enG neemG - American Radio History
BRODCST
enG neemG
An INTERTEC
1K -Ill
Publication
November 1997/$10.00
TESTING DIGITAL SYSTEMS
Troubleshooting today's digital hardware
BUDGETING
FOR ATV
So what's it
going to cost?
BE EXCLUSIVE
REPORTS:
Testing 8VS6. signals
Lossless editing
with the "Mole"
www.americanradiohistory.com
TV-1000
The New
Audio Console
LIVE TV -The Way It Has to Be
315-452-5000
%Wheatrtone Corporation
Circle (1)
of
Free Info Card
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SATELLITE UPLINK SYSTEM
S
In 1995, Harris addressed
The Golf Channel's analog
teleport needs with an
eye on the digital future.
Today, The Golf Channel's digital operations
are in full swing.
When The Golf Channel needed a
teleport that would start up analog
and be ready to add digital quickly
and economically, they looked to
Harris. And now that they've made
the digital switch, they're not looking back. By combining both analog
and digital compression technology
on the same transponder, Harris
effectively doubled The Golf
Channel's programming capacty without increasing
bandwidth. So
while American
golf fans with
analog receivers
don't miss a single
stroke, digital satellite transmission
has enabled The
Golf Channel to
reach new
markets in Japan and throughout
the Pacific rim.
Here's what Golf Channel VP of
operations Matt Scalici had to say:
"When we started out we needed
analog transmission, but we knew
digital was right around the corner.
The digital-ready solution Harris
provided enabled us to make a
cost-effective, virtually seamless
upgrade. It's
absolutely the
best path to digital
we could have
network operations team. From an
all -digital television studio featuring
serial -digital and fiber-optic technologies, to a Network Operations
Center that placed critical equipment in front of operators instead
of out in the field, Harris got The
Golf Channel off the tee and onto
the green.
Whether you need analog today
and digital tomorrow, or digital right
now, Harris broadcast pros will
keep you at the top of your game.
taken."
The unique
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part of a total
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Harris designed
and built in cooperation with The
is
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Florence, KY 41042 USA
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Golf Channel's
Systems: Electronic News Gathering - Flyaway Satellite - Mobile Production - Radio Studio - Satellite News Gathering - Satellite Uplink
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Transmission - Terrestrial Microwave
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www.americanradiohistory.com
01997 Harris Corp.
BROaDCaST.
enGineeRinc
November 1997
Volume 39, Number 12
features
36
Selecting Test Equipment for Digital Systems
By Kenneth Hunold
It takes more than a VOM to test today's digital systems.
44
Maintaining Satellite Equipment
By Philip Hejtmanek
It's no fun fixing a dish when it's 10° below zero with 12 inches of
snow on the ground.
52
Lossless Editing With the "MOLE"
By Mike Knee & Nick Wells
Editing MPEG without a loss in picture quality is difficult, but not
impossible.
62
Understanding and Testing the 8VSB Signal
By Linc Reed -Nickerson
A basic understanding of the concepts used for 8VSB can be a powerful
troubleshooting tool.
70
Budgeting for DTV
By Jerry Whitaker
One way or the other, it all comes down to numbers. The technology
secondary.
is
columns
12
FCC Update
Settlement caps lifted
14
Transition to Digital
Intrafacility digital networks
18
Management
Keeping cool while under fire
22
Computers & Networks ..
30
DTV Update
Broadcast auxiliary spectrum: What
is left for DTV?
Selecting a video server
Transmission Technology
Tower lighting and you
New Products
From Mac to video
26
Production Clips
Audio levels and metering
34
Cabletec
Digital Basics
.
78
80
102
MPEG-2 comes of age
28
Interactive
Who's paying you to do this?
departments
06
Letters to the Editor ... 08
Editorial
News
4
10
Broadcast Engineering
Industry Briefs
Classifieds
Advertisers' Index
96
97
101
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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editorial
Stupid rules
my way to the AES convention, as I was settling
into the second leg of the trip in the flying cattle car,
my eye caught the safety instruction card in the seat
pocket in front of me. You know, that card the cabin
attendants always hold up and tell you to read, but
you've never looked at? Well, this time I did.
In big letters it said, "If you are sitting in an exit row
and you cannot read this
card or cannot now see
well enough to follow
these instructions, please
tell a crew member."
What? Now let me get
this straight. First, if I
can't read the card's instructions, how would I
know I'm supposed to
do anything. Second, if I
can't see well enough to
On
read the instructions,
how would I ... well you
get the picture.
The whole thing just
struck me as another
example of dumb gov-
Broadcast Engineering
However, putting the
cart before the horse
won't make the cart go
any faster. Let's get moving on this adventure,
but at the same time be
realistic. Until viewers
sign on, broadcasters
certainly won't want to.
Nor should stations be
bankrupted just trying
to stay in business.
Let's adopt a realistic
timetable now
without adding new burdens
for public service and free TV time for politicians. The
last thing viewers want is to see more commercials
about re-electing the same folks who gave us OSHA,
the IRS
and only nine years to implement DTV.
-
ernmental regulations. How many times have you
asked yourself "why" there was a rule or law about
something?
Here are a couple more examples. Did you know that
as a result of a threatened lawsuit in Kansas, all drive up ATMs are required to have Braille labeling on the
buttons so blind drivers can operate the machines. Yep,
no kidding, labeling for blind drivers.
Here's another example. Did you know it's against the
law in this town to have a "For Sale" sign in your car?
You can be given a $40 ticket if you even carry a sign
that says your car is for sale. Guess the car dealers
bought the right politicians. But, then in Kansas City,
politicians seem to be for sale all the time.
Somewhere, common sense needs to be the final test
for any new governmental regulation. If the proposed
6
new law doesn't make common sense, then the law
shouldn't be adopted. So what does this have to do with
anything?
After just completing a week-long trip to visit clients
and readers on the West Coast, one recurring theme
was obvious. The FCC can dictate dumb rules all day
long, but they can't control technology. Broadcasters
are looking for opportunities and DTV is certainly filled with them.
-
Brad Dick, editor
READER
FEEDBACK
Co m p u 5 e rve: 74672,3124
FAXback: 913/967-1905
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Tnnc;
o iroGemork ot
rc;
www.americanradiohistory.com
:r=rs$ pre0(f;^9.
Jeffers to the editor
SDI and embedded audio
It sure is nice to read articles with substance. Keep it up.
At the Pennsylvania Public Television Network, we
are pro embedded audio. We primarily record and
distribute programs to our member stations and have
no requirement to mix audio on the finished product as
delivered to us. One caveat that I would like to give
your readers is a problem that plagued us for almost
two years.
From the standard ANSI/SMPTE-272M-1994 for
Television
Formatting AES/EBU Audio and Auxiliary Data into Digital Video Ancillary Data Space, item
6: audio data packet formatting, item 6.3: the order
that the channel pairs are transmitted within a group is
not defined (emphasis added). As an example, the
channel pair containing Channels 3 and 4 could precede the channel pair containing 1 and 2.
The manufacturer of the digital videotape recorder
(DVR) assumed that the order would always be 1-2-3-41-2-3-4. If I remember correctly, the manufacturer of the
embedding equipment, in order to obtain best performance, embeds the four channels ofaudio in the sequence
1-2-1-2-3-4-3-4. Therefore, when we digitize and embed
more than two channels of audio, the DVR will play back
a most annoying digital hash on audio Channels 3 and 4.
In fairness to the DVR manufacturers, the machine
was probably designed before the SMPTE standard
was finalized. They finally came up with a fix and we
modified circuit boards. Once the problem was resolved, we completed the transition to total in-house
digital video distribution with embedded audio.
-
RONALD T. LASK
DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS $L ENGINEERING
PUBLIC
TV
NETWORK
I enjoyed reading Jim Boston's piece entitled "SDI and
Embedded Audio." Frankly, I am surprised that excess
bandwidth is not being used for information transfer. I
think a parallel would be cable companies that are now
starting to use their excess bandwidth to provide high rate, high -quality Internet access.
I also appreciate the injection of common practices
like professional equipment commonly uses 48kHz
audio and most lines have six samples, but every 12th
line has eight.
I have a question related to this article that I know
may have to go unanswered:
If SMPTE-259M streams carry audio data in the
horizontal blanking interval, what bandwidth is left for
8
Broadcast Engineering
data in the vertical blanking interval? The combination
of four channels of embedded audio and ancillary data
may help justify the investment in special hardware.
STEVE BELVIN
Jim Boston responds:
First, a little history. D-1 format tape machines were
originally eight-bit devices. The EBU originally specified
the vertical interval ancillary data (VANC) space use and
it was at eight bits. So, VANC could be recorded on early
D-1 machines. When SMPTE developed SMPTE-125M,
the analog video sample and format standard, it left
VANC at eight bits. The horizontal ancillary data space
(HANG) was specified at 10 bits in 125M. The only
other thing specified in 125M concerning HANC/VANC
is the 000 3FF 3FF ancillary data headers.
How to actually format AES/EBU data and multiplex
it into the SDI stream specified by SMPTE-259M is
described in SMPTE-272M. SMPTE-259M for component digital specifies how parallel 125M data is
converted to serial data, channel coding for that data,
physical layer attributes and ancillary data preamble
words for the actual AES/EBU data. Because of the
possibility of grandfathered eight -bit -only data in the
VANC, no AES/EBU data was intended for that area.
HANG doesn't have to carry only AES/EBU data. It can
carry any type of data. Flags in the AES/EBU data
indicate to AES/EBU decoders whether valid audio data
is present. As for VANC, you could send 10 -bit data in
it (as long as the devices in the path would pass 10-bit
data). But, there is no standard that I know of that would
specify how to handle that data. So, if you created a
standard on to yourself or convinced SMPTE that it was
time to revisit that issue, then that space could be used.
An example of that is serial digital data interface
(SDDI). There is a proposed standard where the active
video portion of the SDI signal can be replaced with
data. The most common use would be to put MPEG
data where the video used to be. One field of MPEG
data would take up a fraction of video data space. In
fact, MPEG data at 18MB/s (4:2:2 Profile@Main Level) would have four frames of information in approximately one half of one field of active video space (8:1
compression). The rest of that space could be used for
any other kind of data.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
JIM BOSTON
Continued on page 89
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NCO
news
By Dawn Hightower, senior associate editor
NATAS honors Emmy
winners
The National Academy of Arts and Sciences (NATAS)
awarded the 1996-1997 technical achievement and
scientific development Emmy awards at a black tie
affair in New York on Oct. 7. According to NATAS
president John Cannon, the Emmy awards are a reflection of television's unlimited technological future.
The Emmy award
winners include:
The Canadian
Broadcast Company
and DirecTV won an
Emmy for the pioneering application
of SMPTE 270Mb/s
serial digital technology to large-scale
TV facilities.
Zenith won an Emmy for the pioneering development
of wireless remote controls for consumer television.
Pinnacle Systems, Quantel and Scitex Digital Video
won an Emmy for the development of real-time 3-D
manipulation for non-linear editing.
US Precision Lens, Inc., Art R. Tucker and Henry E.
Kloss won an Emmy for the pioneering development of
3 -CRT video projectors.
General Instrument, LSI Logic, BBC and Snell &
Wilcox won an Emmy for the pioneering development
of real-time hardware for motion estimation.
ATSC conducts HDTV
broadcast in Australia
The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)
conducted its first over -the-air broadcast of digital
HDTV service in the southern hemisphere in October.
The digital signals originated from the TCN Channel 9
tower in Willoughby and were received at the Observatory Hotel in Sydney where government and industry
leaders enjoyed the demonstrations and learned about
the ATSC digital TV standard.
The HDTV demonstrations, lab and field tests were
organized with the assistance of the Federation of
Australian Commercial Television Stations (FACTS).
The Sydney demonstrations were supported by several member organizations of ATSC, including the Advanced Television Technology Center, which provided
integration and technical support; Harris Corporation, which provided the digital transmitter; Zenith
Electronics, which developed the digital transmission
10
Broadcast Engineering
systems incorporated in the ATSC DTV standard;
Dolby Laboratories, which developed the multichannel surround -sound audio system contained in the
standard; Mitsubishi Electronics America, which provided video decoding equipment; and CBS, Snell &
Wilcox and Sony Electronics, which provided equipment and technical support. JANDS Electronics also
provided equipment to support the demonstrations.
FCC appoints PCIA
president to EAS National
Advisory Committee
Jay Kitchen, president of the Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA), has been appointed
to serve on the Emergency Alert System's National
Advisory Committee, by the FCC's compliance and
information bureau.
In 1994, the Emergency Broadcast System Advisory
Committee was restructured and renamed the National
Advisory Committee (NAC). It assists the FCC in overseeing the Emergency Alert System. The NAC plays a
vital role in advising the FCC on all matters concerning
the EAS, including policies, technologies, plans and
procedures at the national, state and local levels.
SBE publishes
"Introduction to DTV"
The Society of Broadcast Engineers is publishing a
book titled, "Introduction to DTV RE" The book was
authored by Douglas W. Garlinger, CPBE, director of
engineering at LeSEA Broadcasting Corporation. The
book is a practical guide to assist broadcast engineers
in understanding the technical issues faced by all TV
stations in the transition to DTV. The book has more
than 100 pages and will provide the basic knowledge
needed to prepare for television in the 21st century.
The book focuses specifically on the 8VSB transmission system selected by the FCC. It provides an overview of the 188 -byte MPEG-2 digital transport system
used to carry the compressed video, audio and data
bitstreams to the transmitter. The Dolby AC -3 system
capable of 5.1 audio channels per bitstream is covered
along with the eight types of audio services that will be
available with DTV.
The SBE is offering the book at a pre -publication price
of $39 for SBE members and $49 for non-members,
plus shipping charges, through Dec. 31. The book is
scheduled to ship Jan. 1, 1998. To order, call the SBE at
317-253-1640 or download the order form from the
web site at www.sbe.org.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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fcc update
By Harry C. Martin
Settlement caps lifted
Settlement caps for broadcast applications have
been lifted. The Budget Reconciliation Act of 1997
authorizes the FCC to issue construction permits (CP)
for new broadcast stations through public auctions
where there are mutually exclusive applications pending for the facility. However, until Jan. 30, 1998, the
FCC also can waive its restrictions limiting the amount
of funds that may be paid to dismissing applicants as part of a settlement.
This 180 -day "settlement window"
applies one to those applications
that were filed before July 1, 1997.
Pending comparative cases may be
settled in several ways. The first is
through a straight buy-out, whereby
one party buys out all of the remainHarry Martin
ing applicants for the facility. One
variation is for an outside party (a
"gray knight") to acquire a minority interest in the
prevailing applicant, finance the settlement by buying
out the dismissing applicants, finance construction of
the station and hold an option to acquire the controlling interest in the permittee shortly after the station
goes on the air. Although the FCC has not addressed it,
it also may be possible for an outside party (a "white
knight") to buy out all of the applicants in a mutually
exclusive proceeding and obtain the CP directly.
Two other means of achieving a settlement are through
a private auction or mediator. With the auction, the
highest bidder obtains the construction permit for the
station and the losing applicants share in the proceeds
of the winning bid.
With mediation, an experienced neutral person works
with the applicants as a group and on an individual
basis to find a solution. Mediation provides an opportunity for creative solutions that may not arise in
negotiations among the parties. Because a mediator is
not an arbitrator and does not impose a disposition of
the proceeding, mediation can be a risk -free means of
attempting to resolve conflicts among applicants.
After the settlement window closes on Jan. 30, 1998,
the settlement caps go back into effect. It is unclear
whether the FCC will permit parties to enter into any
form of settlement after that time or whether it will
require these applications to be subject to a public
auction, as is the case with applications filed on or after
July 1, 1997.
1
2
Broadcast Engineering
The act directs the commission to allow an adequate
period of time in scheduling public auctions to permit
notice and comment on the proposed auction procedures
before issuing the new bidding rules, and to ensure that
interested parties have sufficient time to develop business
plans and assess market conditions before any auction.
Although the FCC is in the process of drafting proposed
auction rules, it is doubtful that any auctions will be held
for new broadcast facilities before next spring.
New commissioners grilled
The Senate Commerce Committee held hearings on the
nominations of the four new commissioners on Sept. 30
and Oct. 1.
Questioning of the nominees Michael Powell, Gloria
Tristani and Harold Furchtgott -Roth centered on the
FCC implementation of the 1996 Telecom Act. All three
nominees agreed that failure to adopt the new ratings
system might be a reason for reviewing a license renewal
application more closely. None of the candidates would
commit to not renewing a license on this basis.
The separate hearing on Kennard's nomination to
chairman also focused on the FCC's implementation of
the Telecom Act. Senator John McCain (R -AZ) questioned Kennard about the TV ratings system and Kennard stated that the commission has a role in determining
the acceptability of the ratings system. McCain did not
ask Kennard whether failure to adopt the ratings systems
should be a factor in license renewal. Industry observers
believe that McCain's failure to ask for and Kennard's
failure to give a commitment linking the ratings systems
and license renewals means the Senator has retreated
from the hard line he has taken against NBC, which has
refused to adopt the rating system.
Harry Martin is an attorney with Fletcher, Heald & Hildreth,
PLC., Rosslyn, VA.
a
ATE I Mrg
Renewal applications are due for TV stations in the following
states on Dec. 1: Minnesota, Montana, Colorado, South Dakota
and North Dakota.
Ownersnip reports are due Dec. 1 for commercial TV stations
in Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maine,
Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Rhode Island and Vermont.
Tower registrations are due between Dec. 1-31 for towers in
Alabama, the District of Columbia and Maryland.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Ieaa
transition to digital
By Jerry Whitaker
Intrafacility digital networks
Step -by -step, the analog elements of video production centers are being replaced by digital systems.
Systems based on digital technology allow for, and
sometimes require, new approaches to signal routing,
switching and networking. Within a given facility, the
options are numerous. The operating
paradigms for a digital production
center vary from one basic application
to the next, however, the common
thread is a high-speed network that
ties disparate elements of the system
together.
When considering networks, it is
important to take into account not
only the networking architecture
within a digital facility, but also
among several digital facilities. It is this aspect of
digital technology that promises to radically change
the TV station of the future.
The telco template
Nearly as old as electronic communications itself, the
telephone company paradigm includes valuable concepts for future wide -area video distribution systems.
The public switched telephone network consists of
users with telephones connected to a switching system
over an access network. To allow communication
between users that are not connected to the same
switching system, the individual switching systems are
all connected to each other over a trunk network.
Although access networks are usually localized to the
area surrounding the switching system, trunk networks can span cities, countries and even the globe.
A structured methodology must be
followed to ensure that a network, once
implemented, will meet the communication
Getting from here to there
needs of the intended facility.
Three basic methods are used to move video from one
physical location to another:
1.
Wireline, including coax and twisted pair;
Electromagnetic, including satellite and point-topoint microwave systems; and
3. Optical, including single -mode and multimode fibers.
2.
Each method has its strengths and weaknesses, but
the important point here is that choices exist. In the
final analysis, it is not important what method
or
combination of methods is used, but rather that the
necessary bandwidth is available upon demand and at
an affordable price.
Network communications is defined as the transport
of data, voice, video, image and/or facsimile from one
location to another. Numerous variables are involved
in network analysis, design and implementation. A
structured methodology must be followed to ensure
that a network, once implemented, will meet the communications needs of the intended facility. Let us begin
by examining
in general terms
the digital services
suitable for video transmission that are available from
the public switched telephone network (telco), with an
eye toward how telco services may translate into the
wide -area video networks of the future.
-
-
-
14
Broadcast Engineering
-
Today, the majority of connectivity in the trunk
network and much of the connectivity in the access
network is provided using fiber-optic transmission.
These elements are referred to as the transport infrastructure. This infrastructure also provides direct digital connections between businesses for private voice,
data and video networks.
Networks are created by combining network elements and systems. Hubs and cross -connects are used
to interconnect linear systems to each other and to
rings. The elements and systems used depend upon the
application and topology of the network and the degree
of survivability required. Automatic protection switching offers the ability to detect a network failure and
then transfer the affected traffic to another line. The
most basic protection system is a linear 1+1 system
(one working fiber, plus one standby fiber).
Although the physical implementation of such a system is hierarchical in nature, the logical implementation (from the user standpoint) appears flat; that is, any
device anywhere on the system is available to any other
device. It is upon this basis that existing video networks
have been built. The real changes in intrafacility video
transport will come not so much from changes in the
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
fundamental telco communications systems, but in the
way those communications systems are controlled and
accessed.
User demands are the driving force behind the current
and emerging wide-area network (WAN) services offered to video customers. Users want simple, transparent access to variable amounts of bandwidth as required. In addition, WAN access must offer support for
the transmission of a variety of data, including video,
still -imaging, fax and voice. Furthermore, it is no
surprise that one of the primary driving forces for
increased capacity and sophistication of WAN systems
is the explosive growth of smaller local area network
(LAN) systems. As individual production centers and
facilities embrace a LAN -based architecture, the WAN based system is the next, natural extension.
The sophisticated combination of switches and transmission facilities comprising the telco infrastructure is
known as the network architecture. Communications
companies offering WAN services have two major technologies to integrate into a cohesive system. The options
are illustrated in Figure 1. Switching architectures, such
as circuit switching and packet switching, assure the
proper routing of information to its destination.
The basis of practical WANs is the establishment of
virtual paths for signal routing. Modern network architectures treat the application layer as an abstrac-
CIRCUIT SWITCHING
Ín
VOICE
-OR-
VOICE
-ORCENTRAL
OFFICE
DATA
DATA
SWITCH DEDICATED CIRCUITS
ALL DATA OR VOICE TRAVELS FROM SOURCE TO DESTINATION RAER THE DAME PHYSICAL PATH
.
PACKET SWITCHING
MAN)
®
..
PACKET SWITCHED NETWORK
:::::
...
PADPACKET
ASSEMBLER
DISASSEMBLER
t
PUBLIC DATA
NETWORK
PAD PACKET
ASSEMBLER
DISASSEMBLER
DATA ENTERS THE PACKET -SWITCHED NETWORK ONE PACKET AT A TIME. PACKETS MAY
TAKE DIFFERENT PHYSICAL PATHS WITHIN PACKET -SWITCHED NETWORKS
1. A comparison of circuit -switching vs. packet switching techniques.
Figure
tion. The virtual network thereby created may bear
little resemblance to the actual physical network. Indeed, the physical network may change at random
times to reflect the optimum use of available bandwidth. Such fluid, virtual connections make on -the -fly
WAN connections possible.
"LOOK WILCOX, THE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS TREND
IS CATCHING ON EVERYWHERE," WHISPERED SNELL.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
15
transition to digital
CLASSES OF DIGITAL BITRATE
TELECOMSER VICES
MONTHLY
BASIC ISDN
(2B+D)
128kb/s
$25
PRIMARY ISDN
(23B+O)
1.288.1.47261b/s $600 - $1,200
DS1 (T1)
1.536Mb/s
DS3 (T3)
44.736Mb/s
a pipeline of
APPLICATIONS
RATES
-
$100
DESKTOP VIDEO TELECONFERENCING (15 fps)
QUICKTIME AND AVI
ISDN MODEMS
MOTION-JPEG
HIGH -END VIDEO TELECONFERENCING (30 fps)
ISDN MODEMS
MOTION-JPEG
MPEG-1
$400 - $1,000
"APPROVAL QUALITY" VIDEO
LOW-SPEED CABLE MODEMS
MOTION-JPEG
MPEG-1
MPEG-2 ON MULTIPLE T1
$2,000 - $10,000 "BROADCAST DUALITY" & COMPRESSED NTSC
HIGH-SPEED CABLE MODEMS
MOTION-JPEG
MPEG-1
MPEG-2
D1 ON BUNDLED DS3
Table 1. Common digital telecom services of interest to broadcasters.
Practical implementations
Table 1 lists four digital telecom services for digital
video applications. As shown, DS1, DS3 and two forms
of ISDN involve paid carriage over multiple twisted
pairs. It should be noted that DS1 and DS3 are also
known as T1 and T3, but in the strictest telco definition, this terminology only applies to the copper implementations of service networks at these data rates. The
classes of service vary with bandwidth capacity. As a
benchmark, remember that uncompressed serial digital component video requires about 240Mb/s. Compare this with an MPEC 2 datastream, which requires
about 3 to 30Mb/s, depending upon the amount of compression applied.
As we move into the digital future,
networks will allow facilities to operate with resources scattered over a
variety of physical locations. Building
the necessary infrastructure today will
make it easier to integrate worldwide
networks into facilities tomorrow.
Jerry Whitaker is a consulting editor for Broadcast Engineering magazine.
Author's note: This article has barely scratched
the surface of telco-based WAN systems. For
more information, readers may want to con-
sult the following:
1. Whitaker, Jerry C., "Routing Technology," Broadcast Engineering, Intertec Publishing, Overland Park, KS, pp. 40-50, May
1996.
2. Goldman, James E., "Network Communications," in The
Electronics Handbook, J. C. Whitaker ed., CRC Press, Boca
Raton, FL, pp. 1,939-1,984, 1996.
3. Freed, Ken, "Understanding Digital Telecom Services, "Broadcast Engineering, Overland Park, KS, pp. 78-85, April 1997.
4. Paulson, C. Robert, "Fiber Optic Transmission Systems," in
NAB Engineering Handbook, 7th Ed., NAB, Washington, DC, pp.
717-730,1992.
5. Wu, Tsong-Ho, "Network Switching Concepts," in The
Electronics Handbook, J. C. Whitaker ed., CRC Press, Boca
Raton, FL, pp. 1,513-1,152, 1996.
"CLEARLY THE RESULT OF AN EARLY
EXPERIMENT IN COMPRESSION..." MUSED WILCOX.
16
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
,
SNELL & WILCOX
Engineering with Vision
Circle (5) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
o
management
By Kare Anderson
Keeping cool while under fire
The No.
1 reason people get fired is anger, and the
No. 1 problem people say they have at work is that
they don't feel heard and respected. How do we let
people feel heard when they are difficult to be around
and still stand up for ourselves?
If the only tool you have is a hammer, you treat
everything like a nail. Here are some more tools to add
to your toolbox for the next time someone is upset and
taking it out on you. No tool will work all of the time
and some tools will work
better for you than others.
-
Lighten up
When others act "hot,"
we tend to escalate (get loud
or more hostile) or withdraw (assume a poker face
or get quiet). Both reactions
are instinctively self -protective, but self -sabotaging beKare Anderson
cause they are akin to saying, "1 don't like your behavior, therefore, I'm going to
give you more power." Instead, stay present and acknowledge that you heard with a pause or a nod and
without taking sides or using blaming language. Take
a few breaths and maintain eye contact. This will buy
you time to think about what you want to do and to
prove that you heard what was being said.
You can acknowledge by saying, "I understand there's
a concern" (rather than "I understand you're upset,"
which is emotion-laden language). Your goal is to deescalate conflict. Try to "warm up" to the part of the
person you can respect. Focus on it mentally and refer to
it verbally: "You are so `dedicated' or `knowledgeable'
or whatever the person's self-image is, which leads the
person toward rationalizing his or her behavior. Then
say, "May I tell you my perspective?" This sets the
person up to give you permission to state your view.
tions you can get the person to self -correct, which will
protect your future relationship.
Look to the person's positive intent. In arguments, it
is natural for us to mentally focus on the "right" things
you are doing while obsessing about the "wrong"
things they are doing. This makes us superior or
righteous, and we get more rigid and listen less. Stay
mindful of your worst side and his or her best side when
you get into an escalating argument. You can increase
the chances for reaching an agreement.
Dump it back in their lap
If someone is dumping on you,
don't interrupt, counter
or counter attack. When the person is done ask, "Is there
anything else you want to add?" Then say, "What would
make this situation better?" If he or she continues to
complain, acknowledge that you heard them and, like a
broken record, repeat yourself in brief language, for
example, "What will make it better?"
Kare Anderson is a speaker and author. For more communication
tips, visit www.sayitbetter.com. To setup a speaking engagement,
contact her at 415-331-6336 or kareand@aol.com. (Photo courtesy of M. Christine Torrington.)
Did you know..
Presume innocence
Nobody likes to be told they are wrong. Whenever
someone is not making sense or is lying, you will not
build rapport by pointing it out. Let the person save
face by asking questions. Say, for example, "How does
that relate to the ... (then state the conflicting information). You may find you were wrong and you "save
face." Or; by continually asking non -threatening ques-
18
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
People get along better when they stand side by side.
If you argue for more than 10 minutes, you may not be
discussing the real conflict.
Someone will listen sooner, longer, remember more and
like you better if you address his or her interests first,
then how that relates to what you have in common and
then back to your interests.
When lying, most people can assume an innocent
expression, yet few will respond with the right timing or
duration. Ignore the expression and consider if the
timing and duration seem natural. You'll increase the
chances of knowing if they are lying.
In a gathering, pay attention to the one who is getting
the least attention. You'll change the dynamic in the
group and may also gain an unlikely and loyal new ally.
Praise individuals for thoughtful action, not just to them,
but to those who are important to them, and you will
reinforce the behavior you most admire.
Don't embarrass someone while trying to reach an
agreement, you may never have their full attention
again.
When you have the upper hand, don't make a victim of
the underdog.
Offering something free and valued unasked, often
instills the desire to reciprocate.
If you want more from another person, don't ask for it
until they have invested more time, energy, money or
reputation.
Delivering video and audio quality that was "much better than rni3-cwave"
for a period of four morrtis, Canobeam II, Canon's Oitical Wire ens Broadcast
Transmission System., cperated ''flawlessly" daring the hostage staldoff
in Peru -that according to a nuts article tha= quotec CBS
Technical Supervisor, Da las Bureau, Perry Jones.
Jones, who helped set-up the system in Peru, when Iccal
a.athorities prohibited tf laying of fiber-optic cable for
security reasons, deserted the Canobeam as "a great
technology that delivers superb video and audio quality,
aid is much better, enc much cleaner, than microwave
transmission. With the 33nobea-i you do not
experience any `breathing of chr_ma'. `hashing
of video, or `audio noise" like yo, wculd
with microwave. You gel _ust nice
clean audio and video
with Canobeam."
a
C/INOBE/¡ Ail
WIRELESS
BROADCASTING.
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CBS During
Peruvian Crisis"
For additional information on Canobeam II, or the
complete report on this event, call 1-800-321-4388.
Canon
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Versatile pre -read functions
=ou- uncompressed audio channels
Analog Betacam playback
Proven bit reduction techno3ogy
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Upon
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ye shall build
your facility.
BET'AGAM
With more than 23,000 units already in use, Sony Digital Betacam® format is
the solid foundation for a broad spectrum of video operations. From electronic
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quality and cost efficiency, as well as playback compatibility with media created
on over 350,000 analog Betacam and Betacam SP® machines. Its technical
attributes have been carefully conceived with an eye toward the future, starting
with a 4:2:2 component digital video signal with 10 -bit resolution for superior
picture quality. Extremely robust compression stands up to dozens of generations
and layers with flawless performance. With its legendary reliability, and new
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computers & networks
By Brad Gilmer
From Mac to video
Macintoshes have always held the high ground in
the graphics market and seem to be the system
of choice for graphic artists in the broadcast design
Brad
environment.
