teaching i - punarjjani

teaching i - punarjjani
Contents
Preface / ii
Dedication / iii
Section I. Introduction / 1
Section II. Curriculum / 19
Functional Academics / 20
Functional Reading / 21
Functional Writing / 138
Functional Arithmetic / 153
Numerals / 153
Money / 176
Measurement / 188
Time / 201
Consumer Skills/ 217
Preface
This curriculum has been developed as a guide to preservice and inservice teachers, resource teachers, and
teacher aides as well as principals and supervisors working with the handicapped. It also is intended for use
by state departments of education, local school districts, and state departments of health and mental
hygiene. Occupational, physical, speech and hearing, recreational, and child development specialists will be
able to find objectives, activities, and strategies which are helpful in planning and implementing therapeutic
programs.
Parents, other family members, foster parents, foster grandparents, and house parents in group homes will
find this curriculum of value as they interact and instruct the handicapped individuals with whom they
work and/or live. Institution and ward personnel working in state and private residential centers, industrial
education, physical education, and sheltered workshop teachers who are working with this population also
will find material pertinent to their respective teaching areas. Nursery, preschool, Head Start, and
kindergarten programs for the nonhandicapped as well as the handicapped will find materials and activities
suitable to their students' needs.
Finally, this curriculum is designed to serve as a textbook for students taking courses in educational
evaluation, curriculum development, and teaching methods in special education at both graduate and
undergraduate levels.
to Billie Valletutti
an outstanding teacher whose many contributions in developing the format and organization, identifying
objectives and activities, editing, and patience helped make this book possible.
to Debra Haluska and Marguerite Csar
for typing, retyping, and typing the curriculum once again.
to Stephen Benjamin Bender
for corroborating the developmental milestones.
SECTION I
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Because no curriculum had previously existed that adequately and comprehensively met the myriad needs
of the handicapped, several years ago the authors set out to develop one. Curriculum objectives were first
written in general terms as general aims. Then from these general objectives, specific objectives were
designed to meet each of the listed aims. Specific objectives were written in student-centered, behavioral
terms. In each case, the specific student performance was precisely identified, and the number of required
teacher observations was suggested. A parallel, diagnostic checklist was constructed. For each of the
curriculum objectives, teaching activities were formulated. Teaching activities were written in behavioral
terms and were teacher-centered so that the person implementing the curriculum would know precisely
what to do.
For the past 4 years this section of the curriculum has been expanded, modified, and refined as it was pilot
tested with students with mild and moderate impairments. The curriculum changed frequently as feedback
was provided by teachers, parents, and other observers working with students at the Kennedy Institute of
The John Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Baltimore City Public Schools. As teachers and
their supervisors worked with the emerging curriculum, they suggested new areas of concern for which
specific curriculum objectives had to be written. They advised discarding some activities and adding others.
It is expected that as the reader carries out the curriculum, s/he will continue to find new bits of the
universe of skills, will reject some suggested activites, and will create others. These modifications are
eagerly anticipated and encouraged, because professional educators must not be automatons who blindly
and unthinkingly follow a guide. Rather, they must be creative, dynamic leaders who, through judicious
educational
4
Introduction
evaluation and a creative spirit, design learning experiences that will enrich the lives of the handicapped
students they teach, no matter where that learning takes place. It may be in a traditional classroom setting, a
hospital corridor, a cottage bedroom, a hospital ward, a group home, or a workshop area. A learning area is
not the physical setting itself but the nature of the human interaction. These authors urge that persons
implementing the curriculum search themselves for new strategies and activities. Readers no doubt will
find some gaps in the curriculum. A recurrent nightmare is that something vital, like breathing, has been
left out. If gaps are found, that section of the curriculum should be developed in cooperation with
colleagues, resource persons, and parents.
Parents can be most helpful in reinforcing learning that has taken place in the learning areas, acting as
carry-over agents, and, most valuably, offering suggestions about motivating materials and activities.
Therefore, the curriculum is also meant for parents and other significant adults who have primary
responsibility for and/or will want to facilitate learning in youngsters and adults with mild and moderate
handicaps. Although legal mandates will increase the numbers of students receiving free public education,
parents will still have to play a critical role in the education of their children, especially when some
educators are reluctant to accept their professional responsibilities.
The curriculum has been designed in an attempt to meet the educational needs of all students, whether child
or adult. The authors recognize no upper limit to the age of exit from educational programs, especially for
the handicapped. On the contrary, education of the handicapped is viewed here as a lifelong endeavor that
continually strives to add more and more skills to the student's repertoire and eternally seeks to reinforce
previously acquired behaviors. All the objectives in the curriculum have been included because they are
expected to facilitate the individual student's accommodation to society on the one hand and society's
acceptance of the handicapped individual on the other. This socially functional orientation demands a
lifetime effort. Artificial and arbitrary upper age limits, therefore, are primitive and must be removed if this
population of citizens is to be served educationally. The next great battle in the continuing struggle for
equal rights for the handicapped will be to mandate free public education for handicapped adults who still
need to develop basic social and functional skills.
The curriculum has been designed for handicapped students without designating traditional medical labels.
This approach was taken because it is clearly recognized that medical or categorical labels such as mentally
retarded and autistic are nonproductive for educational programming purposes. A specific label does not
suggest a specific educational program; what is of concern is the student's unique profile of abilities and
disabilities.
Introduction
5
Knowledge that a student is retarded avails little, but an appraisal of what the student can or cannot not do
provides key evaluative/diagnostic information.
"What is educational diagnosis?" and "How does one diagnose a student?" These questions gain in
significance as teachers strive to individualize instruction for increasingly heterogeneous student
populations. Attempts to provide instructional programs to handicapped students especially require the
application of highly defined diagnostic strategies.
An instructional program or curriculum may be formulated with great precision and comprehensiveness
and applied to a specific ability or categorical group of students. The establishment of a distinctive and
unique educational program for each student, however, requires the precise evaluation of every student
before the curriculum can be implemented. Before planning a program of instruction, teachers must
establish strategies and assemble materials and equipment needed for the orderly observation, recording,
and analysis of previously specified student behaviors.
It has become increasingly clear that it is not sufficient to identify curriculum objectives in amorphous or
exalted phrases. Curriculum objectives must be stated in a manner that allows their achievement to be
precisely measured. Out of the need to devise more exact measures of student behavior and teaching
success grew the practice of stating curriculum goals in behavioral terms. The writing of curriculum
objectives in behavioral terms requires that they be phrased in such a fashion that the behavior, under
specified conditions, may be clearly demonstrated by the student.
It is the teacher's professional responsibility to determine which curriculum objectives should be considered
pertinent to a specific student. Factors to be considered in this appraisal include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Prerequisite skills needed
Developmental age of the student
Student interests and needs
Physical status of the student
Sociocultural and other environmental factors
Availability of materials and resources
Availability of medical and paramedical consultative and treatment services
Parental concerns and priorities
Teacher strengths
Future placement goals for the student
Community values and attitudes
Demands of a changing society
6
Introduction
The identification of relevant behavioral objectives supplies teachers with an inventory of behaviorally
described tasks with which to evaluate the student before entry into the program, in the initial stages of the
program, and on a continual basis as he proceeds through the program. It should be noted that educational
diagnosis and teaching are not separate and distinct processes. They are inextricably interwoven because
educational diagnosis should occur whenever teachers have an opportunity to observe behavior. The
student continually provides diagnostic data as he interacts or fails to interact with teachers, other
significant adults, his peers, and his environment. Once a student has demonstrated success in a specific
task, teachers must continue to reinforce that skill to ensure its maintenance. Periodic re-evaluations must
be scheduled.
Educational diagnosis may be viewed as the continual appraisal of a student in terms of his performance
level relevant to each of the educational tasks selected for him from a curriculum As stated previously, in
order to carry out an educational diagnosis, it is essential to have developed a strategy at an earlier time for
observing, recording, and analyzing student performance levels. The development of a diagnostic checklist
offers a means of systematically recording and analyzing behavior by a rater who may be a teacher, parent,
or other significant adult and who is in the most advantageous position to observe specific behaviors.
The diagnostic checklist should parallel the curriculum so that the student can be evaluated in terms of the
goals enumerated there. Before carrying out a program of instruction in a circumscribed curriculum area, a
diagnostic checklist may be used to determine what skills a student possesses vis a vis a unit of study and
what skills he has yet to master at previously identified criterion levels of performance.
While the need for a diagnostic checklist engenders little argument, the specific form and substance of such
a list have yet to be determined. In developing a checklist the teacher should establish a required
performance level (RPL) as part of each of the objectives in the curriculum. While this performance level
may be identified in general terms, a variant mastery level for a specific student could be accepted because
of his unique profile of abilities and disabilities and because of diverse environmental standards. For
example, styles of dress, patterns of grooming, choices of food, and language usage all reflect sociocultural
values. For each specific task, the assigned RPL represents the criterion performance level that the teacher
regards as generally acceptable at that time. An instructional objective may-be stated as follows: The
student turns his eyes and head in the direction of sound 80 percent of the time or four out of five times. In
this case, the required performance level (RPL) has been set at 80 percent.
It is not enough, however, to assign a required performance level without indicating at the same time the
minimum number of observations
Introduction
7
that must be made before a rater feels relatively certain that the behavior observed is not an accidental
occurrence or partial mastery but a behavior that is well established within the student's repertoire of
behaviors. The teacher, therefore, needs to identify the recommended number of observations (RO) of
behavior that will satisfy her that a student truly possesses the behavior in question. In individual cases, the
teacher may require a different number of observations for a specific student and/or a specific behavior.
Once the teacher has established an RO (recommended observations) for a behavior, then the strategy for
evaluating the student's performance level (SPL) has been identified as well. Once the SPL has been
determined for a specific task, this score may then be compared to the RPL to determine whether the
student has sufficient mastery of the skill or requires further evaluation and/or a program of instruction.
For instance, in the behavioral objective cited above: The student turns his eyes and head in the direction of
sound 80 percent of the time or four out of five times, the requires performance level (RPL) is 80 percent
and the recommended number of observations (RO) is five. A teacher then can use this information to
measure initial student competencies and to evaluate the success of an instructional program.
The formula to be used to determine whether the student is performing at an acceptable level is as follows:
SPL (student performance level)
The SPL is expressed in terms of a percentage which then can be compared with the percentage assigned as
the RPL.
Suppose Student A, on five different observations, successfully turns his eyes and head in the direction of
sound two out of five times. His SPL is computed in the following manner:
Because the RPL for this task had been previously established at the 80 percent level, the student has failed
to meet criterion and requires further evaluation and/or instruction.
Suppose Student B successfully turns his eyes and head in the direction of sound five out of five times. His
SPL is computed as follows:
8
Introduction
Because the RPL is 80 percent, Student B exceeds criterion and requires no further diagnostic exploration
and/or programming for that task.
Consider Student C, who successfully turns his eyes and head in the direction of sound four out of five
times. His SPL is:
Because the RPL is 80 percent, Student C meets the criterion measure and requires no programming and/or
further exploration for that specific skill.
By utilizing the formula to compute the SPL and then comparing it to the RPL specified for the task,
teachers are able to determine whether or not a student requires educational programming for the task.
The information obtained from using a diagnostic checklist must be supplemented with additional
information before a teacher begins an instructional program. If a student accomplishes an educational task,
only periodic rechecking is necessary. If the student fails to meet the evaluative criterion, however, it is not
sufficient to know that he has failed. A teacher must discover what skills or competencies the student
possesses that are prerequisite to the achievement of the objective. For example, awareness of the existence
of sound is a precursor of speech and language development. A student who does not respond to sound
obviously will obtain a low SPL on a task involving the auditory discrimination of sounds. Programming
designed to develop auditory discrimination of sounds will be largely unproductive unless the teacher
views the failure to meet this objective from a developmental or task analysis perspective, i.e., if the student
fails to obtain a satisfactory SPL score, the teacher must determine what prerequisite skills are absent
before initiating programs of remediation or skill development. The use of the diagnostic checklist must be
supplemented with descriptions of a student's performance written in anecdotal form, an analysis of the
teaching materials used, the stimuli employed, etc.
Before proceeding with any educational program, teachers should be alert to the possibility that underlying
physical and/or psychological reasons may exist that can interfere with achievement of an educational task.
A teacher must be aware of those behaviors which suggest that a student requires medical and/or
paramedical intervention if he is to achieve mastery. For example, a student may not be able to acquire
toileting skills because he is physiologically incapable of attaining control over his bladder and/or sphincter
muscles. Teachers, therefore, must not only determine whether there is a behavioral deficit but also must
question whether there are any medical reasons that have caused or contributed to the deficit in learning.
The search for cause is particularly appropriate when the precipitating condition is still physiologically
and/or environmentally operating and thus accessible to treatment.
Introduction
9
Lebels for educational purposes provide simplistic closure, but little else. Physicians require labels to
prescribe treatment and to effect cures. Educators do not provide treatment or seek cures; they enrich the
lives of students and facilitate their acquisition of knowledge and those skills that will assist them in
acquiring interdependence and independence. Labels degrade the person and, thus, contribute to his
handicap. However, until labels are no longer used, it is necessary to indicate the populations upon which
the curriculum has been pilot tested. These populations include the mentally retarded, the autistic, the
cerebral palsied, the multiply handicapped, and other developmentally disabled persons.
A list of materials is given to assist in carrying out the suggested activities subsumed under each of the
specific objectives. Also attached is a list of recommended readings that not only justify the activities and
objectives of the curriculum but, more important, are meant to stimulate new ideas and improvements in
the curriculum.
The basic teaching strategies that are encouraged will become patently clear as the reader explores the
curriculum. It seems appropriate at this point to extract these teaching strategies and to list them for
summary purposes. The recommended teaching strategies are as follows:
TEACHING STRATEGIES
Reinforcement Preferences
Discover the student's reinforcement preferences. What might be reinforcing to you or to other students you
have taught might not be reinforcing to a specific student. You may have to search for a reinforcer.
Interests
Find out what the student's interests are. A favored toy, a favorite person, a special game, and a preferred
food can mean the difference between success and failure in an activity. Keep a list of these preferences for
each student and continually update it.
Inappropriate Reinforcement
Never reinforce any behavior that, if it persists, will cause the student problems later in life. For example,
when teaching handshaking, encourage the student to shake hands only when a new acquaintance offers his
or her hand first. Do not reinforce the student if he initiates handshaking. This behavior, if it persists and is
abused, might prove to be annoying and/or might accentuate the student's handicap. Do not overly
encourage a young student to clap his hands in glee when a peer does well. He may carry this behavior over
into his adult years and clap whenever he is pleased or
10
Introduction
happy. Although clapping is viewed by many as acceptable behavior for the young, it may be inappropriate
in older students.
Appropriate Reinforcement
Be reinforcing at appropriate times, but do not over reinforce or it will lose its effectiveness. For example,
you may praise the student for being quiet during quiet time by saying, "I'm glad you're being quiet." If this
is repeated too many times, the student will feel this is an automatic response and will not accept it as
reinforcement.
Food Reinforcers
Take into consideration that food reinforcers need to be varied. Food preferences may vary with a student's
appetite.
Individualize Instruction
Individualize instruction. Because there is such wide diversity in handicapped populations, personalizing
instruction is essential. Remember that individual programs can be implemented and can be successful
within a group setting.
Safety Hazards
Be aware of potential safety hazards in all activities. For example, do not use sharp tools with the student
who is destructive and do not use miniature objects with the student who puts nonedible objects into his
mouth.
Skill Instruction
Teach a skill at the time of its functional use. For example, show the student how to wash his hands after he
has gone to the toilet. Also, schedule practice sessions at times of functional application. When the student
has developed skills in the use of eating utensils, plan parties, invite guests for dinner, and practice during
snack and cafeteria times. Schedule practice sessions often.
Imitation
Tell the student to imitate your actions after he has observed you. For example, tell the student to watch
you as you wash your hands. Next, tell the student to do what you just did. Praise the student for
approximating or imitating the task.
Skill Demonstration
Demonstrate the skill you are attempting to facilitate. Explain what you are doing as you are doing it. Say,
"Look at me as I button my shirt. I take
Introduction 11
the button between my thumb and index finger of one hand; look. Then I take the buttonhole with the same
fingers of my other hand; look. And then, I push the button through; look. Now let's do it together."
Immediate Feedback
Provide the student with immediate feedback of results, i.e., reward him as soon as possible after he has
attempted, approximated, or achieved a task. Also, if a student is performing a task inappropriately or
incorrectly, stop him from continuing the task, and indicate your disapproval in any way that he will
understand. Demonstrate the acceptable behavior.
Practice
Practice a task often. Even after you are convinced that the student has mastered a particular skill, practice
and reinforce periodically. Schedule practice sessions. Vary the activities as much as possible to maintain
student interest.
Enthusiasm
Show enthusiasm when a student progresses or attempts to comply with your requests. Remember that
what may seem to you like very little progress may be a giant step for the student.
Peer Reinforcement
Show the student's peers how to behave in reinforcing ways. Encourage them to reward the student's
desirable behaviors.
Correction
If a student is behaving or performing inappropriately or incorrectly, correct him in a positive manner. Say,
"This is the way to play the game." Simultaneously demonstrate the desired behavior.
Activity Substitution
Substitute a constructive activity whenever a student is engaged in a destructive or self-stimulatory activity.
For example, if the student is waving his fingers and hands in a perseverative manner, go to him and
provide him with something to do with his hands such as molding clay or playing with a toy with movable
parts. Demonstrate how to use these objects appropriately.
Disturbing Behaviors
Program, at all times, to reduce obnoxious and disturbing behaviors. If these behaviors persist, they will
interfere with attempts to successfully place the student in society.
12
Introduction
Appearance
Program, at all times, to help the student look as normal as possible. If the student looks and behaves in
deviant ways, he will be stigmatized by the nonhandicapped. Help the student to dress and walk in as
normal a way as possible.
Ignoring Behavior
Ignore inappropriate behavior whenever possible. For example, the student who continually talks out, if
ignored, will not be reinforced for this behavior. As with other strategies, ignoring should not be overused,
or it will lose its effectiveness.
Reprimands
Use reprimands whenever necessary. Reprimands are not punishment and can be effectively used in the
structuring of behaviors. Say, "No," if you want to discourage a student from taking someone else's food or
materials.
Time Out
Remove a student who is disruptive from the class or learning area. Place him in social isolation for a short
period of time, making sure that you explain to him the reason for his removal. It is important that the
student not be returned to the exact milieu he left when the time out period is completed. It is advisable to
place him near other students, right next to you, or in a new activity when he returns.
Behavior Model
At all times serve as a model of behavior in the way you look, act, talk, walk, eat, etc. Discuss models of
behavior frequently. For example, "Other people like to be near a person who smells pleasant."
Goal Planning
Be realistic in planning goals. Do not develop objectives at so high a level that you and the student become
frustrated. Review your objectives and if they are too high, modify them.
Positive Thinking
Think positively. If you believe that the student will succeed, you will search for new and creative ways to
facilitate his progress.
Physical Readiness
Make sure the student is physically capable of achieving a task before you include it in his program.
Introduction
13
Developmental Learning
Plan your learning experiences so that they are developmental. Always keep in mind the hierarchical
arrangement of skills. Consult with a medical or paramedical team member before you teach a skill that
does not follow the usual developmental sequence.
Task Analysis
Use a task analysis approach whenever possible. For example, teaching the brushing of teeth may have to
be broken down into holding a tube of toothpaste, unscrewing the cap, placing the toothpaste on the brush,
etc. While teaching the individual steps, do not lose sight of the total task.
Instructional Program
Set up your instructional program in small steps so that the student is likely to be successful. Use successful
experiences to encourage the student to attempt more advanced steps. If possible, end each activity with
student success.
Reverse Programming
Program in reverse when working on a motor skill that consists of a series of separate motor events. For
example, this backward chaining approach is helpful in teaching the tieing of shoelaces.
Flexibility
Demonstrate flexibility in carrying out lesson plans. If an unexpected negative behavior occurs that requires
immediate action on your part, change your schedule. For example, suppose a student begins to eat
someone else's food during lunch. Stop him immediately and work on the idea of "my food" versus "not my
food," even if you had previously scheduled an outdoor event or another activity. Always keep your
priorities in mind. Seize the moment to teach, because you might not get a good opportunity for a long
time. Do not wait to create an artificial situation, but react when the real situation occurs.
Peer Tutoring
Organize your lessons in such a way as to take advantage of the benefits of peer tutoring and buddy
systems. The student may learn a skill more readily when it is demonstrated by a peer.
Past Experience
Inquire about the experiences the student has had whenever possible. Talk to his parents, guardians, or past
teachers. References to these experiences often will provide the needed motivation for lessons.
14
Introduction
Learning Area
Make your learning area as attractive and pleasant as possible. Beware, however, of the dangers of
overstimulation. Make your room interesting with plants, animals, books, toys, and games that are
motivating.
Work Displays
Display the student's work on bulletin boards, in display cases, and at school exhibits. The joy and pride of
displayed work are reinforcing.
Keep Control
Remain calm and poised no matter what happens. A student often will react negatively to a teacher who is
losing or has lost control. A sense of humor will help.
Overprotection
Do not overprotect the student. Allow him to participate in a variety of situations and activities.
Directions
Be explicit in your directions and commands. Be sure the student knows exactly what behaviors are
expected. Classroom organization, behavioral management, and success of student performance are, to a
large degree, dependent on the instructor's explicitness.
Express Affection
Express sincere affection for the student. React to the human qualities in the student no matter how
handicapped he is. Your warmth, interest, and love will elicit positive responses. Do not express affection
by touching, hugging, and kissing the student too much; this will provide a poor model of behavior if
carried into his adult years. Do not baby the student by mothering him too much.
Ecology
Behave in an ecologically minded way, i.e., when teaching a student how to cut up newspapers to make
paper designs, use old papers. When teaching the use of an underarm deodorant, use a roll-on rather than a
spray. Become a model for conservation and pollution control whenever possible.
Communication
Use your voice as a means of communicating your feelings and wants to the student, especially the
nonverbal student who does not comprehend oral language. Be aware that monotonous voice patterns turn a
student off.
Introduction
15
Useful Skills
Do not waste time teaching a skill that can be circumvented by modem styles or modem technology. For
example, if a student has inordinate difficulty in telling the time using a regular watch or clock, teach him
how to tell time with a digital watch or clock. If a student has excessive difficulty in tieing shoes,
encourage him to wear loafers.
Carry-over Agents
Train and encourage teacher aides, parents, foster parents, foster grandparents, house parents, ward
personnel, etc., to be effective carry-over and practice agents. If the significant persons who interact with
the student are consistent in reinforcing desired behaviors, the program will be more successful in a shorter
period of time.
Assistive Devices
Become familiar with assistive devices. If you can operate these devices yourself, you will more likely use
them properly in instructional situations. Knowing how to use crutches and hearing aids are important skills
for the teacher to master.
Nutrition
Serve nutritious snacks instead of junk foods and other nonnutritional foods that may be unhealthy for the
students. Foods and beverages such as candy, cookies, cake, pretzels, potato chips, and soda have little
nutritive value. Do not offer these foods to students as rewards, for snacks, at mealtime, or at parties.
Nutritious snacks such as fresh fruit, raisins, nuts, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, milk, and pure fruit juices
are liked by students and are healthy.
Geographic Area
Take into consideration the geographic area in which the student lives and its impact on the program.
Lessons designed to facilitate locomotion skills in the use of a subway only make sense when subway
travel is part of the student's environment.
Responsibility
Assign the student-a classroom responsibility no matter how severe his handicap and no matter how small
the task. Program responsibility from the beginning. Use class assignments as rewards.
Understanding Objectives
Let the student know the specific objective on which you are working and why it is necessary. Tell him,
"You must know how to regulate the water
16
Introduction
in the sink so that you can wash your hands and face without burning yourself. Together we'll work on it.
First you -------."
Activity Guidance
Physically guide the student through an activity whenever he is unable to do the activity himself. If the
student is unable to cut with scissors, use a pair of training scissors and guide him through the activity. In
writing activities hold the student's hand and the pencil, and move his hand in the desired pattern.
Whenever you physically guide a student through an action or series of actions, encourage him to
remember how his body feels when he moves it in a specific way.
Activity Alternation
Alternate quiet activities with activities involving gross motor actions. This alternating of activities acts as
a motivating factor and as an aid to classroom management.
Role Play
Use role playing, puppet play, and creative dramatics to simulate real experiences and to practice skills.
Music
Incorporate music into activities whenever possible. As an example, you can play a tune on an autoharp,
and sing the instructions appropriate to an activity, such as, "Johnny, line up, line up, line up."
Familiarity
Use familiar games and songs in activities. Do not waste time searching for educational games or special
songs when there are familiar ones available. Keep in mind ethnic, cultural, and geographic preferences.
Relevancy
Use current materials, toys, games, television shows, records, etc., to motivate the student. Dancing to a
current favorite top tune usually will be more stimulating than dancing to The Nutcracker Suite.
Remember, however, that some old favorites have lasting appeal.
Diversity
Discover and use exciting materials and activities from other disciplines. Music, art, dance, and physical
education activities can serve to stimulate different students. Do not be restricted by your educational and
experiential backgrounds.
Introduction
17
Variety
Vary activities whenever possible, take advantage of the motivating effects of surprise, suspense, and
novelty. For example, when working with a student on a buttoning board, put a picture behind the fabric.
Change the picture daily so that when the student unbuttons the fabric, there is a surprise. As a variation
insert a mirror, a cartoon strip, a picture of a friend or relative, your picture, a small toy, or anything else
that might maintain the student's interest.
Model Demonstration
Demonstrate the finished product whenever possible. For example, when the student is expected to
assemble a wooden puzzle, show him the complete puzzle before you ask him to assemble the pieces. In an
arts and crafts project, show him the completed project. When making Halloween masks, show him a
sample mask so that he has a model available to help him as he is working. The model also may act as
motivation.
Practice
Practice first before attempting to teach the student a task unfamiliar to you. For example, learn how to
open a folded wheelchair or sew a button before teaching these skills.
Routines in Learning
When dealing with an activity that has several steps, establish a routine for the student to follow. "First you
do this, then this, then this, etc. -------." Practice the steps in sequence.
Visual Monitoring
Use mirrors for visual monitoring so that the student can see what and how he is doing a task while he is
doing it. Mirrors are especially valuable in observing the movements required to make speech sounds. Use
unbreakable mirrors.
Reminder Charts
Construct charts that will help the student keep track of required behaviors, i.e., a Shopping List Chart that
the student uses to match food on hand with the pictures on the chart. When he has less food at home than
is pictured on the chart, he will know that he has to go food shopping.
Progress Charts
Construct charts that graphically demonstrate student progress. For example, draw a picture of a stop watch
or clock face to show the time it took
18
Introduction
the student to run a specified distance. Encourage the student to try harder. Chart his progress.
Seasonal Activities
Program activities appropriate to the seasons. Plan for those activities such as shoveling snow and planting
seeds to coincide with the seasons. Outdoor recreation and camping activities should be planned according
to the weather.
Cultural Background
Choose materials and activities that reflect the student's cultural and ethnic background.
Pantomimed Instruction
Use pantomime to demonstrate a skill. For example, in pantomime show the student how to thread a needle
and sew on a button. This approach helps to isolate the required movements; it also is an enjoyable activity.
Pantomimed Communication
Use pantomime as a means of communicating your expectations to nonverbal students. If a student does not
comprehend directions or questions, use gestures, facial expressions, and other body language to get your
message across.
Normal Experiences
Provide the student with as many normal experiences as possible. Do not assume that a handicapped person
is unable to perform certain skills and participate in specific activities and events just because he is
handicapped.
Peer Interest
Encourage the student's interest in the welfare of his peers. Make him aware of a peer's illness and the need
to send a get-well card. Match students with different skills so that they can assist each other.
Nonhandicapped Peers
Involve the student, whenever possible, in activities with nonhandicapped peers. The handicapped student,
in noncognitive areas, can usually participate in some way.
Privacy
Remember to respect the student's privacy. Allow him to have some time of his own during which he is not
required to be a participant. In addition, respect his privacy when teaching self-care skills, i.e., toileting and
bathing. Do not, however, sacrifice safety for privacy.
Introduction
19
Community Resources
Become familiar with community resources, and use them as learning stations. Make the entire community
your classroom or learning area. The neighborhood supermarket is the best place to facilitate learning in the
purchase of foods. The office building and the department store offer opportunities in learning how to use
elevators, revolving doors, and automatic doors.
Resource People
Seek the help of resource people who can enrich the educational program. Store managers, bus drivers,
firemen, policemen, and road repairmen not only can provide interesting demonstrations and lectures but
also may allow you the use of their facilities so that the student can have first hand experiences. For
example, the bus driver can provide you with the use of an empty bus to practice getting on and off.
Cooperation
Seek the cooperation of other teachers, professionals, and para-professionals. Bus drivers, school
custodians, and community helpers can assist immeasurably in normalizing the lives of your students.
STYLISTIC DEVICES
A number of stylistic devices are used in this curriculum for clarity and fluency. They are:
1.
The student is referred to as male throughout the curriculum because there are more handicapped
males.
2.
The teacher is referred to as female throughout the curriculum to avoid confusion between
references to the teacher and the student. Also, the teacher is referred to as female because there are more
women who teach special students.
3.
The word "student" is used in all cases to refer to the learner. This is to emphasize that the
curriculum is not age-specific but is meant for children, adolescents, and adults.
4.
References to commercial games, songs, products, records, etc., are in italics. References to games,
songs, and items developed or constructed by the authors are designated by quotation marks. These devices
are used to differentiate between teacher-made and commercial materials.
5.
The classroom is referred to as a learning area in various parts of the curriculum. This approach is
used to emphasize that teaching and learning can take place anywhere not just in the classroom and that this
curriculum is applicable in any setting.
SECTION II CURRICULUM
FUNCTIONAL ACADEMICS
In approaching the identification of general and specific objectives in the area of functional academics, a
hypothetical, functionally literate adult was envisioned. This adult was then fleshed out with various
characteristics. Foremost among these dimensions were the following:
He is an individual who participates in community events and moves about in the community
He holds or will hold a job
He is a consumer of goods and services
He is a pedestrian who uses public transportation and does not drive
The importance of teaching functional academics to the mildly and moderately handicapped is obvious
because these students will require proficiency in basic academic skills if they are to functional
satisfactorily in society.
FUNCTIONAL READING AND WRITING
It is generally not expected that moderately handicapped students will be able to communicate effectively
through reading and writing, although in special cases this will be possible, e.g., the moderately to severally
physically handicapped student who is able to read when provided with an electric page turner. The teacher
should decide which of her students can benefit from certain objectives and then present those specific
objectives and activities to the student. It is certainly not anticipated that significant numbers of moderately
handicapped students will be skilled and interested enough to read for pleasure, on the other hand, many
mildly handicapped individuals may, especially if the reading material approximates a second to sixth
grade comprehension level.
Functional Academics
23
The person who teaches functional reading to the handicapped must consider the fact that reading materials
must parallel the student's mental age. Many mildly handicapped students do not begin to read until they
are 8 to 10 years of age and then only after an intensive period of training in reading readiness skills.
Whether it be the mildly, moderately, or severely handicapped student, the material presented should be of
high interest and functional in nature. The ability to decode words that can be taught to most handicapped
students should not be used as a measure of a student's reading skills. Rather, it is the student's ability to
demonstrate the comprehension of such words and his generalization to functional situations that should
form the basis for evaluation.
It is important to emphasize that writing is not only a way of communicating to others but is an important
social skill that conveys status to peers and adults. The acquisition of this skill will enable the student to
write his signature, fill out employment forms and order blanks, and gain a measure of independence.
No specific method of reading and writing instruction is recommended because various methods have
proved successful with some students in a variety of places and times. The teaching objectives have been
identified by the authors, while teachers are encouraged to discover those methods that will facilitate their
acquisition by specific students.
Professionals and lay persons alike must become advocates for the handicapped and help to remove those
artificial barriers to effective functioning that result from reading and writing disabilities, e.g., the
replacement of highway signs that contain words with those that employ rebus symbols. Reading barriers
that interfere with accessibility to jobs are as destructive as physical barriers that prevent accessibility to
public buildings and events. At the same time, minimal skills of reading and writing must be developed in
the handicapped if these people are to function in a society that cherishes its barriers.
FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC
The section on numerals emphasizes skills that are necessary to those students who are employed, who use
simple equipment, machines, and appliances, and who use numerals in a variety of daily activities.
Emphasis has been placed on developing objectives and activities involving numerals that are as
meaningful as possible to the student.
By the time a student has reached a mental age of 6 to 7 years, he should have acquired many basic
arithmetic skills. Examples of these skills include:
24
Curriculum
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Counts to 5 by rote
Demonstrates an understanding of values to 5
Identifies basic coins (specifically, penny and nickel)
Identifies time by the hour
Recognizes simple shapes
Recognizes (-), (+), and (=) signs and the terms and, equal, more than, and last
Performs simple addition examples (sums under 10)
Identifies days of the week
Identifies months of the year
Identifies the measurement terms cup, teaspoon, and tablespoon
The section on functional arithmetic uses the decimal system in objectives and activities involving
numbers. Because of the anticipated national conversion to the metric system, it is recommended that the
teacher contact the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards for references and
information about the metric system. Even with the adoption of the metric system, the activities themselves
should remain unchanged.
Objectives involving money are especially important for those students who use public transportation to
and from a work or educational setting, are capable of shopping semi-independently or independently, and
use banking facilities on a regular basis.
Converting and selecting appropriate change for vending machines and pay telephones are survival skills
that are included in the section on money. Whenever possible, it is recommended that real money be used
in implementing the suggested objectives and activities.
Objectives involving measurement, although emphasized in this section, appear throughout the curriculum.
The student will need to apply measurement skills in sheltered work situations, cooking and baking, and
determining his clothing size, as well as in the capacity of a consumer of goods and services. Many of the
suggested activities take place in supermarkets and department stores, and it is hoped that the teacher will
make maximum use of these and other community resources.
Handicapped students often become confused by the many abstract terms used in measurement and as a
result they invariably are omitted as curriculum experiences. The authors believe, however, that the student
must be as proficient as possible when measuring in functional situations. Situations involving temperature
(weather conditions), estimating distances (travel) to and from work or school, weighing and measuring of
foods, and the use of household products are some specific examples of the types of measurement the
student must perform as a part of everyday living.
Functional Academics
25
The section on time has been included for those students who will need to tell time by the hour and half
hour and who will use time concepts in cooking and baking activities. The student will also need to develop
a general understanding of time in order to keep appointments, arrive at work punctually, and perform jobs
and duties that must be done at a specific time during the day.
As with most objectives, the objective identified is not meant to infer an upper limit of performance. In the
case of telling time, it should be expected that some students will be able to tell time by minutes and hours,
while others may be unable to tell time but would be able to recognize time intervals.
CONSUMER SKILLS
The last area of functional academics includes skills necessary if the handicapped student is to become an
effective consumer of goods and services. Skill in the consumer area is especially important for those
students who are capable of making supervised purchases and for those who eventually gain semiindependence or independence in purchasing items for themselves. Consumer skills should be taught as
part of the total school program and in functional situations, whenever possible. It is recommended that
those students who have little exposure to the consumer world be taken on trips and excursions where they
can apply the skills they are learning.
CONCLUSION
The area of functional academics should not be a "watered down" traditional academic program. The goal
of teaching skills in this area is not to produce academically oriented students. When this has been a major
goal, unidimensional students are produced who, while they may become proficient in basic academic
skills, lack the critical social and self-care skills necessary for their survival and acceptance by society.
In preparing a program of functional academics, it is difficult to completely avoid the use of commercial
workbooks. It is suggested, however, that their use be minimized and restricted in favor of functional
teacher-made materials.
FUNCTIONAL READING
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT
I.
The student will identify important personal data when he sees it written
II.
The student will respond appropriately to written information and markings on watches, clocks, and
other dials and gauges
III.
The student will respond appropriately to written information found on safety signs, size labels,
price tags, and other signs and labels
IV.
The student will respond correctly to instructions written in simple notes
V.
The student will locate needed information from simple charts, diagrams, maps, and menus
VI.
The student will locate needed information from directories, schedules, and bulletin boards
VII. The student will correctly carry out simple directions written on packages, machinery, equipment,
games, toys, and items that are to be assembled
VIII. The student will respond appropriately to key words found on employment forms and other simple
blanks and forms
IX.
The student will respond appropriately to written information found on bills, work time cards, check
stubs, market receipts, etc.
X.
The student will identify help wanted ads, printed advertisements, correspondence, and other
written materials and will seek the assistance of a responsible person to decode written and printed material
that he is unable to read
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
I.
The student will identify important personal data when he sees it written
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 27
A.
B.
C.
D.
RPL(%)* RO**
The student identifies his name when he sees it written
100
5
The student identifies his address when he sees it written
100
5
The student identifies his phone number when he sees it written
100
5
The student identifies his Social Security number when he sees it written 100
5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student identifies his name when he sees it written
1.
Place a large picture of the student in a prominent place. Underneath the picture place a 5 X 8 card
on which the student's first name has been printed. Capitalize only the first letter of his name. Point to the
picture, and then immediately say his name. Next point to the name card and say his name again. Ask the
student to look at and/or to point to his picture and then to his name.
2.
Repeat Activity 1. After he has accomplished the task, give the student the name card and a blank
card. Ask him to put his name card under his picture. If he succeeds, proceed to Activity 3. If he does not,
review Activity 1. For additional practice, place his name card on his possessions, i.e., on his cubicle, his
desk, his lunchbox, etc. Encourage the student to refer to these name cards whenever he needs to.
3.
If the student has correctly placed his name card on his picture when given the choice of his name
card and a blank card, give him the choice of his name card or a card with one or more non-letter figures,
such as geometric shapes, printed on it. Ask him to put his name card under his picture, on his desk, on his
cubicle, on his lunchbox, etc. At first encourage him to match his name card to the name cards already
placed on these objects. Later, remove the name-cards placed on his possessions, and encourage him to
remember what his name looks like. If he succeeds, gradually increase the difficulty of the task until he is
able to select his name card from a group of other name cards and cards printed with similar words.
4.
Schedule reading "Roll Calls." Each day, show the student and his peers flash cards on which their
names have been printed. Ask each
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
28
Curriculum
student to raise his hand or to say, "Here!" when his card is shown.
5.
Set up a favored activity. Explain to the student that each of the students must wait his turn to
participate. Tell him to take his turn when his name card is shown. Vary the activity by using an overhead
projector or a tachistoscope to show or flash his name on a screen.
6.
Prepare surprise activity boxes with games, pictures, and toys enclosed. Print the student's name on
his activity box. At a regularly scheduled time, tell the student to find his box and play with its contents.
7.
Write the student's name on classroom charts, for example "The Good Grooming Chart" (Figure 1).
8.
Write the student's name on progress charts. Encourage the student to record his own progress on
his very own chart (Figure 2).
9.
Once the student identifies his first name consistently, repeat Activities 1 to 8. This time, use only
his last name. Once he identifies his last name consistently, use his full name.
10.
Put name labels on all articles of clothing belonging to the student. Encourage him to identify his
possessions by the label. Mix articles of clothing belonging to the student and several of his peers in a
laundry basket or bag. Reward the student for checking the label to identify his own clothing. Use similarlooking articles toward the end of this activity so that he has to identify by label alone.
11.
Plan a luncheon or dinner party. Use place cards, and ask the student to find his seat by identifying
his name on the card.
12.
Plan a party where everyone receives a small present. Ask the student to find his present by
identifying his name on the gift tag.
13.
Once the student identifies his printed name, assist him in printing his name.
B.
The student identifies his address when he sees it written
1.
Once the student identifies his full name consistently, assist him in identifying his address. Use
manuscript letters in writing the words of his address. Begin with his house number. Show him a copy of an
envelope that has been addressed to his home. Underline the house number. Take a trip to his house, and
match the house number written on the envelope with the number on his house. Take a picture of his house
with the number prominently displayed. Tell him that the number is his house's name. Post the picture in
the learning area or classroom. Put the student's name card under the picture.
2.
Draw a picture of a house, and duplicate several copies. Leave a blank space where the house
number would be (Figure 3). Tell the
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 29
Figure 1. Good rooming chart.
30
Curriculum
Figure 2: Work progress chart.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 31
Figure 3: House number chart
student that you are going to play a game called, "Finding My Way Home." Then fill in the student's house
number on one of the copies. Ask him to find his house by its number. If he does this successfully, write in
a different number on another copy, and ask him to find his house again. As he successfully achieves each
step, gradually increase the difficulty of the task by adding house numbers to more of the drawings and by
increasing the similarity of the numbers.
3.
Draw a mural with a house for the student and each of his peers. Encourage the student to point to
his house. Ask him to paste a sign on the house with his house number written on it.
32
Curriculum
4.
Show the student a pack of envelopes, some of which have his address written on them, others with
addresses unfamiliar to him. Inside the envelopes addressed to him, place interesting pictures. Ask the
student to find those envelopes that have his house number written on them.
5.
Once the student identifies his house number consistently, assist him in printing it.
6.
Once again, show the student an envelope that has been addressed to his home. Underline the street
name. Take a trip to his house, and match the street name on the envelope with the name on the street sign.
Explain that the street name has been put there to help people find the houses of people who live on that
street. Take a picture of the street sign, and display it prominently next to a picture of his house.
7.
Show the student a pack of envelopes upon which you have written only the street names, including
his own (see Activity 4). Ask the student to find those envelopes that have his street name written on them.
Be sure to use the name form that is used on the street sign:
Monroe St. (Street)
8.
Once the student identifies his street name consistently, assist him in printing it.
9.
Once the student identifies his street name consistently, review his house number. Ask him to
identify letters addressed to him by showing him envelopes that have the number and the street name
written on them (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Envelope with street name
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 33
10.
Make a list of products, sport teams, clubs, associations, etc., that include the name of their city or
town as part of their names. Show the student emblems and other signs that include his town or city name.
For example, say, "This is a Baltimore Oriole's cap. The Orioles come from Baltimore, too." "This is a
picture of a museum, the Baltimore Museum of Art. It is in Baltimore. You live at [number] Monroe St.,
and that is in Baltimore." Then show the student an envelope addressed to his house, and ask him to
underline the name of his city or town. Show him letters addressed to significant persons who live in the
same town or city, and ask him to underline the name of the town or city.
11.
Take a trip around the community. Find as many places as possible where the city or town's name is
displayed.
12.
Tell the student that there is a letter on your desk. Ask him to tell you whether it belongs
somewhere in the town or city in which you live. Then show him a packet of envelopes, and ask him to sort
the envelopes into two groups, i.e., "My town," or "My city," and "Not my town," or "Not my city."
13.
Show the student an outline map of his state. Print his town or city name in its proper location on
the map. Take a marking pen, and write the name of his state within the outline. Say the name of the state,
and, if he is able, ask him to repeat it when appropriate. Explain that a state is made up of many towns and
cities that have joined together to become one state. Show him maps and travel maps of different states, and
ask him to find the ones on which he can find the name of his state.
14.
Show the student an envelope with only his town or city and state written on it. Ask him to
underline the name of his town or city and then the name of his state.
15.
Show the student a packet of envelopes addressed to different states. Encourage him to separate
them into two piles, i.e., "Not my state," and "My state."
16.
Once the student successfully identifies the names of his town or city and state, show him the zip
code. Use matching activities, and encourage the student to write his zip code from memory.
17.
If the student has oral language skills, show him an envelope addressed to himself, and encourage
him to read it aloud. Once he has done this successfully and consistently, ask him to find letters addressed
to himself among a pile of letters. Assist the student in printing his town or city and state names.
18.
Order name and address labels for the student. Encourage the student to place these labels on
pictures he has drawn, his lunch-box, greeting cards, etc. Make sure that he only pastes these labels
34
Curriculum
on appropriate objects. Help him to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate places.
C.
The student identifies his telephone number when he sees it written
1.
Draw a picture of the student's telephone dial. If the student has a push button telephone, enlarge the
taped strip that shows the telephone's number, and attach it to a play telephone. Encourage him to
remember his number. Explain that his telephone number is important because he will need it to contact his
home and also to give it to people who might want or need to contact him. Indicate that it might be useful
to remember his telephone number by groups of numbers: 555-12-12.
2.
Write the first three numbers of the student's telephone number on a 5 X 8 index card. Tell him that
you are going to play a "Find the Telephone Exchange" game. Tell him that the first three numbers are the
exchange numbers. Encourage him to find the index card with his exchange on it from a group of cards
with a variety of pictures, symbols, and numerals. Proceed in this manner until he consistently identifies his
exchange. Continue on to the next numbers.
3.
Ask each student to give a copy of his telephone number to his peers so that everyone can make his
own personal telephone directory.
4.
Write each student's telephone number on the chalkboard. Give out assignments, and assign duties
to the students by pointing to the telephone number of the student rather than his name. Indicate in some
way that his telephone number is his or belongs to him.
5.
Write the student's telephone number on a wallet-size card, and encourage him to keep it with him
at all times. Periodically check to see that he is carrying it. Reward him for doing so.
6.
Tell the student that he will be asked for his telephone number in specified situations. Role play
such situations as:
a.
being lost and showing a policeman/woman your telephone number and/or reading it aloud,
b.
applying for a job and supplying the interviewer with your telephone number, and,
c.
asking the operator to ring your telephone because you are having difficulty dialing or seeing the
dial.
7.
Encourage the student to write his telephone number without having a copy in front of him.
