Metal Parts Using Additive Technologies

Metal Parts Using Additive Technologies
3/3/2017
Fundamentals of Additive
Manufacturing for Aerospace
Frank Medina, Ph.D.
Technology Leader, Additive Manufacturing
Director, Additive Manufacturing Consortium
fmedina@ewi.org
915-373-5047
Intent of This Talk



Introduce the general methods for forming metal parts using
additive manufacturing
Give multiple examples of each type of method
Compare and contrast the methods given
Disclaimer:
– This talk serves as an introduction to the various additive manufacturing
technologies which work with metals. There are so many methods available
we will not have time to discuss them all.
– Once you determine the right approach for you, please investigate different
machine manufacturers and service providers to determine the optimal
solution for your needs.
– I have tried to be objective in the presentation. Where I can I have given the
affiliations for the materials used. If I’ve missed any I apologize in advance.
About me and EWI

I am a Technology Leader at EWI specializing in additive manufacturing (AM) with a focus
on Metals AM. I have over 17 years of AM experience, collaborating with research
scientists, engineers, and medical doctors to develop new equipment and devices.

Non-profit applied manufacturing R&D company
─ Develops, commercializes, and implements leading-edge manufacturing technologies for
innovative businesses

Thought-leader in many cross-cutting technologies
─ >160,000 sq-ft in 3 facilities with full-scale test labs (expanding)
─ >$40 million in state of the art capital equipment (expanding)
─ >170 engineers, technicians, industry experts (expanding)
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Structural Gap between Research
and Application
Technology Maturity Scale
Source: NIST AMNPO presentation Oct. 2012
EWI Applied R&D Bridges the Gap
Between Research and Application
EWI Applied R&D:
Manufacturing Technology
Innovation, Maturation,
Commercialization, Insertion
Technology Maturity Scale
Source: NIST AMNPO presentation Oct. 2012
Deep Technical Capabilities



Leading edge: unique national resource in our manufacturing
technology areas
Cross cutting: impact a wide range manufacturing sectors and client
applications
Applied: full-scale equipment and manufacturing technology
application expertise
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Connecting Colorado to EWI’s Capabilities
Nationally



EWI Colorado opening in 2016
Customers have access to EWI capabilities nationally
Among the broadest range of metal AM capabilities
1984 Columbus OH:
Joining, forming, metal additive mfg,
materials characterization, testing
2016 Loveland CO:
Quality assessment: NDE,
process monitoring, health
monitoring
2015 Buffalo NY:
Agile automation, machining, metal
additive mfg, metrology
Growing Range of Cross-Cutting
Manufacturing Technologies
Materials
Joining
Forming
Agile
Automation
Machining &
Finishing
Applied Materials
Science
Testing &
Characterization
Additive
Manufacturing
Quality
Measurement
8
EWI AM Capabilities Overview
Laser PBF
EOS M280
Electron Beam PBF
Arcam A2X
Laser PBF – Open Architecture
EWI-Designed and Built
Laser DED
RPM 557
Electron Beam DED
Siacky EBAM 110
Sheet Lamination UAM
Fabrisonic
9
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Metal Parts Using Additive Technologies
Metals Today
New Wohlers Report states Additive
Manufacturing market worth $4.1 billion in 2014.
Now it is estimated ~$20 billion by 2020.
Many companies are going into production with
metals AM.
GE Today
GE Installs First Additive-Made Engine Part in GE90
The U.S Federal Aviation Administration granted
certification of the sensor, which provides
pressure and temperature measurements for the
engine’s control system, in February. Engineers
have begun retrofitting the upgraded T25
sensor, located in the inlet to the high-pressure
compressor, into more than 400 GE90-94B
engines in service. The new shape of the
housing, made from a cobalt-chrome alloy,
better protects the sensor’s electronics from
icing and airflow that might damage it, according
to GE.
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Pratt & Whitney Today
Pratt & Whitney has announced that when it delivers its first production PurePower®
PW1500G engines to Bombardier this year, the engines will be the first ever to
feature entry-into-service jet engine parts produced using Additive Manufacturing.
Rolls-Royce Today
Biggest engine part
made with Additive
Manufacturing
1.5 meter diameter
bearing housing inside
a Rolls-Royce Trent
XWB-97
Avio Aero Today
Material: γ-TiAl Size: 8 x 12 x 325 mm
Weight: 0.5 kg Build time: 7 hours /
blade
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Exploding Markets


Not Just Aviation
Medical
─ Over 6,000 interbody fusion devices have been implanted since 2013
─ Over 50,000 acetabular cups have been implanted since 2007
Height ~30
mm
Diameter ~50
mm
Adler Ortho, IT
2007-
Lima, IT
2007-
Exactech, US
2010-
Exploding Markets