But why would someone choose to use a Macintosh
over a dedicated paint box? The most common answer
is money. You can buy three fully outfitted Macintoshes
and tons of software for the price of
one moderately equipped paint box.
Let's focus on three tools you can use
to get Macintosh graphics off the desktop and into the video domain. The
first is to install the Video Explorer
card made by Intelligent Resources.
The second is to purchase a Multi Buffer DS -1 framestore and Envoy software from Ensemble Designs. The
Gilmer
third is to use a feature of the Accom
Axess still -store system. We used Adobe Photoshop to manipulate graphics in the Macintosh
domain.
The Video Explorer
Although the Video Explorer is no longer manufactured, there are large numbers of them in use. The
Video Explorer card plugs into your Macintosh. Our
Video Explorer has two inputs
the first is a 601
digital video input and the second is a reference video
input. Explorer has a 601 digital video output. The
Video Explorer uses a Photoshop plug-in to import
video. The process is simple. From Photoshop, use the
file/import menu to access the Video Explorer settings
dialog box; from there you can preview, freeze and then
capture the frame you are viewing on the preview
monitor into Photoshop. To export from Photoshop,
drag the image to the preview monitor and it will be
available as a video source on the card's digital output.
Anything displayed on the Video Explorer's preview
monitor will be output by the Video Explorer card.
-
A solution by Ensemble Designs
Ensemble has produced a rack -mount
framestore and
associated software that allows you to import and
export up to four channels of digital video. Each input
loops with an active reclocked output for use in feeding
other devices. There is also a connection for reference
video in. The framestore connects to your Macintosh
22
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
via a LocalTalk interface or through a network using an
Apple Attachment Unit Interface via a 15 -pin connector.
Connecting the framestore to a network allows multiple desktops to access it, although not at the same
time. There is no lockout, so multiple users can end up
battling over control of the buffer.
Envoy Digital Image Transporter software is used to
communicate between the framestore and the
Macintosh. Not only does this software enable export
and import, but it also allows you to adjust video
parameters, such as setup and hue over the network.
The MultiBuffer will work with SGI and PC/NT platforms, as well as the Macintosh.
The Accom Axess
-
another solution
The Accom Axess is a large, multi-user, full -featured
still -store. It can consist of multiple nodes with a mix
of still and moving video, all managed over an Ethernet network. The system allows Macintosh users to
read from or write directly to still -store locations. The
process is simple and similar to that of the Envoy
software. The Axess software on the Macintosh installs an import/export plug-in on Adobe Photoshop.
Selecting import or export on this plug-in transfers the
image. During the transfer process, you specify a
location for the still on the Axess system. But be
careful, if you use an active location, there is nothing
to keep you from writing over a still that is currently
in use.
There are two problems with transferring graphics
from the desktop to the video domain: maintaining
aspect ratio and generating NTSC legal colors. You
should understand both of these problems if you are
going to work in this area every day. Fortunately, there
are two good sources of information available. The
first is Charles Poynton's book, A Technical Introduction to Digital Video. The second is the Colourspace
FAQ posted on the Internet. This document is posted
routinely in the news group SCI.ENGR.T'ELEVISION.ADVANCED
and is also available at www.inforamp.net/-poynton/
ColorFAQ.html. You can find more FAQ pages on
graphic file formats and other topics at
www.dcs.ed.ac.uk/%7Emxr/gfx/utils-hi.html.
Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer & Associates, Inc., a technology and management consulting firm.
www.americanradiohistory.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Our full TV triggering function that is a
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Besides the extra 70 MHz of bandwith and all of
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Each of our 100, 200, 400 and 470 MHz
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production clips
Skip Pizz
i
Audio levels and metering
It used to be simple: Keep the meter levels out of the
red and everything was OK. Today, things are different. With the emergence of digital audio and a variety
of new metering "standards," accurate and consistent
monitoring of audio levels has become a challenge.
In those earlier times, the volume unit (VU) meter
was ubiquitous, and its standard calibration and
ballistics became quite familiar and reliable to audio
professionals. This meter standard was developed in
the days of narrower bandwidths and tube amplification, however, which made the VU meter's averaging
characteristics acceptable.
Peak vs. average response
With the emergence of wider audio bandwidths and
solid-state signal paths, more careful control of peak
audio levels became necessary. This led to the development of the peak program meter (PPM). It accurately followed peaks as short as 10ms duration, and
its slow release time made the mechanical display of
such fast peaks easy to read.
This helped operators know more about audio peaks,
which can be as high as 15dB to 20dB above the value
indicated by the VU meter. You could never be sure
about this, however, because each sound's peak-to average ratio (or crest factor) was different. For
example, typical speech might have peaks 10dB above
the VU's reading, while a harpsichord or metallic
sound effect could hit 20dB above, and a flute might
only reach 5dB above. The PPM took away this
guesswork, always displaying the maximum peak
value of every sound.
Nevertheless, the PPM has its own confusing elements.
For example, it is marked with different calibration
scales in different countries. (The scale most commonly
used in the United States has markings that are roughly
analogous to those of the VU meter.) More confounding
is the lag that the PPM exhibits when displaying steadystate tones. Because these are usually sine -wave signals
having extremely low crest factors, the PPM will "underrespond" to them. This means the reference point on the
meter that is used to align reference tones is lower
(typically by 8dB) than the reference point used when
actual program material is monitored.
Absolute vs. relative levels
While such divergence abounds on the dynamic
26
Broadcast Engineering
characteristics of audio metering, there is also plenty
of confusion on its static issues as well. In other
words, how is the meter referenced or just what does
the "0dB" mean in terms of electrical output? This
question applies to all meters, regardless of type.
Traditionally, three basic "standards" evolved: the
pro audio community usually set OVU to +4dBu
(1.23V), while the broadcast industry often used
+8dBu (1.95V) and the semi-pro/industrial market
sometimes employed OdBu (0.775V).
This divergence continues today, and it's complicated by the addition of different kinds of meters on
different equipment. This means that the interfacing
of devices is not always as simple as lining up all the
"Os" on all devices' meters.
Digital metering standards
Contemporary professional audio equipment is generally designed to allow 15dB to 20dB of headroom
above the reference level before clipping occurs. The
latest issue in metering complication is a new approach to the headroom concept that digital audio
presents. Digital systems have an absolutely specified
maximum level, which is defined when all bits of a
sample are set to "on" or "high." This is referred to
as a full-scale level, and the unit dBFS has been
established to define it. The maximum level possible
in any digital system is referenced as OdBFS, with all
other levels in the system defined as negative values
below reference.
For this reason, meters on most digital audio devices
are marked with a "0" at their maximum value, and
all other markings are negative numbers. To accommodate peaks, an incoming reference -level tone is
aligned to a level below "0." Throughout the industry,
different users have selected -15, -18 or -20dBFS as
their reference level, and this has made the exchange
of digital recordings between facilities problematic.
All of these issues conspire to make proper audio
level control difficult today. Your best hope of a
solution includes the use of consistent meter types, the
establishment of strict house-standard reference levels and alignment practices, and strong operator
training.
Skip Pizzi is editor in chief of BE Radio, Broadcast Engineering's
sister publication.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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interactive
By Mark Dillon and Steven Blumenfeld
Who's paying you to do this?
Acouple of months ago, we explained why webs will
never form on your television. The reasons were
based mostly on technical and creative considerations,
such as image resolution, viewing distance, personal
posture and control devices. However, none of these
factors is as important as advertising.
Unfortunately, many ad execs just don't get the Internet paradigm. They still think
in terms of eyeballs, impressions and CPM. So, why are
so many bright, well-dressed
New Yorkers on the wrong
track? Well, lots of good news
is coming from the Internet
advertising
scene masking
Mark Dillon and Steven M.
underlying
realities.
As reBlumenfeld
ported by the Internet Advertising Bureau, spending on web advertising for the
second quarter of 1997 was 313% higher than a year
ago, reaching $214 million.
Unless you're selling products directly from a web
site, advertising is almost the only way to generate
revenues. Only 0.01% of all web sites generate enough
dollars from advertising to support the site, though in
absolute dollars, advertising revenues are increasing,
they support an infinitesimal proportion of all web
sites. If all advertising -supported web sites went down
tonight, it might be weeks before the average web
surfer noticed. But what if every ad -supported TV
station went dark tonight?
Is it just a matter of time before advertising on the
web truly catches on? Probably not. All TV programming, advertising included, is intended to reduce interactivity. The goal of the programming and advertising
executives alike is to make you forget you have a
remote control. To do this, most ads are low in
information content, high in emotional content and
rich in production values.
Current Internet bandwidth limitations prevent advertising from having high production values. As a
consequence, the emotional content is low and is not
extremely successful at motivating the "click -me" behavior. Most research registers click -through rates in
the 1% range
the remaining 99% don't even bother
to click and see what's behind the ad banner. (Our own
experience suggests that click-through rates, as measured by departures from the ad itself, are exaggerated.
-
28
Broadcast Engineering
Less than half of the users who clicked on our ads on the
Internet landed on our site. We assume the no-shows
stopped before downloading was complete.)
Buying ads on the Internet
Traditional mass media advertising sells impressions
to defined audiences, such as women between 18 and 34
or middle -income males. Advertisers buy impressions
that meet their target demographics. This can be done
on the Internet with ad banners. However, equating the
impact of the average ad banner with any 30 -second
spot on the lowest -rated cable channel is a hard sell.
Where a TV spot is intended to keep you from doing
something (using the remote), an ad banner must motivate you to do something (use the mouse). To motivate
a click -through, first the banner must suggest that there
is something of value at the other end. It is at this "other
end," the place we are clicking to, that we encounter
difficulties. For the most part, the place at the other end
of the click-through is a wasteland, with nothing of
value to be found. Surveys show that to 99 out of 100
web surfers, most advertisers are clickless.
Thus, we confront the conundrum of the Internet ad
buy. You do not advertise on the net in the sense that you
"build awareness" or "protect the brand." With television, no action is expected or possible, so the objective
is a lasting impression. Victory can be declared when
the viewer's memory survives long enough to be recalled and take action on it.
By definition, people on the net are taking action. If
they don't, they won't see your ad. Banners are not the
ad, they are the doorway. And if a user clicks, he or she
expects a payback
you have to deliver the goods
not just promises or pretty pictures. On the net, unfulfilled promises are offensive, and pretty pictures take
too long to download. On the Internet, consumers can
deal more easily with advertising's reputation for delivering images, not reality; they completely avoid the ad.
Commercial information on the Internet has to get
back to basics. Instead of delivering "impressions" to
the clients, agencies must begin delivering customers.
Instead of delivering images to customers, it has to
deliver products
or at least real information about
them.
-
-
-
Mark Dillon is vice president, on-line services with GTE, and
Steven Blumenfeld is general manager for GTE Internet Television.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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dlv update
By Louis Libin
Broadcast auxiliary spectrum:
What is left for DTV?
Beginning in 1987, the FCC Advisory Committee
on Advanced Television Services analyzed spectrum allocations that could potentially impact or be
impacted by the non -broadcast services associated
with the implementation of an advanced TV service.
The committee recommended that new spectrum should
be assigned for broadcast auxiliary and made specific
recommendations on new spectrum
locations. Since then, much of the
broadcast auxiliary spectrum (BAS)
has been lost or must now be shared
with other users. In addition, many
new broadcasters use this limited spectrum on a day-to-day basis.
Broadcast auxiliary spectrum is
used by TV stations to convey their
signals on a point-to-point basis. It is
Louis Libin
primarily used for studio -to -transmitter links (STLs), intercity relays
(ICRs) and electronic news -gathering (ENG). Non broadcast video transport falls into two general categories. The first group of services provides contribution transport over the path from the source of the
program signal to the studio. Examples of contribution transport services include temporary microwave
pickup, ENG, network -to-studio feeds and fixed microwave repeaters. The second category involves distribution transport over the path from the studio to
the viewer. Distribution networks include feeder services, such as STL and cable television service (CARS)
and broadcast services, such as direct broadcast satellite (DBS) and multichannel distribution systems
(MDS). For digital television, the FCC will limit
additional terrestrial VHF/UHF broadcast allocations
to the same NTSC bandwidth of 6MHz. For delivery
methods other than terrestrial broadcast, other options are available to program providers.
Videotape, compact video disk, DBS, cable and fiber
to the home all may have the capability of delivering to
the viewer DTV signals that occupy significantly more
than 6MHz of bandwidth.
In order for delivery systems to achieve their maximum potential, program providers will need to assemble their finished product in a format consistent with
the highest -quality distribution system available. In
addition, a single high -quality studio standard may be
desirable to facilitate production.
30
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
Auxiliary spectrum status
On a regular basis, auxiliary spectrum is encroached
on and is being removed piece by piece. For example,
on Sept. 26, 1997, the FCC adopted an amendment to
the commission's rules amending Parts 74, 78 and
101, regarding auxiliary broadcast services requiring
permanent coordination criteria between this service
and government operations in the 17.8-19.7GHz band.
This is just the latest action potentially impacting
broadcast auxiliary operations. Even if you know of
a broadcast auxiliary band that has not yet been
impacted, you can bet it's been targeted for downsizing or elimination.
There is even an amendment out to allocate the 455456MHz band to the mobile satellite service on a
primary basis for non -voice, non-geostationary mobile satellite services. Broadcasters do not need a
reminder to understand the frequency congestion that
approximately 80% of stations face on a daily basis,
as news coverage intensifies nationwide. The job of
the frequency coordinator, once an intermittent off hour volunteer task, in many cities is now a stressful
and intensive daily project.
New technologies have been developed, such as
digital compression, IR and fiber-optic links, but it
will be years before these techniques will be commonly available. In addition, these new technologies have
their limitations. There are also implementation options, such as the split -channel plan, that can reduce
interference. Even so, increased channel spectrum use
requires tight coordination. Also, bear in mind that
the electronic news-gathering operations are usually
not performed under ideal conditions. It's important
to recognize that further sharing of any of the existing
broadcast auxiliary spectrum will be harmful to the
broadcast industry because electronic news -gathering will be impacted.
It's obvious (at least to most broadcasters) that our
industry cannot function without adequate BAS spectrum. And if today's crowding isn't enough, the addition of multichannel and HDTV operations will create
further pressure for more BAS operations
and the
need for additional spectrum or the coverage of news
-
will suffer.
Louis Libin is a broadcast/FCC consultant in New York and
Washington.
www.americanradiohistory.com
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cabletec
By Del Kunert
Selecting a video server
Engineers charged with selecting video servers are
faced with dozens of choices ranging from generic
systems offered by computer makers, to highly specialized systems developed by vendors targeting specific
markets. That's why it's important to clarify your
system's requirements by asking the tough questions:
What type of video server is required (VOD, NVOD,
TVOD, NOD)?
How many hours do you need to store?
What type of encoding will be used?
What type of network will be used?
System architecture.
What type of video server is required?
Determining the type of video server you need depends
upon what type of video -on -demand (VOD) defines
your application. Understanding how video can be
delivered can help you select the right video server.
In near video -on -demand (NVOD), a content title can
be associated with multiple video streams
with each
video stream started at fixed intervals.
True video -on -demand (TVOD) is an improvement.
With TVOD, a content title can be associated with
multiple video streams, with each video stream started
immediately upon user request.
Interactive video -on -demand (NOD) provides users
with full access and interactive control of the video
information whenever they desire. Users can also enjoy
VCR-type control functions. Different types of VOD
applications require different types of servers. A server
suitable only for NVOD may be unable to respond
-
quickly enough to user commands in an NOD application.
How much capacity is enough?
The number of video streams that must be concurrently delivered is an obvious factor. An even more
important factor is the type of encoding used. The type
of encoding will affect the amount of storage required.
content storage requirements, compared with constant
bit -rate encoding. However, most video servers do not
support variable bit -rate encoding.
What kind of network is required?
A video server must also be able to connect the
network distribution system. If analog video streams
are to be distributed, you'll need MPEG decoders on
every output. If digital video streams are required, the
video server must be able to properly interface with
your distribution system.
The video server must be able to support communications with client devices, such as PCs or intelligent
set -top boxes. Be sure your selected server supports the
appropriate application binary interface (ABI), such as
DAVIC's DSM-CC.
System architecture
Pay special attention to specific system architecture
features. The tasks performed by a video server are
input/output intensive. Accordingly, the ability to handle multiple and independent 1/0 channels is more
important than the speed of the CPU.
VOD, particularly TVOD and NOD, requires fast
and predictable response to user requests. A real-time
system that is optimized to respond quickly and deterministically to random and unpredictable real -world
events is a superior platform for VOD.
Video data is large and is generally accessed sequentially. Video server operating systems that include
video-specific enhancements to handle the unique characteristics of video data are preferable.
The addition of a video file system that optimizes access
to video content is invaluable. A video server that includes direct input/output as a complement to buffered
input/output optimizes video data throughput. Operating systems that include in -kernel buffer management to
move video data directly from content storage to network buffers can also increase performance.
Consider the encoding
Your next challenge is determining content storage
requirements. Storage capacity is the largest influencer
of video server costs. How many titles are needed?
What is the average length of each title? How many
hours do you need to store?
The video encoding method also must be considered.
Variable bit -rate encoding can significantly decrease
34
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
Know your goals
Establishing a clear picture of what your server must do
and working with vendors to answer your questions will
help you make an intelligent video server purchase.
Del Kunert is director, Interactive Video-on -Demand Business
Area Team for Concurrent Computer Corp. in Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
He can be reached at 732-870-4309 or del.kunert@mail.ccur.com.
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'Stop on Error' trigger catches auxiliary data embedding
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Edge diagram of digital
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Selecting
test
equipment
for digital
systems
It takes more than
VOM
a
to test today's
digital systems.
By Kenneth Hunold
THE BOTTOM LINE:
As digital systems change from islands to oceans surrounding analog islands, test
procedures also need to change. To properly test digital systems, engineers need
knowledge and digital -ready test equipment.
$
that no matter what the VTR, HDTV or video server
format of tomorrow will be, tomorrow's TV system will be digital. It has also
been said, when referring to testing and measuring digital TV systems, "Don't
worry ... it's digital!" Although the first statement is probably true, the second
could not be farther from the truth. Digital systems need to be tested just as much
as analog systems (albeit for different responses). Also, brand-new, all -digital
systems are rare, even today. New digital installations are most often built within
existing analog infrastructures and must interface with the existing analog facility.
It is important to test the facility as if it was an analog facility and also as a digital
facility. Depending on the mix of analog and digital systems, the order in which to
test for analog and digital compliance may vary. It is important to realize that both
t has been said before
Invember 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
37
Selecting test
equipment for
digital systems
tests must be carried our, effectively
doubling your initial proof-of -performance test time.
What to test and why
Digital systems must be tested just as
much as analog systems. Only the nature of the test and the equipment used
to perform the tests is different. Digital
television is only now entering the phase
of development where most digital video equipment properly interfaces with
equipment made by other vendors.
However, this interoperability is not universal. In instances of finger-pointing
between (or among) vendors, it is often
left up to you
the customer
to
determine digital blame and how to
proceed toward compatibility. A good
place to start is with standards developed by organizations with established
standard -setting procedures, either national or international. These organizations include SMPTE, AES, ITU (formerly CCIR) and ANSI. Armed with
these manufacturer-neutral and committee -balloted standards (and they can be
quite an arm full!) you can begin to referee
compatibility issues at your facility.
For standard -definition video systems, the document referred to most
often is SMPTE 259M-1993, which
covers the serial transmission of digital video signals. Serial transmission is
the most popular digital video inter-
-
-
connection method. The SMPTE
259M standard covers multiple line
rates and data rates including, but not
limited to, 143Mb/s for composite digital systems (e.g., D-2 and D-3 VTRs),
270Mb/s component digital systems
(D-1, D-5 and other VTRs) and 360Mb/s
18MHz-sampled component digital
systems (D-5 VTRs). Test equipment
capable of measuring SMPTE 259M
signals is considered an absolute necessity in today's digital facilities.
Today's test equipment includes a variety of functions. Depending on how far
your facility's transition to digital has
progressed, different types of test equipment could be needed at different stages.
If serial digital distribution is used
throughout, then serial digital versions
38
Broadcast Engineering
of most of the monitoring equipment
will be required. At one end of the cost
and sophistication spectrum, all that
might be required is a simple continuity
monitor. Often, this device serves as
nothing more than a waveform monitor
for the digital signal. It confirms signal
presence and little else. At the other end
of the cost and sophistication spectrum
is the digital analyzer. In addition to
waveform monitor capability, these devices can also analyze the signal at the
interface level.
Routine monitoring of the signal for
continuity and video content can be
accomplished either with a purposebuilt SDI monitor or, perhaps on a
temporary basis, an appropriate quality D -to -A converter could feed your
existing monitor system. This raises
the question of whether implementation plans call for a composite digital or
component digital facility. Although
SMPTE 259M can be used for either
composite or component digital systems, it is usually a good idea to keep the
Standards documents
Standards documents are necessary to define the details of complex systems and ensure stable and
reliable operation. Listed below are standards documents from professional organizations that may
be helpful in defining and describing TV audio and video systems.
AES standards:
AES3-1992 (ANSI 54.40-1992). Transmissionof two -channels periodically sampled and uniformly
quantized audio signals on a single twisted pair cable. User and interface -related data may also be
transmitted. This is a revision of the original 1985 document.
AES-3id-1995. This information document (id) describes transmission of AES3-formatted data over
unbalanced coaxial cable.
AES10-1991 (ANSI S4.43-1991). Serial Multichannel Audio Digital Interface (MADI). This
standard is for transmitting multiple AES3 channels over a 7552 coaxial cable or optical fiber. This
interface is becoming popular with digital console and multitrack recorder systems. Up to 56
channels can be transmitted.
AES14-1992 (ANSI S4.48-1991). XLR-type connector gender and polarity. This standard specifies
a common scheme for wiring XLR connectors in audio systems.
AES17-1991 (ANSI S4.50-1991). Measurement of digital audio equipment. This standard specifies
methods for verifying the performance of digital equipment. Many tests are almost identical to those
used when testing analog equipment. Because of the requirements of digital audio equipment,
additional tests are included. This document is currently under revision.
AES26-1995. Conservation of polarity of audio systems. This standard specifies the polarity of the
signal at the different interface points in the audio chain, particularly for the acoustical, electrical
and magnetic aspects.
SMPTE issues different kinds of standards documents. These include "standards," "recommended
practices" (RP) and "engineering guidelines" (EG). Some of the relevant documents for analog and
digital systems include:
SMPTE 170M-1994 NTSC for studio systems;
EG 1-1990 alignment color -bar signal (SMPTE bars);
SMPTE 259M-1993 bit-serial 4:2:2 interface;
SMPTE 125M-1995 bit -parallel 4:2:2 interface;
SMPTE 244M-1995 bit -parallel NTSC composite interface;
RP 165-1994 error detection check words and data flags (EDH);
RP 184-1996 jitter specification;
RP 192-1996 jitter measurement;
EG -33 jitter characteristics and measurement;
SMPTE 276M-1994 AES/EBU audio over coaxial cable (similar to AES-3id);
EG 32-1996 AES/EBU emphasis and preferred sample rate;
SMPTE 292M-1996 bit-serial 4:2:2 high -definition interface;
SMPTE 240M-1995 analog HDTV production system 1125/60;
SMPTE 260M-1992 digital HDTV production system 1125/60;
SMPTE 274M-1994 1,920x1,080 HDTV scanning 60Hz; and
SMPTE 296M 1,280x720 scanning 60Hz (this document has not been finalized);
ANSI/EIA/TIA 250-C-1989 Electrical Performance Standard For Television Transmission Systems.
This is the standard that all common carriers and most TV networks must comply with. Although
there is no digital performance specification that is analogous to 250-C, this standard is often applied
to the analog I/O of digital systems.
Standards documents are available from:
Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers
Standards Department
595 W. Hartsdale Avenue
White Plains, NY 10607-1824
Phone:914-761-1100
Fax:914-761-3115
eng@smpte.org
Audio Engineering Society
Special Publications Department
http;//www.smpte.org
http://wwwaes.org
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
60 E. 42 Street
New York, NY 10165-2520
Phone:212-661-8528
Fax: 212-682-0477
HQ@aes.org
We've pulled the plug on the patch bay.
Calibar. The pocket -sized NTSC test signal generator.
Until now, you had two choices when it came to
video calibration equipment-the rack -mounted
system or desktop -sized system. Serviceable, sure...
but hardly convenient. Because while it sits in the
patch bay, you run around plugging umpteen cables
in and out to get the readings you need. And on
location? Forget it.
But now, there's Calibar.
It's the fastest, easiest, most portable way to
calibrate video equipment. No patch bay racks or
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accurate readings in the studio, it's perfect for
off -site events and trouble -shooting in the field.
Just tuck the pen -sized Calibar in your pocket and
you're ready to go. Touch the button to generate
SMPTE color bars. Touch it again to calibrate
convergence, do a line sweep, read color fields
and so on. With its 10 bit digital architecture and
precision output, Calibar accurately performs 24
test pattern functions...that's as many as most
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It's fast, easy, and, at under three ounces,
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Anonymous
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Circle (25) on Free Info Card
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ewTek
Selecting test
equipment for
digital systems
big picture in mind and make a facility -
wide choice whenever possible. This
decision needs to be consistent with
equipment depreciation and other economic and technical trade-offs.
At the interface level, the SMPTE 259M
signal must be monitored for peak -to peak amplitude, rise time, overshoot
and jitter. These tests determine the quality of the hardware used to serialize the
signal. They can also give a clue to the
stability of the clock circuits in the originating hardware or any other signal reclocking or regeneration stages. Once
the signal is passed through a transmission device (which could be a DA, coaxial cable or coast -to -coast fiber/satellite
link), the signal needs to be checked at
the receive end. A common indicator of
digital signal health is the "eye pattern."
It is used as an indicator of how well a
device will be able to differentiate between the states of the interface. The
more separation between the upper and
lower states and the sharper the transition between the two states (which both
determine how "open" the eye is), the
better a serial receiver will be able to
determine the difference between the
two states of the signal. Most serial
receiver chipsets include an automatic
cable equalizer to correct for the high frequency roll -off of the coaxial cable. It
For more information
For background
information, read these related articles in Broadcast Engineering:
"Transition to Digital: Testing Serial Digital,"
Parts 1&2, August and September 1997.
"Testing Digital Systems," November 1996.
"Testing MPEG-Compressed Signals," February 1996.
"Transition to Digital: Testing Serial Video,"
November 1995.
"Testing Fiber Systems," November 1994.
"Production Clips: Production Test Equipment," Parts &2, August and September 1994.
"Automated Testing for Video," November
1993.
"Testing Audio-Automatically," November
1993.
"CCD Camera Testing," sidebar to "The Latest
in CCD Camera Technology," July 1993.
"Performance Testing of Digital Audio Equipment," November 1992.
"Ruggedness Testing for Transmitters," November 1992.
"Multitone Audio Testing," July 1992.
1
40
Broadcast Engineering
that allows the digital
signal to be transmitted over cable distances varying from a few inches to a
thousand feet.
Digital test equipment must also allow you to check the quality of the
original A/D conversion. Because a signal, once digitized, is difficult to modify, it is imperative that the original
conversion from analog to digital be
done correctly. SMPTE 259M specifies
how digital video signals are serialized
into a single bitstream for transmission. In order to fully examine a digital
signal, it is often necessary to examine
the individual samples. ITU -R Recommendation 601 describes how an analog video signal is to be sampled. The
continuously varying analog signal must
first be broken down into a series of
is this equalizer
discreet samples. These samples are
then quantized, resulting in a number
that describes the signal amplitude at
that point in time. This number can be
expressed to a certain precision by using a certain number of bits, typically
eight or 10 for video signals. This allows you to see exactly what the "video
level" of the signal is, limited only by
the number of bits used to describe the
signal. For the luma portion of the
component digital signal, "100%" is
equivalent to a 10 -bit sample value of
940 (decimal), and black level is equivalent to a sample value of 64 (decimal).
SMPTE 259M also defines certain non video codes that are used in the system.
In component digital systems, horizontal sync pulses are replaced by numeric
codes reserved for synchronization signals. Test equipment should detect these
codes and also indicate if they occur
when they are not expected. The portion of the signal outside the active video
portion (in what could be considered the
horizontal and vertical blanking interval of an analog signal) can be used to
transmit other digital data. This ancillary data can include audio, time code,
CRC checksums for error detection and
other data. This data should be available for inspection and possible analysis, depending on the intended use and
location of the test equipment.
Don't forget the audio
Similar to digital video, digital audio
signals must be monitored at the audio
level and the interface level. The most
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
common digital audio transmission
standard used in broadcasting is AES31992. It describes the coding that digital audio signals should use for transmission. Again, just like the video signals, the signal must first be sampled
and quantized into discrete values.
Common sampling rates include
44.1kHz for CDs, 32kHz for some
radio transmission systems and some
consumer DV systems and 48kHz for
almost all other professional applications. Common quantizing resolution
values include 16 -bits per sample for
CDs, 18- and 20 -bit converters for
digital disk recording and digital VTRs
and up to 24 bits for "audiophile"
systems. The AES standard allows for
a maximum of 24 bits of audio data to
be transmitted. Once these samples are
made, the analog values must be quantized into a discreet value. The number
of bits used to describe the digital audio
value is determined by the A -to -D converter. Currently, most audio systems
use less than the full 24 bits allowed by
the standard. Test equipment that shows
the number of active bits is useful to tell
if any processing equipment is truncating, or reducing, the number of databits
describing the audio signal, thereby
reducing the resolution of the system
and adding distortion.
Many times, all that is desired is to do
traditional analog audio testing on signals that exist in the digital domain,
e.g., frequency response, THD+N, noise
floor, etc. Typically, you are measuring
the quality of an A -to-D conversion.
Although not trivial, current DSP technology certainly makes such analysis
feasible. In addition to testing the accuracy of the data used to convey audio,
the actual interface itself must be
checked, as in digital video systems.
Audio test equipment must be able to
measure the AES interface for parameters similar to those parameters measured on the video interface. These
parameters include p -p level, rise and
fall time, overshoot and jitter. Beyond
that, test equipment should be able to
detect bit activity and decode status
byte information. If the information
contained in the status bytes does not
agree with the actual condition of the
interface, problems could occur. For
example, compatibility problems can
arise when a device receives a 48kHz-
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WARD -BECK
PROFESSIONAL BROADCAST EQUIPMENT
STANDS
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Legendary design
Legendary quality
Legendary construction
Selecting test equipment
for digital systems
sampled signal, but the status bytes indicate that the signal
sample rate is 44.1kHz.
