, which overrides a default static
ACL, applied to the wired switch port. Static ACLs configured on the branch router
Layer 3 sub-interfaces provided differentiated access control.
VLAN Name
Description
Wireless_Full
Full Internal and Internet Access for On-Boarded Wired Devices
Wireless_Partial
Partial Internal Access and Internet Access for On-Boarded Wired Devices
Wireless_Internet
Internet Only Access for On-Boarded Wired Devices
Dynamic Assignment of Wired Device to Local VLAN Based on
Authentication and Authorization from ISE
Campus
Prime
Infrastructure
ISE
Catalyst Switch
WAN
Campus
Network
Infrastructure
Static ACLs
Downloadable
ACLs
Wired 802.1X
MSE
Internet
DMZ
On-Prem
MDM
MDM
Cloud-Based
MDM
294936
MDM
Branch
This design guide assumes that Catalyst switches are deployed as Layer 2 devices within the branch
location. Wired devices authenticate using 802.1X against the ISE server centrally located within the
campus. For this design, wired devices are also dynamically assigned to separate VLANs based on their
access control requirements. A RADIUS downloadable ACL applied to the Catalyst 3750X Series switch
overrides a pre-configured static ACL on each Catalyst switch port. Differentiated access control for the
wired devices is provided by statically configured ACLs applied to the Cisco ISR G2 router Layer 3
sub-interfaces.
Converged Access Branch Design
The Converged Access branch BYOD design assumes a single Catalyst 3850 Series switch or switch
stack deployed within a branch location. Hence this design applies to small to mid-sized branches only.
This is shown in Figure 5-24.
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Figure 5-24
Converged Access Branch Design Hardware
Active and Standby
Cisco ISR G2 Routers
Gigabit Ethernet Ports
Up to nine Catalyst
3850 Series switches in
a single switch stack
PoE, PoE+, or UPoE
Gigabit Ethernet Ports
CAPWAP
Up to 50 Cisco Aironet 1600, 2600, or
3600 Series Access Points distributed
across the switches
294937
CAPWAP
Up to nine Catalyst 3850 Series switches may be deployed within a switch stack. The maximum number
of access points supported per switch stack is 50, with up to a maximum of 2,000 wireless clients. The
Catalyst 3850 Series supports up to 40 Gbps wireless throughput per switch (48-port models). Note that
wireless performance requirements and physical distance limitations will often dictate the actual number
of wireless access points and clients which can be deployed with this design. When a switch stack is
implemented, APs should be deployed across the switches for wireless resilience purposes. This design
guide will assume Catalyst 3850 Series switches deployed as Layer 2 switches within the branch
location. Layer 3 connectivity within the branch is provided by the ISR routers which also serve as the
WAN connectivity point for the branch. Future design guidance may address Catalyst 3850 Series
switches deployed as Layer 3 switches within the branch location.
Note
The Converged Access branch BYOD design may also be referred to as the Integrated Controller Branch
BYOD design within this document.
As mentioned previously, Cisco has integrated wireless LAN controller functionality directly in the
Catalyst 3850 Series switch. When access to local resources at the branch is a requirement, this allows
for the termination of wireless traffic on the Catalyst 3850 switch itself, rather than backhauling traffic
to a centralized wireless controller. As with FlexConnect designs, Converged Access designs can reduce
Round Trip Time (RTT) delay, increase application performance, and reduce unnecessary hair-pinning
of traffic when accessing resources local to the branch.
For the Converged Access branch BYOD design, the single Catalyst 3850 Series switch stack will
implement the following wireless controller functionality:
•
Mobility Agent (MA)—Terminates the CAPWAP tunnels from the access points (APs), and
maintains the wireless client database.
•
Mobility Controller (MC)—Manages mobility within and across sub-domains. Also manages radio
resource management (RRM), WIPS, etc.
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Since there is only a single switch stack, there is only a single Switch Peer Group (SPG). The Mobility
Group, Mobility Sub-Domain, and Mobility Domain are entirely contained within the branch. No
additional centralized wireless controllers are needed at the campus location, except for the Cisco
CT5508 wireless controllers which function as the dedicated anchor controllers for wireless guest traffic.
The access points within the branch locations are configured and controlled via the wireless LAN
controller functionality integrated within the Catalyst 3850 Series switch. Guest wireless traffic is still
backhauled to a dedicated CT5508 guest anchor controller located on a DMZ segment within the
campus. Provisioning traffic (i.e., traffic from devices attempting to on-board with ISE) is terminated
locally on the Catalyst 3850 Series switch, with the Converged Access branch design. When
implementing a dual-SSID design, provisioning traffic is terminated on a separate VLAN. All
on-boarded devices terminate on a single VLAN with this design.
Note
When deploying converged access wireless designs in which the Catalyst 3850 Series switch functions
as the Mobility Controller (MC) and Mobility Agent (MA), it should be noted that the mobility tunnel
for wireless guest access initiates from the Catalyst 3850 to the Guest anchor controller located within
the DMZ. Hence, each branch will initiate a mobility tunnel for wireless guest access with this design.
The maximum number of mobility controllers within a mobility domain is 72 for the CT5508 wireless
controller. Therefore the maximum number of mobility anchor tunnels is limited to 71 for the CT5508
wireless controller. Therefore the network administrator may need to deploy additional CT5508 guest
anchor controllers. Alternatively, the network administrator may look at providing direct Internet access
from the branch for guest access. Future versions of this design guide may address such designs.
In order to implement the BYOD use cases, the method adopted in this design guide for branch locations
utilizing a Converged Access design is to apply the appropriate dynamic ACL after the device is
authenticated and authorized. This applies to both wired and wireless devices. The particular form of
dynamic ACL is a RADIUS specified local ACL, otherwise known as a named ACL. These named ACLs,
which must be configured on each Catalyst 3850 Series switch, provide differentiated access control. For
example, a personal device which is granted full access to the network is statically assigned to the same
VLAN as a personal device which is granted partial access. However different named ACLs are applied
to each device, granting different access to the network. Since the named ACL is configured on the
Catalyst 3850 switch specific to the particular branch, a single Cisco ISE policy can be implemented
across multiple branches. However the Access Control Entries (ACEs) within the ACL for each branch
can be unique to the IP addressing of the branch. This reduces the administrative complexity of the Cisco
ISE policy, albeit at the expense of increased complexity of having to configure and maintain ACLs at
each branch Catalyst 3850 Series switch.
Figure 5-25 shows at a high level how a Converged Access BYOD design is implemented in the branch.
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Figure 5-25
High-Level View of the Converged Access Branch BYOD Design
Dynamic ACL (Named ACL) assignment applied at the switch for
differentiated access control for wired and wireless devices.
Mobility Tunnel:
Guest Traffic
CAPWAP:
Data and Control Traffic
Employee
VLAN
MSE
Campus
Network
Infrastructure
ISE
Guest
VLAN
WAN
Prime
Infrastructure
CAPWAP
Wired
802.1X
Provisioning
Catalyst
VLAN (optional) 3850
Internet
DMZ
IT Devices
(MAB)
SSID
MDM
DMZ
CT5508 Guest
Anchor WLCs
Named ACLs
MC
MA
Cloud-Based
MDM
Branch
Guest
SSID
Employee
SSID
Provisioning
SSID
(optional)
294938
Campus
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
Note that in the case of this design guide, on-boarded wired devices are also statically assigned to the
same VLAN as wireless devices. Hence on-boarded wired and wireless devices will share the same
VLAN, and hence the same IP subnet addressing space. It is recognized that customers may implement
separate subnets for wired and wireless devices due to issues such as additional security compliance
requirements for wireless devices. This will not be addressed within this version of the design guidance.
Dynamically assigned named ACLs provide differentiated network access for wired devices.
The reason for the two methods of providing differentiated access between the FlexConnect and
Converged Access branch designs is that prior to CUWN software version 7.5, FlexConnect did not
allow the dynamic assignment of an ACL to an access point. It only allowed the dynamic assignment of
a VLAN. The FlexConnect wireless design in this design guide is carried forward from the previous
version of the design guide and continues to require a separate VLAN for each separate level of access
control. This can increase the administrative burden of managing the branch network configuration.
Converged access designs are more consistent with the campus wireless designs, requiring a single
VLAN for multiple levels of access control.
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Mobile Device Managers for BYOD
Revised: August 7, 2013
Mobile Device Managers (MDMs) secure, monitor, and manage mobile devices, including both
corporate-owned devices as well as employee-owned BYOD devices. MDM functionality typically
includes Over-the-Air (OTA) distribution of policies and profiles, digital certificates, applications, data
and configuration settings for all types of devices. MDM-supported and managed devices include not
only handheld devices, such as smartphones and tablets, but increasingly laptop and desktop computing
devices as well.
Critical MDM functions include-but are not limited to:
•
PIN enforcement—Enforcing a PIN lock is the first and most effective step in preventing
unauthorized access to a device; furthermore, strong password policies can also be enforced by an
MDM, reducing the likelihood of brute-force attacks.
•
Jailbreak/Root Detection—Jailbreaking (on Apple iOS devices) and rooting (on Android devices)
are means to bypass the management of a device and remove SP control. MDMs can detect such
bypasses and immediately restrict a device’s access to the network or other corporate assets.
•
Data Encryption—Most devices have built-in encryption capabilities-both at the device and file
level. MDMs can ensure that only devices that support data encryption and have it enabled can
access the network and corporate content.
•
Data Wipe—Lost or stolen devices can be remotely full- or partial-wiped, either by the user or by
an administrator via the MDM.
•
Data Loss Prevention (DLP)—While data protection functions (like PIN locking, data encryption
and remote data wiping) prevent unauthorized users from accessing data, DLP prevents authorized
users from doing careless or malicious things with critical data.
•
Application Tunnels—Secure connections to corporate networks are often a mandatory requirement
for mobile devices.
Cisco ISE 1.2 with MDM API Integration
While Cisco ISE provides critical policy functionality to enable the BYOD solution, it has limited
awareness of device posture. For example, ISE has no awareness of whether a device has a PIN lock
enforced or whether the device has been jailbroken or whether a device is encrypting data, etc. On the
other hand, MDMs have such device posture awareness, but are quite limited as to network policy
enforcement capacity.
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MDM Deployment Options and Considerations
Therefore, to complement the strengths of both ISE and MDMs, ISE 1.2 includes support of an MDM
integration API which allows it to both:
•
Pull various informational elements from MDM servers in order to make granular network access
policy decisions that include device-details and/or device-posture.
•
Push administrative actions to the managed devices (such as remote-wiping) via the MDM.
As of the publication date of this CVD, ISE 1.2 supports an API for MDM integration with the following
third-party MDM vendors:
•
AirWatch
•
MobileIron
•
Good Technologies
•
XenMobile
•
SAP Afaria
•
FiberLink Maas360
The following MDM API pull/push capabilities are supported in ISE 1.2 for all third-party MDM
systems:
•
PIN lock Check
•
Jailbroken Check
•
Data Encryption Check
•
Device Augmentation Information Check
•
Registration Status Check
•
Compliance Status Check
•
Periodic Compliance Status Check
•
MDM Reachability Check
•
(Full/Partial) Remote Wipe
•
Remote PIN lock
MDM Deployment Options and Considerations
With MDM solutions, there are two main deployment models:
•
On-Premise—In this model, MDM software is installed on servers in the corporate DMZ or data
center, which are supported and maintained by the enterprise IT staff.
•
Cloud-based—In this model-also known as a MDM Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model-MDM
software is hosted, supported and maintained by a provider at a remote Network Operation Center
(NOC); customers subscribe on a monthly or yearly basis and are granted access to all MDM
hardware/software via the Internet.
Before deploying a MDM, businesses must make the pivotal decision of whether their MDM solutions
should be on premise (on-prem) or cloud-based. Several business and technical factors are involved in
this decision, including:
•
Cost—Cloud-based MDM solutions often are more cost-effective than on-prem; this is because
these eliminate the need for incremental and ongoing hardware, operating system, database and
networking costs associated with a dedicated MDM server. Also avoided is any additional training
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MDM Deployment Options and Considerations
that may be required by IT staff to support these servers. From a cloud-provider’s perspective: since
these fixed infrastructure costs have already been invested, there are very little marginal cost to
provisioning custom-tailored virtual-instances to enterprise subscribers, and as such, these can be
priced attractively.
Note
•
Control—On-prem models offer enterprises the greatest degree of control, of not only the MDM
solution, but also the enterprise systems that these integrate with (such as the corporate directory,
certificate authority, email infrastructure, content repositories and management systems-all of which
will be discussed in additional detail below). This is because an on-prem model requires no
transmission or storage of corporate data offsite. Conversely, a cloud-based service requires giving
up a level of control over the overall solution, as confidential information, data and documents will
be required to be transmitted to the provider, and (depending on the details of the service) may also
be stored offsite. Cloud providers may also update the software on the servers without following the
enterprise change control protocol.
•
Security—On-prem MDM models are often perceived as being more secure than cloud-based
models; however, this perceived difference in security-levels may be lessening, especially when
considering that over $14B of business was securely conducted via SaaS in 2012 alone. Ultimately,
the security of a system will principally depend, not only on the technologies deployed, but also on
the processes in place to keep the hardware and software updated and managed properly.