Space

Defense
─ Satellites and Space Vehicles
─ Armed Forces
─UAVs
─ New Material Development
Space Examples
Hot-fire tests of key additively
manufactured components for its
AR1 booster engine
Evolution of existing multi-part bracket to
ALM concept for Eurostar
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Seven AM Technologies
In order to help standardize additive manufacturing in the
United States the ASTM F42 Committee on Additive
Manufacturing Technologies was formed in 2009 and
categorized AM technologies into seven categories
including Vat Photopolymerization, Material Extrusion,
Powder Bed Fusion, Material Jetting, Binder Jetting,
Sheet Lamination, Directed Energy Deposition (F42
Committee. 2012).
Types of Additive Manufacturing
ASTM International:
Technical Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing
Vat Photopolymerization
Material
Jetting
Binder
Jetting
Powder Bed
Fusion
Directed Energy
Deposition
Sheet
Lamination
Material
Extrusion
Vat Photopolymerization
Liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by
light-activated polymerization
Processes:
• Stereolithography (SL)
• Digital Light Projection
(DLP)
• Scan, Spin, Selectively
Photocure (3SP)
Materials:
• UV Curable
Photopolymers (acrylate,
epoxy & vinylether)
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Stereolithography
For each layer, the laser beam traces a cross-section of the part pattern on
the surface of the liquid resin. Exposure to the ultraviolet laser light cures and
solidifies the pattern traced on the resin and joins it to the layer below. After
the pattern has been traced, the SLA's elevator platform descends by a
distance equal to the thickness of a single layer, typically 0.05 mm to
0.15 mm (0.002" to 0.006"). Then, a resin-filled blade sweeps across the cross
section of the part, re-coating it with fresh material. On this new liquid
surface, the subsequent layer pattern is traced, joining the previous layer.
Stereolithography
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4y-m1URlh00
Digital Light Projection
The Perfactory® system builds 3D objects from liquid resin using a
projector. This projector is almost identical to those found in high quality
presentation and commercial theater systems, known as Digital Light
Processing or DLP® projectors. It builds solid 3D objects by using the
DLP® projector to project voxel data into liquid resin, which then causes
the resin to cure from liquid to solid. Each voxel data-set made up of tiny
voxels (volumetric pixels), with dimensions as small as 16μm x 16 μm x 15
μm in X, Y and Z direction.
Z-Stage
Photopolymer
Part
Projector
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Digital Light Projection
https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLFHnUwIG6_pf-q7cCK45g2ooP1hCTjJyE&v=83mRO4_dBbY
Material Jetting
Droplets of build material are selectively deposited
Processes:
• Drop On Demand
• Smooth Curvature
Printing
• Multi-Jet Printing
• PolyJet Printing
Materials:
• UV Curable
Photopolymers
• Wax
http://www.engatech.com/objet-3d-printing-technology.asp
Wax Drop On Demand
Solidscape® 3D printers are primarily used to produce "wax-like" patterns
for lost-wax casting/investment casting and mold making applications.
The 3D printers create solid, three-dimensional parts through an
additive, layer-by-layer process with a layer thickness [mm] from .00625
to .0762 and a resolution of [dpi] 5,000 x 5,000 x 8,000 XYZ.
The patterns produced are extremely high resolution with vibrant details
and outstanding surface finish. The printers combine drop-on-demand
("DoD") thermoplastic ink-jetting technology and high-precision milling
of each layer.
Vectored Jetting
(Droplet Size - .0762 mm)
X-Y Motion
Precision Machining
Dissolvable
Supports
Object Model
Build Table
Z – Motion
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Wax Drop On Demand
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gM86qxW7vP8
Multi-Jet Printing
The ProJet uses Multi-Jet Printing technologies from 3D Systems to print
durable, precision plastic parts ideal for functional testing, design
communication, rapid manufacturing, rapid tooling and more. It works
with VisiJet materials in UV curable plastic, in a range of colors,
translucency, and tensile strengths. Support material is a melt-away
white wax.
Print Head
Planer
Wax
UV-Curable Polymer
UV Lamp
Multi-Jet Printing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE6wsdPcLZk
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Poly Jet Printing
PolyJet 3D printing is similar to inkjet printing, but instead of jetting
drops of ink onto paper, the PolyJet 3D Printers jet layers of curable liquid
photopolymer onto a build tray. Fine layers accumulate on the build tray
to create a precise 3D model or prototype. Where overhangs or complex
shapes require support, the 3D printer jets a removable gel-like support
material.
Poly Jet Printing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbjcfplk8Ig
Binder Jetting
Liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join
powder material
Processes:
• Digital Part
Materialization
• ColorJet Printing
• V-Jet (3D Printing)
Materials:
• Metals
• Polymers
• Foundry Sand
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ColorJet Printing
ColorJet Printing (CJP) is an additive manufacturing technology which
involves two major components – core and binder. The Core™ material is
spread in thin layers over the build platform with a roller. After each
layer is spread, color binder is selectively jetted from inkjet print heads
over the core layer, which causes the core to solidify.
http://www.tavco.net/wide-format-plotter-scanner-blog/bid/128038/How-to-Print-a-3D-Architectural-Model-on-a-ProJet-660-from-3D-Systems
ColorJet Printing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sJKJruSAT_Q
Material Extrusion
Material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or
orifice
Processes:
• Fused Deposition
Modeling™ (FDM)
• Fused Filament
Fabrication (FFF)
Materials:
• Thermoplastics
• Wax
http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/fused-deposition-modeling
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Fused Deposition Modeling
A plastic or wax material is extruded through a nozzle that traces the part's
cross sectional geometry layer by layer. The build material is usually supplied
in filament form. The nozzle contains resistive heaters that keep the plastic at
a temperature just above its melting point so that it flows easily through the
nozzle and forms the layer. The plastic hardens immediately after flowing from
the nozzle and bonds to the layer below. Once a layer is built, the platform
lowers, and the extrusion nozzle deposits another layer.
http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/fused-deposition-modeling
http://www.designerdata.nl/productietechnieken/fused_deposition_modeling.php?lang=en
Fused Deposition Modeling
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHO6G67GJbM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WoZ2BgPVtA0
Fused Deposition Modeling
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Fused Filament Fabrication
Fused Filament Fabrication is equivalent to Fused Deposition Modeling. A
fused filament fabrication tool deposits a filament of a material (such as
plastic, wax, or metal) on top or alongside the same material, making a
joint (by heat or adhesion). FDM is trademarked by Stratasys, so the term
fused filament fabrication (FFF), was coined by the RepRap project to
provide a phrase that would be legally unconstrained in its use.
http://reprap.org/wiki/Fused_filament_fabrication
Fused Filament Fabrication
Powder Bed Fusion
Thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a
powder bed
Processes:
• Selective Laser Sintering
(SLS)
• Direct Metal Laser
Sintering (DMLS)
• Electron Beam Melting
(EBM)
Materials:
• Polymers
• Metals
• Ceramics
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Selective Laser Sintering
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing technology
developed under sponsorship by the Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA) and acquired in 2001 by 3D Systems. SLS uses high power
CO2 lasers to fuse plastic, metal or ceramic powder particles together, layerby-layer, to form a solid model. The system consists of a laser, part chamber,
and control system.
http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/selective-laser-sintering
Selective Laser Sintering
Selective Laser Sintering
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Selective Laser Sintering
Selective Laser Sintering
Selective Laser Sintering
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=srg6fRtc-oc
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Directed Energy Deposition
Focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by
melting as the material is deposited
Processes:
• Laser Engineered Net
Shaping (LENS)
• Direct Metal Deposition
(DM3D)
• Laser Deposition
Technology (LDT)
• Electron Beam Additive
Manufacturing (EBAM)
Materials:
• Metals
Laser Engineered Net Shaping
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqFAGb4wLEs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCtAVUPb9w8
Electron Beam Additive Mfg
Sciaky launched its groundbreaking Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
(EBAM) process in 2009, as the only large-scale, fully-programmable means of
achieving near-net shape parts made of Titanium, Tantalum, Inconel and
other high-value metals. Sciaky’s EBAM process can produce parts up to 19' x
4' x 4' (L x W x H), allowing manufacturers to produce very large parts and
structures, with virtually no waste.
http://www.popular3dprinters.com/electron-beam-freeform-fabrication/
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Sheet Lamination
Sheets of material are bonded to form an object
Processes:
• Layered Object
Manufacturing (LOM)
• Paper Lamination
Technology (PLT)
• Ultrasonic Additive
Manufacturing (UAM)
Materials:
• Paper
• Metals
http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=1650
Three Approaches to Metal AM
 Pattern-Based
─ The AM-produced part is used as a pattern for a casting process. The
part is destroyed or consumed during secondary processing.
 Indirect
─ The AM Process creates a powdered metal green part. Secondary
furnace processing is necessary to create the final part
 Direct
─ The AM Process directly joins or deposits metal material to form the final
part
The manufacturers of each piece of equipment is typically identified at
the bottom of the slide
First General Approach: Pattern-Based
Processes
 AM-Produced
Patterns are used as:
─ Investment Casting Patterns
─ Sand Casting Molds
─ Rubber Mold Patterns
─ Spray Metal Patterns
 Pattern
methods are often the least expensive,
easiest methods for obtaining a metal part from the
desired alloy
 Other traditional and non-traditional replication
processes can and are used with patterns as well
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AM Process Considerations for Pattern
Fabrication
 Accuracy
& Surface Finish of the Pattern Will
Directly Influence the Part for all PatternBased Processes
 Ash Content of Material is Critical for
Investment Casting
 Out-gassing of Material is Critical for Sand
Casting
 Release Characteristics are Important for
Rubber & Metal Spray Processes
Investment Casting Patterns
 Stereolithography
– QuickCast Technology
─ Remains one of the most popular techniques
─ Accurate with a good surface finish (internal truss structure)
─ Drawback is that it often needs a special burn-out procedure and
the ash content must be controlled
 Wax-based
AM processes make excellent patterns
─ Often can be implemented with no change within the investment
casting operation
 Starch
and polymers with low ash content are also
available
Investment Casting StereoLithographyQuick Cast
Apply Slurry and Stucco
Wax Gating
Flash Fire De-Wax
Metal Pour
Quick Cast
CAD
Final Part
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Investment Casting StereoLithographyRTV-Wax
SLA RP Model
Wax Pattern created
AL Metal Part Casting
Sand Casting Patterns
 Using
several different processes, you can
directly make a sand casting mold in an AM
process
─3D Printing (e.g. ExOne, Soligen & 3D Systems(ZCorp)
and SLS (e.g. EOS) are the primary commercialized
methods.
ExOne Sand Casting Patterns
 Rapid
Casting
Technology (RCT)
─Contrast Traditional
Foundry Practices to
ExOne Digital Part
Materialization
Eliminated
Processes
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Binder Jetting Technology
M-Flex (Fast & Versatile)
• Most complete system available @ 10x speed
• Materials: stainless steel, bronze, tungsten
• Resolution: 63 μm (xy), 100μm (z)
• Speed: 1 layer / 30 seconds (100 μm minimum)
• Build Volume = 400 x 250 x 250 mm (15.7 x 9.8 x 9.8 in)
Innovent (Materials Research)