Encourage him to respond to the words TELEPHONE NUMBER or TELEPHONE # by writing his
number on the line adjacent to these words.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 35
D.
The student identifies his Social Security number when he sees it written
1.
If the student does not have a Social Security card, assist him in getting one. Show the student your
Social Security card, and ask to see his. Show him that you keep your card in your wallet at all times.
Encourage him to do the same. Indicate in some way that a Social Security number is important. Tell him
this is especially true for employment and banking purposes.
2.
Make a chart of important numbers in the student's life (Figure 5). Include his house number,
telephone number, and Social Security number. Make a wallet-size chart for him to carry at all times. Ask
him to point to each number as you say it. Reward him for responding correctly. If the student is able to
speak, encourage him to read the correct answer aloud.
3.
Show the student a stack of simulated Social Security cards, and ask him to find his card. In the
beginning, write his Social Security
Figure 5. Important numbers chart.
36
Curriculum
number on the chalkboard so that he can match the cards to the sample.
4.
Arrange to have a Social Security number "Roll Call," i.e., write each student's number on the
chalkboard or use flashcards, and encourage the student to raise his hand or say, "Here!" when you show
his number.
5.
Encourage the student to write his Social Security number in response to the abbreviation Soc. Sec.
#.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
II.
The student will respond appropriately to written information on watches, clocks, and other dials
and gauges
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
The student identifies time by the hour and half hour on clocks and watches
The student operates a kitchen timer
The student operates an electric toaster
The student operates the dial inside a refrigerator
The student uses a food scale
The student operates an electric can opener
The student operates a stove
The student operates an electric fry pan
The student operates an oven dial
The student operates an electric percolator
The student operates a blender
The student operates an electric mixer
The student operates a dishwasher
The student operates an automatic clothes washer
The student operates an automatic clothes dryer
The student with speech uses a dial or push button telephone
The student uses a bathroom scale
The student operates a vacuum cleaner
The student operates an iron
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
RPL(%)*
100
75
100
75
75
100
100
75
100
100
75
75
75
100
100
100
75
75
100
RO**
5
4
5
4
4
5
5
4
5
5
4
4
4
5
5
5
4
4
5
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 37
T.
U.
V.
W.
X.
Y.
Z.
AA.
BB.
CC.
DD.
EE.
FF.
GG.
HH.
II.
The student operates a thermostat
The student operates an electric fan
The student operates an air conditioner
The student operates an electric or battery-operated shaver
The student operates a hair dryer or blower
The student sets and operates an alarm clock
The student operates a heating pad
The student operates an electric blanket
The student operates a television set
The student operates a radio
The student operates a record player
The student operates dials and switches on toys
The student operates a cassette tape recorder
The student operates a drill press
The student operates self-service elevators
The student pays the correct fare as shown on a taxi meter
RPL(%)* RO**
100
4
100
5
100
5
100
4
100
4
100
4
100
5
100
4
100
5
100
5
100
5
75
4
75
4
100
5
100
5
100
4
Suggested Activities
A.
The student identifies time by the hour and half hour on clocks and watches
See Functional Arithmetic, Time.
B.
The student operates a kitchen timer
1.
Show the student the numerals and slash marks on a timer, and explain that they represent time.
Indicate that when the timer is set, we can measure the time passing by. Set the timer, and carry out a
simple task. As you are working on the task, encourage the student to pay attention to the ticking sound the
timer makes. You may want to simulate this sound by ticking with the tip of your tongue. Tell the student
that the "tick-tick-tick" of the timer means that time is passing. Draw the student's attention to the
movement of the timer's handle back to zero. Occasionally say that the time is passing by and you want to
finish your task before the timer stops. Tell the student that a bell is going to ring and it is going to ring
soon. When the bell rings, react to it with your body and face. Say, "Did you hear the bell? Time's up!"
Ring the bell several times to make sure the student is responding to the bell.
38
Curriculum
2.
After you have gone through Activity 1 several times, assign the student a task that he can do with
facility. Once you have given him the directions and presented him with a model, set the timer to allow the
student a reasonable amount of time in which to complete the task. Tell him to listen to the timer as it ticks
away while he is doing his work. Reward the student for completing the task before the bell rings. You may
want to ask the student to check periodically to see the number of slash marks he has left, or tell him when
his time is almost up. Do this only if it does not interfere with the speed of his performance.
3.
Show the student how to turn the knob on the timer. Once he has mastered the motor aspect of the
task, encourage him to set the timer for different time intervals.
4.
Show the student the cooking time directions found on food packages and in simple recipes. Set the
timer, cook the food, and sample it with the student. Occasionally set too little time, and remark that the
food is underdone.
5.
Ask the student to set the timer as you cook 3- or 4-minute soft-boiled eggs or 10-minute hardboiled eggs.
6.
When the student has the cooking skills, ask him to prepare soft-boiled eggs and other foods.
Remind him to use a timer.
7.
Play a game such as a variation of Musical Chairs. Tell the student to sit down when the timer goes
off.
8.
Use a timer to encourage greater speed of performance in those tasks for which you wish to
accelerate the student's speed.
C.
The student operates an electric toaster
1.
Bring an electric toaster into the classroom or learning area. Plug it in (see Volume 1, Fine Motor
for details on plugging appliances into electrical outlets). Show the student the button or lever that must be
pushed down to activate the toaster. Push it down firmly until the lever catches. To push the lever up and
turn the toaster off, place forefinger or thumb under the lever, and push firmly up. This will release the
lever and turn off the toaster. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and tell him what you are doing
as you do it.
2.
Tell the student to imitate your actions, and practice pushing the lever of the toaster up and down.
3.
For precautions to be observed in using the toaster and how to insert the bread, see Volume I, SelfCare.
4.
Show the student the light/dark dial on a toaster. Make some toast to discover the degree of toasting
he prefers. Set the dial at the preferred level. Show the student the desired level. Tell him that when he
makes toast for himself, the dial should be set at the indicated mark.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 39
5.
Turn the selector knob to the light end of the dial. Then tell the student to make toast for himself.
Remind him to check the dial. Stop him if he does not reset the dial. Next, turn to the dark end of the dial,
and ask him to make toast for himself. Stop him if he does not reset the dial.
6.
Tell the student to make toast for others. Tell him to set the dial at the halfway point when he makes
toast for others. Assist him in setting the dial if necessary; then ask him to make the toast.
7.
Plan a breakfast consisting of eggs, toast, and butter. Ask the student to prepare the toast while a
peer prepares the eggs.
8.
Ask the student to use a toaster to prepare frozen waffles and raisin toast. Reward him for safely
carrying out the task.
9.
Show the student how to retoast some bread that has come out of the toaster underdone.
10.
Prepare a simple breakfast of juice and toast, frozen French toast or waffles that must be toasted.
Assign jobs, and make the student responsible for inserting the bread into the toaster, pushing the lever
down, and removing the bread from the toaster. Assign his peers the job of setting the table, preparing the
juice, cleaning up, etc. Rotate jobs so that the student gets to practice each task.
D.
The student operates the dial inside a refrigerator
1.
Show the student the dial inside a refrigerator. Indicate in some way that the dial controls the
temperature. Set the dial at a point somewhere in the middle. Mark this place with tape or Magic Marker.
Tell the student that he is not to turn this dial except when too much frost and ice collect in the freezer.
Show the student how to turn the dial to the off or defrost position. Ask him to move the dial back to its
normal position and, after that, to the off or defrost position.
2.
Wait until the freezer needs defrosting, and ask the student to set the refrigerator dial in its defrost
position Remind him to return the dial to the normal on position.
3.
Modify the activities when using frost-free refrigerators.
E.
The student fuses a food scale
1.
Show the student how to measure small quantities of food using a food scale. Indicate in some way
that the food should be put on a piece of waxpaper, foil, or plastic wrap because you only want to weigh the
food itself and you want to make it easy to pick the food up off the scale. Weigh different amounts of the
same food, and show the student the different readings obtained.
2.
Take the student to a supermarket's produce department. Give the student food to weigh. Ask him to
record the weight of each item.
3.
Tell the student to measure but specified amounts of certain foods. Supervise him closely, making
sure that he follows good health
40
Curriculum
procedures in the handling of food. Reward him for measuring out the specified amounts.
4.
If the student is on a diet that requires the weighing of food, encourage him to weigh the quantity of
food he is allowed for each meal.
5. Assist the student in differentiating between foods (solids) that should be weighed on a food scale and
foods (powdered and liquid) that should be measured using measuring cups and spoons.
F.
The student operates an electric can opener
1.
Bring an electric can opener into the classroom or learning area. Plug it in (see Volume I, Fine
Motor for details on plugging electrical appliances into outlets). Grasp the lever of the can opener, and lift
and lower the lever. Do this a number of times, and tell the student what you are doing as you do it. Explain
to the student that the magnet and cutting edge are on the lever and must be pushed down into the can. Hold
a can firmly against the can opener. Place the palm of your hand on top of the lever, and push down firmly.
The cutting edge should cut into the can, which will begin to rotate. After the top of the can is completely
severed, hold the can firmly by the bottom, lift the lever to release the can, and remove the can from the can
opener.
2.
Tell the student to imitate your actions, and practice lifting and lowering the lever of the can opener.
Give the student clean, empty cans, and let him practice opening the unopened end. Point out the words on
the can opener, and explain their meaning.
3.
Prepare a simple lunch (canned soup or canned spaghetti, canned vegetables, canned fruit). Assign
different foods to each student, and ask the student to open the appropriate can or cans. Use small size cans;
it may cost a little more, but it will provide more practice in using the can opener.
4.
Collect cans from the student and from other teachers or staff members. Ask them to wash empty
cans and to bring them to school. The student may practice using the electric can opener to open the
unopened end.
G.
The student operates a stove
1.
Show the student the dials found on a gas stove. Point out the letters R and F. Explain that R stands
for "rear burner," and F stands for "front burner." Point to the rear burner and the front burner. Ask the
student to point to the front and then the rear burners. Then ask him to point to the dial that lights the front
burner. Repeat for the rear burner. Do this for each side of the stove. Once the student has the skills needed
to operate a stove safely, ask him to cook simple snacks and meals. Modify the activity to fit specific types
of stoves.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 41
2.
Show the student the buttons or dials found on an electric stove. Point out the letters R and F, the
abbreviations HI and LO, and the numerals that might be found on an electric stove. The words LEFT and
RIGHT might also have to be explained. Compose a series of commands that require the student to point to
all of the possible controls. Once the student has the skills needed to operate a stove safely, ask him to
make simple snacks and meals.
H.
The student operates an electric fry pan
1.
Show the student an electric fry pan. Then show him the dial on the insert control panel. Point out
the numbers and the words such as WARM, SIMMER, HAMBURGERS, CHOPS, EGGS, SAUSAGES,
BACON, FISH, PANCAKES, STEAK, and OFF.
2.
Draw a large circle on tagboard, and attach it with a clasp to a tagboard background. Print the key
words and numerals that correspond to the actual dial on this circle. Ask the student to practice lining up
the numerals and words to the arrow you have drawn on the background panel (Figure 6). Once the student
successfully dials using the tagboard dial, ask him to assist you in preparing simple meals with the fry pan.
3.
Ask the student to prepare simple snacks and meals using the
Figure 6. Electric fry pan dial.
42
Curriculum
electric fry pan. Tell him to ask for help only when he needs it. Supervise until he can function
independently.
I.
The student operates an oven dial
1.
Show the student the numerals and lines on an oven dial. Then show him the oven, and explain that
the oven is used to heat foods and to bake and roast. Start by heating frozen foods in the oven. Demonstrate
checking the heating temperature on the package and matching that number with the number on the oven
dial. Turn the dial to that number and pre-heat the oven. Then heat the food, and share the snack or meal
with the student.
2.
Make a practice oven dial out of tagboard, and attach it to a tagboard background with a fastener.
Ask the student to set the dial to match pictures of dials (that you have drawn) set at different levels. Once
the student succeeds at matching pictures of dials, ask him to set the dial by showing him cards upon which
you have written heating instructions. As a variation, ask the student to set the dial according to your oral
instructions.
3.
Use a toy stove for practice.
4.
Ask the student to heat some frozen foods and reheat leftovers. Supervise him in the early stages,
and continue to do so until the student can function as independently as possible.
5.
Once the student can heat already cooked food, show him how to bake and roast. After sufficient
demonstration, assist him in baking and roasting until he can do so as independently as possible.
6.
Ask the student to prepare meals requiring the use of the oven. Reward him for using the oven
safely.
j.
The student operates an electric percolator
1.
Show the student an electric percolator. Point out its various parts and any words such as ON, OFF,
STRONG, and MILD that might be written on switches and dials. Explain to the student the meaning of
these words. Also, be certain to stress the difference between the plug that goes into the pot and the one that
goes into the electrical unit.
2.
Demonstrate plugging in an electric percolator (see Volume I, Fine Motor for details on inserting
plugs into electrical outlets and unplugging them).
3.
Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice starting and turning off an electric percolator.
4.
Determine the student's flavor (strength) preference, and set the mild–strong dial to that level. Mark
it as an aid to the student.
K.
The student operates a blender
1.
Show the student how to use a blender. Point out the various positions of the switch or buttons and
the words, abbreviations,
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 43
and/or numerals that correspond to the various settings. Indicate that HI means very fast, while LO means
the slowest speed of the blades. Review the word OFF. If there are numbered buttons or positions on a dial,
indicate that the higher the number, the faster the speed. Compare this kind of dial or button system with
other appliances such as electric fans, air conditioners, electric blankets, and heating pads with similar
dial/button notations.
2.
Plan and prepare simple snacks and meals using a blender. Assist the student in using a blender
until he can use it as independently as possible.
L.
The student operates an electric mixer
1.
Show the student an electric mixer. Show him how to prepare the mixer to mix some batter.
Demonstrate the dial or button system. Point out the numerals, abbreviations, and words that are located on
the dial. Explain the meaning of each of these settings. Then use each setting for its different purpose.
2.
Assist the student in preparing foods using the electric mixer. Supervise him as he operates the
mixer.
3.
If necessary, make a chart to assist the student in matching the appropriate setting to an appropriate
function. Use pictures in the chart.
M.
The student operates a dishwasher
1.
Once you have shown the student how to load a dishwasher and prepare it for operation, show him
how to set the dial for its operation. Usually this means turning the dial from the off position in a clockwise
position until a light comes on. Check out other possible switches, dials, and markings.
2.
Practice turning the dial to its beginning of cycle position when the dishwasher is not closed and
thus will not operate.
3.
Once the student is successful in completing Activity 2, ask him to start the dishwasher. Tell him to
listen for-the sound that the dishwasher makes as it is operating and the sound it makes when it goes off.
Wait for the dishes and silverware to cool off, and assist the student in unloading the dishwasher.
4.
Assign the student a turn at operating the dishwasher. Provide assistance whenever needed.
N.
The student operates an automatic clothes washer
1.
Take the student to a laundry room or area where there is an automatic clothes washer. Show the
student the various parts of the washer; the lid and the control dial are the most important for this activity.
2.
Lift the lid into the open position. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and tell him what
you are doing as you do it. Tell
44
Curriculum
the student to imitate your actions, and lift and lower the lid of the washing machine.
3.
Following physical education or cooking activities, tell the student to lift the lid of the washing
machine and to put gym suits or soiled dish towels into the washing machine.
4.
Show the student the control dial of the washing machine. The water temperature should be pre-set
by you for each load of laundry or permanently set on a warm cycle. Place a colored mark on the dial face
to show the student where to turn the dial. Pull the dial out by grasping the dial knob between your thumb,
forefinger, and middle finger. Turn the dial slowly to the colored mark. Place your finger on the dial knob,
and push in to start the machine. Grasp the knob between thumb, forefinger, and middle finger, and pull the
dial out to stop the machine. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and tell him what you are doing
as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice turning the machine on and off.
5.
Wash gym suits and dish cloths (as separate loads), and assign each student the job of loading the
washing machine and turning it on.
6.
Encourage the student to be responsible for washing his own clothing.
O.
The student operates an automatic clothes dryer
1.
Take the student to a laundry room or area where there is an automatic clothes dryer. Point out the
various parts of the dryer: time dial, door, temperature dial, and starter button.
2.
The temperature dial of the dryer, if there is one, should be pre-set at medium and kept there
because this is safe for all fabrics. If the dryer has a dial to set the time for drying, follow the directions in
Volume I, Fine Motor. If the dryer has a lever to set the time for drying, grasp the lever, and move the lever
even with a colored dot placed on 45 minutes (adequate time to dry most clothes). Tell the student to watch
what you are doing, and tell him what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions
and to practice setting the timer on the clothes dryer.
3.
If the dryer is turned on and off by a dial, follow the directions in Volume-1, Fine Motor. If the
dryer is turned on by a starter button, place your thumb or finger on the button, and push in firmly to start
the dryer. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to start the clothes dryer.
4.
To open the door of the dryer, grasp the handle, and pull it out firmly to open the door. To close the
door, place the palm of your hand on the handle of the dryer, and push in firmly until the door
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 45
closes. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to open and close the dryer door.
5.
Take wet clothes from the clothes washer. Tell the student to open the door of the clothes dryer and
to put the wet clothes inside. Close the door. Tell the student to set the timer on the dryer and to start the
dryer. When the dryer stops, open the door, and remove the dry clothes.
6.
Encourage the student to dry his clothes in the clothes dryer after he washes them. With the variety
of permanent press fabrics, the student should be able to care for his clothes independently.
P.
The student with speech uses a dial or push button telephone
1.
Show the student how to dial the operator (use both dial and push button styles). Explain that the
operator should be called only under certain conditions (see Volume II, Safety Skills, VII). Discuss the
situations, and practice with a toy telephone and/or a tele-trainer borrowed from the phone company (see
Volume I, Fine Motor).
2.
Show the student how to dial emergency numbers. Explain that these numbers should be called only
under specific circumstances. Discuss the specific circumstances, and practice with a toy telephone and/or a
tele-trainer. Help the student to make his own personal telephone directory; add these emergency numbers
to it. Tape the emergency numbers on the home phone or on a nearby wall.
3.
Show the student how to dial his home telephone number. Practice with a toy telephone and/or a
tele-trainer. After sufficient practice, ask the student to call home to deliver a message. Assist him, if
necessary.
4.
Spend time, if necessary, familiarizing the student with dial tones, busy signals, and the sound of a
ringing telephone. Make sure that he waits for the dial tone before dialing. Remind him to hang up when he
gets a busy signal. Check to see that he waits a sufficient time for someone to answer the telephone.
5.
Show the student how to dial the telephone numbers of significant relatives and friends, using his
own personal telephone directory. Practice simple friendly conversations in role playing situations. Follow
up by making real telephone calls.
6.
Role play telephone conversations. Divide students into groups of two students each. Assign each
group a topic of conversation, i.e., reporting an emergency, making arrangements to meet someone, etc. Be
sure that the student picks up the receiver and talks in the telephone.
7.
Dial a dial-type telephone. Pick up the receiver in one hand. Use
46
Curriculum
the other hand to dial the telephone. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and describe what you
are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice dialing the telephone.
8.
"Dial" a push button telephone. Pick up the receiver in one hand. With the forefinger of the other
hand, push the buttons on the face of the telephone. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and
describe what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice using a
push button telephone.
9.
Print telephone numbers on flash cards. Tell the student to practice dialing the printed telephone
numbers on both types of telephones.
10.
Allow the student to practice using the telephones in his free time.
Q.
The student uses a bathroom scale
1.
Show the student how to measure his weight using a bathroom scale. Select a peer whose weight is
within normal limits and who is able to read his weight. Ask that peer to get on the scale and to tell you his
weight. Then ask the student to get on the scale. While he is standing on the scale, ask him to find the
number or marks to which the arrow is pointing. Assist him in reading his weight aloud, and/or ask him to
write it down.
2.
If necessary, draw a section of the scale that is near the student's weight. Use this scale drawing to
instruct the student in the meaning of the marks that lie between two numbers. Explain that these marks
represent numbers that have not been written, and show him how to figure out whether the marks increase
by one's or two's.
3.
Ask the student to weigh himself once a month and to record his weight on his "Weight Chart"
(Figure 7). Check the ideal weight range for the student with a physician. Encourage the student to alter his
eating habits and exercise patterns if he deviates from his prescribed weight.
R.
The student operates a vacuum cleaner
1.
Bring a vacuum cleaner into the classroom. Show the student the on and off switch. Demonstrate
moving the switch to the on position and back to the off position. Tell the student to watch what you are
doing, and describe what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to turn the
vacuum cleaner on and off. Point out the words ON and OFF.
2.
Bring a small rug into the classroom. Tell the student to turn the vacuum cleaner on, vacuum the
rug, and turn the vacuum cleaner off.
3.
Take the student to the homemaking unit or any place in the
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 47
Figure 7. Weight chart. Number on scale represents student's ideal weight.
building that has carpeting. Tell the student to turn the vacuum cleaner on, vacuum the carpeting, and turn
the vacuum cleaner off.
4.
Remind the student that he is responsible for vacuuming any. carpeted areas in his living quarters.
S.
The student operates an iron
1.
Make a list of the settings that might be found on electric irons. Examine a variety of models in
compiling this list. Then, from the
48
Curriculum
list, make a chart of possible settings and the fabrics on which these settings would be used (Figure 8). If
possible, attach samples of each fabric to the chart.
2.
Spend sufficient time checking clothing labels and matching the fabric's name to the name on the
chart and then to the setting on the iron. If there is no clothing label, encourage the student to compare
fabrics tactilely. Supervise this process, and assist when necessary.
3.
Show the student an iron, and assist him in matching the iron to the chart. You may need to devise a
new chart. This activity might be valuable because the student can participate in making the chart he will
use.
4.
Give the student articles that need to be ironed. Ask him to show you the dial setting he plans to use
for each article. Correct him if
Figure 8.
Electric iron settings chart. If possible, attach samples of each fabric to the chart.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 49
necessary. Reward any self-correction as well as initial correct choices.
5.
Review the on and off positions, and, if the student has selected the correct setting, allow him to
iron. Supervise his ironing until he demonstrates that he can iron safely without supervision.
T.
The student operates a thermostat
1.
Show the student thermostats that may be located in the classroom, learning area, home, or living
area. Point out the movable dial, the indicator, arrow, and the numbers that represent the degrees of
temperature. Indicate in some way that the thermostat controls the heat and/or air conditioning in the house
or apartment. Show the student the number on the dial that indicates a satisfactory temperature level for
daytime operation. Add this number to an "Important Numbers" chart (Figure 5).
2.
It may be necessary to place a red dot on the number part of the thermostat to indicate the desired
temperature for the room in which the thermostat is located, e.g., 68° in a bedroom, 70° in a living room,
70° in a classroom, or whatever is desirable. Show the student how to line up the arrow on the movable dial
with the dot on the number dial. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice adjusting the
thermostat by matching the arrow and the dot. For the student's living area, you may want to use two
different colored dots: one for daytime temperature and one for evening or sleeping temperature. This
would, of course, depend upon the individual student.
3.
Show the student the number on the dial that indicates a satisfactory temperature level for nighttime
operation. Indicate in some way that the temperature is set at a lower level at night. Add this number to his
"Important Numbers" chart (Figure 5).
4.
Ask the student to write down on a piece of paper the numbers that correspond to the daytime and
nighttime temperature levels, and/or ask him to say the numbers aloud.
5.
Encourage the student to set the temperature for the night. If the thermostat has a dual setting
control, explain the reason for the two arrows and what they represent. Arrange for a parent or other
significant person to monitor the student's action until he carries out the task in a consistently successful
manner.
6.
Discourage changing the thermostat reading in the interest of conservation and simplicity. If the
reading is set at a comfortable and healthy level, there will be no need to raise the level. If the room
becomes cool, the student can put on a sweater rather than change the thermostat. Impress upon the student
the fact that the thermostat is not a plaything.
50
Curriculum
7.
If the student's residence has central air conditioning, show the student how to switch the thermostat
over to air conditioner and establish new day and night levels if necessary.
8.
Encourage the student to be responsible for adjusting the thermostat in his home or living area for
both nighttime and daytime operation.
U.
The student operates an electric fan
1.
Show the student an electric fan. Point out the on and off positions on switches or buttons. Draw his
attention to the words, letters, and numerals found on the fan or on the buttons. Turn the fan on, and
comment on the moving blades and the air these moving blades produce. Observe safety precautions,
stressing the dangers of placing fingers or other objects into the moving blades of the fan.
2.
Set the fan at different speeds, and comment on the relative speed at each setting. Ask the student to
point to the switch position or button for each speed as you call it out. Practice without the fan plugged in,
and then carry out the series of instructions after the fan has been plugged in.
3.
Ask the student to operate the fan on a hot day. Encourage him to set it at a speed appropriate for
the room size and desired temperature.
V.
The student operates an air conditioner
1.
Show the student a window-type air conditioner. Point out the vents and various control buttons,
including the on and off switch.
2.
Demonstrate turning the air conditioner on and off. Tell the student to watch what you are doing,
and explain what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice turning
the air conditioner on and off. Show him how to turn a push button air conditioner on and off. Practice.
3.
Where climates require it, allow the student to turn air conditioners on and off in his bedroom,
home, or other living areas.
4.
If they are not already color coded, color code the on and off buttons.
W.
The student operates an electric or battery-operated shaver
1.
Show the student how to turn the shaver on and off. Tell him to listen to the sound the shaver makes
when it is on. Tell him to turn the shaver on and then off. Point to the words ON and OFF.
2.
Show the student other shavers, and ask him to find the on and off switches on these appliances.
Reward him for being a good detective. Remind him, however, to use only his own shaver.
3.
Practice using the shaver at appropriate times and for appropriate
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 51
purposes (males, for facial hair, and females, for body hair) (see Volume II, Safety Skills, I, Z, Activity 1
and Volume I, Self-Care). (Note: If the shaver has a low-high setting dial, set it at a medium point. Mark
the spot with tape, and remind the student to check whether the setting is correct before he uses the shaver.
Show him how to correct the setting when needed.)
X.
The student operates a hair dryer or blower
1.
Bring a blower and a hair dryer into the classroom or learning area. Show each to the student, note
the words written on the dial, and turn the blower and hair dryer on and off.
2.
Demonstrate turning a hair blower on by placing your thumb on the switch and pushing forward
until the blower goes on. To turn the blower off, place your thumb on the far end of the switch, and push
backward until the blower goes off. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and tell him what you are
doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice turning the blower on and off.
3.
Demonstrate turning a hair dryer on and off by grasping the control knob between your thumb and
forefinger and turning until the hair dryer goes on. To turn the hair dryer off, grasp the control knob
between your thumb and forefinger, and turn it in the opposite direction until the hair dryer turns off. Do
this a number of times. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and tell him what you are doing as
you do it. Tell him to imitate your actions and to practice turning the hair dryer on and off.
4.
Demonstrate turning a hair dryer (with push button controls) on and off by placing your thumb or
forefinger on the on button and depressing the button until the hair dryer goes on; then lift your finger from
the button to turn the hair dryer off. Repeat the above actions using the off button. These buttons are
usually color coded as well as labeled on and off. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and tell him
what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to turn the hair dryer on and
off.
5.
Tell the student to wash his hair as part of classroom grooming activities. Once his hair has been
washed, tell the student to use the hair blower or hair dryer to dry his hair.
6.
As part of grooming, assign the student a partner. Ask the partners to take turns washing and drying
each other's hair using the hair dryer and blower.
Y.
The student sets and operates an alarm clock
1.
Bring a number of alarm clocks that require manual winding into
52
Curriculum
the classroom or learning area. Show the student the winding key, and demonstrate winding the clocks.
Point out the key words on the back of the case. Explain their meaning.
2.
Hold the alarm clock with the clock face resting in the palm of your hand. Wind the clock by
grasping the winding key and turning the key until it feels tight or for a specified number of turns. Tell the
student to imitate your actions and to wind the alarm clock. Show the student how to set the alarm. Practice
setting the clock to go off at different times. Show the student how to reset its time when the clock has been
allowed to run down.
3.
Set alarm clocks for different times: lunch, physical education, bus, bathroom, recess, etc. Tell the
student to wind the clocks so that they will go off at the appropriate times, and remind the student to
proceed to the next class or activity.
4.
Encourage the student to use an alarm clock to wake himself up in the morning.
Z.
The student operates a heating pad
1.
Show the student an electric heating pad. Explain its purpose. Then show him the button or switch
controls. Make flash cards with the word OFF' and the letters L, M, and H, and ask him to point to the word
or letter you say aloud. If he can speak, ask him to read the word OFF and also the words LOW, MEDIUM,
and HIGH.
2.
With the pad unplugged, practice turning the dial or pushing the button to the different on positions.
Tell him that L is the lowest position, M is a middle position, and H is the highest or hottest on position.
Once the student consistently selects the proper position on command, plug in the heating pad. Encourage
him to feel the heat of the pad at its different levels. Explain that if the heating pad gets too hot for his
body, the student should turn the dial or press the button to a lower position. Tell the student to check with
a responsible person if he is not sure when the heating pad is too hot.
3.
Whenever a situation arises in which a heating pad should be used, encourage the student to use
one. Supervise the student during its use until you are satisfied that he is using it appropriately and safely.
AA.
The student operates an electric blanket
1.
Show the student an electric blanket. Explain its purpose. Then show the student the control box,
and point out the on and off switch. Draw his attention to the words ON and OFF. Demonstrate how to turn
the blanket on and off. Point out that a light
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 53
usually goes on when the blanket is turned on and that the light goes off when the blanket is turned off.
2.
Once the student successfully turns the blanket on and off, introduce him to the buttons or dials that
regulate the heat level. Point out the various numerals, letters (L, H), or abbreviations (LO, HI) that may be
found there. Indicate in some way that as the numbers go up, the temperature goes up. Move the dial, and
ask him to feel the difference in heat.
3.
Make a number line from 1 to 10, and put it up on the wall at the eye level of the student. Give the
student a cardboard arrow, and tell him to point it at number 1 on the number line. Then tell him to move
the arrow in the direction of hotter. Next, place him at number 10, and ask him to move the arrow in the
direction of cooler. Once he succeeds at this, place him at number 5, and ask him to make it hotter and
cooler in turn. Next, tell him a number, and ask him to make the electric blanket 1, 2, or 3 numbers hotter
or cooler.
4.
Once the student is successful doing Activity 3, ask him to set the dial or button of the actual
electric blanket at a designated setting.
5.
Point out that H or HI stands for high or hot, while L or LO stands for low. Assist him in setting the
blanket at the lowest and highest settings. Then ask him to set the blanket hotter or cooler than these
reference points.
6.
Assist the student in setting the electric blanket if he uses one at bedtime.
BB.
The student operates a television set
1.
Show the student how to turn various television sets on and off. Point out the word ON and the
abbreviation VOL. Indicate in some way that this button or dial not only can be used to turn the set on and
off, but that it also regulates the sound, or volume. Demonstrate the use of the dial as you regulate the
sound level. Tell him that the sound should be loud enough to be heard but not loud enough to disturb
others. Encourage him to practice turning the dial on and off, and reward him for setting the volume at an
appropriate level (see Volume I, Fine Motor).
2.
Show the student how to use the channel selector dial. Select the different channels that are
available in his geographic area. Associate favored television programs with the channel on which each of
them is broadcast. Encourage the student to practice finding channels by matching the channel to cards with
channel numbers on them. If the student understands oral language, ask him to find various channels.
Practice with a dial made out of tagboard.
3.
Show the student how to make simple adjustments using the focus
54
Curriculum
dial. Put the picture out of focus, and assist the student in adjusting the picture.
4.
Show the student how to make simple adjustments using the brightness, color, and tint dials. Assist
the student in using the dials effectively.
CC.
The student operates a radio
1.
Collect a variety of radios. There are so many different styles and types that operating a radio is
often confusing. Help the student to find the various on–off–volume dials and switches. Assist the student
in turning the sets on, regulating the volume, and then turning the sets off. Also practice with radios whose
switch requires a push–pull operation.
2.
Once the student is able to turn a radio on and off and regulate the volume, assist him in finding the
tune dial. Use various types of radios. Assist the student in tuning the set to various stations. If the radio is
both AM and FM, help the student to switch to both bands and tune in different stations.
3.
If the radio is a clock radio with a variety of features, help the student to find the various dials,
switches, and levers. Point out the various labels such as WAKE TO MUSIC, WAKE TO ALARM,
SLEEP, TIME, etc. Explain the meaning of each of these labels and assist the student in setting the time,
the alarm, and the various wake up and sleep positions on the clock radio.
4.
Arrange a variety of situations in which the student is expected to play the radio on either AM or
FM bands and on different stations. Give each student a chance at being the radio operator.
5.
Give each student a turn in setting the clock in the morning so that the radio will go off to signal
lunch or a special activity. Reward the student for a job well done.
DD.
The student operates a record player
1.
Show the student how to turn a record player on and off. Point out the word ON and the
abbreviation VOL. Show him how to use the volume dial to attain a satisfactory sound level (see Volume I,
Fine Motor).
2.
Show the student how to use other dials and switches, including tone levels, FM switch overs,
record speed, play /reject dials, etc. Point out key words and key abbreviations.
3.
Ask the student to play a record. Provide him with assistance, when necessary. Ask him to make
modifications, e.g., tell him you want it louder or softer, tell him to reject the record because you did not
like it, etc. Plan a party and/or dance, and ask the student to be the disc jockey for the occasion.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 55
EE.
The student operates dials and switches on toys
1.
Collect a variety of toys that have switches, dials, and levers. Demonstrate how to start and stop
these toys. Assist the student in operating these toys.
2.
Encourage the student to show his peers how to operate simple battery-operated toys such as cars,
trains, and other vehicles.
3.
Encourage the student to bring in his favorite toy which has switches, dials, etc., for a Show-andTell time. Tell him to demonstrate it to his peers.
FF.
The student operates a cassette tape recorder
1.
Bring a cassette tape recorder into the classroom. Demonstrate the use of the cassette tape recorder,
and tell the student what you are doing as you do it. Point out the various parts of the recorder: cassette,
cassette ejection button, record button, stop button, play button, etc. You may want to color code the
buttons for the student's convenience, i.e., red on the stop button, green on the play button, yellow on the
record button, blue on the cassette ejection button, black on the rewind button, orange on the volume
button, etc.
2.
If the tape recorder is a plug-in type, see Volume I, Fine Motor for activities for inserting plugs into
electrical outlets.
3.
Insert and remove the cassette from the tape recorder. Push the stop button by placing your finger
firmly on the button and pushing down. Open the cover of the cassette holder by pushing the cassette
ejection button. Grasp the cassette with your three fingers on the top of the cassette and your thumb
underneath the cassette. Hold the cassette so that the side with the tape in it is on the left and the open part
is facing you. Tip the cassette down lightly and insert on the reel shafts. Place two fingers on the top of the
cassette, and gently push it down to be sure it is secure. Close the cover of the cassette holder. Remove the
cassette from the tape recorder by pushing the cassette ejection button, grasping the cassette between your
thumb and forefinger, and lifting it out of the machine. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and
explain what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to insert and remove
the cassette from the tape recorder. Tell the student to practice inserting and-removing the cassette.
4.
To adjust the volume, see Volume I, Fine Motor. Color code the volume control orange.
5.
To listen to the recording on the cassette, place your thumb or forefinger firmly on the play button,
and press down to start the
56
Curriculum
tape. Color code the button using a green dot or mark. Since green stands for go, it will make it easier for
the student to remember that the green button makes the tape go or play. Tell the student to watch what you
are doing, and explain what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to
practice starting the tape recorder.
6.
To stop the tape, place your thumb or forefinger on the stop button, and press down firmly. Color
code the button red, because red indicates stop; this will help the student to remember which is the stop
button. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and explain what you are doing as you do it. Tell the
student to imitate your actions and to practice stopping the tape recorder.
7.
To record, place a thumb and forefinger on the record and play buttons, and press down firmly at
the same time. Color code the play button green and the record button yellow. Speak into the machine to
record voices. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and explain what you are doing as you do it.
Tell the student to imitate your actions and to record his voice.
8.
To rewind, place your thumb and forefinger on the rewind button, and push down firmly. Color
code the rewind button black. Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and explain what you are doing
as you do it. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice rewinding the tape cassette.
9.
Use tape cassettes with coordinated storybooks. Tell the student to insert the tape following the
directions in Activity 3, start the tape following the directions in Activity 5, adjust the volume following the
directions in Activity 4, and rewind the cassette following the directions in Activity 8.
10.
Plan a language activity. Two students can pretend to be having a telephone conversation, or a
group of students can discuss plans for a class project. Record the students as they speak. Tell one student
to prepare the tape recorder for recording following the directions in Activity 7; tell another student to
rewind the tape following the directions in Activity 8. Play the tape following the directions in Activity 5.
11.
Make a chart using the color codings of the tape recorder buttons, showing the student the order to
follow in using the cassette tape recorder (Figure 9).
12.
Use the chart as a guide, and go through the steps involved in using the tape recorder. Paint the
colored dots on the chart and the corresponding colored dots on the tape recorder buttons. Do this for the
seven steps on the chart. Tell the student to imitate your
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 57
Figure 9. Color coding chart: cassette tape recorder.
actions and to use the tape recorder following the chart. Tell the student to practice using the chart and tape
recorder together.
GG.
The student operates a drill press
1.
Point out the drill press wheel, and turn it to adjust the height of the drill. Point out the on and off
switch or treadle mechanism. Ask the student to find the words ON and OFF. These are usually designated
by green and red buttons. Show him how to turn the press on and then off. Ask him to imitate your actions.
Supervise closely.
2.
Wear safety glasses, and use the drill press to begin a simple activity. Turn off the press, and ask the
student to continue the task. Supervise closely.
HH.
The student operates self-service elevators
1.
Show the student flashcards of numbers and the letters B and L for basement and lobby. Drill the
student until he recognizes the numbers and letters.
2.
Construct an elevator push button panel out of corrugated cardboard. Paste or draw on buttons. Tell
the student to find the button with 1,2, B, L, etc.
58
Curriculum
3.
Demonstrate pushing the buttons on the cardboard elevator push button panel by placing your
thumb or forefinger on the button and pressing firmly. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to press
the buttons. Practice pushing the buttons by telling the student to press the buttons with the 1, 3, L, etc.
4.
Take the student to a self-service elevator. Show him the up and down call button. Tell him you
want to go up to a specified floor, and press the up button. When applicable, show him the arrow and/or
lighting patterns that take place when the elevator is going up. Say, "The arrow is pointing down and we
want to go up, so we will wait for the next elevator going up." When the right elevator arrives, show the
student how to press the button for the correct floor. Practice in this way for awhile. Be sure to get
permission from the building superintendent and practice during off hours. Ask the student to operate the
elevator while you follow him. Correct errors immediately.
5.
Once the student masters the up and down call button, identifies the elevator's direction of
movement, and the floor call buttons, introduce him to the special buttons: emergency, stop, alarm, close
door, open door, etc. Explain the purpose of these buttons. Caution him that the emergency, stop, and alarm
buttons should only be used in special circumstances.
6.
If there is an emergency telephone in the elevator, show the student how to call for help. Impress
upon him the importance of using this only in emergency situations.
7.
Take trips into the community. Ask the student to be the elevator operator for the day. Reward him
for carrying out the task correctly and safely.
II.
The student pays the correct fare as shown on a taxi meter
1.
Out of a cardboard box, wooden dowels, and paper make a simulated taxi meter. On the paper write
different amounts of fares starting with the base rate -used in the area in which the student lives. Allow the
fare to show through an opening in the front of the box. Increase the amount of fare in a manner similar to
the fare increases used in the community.
2.
Role play taking a taxi ride. Set up chairs to resemble car seats. Play the part of the driver while the
student plays the part of the passenger. Lend the student money, and ask him to pay his fare.
3.
Role play taking a taxi ride. This time, play the part of the passenger while the student plays the part
of the driver. Expect the student to make the correct change (see Functional Arithmetic, II).
4.
When the situation arises, take a taxi ride, and point out the actual
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 59
taxi meter and its fare reading. (Note: The gauges found on cars and in gas stations have been omitted
because it is unlikely that the student will be able to drive. Combination locks have been omitted because
locks with keys are readily available and easier to use. A weather thermometer has not been included
because weather reports on television and radio are frequent. The gauges on oil tanks, oil burners, water
heaters, and gas, electric, and water meters have also been excluded because students rarely would need to
use these gauges. If you are working with a student who might need some of these skills, and the student
has the ability to acquire them, add them to your curriculum.)
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
III.
The student will respond appropriately to written information found on safety signs, size labels,
price tags, and other signs and labels
RPL(%)* RO**
The student finds public-bathrooms marked appropriately for his sex
100
5
The student, using numeral and destination designations, identifies public buses
100
5
The student identifies and obeys traffic signs
100
5
The student identifies and obeys warning signs and avoids places designated as dangerous
100
5
E. The student identifies words of warning on packages and obeys their instructions
100
5
F. The student follows the instructions on cleaning labels, clothes, and other fabrics
100
5
G. The student checks size labels when purchasing clothing and household linens
100
5
H. The student, using information on labels, identifies the contents of various containers 100
5
I. The student uses the sizes of packages to estimate the quantity of foods and other substances found in
various containers
75
4
j. The student, using price tags and price markings, identifies the prices of prospective purchases 75
4
K. The student, using price signs located in stores, identifies the prices of prospective purchases
75
4
A.
B.
C.
D.
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
60
Curriculum
RPL(%)* RO**
L. The student identifies the correct value of stamps needed to mail letters and greeting cards 100 5
M. The student identifies "Push," "Pull, " "Entrance, "Exit," "In," and "Out" signs found in movie theaters
and other public buildings and places
100 5
N. The student identifies and obeys detour signs found near construction sites
100 5
O. The student identifies the cost of admission at facilities open to the public
75
4
P. The student, using key words on signs and by window displays, identifies the type of store or type of
business
75
4
Q. The student identifies and obeys cooking and storing directions found on food containers 100 5
R. The student identifies and obeys storage and cleaning instructions found on packages containing house
cleaning agents
100 5
S. The student identifies and obeys storage and cleaning instructions found on packages containing
laundry agents
100 5
T. The student locates the mailboxes and doorbells of friends and relatives
100 5
U. The student, using signs on doors and windows, identifies store hours and office hours
75
4
V. The student identifies telephone booths and public telephones
100 5
W. The student identifies outside public toilets that can be used by either sex
100 5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student finds public bathrooms marked appropriately for his sex
1.
Make a chart (Figure 10) of the labels found on bathroom doors in public places. Then draw up a
chart of the various labels used, especially those found in the student's community. Review the list with the
student. Make a pocket- or wallet-size copy of the appropriate chart, and take a trip into the community to
find public toilets. Assist the student in choosing the bathroom appropriate to his sex, and encourage him to
use public bathrooms only when necessary.
2.
When you are in public places and the student indicates that he
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 61
Figure 10. Labels on bathroom doors.
needs to use the toilet, encourage him to find the appropriate toilet. Assist him.
3.
Before sitting down for snacks and meals in public places, remind the student that he needs to find
the toilet so that he can wash his hands before eating. Assist him in finding the toilet.
4.
If the student is unable to locate public toilets by the labels on their doors, aid him in asking an
appropriate person, e.g., a waiter in a restaurant, a security guard in a museum, etc., for help.
B.
The student, using numeral and destination designations, identifies buses
1.
Identify the public and private buses that stop near the student's residence and that have local routes.
A call to the transit authority may help you to identify these buses, their starting and finishing points, their
stops, their route numbers, and the pattern of their routes.
2.
Draw a "mural map" of the key destination points to which the student might travel. On this map
draw pictures of the student's residence, his job locale, his school, the post office, etc. Draw heavy lines
down the streets used as bus routes. At the bus stop near his residence, draw a picture of a bus. On this bus,
write in the numeral designation of the bus and the finishing point, e.g., "7—Main Street." Make sure that
you include in this "mural map" the return buses. Place the descriptions of these buses at the stops where
the student must board the bus to return to his residence. Again, write in the numeral designation and the
new finishing
62
Curriculum
point, e.g., "7-Washington Blvd." Review the information on the "mural map," and explain its use to the
student. Work with the "mural map" until the student is familiar with the information included on the map.
3.
Make up a chart (Figure 11) that includes all the important buses the student may need to take.
Review the chart with the student until he is familiar with the information or the chart. Practice.
4.
Make wallet size cards of the charts used in Activity 3 for the student to carry with him for
reference purposes. Check periodically to see that he has the cards with him. Tell him that if he loses or
misplaces his cards, he is to ask you for replacements.
5.
Once you have identified the buses the student might need to take, walk to the bus stop(s) closest to
his residence. Point out various clues that signal the location of a bus stop, e.g., a sketch of an entire bus or
part of a bus on a sign, the words BUS STOP or TRANSIT STOP, the number of the bus route on a sign,
the curb painted with a colorful line, etc. Ask the student to find other bus stops where he might wait for a
bus traveling the same route.
6.
Take bus rides in the community. Ask the student to help you find your way. Remember to travel to
and from his residence and to take trips involving transfers from one bus to another.
7.
Take the student to the depot(s) of the bus line(s) that go to other towns and cities. Take a tour of
the terminal, and point out various important places such as the announcement board, the ticket counter, the
announcer, the bus schedule, etc. Explain that the announcer announces arrivals and departures. Assist him
in identifying the numerals and/or letters used to designate departure lanes.
C.
The student identifies and obeys traffic signs
1.
Show the student the traffic lights that he will find at corners when he is walking in the community.