•
Intellectual Property—Most MDMs support secure isolation of corporate data on the devices they
manage; however, these systems typically require corporate data to be passed through the MDM in
order to be transmitted OTA to the device’s secure and encrypted compartment. This process may
represent an additional security concern in a cloud-based model, as now the enterprise is called on
to trust the MDM SaaS provider with not only device management, but also with intellectual
property and confidential data.
•
Regulatory Compliance—Regulatory compliance can dictate where and how financial, healthcare
and government (and other) organizations can store their data. Such regulations include PCI,
HIPAA, HITECH, Sarbanes-Oxley, and even the US Patriot Act. Such regulations may preclude
storing sensitive information in the cloud, forcing the choice of an on-prem MDM model.
•
Scalability—Cloud-based models offer better scalability than on-prem models, as these can
accommodate either small or large deployments (and anything in-between) without any increased
infrastructure costs to the subscriber. Conversely, on-prem models may have difficulty in
cost-effectively accommodating small deployments. For example, consider the cost of deploying an
MDM server that can support 100,000 devices being deployed to support only 100. Additionally,
on-prem models will incrementally require more hardware and infrastructure as the number of
devices increases.
•
Speed of Deployment—Cloud-based solutions are typically faster to deploy (and can often be
enabled the same-day as these are ordered), whereas on-prem solutions often take a couple of weeks
(or more) to plan out, install and deploy.
•
Flexibility—Cloud-based MDM solutions typically have day-one support for new releases of device
hardware and software; alternatively, on-prem solutions will require an upgrade to the MDM
software for each new device/software supported.
•
Ease of Management—With on-prem models, the IT department must ensure the MDM has all the
latest updates; in a cloud-based system, this responsibility rests with the provider.
Cisco is not advocating the use of one MDM deployment model over another, nor does Cisco recommend
any specific third-party MDM solution. These business and technical considerations are included simply
to help draw attention to the many factors that an IT architect may find helpful in reviewing when
evaluating which MDM solution works best to meet their specific business needs.
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MDM Deployment Options and Considerations
On-Premise
In the on-premise MDM deployment model, the MDM software resides on premises on a dedicated
server (or servers), typically within the Internet Edge or DMZ.
This model is generally better suited to IT staff that have a higher-level of technical expertise (such that
they can configure, periodically-update and manage such a server) or to enterprises that may have stricter
security/confidentiality requirements (which may preclude the management of their devices by a
cloud-based service).
The on-premise model may also present moderate performance benefits to some operational flows (due
to its relative proximity to the devices, as opposed to a cloud-based service). For example, if a network
access policy included the “MDM Reachability” check, this test would likely be much more responsive
in an on-premise MDM deployment model versus a cloud-based model.
The network topology for a campus BYOD network utilizing an On-Prem MDM deployment model is
illustrated in Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-1
Campus BYOD Network with On-Prem MDM (at the Internet Edge)
Data Center
Internet Edge
Cisco ISE
DNS and
DHCP
Services
Guest
Wireless
Controller
ASA
Firewall
CA
AD
Internet
Core
MDM
Wireless
Controller
On-Prem
MDM
Campus
Building
293992
Access
Switch
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MDM Deployment Options and Considerations
Cloud-Based
In the Cloud-Based MDM deployment model, MDM functionality is delivered to customers in a SaaS
manner: the software resides wholly within the MDM vendor’s cloud, with a custom-tailored virtual
instance provided for each customer.
From a customer’s perspective, this model is greatly simplified (as now they do not have to configure,
update, maintain and manage the MDM software); however, as a trade-off, they relinquish a degree of
control over all their devices (and also some of the data on these devices) to the third-party MDM SaaS
provider, which may pose security concerns. As such, this model may be better suited to small- or
medium-sized businesses that have moderate IT technical expertise and unexceptional security
requirements.
The network topology for a branch BYOD network utilizing a cloud-based MDM deployment model is
illustrated in Figure 6-2.
Figure 6-2
Branch BYOD Network with Cloud-Based MDM
Data Center
Internet Edge
Guest
Wireless
Controller
Cisco ISE
DNS and
DHCP
ASA
Firewall
CA
AD
Services
Core
Wireless
Controller
WAN
Internet
WAN
Edge
Cloud-Based
MDM
MPLS
WAN
MDM
Branch
293993
Access
Switch
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Enterprise Integration Considerations
Enterprise Integration Considerations
In addition to the integrating the corporate network with the MDM—which is discussed in great detail
in this document—other enterprise services and resources are also important to integrate with the MDM
system, including:
•
Corporate Directory Services
•
Certificate Authority (CA) and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
•
Email Infrastructure
•
Content Repositories
•
Management Systems
Corporate Directory Services Integration
Corporate directory services (such as LDAP-based directory, Active Directory, etc.) can be leveraged by
MDMs to efficiently organize and manage user access. Administrators can assign device profiles, apps,
and content to users based on their directory-group memberships. Additionally, some MDMs can detect
directory changes and automatically update device-policies. For example, if a user is deactivated in a
directory system, then the MDM can remove device-based corporate network access and selectively
wipe the device.
Corporate Certificates Authority and Public Key Infrastructure Integration
Certificate Authorities (such as Microsoft CA) or SCEP certificate services providers (such as MSCEP
and VeriSign) can be leveraged by MDMs to assign and verify certificates for advanced user
authentication and to secure access to corporate systems. CA integration ensures message integrity,
authenticity and confidentiality. Additionally CA integration enables client authentication, encryption
and message signatures.
Furthermore, MDMs can also integrate with Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) or third-party providers to
configure certificates and distribute these to devices without user interaction.
Email Integration
The corporate email infrastructure can be integrated with the MDM solution to provide security,
visibility and control in managing mobile email. This enables employees to access corporate email on
their mobile devices without sacrificing security. Additionally such integration facilitates the
management of mobile email (such as configuring email settings over-the-air, blocking unmanaged
devices from receiving email, enforcing device encryption, etc.) The MDMs approach to email
management varies among MDM providers and is feature differentiator. Email policy information is not
available to ISE via the API.
Content Repository Integration
Integrating MDM systems with content repositories enables administrators to deliver secure mobile
access to corporate documents while managing document distribution and access permissions (including
the ability to view, view-offline, email, or print on a document). This ensures the right content gets to
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Enterprise Integration Considerations
the right employees without sacrificing the security of the documents themselves, which are distributed
to mobile devices over encrypted connections. Furthermore, files and documents can be synchronized
with corporate file systems and share points, so that the latest version of a document is automatically
updated on employee mobile devices. To ensure security, users can be authenticated with a username,
password, and certificate before they can access corporate content. Additionally, document metadata
(including author, keywords, version, and dates created or modified) can be restricted on a per-user basis.
Management Integration
MDM systems can be integrated with enterprise management systems for enhanced logging, recording
and reporting of device and console events. Event logging settings can be configured based on severity
levels, with the ability to send specific levels to external systems via Syslog integration. Events can
include login events, failed login attempts, changes to system settings and configurations, changes to
profiles, apps and content, etc. Such management systems integration ensures security and compliance
with regulations and corporate policies.
Integration Servers
The integration of these enterprise systems with MDMs in on-premise deployment models is relatively
straightforward, as it is largely a matter of ensuring the proper protocols are configured correctly and the
necessary ports are opened in any firewalls within the paths. However, in cloud-based deployment
models, such integration requires secure transport protocols (such as over HTTPS) from the customer to
the MDM service provider and/or a specialized MDM integration servers (or similar proxy-servers)
located within the client's DMZ.
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Application Considerations and License
Requirements for BYOD
Revised: March 6, 2014
What’s New: The Quality of Service (QoS) section has been re-written to add a QoS discussion around
Converged Access products, including the Catalyst 3850 Series switch and the Cisco 5760 wireless LAN
controller.
When implementing a BYOD solution, the applications that run on employee-owned devices need to be
considered before selecting which of the particular BYOD use cases discussed above to deploy. The
application requirements for these devices determine the level of network connectivity needed. The
network connectivity requirements in turn influence the choice of the BYOD use case to apply.
Quality of Service
In addition to network connectivity, Quality of Service (QoS) is an important consideration for
applications, especially those delivering real-time media. Device specific hardware, such as dedicated
IP phones which send only voice traffic, allowed for the configuration of dedicated voice wireless
networks. However, with the widespread use of smartphones and tablets which support collaboration
software (such as Cisco’s Jabber client), devices are capable of sending voice, video, and data traffic
simultaneously. Hence, QoS is necessary to provide the necessary per-hop behavior as such traffic
traverses the network infrastructure.
QoS can be categorized into the following broad functions:
•
Classification and Marking-including Application Visibility and Control (AVC)
•
Bandwidth Allocation/Rate Limiting (Shaping and/or Policing)
•
Trust Boundary Establishment
•
Queueing
For a discussion regarding implementing wired QoS, refer to Medianet Campus QoS Design 4.0 at:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/WAN_and_MAN/QoS_SRND_40/QoSCampus
_40.html.
The solution presented within this document supports two different types of WLAN QoS—traditional
“precious metals” QoS implemented by CUWN wireless LAN controller platforms and Converged
Access QoS implemented by IOS XE based wireless LAN controller platforms. The following sections
discuss various aspects of wireless QoS for each of the respective platforms.
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Quality of Service
CUWN Wireless LAN Controller QoS
As of Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) software release 7.3 and above, wireless QoS is
configured by applying one of four “precious metals” QoS Profiles—Platinum, Gold, Silver, or
Bronze—to the WLAN to which a particular client device is associated. An example of the configuration
is shown in Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-1
Application of a QoS Profile to a WLAN
Note that the QoS settings for the profile can be overridden on a per-WLAN basis from within the QoS
tab of the WLAN configuration.
The DSCP marking of client traffic, as it traverses the network within a CAPWAP tunnel, is controlled
by three fields within the WLAN QoS Parameters field within the QoS Profile:
•
Maximum Priority—This is the maximum 802.11 User Priority (UP) value of a packet sent by a
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)-enabled client which will be allowed by the access point. The User
Priority maps to a DSCP value within the outer header of the CAPWAP tunnel as the packet traverses
the network infrastructure. If the WMM-enabled client sends an 802.11 packet with a User Priority
higher than allowed, the access point marks the packet down to the maximum allowed User Priority.
This in turn maps to the DSCP value of the external CAPWAP header as the packet is sent over the
network infrastructure.
•
Unicast Default Priority—This is the default 802.11 User Priority (UP) to which a unicast packet
sent by a non-WMM-enabled client is assigned. This User Priority also maps to the DSCP value
within the outer header of the CAPWAP tunnel as the packet traverses the network infrastructure.
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•
Multicast Default Priority—This is the default 802.11 User Priority (UP) for multicast traffic. This
User Priority maps to a DSCP value within the outer header of the CAPWAP tunnel as the packet
traverses the network infrastructure.
Table 7-1 shows the default WLAN QoS parameter settings in terms of 802.11 access category
designation and corresponding mapped DSCP value.
Table 7-1
Default WLAN QoS Parameter Settings for CUWN Controllers
Maximum Priority, Unicast Default Priority, and Multicast
QoS Profile Name Default Priority (802.11 UP)
DSCP Mapping
Platinum
Voice
EF (DSCP 46)
Gold
Video
AF41 (DSCP 34)
Silver
Best Effort
Default (DSCP 0)
Bronze
Background
AF11 (DSCP 10)
An example of the configuration of the WLAN QoS Parameters is shown in Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2
Controlling the Marking of Wireless Packets
It should be noted that these settings apply primarily to Local Mode (centralized wireless controller)
designs and FlexConnect designs with central termination of traffic, since the WLAN QoS Parameters
field results in the mapping of the 802.11 User Priority to the DSCP value within the outer header of the
CAPWAP tunnel.
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The original DSCP marking of the packet sent by the wireless client is always preserved and applied as
the packet is placed onto the Ethernet segment, whether that is at the wireless controller for centralized
wireless controller designs or at the access point for FlexConnect designs with local termination.
The wireless trust boundary is established via the configuration of the WMM Policy within the QoS tab
of the WLAN configuration. An example was shown in Figure 7-1. The three possible settings for WMM
Policy are:
Note
•
Disabled—The access point will not allow the use of QoS headers within 802.11 packets from
WMM-enabled wireless clients on the WLAN.
•
Allowed—The access point will allow the use of QoS headers within 802.11 packets from wireless
clients on the WLAN. However the access point will still allow non-WMM wireless clients (which
do not include QoS headers) to associate to the access point for that particular WLAN.
•
Required—The access point requires the use of QoS headers within 802.11 packets from wireless
clients on the WLAN. Hence, any non-WMM-enabled clients (which do not include QoS headers)
will not be allowed to associate to the access point for that particular WLAN.
Where possible, it is advisable to configure WMM policy to Required. Some mobile devices may
incorrectly mark traffic from collaboration applications when the WMM policy is set to Allowed versus
Required. Note however that this requires all devices on the WLAN to support WMM before being
allowed onto the WLAN. Before changing the WMM policy to Required, the network administrator
should verify that all devices which utilize the WLAN are WMM-enabled. Otherwise,
non-WMM-enabled devices will not be able to access the WLAN.