Small scale system for material & process development

Materials: metal (steel, bronze, tungsten) & glass

Resolution: 63 μm (xy), 100μm (z)

Speed: 1 layer / min (50 μm minimum)

Build Volume = 160 x 65 x 65 mm (6.3 x 2.5 x 2.5 in)
Binder Jetting Technology
VoxelJet 3D Printing
The VXC800 is a continuous 3D printer. This innovation allows the building and
unpacking process steps to run simultaneously, without having to interrupt system
operations. This leap in technology has become possible thanks to a novel
pending patent design featuring a horizontal belt conveyor that controls the layer
building process. The layers are built at the entrance of the belt conveyor, while the
unpacking takes place at the exit.
http://www.3ders.org/articles/20120412-voxeljet-introduces-first-continuous-3d-printing-machine.html
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VoxelJet 3D Printing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=maO3XxB1imU#t=57
VoxelJet 3D Printing
http://www.voxeljet.de/fileadmin/Voxeljet/Systems/VX_4000/voxeljet_3D-printer_VX4000.pdf
ExOne Sand Casting Patterns
Part Concept
Mold Design
Mold Package
t = 2 days
t=0
Process Simulation
t = 4 days
3D Print Mold & Cores
t = 6 days
Finished Casting
Digital Casting Production All Digital – No
Patterns or Tooling
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ExOne Sand Casting Patterns Examples
Magnesium Brake Housing
Internal pipe cores or cored lines
Total time to manufacture 5 sets: 3 days
ExOne Sand Casting Patterns Examples
11 Days - Structural Cast Aluminum Housing
Customer: Automotive
Material: Aluminum
Part Size: 12 x 9.5 x 8.7 in.
Part Weight: 6.5 lbs.
Individual mold parts: 4
Batch size: 1
Lead time: 11 days
Pattern Review
 AM
Patterns are consistently used to produce metal
parts for investment casting applications. QuickCast
SLA parts, and photopolymer / wax parts made using
ink-jet printing (binder droplet techniques) are the
most common.
 Sand casting molds can be made directly from 3D
Printing and Laser Sintering
 Any AM part can be used in conjunction with silicone
rubber molding to form metal parts
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Second General Approach:
Indirect Metal AM Processes
 Create
Powder Metal Green Part
(Vaporize the polymer binder)
 Sinter (Long-term sintering can cause densification
to high densities)
 Infiltrate (Porosity is filled with a secondary material)
 Debind
ExOne Metal Method
ExOne Metal Method
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ExOne Materials
Current Commercially Available Materials
–
–
–
–
–
–
400 Series Stainless Steel /Bronze
300 Series Stainless Steel/ Bronze
M4 Tool Steel
Solid Bronze
Tungsten / Copper
Glass
ExOne Materials
Stainless Steel /
Bronze Composite
ExOne Materials
Available Surface
Finishes
RA
600
RA
350
RA
50
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ExOne Metal Examples



27 individual components
reduced to a single piece
Reduction of documentation
and time
Delivered in 3 days
Third General Approach: Direct Metal
Processes
3
Types of Commercialized Equipment
─ Powder-bed fusion processes
─Laser or Electron Beam processes available
─ Directed Energy Deposition processes
─Powder or wire feed plus lasers or electron beams enable one to
deposit/melt metal onto a substrate
─ Ultrasonic consolidation
 Other
Direct Metal Approaches are less common
─ Welding
─ Plasma Deposition
─ Molten Droplet Printing
─ Metal Extrusion
─ Etc…
Powder Bed Fusion of Metals
 No
North American Manufacturers
─ Available from many European Companies
─ Well “3DSystems” in France
 Laser-based
processes (commonly known as
“Selective Laser Melting”)
─ EOS (DMLS)
─ ConceptLaser (Laser CUSING)
─ 3DSystems (formerly Phenix Systems) (DMLS)
─ Renishaw (formerly MTT) (SLM)
─ SLM Solutions (formerly MTT) (SLM)
 Electron-beam
based
─ Arcam (EBM)
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Metal Powder Bed Fusion General
Operating Principle