Explain that when he arrives at a corner and the light facing him is green, he usually can cross the street
safely. Tell him not to cross when the light is green if cars are moving on the street he is crossing. Explain
that emergency vehicles may ignore the traffic lights and that poor drivers sometimes do. Also point out
that the light, though green, may be just about to change. Make clear that a "Don't Walk" sign should be
obeyed even if the light is green.
2.
If the student is having difficulty identifying the color green, review the activities in Volume II,
Communication: Verbal, III, W and X. Also, point out that the green light is the bottom light.
3.
Practice walking in the community, and assist the student in identifying and obeying traffic lights
and in crossing streets safely. Show him the white solid or dotted lines that are frequently found
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 63
Figure 11. Bus chart.
64
Curriculum
at the corners. Indicate that these lines form crosswalks, and show him how to walk in between them (see
Volume II, Safety Skills, II, D for additional activities).
4.
Show the student the "Walk" and "Don't Walk" signs found at busy intersections. Explain the
meaning of each of these signs. Point out that people are supposed to obey these signs, and that some
people foolishly do not. When pedestrians are obeying these signs, draw the student's attention to their safe
behaviors. Practice crossing streets while obeying the "Walk" sign. Practice waiting while obeying the
"Don't Walk" sign. If the "Don't Walk" sign is a flashing light, indicate that a flashing light is often a
warning light. Remind the student to watch the movement of traffic because there will be times when he
should not cross even though the sign indicates walk (see Activity 1 above). Point out that like the green
light, the "Walk" light is on the bottom.
5.
Show the student "Stop" signs that appear on some street corners. Point out their characteristic
octagonal shape, red background, and white lettering. Explain that cars are supposed to stop at these signs,
but that they do not always do so. Tell him to cross only when cars have come to a full stop and the driver
is waiting for him to cross. Practice crossing streets that have "Stop" signs at the corner.
6.
Practice crossing streets that have two-way, three-way, and four-way "Stop" signs.
7.
Put a picture of a "Stop" sign in a prominent place in the learning area. Periodically review its
meaning.
8.
Activities suggested for crossing streets that do not have traffic signs may be found in Volume II,
Safety.
9.
Set up a mock "pedestrian city" in the learning area or an outside play area. Set up traffic lights,
"Stop," "Walk," and "Don't Walk" signs, etc. Practice walking through this area (see Volume I, Gross
Motor Skills).
10.
Construct traffic signs. Place them around the classroom or learning area. During opening exercises
or at other times during the day, ask the student to identify the signs and to role play obeying the traffic
signs.
D.
The student identifies and obeys warning signs and avoids places designated as dangerous
1.
Take the student for walks into the community and on a variety of field trips. Point out warning
signs. Explain the various dangers involved, and when you return to the learning area make an experience
chart (Figure 12) of the warning words and the warning signs you found.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 65
2.
Make murals of a "Trip to the Country," a "Walk in the Woods," "A Day in the City," etc. Ask the
student to help you put up warning signs on these murals.
3.
Tell the student stories taken from the newspapers and heard over radio and television about
individuals who have failed to heed warning signs. Discuss the behavior and its consequences.
4.
For each of the warning signs, discuss possible outcomes. While it is important that you spend
sufficient time warning of dangers, do not frighten the student so much that he might become afraid to
travel within the community.
5.
Take the student on walks into the community and on a variety of field trips. This time, tell him that
he is the leader and you are following him. Impress upon him that he is responsible for your safety.
6.
Make up a board game of "Danger Ahead" that involves advancing men in different patterns of
movements. Along with the "Go ahead" notations on the board, write in stop notations such as: "Stop,"
"Keep off the grass," "Go back two steps!" Play the game often. If the student cannot read the notations,
read them for him.
E.
The student identifies words of warning on packages and obeys their instructions
1.
Make a list of words of warning that are found on packages. Check cleaning and laundry agents,
pesticides, and items found in the medicine chest.
2.
Make a collection of items that are dangerous if ingested, used near the eyes, and stored or mixed
improperly. Show the student each item, point to the words of warning, and indicate in as many ways as
possible the dangers involved.
3.
Make a list of some of the key words and phrases of warning that are found on packages (Figure
13).
4.
Use this list as a reference guide, and locate these words on packages. Encourage the student to
match the words on packages with the words found on the list. Explain the dangers warned against on each
of the labels. Draw pictures of products demonstrating their proper use.
5.
Ask the student to use materials contained in packages that have words of warning printed on them.
Supervise the student as he uses these products. Reward him for using the products safely and
appropriately.
6.
Paste Mr. Yuk labels on packages containing dangerous substances. Store all dangerous substances
in locked cupboards and/or on shelves that are not easily accessible. Storing cleaning and laundry agents
underneath sinks is dangerous unless the storage area is padlocked or otherwise securely fastened.
66
Curriculum
Figure 12.warning words and signs chart
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 67
68
Curriculum
Figure 13. Warning words on packages chart.
F.
The student follows the instructions on cleaning labels, clothes, and other fabrics
1.
Examine the cleaning labels that are found on the student's clothes and on other materials, including
sheets, draperies, curtains, and tablecloths. Make a chart (Figure 14) of the labels most commonly found on
the student's clothes and household materials.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 69
2.
Help the student to find the places where cleaning labels are located. Assist him in matching the
words on the labels to the words found on the chart. Whenever possible, use a picture to indicate what the
words of caution or warning are communicating, e.g., a picture of a hanger would indicate "Hanger Dry,"
while a picture of an iron with a big red X drawn across would indicate "Do Not Iron."
Figure 14. Label instructions chart.
70
Curriculum
3.
Collect various articles of clothing and other materials that need to be cleaned. Ask the student to
pantomime what he must do to get each article cleaned and/or dried.
4.
Set aside a wash day, and supervise the student as he prepares the articles for cleaning (see Volume
I, Self-Care). Assist the student in cleaning and drying those articles that can be done at home and in
laundromats.
G.
The student checks size labels when purchasing clothing and household linens
1.
Make sure that the student has his size chart with him at all times. (See Consumer Skills I, C for an
illustration of a size chart.) Accompany the student on a trip to a clothing store or to the clothing
department of a department store. Go to the racks, and assist the student in finding the number cards that
indicate suit and sport jacket sizes. Show him where to find the size label on the garment shelf. Make sure
that you review the length sizes of R, L, XL, and S as well as the overall size of the sport jacket or suit.
2.
Show the student a sport jacket or suit that is his size. Ask him to check the label to see if the
garment is his size. Once he successfully accomplishes this task, show him a garment that is not his size.
Reward him for rejecting the garment after checking the size label. Toward the end of this activity, show
the student a garment in the correct size, but that has a minimal difference, i.e., 40S instead of 40R. Praise
the student if he notices the difference on his own, or point out the difference to him. Practice.
3.
Accompany the student when he goes shopping to purchase a jacket or suit. Reward him for
locating the rack or part of the rack where his size jackets or suits are hanging. Praise him for checking the
label and for selecting an appropriate size suit or jacket.
4.
Show the student the counters upon which are stacked shirts and sweaters. Assist the student in
finding the size notations on the garments themselves and on their packages. Help the student to find the
counters where his size shirts and sweaters are located. Plan shopping trips to buy shirts and/or sweaters.
Reward the student for checking and finding correct size notations.
5.
Show the student the shelves and bins where undershirts, under-shorts, and socks can be found.
Assist the student in finding the size notations on the articles themselves and on their packages. Help the
student to find the shelf or bin where his size is located. Plan shopping trips, and reward the student for
choosing and purchasing the correct size clothing.
6.
Show the student the boxes in which belts are sold and the special revolving racks upon which belts
are displayed. Help the student to
Functional Academics functional Reading
71
find the size notations printed on the belt itself, the box, and/or on size tags, and help him to pick out a belt
that is his size. Remind the student to check his size chart. Encourage the student to verify the size of the
belt by trying it on.
7.
Show the student how and where to find size notations on hats and gloves. These notations may be
either on small size labels or imprinted inside the hat and gloves themselves. Help him to find a hat or
gloves that fit him.
8.
Show the student how and where to find size notations on footwear: shoes, boots, slippers, and
rubbers. Assist the student in purchasing these articles in the correct sizes.
9.
Show the student how and where to find size notations on outerwear: car coats, jackets, overcoats,
and raincoats. Assist the student in purchasing these articles in the correct sizes. Reward him for trying
these articles on to check the size.
10.
Show the student how and where to find size notations on household linens: sheets, pillow cases,
curtains, drapes, tablecloths, spreads, etc. Help the student to make up a list of sizes to meet his individual
household needs. Assist the student in purchasing these household linens whenever they are needed and
when they are included in his budget.
H.
The student, using information on labels, identifies the contents of various containers
1.
Set up a store in the classroom or learning area. Show the student how to identify foods that are
packaged in glass bottles and jars. Describe each item as you look at it, e.g., "This is how ketchup looks,
and this is the kind of bottle ketchup generally comes in. Let's find bottles of ketchup." Repeat this activity
for all the foods packed in glass containers, especially those foods that are nutritious and that are preferred
by the student. Take trips to supermarkets and grocery stores. Help the student to make a list of foods and
non-foods that are packed in glass containers. In the case of a non-food such as a window cleaner, the blue
color of the liquid is one of the important clues to the bottle's contents.
2.
In the school or class store, set up a display of food and non-food packages, i.e., cans and boxes
with picture clues that identify their contents. Point out the pictures on the labels, and ask the student to
identify the contents. If a student is having difficulty identifying the picture of a food item, show him a
sample of the actual food in its natural state. Sometimes, however, the picture on the label more closely
resembles the package's version (cans of peaches). If this is the case, open a can of the product, and point
out the manner in which the food inside resembles the picture on
72
Curriculum
the outside. In some cases, the picture on the label may provide a clue as to the use of the product, i.e.,
someone cleaning windows would be an important clue for the use of window cleaner, while a picture of
someone polishing silverware would signal the use of silver polish.
3.
Because some packages do not have picture clues as to the identity of their contents, it may be
necessary to help the student to make a scrapbook and/or chart of word labels cut from the packages of
products he needs or wants to purchase. Next to each label taken from one of the packages, paste a picture
or other clue to the package's contents, i.e., a picture of someone eating jell-o pasted next to the label "JellO," a tissue pasted next to the label "Kleenex" or "Tissue," several grains of rice pasted next to the label
"Rice," etc.
I.
The student uses the sizes of packages to estimate the quantity of foods and other substances found
in various containers
1.
Determine the student's preferred foods. Select those foods that are sold in packages. Purchase these
food items in several different sizes. Open these packages, and compare the quantities found in each of
them. Plan to use the packages' contents as part of a meal preparation or cooking activity.
2.
Make a serving chart (Figure 15) which shows the number of people that can be served with each
size can or package of a specific product, i.e., different size cans of fruit, different size containers of milk,
and different size boxes of cereal. This is particularly helpful when purchasing food in concentrated form,
e.g., orange juice, instant coffee, Tang.
3.
Plan a meal or a party. Ask the student to buy the amount of a specific food needed for the party.
Encourage the student to use his chart(s) as an aid to making a good decision. Assist the student when
necessary.
4.
Help the student to prepare a shopping list. If he is able to identify size notations on labels, assist
him in using lb., oz., fl. oz., pt., qt., yd., in., and other size designations in determining the size of the
package. Point out the important words and abbreviations NET CONTENTS and NET.-WT. Also be sure
to point out that when the contents of a package consist of separate items, e.g., soap pads, the label often
will indicate the number found in the package.
6.
You may want to assign word labels to each size of a product, e.g., "This is a small can of tuna fish.
This is a regular size. This is a family size." or "This is a small can of grapefruit juice. This is a medium
size. This is a big [large} size."
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 73
Figure 15. Meal-serving chart.
j.
The student, using price tags and price markings, identifies the prices of prospective purchases
1.
Show the student where to find price marks on packages found in supermarkets and groceries.
Assist the student in reading these marks aloud. Remind the student to compare the price on the package
with the price he is prepared to pay (see Consumer Skills, I, M).
74
Curriculum
2.
Show the student where to find price tags on non-food items. Assist the student in discriminating
between price tags and other tags or labels found on clothing and other materials, equipment, and
appliances.
3.
Assist the student in identifying the $ sign and in locating ¢ signs and decimal points (see
Functional Arithmetic, II, B).
4.
Go to the store before the student goes there. Make up a shopping list with each item (or its picture)
listed, and include the price of each particular item. Arrange to go marketing at times when the store is not
too busy. Reward the student for getting the correct items at the prices printed on his list.
5.
Schedule a fair at which you plan to sell items made by the student and his peers as workshop and
arts and crafts projects. Ask the student to help you to put price tags on each item. During the fair,
encourage the student to respond to questions about prices by reading aloud the prices on the price tags.
K.
The student, using price signs located in stores, identifies the prices of prospective purchases
1.
Take the student to a supermarket, hardware store, five and ten store, and other stores that display
prices on shelves and display cards. Point out these price notations, and read them aloud to the student.
2.
Send the student to the store to find a specific item at a special price. Reward him for making the
correct purchase.
3.
Review the $ and ¢ signs and the decimal point (see Functional Arithmetic, II, B).
4.
Tell the student to match the price marks on the packages themselves with the price signs on shelves
and display cases.
L. The student identifies the correct value of stamps needed to mail letters and greeting cards
1.
Show the student samples of the correct value of stamps needed to mail letters and greeting cards
within the continental United States. Remind him that the value needed may change, so he should check his
mail for notices from the post office to see whether there has been a change. Also, tell him that he will hear
about value changes in news broadcasts or on radio and television. Once you have introduced stamps of the
correct value, ask him to pick out the correct value of stamps from samples of different values of stamps.
Include stamps that are not postage stamps (trading stamps), and reward him for selecting postage stamps
of the correct value.
2.
Show the student the number of sheets of paper that he can put in
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 75
an envelope without requiring additional postage. Whenever the student needs to mail letters, ask the
student, first, to count the number of sheets of paper in the letter, second, to find the stamps, third, to put
the correct value of stamp on the letter, fourth, to verify the address on the envelope, and, fifth, to mail the
letter.
3.
Prepare a variety of greeting cards for mailing, and ask the student to put a stamp on each envelope.
4.
Encourage the student to buy stamps by the booklet.
5.
You may want to use different denominations of stamps for practice in simple addition (see
Functional Arithmetic).
6.
Encourage the student to send greeting cards at appropriate times (see Functional Writing, II, M).
M.
The student identifies "Push," "Pull," "Entrance," "Exit," "In," and "Out" signs found in movie
theatres and other public buildings and places
1.
Take the student for walks into the community. Find doors upon which "Push" and "Pull" are
written. Explain the meaning of each of these words by demonstrating the appropriate action. Ask the
student to find doors that you push to open. When he does so, tell him to open the door as you enter the
area. Next, ask the student to find doors that you pull to open. When he does so, tell him to open the door as
you enter the area. Point out that you can also tell whether to push or to pull by the hardware on the door,
i.e., a handle means pull while a plate or spring action bar means push.
2.
Tell the student that the words PUSH and PULL can also be found on vending machines. Go to an
area where there are many vending machines. Show him these words as they appear on these machines.
Then ask the student to find these words on the various vending machines. When a purchase is planned, ask
the student to find and then to operate the push panel or pull button that selects his choice. Practice (see
Volume I, Fine Motor Skills and Functional Reading).
3.
During your walks and trips into the community, find "Entrance" and "In" signs and arrows that
signal the entrance into buildings. Tell the student to show you where the entrances of buildings are
located. Tell the student to show you the sign that told him he had found the entrance.
4.
During your walks and trips into the community, find "Exit" and "Out" signs and arrows that signal
the exit out of buildings. Tell the student to find the exit doors of buildings. Tell him to point to the words
and arrows that told him he had found an exit.
76
Curriculum
5.
When you and the student attend public places and events where crowds assemble, remind the
student to locate the exit doors in case an emergency arises (see Volume II, Safety Skills, VII).
N.
The student identifies and obeys detour signs found near construction sites
1.
Take the student to places in the community where construction is underway. Point out "Detour"
signs, arrows, and "This Way" signs. Tell the student to join you as you follow the various "Detour" signs.
Once you have walked together along the detour path, return to the starting point, and ask the student to
help you to practice by leading you along the path of the detour once more.
2.
Set up an obstacle course on the playground or in a large open area indoors. At each obstacle, place
different "Detour" signs.
3.
Make up a board game that has detour paths along which a player is to travel (see Volume I, Fine
Motor). Play the game, and reward the student for obeying "Detour" signs.
O.
The student identifies the cost of admission at facilities open to the public.
1.
Make a list of the words usually found at the ticket counters of recreational facilities, e.g.,
ADMISSION, FREE, PAY HERE, PLEASE PAY CASHIER, ADMISSION PRICE, and TICKETS.
Review the list with the student. Say each word aloud as you point to it, and ask the student to repeat each
word after you say it. Practice until the student identifies the words on the list.
2.
Take the student for a walk in the community. Point out movie theaters, museums, and athletic
stadiums that have admission prices listed. Read the prices aloud to the student. Ask him to read them
aloud with you. Tell him that to attend the movie he must pay $1.75, to go to a ball game he must purchase
a ticket for $2.00, and for a museum the admission is free, so he does not pay any money to Visit the
museum. When the student is out in the community, encourage him to read the admission prices for various
facilities.
3.
Bring the amusement section of the newspaper into the classroom or learning area. Look through
the paper, pointing out the listed admission prices for movies, theaters, concerts, ball games, and other
types of shows (auto show, boat show, pet show, antique show). Encourage the student to-look in the
newspaper to find admission prices for activities of interest to him.
4.
Plan field trips or outings to a variety of facilities requiring admission payments. Tell the student to
check the admission prices in advance of the trip so that he may save or earn the money for admission. At
the box office or ticket counter, encourage the
Functional Academics Reading
77
student to read the admission information and to pay the appropriate amount. Remind him to tell the ticket
salesperson if he is under adult age so that he can pay the student or half rate rather than the full rate.
Practice whenever possible.
P.
The student, using key words on signs and by window displays, identifies the type of store or
business
1.
Take the student for walks in shopping centers. Tell him to join you in looking at window displays.
Say, "In this window there are men's jackets, shirts, and pants. This must be a men's clothing store." Repeat
this activity with other specialty stores such as drugstores, pet shops, bookstores, etc.
2.
Make a chart (Figure 16) of the words that identify different types of stores and businesses. Help the
student to identify each of these words as they appear on store fronts and signs.
3.
Make a chart (Figure 17) that lists the names of supermarkets located in the student's community.
Help the student to identify each of the supermarket names as they appear on the stores and in ads. Bring in
the food section of the newspaper, and ask the student to find the ads for the supermarkets listed on the
chart.
4.
Make a list of the names of department stores found in the
Figure 16. Identifying store signs chart.
78
Curriculum
Figure 17. Community supermarkets chart.
student's community. Review each of these names, and find the names as they appear on store fronts and
advertisements. Give each student an envelope containing strips of paper, each having the name of a
department store printed on it. Tell the student to put the names on a table or his desk. Give the student a
newspaper, and ask him to cut out department store ads and place them in a pile under the corresponding
department store's name on his desk. Practice.
Q.
The student identifies and obeys cooking and storing directions found on food containers
See Functional Reading, VII, C for suggested activities.
R.
The student identifies and obeys storage and cleaning instructions found on packages containing
house cleaning agents
1.
Read the storing and cleaning directions found on packages containing house cleaning agents, and
make a list of key words.
2.
Collect representative containers of floor wax, furniture polish, kitchen cleansers, all-purpose
cleaners, etc., and review with the student the directions printed on the containers.
3.
Use household products to carry out appropriate activities such as A waxing the floor, dusting
furniture, washing windows, cleaning sinks, washing down walls and woodwork, etc. Refer to the
directions whenever possible. Indicate that you do not always have to check the directions if you remember
how you used the product the last time. If the student is able to, encourage him to find the numerals that
indicate amounts to be used. If he is not able to use a specific house cleaning agent, remind the student to
seek the help
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 79
of a responsible person. Give him an unfamiliar product, and watch to see how he deals with it, e.g., if he
tries to identify key words in the instructions or asks for help.
4.
Store all house cleaning agents in places inaccessible to youngsters, and reward the student for
doing the same.
5.
Ask the student to carry out necessary house cleaning tasks. Supervise him.
S.
The student identifies and obeys storage and cleaning instructions found on packages containing
laundry agents
1.
Read the storing and cleaning directions found on laundry products. Make a list of key words.
2.
Collect representative containers of laundry products, and review with the student the directions
printed on them.
3.
Demonstrate referring to the directions and then using these products in actual situations. Encourage
the student to imitate your actions as he washes clothes. See Volume I, Fine Motor Skills and Functional
Reading, N and O for activities involving the operation of washers and dryers.
T.
The student locates the mailboxes and doorbells of friends and relatives
1.
Explain to the student that when you pay a visit to a friend or relative, you must let that person
know that you have arrived so he/she can invite you in. Indicate that is why there are doorbells (or door
knockers) on the front doors of houses. Assist the student in locating the fronts of houses.
2.
Take a trip around the community, and visit the homes of the student and his peers. Arrange in
advance with parents or guardians. Find the doorbells at each house, and assist the student in ringing the
bell. Make the task more difficult by putting up on one or more of the bells a sign that reads, "Bell Out of
Order. Please Knock." Point out that a note under a bell often means knock because the bell is not working.
Tell the student that even though he is outside the house, he can often hear the doorbell as it is ringing. Ask
him to listen for the bell, and, if he does not hear it, to knock on the door.
3.
Take the student to multiple-dwelling houses and apartment buildings. When applicable, show him
that he must find the bell for a friend or relative by locating the name of that person on a mailbox. Make up
a chart of his friends' or relatives' names. Next to each name paste a picture of the person. Remind the
student to refer to this chart before he sets out for a visit. Tell him to copy the name from the chart onto a
piece of paper and then to refer to
80
Curriculum
the paper when he arrives at his destination. Show him how to ring the bell and to open the door when he is
buzzed in.
4.
Make up an "Electric Doorbell" game using a bell, batteries, and wire. Use a facsimile of the chart
described in Activity 3. Attach the wires in such a way that if the student plugs the end of one of the wires
attached to the bell into a socket next to the name and then plugs the end of the second wire into the socket
next to the correct picture, the bell will ring.
5.
Give the student notes to be left in the mailboxes of friends and relatives. Reward him for placing
these notes in or scotch taping them on the correct mailboxes.
6.
Show the student how to use apartment numbers on mailboxes to find the apartments of friends and
relatives. Help him to find the doorbells on apartment doors.
U.
The student, using signs on doors and windows, identifies store hours and office hours
1.
Take a walk into the community, and show the student the places on doors and windows that
indicate the hours that stores, offices, and businesses are open.
2.
Make flashcards of the words OPEN, CLOSED, COME IN, WE'RE OPEN, and YES, WE'RE
OPEN, and practice with the student until he identifies the words.
3.
Point out the clock sign that is often used to indicate that the proprietor is out and will return in so
many minutes or hours (or parts of an hour).
4.
See Functional Arithmetic, I for activities involving the decoding of numerals used in writing time
and Functional Arithmetic, IV, J for activities involved in telling time.
V.
The student identifies telephone booths and public telephones
1.
Take a walk into the community, and point out telephone booths located on the streets and public
telephones located in buildings. Ask the student to check to see whether he has found a telephone booth or
public telephone by checking to see whether there is a phone inside it.
2.
During a trip into the community, announce that you need to make a telephone call. Ask the student
to help you find a telephone booth.
3.
During a trip into the community, ask the student to make a telephone call. Reward him for finding
a telephone booth and for placing the call correctly.
4.
Help the student to identify the words TELEPHONE and PHONE that appear on telephone booths
and public telephones.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 81
W.
The student identifies outside public toilets that can be used by either sex
1.
Take the student to public events where temporary toilets have been installed. Show him the
characteristic shape of these conveniences. Help him to locate the word TOILET or JOHNNY.
2.
Show the student how to open the door, lock it, and unlock it before allowing him to use it
independently.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
IV.
The student will respond appropriately to instructions written in simple notes
RPL(%)* RO**
A. The student identifies the written names or titles of family members and acquaintances 100 5
B. The student identifies written words representing important objects found in and around his home or
living area and school or learning area
75 4
C. The student identifies basic action verbs when written
75 4
D. The student identifies commonly used prepositions when written
75 4
E. The student identifies the numbers 1 through 10 when written as numerals 100
5
F. The student identifies time on the hour and half hour when written as numerals
100 5
G. The student identifies amounts of money up to $100 when written as numerals
100 5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student identifies the written names or titles of family members and acquaintances
1.
Make a list of the names or titles of family members and acquaintances who are likely to write notes
to the student. Make a picture chart using the pictures of each of these individuals. Underneath each
picture, write the name or title of the relative or acquaintance. Use the name or title that the individual
would use in signing notes.
2.
Use the picture chart from Activity 1 as a teaching tool, i.e., call one of the names, and ask the
student to point to the picture and
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations
82
Curriculum
the name, and/or give the student name cards that he must match to the names on the chart. As a follow-up
activity, use a second chart that has pictures only. This time, ask the student to place the correct name card
under each of the pictures.
3.
Write a variety of sample notes, and show them to the student. Point out the signature, and
emphasize its position in the note. Ask the student to underline the signature and then to show you the
picture of that person and/or to say the person's name. Practice until the student identifies the written names
of family members and acquaintances.
4.
Encourage relatives and acquaintances to send the student notes, e.g., if the student is living in a
group home, ask housemates and/or houseparents to write him notes.
5.
Show the student greeting cards that have been signed by the people on his chart. Ask him to
identify the senders.
B.
The student identifies written words representing important objects found in and around his home or
living area and school or learning area
1.
Make a list of common nouns for objects found in and around the student's home or living area and
school or learning area. Ask the student to assist you in making a chart (Figure 18) containing pictures of
these objects with their names written underneath them.
2.
Use the chart from Activity 1 as a teaching tool (see Functional Reading, IV, A, Activity 2).
3.
Write some sample notes in which you use the nouns found in the chart. Underline each noun, and
ask the student to find it on his chart. Tell him to say the nouns aloud, if possible, as he locates them on the
chart. Practice.
4.
Repeat Activity 3. This time, however, encourage the student to do the underlining. Practice.
5.
Repeat Activity 3. This time, however, ask the student to identify the underlined words without
referring to his chart. If he is unable to do this, let him refer to his chart and try it at another time without
the chart.
6.
Make a matching game worksheet (Figure 19). Divide the worksheet into two columns. Place the
nouns written on the student's chart in the left hand column and pictures of a number of objects, including
the ones representing the nouns, in the right hand column. Ask the student to draw a line from the noun to
the picture representing it. Remind him to use his chart if necessary.
C.
The student identifies basic action verbs when written
1.
Make a list of basic action verbs. Ask the student to help you, to make a chart containing pictures or
drawings of people engaged in
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 83
Figure 18. Noun chart.
84
Curriculum
Figure 19. Noun matching game.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 85
these actions. Write the imperative form of the appropriate action verb underneath each of the pictures.
2.
Use the chart from Activity 1 as a teaching device, i.e., say an action verb, and ask the student to
point to the picture and the word written underneath that picture, and/or give the student fiashcards upon
which you have written the verbs that he must match to the verbs written on the chart. Follow this up with a
second chart that has pictures only. This time, ask the student to place the correct flashcard under each of
the pictures.
3.
Write a variety of sample notes using the verbs found on the chart (see Activity 1). Give the student
sample notes. Underline each verb, and ask the student to find it on his chart. Tell him to say the verbs
aloud, if possible, as he finds them on the chart.
4.
Write some notes containing the verbs the student is studying. Encourage the student to underline
the verbs in the notes. Remind him to refer to his chart if necessary.
5.
Make matching game worksheets. Divide the worksheet into two columns. Place the verbs found on
the student's chart (see Activity 1) in the left hand column and pictures or drawings of actions in the right
hand column. Ask the student to draw a line from the verb to the picture representing the verbs. Remind
him to use his verb chart, if necessary.
6.
Show the student verb-noun combinations that might be found in simple notes, e.g., wash-shirt,
cook-eggs, sew-apron, etc. Ask the student to read these aloud and/or to act them out. Encourage him to use
props in his performance.
7.
Identify tasks the student may need to carry out. Write him two-word notes, i.e., verb-noun, and
sign your name. Expect him to carry out the request. Reward him.
8.
Encourage the student to write his own simple verb-noun messages (see Functional Writing, II, L).
D.
The student identifies commonly used prepositions when written
1.
Make a list of commonly used prepositions. Ask the student to help you to make a chart that
illustrates these prepositions, e.g., show the same object in a series of pictures such as a book on a table, in
a drawer, next to a pencil, under the desk, etc. You may wish to use rebuses, e.g.,
for in, for under,
for next to, for over, for on, etc. Write the word for the preposition underneath each of the pictures or
rebuses.
2.
Use the chart as a teaching device (see Functional Reading, IV, C, Activity 2).
3.
Write some sample messages that include the prepositions found on the chart. Underline each
preposition, and ask the student to find
86
Curriculum
it on his chart. Tell him to say the prepositions aloud, if possible, as he finds them on the chart.
4.
Write some additional notes that contain the prepositions on his chart (see Activity 1). Encourage
the student to underline the prepositions in the notes. Remind him to refer to his preposition chart if
necessary.
5.
Show the student verb-noun-preposition-noun combinations that might be found in simple notes,
e.g., put-book-on-shelf. Ask the student to read these combinations aloud and/or to act them out. Encourage
the student to use props in his pantomime.
6.
Identify tasks the student may need to carry out. Write four-word notes to the student, i.e., verbnoun-preposition-noun, and sign your name. For example, Move-dishes-from-table. Reward him for
carrying out the request.
7.
Encourage the student to write his own simple verb-noun-preposition-noun messages (see
Functional Writing, II, L).
K
The student identifies the numbers 1 through 10 when written as numerals
1.
See Functional Arithmetic, I for suggested activities.
2.
Show the student simple notes that have numerals as part of the message. Encourage him to
underline the numerals and then to say them aloud.
3.
Show the student verb-numeral-noun combinations that might be found in simple notes, e.g., cook2-eggs. Ask the student to read these combinations aloud and/or to act them out. Encourage the student to
use props in his pantomime.
4.
Show the student verb-numeral-noun-preposition-noun combinations that might occur in simple
notes, e.g., put-9-pennies-in-bank. Ask the student to read these combinations aloud and/or to act them out.
Encourage the student to use props in his pantomime.
5.
Identify tasks the student may need to carry out. Write three-word (verb-numeral-noun) and fiveword (verb-numeral-noun-preposition-noun) notes. Remember to sign your name. As a variation and for
review, pretend the notes come from people identified as important in- IV, A, and sign their names. Reward
the student for carrying out the tasks.
6.
Encourage the student to write his own simple verb-numeral-noun and verb-numeral-nounpreposition-noun combinations (see Functional Writing, II, L).
F.
The student identifies time on the hour and half hour when written as numerals
1.
See Functional Arithmetic, IV, J for suggested activities.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 87
2.
Show the student simple notes that have time on the hour and half hour written as numerals.
Encourage him to underline the numerals and then to say them aloud.
3.
Show the student sentences that contain patterns mentioned in Functional Reading, IV, C, Activity
6, D, Activity 5, and E, Activity 4. This time, however, introduce time designations in the language
patterns, e.g., put-meat-in-oven-3:30. Ask the student to read these language patterns aloud and/or to act
them out. Tell him to use props in his pantomime.
4.
Identify tasks the student may need to carry out that require timing of some sort. Write the student
notes requesting him to perform tasks at specific times. Sign your name to the note. Review other important
signatures by role playing receiving notes from family members and acquaintances. Practice.
5.
Show the student notes from others that provide information. For example,
Dear Peter,
Mother-shopping-home-10:30.
Mommy
or
Dear Michael,
Father-visit-doctor-home-12:00. Heat-soup.
Grandma
6.
If it does not confuse the student and if he has been successful in reading the telegraphic messages
you have been composing for him, begin to introduce messages that are grammatical and syntactical.
G.
The student identifies amounts of money up to $100 when written as numerals
1.
See Functional Arithmetic, II, H for suggested activities.
2.
Show the student simple notes that contain amounts of money up to $100 (written as numerals) as
part of the message. Encourage the student to underline money amounts and then to say them aloud.
Practice.
3.
Show the student sentences that contain the previously practiced language patterns (see Functional
Reading, IV, A to E). This time, include money amounts in the language patterns, e.g., Cash-Check -for-$5.
Ask the student to read such messages aloud and/or to act them out. Encourage him to use props in his
pantomime.
4.
Identify tasks the student may need to carry out that require the identification of money amounts.
Write the student notes requesting him to actually perform these tasks.
88
Curriculum
5.
Show the student notes from others that provide information. For example,
Dear Robert,
Earn-$55-week-gone-store.
Rosemary
or
Dear Billie,
Got-fishing-rod. Cost-$29.50. Want-see-rod?
Bobby
6.
If it does not confuse the student and if he has been successful in reading the telegraphic messages
you have been composing, introduce messages that are grammatical and syntactical.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
V.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
The student will locate needed information from simple charts, diagrams, maps, and menus
RPL(%)* RO**
The student, using a calendar, identifies the date
100
5
The student, using a calendar, identifies an approaching date
75
4
The student uses a hand-drawn map to find his way around the school building
75
4
The student uses a hand-drawn map to find his way around the community
75
4
The student uses a hand-drawn map to find his way to the homes of friends and relatives
75 4
The student in a residential center uses a hand-drawn map to find his way around the residential center
75
4
The student uses a bus and/or a subway map
75
4
The student uses simple diagrams to assemble objects
100
5
The student uses diagrams to make simple constructions and other arts and crafts projects
75 4
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 89
RPL(%)*
J. The student locates key information found on posters and other informational charts 75
K. The student locates key information found on charts used for instructional purposes
100
L. The student uses a menu to order meals at restaurants
75
M. The student uses a menu to order meals during a hospital stay
75
RO**
4
5
4
4
Suggested Activities
A. The student, using a calendar, identifies the date
1.
Show the student a colorful wall calendar. Next to the name of each month as it appears on the top
of each page of the calendar, write the numeral that corresponds to its numerical position in the year.
Indicate in some way that January is the first month, etc.
2.
Point to the column heading that provides the abbreviations for the days of the week: SUN., MON.,
TUES., WED., THURS., FRI., and SAT. Assist the student in identifying the days of the week from their
abbreviations. Review the days of the week in order (see Volume II, Communication Skills: Verbal, III,
CC). Indicate to the student that once he can locate the days of the week on a calendar, this will help him to
find the date. Practice locating the days of the week on a calendar.
3.
Show the student where to find the year notation on the calendar. Underline the year. Underline the
last two numbers twice to aid the student in identifying the date when it is written in abbreviated numerical
form, e/g., 2/7/76.
4.
Keep the calendar up-to-date, i.e., encourage the student to circle the number of the day with a
marking pen as soon as possible at the beginning of each day. Before bedtime, encourage the student to
cross out the day's date and/or to shade in the box to indicate that the day is ending.
5.
Show the student how to identify the date by looking at the top (or sides) of the pages of a daily
newspaper. Encourage him to find the date on the calendar that matches the date listed on the newspaper
page.
6.
Demonstrate how to obtain the date by listening to morning television and radio programs. Tell him
to compare the date he hears announced on the media with the date on his calendar.
90
Curriculum
7.
Show the student how to use knowledge of the previous day's date to determine today's date, e.g.,
yesterday's date was _______; today's date is_______.
8.
Show the student other sources that can be used to find the date. These include the date printed on
market receipts, a time card, a bus transfer, etc.
9.
Show the student how to use pocket and desk calendars once the student demonstrates competency
in identifying the date on a wall calendar.
B.
The student, using a calendar, identifies an approaching date
1.
Once the student is able to identify the date using a calendar, schedule events that are interesting to
the student for a future date. For example, tell him that he is going to see a puppet show next Monday. Ask
him to find the date of the scheduled event by using a calendar. Repeat this activity using a variety of
approaching events, e.g., ball games, concerts, and field trips.
2.
Tell the student that there will be a special sale at the shopping center the following week on
Monday through Wednesday. Tell him to find the dates of the sale.
3.
Tell the student to find the day of the week on which his birthday falls. Include the birthdays of
close family members and friends. Practice locating significant approaching dates on a calendar.
4.
Discuss a variety of holidays and school vacations. Assist the student as he uses a calendar to locate
the days and dates of approaching holidays.
5.
Show the student the expected date of delivery for goods on order slips and invoices for
merchandise to be delivered at school or at home. Ask him to check the calendar so that you can arrange for
someone to be at home or at school to receive the goods or supplies on the right day.
6.
Show the student the due date as it appears on notices, bills, etc. Ask him to find the date on a
calendar and to tell you by what day of the week these bills should be paid. Encourage him to mark
important dates on his calendar.
C.
The student uses a hand-drawn map to find his way around the school building
1.
Draw a map of the learning area. Explain that this map is a special way of drawing the room.
Encourage him to make his own map of the room.
2.
Identify a number of important locations in the school building. Accompany the student in walking
to each of these spots. For each of the walks identify key landmarks such as a water cooler, a
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 91
mural, an entrance lobby, etc. As you pass each of the landmarks, sketch them onto your map. When you
have completed the trip, return to the learning area, and ask the student to retrace the trip. If he has
difficulty, encourage him to use the map.
3.
Take the student to a store or public building that displays floor plan maps. Show him how to use
these maps to plan the movements needed to get to a desired place. Practice.
4.
Schedule a "Treasure Hunt." Hide interesting objects or toys around the school. Give the student a
map that leads him to a favored toy or object.
D.
The student uses a hand-drawn map to find his way around the community
1.
Take a walk to an interesting place in the student's community. Take pencil and paper to draw a
map. As you pass landmarks, sketch them on the map you are drawing, and explain them to the student.
Label these landmarks. Use the map as a guide for returning home. Take the same trip the next day. This
time, encourage the student to lead the way. Tell him to refer to the map only when necessary. Repeat this
activity by taking walks to other interesting and important places (Figure 20).
2.
Show the student copies of floor plans of model apartments, museums, amusement parks, zoos, etc.
Use these plans to find your way around. Encourage the student to use these plans as he finds his way
around various locations. Supervise closely.
3.
Obtain walking tour maps of the student's community and/or of nearby communities. Take the
student on a field trip of the walking tour. Use these tour maps to explore the sites of historical and
community interest. Appoint the student as a tour guide for the group, and reward him for using the maps
correctly.
Figure 20. Hand-drawn community map.
92
Curriculum
E.
The student uses a hand-drawn map. to find his way to the homes of friends and relatives
1.
Find out where the homes of friends and relatives of the student are located. Make a map that shows
the routes to be taken in getting to the houses of friends and relatives. You may need to make several maps
if the student's relatives and friends live in a broad geographic area. Paste pictures of the friends and
relatives near their houses on the map. Supervise closely.
2.
Tell the student to study the map(s) developed in Activity 1 before going on a visit. Remind him to
check his map whenever necessary if ho becomes confused or does not remember the route.
F.
The student in a residential center uses a hand-drawn map to find his way around the residential
center
1.
Obtain a map of the residential center's grounds. If one does not exist, draw one yourself. Ask the
student to accompany you as you draw the map. Take pictures of the buildings to paste on the map. Use
this map for a bulletin board display, and describe how to walk from one building to another. Indicate in
some way the purpose of each building. Mark in a special way those buildings the student needs to use. Use
pictures that describe the purpose of each building, e.g., show a picture of people swimming to show that a
building has a pool. For large residential centers, draw area maps.
2.
Obtain maps of each building at the residential center that the student must use. If they do not exist,
draw them yourself. Ask the student to accompany you as you draw these maps.
3.
Use the building maps to find your way around each of the buildings. Ask the student to assist you.
4.
When the student is successful at finding his way around a building and can be depended upon to do
so safely and appropriately, send him on errands to other parts of the building. Supervise closely.
5.
When the student is successful at finding his way around a building and can be depended upon to do
so safely and appropriately, ask him to help peers or visitors find their way around.
G.
The student uses a bus and/or a subway map
1.
When appropriate, ask the transit authority in your city for copies of bus and/or subway maps. Use
these maps as you and the student plan trips involving bus and subway transportation. Take the trips after
sufficient planning.
2.
Show the student subway and bus maps that are located on buses and in subway stations.
Demonstrate using these maps to plan trips, verify bus routes, and determine transfer points.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 93
H.
The student uses simple diagrams to assemble objects
1.
Give the student assembling tasks as part of a workshop activity (see Volume I, Fine Motor).
Demonstrate using a simple diagram to put the parts together. Match the actual objects to their sketched
counterparts. Pay special attention to the connecting points and to the screws, nuts, bolts, etc., that join the
various parts together. Put a fully assembled object and an unassembled object in front of the student.
Using the assembled object as a model, ask him to imitate your actions and to refer to the diagram as he
assembles his own object.
2.
Give the student an interesting toy that needs to be assembled. Provide the student with a simple
diagram. Assist the student in assembling the toy.
3.
Give the student an assembly kit for a piece of equipment that he can use in his home. Help him to
use a diagram to put the object together.
I.
The student uses diagrams to make simple constructions and other arts and crafts projects
1.
Review the constructions suggested in Volume I, Fine Motor. For some of these activities draw
simple diagrams. Demonstrate using the diagrams as a guide to assembling the constructions. Practice.
2.
Collect a variety of arts and crafts magazines and books, e.g., Pack of Fun magazine. Show the
student pictures of the finished projects and the accompanying diagrams. Assist the student in a step-bystep analysis of the diagram. Review the numerals used to indicate the sequence of steps. Then carry out
each step required to finish the task.
3.
Give the student a pattern for sewing simple aprons. Help him to sew an apron from the diagram on
the pattern envelope or in the instructions.
4.
When appropriate, help the student to use simple diagrams to knit and crochet simple articles.
J.
The student locates key information found on posters and other informational charts
1.
Show the student posters placed on bulletin boards and in store windows. Indicate that these posters
serve as announcements for events. Encourage the student to determine the nature of the event advertised
by commenting on the pictures and information found on the posters. Also show the student the date(s) of
performance(s), time of performance(s), place of performance(s), and cost of tickets (see Consumer Skills,
I, A and Functional Reading, 111, O).
94
Curriculum
2.
Show the student billboards, and compare the information there with the types of information found
on posters.
3.
Show the student posters that are designed to provide public information. Refer to the pictures to
indicate the message of the poster, e.g., a basic food chart will show illustrations of the several different
types of the food groups. Discuss the message of the poster, and point out words that convey vital
meanings, e.g., "Put Out All Fires."
4.
Help the student to make his own posters using pictures from magazines, glue, crayons, etc.
K.
The student locates key information found on charts used for instructional purposes
1.
Construct a variety of charts for instructional purposes. Demonstrate using these charts to carry out
specified activities, e.g., purchasing foods (see Consumer Skills, I, D, Activity 2) buying clothes (see
Consumer Skills, I, C, Activity 2) selecting nutritious meals (see Volume I, Self-Care).
2.
Make wallet size copies of the student's charts so that he can use them as he functions in the
community.
3.
Encourage the student to assist you in making the charts he needs to function as optimally as
possible.
L.
The student uses a menu to order meals at restaurants
1.
Ask local restaurant managers and owners to give you copies of old menus. Use these menus as
models when constructing food charts. Begin by writing down the names of the student's preferred foods
because he is more likely to learn these words first. Ask the student to help you to construct the charts. Tell
him to leaf through newspapers and magazines to find pictures of food. When he shows you a picture,
assist him in cutting the picture out and in pasting it on the food chart next to its name. Use the food chart
as an experience chart. Make up a set of flashcards with the same words on them, and ask the student to
match his flashcards with the words appearing on the experience chart.
2.
Ask the student to match his word cards to words appearing on the sample restaurant menus.
3.
Role play waiter/waitress and customer. Show the student a menu, and take his order. Practice.
4.
If the student does not identify the words on a menu successfully, provide him with alternate
strategies for ordering, i.e., review with him beforehand what he might want to order (most restaurants will
have standard foods available even if they do not appear on the menu), and tell him to order his meal
without consulting the
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 95
menu. Another suggestion is to tell the student to ask the waiter/ waitress for help in ordering his meal.
5.
Take trips to restaurants, and encourage the student to order his meal by himself.
6.
Take the student to a variety of restaurants, including specialty and ethnic ones. Help him to order
his meals at these restaurants.
M.
The student uses a menu to order meals during a hospital stay
1.
Role play being ill in a hospital. (Role playing hospitalization can be very helpful in reducing the
anxieties and fears the student may have.) During the role play, show the student samples of actual menus
used in hospitals. Point out the key words BREAKFAST, LUNCH, and DINNER. Help the student to make
the association of each of these words with a particular time of day. Make a list of the food words that he
might find listed under each meal heading (Figure 21).
2.
Using your list, make a food chart for each meal. Paste pictures of each food item next to its
corresponding word. Use the charts to practice ordering meals, i.e., give the student a hospital type of
menu, and ask him to refer to the chart in making his food selections. You may want to use the same chart
for lunch and dinner because these meals usually offer similar food selections.
3.
Remind the student that if he is unable to read the menu, he should ask the nurse or some other
hospital worker to assist him.
4.
Show the student how to circle the names of the foods he wants as they appear on the menu. Assist
him in ordering one food for each course.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
VI.