The configuration of the WMM Policy, along with the WLAN QoS Parameters, together create the
wireless QoS trust boundary and determine the marking of wireless traffic within the CAPWAP tunnel
as it traverses the network infrastructure.
Table 7-2 shows the mapping of the WLANs/SSIDs shown in the BYOD design guide to QoS Profiles
within CUWN wireless LAN controllers.
Table 7-2
Mapping of BYOD WLANs/SSIDs to QoS Profiles
SSID
WLAN/SSID Name
QoS Profile
Employee SSID
BYOD_Employee
Platinum
Personal Devices SSID BYOD_Personal_Device Platinum
Guest SSID
BYOD_Guest
Silver
Provisioning SSID
BYOD_Provisioning
Silver
IT Devices SSID
IT_Devices
Silver
It is assumed that the Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs will need to support wireless clients which
run voice, video, and data applications. Hence these SSIDs are configured for the Platinum QoS profile.
The Guest, Provisioning, and IT Devices SSIDs are assumed to only require data applications which
require a best effort service. However, the business requirements of any organization ultimately
determine what devices and applications are supported over the various SSIDs. The design shown in
Table 7-2 can easily be modified to reflect the needs of a particular deployment.
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Rate Limiting on CUWN Wireless Controllers
One additional option to prevent the wireless medium from becoming saturated, causing excessive
latency and loss of traffic, is rate limiting. Rate limiting may be implemented per device or per SSID to
prevent individual devices from using too much bandwidth and negatively impacting other devices and
applications. Rate limiting on CUWN wireless LAN controllers can be particularly useful for guest
access implementations and is discussed in detail in Chapter 21, “BYOD Guest Wireless Access.”
Converged Access QoS
The CT5760 wireless controller and the Catalyst 3850 Series switches both run Cisco IOS XE software.
QoS configuration for Converged Access products uses the Modular QoS based CLI (MQC), which is in
alignment with other platforms such as Catalyst 4500E Series switches. The Converged Access QoS
design presented in this section discusses the ability to provide the following QoS capabilities to
Converged Access wireless designs discussed within this document:
•
Egress queuing for wireless Catalyst 3850 switch ports, wired Catalyst 3850 uplink ports, and Cisco
CT5760 distribution system ports at the port-level policy.
•
Downstream bandwidth management at the SSID-level policy.
•
Upstream classification and marking at the client-level policy. Optional upstream policing at the
client-level policy for Catalyst 3850 Series switches is also discussed.
•
Marking of mobility traffic.
QoS policies discussed within this section will be applied for a Converged Access campus design, a
Converged Access branch design, and a Centralized campus design using a Cisco CT5760 wireless
controller.
Figure 7-3, Figure 7-4, and Figure 7-5 provide a high-level overview of where QoS policies will be
applied to each of the designs. Each of the circled policies is discussed in subsequent sections.
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Figure 7-3
Converged Access QoS Policy—Converged Access Campus View
Converged Access Campus
Building Design
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
Services
NTP
Data Center
6
1
2
2
3
SSID
Downstream
Rate Limiting
per AP, per
Radio
CT5760
WLCs
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
4
4
CA
AD
Core
DNS and
DHCP
Applications
and File
Servers
Guest
SSID
6 Mbps
BW, No
Real-Time
Traffic
Personal
Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
ISE
RSA
6
Employee
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
Provisioning
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
IT Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
Internet
Edge
CT5508
Guest
WLCs
CAPWAP Tunnels
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
ASA
WAN
5
5
Off-Prem
Internet
DMVPN
5
SGT
Capable
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Figure 7-4
Converged Access QoS Policy—Converged Access Branch View
CAPWAP Tunnels
Data Center
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
ISE
RSA
Converged Access Branch Design
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
1
CA
6
2
Core
DNS and
DHCP
Applications
and File Servers
WAN
Edge
CT55508
CT5508
Guest WLCs
WAN
MPLS
GETVPN
ASA
SGT
Capable
Off-Prem
Internet
DMVPN
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
Guest
SSID
6 Mbps
BW, No
Real-Time
Traffic
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
4
4
Personal
Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
5
Employee
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
5
Provisioning
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
IT Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
5
SGT
Capable
MDM
294878
Internet
Edge
SSID
Downstream
Rate Limiting
per AP, per
Radio
2
AD
Cloud-Based MDM
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Figure 7-5
Centralized Wireless QoS Policy—Cisco CT5760 Wireless Controllers
Converged Access Campus
Building Design
Services
NTP
Catalyst 3750
Switch Stack
Data Center
SSID
Downstream
Rate Limiting
per AP, per
Radio
3
CT5760
WLCs
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
4
4
CA
AD
Core
DNS and
DHCP
Applications
and File
Servers
Guest
SSID
6 Mbps
BW, No
Real-Time
Traffic
Personal
Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
ISE
RSA
6
Employee
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
Provisioning
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
IT Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
Internet
Edge
CT5508
Guest
WLCs
CAPWAP Tunnels
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
ASA
WAN
5
5
Off-Prem
Internet
DMVPN
5
SGT
Capable
MDM
Cloud-Based
MDM
294879
MDM
On-Prem
MDM
Port-Level QoS Policies
The port-level QoS policies discussed within this section apply to Catalyst 3850 switch wireless ports
(ports directly connected to Cisco Aironet access points), Catalyst 3850 wired uplink ports, and to Cisco
CT5760 wireless controller distribution system ports.
Catalyst 3850 Series Switch
Figure 7-6 shows the Catalyst 3850 port QoS policies.
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Figure 7-6
Catalyst 3850 Port QoS Policies
1
QoS Trust Boundary
2
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
CAPWAP
294880
Chapter 7
Policy 1: Queuing Wired Uplink Ports (Wired 3850)
•
Pass DSCP
•
Enable 2P6Q3T egress queuing for an 8-class QoS model
Policy 2: Queuing Wireless ports (Wireless 3850)
•
Trust DSCP
•
Enable 2P2Q egress queuing for an 8-class QoS model
Policy 1 addresses the QoS policy for an uplink port of the Catalyst 3850 Series switch when deployed
either within the campus or branch in a Converged Access infrastructure. By default DSCP values are
preserved upon ingress and egress to a switch port. Ingress queuing is not supported on the Catalyst 3850
switch. Egress queuing will consist of mapping an 8-class QoS model to a 2P6Q3T egress queuing
structure of the Catalyst 3850 switch. The Catalyst 3850 Series switch has the capability to support either
a single priority queue or two priority queues. When defined with two priority queues, the first priority
queue (priority-level 1) is serviced first before the second priority queue (priority-level 2) is serviced.
This design guide only discusses designs which utilize both priority queues.
Figure 7-7 shows the mapping of the 8-class model to the egress queues for a 2P6Q3T model.
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Note
2P6Q3T Egress Queuing for an 8-class QoS Model—Catalyst 3850 Uplink Port
Application Classes
DSCP
Voice
EF
EF
Priority Level 1
(Limited to 10% of BW)
Interactive Video
AF4
AF4
Priority Level 2
(Limited to 20% of BW)
Network Control
CS6
CS6
Control Queue
(5% BWR)
Signaling
CS3
CS3
Signaling Queue
(5% BWR)
Bulk Data
AF1
AF1
Bulk Data Queue
(20% BWR
+ DSCP-based WTD)
Transactional Data
AF2
AF2
Transactional Data Queue
(34% BWR
+ DSCP-based WTD)
Scavenger
CS1
CS1
Scavenger Queue
(1% BWR)
Best Effort
DF
2P6Q3T
DF
Default Queue
(35% BWR + WTD)
294881
Figure 7-7
The example 8-class QoS model shown in Figure 7-7 implements a Bulk Data class in which traffic is
marked as AF1x, instead of a Multimedia Streaming class in which data is marked as AF3x, as is shown
in some 8-class QoS models. If the particular customer requirements include a Multimedia Streaming
traffic class instead of a Bulk Data traffic class, the model can simply be modified to substitute the
Multimedia Streaming traffic class for the Bulk Data traffic class. Bandwidth ratios (BWRs), which refer
to the allocation of bandwidth within the non-priority queues in Figure 7-7, can also be adjusted as
required. WTD refers to the use of weighted tail drop as a congestion avoidance mechanism for the Bulk
Data and Transactional Date Queues shown in Figure 7-7.
The following provides a configuration example of Policy 1: Queuing Wired Uplink Ports (Wired 3850).
!
class-map match-any
match dscp ef
class-map match-any
match dscp af41
match dscp af42
match dscp af43
class-map match-any
match dscp cs6
class-map match-any
match dscp cs3
class-map match-any
match dscp af11
match dscp af12
match dscp af13
class-map match-any
match dscp af21
match dscp af22
match dscp af23
REALTIME-QUEUE
INTERACTIVE-VIDEO-QUEUE
NETWORK-CONTROL-QUEUE
SIGNALING-QUEUE
BULK-DATA-QUEUE
TRANSACTIONAL-DATA-QUEUE
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class-map match-any SCAVENGER-QUEUE
match dscp cs1
!
policy-map 2P6Q3T
class REALTIME-QUEUE
priority level 1
police rate percent 10
class INTERACTIVE-VIDEO-QUEUE
priority level 2
police rate percent 20
class NETWORK-CONTROL-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 5
queue-buffers ratio 10
class SIGNALING-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 5
queue-buffers ratio 10
class BULK-DATA-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 20
queue-buffers ratio 10
queue-limit dscp af13 percent 80
queue-limit dscp af12 percent 90
queue-limit dscp af11 percent 100
class TRANSACTIONAL-DATA-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 34
queue-buffers ratio 10
queue-limit dscp af23 percent 80
queue-limit dscp af22 percent 90
queue-limit dscp af21 percent 100
class SCAVENGER-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 1
queue-buffers ratio 10
class class-default
bandwidth remaining percent 35
queue-buffers ratio 25
!
interface TenGigabitEthernet 1/1/1
service-policy out 2P6Q3T
!
For wired ports, the priority level commands must be defined at the port policy map if the network
administrator wishes to place traffic into the priority queues. Policers defined within the wired port
policy map constrain the amount of traffic (unicast and/or multicast) through the priority queues.
Figure 7-8 shows an Alternative Policy 1 mapping of the 8-class model to the egress queues for a
2P6Q3T model. This model is discussed here for those customers who desire a port-level QoS policy for
the Catalyst 3850 Series switch uplink port, which is consistent with the port-level QoS policy of the
CT5760 wireless controller (discussed in Cisco CT5760 Wireless LAN Controller).
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Figure 7-8
Alternative 2P6Q3T Egress Queuing for an 8-class QoS Model—Catalyst 3850 Uplink
Port
Application Classes
DSCP
Voice
EF
Interactive Video
AF4
Network Control
2P6Q3T
EF
CS6
CS3
Priority Level 1
(Limited to 10% of BW)
AF4
Priority Level 2
(Limited to 20% of BW)
CS6
Unused Queue*
Signaling
CS3
Bulk Data
AF1
Transactional Data
AF2
Scavenger
CS1
Best Effort
DF
AF1
Bulk Data Queue
(25% BWR
+ DSCP-based WTD)
AF2
Transactional Data Queue
(35% BWR
+ DSCP-based WTD)
CS1
Scavenger Queue
(5% BWR)
DF
Default Queue
(35% BWR + WTD)
294882
Unused Queue*
*Note only 6 of the 8 potential queues will be used with an 8-class QoS Model
The following provides a configuration example of Alternative Policy 1: Queuing Wired Uplink Ports
(Wired 3850).
!
class-map match-any RT1
match dscp ef
match dscp cs3
match dscp cs6
class-map match-any RT2
match dscp af41
match dscp af42
match dscp af43
class-map match-any BULK-DATA-QUEUE
match dscp af11
match dscp af12
match dscp af13
class-map match-any TRANSACTIONAL-DATA-QUEUE
match dscp af21
match dscp af22
match dscp af23
class-map match-any SCAVENGER-QUEUE
match dscp cs1
!
policy-map 2P6Q3T
class RT1
priority level 1
police rate percent 10
class RT2
priority level 2
police rate percent 20
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class BULK-DATA-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 25
queue-buffers ratio 10
queue-limit dscp af13 percent 80
queue-limit dscp af12 percent 90
queue-limit dscp af11 percent 100
class TRANSACTIONAL-DATA-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 35
queue-buffers ratio 10
queue-limit dscp af23 percent 80
queue-limit dscp af22 percent 90
queue-limit dscp af21 percent 100
class SCAVENGER-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 5
queue-buffers ratio 10
class class-default
bandwidth remaining percent 35
queue-buffers ratio 25
!
interface TenGigabitEthernet 1/1/1
service-policy out 2P6Q3T
!
Traffic marked EF, CS6, and CS3 is bundled into a new traffic class called RT1 and placed into the
priority-level 1 queue. Traffic marked as AF4x is placed into a new traffic class called RT2 (instead of
Interactive Video) and placed into the priority-level 2 queue. Hence this model only utilizes six of the
possible eight egress queues of the Catalyst 3850 series uplink port.
Note
Alternative Policy 1 still supports traffic marked with 8 possible different DSCP markings. Hence it will
still be referred to as an 8-class QoS model within this document. However it could also be referred to
as a 6-class QoS model, since traffic is aggregated into six traffic classes before being mapped to the
queues. This is basically due to the way class maps and policy maps are defined for the Cisco Modular
QOS CLI (MQC).