The original machines used 100 watt
CO2 lasers and have upgraded to Ybfibre lasers that can have 100- 1000
watts.
The majority of the systems are
operated at room temperature and
pressure and is maintained in a
Nitrogen or Argon environment
depending on the building material.
The Technology is capable of scan
speeds of 20 m/s, has variable focus
diameters of 0.06 mm -0.1 mm,
Build layer thicknesses range from
0.02 to 0.100 mm.
Fiber lasers -- the enabling technology




Unlike conventional laser technology, the entire laser unit is
contained in a standard, nineteen inch rack or compact OEM
unit.
Unlike many conventional lasers they have few moving parts
(none!).
Unlike conventional lasers they have a long life.
Unlike conventional lasers that have very stable power outputs
and beam parameters.
Laser Powder Bed Fusion
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EOS Systems
M 280
─ 200 and 400 Watt Yb fibre laser
─ Build volume 250 x 250 x 325 mm
─ Operation with nitrogen or argon atmosphere
─ Highly-developed process software (PSW) with
many features for high process quality, userfriendliness etc.
 Approx. 460 EOSINT M systems installed worldwide
 Approx. 300 of these are at NEW customer sites
 Approx. 190 of these are EOSINT M 270
 More than 30 customers have multiple EOSINT M installations
 Approx. 130 EOSINT M 280 are sold since December 2010
EOS System
M 290
250 x 250 x 325 mm
400 Watt Laser
M 400
400 x 400 x 400 mm
1000 Watt Laser
EOS Systems
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EOS Peek into the Lab – EOS M 400-4
Multi-head optics
─ Multi-head optics
 4x 200 or 400 W lasers
─ Proven DMLS quality known from
EOSINT M 280
 Productivity can increase by a
factor of 2-4 depending on the
part
─ Same Materials & Processes as
EOSINT M 280 ensures the
legacy of qualified production
processes
Increased productivity for eManufacturing that has been
qualified on EOSINT M 280
Depending on the application, EOS will offer a
single or multi-field manufacturing solution
Applicationspecific approach
Focus on speed
Focus on accuracy
 Big & bulky parts
 Surface roughness allowed
 Functional surfaces
typically finished
 Rather small parts
 High resolution required
 Direct similarity to M 280
4 x 400 W 1)
1 x 1,000 W
Multi-field
without overlap*
4 x 400 W 1)
Multi-field
with overlap*
Single field*
1) Laser power can be adapted for similarity purposes (e.g. 200 W) * In development, subject to technical
changes
EOSTATE PowderBed – 1/2
Recoating & Exposure monitoring
 Step I: Flip-Book of a good job
Taking Fotos
 Camera integrated in ceiling of process chamber in the
immediate vicinity of the optics (off-axis)
 Illumination has been optimized with regard to image
recognition
 2 pictures of entire build area per layer, one after
exposure and one after recoating
 Less is more, e.g. 1.3 Megapixel standard industrial
camera, less data for image recognition in realtime and
realtime calculation
Viewing Fotos
 Touchscreen: most recently taken image + flip through past
layers of current job
 EOSTATE plug-in on desktop PC: all images + flip through
layers of selected job + flipbook (AVI export)
 Recoater speed
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FUTURE EOSTATE PowderBed – 2/2
Peek into the Lab: EOSTATE PowderBed – Step II & III

Step II and III allow software-based image
recognition, error identification and closed-loop
control

Test software and image recognition algorithms
have been developed, according to specific
conditions and needs of the DMLS process

Automatic assurance of recoating quality

Allocation of detected failure to specific layer an
part number

Next step: Full integration in EOS software
architecture and user-friendly GUI

Recognize insufficient
recoating
Repeat recoating until OK
Recognition of contours and particles in powder bed
Under development
FUTURE EOSTATE MeltPool – 1/2
Principle of operation


Benefits
Capturing light emissions from DMLS
process with photodiode-based sensors
a) „On-Axis“ configuration (= through the
scanner)
b) „Off-Axis“ configuration (= diode inside
process chamber)
Correlation of sensor data with scanner
position and laser power signal



(a)



(b)

Sensing light intensity and signal dynamics,
which are among the most relevant
indicators for process behavior
Photodiodes offer high temporal resolution
adequate to the extreme dynamics of DMLS
process
Partnership with experienced industry
partner Plasmo established, codevelopment ongoing
Leveraging synergies of EOS process
know-how and Plasmo’s industrial
monitoring and data handling expertise
Advanced melt pool monitoring fosters
deeper process understanding
Full process documentation and advanced
tool for automatic quality surveillance
Future potential for closed-loop control
Under development
FUTURE EOSTATE MeltPool – 2/2
R&D – ongoing work
Current development status




R&D systems mounted on several EOS machines
Testing of robustness and reliability of hardware,
data handling, analysis and visualization
Verifying parameterization for data analysis
Test program comprises parameter variation,
provoked errors and standard processes
Provoked errors



Mapping of melt pool data of test job with real time analysis
Source: Plasmo
Deepening know how about correlations of
monitoring data, process characteristics and part
quality
Verification and validation of data analysis and
correlations
Preparation of external pilot phase with selected pilot
customers
Under development
30
3/3/2017
EOS Materials
Material name
Material type
Typical applications
18 Mar 300 / 1.2709
Injection moulding series tooling; engineering
parts
EOS StainlessSteel GP1
Stainless steel
17-4 / 1.4542
Functional prototypes and series parts;
engineering and medical
EOS StainlessSteel PH1
Hardenable stainless
15-5 / 1.4540
Functional prototypes and series parts;
engineering and medical
EOS NickelAlloy IN718
Inconel™ 718, UNS N07718, AMS
5662, W.Nr 2.4668 etc.
Functional prototypes and series parts; high
temperature turbine parts etc.
EOS NickelAlloy IN625
Inconel™ 625, UNS N06625, AMS
5666F, W.Nr 2.4856 etc.
Functional prototypes and series parts; high
temperature turbine parts etc.
EOS CobaltChrome MP1
CoCrMo superalloy,
UNS R31538, ASTM F75 etc.
Functional prototypes and series parts;
engineering, medical, dental
EOS CobaltChrome SP2
CoCrMo superalloy
Dental restorations (series production)
EOS Titanium Ti64
Ti6Al4V light alloy
Functional prototypes and series parts;
aerospace, motor sport etc.
AlSi10Mg light alloy
Functional prototypes and series parts;
engineering, automotive etc.
Bronze-based mixture
Injection moulding tooling; functional prototypes
EOS MaragingSteel MS1
EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg
DirectMetal 20
SLM Solutions GmbH Systems
 SLM 125 HL
• Build Envelope 125 x125 x 75 (125)mm
• Build Envelope reduction 50 x 50 x 50 mm
• Device requires a small foot print
• Dimensions 1800x1000x800mm
• 100-200 Watts
 SLM 280 HL
• Build volume 280 x 280 x 350 mm
• Fibre laser 400 W and / or 1000 W
• Layerthickness 20 µm – 100 µm
• Building speed 35 cm 3/h
• Platform heating ~200° C
• Inert gas, Argon 4.6, 5 bar, max. 4 l/min
 SLM 500 HL
•
Build Volume 280x500x320mm
•
2- to 4- Laser Tools
•
400 -1000W
SLM Solutions GmbH Systems
31
3/3/2017
SLM Solutions GmbH Research
 Twin
Scan-Heads
─ Fibre laser 2x400 W and / or 2x1000 W
─ SM „Gaus“ and /or MM „Top Hat“ Profile
─ f-Theta or 3D Scan-Optic without F-Theta
─ Focal point 90 µm / 700 µm
SLM Solutions GmbH Materials
Material Name
Stainless Steel
Tool Steel
Co- Cr Alloys
Inconel / HX - Alloys
Titanium
Titan Alloys
Aluminium Alloys
Material Type
1.4404, 1.4410
1.2344, 1.2709
2.4723 / ASTM F75
Inconel 625 and 718
Grade 1 - 5
TiAl6Nb7, TiAl6V4
AlSi12, AlSi10Mg, AlSi7MgCu
ConceptLaser Systems