Audio monitoring moved beyond the VU meter a long time
ago. Stereo introduced two channels (and meters), as well as
phase and polarity concerns. "X -Y" monitors became popular for phase measurements and evolved into "sound -field"
monitors. This type of monitor places the L and R axes at 45°
either side of vertical to indicate stereo placement. DTV will
bring an increase in the number of channels that can be
transmitted. This increase to six-channel audio (used in the
5.1 channel ATSC transmission system) will raise many
questions and concerns about how to monitor these audio
channels for maintenance and production. Some designs
that have not been used since the "quad" days may have to
be dusted off. (That's "quad" as in quadraphonic sound, not
quadruplex VTRs!) Apart from just an increase in the
number of channels, operational, maintenance and transmission monitoring of this new format will be a challenge
that has largely not been met by current products.
right around the corner
What about the future? In addition to dealing with the
operational needs of producing 5+ channel sound, the digital
interface used tomorrow will be different from the digital
interface used today. For HDTV signals, the data rate for the
1080í and 720P signals is approximately 1.5Gb/s. This is
more than four times the highest data rate supported by
SMPTE 259M. A new standard, SMPTE 292, has been
developed to address serial HDTV transmission via coaxial
and fiber-optic cable. There are many similarities between
the two standards, and similar parameters will need to be
checked, although at a much higher data rate. Test equipment for this interface is rare today, but it is hoped that
interface tests and data analysis similar to what we currently
perform on SMPTE 259M will also be able to be carried out
on the new HDTV interface.
The trick to selecting test equipment for digital systems is
to categorize the types of measurements that need to be made
in each operating area. Not every operating area needs the
detailed analysis tools that a maintenance area would require. Also, tools used in the construction and commissioning of digital facilities are different from the tools used in a
day-to-day operating environment. Digital signals do not
need to be checked for level and frequency response on a
daily basis (although these tests can provide an operator
with a comfort zone and a reality check). It is, however,
important to make sure that analog levels are properly
converted to digital. Many of the new pieces of test equipment include data analysis tools that are new to engineers
who were formerly required to test analog facilities. We will
need to test digital systems just as rigorously as their analog
predecessors. Although we will be looking at different
parameters with different tools, the end result, the best
signal quality possible, remains the same.
HDTV is
(WB)
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Circle (27) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Maintaining
satellite
equipment
It's no fun fixing a
dish when it's 10°
below zero with
12 inches of snow
on the ground.
By Philip
Hejtmanek
atellites in geosynchronous orbit are extremely effective platforms for
THE BOTTOM LINE:
Over the last 20 years. satellite
delivery of program and commercial
material has virtually replaced land line and package delivery. Although
fiber-optic capabilities have changed
that somewhat. satellite delivery
remains critical. Loss of satellite
equipment can cripple a facility,
either directly through loss of
primary programming or indirectly
through loss of feeds intended for
later broadcast. Proper maintenance
can prevent failures and minimize
downtime. $
Photo:Periodic inspection and tightening of components connections are critical to maintaining system reliability.
44
Broadcast Engineering
point-to-multipoint distribution of broadcast program material. Nearly
all broadcast facilities in the United States have at least one satellite
receive terminal. These terminals typically are used daily to acquire
network feeds, syndicated programming, weather data or news. Some stations also
have uplinking capability, allowing them to send program material or data to a
satellite for reception by others. All too often, though, station operators install this
mission -critical equipment and promptly forget about it
until the day it fails.
Simple maintenance procedures done on a regular basis can easily prevent
unexpected downtime.
Broadcast satellite facilities can be divided into two general types: fixed and
mobile. Most stations have at least one example of a fixed receive system
the
network or syndicated program downlink. Often, these systems feature a simple
fixed -dish antenna locked down on a single satellite, but many facilities have
motorized satellite antennas, capable of steering to multiple satellites. Fixed
systems can be either receive -only or transmit/receive. Some receive -only systems
feature antennas with spherical (rather than parabolic) reflectors, capable of
receiving multiple satellites at the same time.
Many TV stations and networks also operate mobile satellite systems. One of the
most common is the Ku -band satellite uplink truck for news operations. Additionally, a significant number of C -band mobile uplinks are used mainly for sports or
network backhauls. In many cases, these large, full -bandwidth analog trucks are
giving way to smaller systems that rely heavily on digital compression technology to
-
-
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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A VIDEONICS COMPANY
50 Albany Turnpike, Canton, CT 06019
860-693-0238 FAX 860-693- 1497
http://www. nova -s ys. corn
0Coprrigh:
1937.
nora Syster-s
Circle (30i on Free Info
www.americanradiohistory.com
Cali
Maintaining
satellite
equipment
reduce bandwidth and power require-
ments. Naturally, the maintenance
problems with all satellite trucks are
compounded by the fact that the equipment is subjected to the rigors of the
North American highway system, along
with countless potholes. There are also
flyaway Ku -band systems, which are
uplinks in a shipping case, ready for
deployment anywhere in the world.
high -power amplifiers. C-band transmit systems frequently use klystron
amplifiers at 6GHz, with output power
measured in kilowatts. Ku -band transmit systems generally have traveling
wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) with
output power levels from 100W to
300W at 14GHz.
Mobile systems have an additional
element to consider the maintenance
of the prime mover, as well as the
electronics and antenna. Vehicle manufacturers have specific maintenance
-
Set a maintenance schedule
na while the desired satellite is in the
"center of box" (satellites drift around
their nominal position slightly). Information about satellite drift and centerof-box timing is available over the phone
from the satellite controllers.
The first step toward ensuring reliable operation of a motorized antenna
is a periodic visual inspection, general
cleaning and lubrication. The reflector,
feed system, motor assemblies, jackscrews and base should be closely examined for loose or missing parts or
bolts. Thermal cycling and normal
motion can easily loosen up fasteners. Mechanical components can be
cleaned with a stiff brush, cloth or
compressed air. Corroded parts or
hardware should be cleaned or replaced. Loose screws or bolts should
be torqued to the manufacturer's
The best way to make sure that
satellite equipment is properly maintained is to set a maintenance schedule and stick to it. Virtually all manufacturers of satellite equipment recspecifications.
ommend that checks and mainteMaintenance is also important to
nance steps, such as lubrication, be
the electrical components of a modone at regular intervals. It is well
torized reflector. Azimuth, elevation
worth the extra effort to log test
and polarization motor drive syspoint values and meter readings foltems should be exercised periodicallowing the installation of new equiply, and limit switches should be
ment. Then, changes in parameters
checked for proper operation. All
from the nominal values can indicate
AC wiring and control cables should
potential trouble spots.
be checked for cracked, discolored
Because elements of a fixed satellite
or burned insulation. These sympterminal are installed outside, it is
toms usually indicate overcurrent
best to perform outside work when
conditions or poor connections. Load
the weather is favorable. Anyone
center circuit breakers for the drive
who has done significant work on a
motors, as well as the ground fault
satellite dish in the dead of winter For the safety of those involved, always remove protectors for accessory AC duplex
understands this firsthand. One un- power from the drive motors before starting any outlets, should be checked for safe
avoidable task for those in northern maintenance.
and positive operation. Tighten terlocations is sweeping snow out of un- schedules established for their prod- minals and connections at the load
heated satellite dishes. And, at any time ucts, and it is wise to follow them.
center and electrical junction boxes
of the year, high winds may move an
associated with the motor drives.
antenna and necessitate repointing.
Maintaining fixed antenna systems
It is a good idea to record the operatA fixed system consists of an antenna,
When it comes to maintenance, the ing AC voltages and currents for each
an antenna controller (in the case of simplest part of a satellite system is of the phases in a motor drive circuit
motorized dishes), a feed system, an often forgotten. Once the satellite an- upon installation and then at periodic
interfacility link and receive-only or tenna is properly installed and aligned, intervals. Deviation of more than 5%
transmit/receive electronics. The elec- it is frequently ignored. The antenna is from the installation values can inditronics segment of a receive -only sys- often the most difficult element to ser- cate troubles to come. Electrical enclotem could be a simple receiver/demodvice; freeing up a stuck 9m dish in a sures should be opened and the insides
ulator, an integrated receiver-decoder snowstorm can be tough. For that rea- checked for watertight integrity and
(IRD) or separate receiver and decoder son, this is the system element that signs of arcing or discoloration.
components. A majority of satellite - probably deserves the most attention.
Jackscrews, motors, gearboxes, bearborne communications systems feature
Non -motorized satellite antennas typ- ings and pivot points should be lubriencryption for security purposes, so ically require little maintenance other cated to manufacturer's specifications
the decoder is often a key element. than general cleanup. Sometimes, strong at the specified interval. The rubber
Transmit/receive systems feature simi- winds can move an antenna away from boots on jackscrews should be inspectlar receiver elements, in addition to the correct positioning, so repointing is ed for cracks or tears. In corrosive
encryption encoders, RF exciters and needed. Always try to repoint an anten- saltwater environments, exposed fas -
46
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle (16) on Free info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Maintaining
satellite
equipment
teners and hardware should be treated
with an anti -corrosive spray or compound to minimize long-term damage.
Always remove electric power from
motor drives before servicing them.
Serious injury or damage could result if
the antenna was inadvertently moved
during maintenance.
Caring for feeds and
interfacility links
Feed windows and horn assemblies
should be closely inspected for dirt or
foreign objects. Birds, wasps and bees
have been known to nest in feed systems, resulting in poor receive system
performance. Obstructions in transmit
feed systems can result in excessive
VSWR and possible amplifier damage.
Low-noise amplifiers and downconverters should be checked for proper
operation and weatherproofed.
PAU
minimize VSWR losses.
Transmit and receive electronics
Maintaining satellite terminal electronics is much the same as for maintaining other equipment types. In general, if adequate airflow and cooling is
available, the equipment should operate properly. It is important to change
air filters associated with power amplifiers at regular intervals, typically on a
quarterly basis, depending upon the
environment. Air-conditioners and heat
exchangers should be kept unclogged
for maximum efficiency. High-voltage
power supplies and amplifier assemblies need to be vacuumed (with the
power turned off, of course) and all
connections tightened at least twice a
year. In general, most of the same procedures used in broadcast transmitter
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Circle (17) on Free Info Card
48
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Interfacility links (IFLs) are basically
transmission lines that connect the antenna system to receivers or power
amplifiers. Most receive systems use
coaxial cable for this purpose, while
transmit amplifiers are generally connected to the feed through the use of a
waveguide. Waveguides are usually
pressurized with dry air or nitrogen to
prevent moisture from entering. A regulated positive pressure of about 0.5psi,
even in the case of a small leak, will
usually keep the water out. Loss of gas
pressure in the nitrogen tank is a sure
sign of a leak. Leaks most frequently
occur at rotary joints or flexible
waveguide sections, especially in the
area of the feed. IFL connectors should
be clean, tight and waterproofed to
TM
maintenance hold true for satellite
equipment.
Modern RF exciters and solid-state
amplifiers require little maintenance,
but it is prudent to check carrier and
subcarrier frequencies and RF power
levels on a quarterly basis. A monthly
log of amplifier meter readings is an
invaluable resource when troubles crop
up. A good spectrum analyzer, frequency counter and RF power meter are
essential tools for maintaining satellite
uplinks.
Satellite receivers and IRDs generally
need nothing more than a cool place to
operate. The same holds true for encryption encoders, decoders and digital satellite modems. If encryption/de-
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JVC made it an affordable reality. But breaking that price barrier
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Our new Digital -S components offer the same, astouniing picture quality and most of the high performarce
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PROFESSIONAL
Circle (18) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Jvc
14 WAYS TO BEAT
Maintaining
RACK
BOREDOM
satellite
equipment
Rack buyers who are bored with the same old
specs are finding NEW and exciting features to
think about when they consider Winsted's VRx.
cryption equipment is mounted in a
secure area, it is wise to affix a sign with
key passwords and telephone numbers
to the equipment; in the event an emergency re -authorization is needed, it can
save time.
Keeping mobile satellite
systems going
Packaging a complete satellite uplink/
downlink system into a vehicle often
results in airflow and cooling
compromises. Equipment is typically closely packed in racks
and supplemental air conditioning is a must. Many problems
occur as a result of vibration
caused by over -the -road travel.
Close inspection of rack -mounted electronics is much more critical in the satellite truck. Coax
connectors and AC plugs have
an uncanny way of coming apart
at the most inopportune times.
Even the racks can become loose
on a rough trip. Keep all air
filters clean.
Vehicle maintenance is as important as electronic mainte-
Mounting holes in top for eye-bolts.
2. Fully adjustable rack rails.
3. Heavy-duty welded construction.
4. Lift-off side panels.
5. Tapped rack rails, front & rear.
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email: racksewinsted.com
Preferred by Professionals Worldwide TM
Broadcast Engineering
-
the antenna and equipment packs
should be inspected for lost or missing
parts before each shipment. A flyaway
system should always be set up and
tested before it goes on the road. Inter-
nance for a satellite truck. A
good truck operator will make
daily inspections of truck engine oil, brake fluid and tire
to increased stress from vibration and weather
pressure levels, as well as fuel Due
extremes, mobile uplinks require frequent inspecsystem integrity. The motor- tion and lubrication of mechanical components.
ized antenna systems used on (Photo courtesy of Southern Illinois University
Broadcasting Service, Carbondale, IL.)
uplink trucks are more complex than those used in fixed systems connect cables need to be tested and
and should be frequently inspected each case should be inspected for damfor proper operation and loose or age before the unit is shipped.
missing parts. Leveling jack systems
Maintenance is mostly common sense.
require periodic lubrication, and the Time spent on careful inspection and
AC electric generators onboard most care of satellite equipment is worthtrucks require periodic oil changes, while. Most problems are found before
lubrication and tune-ups. Circuit they can affect the operation of the
breakers should be checked quarter- equipment. Ignoring the need for perily for positive operation and period- odic maintenance is false economy, and
ic maintenance checks can prevent the payback for skipping maintenance
lost news shots or lost revenue.
can be disastrous.
Sometimes, the air for amplifier cooling is drawn from the outside, so special care should be taken to prevent
condensation from forming in high-
Circle (19) on Free Info Card
50
voltage power supplies, amplifier cavities and TWTAs. Arcing in these areas
can cause major damage to expensive
amplifier tubes.
Flyaway systems take the worst abuse
bouncing around inside packing
cases while being shipped to the far
corners of the world. Again, periodic
maintenance can spell the difference
between success and disaster. In flyaway systems, mechanical elements of
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Philip Hejtmanek is director of technical operations for WWI -TV, Detroit, MI.
MAKING THE CONNECTION
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www.americanradiohistory.com
07647
Lossless editing
with the "MOLE"
Editing MPEG
without a loss in
picture quality is
difficult, but not
impossible.
By Mike Knee &
Nick Wells
THE BOTTOM LINE:
Seamless concatenation can refer to
the process of splicing an MPEG
bitstream or the lossless
concatenation of compression
encoding and decoding operations.
Within most MPEG-2 flavors, either
operation is nearly impossible
without restricting flexibility or
increasing the bit rate beyond what
would be considered efficient
compression. However, the benefits
are considerable and work toward
this goal is ongoing. $
Photo: Motion -compensation parameters in the MPEG bitstream can be
analyzed using equipment such as
the Snell & Wilcox MVA100 MPEG
video analyzer. The overlays are split
into two windows. The inner window
shows lines representing direction
and length of the first motion vector
for each macroblock. The outer
window's color overlays indicate the
direction of motion compensation for
each macroblock. Green indicates a
forward predicted macroblock, red
for backward and blue for bidirectional. Parameters such as these are
preserved by the MOLE.
52
Broadcast Engineering
or broadcasters, a wide variety of processing is performed on conventional signals including real-time cuts, crossfades and wipes. Additionally, captions and logos must be inserted into full -frame signals as
necessary. Video production requires all of the above and frameaccurate editing. As MPEG-2 becomes widespread, users will expect to perform
these same functions on MPEG-2 signals. Unfortunately, these "simple" tasks are
far more difficult on compressed signals than on baseband signals. One of the
difficulties is the absence of a "standard" MPEG-2 bitstream. There are different
bit rates, levels and profiles. There are also different types of bitstreams, including:
elementary, program and transport streams. Properly handling these signals will
require transcoding between different bit rates, levels and profiles, as well as
creating new transport streams from elements of old ones.
The MPEG-2 standards focused on moving compressed signals from the studio
to the viewer, with little consideration toward signal handling at the network level.
Because of this, switching MPEG-2 streams in real-time is problematic. Current
switching solutions can be classified into three categories: naive cascading,
restricted MPEG-2 and bitstream splicing.
Naive cascading fully decodes the MPEG-2 signal prior to processing and fully
re-encodes it afterward. Once decoded to baseband video, the signal could be
switched or sent through a DVE. Under some circumstances no processing would
be done, but the signal would be re -encoded at a different bit rate or with a different
flavor of MPEG-2. In this case, the processing involved constitutes a transcoder.
Fully decoding the picture is usually required for complex effects, because the
effects require access to the pixels. However, in a situation such as master control,
a switch of this type simply passes the input to the output the majority of the time.
November 1997
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Lossless editing
with the "MOLE"
The result is an additional cascade (generation) of the MPEG-2 decoding/recoding process. Within a typical broadcast chain, several cascades are likely.
The loss in picture quality caused by
multiple cascades is typically about 5dB.
This loss can be reduced by using a
milder compression, but at the expense
of an increased bit rate. Because of this,
naive cascading is not considered a real
solution to the concatenation problem.
The restricted MPEG-2 approach
avoids the concatenation problem by
compressing to a limited subset of
MPEG-2. This allows something like
frame -accurate editing to be performed
on the bitstream. An example is the
Sony SX system that uses an IBIBIB .. .
GOP structure. Simple edits can be performed with minimal intermediate processing around the edit point. Unfortunately, the IBIBIB ... structure requires
a higher bit rate for a given level of
quality than an IBBPBBP ... structure.
One benefit of the higher bit rates is
that naive cascading can be performed
with reduced loss. The main benefit of
the restricted approach is that it offers
a genuine solution to the concatenation
problem. The downside is its incompatibility with mainstream MPEG-2
coding. In a closed environment, this
may be acceptable. However, MPEG-2
Main Profile's success suggests it will
increasingly be used as the medium for
contribution (e.g., from SNG equipment), primary and secondary distribution (e.g., in digital terrestrial TV
systems) and archive storage (e.g., in
the ACTS AURORA project). Using a
restricted version of MPEG-2 for editing, followed by a transcoding to Main
Profile is less than attractive. And, the
higher bit rates undermine the benefits
of using compression in the first place.
The bitstream splicing approach attempts to do a "cuts -only" bitstream
switch. It does not work for the more
complex functions, such as crossfades
or caption insertion and does not address transcoding. The SMPTE has carried out significant work in this area.
Its Working Group PT20.02 (Switching and Synchronization) set up an ad
hoc group that has proposed a stan-
54
Broadcast Engineering
dard for bitstream splicing. Two splice
types are proposed: `seamless' and `non seamless,' depending on how a decoder
behaves when it receives the spliced
bitstream. Seamless splicing is suitable
for certain types of switching, but imposes restrictions, such as when the
switch can be performed. Non -seamless splicing imposes requirements on
downstream decoder behavior. The disadvantages of bitstream splicing in -
ferred to the re-encoder where it can be
reused. This side information is given a
formal data structure known as the
information bus. (See Figure 1.)
The ATLANTIC decoder is a standard MPEG-2 decoder with an information bus output synchronized to the
video output. Later, in the Dim coder
(encoder), all the coding decisions are
taken from the information bus. This
ensures the re -encoding process is nearly
Work on the MOLE is under way at the Snell & Wilcox research laboratories in
Hampshire, England.
dude a lack of flexibility and the required changes in encoder/decoder operations. Despite these disadvantages,
bitstream splicing could be useful for a
low-cost solution in some applications.
The ATLANTIC project
The ATLANTIC project was undertaken by several companies, including
Snell & Wilcox and the BBC. Among
the goals was the development of equipment and products that allow for the
switching and editing of MPEG bitstreams without impairments.
The ATLANTIC approach recognizes that most processing operations require access to decoded pictures. Because of this, there is an inevitable
cascade of decoding/recoding operations. In naive cascading, the side information including motion vectors and
coding mode decisions that relate to the
decoded picture are thrown away. This
forces the decisions to be re-made when
the signal is re -encoded. In ATLANTIC
cascading, the side information is trans-
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
identical to the previous encoding. The
only cascading impairments introduced
are due to mismatches between the
DCT and inverse DCT functions. These
only amount to about 0.0002dB.
Decoding and re -encoding the bitstream as a permanent transparent process is useless. However, the benefits
become apparent within the context of a
larger process. The main processes that
use the information bus are picture operations and transcoding. Picture operations process the picture and the information bus before re -encoding. In the
transcoding process, no picture processing is required, but re -encoding is
performed with some parameter changes, typically a change in bit rate.
Picture operations can be illustrated
with the example of a bitstream switch.
Using the information bus technique,
an unrestricted switch can be performed
and the technique can be extended to
include crossfades and wipes. The block
diagram of a bitstream switch using the
information bus is shown in Figure 2.
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Lossless editing
with the "MOLE"
consist of new information.
The re -encoder must lock to the new
information bus quickly, thereby once
again eliminating any cascading impairments. For most coding decisions,
a lock can be obtained as soon as the
switching period is over. However, an
additional recovery period may be need-
the decoder-re -encoder unit out of the
circuit and replace it with a compensating delay. In fact, the only calculations
In it, synchronized decoded video sigrequired to perform the switch take
nals are switched using existing techplace near the switching period. This
nology. In the steady state, when bitsame switch could be implemented efstream A is selected, the information
ficiently in an editing system using non bus is passed unchanged from decoder
real -time software processing. There
A to the Dim coder. The outare no restrictions in the
put bitstream is essentially
relative or absolute GOP
VIDEO
BITSTREAM
ATLANTIC BITSTREAM
identical to input bitstream
structures of the two bit DIM CODER
A. The same thing occurs afINFO
streams. In the example,
BUS
ter the switching operation,
bitstream A has a regular,
when bitstream B is selected. Figure 1. Cascading using the ATLANTIC technology includes common, IBBPBBP ... structhe use of the Information bus.
Near the switch point, neiture, but bitstream B has an
ther information bus is usable due to ed to address buffer fullness issues. almost random-looking, but perfectly
references made to picture information (For more information, see "Editing legal structure.
on the wrong side of the switching MPEG Bitstreams," October 1997.)
point. ( See Figure 3.) During this switch- During this recovery period, the re - The MOLE
In principle, the switch could be reing period, the re -encoder is on its own encoder is essentially operating as a
placed
by a production switcher or
and works as a full MPEG encoder. It is transcoder. Once the buffer issues have
not possible to eliminate cascading been accommodated, the re -encoder DVE, enabling a full range of functions
impairments during this period by us- can be fully locked to the new informa- to be performed on the decoded picing the information bus. This is be- tion bus and the steady-state cascade is tures. The only problem is in the hancause, from an MPEG point of view, the re -attained. At this point, it would be dling of the information bus signals.
majority of the pictures to be coded possible (though unnecessary) to switch They would need to be passed around
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Lossless editing
with the "MOLE"
the switcher and processed separately.
However, some knowledge of the
switcher's status would be needed. This
requirement can be overcome by converting the information bus into a special format known as the "MOLE,"
which allows for the use of conventional
digital studio equipment. Whenever the
input signals are passed untouched, the
MOLE associated with that signal is
also passed automatically. In this manner,
the MOLE "burrows through" the studio equipment and emerges at the other
end, ready for use in re -encoding. Conversely, whenever the equipment affects
the signal, such as during a crossfade, the
MOLE is automatically destroyed and
cannot be used for re -encoding.
The information bus is inserted into
the video signal by the "MOLE composer" at the output of each ATLANTIC decoder and is decoded by the
"MOLE interpreter" at the input to the
ATLANTIC encoder. (See Figure 4.)
For proper operation, the information
bus must pass transparently through
studio equipment. To do this, several
conditions must be satisfied, including:
the MOLE must be invisible on the
video signal;
the studio equipment must be capable
of passing the MOLE signal without
error; and
the encoder must detect when the
MOLE is no longer valid. When the
MOLE is invalid, the encoder must
make its own coding decisions.
The ATLANTIC technology imposes
no special constraints either on up-
stream encoders or on downstream
decoders. However, the quality of the
BITSTREAM
ATLANTIC
VIDEO A
DECODER A
first compression encoder in the chain
needs to be as high as possible, because
it defines the quality throughout the
chain. Prototype ATLANTIC decoders
and encoders, including MOLE processing, have been demonstrated.
Transcoding
In addition to picture operations, bit rate transcoding can be performed. In
this scenario, the information bus is
passed from the decoder to a Dim coder, but intermediate pixel -based processing is not used, eliminating the need
for the MOLE. Two transcoder types
are being investigated. The first is a
`drifty' transcoder.
VIDEO
SWITCH
INFO
BUS A
r
¿IDEO B
BITSTREAM B
ATLANTIC
INFORMATION
DECODER B
INFO
BUS B
VIDEO
.
ATLANTIC BITSTREAM
DIM CODER
INFO
BUS
BUS
PROCESSOR
Figure 2. Bitstream switch using the information bus.
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Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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.z
..
Lossless editing
with the "MOLE"
here, some decoding and re -encoding
steps can usually be left out, such as
In the drifty transcoder, the decoding
pipeline stops at the generation of in-
verse -quantized DCT coefficients.
These coefficients are then requantized
under the control of a bit -rate control
algorithm set to the new bit rate. The
information bus is passed from the
variable-length decoder to the variable length encoder for insertion into the
new bitstream. The transcoder is drifty
because the predictions generated in
the downstream decoder will not match
those generated in the upstream coder,
causing accumulated errors in successive P pictures through the GOP. This
architecture only provides limited opportunities for changing coding parameters, such as prediction modes.
However, under some circumstances,
such as when transcoding to a slightly
lower bit rate, these restrictions may
be acceptable.
The second type is a "full" transcoder, in which the decoder and encoder
prediction loops are implemented. Even
4:2:0 to 4:2:2 conversion and picture
re -ordering. With this architecture, no
drift is introduced and it is possible to
change some of the coding parameters.
However, if prediction parameters are
not changed, the architecture can be
simplified, using only a single prediction generator.
decision level choices can be improved
with knowledge of the previous quantization process. Requantizers such as
these can provide significantly better
picture quality at a given bit rate than the
naive use of a commonly used quantizer.
Up to this point, the assumption has
been a stand-alone transcoder. However, the full transcoder can be applied to
any switching or processing equipment
BBPBBPBBPB BIBBPBBPBBPBBI
BPBPBP BPBP BPBPBB BPBBPBP
SEQUENCE A:
I
SEQUENCE B:
I
I
SWITCH POINT:
IBPBBPBP
OUTPUT SEQUENCE: I B B P B B P B B P? 9 9 9 9 9
Figure 3. When a switch is done on two streams, the information bus can be used to
reassemble the output stream. However, near the switch point, some frames must be re encoded because needed information does not exist.
For both transcoder types, requantization is important. In all MPEG encoding, including the re -encoding in a
transcoder, the inverse quantizer reconstruction levels are specified in the
standard. However, the quantizer decision levels are not. The decision levels
can be chosen to optimize picture quality at a given bit rate. For transcoding,
using the MOLE. In fact, transcoding is
necessary during the recovery period
following a switch. The transcoder's
architecture makes it possible to specify an arbitrary bit rate at the switch
output or to deliver arbitrary bit rates
at the inputs so that transcoding is
automatic whenever necessary.
Continued on page 77
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Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
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LTdPLtàLicrLig and
testing the
8V!
A basic understanding of the
concepts used
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powerful troubleshooting tool.
By Linc Reed-
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Modern high-definition television was born in the mid-'80s. Since
THE BOTTOM LINE:
DTV brings with it many new
challenges, among them, the
transmission of information using
symbols rather than analog waves.
Although maintaining digital
transmission facilities requires many
of the same procedures used in
analog facilities, a variety of new
tools and techniques will be required
to ensure noise- and error -free
information transmission. Engineers
charged with the maintenance of
these new systems need to become
familiar with these new tools and
techniques as soon as possible. $
Photo: A variety of equipment is required for 8VSB encoding and decoding. Pictured is the equipment used at
the Model HDTV Station, WHD-TV,
Washington, DC.
62
Broadcast Engineering
then, we have seen the formation of the Grand Alliance and the
adoption of 8VSB as the U.S. DTV transmission standard. Most
likely, 8VSB will be adopted by many countries using 6MHz channel
bandwidths, while many countries with 8MHz channel bandwidth are adopting
the DVB-T standard, which recommends coded orthogonal frequency division
multiplex (COFDM). COFDM uses thousands of orthogonaly spaced carriers,
each of which carries a portion of the data at a low symbol rate.
The Grand Alliance bitstream
The 19.39Mb/s digital signal fed to an 8VSB transmitter is referred to as the
Grand Alliance (GA) bitstream. It contains MPEG-2 encoded video, Dolby AC3
audio and data, all packaged into 188 -byte data packets. Packets consist of a sync
byte, followed by a byte packet header (information about the packet), an
adaptation packet of varying length and the data payload. Packet length was
chosen for optimum coding performance in the transmitter's exciter.
In the exciter (see Figure 1.), the data is randomized as required by the FCC. The
goal of randomization is to guarantee a flat, noise -like spectrum. For instance, if
the GA input stream is lost, resulting in long streams of "ls" or "Os" or if a number
of high -power symbols occur in a row, the randomizer assures that the output
signal will not cause interference with existing NTSC channels. Randomizing also
improves performance in the receiver recovery loops.
After randomizing, the data is sent to a Reed-Solomon coder. Reed -Solomon
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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AT THE HEART OF YOUR DIGITAL
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Understanding
and testing the
ed Modulation. (See Figure 3.)
After trellis encoding, supplementary
sync signals are added in a data multiplexer to form the 8VSB baseband signal. Segment sync is sent after every
828 symbols. Segment sync is two -level
binary data that is six data levels in
amplitude and four symbols long, making each 8VSB data segment 832 symbols in length. (See Figure 4.) Segment
sync replaces the sync byte removed
prior to encoding. Because it is easily
located by the decoder, even in the
8VSB signal
coding is an error correction scheme
operating as a byte -wise encoder. This
type of encoding works well for short
"bursty" errors. At the encoder, the
sync byte is stripped from the GA packet and 20 parity bytes are added. This
allows the decoder to identify and correct up to 10 byte errors per packet. In
INPUT
-
DATA
RANDOMIZER
REED -SOLOMON
ENCODER
DATA
INTERLEAVER
TRELLIS
MUX
ENCODER
SEGMENT SYNC
FIELD SYNC
PILOT
INSERTION
PRE -EQUALIZER
FILTER
VSB
MODULATOR
RF
CONVERTER
REFERENCE DEMOD/
'CORRECTION PROCESSOR
Figure
1.
Block diagram of an 8VSB exciter.
terrestrial broadcasting, it is likely that
noise burst durations will be longer
than a Reed -Soloman error-correction
scheme can handle. To protect the coding, the databytes are interleaved non consecutively. (See Figure 2.) For 8VSB,
the data is interleaved to a depth of 52,
making it possible to correct for data
lost due to noise bursts up to 193µs.
Next is convolution encoding, which
uses a trellis coder. This complex coding scheme effectively handles white
noise and results in signal gain (ex c2 ci b3 b2 bi a3 a2
c3 b3 a3 c2 b2 a2 c1 b1
ai
ai
NOT INTERLEAVED
INTERLEAVED
NOISE
BURST
Figure 2. Simplified illustration of data interleaving. A noise burst that obliterates all
three "B" bytes of a non -interleaved signal,
covers only a single A, B and C byte of an
interleaved signal. This leaves enough data
for the Reed -Solomon decoder to determine the correct values of the missing bytes.
pressed in dB). Each bit at the coder's
input produces two bits at the output.