Policy 2 addresses the QoS policy for the wireless port of the Catalyst 3850 switch when deployed either
within the campus or branch in a Converged Access infrastructure. By default DSCP values are
preserved across the wireless SSID boundary with IOS XE 3.3.0SE software release and higher. Ingress
queuing is not supported on Catalyst 3850 switches. Egress queuing will consist of mapping an 8-class
QoS model to a 2P2Q egress queuing structure of the Catalyst 3850 switch. Figure 7-9 shows the
mapping of the 8-class model to the egress queues.
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2P2Q Egress Queuing for an 8-class QoS Model
Application Classes
DSCP
Voice
EF
Interactive Video
AF4
2P2Q with AFD
EF
CS6
CS3
AF4
Network Control
CS6
Signaling
CS3
Bulk Data
AF1
AF2
Scavenger
CS1
Best Effort
DF
Q1
Priority Level 2
(Limited to 20% of BW)
AF1
AF2
CS1
Transactional Data
Q0
Priority Level 1
(Limited to 10% of BW)
Q2
Ucast-NRT
(63% BWR)
DF
Q3
Mcast-NRT
(7% BWR)
294883
Figure 7-9
The following provides a configuration example of Policy 2: Queuing Wireless Uplink Ports (Wireless
3850).
When the Catalyst 3850 switch detects an AP connected to a port, it automatically creates and attaches
a policy-map with a hardcoded name “defportafgn” to the port. This policy map is not user configurable.
However this hierarchical policy-map has a child policy-map named “port_child_policy” which can be
modified by the user. There can only be one child-level port policy, which is applied to all wireless
switch ports in a given Catalyst 3850 Series switch or switch stack. An example of the port_child_policy
conforming to the eight class DSCP model placed into four queues (2P2Q) is shown below.
!
class-map match-any RT1
match dscp cs6
match dscp cs3
match dscp ef
class-map match-any RT2
match dscp af41
match dscp af42
match dscp af43
!
policy-map port_child_policy
class non-client-nrt-class
bandwidth remaining ratio 7
class RT1
priority level 1
police rate percent 10
conform-action transmit
class RT2
priority level 2
police rate percent 20
conform-action transmit
class class-default
bandwidth remaining ratio 63
!
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Traffic marked EF, CS6, and CS3 is bundled into a traffic class called RT1 and placed into the
priority-level 1 queue. Traffic marked as AF4x is placed into a traffic class called RT2 (instead of
Interactive Video) and placed into the priority-level 2 queue. Switch ports on the Catalyst 3850 are
automatically configured to only support at most four queues when the switch port detects a Cisco
Aironet access point directly attached. The assignment of the priority level 1 command to the
user-defined RT1 class causes traffic which matches the RT1 class to be placed into the first priority
queue. The assignment of the priority level 2 command to the user-defined RT2 class causes traffic
which matches the RT2 class to be placed into the second priority queue. The client non-real-time queue
(also referred to as the Ucast-NRT or unicast non-real-time queue) is assigned all other client unicast
traffic which is not placed into either of the real-time queues. The non-client multicast queue (also
referred to as the Mcast-NRT or multicast non-client non-real-time queue) is for all other non-client
traffic which is not handled by the other three queues.
Note
Policy 2 supports traffic marked with 8 possible different DSCP markings. Hence it is referred to as an
8-class QoS model within this document. However it could also be referred to as a 4-class QoS model,
since traffic is aggregated into four traffic classes before being mapped to the queues. This is basically
due to the way class maps and policy maps are defined for the Cisco Modular QOS CLI (MQC).
The priority level commands must be defined at the child-level of the port policy map if the network
administrator wishes to place traffic into the priority queues. Policers defined within the child-level of
the port policy map apply to multicast priority traffic only.
Cisco CT5760 Wireless LAN Controller
Figure 7-10 shows the Cisco CT5760 distribution system port QoS policy.
Figure 7-10
Cisco CT5760 Port QoS Policy
CAPWAP Tunnels
CT5760
WLCs
Mobility Tunnels
(New Mobility Architecture)
3
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
*Note only 6 of the 8 potential
queues of the Cisco 5760 WLC
distribution port will be utilized
with an 8-class QoS model. The
remaining 2 queues will have no
traffic class mapped to them.
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Campus Network
Infrastructure
Policy 3: CT5760 Wireless LAN Controller Distribution System Ports
•
Pass DSCP—Trust is enabled for wired-to-wired traffic by default
•
Enable 2P6Q3T egress queuing for an 8-class QoS model
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Policy 3 addresses the QoS policy for the distribution system port of the Cisco CT5760 wireless
controller when deployed either within the campus in a Converged Access infrastructure or as a
centralized wireless controller. By default DSCP values are preserved across the wireless SSID boundary
with IOS XE 3.3.0SE software release and higher. Ingress queuing is not supported on the Cisco CT5760
wireless controller. Egress queuing will consist of mapping an 8-class QoS model to a 2P6Q3T egress
queuing structure of the Cisco CT5760 wireless controller. Figure 7-11 shows the mapping of the 8-class
model to the egress queues.
Figure 7-11
2P6Q3T Egress Queuing for an 8-class QoS Model—Cisco CT5760
Application Classes
DSCP
Voice
EF
Interactive Video
AF4
Network Control
2P6Q3T
EF
CS6
CS3
Priority Level 1
(Limited to 10% of BW)
AF4
Priority Level 2
(Limited to 20% of BW)
CS6
Unused Queue*
Signaling
CS3
Bulk Data
AF1
Transactional Data
AF2
Scavenger
CS1
Best Effort
DF
AF1
Bulk Data Queue
(25% BWR
+ DSCP-based WTD)
AF2
Transactional Data Queue
(35% BWR
+ DSCP-based WTD)
CS1
Scavenger Queue
(5% BWR)
DF
Default Queue
(35% BWR + WTD)
294882
Unused Queue*
*Note only 6 of the 8 potential queues will be used with an 8-class QoS Model
The following provides a configuration example of Policy 3: Cisco CT5760 Wireless LAN Controller
Distribution Ports.
!
class-map match-any
match dscp ef
match dscp cs3
match dscp cs6
class-map match-any
match dscp af41
match dscp af42
match dscp af43
class-map match-any
match dscp af11
match dscp af12
match dscp af13
class-map match-any
match dscp af21
match dscp af22
match dscp af23
class-map match-any
RT1
RT2
BULK-DATA-QUEUE
TRANSACTIONAL-DATA-QUEUE
SCAVENGER-QUEUE
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match dscp cs1
!
policy-map 2P6Q3T
class RT1
priority level 1
police rate percent 10
class RT2
priority level 2
police rate percent 20
class BULK-DATA-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 25
queue-buffers ratio 10
queue-limit dscp af13 percent 80
queue-limit dscp af12 percent 90
queue-limit dscp af11 percent 100
class TRANSACTIONAL-DATA-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 35
queue-buffers ratio 10
queue-limit dscp af23 percent 80
queue-limit dscp af22 percent 90
queue-limit dscp af21 percent 100
class SCAVENGER-QUEUE
bandwidth remaining percent 5
queue-buffers ratio 10
class class-default
bandwidth remaining percent 35
queue-buffers ratio 25
!
interface TenGigabitEthernet 1/1/1
service-policy out 2P6Q3T
!
Traffic marked EF, CS6, and CS3 is bundled into a traffic class called RT1 and placed into the
priority-level 1 queue. Traffic marked as AF4x is placed into a traffic class called RT2 (instead of
Interactive Video) and placed into the priority-level 2 queue.
Note
Policy 3 still supports traffic marked with 8 possible different DSCP markings. Hence it is referred to as
an 8-class QoS model within this document. However it could also be referred to as a 6-class QoS model,
since traffic is aggregated into six traffic classes before being mapped to the queues. This is basically
due to the way class maps and policy maps are defined for the Cisco Modular QOS CLI (MQC).
The assignment of the priority level 1 command to the user-defined RT1 class causes traffic which
matches the RT1 class to be placed into the first priority queue. The assignment of the priority level 2
command to the user-defined RT2 class causes traffic which matches the RT2 class to be placed into the
second priority queue. The priority level commands must be defined at the child-level of the port policy
map if the network administrator wishes to place traffic into the priority queues. Policers defined within
the child-level of the port policy map apply to multicast priority traffic only.
Note that with an 8-class QoS model, only six of the eight possible queues on the Cisco CT5760
distribution system port are used. This is slightly different from the Policy 1 design shown for the uplink
port of the Catalyst 3850 Series switch since the Catalyst 3850 series switch handles both wired and
wireless traffic, while the CT5760 wireless controller handles only wireless traffic. For wireless ports on
the Catalyst 3850 series switch and distribution system ports on the CT5760 wireless controller, CS3 and
CS6 traffic is mapped to the RT1 queue along with EF traffic in this design. As discussed in SSID-Level
QoS Policies, the mapping of CS3 and CS6 traffic to the RT1 queue is also done at the SSID level for
the Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs. This is in order to ensure that signaling and network control
traffic are not subject to the Approximate Fair Drop (AFD) algorithm within the Unified Access Data
Plane (UADP) ASIC. AFD applies to wireless traffic only. Hence for the uplink port of the Catalyst 3850
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series switch, it is not necessary to place CS3 and CS6 traffic into the priority-level 1 queue. However
if a consistent port-level policy map configuration is desired between Catalyst 3850 uplink ports and
CT5760 distribution system ports, then Alternative Policy 1 discussed previously can be implemented.
SSID-Level QoS Policies
The SSID-level QoS policies discussed within this section are the same for the Catalyst 3850 Series
switches deployed in Converged Access campus designs, Cisco CT5760 wireless LAN controllers
deployed in centralized campus designs, and Catalyst 3850 Series switches deployed in Converged
Access branch designs. The overall SSID-level policy consists of downstream bandwidth management
per SSID, along with the ability to support real-time traffic (voice and/or video) in the downstream
direction via the SSID policy map.
The objective of the SSID-level QoS policy in the design presented here is twofold. The first objective
is to constrain the downstream bandwidth usage of specific WLANs/SSIDs. In particular this is shown
for the Guest WLAN/SSID in order to ensure that the amount of wireless bandwidth consumed by
wireless guest traffic does not adversely affect other SSIDs. This assumes that other WLANs/SSIDs have
a higher business priority than the Guest WLAN/SSID. However the design can be easily extended to
constrain downstream bandwidth usage for multiple WLANs/SSIDs as needed, based on the business
requirements of the particular organization.
The second objective is to allow for the support of real-time traffic classes and to constrain the bandwidth
usage of those real-time traffic classes on specific WLANs/SSIDs. In particular this is shown for the
Employee and Personal Devices WLANs/SSIDs. It is anticipated that these WLANs/SSIDs will support
wireless devices which may require real-time applications such as VoIP and video client software. This
design assumes that the other WLANs/SSIDs (Guest, Provisioning, and IT Devices) will not have the
business requirement for supporting real-time traffic classes. Any real-time traffic on these
WLANs/SSIDs is remarked to best effort and treated as non-real-time traffic as it is sent downstream.
However, again the design can easily be modified to add or remove the ability to support real-time traffic
classes on any WLAN/SSID, as business requirements dictate.
Downstream bandwidth utilization constraints for the five BYOD WLANs/SSIDs are as shown in
Figure 7-12.
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Figure 7-12
Downstream SSID-Level QoS Policies
Converged Access Campus
Centralized Campus
Converged Access Branch
Cisco CT5780
WLCs
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
Campus Network
Infrastructure
CAPWAP
4
CAPWAP
CAPWAP
4
4
Downstream
SSID
Policies
Guest
SSID
6 Mbps
BW, No
Real-Time
Traffic
Personal
Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
Employee
SSID
No BW
Limit,
Real-Time
Traffic
Provisioning
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
IT Devices
SSID
No BW
Limit, No
Real-Time
Traffic
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QoS Trust
Boundary
Policy 4: Downstream SSID Policy
•
Pass DSCP—Untrusted command disabled
•
Downstream rate limiting of aggregate traffic for Guest SSID
•
Priority and policing of real-time traffic for Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs
Campus and Branch Considerations
In the campus it is assumed that the wired infrastructure bandwidth exceeds the wireless bandwidth.
Hence the objective is often to simply constrain the downstream bandwidth usage of specific
WLANs/SSIDs, such as the Guest SSID, in order to ensure sufficient wireless bandwidth for more
business critical WLANs/SSIDs, such as the Employee SSID. In the branch, the wireless bandwidth
often exceeds the WAN circuit bandwidth to the branch. Hence the objective of many customers is often
to constrain bandwidth usage of specific branch WLANS/SSIDs so that the overall branch WAN
bandwidth is not oversubscribed. A common design implemented for branch guest wireless access is to
backhaul guest traffic to a dedicated guest wireless LAN controller on a DMZ segment within the
campus Internet edge. This is the guest wireless access design discussed within this design guide. Hence
the objective of branch deployments is often to constrain the guest wireless access so that it does not
utilize all of the branch WAN bandwidth.
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The Cisco BYOD solution has two wireless designs for branch locations—a FlexConnect branch design
and a Converged Access branch design. In Chapter 21, “BYOD Guest Wireless Access,” the wireless
FlexConnect branch design discusses implementing per SSID upstream and downstream rate-limiting.