The student will locate needed information from directories, schedules, and bulletin boards
RPL(%)* RO**
A. The student locates telephone numbers in his personal telephone directory
100
5
B. The student locates the apartment number of friends and relatives, using apartment house directories
75
4
C. The student locates the office numbers of business firms and other agencies, using office building
directories
75
4
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
96
Curriculum
Figure 21. Hospital food list.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 97
RPL(%)* RO**
D. The student identifies times of mail pickup on mailbox schedules
75
4
E. The student finds the location of foods and other items, using supermarket directories
75
4
F. The student identifies food and food prices on a cafeteria bulletin board
75
4
G. The student locates the times of departures and arrivals, using bus, train, and airplane schedules and
bulletin boards
75
4
H. The student locates a desired floor, using the department store directory
75
4
Suggested Activities
A.
The student locates telephone numbers in his personal telephone directory
1.
Help the student to make a personal telephone directory (Figure 22) by writing in a small directory
or pocket size notebook the telephone numbers of persons he is likely to call on the telephone. It may be
necessary to paste pictures of the individuals next to their telephone numbers. If you develop a picture
telephone directory, ask the student to find the picture of a-specific person and then to dial the telephone
number that is next to it. Use a toy telephone or a tele-trainer. Use a real telephone when there is a
legitimate reason for calling. Practice.
2.
Add new pictures and telephone numbers as the student develops skill in using the directory and as
he acquires new friends.
3.
Remember to include emergency numbers on the inside cover of the directory. Use symbols or
pictures of the emergency service, e.g., a picture of a police car, a fire truck, an ambulance, etc.
B.
The student locates the apartment number or friends and relatives, using apartment house directories
1.
In the classroom or learning area, set up a simulated apartment house directory. Put the names of the
student and his peers on the directory, and assign each an apartment number. Also make a mural of the
inside of an apartment house with doors cut out in such a way that when the student opens them he can see
a hidden picture. Behind each door put the picture of the student who "lives" in that apartment. On each of
the doors put the apartment number that corresponds to the correct one on the directory. Ask
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
98
Curriculum
Figure 22. Personal telephone directory.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 99
the student to look at the directory for the name of one of his peers, find the apartment number located
there, locate that number on the apartment door, and open the door to see if he used the directory correctly.
Continue in this way until the student finds all of the apartments. Change the directory. This time, use the
names of friends and relatives.
2.
Find out whether the student has any friends or relatives who live in apartment houses. If he does,
arrange for trips to visit these people. Clear the visits in advance to make sure that the visit is welcome and
that the people will be home (reinforcement). Show the student where the directory is likely to be, i.e., near
the elevator, by the mailboxes, and in the main lobby. Give him a slip of paper with the printed name of the
friend or relative. Ask him to write the apartment number next to the name. Then demonstrate how to use
the apartment number to find the floor. When you arrive at the floor, assist him in finding the apartment
door. Allow him to ring the bell.
3.
Repeat Activity 2, but this time do not give the student a slip of paper with the person's name.
Expect him to find the apartment with minimal help.
4.
Show the student how to use the signs that are on the walls opposite the elevator and at corridor
intersections to find the apartment.
C.
The student locates the office numbers of business firms and other agencies, using office building
directories
1.
In the learning area, set up a simulated office building directory. Put the names of firms and
agencies that are now important to the student's functioning and that might be of importance in the future,
e.g., the State Employment Services, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation, Social Security, Legal Aid
Society, Family Planning, Better Business Bureau, etc. Give the Student a slip of paper with the name of
one of these agencies, and ask him to find its office number. Repeat the activity, asking the student to
locate firms and agencies on the list. Practice.
2.
Take field trips to office buildings, and ask the student to find specific offices. Give him a slip of
paper with the name or picture of the office on it for reference, if needed. Visit the office.
3.
If the student is old enough to visit relatives or close friends in the hospital, assist him in using
directories and wall signs to find these hospitalized friends or relatives. Supervise closely.
4.
Go with the student when he is visiting the doctor's and/or dentist's offices. Assist him in using the
directory to find the locations of the offices.
100
Curriculum
D.
The student identifies times of mail pickup on mailbox schedules
1.
Show the student mailboxes that are used for the deposit of mail. Help the student to differentiate
between those that are mail pickup stations and those used for storage (usually of a different color and
without an opening at the top).
2.
Point out the card schedule that is usually posted on these boxes. Draw his attention to the key
words and abbreviations: DAILY, SATURDAY, SUNDAY, HOLIDAYS, A.M., P.M., etc. Explain the
meaning of these words and abbreviations. Encourage the student to copy down the pickup times from a
nearby mailbox. Do this according to the day of the week notations. Tell him to use this information to plan
his mailing schedule, especially when he wants letters and/or cards to arrive quickly.
3.
Play the "Postman" or "Postwoman" game. In this game you play the part of the postman, and you
must arrive on time to pick up the mail. The student must mail the letters before the time placed on a
chalkboard. Reverse roles as the student develops facility in reading the numerals and in telling time (see
Functional Arithmetic, IV).
4.
Construct a mailbox, and place it in the classroom. Use a box with a slit in the cover. Make a pickup
schedule, and attach it to the mailbox. Encourage the student to identify the times on the pickup schedule
and to deposit his "mail" before that time, e.g., each day ask the student to put his lunch order on a slip of
paper (a hot meal, milk, milk and dessert), sign his name, and deposit it in the mailbox before the morning
pickup (9:15). Explain that mail must be put in the mailbox before certain pickup times to be sure they
reach the teacher in time, e.g., if lunch requests were mailed at 12:15 rather than 9:15, the teacher would
receive them after lunch.
E.
The student finds the location of foods and other items, using supermarket directories
1.
In the classroom or learning area, set up a large simulated supermarket directory board. List the
major categories of foods and other items. Next to each category indicate an aisle number. Then play a
"Category" game, i.e., tell the student a food and have him say its category, e.g., orange–fruit or produce,
cottage cheese-dairy, veal chops–meat, salami–delicatessen, etc. If he names the category correctly, tell
him to find it on the directory. Reward him for attempts and for successes.
2.
Make a food category chart (Figure 23). Use this chart to help the student to find the category
designations used on directories.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 101
Figure 23. Food category chart.
3.
Once the student develops skill in using the simulated directory, take trips to supermarkets. Give the
student a shopping list, and observe him to see if he uses the directory to find the correct aisles for food and
other products. Review the identification of numerals and letter combinations, e.g., 7A, 7B.
4.
Once the student develops facility in locating foods, help him to draw up category lists for non-food
products, e.g., cleaners, laundry detergents, etc.
5.
Make up a shopping list that includes shopping for non-food items, Assist the student when
necessary.
6.
Because there are some supermarkets that have aisle signs rather than or in addition to directories,
assist the student in using these signs to locate desired items.
F.
The student identifies foods and food prices on a cafeteria bulletin board
1.
Make a list of the student's preferred foods. Include snacks as well as foods that are parts of meals.
Place pictures of the food next to the words on the list to help the student to identify the words. Remove the
pictures as soon as the student identifies the words and no longer needs the picture cues. Set up a simulated
cafeteria
102
Curriculum
bulletin board. List the preferred foods and prices that are comparable to cafeteria prices in the area.
Review identifying prices when written as numerals (see Functional Arithmetic, II, B).
2.
Once the student is successful at identifying his preferred foods as listed on the simulated bulletin
board, add other foods.
3.
Take the student to a cafeteria for a snack. Tell him to check to see if he has identified the words
correctly by looking at the food displays. Remind him to check that he receives the correct change from the
cashier (see Functional Arithmetic, II, D).
4.
Take the student to a cafeteria for a full course meal. Assist the student in selecting foods for his
meal that are nutritious, well balanced, and within his budget. Encourage him to eat and drink as
independently as possible (see Volume I, Self-Care).
5.
On the simulated cafeteria bulletin board, list the meal that is to be served in the school or residence
cafeteria, including beverages and desserts. Ask the student to read the bulletin board. Change the bulletin
board each day. Tell the student to read the bulletin board aloud. Offer help when necessary. For the
student who has difficulty identifying the words, place pictures next to the words. Once the student is
familiar with the words, remove the picture clues. Practice daily.
G.
The student locates the times of departures and arrivals, using bus, train, and airline schedules and
bulletin boards
1.
When appropriate, send away for a bus and/or train schedule. Point out the words ARRIVALS and
DEPARTURES and the abbreviations A.M., P.M., ARR., and DEPART. Explain the meanings of each of
the words and abbreviations. Say each of the words and abbreviations, and encourage the student to point to
the printed abbreviations and words. Then point to each of the words and abbreviations, and ask the student
to read them aloud. Practice.
2.
Review the names of cities and towns where the student might be likely to travel and where there
are bus or train stops.
3.
Role play taking trips, and ask the student to indicate departure and arrival times. Assist when
necessary.
4.
Take trips to bus and train stations and to airline terminals. Show the student the arrival and
departure bulletin boards or television screens. Review Activity 1, and add the words ON TIME and
DELAYED.
5.
Assist the student in identifying flight numbers. Review the identification of numerals (see
Functional Arithmetic, 1, F).
H.
The student locates a desired floor, using the department store directory
1.
Take the student on shopping trips to department stores. Show the
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 103
student places where directories are located. When you return to the learning area or classroom, make an
experience chart (Figure 24) that lists the major categories (departments) and their floor locations. For each
category, list the items that might be found in the department.
2.
Review the chart, and play the "Category" game. In this game, you give the student a word or
picture, and he must name its category. As a variation, give the student a category and ask him to name two
or three examples.
3.
Take trips to department stores. Give the student a short shopping list, and ask him to locate the
floor where he will be able to find each of the items. Supervise and assist him if necessary.
4.
Take the student shopping for clothing. Remind him to take his Clothing Size Chart (see Consumer
Skills, I, C, Activity 2). Once he checks his chart and decides what he needs to purchase, tell him to find
the location of the department it is in, using the store directory.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
VII. The student will correctly carry out simple directions written on packages, machinery, equipment,
games, toys, and items that are to be assembled
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
The student operates vending machines
The student operates coin-operated washers and dryers
The student follows the directions written on food packages
The student follows the directions provided with simple games
The student follows the directions provided with toys
The student follows the directions provided with objects to be assembled
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
RPL(%)*
100
100
100
75
75
100
RO**
5
5
5
4
4
5
104
Curriculum
Figure 24. Department store categories chart.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 105
Suggested Activities
A.
The student operates vending machines
1.
Take the student to an automat or lunchroom with vending machines. Demonstrate operating the
various types of vending machines, including those with push buttons and pull out type knobs. Insert the
appropriate coin or coins into the coin slot, pointing out the printed words or numbers on the slot that
indicate the coin or total amount of coins needed to activate the vending machine. Make your selection and
operate the machine, pointing out to the student the printed words or pictures that indicate each selection.
Tell the student to watch what you are doing, and explain what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student
to imitate your actions and to practice operating vending machines.
2.
Bring boxes with coin size slots cut in them into the classroom or learning area. Stand them at an
angle and a height that approximate the coin slot of a vending machine. Demonstrate inserting coins into
the slot. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to practice dropping coins into the slot.
3.
Make flashcards reading 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, nickel, dime, and quarter, and practice with the student until
he recognizes them.
4.
Show the student nickels, dimes, and quarters, and drill until the student recognizes them.
5.
Give the student a quantity of nickels, dimes, and quarters. On the table or desk in front of the
student, place flashcards reading 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, nickel, dime, and quarter. Tell the student to place the coins
on the corresponding flashcards, i.e., nickels on the flash-cards that say 5¢ and nickel. Practice.
6.
Following the directions in Activity 2, construct coin slot boxes. Beneath each coin slot, print a
money amount, i.e., "Insert 10¢," or "Insert nickel." Give the student a change purse containing a variety of
coins, and tell him to read aloud the words beneath the coin slot and to insert the appropriate coin or coins.
Practice.
7.
Make flashcards of the words INSERT COIN, COIN RETURN, and any other words that appear on
vending machines the student will be using. Practice with the student until he recognizes these words.
8.
Take the female student to a bathroom with a sanitary napkin vending machine. Read the words or
numbers beneath the coin slot, and choose the appropriate coins. Insert the coin into the coin slot. Grasp the
handle, and turn it until the sanitary napkin is released. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to
practice operating the sanitary napkin vending machine.
9.
Take the student out to lunch at an automat or cafeteria with
106
Curriculum
vending machines. Tell the student to find the coin slot, and then read aloud to him the numbers or words
that tell what coins the student needs. Once he has selected his coins, tell him to read aloud the words
indicating the selections available to him and to choose one. Help the student as he inserts the coins and
selects his choices. Practice whenever possible.
B.
The student operates coin-operated washers and dryers
1.
Take the student to a laundry room, laundromat, or area where there are coin-operated washers and
dryers. Show the student the various parts of the machines: the washer (lid, control dial, agitator, etc.) and
the dryer (timer, door, temperature dial, and starter button). Point out the words written on the washer and
dryer.
2.
Make large, simple cardboard washer and dryer control dials (Figures 25, 26, and 27), and ask the
student to read aloud the words and numbers found on the dials. The dials on coin-operated washers and
dryers may vary, but most will use the same words. Check the machines the student will be using for the
exact types of dials and written words they have so that your sample dials will resemble the real dials as
closely as possible. Practice.
3. Make flashcards of the words found on coin-operated washers and dryers. Drill the student until he
identifies the words. Practice.
4. Bring boxes with coin size slots cut in them into the classroom or learning area. Stand or tape them at an
angle and a height that approximate the coin slot of washers and dryers. Beneath or beside each coin slot,
print a money amount, i.e., "Insert 10¢," "Insert 35¢," and the words indicating the types of coins the
machine will accept, i.e.,
Insert 10¢
Dime
Insert 35¢
Quarters
Nickels
Dimes
Give the student a change purse containing a variety of coins, and tell him to read aloud the words and
numbers beneath the coin slot and to insert the appropriate coin or coins. Practice.
5.
After physical education activities, tell the student to take his gym clothes and those of his peers to
the laundry room for washing. If there is no laundry room, take the student to a laundromat. Tell the student
to lift the lid of the washing machine and to put the soiled gym clothes into the washer. Pour in detergent
(buy the pre-measured packages at the laundromat to avoid measuring). Close the lid. Find the water
temperature selector, and turn it to the appropriate water temperature. Point out the control dial. Tell the
student to read aloud the words on the control dial and to
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 107
Figure 25. Washer control dial.
Figure 26. Dryer with dial control.
108
Curriculum
Figure 27. Dryer with lever.
choose the cycle he wants by grasping the knob of the control dial and turning to the word indicating the
desired cycle. Insert the appropriate coins to activate the machine. When the machine stops, remove the
clothes, and put them into a dryer.
6.
Tell the student to place the clothes into the dryer and to close the dryer door. Tell the student to
find the temperature dial, lever, or timer and to read aloud the words on it. The temperature dial or lever
should be set at:
Cool
Low
Warm
Medium
Hot
High
The timer should be set at 30 minutes, or whatever time it takes to dry the load of clothes. Tell the student
to grasp the lever or knob and to set the temperature or timer by turning the knob or lever to the words or
numbers that indicate the temperature or time he wants. Tell the student to find the coin slot and to read
aloud the words and numbers indicating the amount of money and type of coins needed to run the machine,
i.e., "Insert 10¢ '' Tell the student to choose the appropriate coin or number of coins and to
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 109
insert it (them) into the slot to start the machine. Remove the clothes when they are dry.
7.
Tell the student to bring his laundry to school and to wash and dry his laundry in the laundry room.
At other times, take him to the laundromat.
8.
Encourage the student to wash and dry his clothes at the laundromat or in the laundry room if he
does not have a washer and dryer at his home or residence.
C.
The student follows the directions written on food packages
1.
Take the student to a grocery store or supermarket. Purchase a variety of packaged foods, and bring
them into the classroom or learning area. As you and the student unpack the grocery bags, point out and
read aloud the directions on each package.
2.
Make flashcards of the words found on most food packages, such as, DIRECTIONS, PREHEAT,
STIR, BOIL, ADD, 350°F, 325°F, 25–30 MIN, ADD, 3/4 CUP, 1 TBSP., 1 CAN, WATER, MILK,
CHILL, SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING, BEAT, BLEND, MIX, BAKE, etc. Check the student's
shopping list and kitchen cabinets, and make flashcards that correspond to the packaged foods he uses.
Practice with the student until he identifies the words and symbols.
3.
Give the student a bag containing food packages. Ask the student to remove the packages and to
find and read aloud the directions on each package. Practice.
4.
Take the student to a kitchen or area with cooking equipment, and ask him to prepare lunch. Give
the student a list of foods to prepare. Tell him to read aloud the directions on the food packages and to
prepare the foods. An example of a menu might be: canned soup, a sandwich, instant pudding, and a frozen
concentrated drink. Help the student to read the directions aloud if he has difficulty with them. Tell the
student to serve and eat the lunch he has prepared.
5.
Help the student to plan a variety of meals (breakfasts, lunches, and dinners) and nutritious snacks.
Purchase the appropriate packaged foods needed to prepare the meals, and help the student to follow the
directions. Prepare the meals as class cooking projects. Encourage the student to try identifying the package
directions independently. Remind him to ask for help only when he is unsure of the directions.
6.
For the student who is unable to read, pictorial directions for simple foods (Figure 28). Put the
directions on index cards that the student can keep in his kitchen for easy reference. Paste the actual food
label on the other side of the index card so that the
110
Curriculum
Figure 28. Pictorial directions for preparing soup.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 111
student can match the label and directions to the actual food package. Once you prepare a pictorial set of
directions, review it with the student to be sure he is able to identify the pictures. Using the directions, help
the student to prepare simple foods. Encourage the student to cook as independently as possible.
D.
The student follows the directions provided with simple games
1.
Bring a variety of simple games into the classroom or learning area. Show the game to the student,
and ask him to find the directions, whether they are printed on the box or on a separate sheet of paper. Read
the directions aloud to the student, pointing out key words.
2.
Make flashcards of the key words found in the directions of the games the student plays, e.g., SPIN,
TAKE A TURN, ROLL THE DICE, TAKE A CARD, MOVE THREE SQUARES, MISS A TURN, GO
BACK, etc. Practice with the student, using the flash-cards, until he identifies the words used in the
directions of the games he likes to play. Practice.
3.
During free time or recreation period, encourage the student to play simple games, e.g., Parcheesi,
Sorry, and Lotto. Tell the student to find the directions and to read them aloud before he plays the game.
Remind him to check the directions he needs during the game.
4.
For the student who is unable to follow the directions provided with simple games, make pictorial
directions (Figure 29). Review the pictorial rules with the student until he identifies and can imitate the
actions depicted in the pictures used in the directions. Help the student to refer to the pictorial rules as he
plays simple games.
E.
The student follows the directions provided with toys
1.
Bring a selection of toys that are commensurate with the student's interest level and abilities into the
classroom or learning area. Show the student how to play with each toy. Ask the student to find any
directions or instructions that are printed on the toy box or on a separate sheet of paper. Read the directions
aloud to the student, and point out key words.
2.
Make flashcards of the key words found in the directions for the toys the student plays with, e.g.,
INSERT, REMOVE, STACK, PULL, PUSH, SPIN. Using the flashcards, drill the student until he
identifies the words. Practice.
3.
During free time or recreation periods, encourage the student to play with toys. Tell the student to
find the directions and to read them aloud before he plays with the toy. Remind him to check the directions
if he needs to as he plays.
112
Curriculum
Figure 29. Pictorial game directions.
4.
For the student who is unable to follow the directions provided with simple toys, make a card with
pictorial directions (Figure 30), and attach it to the toy or the toy box so the student may refer to it when
using the toy. Review the pictorial directions until he identifies the pictures used in the directions and can
imitate their meanings when using the toy.
F
The student follows the directions provided with objects to be assembled
1.
Bring into the classroom or learning area a variety of items that need to be assembled and the
printed directions that explain how they are to be assembled, e.g., balsa wood airplanes, flashlight and
batteries, electric toothbrush and batteries, household cleaners and pump tops, etc.
2.
Show the student each unassembled item and the corresponding directions. Choose one item, follow
the directions, and assemble it. Read the directions aloud as you do each step. Point out key words to the
student, and explain each step of the directions as
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 113
Figure 30. Pictorial directions for simple toys (shape box).
114
Curriculum
you do it. Tell the student to listen as you read the directions and to watch what you do in response to the
directions. Once the object is assembled, disassemble it, and help the student to assemble it. Remind him to
refer to the directions as he works. Practice with a variety of items.
3.
Make flashcards of the words and phrases found in directions for assembling articles that the
student is likely to use. Practice with the student until he identifies the words, e.g., INSERT, PLACE,
JOIN, CONNECT, TWIST, REMOVE, etc., as they appear on the flashcards.
4.
For the student who is unable to read, prepare pictorial directions (Figure 31) for those items that he
will most likely have to assemble, e.g., batteries into a flashlight and a pump into a bottle or container of
household cleaner or window spray. Go over the directions, picture by picture, until the student identifies
the pictures and the directions they represent. Practice, using a variety of items to be assembled.
5.
Give the student who is unable to read a set of pictorial directions drawn on index cards that he may
keep at home as a reference when he needs to assemble objects and is unable to follow the directions. Place
an actual picture or label from the item to be assembled on the back of the index card so that the student
can match the picture to the object he needs to assemble.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
VIII. The student will respond appropriately to key words found on employment forms and other simple
blanks and forms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
RPL(%)* RO**
The student prints his name in the appropriate-place on blanks and forms
100
The student prints his address in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
The student writes his telephone number in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
The student writes his birthdate in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
The student writes his Social Security number in the appropriate place on blanks and forms100
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
5
5
5
5
5
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 115
Figure 31. Pictorial directions for an object to be assembled.
116
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
Curriculum
RPL(%)* RO**
The student indicates his sex in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
5
The student indicates his marital status in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
5
The student indicates his previous employment record in the appropriate place on blanks and forms 75
4
The student writes the correct amount of money in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
5
The student writes the date in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
5
The student writes his bank account number in the appropriate place on deposit and withdrawal slips
100
5
The student signs his name in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
100
5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student prints his name in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, A, Activities 1 to 5 for additional activities.
2.
Collect all the forms and blanks the student might need to fill out, e.g., job application blanks,
unemployment blanks, social security applications, identification cards, health insurance forms, catalog or
mail order blanks.
3.
Introduce the words PRINT OR TYPE, FULL NAME, NAME, LAST, FIRST, MIDDLE, and
MAIDEN. Also point out the abbreviation M.I. (middle initial). Explain the meaning of each of these
words and of the abbreviation M.I. Practice until the student is familiar with the words and their meanings.
4.
Make a set of flashcards with the words listed in Activity 3 and the abbreviation M.I. printed on
them. Tell the student to study these cards and to keep them in his desk or other storage area. Practice with
the student using the flashcards until he is able to identify the words. Review the words periodically to
check the student's retention.
5.
Give the student a variety of standard forms and blanks. Encourage the student to find the words
PRINT OR TYPE, FULL NAME, NAME, LAST, FIRST, MIDDLE, and MAIDEN, and ask him to
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 117
find the abbreviation M.I. as it appears on the forms and blanks. Ask the student to underline those words
(and abbreviation) that apply to him. Practice.
6.
Once the student is successful at identifying each word and abbreviation on a variety of forms, tell
him to fill in his name on each sample form. Supervise, assist if necessary (see Functional Writing, II, A,
Activities 1 to 5), and reward. Practice.
7.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise, e.g., job application blanks,
application for a Social Security number, etc.
B.
The student prints his address in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, D, Activities 1 to 10 for additional activities.
2.
Collect all the forms and blanks the student might need to fill out.
3.
Introduce the words STREET ADDRESS, HOME ADDRESS, STREET, NUMBER, RURAL
ROUTE, CITY, TOWN, POST OFFICE, and ZIP CODE. Explain the meaning of each of these words, and
specify which words apply to the student's current address.
4.
Make a set of flashcards with the words in Activity 3 printed on them. Tell the student to study the
words and to keep them in his desk or other storage area. Practice with the student, using the flashcards,
until he is able to identify the words. Review the words periodically to check the student's retention.
5.
Give the student a variety of sample forms and blanks. Encourage the student to find those words
listed in Activity 3 that apply to him as they appear on the forms and blanks. Ask him to underline the
words that refer to his address. Practice.
6.
Once the student is successful at identifying the words on a variety of forms that request the printing
of his complete address, tell him to print the information on each sample form. Supervise, assist if
necessary (see Functional Writing, II, D, Activities 1 to 10), and reward. Practice.
7.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise.
C.
The student writes his telephone number in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, H, Activities 1 to 4 for additional activities.
2.
Collect all the forms and blanks that request telephone numbers which the student might need to fill
out. Review these with the student.
3.
Introduce the words TELEPHONE, HOME TELEPHONE, and
118
Curriculum
BUSINESS (BUS.) TELEPHONE. Explain the meaning of each of these words, and specify which words
apply to the student. Tell the student that if he does not have a business telephone to either leave it blank or
to write in a dash. Practice.
4.
Make several flashcards with the words in Activity 3 printed on them. Tell the student to study the
words and to keep the flashcards in his desk or other storage area. Practice with the student, using the
flashcards, until he is able to identify the words. Review the words periodically to check the student's
retention.
5.
Give the student a variety of sample forms and blanks. Encourage the student to find those words
listed in Activity 3 as they appear on the forms and blanks. Ask him to underline the words that ask him to
write his telephone number. Practice.
6.
Once the student is successful at identifying the words that request the printing of his telephone
number on a variety of forms, print the information on each sample form. Supervise, assist if necessary (see
Functional Writing, II, H, Activities 1 to 4), and reward. Practice.
7.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise.
D.
The student writes his birthdate in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, G, Activities 1 to 4 for additional activities.
2.
Collect all the forms and blanks the student might need to fill out. Review these with the student.
3.
Introduce the words DATE OF BIRTH and BIRTHDATE. Explain the meaning of these words. Be
sure to point out that there are different ways of asking for the same information.
4.
Make two flashcards with the words in Activity 3 printed on them. Tell the student to study the
words and to keep the flashcards in his desk or other storage area. Practice with the student, using the
flashcards, until he is able to identify the words. Review periodically to check the student's retention.
5.
Give the student a variety of sample forms and blanks. Encourage the student to find those words
listed in Activity 3 as they appear on the forms and blanks. Ask him to underline the words that request his
date of birth. Practice.
6.
Once the student is successful at identifying the words that request the printing of his birthdate on a
variety of forms, tell him to write the numerals for his birthdate on each sample form. Supervise, assist if
necessary (see Functional Writing II, G, Activities 1 to 4), and reward. Practice.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 119
7.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise.
E.
The student writes his Social Security number in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, I, Activities 1 to 6 for additional suggested activities.
2.
Introduce the words SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (NO.). Explain the meaning of these words,
and ask the student to refer to his Social Security card. If he has no Social Security number, assist the
student in applying for one.
3.
Ask him to refer to his "Important Numbers to Remember" chart (Figure 5) to find the words
SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER.
4.
Give the student a variety of sample forms and blanks. Encourage the student to find the words
Social Security Number (No.) as they appear on the forms and blanks. Ask him to underline these words.
Practice.
5.
Ask the student to write his Social Security number on each of the sample forms in the designated
places. Supervise, assist if necessary (see Functional Writing, II, I, Activities 1 to 6), and reward. Practice.
6.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise.
7.
Show the student partially filled out forms with most of his personal data completed except for his
Social Security number. Ask him to tell you what is missing. Then tell him to fill in the missing
information.
F.
The student indicates his sex in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
Show the student various standard forms and blanks. Point out the words SEX, MALE, and
FEMALE, and the letters M and F. Tell the student that the form is asking whether the person filling out
the form is a boy or man or a girl or woman. Explain that a boy or man is a male, while a girl or woman is a
female (see Volume II, Socialization, Sex Education, II, H). Assist him in identifying his sex designation
by the words MALE or FEMALE or the letters F or M. Practice.
2.
Make flashcards of the words MALE, FEMALE, SEX, M, and F Practice with the student, using the
flashcards, until he is able to identify the words and letters. Review the words periodically to check the
student's retention.
3.
Give the student a variety of forms, and ask him to find the word or letter that designates his sex.
Show him how to check the appropriate box or line next to that word. Practice.
120
Curriculum
4.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise. Check to see whether he
has designated his sex correctly.
G.
The student indicates his marital status in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
Show the student various standard forms and blanks. Point out the words MARITAL STATUS,
SINGLE, MARRIED, WIDOWED, DIVORCED, AND SEPARATED. Explain the meaning of each of
these words, and specify the word that applies to him.
2.
Make a flashcard of the word that describes the student's marital status. Practice with the student
until he is able to identify the word. Tell the student to keep the flashcard in his desk or other storage area.
3.
Give the student a variety of forms, and ask him first to find the words MARITAL STATUS and
then the word that refers to him. Show him how to check the appropriate box or line next to that word.
Practice.
4.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks as real situations arise. Check to see whether he
has designated his marital status correctly.
H.
The student indicates his previous employment record in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
Show the student various standard forms and blanks. Point out the words PREVIOUS
EMPLOYMENT RECORD or PLACE OF PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT. Explain the meaning of these
words. Make flashcards of the words, and practice with the student until he is able to identify them. Tell the
student to keep the flashcards in his desk. Review the words periodically to check the student's retention.
2.
Compile a list of the student's previous employment record on an index card. Include the place and
address of the employer, the job title, the dates of employment, and the salary or hourly wage for each of
his jobs. Encourage him to carry this information with him at all times or when he goes on a job interview.
Tell him to use his list in completing job applications. If he has had no previous employment record,
explain that he must write the word NONE. Give the student sample blanks and forms, and encourage him
to fill in the correct previous employment information in the place indicated on the form. Practice.
3.
Assist the student in filling out employment forms as real situations arise. Supervise him as he
copies his previous employment record from his list. Remind him to double check to see that he has copied
the information correctly. Assist him whenever necessary, and reward him.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 121
I.
The student writes the correct amount of money in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
Show the student various forms such as checking account deposit slips, checks, check stubs, and
saving deposit and withdrawal slips. Show him where to write the money amounts, and indicate whether
they should be written as numerals or words (see Functional Reading, IV, G).
2.
Assist the student in filling out sample check deposit slips, checks, check stubs, and saving deposit
and withdrawal slips. Practice.
3.
As real situations arise, help the student to complete the forms listed in Activity 2.
4.
See Consumer Skills, II, A and I, G for additional activities.
J.
The student writes the date in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, J, Activities 1 to 5 and Functional Reading, V, A, Activities 1 to 9 for
suggested activities.
2.
Collect a variety of forms and blanks the student might need to fill out. Show them to the student,
and explain what they are used for.
3.
Review the word DATE, its meaning, and ways of finding it. Make a flashcard of the word, and
practice using it with the student until he is able to identify it. Tell the student to keep the flashcard in his
desk. Review the word periodically to check the student's retention.
4.
Encourage the student to find the word DATE as it appears on a variety of standard forms and
blanks.
5.
Once the student is successful at identifying the word DATE and other signs that the date is being
requested, e.g.,_______ 19___ appearing at the top right hand portion of checks, give him a variety of
sample forms, and tell him to fill in the date in each one. Include sample blank checks and deposit and
withdrawal slips. Supervise, assist him if necessary, and reward him. Practice.
6.
Assist the student in filling out forms and blanks that require the writing of the date as these
situations arise.
K.
slips
The student writes his bank account number in the appropriate place on deposit and withdrawal
1.
When appropriate, show the student his bank account number as it appears on his bankbook. Ask
him to practice copying the number on slips of paper.
2.
Once the student successfully copies his bank account number on slips of paper, show him samples
of deposit and withdrawal slips.
122
Curriculum
Demonstrate writing the bank account number in the boxes or on the line next to the words ACCOUNT
NUMBER (NO. or #). Explain the meaning of the words, abbreviation, and symbol.
3.
Give the student sample deposit and withdrawal slips. Ask him to write the account number in the
appropriate place. Practice.
4.
Explain the purpose of each type of bank slip, and assist the student in using both deposit and
withdrawal slips correctly in functional situations. See Consumer Skills, II, A for additional activities.
L.
The student signs his name in the appropriate place on blanks and forms
1.
See Functional Writing, II, B, Activities 1 to 5 for additional activities.
2.
Collect a variety of forms and blanks the student might need to fill out and sign. Review the blanks
with the student.
3.
Introduce the words SIGNATURE, and SIGN HERE and also the line that appears on the bottom of
a check. Explain the meanings of the words and the line clue on a check.
4.
Make flashcards of the words SIGNATURE and SIGN HERE. Practice with the student, using the
flashcards, until he is able to identify the words. Review the words periodically to check the student's
retention.
5.
Encourage the student to find the words SIGNATURE and SIGN HERE as they appear on standard
forms and blanks. Point out that these words usually appear at the bottom of forms.
6.
Give the student a variety of sample forms. Once the student is successful at identifying the words
SIGNATURE and SIGN HERE on a variety of forms, tell him to sign his name on each sample form.
Practice.
7.
Assist the student in signing his name as he needs to in functional situations. Review periodically to
see whether he is maintaining the skill.
8.
Review the flashcards used in Functional Reading, VIII, A to D, F to H, J, and L. Practice with the
student, checking to see that he is able to identify the words on the flashcards. Review the flashcards
periodically as a way of checking the student's retention.
9.
Review all of the skills in Functional Reading, VIII, A to L, and ask the student to check that the
forms and blanks are complete and correct before signing them.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 123
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
IX.
The student will respond appropriately to written information found on bills, work time cards, check
stubs, market receipts, etc.
RPL(%)*
RO**
A. The student pays, by the due date appearing on bills, the correct amount for items and services
purchased
100
5
B. The student identifies and verifies gross pay, net pay, and deduction information found on pay check
stubs
75
4
C. The student checks market receipts to determine that he has been charged correctly 100
5
D. The student checks to determine that information found on work time cards is correct 100
5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student pays, by the due date appearing on bills, the correct amount for items and services
purchased
1.
Bring into the classroom or learning area a selection of bills with due dates printed on them, e.g.,
gas and electric bills, insurance bills, telephone bills, department store bills, and bills from service or
repairmen. Point out the information on the bill, including the amount due and the due date. Explain that
the bill must be paid before the date shown or it will be overdue.
2.
Give the student a selection of bills or sample bills having due dates on them. Tell the student to
find the due date and the amount due and to read them aloud or to indicate in some way that he identifies
the information. If the student finds and identifies the information correctly, praise him. If he is unable to
find and to identify the information, assist him in doing so. Practice.
3.
Make flashcards of the words found on bills, e.g., AMOUNT DUE, PLEASE REMIT, PAY BY,
PAYMENT DUE, LAST DAY TO PAY, NET TOTAL, GROSS TOTAL, KEEP THIS PART OF BILL
FOR YOUR RECORDS, INCLUDE STUB WITH PAYMENT, MAIL TO, etc. Practice with the student,
using the flashcards, until he identifies the words found on bills.
4.
If the student gets bills of any kind, ask him to bring his bills into the classroom or learning area. Go
over the bills with the student, pointing out the amount due and the due date. If the bills contain
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommenced observations.
124
Curriculum
words other than those listed on the flashcards developed in Activity 3, make additional flashcards of words
on the student's bills. Practice with the flashcards.
5.
Make a chart (Figure 32) of the months of the year, written out and abbreviated. Read the months
aloud, and practice with the student until he identifies the months of the year, when written out and also
when abbreviated. Next to each month, place the number that is used in place of the month in a shortened
version of the date, e.g., 12/1/76.
6.
Make a list of due dates and amount due, and ask the student to read them aloud. Include the date
written in a variety of ways (Figure 33). Practice with the student until he is able to identify the due dates
and amounts due.
7.
When appropriate, tell the student to bring his bills into the
Figure 32. Months of the year chart.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 125
Figure 33. Dates and amount due chart.
classroom or learning area. Ask him to find and to tell you the amount due and due date on the bill. Assist
him in writing out checks, obtaining money orders, or in going to the appropriate offices to pay his bills. As
the student becomes more certain of the procedure involved in paying bills, encourage him to pay his bills
independently.
B.
The student identifies and verifies gross pay, net pay, and deduction information found on pay
check stubs
1.
Bring a selection of pay checks and pay check stubs into the classroom or learning area. Point out
the information on the check, e.g., gross pay or gross earnings, net pay, net earnings or net amount of
check, F.I.C.A. or Social Security, state tax withheld, federal income tax withheld, medical insurance, etc.
Read each deduction aloud, explaining what each means and which deductions are mandatory (Social
Security, taxes) and which are voluntary (medical insurance).
2.
Construct a large sample pay check or pay check stub on tagboard (Figure 34). Hang it in the
classroom or learning area. Point out the key words on the check, and read them aloud to the student. Ask
the student to repeat the words after you read them. Read the
126
Curriculum
Figure 34. Sample pay check stub.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 127
key words aloud, and ask the student to point to them on the sample pay check or pay check stub as you
read them. Practice.
3.
Make flashcards of the key words on the pay check or pay check stub. Practice with the student
until he is able to identify the words.
4.
Make a worksheet for verifying deduction information and pay amounts on the pay check stub
(Figure 35). Ask the student to bring his pay check into the classroom. From the student's pay check, make
a list of his deductions. Give the student a blank worksheet and his pay check or pay check stub. Help the
student to fill in the deduction information on the worksheet by copying it from his pay check or pay check
stub. Tell the student to add up or total the deductions (see Functional Arithmetic, I, Q) and to write the
amount in the total box on the worksheet. If the student is unable to add, add it for him, explaining what
you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to find the gross pay amount on his pay check and to copy it
next to gross pay on the worksheet. Tell the student to copy the total from the deductions column found
next to the word deductions. Tell the student to subtract the deductions (see Functional Arithmetic, I, T)
from the gross pay to get the net pay. If the student is unable to subtract, subtract the numbers for him,
explaining what you are doing as you do it. Tell the student to compare the amount of net pay on his
worksheet to the amount of net pay on his paycheck. The two amounts should match.
5.
For the student who does not work, print sample pay checks (Figure 36). Follow the instructions in
Activity 4, above, using the sample checks in place of Actual pay checks. Practice.
C.
The student checks market receipts to determine that he has been charged correctly
1.
Take the student to a supermarket, and assist him as he purchases a few food items. Take the
groceries home, and unpack them. Show the student how to match the prices on the food packages to the
prices on the market receipt by checking each price off as you match it to an item. Practice.
2.
Construct a price matching game. On a large piece of tagboard, draw squares, and print a price in
each square. Give the student squares with prices printed on them to match the prices printed on the
tagboard (Figure 37). Tell the student to match the appropriate price square to the matching square on the
board. Practice.
3.
Bring empty food packages with prices marked on them into the classroom or learning area. Draw
sample market receipts that reflect the prices of an accumulation of food packages. Give the
128
Curriculum
Figure 35. Worksheet for verifying information on pay check.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 129
Figure 36. Sample check.
student the food packages and the sample market receipt, arid tell him to check off the food prices on the
receipt which match the prices on the food packages. Practice.
4.
Repeat Activity 3, and include an incorrect or extra price. Tell the student that when this happens,
he should take the receipt and the order back to the store to get a refund.
5.
Encourage the student to check his market receipts whenever he purchases items in the grocery
store.
D.
The student checks to determine that the information found on work time cards is correct
1.
Obtain sample work time cards from the student's place of employment or from a business that uses
work time cards. Bring the work time cards into the classroom or learning area. Identify the information on
the time cards, and point out the information to the student as you read it. Tell the student to repeat each
item of information after you say it aloud. Practice until the student is able to identify the information
printed on a work time card (name, day, date, and time).
2.
Make flashcards of the information found on work time cards. Include the time written in numbers,
e.g., 3:00, 7:45, 2:30, the days of the week, written out and abbreviated, the months of the year, written out
and abbreviated, and the student's name. Practice with the student until he is able to identify the information
found on time cards.
3.
Construct a matching game (Figure 38). On a large piece of tagboard, make four columns. Label
them NAME, DATE, DAY, AND TIME. On small, individual squares of tagboard, print the student's
name, the date, including each month of the year and day of the month, the day, including all the days of
the week, and the time, written as it appears on work time cards. Tell the student to match the information
on the small pieces of tagboard to the
130
Curriculum
Figure 37. Price matching game.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 131
Figure 38. Matching game.
132
Curriculum
headings on the large piece of tagboard and to place it in the appropriate column, e.g., 3:00 should be
placed in the column marked "Time." Assist the student, and practice with him until he identifies the
information used in the game.
4.
Make sample time cards. On each one, place the student's name, the day, date, and a space for the
time of his arrival at school. As the student arrives at school, tell him to find the card with his name on it,
check the day and date against the calendar to be sure it is correct, and bring the card to you. Tell him the
time of his arrival, and fill it in on the time card. Tell the student to look at the card to see if the time you
have written is the correct time. Repeat this activity daily.
5.
Give the student a small pad or notebook. Label each page with the days of the week and the dates.
Tell him to mark down the time of his arrival and departure each day. At the end of each day, tell the
student to check the time of arrival and departure in his notebook against the information on his classroom
time card. Offer help when necessary. If the student works, tell him to use a notebook to record his working
hours and to use this record to verify the working hours printed on his work time card.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
X.
The student will identify help wanted ads, printed advertisements, correspondence, and other
written materials and will seek the assistance of a responsible person to decode written and printed material
that he is unable to read
RPL(%)* RO**
A. The student locates the help wanted sections of newspapers and seeks the help of a responsible person
to decode the printed material that he is unable to read
75
4
B. The student identifies common abbreviations found in the help wanted sections of newspapers 75 4
C. The student identifies printed advertisements that contain information of interest and seeks the help of
a responsible person to decode the printed material that he is unable to read
75
4
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 133
RPL(%)* RO**
D. The student uses printed advertisements in making decisions about the purchasing of goods and
services and seeks the help of a responsible person to decode the printed material that he is unable to read
75
4
Suggested Activities
A.
The student locates the help wanted sections of newspapers and seeks the help of a responsible
person to decode the printed material that he is unable to read
1.
Show the student copies of daily and Sunday newspapers sold in his community. Point out the
various sections of these papers, taking extra time to show the student the help wanted section (Figure 39).
2.
If the help wanted section is listed in the newspaper's table of contents, point out the words HELP
WANTED ADS, or CLASSIFIED, and explain the meaning of these words.
3.
Provide the student with clues to locating the help wanted section. Point out that in the daily
newspaper, it usually appears in the back pages, and the print of the want ads is smaller than the print in
other sections of newspapers. Give the student newspapers, and tell him to practice locating the help
wanted section.
4.
As the student locates the help wanted section, tell him to put a check with a marking pen at the top
of each column of help wanted ads.
5.
Ask the student to bring a newspaper from home. Tell him to locate the help wanted section.
Explain to the student that the
Figure 39. Job ads in the help wanted section of the newspaper.
134
Curriculum
help wanted section lists jobs that are available. Point out to him that even though he may be able to pick
out some words in the advertisements, he is most likely unable to identify all the words or enough of the
words to understand the meaning of the ad. Tell the student that once he locates the help wanted section, he
should take the ads to a responsible person who will help him to decode the information in the help wanted
ads.
6.
Ask the student to help you to develop a list of responsible persons to whom he may go for
assistance in decoding the information in help wanted ads, e.g., mother, father, guardian, group home
supervisor, teacher, vocational development counselor, etc. If the student is unable to read the list of
persons, put pictures or other clues next to the names on the list. Review the list with the student until he is
familiar with it.
7.
Simulate a situation with the student that requires him to seek help in decoding the information in
the help wanted ads. Tell the student to role play seeking help from the responsible persons on his list.
Practice, simulating a variety of situations.
8.
Once the student has located the help wanted ads, spend time with him discussing the information in
the ads. Talk about job qualifications, appropriate salaries for various types of work, the proximity to home,
transportation to and from work, working hours, working conditions, and job duration. Encourage realistic
job expectations.
B.
The student identifies common abbreviations found in the help wanted sections of newspapers
1.
Look through newspapers with the student. Make a list of the most commonly used abbreviations
found in the newspapers (Figure 40). Read each abbreviation aloud to the student, and explain its meaning
to him, stressing those abbreviations that might appear in the help wanted ads that offer the types of
employment the student is interested in and capable of doing.
2.
Using the list from Activity 1, construct a large instructional chart. Point to each abbreviation, and
ask the student to tell you what it means or represents, e.g., hrs. = hours, eves. = evenings, appt. =
appointment. Practice until the student is able to identify the abbreviations or is familiar with the fact that
abbreviations are used to save space in ads but they do represent words.
3.
Refer to the chart in Activity 2, and include the listed abbreviations in classroom activities, e.g.,
during opening exercises, say "Good morning," and ask if anyone knows a short way of saying or an
abbreviation for morning—A.M.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 135
Figure 40 Help wanted abbreviations.
136
Curriculum
C.
The student identifies printed advertisements that contain information of interest and seeks the help
of a responsible person to decode the printed material that he is unable to read
1.
Give the student newspapers. Ask him to look through the newspaper and to point out different
types of advertisements. Discuss with the student the information contained in the various advertisements.
Practice.
2.
Set aside an area to be used as an advertisement bulletin board. Each day, place advertisements of
interest to the student on the bulletin board. Include advertisements for goods on sale as well as for
entertainment and sporting events. Read aloud the ads to the student. Give the student the same edition of
the newspaper from which you took the ads. Ask the student to find the ads on the bulletin board in his
newspaper. Practice.
3.
Plan a field trip to a theater, ball game, or other event that would be advertised in the newspaper.