In 8VSB, there are eight possible states.
However, in any one interval only four
of the states are valid, depending on the
previous interval. If the valid state
changes are diagrammed, the results
resemble a garden trellis, hence the
name Trellis Encoding or Trellis Cod -
64
Broadcast Engineering
completely unrelated to their location
on the screen. In fact, some of these bits
are sound bits or databits. There may
even be data packets from four completely separate standard -definition pictures mixed up, in no particular order,
within the datastream. These packets
are later sorted out in the receiver's
MPEG decoder.)
Following the data mux, a constant
value is added to the eight -level data stream. Much like adding a DC offset to
a baseband signal, this constant offset
generates the pilot signal. The 8VSB
signal is transmitted as a single sideband
suppressed signal and there is no carrier.
The digital representation of the signal
is split, passed through a root -raised
cosine filter and converted to analog
signals by high-speed D/A converters.
The analog signals are input to two
mixers, which are phase shifted by 90°.
The output is a 44MHz IF signal, upper
sideband only, with raised cosine response. At this point, the signal can be
upconverted to the required channel
frequency, sent to the power amplifier
stages and broadcast.
presence of noise, it adds to the signal's
robustness.
A transmission data frame is 616 segments (48.4ms) in duration. (See Figure Reception and decoding
Knowing how the 8VSB signal is gen5.) After every 312 segments, a frame
synchronizing segment is sent. The erated, let's look at the receiver side.
frame sync segment carries the training First, the receiver looks for the pilot to
reference signals for the receiver equal- phase lock to the incoming signal. Once
izer and consists of the four -byte seg- lock is achieved, the decoder locates
ment sync, followed by 511 reference segment sync to achieve an initial data
symbols. In the receiver, these are used lock. Even impaired signals can be phase
for adjusting long equalizer
CURRENT STATE
NEXT STATE
taps. After the 511 reference
00
symbols for long equalizer taps
are three sets of 63 reference
01
symbols for adjusting the short
taps. Next are 24 symbols for
10
VSB level ID, 82 reserved symbols and 12 symbols that are
11
repeated from the previous
Figure 3. A simplified Trellis diagram showing the
segment.
allowed state changes for a half -rate coder.
(Editor's note: Given the
"raster -like" nature of Figure 5, you locked and the segment sync located.
might be tempted to liken the segment Next, the training sequence must be
sync to horizontal sync and the frame located because it provides the informasync to vertical sync. However, this tion needed to set the receiver's equalizwould be incorrect. The process of er taps and correct unflatness in the
digital compression leaves out redun- incoming signal. At this point, the condant parts of the picture and sometimes ditioned signal can be decoded into the
only transmits the parts of the picture 19.39MHz GA datastream. The pilot
that have changed. The position of and sync signals not only help the receivdigital bits in this apparent "raster" are er lock initially, but aid in maintaining
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Artifact -free Compression
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Understanding
and testing the
No matter
how you
use them,
you won't
8VSB signal
DATA
SEGMENT
SYNC
a7
find better
connectors
than KINGS
DATA
SEGMENT
SYNC
DATA. FEC
5
111111111111111111
4
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
1
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
111111111111111111111
LEVELS
BEFORE
PILOT
INSERTION
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
-1
3
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
.5
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
1mNN1 828 SYMBOLS =167 DATA BYTES 20 PARITY (R S BYTES- s1NMu
-
erlE
i erlF
832 SYMBOLS = 188 BYTE MPEG DATA PACKET
20 PARITY BYTES
Figure 4. A single segment of the 8VSB digital baseband signal
showing data levels and segment sync. Each segment is 77.3µs in
duration and consists of 832 symbols.
1
lock should a disturbance occur. In many cases, the data lock
may be lost, but pilot and sync lock are maintained, allowing
for a quick signal recovery.
With digital reception, the picture and sound on a viewer's
set are either nearly perfect or not there at all. Unlike analog
signals that degrade gracefully, digital signals are subject to
a cliff effect. Viewers who have been tolerating inadequate
picture quality because of poor antennas, low signal level or
noisy reception, may find they cannot receive a digital signal.
Viewers living in the Grade B contour and fringe areas may
find reception intermittent. Many of these viewers may
require some education about steps they can take to ensure
consistent, satisfactory reception. Work is currently under
way to determine the benefits of circularly polarized antennas for DTV, which may significantly improve reception for
those using indoor antennas, such as rabbit ears.
For analog signals, some picture impairments were tolerable, because the effect at the viewer's end was often negligible, even for some fairly severe faults. However, with
digital, a transmitter with a linearity problem could mean
the loss of viewers in the Grade B coverage area or worse.
With digital, reception won't degrade gracefully, it will
simply disappear.
-I 41-
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FRAME SYNC #1
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SEGMENTS
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10707
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SEGMENT 77.3 µs
Figure 5. The transmission data frame showing the frame sync
segment, which is repeated every 312 segments.
Circle (24) on Free Info Card
66
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
ANUNCIAMOS:
Importante para la Industria de las.
The Premiere of the Most Important
Event for the Latin American
Telecomunicaciones en Eatlnioamlrica
Telecommunications Industry
Estreno del Evento Mäs
el.
ANUNCIANDO:
ANNOUNCING:
o Mais
Importante e Principal
Evento do Mercado de
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TelecomLatina
Photo (redit: Greater Miami (onvention 6 Visitors Bureau
Teleconlatila'9ß
Octubre 14-.6, 1998
Miami Beach Corvention Certer
Miami, Florida USA
h
y (adherent a
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feira
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roof such as:
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Understanding
and testing the
ponent that does not belong.
Comparable to analog transmitters,
flat frequency response across the channel passband is required. A properly
aligned DTV transmitter exhibits many
of the same characteristics as a properly
aligned analog unit, flat frequency re-
8VSB signal
Measuring
performance
transmitter
Several parameters are
required for satisfactory
operation. First, there is
the basic FCC requirement against creating in-
20
lo
terference with other
over-the -air services. To
verify that there is no leakage into adjacent channels, out -of-band emission testing is required.
-io -20 -10
-2
0
Figure 6. A near -perfect constellation diagram of an
20
Second, with analog,
there was concern with
signal-to-noise measurements. However, with
digital, the desired -to -undesired signal ratio is
measured.Desired is the
intended output of your
transmitter, undesired is
any signal or noise com-
-8
lo
o
-lo
-20
-10
-6
-8
-4
-2
0
sponse and group delay, with no leakage
into adjacent channels. In the analog
domain, the effects of group delay result
in chroma/luma delay. Despite being de graded, pictures are still viewable. How ever, group delay problems in DTV trans mitters result in intersymbol interference (ISI) and a rise in the
bit error rate (BER), causing viewers' sets to drop in
and out of lock. Even low
levels of ISI may cause receivers operating near the
edge of the cliff to lose the
picture completely. Amplis
10
6
tude and phase errors may
8VSB signal.
cause the same problem,
again, resulting in reduced viewer coverage.
Eye patterns and BER
have become buzz phrase
es with digital signals,
but they may not be the
best parameters to monitor. The constellation di 6
8
lo
Figure 7. Constellation diagram of an 8VSB signal with noise and phase
shift. Spreading of the dot pattern is caused by noise, while the slant is
caused by phase shift.
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Circle (38) on Free Info Card
68
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
BOGEN
all system health and allow you to
identify problems before they affect
viewers. RF constellations are displayed
on the I (in -phase) and Q (quadrature)
axes. Constellations of tight vertical
dot patterns with no slanting or bending indicate proper operation. Figure 6
shows a near perfect constellation diagram. 8VSB levels are the in -phase signal so they are displayed left to right.
An 8VSB signal is a single sideband
signal with pilot carrier added. In a
single sideband signal, phase does not
remain constant. Therefore, the constellation points (dots) occur in a vertical pattern. As long as the dot pattern is
vertical, and the points form narrow
lines of equal height, the signal is considered good and can be decoded. Figure 7 shows an 8VSB signal that has
noise and phase shift. Noise is indicated by the spreading of the dot pattern.
Phase problems are indicated by the
slant along the Q -axis.
BER is a good and valid measurement
for 8VSB. Unfortunately, you are losing
viewers by the time the degradation is
apparent. Monitoring the modulation
error ratio (MER) allows you to see an
indication of degraded performance before BER is effected. In many cases, MER
provides enough warning time to correct
problems and prevent lost viewers. MER
provides an indication of how far the
points in the constellation have migrated
from the ideal. There can be considerable
migration before boundary limits are exceeded. Degradation in the BER is only
apparent when those limits have been
exceeded. Good 8VSB measurement sets
allow MER and other transmitter parameters to be continually monitored and will
alert operators when signal parameters
are outside cautionary limits.
DTV brings opportunities and a new
set of problems. Opportunities lie in
the ability to transmit HDTV pictures
or multiple standard -definition images. Additionally, picture and sound
quality will be better than currently
available signals. The problems come
in helping your viewers get the most
from their investment in DTV. Part of
that job will be ensuring that your
transmitter is providing the optimum
signal.
Linc Reed -Nickerson is a product development
manager for Tektronix Inc., Beaverton, OR.
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Circle (40) on Free Info Card
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
69
Budgeting for DTV
One way or the
other, it all
comes down to
numbers. The
technology
secondary.
is
By Jerry
Whitaker
no mistake about it, high -definition television via the Grand
Alliance DTV system is coming to a station (or two) near you.
Industry critics notwithstanding, HDTV will be to NTSC what FM
was to AM. In both cases, there is a fundamental change in the
competitive landscape. That's the good news.
The bad news is that there is no such thing as a free lunch, especially where the
government is concerned. What is this "new viewing experience" going to cost
broadcasters? Plenty. Some issues include:
Reduced coverage, relative to the existing NTSC signal, in many cases. Replicating NTSC service with DTV is a laudable goal, but for most VHF NTSC stations
that are assigned UHF DTV channels, the jury is still out.
Fast -track implementation scenarios for major market stations that will strain
the ability of equipment vendors to design, build and install the necessary systems.
A licensing nightmare for stations in the unfortunate position of having to erect
a new transmission tower. The problem is not so much from the FAA or the other
federal agencies, but from local governments, some of which have built reputations
on being difficult to deal with.
A steep learning curve for everybody involved in the process. From the director
of engineering to the news department set designer, widescreen operation in
general, and DTV in particular, will require more than just a little reschooling.
It will also cost a boatload of cash. To summarize the overall implementation plan
blessed by the FCC, "Please pay now. We'll let you know later if you're going to
make any money at this."
Make
THE BOTTOM LINE:
There's no doubt about it,
DTV is coming and is
already here at some
stations around the
country. While stations
are dealing with the
changes in technology,
the question still comes
down to "how much is it
going to cost?" Here are
some "take it to the bank"
answers to these tough
questions.$
70
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
I mentioned the FM radio experience.
Many industry observers have characterized the move to DTV as something
akin to the move from black -and -white
to color, only raised to the second or
third power. Perhaps.
Consider another familiar industry
paradigm shift: the move from a dominant AM radio industry to the powerhouse that FM is today. Those of you
who were around in the early days of
FM will recall that it was decades before FM began to look like a profit
center. It was, of course, the classic
chicken -and -the -egg situation: expensive transmission systems broadcasting to non-existent receivers. And the
few receivers that were in the field were
temperamental in the extreme. It took
a unique feature set
stereo, in this
and affordable, stable receivers
case
for FM broadcasting to blossom.
If we accept that DTV is coming and
the TV industry will be participating in
it sooner rather than later, the challenge
becomes how do we get from here to
there. The place to start is, of course, at
the bank. The transition to DTV must
-
-
SATELLITE
ANTENNA
MDNITORING
FACILITIES
DIGITAL
STREAM
IROGITAL
i
DIGITAL
ROUTING
[ILESERVER3ißWCHER
OFF -AIR
M )NITORING
`
COMPRESSED
4--e.çIG VAL MASTER
HDTV/SDTV
GNAL TO STL
OR TRANSMITTER
S
f NTROL SWITCHER
(STILL)
HaTV/SDTV
o
DECODER
-IDTV--a-NTSC
[i$WNCU,NVERTER
E<ISTING UTSC
s
ANALOG NTSC
EROADCAG'T &
PRODUCTION
PLANT
rgure 1. Block diagram of a minimalATY implementation that p-o.ides for limited local
insertion.
fit into some type of business model
(even if the model has more than a few
uncertainties in it).
vs. reality
As with many things technical, the
plans of the designers and those of the
end users do not always coincide. h
was assumed from the beginning of the
standardization process for HDTV that
the end result would be a system specifically for the delivery of pictures and
sound of superb quality. The reality
today, however, is shaping up to be a bit
different. TV stations and networks
are asking themselves at this juncture
in the HDTV roadway, do I really want
to transmit HDTV or would I rather
transmit more of the same stuff that I
send out now?
The flexible nature of the Grand Alliance system permits broadcasters to
decide whether they would like to send
to viewers one superquality HDTV
program or several "NTSC-equivalent"
SDTV programs. A significant component of the FCC decision on DTV was
the timetable for implementation. Few
industry observers believe that the timetable can be met. Fewer believe that the
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November 1997
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Broadcast Engineering
71
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eñcan Classic.
Now with more editorial beef.
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III
BRODCST
enGineeRinG
www.americanradiohistory.com
Budgeting for DTV
SATELLITE
ANTENNA
RF COMPONENTS
Transmission Line
Rigid/HELIAX
Waveguide
Filters/Combiners
UHF/VHF
MONITORING
FACILITIES
OFF -AIR
- MONITORING
4
IGITAL
IRD_
P.
>FILE SERVER"'
DIGITAL
ROUTING
SWITCHER
HDTV:SDTV
SIGNAL TO STL
DIGITAL MASTER
CONTROL SYSTEM
OR TRANSMITTER
HDTV/SDTV
DECODER
DATA
RECORDER
HDTV/SDTV
ENCODER
ROUTING
NTSC-to-HDTV
UPCONVERTER
2OUTING
HD PRODUCTION
V
PLANT
ANALOG NTSC
HDTV-to-NTSC
DOWNCONVERTER
-
EXISTING NTSC
BROADCAST &
PRODUCTION;
PLANT
Figure 2. Block diagram of a transitional ATV model, which provides some local origination capabilities.
TV ANTENNAS
UHF LPTV
VHF
Dual mode
.. -+r:'w.
-
YfWYxxt txMYlxx1 lMWNL' ikxNulr'.
FM ANTENNAS
Sidemounts
Panels
Combined Systems
PANEL ANTENNAS
11,
FM
UHF
VHF
W hen More
You Want
Than Just An
Antenna
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vNrrrv
IA
Made
in
USA
since
1
T
$6,000.000
E-Mail: jampro@ns.net
is a
Tx COST`
HDTV ERP
-
$5.000.000
5000
3
$4.000,000
4000
$3.000.000
W
3000 LJ
$2.000.000
2000
$1.000.000
1000
SB
á
0
1
HELIAX
6000
Tx OPERi1TN10
9 5
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Sacramento, CA 95829 USA
Phone (916) 383-1177 Fax (916) 383-1182
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deadline will really stick. Be that as it may, the most basic
question for TV stations is what to do with the informationcarrying capacity of the DTV system. The choice of HDTV
programming or multiple -stream programming has an immense impact on facility design and budget requirements.
Once that decision has been made, the implementation
problems must be dealt with, including:
weighing signal coverage requirements against facility costs;
tower space availability for a DTV antenna;
transmitter trade-offs and choices;
STL, IRD and satellite links;
master control switching and routing;
production equipment (cameras, switchers, special effects
systems, recorders and related hardware); and
studios and sets for widescreen presentations.
Many possible implementation scenarios have been proposed. The plans quickly divide into two basic camps:
1. Minimal DTV. Under this plan, as illustrated in Figure 1,1
local stations simply pass -through DTV signals and provide
limited local insertion. Local insertion is one of the unresolved issues for DTV implementation. Considerable discussion has taken place over how the MPEG-2 signal can be
made to support the logo supers and other effects that have
become commonplace in television. Under the minimal DTV
scenario, no local production of widescreen HDTV would
be attempted.
2. Transitional DTV. This plan takes the minimal DTV
scenario and adds some local origination capabilities. As
illustrated in Figure 2,1 this plan establishes a foundation
4
6
8
10
12
14
NUMBER OF IOT TUBES
registered trademark of Andrew Corporation
Figure 3. Cost of ownership and DTV system power vs. number of
IOT tubes.
Circle (52) on Free Info Card
74
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
upon which additional local capabilities
could be based.
Regardless of the route taken to DTV,
every scenario will involve a transmission
system upgrade. Depending upon the existing facilities, principally the tower, this
element of the conversion to DTV will
likely be the most costly.
TRANSITIONAL MODEL
MINIMAL MODEL
CATEGORY
LOW VHF
HIGH VHF
LOW VHF
HIGH VHF
TRANSMÓSION
$183k
$260k
$183k
$26Ok
BROADCAST
EQUIPMENT
$265k
$265k
$759k
$759k
DIGITAL .;TL SYSTEM
$173k (119k) $173k (119k)
$173k (119k)
$173k (119k)
MONITOAINGITESTING
$6Ok
$6Ok
$6Ok
TOTAL
$681k (627k) $758k (7O4k) $1.175m (1.121m) $1.252m (1.198m)
EQUIPMENT
$6Ok
Table 1. Cost of a VHF transmission facility with STL multiplexing. The numbers
n parenthesis equal a site without STL mu tiplexing.
Implementation issues
The purchase of a new transmitter for DTV operation, or
for NTSC use for that matter, is a complicated process that
must take into consideration a number of variables:
The actual cost of the transmitter, both the initial purchase
price and the ongoing maintenance expenses for tubes and
other supplies.
The actual AC -to -RF efficiency, which relates directly to
the operating costs. Efficiency numbers for transmitters can
be rather confusing. The only number you really care about,
however, is how much AC is required to achieve your
licensed power output.
Maintenance issues, the most important of which is the
mean time between failure (MTBF). Also important is the
mean time to repair (MI 1R), which relates directly to the
accessibility of transmitter components and the type of
amplifying devices used in the unit.
Environmental issues, not the least of which is the space
needed for the transmitter. The cooling requirements are
MI-1E
U
t_
T
C
I
N1
also important and may, for example, affect the ongoing
maintenance costs.
The availability of sufficient AC power and power of
acceptable reliability and regulation at the site.
Each of these issues must be given careful consideration
before any buying decision is made. It is possible, for
example, that upon further examination, the transmitter
costing the least to purchase winds up being more expensive
than others in the long run because of higher annual operating expenses.
RF
power requirements
Two parameters determine the basic design of any transmitter: the operating frequency and the power level. For
DTV, the frequency has been clearly spelled out; the power
parameter, however, deserves and indeed requires additional
consideration.
The FCC allocation table for DTV lists ERP values that are
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Budgeting for DTV
so the tower must be reinforced to are summarized in Figure 3. The values
given in watts rms. Although some- accept the additional equipment loads. given are only estimates and may vary
times referred to as average power, this In this situation, structural modifica- depending on the specifics of the instalis not always technically correct. The tions are necessary, requiring additionlation. The cost of electricity, a major
intent was to specify the true heating al time and expense before installation element in the cost of ownership, is a
power or rms watts of the total DTV of the additional DTV transmission parameter subject to local variations.
signal averaged over a long
The bottom line is that
CATEGORY
LOW-POWER MEDIUM -POWER
HIGH -POWER
period of time.2 The specifiTRANSMISSION
$390k
$1.005m
$1.49m
achieving equivalent coverEQUIPMENT
cation of transmitter power
age in many instances is not
BROADCAST
$265k
$265k
$265k
is further complicated by the
EQUIPMENT
worth the cost. A point of
DIGITAL STL SYSTEM
$173k (119k) $173k (119k)
$173k (119k)
DTV system characteristic
diminishing returns is
MONITORING/TESTING $60k
$60k
$60k
peak -to -average ratio, which
reached where twice the
TOTAL
$888k (834k) $1.503m (1.449m) $1.988m (1.934m)
has an impact on the required Table 2. Cost of a UHF transmission facility. The
money
does not buy you
numbers in
power output rating of the parenthesis equal sites without STL multiplexing.
twice the viewers.
transmitter. For example, asThe issue in perspective
sume a given FCC UHF DTV ERP allo- line(s) and antenna(s) can proceed.
Several organizations have made concation of 405kW rms, an antenna power
Lose what you have. Addition of DTV
gain of 24 and a transmission line effi- transmission line(s) and antenna(s) will certed efforts to attach specific numciency of 70%. The required DTV trans- compromise the structural integrity of bers to the various conversion scenarimitter power Tx will equal:
the tower to a point that reinforcement os. One of the better known efforts was
would be cost -prohibitive or beyond conducted by the Public Broadcasting
Tx=405x0.7=24.1kW
good engineering judgment. In this sit- Service. Its basic conclusions are given
24
uation, the only alternative is to con- in Tables 1-3.5 The costs change greatly
depending upon the DTV model that is
struct or lease a new transmitter site.
Because the DTV peak -to -average
Regardless of which option you will embraced by the station.
One of the major problems facing staratio is four (6dB), the actual DTV be faced with, the costs associated with
tions
that are planning for the convertransmitter power rating must be these changes will force all broadcastsion to DTV is that, for many
96.4kW (peak). This 4x fac- CATEGORY
LOW -POWER
MEDIUM -POWER
HIGH-POWER
issues, the answers are not
tor is required to allow suffi- TRANSMISSION
$390k
$1.005m
$1.49m
EQUIPMENT
yet known. Hardware vencient headroom for signal
BROADCAST
$759k
$759k
$759k
EQUIPMENT
dors and consultants are
peaks.
DIGITAL STL SYSTEM
$173k (119k)
$173k (119k)
$173k (119k)
scrambling to meet the deMONITORING/TESTING $60k
$60k
$60k
The tower: the big
mand for answers and equipTOTAL
$1.382m (1.328m) $1.997m (1.943m) $2.482m (2.428m)
question
ment. Eventually, the issues
Table 3. Cost of UHF transmission facility. The numbers in
The station's transmitting parenthesis equal sites without STL multiplexing.
will sort themselves out. Until
tower
long ignored and
then, uncertainty is the name
possibly forgotten
by most station ers to look toward maximizing their of the game. If it's any consolation,
managers, has taken center stage as one vertical real estate assets. The advent of you're not alone.
of the more important elements that cellular telephony and personal commust be addressed in any move to DTV munication systems (PCS) has caused Jerry Whitaker is a contributing editor to
operation. Adding a new antenna and many municipalities nationwide to Broadcast Engineering magazine.
transmission line to an existing tower tighten their zoning restrictions, and in
first requires a structural analysis to some cases, to deny the construction of References
1. Zou, William Y., "Calculating the Cost of
determine if the existing tower can sup- new towers, regardless of the purpose. ATV, Part 1," Broadcast Engineering, Intertec
port the additional equipment loads.3
Publishing, Overland Park, KS, pp. 14-16,
October 1996.
Armed with the results of this analysis, The cost of coverage
2. Plonka, Robert J., "Planning Your Digital
a decision can then be made on the next
A fundamental question in the DTV
Television Transmission System," Proceedings
course of action, generally by choosing planning process is, "What is 'full cov- of the 1997 NAB Broadcast Engineering ConNational Association of Broadcasters,
from one of the following options:
erage' of the DTV signal really worth?" ference,
Washington, DC, p. 89, 1997.
Use what you have. The tower's struc- The first step in finding the answer to
3. Crowder, Thomas G., "Maximizing Vertitural capacity will support the DTV this question is to develop a "cost of cal Real Estate," Broadcast Engineering,
transmission line(s) and antenna(s), ownership" table for varying transmit- Intertec Publishing, Overland Park, KS, pp. 4450, July 1996.
allowing installation to proceed. In this ter sizes and the corresponding ERP
4. Bendov, O., "Planning Your HDTV Covsituation, little or no alteration will be produced. Engineering issues aside, it erage Area, "Broadcast Engineering DTV Conference, Intertec Publishing, Overland Park,
required to the existing tower.
is possible to build a facility with equivKS, November 1996.
Improve what you have. One or more alent DTV-NTSC coverage; whether it
S. Zou, William Y., "Calculating the Cost of
of the tower components will be over- is practical to build one is quite another ATV, Part 2," Broadcast Engineering, Intertec
stressed by the transmission hardware, matter. The results of one case study' Publishing, Overland Park, KS, pp 16-18, November 1996.
-
76
-
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Lossless editing
with the "MOLE"
MOLE COMPOSER
BITSTREAM A
ATLANTIC
DECODER A
Continued from page 60
Although it has been stated that this
approach will handle any MPEG-2 signals without restriction, bad coding
decisions and motion vectors cannot be
made better by ATLANTIC technology alone. If a relatively high bit -rate
bitstream does not make proper use of
the MPEG-2 specification (e.g., has a
small motion vector range) and is received for transcoding to a low bit rate,
the re -encoder will essentially have to
work as if it were encoding for the first
time. It is possible that a range of
transcoders with varying degrees of
capability for remaking coding decisions could be developed, but the best
approach is to generate good quality
bitstreams the first time they are encoded. A prototype transcoder implementing the approaches outlined above is
under construction.
MOLE INTERPRETER
VIDEO A
+ MOLE A
VIDEO
SWITCH
BITSTREAM
B
VIDEO
+ MOLE
ATLANTIC
DECODER B
MOLE COMPOSER
Figure 4. ATLANTIC switch using the MOLE.
Browse track generator: Generates an
MPEG I -frame-only reduced -resolution
browse track corresponding to the video stored on the server, and possibly an
audio browse track, and stores these on
the browse server.
Journalist workstation: Operates as a
conventional edit workstation on the I -
processing and reducing the cascading
impairments;
designing a low-cost journalist workstation using off-the -shelf MPEG decoders; and
system -wide control.
Although the challenges are significant, the potential advantages of an
FINISHED
PROGRAM
SERVER
EDIT
CONFORMER
INPUT
FORMAT
CONVERTER
connections.
Figure 5 shows a block diagram of a
post -production editing system suitable
for small studio applications. This system is being built in the ATLANTIC
project. In it, control, video and audio
sequences are transferred via an ATM
network using standard TCP/IP file
transfer protocols. The following is a
brief description of the main elements
of the editor:
Format converter: Converts incoming MPEG-2 transport streams into
separate video, audio and data PES
streams for storage on the main server
and generates an index file.
OUTPUT
BROWSE
SERVER
Additional applications
The MPEG switching technology previously described makes it possible to
develop a frame -accurate, non-linear
editor in which the input and output
interfaces, as well as the information
stored on the server, are all in MPEG-2
form. Such an editor has two major
advantages over other technologies:
1. Editing can be performed in the
MPEG domain without fear of introducing cascading artifacts.
2. MPEG-2 is more efficient in bit -rate
terms than other formats currently used
in editors. This could lead to greatly
reduced costs for servers and network
ATLANTIC BITSTREAM
ENCODER
i
VIDEO B
+ MOLE B
BROWSE
TRACK
GENERATOR
MAIN
SERVER
,3n2ä22MM
JOURNALIST
WORKSTATIONS
Figure 5. The ATLANTIC post -production system.
frame browse track and provides a
graphical user interface to allow journalists to create an edit decision list.
Edit conformer: This is the real-time
ATLANTIC switch, controlled by the
edit decision list. Bitstreams are pulled
from the main server, edits are conformed and the results are placed onto
the finished program server.
Developing a true MPEG-based editor poses several design challenges in-
cluding:
audio/video synchronization;
handling program -related data;
audio editing; initially, a simple bitstream switch operating on audio frame
boundaries will be used. For more refined operation, an audio MOLE has
been developed enabling sophisticated
efficient MPEG-based editor and
switcher are enormous. Seamless, unrestricted switching and mixing, together with high -quality transcoding
on any MPEG-2 bitstreams, will make
it easier to integrate these new signals
into existing facilities. Components
based on this technology will make
possible a full range of processes on
MPEG bitstreams while preserving
quality throughout the complex broadcast chain. The cost benefits of compression need not be given up to buy
flexibility in bitstream processing.
Mike Knee is a principal research engineer at
Snell & Wilcox (UK), and Nick Wells is a
project manager at the BBC R&D (UK).
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
77
transmission Technology
By Don Markley
Tower lighting and you
your tower(s) are somewhat akin to
the spare tire in your car. You know it's back there
somewhere, but you really don't pay it much attention. You look at it now and then, but you really don't
do anything with it. When the car is serviced, someone
else checks it and you generally leave it alone.
The lights on
In the opinion of the FAA
The regulations on tower lighting
are well-known although most broadcasters don't really understand how
their specific requirements are determined. The FAA doesn't assign the
tower lighting requirements for broadcast facilities
the FCC does. The
whole process for a new tower starts
Don Markley
when a notification of proposed construction is filed with the FAA. The
FAA assigns the notification a study number and starts
the review process. After studying the impact on the
airspace, the FAA determines whether the proposed
construction is a hazard to air navigation.
This determination is handled as an opinion and
forwarded to the FCC. Remember, this is not a definite ruling, but an opinion. One important distinction
is that you can't fight an opinion in court. The FAA's
position acts as a recommendation to the FCC, and is
almost always accepted as the final word on the
subject. If the FAA doesn't feel that a proposed structure would be a hazard, it suggests a lighting and
marking scheme, adding the necessary enhancement
to the tower to deter pilots from hitting it.
Usually, the FAA recommends an alternative; either
painting and red lights or some type of strobe lighting.
For shorter towers, medium -intensity strobes may he
acceptable to the FAA. For the tallest structures, high intensity strobe lighting may be the only acceptable
system for daytime use. An alternative almost always
acceptable to the FAA is a dual system in which the
tower is marked with high- or medium -intensity lights
during daytime hours and red lights at night. This is
-
not accompanied by a painting requirement.
When either red lights and paint or strobes are
suggested by the FAA, the commission usually requires the conventional lights and paint. Conventional lights and paint are considered to be more environmentally friendly, translating into fewer complaints
78
Broadcast Engineering
received by either the commission or the congressmen
from the affected area. Some zoning boards are now
urging the use of either conventional lighting and
marking or dual systems to reduce the visual impact
of towers. If a strobe lighting system is preferred by
the station, a request can be made to the FCC accompanied by a description of the area and an explanation
of why such a system would not have an adverse
environmental impact. Upon a satisfactory showing,
the FCC may change the construction permit to allow
the strobes.
The fact of the matter is that dual lighting or the
conventional paint and red lights do result in fewer
complaints. Many people find the flashing strobes
bothersome at night. They certainly don't add beauty
to a hilltop or to a residential area. Apparently, the
cellular/PC industry has decided that strobes are the
way to go. It is assumed that this is based strictly on
cost, because strobes do eliminate the need for repainting the towers. Still, it isn't really being friendly
to the neighbors. Perhaps there is a lesser need for
good neighbors for giant cellular companies than for
a
broadcast station.