Rate-limiting is actually done on a per-SSID, per-radio, per access point basis. In other words,
rate-limiting is actually per BSSID. Hence the chapter includes information abut the following issues:
•
The possibility of oversubscribing the desired bandwidth allocation for guest wireless access if
multiple access points are deployed within the branch and each access point is allowed a certain
amount of bandwidth.
•
The possibility of oversubscribing the desired bandwidth allocation if multiple radios (2.4 GHz and
5 GHz) are used per SSID within the branch and each SSID is allowed a certain amount of
bandwidth.
•
The fact that downstream rate limiting relies on the TCP backoff algorithm in order to throttle traffic
by dropping the traffic after it has been sent downstream across the WAN to the branch. Hence the
design may not work effectively for UDP traffic flows.
FlexConnect branch designs are often (but not always) implemented for smaller branch designs in which
only a handful of access points are deployed at the branch. Hence, although this design is not considered
optimal, it may be beneficial to customers with smaller branch deployments.
This section of the design guide focuses only on Converged Access designs. A per-SSID downstream
rate-limiting design (similar to the FlexConnect branch design) is shown in the following sections with
Converged Access Catalyst 3850 switches at the small branch location. The Guest WLAN/SSID is
rate-limited through the use of the shape average command implemented at the parent-level of the
downstream SSID policy. However it should be noted that the Converged Access small branch design is
targeted for branches with up to 50 access points. Without the ability to constrain bandwidth utilization
across the entire SSID (meaning across all access points which implement the SSID within a given
branch branch), the per-BSSID design may not provide as much benefit with larger deployments, if the
objective is protect the amount of bandwidth utilized across the WAN. Further, backhauling the Guest
WLAN/SSID back to a dedicated wireless controller within the campus Internet edge is not a highly
scalable model with the Converged Access design. This is due to limitations on the number of mobility
tunnels (a total of 71) to controllers within a mobility group. Hence, it is recognized that this design may
not necessarily alleviate the issue of WAN bandwidth depletion due to traffic on the Guest WLAN/SSID.
Instead the customer may wish to look into deploying a design where guest wireless access is sent
directly to the Internet from the branch.
Downstream SSID Policy Configuration Examples
Policy 4 addresses the QoS policy for each of the SSIDs when deployed in any of the following
infrastructures:
•
Within the campus on a Catalyst 3850 Series switch in a Converged Access design
•
Within the campus on a Cisco CT5760 wireless LAN controller in a centralized design
•
Within the branch on a Catalyst 3850 Series switch in a Converged Access design
Note that for the CT5760 wireless controller, the SSID policy can differ, depending upon whether a
1P7Q3T or a 2P6Q3T egress port queuing policy has been applied. This is because both real-time queues
cannot be utilized at the child-level of the SSID policy map unless both real-time queues are also defined
at the child-level of the port policy map. For this design guide, only a 2P6Q3T port egress queuing model
is discussed for the CT5760 wireless controller. This is in order to maintain a single downstream SSID
policy for each of the WLANs/SSIDs which can be applied for campus Converged Access designs,
campus CT5760 centralized wireless controller designs, and branch Converged Access designs.
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The SSID policies shown in the examples below are applied in the downstream direction (meaning from
the Catalyst switch or CT5760 wireless controller port to the access point) for the WLAN/SSID. This is
accomplished via the service-policy output command under the WLAN configuration. The
service-policy output command specifies the name of the parent-level SSID policy map. The parent-level
SSID policy map, in turn, specifies the name of the child-level SSID policy map via a service-policy
command defined within the policy map.
An example of the policy for each of the WLANs/SSIDs is shown in the configuration examples below.
Employee WLAN/SSID
!
no qos wireless-default-untrust/Default Setting
!
class-map match-any RT2
match dscp af41
match dscp af42
match dscp af43
!
class-map match-any RT1
match dscp cs6
match dscp cs3
match dscp ef
!
policy-map EMPLOYEE_DOWNSTREAM
class class-default
queue-buffers ratio 0
shape average percent 100
service-policy REALTIME_DOWNSTREAM_CHILD
policy-map REALTIME_DOWNSTREAM_CHILD
class RT1
priority level 1
police 15000000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
class RT2
priority level 2
police 30000000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
class class-default
!
wlan BYOD_Employee 1 BYOD_Employee
aaa-override
client vlan Employee
nac
service-policy output EMPLOYEE_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 300
no shutdown
!
The no qos wireless-default-untrust command is the default setting with IOS XE 3.3.0SE and higher
and will not be visible within the actual configuration. It has been included here simply to point out that
the default setting for IOS XE 3.3.0SE and higher is to trust DSCP markings as traffic crosses the SSID
boundary. In other words, DSCP markings will be preserved by default for downstream
wired-to-wireless traffic and upstream wireless-to-wired traffic with IOS XE 3.3.0SE software release
and higher.
The Employee SSID is allowed to utilize up to all of the remaining downstream wireless
bandwidth—after the RT1 and RT2 traffic which is sent via the two priority queues is serviced. This is
accomplished via the shape average percent 100 command at the parent-level of the downstream SSID
policy map.
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Note
The total amount of traffic which can be sent downstream (egress) on the switch port is constrained by
a non-configurable internal static shaper for each radio supported by the attached access point. The 5
GHz radio is statically shaped to 400 Mbps, while the 2.4 GHz radio is statically shaped to 200 Mbps.
The reason the shape average percent 100 command is used in the configuration example above is that
the parent-level of the downstream SSID policy map must have some constraint defined in order to
configure priority queues and policed rates for the RT1 and RT2 traffic defined at the child-level of the
SSID policy map.
Within the configuration above, voice (EF), call signaling (CS3), and network control (CS6) traffic are
classified into the RT1 traffic class. Video (AF4x) traffic is classified into the RT2 traffic class. The
Employee WLAN/SSID is configured to place traffic which matches the RT1 traffic class into the
priority-level 1 egress queue and traffic which matches the RT2 traffic class into the priority-level 2
egress queue. In the example configuration, RT1 traffic is policed to 15 Mbps and RT2 traffic is policed
to 30 Mbps. Hence the Employee WLAN/SSID is configured to support and rate-limit the amount
real-time voice (via the RT1 traffic class) and video (via the RT2 traffic class) traffic sent via the priority
queues.
The specific policed rates for RT1 and RT2 traffic will vary per customer, depending upon how much
voice and video is required per WLAN/SSID. Choosing the policed rates for RT1 and RT2 traffic may
need to take into consideration that the WLAN/SSID policy may apply to both 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz
radios, which may have different physical medium rates, if both radios are enabled for a given
WLAN/SSID. Obviously one method of resolving this issue would be to enable either the 5 GHz or 2.4
GHz radio for each WLAN/SSID and set the RT1 and RT2 policed rates based on a percentage of the
maximum physical medium rate given the radio frequency. An additional factor to consider is type of
application. Voice, for example, is well behaved. Hence the policer rate can be calculated based on the
maximum number of possible of voice calls. However the actual physical medium rate for a given radio
at any given moment depends on many variables, including the number of antennas and spatial streams
supported by the mobile device, as well as the signal strength received at the mobile device and access
point. Hence the network administrator may need to define policed rates for RT1 and RT2 traffic based
on an initial best guess as to the amount of such traffic on the WLAN/SSID, then monitor the policers
to determine if drops are occurring and adjust the policed rates up or down accordingly.
The network administrator should note that the definition of the child-level of the downstream
WLAN/SSID policy map is only needed when the requirement is to rate-limit (via policers) unicast
traffic which matches the RT1 and RT2 (real-time) traffic classes. The definition of the RT1 and RT2
traffic classes at the child-level of the port policy map will already cause traffic which matches these
classes to be placed into the priority queues. Rate-limiting of the priority queues puts a limit on the
amount of downstream real-time traffic on the WLAN/SSID, so that non-real-time traffic will have some
percentage of available bandwidth. The shape average percent command at the parent-level of the
downstream SSID policy map refers to the allocation of remaining bandwidth after real-time traffic has
been serviced. Hence if real-time traffic is not constrained, it could take up all of the available egress
bandwidth of the physical port (up to the non-configurable internal 400 Mbps radio shaped rate for the
5 GHz radio and/or the internal 200 Mbps shaped rate for the 2.4 GHz radio) connecting the Catalyst
3850 switch to the access point.
The shape average command at the parent-level of the downstream SSID policy map is implemented
through the Approximate Fair Drop (AFD) algorithm within the Universal Access Data Plane (UADP)
ASIC. It is not really a shaper as defined under the Cisco Modular QoS CLI (MQC) syntax. More
specifically, the shaper has no buffering capacity and hence no burst (Bc) configuration and no time
constant (Tc) associated with the committed information rate (CIR). This is indicated by the
queue-buffers ratio 0 command, which must be configured when the shape average command is
configured at the parent-level of the downstream SSID policy map.
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In the example shown above, signaling (CS3) and network control (CS6) traffic are also classified as part
of RT1 traffic and placed into the priority-level 1 queue. This is to ensure that signaling and control
traffic are not subject to the Approximate Fair Drop (AFD) algorithm within the Unified Access Data
Plane (UADP) ASIC. The AFD algorithm is designed to allocate bandwidth fairly between wireless
clients on a per access point, per radio, per SSID basis. This provides the benefit that no single wireless
client can utilize an excessive amount of downstream wireless bandwidth, degrading the performance
for all other wireless clients. AFD accomplishes this by increasing the drop probability for particular
wireless client traffic when the amount of downstream traffic destined for that client exceeds an
internally calculated “fair-share”. The “fair-share” for a wireless client is dynamically calculated based
on the total number of wireless clients per access point, per radio (2.4 GHz or 5 GHz), per SSID, and the
amount of congestion occurring at the non-real-time egress queue of the physical port. The amount of
congestion occurring is directly related to the aggregate amount of traffic being sent downstream per
radio on the SSID. The aggregate effect of AFD operating on all wireless clients per access point, per
radio (2.4 GHz or 5 GHz), per SSID is what actually implements the shape average command within the
parent-level of the downstream SSID policy map. However traffic placed into the priority-level 1 and
priority-level 2 queues are not subject to the AFD algorithm. This is to prevent real-time traffic streams
such as voice and video from being unnecessarily degraded by AFD.
The priority-level 1 (RT1) queue has been utilized for signaling (CS3) traffic in the example. Otherwise
signaling traffic would be in the class-default traffic class and may have a greater chance of being
dropped, affecting voice and video sessions. Traffic in the class-default class includes TCP traffic which
is bursty and prone to packet drops. Real-time traffic such as voice and video are UDP based, are well
behaved in general, and these classes can more easily be engineered to have no traffic drops. Even though
the RT1 and RT2 traffic classes have policers in them, these policing rates can be adjusted so as to ensure
no drops. This is the reason the signaling traffic and (CS3) and network control traffic (CS6) are included
in RT1 in this design. However if the total amount of voice or video traffic sent downstream on the SSID
exceeds the policer defined for the traffic class, then any excess traffic will be dropped. This means that
any signaling (CS3) or network control (CS6) traffic included within the traffic class will also be
dropped. Voice (EF) traffic is generally more well-known and well behaved and call-admission control
(CAC) is more widely deployed for voice calls. Because of this, it is considered less likely that the
policer defined for the RT1 traffic class will be exceeded in actual network implementations. Therefore
the RT1 traffic class was selected for holding signaling (CS3) and network control (CS6) traffic as well
as voice (EF) traffic for the example design.
Personal Devices WLAN/SSID
The configuration of QoS for the Personal Devices WLAN/SSID is very similar to the configuration of
the Employee WLAN/SSID, except that the policing rates are different.
!
no qos wireless-default-untrust/Default Setting
!
class-map match-any RT2
match dscp af41
match dscp af42
match dscp af43
!
class-map match-any RT1
match dscp cs6
match dscp cs3
match dscp ef
!
policy-map PERSONAL_DOWNSTREAM
class class-default
queue-buffers ratio 0
shape average percent 100
service-policy REALTIME_DOWNSTREAM_CHILD_PERSONAL
policy-map REALTIME_DOWNSTREAM_CHILD_PERSONAL
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class RT1
priority level 1
police 4500000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
class RT2
priority level 2
police 9000000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
class class-default
!
wlan BYOD_Personal_Device 4 BYOD_Personal_Device
client vlan Guest
mobility anchor 10.225.50.36
service-policy output PERSONAL_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
no shutdown
!
The Personal Devices WLAN/SSID is also allowed to utilize up to all of the remaining downstream
wireless bandwidth—after the RT1 and RT2 traffic which is sent via the two priority queues is serviced.
This is accomplished via the shape average percent 100 command configured at the parent-level of the
downstream SSID policy map.
The Personal Devices WLAN/SSID is also configured to support voice (via the RT1 traffic class) and
video (via the RT2 traffic class) via the priority queues. However the policed rates are intentionally
configured to be different from the Employee WLAN/SSID in the example configuration in order to
highlight that different real-time traffic rates can be supported per SSID. RT1 traffic is policed to 4.5
Mbps and RT2 traffic is policed to 9 Mbps for the Personal Devices WLAN/SSID.