Read aloud and point out the information in the advertisement for the event you choose to attend. Tell the
student to check his home newspaper, or give him a newspaper, and ask him to locate and cut out the ad for
the event. Go on the field trip.
4.
Encourage the student to locate advertisements for entertainment, cultural, and sporting events in
which he is interested and to take the ads to a responsible person (see Functional Reading, X, A, Activity 6)
for help in decoding the written information in the ads.
D.
The student uses printed advertisements in making decisions about the purchasing of goods and
services and seeks the help of a responsible person to decode the printed material that he is unable to read
1.
Give the student a newspaper. Ask him to look through the newspaper and to locate advertisements
for goods he might need to purchase. Read the ads aloud to the student, and discuss the prices of a variety
of advertised goods. Practice.
2.
Set aside an area to be used as an advertisement bulletin board. Give the student newspapers, and
ask the student to locate a variety of advertisements for goods and services he might need to purchase. Cut
out the ads, and place them on the bulletin board. Read the ads to the student, and discuss and compare the
prices of a variety of goods and services, e.g., clothing, food, plumbers, etc.
3.
Plan a class luncheon. Prepare a shopping list from the planned luncheon menu. Give the student a
newspaper, and ask him to find the advertisements for grocery stores that list the prices of food. Compare
prices, and take the student shopping at the store with the lowest prices. Help the student to purchase the
food on the shopping list, prepare, and serve the luncheon.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 137
4.
Ask the student to bring into the classroom the advertisement supplements usually found in the
Sunday edition of the newspaper. Look through the supplements, reading aloud the prices and information
about items on sale. Discuss what a bargain is, and point out bargains or good buys in the advertisements. If
the student needs any of the sale items or you need them for classroom use, take the student on a shopping
trip, and purchase the needed items. Explain to the student that advertisements can save the consumer
money if the advertisements are used wisely, e.g., buying only needed articles and comparing sale prices at
one store to regular prices at another store.
5.
When the situation arises, assist the student in using printed advertisements in making decisions
about the purchasing of goods, e.g., clothing, household articles, games, etc.
FUNCTIONAL WRITING
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT
I.
The student will acquire those fine motor skills and those movements of the upper extremities that
facilitate the development of functional writing
II.
The student will write his personal data, needs, and thoughts with such clarity that they are
communicated readily to readers
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
I.
The student will acquire those fine motor skills and those movements of the upper extremities that
facilitate the development of functional writing
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
RPL(%)* RO**
The student picks up and holds a pencil or pen correctly and makes marks on a piece of paper 100 5
The student positions his body in a suitable position for writing
100
5
The student positions writing paper correctly
100
5
The student traces straight and curved lines, circles, and semicircles
100
5
The student traces geometric shapes, numerals, and capital and small manuscript letters
100 5
The student reproduces simple straight lines
100
5
The student reproduces circles, semicircles, and curved lines
100
5
The student reproduces simple geometric shapes
100
5
The student reproduces the numerals 0 to 9
100
5
The student reproduces the capital manuscript letters
100
5
The student reproduces the small manuscript letters
100
5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student picks up and holds a pencil or pen correctly and makes marks on a piece of paper.
1.
Give the student a pencil or ball point pen and a piece of paper.
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 139
Show him how to hold the pencil or pen so that he can easily make marks on the piece of paper. Place the
pencil or pen in his hand so that it rests on the third finger. Assist him in holding it in place with the thumb
held in opposition to the index finger. After the pencil or pen is positioned properly, hold it in the student's
hand, and guide his hand so that it makes marks on the paper. Show delight in the marks made. Then
remove your hand, and encourage him to scribble or to make marks on his own. Reward him for attempts
as well as for successes. For the student who has difficulty holding the pencil, wrap clay around the pencil,
and help the student to hold it by grasping the clay.
2.
Use different color pencils and pens for variety, and repeat Activity 1.
3.
Use a felt tip pen, a crayon, or a pencil with soft lead for ease in marking.
4.
Place the pencil or pen on the desk in front of the student. Encourage the student to pick up the
pencil or pen and to make marks or "write" on the paper. If necessary, assist him in picking up and
positioning the pencil or pen. Do not allow him to make marks on the paper until he is holding the pen in a
position suitable for writing. Practice.
B.
The student positions his body in a suitable position for writing
1.
Repeat the activities listed in Functional Writing, I, A, Activities 1 to 3. Observe how the student
positions his body. Remember that an awkward position will interfere later with legibility and speed of
writing. Therefore, do not allow the student to write using a body position that is likely to create problems
at a later time. While the student is using a pen or pencil, observe his total body alignment and positioning,
and make corrections where needed. Use verbal clues whenever they can be comprehended by the student.
2.
Use a full length mirror to show the student how you position your body when you write.
Encourage him to model you when he makes his marks or "writes" on the paper. When working with a
student with a motor disorder, consider his physical limitations before deciding on an optimum writing
position.
3.
Tell the student how and where to place his feet, how to hold his head, what to do with his back, etc.
For the student without oral language comprehension, it may be necessary to actually move his body and its
parts into the correct position.
4.
Whenever the student is expected to write, color, or paint, require that he sit in the correct position
before he begins.
C.
The student positions writing paper correctly
1.
Show the student how to slant his paper so that he will be able to make marks, lines, shapes, and
words on it with speed and com-
140
Curriculum
fort. Remember to slant the student's paper in the opposite direction of his preferred hand, e.g., if he is left
handed, slant the paper to the right. Assist him in slanting the paper, and then review picking up and
holding the pen or pencil and making marks on the slanted paper. Only allow him to make the marks on the
paper if he has slanted it in the appropriate direction and if he has assumed the proper position for writing.
2.
With masking tape, create the outline of the paper on the student's desk. Tell him to match his paper
to fit the outline. Use this model whenever necessary, and remove it when it is no longer needed.
Encourage the student to work toward success. Reward him by removing the tape.
D.
The student traces straight and curved lines, circles, and semicircles
1.
Create horizontal and vertical straight lines in sand using your index finger. Take the student's hand,
and assist him in tracing over the line pattern with the index finger of his preferred hand. Smooth out the
sand (erasing the mark), and recreate the same line pattern on the same spot. Encourage the student to trace
over the line pattern once again.
2.
Cut out 1/4-inch straight lines from sandpaper, and paste them on a piece of paper. Place some of
them vertically and some horizontally. Then, using the index finger of your preferred hand, trace over these
lines going from left to right (horizontal lines) and from top to bottom (vertical lines). Encourage the
student to use the index finger of his preferred hand to trace these sandpaper lines. Only allow him to do so
in the proper direction, i.e., left to right or up to down.
3.
Make horizontal and vertical straight lines using a felt pen on paper. Remember that writing is, to a
large extent, a visual motor skill. Therefore, while you are making a horizontal line, say, "When I move the
pen from side to side like this (demonstrate), I make a straight line that goes from side to side." If the
student does not comprehend oral language, pantomime your message. After you have completed your
drawing of the line, ask the student to trace the line with his index finger. After he has traced the line with
his index finger, give him the pen, and ask him to trace the line with a pen. Assist him, if necessary, in
tracing with the pen. While he is doing the tracing, remind him to look at the mark he is making with his
pen. Practice.
4.
Introduce all the other straight lines that help to form letters and numerals. Assist the student in
tracing all of the straight lines with a variety of pens and pencils. Practice (Figure 41).
5.
Once the student successfully traces the various straight lines,
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 141
Figure 41. Straight lines.
Figure 42. Circles and semicircles.
Figure 43. Curved lines.
repeat Activities 1 to 3, this time with circles and semicircles from which the manuscript letters and
numerals are formed (Figure 42).
6.
Once the student successfully traces the various straight lines and circles, repeat Activities 1 to 3,
this time with curved lines from which the manuscript letters and numerals are formed (Figure 43).
E.
The student traces geometric shapes, numerals, and capital and small manuscript letters
1.
Repeat the activities in Functional Writing, I, D, Activities 1 to 4. This time, add the triangle to the
tracing activities.
2.
Repeat the activities in Functional Writing, I, D, Activities 1 to 6. This time, add the numerals to the
tracing activities.
3.
Repeat the activities in Functional Writing I, D, Activities 1 to 4. This time, add the manuscript
letters that are formed by straight lines (Figure 44).
4.
Repeat the activities in Functional Writing, I, D, Activities 1 to 6.
Figure 44. Straight line manuscript letters.
142
Curriculum
Figure 45. Letters made from straight, curved line and circular shapes.
This time, add the manuscript letters that are formed by connecting straight lines to circles, semicircles, and
other curved lines (Figure 45).
F.
The student reproduces simple straight lines
1.
Review the tracing activities in Functional Writing I, D, Activities 1 to 4. Remember that writing
involves the revisualization of letters, numerals, words, phrases, and sentences. The essential writing skill is
remembering the visual patterns and the movements needed to create these visual patterns. Therefore,
copying letters, numerals, and words is to be avoided because this practice would probably interfere with
the need to rely on memory and would tend to reinforce eye movements that are inconsistent with the
visual monitoring necessary for writing. Once you have completed the review of straight line tracing, ask
the student to watch you as you write a straight line. Next, tell the student to study a straight line. Tell him
to try to get a picture of the line in his head. Indicate in some way that if he looks at the line and then closes
his eyes, he should be able to keep the picture of the line in his head. Ask him to look at the line, close his
eyes, see the picture of the line, and open his eyes again to match the picture in his mind to the actual line.
After the student has done this several times, tell him that you are going to remove your line and that you
expect him to write his own copy from memory. Then remove your copy, and assist the student if
necessary. Practice in this way until the student is able to reproduce, with ease, straight lines from memory.
2.
Gradually decrease the amount of time between removing your copy of the line and asking the
student to reproduce it.
3.
Gradually decrease the amount of time the student has to study your copy of the line.
4.
Ask the student to reproduce the line using clay.
5.
Ask the student to reproduce the line in sand.
6.
Ask the student to reproduce the line using paint and a paint brush.
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 143
7.
8.
Ask the student to reproduce the line using a crayon.
Ask the student to reproduce the line using a pen or pencil.
G.
The student reproduces circles, semicircles, and lines
Review the activities in Functional Writing, I, D, Activities 5 and 6 and F, Activities 1 to 8. This time, use
the patterns as shown in the Figures in D, 5 and 6.
H.
The student reproduces simple geometric shapes
Review the activities in Functional Writing, I, F, Activities 1 to 8. This time, use the circle, square, and
triangle.
I.
The student reproduces the numerals 0 to 9
Review the activities in Functional Writing, I, F, Activities 1 to 8. This
time, use the numerals.
J.
The student reproduces the capital manuscript letters
1.
Review the activities in Functional Writing, I, F, Activities 1 to 8. This time, use the capital
manuscript letters.
2.
If the student is not successful or if it is too time consuming, work only with the capital letters that
start his first and last names, the first and last names of parents or guardians, the words in his address, and
the address of parents or guardians.
K.
The student reproduces the small manuscript letters
1.
Review the activities in Functional Writing, I, F, Activities 1 to 8. This time, use small manuscript
letters.
2.
If the student is not successful or if it is too time consuming, work only with the small manuscript
letters that are in his first and last names, the first and last names of parents or guardians, the words in his
address, and the address of parents or guardians.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
II.
The student will write his personal data, needs, and thoughts with such clarity that they are
communicated readily to readers
A.
B.
C.
D.
The student prints his name
The student writes his signature
The student prints the names of his parents or guardians
The student prints his address
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
RPL(%)*
100
100
100
100
RO**
5
5
5
5
144
Curriculum
RPL(%)*
RO**
E. The student prints the address of his parents or guardians
100
5
F. The student writes his age, using numerals
100
5
G. The student writes his birthdate, using numerals
75
4
H. The student writes his telephone number
75
4
I. The student writes his Social Security number
75
4
J. The student writes the date
100
5
K. The student fills out order blanks and other simple forms such as applications, deposit and withdrawal
slips, and checks
100
5
L. The student prints simple messages
75
4
M. The student correctly addresses and mails greeting cards, thank you notes, and simple messages
75
4
Suggested Activities
A.
The student prints his name
1.
Print in bold letters the student's first name on a flashcard, and proceed as outlined in Functional
Writing, I,.F, Activities 1 to 8. Begin by showing the student his whole first name. If the student is
successful at reproducing his first name, practice. Require him to write his first name on his work. Reward
him. Then proceed to Activity 3. If the student does not succeed, proceed to Activity 2.
2.
Show the student the first letter of his first name, and ask him to reproduce it. If he succeeds, add
one additional letter at a time until he is reproducing his entire first name correctly.
3.
Once the student is able to reproduce his first name, print his last name in bold letters on a
flashcard, and proceed as outlined in Functional Writing, I, F, Activities 1 to 8. If the student is successful,
practice. Require him to write his last name on his work. Reward him. Then proceed to Activity 5. If the
student does not succeed, proceed to Activity 4.
4.
Show the student the first letter of his last name, and ask him to reproduce it. If he succeeds, add
one additional letter at a time until he is reproducing his entire last name correctly.
5.
If the student is successful in reproducing his last name, encourage him to write his whole name
from memory. Practice on unlined and lined paper. Require him to write his whole name on his work.
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 145
6.
Practice by asking the student to write his first name in situations that require it (see Functional
Writing, II, K to M).
B.
The student writes his signature
1.
Once the student has successfully reproduced his whole name in manuscript letters, review the
activities in Functional Writing, I, F, Activities 1 to 8. This time, use his name written in cursive letters as
the model, and proceed as indicated in Functional Writing, II, A, Activities 1 to 6.
2.
Show the student the relationship between his name written in manuscript and his signature.
3.
Encourage the student to write his signature in response to the word SIGNATURE on forms and
checks that he needs to write.
4.
Encourage the student to write his signature on letters and notes. Practice and reward him.
5.
Remind the student to sign his name on greeting cards.
C.
The student prints the names of his parents or guardians
1.
Find out the names of parents or guardians. Use the official names of these individuals, i.e., names
that appear on correspondence, mailboxes, and legal documents.
2.
Explain to the student that in a variety of situations he will need to know the names of his parents or
guardians. Discuss these situations, e.g., on forms that request these names. Impress upon him the
importance of knowing this information. Role play situations that illustrate the need for this knowledge.
3.
Explain to the student that he has a name that he calls his mother (or surrogate mother). Review this
word, e.g., Mom, Mommy, Mah, etc. Ask him if his mother is called by any other name. Try to elicit her
first name. Tell the student that just as he has a first name, so does his mother. Indicate in some way that
close relatives and friends usually call her by her first name. Ask him to say her name. Remind him that he
is not to use this name in calling her, but that he can write this name on envelopes and on forms.
4.
Write the first name of the student's mother (or mother surrogate) on a 5 X 8 index card. Capitalize
the first letter only. Ask the student to study the word because you are going to ask him to write his
mother's first name from memory. Practice, and reward him for attempts, approximations, and successes.
5.
Once the student is able to print his mother's first name, begin working on her last name. If her last
name is the same as his, explain this to the student. Review the printing of his last name. Then ask him to
write his full name and, next, his mother's full name.
146
Curriculum
6.
Show him envelopes addressed, to his mother. Ask him to underline his mother's first name, her last
name, and then her full name.
7.
Ask him to respond to the words (as found in forms) MOTHER'S NAME by writing his mother's
name on the line next to these words.
8.
Show the student a message to be sent to his mother. Ask him to write her name on the envelope.
9.
If the student's mother or mother surrogate has a different last name, encourage the student to listen
to it when friends and other people call her. Tell him to listen to the name that comes after the word MRS.
(or MS.). Explain that the word is his mother's last name. Ask him to say this name, and then show him this
name as written on a card. Ask him to study the word until he can reproduce it from memory. Reward him
for attempts, approximations, and successes. Once he can print her last name, ask him to write her full
name. Practice.
10.
Repeat Activities 2 to 9. This time, assist the student in printing his father's or surrogate father's full
name. Practice.
D.
The student prints his address
1.
Once the student successfully identifies his address (see Functional Reading, I, B), assist him in
printing the number part of his address. Begin by using a template, and encourage the student to use the
index finger of his preferred hand to trace the outline of each number. Once he has traced the outline of
each number, ask the student to trace the outline of each number with a crayon or a pencil. After the student
has used the template sufficiently, give him a card upon which you have written the number part of his
address. Put a piece of tracing paper over the card, and ask the student to trace the numbers of his address.
After this tracing activity, encourage the student to try to get a picture of his house number in his head.
Then ask him to write his house number on a piece of paper or index card.
2.
Give him drawings of his house, and encourage him to write his house number on a plaque or
shingle in front of the house.
3.
Address envelopes to his house, and leave out his house number. Ask the student to fill in the
missing number.
4.
Once the student is able to write his house number, show him a template of his street name.
Encourage him to trace the outline of his street name, first with his index finger and then with a crayon
and/or pencil. Then ask him to trace the street name using a piece of tracing paper. Give him a copy of his
street name. Cut letters out of sandpaper, and encourage him to trace these letters with the index finger of
his preferred hand. After the tracing activities,
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 147
encourage the student to try to remember the way his street name looks and then to print his street name on
a piece of paper or index card.
5.
Draw a model of his street. Draw street signs at each end of the street, leaving the street name off
the street signs. Encourage the student to fill in the missing name. Reward him for doing this correctly.
6.
Address envelopes to his house, but leave out the street name. Ask the student to fill in the missing
street name.
7.
Address envelopes to the student's house, but leave out his house number and street name. Ask him
to fill in the missing information.
8.
Play an "I'm Lost" game. Ask the student to pretend he is lost. Then ask him to write his address
down on a piece of paper. Reward him for helping himself in an "emergency" situation.
9.
Once he is able to identify the part of the address that contains his city, town, and state name, repeat
Activity 4. This time, however, work only on the last line of his address.
10.
Address envelopes to the student, but omit his entire address. Ask the student to fill in the missing
address.
11.
Show the student a form that requires the student to fill in his address. Fill the form out for him,
then give him a copy of the same form, and encourage him to fill in his address on the correct lines. Collect
copies of various forms, and ask the student to complete the address lines. Offer help when necessary.
12.
Write cards and/or thank you notes for the student. Expect the student to print his return address on
the envelopes.
E.
The student prints the address of his parents or guardians
1.
When the student's parents or guardians have an address different from the student's, show him a
copy of that address. Draw a picture of that house and street, and ask the student to put the parents' (or
guardians') house number on the house, the street name on the street signs, and the name of the town or city
and state on the bottom of the drawing.
2.
Ask the student to address the envelopes for notes that you need to mail to his parents.
3.
Send to the student's home a package of his arts and crafts projects and birthday and holiday gifts.
Remind the student to address the package to himself at his mailing address.
F.
The student writes his age, using numerals
1.
When the student has a birthday, arrange a party. Ask him to tell you his new age. If he is unable to
do so, tell him his age. Explain that he will be this new age for a long time, another year. Also point out that
when his next birthday comes up, he will then be a
148
Curriculum
different age. Until that time he will be his new age. Sing, Happy Birthday and How Old Are You Now?,
and tell him to sing the answer to the question, "How old are you now?"
2.
After he has correctly and consistently answered the question, "How old are you?" show him how to
write his age in numerals. Encourage him to practice writing his age. Tell him to answer the question by
writing the answer instead of saying it.
3.
Explain that he will be asked his age at different times and on different occasions. Role play some
of these occasions, for example, at a movie theater where admission price and/or entry depends on the
student's age.
4.
Show the student forms upon which the word AGE is written. Explain that he should write his age
on the line next to the word AGE. Fill out one of the forms for him. Then ask him to fill one out himself.
Collect a number of these different forms on which the student may practice.
G.
The student writes his birthdate, using numerals
1.
Ask the student to tell you the date of his birth or his birthday. If he is able to tell you, indicate in
some way that the month and the day of his birth can be written in numerals separated by slashes or dashes.
Show him how to write these two facts. Once he has succeeded in doing this, tell him that he can write his
birthdate by just writing one more slash (/) or dash (—) and two more numbers. Show him how to write the
two numbers that represent his year of birth. Explain why these numbers represent his year of birth. Assist
him in writing his birthdate. Practice.
2.
Explain to the student that he needs to know how to write his birthdate because he will be asked to
give this information on many forms, e.g., a Social Security application form. Show him samples of these
forms.
3.
Point out the words BIRTHDATE or DATE OF BIRTH as they appear on several forms. Assist the
student in writing his birthdate on these forms.
4.
Encourage the student to practice writing his birthdate by himself. Help him to practice by asking
him to write his birthdate in response to the question, "What is your birthdate?"
H.
The student writes his telephone number
1.
After the student identifies his telephone number (see Functional Reading, I, C), assist him in
writing it. Use an enlarged copy of the number as it appears on his home telephone. Encourage him to trace
the number using first the index finger of his preferred hand, then using a pen or pencil. Next, ask him to
write his telephone number from memory. Encourage him to do so in segments, i.e.,
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 149
the first three numbers, the next two, and finally the last two. Encourage the student to say his telephone
number aloud to help him remember it as he writes it. Also, remind him to check the number he has written
down by reading it to himself or reading it aloud.
2.
Tell the student that he will need to write his telephone number on certain forms. Point out the
words TELEPHONE NUMBER as they appear on forms, e.g., a mail order form. Collect or mimeograph
sample copies of these forms, and encourage the student to practice filling them out.
3.
Tell the student to write his telephone number on a piece of paper. Remind him to keep this with
him at all times. Tell him that he may need this to refresh his memory and/or to show it to someone if he is
lost.
4.
Tell him to add his telephone number to his chart of "Important Numbers to Remember" (Figure 5).
I.
The student writes his Social Security number
1.
Once the student identifies his Social Security number (see Functional Reading, I, D), assist him as
he writes it. Indicate in some way that he should write his Social Security number in segments: first the
initial three numbers, then the second two numbers, and finally the last four numbers. Show him how to
separate the segments with dashes. Practice.
2.
Remind the student to keep his Social Security card with him at all times. Ask him to take his Social
Security card out of his wallet, and copy his Social Security number on a piece of paper. Tell him to check
his copy by looking at his Social Security card and matching it to what he has written.
3.
Explain to the student that he will need to write his Social Security number when he fills out forms
such as job applications. Collect a variety of forms that require the individual to write down his Social
Security number. Fill out some of them, and then ask the student to find the place where he must write
down his Social Security number. If he finds the correct spot, tell him to write his number. Remind him to
use his card as an aid and/or to check what he has written.
4.
Give the student several forms that require filling in a Social Security number. Tell him to underline
the words SOCIAL SECURITY and then to write his number next to these words.
5.
Role play a job interview. Tell the student to write down his Social Security number.
6.
Give the student a W4 form, and ask him to fill in his Social Security number.
150
Curriculum
J.
The student writes the date
1.
Once the student is able to find the date by using a calendar (see Functional Reading, V, A and B),
show him how to use the information from the calendar to write the date. Underline the month and the year
on top of each page of the calendar. At the end of each day, cross out that date on the calendar so that the
student can more easily find the correct date the next day. Demonstrate how to use the calendar to write
down the date by copying the month, number of the day, and the year from the calendar.
2.
Show the student how to find the date as listed on the top of the pages of the newspaper. Ask him to
study the date as written there, and then write it on a piece of paper.
3.
Ask the student to write the date on his written work, his drawings and paintings, etc.
4.
Explain to the student that he will be expected to write the date on various forms and blanks, e.g., a
check. Collect a number of different forms. Show the student these forms, and assist him in finding the
place on each where the date is to be written.
5.
Once the student has found the place where the date should be written on a variety of forms, ask
him to write the date. Remind him to use a calendar, a daily newspaper, or to listen to morning radio and
television programs that announce the date.
K.
The student fills out order blanks and other simple forms such as applications, deposit and
withdrawal slips, and checks
1.
Review the activities in Functional Writing, II, A to J. Collect all the blanks and forms that the
student might need to fill out as he functions in life.
2.
Assist the student in filling out job applications.
3.
Assist the student in filling out an order form.
4.
Assist the student in filling out a deposit slip.
5.
Assist the student in filling out a withdrawal slip.
6.
Assist the student in filling out a check.
L.
The student prints simple messages
1.
Show the student how to write the names of his family members, e.g., Mommy, Daddy, Grandma,
Grandpa, Aunt, Uncle, etc.
2.
Make a list of the first names of the student's friends and relatives. Make a photo album of their
pictures, with their first names as captions. Show the student how to write the name of each person in his
album. Tell him to use the album as a reference when he cannot remember how to write a specific name.
3.
Make a list of common nouns for objects found in and around his
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 151
house (living area) and school (learning area). Then ask the student to assist you in making a chart
containing pictures of these objects with their names written underneath them (Figure 18). Show the
student how to write these words. Remind him to use his chart for reference when he cannot remember how
to write any of the words.
4.
Make a list of basic action verbs. Then ask the student to help you to make a chart containing
pictures or drawings of people engaged in these actions. Write the imperative form of the appropriate action
verb underneath each of the pictures. Show the student how to write each of these verbs. Make sure that
you remind him to use his chart to check on words that he cannot remember how to write.
5.
Make a list of commonly used prepositions. Ask the student to help you to make a chart that
illustrates these prepositions, e.g., show the same object in a series of pictures such as a pen on a table, in a
drawer, next to a book, under the desk, etc. You may prefer to use rebus presentations, e.g., for in, for
under,
for next to, for over, for on, etc. Write the word for the preposition underneath each of the
pictures or rebuses. Show the student how to write each of the prepositions. Make sure to remind him to use
his chart whenever he cannot remember how to write a preposition.
6.
Show the student how to write the numbers 1 through 10 when written as numerals (see Functional
Arithmetic, I, G and Functional Reading, IV, E).
7.
Show the student how to write time on the hour and half hour when written as numerals (see
Functional Reading, IV, F, and Functional Arithmetic, IV, J).
8.
Show the student how to write money amounts up to 100 when written as numerals (see Functional
Reading, IV, G).
9.
Show the student how to use the photo album, charts, and skills developed in Activities 1 to 8 to
compose simple messages. Demonstrate writing several different messages. Explain that we sometimes
have to leave messages for relatives and friends when we have no other way to contact them.
10.
Role play different situations in which you are unable to contact a friend or relative by the telephone
or by ringing his/her doorbell and thus have to leave a message. Help the student to compose these
messages, and assist him in printing them on a piece of paper. Seek only effective communication, not
grammatical or syntactical accuracy. If the student uses the imperative form of the verb for all its tenses,
voices, and numbers that is sufficient.
152
Curriculum
M.
The student correctly addresses and mails greeting cards, thank you notes, and simple messages
1.
Assist the student in purchasing greeting cards. Point out clues to the purpose of the cards found in
the pictures on them, e.g., winter scenes, religious figures, holly, Christmas trees, tree decorations, reindeer,
Santa Claus, etc. Arrange for him to store each type of card in a separate place.
2.
Assist the student in purchasing stationery for sending simple messages. Demonstrate how to fold
the stationery and slip it into the envelope. Show him how to seal the envelope and how to address it to be
sent through the mail.
3.
Prepare the student's personal telephone and address book (see Functional Reading, VI, A). Show
him how to refer to the directory to obtain the correct address of a friend or relative. Supervise the student
as he addresses an envelope to a friend or relative. Remind him to check the address he has written against
the one found in the directory. Tell him not to forget to print his return address (see Functional Writing, II,
D) or to paste on a return address label.
4.
Review the composition of simple messages (see Functional Writing, II, L).
5.
Review with the student the writing of his signature (see Functional Writing II, B).
6.
Assist the student in signing greeting cards.
7.
Assist the student in putting the correct postage on greeting cards and letters (see Functional
Reading, III, L).
8.
Assist the student in mailing letters and cards at optimum times (see Functional Reading, VI, D).
9.
Assist the student in opening the mailbox slot, if necessary (see Volume I, Fine Motor Skills).
10.
Assist the student in making his own personal calendar of "Important Dates to Remember" for
sending greeting cards (see Functional Reading, V, A and B). Help him to develop a strategy for using this
directory to send greeting cards so that they arrive on time.
FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT
I.
The student will acquire those prerequisite arithmetic skills that facilitate independence in
functional situations
II.
The student will acquire those skills necessary for carrying out transactions involving money and
will do so as independently as possible
III.
The student will acquire those measurement skills that facilitate independence in functional
situations
IV.
The student will acquire those fundamental skills that facilitate independence in functional
situations involving time
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES/NUMERALS
I.
The student will acquire those prerequisite arithmetic skills that facilitate independence in
functional situations
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
RPL(%)*
RO**
The student matches objects to objects (one to one correspondence)
100
5
The student counts with meaning
100
5
The student counts out a requested number of objects
100
5
The student matches numerals
75
4
The student matches objects that occur in pairs
100
4
The student identifies numerals of personal importance (age, birthdate. Social Security number, etc.)
100
5
The student reproduces and then writes numerals of personal importance in functional situations
100
5
The student identifies the words for simple numerals
100
5
The student performs activities involving the concept of ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.)
100
5
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
154
Curriculum
RPL(%)*
RO**
J. The student identifies the fractions 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 in functional situations
100
5
K. The student identifies mixed numbers with fractional parts of 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 in functional situations
100
5
L. The student discriminates between left and right
100
4
M. The student identifies the basic shapes of a circle, triangle, square, and rectangle as they occur in
functional situations
75
4
N. The student uses a number line in functional situations
75
4
O. The student identifies and responds to terms used in addition: plus, more, add, and sum 100
5
P. The student uses the process sign (+) in simple addition
100
5
Q. The student performs simple addition in functional situations
100
5
R. The student identifies and responds to the terms used in subtraction: take away, subtract, minus, and
less 100
5
S. The student uses the process sign (—) in simple subtraction
100
5
T. The student performs simple subtraction in functional situations
100
5
U. The student identifies and uses numbers appearing on common equipment, appliances, and materials
100
5
Suggested Activities/Numerals
A.
The student matches objects to objects (one to one correspondence)
1.
Place in front of the student a flannel board that has a flannel cutout adhered to its surface. Tell him
to look at the flannel cutout on the board and to place one that looks just like it next to it. Provide the
student with a small pile of flannel cutouts, and encourage him to pick just one. If he selects more than one
cutout or appears to be confused, physically guide him through the task by picking out one cutout and
placing it next to the one already on the flannel board.
2.
Place a pile of small blocks in front of the student and a pile in
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
155
front of yourself. Tell the student to look at you and to watch what you are doing. Point out that you are
taking two blocks from the pile and putting them in front of you. Tell him that you would like him to do the
same with his pile of blocks. Provide reinforcement if he performs this activity correctly.
3.
Set up a bulletin board with various groupings of objects covering its surface, e.g., you may glue
two plastic spoons on the board. Draw a circle around the two spoons. Then, next to the spoons, place a
group of three knives, and draw a circle around that group, etc. Tell the student to look at the bulletin board
as you point to a specific grouping. Tell the student that you want him to copy that grouping, using
matching articles you have placed in front of him. Do this for each grouping.
4.
On a large piece of paper, lay out small groupings of different articles such as buttons or toothpicks.
Glue these to the paper. On another piece of paper, placed next to the one with the glued articles, make a
similar arrangement with the same number of objects. Give the student a piece of yarn or a strip of masking
tape. Tell the student to place the piece of yarn or masking tape between the two groupings of objects that
match each other. Repeat the activity with different groups of objects.
5.
Using a placemat, dishes, and silverware, set one place at a table. Take the student to the other side
of the table, and give him the necessary utensils and materials to duplicate the setting that is directly across
from him. Tell him to set the place in front of him. Once he has set it, sit down with him, and share a
nutritious snack.
6.
Develop worksheets containing pictures of common objects found in the student's environment.
Instruct the student to draw lines from one object to another and from one group of objects to a matching
group. Offer help when necessary (Figure 46).
7.
Assist the student in matching paired articles of clothing. Do this when he is ready to leave the
residence or learning area to go outside or during dressing time. Hold one of the student's mittens, gloves,
socks, etc., in front of him, and help him to select from a pile of clothing the one that matches it. If he does
this correctly, assist him or ask him to put on his clothing independently.
8.
Place a pile of assorted rubber bands in front of the student. Tell him to watch you as you take out
two large rubber bands and place them in a separate pile. Ask the student to imitate what you have done,
pointing out to him that the rubber bands he chooses must match the ones he sees in your pile.
9.
Draw several pictures on the board, and then draw a line under
156
Curriculum
Figure 46. Matching common objects.
each one. Give the student a drawing with the same figures drawn or pasted on. Encourage the student to
draw a line under each picture.
10.
Draw a series of dots, circles, and/or stick figures on the board. With the index finger of your
preferred hand, touch each member of the series. Encourage the student to imitate your actions. When he
imitates you, make sure that he does not skip or touch a figure more than once. Assist him if he touches a
figure more than once or skips one or more. If the student is having difficulty, substitute a series of objects
and repeat the activity. This pointing activity involving one to one correspondence will help facilitate
counting with understanding.
B.
The student counts with meaning
1.
During snack time, encourage the student to pass out the food. Tell him to count out one item of
food each time he gives one to a
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
157
peer. Repeat this activity at other appropriate times. Gradually increase the number of items given out.
2.
Place a pile of papers and paper clips in front of the student. Tell him that each paper should have a
paper clip placed on its corner. Give the student a container of paper clips, and tell him to count out as
many clips as there are papers. Then encourage him to complete this activity by placing one clip on the
corner of each paper.
3.
Provide the student with flannel board cutouts and corresponding flannel numbers. Say a number,
and ask the student to count out the appropriate number of cutouts or objects and then to place them under
the number.
4.
Place a large jar of pennies in the middle of the table. Tell the student to count out the number of
pennies he will need to buy a specific item, e.g., six or seven cents for milk during lunchtime. Reward him
if he counts out the correct number of coins, and correct him if he does not. Practice this activity often.
5.
Use counting as part of art lessons. Tell the student to count a selected number of silhouettes,
collage items, etc., and then to paste them on a paper background.
6.
Use rhythm band activities for counting. Say a number, and tell the student to hit his rhythm sticks
or blow his musical instrument the number of times you have indicated.
7.
During snack time, place a large plate of raisins and nuts in the middle of the table. Tell the student
that he may take five raisins and five nuts for his snack. Point out that if he takes more than five he has to
put them aside for another time.
8.
Chart the attendance by asking the student to count out how many peers are in the room. Next, ask
the student to tell you how many males and how many females are in the room.
9.
Use the Hap Palmer record Number March for counting one through five. Use the This Old Man
song for the numbers one to ten.
10.
Assign the student the task of doing a counting inventory of his learning supplies, his clothing, his
food, etc.
11.
Sing counting songs such as One, Two, Buckle My Shoe, Ten Little Indians, and This Old Man.
12.
Take walks into the community. When you pass objects, animals, etc., count them. Count the
number of birds flying overhead, the number of trees, the number of leaves on a clover, etc.
13.
Prepare a "counting box." This is a colorful box in which you place things to be counted each day.
Put in different numbers of interesting items each day.
158
Curriculum
14.
From magazines, cut out pictures that have different numbers of objects in them. Ask the student to
count the number of kittens, the number of people, the number of flowers, etc.
15.
Roll a pair of large dice in front of the student. Tell him to count the total number of dots he sees.
Then play a table game that requires the student to count the dots on a pair of dice.
C.
The student counts out a requested number of objects
1.
Give the student a stack of notices that the students will take home to parent(s) or guardian(s) at the
end of the day. Tell him to count out as many notices as there are members of his class. At the end of the
day, remind the student to pass out one notice to each peer in the class.
2.
During snack or party time, tell the student you want him to give each peer a specific article, e.g.,
(napkin) and/or food. Tell him to count out in advance the required number of objects and/or food portions
he will need to perform this activity.
3.
Give the student a stack of paper drinking cups that need to be passed out to the class for a tooth
brushing activity or for other grooming skills. Tell him to first count out the required number of cups and
then to give one to each member of the class.
4.
Plan a cooking activity that requires the use of eggs. Underline that part of the recipe which states
the number of eggs required to prepare the food. Tell the student to go to the refrigerator and to count out
the required number of eggs.
5.
Plan a woodworking project that incorporates the use of large (16-penny) nails. Tell the student that
you will need five nails to complete the project. Point out a jar or container that contains 16-penny nails,
and instruct him to count out the required number of nails and to bring them to you.
6.
Set up a workshop activity in which the student is expected to count out a predetermined number of
objects and to place them in a container.
D.
The student matches numerals
1.
Construct a number Bingo game. Give each student enough markers with numbers on them to fill
the Bingo card. Call out numbers. Tell the student to match his number markers with the number markers
found on the Bingo card. Modify the rules so that the winner is the student who matches all of his numbers
correctly.
2.
Set up in front of the student a flannel board with flannel numbers 1 to 10 placed on it. Place a stack
of corresponding flannel numbers in front of him. Tell him to match the numbers on the flannel board by
placing a number from his pile next to the one it
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
159
matches on the flannel board. Do this until the student matches the numbers 1 to 10.
3.
Obtain table games that use spinners or number cards that indicate how many spaces a player is to
move. Construct one if you are unable to obtain one. Spin the pointer, and say the number on which it
stops. Tell the student to turn the pointer until it points to the same number.
4.
Place a large pile of shirts and other clothing on a table. Point out the number size on the clothing
labels. Tell the student to bring you all the clothes with a specific size number.
5.
Take the student to a store that requires you to wait in line until a number is posted and called. A
bakery is usually a good example of this. Tell the student to take a number from the machine, assisting him
when necessary. Tell him to watch the number board in the store until the number in his hand matches the
number on the board. Allow him to buy the required food or merchandise when he does this correctly.
6.
Place large sheets of paper on the floor, each having a number on it. Give the student a packet
containing small cards with corresponding numbers on them. Tell the student that you want him to play a
game, and when you say, "Go," he is to run and place his smaller numbers on the larger numbers they
match. Continue this game until the student matches all his numbers to the corresponding numbers on the
floor.
7.
Prepare a set of flashcards upon which you have written numerals found in the student's
environment such as his bus number, his house number, and his clothing sizes. Give the student a duplicate
set. Hold up each card, and indicate in some way that he is to hold up the card with the same numeral.
8.
Make a simulated television channel selector dial and a duplicate for the student. Set the dial to a
channel, and ask him to set his dial to the same channel.
9.
Draw several large ovals on construction paper or tagboard. Cut the ovals in half (in a jagged line)
so that they form individual two-piece puzzles. Use a Magic Marker to write the same number on each half
of the oval (Figure 47). Ask the student to put the ovals back together by matching the numbers.
E.
The student matches objects that occur in pairs
1.
Tell the student to bring an extra pair of socks to class with him. Place this pair of socks with others
in a pile or basket on a table. Separate the socks, and mix them up. Point out that each sock has one that
looks exactly like it and that when placed together they
160
Curriculum
Figure 47. Number-to-number ovals.
are called a pair. Tell the student to pick out as many pair of socks as he can and put them together on the
table. Encourage the student to engage in this activity at his residence on washing day.
2.
Ask the student to place his shoes and those of a peer or peers in a pile in the middle of the room.
Mix the shoes up, and play a game that requires the student, on a set signal, to walk to the pile of shoes,
find his shoes, put them on, and walk back to where he started. Reward the student for completing this task.
3.
Bring into the classroom or learning area jewelry that comes in pairs such as earrings, cuff links,
barrettes, etc. Mix up the jewelry in a pile, and tell the student to pick out the pairs. Caution the student to
follow safety procedures if the jewelry has sharp pins or edges (see Volume II, Safety, III, B).
4.
Select a woodworking project that requires the student to use hinges. Ask the student to help you to
find a pair of hinges from a pile placed on the table. Point out that they come in various sizes, colors, and
finishes. Show him an example of the type of hinge you want. Reward the student if he picks out an
appropriate pair.
5.
Place a pile of clothing in front of the student. Use clothing that comes in pairs such as gloves,
mittens, etc. Tell the student to pick out all the pairs he can find. You may want him to bring the pairs to
you as part of a language comprehension exercise.
F.
etc.)
The student identifies numerals of personal importance (age, birthdate, Social Security number,
1.
Verify the student's telephone number. Write this number on a piece of paper, and give it to the
student. Tell the student that it is important for him to know this number, and he should memorize it or
carry it with him at all times. At different times during the day, ask the student for his telephone number.
Accept the number given verbally, written by the student, or shown on a printed card.
2.
Draw four telephone dials on construction paper, each with numbers and letters abound them. In the
middle of each dial, place the telephone number of a student. Tell the student to point to the
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
161
telephone dial that has his telephone number on it. If he does this correctly, praise him. For additional
activities, see Functional Reading and Functional Writing.
3.
Draw a large size picture of a school bus or whatever type of transportation vehicle the student uses
to get to the learning center. On the picture of the vehicle, place the number that corresponds to the one
found on the bus or vehicle. Point out this number to the student several times during the day. At dismissal
time, remind the student to go home on the bus that has that number on it.
4.
Show the student the various numbers that are on the labels found in his clothing. Tell him to make
a list of them, or show him where to check for them when he wants to find out what size clothing he is
wearing. Stress that some outer clothing may need to be removed in order to check a specific size label, i.e.,
underwear. When this occurs, the student should be encouraged to check the label in a bathroom, bedroom,
dressing room, or other place offering privacy (see Volume II, Socialization, Sex Education, II, D).
5.
Prepare a sample work form that requires the student to write or supply his address, Social Security
number, age, date, and other pertinent information. For the student who has memorized this information,
tell him to write it (see Functional Writing, II, K) on the appropriate places on the form. For the student
who is unable to write this information but is able to copy it, provide him with a card that has the
information on it. Encourage him to copy the information from the card onto the appropriate form. Check
to make sure that he places the information in the correct places on the form.
6.
Point out to the student the room number or the number of the learning area he is in. Also point out
storage areas where he places his valuables, such as a locker if it is available, and show him the locker
number. At different times during the day, tell the student that you want him to tell you his room number
and locker number. Give him some material to place in his locker, and watch to see that he goes to the
correct locker.
7.
After he has demonstrated that he identifies his room number correctly, take the student to a
different part of the building. Tell him that you want him to return to his room. Assist him by pointing out
the different numbers over or on the doors.
G.
The student reproduces and then writes numerals of personal importance in functional situations
1.
Provide the student with several blank 3X5 index cards. Tell the student that you want him to write
his age birthdate, and Social
162
Curriculum
Security number on each card. Correct the student if he does not do this correctly. Tell him to place these
cards in his learning area or in a place where they will be easily accessible.
2.
Bring in several work forms or personnel blanks. Underline those parts that require the student to
put in his age, birthdate, and Social Security number. Encourage the student to write his age, birthdate, and
Social Security number in the appropriate places. If the student appears to have difficulty, help him to
reproduce the required information from a card containing this specific information.
3.
Help the student to fill out a Medic Alert card, whenever appropriate. These cards require
information such as age, birthdate, and Social Security number. Emphasize how important it is for him to
be able to reproduce or to write this necessary information.
4.
For additional activities, refer to Functional Writing, II, A to K.
H.
The student identifies the words for simple numerals
1.
Take the student to a supermarket, and go to the produce area. Point out the produce signs that have
numbers written as words. As an example, show him a sign that states "Three lbs." for a specified amount
of money. Stay in this general area of the store, and tell the student to find other numbers that are written as
words. Check to see if he can identify their corresponding numbers, orally and/or in writing.
2.
Take the student on a walking trip to a park or picnic area. On the way, point out the numbers on
houses that are written as words. For example, the number "71 Cedar Street" may be written as "SeventyOne Cedar St."
3.
Bring in some canceled checks, and show them to the student. Point out to the student that numerals
are written as words (in one part of the check) when writing out a check. Tell the student to go through the
checks and to find all the different words for numerals (see Consumer Skills, II, B). Remind him to seek the
help of a significant person when he finds words for numerals that he is unable to read (see Functional
Reading).
4.
Take the student to a card shop or an area of a store that has birthday cards. Show the student
various cards that have words written for numbers for a child's birthday age. As an example,
show the student a card that say, "Today You Are TWO Years
Old."
5.
Bring in various order blank forms and catalogues that use words or require the use of words for
simple numerals. Point out the price of materials in written form.
6.
Show the student printed advertisements that have numerals writ-
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
163
ten as words. Help the student to match these words with their corresponding numerals (see Functional
Reading).
7.
Make up a bingo game in which the student is expected to match numerals with their corresponding
words. Use numeral markers one day and word markers the next.
8.
Draw several large ovals on construction paper or tagboard. Cut the ovals in half (in a jagged line)
so that they form individual two-piece puzzles. Use a Magic Marker to write a numeral on one half of the
oval for the numeral on the other half (Figure 48). Separate the ovals, and place them in front of the
student. Ask him to match the numerals to their corresponding words.
I.
The student performs activities involving the concept of ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.)
1.
Tell the student that you want him to be the first one in line when going out to play or recess. Praise
the student if he stands in the first place in line or makes an attempt to be first.
2.
Place a large number of table games in front of the student during playtime. Tell the student that he
is to have second choice in selecting a game to play. If the student tries to choose first, remind him that it is
someone else's turn and that he has the second choice. Repeat this activity often, changing materials and the
sequence of choices.
3.
During leisure time activities, run relay races or other races for which there are first, second, and
third prizes. Ask the student who has come in third if he knows what prize he has won. Point out that the
person who finished ahead of him was second and the person who finished ahead of that person was first.
Review the winning order with each of the winners and the other students.
4.
Pass out an activity that involves individual work such as buttoning, snapping, or counting out a
desired number of objects. Tell the student that the first one who completes or finishes what he is doing
should bring it to you to have it checked. When the first student finishes or brings it to you, tell him that he
is first. Tell the
Figure 48. Number-to-word ovals.