Observing the rules
Now for the spare tire part. The rules for tower light
observation are clear and well-known to all broadcasters. Basically, the lights need to be checked daily
to ensure that they are on. Fortunately, the current
crop of remote -control and monitoring systems can
handle that function and even make the required
notifications if a problem exists. Still, it is highly
recommended that someone
yes, a real person
keeps an eye on the lights. Contact a neighbor of the
tower or a nearby authority with your request that
they simply keep an eye on the tower and let you know
if they notice a problem. Together with the automatic
system, this should give you adequate notice of light
failure.
When any portion of the lighting system fails, and
this is important, you must promptly notify the FAA
and make provisions to have the system repaired. If
you don't know who to call at the FAA, try the nearest
airport control tower. It will usually be listed in the
phone book along with numbers for the nearest flight
service station. Find this number and post it where it
is easily found. Immediately upon finding part of the
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
-
system has failed, notify the FAA.
When you do this, get the name of
the person you talk to and record
it, along with the time of the notification, on your maintenance log.
This whole notification thing is
hugely important. First, if you do
not notify the FAA of the problem
and an aircraft hits your tower, you
may be liable for damages. When
the lights are not functioning properly, the tower immediately becomes a hazard to air navigation.
When you notify the FAA, it issues a
Notice to Airmen of
the unlit or improperly lighted structure. All
pilots are required to
check these notices
(NOTAMs) before a
flight for proper flight
planning. If your tower is so listed and someone hits it anyway, you
have a good chance of
being in the clear on
the liability issue.
Second, if you don't
promptly notify the
FAA and the FCC
catches you, the fine
may be eye watering.
The base amount for
"violation of tower
identify when the tower paint is
faded to the point that repainting is
necessary. Because you don't have
such a card, paint when in doubt.
Usually, the condition of the paint
regarding peeling and flaking will
alert you of the need to repaint
before the fading is too severe.
Your rigger will also advise you of
the need for painting as part of
routine inspections.
Finally, we come to the maintenance of the lighting system itself.
This brings us back to the spare
tire comparison. With
the exception of the
photocell and flasher,
there isn't too much
that the station engineer can do to the system. You really are at
the mercy of your riggers or contractor. For
strobe systems, there
are several good companies who will maintain the strobes on a
contract basis. For red
lights, most stations
simply rely on a good
rigger to change the
bulbs, either regularly or upon failure. Stations should have a
contract with a reliable rigger to change
the bulbs on a scheduled basis. This elimi-
obstruction marking
and lighting requirements" is now
$10,000. This is for a
nates most of the
.angle violation or a
Towers used for a variety
single day of a con- of communications pur- burnout problems.
tinuing violation. The poses are subject to fed- When you do lose a
commission has the eral obstruction marking bulb unexpectedly, try
which inreplaced withdiscretion to assess regulations,
clude rules for paint and to get it
such an amount for lighting. (Photo courtesy in a couple of weeks.
each day of a continu- of Bob Mosher, CEE, con- Then, notify the FAA
engineer.)
ing violation. By the sulting
that your operation
way, don't try to lie your way out of has returned to normal.
The secret to keeping your tower such a mess. The base amount for
"misrepresentation/lack of can- lighting system legal is a reliable
dor" is $27,000. Fess up and take rigger or lighting service contracyour lumps with the assurance that tor. The secret to keeping your job
the lumps would be bigger if you is notifying the FAA immediately
upon learning that the system is
lied.
Take note, the violation is for not functioning fully within the
marking and lighting. The mark- regulations.
ing bit is normally the condition of
the tower's paint. The FCC inspec- Don Markley is president of D. L. Markley
tors have a card with paint chips to and Associates, Peoria, IL.
I
1' I
,
(
\
1
r
WHAT'S UP
WITH ALL THESE
NUMBERS?
They have the solution
to these serious FM
problems:
You can see your
station, but you
can't hear it
(Multipath due to side lobes
.sealing expensive power from
your main signal)
Interference from your
station affects nearby
electronic equipment
(RFR/RFI caused by downward
side lobes misdirects your ERP
instead of covering your market
ith a single solid signal)
ANTENNA CONCEPTS INC.
(
6601C Merchandise Way
Diamond Springs, CA 95619
A Tel: (916) 621-2015 A
A Fax: (916) 622-3274 A
A www.antennaconcepts.com A
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
/l,l,'1,l
Circle (41) on Free Info Card
Broadcast Engineering
79
new products
By Deanna Rood
Lenses
Canon
IFpro 18X lenses: these lenses
incorporate internal focus (IF) technology that allows you to get closer
to the image while capturing an even
wider angle image; the YJ18X9B KRS
and the YH18X6.7 KRS offer the longest
zoom ratio in their class,18X, the widest angular field of view (52.1°
by 40.3°) and a short MOD (0.9m); the 18X IFpro lenses enhance
user creativity by allowing the use of polarized and cross filters more
effectively because with the IF technology, the front of the lens does
not rotate.
Canon, One Canon Plaza, Lake Success, NY 11042; 800-321-4388;
bctv@cusa.canon.com
Circle (255) on Free Info Card
Digital console
Solid State Logic
Aysis Air: a 48 -channel digital console designed
for live broadcasters; it incorporates its own router for
stand-alone operations, but
can be extended to use SSL's
Hub Router, providing con-
"". .l.. .+.
rtw
bYvwirsilk
se.r
IIM1
Solid State Logic, Begbroke, Oxford OX5 1RU England; +44(0) 1865 842300;
fax +44 (0) 1865 842118
Circle (254) on Free Info Card
y
Video server
ASC Audio Video Corporation
VR300: driven by a Pentium
Pro processor, this disk -based
on-air solution features Fibre
Channel RAID storage and
ASC's FibreDrive architecture;
FibreDrive allows multiple servers to have instant, simultaneous
random access to shared Fibre
Channel RAID storage; the
VR300 video server takes advantage of on-line Fibre Channel RAID
digital storage, and ASC's RAIDsoft technology eliminates the need
for a hardware RAID controller; RAIDsoft protects systems against
double data drive errors and single, unknown location data driver
errors; in addition, hot standby disk drives can be added to the array
for an extra level of redundancy so that if a disk drive failure occurs,
the lost information is rebuilt automatically in the background to a
hot spare, and the failed drive can be removed at the next scheduled
maintenance interval.
ASC, 4400 Vanowen St., Burbank, CA 91505; 818-843-7004; fax 818-842-8945
Circle (263) on Free Info Card
Broadcast Engineering
Tekniche
JUNO: a range of high -quality HDTV
upconverters that offers features such as
aspect ratio conversion and comprehensive noise reduction in a 2RU frame at a
cost-effective price; other standard features include advanced conversion of
SDTV to HDTV, analog and digital outputs, full 10 -bit resolution with 16 -bit
internal processing and multilevel noise
reduction; a flexible architecture allows a
wide range of input and output standards;
options include a high -quality digital comb filter decoder, audio delay/resynchronization and advanced noise reduction.
Tekniche, 100 Stonehurst Court, Northvale, NJ
07647; 201-784-2288; fax 201-784-3860
Circle (256) on Free Info Card
trol of more than 2,000
sources and destinations; complex wiring is reduced by the 95
channels of digital audio on a single coaxial cable; the dedicated
control surface is optimized for real-time mixing operations and all
console controls are fully automated dynamically or via snapshots;
settings can be stored and instantly recalled, selectively and globally;
superior sonic performance is provided by the SSL's advanced
proprietary digital processing.
80
HDTV upconverters
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
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Improve spot management
Columbine JDS
Clip Vault: a software and hardware
package designed to manage video servers and digital tape archives; as an addon to CJDS's MCAS-III total master control automation package, Clip Vault improves spot management, while bringing
total integration to the management of
video material in a station; by streamlining station workflow, it can reduce your
operation costs, while improving efficiency; new spots or promos are copied
to the video server using MCAS-III software eliminating the need for dubs and
bar coding
then Clip Vault moves a
copy of the material from the video server
to a robotic digital archive; there is no
loss of quality even after repeated playing
because the spots are stored as digital
files; the digital tape archives store 100+
hours of video material.
-
Columbine JDS, 1707 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO
80401; 303-237-4000; fax 303-237-0085;
www.cjds.com
Circle (257) on Free Info Card
Picture -quality measurement
Tektronix
PQA200: a picture -
system.
quality analysis system
that can measure video
image quality quickly,
automatically and objectively; you can use the
PQA200 for managing
picture quality to meet
the requirements of content providers and viewers, while using available bandwidth as effectively as possible; it can deliver practical,
repeatable results in less than a minute independent of
the types of impairment present, the compression system
used or the video material itself; measurements can be
used for system or algorithm tuning, production line
testing and other tasks that require fast testing sequences
and quick results; useful applications range from bit -rate
optimization to end-to -end system testing.
Magruag ELEC-r2ONII CS
Available from:
Television Eqi pm9nt Associates, Ins.
Bill Pegler.
PO Box 499
South Salem, N.Y. 105900499
Tel. 914-763-8893 Fax. 91L-763-9158
Tektronix, U.K. Ltd., Fourth Ave., Globe Park, Marlow, Bucks. SL7
1YD; (01628) 403300; fax (01628) 403301
Circle (250) on Free Info Card
Compact disc recorder.
HHB Communications
CDR800: a low-cost
professional audio
CD recorder that fea-
VIDEO A-D/D-A
CONVERTERS
tures rack mounting,
in addition to balanced XLR analog
inputs and unbalanced phono analog
inputs and outputs;
other features include
AES/EBU digital input and output and optical and
coaxial digital I/Os; an onboard sample -rate converter
makes direct digital copying from DAT machines and
other digital formats simple; a unique stable platter
mechanism supports the disc from below, minimizing
vibration during recording, resulting in increased transparency and extended low frequency.
HHB Communications, 626 Santa Monica Blvd., Suite 110, Santa
Monica, CA 90401; 310-319-1111; fax 310-319-1311
Circle (269) on Free Info Card
Non-linear video editing system
Discreet Logic
SMOKE: an on-line non-linear video editing system
that is available on the SGI OCTANE workstation;
SMOKE is designed as a pure editor and combines the
basic editing tools of an analog suite with the productivity of a non-linear system; optional modules can
enhance the editing capabilities allowing the flexibility
to grow on a modular basis; this finishing tool is ideal
for post -production facilities offering commercials,
infomercials, as well as broadcasters requiring versioning of promos or sports news where speed is necessary.
Discreet Logic, 5505 boul St Laurent #5200, Montreal, Quebec H2T
1S6 Canada; 800-869-3504 or 514-272-0525; fax 514-272-0585;
info@discreet.com; www.discreet.com
Circle (253) on Free Info Card
DISTRIBUTION
AMPLIFIERS
AUDIO
MUX/DEMUXES
PAL/NTSC
DECODERS
FIBRE OPTIC
LINKS
SDI ROUTERS
Circle {42) on Free In'o Card
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
81
new products
Seamless connection to Avid's Media Composer system
SeaChange
SPOT: this system connects directly to Avid
.
Technology's Media Composer, a digital nonlinear video editing system, streamlining the
production and delivery of commercials; new
serial digital connectivity allows the production
and delivery of commercials without the time
and quality loss due to videotape transfer; the
digital video server technology allows the scheduling and delivery of commercials on multiple channels and geographic zones;
the easy -to -use SeaChange interface enables operators to control complex
geographically specific commercial schedules on multiple channels.
SeaChange, 124 Acton St., Maynard, MA 01754; 508-897-0100; fax 508-897-0132;
www.schange.com
Circle (258) on Free Info Card
LAN to WAN and LAN to LAN facilities for video file
servers.
Tektronix
Profile VideoGateway: providing the first-time
wide area networking (WAN) facility for the
Tektronix Profile video file servers, the Profile
Gateway allows facilities to move video content
over telecommunications networks, for an alternative to existing courier, satellite and microwave
services; it facilitates inter- and intrafacility operation between two Profile
workgroups using, in the first version, ATM networks; the Profile VideoGateway is an information packet (IP) router and it allows Profile video file servers
operating on an Ethernet/Fibre Channel network to be connected to distant
facilities via WAN services.
Tektronix, P.O. Box 500, Beaverton, OR 97077-0001; 800-547-8949; fax 503-627-7275
Circle (262) on Free Info Card
Disk -based news playback
system
Sony Electronics
NCS-300: this cost-efficient
stand-alone news playback system provides disk -based storage
of edited material; it accepts rundowns from third -party systems,
allowing the pieces to be sequenced automatically so they
meet the requirements of the newscast; each item can be aired in
order or the sequence can be
changed with a keystroke; it can
be configured to use up to eight
filing positions, and using the 4:2:2
Profile of MPEG-2 compression
to efficiently store material on
RAID disk arrays, the system can
be configured for three to 12 hours
of storage.
Sony Electronics, 1 Sony Dr., Park
Ridge, NJ 07656; 800-686 -SONY;
www.sony.com/professional
Circle (259) on Free Info Card
ÇJ
Equipped with an internal 8-channel GPS receiver, you can now
have time, date and time code within 130 nanoseconds ofpeifect accuracy
anywhere in the world. The ES-185A's best feature is the price, $2495.
IF35
12
59 59
R
1
STANDARD FEATURES INCLUDE:
SMPTE/EBU, ESE, TRIG -B, ASCII time Code Outputs
PPS Output 8 Satellite Tracking Battery Back-up
GPS " Lock" Indicator Automatic Daylight Savings Time Correction
Time Zone Offset Antenna 3 Year Warranty
AND MORE!
1
OPTIONAL FEATURES INCLUDE:
Parallel BCD Output 1 KPPS .10 MHz Output
Video Inserter
220 VAC 12
VDC
Video Sync-Generator
www. ese -web. corn
142 SIERRA ST., EL SEGUNDO, CA 90245 USA 310-322-2138 FAX: 310-322-8127
Circle (43) on Free Info Card
82
Broadcast Engineering
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
On-line editor.
Accom
Axial 3000: the latest addition to
the Axial on-line editor family has
all the features of the Axial 2010,
but at a lower price and in a fully
upgradeable system; the Axial
3000 has an expandable architecture that is based on a standard
platform and supports "plug-in"
system options; software options
include Random Access Visual
Editing (RAVE), a full -quality nonlinear editing environment and
ShowCase software modules.
Accom, 1490 O'Brien Dr., Menlo Park,
CA 94025; 650-328-3818; fax 650-3272511; www.accom.com
Circle (260) on Free Info Card
I
eat=
A®Keo
new products
Book on resolving conflicts
The Compelling Communications Group
Getting What You Want: Re-
ES
La
1r. YA. S.s rn
rh
erin.n. eD
nlelol
B
solving Conflict and Winning
Agreement Every Time: this book
r.v,..mxa
offers a three -step method to forge
sod
Celliee ßenclhe
better agreements more easily in
everyday life, plus 100 "yes" triggers of persuasion (now in 19 languages and 32 college and corporate courses); the author is Kare
Anderson, a gut-instincts expert, former Wall Street
Journal reporter and Emmy-winner; the book costs
$22; a free on-line, monthly newsletter is available by
E -mailing "SIB" to kareand@aol.com; you can also
find over 300 tips at web site http;//www.sayitbetter.com.
.hiimplicity
PC Scribe combines
of the Windows 95/i fß environment
qu-ii'7
and Chyron
lecwolee
NOW, A CHI- N QUALITY
VIDEO GRA HICS DESIGN
ENGINE PÖR EVERYONE.
1CVíth VII
nmr
ill ,Illy
iinllmi(..l Lmts
r
PC
eTy' x,. libory,
1.4
ides powerful perce features such as
mic Sizing, Instant Roll and
Crawl and much more...all at
Chyron quality resolution. And
for just $1495 for the software
or $3695 bundled with the PC
CODI' graphics card. Who says
you can't afford Chyron quality?
crib
The Compelling Communications Group, 15 Sausalito Blvd.,
Sausalito, CA 94965; www.sayitbetter.com
Circle (290) on Free Info Card
Integrate and automate business operations
Columbine JDS
,J E,plvvg
icrosolt Developer Stud._
Paradigm: a totally integrated management information system that electronically links all critical business
processes of broadcast multichannel systems, cable
network and DBS operations, including ad sales, programming, traffic, finance and master control automation; a number of modules are built around and integrated in a central relational database; the
entire business operation of a facility is automated from the proposal generation and schedn E
uling down to building the playlist that goes to
the master control automation system.
-
C
\pcScriteN
Available through
authorized Chyron
dealers and resellers
Chyron Corporation
CIHNIR-
-
...
O' r
I
5 Hub Drive
Melville, NY 11747
516-845-2103
http://www.chyron.com
CONTACT US FOR A DEALER NEAREST YOU.
Circle (44) on Free Info Card
DEO
Columbine JDS, 1707 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 804013296; 303-237-4000; fax 303-237-0085; www.c)ds.com
Circle (264) on Free Info Card
FP
PEJNE
DELIVERS
MPEG-1 OR MPEG-2 VIDEO
IN REALTIME
OVER...
:r:
Application package for spot
insertion and program playback
Hewlett-Packard
MediaStream AirDirect: a low-cost application package for MediaStream recorders
that allows you to move to digital technology
and go on -air with basic ad/spot insertion and
program -playback capabilities from dub to
air via a simple PC interface; offering entrylevel functionality, including VTR -source
dubbing, accurate playback, playlist editing,
AsRun logs, remote playout control via GPI,
database management and trimming.
Hewlett-Packard, Test & Measurement Organization, P.O. Box 50637, Palo Alto, CA 94303-95120;
800-452-4844 (ext. 5520); www.hp.com/go/tmdir
Circle (261) on Free Info Card
T1/E1
ISDN -PRI
.tot woffe.
RS -422
V.35
ETHERNET
2XT1/2XE1
ATM
AT UP TO
LEL
Computer Systems
33
SE 8TH ST. SUITE
BOCA RATON,
FL
6
MB PS!
200
561-347-2242
FAX561-347-6276
33432
WWW. LE LCS.COM
Circle (45) on Free Info Card
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
87
new products
File server station
Winsted Corporation
LRx series: these file server stations are designed for the file server and LAN markets and
feature steel, L -frame architecture; you can mix
and match the modular components and each
system includes smooth rolling wheels; the basic
L -frame comes with a stationary server shelf for
multiple servers or a pullout server shelf for
individual servers; the sliding server shelves have optional retractable cable
lacing guides that help keep cables in place while the server shelf is pulled out,
and the pull-out keyboard shelves come in flat or tiered versions.
Winsted, 10901 Hampshire Ave. South, Minneapolis, MN 55438-2385; 612-944-9050; fax 612944-1546; www.winsted.com; racks@winsted.com
Circle (267) on Free Info Card
Comprehensive monitoring unit
Leader Instruments Corporation
Model LT 5910: this comprehensive monitoring
unit reports compliance with vital aspects of
SMPTE 259M and 244M standards and reads out
SDI signal conditions, including level in terms of
equivalent cable length and an eye -pattern display; EDH errors are caught and logged with provision for remote alarms and
printer drive; other monitoring functions include a 16 -channel audio status
readout and full EDH reporting that includes FFCRC and APCRC codes and
readout of all EDH flags.
New software & smaller
version of Oxford digital
consoles
Sony
Oxford digital consoles: model
OXFR3 24C0 is an addition to
the Oxford digital consoles that
is more compact and lower in
cost; Sony has also launched a
software upgrade for the Oxford
digital consoles, version 1.1; the
software includes multiformat
panning and monitoring of all
standard surround -sound formats (including LCRS, 5.1 and
SDDS), control linking, enhanced
EQ algorithms, increased delay
functionality, partial mix loads
and greater automation capabilities; these advanced features will
be used in the 24C24 version, as
well as the new Oxford 24C0.
Sony, 1 Sony Dr., Park Ridge, NJ
07656; 800-686 -SONY;
www.sony.com/proaudio
Circle (252) on Free Info Card
Leader, 380 Oser Ave., Hauppauge, NY 11788; 800-645-5104 or 516-231-6900; fax 516-231-5295
Circle (265) on Free Info Card
12 PRECISION VIDEO TEST SIGNALS, AUDIO TONE $469
TSG-50 generates 12 composite video test signals
plus 1Khz or 400Hz audio tone, and composite sync.
All test signals computer calculated and digitally
synthesized for perfect RS 170A accuracy with no
drift or SCH adjustments required.
Convenient 12 position rotary switch for quick, easy
pattern selection. 13th signal of 100% white field can
be substituted for full field color bars.
30/60 second timer switches from pattern to black
after timeout.
Ref Frame Pulse/59.97 Hz output.
TSG-50B model adds 5 black
9-14 volts DC powered for portable use. AC adapter included.
Also available in rackmount version.
outputs or 4 black plus subcarrier - $628.
NoRstA
Unconditional Guarantee.
P.O. Box 3993, Mission Viejo, CA 92690
(714) 489-0240
Circle (47) on Free Info Card
Tonejack
SLP S229.00
A Portable Audio Generator
A
Closed -captioning encoder
Evertz
8070: a digital closed -captioning encoder that generates line
21 caption data directly into the
digital bitstream; the 8070 features direct keying, internal modem and V-chip support; it allows data to be encoded into all
caption and text channels in field
1 and 2 of video, and extended
data services packets can be encoded into field 2 supporting services, such as station name and
call letter identification, program
name, classification and remaining air time.
Evertz, 3465 Mainway, Burlington,
Ontario, Canada L7M 1A9; 905-3353700; fax 905-335-3573;
sales@evertz.com
Circle (268) on Free Info Card
features
Hz -29,999 Hz (1 Hz steps)
Sine and Square wave outputs
1
RS -232
controllable
Store and Recall 10 user frequencies
Uses 9 V battery or jack for external power
Log sweep from 50 Hz to 20 kHz
Auto stepping thru user frequency list
Tone burst (1 mS to 29.999 seconds)
VISIT OUR WES
SITE
www.conex-electro.com/-conex
FREE
88
&
80 Audio Video Applic.
ÉE0V"
CONEX SYSTEMS 1 I I
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
ao:Es
I I
1602 Carolina St
PO Box 1342
Bellingham, WA 98227
1.800.645.1061
360.734.4323 FAX 360.676.4822
Circle (46) on Free Info Card
Broadcast Engineering
44pg Catalog
r
OPAMP LABS INC (213) 934-3566
1033 N Sycamore Av LOS ANGELES CA,
http://www.opamplabs.com
Circle (48) on Free Info Card
r
90038
letters to the editor
IN STOCK
Continued from page 8
ZERO
Ready to Ship!
The diagram in Transition to Digital (BE, Aug.
1997,
p.16) contained an error. The author of the figure
explains how the waveform is developed.
"Because of the bit -shuffling process described in
SMPTE-259M, a digital video bitstream has many
edges. A digital component signal has a bit rate of
270Mb/s. If successive "1s" are sent, each successive
bit cell will alternate between high and low states. An
alternate high and low state can be brought together
and be thought of as one square wave.
This square wave would have a fundamental frequency of 135MHz. To create square waves, you need the
odd harmonics of this 135MHz fundamental. Therefore, the band of frequencies extending from 0 to
3R0
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Circle (50) on Free Info Card
lJ
g
DTV is here and
DIELECTRIC
is ready with...
B
270
MHz
DTV antennas
Correct labeling of the SDI spectrum.
270MHz is the fundamental band of energy in a digital
bitstream. The second energy band is the third harmonic centered at 405MHz (3 *135MHz). The third band is
the fifth harmonic band, etc.
Looking at the spectrum analyzer display, what strikes
most first-time observers is that there is a null in energy
at 270MHz. Even though the bit rate is at 270MHz,
very little information is present at that frequency. The
small spike seen at 270MHz is mostly clock crosstalk
from the SDI driver circuitry.
JIM BOSTON
Send your thoughts
to the editor at
CompuServe 74672,3124
or fax to 913-967-1905.
DTV filters
Mi
iI
1
DTV combiners
DTV transmission line
DTV waveguide
DTV feasibility studies
Call today for a copy of our
DTV Planning Guide
DIELECTRIC
Tower Road . Raymond, ME 04071
(207) 655-4555. Fax (207) 655-7120
email . dielectric@maine.com
www.dielectric.com
Circle (49) on Free Info Card
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
89
THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE FOR PHOTO,
FOR ORDERS CALL:
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The silky. smooth action of each Miller Fluid Head is the product of
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Miller 25 -Series
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1/601 -Lightweight Tripod
Weighs 4.5 lbs., supports up to 30 lbs.
Minimum height down to 24". maximum height to 57-.
Extremely portable, folds down to 33"
Engineered from thermoplastic moldings,
drecast alloy and hard anodized tubular alloy.
Fast, one turn, captive leg locks
Includes 75mm (3 ball levelling bowl
)
#849 -2 -Stage Tripod
Two extension sections on each leg. Operates at low levels as well
as normal heights without the use of mini legs.
High torsional rigidity. no pan backlash
Weighs 6 Gibs., supports 50 lbs.
Very portable, folds to 27'
Includes 75mm 13 ball levelling bowl
the Web: http://www.bhphotovideo.com
oUICK
DIAL
72
-"-
J15ax8B
J20ax8B IRS/IAS
next generation internal focusing lens with the shortest MOD and widest
angle of any standard lens. the J15aX8B IRS/IAS is a standard ENG lens that
lets you shoot in tight er restricted areas at the closest mimimum object distance ever possible and capture more of the subject. It incorporates all the
great features of lF+lenses including a built-in 2% extender, high MTF performance. Hi -UD glass. square lens hood and Canon's "Ergonomic Grip".
Excellent for ENG, sports and production. the J20a%8B
IRS/IAS lets you squeeze in shots from Bmm and still
take you all the way out to 320mm with its built-in extender. Incorporates all IF+features. plus is the only lens
(besides the J9aX5 2B IRSiIAS) with aVari-Polar lens
hood, enabling rotation of attached fillers.
3-CCD S -VHS Camcorder
Newly designed three 1/2" CCD image sensors deliver 750 lines of horizontal resolution
and superb signal-to-noise ratio of 6208
Micro -lens technology provides exceptional sensitivity of 18.0 at 2000 lux and LOLU%
mode lets you shoot with almost no light! Shoot superb footage with excellent color balance at a mere 1.5 lux
Variable Scan alloys flicker -free shooting of a computer screen
Full Time Auto White circuit lets you move from incandescent to
fluorescent to outdoor lighting without changing white balance or the filter wheel,
Quick Record Mode - when turned on the camera is set to the auto iris even if lens
is set at manual. Also activates Automatic Level Control and Extended Electronic Iris which provides both variable gain and variable shutter. Shoot continuously from dark room to bright outdoors without having to adjust gain iris or ND filter
Dual output system allows camera output to be connected directly to an external recorder
KY-D29
Vinten
Vision
SD 12
Pan and Tilt Head with Serial Drag
The Vision SD 12 head features "Serial Drag" pan and tilt system.
System consists of a unique, permanently -sealed fluid drag ana an
advanced lubricated friction drag. You achieve the smoothest pans
and tilts regardless of speed. drag setting and ambient temperature.
Patented spring -assisted counter-balance system permits perfectDands-off" camera balance over full 180° of tilt.
Instant drag system breakaway and recovery overcome inertia
and friction for excellent "whip pans'.
Consistent drag levels in both pan and tilt axis.
on. flick off pan and tilt caliper disc brakes.
Greater control, precision, flexibility and "touch"
Touch activated, time delayed illuminated level bubble,
Working conditions from as low as -40° up to +60°C.
SO 12 weighs 6.6 lbs and supports up to 35 lbs.
Flick
Vision Two Stage ENO and
Carbon Fibre ENO Tripods
LT
The ultimate in lightweight and innovative tripods. they are avail 'bb' ',III durable tubular alloy (Model *3513) or the stronger and
-
axially 8 spirally wound carbon fiber construction (Model
rhb, They incorporate torque safe clamps to provide fast. safe
soil -adjusting leg clamps.
'Torque Safe" requires no adjustment. Its unique design adjusts
itself when required, eliminating manual adjustment and maintenance and making for a much more reliable clamping system.
New hip joint eliminates play and adds rigidity
They both feature 100mm levelling bowl, fold down to a compact 28", and support 45 lbs.
*3513 weighs 6.5 lbs - #3523 CF (Carbon Fibre) weighs 5.2 lbs.
Vision 12 SystemsD
Vision 12 systems include *3364-3 S 12 dual fluid 8 lubricated
friction drag pen/tilt head. single telescoping pan bar 8 clamp with
100mm ball base.
SD -12A System
513-12 pan and tilt head
3518-3 Single stage ENG
tripod with 100mm bowl
3363-3 Lightweight
calibrated floor spreader
513-120 System
00-12 pan and tilt head
3513-3 Two -stage ENG
tripod with 100mm bowl
3314-3 Heavy-duty
calibrated floor spreader
VIN -SST and VIN1OST
Compact 8 lightweight. they
maintain Vision performance
and quality.
Provide total stability and durabillty with payloads up to 33 lbs.
Ideal for the latest
generation of dockable and
one-piece camcorders.
Compatible with all Vision
accessories,
VIN-5ST includes Vision 5LF head, single stage toggle clamp
tripod, spreader and soft case.
VIN-1OST includes Vision iULF head single stage toggle damp
tripod sp eadei aid ,u
sachtler
14/100
FLUID HEAD
NOT POD TRIPOD
Especially developed
oped for use in
ENG. the Hot Pod tripod is the
fastest in the world. The central
locking system is activated on all
three legs at the same time, while
the pneumatic center column easily makes it possible to have the lens at a height of over 7 feet tr
elevation force of the center column is factory set and doesn't
require any setup. When moving to another location it can be carried by its handle located at the center of gravity.
ENO TWO -STAGE TRIPOD SERIES
Sachtler two -stage tripods have an enlarged height range (lower
bottom and higher top position) so they are more universal. Legs
can be locked in seconds with Sachtler's quick clamping. There are
also heavy duty versions for extra stability. The heavy duty aluminum has a 20mm diameter tube vs. 16mm and the heavy duly
carbon fiber has a 24mm diameter tube vs. 22mm. All heavy duty
two -stage Tripods have a folding tripod handle.
Sachtler CADDY systems
NE1AR
Now Sachtler quality is available to low budget users. The price of
CADDY system includes the new 7 -step dampened CADDY fluid
head, ultra -light but rugged carbon fiber tripod, lightweight
spreader and either a soh bag or cover.The CADDY fluid head features an adjustable pan arm, 7 step adjustment for quick counter
balance and the self-locking Sachtler Touch and Go System.
CAD 01 Single -Stage ENG Carbon Fiber System:
CADDY Fluid Head ENG Single -Stage Carbon Fiber Tripod
SP 100 Lightweight Spreader
Transport Cover 100
CAD 2A 2 -Stage ENG Carbon Fiber System:
CADDY Fluid Head ENG 2 -Stage Carbon Fiber Tripod
a
3-CCD Color Video Camera
One of the most sensitive cameras over developed, the KY -029 sets the standard
for 3-CCD cameras and is also ideally suited for today's digital recording formats.
With a sensitivity F11 at 2,000 lux. the KY -D29 can shoot in light as low as a
remarkable 0.35 lux. It also offers a signal-to-noise ratio of 65 dB (with its DNR
function on), and delivers 850 lines of horizontal resolution. The exceptional resolution and sensitivity of the KY -029 are achieved by three new 760.000 pixel 2/3'
interline transfer (IT) CCD5, the highest pixel count in the industry.
SP 100 Lightweight Spreader
All-New Digital Signal Processing
Advanced 14-bit Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and 3 -dimensional Digital Noise Reduction (3D DNR) circuitry make this
camera ideal for acquisition with todays popular digital formats.
especially JVC's revolutionary new Digital -S.
OSP within the camera provides astonishingly crisp. high -quality
images, while minimizing analog distortions and noise DSP also
makes the camera more flexible and easy to use. It even
smooths the transitions between gain and white balance settings
so that viewers won't notice sudden changes of settings while
the tape is rolling.
Digital signal processing is enhanced with new 3D digital noise
reduction circuitry to make it even more practical. By mixing
multiple trames to cancel out random noise, then using motion
detection to minimize lag. JVC's exclusive 3-D DNR produces
dramatic results. far superior to any other DSP camera.
Super Lobs lei Extremely Low Light Shooting
Incredible new Super LoLux technology allows you to obtain a
broadcast -quality picture in light as low as 0.35 lux. This extraordinary low light capability is the best ever achieved' and is
made possible by utilizing JVC exclusive LoLux dual pixel
readout technology (increasing gain by 6 d8 without introducing
noise) while at the same time doubling the pixel readout integration time to 1/30 second.
Versatile Docking Capability
Extremely high quality 4:2:2 digital recordings can be made by
docking the KY-D29 to JVC s Digital -S139-040 dockable
recorder. This digital combo produces recordings far superior to
any component analog camcorder. or 4:1:1 digital
camcorder. The KY -029 also docks directly to JVC s BR-DVfO
DV-format and BR -5422 S -VHS (lockable recorders andcan dock
to Betacam SP recorders using an adntnr.
Features for a
Wide Range al
Applications
The KY -029 is
loaded with a
wealth of highperformance features. making it Ideal for a wide range of broad
cast and professional applications. Built-in continuous auto black
(CAB) continuously takes a black balance setting, and full-time auto
white for continuous compensation of color temperature changes,
balance the camera in real time, all the time. This allows you to concentrate on getting the shot, and not on adjusting the camera.
Because different shooting situations require ftexibility, the KY -029
otters selectable vertical resolution. In the Standard Mode, the camera produces 3801V lines of vertical resolution. However, in the 'VPlus" high vertical resolution mode, the camera puts out 420 TV lines
of vertical resolution. allowing you to increase vertical resolution
without sacrificing sensitivity or lag, while maintaining 850 TV lines of
horizontal resolution..
Focusing is easier than ever with Accu -Focus. By momentarily
P100
Air Pressure System:
Air pump attached to the main body frame allows
air to be pumped into a column anywhere and
anytime - even while a camera is mounted on the
pedestal. This allows you to check and adjust the
air pressure while using the pedestal and avoid
over -filling of air.
decreasing depth of held. last 8 critical focus is achieved instantly
Commonly used features can be activated without having to scroll
Through layers of menus. Features such as shutter control. variable
scan, black stretch. black compress. CAB, ms modes. Accu-Focus,
Air pressure can be gradually
adjusted by discharging air
through a bleed valve when
too much air has been
pumped into the column.
DNR and zebra are all menu -free. And for those limes when events
move so fast it prevents you from making any settings whatsoever,
the KY -029 's Full Auto Shooting (FAS) mode controls all of the Cameras requiring you control only the locus, zoom and trigger
Other camera features include a built-in time/date, built -In zebra level
a relief valve that automatically lets
air out when air pressure inside the column exceeds
the uniform value, bringing it below the uniform value.
Large double wheel 5" casters allow the P100 to move smoothly
and quickly. Wheels and caster axiles are easily fixed by the double stopper system.
A track lock mechanism locks the wheels of the pedestal so that
it only moves in a desired position.
Cable guards prevent the casters from rolling over and becoming tangled in camera cables when the tripod is moved around in a studio.
Large steering wheel affords greater ease in handling when shifting columns up and down or when moving the pedestal.
Maximum and minimum height is 31" to 61". By attaching the
optional LA -100 Low Angle Adapter to the dolly for shooting at
low angles. (Height from the ground to mount is only 10").
The column and dolly can be quickly disassembled for convenient transport. The column weighs 18 lbs. and the dolly 16 lbs
There is also
selection switch. an f-stop display in the viewfinder. and a 'battery
-ems' - -q" ,l ,im,ry for Anton Bauer battery packs. A special Black
i,
Zimpression circuit is also included.
Panasonic
AG-DP800H y,'5úaERcAm
3-CCD
Digital Signal Processing Camcorder
Three high -density 380,000 pixel CDs with half -pitch pixel offset achieves
750 lines of horizontal resolution, S/N ratio of 60dB and sensitivity of f8 at
2000 lux. Additionally the Frame Interline Transfer (FIT) CCDs minimize vertical smear even in very bright illumination.
Digital Signal Processing circuitry provides four valuable benefits
1) Consistently reliable up -to -spec performance.
2) Fine adjustment of a wide range of parameters.
3) Memory storage and instant recall of specific settings.
4) More flexible and higher quality image processing, easier maintenance.
Super High Gain mode alloys shooting under illumination as
Two Hi-ti stereo audio channels with a dynamic range of 80 dB.
low as 2 lux while retaining detail and color balance.
as well as two linear audio channels with Dolby NR.
Synchro Scan function allows flicker-free shooting of computer
Has a 26 -pin connector for convenient backup recordings using
monitors. Electronic shutter increments can be set variably
an additional VCR equipped with a 26 or 14 -pin connector
from 1/61 seconds to 1/253 of a second.
Phantom power can be supplied to an optional mic. Power can
Built in internal time code generator lets you record with
be switched off to prevent battery drain when not in use.
SMPTE LTCNITC (LongitudinalNertical Interval) time code
wOP-8009 "LS" Package:
DP -800H Supercam 3-CCD camera head with
1.5" electronic viewfinder and Anton Bauer Gold
Mount battery plate
Fujinon S14x7.5 BRM 14:1 servo zoom lens
CC -S800 soft carrying case
WV -0T700 tripod mounting plate
FOR A FREE MONTHLY CATALOG, CALL
OP -BOON
"XL" Package:
w/1.5" electronic
viewfinder and Anton Bauer Gold Mount battery plate
Fujinon S14x7.5 BRM 14:1 servo zoom lens
CC -H800 Thermodyne hard shell carrying case
WV -0T700 tripod mounting plate
Two Anton Bauer Digital Trimpack 14 batteries
Anton Bauer 2-position quick charger
DP -800H Supercam 3-CCD camera head
800.947-6933,212-444-6633 OR WRITE
www.americanradiohistory.com
Portable Pneumatic Pedestal
The P100 is a small size pedestal that offers great flexibility wlh'.out taking up too much space. Featuring an advanced air pressr.-system, the P100 smoothly handles loads up to
661bs.. easily accomodating professional cameras
used in a studio. Ideal for CAN, small studios.
event and wedding video as well as all kinds of
industrial and institutional applications.
Broadcast & Television Systems
S -VHS
Soh padded ENG Bag
Lebec
1
System 20 #330-Miller 20 Head, 601 Lightweight Tripod,
On Ground Spreader
System 20 ENG #339-Miller 20 Head, 649 2 -Stage Aluminum.
On Ground Spreader
System 25 #500-Miller 25 Head. 611 Lightweight Tripod,
On Ground Spreader
System 25 ENG 4502-Miller 25 Head, 641 2 -Stage Aluminum,
On Ground Spreader
VIDEO
Sachtler Touch and Go System
Integrated sliding battery plate
Strengthened dynamic counterbalance in 2 steps
Frictionless leak proof fluid damping
with three levels of drag
Vibrationless vertical and horizontal
brakes
Built in bubble for horizontal
leveling
Canon's IF+ family of lenses are engineered to meet Pre needs of the next generation of broadcasting while meeting the standards of today. Besides having the widest wide angle lens available, the
IF+ lens sedes have wider angles at shorter M.O.D. (Minimum Object Distance), provide higher
MTF performance and incorporate Hi -UD glass for reduced chromatic aberration. In addition to
superb optics they're all designed with Canon's "Ergonomic Grip" for fatigue -free shooting over an
extended time. IF, lenses am your assurance of unsurpassed quality and performance for today and tomorrow.
JVC GY-X28
100mm ball level fluid head Robust, hg tweight, low profile design
quick release camera platform Weighs 7lbs.-handles up to 25 lbs,
Multi -step fluid drag system and integrated counterbalance system provide ultra -smooth. repeatable pan -and-tilt fluid control
and linger -tip camer balance for ENG camcorders. industrial CCD
cameras or small studio cameras
On
IF+ Series 1/2 -inch & 2/3 -inch Zoom Lenses
A
Fluid Heed
Store & Mail Order Hours:
Sun 10-4:45 Mon & Tues 9-6
Wed & Thurs 9-7:15
Fri 9-1
Sat Closed
Can on
II
Fluid Heed
rmic fluid drag control
-; quick release camera platform
;' 4 lbs - handles up 10 22 lbs.
Cauiderbalance system compensates
for nose heavy or tail heavy camera
configurations and permits fingertip
control of the camera throughout the
tilt range.
Includes independent pan and tilt
locks. bubble level, dual pan handle
carriers and integrated 75mm balllevelling.
FAX l'd HO)lKìr
800-947-9928
MILLER
Fluid Heads and Tripods
OK
H80 Professional Fluid Head
premium fluid head, the H80 incorporates
patented drag control system that provides
the smoothest pan and tilt available.
Unlike conventional drag systems that have
click stops at predetermined points, Libec's
Continuous Drag Control System provides
infinite control of drag tension allowing
smooth. rapid movements as well as very
slow movements.
Continuous Counter Balance Control System provides optimum
camera balance with tilt angles of a 90° or -90°.
Designed to withstand the most demanding environments, the
HBO is fully operational even in temperatures as low as -22°F
H80 supports up to 37 lbs. and has a 100mm claw -ball to simplify camera leveling.
A
a
H70 Professional Fluid Head
The H7O's patented counter balance mechanism sup-
ports various operating configurations including
stand-alone cameras, camcorders and studio
cameras with large viewfinders,. Perfect balance
can be obtained with settings from 0 to 3,
depending on camera weight (from 15 to 33 lbs.)
and tilt angle.
Sliding balance plate features a locking meth.
a,el,,,
_
n -r to
VIDEO and PRO AUDIO
.rItrd
Bu
TO INQUIRE ABOUT YOUR ORDER:
New Address:
239-7765 420
Ninth Ave. (Bet. 33rd & 34th St.)
OR FAX 24 HOURS:
New York, N.Y. 10001
947-2215. 212 239-7549
221-5743
800
800
Avive
DIAL
74
212
NRG
OUrcv
PROFESSIONAL VIDEO TAPES
DIAL
72
V-16 AND V-20
POWER VEST SYSTEM
The Power Vest combines the comfort
and convenience of a photo -journalist
style vest with the power of NRG's highest capacity power belt. Available in 'Gat
styles. the Field model is designed tar
use in a field production environment.
while the Event model is for shooting
events where style is everything. The
Field model is ruggedly constructed
from black high density weatherized
ballistic nylon and has an open-cut
style that makes it comfortable to
wear in a variety of climates. Also has a
highly adjustable design to fit almost any physical proportion,
Internal and external pockets for blank tapes and accessories. a
clear insert window for a press pass or business card. D -rings
for cables and microphones. and an integral padded camera rest
on the right shoulder.
Cleverly concealed inside the vest is your choice of 12-volt 86
watt hour or 13.2 -volt 95 watt hour mead cell packs.
A control box on the Iront features dual power outputs (dual cigarette. dual OLE or mixed).
7 -stage "fuel-guage". charge status indication and auto -reset
short/overload protection.
The Event model is very similiar to the Field except in place of
rugged fabric and pockets it features shoulder to sternum black
satin tux fabric. Worn under a suit coat. the Event model is indistinguishable from a formal dress vest and it still retains interior
and low exterior pockets Both vests include 300 -series charger
(12 hrs.) and can be used with the optional Intelliquick Fast
Charger (2 hrs.).
Professional Camera Stabilization Systems
Hrnr*
BSG -50
The DYna-Elastic Arm
floating. precision Gimble incorporating Integrally Shielded
Bearings creates the super -smooth and pivotal connections
between the front end of the Dyne -Elastic Arm and the Camera
Mounting Assembly. The Three Axis Gimble provides the operator
with finger tip control over fluid tilting. panning and rolling. A
locking mechanism allows the Gimble to be placed at varying
positions on the Central Support PosT Moving the Gimble effectively adjusts the Systems Center of Gravity. The upper portion of
the Sled's central support post includes gu de markings. These
markings allow for accurate gamble positioning.
The Exoskeletal. Dyna-Elastic Support Arm is designed to counteract the weight of the combined camera and Camera Mounting
Assembly by employing high carbon alloy springs. The arm may
be boomed up and down, as well as pivoted in and out and side
to side. It is the combined booming and pivoting action of the
arm which creates the shock absorption necessary for ultrasmooth camera movement and mobility. The spring force is field
adjustable to allow for varying camera weights. For safety. a Dual Spring design is employed to reduce spring failure damage.
A free
1
CSG-50
Color Bar/Sync/ Tone Generator
Generates
lull'SMPTE color
bars. blackburst
and composite
sync signals.
Built-in timer can
automatically
switch video output from color bars to color black after 30 or 60 seconds. Easy
and convenient for producing tape leaders and striping tapes
.with color bars and black.
Front panel selection of full -field or SMPTE color bar patterns or
colorblack (blackburst) video output.
Includes crystal -controlled, 1 KHz, OdB audio tone output.
Outputs: video. sync, ref trame. 1 KHz. 0dB
Audio tone switches to silence and color bars change to black
when using 30/60 second timer
Fully RS -170A SC/H phased and always correct.
No adjustment required._
..........
.................$349
WE STOCK THE FULL LINE OF
HORITA PRODUCTS INCLUDING:
WG -50 TG -50 -
Window Dub Inserter
Generator/Inserter
TRG-50 - Generator/Inserter/Search Speed Reader
TRG-50PC - Has all of the above plus RS -232 control.
VG -50 VITC Generator. LTC-VITC Translator
VLT-50 VITC-To-LTC Translator
VLT-50PC- VITC-To-LTC Translator/ RS -232 Control
RLT-50 Hi8 (EVO-9800E9850)TC to LTC Translator
TSG-50 - NTSC Test Signal Generator
SCT -5o Serial Control Titter "Industrial" CG,
Time -Date Stamp. Time Code Captioning
SAG -50 -
Sate Area, Convergence Pattern and
Oscilloscope Line Trigger and Generator
8
7.49
,
050.
30S
..7.99
...
Metal Evaporated
4.99
.....6.49
.......8.49
P630HMP._..
P660HMP._.
P6120HMP...
ST -120
Double Coated
E630HME...................._. 8.39
E660HME............__.._. 10.49
E6120HME.._._._..
13.99
M321SP Metal Betacam (Boa)
.18.49
105
20S
60L._.
31.95
90L
._....17.95
19.95
49.95
22.95
DP121 DVC PRO
23M ..... ..
9.99
64L (Lg. L...23.99
12M (Med.l 8.29
63M ....... 22.49
123E _...........
33M
94L
12.99
33.99
43.99
maxell
Hie Metal Particle
(MN)
P6-120 ARM
6.59
Broadcast Duality HIE Metal Particle
P6-30 HM BS __..
5.39
P6-60 HM BO
P6-120 HM BO.._.___......._ .............._.._.
voice
DIAL
74
6.09
7.99
_
PA PLUS VHS
ViP Video Lighting System
Designed for video. ViP systems provide 55 to 500 watt
capabilities, powered by AC or DC. Mount one on -camera.
on -stand. or hand hold it. Some ViPs feature adjustable beam
angles. All are light weight and convention cooled.
V -light
Efficient enough to light a small room yet email enough to fit in a
large pocket, the V-light provides a broad ney light, back light or
fill light (with umbrella or gel)
Extreme wide-angle multi -use halogen source
Mounts on stand, clamps. boom. wall, window, door -top
500 watt, AC powered (lamps not included)
i -light
Battery powered light provides excellent lit light, eye -light, or
high -lights, with good contrast control for news and documentary
shooting.
Small and lightweight (18 oz.) for on canera use
Multi -use 6:1 focusing range with i-100 lamp (lamps not included)
55 or 100 wan (12/14 volts DC)
Includes cíg. lighter connector or optional
4
Tota-Light
Provides a base or bounce light, backlight, or background light.
Use it with an umbrella or gel frame with a diffusion kit. It is an
ideal till light or small soft key or illumination for copy work.
Multi -use halogen source with 360° no -yoke tilting
Choice of 300. 500, 650, or 750 watt AC lamps (not included
Gull -wing reflectors close compactly for storage and travel
Omni -Light
Produces the ideal key or back -light.
and with diffusion or an umbrella, it
becomes a great soft till source. With
accessories, hand-hold the Omni,
camera mount it, or choose from a
wide variety of mounting systems.
Multi-use halogen source provides a
non -crossover beam
Choice of optional quick -change
Super-Spot Reflector for exceptionally long throws at all voltages
Choice of lamps: 420 or 500 watt 120v AC; 650 watt 220/240v
AC: 250 watt 30 volt DC; 100 watt 12 volt DC (lamps not included)
-pin XLR
DP System
Pro -light
Complete line of Lowe) lights, lighting kits and accessories in stock...Call
1
ST -60
M221 Hi
Metal Particles
The Three Axis Gimble
video edit controllers
video/pulse outputs
Now available 6 blackburst. 4 sync, 2 subcarrier
Each sync output intlivitlually settable for composite sync, composite blanking. -1 -drive. or V -drive.
Separate buffer for each output -maximum signal isolation
KHz, od8 sinewave audio tone output. locked to video
Outputs can easily be configured to meet
specific user and equipment needs..._
..__.._..._'269
11471S S-VHS Double Coated
6.99
ST -30 ..........
The lightweight and comfortable Support Vat can be adjusted to fit a wide range of operators. High endurance. closed cell, EVA foam
padding and integral T6 aluminum alloy create a vest which can hold and evenly distribute the weight of the Glidecam V-16 and V-20 msystem across the operators shoulders. back. and hips. For safety. quick release. high impact buckles allow the vest to be removed quickly.
The BSG -50 provides an economical means for generating the
most common RS -170A video timing signals used to operate various video switchers, effects generators, TBCs. VCRs, cameras and
6 BNC
PG
The Glidecam Support Vest
low-level key or accent light, fill light
(w/diffusion), backlight or background light.
Multi -use halogen, focusing/tilting controlled with one hand.
125 or 250 watt AC, 100 watt 12 volt, or 200 watt 30 volt DC
Optional cigarette, 4 -pm and 5 -pin XLR connectors
Lamps not included.
Blackburst/Sync/Tone Generator
Professional Grade VHS
PG -60..
-30...........2.39
2.59
PG -120 ......... 2.79
Superior Grade Double Coated VHS
SG -60..........3.99
SG -120
4.49
SG -30..._..... 3.39
Steilization Systems allow you to walk. run. go up and
down stairs, shoot from moving vehicles rid travel over uneven terrain without any camera
instability or shake. Designed primarily for professional video and 16mm motion picture cameras, the Glidecam V-16 stabilizes cameras weighing from 10 to 20 pounds and the V-20 from
15 to 26 pounds. They are both perfect foe shooting the type of ultra -smooth tracking shots
that take your audience's and client's breair away.- instantly adding high production value to
every scene. With either of the "V" series stabilizers you'll be able to offer the type of professional shooting techniques that were previ msly available only to clients with full budgets.
Whether you are shooting commercials. industrials, documentaries. music videos, news. or full
length motion pictures, the Glidecam "V" wigs will take you where few others have traveled.
POWER CAN SERIES
-
I
The GLIDECAM V-16 and V-20 Camera
For powering single or multiple pieces of 12v DC equipment for
extended periods of time, nothing beats
the power and convenience of NRG's
Power -Can Series It integrates an ultra-
high capacity, high-discharge -capable
UPS type lead acid power cell, a worldwide last charger. and compute-controlled monitoring system with display
in a single. rugged package. Connect up
to four pieces of equipment simultaneously.
From a midnight emergency scene to a wedding
reception in the park. the Power -Can delivers ample power for
extended running time.
Recharge In 8-10 hours by simply plugging the Power -Can into
any source of AC power (90-250v AC)
LCD display shows discharge/charge status. voltage etc.
An optional Power Dolly- allows the Power-Can to be rolled for
easy transport.
Available in 18. 28 and 40 amp versions. each Power -Can has
either lour cigarette lighter connectors four 4-pm OLE connectors or two of each.
PHOTO - VIDEO - PRO AUDIO
Can be used as a
One
Only 3.9 pounds the DP Light otters a very powerful key. backlight,
or background light with or without diffusion. When used with its
umbrella or diffusion it provides a soh key, fill, or side light. It
includes a d1 reflector for an 8:1 focusing range and a large cool operating hand grip and knobs.
Multi -use halogen source with 170° no -yoke tilting
Choice of 500. 750. or 1000 watts 120 volts;
650 or 1000 watts 220/240 volts (Lamps not included).
Logic Series DIGITAL
aue,,Gold Mount
The Logic Series DIGITAL batteries are acknowledged to be the most advanced in the rechargeable battery industry. In addition to the comprehensive sensors integral to all Logic Series batteries, each DIGITAL battery has a built-in microprocessor that communicates directly with
Anton/Bauer InterActive chargers, creating significant new benchmarks for reliability, performance. and life. They also complete the communications network between battery, charger and
camera. With the network in place. DIGITAL batteries deliver the feature most requested by cameramen' a reliable and accurate indicatior of remaining battery power.
DIGITAL PRO PACS
DIGITAL TRIMPAC
The ultimate professional video battery anc recommended for all applications
The premium heavy duty Digital Pro Pac cell is designed to deliver long life
and high performance even under high current loads and adverse conditions.
It's size and weight creates perfect shoulder balance with all camcorders.
DIGITAL PRO PAC 14 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
14.4v 60 Watt Hours.
hrs. @ 18 watts
5
1/8 lbs. Run
tine:
2
hours @ 27 watts,
Extremely small and light weight, the Digital Trimpac
still has more effective energy than two NP style slide in batteries. High voltage design and Logic Series technology eliminate the problems that cripple conventional
12 volt slide -in type batteries. The professional choice
for applications drawing less than 24 watts.
3
DIGITAL PRO PAC 13 LOGIC SERIES NICAR BATTERY
13.2v 55 Watt Hours. 4 3/4 lbs. Run tine 2 hours
3 hours @ 17 watts
DIGITAL TRIMPAC 14 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
'0''
25 watts.
14.4 v 43 Watt Hours. 2 3/4 lbs.
Run time: 2 hours W 20 watts. 3 hours W 13 watts.
InterActive 2000 Power/Chargers
QUAD 2702/2401
Dual 2702/2401
Four -Position Power/Chargers
Two -Position Power/Chargers
The lightest (and
The DUAL 2701 (70 watt)
and 2401 (40 watt) are
sleek, rugged and economi-
slimmest) full featured
four position chargers
ever They can last
charge four Gold Mount
batteries and can be
cal two position
expanded to charge up to
eight. They also offer power
from any AC main: all in a
package the size of a notebook
N
computer and weighing a mere four
lbs! The 40 watt 2401 can charge ProPacs in two hours and
TrimPucs in one. Add the Diagnostic/ Discharge module and the
QUAD 2401 becomes an all purpose power and test system. The
70 watt GOAD 2702 bundles all Power/Charger features in the ultimate professional power system.
Power/Chargers that have
all the features of InterActive
2000 technology including
DC camera output and LCD
display. The DUAL 2701 will
charge any Gold Mount battery
in one hour, the DUAL 2401
charges ProPac batteries in two hours and Trimpacs in one. Their
compact, lightweight package design makes them the ultimate travel Power/Chargers. They can also be upgraded with the
Diagnostic/Discharge Module and/or with the Expansion Charge
Modules to charge up to six batteries of any type.
SEVEN DAY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION GUARANTEE
Circle (54) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
1.69
T-30 Plus
T-120 Plus
T-90 Plus
T-60 Plus _...1.99
2.09
T-160 Plus .._.........___....2.69
2.19
HGX-PLUS VHS (Box)
2.69
HGXT-120 Plus
....2.99
_ ........
.........3.99
Broadcast Duality VHS (Box)
T,60 60
T-120 B0.._
_._...5.49
6.19
7.39
BO Professional S -VHS (In Boa)
HGXT-60 Plus
HGXT-160 Plus.._..
.
_.
BO
T-30
BC)
_._._........7.19
ST-31 BG
___._
ST 62 BO
ST -126 BO.__._._..
....8.39
B5MSP.__..15.75
830MSP._.20.75
Betacam SP
B1OMSP...,.17.75
B60MLSP 29.75
__._
ST -182 BO
B20MSP
B90MLSP
7.99
17.49
19.75
46.45
Panasonicc,
AY DVM 30
_.
_.
Mini
9.99
DV Tape
61 D
11.99
11-60
OVCPRO
AJ-P12M (Medium,
..
AJ-P33M
AJ-P64L(Lan)rl_.
AJ-P123L
._.
8.49
13.49
.24.99
Al
626%1
..
9.99
22.99
34.99
44.99
AJP6.'.1
AJ-P9I.
SONY
Professional Metal Video Cassettes
4.59
P6-30 HMEX ....................7,99
.6.59
P6-60 HMEX.. ........... ...11.49
P6120HMEX.....
8.89
...15.49
HI.8 Metal Evaporated Editar (HMEAD)
E6-30 HMEAD ............10.49
E6-60 HMEAD....
...14.89
E6-120 HMEAD .............._..
20.19
PR Serles Professional Grade VHS
T-30PR....__.2.39
T-60PR.
2.59
T-120PR.
2.79
PM Series Premier Grade Professional VHS
T-30PM _....3.49
T-120PM__
T-60PM _... 3.99
4.79
BA Series Premier Hi -Grade Broadcast VHS (In Box)
T-3080._......3.59
T -60BÁ __..._3.99
T -120BÁ
4.79
MO Master Quality S -VHS (In Box)
MOST-30......7.49
MOST -60
7.99
M050-120
8.39
BRS 3/4" U-matic Broadcast Standard (In Boo)
KCS -10 BRS (mini)
8.29
KCS -20 BRS (mini
.8.99
KCA-10 ERS._.... _... 8.19
KCA-20 BRS _..
.8.69
KCA-30 BRS.._......... 9.69
KCA-60 BRS _.._..._... 13.39
%BR 3/4" U-matic Broadcast Master (In Box)
KCS -10 XBR (mum ...._.8.79
KCS -20 XBR (mini)
10.19
KCA-10 XBR___..__.__. 9.29
KCA-20 XBR
10.69
KCA-30 XBR...._....._11.99
KCA-60 XBR __...
15)69
65P 3/4" U-matic SP Broadcast (In Box)
KSP-S10 (mini)..... ....9.59
KSP-520 (mini)
11.09
KSP-10 _._._.......... 10.09
KSP-20
11.59
12.99
KSP 30..._._....____
KSP-60
16.99
BCT Metal Betacam SP Broadcast Master (Box)
BCT-5M (small).,__... 14.99
BCT-10M (small)
15.99
BCT-20M (small) ... 17.99
BCT-30M (small) _.
18.99
BCT-30ML..21.49
BCT-60ML..27.99
BCT-90ML 41.99
Mini DV Tape
Hi -8
P6-30 HMPX
P6-60 HMPX...
P6-12OHMPX
.
DVM-30EXM w/Chip ...15.99
DVM-6OEXM w/Chip
DVM-30ER "No Chip"..12.99
DVM-60ER "No Chip"
DVM-30PR "No Chip" _.9.99
DVM-60PR "No Chip"..
Full Size DV Tape with Memory Chip
DV-120MEM.
.29.95
DV-180MEM
19.95
14.99
12.99
34.95
PAD Series Professional DVCAM Tape
001/M-12ME (Mina
24.95
PDVM-22ME (Mini)._ .26.95
PDVM-32ME (Mimi
PDVM-40ME (Mini)
29.95
31.95
PDV-64ME (Standard). 39.95
PDV-94ME (Standard). _44.95
P00-124ME (Standard). 49.95
PDV-184ME (Standard). 59.95
THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE FOR PHOTO,
FOR ORDERS CALL:
PHOTO - VIDEO - PRO AUDIO
oR
DIAL
74
WJ-MX50
800-947-9003
212-444-5028
212-444-5001
Non Additive Mix
routed to the program busses
selects
Two -channel digital frame synchronization permits
sources, passing only Ib
special effects ;n each A/B bus.
Combination of 7 basic patterns and other effects
signal with the hrdr-
ial
B
back-
ground colors available)
DIAL
a
8
-
a
synchronously faded.
Digital effects strobe, still, mosaic. negative/ positive.
paint. monochrome. strobe. trail, and AV synchro
Real -Time compression entire source image a
compressed inside a wipe pattern
'Scene Grabber" - move a pattern while upholding
the initially trimmed -in picture integrity.
Down stream keyer with selectable sources
from character generator or external camera.
Eight separate memories enable instant recall of frequently used effects
8 preset effects including- Mosaic Mix. Position Stream. Corkscrew.
Bounce- Flip, Shutter, Vibrate. and SatelliteAudio mixing capability of 5 sources with 5 audio level adjustments.
-
13"Color Video Production Monitor
-production monitor with
stabilizes white balance to
RF-principle
have proven
-Video input and advanced video circuit technology provides
remarkably sharp picture with over 420 lines of horizontal res
a
approximately
he
Blue Only mode plus Chroma selection provide a monochrome image
adiuslment of contrast, brightness. chrominance 8 hue.
detect intruding
Lightweight metal alloy, transfunnerless, low noise. symmetric,:
most
situations,
including
digital
displayed Lets you
cameras and mike booms.
all
I
ital Multi -Track Recordin
audio (racks on
cascaded decks
all
With high quality performance and flex;bihty. Surly's presentation
monitors are ideal for any environment They use Sony's legendary Trinitron CRT and Beam Current Feedback Circuit for high
Closed captiaring is available with
the uprunal BKM-104
Caption Vision Board
resolution of
Designed with
designed for simple picture viewing. the PVM-14N2U and 20N2Ú
add RGB input and switchable aspect ratio for more sophisticated
metal cabinet for stamhty. duability and rack
mounting. The 13 -Inch
series mount er a 19 inch rack with the MB 5028 Rack Mount
whether you have one deck or sixteen (up
to
128
SONY PCM-800
-"Shuttle dial for precise tape control, variable speed playback of 6°ró in 0.1% increments and a flat frequency response from 20Hz to 20kHz.
Operate up to 16 PCM-800's in perfect sync with optional RCC-S1 sync cables,lor up lu 128 channels of digital audio recording
Optional DARK-801 Sync Board provides SMPTE/EBU lime code generation and chase sync. It locks to the incoming lime code with
suhlranne accurate offset- ideal for audio -follow -video applications. Also synchronizes to external video reference signal.
Optional RM -2800 provides comprehensive remote control over all PCM-800 functions. The RM -2800 can control up m six units for
up
to
48 channels of
8 -Track
digital
/- lrnS S adat xt
audio.
Digital Audio Recorder
vol. the ADAT-XT sets the standard in modular digital multitrack recording With new features and enhanced capabilities, the ADAT-XT operates up
to four hures faster than the original ADAT. offers an intelligent software -controlled tape
transport and provides onboard digital editing and flexible autolocation
An incredibly affordable
Onboard 10 -point autolocate system provides quick access
The 19-inch
multiple tape locations. Four specialized locate points
monitors with the SLR -
recording capabilities.
t03A
external sound system
-
I
sturu,
500 Ines of resolution to match DV DVCAM and DVCPRO
Beam Current Feadback for color temperature stability
They handle four worldwide color systems: NTSC. NTSC 4 43.
PAL. and SECAM
On screen display in five languages Picture adjustments (chrome.
phase, contrast. brightness) and setup adjustments (volume.
aspect ratio) are displayed as easy -to
-read on screen menus.
Built-in speaker lot small audiences without the expense of an
DA -88
exceeds 92dB.
Presentation Monitors
Bracket
i
Combines audio functions such as precise auto punch in/out digital cross fade technology. external synchronization with SMPTEIEBU lime code and selectable sampling
frequencies of 441 and 48kHz.
PVM-14N 1 U/14N2Ú & 20N 1 U/20N2Ú
They Feature:
recording
Flawless sound quality, outstanding reliability and professional audio interfacing with
AES/EBU digital I/O and XLR analog I/O connections
SONY
applications
sports
Execute seamless Punch -ins and Punch- outs. This feature offers programmable digital
crossfades. as well as the ability to insert new material accurately into tight spots. You can even delay individual Packs to generate
special effects or compensate for poor timing
brackets
($400 less than our regular selling price on this monitor)
a
film, video,
interviewing ne crowded or noisy environments. Excellent for sti.
dio voiceovers
Incoming audio is digitized by the on -board 16 -bit D A at either 44.1 or 48KHz
The frequency response is flat tram 20Hz to 20KHz while the dynamic range
Demo Special $599
500 lines as well as stable calor reproduction Tltey
also accept worldwide video signals. have a bolt -in speaker and
are rack mou table. Four models. the PVM-14N1Ú/2oN1 U are
(135 dB), ideal for broadcasting.
tracks,)
BT S 1360Y Olympic Demo Special!
& 19"
Smooth off -axis frequency response Handles extremely high SOL
overdubbing
system ensures no tracking errors or loss of synchronization. All eight tracks of audio are
perfectly synchronized. It also guarantees perfect tracking and synchronization between
We have a limited stock of BT-S1360Y monitors that were used by Panasonic exclusively at the 1996 Olympics in
Atlanta, Used only by Panasonic engineers in broadcasting the summer games, these monitors are like new.
13"
capsule design.
Recommended
recording,
ATF
Rack -mountable with optional BA -131
video/audio Inputs and outputs.
level
TASCAM
to
Two sets
center of the screen so you can examine data in the blanking
Short Shotgun
Short interference tube RF condenser.
Di
area and also sync/burst tlnnng
and vertical intervals at the
past
MKH 60 P48U3
vocals, percussive sound, acoustic guitars, piano. brass and string
instruments, Mid -Side IM -S) stereo, and conventional X -Y stereo.
Vocals when used with a pop -screen
Sw'rtchable color temperatures of 6500°K ibroadcast standard)
or 9300`K (for pleasing picture)
Built-in speaker and headphone lack-
Cross- displays horizontal
to this
the
Highly versatile, low distortion push-pull element
5"/u
with other equipment led with the same sync signal
for fine
in
Translornerless RF condenser, high output
enabling the entire
active picture area
reliability
MKH 40 P48U3
for
a
External sync inputs and outputs provide for synchronization
then superior ruggedness and
decades under every conceivable environmental condition
the picture lube
S
of
1ormance. Sennheiser studio condenser microphones operating according
Underscan -shrinks
the scanned area of
circuitry That
provide outstanding picture perfor-
mance automatically.
Pulse
Unlike traditional condenser microphones, the capacitive transducer in Sennheiser
condenser microphones is part of a tuned Rh -discriminator circuit. Its output is a
relatively low impedance audio signal which allows further processing by conventional hi-polar low noise solid state arcuits Sennheiser microphones achieve a balanced floating output without the need for audio transformers, and insures a fast,
distortion -free response to audio transients over an extended frequency range. The
RE -design yields exceptionally low noise levels and is virtually immune to humidity and moisture. The comparatively low RF -voltage across the elements of the
transducer also eliminates arcing and DC -bias creeping currents. Sennheiser
employs RF -technology to control residual microphone noise Optimizing the
transducer's acoustic Impedance results nn a further improvement en low noise per
Transparent response, switchable proximity E0.
wealth of features
They include, superb 420 -line horizontal resolution. S-Video input and output, advanced autocratic white balance circuitry, blue -only mode. Underscan and pulse -cross All this. housed in a
rugged, rack mountable metal -hybrid cabe/et So, for long -tern reliability at any professional
application. the BT-S1360Y is the ideal choice.
Incorporates advanced, proprietary white balance
the Web: http://www.bhphotovideo.com
Cardioid
BT-S 1360Y
The BT-S1360Y is a full -1 unction. professional 13
OVERNIGHT SERVICE AVAILABLE
On
Condenser Microphones
NAMi
estlummance
value
Fade-in and fade
out video. audio,
titles individually or
External edit control input for RS -232 or RS -422 ser-
controls. Also has GPI input.
Wipe boundary effects: soft/border (bold.
i
between A and
MOST ORDERS SHIPPED
WITHIN 24 HOURS
j¡SENNHEISER'
OUICV
Digital A/V Mixer
Four input switcher and any two sources can be
creates 287 wipe patterns
(24 HOURS):
800-947-9928
Panasonic
ours
FAX
Servo -balanced 56 -pin ELCO connector operates at a4dy to
to
make your
interface with
recording sessions quicker and easier
Slide Rail Kit
PVM-14N2U/20N2U
Only:
Remote Control (Last Input Switch) Contact closure remote controt allows you to wire a remote to an existing system so that the
monitors input can be remotely controlled to switch between the
last previously selected input and the current input.
With the PVM-14NÚ2 and PVM-20N2U Series. the aspect ratio
is switrhahie between 4.3 and 16.9 simply by pressing a button
-
consoles with a4 dB bal/unbar
inputs'outputs.
)phono connectors)
Has an electronic patch bay built-in so it can be used with
stereo and 4-bus consoles.
Also unbalanced -10do Inputs/outputs
Includes remote control with transport and locate functions,
offers a lootswnch lack for hands -free punch -in.
Advanced transport software continuously monitors autolocation performance and the head constantly reads ADATs built-m
sample-accurate tune code-even in fast wind modes.
Dynamic Braking software lets the transport quickly wind t0
locate points while gently treating the tape.
Make flawless copy/paste digital edits between machines or
unil. Track Copy feature makes a digital
clone of any track (or group of tracks) and copies it to any other
track loo group) on the same recorder. This allows you to
assemble composite tracks for digital editing
even within a single
5tudiofad"
PVM-14M2U/14M4U & 20M2U/20M4Ú
13" & 19" Production Monitors
Sony's best production monitors ever, the PVM-M Series provide
stunning picture quality. ease of use and a range of optional tunslions. They are identical except that the "M4" models incorporate
Sony's state-of-the-art HR Trinitron CRT display technology and
phosphours instead of P22.
HR Trinitron CRT enables the PVM-14M4Ú and 20M4Ú to display an incredible BOO lines of horizontal resolution The PVM14M2U and 20M25 use an aperture grille dol pitch of 0.25mm
to offer 600lines of resolution. M4 models also use SMPTE-C
phosphours for the most critical evaluation of any color sublect.
Dark tint for a higher contrast ratio (black to white) and crisper.
nave SMPTE
C
sharper looking edges.
Beam Current Feadback Circuit
4
Each has two composite (BNCI. one
iR-Y/B-Y, analog
RGB)
for flexibility,
3'169 scntchable aspect
S -Video
For
ratio
and component input
more accurate color repro-
duchon. the component level can be adlusted according to the input
system. Optional serial digital interface kit BKM-101C (video) and
BKM-102 (audio) for SMPTE 259M component serial digital input.
True multi -system monitors they are equipped to handle lour
color system signals. NTSC. NTSC 4.43. PAL artd SECAM
MHuimum Shipping USA (Except AK & NQ
External sync input and output for synchronization with other
equipment. Can he set so that it will automatically switch
4-Channel Digital Audio Card for Windows
according
The next generation in digital audio for the desktop, StudioCard is
to the input
selected.
Switchable color temp 65006 (broadcast). 9300K (pleasing pic curer
User preset.13200K lu 10000K)
Underscan and H/V delay capability. ht underscan mode the
entire active picture
area
is
displayed, allowing
you
to urea), the
entire image and c)teck the picture edges H/V delay allows viewing of the blanking area and sync/burst tinting.
Using color bars as a reference, Chroma/Phase setup mode
facilitates the complex, delicate procedure of nmmlor adluslment. Especially convemern when used Curler computer-based
ed;llno systems.
-screen menus for monitor adlustmentioperatlon.
On
Paallel remote control and Tally via 20 -pin connector.
Sub control mode allows Ime. oil -screen adiastment of the center
"decent" value of the contrast,
brightness.
chroma and phase knobs
PVM-14M2WM4U mount m a 19 -inch rack with the MB -5028
Rack Mount Bracket. The 20M2Ú/M4Ú monitors mount with the
SLO-103A
Slide Rail
bit.
a
premium -quality digital
audio adapter with advanced features, studio -quality specs and professional connections.
Unmatched ;n quality, flexibility and expandab;ldy, ;t features 4 tracks of audio sound and real cene digital mixing capability,making it the ideal board for musicians who want digital multitrack mg and mixing on their PC. or producers looking for a versatile board fm post -production digital
audio editing and uncompromised audio quality. StudioCard is Windows 95' plug and play compatible
plus includes drivers for Windows NT as well.
Key to StudioCard s amazing sound is the marriage of a low noise
Compatible with film, video or MIDI StudioCard otters synchroanalog PO section and high quality ADD and D/A converters. A
nization via SMPTE. MTC. word and pixel clocks. and composite
PCbbased 32 -bit memory mapped board, it delivers less than
video. Plus, the StudioCard not only reads SMPTE tmecode, bui
0003%o total harmonic distortion and 92dB dynamic range. Plus,
generates Il as well.
a PLL-based sample clock generator that can be locked to an
assortment of clock sources
Unique to the Annex design is StudioCard s multiple adapter
Incorporates a program;nable 32 -hit 40 MHz DSP and pro concapability. This means you can install multiple StudioCards in a
nections like 4 independent balanced analog I/Os (x4dBu or -10
single computer for up to 16 -track recording. Start with one
dBV) and AES/EBU or S/PDIF digital I/0. It also offers a MIDI port
StudioCard today - add more Stud;oCards tomorrow. Also
with deep buffers and time stamping No matter which type of
included is an on -board SPx expansion connector for plugging
equipment you have StudioCard will integrate into standard stuin optional daughtercards for compression or enhanced DSP
dio en'I,rouneltis
operations.
$7.00, up to 3 lbs. Add 60p for each additional Ib. For ins. add 406 per $106 01887 BiUN Pbeb YIMee Prices are valid subject to supplier prices. Not responsible for typographical errors.
www.americanradiohistory.com
_
VIDEO and PRO AUDIO
,=
TO INQUIRE ABOUT YOUR ORDER:
Canis
New Address:
420
Ave. (Bet. 33rd & 34th St.)
Ninth
OR FAX 24 HOURS:
New York, N.Y. 10001
800 947-2215 212 239-7549
800
221-5743 212 239-7765
'I VIDEONICS P .wERM
./ Ì
KNOX VIDEO
RS4x4/8x8/ 16x 16/ 16x8/ 12x2
Video/Audio Matrix Routing Switchers
Mgt
SYSTEMS, INC.
Powerful Character Generator
Choose from 35 built-in fonts or download PostScript fonts from
your PC. PowerScript's high-speed RISC processor provides real-
Internal vertical interval switching firmware allows on -air
switching.
Housed in a thin profile rackmount 1" chassis.
except the RS12x2 are available in S-Vdeo versions
with/without audio.
Models RS16x8 and RS16x16 are also available in RG8/comporent version.
With optional Remote Video Readout, the 6316x8 and RS16x16
can display active routes on a monitor at remote locations, via a
composite signal from a BNC connector on -he rear panel.
The RS4x4. RS8x8 and RS16x16 are also mailable with balanced stereo audio. They operate at 660 ohms and handle the
full range of balanced audio up to a4 dB with processional quick connect, self-locking. bare -wire connectors.
Also
Broadcast) mobile applications.
A universal power supply
operates at either 110 or 240
VAC, 50/60 cycle. DC opera tien is optionally available as
is a redundant supply with
automatic switchover
Dual exhaust fans main tain proper airflow and cooling.
'Hot swappable" front card
loading allows power-on
removal/insertion of individual processing modules without disturbing others in the system. All cabling can remain in place while
you service' any module. An intelligent "centerplani provides
power, sync, timing and data distribution, facilitating expansion to
more complex. more cost-effective signal processing functions.
NovaASD/NovaSDA
Equalized and reclocked serial digital
component output
Analog component video (Y, R -Y,
Y/YUV). RGB or RG8/S outputs
10 -bit D/A converters
Output level control
NTSC and PAL compatible
B-
ASO-1 Analog Component to Serial
Digital Component Convener
Analog component video (Y. R -Y, BY/YUV). RGB or RGB/S input
Dual SMPTE 259M 4:2:2 Serial Digital
Component (D1) outputs
10 -bit D/A converters
Picture positioning control
NTSC and PAL compatible
Characters can be made transparent (0.100%) over video, other
characters and graphics with 64 levels of transparency.
Opaque characters can use over 4,000,000 colors transparent
characters can use over 8,000.
Different colors can be used for fill and outline (variable
width) as well as each letter and each graphic_
Component (D1) input,
*Equalized and reclocked serial digital
component output
Dual composite 8 dual S -Video outputs
Color bar output selectable
10 -bit D/A converters
Output level control
NTSC and PAL compatible
ASD-2 Analog Composite and
S -Video to Serial Digital
Component Converter
Analog composite and S-Video input
Dual SMPTE 259M 4:2'.2 Serial Digital
Component (D1) outputs
10 -bit D/A converters
NTSC and PAL compatible
N0vAMNR
;
ItNI1
:
mental and other factors far exceeding actual operating conditions. These include high
humidity, extremes of heat, cold, shock and vibration. Manufacturing quality is built in every
step of the way and only the finest parts are used. At each production run, subassemblies
are separately tested before they are integrated into the finished product, then each product
is tested again. This is why less than half of % of all Leader products are ever returned for
warranty repair or adjustment.
1
5850C
WAVEFORM MONITOR
two -input waveform monitor, the 5860C features 1H, 1V 2H. 2V, 1
s/div and 2V mag time bases as well as vertical amplifier response
choices of flat, IRE (low pass), chroma and DIF-STEP. The laper
facilitates easy checks of luminance linearity using the staircase signal. A PIX MON output jack feeds observed (A or B) signals to a picture monitor, and the unit accepts an external sync reference, Builtin calibrator and on-off control of the DC restorer is also provided,
A
VECTORSCOPE
The ideal companion for the 5860C Waveform Monitor. the
5850C adds simultaneous side -by -side waveform and vector
monitoring. Featured is an electronically -generated vector scare
that precludes the need for fussy centering adjustments and
eases phase adjustments from relatively long viewing distance-,
Provision is made for selecting the phase reference from either
A or 8 inputs or a separate external timing reference.
4 -Channel Component / Composite WAVEFORM
51000
SMPTE 259M Serial Digital Composite
(D2.D3) input.
Equalized and reclocked ser al digital
composite output
Four analog composite video outputs
Color bar output selectable 10-bit D/A converter,
Digital Composite Convener
Analog composite video input
Dual SMPTE 259M 422 Serial Digital
Composite (02/03) outputs
10 -bit D/A converters
Input gain adjustment
Digital Waveform/Vectorscope
The 5100D can work in component digital as well as component analog facilities (and mixed operations). It provides comprehensive
waveform, vector. timing and picture monitoring capabilities. Menu driven control functions extend familiar waveform observations into
highly specialized areas and include local calibration control, the ability to show or blank SAV/EAV signals in both the waveform and picture. the ability to monitor digital signals in GBR or YCbCr form, line select (with an adjustable window), memory storage of test setups
with the ability to provide on -screen labels, flexible cursor measurements. automatic 525/60 and 625/50 operation and much much mum
5870 Waveform/Vectorscope w/SCH and Line Select
ASD-3 Analog Composite to Serial
two -channel WaveformNector monitor, the microprocessor -run 5870 permits overlaid waveform and vector displays. as well as overB inputs for precision amplitude and timing/phase matching. Use of decoded R-Y allows relatively high -resolution DG and DP
measurements. The 5870 adds a precision SCH measurement with on-screen numerical readout of error with an analog display of SCH
error over field and line times. Full-raster line select is also featured with on-screen readout of selected lines. a strobe on the PIX MON
output signal to highlight the selected line. and presets for up to nine lines for routine checks.
A
laid A and
5872A
Combination Waveform/Vectorscope
Models 5872A offers all the operating advantages of the 5870. except for the following: SCH is deleted from the 5872A (line select
retained), making it ideal for satellite work.
Median Noise Reducer
remotely. A three pcsition threshold
switch (off/low/high) adjusts system
noise sensitivity WA lea bypass/operate
switch is also induced. Both switches
are remoteable via P.J-11 jack.
Also available in PAL and PAL -M
versions.
'C-8 RGB/Component to Composite/S-Video Encoder
Remote serial control
di
for timing checks. Menu -driven options select format (525/60, 625/50, and 1125/60 HDTV), full line-select, vector calibration, preset
front -panel setups and more. On -screen readout of scan rates, line -select, preset numbers. trigger source, cursor time and volts.
The NovaMNR is a StudioFrame card that eliminates impulse and transmission noise. cleans up satellite. microwave and fiber feeds and
fills in COPEC and time -based corrected videotape drop -outs. It features full bandwidth. uncompressed 10 -bit digita processing for ultimate video transparency as well as analog composite inputs and outputs.
Eliminates "sparklies". those black and white dots that sometimes appear on remote
Control's are accessible locally or
processing, 8-bit D/A conversion
sertion delay, frame of memory
oposite and one S-video output.
HOB (Sync on Green or all three), RGB/Sync and Voy
t) inputs. Also available with looping inputs.
tminance notch filter
'n -comb filtering for maximum encoding performance
_de
The 5100 handles three channels of component signals. plus a fourth channel for composite signals. in mixed component / composite
facilities. Features are overlaid and parade waveform displays. component vector displays, and automatic bow-tie or "shark tin" displays
Serial Digital
Composite to
Analog Video
Converter
''s and previous video field.
Expansion Capabilities
Although PowerScript operates on its own, you can still add
peripherals and connect to a computer or network. Two PC -card
slots allow the addition of non-volatile flash -RAM and Ethernet
cards. RS -232 port allows connection to desktop computers for
added storage and downloading of fonts or graphics from a PC
LEADER
5100
SDA-3
video feeds. The NovaMNR incorporates a proprietary adaptive three-dimensional median filter that analyzes pixels from several fields of video and replaces the impulse noise
with uncontaminated, clean video.
traversal drop -out compensation replaces missing video information. whether it is
em a time-base -corrected VCR source or the decoded output of a CODEC feed. The
raMNR effectively tills in drop -outs with replacement video from the surrounding
Imported Logos and Graphics
Accepts most PostScript or PCX format graphics without mods,
cation. Imported images can be any size and can be scaled.
skewed, and rotated when placed on screen.Transparency and
anti-aliasing can be defined when graphic is generated.
Manufacturing test and measurement equipment for over 40 years, Leader Instruments is
the standard which others are measured against for reliability. performance, and most
important-cost effectiveness. Before a product is brought to market, an exceptional degree
of energy and effort go into its design. Prototypes are built and tested to withstand environ-
5860C
Components o the Nova StudioFrame series, the NovaASD and the NovaSDA incorporate the latest digital
video processing techniques for high speed A-D and D -A signal conversion. They are designed to meet
the most stringent broadcast requirements and their "hot swappable" front card loading facilitates servicing without disturbing other cards in the system. The NovaASD is ideal for for interfacing analog signals with digital video formats and the NovaSDA for interfacing serial digital signals with
Component (D1) input.
Intuitive User Interface
strutted to endure studio rackmount,
production van and 08 (Outside
SMPTE 259M 4:2:2: Serial Digital
Backgrounds and Graphics
Titles can be placed on solid color, patterned or graduated backgrounds, or they can be genlocked to incoming video.
Lines, squares. rectangles, ovals and circles can be created sod
placed anywhere on the screen. Each graphic object can use a
different color, transparency, rotation. size, fill and outline.
Built-in real-time object -based drawing tool and text editor-no
computer or software required. Design can be done ahead of
time and displayed later, or can be done on the fly.
Supplied keyboard and mouse are used with easy on -screen
menus to place and modify graphics and text.
Change fonts, colors, and other characters instantly.
,
SDA-2 Serial Digital Component to
Composite and S -Video Converter
Variable speed roll. crawl and push (slide) In all directions.
Every text object, graphic and logo can be animated. Complex
animations include having elements follow paths, bounce. etc.
Elements can change outline and/or fill color, transparency, posi
Lion as they move and results are displayed in real time.
Move individual characters in different directions: make colors
change; flash words: make letters and words bounce: spin a letter across the screen. Use fades and wipes to transition between
titles and video or between two pages of tines.
Transparency and Colors
Analog to Serial Digital & Serial Digital to Analog Converters
SDA-1 Serial Digital Component
to Analog Component Converter
SMPTE 259M 4:22: Serial Digital
Roll, Scrawl, Animation, Effects
time PostScript imaging.
Characters can be rotated at any angle, scaled to any size.
stretched horizontally or vertically.
Styles include variable bold and italic, underline and shadow
(drop shadow, variable displacement and opacity). Each character can be adjusted separately.
Text can be positioned anywhere on the screen or automatically
centered, vertically or horizontally .Leh, right, top, bottom and
center justification is also provided.
Characters are automatically kerned, using the font's standard
kerning information. Spacing is highly flexible with variable word
and letter spacing and line spacing (leading).
An internal battery remembers and restores the currerr
pattern in case of power failure.
StudioFrame
a modular, flexible, digital/analog
signal processing system. It is designed to efficiently and effecLively combine a wide variety of individual function (or processor)
boards such as A -D and D -A converters, video signal encoders
and decoders, audio and video distribution amplifiers and frame
synchronizers into more complex function groups, all in one
equipment mainframe. The scalable nature of the StudioFrame
design allows it to be easily reconfigured and/or upgraded as
today's video standards and requirements continue to evolve. The
system is based on two rackmount frame models (the SF -3 and
SF-1) allowing up to thirteen front loading processor boards and
thirteen rear mounted passive interface cards to be accommodated in a single chassis. Both the StudioFrame SF -1 and SF -3 chassis are designed to meet the most stringent broadcast requirements. The SF -3 is a thirteen slot, 3RU chassis while the SF-1 is a
4 slot, 1 RU chassis. All studio cards as well as the two chassis'
are backed by a two year warranty on parts and labor with guaranteed 24 -hour turnaround service. The units are ruggedly con-
DIAL
industrial applications, PowerScript delivers the huge range of titles and graphics supported
by PostScript display technology, plus animation, effects, transparency and color keying. II
features two GPI inputs, anti-aliased, 17.5 ns (nanosecond) pixel resolution and 4:22 broadcast -quality video. It also offers high-speed RISC processing to provide real-time Level 2
PostScript imaging and fast rendering-even with the most complex images. The
PowerScript works stand-alone or with a computer, has a built-in TBC, otters a powerful and
intuitive interface, and is suitable for the desktop or can be rackmounted.
Modular Video Processing System
The Nova StudioFrame Series is
OUIGK
The most advanced character generator ever designed for video production, multimedia and
Knox's family of high performance. 3 -channel routing switchers are extremely versatile.
rasy-to-use and very affordable. Housed in an ultra-thin rackmount chasiss
!hey accept and route (on the vertical interval) virtually any video signal.
ncluding off -the -air and non-timebase corrected video. They also route
oalanced or unbalanced stereo audio. The audio follows the video or
you can route the audio separately (breakaway audio). Each of the
switchers offers easy manual control via front panel operation. They can
else be controlled remotely by a computer, a Knox RS Remote Controller,
or by a Knox Remote Keypad via their RS -232 pod. Front panel LEDs
indicate the current routed pattern at all times. and an intent battery holds
and restores current aptterns in case of power interruption. Totally versatile. Knox switchers are ideal
for applications such as studio -feed control and switcher input control, plus they have an internal timer allo
ing timed sequence of patterns for surveillance applications as well.
Accept and routes virtually any one -volt NTSC or PAL video signal input -including off -the -air and men-timebase corrected -to
any or all video outputs.
Accept and route two -volt mono or stereo unbalanced audio
inputs to any or all audio outputs.
Video and audio inputs can be routed independently (breakaway
stereo audio), they don't need to have the same destination.
Can store and recall preset cross -point patterns. (Not available
on RS12x2.)
*Front panel key -pad operation allows easy manual operation.
Can also be controlled via RS -232 interface with optional RS
Remote Controller or Remote Keypad..
Internal timer allows manual or automatic timed sequence of
patterns -ideal for surveillance applications.
Front panel LED indicators display the present routing patterns
at all times.
Animated
i
Postscript
os scrip t Character
Ch
te
and Graphics Generator
Output level control
Color bar output selectable
Designed to meet the most stringent broadcast requirements.
'Hot swappable- front card loading facilitates servicing without
disturbing other cards.
Available m PAL and PAL -M versions
5864A
Waveform Monitor
two -input waveform monitor that
offers full monitoring facilities for
cameras, VCRs and video transmissionlinks. The 5864A offers front
panel selection of A or B inputs, the
choice of 2H or 2V display with
sweep magnification, and flat frequency response or the insertion of an IRE filter. In addition, a switchable gain boost of
X4 magnifies setup to 30 IRE
units. and a dashed graticule line at 30
units on screen facilitates easy setting of master
pedestal Intensity and focus are fixed and automatic for optimum
display Supplied with an instruction manual and DC power cable.
5854
Vectorscope
dual channel compact vectorscope, the 5854 provides precision checkout of camera
encoders and camera balance.
as well as the means for precise
genlock adjustments for two or
more video sources. Front
panel controls choose
between A and B inputs
for display and between A
and B for decoder reference.
Gain is fixed or variable, with front
panel controls for gain and phase adjustments. A gain boost of 5X facilitates precise camera balance adjustments in the field. Supplied with a DC power cable
Designed for EFP and ENG (electronic field production and electronic news gathering) operations, they feature compact size, light
weight and 12 V DC power operation. Thus full monitoring facilities can be carried into the field and powered from NP -1 batteries.
battery belts and vehicle power Careful thought has been given to the reduction of operating controls to facilitate the maximum u,
monitoring options with the operating simplicity demanded in field work
A
CORPORATE ACCOUNTS WELCOME
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www.americanradiohistory.com
A
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94
Slow Motion Controller
Broadcast Engineering
All the features and functions you would
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Control up to 4 VTRs
Simple and easy to use. Small spacesaving footprint.
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November 1997
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The results are in...
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November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
95
STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP
Statement of Ownership, Management and
Circulation (Act of Aug. 12, 1970; Section 3685,
Title 39, United States Code).
Title of publication: Broadcast Engineering.
Publication number: 0007-1994.
3. Date of filing: Sept. 24, 1997.
4. Issue frequency: Monthly, except for semi-monthly in
July and December.
5. Number of issues published annually: 14.
6. Annual subscription price: FREE TO QUALIFIED.
7. Complete mailing address of known office of publication (street, city, county, state, zip code): Intertec
Publishing Corporation, 9800 Metcalf, Johnson County.
Overland Park, KS, 66212-2215.
8. Complete mailing address of the headquarters of
general business offices of the publishers (not printers):
Intertec Publishing Corporation, 9800 Metcalf, Johnson
County, Overland Park, KS, 66212-2215.
9. Full names and mailing addresses of publisher, editor
and managing editor. Publisher: Dennis Triola, 9800
Metcalf. Overland Park, KS 66212-2215. Editor: Brad
Dick, 9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212-2215.
Managing Editor: Tom Cook, 9800 Metcalf, Overland
Park, KS 66212-2215.
10. Owner (If owned by a corporation, its name and
address must be stated and also immediately thereunder
the names and addresses of stockholders owning or
holding 1% or more of total amount of stock. If owned
by a partnership or other unincorporated firm, its name
and address, as well as that of each individual must be
stated.): K-III Corporation, 745 5th Avenue, New York,
industry briefs
1.
2.
NY 10151.
11. Known bondholders, mortgagees and other security
holders owning or holding 1% or more of total amount
of bonds, mortgages or other securities (if there are none,
so state).: None.
12. Tax status: Has not changed during preceding 12
months.
13. Publication title: Broadast Engineering.
14. Issue date for circulation data below: September
1997.
Extent and nature of circulation:
Average No. copies
each issue during
preceding 12 months
A.
Single issue
nearest to
filing date
Total No.
copies printed
(Net press run)
36,786
36,275
requested circulation
I. Sales through dealers
and carriers, street
vendors and
counter sales
0
2. Mail subscriptions
32,426
0
32,378
32,426
32,378
2,642
2,626
518
500
B.
Paid and/or
C. Total paid and/or
requested circulation
D. Free distribution by
mail (samples,
complimentary
and other free)
E. Free distribution
outside the mail
(carriers or
other means)
Total free
distribution
(Sum of D and E)
3,160
G. Total distribution
(Sum of C and F)
35,586
H. Copies not distributed
1. Office use, leftovers,
spoiled
news agents
Total (Sum of G,
Hl and H2)
Percent paid and/or
requested circulation
0
0
36,786
36,275
(CIG x 100)
Fox's O&Os digital and NTSC
transmitters through 2002, and will
also extend a specially negotiated
offer of DTV equipment and services to FOX affiliates.
91.1%
91.2%
Returns from
I.
I
certify that all information furnished on this form is true
and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes
false or misleading infonnation on this form or who omits
material or information requested on the form may be
subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including multiple damages and civil penalties).
Dennis Triola,
Publisher
96
Broadcast Engineering
gomery, AL. Raycom's purchase includes an initial $2 million
DVCPRO investment to outfit 10
stations in applications ranging from
a complete station conversion to
DVCPRO editing -only and acquisition -only installations.
signed an agreement that offers DTV
transmitters to the network's owned and -operated stations. Under terms
of the agreement, Comark will offer
35,504
771
AJ-HD2000 incorporates a D-5
VTR and HDTV processor in a
single -piece HDTV VTR with full
production features.
Panasonic also announced several
sales, including the purchase of $8
million worth of DVCPRO equipment by Raycom Media Inc., Mont-
Fox Television Group, Los Ange-
3,126
1,200
Panasonic, Secaucus, NJ, is shipping the AJ-HD2000 digital high definition (HD) recorder, a costeffective approach to HDTV broadcasting using the D-5 format. The
les, and Comark, Southwick, MA,
F.
2.
Business
ASC, Burbank, CA, announced that
Canadian broadcaster CHBC-TV
has purchased a six -channel VR300
video server system. The CHBC
system will be configured with 30
hours of Fibre Channel storage to
meet spot insertion and net delay
requirements. The station plans to
use one channel for ongoing recording, three channels for playback and
two channels for network delay.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Canon, Lake Success, NY, announced the sale of its IFpro lenses
to Spotlight Production Services,
Dallas. Spotlight, which took delivery of three 18x IFpros, is building
a three-camera mobile switching
system that will incorporate them
with three new Sony DVC-D30 digital cameras.
Hewlett-Packard, Santa Clara, CA,
announced that British broadcaster
Pearson Television Broadcasting has
purchased and installed three MediaStream broadcast servers. The
company, which chose H -P servers
for their high storage and channel
capacities and networking capabilities, will employ the new units to
cache commercials and promotions
for satellite channel transmissions.
Quantel, Darien, CT, and Matsushita, parent company of Panasonic, announced their intention to
cooperate on the implementation of
DVCPRO codec technology on
Quantel products and systems. Final details of the alliance agreement
are being defined.
CNN International will install a
multichannel Profile system from
Tektronix, Wilsonville, OR, at its
Atlanta -based CNN Center. As part
of the $1 million deal, the new installation will incorporate multiple
Profile PDR200 video server file
servers, Profile PRS200A RAID 3
arrays and Profile PLS200 datatape
library systems.
PEOPLE
I inl I horsteinson
has been named
president of Tektronix VND, Beaverton, OR.
Daniel Wright has been named
president and CEO of Scitex Digital
Video, Redwood City, CA.
BROADCAST PRODUITS*
professional services
JOHN H. BATTISON P.E.
CONSULTING BROADCAST ENGINEER,
FCC APPLICATIONS AM, FM, TV, LPTV
Strategic Marketing
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ASSOCIATES
CHAIN
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1307 Shadow Lane, Suite C
P.O. Box 5509
Antenna Design, Proofs, Fieldwork
2684 State Route 60 RD "1
Loudonville, OH 44842
419-994-3849
..
71
jj,,
Fullerton, CA 92838-0509
Curtis Chan
Phone: (714) 447-4993
Far: (714) 578-0284
Pager: (714) 506-1357
l'resident
FAX 419-994-5419
\
2403 HOWARD LANE
Emaihrhantenecom.com
CompuServe. 74601.2707
AUSTIN
18118
I-800-128-3125
NETCOM
HAMMETT & EDISON, INC.
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(201)833-8424
FAX: 12011837-8384
1405 PALISADE AVE., TEANECK, N157061,
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CONSULTING ENGINEERS
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Peoria, Illinois 61604
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Frequency discounts available.
Call 800-896-9939
210 S. Third St.
North Wales, PA 19454
on BVW, DVW, PVW,
UVW, and BVH Beta machines or any
machine using Sony BVR-50 controller.
Purchased with 1, 2, or 3 modules. With
Voice 215-699-4871
3 modules.
Fax
machines
215-699-9597
-
Now availabale for JVC
$960
Series 22, 80, 85.
e
SCR -4X8 -
Serial Machine Control
Router - Input/Output Twelve rear
mounted 089-F connectors (four controllers,
classified
eight devices).
EIA RS
-422 send and receive.
Controls: Twelve lighted pushbuttons for
$980
channel assignment
FOR SALE
'
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panel. Two rack units high. Legend strips and
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10 patch cords included
VU2-P - VU/Peak Meter with Phase
Indicator - Simultaneous peak and VU
display. Solid state phase indication. Highly
readable LED arrays. Adjustable headphone output. Hi -impedance looping inputs...
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Morristown, Tennessee 37813
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(71WH) $147.00; PP90 Insert (71WH) $115.00;
Bricks (82WH) $292.00; Brick Inserts (82WH)
$155.00; Rebuild Sealed Bricks (82WH) $172.00;
Belts, Film Packs, 56K USR Modems. Internet
1;
Access Special Promotion!
SPK-2 - Two Channel Audio Monitor
Two channel audio confidence
monitoring.
Accepts both balanced and unbalanced inputs.
Five switchable listening modes. Headphone
output with speaker mute
$650.
Circle (100) on Free Info Card
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
97
classified
FOR SALE
*
90 Day
Warranty Labor,
Studio Exchange
*
Burbank
***
One Year on Parts
(818) 840-1351 Fax (818) 840-1354
All Major Brands, Featuring:
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DIGITALS
i//FRET
PINNACLE
SONY
PRJOFESSIVCONAL
Special this month!
New and Used Video Equipment
Audio/Video Dealer
Starring
Panasonic & Sony
AVID
MC 1000
2-9 gig drives
2-20" monitors
#86124
$25,000
(one only)
LA 818.551.5858
NY 212.268.8800
Fax 818.551.0686
Fax 212.268.1858
BUY, SELL, TRADE & CONSIGN
816 N. Victory Blvd.
Burbank, CA 91502
email: studioex@ecom.net
www.studio-exchange.com
www.broadcaststore.com
Circle (101) on Free Info Card
"On -Screen" Audio VU Meter
General Instrument
IRD's 575 DSR-1500's
& 80 DSR-2200's
$289
Would you like to see audio levels displayed along with video? TheAM-50accepts eitherbalanced or unbalanced
stereo inputs and shows their levels as a bargraph keyed into video. Features include normal, momentary peak
hold, peak alarm hold, and phase check modes; solid or "see thru" display, black mask on/off, markers on/off.
Change H and V size and position, channel ID, all selections saved in non-volatile memory. Use multiple AM 50s to show more than two channels. UNCONDITIONAL GUARANTEE.
Contact your local video dealer or
Almost new, available
for sale at a very low
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SERVICES
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located in the premiere cable neighborhood on SATCOM C-3
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network's chance of cable carriage. In addition to
transponder space, uplinking, playback, editing, and
duplication services are also available from our new digital
uplink facility located in Englewood, CO.
Call Doug Greene
Orlando, Florida
your order!
'State of the Art in Quality and Service'
Fully Equipped 9000 Sq Ft Sound Stage
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Call now to place
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Chapman Cranes, Dollies & Pedestals
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@ 303-784-8809 or
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY
E-Mail at dougreene@aol.com
FULLY EQUIPPED VIDEO PRODUCTION, Post,
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Owner. Established 12 years. Realistic terms.
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Attention C -Band Shoppers!
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98
Broadcast Engineering
50 X 60' X 26' Hard Cyc
Ask for a video on our facility!
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Advertise in Broadcast
Engineering Classifieds!
Discover the Advantages of Reprints!
For a quote or to discuss how reprints from this
magazine can work for you --call me!
Cherie Wood, INTERTEC Publishing
Fax: 913-967-1900
Phone: 913-967-7212
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
classified
HELP WANTED
t11113111111iT
WE PLACE ENGINEERS
USA & WORLDWIDE
KEYSTONE INT'L., INC.
(z)
16
Laflin Road, Suite 900
Pittston, PA 18640, USA
J
Phone (717) 655-7143 Resume/Fax (717) 654-5765
E-mail: keyjobs@keystone.microserve.com
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: Seeking candidate with 3 years experience maintaining Studio, ENG Microwave equipment and VHF Transmitters down to the component level. SBE
certification is desirable. Contact Barry Gries,
4247 Dorr Street, Toledo, Ohio 43607. Phone:
419-531-1313
VIACOM O&O in sunny South Florida seeks a
Maintenance Engineer who would like the opportunity to work with the latest technology
including tapeless Master Control operating
multiple TV stations! If you have experience
repairing and maintaining a major TV broadcast/production facility, can trouble -shoot at
component level, have working knowledge of
switchers, Phillips media pool, Harris
Transmitters, Avid Media Composers, Chyron
Max, and Sony 1" and BetaCam formats, we're
looking for you! RF experience and SBE certification a plus! Send resume & cover letter to:
BTS
Dept. #ME -211, WBFS-UPN 33, 16550 NW 52nd
Ave., Miami, FL 33014. EOE
MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN Requires self
starter having experience with Beta, VPR-3,
PC's and other studio equipment maintenance. Experience with microwave, satellite,
VHF & UHF transmitters, and FCC General
Class license preferred. Contact Marty Peshka,
Ass't Chief Engineer - Maintenance. WTNHTV, 8 Elm Street, New Haven, CT 06510, or call
(203) 784-8841. EOE
;;-
Our projects? Exciting. Our environment?State-of the -art. Our future?
As bright as you make it.
PROJECT ENGINEER
Urder direction of the Engineering R&D Manager, the successful candidate will:
provide complex design and documentation support to the Engineering Department; determine requirements for new systems; develop system designs; manage
nstallations; and evaluate new technologies. Requirements include: an Associate's
degree in Electronics or the equivalent combination of training and experience;
experience with studio and uplink system design; software familiarity (word processing, spreadsheets, database applications); and project management and supervisory experience. In addition, SBE Broadcast Engineer Certification or an FCC
General Class License is a must. We prefer 5 years of recent engineering experience in a television broadcasting environment, experience with satellite uplink/
damlink equipment, CAN distribution, wireless communications, microprocessor control systems, camera robotics, computers and networking, and experience
in Autocad or comparable CAD systems and project management software.
If ,you are a motivated individual who works well with minimal supervision,
coisider a career at our brand new Studio Park facility. QVC offers competitive
sa.aries, comprehensive benefits including tuition reimbursement, and room for
personal and professional growth. Studio Park is located just 3o minutes outside
Philadelphia in a highly rated suburban community. We are convenient to major
metropolitan areas and offer easy access to many well-known educational
institutions.
Interested Engineers may forward resume to: QVC, Inc., Human Resources - Dept.
JE,'BE/PE,1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 19380. Visit us at www.qvc.com.
Equal Opportunity Employer. Drug Free/Smoke Free Work Environment. Preemployment drug screening required.
.
Lül1iIÌÌ
T ,...
m...
arirí 'aïa
HANDS ON CHIEF ENGINEER OPERATOR for
small market satellite television station. At
least five years engineering management and
budgetary experience in television. Thorough
knowledge of analog, digital, transmitter,
microwave operations, maintenance, studio
operation and FCC regulations. Computer
literacy a must. Send resume to: Dorrie
Faubus, Station Manager, KOBR-TV, 124 E. 4th
Street, Roswell, NM 88201. EOE/MF
Our CHIEF ENGINEER has retired. Public
station WDCN-TV has an immediate opening
for a highly -qualified individual to guide us
into the digital age. Good benefits, modern
facility. For information, contact WDCN, P.O.
Box 120609, Nashville, TN 37212. (615) 2599325. EEO/AA Employer.
TELEVISION STATION IN LAS VEGAS is accepting applications for Broadcast Engineers.
Please mail resumes to: KINC TV -15, Univision,
500 Pilot Rd., Suite D, Las Vegas, NV 89119.
Attn: Gabriel Quiroz. Or fax to: (702) 434-0527
Attn: Gabriel Quiroz. Copy of SBE certificate
is a plus. FCC license required. 3 years of
experience in maintaining UHF transmitters.
1.1
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER WBFF-TV and
is expanding its Engineering Department and is seeking an additional broadcast maintenance engineer. Maintenance of small format tape machines a
must, as well as knowledge of studio, production and master control equipment. Two
years broadcast experience is required. Send
resume to: WBFF/WNUV, Engineering Manager, P.O. Box 4800, Baltimore, MD 21211.
Equal Opportunity Employer.
WNW -TV in Baltimore
CHRISTIANTELEVISION NETWORK has opening at Corporate Office for Director of Engineering. Position requires experience in Transmitter and RF Systems, Production and Transmission video systems and knowledge of
HDTV systems and regulations. Management
and organizational skills are necessary. We
seek individuals who are goal oriented and
self-motivated. If you meet our criteria, please
send your resume to: Tri-State Christian TV Personnel, PO Box 1010, Marion, IL 62959. An
Equal Opportunity Employer.
.
a'rrrtrrr
. ari'a
..
CHIEF ENGINEER Dallas Area Trinity Broadcasting station. Experienced in maintenance
of UHF transmitter, studio systems as well as
personnel supervision and training. SBE certification a plus. Send resumes to Ben Miller,
Mail: P.O. Box C-11949, Santa Ana, CA 92711;
E-mail: BMILLER@TBN.ORG;Fax: 714/665-2101.
M/F EOE
OPERATING ENGINEER: Prefer minimum of
two years experience in television broadcast.
Good technical knowledge of basic audio &
video & PC computers. Duties will include
operation of studio cameras, microwave receive equipment, transmitter remote controls,
light equipment maintenance as well as basic
computer hardware & software maintenance.
!!NO PHONE CALLS!! Resume Chuck Amy,
Operating Engineer, KOAT-TV, 3801 Carlisle
Blvd. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87107. Drug
Free Workplace. *KOAT-TV is an Equal
Opportunity Employer*
EOE
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
99
classified
HELP WANTED
AccuStaff Incorporated, the fourth largest staffing agency in the
nation is partnering with Discovery Channel Latin America to hire
the following contract positions for Discovery's Latin
AmericanTelevision Center in Miami, Florida. Contracted through
AccuStaff, employees selected for the listed positions will be
working on -site at the Television Center:
D
ouer
CHANNEL
TURNER ENIFR
TRANSMISSION ENGINEER: Minimum of 3 years engineering
experience with satellite transmission provider, TV transmission facility, or network control/operations
center. Knowledge of video, audio and RF signal parameters and quality control standards required,
including maintenance of Satellite Uplink Systems. PC literacy required, experience with digital compression system (Scientific Atlanta Power Vu and/or General Instrument Digicipher preferred). Knowledge of
Philips/BTS master controUrouting and Louth Automation systems a plus. Spanish and/or Portuguese a
plus. 24/7.
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: Successful candidates will have a primary expertise in either systems,
RF,
video
or audio. Minimum of 3 years maintenance experience including significant experience in a ITU -R 601 digital
environment. Ability to diagnose to component level, familiarity with test signals and equipment, analytical
software, and computer programming. AA degree in electronics or computer systems required. Military
or other significant experience/training can be substituted for degree requirements. SBE certification and
FCC general class license strongly preferred. Spanish and/or Portuguese a plus. 24/7.
Send resumes to: AccuStaff Incorporated, 1101 Brickell Ave. Suite 1003, Miami, FL 33131
Fax: 305-381-9588 email address: paulag@accustaff.com
No calls to Discovery Channel please.
I
IN V s ti r
NETWORKS
ENGINEERS
LATIN AMERICA/IBERIA
Turner Production Engineering is looking for
talented production engineers with the ability to
mix in a dynamic operational environment. Our
challenges range the gamut from editing, live
studio, audio, and graphics, to virtual studio
production and computer generated video using
SGI. Experience in these related fields, and a
television maintenance background is required.
If you're interested in the engineering jobs of
tomorrow, today, we're searching for you.
Turner Production
1050 Techwood Drive NW Atlanta, GA 303 ti
(404) 885-0802 (404) 885-4060 FAX
Attn: Kevin Shorter
kevin.shorter @ tumer.com
I
TEN is an Equal Opportunity Employer
Capitol Networks,
Raleigh, North Carolina. Person to be responsible for maintenance of network MCO, satellite delivery system, transmission and backhaul
facilities and studio and remote equipment.
Individual must have experience in satellite,
NETWORK ENGINEER
VIDEO REPAIR TECHNICIAN Alpha Video,
the leader in digital video solutions, is looking
for an experienced repair technician to provide service on professional and consumer
VCR's, cameras and monitors. Experience on
SVHS and knowledge of digital video equipment required. Send cover letter, resume and
salary requirements to: Stan Stanek, Alpha
Video, 7711 Computer Avenue, Edina, MN
55435.
Fax: 612-896-9899; E-mail:
stan@alphavideo.com; Phone: 612-896-9898.
EOE
TELEVISION ENGINEER Northern California
broadcasting company is seeking support for
its FOX 29, Eureka and FOX 30, Chico stations.
Applicants must have experience in repair and
maintenance of television transmitter and
microwave equipment. Salary plus benefits.
Send resume to: Job #4307 -BE, P.O. Box 4159,
Modesto, CA 95352. EOE
TV BROADCAST MAINTENANCE ENGINEER
WOFL is seeking a full-time TV Broadcast
Maintenance Engineer. This position will
involve installation and maintenance of all
types of audio, video and transmission broadcast equipment with heavy emphasis on transmission equipment. Candidate must have a
minimum of three years TV broadcast maintenance experience, including transmission
equipment. Knowledge of FCC technical regulations also required. Send resume to: Personnel Manager, 35 Skyline Drive, Lake Mary,
FL 32746. Resumes must be received by Dec.
5th, 1997. No phone calls. EOE
WPTD/WPTO seeks broadcast Maintenance
Engineer. Install, operate, analog & digital
equipment including high power UHF transmitters; satellite, microwave & fiber interconnection systems; videotape machines, and
master control switchers. Send resume to
GDPT, 110 S. Jefferson St., Dayton, OH 454022415. FAX (937) 220-1642.
100
Broadcast Engineering
DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING AND OPERA
TIONS WHAS11, market leader, is looking for
a Director of Engineering/Operations with a
minimum of 5 years broadcast and technical
operations experience. College degree required. Knowledge of FCC, FAA and EBS
regulations is necessary. Strong skills in
electronic maintenance, RF systems and experience in labor management necessary. Must
have ability to implement new technology,
work under deadlines and handle multiple
tasks. Candidate must possess outstanding
written and verbal communication skills and
strong interpersonal skills. Windows '95 and
'97 and knowledge of AVID system. Responsibilities include directing and supervising
staff in engineering, air operations, information systems, building security and maintenance. Responsible for all long and short
range strategic planning and budget preparations. Develops, coordinates and administers all capital expenditures. Oversees technical and operating procedures to troubleshoot problems prior to air. Responsible for
preventative maintenance program and repair
of all studio equipment. Responsible for
other duties as assigned. EOE. Interested
candidates forward resume and cover letter
to: Cindy Vaughan, Human Resources Manager, HR #721, WHASI1, 520 West Chestnut
Street, Louisville, KY 40202
digital audio, ISDN, Ti, microwave, audiovault and studio systems. Excellent communication skills within the company and with
affiliates and computer literacy a must. Solid
bench skills needed to maintain 15 station
newsroom, 5 studios and remote equipment.
Three years commercial radio engineer experience required. SBE certification, FCC general
license and college degree is preferred. Qualified applicants can mail a resume to: Capitol
Broadcasting Company, Human Resources
Department, P.O. Box 12800, Raleigh, North
Carolina 27605 or e-mail your resume
(ASCII
only, no
enclosures) to:
emerline@cbc-raleigh.com
A RADIO CHIEF ENGINEER
is needed in
with minimum three years radio
broadcast experience in all areas of transmitter and studio facilities. Good communications skills, Computer knowledge, and open
to continuing education. SBE certification is
a plus. Contact: Gregory A. Dahl, Director of
Engineering, Connoisseur Communications,
3901 Brendenwood Road, Rockford, IL 61107.
(815) 399-8148 Fax; E-mail: 7441,3272@
compuserve.com
NO telephone calls.
Waterloo,
IA
TELEVISION MAINTENANCE ENGINEER Must
have experience in repairing and maintaining
Broadcast TV equipment of all kinds. Requires 3-5 years extensive equipment maintenance at TV station or broadcast equipment
manufacturer. High school diploma or equivalent, and training in electronics required.
Submit resume to: KCTV-5 Business Office,
P.O. Box 5555, Kansas City, MO 64109. NO
PHONE CALLS PLEASE. AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER, M/F/D.
DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING
WPWR-TV,
Newsweb Broadcasting's UPN affiliate in Chicago, is seeking candidates with an estab-
lished television engineering and management background. Responsibilities include
studio, transmitter, building and information
systems planning, implementation and maintenance. Ability to evaluate new technologies
essential. ASEE/BSEE and/or SBE certification preferred. Resume and salary history to
Bob Brewer, Director of Operations, WPWRTV, 2151 N. Elston Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614.
FAX: 773-276-6477.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
ad index
Reader
Service
Advertiser
Page
Hogue
Nrnber
Reader
Service
Advertiser
BROaDCáST®
enGneeRnG
AntennaConcepb
79
41
916621-2015
JVC Professional Products
49
18
800-JVC-5825
ASCAudioVideoCorp.
47
16
818843-7004
Kings Electronics
66
24
914-793-5030
Audio Precision
57
33
800-231-7350
LeaderinstmmentsCorp.
43
28,29
800645-5104
BAF Communications Corp.
95
62
407-3248250
Leitch Incorporated
59,3
800-231-9673
BeckAssociates
97
100
512-388-9777
LELComputerSystems
87
45
561-347-2242
Best Power Technology
53
21
800-356-5794
Matthey Electronics Ltd.
81
42
914-763-8893
EDITORIAL
Brad Dick, Editor
Skip Pizzi, Technical Editor
Steve Epstein, Technical Editor
Dawn Hightower, Senior Associate Editor
Deanna Rood, Associate Editor
JimSaladin, AssociateEditor
Jennifer Lowe, Group II Editorial Assistant
Tom Cook, Senior Managing Editor
Carl Bentz, Directories Manager
54,55
8009479928
Myat
95
63
201-767-5380
ART
Page
Number
Number
B&H Photo -Video
90-93
Hodie
Number
94,104
BogenPhotoCorp.
69
39
201-818-95W
NeutrikUSA
61
37
9%901-9488
The Broadcast Store
98
101
818-551-5858
Newtek, Inc.
39
25
210-3708000
The BroadcastStorelnc.
94
61
818-551-5858
NovaSystems'Videonics
45
30
4068668300
BroadcastersGeneralStore
68
38
352-622-/lW
Odetics, Inc.
27
13
800-243-2001
BroadcastSoftwareSolutions
95
65
800-273-4033
OpampLabs,lnc.
88
48
213-934-3566
Burlelndustries
71
51
717-2956123
Pacific Computing
94
60
408-3368867
Canon USA Broadcast Lens
19
6
201816-29W
Panasonic Broadcast
ChyronGraphics
87
44
516845.2110
PhilipsBroadcastTV
Clear -corn Intercom Systems
59
35
510-527-6666
Play, Inc.
ConexElectroSystems
88
46
366734-4323
Quantel
Dielectric
89
49
207á554555
QuVs
Digital TransportSystems
56
32
619675-1410
Sencae
800-5288601
5
41
26
600-%2-4287
916631-1865
7
203656-3100
11
10
65
23
913-272-3656
9
800-SENCORE
9
DNF Industries
94
58
818-252-0198
Shively Labs
94
57
207647-3327
Duracell USA
29
14
8W-548-5489
Siena Design Labs
31
7
702831-7837
EEV, Inc.
63
22
914-5926050
Silicon Graphics
32-33
8
8006368184
ESE
82
43
310-322-2136
Snell &Wilcox Ltd.
1
5-1 7
5
408-260-100D
75
53
800 -755 -TIME
Sony Electronics
20-21
Fast Forward
Video
.
408-955-5493
FiberOptions
48
17
800342-3748
SynthesysResearchlnc
35
15
415-364-1853
General Microwave
69
40
6196318031
Telmiche
51
20
201-784-2288
4
606-282-0800
TektronixIrx/VND
24-25
800-998-3588
8042888606
HarrisCorp/Broadcast Div.
3
Henry Engineering
95
64
818-355-3656
TelecomLatina'98
67
H.L.Dalis,lnc.
94
56
718-361-1100
Tls:s sonBroadcas
60
Horita
88
47
7144830240
Videotek, Inc.
Ikegami Electronics Inc.
13
11
201-368-9171
Ward-BeckSystemsltd.
800-2888606
Wheatstone Corporation
34
508692-90110
Winsted Corporation
Intertec Publishing
72-73
36
8W882-1824
2
800803-5719
27
4164386550
1
315-452-5000
50
19
800447-2257
103
42
2
Intraplex, Inc
58
Iwatsu America Inc.
23
12
201-935-8593
Zero Stantron
89
50
80082111019
Iampro Antennas, Inc.
74
52
916-383-1177
360 Systems
55
31
818-991-0360
sales offices
WEST
EAST
JAPAN
Duane Hefner
5236 Colodny Ave., Suite 108
AgouraHills, CA 91301
(818)707-6476
Josh Gordon
210 President Street, Suite #4
Brooklyn,NY11231
(718) 802-0488
Fax:(818)707-2313
FAX:(718)522-4751
OrientEcho,Inc.
MashyYoshikawa
1101 GrandMaison
Shimomiyabi-Cho2-18
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan
(3)+813235-5961
Fax: (3)+813235-5852
E-Mail address:
dnhefnet@worldnet.attnet
Susan Simon
3046-3LakemontDrive
San Ramon, CA 94583
(510)735-7616
FAx:(510)735-7626
E-Mail address:
ssimon@pacbell.net
SueHonoitz
809 South OrangeDrive
Los Angeles, CA 90036
(213)933-9485
FAX: (213)965-1059
E-Mail address:
76345,2624@compuserve.com
EAST/MIDWEST
JoanneMelton
1775 Broadway, Suite 730
NewYork,NY 10019
(212)641-5270
FAX: (212)459-0395
INIERNAIIONAL
Richard Woolley
Tony Chapman
P.O. Box 250
Banbury, Oxon OX168YJ U.K.
+44(0)1295278407
FAx:+44 (0) 1295 278408
QASSIE7EDADVERTISING
OVERIANDPARK,KS
Jeff Utter
P.O.Box12901
OverlandPark,KS66282
(800)896-9939 (913)967-1732
Fax:(913)967-1735
LISTRENTALSFRVICES
Lori Christie
9800Metcalf
Overland Park, KS 66212-2215
(913)967-1875
FAX: (913)967-1897
Stephanie L. Masterson, Art Director
BUSINESS
Raymond E. Maloney, President
Cameron Bishop, Senior Vice President
Dennis Triola, Publisher
Eric Proffitt, Marketing Coordinator
Kathy Lewis, Advertising Coordinator
Annette Hulsey, Classified Advertising Coordinator
Doug Coonrod, Corporate Art Director
Barbara Kummer, Circulation Director
Leann Sandifar, Circulation Manager
Customer Service: 913-967-1711 or 800-441-0294
TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
Jerry Whitaker, Contributing Editor
Eric Neil Angevine, Broadcast Acoustics
JohnH.Battison, P.E., Antennas/Radiation
Dane E. Ericksen, P.E., Systems Design
John Kean, Subcarrier Technology
Donald L. Markley, Transmission Facilities
Harry C. Martin, Legal
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November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
101
digital basics
By Paul McGoldrick
MPEG-2 comes of age
most significant thing that emerged from
the IBC convention in Amsterdam was entirely
expected, but welcome. C -Cube gave the first public
demonstration of one of its DVx chips simultaneously
decoding two MPEG-2 streams. This is probably one of
the last developments needed for MPEG-2-based nonlinear editing systems. The result is likely to be major
improvements in picture quality, higher compression ratios and improved
end-to -end interoperability, compared
to JPEG systems.
The flexible DVx architecture is based
on a 32 -bit RISC processor extended
for MPEG's compression -specific instructions. Encoding and decoding can
be 4:2:2 or 4:2:0, and an adaptive field/
frame algorithm allows for either field Paul McGoldrick
or frame -type data. From a professional/broadcasting viewpoint, a single chip
that decodes two streams is a major breakthrough.
Although the more important chip in the DVx family may
be the one with an encoder and decoder on -board and
both are real-time (at least within the limits of acceptability
of the phrase!). The choice of Motion-JPEG in current
non-linear editing systems is almost entirely driven by the
availability of single -chip codecs. Having the same functionality in MPEG-2 is an essential part of a switch in
standards. Of course, if there was to be a chip with two
streams of encoding and decoding on board .. .
What will happen with existing streams using M-JPEG
and the DV (DVS) standards of DV consumer (4:1:1,
25Mb/s) and DV prosumer (4:2:2, 50Mb/s)? Clearly,
technology decisions and market decisions do not necessarily track well. With the higher compression rates
saving valuable storage space
and better picture quality,
MPEG-2 systems should, if the prices are comparable, be
the no -contest victors. In practice, the market forces
associated with consumer-type standards are too intensive
and too complicated to be called by average humans. It
was staggering to read that after the debacles associated
with the next generation of DVD, there is now a market
alignment (i.e., war) set up for the next generation of audio
compact discs. One side is the familiar Philips/Sony party
and they are against everyone else.
The M-JPEG/DV systems will be usable with the
MPEG systems as connection between the existing
systems, and a transcoder can easily be accomplished on
To me, the
-
-
1
02
Broadcast Engineering
a Firewire (IEEE 1394) system. Unfortunately, this meth-
od would always involve decoding the M-JPEG/DV
signals and re -encoding in MPEG.
Non -editing uses
The importance of these and future products are not
limited to broadcast. Doors are opening into other areas.
Take the case of recordable DVD. With encoders costing
upward of $20,000, it is unlikely that the average
household would have a recordable DVD. The average
ratio of the number of MPEG-2 decoders to encoders
sold is probably on the order of 10,000 to one, and that
is before real adoption of the standard in the home. It has
to be expected that, with the advent of the codec chip and
with the inevitable price reductions that result from
volume, the first mass -market implementation will be in
high -end PCs. It should take only a couple of years for
the usual trickle -down through medium- to low-cost
PCs to take place. By the turn of the century, every
machine will likely be fitted with an MPEG-2 codec. The
multiple-to -one ratio of MPEG-2 decoders to encoders
is going to be quickly replaced by a one-to-one ratio.
Even more than recordable DVD, and the authoring
that goes with it (even I might be tempted), is the fact that
we have reached the point that consumer digital VCRs
and disc -based camcorders are really rather close. The
quality of these devices is going to be limited only by the
lens/microphone system and any deliberate degradation
that might be introduced, allowing for future "improvements." In some cases, the acquisition of signals is going
to be dramatically different, too: Texas Instruments and
Motorola have made announcements that turn our
current CCD detection systems on their heads. How
professional the all-CMOS sensor from TI can be, for
example, is not yet known, but the integration possibilities are staggering.
Paul McGoldrick is an industry consultant based on the West Coast.
A blatant plug
If
you haven't made your reservations to Chicago's O'Hare
Airport, for Digital Television 97 on Dec. 3, your air fare is getting
more expensive by the hour. Broadcast Engineering editors,
people like me and some well-known people are going to present
two-and-half days of digital video talk that will make you turn all
sorts of colors. You will be more educated, less confused and better
able to face the FCC timetables from hell; but anymore of that
might give you a clue about what I'll be talking about. Check out
the program at www.technicalpress.com for more info.
November 1997
www.americanradiohistory.com
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