Guest WLAN/SSID
Unlike the other SSIDs, there is a hard bandwidth limit placed in the example configuration for the Guess
SSID, which is allowed to utilize up to 6 Mbps of downstream wireless bandwidth. The Guest
WLAN/SSID is not configured to support real-time traffic via the RT1 and RT2 traffic classes. Instead,
the Guest WLAN/SSID is configured to place all traffic into the client non-real-time egress queue of the
Catalyst 3850 switch port or non-real-time egress queues of the CT5760 wireless controller port.
!
no qos wireless-default-untrust/Default Setting
!
table-map remarkToDefault
default 0
!
policy-map GUEST_DOWNSTREAM
class class-default
queue-buffers ratio 0
shape average 6000000
set dscp dscp table remarkToDefault
set wlan user-priority dscp table remarkToDefault
!
wlan BYOD_Guest 2 BYOD_Guest
aaa-override
client vlan BYOD_Guest
mobility anchor 10.225.50.36
no security wpa
no security wpa akm dot1x
no security wpa wpa2
no security wpa wpa2 ciphers aes
security web-auth
service-policy output GUEST_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
no shutdown
!
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Note
The examples in this design guide show the same SSID-level policies applied in both campus and branch
designs. In actual deployments, the amount of bandwidth configured for the Guest WLAN/SSID at the
branch may be lower than that configured for the Guest WLAN/SSID within the campus. This is because
the WAN bandwidth connecting the branch to the campus may be the constraining factor for limiting
guest wireless bandwidth utilization at the branch.
In the BYOD design within this document, guest traffic is terminated on a DMZ segment within the
Internet Edge. This allows only Internet access via the ASA firewall. Hence there should only be traffic
with best effort (DSCP 0) markings on the Guest WLAN/SSID. However due to the functioning of QoS
at the child-level of the port policy map, if any traffic which matches the RT1 traffic class (EF, CS3, or
CS6) is sent downstream, it will be placed into the priority level 1 egress queue at the Catalyst 3850
switch port or CT5760 distribution system port. Likewise if any traffic which matches the RT2 traffic
class (AF4x) is sent downstream, it will be placed into the priority level 2 egress queue at the Catalyst
3850 switch port or CT5760 distribution system port. Since there is no child-level of the downstream
SSID policy map for the Guest WLAN/SSID, the RT1 and RT2 traffic would also be unconstrained in
terms of the amount of bandwidth they could utilize. This presents a potential concern, in that it could
result in degradation of actual voice and video calls over other SSIDs. In order to prevent this, a table
map which explicitly remarks all traffic back to best effort (DSCP 0) has been included in the
downstream SSID policy. This is indicated by the set dscp dscp table remarkToDefault command
defined at the parent-level of the downstream SSID policy map. The command applies the table map
named remarkToDefault to downstream traffic on the Guest WLAN/SSID. The remarkToDefault table
map has a single line which re-marks all traffic to 0 (best effort).
Note also that the 802.11e User Priority (UP) marking of the wireless frame as it is sent over the wireless
medium is based upon the DSCP marking of the original IP packet sent downstream. The original
Ethernet frame is converted to an 802.11 frame and encapsulated within the CAPWAP header before
DSCP and/or UP re-marking occurs. Therefore a second table map which marks the User Priority (UP)
of traffic sent over the wireless medium to best effort (UP 0) has also been included in the downstream
SSID policy. This is indicated by the set wlan user-priority dscp table remarkToDefault command
defined at the parent-level of the downstream SSID policy map.
Provisioning WLAN/SSID
!
no qos wireless-default-untrust/Default Setting
!
table-map remarkToDefault
default 0
!
policy-map PROVISIONING_DOWNSTREAM
class class-default
set dscp dscp table remarkToDefault
set wlan user-priority dscp table remarkToDefault
!
wlan BYOD_Provisioning 3 BYOD_Provisioning
aaa-override
client vlan Provisioning
mac-filtering MAC_ALLOW
nac
no security wpa
no security wpa akm dot1x
no security wpa wpa2
no security wpa wpa2 ciphers aes
service-policy output PROVISIONING_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
shutdown
!
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The Provisioning WLAN/SSID has no constraint on the amount of downstream bandwidth utilization.
The Provisioning WLAN/SSID is not configured to support real-time traffic via the RT1 and RT2 traffic
classes. Instead, it is configured remark all traffic to best effort and to place all traffic into the client
non-real-time egress queue of the Catalyst 3850 switch port or non-real-time egress queues of the
CT5760 wireless controller port.
The Provisioning WLAN/SSID is an optional WLAN/SSID dedicated for BYOD on-boarding when the
customer implements a dual-SSID on-boarding design. Provisioning traffic consists of HTTP/S traffic
to and from ISE, potentially traffic to and from an on-premise or cloud-based Mobile Device Manager
(MDM), and potentially traffic to and from the Google Play store for Android devices. For the purposes
of this design guide, all provisioning traffic is remarked to best effort (DSCP 0) in the downstream
direction at the Catalyst 3850 switch. The customer can choose to modify the SSID policy map if desired
in order to achieve different behavior of provisioning traffic.
IT Devices WLAN/SSID
!
no qos wireless-default-untrust/Default Setting
!
table-map remarkToDefault
default 0
!
policy-map IT_DEVICES_DOWNSTREAM
class class-default
set dscp dscp table remarkToDefault
set wlan user-priority dscp table remarkToDefault
!
wlan IT_Devices 5 IT_Devices
aaa-override
client vlan Employee
mac-filtering MAC_ALLOW
nac
no security wpa
no security wpa akm dot1x
no security wpa wpa2
no security wpa wpa2 ciphers aes
service-policy output IT_DEVICES_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
shutdown
!
The IT Devices WLAN/SSID has no constraint on the amount of downstream bandwidth utilization in
this design example. The IT Devices WLAN/SSID is not configured to support real-time traffic via the
RT1 and RT2 traffic classes. Instead, it is configured to remark all traffic to best effort and place all
traffic into the client non-real-time egress queue of the Catalyst 3850 switch port or non-real-time queues
of the CT5760 wireless controller port. For the purposes of this design guide, all IT devices traffic is
remarked to best effort (DSCP 0) in the downstream direction at the Catalyst 3850 switch. The customer
can choose to modify the SSID policy map if desired in order to achieve different behavior of IT devices
traffic.
Client-Level QoS Policies
The overall client-level policy consists of upstream classification and marking of wireless client traffic.
Individual traffic classes may also be optionally policed upstream to rate-limit traffic on a per
wireless-client basis on Catalyst 3850 Series switches. Note that upstream client-level policing is not
supported on Cisco CT5760 wireless controllers as of IOS XE software version 3.3.1SE. The client-level
policies are shown in Figure 7-13 and Figure 7-14.
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Figure 7-13
Catalyst 3850 Client QoS Policies—Converged Access Campus or Branch Deployment
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
QoS Trust
Boundary
CAPWAP
Guest
SSID
Personal
Devices
SSID
Employee
SSID
5
Provisioning
SSID
Upstream
Client
Policies
IT Devices
SSID
294886
Chapter 7
Policy 5: Wireless Endpoint Per-Client QoS
•
Upstream Client Policy
•
Classify and remark traffic for Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs
•
Remark all traffic to default (best effort) for Guest, Provisioning and IT Devices SSIDs
•
Optional upstream policing of traffic classes
•
QoS policy name can be statically attached to the SSID, or can be pushed from RADIUS server
(Cisco ISE)
For the centralized campus deployment, the upstream client QoS policy is similar to that in that in the
converged access campus and branch deployments, except that there is no per-client policing (Cisco
5760 does not support client level policing as of IOS XE software version 3.3.1SE).
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Figure 7-14
Cisco 5760 Client QoS Policies—Centralized Campus Deployment
Cisco CT5780
WLCs
Campus Network
Infrastructure
QoS Trust
Boundary
CAPWAP
Personal
Devices
SSID
Employee
SSID
5
Provisioning
SSID
Upstream
Client
Policies
IT Devices
SSID
294887
Guest
SSID
Policy 5: Wireless Endpoint Per-Client QoS
•
Upstream Client Policy
•
Classify and remark traffic for Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs
•
Remark all traffic to default (best effort) for Guest, Provisioning and IT Devices SSIDs
•
QoS policy name can be statically attached to the SSID, or can be pushed from RADIUS server
(Cisco ISE)
The traffic classes included for specific client level policies will differ based upon the SSID to which the
client device is attached. For the Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs, the assumption is that various
traffic types will be supported. Other SSIDs treat client traffic as best effort traffic. Table 7-3 shows the
application classes and marking for the Employee and Personal Devices SSIDs.
Table 7-3
Traffic Classification for Employee and Personal Devices WLANs/SSIDs
Application Class
Classification Criteria
Marking
Voice
Trust Marking from Client and/or Port Range
EF
Cisco Jabber (UDP/RTP 16384-32767)
Signaling
SCCP (TCP 2000) or SIP (TCP 5060-50610
CS3
Network Control
Network Control
CS6
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Table 7-3
Traffic Classification for Employee and Personal Devices WLANs/SSIDs
Interactive Video
Trust Marking from Client and/or Port Range
AF41
Cisco Jabber (UDP/RTP 16384-32767)
Microsoft Lync (TCP 50000-59999)
Transactional Data
HTTPS (TCP 443)
AF21
Citrix (TCP 3389, 5985, 8080)
Oracle (TCP 1521, 1527, 1575, 1630, 6200)
Bulk Data
FTP (TCP 20 & 21) or Secure FTP (TCP 22)
AF11
SMTP (TCP 25) or Secure SMTP (TCP 465)
IMAP (TCP 143) or Secure IMAP (TCP 993)
POP3 (TCP 11) or Secure POP3 (TCP 995)
Connected PC Backup (TCP 1914)
Scavenger
BitTorrent (TCP 6881-6999)
CS1
Apple iTunes (TCP/UDP 3689)
Microsoft Direct X Gaming (TCP/UDP 2300-2400)
Best Effort
Default (All Other Traffic Not Matched by Any Other Traffic Class) Default
The following configuration example shows the access-lists configured in order to map traffic classes as
shown in Figure 7-14.
!
ip access-list extended VOICE
remark - CISCO-JABBER-REDUCED-PORT-RANGE
permit udp any any range 16384 17384
!
ip access-list extended INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
remark CISCO-JABBER-RTP
permit udp any any range 17385 32767
remark MICROSOFT-LYNC
permit tcp any any range 50000 59999
!
ip access-list extended SIGNALING
remark SCCP
permit tcp any any eq 2000
remark SIP
permit tcp any any range 5060 5061
!
ip access-list extended TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
remark HTTPS
permit tcp any any eq 443
remark CITRIX
permit tcp any any eq 3389
permit tcp any any eq 5985
permit tcp any any eq 8080
remark ORACLE
permit tcp any any eq 1521
permit tcp any any eq 1527
permit tcp any any eq 1575
permit tcp any any eq 1630
permit tcp any any eq 6200
!
ip access-list extended BULK-DATA
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remark
permit
permit
remark
permit
remark
permit
permit
remark
permit
permit
remark
permit
permit
remark
permit
FTP
tcp any any eq ftp
tcp any any eq ftp-data
SSH/SFTP
tcp any any eq 22
SMTP/SECURE SMTP
tcp any any eq smtp
tcp any any eq 465
IMAP/SECURE IMAP
tcp any any eq 143
tcp any any eq 993
POP3/SECURE POP3
tcp any any eq pop3
tcp any any eq 995
CONNECTED PC BACKUP
tcp any eq 1914 any
!
ip access-list extended SCAVENGER
remark BITTORRENT
permit tcp any any range 6881 6999
remark APPLE ITUNES MUSIC SHARING
permit tcp any any eq 3689
permit udp any any eq 3689
remark MICROSOFT DIRECT X GAMING
permit tcp any any range 2300 2400
permit udp any any range 2300 2400
!
The following configuration example shows the class maps defined for the client-level policies.
!
class-map match-any VOICE
match dscp ef
match access-group VOICE
!
class-map match-any INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
match access-group name INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
!
class-map match-any SIGNALING
match dscp cs3
match access-group name SIGNALING
!
class-map match-any NETWORK-CONTROL
match dscp cs6
!
class-map match-any TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
match access-group name TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
!
class-map match-any BULK-DATA
match access-group name BULK-DATA
!
class-map match-any SCAVENGER
match access-group name SCAVENGER
!
Note that the example above intentionally highlights two methods to differentiate voice from video
traffic. First, if the wireless client correctly marks voice traffic to EF and video traffic to anything other
than EF, then voice traffic can be differentiated simply by its ingress DSCP marking, since typically both
voice and video flows utilize the full RTP port range of 16384-32767. However certain applications such
as Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM) also give the network administrator the ability to
define restricted port ranges for voice and video flows under the control of CUCM. The example above
shows Cisco Jabber voice flows being identified by either a DSCP marking of EF or an RTP port range
of 16384-17384. Jabber video flows are identified by an RTP port range of 17385-32767. Note that the
use of restricted port ranges as a method of differentiating voice from video flows should be used with
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caution and only when the network administrator has centralized control of the port ranges used by all
voice and video streams, as when CUCM is deployed. Otherwise video flows could be misclassified as
voice flows and vice-versa.