164
Curriculum
next student who brings his work to you that he is second, and so forth.
5.
Make up ribbons that say "First," "Second," and "Third." The student who performs a certain
activity first gets to wear the ribbon marked "First" during that school day or during a specific period of
that day. Vary the activities many times during the day, giving each student a chance to be first, second, or
third.
6.
Give the student a series of objects. Tell him to touch one object first, another second, and another
third.
7.
Give the student a series of commands. Ask him to, "First, put the book on the table. Second, touch
your nose. Third, sit on the yellow chair."
8.
Use ordinal numbers in your directions involving workshop assembly projects.
J.
The student identifies the fractions 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 in functional situations
1.
Bring a toaster into the classroom or learning area, and ask the student to help you to make toast.
Tell the student to butter the toast, and then show him how to slice it in half. Tell him to give half to the
student next to him and then to eat his half,
2.
Place a large apple on the table in front of the student. Cut the apple into four equal parts. Tell the
student to give you one quarter of the apple. Point out that one quarter is one of the four equal parts of the
apple. Reward him if he does this correctly.
3.
Join the student in making bran muffins or pancakes according to the directions on the box. Point
out that 1/3 cup of milk must be added to the pancake batter. Give the student a measuring cup, and tell him
to pour milk into the measuring cup until it reaches the 1/3 level. Ask the student to pour the milk into the
batter, and proceed to make the pancakes or bran muffins.
4.
Take the student to a supermarket. Go to the produce section, and tell the student to weigh
quantities of fruit and vegetables (e.g., 1/4 pound, 1/2 pound, etc.).
K.
The student identifies mixed numbers with fractional parts of 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 in functional
situations
1.
Plan a beverage party, with the student using powdered milk or powdered fruit juice as the
beverage. Point out that the amount of powder required to make the milk or fruit juice is written on the side
or label of the container. Point out that it may require 1 1/2 or 1 1/4 teaspoons. Tell the student to put this
amount of powder into a glass and to stir it.
2.
Compile a short list of clothing that comes in sizes that include mixed numbers, and give it to the
student. For example, you may wish to write his sock and glove sizes on the list. Take the student
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
165
to a store, and show him how to look at the clothing on display to find socks and gloves that are his size.
See Consumer Skills, I, C for an example of a clothing size chart.
3.
Bring various size shirts into the classroom or learning area. Point out the shirt size as printed on the
collar. Provide examples of mixed number sizes, such as 10 1/2, 11 1/2, 12 1/2, etc. Ask the student to find
his shirt size and to give it to you.
4.
Take the student to a hardware store where they sell small wire nails and brads. Point out that the
nails and brads have sizes in mixed numbers such as 1 1/4-inch, 1 1/2-inch, etc., marked on the box cover.
Tell the student to find a box of brads or nails that are 2 1/2 inches long.
5.
Bring various size paint brushes into the learning area. Include 1-, 11/4-, 11/2-, 13/4-, and 2-inch
brushes. Tell the student to select the specific size paint brush you have asked for and that is suitable for an
arts and crafts project.
6.
Take the student to a department store's shoe section where there are large size labels displayed on
the shoes. Point out the various sizes such as 6 1/2, 7 1/2, etc. Ask the student to find another pair of shoes
with the same size as a sample pair.
7.
Bring into the class various shoeboxes that have the sizes marked on the outside. Mix up the boxes,
and tell the student to arrange the sizes in groups that have the same mixed number. Ask the student to
bring you all of the shoeboxes that have a specific mixed number.
8.
Take the student to the produce section of a supermarket. Place some produce (bananas, grapes,
etc.) on a scale, and point out that the weight of the produce is in fractions and mixed numbers (Figure 49).
Purchase the produce as a nutritious snack.
Figure 49. Mixed numbers a scale.
166
Curriculum
L.
The student discriminates between left and right
1.
During a dressing activity, tell the student first to put on his right sock, right shoe, etc. If the student
appears to have difficulty, provide a cue such as tapping his leg or foot. Encourage the student to do this
specific task independently.
2.
Provide the student with a number line as an aid in doing arithmetic problems. Point out that we
start from the left when we count (Figure 50).
3.
Provide the student with examples of safety signs that require that he read from left to right. For
example, show the student a "Do Not Enter" sign, pointing out to him that he must look at the word DO
first and then go from left to right across the line.
4.
Tell the student to set the table, pointing out that the fork is placed on the left side of the plate. Plan
a party, and check to see that the student has laid out the silverware correctly.
5.
Play a Simple Simon game with the student. Tell the student first to hop on his left leg and then on
his right leg. Reinforce appropriately when the student carries out the activity correctly.
6.
Ask the student to take off his shoes and to put them in a pile with other shoes in the middle of the
room. Mix the shoes up, and tell the student to pick out his shoes and to put them on. Check to see that he
puts the left shoe on his left foot and the right shoe on his right foot. Practice.
7.
Tell the student to listen to the pledge to the flag or stand at attention during the National Anthem.
Indicate through demonstration that he should put his right hand over his heart. If necessary, physically
assist the student in putting his right hand over his heart.
M.
The student identifies the basic shapes of a circle, triangle, square, and rectangle as they occur in
functional situations
1.
Place on a table in front of the student cardboard discs and coins, including a penny, nickel, dime
and quarter. Point out to the student that these discs and coins are in the form of a circle. Mix these coins
and discs with non-circular objects, and then ask the student to pick out the objects that are in the form of a
circle.
Figure 50. Number line
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
167
2.
Obtain from a shape box the basic shapes of circle, triangle, square, and rectangle. These are usually
made out of wood or plastic. Obtain an overhead projector, and place the various shapes on top of the
overhead projector surface where you normally would place a transparency. Turn on the projector, and tell
the student to look at the wall or screen. He will see the silhouettes of various shapes. Ask the student to
identify and to name the shapes he sees on the wall or screen.
3.
Take the student to an elevator that has triangular arrows indicating the direction the elevator is to
go. Point out to the student the triangular shape of the arrows. Take the student away from the elevator for a
short period of time, and then return. Ask him to identify the triangular shape of the arrows and to tell you
in what direction the triangle is pointing.
4.
Make cornbread, oatmeal raisin cookies, or other food items whose instructions suggest cutting
them in squares, rectangles, or circles (using a cookie cutter). Point out to the student what shapes you are
cutting as you perform the activity.
5.
Bring in examples of various safety signs to the class. Point out the shapes of the signs, and ask the
student to identify them. Mix up the signs, turn their faces around, and then ask the student to pick out a
specific one by its shape alone.
6.
Take the student on a walking trip where you will pass many objects and signs. Ask him to point
out the shapes and signs he sees as he is walking. Keep a record of his observations, and record their
location and use on a piece of paper. Bring this information back to the class, and discuss it with the student
as part of a follow-up activity. Make an experience chart of the shapes you have seen.
N.
The student uses a number line in functional situations
1.
Provide the student with a pile of pennies. Tell the student that you want him to use the number line
to add four pennies to three pennies. Point out that to add using the number line, you have to move from
left to right. Demonstrate to the student, and solve the example. Give the student another example, and ask
him to solve it using the number line.
2.
Tell the student that you want him to subtract objects using the number line. Point out that
subtraction means going from right to left using the number line. Demonstrate the operation. Provide him
with examples to solve. Place a (+) sign at the right end of the number line and a (-) sign at the left end to
help the student remember which direction to go for adding and subtracting.
3.
Play games that require the tabulation of scores. Ask the student to use the number line to keep
score. As each student takes his
168
Curriculum
turn and scores a specific number of points, tell him to use the number line to add the appropriate points to
his score. Games in which students lose points also can be scored by using a number line.
4.
Lay a long piece (12 feet X 12 inches) of white paper on the floor. Construct an over-sized number
line large enough for the student to walk on. Place the student on the number line, and tell him to add or
subtract specific numbers by moving to the left or right. Physically guide the student through the required
operation when necessary. (A similar commercial game is available from the Educational Materials
Catalogued.)
O.
The student identifies and responds to terms used in addition: plus, more, add, and sum
1.
Introduce the word SUM to the student. Tell the student that sum means adding parts together. Ask
the student to hold out his hands, and place two small blocks in his left hand and two small blocks in his
right hand. Then ask the student to put both his hands together. Show him that he now has four blocks. Tell
the student that by putting his two' sets of blocks together he has done a sum. Repeat this activity with other
objects, asking the student for the sum of objects he has in his hands.
2.
Put six or seven pieces of paper on a table. Tell the student to give you two pieces of paper, and
then tell him to give you one more. Explain that more means to add to what you already have. Vary the
numbers of papers you ask the student to give you.
3.
Ask the student to bring you his lunchbox. Take all of the items out of his lunchbox, and put them
on the table. Tell the student to add up all of the objects he has in his lunchbox and to tell you how many he
has. Check to see that he counts each article separately.
4.
Take the student to a department store that has clothing displayed on racks. Point out the price tags
on the clothing and the numbers that have the words plux tax next to them. Tell the student that the tax has
to be added to the price of the article. Select one specific article, and ask him to add the tax to it and to give
you the total price.
5.
Purchase or make price tags out of construction paper or tagboard. Place different objects in front of
the student, and write down their cost and the tax, such as 2¢, 3¢, etc. Tell the student to find the price of
each item by adding the tax to the actual price of the article.
P.
The student uses the process sign (+) in simple addition
1.
On a piece of large paper or on the blackboard, place pictures of
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
169
what the student is going to eat for lunch. Place the pictures in a column, and next to each picture put the
numerals that represent its cost. Draw a line under all of the pictures and their prices, and put a plus sign to
the left of it. Demonstrate adding the numbers and writing the answer under the line. Repeat this activity
daily, but change the items that will be served for lunch. Ask the student to perform the addition process.
2.
Set up a flannel board, and place on it picture cutouts of numbers that are to be added. Point to the
plus sign, and demonstrate the operation used to solve the first example. Call the student up to the flannel
board, and tell him to perform the required operation for the remaining examples.
3.
Construct a large plus sign from construction paper or tagboard. Place this aid on the student's desk
or in front of him in the learning area. Take several objects, and put them on both sides of the plus sign.
Tell the student to perform the required operation. Demonstrate when necessary, and repeat this activity
often, changing and varying the objects.
4.
Develop a worksheet on which you have printed the student's age and the ages of his peers. Under
these ages put the plus sign, and write the numeral 1. Draw a line under each example. Tell the student that
you want him to tell you how old he is going to be on his next birthday. Remind him to look at the plus sign
to see what he needs to do to solve the example. Repeat this activity, this time asking the student to tell you
how old each of his peers will be at his/her next birthday.
Q.
The student performs simple addition in functional situations
1.
Take the student to a restaurant or dining area. Ask the waiter or waitress to total up the amount of
the check and to place the amount of tax directly under that figure. Ask the waiter or waitress not to total it.
After dinner, give the student the check, and tell him to add on the tax and to pay the bill for the meal.
Check the accuracy of the addition.
2.
Help the student to prepare a short shopping list. Take the student to the supermarket, and
encourage him to select the items on his list and to put them into the shopping cart. Ask him to write the
price next to each item on his list. Before the student checks out, tell him to add up the items to see the
amount of money he will need. Tell him to watch the cash register's total to see if it is the same as he has
tabulated.
3.
Give the student several coins, and ask him to buy something from a vending machine. Make sure
that the vending machine's operation requires him to use more than one coin before it dispenses the
170
Curriculum
food you want him to buy. Praise the student if he adds correctly and arrives at the correct number of coins
(see Functional Arithmetic, I, Q and II, E).
4.
Tell the student to put his lunch money on his desk or a table after he arrives in the learning area.
(For the student who does not have lunch money, provide him with the coins needed to carry out this
activity.) Ask the student to count his lunch money to make sure that he has the right amount. If he does not
have enough lunch money, ask him how much he will need to make the correct total (see Functional
Arithmetic, I, Q and II, D).
5.
Play card games or games that require the student to add up points or tallies. Remind the student to
check his addition.
6.
Set up an assembly line task that requires the student to add one number of an object to another
before he places the total in a container. Randomly check the containers to make sure that he has added the
correct number.
R.
less
The student identifies and responds to the terms used in subtraction: take away, subtract, minus, and
1.
Provide the student with a series of objects that require packaging, such as safety pins, toothpicks,
etc. Tell the student you want him to take away five of the objects and to put them in another pile. Check to
make sure that the student has performed this task correctly. Vary the number of objects you ask him to
take away until all the different objects are put in different piles.
2.
Obtain from a stationery store a book of receipts similar to those used in restaurants for making out
checks. Write down prices for certain items you have had for lunch, and include the tax and a 15 percent
tip. Tell the student that you want him to find out how much the bill was, minus the tip. Set up the example
for him on the blackboard, pointing out the numbers that represent the amount of the tip.
3.
Place a large glove on the table in front of the student. Point out that the glove has five places for
fingers. Tell him to watch you, and gently fold over one of the fingers until it is out of sight. Tell the
student that the glove now has five fingers, minus one finger or four fingers. Repeat the activity, this time
asking the student to subtract a specified number of fingers.
4.
During lunchtime, look at the student's plate of food when he is approximately half through. Point
out to the student that there is now less food on his plate than when he started. Place a full plate of food
next to his plate, and point out that his plate has less on it than the full plate.
5.
Write several simple subtraction examples on tagboard or construction
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
171
paper. Point out that these types of examples are sometimes called take aways, subtraction examples, minus
examples, or less than examples. On another sheet of paper, mix up addition and subtraction problems, and
ask him to identify the subtraction examples by placing a circle around them.
S.
The student uses the process sign (-) in simple subtraction
1.
Obtain subtraction flashcards that incorporate the process sign (-), and place them on a table in front
of the student. Point out the process sign, and ask the student to perform the subtraction operations.
2.
Obtain a commercial arithmetic subtraction game such as Quizmo, which is a form of Bingo
utilizing subtraction examples. Play the game according to the rules, emphasizing the use of the process
sign (-).
3.
Give the student a magic slate that requires you to lift up a piece of plastic to remove its writing.
Write several subtraction examples on the slate for the student. Tell him that he must do them correctly
before he can lift up the plastic and erase the writing. If the student does all the examples correctly, allow
him to lift the plastic and to draw a picture. It is important that rewards not be given each time but on an
intermittent basis.
4.
Set up a magnetic board that includes numbers and the process sign used in subtraction. Tell the
student to make up several subtraction examples and then to perform the required operations. Check the
student's work to see if his responses are correct.
T.
The student performs simple subtraction in functional situations
1.
Bring in various magazines that have coupons in them. Tell the student to find the coupon for a
specific item he would like to buy in the store. Take him to the supermarket, and ask him to find the article
he would like to buy. Tell him to subtract the amount of the coupon from the price that is marked on the
article. Take the article to the cash register, and tell the student to watch the cash register's total to see if his
subtraction was correct, i.e., if the store subtracts the amount in totaling the bill.
2.
Ask the student to bring in several beverage bottles that need to be returned to the store for the
return of a deposit. Take the student to the store, ask him to purchase a new bottle of the beverage, and tell
him to subtract the amount of the deposit. Tell him to take the beverage to the cash register and to pay for
the beverage minus what he should receive for the deposit.
3.
Play a card game or other type of board game that penalizes the player if he is. left holding cards or
points. Tell the student to subtract the amount of points he has left from his original score.
172
Curriculum
4.
Take the student to a clothing store to make a purchase. Call the salesperson beforehand, and inform
him that the student is going to place a deposit on an article of clothing. Take the student to the store, and
place a deposit on a specific item of clothing. Return within a day or so to the same store. Point out the total
cost of the item that he is buying, and remind the student that he must subtract the amount of his deposit
from the total price. Give him an opportunity to work out the example, and reinforce him if he solves it
successfully.
5.
When appropriate, use a check register with the student. Make sure that the register is a simple one.
You may want to use an enlarged version that you have drawn on a large piece of paper. Show the student
how to subtract the amount of a check from the previous balance. Practice this activity, and supervise it
closely.
U.
The student identifies and uses numbers appearing on common equipment, appliances, and
materials
1.
Point out the telephone dial and the numbers on it. Ask the student to point out the numbers and to
draw a picture of the dial on a piece of paper placed in front of him.
2.
Give the student a telephone number to call, preferably his home telephone or the number of
someone he knows. Demonstrate how to dial the specific number, and tell the student to imitate what you
have done. Allow the student to talk to the person he has called. It is advisable to call in advance to make
sure that the party on the other end will be there to receive the call. In this way, you will be sure to provide
the reinforcement that is a necessary part of the activity.
3.
Provide the student with various types of telephones, tele-trainers, or unconnected telephones that
have been borrowed from the telephone company. Give him several numbers to call on each type of
telephone (princess, push button, dial).
4.
Point out the numbers on the dial of the television set. Ask the student what his favorite shows are,
and write the channel numbers of these shows down on a piece of paper. At the appropriate time, tell the
student to turn to a specific channel so that he will be able to see a show he has identified as one of his
favorites.
5.
On a piece of construction paper, write the channels and times of the student's favorite television
shows, and next to each one paste a picture that represents that show. Pictures may be found in magazines,
newspapers, or the TV Guide. For example, if the student likes to watch Sesame Street, find a picture of
Big Bird, Ernie, etc., and paste it next to the specific channel number and time. At the appropriate time, tell
the student that you want him
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
173
to put on Sesame Street. Check to see that he consults his chart and then turns to the correct channel (Figure
51).
6.
Point out the numbers on different types of radio dials. It is important to bring in several types of
radios for the student to see. Tell him that there are certain numbers on the dial that are important for him to
tune to. Give him the example of a station that broadcasts the weather frequently, and explain that if he
listens to it, he will know how to dress appropriately for the weather (see Volume I, Self-Care). You may
wish to mark the stations with a piece of tape or marking of some sort. Tell the student to turn to these
stations at specific times during the day.
7.
Show the student a thermostat (preferably in the student's home or learning area). If one is not
readily available, take him to a store that sells thermostats, and point one out to him (they are usually found
in an electrical supply store). Demonstrate turning the thermostat to a specific degree of temperature such
as 68°. Tell the
Figure 51. Television channel chart.
174
Curriculum
student that it is not good to set the thermostat too high or he will be too hot. Demonstrate turning the
thermostat to various degrees such as 70° or 72° when it is extremely cold in the home or learning area and
at a lower level when it is warmer. Ask the student to imitate your actions.
8.
Obtain a thermostat that is not connected. Play a game with the student in which he is told the room
temperature and has to turn to the matching temperature on the disconnected thermostat. Go to another
room, and ask the student to reset the thermostat to match that room's temperature.
9.
Take the student into the kitchen area, or bring a small toaster oven or oven broiler into the
classroom or learning area, and place it on a table. Show the student the temperature controls on the oven,
and explain the purpose of the numbers. Place food in the oven such as apples prepared for baking, so that
he may see the apple baking through the glass door. Turn the controls up to the right cooking temperature,
and point out how the food is heating during the cooking process (see Volume II, Safety, I, I and L).
10.
Construct a calendar that has removable numbers and dates. Demonstrate to the student how the
calendar for the month has been set up, and point out the different days of the week and what month it is.
Tell the student to tell you what he likes to do on certain days of the week, and write these activities on
small pieces of paper, or draw pictures that depict these activities. Place them on the calendar under those
specific days.
11.
Find out from the female student when her menstrual period might begin. Provide her with a pocket
calendar that she can carry with her. Circle the days on the calendar when her period might begin, and tell
her she must prepare for those days in advance. Ask the student if she has taken appropriate precautions on
days immediately preceding her period.
12.
Construct a calendar, and bring it into class. Mark holidays, special event days, or birthdays in some
way such as with a happy face, star, or other symbol: (Prepare for these days in advance by asking the
student what special event is coming tomorrow, the next day, etc.). Reward the student when he answers
correctly.
13.
Bring clothing with number size labels into the learning area. Point out where these size labels are.
Place a large pile of clothing in front of the student, and tell him to find the number size labels and then to
tell you what they say. Reward the student when this activity is accomplished correctly.
14.
Obtain a bathroom scale, and bring it into the learning area. Point out the numbers on the scale, and
explain why they are there. Tell
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
175
the student they are used to measure weight or how heavy something is. Tell the student to stand on the
scale, and point out to him how the numbers go up to show his weight and then go down when he steps off
the scale. Ask the student to tell you his weight and to record it on a weight chart (Figure 52).
15.
Take the student to the grocery store's produce department. Select a store that allows you to weigh
out your items. Demonstrate
Figure 52. Weight chart.
176
Curriculum
placing several bananas or a bunch of grapes on the scale, and point out the way the scale dial goes up. Ask
the student to weigh other produce in the area and to write down the figure he sees registered on the scale.
16.
Point out various dials on air conditioners, heaters, and other appliances. Tell the student to set these
appliances (under super-vision) to a specific setting. Reward the student if he does this correctly.
17.
Take the student to a table upon which you have placed a large piece of paper. Divide the paper into
two sections. Paste a different type of weather scene in each section. For example, in one corner show a
fireplace burning and a window showing snow outside. In the other section, show the house windows open
and the sun shining, etc. Tell the student to place a picture of the appliance that is needed under the
appropriate section, e.g., air conditioner, heater, etc. Continue by drawing enlarged temperature dials found
on those appliances next to their pictures. Ask the student to "set" the dial by putting a mark on the number
he feels would be the most appropriate temperature for each weather condition.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES/MONEY
II. The student will acquire those skills necessary for carrying out transactions involving money and will do
so as independently as possible
RPL(%)* RO**
A. The student identifies and names the basic coins: penny, nickel, dime, and quarter
100 5
B. The student identifies the money symbols: cent sign, dollar sign, and decimal point 100 5
C. The student converts one denomination of coins into another denomination, i.e., five pennies equal
one nickel
100 5
D. The student counts change by referring to the face value of coins
100 5
E. The student selects appropriate change for pay telephones and vending machines
100 5
F. The student performs simple computations using coins, including making change
100 5
G. The student purchases items, using coins
100 5
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
H.
I.
J.
K.
177
RPL(%)*
RO**
The student identifies and names $1, $5, and $10 bills
100
5
The student purchases items, using currency
100
5
The student makes change in functional situations
100
5
The student purchases items, using coins and currency, and verifies the amount of change he receives
100
5
Suggested Activities/Money
A.
The student identifies and names the basic coins: penny, nickel, dime, and quarter
1.
Show the student the most commonly used coins. Tell the student to look at the coins, pick them up,
and feel them. Point out that some have different colors and some are larger and smaller than others.
2.
Place a penny and a nickel on a table in front of the student. Point to the penny, and say, "This is a
penny." Ask the student to pick it up, examine it, and repeat the sentence. Repeat this activity using the
nickel.
3.
Place several pennies and nickels in a pile in front of the student, and ask him to give you all the
pennies and then all the nickels. Place a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter in front of the student. Tell him to
give you a specific coin, and reinforce him if he does so.
4.
Take the student to a store that sells articles or food for a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter. Pick out
several items, and tell the student what each item costs. Give him a small amount of change, and tell him to
show you the coin needed to pay for each item you show him. Take the student to the cashier, and tell him
to pay for each item by giving the cashier the appropriate coins.
5.
Take the student with you when you are going shopping. Park your car next to a parking meter. Tell
him that in order to park there, the person parking a car must insert money into the parking meter. Tell the
student which coins the meter accepts: pennies, nickels, dimes, and/or quarters. Provide the student with a
small amount of change, and tell him to pick out the coins you ask for and to insert them into the parking
meter.
6.
Play a Bingo game using pennies, nickels, dimes, or quarters. Use the coins instead of markers to
cover the numbers as they are called. First, use all-pennies, then all nickels, etc. At a later time, tell the
student that you want to play a Bingo game with him and that he should get all pennies or nickels, etc.,
from a specified
178
Curriculum
place in the room. Then play the game. If the student gets all of one coin and can name that coin, reward
him appropriately.
7.
Take the student to a post office or store that has a vending machine for stamps. Point out that in
order to receive the stamps, he must place a specific type of coin or coins in the slot. Provide him with a
small amount of change, and tell him you want him to place a penny, nickel, dime, and/or quarter into the
machine for the specific number of stamps you desire. Reward the student if he identifies the correct
coin(s), and ask him to put the coin(s) into the stamp machine.
8.
Obtain or construct simple boxes that have covers on them. These may be little cardboard jewelry
cartons such as those used for bracelets or necklaces. Cut a slot or opening in the top of the box, and glue a
specific coin by the opening. Point out that this box is a bank just for that specific type of coin. Obtain or
construct several boxes, each one for a specific type of coin. Place a large bowl of assorted coins in front of
the student, and tell him that you want him to place each coin in the corresponding bank box. Tell him to
match the coin he wants to put in the box or bank to the one on the cover. As the student is performing this
activity, ask him which coin he is placing in the box.
9.
Each day, tell the student to show you his lunch money. For those who do not have or bring in lunch
money, provide them with some money. Tell the student to place his money on the table and to tell you
how many pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters he has. Assist him when necessary, and reinforce when he
does the task appropriately.
10.
Give the student a selection of coins. Tell him to put his money on the table. Hold up a penny, and
say, "Who has a penny?" Encourage the student to point to his pennies and say, "I have a penny." Tell him
to point to pennies until he is able to identify this coin. Repeat with the other coins.
11.
Fill a large bowl or dish with coins. Tell the student to separate the pennies, nickels, dimes, and
quarters into different piles. Continually check on the student by asking him which coins he is placing into
which piles.
12.
Play "Musical Money." Stand students in a circle. Place real coins or pictures of a penny, nickel,
dime, and quarter at various points on the circle. It is always best to use real coins. When the music stops,
tell the student to stop at the picture he is closest to. Tell him to identify the coin. If he does so, tell him he
can stay in the game. If he is unable to, tell him that he must stay out of the game for the time being.
Continue this until one student wins the game.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
B.
179
The student identifies and names the money symbols: cent sign, dollar sign, and decimal point
1.
Write the cent sign, dollar sign, and decimal point symbols on flashcards. Show the flashcards to the
student, and tell him what they are. Practice with him until he is able to identify each of the money
symbols.
2.
Make price tags, and put them on various objects, including clothing, and place these objects around
the room. Point out the money symbols on these price tags, and ask the student to tell you how much each
item costs.
3.
Bring in a wide variety of empty cans with their bottoms removed. Make sure that the labels are still
on the cans. On top of each can, with a Magic Marker, write an appropriate price of the object using various
money symbols. Ask the student to tell you what each can costs as you point to it.
4.
Using fingerpaint, write the money symbols. As you are writing the symbols', tell the student what
each one stands for. Repeat this activity, this time asking the student to imitate your actions and to write the
symbols in fingerpaint. Practice.
5.
Obtain from a supermarket the plastic numbers and money symbol signs that are used on shelves.
Tell the student that you want him to place in front of you a specific price, using either dollar signs, cent
signs, or decimal points. Repeat the activity at different intervals during the day. Next, take the student to a
supermarket, and ask him to identify the money symbols on the shelves.
6.
Take the student to a gas station, and point out the gasoline pumps. Indicate that the cost of the
gasoline is written with numbers and money symbols. Ask the student to identify the specific money
symbols shown on the pumps or on the cards placed above the pumps (Figure 53).
Figure 53. Money symbols on a gasoline pump.
180
Curriculum
7.
Cut out pictures of clothing or accessories from magazines or catalogs. Construct tagboard price
tags to represent the cost of these items (Figure 54). Ask the student to identify the price of each item.
8.
Take the student to the supermarket. Buy several items, and pay for them. As the items are being
rung up on the cash register, point out the money symbols.
9.
Draw a picture of a cash register on tagboard. Tape price tags where the cost of items are registered
(Figure 55). Ask the student to identify these amounts and symbols.
C.
The student converts one denomination of coins into another denomination, i.e., five pennies equal
one nickel
1.
Make a money book of coins for use in the classroom or learning area. On the pages of the book,
show that a penny is one cent and that five pennies equal one nickel or five cents. Make sure you use real
money. Tell the student to place his money over the illustration to help him with the concept that he can
convert coins into other coins if he has the right number and types of coins (Figure 56).
Figure 54. Identifying prices of items.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
181
Figure 55. Reading a cash register.
2.
Take the student to a vending machine that only takes quarters. Give the student one quarter and the
correct amount of change that, when added together, equals a quarter. Point out that this machine only takes
a quarter, not 25¢, even though the value is the same. Tell the student to place his quarter into the machine
to receive the item he wants. Point out that he will not receive the item if he places coins other than a
quarter in the machine.
Figure 56: Money Book
182
Curriculum
3.
Take the student to a vending machine that dispenses nuts or other nutritious foods. Point out that
the vending machine will only accept one or two pennies. Show the student the slot on the machine, and tell
him that only pennies will fit into this specific slot. Give the student a nickel, and tell him that he must
change or convert his nickel into pennies before he can use the machine. Ask the student to buy the nuts or
other items in the vending machine.
4.
Give the student a small amount of change, and take him to a laundromat where there are coinoperated machines. Tell him that you want him to do one wash, and then put the wet clothes into the dryer.
Reward the student if he correctly places the right coins into the washing and drying machines.
5.
Cut small strips of 1/4-inch plywood in sizes that will allow different coins to be glued to them. For
example, glue five pennies on a 1 X 6-inch piece of plywood. Do the same for nickels, dimes, and quarters.
You may wish to glue just one coin such as a quarter to one small piece of plywood. Place the coins that
have been glued on the plywood in front of the student. Ask him to give you the piece of plywood that has
the coins on-it which are of the same value as a nickel, dime, etc. Vary the coin (quarter, nickel, dime) you
ask for so that the student can practice converting all the commonly used types of coins.
6.
For additional activities using vending machines, see Volume I, Fine Motor, and Functional
Reading, VII, A.
D.
The student counts change by referring to the face value of coins
1.
Place a bowl of assorted coins in front of the student. Tell him to remove each coin from the bowl
and to count it up in front of you (5¢, 10¢, 20¢, etc.). Correct the student if he makes a mistake, and ask
him to repeat the activity.
2.
Take the student to a supermarket or store where he will be able to buy some articles. Tell him to
count the change received. Closely monitor this activity.
3.
Take the student to a money changing machine that requires the insertion of a dollar bill in order to
obtain change. Demonstrate how to put a dollar bill into the changer, and point to the coins as they come
out of the machine. Tell the student to collect the coins and to count them by their face value as he takes
them from the machine, i.e., 25¢, 50¢, 75¢, 85¢, 90¢, 95¢, one dollar.
4.
Collect deposit bottles. Take the student with you to the supermarket, and ask him to turn the bottles
in and receive the deposit. Tell him to count the coins received. Whenever possible, vary the amount of
deposit and the number of items returned to provide practice in counting various amounts of change.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
E.
183
The student selects appropriate change for pay telephones and vending machines
1.
Show the student a picture of a pay telephone that requires putting different coins into different slots
(5¢, 10¢, 25¢). Tell the student that you want him to make calls that cost 35¢, 45¢, etc. Place an assortment
of coins in front of the student, and ask him to give you the correct coins for each specific call.
2.
Take the student to a telephone booth, and tell him that you want him to call his home, school, or
someone else who will be waiting on the other end of the line. Give the student an assortment of coins. Tell
him that you want him to select the right coin or coins and to make the telephone call. Tell the student the
number to call. Assist him in this activity whenever necessary (Figure 57).
3.
Cut out of a magazine or newspaper various pictures of vending machines. Glue these pictures on
large pieces of construction paper. Under each picture, draw a square and a money slot. Under each, print
the numbers or words that indicate the coins needed to
Figure 57. Selecting coins for the telephone.
184
Curriculum
operate the machine. Give the student a variety of coins, and tell him to put the right coin or coins in the
square under each picture.
4.
Take the student to a restaurant or take-out shop for lunch. After you receive the bill, tell the student
that you want him to leave a specified amount of money (coins) as the tip. Explain what a tip is. Give the
student a change purse with a variety of coins. Reward the student if he chooses the correct combination of
coins from the money in the change purse.
5.
Take the student to a garage sale or flea market where there are many articles for sale for less than a
quarter. Point out the signs or price tags on each article. Tell the student to find an article he would like to
purchase. Reward him if he chooses the correct coins to pay for his purchase.
F.
The student performs simple computations using coins, including making change
1.
Whenever the student brings in coins for lunch money, a class trip, and for the purchase of special
materials, tell him to count out his coins. Check to make sure that he has added all of the coins correctly,
and praise him if he is right.
2.
Make inexpensive craft objects, for a school bazaar. Charge a specific amount of money for each
item, and tell the student to count up the coins he has collected when the sale is over.
3.
Take the student to restaurants or other eating places that require leaving a tip. After each meal, tell
the student that you want him to leave the tip from the coins you have given him to hold in his pocket. Tell
the student that you would like him to leave 40¢, 50¢, 60¢, etc., in coins for the tip. Praise the student each
time he selects the coins that add up to the correct amount of the tip. (See Figure 74, Consumer Skills, for
an example of a tip chart.)
4.
Take the student to the post office to purchase some stamps. Tell the student that you want him to
buy a specific number of stamps and that he has to give the man the correct amount of change. Practice this
activity before you take the student to the post office to make sure he fully understands what you are asking
him to do.
5.
Take the student to the movies. Tell him that you will pay the dollar part of the ticket price, but that
it is up to him to pay the correct amount of change. If the student does this correctly, reward him by
praising him. If he has difficulty or is unable to do it correctly, point out the coins he should be using, and
repeat this activity at a later time.
6.
Set up a lemonade or fruit juice stand. Place a sign over the stand, stating the amount of change
needed to buy the lemonade or fruit juice. Tell the student to buy lemonade or fruit juice using the exact
amount of change. Praise him if he does this correctly.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
185
7.
On a flannel board in front of the student, place the prices for a baked apple, milk, and the student's
lunch. Tell the student first to show or tell the correct amount of change he will need to buy all of the items
listed on the flannel board. Next, tell the student that you would like him to buy lunch for another student,
but that his peer does not wish to have a baked apple. Tell him to show or tell you how many coins the peer
needs to pay for lunch without buying the baked apple.
G.
The student purchases items, using coins
1.
Take the student shopping with you. Make a list of some small items you wish to buy, and tell the
student that you would like him to pay for these items with the coins you give him. Give him enough coins
to pay for the purchases. Go into different stores, and tell him to pay for the purchases you select.
2.
Make a list of grooming aids the student may need if he takes a trip. Tell him to check the grooming
aids such as toothpaste, shaving powder, deodorant, etc., that he uses every day. Take the list, which has
been individualized for the specific student, and ask him to buy the articles in the smallest sizes he can find.
Reward him, and repeat this activity whenever grooming items are needed for a trip or for daily use.
3.
Tell the student to look through a magazine and to find items that he would need to clean his room.
These might include window cleaners, waxes, paper towels, etc. Tell the student to cut out the pictures and
to place their approximate price next to each item. Determine the price of each item by checking on those
items in the store before engaging in the activity. Take the student to a store that sells these items, and tell
him to buy the items using the coins he has been given or has worked for.
4.
Take the student to the laundromat when he needs to wash and dry his clothes. Give him a change
purse with coins in it. Point out that he needs coins to operate the machines and that he will also need to
purchase detergent and other cleaning agents. Show him the machine that dispenses a wash size package of
detergent or bleach. Tell the student to purchase the appropriate packages of cleaning agents with the coins
he has in his change purse.
H.
The student identifies and names $1, $5, and $10 bilk
1.
Place $1, $5, and $10 dollar bills on the table. Hold up each bill, and say, "This is a_______." Ask
the student to point out the $1, $5, and $10 bills.
2.
Make flashcards picturing $1, $5, and $10 bills. Ask the student to correctly identify each bill as
you flash its card in front of him. Practice until the student is able to identify $1, $5, and $10 bills. Praise
him if he identifies and names each card.
186
Curriculum
3.
Place a variety of $1, $5, and $10 bills in a cash box. Give the student the cash box, and tell him to
sort the bills into piles, e.g., $1 bills in one pile, $5 bills in another pile, and $10 bills in a third pile. Once
he has completed this activity, point to each pile, and ask him to name the bills found there.
4.
Tell the student to construct a scrapbook made from 8 1/2 X 11-inch plastic sheets such as those
used in a photograph album. On the first page, place two $1 bills so that one shows the front of the bill and
the other shows the back. On the next page, place two $5 bills so that one shows the front of the bill and
one shows the back. Do this with the $10 bill on the following page. At a specified time, tell the student to
get his money scrapbook and to name the type of bill that is displayed on each page.
5.
Take the student to a bank, and give him a $20 bill to change. Tell him to give it to the cashier, and
then ask the cashier to give the student the change in two $5 bills and a $10 bill. Tell the student to take the
money back to the classroom or learning area and to place it on a table. Point to each bill, and ask the
student to identify and to name it.
6.
Ask the student to help out at a school dance, recreational event, or other money-making activity.
Place him next to you at the admission booth where he will be able to help you to sort the money for the
tickets. As money is being taken in, give it to the student, and tell him to place the $1, $5, and $10 bills in
the appropriate piles in the cash box or drawer. Supervise closely to make sure that he is performing this
activity correctly. Praise him, and tell him what a good job he is doing.
I.
The student purchases items, using currency
1.
Take the student on a shopping trip with a prepared shopping list. Tell him to bring money with him
to pay for his purchases. If the student does not have any money or does not need to buy anything, provide
him with money, and tell him to buy articles that are needed for use in the classroom or learning area. Tell
the student to pick out several items that are on his shopping list and to pay for them using currency. Check
the student's purchases and the amount of money he has spent. Praise him if he has done this correctly.
2.
On tagboard or construction paper, draw five or six large price tags. Put the price tags on classroom
toys, games, or materials. Place bills of different denominations in a wallet, and give the wallet to the
student. Tell the student that there is enough money in the wallet to purchase all six items at the prices
designated on the price tags. Tell him that he must pay the correct amount
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
187
shown on each price tag. Supervise this activity closely. If the student is able to pay for all of the items
using the correct currency, reward him.
3.
Plan to buy Christmas or birthday presents with the student. Ask him to bring the money for these
presents with him on a specific day. On that day, go shopping with the student, and assist him in picking
out the presents. Tell the student to pay for these presents using the money he has brought with him.
4.
Tell the student to collect from his peers money that has been brought in for pictures, an outing, or
other recreational or educational excursions. With supervision, allow the student to place all the money in a
central box or envelope and to pay the person collecting the money. Check to make sure that the student
does not make any errors, and praise him if he does a good job.
J.
The student makes change in functional situations
1.
Give the student a wallet with two $1 bills in it. Place a jar full of assorted coins in front of the
student. Tell the student that you want him to make change needed for bus fare or telephone calls, etc. Tell
him to put the two $1 bills in the jar, and then take out of the jar the appropriate amount of coins that add
up to two dollars. Reward him if he does this correctly. Practice, using different amounts of money.
2.
Take the student to a vending machine that dispenses fruit juice or milk. Tell the student that you
want to buy him one of the beverages, but all you have is a quarter. Ask the student for change of a quarter.
With this change, buy the student the beverage.
3.
Take the student to a restaurant where you will be receiving a bill for your meal. At the end of the
meal, tell the student that you want to leave a certain amount of change as a tip, but all you have is a $1 bill.
Ask the student if he can make change for the $1 bill with the change he has with him. If he does so, praise
him. If he does not and tells you he cannot, praise him.
K.
The student purchases items, using coins and currency, and verifies the amount of change he
receives
1.
Take the student to the drug store, and ask him to buy some toiletry items that he needs. Make sure
that he has the adequate amount of coins and currency to pay for the purchases. After the student selects
and pays for the articles, sit down with him and check his purchases. Look at the receipt for the
merchandise, ask the student how much money he gave the cashier, and check to see if he received the
proper amount of change from the clerk.
2.
When appropriate, tell the student to pay for his lunch in the school or work cafeteria. If the student
needs assistance in handling
188
Curriculum
his lunch money and his tray of food while moving through the line, provide a container, purse, or wallet
for him. Tell the student to pay for his lunch with a specific bill. After he eats his lunch, tell him to place
the change he received on the table, and ask him to count it. Check to see that the student received the
correct amount of change. Remind him to put his change in his pocket, wallet, or change purse.
3.
Before purchasing an item, tell the student to change a $1 bill in a money changing machine. Tell
the student to bring the change he received from the money changing machine to the learning area. Tell him
to count the change. Ask the student if he has the correct amount of change. (Caution should be exercised
because some coin changing machines now charge a percent of the amount of money to be changed as a
service charge.)
4.
Take the student to the barber when he needs to get a hair-cut. Tell the student the cost of the haircut. When his hair has been cut, tell the student to pay the barber using the currency he has in his wallet and
to check the change he receives to make sure it is correct.
5.
Show the student a bus token or other types of tokens that are used for public transportation. Tell
the student that he will have to purchase these tokens with money he has or money you will give him. Take
him to the place that sells the tokens, and ask him to buy a specific number: Ask the student to verify the
amount of change he receives after paying for the tokens. Take the student on a trip, using these tokens.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES/MEASUREMENT
III.
The student will acquire those measurement skills that facilitate independence in functional
situations
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The student discriminates between large and small and big and little
The student discriminates between short and tall
The student discriminates between thick and thin
The student discriminates between full and empty
The student uses a ruler to measure objects and distance
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
RPL(%)*
100
100
100
100
75
RO**
4
4
4
4
4
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
189
RPL(%)* RO**
The student uses measuring cups and spoons in cooking and other functional situations 100 5
The student uses a scale to measure weight
75
4
The student uses a yardstick, measuring tape, ruler, etc., to measure height
75
4
The student uses cooking and weather thermometers to measure temperature
75
4
The student uses fractions (1/2, 1/3, and 1/4) to measure objects and food
100 5
The student estimates distances
75
4
Suggested Activities/Measurement
A.
The student discriminates between large and small and big and little
1.
Place several blocks in front of the student. Make sure that some of the blocks are large and others
are small. Point out that some blocks are large and others are small. Ask him to give you all the small
blocks. Praise him if he does it correctly. Repeat the activity, asking for the large blocks.
2.
Show the student a piece of paper that has large and small circles drawn on it. Tell the student to
point to the circles that are large and then to those that are small. Give him a blank piece of paper and a
crayon or pencil. Tell him you want him to draw large circles on the paper. Repeat the activity; this time,
asking him to draw small circles on the other side of the paper.
3.
Plan an activity that requires you to plant large and small seeds in flower pots. Place large and small
size flower pots on a table. Provide potting soil and the miniature gardening tools that the student will need
to plant the seeds. Tell him that you want him to plant a small seed in a small pot and a large seed in a large
pot. If the student plants the appropriate size seeds in the appropriate size pots, praise him. Repeat this
activity using plants that need to be transplanted.
4.
Give the student a box of various size crayons. Tell him that you want him to place all of the big
crayons in one pile and all of the little crayons in another. Show him an example of a crayon you consider
to be big and one you consider to be little.
5.
Place an oversized shirt on the student. Tell him that you want him to button the shirt (see Volume
I. Self-Care) by first buttoning the small buttons and then the larger buttons. Do not point out that the
smaller buttons are on the collars and sleeves. Let the student figure it out for himself. Reward him if he
does it correctly. Offer assistance when necessary.
190
Curriculum
6.
Plant some bean seeds in a paper cup, and place them on a windowsill that gets sun. It is important
to plant the seeds on different days. Tell the student that you want him to look in the cups each day. At the
end of a specified period of time, ask the student to point out the bean plants that have grown big.
B.
The student discriminates between short and tall
1.
Place a variety of tall and short bottles in front of the student. Tell him to place all of the tall ones in
a specific area and all of the short ones in another area. Repeat this activity, until the student does it
correctly each time.
2.
Plan a tasting party. Prepare the food that will be used for the party such, as carrot sticks, celery,
cucumber sticks, etc., by cutting them into short and long pieces. Put the short and long pieces of each
vegetable in a large bowl (each vegetable in a separate bowl), and place the bowls in front of the student.
Tell him that you want him to find the bowl of carrot sticks and to taste a short carrot stick. If he correctly
picks out a short piece of carrot, tell him he may eat it. Repeat the activity if the student does not do it
correctly. Serve the remaining vegetables as a snack or at break time.
3.
Place a yardstick and a ruler in front of the student. Stand both objects on end, and point out that the
yardstick is much longer than the ruler. Mix up several yardsticks and rulers, and tell the student to pick out
the short sticks and then the long ones. Praise the student if he does it correctly.
4.
See Volume II, Communication Skills, III, for additional activities.
C.
The student discriminates between thick and thin
1.
Plan a cooking activity for the student. Prepare food with a consistency that changes from thin to
thick, e.g., making butter from cream. At the start of the activity, point out the thin consistency of the
cream. Beat the cream until it becomes the consistency of butter. Ask the student to help you beat it. Point
out how thick the cream has become. Use the butter as part of a meal or snack for the student.
2.
Bake bread with the student. When the bread has cooled, tell the student that you want him to cut it
into thick and thin slices. Demonstrate when necessary.
3.
Purchase unsliced bread. Show the student a toaster, and say that you would like him to toast the
bread. Explain that the bread must be cut thin if it is to fit into the standard size toaster. Ask him to cut a
thin slice of bread and to place it in the toaster. If the student cuts a thin piece, allow him to toast it, put
preserves on it, and eat it.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
191
4.