Mlab Cusing
Target group: small components
Build envelope: 50 x 50 x 80 mm
Laser system: 100 Watt fiber laser

M1 Cusing
Target group: small components
Build envelope: 250 x 250 x 250 mm
Laser system: 200 Watt fiber laser

M2 Cusing
Target group: processing aluminium and titanium alloys
Build envelope: 250 x 250 x 280 mm
Laser system: 200 - 400 watt fiber laser

X Linear 2000R
Target group: Very large components
Build envelope: 800 x 400 x 500mm
Laser system:2 X 1000 watt fiber laser
32
3/3/2017
ConceptLaser Materials
Material name
Stainless steel
Aluminium alloy
Aluminium alloy
Titanium alloy
Titanium alloy
Hot-forming steel
Rust-free hot-forming steel
Nickel base alloy
Cobalt/chrome alloy
Material Type
1.4404 / CL 20ES
AlSi12 / CL 30AL
AlSi10Mg / CL 31AL
Ti6Al4V / CL 40TI
Ti6Al4V ELI / CL 41TI ELI
1.2709 / CL 50WS
CL 91RW
Inconel 718 / CL 100NB
remanium star CL
Renishaw Systems
 AM250
─ Build Envelope 250 x 250 x 300mm (360mm)
─ Layer thickness 20-100 µm
• Fiber laser 200-400 Watts
 AM400
─ Build Envelope 250 x 250 x 300mm (360mm)
─ Layer thickness 20-100 µm
• Fiber laser 200-400 Watts
 RenAM
500M
─ Build Envelope 250 x 250 x 350mm
─ Layer thickness 20-100 µm
• Fiber laser 500 Watts
Renishaw Systems
Open material parameters
Renishaw follows an open parameter
ethos, providing our customers with
freedom to optimise machine settings to
suit the material being processed and the
user's specific geometry.
Materials
Stainless steel 316L and 17-4PH
H13 tool steel
Aluminum Al-Si-12
Titanium CP
Ti-6Al-4V
Ti-6Al-7Nb
Cobalt-chrome (ASTM75)
Inconel 718 and 625
33
3/3/2017
3Dsystems
ProX DMP 300

• Build Envelope 250 x 250 x 300mm
• Fibre laser 500 Watts
ProX DMP 200

•
•
Build volume 140 x 140 x 100mm
Fibre laser 300 Watts
ProX DMP 320

•
•
Build Volume 275 x 275 x 420mm
Fibre laser 500 Watts
Manufacturer Laser Sintering Systems that
sinter any metals, alloys and ceramic parts
in the same equipment
3DSystems Materials
 Final
•
•
•
•
Products
Best industry surface finish of 5 Ra micrometer
Wall build sizes to .004" thick
Part hole size of .004" to .008"
Select materials result in superior mechanical properties (>20%)
compared to other processes due to patented roller-wiper system.
Metals
Stainless steels
Tool steels
Non ferrous alloys
Inconel
Precious metals
Titanium
Maraging Steel
Bronze alloys
Aluminium
Ceramics
Alumina
Cermet
Realizer Systems
 SLM
50
 SLM
100
 SLM
250
─ Build Envelope 70mm dia. x 40mm
─ Desktop Machine
• Fiber laser 20-50 Watts
─ Build Envelope 125 x 125 x 100mm
─ Layer thickness 20-100 µm
• Fiber laser 20-200 Watts
─ Build Envelope 250 x 250 x 300mm
─ Layer thickness 20-100 µm
• 200,400 or 600 Watts
Materials
Tool steel H 13
Titanium
Titanium V4
Aluminum
Cobalt chrome
Stainless steel
316 L
Inconel
Gold
34
3/3/2017
Laser Powder Bed Systems Material
Properties
 Many
different systems, applications
materials and build styles!
 What about material properties?
─ If we assume that the systems use similar raw materials (true
for direct processes).
─ And we assume that the machines are relatively similar (they
use similar lasers and optical systems).
─ And we assume that the processing is optimized for each
(perhaps not completely true).
─ Then we can assume that materials properties are
transferable across systems.
Cobalt-Chrome / CoCrMo Alloys

Cobalt-based superalloys
─ strong, corrosion resistant, high temp.
─ common in biomedical applications

Properties
─ nickel-free, contains < 0.05 % nickel
─ fulfils ISO 5832-4 and ASTM F75 of cast CoCrMo
implant alloys
─ fulfils ISO 5832-12 and ASTM F1537 of wrought
CoCrMo implants, except elongation (12 %) which
can be improved to 21-24 % by HIP
─ Laser sintered density: ~ 100 %
─ Yield strength (Rp 0.2%): 980 - 1020 MPa
─ Ultimate tensile strength: 1370 - 1410 MPa
─ Remaining elongation: 8.5 – 12.5 %
─ Young’s Modulus: 200 – 220 GPa
Stainless Steels
1)... Comparison values of AISI 316L
2)... H1150M 2h@760 C+4h@621 C
3)... H900 1h@482 C
Note 1: Shows some performance benefits in comparison to traditional processes
Note 2: Also shows maturity of conventional processes
35
3/3/2017
Titanium
1)... Comparison values of AISI 316L
2)... H1150M 2h@760 C+4h@621 C
3)... H900 1h@482 C
Note 1: Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength fulfill requirements
Note 2: Elongation can be improved by post-processing
Typical Laser Micro Structures
Cobalt
Chrome
Titanium
Laser Powder Bed Medical
Applications