Note
Catalyst 3850 Series switches and CT5760 wireless LAN controllers only support the “match-any”
command within class-map definitions. The “match-all” command is not supported as of IOS XE
3.3.1SE.
Classification and Marking Policy
The following configuration example shows the policy map defined for the client-level policies for the
Employee and Personal Devices WLANs/SSIDs when implementing an upstream client-level policy
which includes only classification and marking.
!
policy-map REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
class VOICE
set dscp ef
class SIGNALING
set dscp cs3
class INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
set dscp af41
class TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
set dscp af21
class BULK-DATA
set dscp af11
class SCAVENGER
set dscp cs1
class class-default
set dscp default
!
Classification, Marking, and Policing Policy—Catalyst 3850 Only
Optionally, the network administrator may choose to police one or more traffic classes per client in the
upstream direction. This is similar to wired ingress port policies where voice and/or video traffic may
be policed more from a security perspective. Ingress policing may be applied in order to ensure an
intentional or unintentional misbehaving device does not consume all available bandwidth allocated for
real-time traffic, which would result in the degradation of all other real-time flows. Note that this policy
is only applicable to Catalyst 3850 Series switches. Upstream policing at the client-level policy is not
supported on the Cisco CT5760 wireless controller as of IOS XE software version 3.3.1SE.
The following configuration example shows the policy map defined for the client-level policies for the
Employee and Personal Devices WLANs/SSIDs, when implementing an upstream client-level policy
which includes classification and marking, as well as policing for the voice and video traffic classes. As
always, the network administrator can choose to police other traffic classes as business requirements
dictate.
policy-map REMARK_POLICE_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
class VOICE
set dscp ef
police cir 128000 bc 4000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
class SIGNALING
set dscp cs3
class INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
set dscp af41
police cir 768000 bc 24000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
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class
set
class
set
class
set
class
set
TRANSACTIONAL-DATA
dscp af21
BULK-DATA
dscp af11
SCAVENGER
dscp cs1
class-default
dscp default
!
Voice and video traffic flows are typically well-known and configurable in terms of their data rates per
client, which lends itself well to implementing ingress policing. In the example client-level policy map
above, voice traffic is policed to 128 Kbps and video traffic is policed to 768 Kbps per wireless client,
with a time constant (Tc) of 250 milliseconds for each policer. The network administrator will need to
take into account the Layer 2 (802.11) and Layer 3 (IP/UDP) protocol overhead when defining the
policed rates for voice and video streams. This is not shown, for simplicity, in the example above.
Note
The actual traffic rates received by a given client have been observed during validation testing to differ
by up to 10-15% from the configured rate. One reason for this may be protocol overhead, since the
configured policers and shapers are implemented on the Catalyst 3850 Series switch, and downstream
WiFi traffic is encapsulated within both a CAPWAP header as well as a Layer 2 Ethernet header, as it is
sent between the Catalyst 3850 Series switch and the Access Point. These headers are stripped off as the
802.11 frame is sent over the WiFi medium and received by the wireless client. Also, the 802.11 WiFi
medium itself is inherently contention-based and half-duplex in nature, requiring acknowledgement of
each frame, or in some cases groups of frames, received.
For the Guest, Provisioning, and IT Devices SSIDs, the assumption is all traffic will be simply re-marked
to the default (Best Effort) traffic class. The following configuration example shows the policy map
defined for the client-level policies for the Guest, Provisioning, and IT Devices WLANs/SSIDs, when
implementing an upstream client-level policy which includes only classification and marking.
!
policy-map DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
class class-default
set dscp default
!
Similar to the client-level policy for the Employee and Personal Devices WLANs/SSIDs, an ingress
policy map which includes a policer can also be applied to the Guest, Provisioning, and IT Devices
WLANs/SSIDs. In this case, since all traffic from any wireless client on these WLANs/SSIDs is
classified and re-marked to default, the policer would rate-limit the total ingress traffic from the wireless
client.
Static Application of Client-Level Policy
An example of the static application of either the REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT or
DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT client-level policy maps for each of the WLANs/SSIDs is shown in
the following sections.
Employee WLAN/SSID
!
wlan BYOD_Employee 1 BYOD_Employee
aaa-override
client vlan Employee
nac
service-policy output EMPLOYEE_DOWNSTREAM
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service-policy client input REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
session-timeout 300
no shutdown
!
For the Employee WLAN/SSID, the REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT policy is applied as an upstream
client policy.
Personal Devices WLAN/SSID
!
wlan BYOD_Personal_Device 4 BYOD_Personal_Device
client vlan Guest
mobility anchor 10.225.50.36
service-policy output PERSONAL_DOWNSTREAM
service-policy client input REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
session-timeout 1800
no shutdown
!
For the Personal Devices WLAN/SSID, the REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT policy is also applied as
an upstream client policy.
Guest WLAN/SSID
!
wlan BYOD_Guest 2 BYOD_Guest
aaa-override
client vlan BYOD_Guest
mobility anchor 10.225.50.36
no security wpa
no security wpa akm dot1x
no security wpa wpa2
no security wpa wpa2 ciphers aes
security web-auth
service-policy client input DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
service-policy output GUEST_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
no shutdown
!
For the Guest WLAN/SSID, the DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT policy, which remarks all traffic to
Best Effort, is applied as an upstream client policy.
Provisioning WLAN/SSID
!
wlan BYOD_Provisioning 3 BYOD_Provisioning
aaa-override
client vlan Provisioning
mac-filtering MAC_ALLOW
nac
no security wpa
no security wpa akm dot1x
no security wpa wpa2
no security wpa wpa2 ciphers aes
service-policy client input DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
service-policy output PROVISIONING_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
no shutdown
!
For the Provisioning WLAN/SSID, the DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT policy, which remarks all
traffic to Best Effort, is also applied as an upstream client policy.
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IT Devices WLAN/SSID
!
wlan IT_Devices 5 IT_Devices
aaa-override
client vlan Employee
mac-filtering MAC_ALLOW
nac
no security wpa
no security wpa akm dot1x
no security wpa wpa2
no security wpa wpa2 ciphers aes
service-policy client input DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
service-policy output IT_DEVICES_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 1800
no shutdown
!
For the IT Devices WLAN/SSID, the DEFAULT_UPSTREAM_CLIENT policy, which remarks all
traffic to Best Effort, is also applied as an upstream client policy.
Dynamic Application of Client-Level Policy
For each of the WLANs/SSIDs, an alternative design is to apply the client-level policy dynamically on
a per-client basis via a Radius attribute-value (AV) pair pushed from ISE during client authorization.
Figure 7-15 shows the configuration of the Employee WLAN/SSID for this.
Figure 7-15
Employee WLAN/SSID Configuration Example—Dynamic Mapping to Client
Catalyst 3850
Switch Stack
QoS Trust
Boundary
CAPWAP
Employee
SSID
AuthZ Policy
AuthZ Profile
Policy
Converged WiFi
Corporate Full and
Converged WiFi
Personal Full
Converged WiFi Full
Access
Cisco:cisco-av-pair= ip:sub-qos-policyin=REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
Converged WiFi
Personal Partial
Converged WiFi
Partial Access
Cisco:cisco-av-pair= ip:sub-qos-policyin=REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
Converged WiFi
Personal Internet
Converged WiFi
Internet Only
Cisco:cisco-av-pair= ip:sub-qos-policyin=REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
5
294888
Upstream
Client
Policies
!
wlan BYOD_Employee 1 BYOD_Employee
aaa-override
client vlan Employee
nac
service-policy output EMPLOYEE_DOWNSTREAM
session-timeout 300
no shutdown
!
On-boarded devices which access the Employee SSID will authenticate against one of the following
authorization policy rules with associated authorization profiles.
•
Converged WiFi Corporate Full—Converged Wifi Full Access
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•
Converged WiFi Personal Full—Converged Wifi Full Access
•
Converged WiFi Personal Partial—Converged Wifi Partial Access
•
Converged WiFi Personal Internet—Converged Wifi Partial Access
Since these authorization policy rules and associated authorization profiles are unique to Converged
Access designs within this design guide, the authorization profiles can be modified to add the following
Radius AV pair pushed to the client upon authorization:
cisco:cisco-av-pair=ip:sub-qos-policy-in=REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT
This will dynamically apply the REMARK_UPSTREAM_CLIENT policy to the client upon
authorization to the network. This can similarly be done for the other SSIDs so that the upstream
client-level policy is dynamically applied for all wireless clients regardless of the WLAN/SSID to which
they are connecting.
Note
Client-level policies applied dynamically through AAA Radius attribute-value pairs will override any
existing client-level policies statically assigned to the WLAN/SSID for the particular client.
Consistent naming of upstream client-level policies is necessary in a Converged Access design. QoS
policies are applied at the point-of-attachment (PoA)—meaning the Catalyst 3850 Series switch or
CT5760 which controls the access point to which the wireless client is associated. When a wireless client
roams between access points controlled by different Catalyst 3850 Series switches (or CT5760 WLCs
when implementing a hybrid Converged Access design), the point-of-attachment (PoA) of the wireless
client will change. The point-of-attachment (PoA) becomes the current Catalyst 3850 Series switch
which controls the access point to which the wireless client is associated, also known as the foreign
controller. The point-of-presence (PoP) remains the initial Catalyst 3850 Series switch, also known as
the anchor controller. The name of the QoS policy which was pushed down via the Radius AV pair from
ISE and dynamically applied to the wireless client when the client authenticated to the network will be
sent from the original Catalyst 3850 Series switch (initial PoA) to the current Catalyst 3850 Series
switch (current PoA) through the mobility tunnel. This is because the wireless client does not need to
re-authenticate when roaming. If the name of the client-level policy map sent through the mobility tunnel
does not match any policy maps defined on the new Catalyst 3850 Series switch (the foreign controller),
a policy name mismatch occurs, causing the wireless client to be excluded from the foreign controller.
Hence roaming will not function properly unless the names of the client-level policies dynamically
applied to wireless clients are consistent across Converged Access controllers within the deployment.
Note also that when implementing a hybrid Converged Access design, in which CT5760 wireless
controllers also directly support access points, policing within the upstream client-level policy is
currently not supported. Therefore in order to avoid potential roaming issues, it is not recommended to
implement policing in upstream client-level policies which are dynamically applied to wireless clients
in a hybrid Converged Access design, even though the Catalyst 3850 Series switches support it.
Mobility Traffic QoS Policy
Policy 6 in Figure 7-3 through Figure 7-5 indicates the marking of mobility control traffic across the
network infrastructure.
With the older non-hierarchical mobility architecture, UDP port 16666 is used to transport unencrypted
mobility control packets. UDP port 16667 was used to transport IPsec encrypted mobility control
packets, although this protocol is no longer in use as of CUWN 5.x code and higher. Ethernet-over-IP
(IP port 97) is used to tunnel the actual mobility data traffic.
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Application Visibility and Control (AVC)
With the new (hierarchical) mobility architecture, a CAPWAP header (and hence a CAPWAP tunnel) is
implemented inside UDP port 16666, which is used to transport mobility control packets. The payload
inside the CAPWAP header is also encrypted via DTLS. Hence mobility control packets are encrypted
for security. Mobility data traffic is sent via UDP port 16667. The mobility data traffic is also
encapsulated within a CAPWAP header (and hence a CAPWAP tunnel) inside UDP port 16667. This
replaces the use of Ethernet-over-IP for tunneling mobility data traffic.
Note
Converged Access platforms only support the new (hierarchical) mobility architecture.
For this design guide, mobility control traffic between Catalyst 3850 switches and Cisco 5760 wireless
controllers is configured to be marked with a DSCP value of 48, corresponding to CS6. The following
global configuration command on Catalyst 3860 platforms as well as CT5760 wireless controllers will
cause CAPWAP mobility traffic to be marked as CS6:
!
wireless mobility dscp 48
!
The DSCP marking of wireless mobility data traffic is preserved from the marking the data traffic has as
it traverses the CAPWAP tunnel between the access point and the Catalyst 3850 Series switch. Hence
the QoS marking of wireless client traffic is preserved during client roaming.
Application Visibility and Control (AVC)
Beginning with Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) software release 7.4, the Application
Visibility and Control set of features—already supported on Cisco routing platforms such as ASR 1000s
and ISR G2s—became available on WLC platforms, including the Cisco 2500, 5500, 7500, 8500 WLCs,
and WiSM2 controllers on Local and FlexConnect Modes (for WLANs configured for central switching
only in 7.4 release).
The AVC feature set increases the efficiency, productivity, and manageability of the wireless network.
Additionally, the support of AVC embedded within the WLAN infrastructure extends Cisco’s
application-based QoS solutions end-to-end.
Business use-cases for AVC policies include:
•
Guaranteeing voice quality from wireless applications meets enterprise VoIP requirements.
•
Ensuring video applications—both interactive and streaming—are delivered to/from wireless
devices with a high Quality of Experience, so that users can communicate and collaborate more
efficiently and effectively-regardless of their location or device.
•
Provisioning preferred services for business-critical applications running on wireless devices, such
as Virtual Desktop applications, sales applications, customer relationship management (CRM)
applications, and enterprise resource planning (ERP) applications, etc.
•
De-prioritizing “background” application traffic (i.e., applications that send data to/from servers,
rather than directly to other users and which do not directly impact user-productivity), such as email,
file-transfers, content distribution, backup operations, software updates, etc.
•
Identifying and de-prioritizing (or dropping) non-business applications, which can include social
networking applications, peer-to-peer file-sharing applications, and type of entertainment and/or
gaming applications so that network resources are always available for business-oriented
applications.
AVC includes these components:
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•
Next-generation Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) technology called Network Based Application
Recognition (NBAR2), which allows for identification and classification of applications. NBAR is
a deep-packet inspection technology available on Cisco IOS based platforms, which includes
support of stateful L4-L7 classification.
•
QoS—Ability to remark applications using DiffServ, which can then be leveraged to prioritize or
de-prioritize applications over both the wired and wireless networks.
•
A template for Cisco NetFlow v9 to select and export data of interest to Cisco Prime or a third-party
NetFlow collector to collect, analyze, and save reports for troubleshooting, capacity planning, and
compliance purposes.
These AVC components are shown in Figure 7-16.
Cisco AVC Components
Inspect Packet
Platinum
Gold
Traffic
Silver
Bronze
NBAR LIBRARY
Deep Packet Inspection
POLICY
Packet Mark and Drop
NetFlow
Key Fields
• Source IP address
• Destination IP address
• Source Port
• Destination port
• Layer 3 protocol
• TOS byte (DSCP)
• Input Interface
NetFlow Cache
2
Flow Information
Packets
Bytes/packets
Address, ports...
...
11000
1528
Create a Flow from the Packet Attributes
NETFLOW (STATIC TEMPLATE)
provides Flow Export
294011
Figure 7-16
AVC on the WLC inherits NBAR2 from Cisco IOS that provides deep packet inspection technology to
classify stateful L4-L7 application classification. This is critical technology for application
management, as it is no longer a straightforward matter of configuring an access list based on the TCP
or UDP port number(s) to positively identify an application. In fact, as applications have
matured—particularly over the past decade—an ever increasing number of applications have become
opaque to such identification. For example, HTTP protocol (TCP port 80) can carry thousands of
potential applications within it and in today’s networks seems to function more as a transport protocol
rather than as the OSI application-layer protocol that it was originally designed as. Therefore to identify
applications accurately, Deep Packet Inspection technologies—such as NBAR2—are critical.
Once applications are recognized by the NBAR engine by their discrete protocol signatures, it registers
this information in a Common Flow Table so that other WLC features can leverage this classification
result. Such features include Quality of Service (QoS), NetFlow, and firewall features, all of which can
take action based on this detailed classification.
Thus AVC provides:
•
Application Visibility on the Cisco WLC by enabling Application Visibility for any WLAN
configured. Once Application Visibility is turned on, the NBAR engine classifies applications on
that particular WLAN. Application Visibility on the WLC can be viewed at an overall network level,
per WLAN, or per client. An example of a per-client application visibility report is illustrated in
Figure 7-17.
•
Application Control on the Cisco WLC by creating an AVC profile (or policy) and attaching it to a
WLAN. The AVC Profile supports QoS rules per application and provides the following actions to
be taken on each classified application: Mark (with DSCP), Permit (and transmit unchanged), or
Drop. An example of an AVC profile is shown in Figure 7-18, Figure 7-19, and Figure 7-20.
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A client-based AVC report—such as shown in Figure 7-17—can show the top applications by device.
AVC reports can also be compiled by WLAN or at the overall network level.
Figure 7-17
Cisco AVC Application Visibility Reports
An AVC profile—a collection of individual application policy rules—can be configured via the WLC
GUI or CLI. In Figure 7-18 an AVC application rule is being configured for voice traffic sourced-from
or destined-to Cisco wireless devices. This traffic is identified via an NBAR2 signature named
cisco-phone and is marked as DSCP 46 (EF) and assigned to the Platinum Wireless Multi-Media
(WMM) access-category for the highest level of service over the air.
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Figure 7-18
Cisco AVC Profile Example 1—Creating an AVC Policy Rule
An AVC profile can contain up to 32 individual application rules, as is shown in Figure 7-19, containing
recommended policies for the following classes of application traffic (as based on RFC 4594):
•
Voice
•
Video
•
Multimedia Conferencing
•
Multimedia Streaming
•
Transactional Data
•
Bulk Data
•
Scavenger applications
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Figure 7-19
Cisco AVC Profile Example 2—Displaying a Comprehensive AVC Policy
Once an AVC profile has been assembled, it can be applied to a WLAN(s), as shown in Figure 7-20. AVC
policies are applied bi-directionally—that is, in the upstream and downstream directions simultaneously.
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Figure 7-20
Cisco AVC Profile Example 3—Applying an AVC Profile to a WLAN
AVC supports over 1000 applications in its initial release for WLCs. Some of these applications-grouped
by business case-are:
To ensure voice quality for wireless devices, the cisco-phone application would typically be assigned to
the Platinum (Voice) WMM access category via AVC. However, additional VoIP applications may
include:
•
aol-messenger-audio
•
audio-over-http
•
fring-voip
•
gtalk-voip
•
yahoo-voip-messenger
•
yahoo-voip-over-sip
Similarly, to protect video and multimedia applications, the following applications might be assigned to
the Gold (Video) WMM access-category via AVC:
•
cisco-ip-camera
•
telepresence-media
•
webex-meeting
•
ms-lync-media
•
aol-messenger-video
•
fring-video
•
gtalk-video
•
livemeeting
•
msn-messenger-video
•
rhapsody
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Note
•
skype
•
video-over-http
It may be that some of these video conferencing applications may be considered non-business in nature
(such as Skype and gtalk-video), in which case these may be provisioned into the Bronze (Background)
WMM access category.
To deploy AVC policies to protect the signaling protocols relating to these voice and video applications,
the following applications might be marked to the Call-Signaling marking of CS3 (DSCP 24) via AVC:
•
sip
•
sip-tls
•
skinny
•
telepresence-control
•
h323
•
rtcp
To deploy policies to protect business-critical applications, the following applications might be marked
AF21 (DSCP 18) via AVC:
•
citrix
•
ms-lync
•
ms-dynamics-crm-online
•
salesforce
•
sap
•
oraclenames
•
perforce
•
phonebook
•
semantix
•
synergy
On the other hand, some business applications would be best serviced in the background by assigning
these to the Bronze (Background) WMM access category via AVC:
•
ftp/ftp-data/ftps-data
•
cifs
•
exchange
•
notes
•
smtp
•
imap/secure imap
•
pop3/secure pop3
•
gmail
•
hotmail
•
yahoo-mail
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Cisco Jabber
And finally, many non-business applications can be controlled by either being assigned to the Bronze
(Background) WMM access category or dropped via AVC policies:
Note
•
youtube
•
netflix
•
facebook
•
twitter
•
bittorrent
•
hulu
•
itunes
•
picasa
•
call-of-duty
•
doom
•
directplay8
It is important to note that these are only example applications and do not represent an exhaustive list of
applications by class. With over a thousand applications to choose from, these lists are simplified for the
sake of brevity and serve only to illustrate AVC policy options and concepts.
For comprehensive design guidance on using the AVC feature for WLCs, see: Chapter 24, “Mobile
Traffic Engineering with Application Visibility and Control (AVC).”
Cisco Jabber
Cisco’s Jabber clients are unified communications (UC) applications that are available for Android and
Apple mobile devices as well as Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac computers. These client
applications provide instant messaging (IM), presence, voice, video, and visual voicemail features.
These features require that the employee-owned device is allowed to establish call signaling flows
between the device itself and the corporate Cisco Unified Communications Manager (Unified CM)
server, typically deployed within the campus data center. Note that the Basic Access use case discussed
above terminates employee-owned devices on a DMZ segment off of the Internet Edge firewall. Cisco
Jabber requires only Internet access to access WebEx cloud-based services like IM, meetings, and
point-to-point voice and video calls. However, to deliver these same services with on-premise corporate
assets such as Unified CM and other back-end UC applications, connectivity through the firewall is
required for Jabber features to function. In addition to signaling, media flows also need to be allowed
between the Jabber client and other IP voice and video endpoints, such as corporate IP phones deployed
throughout the corporate network. This requires the network administrator to allow a range of addresses
and ports inbound from the DMZ segment through the Internet Edge firewall. Given these connectivity
considerations for real time communications and collaboration, the network administrator may instead
decide to implement the Enhanced Access use case discussed above. With this BYOD model, the
employee-owned devices are on-boarded (registered with the Cisco ISE server and provisioned with
digital certificates) and terminated on the inside of the corporate network. This requires no modifications
to the Internet Edge firewall, and potentially fewer security concerns.
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Cisco Jabber Clients and the Cisco BYOD Infrastructure
Cisco Jabber, a Cisco mobile client application, provides core Unified Communications and
collaboration capabilities, including voice, video, and instant messaging to users of mobile devices such
as Android and Apple iOS smartphones and tablets. When a Cisco Jabber client device is attached to the
corporate wireless LAN, the client can be deployed within the Cisco Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)
infrastructure.
Because Cisco Jabber clients rely on enterprise wireless LAN connectivity or remote secure attachment
through VPN, they can be deployed within the Cisco Unified Access network and can utilize the
identification, security, and policy features and functions delivered by the BYOD infrastructure.
The Cisco BYOD infrastructure provides a range of access use cases or scenarios to address various
device ownership and access requirements. The following high-level access use case models should be
considered:
•
Enhanced Access—This comprehensive use case provides network access for corporate, personal,
and contractor/partner devices. It allows a business to build a policy that enables granular role-based
application access and extends the security framework on and off-premises.
•
Advanced Access —This use case introduces MDM integration with Enhanced Access.
•
Limited Access—Enables access exclusively to corporate issued devices.
•
Basic Access—This use case is an extension of traditional wireless guest access. It represents an
alternative where the business policy is to not on-board/register employee wireless personal devices,
but still provides Internet-only or partial access to the network.
Use Case Impact on Jabber
The Enhanced use case allows the simplest path for implementing a Cisco Jabber solution. Cisco Jabber
clients, whether running on corporate or personal devices, require access to numerous back-end,
on-premise enterprise application components for full functionality. The Enhanced Access use case will
allow access from corporate devices with the option of allowing access from personal devices for Jabber
back-end applications.
The Limited Access use case will allow Jabber use only from corporate devices.
Basic Access adds a significant layer of complexity for personal devices, requiring them to have access
to back-end on-premise Jabber applications from the DMZ. Various signal, control, and media paths
must be allowed through the firewall for full functionality.
In the case of cloud-based collaboration services, Cisco mobile clients and devices connect directly to
the cloud through the Internet without the need for VPN or full enterprise network attachment. In these
scenarios, user and mobile devices can be deployed using the Basic Access model because these use
cases require only Internet access.
Other Jabber Design Considerations
When deploying Cisco Jabber clients within the Cisco BYOD infrastructure, consider the following
high-level design and deployment guidelines:
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•
The network administrator should strongly consider allowing voice- and video-capable clients to
attach to the enterprise network in the background (after initial provisioning), without user
intervention, to ensure maximum use of the enterprises telephony infrastructure. Specifically, use of
certificate-based identity and authentication helps facilitate an excellent user experience by
minimizing network connection and authentication delay.
•
In scenarios where Cisco Jabber clients are able to connect remotely to the enterprise network
through a secure VPN:
– The network administrator should weigh the corporate security policy against the need for
seamless secure connectivity without user intervention to maximize utilization of the enterprise
telephony infrastructure. The use of certificate-based authentication and enforcement of a
device PIN lock policy provides seamless attachment without user intervention and
functionality similar to two-factor authentication because the end user must possess the device
and know the PIN lock to access the network. If two-factor authentication is mandated, then user
intervention will be required in order for the device to attach remotely to the enterprise.
– It is important for the infrastructure firewall configuration to allow all required client
application network traffic to access the enterprise network. Failure to open access to
appropriate ports and protocols at the corporate firewall could result in an inability of Cisco
Jabber clients to register to on-premises Cisco call control for voice and video telephony
services and/or the loss of other client features such as enterprise directory access or enterprise
visual voicemail.
•
When enterprise collaboration applications such as Cisco Jabber are installed on employee-owned
mobile devices, if the enterprise security policy requires the device to be wiped or reset to factory
default settings under certain conditions, device owners should be made aware of the policy and
encouraged to backup personal data from their device regularly.
•
When deploying Cisco Jabber, it is important for the underlying network infrastructure to support,
end-to-end , the necessary QoS classes of service, including priority queuing for voice media and
dedicated video and signaling bandwidth, to ensure the quality of client application voice and video
calls and appropriate behavior of all features.
For further information regarding Cisco Jabber clients, see the product collateral and documentation at:
http://www.cisco.com/go/jabber.
For further information regarding Cisco Mobile Unified Communications, see the Cisco Unified
Communications System 9.X SRND at:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/voice_ip_comm/cucm/srnd/9x/mobilapp.html.
License Requirements for BYOD Solution
Cisco ISE comes with several license options, such as Evaluation, Base, Advanced, and Wireless. For
this design to be implemented, ISE requires the Advanced license option. To obtain more information
on licensing, see:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11640/tsd_products_support_series_home.html.
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