Give the student several 3 X 5 cards with lines drawn on them. Pre-draw the lines, using a Magic
Marker with a thick felt tip to draw the lines on some cards and a ball point pen with an extra fine point to
draw the lines on the others. Mix up the 3 X 5 cards, and tell the student that you want him to pick out all of
the cards with thick lines and to place them in one pile. Praise him if he does it correctly. Repeat the
activity, asking the student to pick out the cards with the thin lines.
5.
Plan a party for the student's birthday. Bake a carrot cake or other type of cake using natural
ingredients. Tell him that you would like him to help you cut the cake. Ask the student's peers to tell him
whether they would like a thick or thin slice of cake. Provide assistance, and tell the student to cut a thick
or thin slice of cake for his peers, depending upon which type of slice they have requested.
D.
The student discriminates between full and empty
1.
Place several small size boxes of raisins in front of the student. Mix empty boxes along with the
boxes that are full. Tell the student that you want him to place all of the full boxes on a table next to him or
on a shelf within his reach. Ask him to discard all the empty boxes. Praise the student if he does this task
correctly.
2.
During snack time, tell the student that you want him to help you to pass out the glasses or paper
cups of juice or milk. Mix several empty paper cups or glasses along with those that are full. Tell the
student to give the full ones to his classmates and to leave the empty cups on the table. Praise him if he
does this correctly.
3.
Take the student to the bathroom sink. Place a stopper in the sink, and ask him to wash his hands
(see Volume I, Self-Care Skills). Place a small tape mark on the inside of the sink, which will be the water
level mark. Fill up the sink to this mark. Tell the student that the sink is now full and that the water level
should not go above the mark. Ask him to wash his hands in the sink. After he finishes washing, tell the
student to remove the stopper from the sink, and point out that the water is going down the drain. When all
the water is down the drain, tell the student that the sink is now empty. At appropriate times during the day,
such as after toileting, ask the student to fill the sink and to wash his hands. If he responds correctly, praise
him.
4.
As a special activity, make popcorn with the student. Once the corn is popped, place it in a bowl.
Mention to the student that the bowl is full of popcorn. Allow him to eat the popcorn at an appropriate time.
If the student does not finish all the popcorn, empty the bowl so that it has nothing in it. Show him the
empty
192
Curriculum
bowl. Repeat this activity using different foods at snack and mealtime.
5.
Help the student to prepare his laundry for washing. Show him a dresser with a drawer full of
underwear or socks. Point out that this drawer is full, and there is enough underwear or socks to last him for
the entire week. At the end of the week, take the student to the same drawer, point out that it is nearly
empty and that he will need to wash his clothes. It is important to remind the student not to wait to use his
last article of underwear or clothing before he does his wash.
E.
The student uses a ruler to measure objects and distance
1.
Provide the student with a selection of plastic or paper plates. Include dinner size plates as well as
sandwich size plates. Tell the student that you want him to set the table using specific size plates. For
example, ask him to use a 12-inch dinner plate and a 6-inch sandwich plate as part of the place setting.
Provide the student with a ruler and some plates, and ask him to measure the plates to make sure that he has
the right size plate. Use the plates he has set to serve a meal or snack to the student.
2.
Plan an art project that requires the student to measure pieces of construction paper or tagboard.
Provide him with a ruler and the measurements you require, and demonstrate the measuring activity. Give
him some construction paper or tagboard, and ask him to imitate your actions and to complete the activity.
Praise him if he does it correctly, and offer assistance when necessary.
3.
Start an indoor or, when possible, outdoor garden. Plant seeds that produce quick growing plants.
Examples include green beans, radishes, chives, etc. Tell the student to measure the growth of his plants
with the ruler every other day and to record the measures on a piece of paper. When necessary, assist him.
Set specific growth limits for the plants, such as 3 inches, 4 inches, etc., and instruct the student to tell you
when each plant has reached its specified height.
4.
When appropriate, plan an activity that requires the student to sew hems. Tell the student to sew a
1-inch or 2-inch hem on a specific article of clothing, and provide him with a ruler. Demonstrate the
activity. Tell the student to imitate your actions and to complete the activity. Tell the student to try on the
clothing when he is finished, and admire the hem he has sewn if he has completed the activity correctly.
5.
Tell the student to bring in a picture from a magazine or a photograph he would like to frame. Trim
the picture or photograph so that it will be suitable for a 5 X 7-inch frame. Provide the
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
193
student with different size frames. Give him a ruler, and tell him to measure the frames until he finds one
that is 5 X 7 inches. Assist the student in placing the picture in the frame, and allow him to take it home.
You may wish to substitute frames that are made out of cardboard, colored construction paper, or tagboard
if commercial frames are too expensive or are unavailable.
F.
The student uses measuring cups and spoons in cooking and other functional situations
1.
Make bran muffins with the student. Ask him to assist you in measuring out the right amount of
ingredients according to the instructions on the box of muffin mix or the recipe directions. Praise the
student if he does this correctly. Offer assistance when necessary.
2.
Take the student to a washing machine when it is time for him to do his laundry. Point out that
washing his clothes requires adding a specific amount of detergent. Show the student how to pour the
detergent into a measuring cup and then into the washing machine. Emphasize the marks on the measuring
cup, and tell the student that you are filling the cup according to the directions on the detergent box.
Emphasize that the amount of detergent the student measures into the cup for use in the clothes washer
should not exceed the amount specified on the box. Demonstrate the complete activity to him, and tell him
to imitate your actions. Practice until the student is able to perform the activity as independently as possible
(Figure 58).
3.
Plan an activity that requires the use of measuring spoons. For example, a cake batter may require
putting in a specific amount of extract, etc. Show the student the various size measuring spoons, and help
him to select the appropriate one. Tell him to measure out the specific amount of extract, etc., and to
complete the activity.
4.
Explain to the student that when he is sick or feeling ill he may have to take liquid medicine. Under
supervision, show him that medicines such as cough syrup or other elixirs may need to be taken by the
spoonful (teaspoon or tablespoon). When the student needs this type of medicine, tell him to show you the
correct spoon, and allow him to measure out the amount he is to take. Supervise closely. For the student
who has difficulty with this activity, place the appropriate size spoon in the box with the medicine.
5.
Bake bread with the student. Place a large bowl or cannister of flour and an appropriate size
measuring cup on a table in front of the student. Demonstrate measuring out part of the required
194
Curriculum
Figure 58. Measuring detergent.
amount of flour, and place the flour in a mixing bowl. Tell the student to finish the activity by measuring
out the remaining cupfuls needed to make the bread. Add the other needed ingredients, bake the bread, and
serve it after it has cooled.
G.
The student uses a scale to measure weight
1. Bring a bathroom scale into the classroom or learning area, and place it on the floor in the middle of the
room. Tell the student to stand on the scale. Point out that the scale indicator moves and registers a certain
number. Tell him that this number represents his weight in pounds. Ask him to record the number that he
sees on the scale. Ask him to repeat the activity, this time using the scale to weigh his peers. Tell the
student to record the weight that he sees on the scale in a notebook or on a weight chart. Encourage the
student to weigh himself once a week and to keep track of weight losses and gains. Do not carry out this
activity if the student or his peers has a weight problem and might be embarrassed by being weighed in
public.
2. Place various size objects on a table. Bring in a post office type scale that measures weight in pounds and
ounces. Tell the student to weigh the various size objects and to record their weight. Repeat
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
195
this activity at times of the year such as Christmas or holidays when the student wants to mail packages.
Verify the weight by taking the student to the post office and asking the postal worker to weigh the
package.
3.
Take the student to the produce department of a supermarket. Point out the produce scale, and
weigh some fruit or vegetables. Show the student how to place the food on the scale, and point to the
indicator that records how much the food weighs. Tell him that this weight is important to know because it
will influence the price of the fruit he is buying. Give the student an amount of produce to buy, e.g., two
pounds of bananas, and tell him to use the scale to weigh this amount. Practice.
4.
Take the student to a hardware store that sells nails by the pound. Tell him that you would like him
to buy three pounds of a specific size nail, e.g., six penny, and ask him to weigh them. It may be necessary
to call ahead of time to ask the store manager if the student may use the scale for this purpose. Praise the
student if he does it correctly. Offer assistance when necessary.
5.
Show the student pictures of different types of scales. Point out the type of food or object each scale
measures (Figure 59). Give the student other pictures (vegetables, boxes, etc.), and ask him to match the
pictures with the type of scale that would be used to weigh them.
H. The student uses a yardstick, measuring tape, a ruler, etc., to measure height
1. Stand the student next to a wall. Ask him to stand up straight, place your hand on top of his head, and
hold it in position against the wall. Tell the student to move away. Point out to him that the height where
your hand is represents how tall he is. Place a pencil mark where your hand is. Provide the student with a
yardstick or measuring tape, and ask him to measure how tall he is by measuring the distance from the floor
to the pencil mark.
2. In making birthday, Valentine, and Christmas cards, require the student to measure specific lengths of
paper. Provide him with a ruler, and tell him that you want him to measure a 5 X 7-inch piece of
construction paper that will be used as the card. Demonstrate measuring out a 5 X 7-inch portion of the
paper, and assist him as he cuts it out. Provide the student with crayons, scissors, magazine pictures, and
paste, and tell him to draw or paste a picture or design on the card.
3. Plan a class project that requires the student to measure long boards with a measuring tape, e.g., shelves
made from boards and cinder blocks. Demonstrate the appropriate way of holding the
196
Curriculum
Figure 59. Types of scales.
measuring tape against one edge of the board, and assist him in marking the correct length of board needed
for the project. Cut the board, and complete the project, offering help when needed. Supervise closely.
4.
Bring several size chairs into the classroom or learning area. Point out to the student that each chair
is a different size and height. Place your hand on the top of the chair back, and tell the student that you
want him to measure the height of each chair. Demonstrate this activity by taking a yardstick or measuring
tape, placing it on the top of the chair back, and bringing it down to the ground. Record the distance that
has been measured. Demonstrate this activity with another chair, and then ask the student to measure other
chairs in the room independently. Point out that the shorter students probably would be more comfortable
in smaller chairs, while the taller students would probably be more comfortable in taller chairs.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
I.
197
The student uses cooking and weather thermometers to measure temperature
1.
Show the student a meat thermometer. Demonstrate how to insert the thermometer into the meat.
Ask the student how he likes his meat cooked, i.e., rare, medium, or well done. Place a dot or mark on the
meat thermometer at the temperature that will show the student that his meat is cooked. As the meat is
cooking, tell the student to check the reading on the meat thermometer periodically. Tell him to take the
meat out when the temperature reaches the mark placed on the thermometer.
2.
Plan to cook a turkey dinner. Purchase a turkey with an automatic thermometer already inserted in
it. Show the student the location of the thermometer, and explain that this type of thermometer pops out
when the turkey is done. Tell the student to check the turkey as it is cooking and to tell you when the
thermometer has popped out. Serve the turkey for dinner.
3.
Make an outdoor temperature chart that indicates the type of outdoor clothing the student should
wear for certain temperature ranges. For example, draw a large thermometer on a piece of tagboard, and,
next to the appropriate temperature areas, place pictures of the clothing the student may wear, e.g., 10°-50°
cold weather clothes: coats, gloves, etc. See Figure 60 for a detailed example of the chart. Tell the student
to match the temperature reading on the outdoor thermometer against the same temperature on the
temperature chart to see what kinds of outdoor clothing are suitable.
4.
Show the student the location of the indoor thermometer in his classroom or learning area and his
residence. Point out the numbers on the thermometer and the column of liquid. Demonstrate how to read
the thermometer. Place several thermometers in different rooms or areas, and ask the student to tell you
what the temperature is in each room. Praise the student if he does it correctly.
J.
The student uses fractions (1/2, 1/3, and 1/4) to measure objects and food
1.
Make pancakes with the student. Provide the necessary materials needed to complete this activity
such as a griddle or fry pan, pancake ingredients, butter or margarine, measuring cups, etc. Tell the student
that you are going to measure 1/2 cup of pancake batter into a bowl, and then add whatever else is needed.
Point out the 1/2 cup marking to the student. If he has difficulty finding the mark, place a piece of tape or
mark a Magic Marker line at that point. Demonstrate using the measuring cup. Ask the student to repeat
this activity, and check to see if he has done it correctly. An
198
Curriculum
Figure 60. Temperature and clothing chart.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
199
individual 1/2 cup measuring cup may be substituted in this activity.
2.
Plan a cooking activity that requires you to use 1/4 stick of butter or margarine. Show the butter
stick to the student, and point out the fractional markings on the wrapper. Demonstrate cutting the butter or
margarine though the wrapper at the appropriate size marking, in this case 1/4 of a stick. Complete the
cooking activity.
3.
Take the student on a picnic or field trip. For lunch, give the student a sandwich, and tell him to cut
it in half before he eats it. Repeat the activity, this time telling the student to cut the sandwich in quarters
before he eats it. Demonstrate, and assist when necessary.
4.
Plan an art project that requires the student to measure material. For example, provide the student
with a plastic egg-shaped container similar to the type in which nylon stockings are sold. Tell him to
measure out 1/2-foot lengths of trimming (rick-rack) from a roll. Use a ruler or marker that is marked at 1/2
foot. Assist him in decorating the egg, and ask him to measure a number of 1/2-foot lengths of trimming as
you do it.
5.
Plan a woodworking project that incorporates 1/4-inch or 1/2-inch plywood. Make a template
(Figure 61) that measures the required thickness. Take the student to a hardware store or lumber yard, and
point out the different size thicknesses of plywood. Tell him what thickness he needs. Ask him to indicate
to you which pieces of plywood are the appropriate thickness for his project by using the template to
measure the thickness.
6.
Make modeling clay with the students. Use the recipe: 1 part salt, 2 parts flour, and enough water to
make it moldable. Tell the
Figure 61. Template for measuring the thickness of plywood.
200
Curriculum
student to put 1/2 cup of salt into a mixing bowl. Tell him to add two 1/2 cups of flour. Assist the student as
he adds the water. Make objects out of the clay. This activity can be repeated using 1/4 cup measures for a
smaller amount.
K.
The student estimates distances
1.
Take the student on a walking trip that lasts approximately 15 minutes each way. Tell him that you
have just walked a short distance. Explain to the student that if a place can be reached within a 15-minute
walk, he can walk there.
2.
Plan field trips to several places, some a short distance away and others a longer distance. Discuss
with the student the length of time it would take to walk to each place, for example, 5 minutes, 45 minutes,
1 1/2 hours, etc. Ask the student which places he thinks he could walk to, and ask him to estimate the time
needed. Praise him if he is correct, and go on the trip.
3.
Draw a map of the neighborhood, placing marks or symbols where the student and his peers live.
Place a large X where the school or learning area is located. Draw a line between the different houses. On
the line, write the time it takes to walk from each house to the other. Tell the student that he can walk to
some of his peers' houses but would be unable to walk to others. Tell him the amount of time it would take
to walk to each house, and ask him if he can walk the distance or if he will need transportation such as a car
or bus.
4.
Assist the student in lining up with his peers. Tell the student to judge the distance between himself
and the peer in front of him by placing his hand on that peer's shoulder. Tell him to take his hand down as
soon as he does this, then tell the student to look at the distance between himself and his peer. Repeat this
activity at appropriate times during the day. After a number of times, encourage the student to estimate the
lining-up distance without touching his peer's shoulder.
5.
Play Musical Chairs. Tell the student to arrange the chairs in a circle with the seats facing inward.
Ask him to leave enough empty space between each chair to allow one student to walk through. If the
chairs are too close together or too far apart, point it out to him, and rearrange the chairs. Play the game.
6.
Take the student to a supermarket. Point out how the food packages -are on shelves that are placed
at different heights. Demonstrate retrieving packages by bending to obtain them on a lower shelf and
stretching to obtain those on a higher shelf. Explain that there are some packages that you cannot reach, and
to obtain these you will ask for help. Walk up and down the aisles with the
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
201
student, and ask him to tell you which shelves he thinks he can reach and which ones he will need help
with. Encourage him to ask for help when needed.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES/TIME
IV.
The student will acquire those fundamental skills that facilitate independence in functional
situations involving time
RPL(%)*
RO**
A. The student identifies and names specific times of the day (morning, afternoon, and night) and
matches the time of the day with appropriate activities
100
4
B. The student identifies and names the days of the week
100
4
C. The student identifies and names the months of the year
75
4
D. The student identifies and names the current day and date
75
4
E. The student identifies and names the current season and the other seasons
75
4
F. The student identifies and names the day, month, season, and year that follow the current day, month,
season, and year
75
4
G. The student identifies and names the major holidays of the year
75
4
H. The student uses a calendar to identify the months and the year
75
4
I. The student identifies and names clocks and watches
75
4
J. The student identifies and names the time by the hour and half hour on different types of clocks and
watches (digital, wrist, alarm, etc.)
75
4
K. The student arrives on time to scheduled activities and events
100
5
Suggested Activities/Time
A.
The student identifies and names specific times of the day (morning, afternoon, and night) and
matches the time of the day with appropriate activities
1.
As the student arrives in the classroom or learning area, ask him what part of the day it is. If he is
unable to answer, take him to a
*RPL = Required Performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
202
Curriculum
window, and show him people going to work, school busses arriving, etc. Tell him it is morning. Repeat
this activity at other specific times of the day, matching the time of the day with the activities that are in
progress.
2.
Construct a chart that is divided into sections representing specific times of the day. On each
section, place pictures or drawings representing activities that occur at that specific time of day; e.g.,
getting out of bed, eating breakfast, and going to school would be in the section representing morning.
3.
With the student, play the Lotto game, which requires the players to match cards representing
specific activities to large cards picturing the different times of the day at which the activities occur. As you
play the game, discuss the activities and why they occur at certain times of the day.
4.
Provide the student with magazines. Sit next to him, and ask him to look through the magazines,
pointing out pictures of activities that might be done in the morning, afternoon, and night. Praise the
student when he is correct.
5.
Construct a picture scrapbook that has been divided into three sections: morning, afternoon, and
night. Give the student pictures, magazines, and catalogs to look through. Tell him to cut out and to paste
the pictures in their appropriate sections. If the student appears to be having difficulty, paste one or two of
each type of picture in their appropriate section as a model for him to follow.
6.
Discuss the daily school and home routine with the student. Point out that he goes to school in the
morning, eats lunch in the afternoon, etc. Throughout the day, emphasize the specific times of day during
which specific events occur.
7.
For the student who is taking medication, draw a chart that shows the amount of medication to be
taken and the times of the day when it is to be taken, e.g., one pill in the morning and one at night, etc.
(Figure 62).
B.
The student identifies and names the days of the week
1.
Ask the student to name the days of the week. If he has difficulty, make flashcards of the days of
the week. Place the cards in order, and practice using them with the student until he is able to identify and
to name the days of the week. Mix up the cards, and ask the student to identify and to name the days of the
week by choosing a card and reading it aloud. Practice. See Volume II, Communication Skills, III, CC for
additional activities.
2.
Make tagboard cards with the days of the week written on them. During opening exercises in the
classroom or learning area, ask the student what day of the week it is. If he answers correctly, give
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
203
Figure 62. Medicine chart. (For the student who is unable to identify time on a Clock, use pictures
representing the time of day.)
him the card with that day of the week written on it. Tell the student to place the card on a bulletin board or
blackboard and to tell his peers what the card says, e.g., Tuesday.
3.
Construct a weekly calendar that has the days of the week but does not have any dates (Figure 63).
Tell the student to draw a circle around the day today is and to tell you what-day it is. Praise him if he does
this correctly, and repeat the activity daily for several weeks.
4.
Make a list of the student's planned activities for the week, e.g., a field trip. Type these activities on
individual strips of paper, or
Figure 63. Weekly calendar.
204
Figure 64. Weekly activities chart.
Curriculum
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
205
construct rebuses depicting the activities. Provide the student with a piece of tagboard that has the days of
the week written in 6-inch square boxes. Tell the student to place the activity strips in the appropriate
squares, e.g., swimming is on Tuesday, so that the strip saying or depicting swimming is placed in the
square labeled "Tuesday" (Figure 64).
C.
The student identifies and names the months of the year
1.
Ask the student to name the months of the year. If he has difficulty, give him a card with pictures
representing the months, a card with the months of the year printed on it, and/or a yearly calendar, and
point out the individual months as you say them aloud. Tell the student to say each month after you say it.
Practice with the student until he identifies and names the months of the year.
2.
Make a 12-inch wheel out of tagboard. Divide the wheel into 12 parts, and write the name of a
month on the top of each part. See Figure 65 for a detailed drawing of the wheel. Make a 6-inch
Figure 65. Month wheel.
206
Curriculum
wheel, and divide it into 12 parts. Write the name of a significant event, holiday, or birthday in each part.
Place the smaller wheel over the larger wheel, and attach with a brass paper fastener. Tell the student to
turn the small wheel until the event he has selected lines up with the correct month. There should be one
event for each month so that the student can practice finding the name of each month.
3.
Obtain 12 blank language master cards. On each card paste pictures that are associated with a
specific month of the year, e.g., pumpkin and witches = Halloween = October. Provide the student with a
language master, and tell him to say the name of the month each card represents.
4.
Play the "I am a month" game with the student. This game consists of a person saying descriptions
of a month until the student names the specific month the person is speaking about. For example, you may
start by saying, "This month is very cold; we celebrate Christmas during this month," etc., until the student
guesses the correct month.
5.
Help the student to make a calendar out of construction paper. Tell the student to choose a different
color paper for each month and to staple them together in the form of a calendar. Draw in the spaces for the
days and months, and help the student to fill in the words and numbers. Hang the calendar in the student's
learning area or residence. When a month is over, tell the student to tear off and bring in that specific page
of the calendar. Review the significant events that have happened during the month.
D.
The student identifies and names the current day and date
1.
Bring a large size calendar into the classroom or learning area. Demonstrate how to use the
calendar, emphasizing what day and date today is and yesterday was. Ask the student to tell you what day
and date tomorrow will be.
2.
Draw the days of the present month on an 8 1/2 X 11-inch piece of paper. Leave out some of the
days and some of the dates. See Figure 66 for an example of this. Make a transparency of this drawing, and
project it on a screen using an overhead projector. Ask the student to tell you what days and dates are
missing.
3.
Show the student a digital watch that tells the day and date in addition to telling the time. It is
advisable to obtain a watch whose numerals and letters are large and easily distinguishable. On different
days during the week, ask the student to look at the watch and to tell you the day and date shown on the
watch face.
4.
Print up sample doctor and dentist appointment cards, and fill in an appointment day and date
(Figure 67). Give the student a
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
Figure 66. Calendar transparency.
207
208
Curriculum
Figure 67. Sample appointment cards.
selection of these cards with a variety of days and dates printed on them. Ask the student to tell you the day
and date for each appointment.
5.
Bring in copies of gas, electric, and oil bills that have due dates written on them. If necessary, print
up sample bills, and fill in the due dates. Give the bills to the student, and ask him to tell you the date on
which the bills were due or will be due. Once the student finds the due date, tell him to find that date on the
calendar and to tell you on what day the date falls. Practice.
6.
Find the day and date of payday for the student who is working in a sheltered workshop or activity
center. One day before this date, ask the student if he can tell you when he is getting paid. If he responds,
"Tomorrow," praise him. Show the student tomorrow's date on a calendar, and tell him, "Tomorrow,
_______, is the day you get your next paycheck."
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
E.
209
The student identifies and names the current season and the other seasons
1.
Make a season wheel (Figure 68) with the student by pasting pictures of the different seasons on a
large (24-inch) tagboard circle. Label the seasons. Make a pointer out of tagboard, and attach it to the
center of the wheel with a paper fastener. Tell the student to turn the pointer to the current season, and plan
activities that incorporate the use of the wheel, e.g., read a story about ice skating, and tell the student to
point to the season when it is possible to ice skate outdoors.
2.
Obtain a large branch, and attach it to a bulletin board or wall. Make a seasonal tree by taping on
leaves that are presently in season. Point out to the student that the leaves are a specific color now, but that
some leaves change color with the changes of season. During the year, change the leaves as the seasons
change.
3.
Purchase Season Lotto, or construct one using magazine pictures. Encourage the student to play
Season Lotto during his free time or as part of an assigned activity.
4.
Provide the student with a supply of magazines that have pictures
Figure 68. Season wheel.
210
Curriculum
of outdoor scenes. Tell the student to cut out pictures that represent the different seasons. Assist him in
using these pictures to make a season scrapbook.
5.
Obtain a quantity of blank language master cards. On each card, paste or tape a picture that
represents a different holiday or season during the year, for example, a Christmas or winter scene. Tell the
student to look at the picture and to tell you in what season of the year the holiday or seasonal picture
would occur. If he is correct, tell him to use the language master and record the name of the season on the
language master card. At a later time, allow him to
Figure 69. Seasonal trees.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
211
Figure 70. Season pocket.
listen to the cards. Make modifications for different geographic areas where the change of seasons are not
dramatic.
6.
Show the student pictures of how trees look in different seasons (Figure 69). Modify the pictures
according to geographic regions.
7.
Construct a "season pocket" out of tagboard (Figure 70). Print the name of the current season on the
pocket, and ask the student to put pictures of appropriate clothing or seasonal activities in the pocket.
Change seasons accordingly.
F.
The student identifies and names the day, month, season, and year that follow the current day,
month, season, and year
1.
Make flashcards that include the days of the week and months of the year. Show the student a
flashcard with a specific day or month on it, and ask him to tell you what day or month comes after it.
Practice with the student until he answers correctly.
2.
Bring in 12 canceled checks, each one dated during a different month. Circle or underline the part of
the check that has the month written on it. Show the student one of the checks, and ask him to tell you what
month's check follows that one. Repeat this
212
Curriculum
activity using checks with different years. For this part of the activity, make sample checks, and fill in the
dates.
3.
Provide the student with a variety of pictures representing the seasons. Show him one of the
pictures, and ask him to identify it. If he does this correctly, ask him to choose a picture that represents the
season that follows it. Praise him if he does it correctly. Practice.
4.
Bring into the classroom or learning area several outdated calendars that can be taken apart.
Remove the individual pages that have the month and days of the week on it, and place them in a pile in
front of the student. Ask him to tell you the month, and then ask him to find and to tell you the month that
will be coming next. Then repeat this activity by asking the student to find the month which follows that
month, etc.
5.
Tape a tagboard time line on the chalkboard which lists the days of the week. Once the student
correctly identifies the days of the week, cover one of the days. Tell him to look at the time line and to
point to the day preceding the one you have covered. Ask him what day comes next. Praise him if he tells
you what comes next. Repeat this activity, using different days of the week.
G.
The student identifies and names the major holidays of the year
1.
Make flashcards or pictures depicting the holidays. For example:
Halloween
-simple – pumpkin
more difficult – children trick-or-treating
Thanksgiving
simple – turkey
more difficult – pilgrims
Ask the student to tell you which holiday each picture represents, and encourage him to talk about his
holiday experiences. Include ethnic holidays as they relate to the background of individual students.
2.
Make an experience chart. Ask the student what his family does to celebrate different holidays.
Write these experiences on large paper with a Magic Marker. Ask the student to share his holiday
experiences with his peers by reading the experience chart or by telling them what is written on it.
3.
Read stories and picture books, and show filmstrips about different holidays that describe how they
are celebrated in different places.
4.
Play Holiday Lotto. Encourage the student to check with you to make sure his responses are correct.
5.
Obtain a collection of different types of holiday cards, e.g., Christmas,
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
213
Valentine, Thanksgiving, etc. Place these cards on a bulletin board, or tape them on a wall. Point to a card,
and ask the student to tell you what holiday the card represents.
6.
Draw pictures representing the different holidays as they occur throughout the year. Tell the student
to save these pictures and to use them to make a holiday scrapbook. Encourage the student's parents or
guardians to draw holiday cards and holiday pictures with the student at home. Add these pictures to the
scrapbook.
7.
Make a monthly calendar, and circle the holidays during that month. Ask the student to use the
calendar to discuss the holidays that occur each month. Some important holidays are Labor Day,
Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, Chanukah, Valentine's Day, Lincoln's and Washington's Birthday, St.
Patrick's Day, Easter, Passover, Memorial Day, etc. Discuss the activities that occur on each of the
holidays, e.g., turkey dinner, trick or treat, exchanging presents.
H.
The student uses a calendar to identify the months and the year
1.
Make a day-by-day calendar, and place it within easy reach of the student. Ask the student to
change the calendar each day.
2.
Plan a special activity for the end of the week, and tell the student the date the activity will occur.
Provide him with a calendar, and ask him to find the day and tell you the day on which the date falls.
3.
Bring in bills that have due dates written on them. Point out the dates the bills are due. Ask the
student to find that date on a calendar and to tell you what day the bills are due to be paid.
4.
Make a list of the dates of holidays or vacations when the school or learning area is closed. Give the
student a calendar, and ask him to tell you on what days these dates occur.
I.
The student identifies and names clocks and watches
1.
Show the student various clocks by placing several clocks in the room, e.g., Judy Mini Clocks, the
Judy Puzzle Clock, and pictures of different types of clocks.
2.
Bring in different types of clocks and watches, and place them on a table. Show the student each
type of clock or watch, and call each by its name, e.g., alarm clock, wrist, pocket, digital, etc. At different
times during the day, ask the student to identify and to name the watches on the table.
3.
Provide the student with magazines that include pictures of clocks and watches. Ask him to look
through the magazines and to cut out all of the different types of clocks and watches he sees. Review each
type he has cut out and make a watch or clock collage and/or bulletin board (Figure 71).
4.
Take the student on a tour through the school, a department store,
214
Curriculum
Figure 71. Clock collage
or other building where clocks are easily seen. Point out one of the clocks, and ask the student to find as
many other clocks as he can while walking through the building.
5.
Take the student to a department store that has a clock and watch -department. Ask him to identify
all the clocks and watches he sees.
J.
The student identifies and names time by the hour and half hour on different types of clocks and
watches (digital, wrist, alarm, etc.)
1.
Draw an individual clock face for each hour of the day. Tell the student to draw in the hands on
each clock to correspond with specific hours named. For example, tell him to draw the hands on the first
clock so that it reads 12:00. Repeat with 1:00, etc.
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time
215
2.
Give the student a large Judy Clock that has movable hands. Ask him to move the hands until they
represent the specific time asked for. Practice telling time by the hour and half hour.
3.
Play the Hap Palmer song, Paper Clock, as part of a gross motor activity involving telling time. Ask
the student to pretend that he is a clock by moving his hands to depict specific times.
4.
Show the student several types of digital clocks and watches. At certain times of the day, ask him to
tell you what time it is (by the hour or half hour). Try to ask for this information as close to the hour or half
hour as possible. Correct the student if he does not give you an accurate response, and repeat the activity.
Practice.
5.
Tell the student that he may do a preferred activity at a certain time, e.g., at two o'clock. Check to
see if the student does the activity at that time. If he starts the activity at a different time, stop him, and tell
him he cannot do it. Ask him to wait for the time you told him, and, at that time, allow him to perform the
activity.
6.
Tell the student that you are going to take him to a movie or other recreational event. Point out that
you must leave at a certain time so that you will not miss any of the event. Tell the student the time you
want to leave, and ask him to remind you when that time comes. Reward him for reminding you by taking
him to the show if he does it correctly. Repeat this activity.
K.
The student arrives on time to scheduled activities and events
1.
Prepare a daily time schedule of activities for the student. Write them on a large piece of paper, and
review them with him. Emphasize the importance of being on time for these activities. Check on the
student during the day to see if he is arriving at or performing the activities at the time designated on his
schedule.
2.
Plan an activity that is to begin at a specified time. Tell the student the time it is to begin. Show him
a kitchen timer, and set it to ring at the time the activity is to begin. Tell the student to begin the activity
when he hears the timer ring.
3.
Make appointments for the student right after lunch or recess. For example, tell him to take
something to another classroom or learning area as soon as he comes in from recess. Praise him if he does
this. If he attempts to do it at a later time, tell him that it is too late for him to keep his appointment and that
he will be given another chance to perform the task.
4.
Role play going to a dentist or doctor's office. Give the student an appointment card, and point out
the time he should arrive. Set up several chairs to represent a doctor's or dentist's waiting room. Tell the
student to check his appointment card during the day. When
216
Curriculum
the appointment time arrives, encourage him to sit in the simulated waiting room. Throughout the activity,
emphasize the importance of leaving early for an appointment so that he will be there on time.
5.
Provide the student with responsibilities that require him to do certain activities at specific times
during the day, e.g., watering the plants after lunch, putting equipment away after motor activities, etc.
Reward him if he does these jobs at the scheduled times.
6.
Provide the student who is unable to identify time using clocks or watches with alternate techniques
for finding out the time, e.g., calling the time service using the telephone, listening to the radio, watching
television, etc.
CONSUMER SKILLS
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT
I.
The student will be a skilled consumer of goods and services and will do so as independently as
possible
II.
The student, functioning as a consumer, will use banking facilities as independently as possible
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
I.
The student will be a skilled consumer of goods and services and will do so as independently as
possible
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
RPL(%)*
RO**
The student purchases needed articles and services
100
5
The student purchases needed articles made of materials for their intended uses 100
5
The student purchases appropriate size clothing and shoes
100
5
The student purchases food in a supermarket or grocery store
100
5
The student purchases food in a restaurant or take-out shop
100
6
The student selects appropriate purchases from vending machines and other coin-operated machines
100
5
The student orders materials, using an order blank
75
4
The student orders merchandise from a catalog
75
4
The student calls appropriate servicemen for repairs
100
5
The student purchases fresh food and appropriate canned goads
100
5
The student purchases items in a size appropriate to his needs
75
4
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
218
Curriculum
RPL(%)*
RO**
L. The student compares prices of transportation for use in a variety of situations and selects the
appropriate mode of transportation
100 5
M. The student compares the price of a needed article with the amount of money he has available
100
5
Suggested Activities
A.
The student purchases needed articles and services
1.
Set up "stores" within the classroom or learning area. Place articles having price tags on various
tables or shelves representing department stores, clothing stores, record stores, drug stores, etc. Give the
student a list of articles to buy and money with which to purchase the articles. Check to be certain the
student purchases each item on his list and is able to pay for it with money he has.
2.
Take the student on a field trip to a barber shop or beauty parlor. Explain to him what the barber or
hairdresser is doing, point out how the customers are acting (while being barbered as well as waiting), and
show the student where prices are listed. If there is no price list, remind the student that he should ask the
price of a haircut or hair styling before he has it done and check to be certain he has enough money to pay
for it.
3.
Take the student on a field trip to a shopping center that has a variety of shops. Prepare a list of
needed articles for him. Tell the student to make his purchases and to check to be certain he has enough
money to pay for each item.
4.
Arrange for the student or a group of students to attend a concert, movie, or ball game that will
require the purchasing of tickets. Take them to the ticket office prior to the event or on the night of the
event, depending upon when the tickets may be picked up. Remind the student to check the amount of
money he has to be certain he can pay for the ticket.
5.
Arrange for the student to take non-washable clothing to the cleaners or dry cleaning machine. Tell
him to ask the person in charge the price for the cleaning, when it will be ready for pick-up, and for a
receipt for the clothing he has left to be cleaned. Tell the student to check his money to be sure he can pay
for his cleaning.
6.
Take the student to a shoe store to purchase a pair of shoes, Remind him to tell the shoe clerk what
type of shoe he wants and approximately how much he wants to pay for them. As the
*RPL = Required performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
219
student tries on shoes, ask him how they feel and if he likes them. Once he has made his choice and paid
for it, instruct him to wear his old shoes home and to carry the new ones. Tell the student when he is home
to wear his new shoes, walking only on carpeted areas, until he is sure the shoes are comfortable. If the
shoes are not comfortable, tell him to return them to the store.
7.
Give the student a list of things to buy, and let him purchase any needed articles or services as
independently as possible.
8.
Order merchandise from catalogs (clothing, seeds) (see Consumer Skills, I, G for activities
involving ordering merchandise from catalogs). Check to see that the student has compared the price of his
order with the amount of money he has. Tell him to put the money aside so that when his order arrives, he
will be able to pay for it.
B.
The student purchases needed articles made of materials suitable for their intended uses
1.
Look through catalogs and newspaper ads with the student. Find pictures or ads for sleepwear. Help
the student to choose what pajamas or nightwear he likes and to compare the materials, e.g., flannel, nylon,
or cotton, and whether or not the materials are flame retardant. Explain that flannel is suitable for winter
wear, whereas cotton is more suitable for summer. Flame retardant nightwear is always the best to buy if it
is available in the student's size.
2.
Take the student shopping to buy pajamas. Help him to check the pajama labels to see if the
pajamas are made of material appropriate to the student's likes and needs in sleepwear. Also check for a
flame retardant label. If the material and style are what the student needs, help him to purchase the pajamas.
3.
Bring terrycloth, linen, and rayon dish towels into the classroom or learning area. Bring a dishpan
filled with water and five or six cups or saucers into the classroom. Wet a dish, and wipe it with the
terrycloth towel. Point out to the student that the towel absorbs the water from the dish and the dish is dried
quickly. Wet another dish, and ask the student to dry it using a linen towel. Point out that the linen absorbs
the water from the dish and dries the dish quickly. Wet a third dish,-and ask the student to dry it using a
rayon towel. Note that the rayon does not absorb water well, and, therefore, the dish does not gef dry
quickly. Tell the student that terrycloth and linen are suitable for use as dish towels and that rayon is not.
Show the student the labels on the towels that tell what the cloth is made of: cotton, linen, or rayon. Tell-the
student to buy towels made of cotton or linen, not rayon.
220
Curriculum
4.
Make flashcards of the words cotton, linen, and rayon. Practice using the flashcards with the student
until he identifies the words.
5.
Take the student shopping to buy dish towels for the school or his home. Tell the student to select
the towels he likes and to check the label to be sure they are cotton or linen. If they are, assist the student as
he pays for them. If they are rayon, remind the student that rayon is not a good material for dish towels.
Tell the student to select other towels made of cotton or linen.
6.
Take the student shopping to purchase plastic eating utensils. Explain that plastic utensils are less
expensive than regular silverware and that plastic utensils are convenient for use in lunchboxes or on
picnics; if they are lost or misplaced, they may be replaced at little expense. Discuss that plastic utensils are
convenient for use in lunchboxes or on picnics, but for everyday use silverware should be used. Tell the
student to purchase plastic utensils for use in his lunchbox.
7.
Set a table with four places. At two places use regular silverware, and at the other places use plastic
utensils. Discuss with the student the appropriate uses of each, e.g., plastic — picnics, lunchboxes;
silverware - meals at home.
8.
Take the student shopping to buy kitchen utensils, including spoons for cooking. Show the student
large wooden spoons, and explain that they are used for cooking because they do not get hot while stirring
foods. Explain to the student that he should never use silverware for stirring foods that are cooking because
metal absorbs heat and could burn his hand as he is cooking. Help the student to select and pay for the
wooden spoons.
9.
Plan a cooking activity that includes stirring food as it cooks, e.g., soup or pudding. Place a
selection of spoons, metal and wood, on the work surface. Tell the student to choose the appropriate spoon
for stirring food that is cooking. If the student chooses a wooden spoon, praise him. If the student chooses a
metal spoon, remind him that metal absorbs heat, and ask him to choose again. Once he chooses the
wooden spoon, tell him to complete the cooking activity. Assist the student when necessary.
C.
The student purchases appropriate size clothing and shoes
1.
Make a list of clothing the student should have on hand, including shoes, socks or stockings,
undergarments, and outer garments. The list should include the quantity of each article required to meet the
student's individual needs. Help the student to determine the colors, fabrics, and styles that best suit his
needs, age, body type, and coloring.
2.
Make a clothing chart (Figure 72) to which the student may refer for the purpose of determining
what articles of clothing he needs
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
221
Figure 72. Clothing chart indicating sizes, numbers, and prices.
to purchase. This chart should include the size the student wears in each article, the quantity he should
have, and the price range for each item. The price range should be appropriate to his economic status.
Update the chart periodically for size and price changes. Use pictures of clothing rather than the written
word for non-readers. Make a large chart for classroom use and a pocket size one for shopping use.
3.
Set up clothing on racks or tables in the classroom or learning area. Be sure that there are a variety
of sizes. Give the student a shopping list and his clothing chart. Tell him to find the listed articles in his
size. Role play a shopping trip. Put price tags on the clothing, give the student money to work with, ask him
to decide what he can afford to buy, and to pay for it.
4.
Take the student on a shopping trip to a clothing or department
222
Curriculum
store. Make up a shopping list, and be sure the student takes it, his clothing chart, and the amount of money
he has to spend on his purchases with him to the store. Demonstrate how to ask for help from a clerk. If the
student is unable to speak, ask him to show the salesperson a picture of the article desired or to point to the
item if it is on display. Indicate that he should use gestures (see Volume II, Communication: Nonverbal, I,
AA) to make himself understood. Tell the student to choose the items he likes, check their sizes to see if
they match the sizes on his chart, and check the price of each item to see if it is about the same as the price
on his clothing size chart. Finally, tell the student to check his money to see if he can afford to buy the
items. Once he has done this, tell him to pay the cashier for his purchases. Repeat this procedure for each
item the student purchases, gradually allowing him to purchase clothing independently.
5.
Take the student to a shoe store to buy shoes or sneakers. Be certain he has his clothing size chart
and money before he goes to the shoe store. Once at the store, remind the student to tell the clerk the type
of shoe he wants to buy, approximately how much he wants to spend, and to ask to have his foot measured
in case the size has changed. See Consumer Skills, I, A, Activity 6, for other activities in the shoe store.
6.
Take the student shopping to buy a gift of clothing for a peer or relative. Check sizes before going,
and print them on a card. If the person for whom he is purchasing the gift is a peer, tell the student to
borrow the peer's size chart. Help the student to decide what to buy, and then tell him to check the size to
see if it is the size he wants to purchase. Tell him to check the price to see whether he can pay for it.
7.
Once the student is sure of the shopping routine, allow him to shop independently.
D.
The student purchases food in a supermarket or grocery store
1.
Set up a grocery store in the classroom or learning area. Place empty food cans and cartons on
shelves or tables. Be sure that each article has a price on it. Give each student a shopping list; for a nonreader use pictures rather than words to make his list. Tell the student to find the articles and to pay for
them.
2.
Plan a class luncheon or breakfast. Help the student to plan the menu, and make up a corresponding
shopping list, written or pictorial (Figure 73). Take the student to a grocery store. Tell him to find the
articles on the list and to pay for them at the checkout counter. Once back at the classroom or learning area,
tell the student to prepare and serve luncheon or breakfast.
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
223
Figure 73. Shopping list form.
3.
Take the student on a shopping trip to a supermarket or grocery store. Point out various items, and
compare the price differences between similar items, i.e., name brand soup versus store brand soup. Tell the
student to try the cheaper brand and the more expensive brand to compare the tastes. If he feels they taste
the same, tell him to purchase the cheaper brand. Point out that a high price does not necessarily mean a
better product.
4.
Purchase a basket of groceries. Help the student to estimate the price of the basket of groceries.
Check the estimated amount against the amount of money the student has. If the estimated amount is higher
than the amount of money he has, explain that unnecessary items must be returned to the shelves because
he cannot afford to pay for all he has in the basket. Return items
224
Curriculum
until the estimated price of the basket of groceries is less than the amount of money the student has to
spend.
5.
As a safety precaution, tell the student to keep $5 or $10 in his wallet for emergencies. Such an
emergency would be when, despite estimation, the student's purchases exceed his food money. The student
would then use his $5 or $10 to make up the difference and then replace his "emergency fund" with money
from his next paycheck or other source of income.
6.
Go grocery shopping with the student, gradually allowing him more independent choices and more
responsibility for estimating total costs.
7.
For the student who can do simple addition, tell him to mark down the price of each item as he
selects it. Every third item or so, encourage him to compute a total. Do this until the whole basket of
groceries has been totaled. Add a few dollars for tax. Check the total price against the amount of money the
student has. If the total is more than the money he has, help him to put some items back on the shelf.
8.
See Functional Arithmetic, Money, II for additional activities with money.
9.
See Volume I, Self-Care for additional shopping activities.
E.
The student purchases food in a restaurant or take-out shop
1.
Encourage the student to buy his lunch or part of his lunch in the school or work cafeteria. At
lunchtime, tell the student the price of a complete lunch or the individual food items he wants to purchase.
Help him check his money to see if he has enough to purchase what he wants. If he does not have enough
money, find other items or a combination of items he may buy for lunch, i.e., a sandwich and milk rather
than an entire meal. In the cafeteria, tell the student to choose and to pay for his food.
2.
Print up or request menus from a variety of restaurants. Show the student how to read the menu
(meals and cost of meals). If he is unable to read, encourage him to practice asking for help with the menu.
"Would you please help me read this menu?" will usually be sufficient in asking a waitress, companion, or
maitre d' for help. Be sure the student asks the price of meals if he is unable to read and compares the price
with the money he has. Practice.
3.
Plan a class lunch consisting of a selection of two or three types of sandwiches, two types of canned
soup, salad with a choice of two dressings, and two or three beverages. Shop with the student for the
necessary groceries. See Consumer Skills, I, C for shopping activities. Make menus listing the various
foods available. Prepare the food. (See Volume I, Self-Care for food preparation activities.) When the
student arrives at the luncheon, hand him a menu. Give
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
225
him time to make his choices; then return to him and take his order. Offer assistance when necessary. Serve
the meals, and encourage the student and his peers to continue as they would in a restaurant. Practice using
menus whenever possible.
4.
Ask the students to contribute 50¢ a week for a number of weeks, or ask the parents to send in
money to be used to buy a restaurant meal. Lunch is usually less expensive for a class meal. Take the
student to a restaurant, and let him order from the menu. Remind him to request help reading the menu, if
necessary. Ask him to eat his meal and to pay for it. Leave a tip, and tell the student what it is for.