Certified Dental Implant
“TiXos” by Leader Italia

Cage designed to fit bone
and give proper screw
placement

Manufacturing of
complex and filigree
customized dental
restorations and implants
36
3/3/2017
Laser Powder Bed Aerospace
Applications

DMLS fuel Swirler
injectors

Components of an engine
casing, thin walled

Functional prototypes for
developing helicopter gasturbine engine
components
Laser Powder-Bed Melting/Sintering
Machine Differences

Look into the technologies carefully to understand:
─ Laser scanning strategies
─ Atmospheric control
─ Thermal control
─ Accuracy
─ Build volume
─ Laser power
─ Laser type
─ Reliability
─ Materials handling
─ Support strategies
─ Production support

These factors will greatly influence the types of
materials which can be processed successfully
Powder Bed Fusion Electron Beam Melting
37
3/3/2017
Electron Beam Melting
Filament





A high energy beam is generated in
the electron beam gun (50-3000W)
The beam melts each layer of metal
powder to the desired geometry
(down to 50 µm layers)
Extremely fast beam translation with
no moving parts (up to 8,000 mm/sec)
Optics
Electron
Gun
Heat
Shield
Vacuum process eliminates impurities
and yields excellent material
properties (<1x10-4 mbar)
Powder
Contain
er
High build temperature (1080ºC for
TiAl) gives low residual stress
–> no need for heat treatment
Powder
Distributor
Build
Table
Electron Beam Melting
EBM Systems
Q
10
─Build Envelope 200 x 200 x 180mm
─Layer thickness 50-100 µm
─Medical
2X
A
─Build Envelope 200 x 200 x 380mm
─Layer thickness 50-180 µm
─Aerospace High temp.
Q
20
─Build Envelope Dia. 350 x 380mm
─Layer thickness 50-100 µm
─Aerospace Titanium
114
38
3/3/2017
EBM Technology

High build rate
─ Up to 1 cm 3/min build rate
─ Up to 40 mm/h build height
─ Power efficiency

Excellent material properties
─
─
─
─
─
Fully melted material
High density
Better than cast
Controlled grain size
High strength

Reduced surface finish

Lower dimensional accuracy
─ High brightness cathode & new e-gun design
─ Newer 50micron layers is helping with this
EBM Materials
 With
the high power available (up to 3.0 KW) the
EBM® process can melt any powdered metal with a
melting point temperature up to 3,400 °C (e.g. W),
allowing an extensive range of materials.
 The
materials currently supplied by Arcam are:
─ Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Grade 5)
─ Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (Grade 23)
─ Titanium CP (Grade 2)
─ CoCr alloy ASTM F75
Materials Development and Testing
Research Materials done by me
 Inconel 625 and 718
 Copper
 TiAL
 Tantalum
 Niobium
 Fe
 Rene 142
 Rene 80
 Haynes
 TiNb
 Maraging Steel
 Al Alloys
Material proven by others







Stainless steels
Tool steel (e.g. H13)
Aluminum
Hard metals (e.g. Ni-WC)
Beryllium
Amorphous metals
Invar
39
3/3/2017
EBM Ti 6-4 Materials Properties
EBM Ti-6-4 Micro Structure
Homogenous fine-grain microstructure containing a lamellar alpha-phase
with larger beta-grains. Better than cast Ti6Al4V. Naturally aged condition
directly from the EBM process. The microstructure shows no sign of
preferential orientation or weld lines.
Inco 718 Part
Melt Time
37:00 hours
Cool Down Time
8:00 hours
40
3/3/2017
Inco 718 Part
Melt Time
76:00 hours
Cool Down Time
12:00 hours
EBM Productivity:
Stacking of Parts



Cups have excellent
geometry for stacking.
Production example 80
cups:
─ Non-stacked: 126 h
─ Stacked: 82 h
Build time reduction: ~35%
122
EBM Aerospace Applications
Material: γ-TiAl Size:
8 x 12 x 325 mm
Weight: 0.5 kg Build
time: 7 hours / blade
41
3/3/2017
Background to Gamma Titanium Aluminide (TiAl)
-TiAl is a ”dream material” for structural aerospace
applications
• Low density, about 50% of Ni-base superalloys
• Oxidation and corrosion resistance
• Excellent mechanical properties at high T (up to
800C/1500F)
• Specific strength
• Stiffness
• Creep
• Fatigue
Expected to replace Ni-base superalloys
in weight-critical applications
Studied since the 1970’s, but still
few industrial applications of -TiAl
Background to Gamma Titanium Aluminide (-TiAl)
Conventional fabrication of -TiAl is not straightforward:
• Hard and brittle at RT
• Internal defects, porosity
• Inhomogeneous microstructure
• Residual stresses
• Complicated heat treatments
• High scrap rates
Advantages of the EBM process:
• few internal defects (compared to casting)
• homogeneous microstructure
• very fine grain size (good fatigue properties)
• no residual stresses
• little waste material – powder can be recycled
• TiAl powder chemically stable, no risk of dust explosions
Could EBM be the Holy Grail of -TiAl manufacturing?
Camera Advantage



Camera auto calibrates with machine
Machine beam process calibration
Up to five images every layer
42
3/3/2017
3D Reconstruction of LayerQam Images
EBM-vs-Laser Processes

EBM characteristics versus Lasers
─
─
─
─
─
─
Energy efficiency
50-100 spot beam splitting for contouring
High density & elongation properties – elevated temperature powder bed
Very fast build time
High power (3 kW) in a narrow beam
Incredibly fast beam translation speeds
─ No galvanometers, magnetically steered

Only works in a vacuum
─ Gases (even inert) deflect the beam

Does not work with polymers or ceramics

Poorer surface finish
Poorer dimensional tolerance
Uses more “science” and “mathematics” in its control system
architecture
─ Needs electrical conductivity


─ Heat transfer equations, energy equations, etc.
Directed Energy Deposition Techniques

Methods for depositing fully dense metal parts from powders or wires

Four primary commercialized technologies for Lasers
─ RPM Innovation
─Laser Deposition Technology (LDT)
─ Optomec Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) system
─ Controlled spraying of powders or feeding of wire onto a substrate, where it is melted and
deposited
─ a.k.a. Directed Material Deposition System (DMDS)
─ Developed by Sandia National Labs
─ POM Direct Metal Deposition (POM)
─ a.k.a. Directed Light Fabrication (DLF)
─ Developed by Univ. of Michigan
─ Accufusion Laser Consolidation (LC)
─ Developed by National Research Council of Canada

Many other research groups studying & commercializing similar processes
─ AeroMet Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM), Fraunhofer, Los Alamos National Labs,
and more…
43
3/3/2017
General Directed Energy Deposition
Benefits
 Can
add features or material to a pre-existing
structure
─ Great for repair, rib-on-plate, etc…
 Excellent
microstructure and material properties
to join materials which could not be joined
otherwise
 Minimal effect on substrate microstructure
 Ability
General Directed Energy Deposition
Drawbacks
 Poor
surface finish and accuracy (except LC)
are difficult to achieve
 Slow process
 Overhangs
─ Usually only economical to add features to existing
parts/geometries rather than building entire part
─ Inverse correlation between speed and accuracy
 Material
properties are different than cast or
wrought
 Correlation between processing and material
properties is understood for many materials, but not
well controlled using closed loop control in most
machines
RPM Innovation

RPM 557 Capabilities:
─ 1.5 X 1.5 X 2 meters
envelope
─ 3 kW IPG Fiber Laser
─ Tilt & rotate table
─ Controlled atmosphere to
< 10 ppm O2
44
3/3/2017
RPM Innovation
Optomec LENSTM Process






Multi Nozzle Powder Delivery
Metal Powder melted by Laser
Layer by layer part repair
5-Axis range of motion
Closed Loop Controls
Controlled Atmosphere (<10ppm O2)
Optomec LENSTM Process
45
3/3/2017
Optomec LENSTM Process
Optomec LENSTM Systems

•
•
•
•
LENS 450 System
100mm x 100mm x 100mm process work area
400W IPG Fiber Laser
3 axis motion control X,Y,Z
Single powder feeder

•
•
•
•
•
•
LENS MR-7
300mm x 300mm x 300mm process work area
500W IPG Fiber Laser
3 axis motion control X,Y,Z
Gas purification system maintains O2 < 10ppm
Dual powder feeders with gradient capability
380 mm diameter ante chamber

•
•
•
•
•
LENS 850R
900mm x 1500mm x 900mm process work area
5 axis motion control X,Y,Z with tilt & rotate table
Gas purification system maintains O2 < 10ppm
2 powder feeders
kW IPG Fiber Laser
Optomec LENSTM Applications
Critical Component Repair
 Industry Need:
─ Repair high value components that have worn out of tolerance
 Value Proposition:
─ Reduce repair times up to 50%*
─ Reduced repair costs up to 30%*
─ Total costs of repair regarding to new part price:
• 13% Ti 6-4 (300 EUR new part / 40 EUR LENS repair)
• 42% Inconel 718 (200 EUR new part / 80 EUR LENS repair)
*compared to wire surface welding process

Solution:
─ LENS 850R system from Optomec
─ Spherical Metal Powder
46
3/3/2017
Optomec LENSTM Applications
LENS Application – Turbine Component Repair
• Material: IN718
• Engine: AGT1500
• LENS Process Advantages: Properties, Low Heat Input, Near Net
Shape
• In Production at Anniston Army Depot, $5M saved in first year
After Machining
After Deposition
After Finishing
LENSTM Functionally Graded Materials
Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo
Ti-22Al-23Nb
LENS Materials
Materials Used Commercially
Materials Used Commercially
Alloy
Alloy Class
Alloy
Alloy Class
Alloy Class
Alloy
CP Ti
H13, S7 Alloy
Tool Steel
H13, S7
Tool Steel
Titanium
Ti 6-4
13-8, 17-4 CP Ti
StainlessTitanium
13-8, 17-4
Ti 6-2-4-2
304, 316 Ti 6-4
Stainless
Steel
304, 316
IN625
410, 420Ti 6-2-4-2
Steel
410, 420
IN718
4047 IN625
Aluminum
4047
Aluminum
Nickel
Waspalloy
Stellite 6, 21IN718
Cobalt
Nickel
Waspalloy
Stellite
6, 21
Cobalt
Carbide
Rene 41
Ni-WC
Carbide
Ni-WC
Co-WC Rene 41
Co-WC
Materials Used in R&D
Alloy Class
Alloy
Alloy Class
Alloy Materials Used in R&D
Alloy ClassA-2 Alloy
Alloy Class
Alloy
Ti 6-2-4-6
Tool Steel
Ti 6-2-4-6
A-2
Tool Steel
Titanium
Ti 48-2-2
15-5PH
StainlessTitanium
Ti
48-2-2
15-5PH
Ti 22Al-23Nb
AM355
Stainless
Steel
Ti 22Al-23Nb
AM355
IN690
309, 416
Steel
IN690
309, 416
Hastelloy X
GRCop-84
Nickel
Copper
Hastelloy X
GRCop-84
MarM 247
Nickel Cu-Ni
Copper
MarM
247
Cu-Ni
Rene 142
W, Mo, Nb
Refractories
W, Mo, Nb
Refractories
Alumina
TiC, CrCRene 142
Ceramics
Composites
Alumina
TiC, CrC
Ceramics
Composites
Alloy Class
47
3/3/2017
General Material Comments about
Directed Energy Deposition
 Rapid
solidification enables unique material
properties.
 Microstructure at the bottom of parts is different
than the middle, which is different than the top.
─ Conduction-limited process
 Microstructure
is different for thin-wall versus
thick parts.
 Need closed-loop control for materials with lots of
phase changes or for repeatable microstructures.
 Can do combinatorial alloying.
Other Issues with Powder-Based
Processes

Powders should be selected with care
─ Metal powders are expensive
─ Using more than one material in a machine might be difficult
─ Choose your powder supplier carefully
─ PREP, Plasma atomized or Gas atomized are preferred methods of
production

Small diameter metal powders are generally flammable and
byproducts of processing may be very flammable
─ Ensure you buy a safe machine…ask questions of the vendor
─ Ensure you have very rigorous procedures and stick to them
─ Ensure personal protective equipment is present and correct
─ Have a plan if everything goes wrong
─ Minimize risk
─ Remove the chances of error
Electron Beam
Directed Energy Deposition
48
3/3/2017
Sciaky Process




An Electron Beam serves as the energy source
The EB is used to create the melt pool from wire feedstock
Add layers until the desired geometry is complete
Acronyms
• Direct Manufacturing (DM)
• Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBFFF, EBF3, EBF 3)
• Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)
Sciaky Process
Sciaky Process
49
3/3/2017
Sciaky Advantage
 Large
structures targeted,
specifically webbed
forgings
 Well suited to low annual
usage requirements
 “Buy-to-Fly” ratio
 Take advantage of “Dual
Process” capability, EBW
and EBDM
 Work with customers to
identify “Best Fit” projects
Electron Beam Additive Mfg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A10XEZvkgbY
Additional issues with Directed Energy
Deposition
 You
may need further equipment to allow
you to finish parts
─Wire EDM to remove parts from the substrate
─Bead blast
─Polishing equipment
─Machining
─NDT metrology and microscopy
50
3/3/2017
Sheet Lamination
Ultrasonic Consolidation
 Ultrasonic energy is used to create a solid-state bond
between two pieces of metal: aluminum, copper,
brass, nickel, steel, titanium, etc.
 Peak temperatures < 0.5T melt
 Recrystalization at interface
 Local formation of nano-grain colonies
 Plastic-flow morphology
Ultrasonic Consolidation Process
Transducer
Horn
Transducer
US horn has
textured
surface to
grip tape
Rotating
Transducer/
Horn System
Metal Tape
Metal Base Plate
US vibrations from
transducers
US Weld
Welded
tape
US
vibrations
of ‘horn’
Baseplate
Ultrasonic Consolidation Process
51
3/3/2017
Ultrasonic Consolidation Materials
Al
SiC fiber
Material pair proven for
ultrasonic welding
Cu
Material pair tested for
ultrasonic spot weld
Ultrasonic Consolidation
Applications- Energy Absorption
 Charpy
testing shows
characteristic laminar
behavior
 Ballistic applications
─ Layered structure provides energy
absorption
 Crack
arrest applications
─ Crack growth along interfaces may
be promoted in fatigue applications
 Surface/component
upgrades
Ultrasonic Consolidation ApplicationsEmbedding
 Complicated internal
features can be created
and enclosed due to
additive nature
 Electronic circuits can be
encased in metallic part
for protection and antitamper
 Embedded RFID
52
3/3/2017
Ultrasonic Consolidation Wrap-Up
 Support
materials will allow complex, direct part
manufacture
 Multi-material capabilities and embedding of
fibers leads to tremendous material property
flexibility
 Encapsulation of components within a structure is
possible and has great potential for complex
systems
Hybrid Systems
The AMBIT™ multi-task system, developed
by Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies, is
an award winning patent pending series of
heads and docking systems which allows
virtually any CNC machine (or robotic
platform) to use non-traditional processing
heads in the spindle and conveniently
change between them. Changeover is
completely automated and only takes 1025 seconds.
Hybrid Systems
Direct Energy Deposition
Hybrid Machine Combines Milling and
Additive Manufacturing
53
3/3/2017
DMG MORIS
Hybrid System
Powder Bed
Matsuura
54
3/3/2017
Overall Summary & Conclusions
 Metal
Part Manufacture is now possible using
many different AM techniques
─ Tooling and Metal Part prototyping are common applications
─ Direct Manufacturing of Novel Designs, Compositions and
Geometries is being actively pursued
─ Pattern approaches are readily available through service
bureaus, investment casting companies, and other service
providers
─ Indirect approaches are less common but have many benefits
and are readily available, particularly for non-structural, artistic
applications
─ Direct approaches are becoming increasingly available and
reliable, but remain expensive for many types of geometries
and volumes
Acknowledgements
 Special
thanks to the following for sending slides
and information for this presentation:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Terry Hoppe and Jesse Roitenberg;Stratasys
William Dahl and Jim Westberg; Solidscape
Bob Wood and Rick Lucas; ExOne
Andy Snow; EOS
Jim Fendrick; SLM Solutions
Daniel Hund; ConceptLaser
Sandeep Rana; Phenix Systems
Ulf Ackelid; Arcam
Mike O’Reilly; Optomec
Scott Stecker; Sciaky
Mark Norfolk; Fabrisonic
Ken Church; nScrypt
Industry Support: The Additive
Manufacturing Consortium
Mission: Accelerate and advance the manufacturing readiness of Metal AM
technologies
Current Members
Goals:





Participation from Academia, Government,
and Industry
Present timely case studies/research
Execute group sponsored projects
Collaborate on Government funding
opportunities
Forum for discussion/shaping roadmaps
Full Members

Aerospace – Engine (5)

Aerospace – Airframe (3)

Aerospace – Systems (3)

Heavy Industry (2)

Industrial Gas Turbine (1)
Non-Profit

R&D (2)
Suppliers

Powder (3)

AM Equipment (1)

AM Ancillary Equipment
(1)

AM Technical Service
Providers (2)

AM Software (1)
Research Partners

Government (3)

University (2)
165
55
3/3/2017
CY16 AMC Project Themes
 Continue
to build upon current body of work
─ Phase 3: 625
─ Phase 3: 718,
─ Phase 2: High Strength Aluminum Alloys
 Incorporate
NDI into project execution
 Cross-platform
validation of PBF machines and
powder suppliers
166
EWI is advancing metal AM to enable
broader adoption by industry
EWI AM Focus Areas
 Reality
─ More than the 3D Printing
Process
─ Requires Manufacturing support
to be true additive manufacturing
 Industry
Support
─ Another tool in the tool box
─ Understand application of
conventional manufacturing.
─Trusted Agent
─Innovation
In Process
Quality Control
Post Process
Inspection
Materials and
Process
Development
Support Design
Allowable
Database
Generation
Advancements
for
Manufacturing
Machines
Design for
Additive /
Technology
Application
Industry Support:
Additive Manufacturing Consortium
167
Questions
Francisco Medina, Ph.D.
Technology Leader, Additive Manufacturing
Director, Additive Manufacturing Consortium
fmedina@ewi.org
915.373.5047
http://ewi.org/technologies/additive-manufacturing/
168
56
3/3/2017
EWI is the leading engineering and technology organization in North America dedicated to developing, testing, and implementing
advanced manufacturing technologies for industry. Since 1984, EWI has offered applied research, manufacturing support, and
strategic services to leaders in the aerospace, automotive, consumer electronic, medical, energy, government and defense, and
heavy manufacturing sectors. By matching our expertise to the needs of forward-thinking manufacturers, our technology team serves
as a valuable extension of our clients’ innovation and R&D teams to provide premium, game-changing solutions that deliver a
competitive advantage in the global marketplace.
LOCATIONS
Columbus, Ohio
(Headquarters)
1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive
Columbus, OH 43221
614.688.5000
info@ewi.org
Buffalo, New York
847 Main Street
Buffalo, NY 14203
716.515.5096
mnutini@ewi.org
Metro DC
11921 Freedom Drive, Suite 550
Reston, VA 20190
703.665.6604
jbonfeld@ewi.org
Detroit, Michigan
1400 Rosa Parks Boulevard
Detroit, MI 48216
248.921.5838
myadach@ewi.org
57
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