5.
Explain what a tip is. Show the student how to figure out the amount a tip should be, or construct a
tip chart (Figure 74). Print it on a 3 X 5 index card so that the student may carry it in a wallet or purse.
6.
Plan a field trip to a fast food or take-out restaurant. Walk the student through, and assist him in
ordering and paying for the food.
7.
Take the student to lunch at a fast food or take-out restaurant. Tell the student to check the amount
of money he has to be sure he can pay for what he wants to buy. Once this is done, allow the student to
order and to pay for his food independently.
8.
Encourage the student to eat in restaurants, fast food places, and take-out stores as part of his social
skills development and interpersonal relationships.
Figure 74. Tip chart.
226
Curriculum
F.
The student selects appropriate purchases from vending machines and other coin-operated machines
1.
Take the student to an automat or lunchroom with vending machines containing food and
beverages. Demonstrate the use of vending machines by inserting the appropriate coins and pulling the
selection knob or pushing the selection button for the desired food or beverage (see Functional Reading).
2.
At lunchtime, check the student's money to be sure he has enough money to purchase his lunch
from vending machines. Take him to the automat or lunchroom. Tell him to choose a sandwich, soup, and a
beverage. Help him to insert the necessary coins, make his selections, and remove his purchases from the
machine.
3.
Where vending machines are available, during a coffee break at work or intermission at the movies
or a dance, help the student to select a beverage and/or nutritious snack from the vending machines.
Encourage him to use vending machines independently.
4.
For detailed instructions in the use of various types of vending machines, see Volume I, Fine Motor
Skills. This includes activities using food, beverage, Kotex, and coin-operated washers and dryers.
5.
Encourage the student to carry a wallet or change purse with a selection of coins to use in vending
machines.
G.
The student orders materials, using an order blank
1.
Draw up and mimeograph sample order blanks using a Sears, Speigel, J. C. Penney, or Montgomery
Ward catalog order blank as an example. Construct a large sample order blank to use in a demonstration.
Fill in the large order blank, explaining each step to the student as you do it. Help him to fill in the order
blank. Practice.
2.
Make a list of articles that you want the student to order using an order blank. Give the student the
list and the blank. Tell the student to fill it in, checking to be sure he has done it correctly and has included
his name, address, and telephone number. (See Functional Reading, and Functional Writing for activities
involving the writing of name, address, and telephone number.) Practice.
3.
Tell the student to order classroom and household materials by using order blanks.
4.
Tell the student to purchase materials from a catalog by using an order blank. See Consumer Skills,
I.
H for activities involving ordering merchandise from a catalog.
H.
The student orders merchandise from a catalog
1.
Bring merchandise catalogs into the classroom or learning area. Browse through the catalogs with
the student. Give him a list of articles you want him to order and a sample order blank. Check to
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
227
be sure he has filled in the order blank and all personal information correctly. Practice.
2.
Bring merchandise catalogs into the classroom or learning area. Browse through the catalogs with
the student, looking specifically for clothing the student would like to purchase. When the student finds
what he wants, tell him to check his clothing size chart for his size and the approximate price of the
merchandise. Check the catalog to see if the merchandise comes in his size and if the price is suitable. If he
decides to buy it, help the student to order the merchandise using the order blank in the catalog. Be sure he
fills in the personal information correctly. See Functional Reading and Functional Writing for activities
involving writing name, address, and Social Security number.
3.
See Consumer Skills, I, G for activities involving filling out order blanks.
4.
Bring seed catalogs into the classroom or learning area. Choose seeds for a vegetable or flower
garden if there is space available, or plant flower seeds in window boxes and pots. Tell the student to
browse through the seed catalogs and to choose a variety of vegetable and flower seeds. Help the student to
fill in the order blank and to order the chosen items. When the seeds arrive, follow through with the plans
for a vegetable or flower garden or plant flowers in window boxes or pots.
5.
See Consumer Skills, I, A for activities involving purchasing and paying for items.
I.
The student calls appropriate servicemen for repairs
1.
Make a pictorial list (pictures from catalogs) of household appliances and accessories. Discuss with
the student that appliances and accessories may stop working. Ask him what he would do if his toaster, TV,
radio, toilet, furnace, or sink were not functioning properly. During the discussion, stress that there are
special people called repairmen who are specially trained to fix broken things. Next to each item on the
pictorial list, place a picture and/or the written name of the repairman whom the student would call to repair
his broken appliance or accessory. Discuss the list with the student.
2.
Play a question and answer game while referring to the list. Ask the student, "If your _______
broke, who would repair it?"
television
TV repairman
toaster
small appliance repair shop
sink, toilet, drains: clogged, overflowing
plumber, apartment maintenance man
228
Curriculum
telephone out of order
stove or refrigerator: not working properly
no heat or lights
repairman
telephone company repairman
gas and electric company service man
gas and electric company service man, oil burner
3.
Role play various emergencies, e.g., no heat, plumbing clogged up, etc. Tell the student to react to
the emergency and to seek help by telephoning the appropriate serviceman and explaining the problem.
4.
Prepare a list of emergency telephone numbers, including various servicemen and repairmen. For
the non-reader, use pictures to indicate what the number is for, e.g., a picture of a telephone beside the
telephone company number, a picture of a sink beside the plumber's number, etc. Discuss the list with the
student. Give the list to the student, and tell him to keep it at home by his telephone.
5.
Using the list of emergency telephone numbers, tell the student to practice dialing the various
emergency numbers by using a tele-trainer or unconnected telephone. Practice until the student can dial the
numbers independently and can explain what needs repairing.
J.
The student purchases fresh food and appropriate canned goods
1.
Draw a food chart for each meal as a reference guide for the student (Figure 75). Place pictures of
nutritious foods on the chart from which the student can select his meals. Color code those items that
represent the same nutritional category, e.g., a red circle underneath the picture of two eggs and a red circle
underneath the picture of a small bowl of cereal will show that they may be substituted for each other.
Indicate to the student that he should have one red-marked food, one blue-marked food, one yellow-marked
food, etc. Geometric shapes, rebuses, or other symbols may be used as substitutes for color clues. Use
pictures of nutritious foods that are liked by the student.
2.
Plan a luncheon or breakfast with the student, using his food chart. - Once the menu has been
decided upon, make up a corresponding shopping list. This may be a written or pictorial shopping list
(Figure 73). Be sure to include fresh as well as canned goods and packaged foods. Take the student to the
grocery store, and help him to select and pay for the items on his shopping list. Prepare and serve the meal.
3.
For the student who lives alone or cooks for himself, prepare a weekly menu using the student's
food chart as a guide to choosing a nutritious and balanced diet. Include breakfast, bag lunches,
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
229
Figure 75. Food chart.
dinner, and nutritious snack foods. Prepare a shopping list from the menu. See Figure 73. Take the student
to the supermarket and help him as he selects the items on his shopping list. Discuss prices, can and
container sizes, and weight of fresh produce.
4.
See Consumer Skills, I, D for activities involving paying for food in a supermarket or grocery store.
5.
Encourage the student to purchase and pay for food in a grocery store or supermarket.
K.
The student purchases items in a size appropriate to his needs
1.
Take the student to a supermarket. Point out the various sizes of containers: milk — quart, half
gallon, gallon; margarine — 1/4-lb. container, 1 -lb. container; orange juice — quart, half gallon. Discuss
230
Curriculum
how many servings are in each. For example, a quart of orange juice would be equivalent to six or eight
servings and is enough for one person for a week, whereas a half gallon would serve a family for a week.
The student who drinks a lot of milk might need a half gallon a week, but the student who only uses milk in
coffee or tea and drinks an occasional glass of milk may only need a quart of milk a week. Point out that
these are the things he should consider when choosing the size container or can he needs.
2.
Plan a class luncheon with the student. Discuss the menu and the amounts of food needed, e.g., ice
cream for dessert. Tell the student that a pint of ice cream serves two or three people and a half gallon
serves a large number of people. Help the student to decide which size ice cream is needed in order to serve
everyone a small portion for dessert. Repeat for each item on the menu. Draw up a corresponding shopping
list, shop for the food, prepare, and serve the luncheon.
3.
Do the weekly shopping with the student. Consult a pre-drawn or written shopping list. Help the
student as he selects the items on his list, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various sizes
of food packages.
4.
Discuss a variety of meal situations: dinner for one, two, a family of five, a meal for a large number
of people. Make a chart for each situation, and put pictures of the size of each food package for each meal
(Figure 15). Explain that the more people who are eating, the larger the food packages.
L.
The student compares prices of transportation for use in a variety of situations and selects the
appropriate mode of transportation
1.
Construct a transportation chart, illustrating the various types of transportation and their
approximate fares (Figure 76). Discuss each one with the student. Point out that while a bus is the least
expensive form of transportation, an airplane, though expensive, is the fastest. Tell the student that while
the bus is the most economical for work, an airplane, though expensive, may be necessary if he needs to get
somewhere a long distance away in a hurry, e.g., in an emergency. Explain that if you are in a hurry, late
for an appointment, going far away for an emergency family visit, or need to be somewhere distant and
only have a short time in which to get there, the main consideration in choosing a mode of transportation, at
times, may be speed rather than cost. Tell the student that if he can afford it, he can take the more
expensive but quicker means of transportation. If he can only afford a slower means of transportation, he
should make appointments and plans accordingly.
2.
Role play a variety of situations, e.g., the student has a job
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
Figure 76. Transportation chart.
231
232
Curriculum
interview at 9:15. He misses his bus and the next bus is at 9:10, leaving insufficient time to get to his
appointment. Ask him what he should do? Tell him to check his money; if he has enough, he should take a
taxi to his appointment. If he does not have enough money, tell him to call the place where he has his
interview to explain that he may be late and to take the next bus. Another example: the student is ill and
needs to get to the doctor or a hospital. Ask him what transportation he should use. If he has the money,
advise him to take a taxi, which is quicker. If he does not have the money, tell him to ask a responsible
person for help, such as a ride to the doctor or money for a taxi.
M.
The student compares the price of a needed article with the amount of money he has available
1.
Bring newspaper ads for food and clothing items into the classroom or learning area. Give the
student a list of items to buy and money. Help the student to "purchase" the items on his list by writing
down the prices and checking his money to see if he has enough to pay for his purchases. Repeat this
activity until the student demonstrates that he understands that a specific amount of money only buys a
certain amount of merchandise.
2.
See Consumer Skills, I, A, Activities 1 to 5 and 8 for activities comparing the prices of purchases
with the amount of money available.
3.
See Consumer Skills; I, C, Activities 3, 4, and 6 for additional activities.
4.
See Consumer Skills, I, D, Activities 1, 4, and 7 for activities comparing the price of purchases
made in a grocery store with the amount of money available.
5.
See Consumer Skills, I, E, Activities 1, 2, and 7 for activities involving eating in restaurants and
take-out places and comparing the price of the food he selects with the amount of money he has.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
II.
A.
B.
The student, functioning as a consumer, will use banking facilities as independently as possible
The student deposits and withdraws money
The student cashes a check
*RPL = Required Performance level.
**RO = Recommended observations.
RPL(%)*
100
100
RO**
5
5
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
233
Suggested Activities
A.
The student deposits and withdraws money
1.
Establish a class or school bank. Print withdrawal slips, deposit slips, and bankbooks.
Mimeographed sheets of paper do well for all three. Tell the student as simply as possible how the bank
works: he puts money into the bank (deposits it) to save it, and when he needs the money, he takes it out
(withdraws it). Show the student withdrawal and deposit slips. Tell the student that these slips allow him to
put in and take out money. Show the student the bankbook, and explain that this is a record of his money
that tells how much money he has in the bank.
2.
Give each student a sample bankbook with an amount of money printed in it and sample withdrawal
and deposit slips. Practice filling out withdrawal and deposit slips and, when possible, ask the" student to
do the simple computation involved in subtracting the withdrawal or adding the deposit to the amount of
money shown in the bankbook. Help the student until he can do these things independently. Issue personal
bankbooks and withdrawal and deposit slips to each student.
3.
Each morning, open the class or school bank. Tell the student to deposit his lunch money so that he
can withdraw it later to purchase his lunch. Tell the student to fill out the deposit slip, and collect his
money. Enter his deposit in his bankbook. Before lunch, tell him to fill out a withdrawal slip for his lunch
money. Show him how to read his bankbook, and point out how much money he has, e.g., a student who
deposited 15¢f in the morning cannot withdraw 40¢ at lunchtime. Explain the word overdrawn, and
indicate to the student that his withdrawals must always be the same or less than what his bankbook shows.
Practice daily until the student is able to do his banking as independently as possible.
4.
Pay the student for work he does in the school building, residence, or around the grounds. Deposit
daily in the school bank all the money he earns. Follow the deposit procedures in Activity 3. At the end of
each week, plan a class party, dance, or program, and require the student to pay to get in. The admission
should be nearly the entire amount of his weekly earning. Serve snacks or juice at the party, and charge for
this. Help the student to add the price of the ticket and the price of the snack. Check this amount against the
amount of money shown in his bankbook. If he has enough for both the party and refreshments or just the
party, tell him that he may withdraw that amount from his account by filling out a withdrawal slip at the
school bank (follow withdrawal procedures in Activity 3).
234
Curriculum
5.
Take the student to a bank near his home or school. Talk to the banker, and help the student to open
an account. Be sure the student keeps his bankbook and is familiar with the withdrawal and deposit slips.
Encourage the student who is working in the community or a sheltered workshop to budget his pay and
deposit money weekly or as often as possible. Withdrawals may be made when necessary.
6.
See Functional Arithmetic, II, for activities involving money.
B.
The student cashes a check
1.
Show the student different types of checks: personal, payroll, and cashier's checks. Explain that
checks represent money and, when taken to the bank, can be cashed and exchanged for the amount of
money written on the check.
2.
As a means of identification for use when cashing checks, encourage the student to get a card from
the motor vehicles department of his state. These cards are often provided free of charge or at minimal
charge to non-drivers.
3.
Take the student to the bank when you cash a check. Point out to the student the endorsement on the
back of the check. Explain that to cash a check, you must write your name on the back of it and show
identification of some kind. Cash your check, and count the money before leaving the bank to be sure the
amount is correct.
4.
Print up some sample checks, and fill them in-using the student's name (Figure 36). Tell him to look
at his check and to find the amount the check is for. Once he has done this, tell him to copy the amount of
the check onto a slip of paper. Take the student to the school bank, and practice getting his check cashed.
Remind him to endorse the check and to carry his identification card. Give him the amount of money stated
on the check. Help the student to check the amount of money he received against the amount printed on his
slip. Practice check cashing with him.
5.
Pay the student for work he does around the school with checks. Mimeographed sample checks are
good for this. Remind him to endorse the check and to carry his identification card. Mark down the amount
of the check, and either cash the check or deposit the amount in his bank account. If he cashes it, tell him to
check the amount of money he received against what he marked down as the amount of the check. If he
deposits it, tell him to check his bankbook to be sure the deposit is recorded. See Consumer Skills, II, A for
activities involving the depositing of money. Practice.
6.
Take the student to a bank to cash a check from a relative, a payroll check, a tax refund check, or a
Social Security check.
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 235
Follow the procedures outlined in Activities 3 and 4. Once the student has his money from the check, tell
him to place it in a wallet, purse, or other safe place. Remind him not to carry large amounts of money with
him.
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL READING
I.
The student will identify important personal data when he sees it written
A.
Large picture of the student
5X8 cards
Magic Marker
Laundry basket
Personal property and clothing (student's)
Name labels
Overhead projector
Tachistiscope
Screen
Boxes
Games
Toys
Pictures
Small presents or prizes
Small presents or prizes
Gift tags
Chart materials
C.
Paper
Magic Marker
Pen or pencil
Play telephone
5 X 8 index cards Blackboard
Chalk
3X5 index cards
D
Social Security card (yours and the student's)
Chart materials
3 x 5 index cards
Simulated Social Security cards
Blackboard Chalk
B.
Envelopes
Pictures of the student's house
5X8 cards
Magic Marker
Construction paper
Paste or glue
Crayons or paint
Paint brushes
Pictures
Picture of street sign (student's street)
Pencil or pen
Paper
Outline map of the state in which the student resides
Maps and travel maps
Name and address labels (student's)
236
Curriculum
II. The student will respond appropriately to written information on watches, clocks, and other dials and
gauges
A.
See Materials List, Functional Arithmetic, Time
Cooking utensils
dishes and silverware
Electric stove
B.
Kitchen timer
Food packages
Simple recipes
Cooking equipment, utensils, and dishes
Eggs
H.
Electric fry pan
Tabboard
Scissors
Magic Marker
Paper fastener
Foods for simple snacks and meals
Dishes and silverware
C.
Electric toaster
Dishes and eating utensils
I.
Bread
Oven
Eggs
Frozen foods to be cooked in the oven
Food to be toasted (raisin bread, frozen waffles, Tagboard
frozen French toast)
Paper fastener
Butter
Magic Marker
Juice
Toy stove with an oven
Leftover food
D.
Foods for baking and roasting
Refrigerator/freezer
Cooking equipment
Dishes and silverware
E.
Food scale
J.
Waxpaper, foil, or plastic wrap
Electric percolator
Food to be weighed
Coffee
Supermarket
Water
Measuring cups and spoons
Measuring spoon
F.
Electric can opener
Clean empty cans
Canned soup, spaghetti, vegetables, and fruit
G.
Gas stove
Food for simple snacks and meals
K.
Electric blender
Food for simple snacks and meals
L.
Electric mixer
Cake mix
Foods to be mixed using the mixer
Chart materials
Pictures
Fuctional Academics: Functional Reading
237
M.
Dishwasher
Dishes, silverware, and glasses
Dishwasher detergent
N.
Automatic clothes washers
Clothes for washing
Laundry detergent or soap
Magic Marker or Mystik tape
O.
Automatic clothes dryer
Clothes to be dried
P.
Telephones (push button and dial types)
Toy telephones or tele-trainers
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Tape
Flashcards
Q.
Bathroom scale
Paper or tagboard
Magic Marker
Chart materials
R.
Vacuum cleaner
Small rugs or carpeting
S.
Iron
Chart materials
Clothing with labels having ironing instructions
Ironing board
T.
Thermostat
Chart materials
Magic Marker or Mystik tape
Paper
Pen or pencil
Paper
Pen or pencil
U.
Electric fan
V.
Air conditioner
Magic Marker or Mystik tape
W.
Electric or battery-operated shaver
Mystik tape
X.
Hair dryer or blower
Shampoo
Cream rinse
Water
Towel
Y.
Alarm clocks
Z.
Heating pad
AA.
Electric blanket
Number line
Tagboard arrow
BB.
Television
Tagboard
Magic Marker
Paper fastener
CC.
Radios
Clock radio
238
Curriculum
DD.
Record player
Records
EE.
Toys with switches, dials, and levers
Battery-operated toys
Toys (student's)
FF.
Cassette tape recorder
Cassettes
Magic Markers or Mystik tape
Storybooks with cassettes
Chart materials
Paints and paint brushes
HH.
Flashcards
Magic Marker
Corrugated cardboard
Self-service elevator
II.
Cardboard box
Wooden dowels
Paper
Magic Markers
Chairs
Money
GG.
Drill press
Safety glasses
Wood for use with the drill press
III.
The student will respond appropriately to written information found on safety signs, size labels,
price tags, and other signs and labels
A.
Chart materials
3X5 index cards
Public bathrooms
B.
Buses
Paper
Magic Markers, pen, or pencil
Chart materials
Bus stops
Bus depot or terminal
C.
Traffic lights
Cross walks
"Walk" and "Don't Walk" signs
"Stop" signs
Magic Markers, crayons, or paints and paint brushes
Construction paper
Scissors
D.
Experience chart paper
Magic Markers
Construction paper
Crayons or paints and paint brushes
Newspaper articles
Tagboard
Game markers
E.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Dangerous substances
Mr. Yuk or other poison warning labels
F.
Clothing with cleaning labels (student's)
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 239
Materials with cleaning labels
(sheets, draperies, tablecloths)
Chart materials
Washer and dryer or laundromat
K.
Supermarket
Hardware store
Five and ten cent store
G.
Size chart (student's)
Department store or clothing store
Sport jackets and suits of different sizes
Outerwear
Hats and gloves
Footwear
Household linens
L.
Postage stamps
Trading stamps
Paper
Envelopes
Pen
Greeting cards
H.
Foods packaged in glass bottles and jars
Shelves
Supermarket
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Packages of food and non-food items
Scrapbook
Glue or paste
Chart materials
Food labels
Package labels
I.
Foods in different size packages
Chart materials
Food for a party
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
M.
Doors with "Push" and "Pull" printed on them
Vending machines
"Entrance" and "In" signs
"Exit" and "Out" signs
N.
Construction sights
Obstacle course
Tagboard
Magic Marker
Game markers
O.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Amusement section of the newspaper
Outings to places requiring admission payments
Money
P.
J.
Shopping center
Packages of food and non-food items with prices Chart materials
marked on them
Envelope
Grocery store or supermarket
Strips of paper
Paper
Magic Marker
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Newspaper
Workshop and arts and crafts projects
Price tags
240
Curriculum
Q
See Materials List, Functional
Reading, VII, C
R.
Household cleaning agents
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Household cleaning equipment
S.
Laundry products
Automatic washers and dryers
Clothing to wash and dry
T.
Homes (friends and relatives)
Apartment houses
Multiple dwelling houses
Chart materials
Pictures of friends and relatives (student's)
IV.
Paste or glue
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Bell, batteries, and wire
Mailboxes of friends and relatives (student's)
U.
Stores, offices, and business establishments
Flashcards
Magic Markers
V.
Public telephones and telephone booths
Coins
W.
Temporary toilets
The student will respond appropriately to instructions written in simple notes
A.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Pictures of acquaintances and family members
(student's)
Sample notes
Greeting cards from acquaintances and family
members (student's)
C
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Chart materials
Pictures
Worksheets
D.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Chart materials
Sample notes
Props
B.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Chart materials
Pictures of objects in the student's home or learning
area
E.
Sample notes
Simple notes
Worksheets
Props
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
F.
Simple notes
Props
Sample notes
acquaintances
V.
from
family
G.
Simple notes
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
members
and
The student will locate needed information from simple charts, diagrams, maps, and menus
A.
Wall calendar
Magic Marker
Daily newspaper
Television
Radio
Market receipts
Time cards
Bus transfers
Pocket and desk calendars
B.
Calendars
Order slips
Invoices
Notices
Bills
Memos
E.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Pictures of friends and relatives (student's)
F.
Map of the residential center
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
G.
Bus or subway maps
Bus or subway station
H.
Objects to assemble
Diagrams for assembly
Toys to be assembled
Equipment to be assembled
C.
Paper
I.
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Diagrams
Store or public building that displays floor plan Arts and crafts magazines and books
maps
Pattern for an apron
Interesting toys and objects
Material for an apron
Needles, thread, pins, and scissors
D.
Knitting and crocheting materials and diagrams
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Floor plans of apartments, museums, amusement
parks, zoos
Walking tour maps
242
Curriculum
J.
Posters
Billboards
Magazines
Scissors
Glue or paste
Crayons or Magic Markers
K.
Chart materials
3X5 index cards
Newspapers
Magazines
Scissors
Paste
Flashcards
Restaurants
M.
Hospital menus
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Chart materials
L.
Menus
Chart materials
VI.
The student will locate needed information from directories, schedules, and bulletin boards
A.
Pocket size notebook
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Pictures of relatives and friends (student's)
Glue or paste
Toy telephone or tele-trainer
Chalkboard
Chalk
Box with a cover
Scissors or X-Acto knife
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
B.
Simulated apartment house directory
Paper
Crayons or paint and paint brushes
Scissors
Apartment house with a directory
E.
Simulated supermarket directory board
Chart materials
Supermarket
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
C.
Simulated office building directory
Paper
Office buildings with directories
Hospital
Doctor's or dentist's office
F.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Marker
Pictures of food
Simulated cafeteria bulletin board
Cafeteria
Money
D.
Mailboxes
Sample letters in envelopes
C.
Bus schedule
Train schedule
Bus and train station
Airport
Functional Academics: Functional Reading 243
H.
Department stores
Experience chart paper
Magic Marker
Paper
Pen or pencil
Clothing size chart
VII. The student will correctly carry out simple directions written on packages, machinery, equipment,
games, toys, and items that are to be assembled
A.
Automat or lunch room with vending machines
Coins: nickels, dimes, and quarters
Boxes
Scissors or X-Acto knife
Flashcards
Magic Marker
Change purse
Sanitary napkin vending machine
B.
Coin-operated washers and dryers
Tagboard
Magic Markers
Flashcards
Boxes
Scissors or X-Acto knife
Change purse
Coins
Gym clothes
Detergent
Laundry (student's)
C.
Supermarket
Money
Food packages
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Kitchen or cooking equipment
Food for a snack or simple meal
Dishes, silverware, and glasses
Index cards
Food labels
Glue or paste
D.
Simple games
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Index cards
E.
Toys
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Index cards
F.
Items to be assembled and assembly directions
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Index cards Pictures or labels from items to be
assembled
VIII. The student will respond appropriately to key words found on employment forms and other simple
blanks and forms
A.
Employment forms
Job application blanks
Unemployment blanks
Social Security applications
Identification cards
Health insurance forms
Catalog or mail order blanks
Sample forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Pens
244
Curriculum
B.
Forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Sample forms and blanks
Pens
C.
Forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Sample forms and blanks
Pens
D.
Forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Sample forms and blanks
Pens
E.
"Important Numbers to Remember" chart
Sample forms and blanks
Social Security card (student's)
Pens
F.
Forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Marker
Pens
Magic Marker
Pens
H.
Forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Index cards
I.
Banking and checking forms
Pens
Simple banking and checking forms
J.
Forms, blanks, and banking and checking forms
Sample forms, blanks, and banking and checking
forms
Pens
Flashcards
Magic Marker
K.
Bankbook (student's)
Paper Pen
Sample deposit and withdrawal slips
L.
Forms and blanks
Sample forms and blanks
Flashcards
Magic Marker
Pens
G.
Forms and blanks
Flashcards
IX.
The student will respond appropriately to written information found on bills, work time cards, check
stubs, market receipts, etc.
A.
Bills with due dates
Sample bills with due dates
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Pen or pencil
Bills with due dates (student's)
Chart materials
Paper
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 245
B.
Pay checks
Pay check stubs
Tagboard
Magic Markers
Flashcards
Worksheets
Pen or pencil
Sample pay checks
Tagboard
Magic Markers
Scissors
Empty food packages
Sample market receipts
D.
Sample work time cards
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Tagboard
Scissors
Sample time cards
Small pad or notebook
Pen or pencil
C.
Supermarket
Pencil
Money
X. The student will identify help wanted ads, printed advertisements, correspondence, and other written
materials and will seek the assistance of a responsible person to decode written and printed material that he
is unable to read
A.
Daily and Sunday newspapers
Paper
Pen or pencil
Pictures of responsible persons (student's)
B.
Daily and Sunday newspapers
Paper
Pen or pencil
Chart materials
D.
Daily and Sunday newspapers
Bulletin board
Scissors
Paper
Pen or pencil
Money
Food for luncheon
Dishes, silverware, and glasses
Cooking utensils
Cooking equipment
Newspaper advertisement
C.
Daily and Sunday newspapers
Bulletin board
Scissors
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL WRITING
I. The student will acquire those fine motor skills and those movements of the upper extremities that
facilitate the development of functional writing
A.
Pen or pencil Paper
Paper
Desk or table
Chair
Clay
Colored pencils and pens
246
Curriculum
Felt tip pens
Crayons
B.
Pencil or pen
Paper
Desk or table
Chair
Clay
Colored pencils and pens
Felt tip pens
Crayons
Full length mirror
C.
Paper
Pen, pencil, crayon, or felt tip pen
Masking tape
Desk or table
Chair
D.
Sand
Shallow box or pan
1/4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
E.
Sand
Shallow box or pan
1/4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
F.
Sand
Shallow box or pan
1 /4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
G.
Sand
Shallow box or pan
1 /4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
H.
Sand
Shallow box or pan
1/4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
I.
Sand
Shallow box or pan
1/4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
J.
Sand
Shallow pan or box
1 /4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
Functional Academics: Functional Writing 247
K.
Sand
Shallow pan or box
1 /4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Paper
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
II.
The student will write his personal data, needs, and thoughts with such clarity that they are
communicated readily to readers
A.
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Sand
Shallow pan or box
1/4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Felt tip pen
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
Unlined paper
Lined paper
B.
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Sand
Shallow pan or box
1/4-inch strips of sandpaper
Paste or glue
Felt tip pens
Pens, pencils, and crayons
Clay
Paints and paint brushes
Unlined paper
Lined paper
Forms and blanks
Sample checks
Checks
Letters and notes
Greeting cards
C.
5X8 index cards
Magic Markers
Envelopes
Pens, pencils
Sample blanks and forms
D.
Template
Scissors or X-Acto knife
Pens and pencils
Crayons
Index cards
Tracing paper
Paper
Magic Markers
Envelopes
Sandpaper
Sample forms and blanks
Cards and thank you notes
E.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Envelopes
Arts and crafts projects
Birthday and holiday gifts
F.
Food and supplies for a birthday party
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Sample forms and blanks
G.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Sample forms and blanks
248
Curriculum
H.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Sample forms and blanks
"Important Numbers to Remember" chart
I.
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Social Security card (student's)
Sample forms and blanks
W-4 forms
J.
Calendar
Magic Marker
Paper
Newspapers
Sample forms and blanks
Pens and pencils
L.
Paper
Pens, pencils, or Magic Markers
Pictures of friends and relatives (student's)
Photo album
Chart materials
Magazines
Pictures of common objects
M.
Greeting cards
Stationery or card shop
Writing paper and envelopes
Pens, pencils, or Magic Markers
Personal telephone and address book (student's)
Postage stamps
Calendar or chart materials
K.
Sample forms and blanks
Sample banking and checking slips
Pens and pencils
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC/NUMERALS
I.
The student will acquire those prerequisite arithmetic skills that facilitate independence in
functional situations
A.
Flannel board
Flannel cutouts
Small blocks
Bulletin board
Familiar objects
Large piece of paper
Buttons, toothpicks, or other small
objects
Glue
Yarn
Masking tape
Placemat
Dishes and silverware
Nutritious snack foods
Paper and pencil or pen
Articles of clothing that are worn in pairs
Assorted rubber bands
Blackboard and chalk
Paper and crayons
Paste or glue
Pictures from magazines
B.
Nutritious snack foods
Papers
Paper clips
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Numerals
Flannel cutouts
Flannel numbers
Flannel board
Pennies
Large jar
Art materials (collage items, paper cutouts)
Paste
Construction paper
Rhythm band instruments
Nuts and raisins
Plate or bowl
Record, Hap Palmer's Number March. Hap Palmer
Record Library, Educational Activities, Inc., Box
392, Freeport, N.Y.
Song, This Old Man
Articles of clothing
Classroom materials and equipment
Song, One, Two Buckle My Shoe
Song, Ten Little Indians
Large box, brightly colored
Assorted small objects
Pictures from magazines
Large dice
Game that uses dice
C.
Notices or memos
Snack foods
Paper cups
Eggs
Refrigerator
Recipe
Large nails (16 penny)
Jar or container
249
Tagboard Scissors
E.
Pairs of socks
Basket or box
Pairs of shoes
Jewelry (barrettes, earrings, cuff links) Hinges
Articles of clothing that are worn in pairs
F.
Paper and pen
Construction paper
Magic Markers
Articles of clothing with size labels
Sample work forms
Small blank cards
Clothes lockers
G.
3X5 index cards
Pen or pencil
Work forms or personnel blanks
Medic Alert applications
H.
Supermarket
Cancelled check's
Card shop
Order blanks
Printed advertisements
Cardboard, scissors, and Magic Markers
I.
Table games
Buttoning boards
D.
Snapping frames
Number Bingo game and markers Flannel board
Assorted objects
Flannel board numbers (1 to 10) Board or table First, second, and third prize ribbons
games with spinners
Familiar objects
or number cards Articles of clothing with size labels Assembly projects
Large sheets of paper Magic Markers Small cards
Flash cards
Simulated television channel
selector dials
250
Curriculum
J.
Toaster
Bread and butter
Large apples
Bran muffin mix
Pancake mix
Milk
Eggs
Measuring cup
Measuring spoons
Bowl
Baking pans
Frying pan or griddle
Supermarket
K.
Powdered beverages
Measuring spoons
Glass
Chart materials
Shirts in a variety of sizes
Hardware store
Paint brushes (variety of sizes)
Shore store
Shoeboxes with size markings
L.
Socks and shoes
Number line
Safety signs
Table
Silverware and dishes
American flag
M.
Table or desk Cardboard discs Coins
Shape box and shapes
Overhead projector
Screen
Elevator
Cornbread mix
Ingredients for oatmeal raisin cookies
Cookie cutters
Safety signs
Paper and pen
N.
Pennies
Number lines
12-feet X 12-inch strip of paper
Magic Markers
O.
Small blocks
Variety of small objects
Paper
Lunchbox (student's)
Department store
Construction paper
Tagboard
Magic Markers
Familiar objects
P.
Paper or blackboard
Pictures of food
Magic Marker, chalk, or price tags
Flannel cutouts and numbers
Flannel board
Flannel process sign (+)
Construction paper or tagboard
Scissors
Variety of objects Worksheets
Pens or pencils
Q.
Restaurant Shopping list Supermarket
Coins Vending machine Lunch money (student's)
Games
Assembly project Containers
R.
Objects for packaging or sorting
Receipt book or check pad
Blackboard and chalk
Large glove
Plates of food
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Money
251
Tagboard or construction paper
Magic Marker
Crayons or pencil
Television set
Paper and pen
S.
Construction paper
Subtraction flash cards
Pictures from TV Guide or amusement section of
Table or desk
newspaper
Quizmo, Milton Bradley Company,
Radios
Springfield, Mass. Magic slate Magnetic board Thermostat
Magnetic numbers and subtraction (-) sign
Toaster oven or broiler-oven
Food for toasting or baking
T.
Calendar with removable numbers
Coupons from magazines
Pocket calendars
Supermarket
Calendar
Returnable bottles
Clothing with number size labels
Games
Bathroom scale
Clothing store
Chart materials
Check register
Grocery store
Air conditioners
U.
Heaters
Telephones
Electrical equipment
Paper
Table
Large pieces of paper
Paste or glue
Pictures of appliances
Pictures of weather conditions
Magic Marker
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC/MONEY
II.
The student will acquire those skills necessary for carrying out transactions involving money and will do so
as independently as possible
A.
Pennies
Nickels
Dimes
Quarters
Discount store
Parking meter
Bingo game
Stamp vending machine
Small boxes
Glue
Scissors
Large bowl
Lunch money (student's)
Table or desk
B.
Flashcards
Magic Marker
Tagboard
Clothing
Empty cans with labels
Fingerpaints
Fingerpaint paper
Plastic shelf price markers
Supermarket
Gas station
Scotch or masking tape
252
Curriculum
C.
Tagboard
Coins
Vending machine
Coin operated washers and dryers
1 /4-inch plywood
Jigsaw (Dremel)
D.
Coins
Bowl
Supermarket
Money changing machine
Dollar bill
Returnable bottles
E.
Pictures of pay telephones
Coins
Telephone booth
Pictures of vending machines
Construction paper
Glue
Magic Marker
Restaurant or take out counter
Garage sale, flea market, or bazaar
F.
Coins
Craft materials
Restaurants
Post office
Movie theatre
Lemonade or fruit juice
Tagboard
Magic Markers
Flannel board
Flannel board numbers
G.
Coins
Supermarket or department store
Paper and pen
Scissors
Magazines
Discount store
Coin operated washers and dryers Detergent or
bleach vending machines
H.
$l,$5,and $10 bills
Flashcards
Magic Marker
Cash box
8 1/2X11 1/2-inch plastic sheets
Paste or masking tape
Bank
$20 bill
I.
Supermarket
Currency
Paper and pen
Tagboard or construction paper
Magic Marker
Wallet
Classroom games, toys, or materials
Box or envelope
J.
Wallet
$1 bills
Jar
Coins
Vending machines
Restaurant
K.
Drug store
Coins
Currency
Lunch money (student's)
Purse or wallet
Money changing machine
Barbershop or beauty parlor
Bus or subway token
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Measurement
253
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC/MEASUREMENT
III.
The student will acquire those measurement skills that facilitate independence in functional
situations
A.
Blocks, large and small
Paper and pencil
Crayons, assorted sizes Flower seeds, large and
small
Flower pots, large and small
Potting soil
Gardening tools
Shirts, oversized
Bean seeds Paper
cups
B.
Bottles, short and tall
Carrots
Celery
Cucumber
Knife
Bowls
Napkins
Yardsticks
Rulers
C.
Cream
Electric beater
Bread dough and baking pans
Knife
Oven
Toaster
Lined 3X5 cards
Magic Marker
Ball point pen
Ingredients for carrot cake
Baking pan
Oven
Plates
Forks
D.
Small boxes of raisins
Empty raisin boxes
Table
Paper cups or glasses
Juice or milk
Sink with a stopper
Mystik tape
Soap
Towel
Popcorn
Cooking oil
Popcorn popper or saucepan with a lid
Dirty laundry
Dresser drawer with clean clothes in it
E.
Plastic or paper plates Ruler
Snack foods Construction paper Tagboard Ruler
Seeds, vegetable Pots, flats, or garden area Clothing needing hemming Ruler
Needles, pins, and thread Pictures from magazines
Photographs Picture frames, assorted sizes
F.
Bran muffin mix
Measuring cups
Measuring spoons
Medicines in liquid form
Teaspoons
Tablespoons
254
Curriculum
Ingredients for making bread
Baking pan
Oven
G.
Bathroom scale
Notebook
Pencil
Chart materials
Small objects of various weights
Post office type scale
Post office
Supermarket
Hardware store
Pictures of items to be weighed
Pictures of scales
H.
Yardstick
Pencil
Measuring tape
Ruler
Scissors
Construction paper
Crayons
Magazine pictures
Paste
Boards
Cinder blocks
Chairs, assorted sizes
Paper
I.
Meat thermometer Meat
Magic Marker Oven
Turkey with automatic thermometer
Ingredients for a turkey dinner
Stove
Glasses, silverware, and dishes
Table and chairs
Chart materials
Outdoor thermometer
Indoor thermometer
J.
Ingredients for pancakes
Fry pan or griddle
Measuring cups
Measuring spoons
Mixing bowl
Mixing spoon
Spatula
Tape
Magic Marker
Stick of butter or margarine
Knife
Sandwiches
Leggs containers
Rolls of trim and rick-rack
Glue
Template, 1/2-inch and 1/4-inch
Plywood, different thicknesses
Lumber yard
Salt
Flour
Water
Large bowl
Measuring cups
K
Paper
Pens, pencils, and Magic Markers
Chairs
Records
Record player
Supermarket
Functional Academics: Functional Arithmetic/Time 255
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC/TIME
IV.
The student will acquire those fundamental skills that facilitate independence in functional
situations involving time
A.
Chart materials
Lotto game
Magazines
Scrapbook
Pictures
Catalogs
Scissors
Glue or paste
B.
Flashcards
Tagboard
Magic Marker
Bulletin board
Blackboard
Tape
Chart materials
Strips of paper
C.
Pictures representing the months
Flashcards
Calendar
Tagboard
Scissors
Rulers
Magic Markers
Paper fastener
Language Master (Bell and Howell)
Language Master cards
Paste
Construction paper, assorted colors
Stapler and staples
D.
Large calendar
8 1/2 X 11-inch paper
Transparency
Overhead projector
Digital watch
Sample doctor and dentist appointment cards
Pen
Gas, electric, and oil bills
Sample gas, electric, and oil bills
E.
Tagboard
Pictures representing the seasons
Paste or glue
Paper fastener
Large branch
Bulletin board
Leaves
Season Lotto
Magazines
Scrapbook or construction paper
Language Master (Bell and Howell)
Language Master cards
Paste, glue, or tape
Holiday pictures
Seasonal pictures
Pictures of trees (seasonal)
Tagboard
Magic Markers
Pictures of clothing
Pictures of seasonal activities
F.
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Canceled checks
Sample checks
Pictures representing the seasons
Outdated calendars
Tagboard
Magic Marker
256
Curriculum
G.
Flashcards
Magic Markers
Pictures depicting holidays
Experience chart paper
Story books
Picture books
Filmstrips
Filmstrip projector
Screen
Holiday Lotto
Holiday cards
Bulletin board
Tape or thumb tacks
Paper
Crayons
Scrapbook
Calendar
H.
Calendar
Bills with due dates on them
Paper
Pen, pencil, or Magic Markers
Magazines
Scissors
Paper
Paste
Bulletin board
Department store
J.
Individual clock faces
Magic Marker
Judy Clock
Record, Hap Palmer's Paper Clock.
Hap Palmer Record Library, Educational Activities,
Inc., Box 392, Freeport, N.Y.
Digital clocks and watches
K.
Large pieces of paper
Magic Marker
Kitchen timer
Sample doctor or dentist appointment cards
Chairs
Radio
Television
Telephone
I.
Clocks
Watches
MATERIALS LIST/FUNCTIONAL ARITHMETIC/CONSUMER SKILLS
I.
The student will be a skilled consumer of goods and services and will do so as independently as
possible
A.
Price tags
Tables or shelves
Clothing
Records
Grooming aids
Paper and pencil
Money
Barber shop
Beauty parlor
Shopping center
Dry cleaning machine or dry cleaning shop
Shoe store
Mail order catalogs
B.
Mail order catalogs
Newspaper advertisements
Department store
Dish towels: linen, rayon, and terrycloth
Dishpan
Dishwashing liquid
Dishes
Flashcards
Discount store
Plastic eating utensils
Table
Stove
Saucepan
Functional Academics: Consumer Skills
257
Wooden spoons Metal spoons
C.
Paper and pen or pencil
Chart materials
3X5 index cards
Pictures of clothing
Tables or clothes racks
Clothing
Price tags
Money
Clothing or department store
Shoe store
D.
Empty food cans and boxes
Shelves or tables
Paper and pen or pencil
Price tags
Pictures of food items
Chart materials
Grocery store
Money
Food for meal
Dishes, silverware, and glasses
Stove
E.
Money
Menus
Food for luncheon
Grocery store
Stove
Saucepans
Dishes, silverware, and glasses
Restaurant
3X5 index cards
Pen or pencil
Fast food restaurant
F.
Automat or lunchroom-with vending machines
Money
Change purse or wallet
G.
Sample order blanks
Tagboard
Magic Marker
Pen
Paper
Mail order catalogs
H.
Mail order catalogs
Clothing size charts
Order blanks
Sample order blanks
Pen or pencil
Seed catalogs
Window boxes
Flower pots
Outdoor garden area
I.
Mail order catalogs
Pictures of household appliances and accessories
Pictures of repairmen and servicemen
Construction paper or tagboard
Magic Marker
Paste or glue
Play telephones, tele-trainer, or unconnected
telephones
Paper
Pen
J.
Chart materials
Pictures of nutritious foods
Magic Markers, assorted colors
Shopping list (written or pictorial)
Foods for breakfast or luncheon
Stove
Saucepan
Table
Dishes, silverware, and glasses
Supermarket
K.
Supermarket
Foods for a class luncheon
Shopping list
Chart materials
L.
Chart materials
258
Curriculum
M.
Newspaper advertisements
Shopping list
II.
Money
Restaurants
Take-out food shops
The student, functioning as a consumer, will use banking facilities as independently as possible
A.
School bank
Withdrawal and deposit slips for the school bank
Bankbooks for the school bank
Pens and pencils
Lunch money (student's)
Money
Nutritious snacks
Juice or beverages Party, dance, or recreational
activity
Bank
B.
Checks (personal, payroll, and cashier's)
Identification cards for the student
Sample checks
School bank
Pens
Money
Bankbook (student's for the school bank) Bank
SUGGESTED READINGS
Alley, G. 1968. Perceptual-motor performance of mentally retarded children after systematic visualperceptual training. Amer. J. Ment. Defic. 73:247-250.
Anderson, D. R., G. O. Hodson, and W. G. Jones (eds.). 1974. Instructional Programs for the Severely
Handicapped Student. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 111.
Anderson, J., and R. Wolfe. 1969. The Multiply Handicapped Child. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 111.
Appell, M. J., C. M. Williams, and K. N. Fishell. 1962. Significant factors in placing mental retardates
from a sheltered situation. Personnel and Guidance J. 41:260-265.
Archwamety, T., and S. Samuels. 1973. A Masking Based Experimental Program for Teaching Mentally
Retarded Children Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension Skills through the Use of
Hypothesis/Test Procedures. Research Report #50. University of Minnesota Research, Minneapolis.
Ball, T. S. 1953. Introduction to Exceptional Children. Rev. Ed. Mac-millan, New York.
Ball, T. S. 1971. Itard, Seguin, and Kephart: Sensory Education—A Learning Interpretation. Charles E.
Merrill, Columbus, Ohio.
Bastian, H., and B. Syrja. 1972. Teaching trainable level retarded students to functionally read a basic
grocery list. In L. Brown and E. Sontag (eds.), Toward the Development and Implementation of an
Empirically Based Public School Program for Trainable Mentally Retarded and Severely Emotionally
Disturbed Children. Part II. Madison Public Schools, Madison, Wise.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement