Epson | 386SX/20 | User's Manual | Epson 386SX/20 User's Manual

PEER-2030
2OMHz
386SX
™
SYSTEM
U
ser’s
Manual
PEER-2030
Personal Computer
User’s Manual
Edition 1.2
The following does not apply to any country where such provisions are inconsistent
with local law:
We make no warranties with respect to this documentation eithsr express or implied
and provides it “as is”. This includes but is not limited to any implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information in this document
is subject to change without notice. We assumes no responsibility for any errors that
may appear in this document.
IBM PC, IBM PC/XT and IBM PC/AT are registered trademarks of International
Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft
Corporation. Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. The typeface used
in the text of this manual is Helvetica and is used under licence from the Allied
Corporation, the owner of the typeface.
All other brand names are registered trademarks of their respective companies
The PEER-2030, this manual and all illustrations in it are copyrighted with all rights
reserved. Under the copyright laws, the PEER-2030, this manual, and the illustrations, may not be copied without the written consent of Datatech Enterprises Co., Ltd.
Documentation design and writing by: Echo Chen, Patty Lee, Hazel Chen, and Alan
Patterson.
© 1991 Datatech Enterprises Co., Ltd.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Statement
Radio Frequency Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a
Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits
are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference
in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used in accordance
with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to
radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Ž Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from
that to which the receiver is connected.
Ž Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for
help.
Any special accessories needed for compliance must be specified in the
instruction manual.
Warning: A shielded-type power cord is required in order to meet FCC
emission limits and also to prevent interference to nearby radio and
television reception. It is essential that only the attached power cord be
used.
Use only shielded cables to connect I/O devices to this computer.
You are cautioned that changes or modifications not expressly approved by
the party responsible for compliance could void your authority to operate
the equipment.
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise
emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian Department of Communication.
Le Présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques
dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils numériques de Class B
preescrites dans le réglement sur le brouillage radioélectrique édicté parle
Ministère des Communications du Canada.
Warning
Reconfiguring
l
l
To keep the computer from being damaged, NEVER reconfigure the board while the power is ON.
If you wish to reconfigure the computer at any time, ensure that
the power is turned OFF before changing any hardware settings, such as DIP switches or jumpers.
III
Contents
Chapter 1
System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
l-l Introduction
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.............................. 2
Operating System
l-2 QuickStart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
l-3 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
l-4 Specifications
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l-5 Example of a System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
l-6 SystemUnit
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l-7 Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
R e s e t B u t t o n ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 8
T u r b o B u t t o n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
I n d i c a t o r L i g h t s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
K e y b o a r d L o c k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
System Power Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
l-8 Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Connector .
Power Cord Connector . . . .
Display Port . . . . . . . .
Power Voltage Setting . . . . .
l-9 Other Peripherals
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l-10 Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Floppy Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Hard Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
l-11 Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
l-1 2 Maintaining Your Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
IV
Chapter 2
Setting Up Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2-l Motherboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80386S X CPU . . . . . . .
. . .
Math Coprocessor . . . . . . .
Chip Insertion . . . . . . . . . . .
Jumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Onboard System Memory Size . . . . .
ROM BIOS Chips . . . . . . .
2-2 Installation . . . . . . . . . .
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2-3 Connection to Power Supply. . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3
Operating Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3-1 An Introduction to DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2 DOS Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up Your Diskettes and Files. . . . .
Deleting Your Diskettes and Files
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Finding Out What is on Your Disk
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3-3 Hard Disk Drive Format
Step 1 – Preformat .
Step 2 – Partition . .
Step3-Format . . .
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3-4 Helpful Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-5 System Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Entering the Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Running the Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
V
Chapter 4
K e y b o a r d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4-l Keyboard Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4-2 Getting Acquainted with Your Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . 3
Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Numeric Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Mode Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Special Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
QWERTY keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Cursor Keys
Key Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4-3 Keyboard Tilt Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 5
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
5-l Command Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5-2 System Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Examples of System Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5-3 System BIOS Error Messages . . . . . . . . .
VI
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Chapter 6
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6 -1 Installing Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.25” Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5” Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2 Entering 20MHz Turbo Mode . . . . . . . . . .
Entering 20 MHz Turbo Mode . . . . . . . .
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SoftwareTurbo Switch . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Turbo Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate Use of Both Switches . . . . . . . . . . .
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6-3 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shadow RAM Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMS Driver Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4 Quick Reference for Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . .
6-5 Moving Your Computer and Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Long Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-6 Technical information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protected Virtual Address Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real Address Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROM Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RAM Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct Memory Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DMAChannel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Channel Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Math Coprocessor Control
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Chapter 7
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
VII
List of Figures
Chapter 1
System Overview
Figure 1-1: Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Figure 1-2: System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Figure 1-3: System Unit Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Figure 1-4: Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Figure 1-5: Keylock and Two Security-Lock Keys . . . . . . . . 9
Figure 1-6: ON/OFF Switch in OFF Position . . . . . . . . . . 1 0
Figure 1-7: Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 1-8: Connecting the Keyboard Cable . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
Figure 1-9: System Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
Figure 1-10: Two Kinds of Display Connectors . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
Figure 1-11:VoltageSwitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5
Figure 1- 12: System Unit Connected to Peripherals . . . . . . . 1 6
Figure 1-1 3: Installing Floppy and Hard Disk Drives . . . . . . . . 1 7
Figure 1-14: Copy Protection for a 3.5” Floppy Disk . . . . . . . 1 9
Figure 1-15: Copy Protection for a 5.25” Floppy Disk . . . . . . . 19
Figure 1-16: Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
VIII
Chapter 2
Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-1 : Motherboard Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-2: The Location of W9,80386SX, and 80387SX . . . . .
Figure 2-3: Chip Insertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-4: An Example of Three-Pin Jumper Setting . . . . . .
Figure 2-5: RAM Banks & Jumpers for Bank Selection . . . . .
Figure 2-6: 512KB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-7: 640KB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-8: 1 MB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-9: 1.5MB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-1 0: 2MB Total Onboard System Memory (A) . . . . . .
Figure 2-11: 2MB Total Onboard System Memory (B) . . . . . . .
Figure 2-12: 3MB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-13: 4MB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-14: 5MB Total Onboard System Memory . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-15: Installing ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-1 6: Unpacking Your Main System . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2-1 7: Connecting to a Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3
Operating Your System
Figure 3-1: Initial Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3-2: “Set Up System Configuration” Screen . . . . .
Figure 3-3: “Preformat Hard Disk” Screen . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3-4: Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3-5: “NEAT Chip Setup Configuration” Screen . . . . .
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IX
Chapter 4
Keyboard
Figure 4-1 : Keyboard Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-2: Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-3: Numeric Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-4: Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-5: Special Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-6: QWERTY Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-7: Cursor Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 4-8: Adjustment of Keyboard Angles . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 6
Appendix
Figure 6-1 : Installing a 5.25” Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Figure 6-2: Screwing the 5.25” Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . 3
Figure 6-3: Connecting a Floppy Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Figure 6-4: Connecting a Floppy Disk Drive to an FDC Card . . . . . 4
Figure 6-5: Connecting a Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Figure 6-6: Connecting a Hard Disk Drive to an HDC Card . . . . . 5
Figure 6-7: Cables for Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Figure 6-8: Installing a 3.5” Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Figure 6-9: Screwing the 3.5” Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Figure 6-10: 62-Pin Expansion Bus I/O Channels . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 6-11: 36-Pin Expansion Bus I/O Channels . . . . . . . . 2 4
X
List of Tables
Chapter 1
System Overview
Table 1-1 : Power Cord Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . .15
. . . . . . .18
Table 1-2: Floppy Disk Specifications . . . . . .
Chapter 2
Setting Up Your System
Table 2-1 : Math Coprocessor Jumper W9 . . . . . . .
Table 2-2: Settings of Jumpers W1 -W6 . . . . . . .
Table 2-3: Total Onboard System Memory Size . . . .
Table 2-4: Jumper Settings for Different Types of BIOS . .
Table 2-5: Power Supply Pinouts . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4
Keyboard
Table
Table
Table
Table
4-1 : Functions of Numeric Keypad Keys .
4-2: Functions of Special Keys . . . .
4-3: Functions of Special QWERTY Keys
4-4: Special Functions . . . . . . .
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Chapter 6
Appendix
Table 6-1: Channel . . . . . . . .
Table 6-2: Channel 1 . . . . . .
Table 6-3: Channel 2 . . . . . .
Table 6-4: Interrupt Level Assignment
. . .. .
Table 6-5: DMA Channels
Table 6-6: I/O Hex Address . . .
Table 6-7: DMA Channel 3 Through 0
Table 6-8: DMA Channel 7 Through 5
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XI
About This Manual
What’s Inside
Here’s what you’ll find in this manual:
Chapter 1 — “System Overview”, gets you acquainted with the basic
concepts of your system.
Chapter 2 — “Setting Up Your System”, shows you how to install or
upgrads your system.
Chapter 3 — “Operaring Your System”, shows you the MS-DOS
functions and the basics of the system setup program.
Chapter 4 — “Keyboard”, explains the keyboard’s features, layout
and basic functions.
Chapter 5 — “Trubleshooring”, covers a simple troubleshooting
procedures and provides directions for additional help.
Chapter 6 — “Appendix”, provides some technical specifications for
your system.
Chapter 7— “Glossary”, explains some microcomputer terms.
XII
How to Use this Manual
For the advanced user
If you are an experienced PC user and do not want to upgrade your
system now and you want to start using your personal computer as
soon as possible, refer to the Quick Start section at the beginning of
chapter one.
Quick Startwill provide you all the information you need to set up the
hardware.
For the beginner
Chapter 1 gives you the basic information you need to use this
system. Chapter 2 provides greater detail on the hardware and on
how to upgrade your system. Your system is quite simple to set up.
However if you are unsure of yourseff, find an experienced PC hand
to help out.
XIII
Chapter 1
System Overview
System Overview
This chapter covers:
n
n
n
the system’s features and specifications
n
how to maintain your computer.
the basics of your system
control panel features and connectors outside of the
Case
If you are an experienced user who wants to get to work as soon as
possible, the Quick Start section at the beginning of this chapter
provides you all the information you need to set up the hardware.
If you want to upgrade your hardware later, read Section 2-2: Installation.
If you want to gain a more thorough understanding of your computer,
read the entire manual.
Note:
You may refer to Chapter 7: Glossary for definitions of computer
terminology.
Chapter 1: System Overview 1
1-1 Introduction
This manual will guide you through the setup of your computer and
provide the information necessary to tailor the system to fit your needs.
If you are a novice, you will be able to have your computer up and
running with a minimum of fuss. You will also gain valuable hands-on
experience by following the easy step-by-step instructions. If you are
an advanced user, you will appreciate the affordable power of this
system.
Your system uses an Intel CorporationTM 80386SX microprocessor
which is a 32-bit CPU with a l&bit external data bus and a 24-bit
external address bus. It provides the performance benefits of a 32-bit
programming architecture and the cost savings associated with 16-bit
hardware systems. Moreover, it is 100% object-code compatible with
the 386, 286, and 8086 microprocessors. Therefore, your system optimizes both for performance and cost. It can access the world’s largest
existing microcomputer software base, including the growing collection
of 32-bit software.
Quality, flexibility, and functionality are the key design features of your
system. This system provides optimum performance at an affordable
price.
Operating System
Your computer uses the MS-DOS® operating system. For more details
on this operating system, please refer to the Microsoft® MS-DOS
User’s Guide and User’s Reference. This manual is included with your
system.
‘I
2
Chapter 1: System Overview
1-2 Quick Start
If you are an experienced user anxious to start using your computer,
observe the figure below to set up your personal computer. You will still
want to use this manual later as a reference book.
Note: Save all packing materials in case you need to ship or resell your
computer in the future.
Figure 1-1: Quick Start
Chapter I: System Overview
3
1-3 Features
• Intel 80386SX-20 microprocessor—32-bit CPU with a 16bit external data bus and a 24-bit external address bus
• Intel 80387SX-20 coprocessors optional
• Switchable between 10MHz Normal mode and 20MHz
Turbo mode by either a software-switch or a hardware switch
• Onboard battery backup for the CMOS configuration table
and a real-time clock
• RAM subsystem of 512Kl3,640KB, 1 MB, 1.5MB, 2MB,
3MB, 4MB and 5MB
• Eight expansion slots — six 16 bit slots and two 8 bit slots
• Sixteen-level interrupt
• Seven-channel DMA for disk and special I/O
• 64KB legal BIOS
• Four-layer mainboard
• LIM 4.0 EMS support
• Shadow RAM support
• Choice of either 44256 DIP or 256k/1M SIMM DRAM
modules with 80ns
• Page/Interleaved DRAM access method support
• Power fail detect circuit
• Address pipeline support
4
Chapter 1: System Overview
1-4 Specifications
• CPU — 80386SX microprocessor, 20MHz
• RAM — Subsystem of 512KB, 640KB, 1 MB, 1.5MB, 2MB,
3MB, 4MB and 5MB
• ROM — 64KB legal BIOS
• Expansion slots — Six 16 bit slots and two 8 bit slots
• Disk Drive(s) — Three 5.25” bays and two 3.5” bays
• Power Size — 165mm X 150mm X 150mm
• Options — Math coprocessor 80387SX-20
Chapter 1: System Overview
5
1-5 Example of a System Configuration
The basic system is pictured below. You may choose peripherals and
upgrades for the system as your needs require. Even if your system is
different from the one pictured, it should operate in the same basic
manner.
Figure 1-2: System Configuration
6
Chapter 1: System Overview
1-6 System Unit
The system unit may house a motherboard, disk drives, a power supply
and an optional expansion cards.
Figure 1-3: System Unit Case
Chapter 1: System Overview
7
1-7 Control Panel
The control panel provides several useful functions which are explained below. You are likely to use the front panel frequently, so let’s
start there.
figure 14: Front Panel
Reset Button
The reset button allows you to restart the system without turning the
lower off.
If you encounter any problems while using unfamiliar software, you can
always restart quickly from the RAM test stage by pressing the reset
button. Note, however, that any data which have not been saved to
disk will be lost.
Turbo Button
The Turbo button allows you to change the running speed of the
microprocessor to accommodate software requirements. Some
software applications must be run at a slow clock speed.
Indicator Lights
These lights indicate the operation status of your computer.
• The green LED is lit when the power is on.
• The yellow LED comes on when Turbo clock speed is activated.
• The red LED comes on when the hard disk is being accessed.
8
Chapter 7: System Overview
Keylock
The keylock enables or disables the keyboard. In the unlock mode the
keyboard is activated. In the lock mode the keyboard is disabled to
deny unauthorized users access to the computer.
Figure 1-5: Keylock and Two Security-Lock Keys
Chapter 1: System Overview
9
System Power Switch
The system power switch is located on the right side of the case toward
the rear.
Figure 1-6: ON/OFF Switch in OFF Position
You should always be certain that the power is turned off before
modifying the hardware configuration in any way.
10
Chapter 1: System Overview
1-8 Rear Panel
The rear panel has all the connections that lead from the system unit
to external peripherals and the power source. Turn off all power
switches before connecting or disconnecting cables/wires! Ensure that cables/wires are attached to the peripheral device first and
connect to the outlet unit later. Turn the system unit power switch off
before you plug the power cable into an electrical outlet.
Figure 1-7: Rear Panel
Chapter 1: System Overview
11
Keyboard Connector
The keyboard supplied with your system may be plugged into sockets
at the back of the case. Plug the keyboard cable into the socket as
shown below.
Figure 1-8: Connecting the Keyboard Cable
12
Chapter 1: System Overview
Power Cord Connector
The power supply has two receptacles: one supplies power to a
monitor; the other connects to the main power source.
If your monitor power plug does not fit the system unit’s monitor power
outlet, you should plug it into a wall electrical outlet.
I
Figure 7-9: System Power Cord
Chapter 1: System Overview
13
Display Port
You will also need to connect your monitor to the system unit at a
female display port in one of the expansion slots as shown on the
previous page.
To attach the monitor cable to the display port, plug the cable into the
port and screw the cable connector down securely.
Your computer gives you a wide range of video options to meet your
needs.
You have a wide choice of the following video standards.
- MGA (Monochrome Graphics Adapter) also referred to as
Hercules
- CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)
- EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter)
- VGA (Video Graphics Adapter)
Refer to the figures below for mono and color display connectors.
Figure 1-10: Two Kinds of Display Connectors
14
Chapter 1: System Overview
Power Voltage Setting
The system unit can run on either 115V or 230V as indicated in Figure
1-11. The voltage setting switch is located above the monitor power
outlet. Refer to Table 1-1 for power cord specifications.
Figure l-l 1: Voltage Switch
Table 1-1: Power Cord Specifications
Chapter 1: System Overview
15
1-9 Other Peripherals
To connect other peripherals (printer, modem etc.), refer to your expansion card manuals or peripheral manuals to determine which ports are
to be used. Your may consult your dealer for more about the expansion cards available for your system. Typical peripherals are shown as
the figure below.
Figure 1-12: System Unit Connected to Peripherals
16
Chapter 1: System Overview
1-10 Disk Drives
Your disk drive displays different kinds of composition by installing
5.25” or 3.5” size of floppy or hard disk drives. You can decide the
composition according to your need. More information about how to
install disk drives may be found in Chapter 6.
Figure 1-13: Installing Floppy and Hard Disk Drives
Chapter 1: System Overview
17
Floppy Disks
With a floppy disk drive you can format and use double-sided (or
single-sided) double-density (or high-density) floppy disks.
One double-sided double-density 5.25” floppy disk can store up to
360KB of data. One double-sided high-density 5.25” floppy disk can
store up to 1.2MB of data, One standard 3.5” floppy disk can store up
to 720KB of data, One high-density 3.5” floppy disk can store up to
1.44MB of data.
Table 1-2: Floppy Disk Specifications
Note:
• Only high-density floppy disks can be formatted to high
capacities of either 1.2M for 5.25” or 1.44M for 3.5” floppy
disks. You may lose data if you use a low-density floppy
disk formatted for high density.
• You can’t use a high-density disk in a low-density disk drive.
18
Chapter 1: System Overview
Copy Protection
You can copy-protect a floppy disk to prevent accidental storage of
information or viral infection onto that disk by covering the notch on the
side of a 5.25” floppy disk with a write-protect tab or by sliding the small
tab on a 3.5” floppy disk to expose the hole. Refer to the figures below
for how to copy-protect floppy disks.
When a disk is copy-protected, you cannot add new information to it or
change any information on it. To enable copying to the disk, remove
the copy-protecting tab on a 5.25” floppy disk or slide the tab to show
the hole on a 3.5” floppy disk.
Figure 1-14: Copy Protection for a 3.5" Floppy Disk
Figure 1-15: Copy Protection for a 5.25” Floppy Disk
Chapter 1: System Overview
19
Hard Disks
Your system is very powerful and versatile. To make full use of all its
capabilities, it is best to use a hard disk. A hard disk can raise your
efficiency because the hard disk keeps programs and data available at
your fingertips.
Moreover, your system gives you a wide range of half-high or full-high
hard disk(s) of 3.5” or 5.25” to meet your needs.
20
Chapter 1: System Overview
1-11 Keyboard
Your keyboard has a set of function keys, cursor keys and a numeric
keypad. The figure below shows a typical keyboard. Refer to Chapter
4 for a more detailed description of the keyboard.
Figure 1-15: Keyboard
Chapter 1: System Overview
21
1-12 Maintaining Your Equipment
Read and follow carefully all the instructions and warnings in this
manual and on these products!
• Only use a damp cloth to clean your system unit and
monitor case. Do not use detergents!
• Position your system unit, monitor and cables/wires away
from direct sunlight, moisture, dust, oil, and thoroughfares.
• Do not submit your equipment to harsh jarring.
• Ensure that all ventilation outlets are always free from
obstruction.
• In the event of mechanical/power failure or damage, do not
attempt to repair the system unit, monitor/s, cables/wires.
Refer all such problems to experienced service personnel.
• Ensure that the back of the system unit is at least 3” away
from anything that might obstruct the ventilation outlets and
cause overheating.
• Ensure that the power source is grounded correctly. This
product is equipped with a 3-wire grounding-type plug. This
plug will only fit into a grounded power outlet.
• It is recommended not to service this product yourself, as
opening and removing covers exposes dangerous voltage
areas and other risks. Refer all servicing to service persons.
22
Chapter 1: System Overview
Chapter 2
Setting Up
Your System
Setting Up Your System
In this chapter you will learn about:
•
•
how to assemble a knocked-down system
how to upgrade your system
Setting up a system is easy and takes only a short time. If your dealer
has set up your system for you, you can skip this chapter. With the
system set up you are now ready to load your application software and
begin work. This chapter covers topics you are less likely to need to
know right away.
You may also skip this chapter unless you want to add to or alter your
system unit hardware yourself. It is recommended to have your dealer
or technician upgrade your system if you are a novice. Ensure that the
power is off before modifying the hardware configuration!
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
1
2-1 Motherboard
The motherboard contains an Intel® 80386SX-20 processor, a
80387SX math coprocessor socket, BIOS chips and expansion slots.
These parts of your system that you can see and touch are called
hardware. Below is an illustration of the board layout.
Figure 2-1: Motherboard Layout
2
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
80386SX CPU
Your system uses an Intel 80386SX-20 microprocessor running at
20MHz. The 80386SX has a number of features that enable a substantial leap in processing power and capability over the 80286 standard
used in AT-type microcomputers. The 80386SX has superior extended
memory support and will execute the new 32-bit programs of the future.
The 80386SX-20 CPU is vastly superior in capabilities and speed to
the 80286, and can handle:
• Concurrent processing
• Hardware-based multitasking
• Superior extended-memory support; and
• Virtual machines
Virtual machines can create discrete, non-interfering operating environments for application programs, giving each application its own
working environment. Virtual machines can be created within the extended memory by using appropriate control software.
Your system is switchable between 10 and 20MHz to ensure software
compatibility and can be activated with either a hardware or software
switch. For software that fails to operate at Turbo mode you may
switch to the Normal speed.
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
3
Math Coprocessor
f you process numeric data, a math coprocessor will make your work
more efficient.
An optional 80387SX-20 coprocessor can be installed in socket U42
to accelerate processing of calculation-intensive applications. Jumper
W9 is used to enable or disable the 80387SX math coprocessor.
Remember that you must make sure the dotted end of the chip is lined
up with the notched end of the socket. Refer to the illustrations below
and on the next page to install the Intel 80387SX-20.
Refer to Table 2-1 below for jumper W9 and Figure 2-2 on the next
page for the 80386SX and the 80387SX.
Table 2-1: Math Coprocessor Jumper W9
4
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-2 . The Location of W9,80386SX, and 80387SX
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
5
Chip lnsertion
Remember that when insetting chips, you must make sure that the
notched or the dotted end of the chip is lined up with the notched end
of the socket. Gently push the chip into the socket, and be careful not
to bend the pins.
Notch
Figure 2-3: Chip insertion
6
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Jumper
A jumper is a kind of switch which uses a plastic cap with a metal
interior to connect (short) two pins. If a jumper needs to be left open,
you should save the cap for future use by covering only one pin of a
jumper. This has no effect on the function of the board while it keeps
the cap handy. The illustration below shows the side and top views of
a three-pin jumper in which pins two and three are shorted.
Figure 2-4: An Example of Three-Pin Jumper Setting
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
7
Onboard System Memory Size
Jumpers W1- W6 are used to set the RAM size you want on the
mainboard. The DIP and SIMM DRAM banks can contain from 512KB,
640KB, 1 MB, 1.5MB, 2MB, 3MB, 4MB to 5MB by means of setting
jumpers W1 - W6. Refer to Figure 2-5 below for the location of jumpers
W1 - W6 and the RAM banks.
Figure 2-5: RAM Banks & Jumpers for Bank Selection
8
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Following figures show the configuration for total onboard system
memory.
Table 2-2: Settings of Jumpers W1- W6
Before setting up RAM configuration in BIOS, you must refer to the
following table to set the watt state and the page-interleave mode.
Particularly, you cannot set both 0 wait state and disabled pageinterleave mode in Turbo mode; otherwise your system cannot
operate normally, even cannot display the screen. In order to set both
modes normally, you should switch the button from Turbo mode to
Normal mode.
Table 2-3: Total Onboard System Memory Size
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
9
Figure 2-6: 512KB Total Onboard System Memory
10
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-7: 640 KB Total Onboard System Memory
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
11
Figure 2-8: 1 MB Total Onboard System Memory
12
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-9: 1.5 MB Total Onboard System Memory
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
13
Figure 2-11: 2MB Total Onboard System Memory (B)
14
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-12: 3MB Total Onboard System Memory
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
15
Figure 2-13: 4MB Total Onboard System Memory
16
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-14: 5MB Total Onboard System Memory
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
17
ROM BIOS Chips
Jumper W7 is used to select the type of BIOS chips. BIOS stands for
Basic Input Output System. BIOS controls the real-time clock, disk
drives and the computer’s peripheral equipment. Refer to the Figure
2-l 5 for the location of jumper W7 and BIOS chips. For selection and
installation of the ROM BIOS chips, refer to the table below and the
figure on the next page.
Table 2-4: Jumper Settings for Different Types of BIOS
18
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Figure 2-15: Installing ROM
If you are not sure what BIOS chips you have, you may need to consult
your dealer for the right chips.
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
19
2-2 Installation
The time may come when you want to upgrade your system. To do so,
you may need to remove the cover of the unit. This is easily accomplished with the following tools: a small flat-blade screwdriver and
a small Philips screwdriver.
Be sure that the power to the system is switched OFF before you open
the case. Your computer interior is as below:
Figure 2-16: Unpacking Your Main System
20
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
2-3 Connection to Power Supply
If your power supply has not been attached to your motherboard, you
may need to attach the power supply cable to the mainboard at
connector J9, which is beside the power supply on the motherboard.
There are some cables on the power supply. Be sure the four black
wires of the power supply cables are located at the middle of the power
connectors. Refer to the figure below. Pin 1 is numbered in the picture
for your convenience.
Figure 2-17: Connecting to a Power Supply
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
21
The pinouts for the connectors at J9 are as follows:
Table 2-5: Power Supply Pinouts
22
Chapter 2: Setting Up Your System
Chapter 3
Operating
Your System
Operating Your System
In this chapter you will learn:
n
a few MS-DOS functions
n
the basics of the system setup program
The software that your system will use falls into two categories. First
there is the operating system, the language that tells the system what
to do. The operating system in this computer uses is Microsoft
Corporation’s MS-DOS, the world’s most widely used operating system for PC/XT/ATs.
Next, there is the application software what you use for work and play.
Finding application software is a simple matter of going to your nearest
PC store.
Note:
This is not an MS-DOS manual. It mentions only a few of the DOS
functions available. To learn more about DOS, refer to your MS-DOS
User’s Guide and Reference manual included with your system.
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
1
3-1 An Introduction to DOS
DOS stands for Disk Operating System. This is a set of commands
used to control the operations of a computer and its peripheral components. DOS makes it easy for you to use applications and create
and manage files on your computer. DOS also lets you use devices
with the computer.
Loading DOS
Loading DOS means to copy all the DOS programs into the computer’s
electronic memory. You should follow the instructions below to start
DOS.
Starting DOS when the computer is off:
• Insert DOS disk 1 into disk drive A and close the drive lever.
ž Turn on the computer and respond to the prompts displayed
on the monitor.
Starting DOS when the computer is on:
If you don’t have a DOS disk in your disk drive when you start your
computer, you will see the following message on the screen following
the RAM test:
Non-system disk or disk error
Replace and strike any key when ready
Then, you should:
• Insert DOS disk 1 into disk drive A and close the drive lever.
• Press the reset button on your front panel (hardware reset)
or hold down the <Ctrl>, <Alt> and <Del> keys at the same
time (software reset) to reboot your system.
Starting DOS from your hard disk:
If you have a hard disk, install DOS on the disk. Your PC will boot
automatically whenever you turn on the power.
System Messages
Refer to your MS-DOS User’s Guide and Reference manual for information on system messages.
2
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
3-2 DOS Operations
Following is a brief explanation of a few DOS functions. If you want a
detailed explanation of all the DOS commands, refer to your DOS user
manual.
Starting MS-DOS
If you are using a hard disk with DOS already installed, the computer
will “boot” or start itself.
If you are using a floppy disk drive, insert the DOS system disk in drive
“A” and switch on your computer. You will see a message similar to
the following:
C u r r e n t d a t e i s F r i 01-01-1990
Enter new date (MM-DD-YY):
For the new date, key in the month, day and year, separated by
hyphens. Press <Enter>.
Time is displayed and corrected as follows:
Current time is 0 : 02
Enter new time: 2:20
:
15.00
Your computer is now booted and ready to run application programs.
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
3
Formatting Disk
You must format a floppy disk before it can be used.
Formatting high-density disk:
To format a high-density disk, type the following at the drive prompt:
C>Format A:
<Enter>
After your disk has been formatted, you will see the following prompt:
Format another diskette (Y/N)?
Press <N> if you do have nothing else to be formatted.
Fomatting a low-density disk:
To format a lowdensity disk, type the following at the drive prompt:
C>Format A:/4
<Enter>
After your disk has been formatted, you will see the following prompt:
Format another diskette (Y/N)?
Press <N> if you have nothing else to be formatted.
4
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
Backing up your Diskettes and Files
In order not to lose your files through disk damage or accidental
deletion it is important to back up all your files and diskettes regularly.
Backing up a diskette on a two-floppy disk drive system:
At the A> prompt type the following
A> diskcopy a: b:
Press <Enter> and respond to the prompts on your screen.
Backing up a diskette on a single floppy disk drive system:
At the A> prompt type the followingA> diskcopy
Press <Enter> and respond to the prompts on your screen.
After your target disk has been copied, you will see the following
prompt:
Copy another diskette (Y/N)?
Press <N> if you have nothing else to be copied.
Backing up a file:
To back up a single file, key in the backup command and directory as
follows:
A>backup <path> <filename> <drive>/A
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
5
Deleting your Diskettes and Files
You may want to erase diskettes or unnecessary files to make room for
other data.
Erasing a diskette:
To erase a whole directory of files, type the following at the drive
prompt:
A > d e l * Ž*
<Enter>
All the files in the open directory are now erased.
Deleting a file:
To delete a single file, type the following at the drive prompt:
A>del filename.ext
6
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
<Enter>
Finding Out What is on Your Disk
If you want to find out what files are on a disk, you can list its directory
by using the <DIR> command. If you want to display the directory of
the disk in drive A, you would use the following command:
DIR A:
After you hit the enter key, all the file information will display on the
screen.
If you use the <DIR> command without a drive letter, MS-DOS lists the
directory of the disk in the default drive.
There are three ways to stop the screen from scrolling.
Ž pressing the <Ctrl> and the <S> keys simultaneous
Ž pressing <Pause>
Ž typing DIR/P to see one screen each time
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
7
3-3 Hard Disk Drive Format
A hard disk must be formatted before it can be read from or written to.
If your hard disk requires this, you should carry out the following steps:
S t e p 1 — Preformat
The preformat utility is supplied by the system BIOS. You can press
<ESC> key quickly just after the RAM test to enter the SETUP program.
Choosing item 2 from the initial screen to preformat hard disk. See
Figure 3-1.
Step 2 — Partition
This process creates DOS partitioning on a preformatted hard disk
drive. The DOS command “FDISK” handles this partitioning process.
Insert your DOS diskette in drive A and type a: to get A prompt. Then
type:
A> FDISK < 8 >
The “FDISK” command displays a serial of menus to help you partition
your hard disk for MS-DOS. With the “FDISK” command, you can:
l
create a primary partition,
. create an extended partition,
l
change the active partition,
l
delete an partition,
display partition data, and
. select the next fixed disk drive for partitioning on a system
with multiple fixed disks.
l
If your hard disk is 40MB, you may have partitions of up to 33MB in
size. 33MB is the maximum space for a partition allowed by DOS.
For more information about how to use creating DOS partition, see
Appendix D in MS-DOS User’s Guide and Reference.
8
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
Step 3 — Format
The DOS command “Format”verifies the media and moves the system
file onto the hard disk drive. The command should be keyed in as:
A> FORMAT C:/S
if you have two partition, you have to format D in DOS prompt. The
command should be keyed in as:
A> FORMAT D:
If you want to use the partition 1 (drive C) to start DOS, you have to
specify the /S option when formatting the disk. You can use this
system disk to boot your system later.
Note that you don’t need to perform this procedure if you want to use
new partition for other operating systems like Xenix, Novell or Unix.
Refer to their manuals for details.
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
9
3-4 Helpful Hints
The following may save you some time or help you as you use your
computer.
Ž Make copies of your diskettes regularly.
Ž To make sure that a command works, you should:
- Check your typing (make sure you don’t confuse \ with /).
- Have the correct diskette in the drive.
- Check the contents of the diskette with the DIR command.
- Specify the correct diskette drive.
- Remember to include the colon (:) when specifying the
name of a drive.
- Spell the filename correctly
- Use the appropriate extension (such as *.DOC or *.EXE)
Ž Refer to the DOS Reference for additional information if a
command still doesn’t work.
Ž Print contents of a disk (if you have a printer) and keep the
list with the diskette.
Ž All commands (except DISKCOPY and DISKCOMP) are
files that will work on both diskettes and hard disk drives.
Ž The date and time shown with each directory entry are the
date and time of the last addition or change to that file. The
date and time are not changed during a COPY or a DISKCOPY.
10
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
3-5 System Setup Program
A system setup program is included in your BIOS on the motherboard.
The setup program is used to key in the configuration you want for your
system. Specifically, you can set the date, time, base memory, expansion memory, number of floppy and hard disk drives and display
configuration as well as get information on hard disk types.
Your system BIOS is fully compatible with IBM BIOS. In addition, many
special functions are supported like:
Ž a low-level fixed disk format utility
Ž three system utilities (a calculator, a hard disk park, and a
timer)
Ž system password
Ž user-defined hard disk types
Ž NEAT chip set
The setup program is simple to be used. It is extremely important that
you respond correctly to the prompts about your computer.
The following will guide you through the setup program. For more
information about the setup program, refer to your BIOS manual.
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
11
Entering the Setup Program
There are two ways to enter the setup program: by pressing <F1> or
by pressing <ESC>.
1. Pressing <F1> to Enter the Setup Program
You will need to press <F1>, to enter the setup program in the following
situations:
Ž when your computer is turned on for the first time
Ž when the rechargeable battery is dead
Ž when the hardware configuration is changed
If the battery for CMOS chip is dead or the system configuration does
not match your actual hardware configuration, you will have to reconfigure your system. The computer will give you this screen message:
Press the F1 key to enter the setup program or
press any other key to continue
Under the above three conditions, pressing <F1> will automatically
start the setup program.
Under any conditions within DOS, you can use the DOS DEBUG
command as follows:
A> DEBUG 8
-g=F000:FF60 8
This command will start the setup program.
12
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
2. Pressing <ESC> to Enter the Setup Program
If you want to set up special functions provided by BIOS or reconfigure
your system, you will need to enter the setup program. After starting
your computer, press the <Esc> key quickly before the RAM test
finishes. If you miss the chance to do so, reset your system and repeat
the above procedures to enter the setup program. Before the setup
program appears, the following message will appear on the screen:
SETUP utility will be starting
When the system self test is completed, the setup program will take
over.
Once you have entered the setup program, you will see the following
initial screen:
ROM SETUP PROGRAM VERSION 2.0
(C) COPYRIGHT DATATECH ENTERPRISES CO., LTD 1990.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
1. SET UP SYSTEM CONFIGURATION.
2. PREFORMAT HARD DISK.
3. SET UP BUILT-IN UTILITY.
4. SET UP PASSWORD.
5. SET UP USER-DEFINED HARD DISK TYPE.
6. SET UP NEAT CHIP SET.
9. QUIT SETUP PROGRAM.
CHOOSE ITEM NUMBER : [1]
Figure 3-1: Initial Screen
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
13
Running the Setup Program
The menu of the setup program highlights the selected command. You
can use the up < # > and down < $ > arrows to select the desired item.
Pressing the enter key < 8
> confirms your selection or enters the next
screen. If the option on the screen does not match your configuration,
you have two ways to make modifications. You may either highlight
selections and press< 8
> to enter the command or use the left < ! >
and right < " > arrows to show different options and select from them.
If you want to exit a current screen, you may press <Esc> or select
the exit item of the screen.
The following are some examples of setup program screens you will
see in using the program.
14
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
1. Setting Up System Configuration
If you choose item 1 from the screen on the previous page to configure
your system, the following will appear:
Figure 3-2: “Set Up System Configuration "Screen
Once you have entered all appropriate information and exited by
choosing item 9, you will be asked to confirm that the configuration
data are correct.
If at a later date you alter the configuration of your system, you will
need to go through the program again and make the appropriate
changes.
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
15
2. Preformatting Hard Disk
If you want to preformat your hard disks, reenter the setup program by
pressing <Esc>, and select item 2 on the initial screen. The program
will then proceed as below:
Figure 3-3: “Preformat Hard Disk” Screen
16
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
3. Setting Up Built-in Utilities
Three system utilities, a calculator, a hard disk park, and a timer, are
in your system BIOS. These utilities are enabled by the setup program. Note that these utilities can be used in the SO-column text
display mode only.
The calculator and the hard disk park can be used if you press <Ctrl>,
<Alt>, and <5> (on the key pad). Pressing <Esc> will exit these
Utilities. The following is the figure for the calculator.
CALCULATOR V1.41
Figure 3-4: Calculator
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
17
4. Setting Up Password
Selecting item 4 in the initial setup menu will lead you to set up a
system password. A password can deny unauthorized users access
to the computer. You can key in a password with a maximum of seven
alphanumeric units,
You may press <F1> to see the present password status.
5. Setting Up User-Defined Hard Disk Type
If none of the drive types (1-47) match the fixed disk drive specifications you have, select item 5 in the setup menu to set a user-defined
hard disk type.
6. Setting Up NEAT Chip Set
Choose item 6 in the setup menu to select a chip set configuration.
The screen will show as below:
Figure 3-5: “NEAT Chip Setup Configuration” Screen
18
Chapter 3: Operating Your System
Chapter 4
Keyboard
Keyboard
In this chapter you will learn:
n
n
the basics of your keyboard and its functions
how to adjust your keyboard angles
A computer keyboard sends messages from you to the computer. It
has:
• QWERTY keys
• Function keys
• Cursor control keys
• A numeric keypad
• Special keys
• Keyboard indicator lights
Chapter 4: Keyboard
1
4-1 Keyboard Layout
Currently several of keyboard styles are available for PC/AT/XT compatible computers. The most popular are the PC keyboard, the PC/AT
keyboard, and the enhanced keyboard. Figure 4-1 below illustrates
the basic layout of a typical enhanced keyboard.
Figure 4-1: Keyboard Layout
2
Chapter: 4: Keyboard
4-2 Getting Acquainted with Your Keyboard
Before you begin using your computer, you should become familiar
with some keyboard functions. Your keyboard is divided into six
sections. Refer to the previous page for the layout. The following
gives an explanation of these keys.
Function Keys
These are located on the left or at the top of the keyboard. Function
keys have specially defined uses preassigned by the software you use.
They are used independently or in combination with other keys.
Figure 4-2: Function Keys
Numeric Keypad
This is located on the right of the keyboard. At the center of the keypad
are nine numeric keys. These keys are used to move the,cursor as
well as to enter numbers when either the Caps Lock key or Num Lock
key is pressed. Refer to the figure below:
Figure 4-3: Numeric Keypad
Chapter 4: Keyboard
3
Keys
Function
Turns on and off the numeric mode on the numeric keypad.
Used for division operations.
Used for multiplication operations.
Used for subtraction operations.
Activating Num Lock makes 7 operative.
Home returns cursor to the beginning of the line it is on.
Activating Num Lock makes 8 operative.
Otherwise the up cursor key is active.
Activating Num Lock makes 9 operative.
Otherwise page up is active.
Used for addition operations.
Activating Num Lock makes 4 operative.
Otherwise the cursor key is activated.
Activating Num Lock makes 5 operative.
Activating Num Lock makes 6 operative.
Otherwise the cursor key is activated.
Activating Num Lock makes 1 operative. Otherwise
end moves the cursor to the end of the line it is on.
Activating Num Lock makes 2 operative.
Otherwise the cursor key is activated.
Activating Num Lock makes 3 operative.
Otherwise page down is activated.
Activating Num Lock makes 0 operative. Otherwise the key
functions to insert characters at the position of the cursor.
Used for decimal points. Otherwise it deletes characters
where the cursor IS positioned.
Enters commands or inserts invisible paragraph characters.
Table 4-1: Function of Numeric Keypad Keys
4
Chapter: 4: Keyboard
Mode Indicator Lights
In addition to the character, number and control keys, every keyboard
has three lights that indicate the typing mode. These lights and their
functions are explained as follows:
Figure 4-4: lndicator Lights
Caps Lock
When this light is on, characters are in uppercase mode.
Num Lock
When this light is off, the cursor-control function of the numeric keypad
is disabled and the numeric mode is activated.
Scroll Lock
When this light is on, text can be scrolled without moving the cursor.
Chapter 4: Keyboard
5
Special Keys
Below are some special keys on your keyboard.
Figure 4-5: Special Keys
Check out the above key functions in the table below and in Table 4-1.
Table 4-2: Functions of Special Keys
6
Chapter: 4: Keyboard
QWERTY Keys
These are the same keys which are used on a typewriter.
Figure 4-6: QWERTY Keys
Table 4-3: Functions of Special QWERTY Keys.
Chapter 4: Keyboard
7
Cursor Keys
These keys move the cursor in the indicated direction.
Figure 4-7: Cursor Keys
Key Combinations
The keys shown below have special functions when pressed simultaneously.
Keys
Function
I
There three keys reset the system so that
the machine is at the RAM test stage.
Table 4-4: Special Functions
8
Chapter: 4: Keyboard
4-3 Keyboard Tilt Adjustment
Under the rear of the keyboard are two small legs that can be pulled
out or pushed in to change the keyboard angles to suit you.
Figure 4-8: Adjustment of Keyboard Angles
Chapter 4: Keyboard
9
Chapter 5
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
In this chapter you will learn about:
n
n
the basics of how to solve software/hardware problems
when to get technical help for your computer
Your computer has been designed to last for years of optimum performance. But if some problems do occur, more likely than not you will be
able to solve them by referring to this chapter.
No matter whether you are a new or experienced user, you should
become familiar with the material in this chapter. For detailed explanations of computer problems and how to solve them, you are urged to
buy personal computer troubleshooting books from your nearest
hardware or software dealer.
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
1
5-1 Command Problems
Often what appears to be a big problem is in fact just a matter of a small
Oversight. Before taking your computer to the shop for major surgery,
check the following items:
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
2
Make sure that all devices (computer and peripherals)
have power and are turned on.
If you encounter a problem while you are working, stop
what you are doing immediately.
On paper, make notes of what is happening. List the
actions you have taken and the responses from the
computer. You may want to print a copy of the screen by
using the <Shift> + <PrtSc> keys combination.
Use the diagnostic software on your computer. Try to
find out the conditions under which the malfunction occurs. Try also to isolate where the problem is occurring.
Is it with a certain software program or with your
hardware? If the problem is with software, you should
probably talk to your software dealer. lf the problem is
with the hardware, try to narrow down the source of the
problem. Is it your disks or disk drives? Keyboard?
Printer? Screen?
If some messages appear on the screen, refer to your
MS-DOS manual for an explanation of the message. You
may want to write down the message or print it out with
the <Shift> + <PrtSc> key combination. Problems (except blackouts) can be avoided if you run your system on
a dedicated electrical line. That is, ensure that your
computer and peripheral electric cords are not shared by
other appliances such as a refrigerator or air conditioner.
Also, it is highly advisable to purchase a surge suppressor. This is a set of electric sockets enclosed in a single
housing. A surge suppressor prevents sudden pulses of
high electric power (spikes) from damaging the computer. This appliance is inexpensive and can be purchased at any computer or electronic hardware store.
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
¨
Are you using a startup disk?
¨
Is your disk formatted?
¨
Is the system configuration correct?
¨
Are all the external and internal connectors are connected well?
¨
Make sure that you are running software compatible with
your display port, because some softwares program can
only run on the MGA display mode.
¨
Is the power fuse burned out?
If you have gone through the above checklist and your system still does
not function properly, check the following pages. The following instructions will help you solve some common problems. However, you
should be aware that other problems might stem from system software,
applications or other peripherals.
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
3
5-2 System Error Messages
Basically there are three levels of system error messages that you
might see displayed on your computer. These are related to the
software you use. The following are the ones most commonly encountered.
Software error messages are a result of:
Ž Software lockup; the application becomes stuck and the
cursor will not move. When this happens, remove your application program from the disk drive (unless a hard disk is
used) and reboot your computer. If the problem persists,
contact your nearest software dealer.
Ž Software crash; the application suddenly displays garbled
text on the monitor or the cursor locks up. Try to reboot the
computer. If the problem persists, you will need to contact
the software dealer from whom you purchased the package.
He/she should replace the package, depending on the service contract, or have it repaired.
Hardware error messages:
These messages are related to the computer’s internal components,
your monitor, mouse, or printer. Hardware problems are usually ones
that the user cannot solve alone. Professional services are therefore
required.
Error messages generated by MS-DOS, BASIC or other
high-level applications:
These messages relate to problems due to incorrect use or malfunction of a high-level application under which you might run your
software. It is still advisable to contact your software dealer for assistance with such problems.
Consult your dealer if you have any questions about troubleshooting.
4
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
Examples of System Error Messages
System crash
The cursor cannot be moved and does not respond to the keyboard.
This could indicate a software crash. Mark where you are in your
document. Reboot your system and reload your software. Scroll the
cursor to where you last saved your data. Retype the information up
to where the cursor could not be moved. Enter the rest of the data. If
the cursor continues to function normally, the problem was probably
caused by accidently pressing the wrong key. If the problem occurs
again, go over the same procedure. If the problem persists, contact
your software dealer.
System does not boot
This can be caused by defective hardware or a faulty system disk.
Turn off your computer and try again. If unsuccessful, try using your
backup system disk because your working disk may be damaged. If
the problem persists, you might have a hardware problem. You should
contact the dealer from whom you purchased your computer.
Monitor displays garbled, unrecognizable Characters on the
screen
This usually indicates the monitor is set to an incorrect baud rate. Ask
your computer dealer the correct baud rate for the computer’s output
board. Locate the baud rate switches on your monitor and reset the
baud rate.
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
5
5-3 System BIOS Error Messages
ROM BIOS Checksum Error
- Indicates an invalid ROM BIOS failure.
8254 Error
- Indicates an 8254 timer controller failure.
8237 Error
- Indicates an 8237 DMA controller failure.
74612 Error
- Indicates a 74612 page register failure.
8259 Error
- Indicates an 8259 interrupt controller failure.
8742 Error
- Indicates an 8742 controller failure.
Check Battery
- Indicates a system backup battery disconnection or
power loss.
RTC Checksum Error
- Indicates that the system memory refresh function does
not work.
Refresh Indicator Error
- Indicates that the system memory refresh does not work.
Base 84K Memory Error
- Indicates that the system’s first 64K memory does not
work.
FDC Error User Check
- Indicates that the floppy diskette controller does not work.
FDD Seek Failure
- Indicates a failure of the floppy diskette drive “seek
operation.
6
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
Keyboard Error User Check
- Indicates the disconnection of the keyboard from the system or a keyboard device failure.
Parity Error but Segment not Found, Press any Key to Continue
- Indicates that the NMI circuit has detected a RAM parity
error.
System Memory Mismatch, Run SETUP
- Indicates a mismatch of memory size in the CMOS RAM
and onboard. You need to run the setup program.
Display Card Mismatch, Run SETUP
- Indicates a mismatch of a record in the CMOS RAM and
onboard. You need to run the setup program.
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
7
Appendix
Appendix
This chapter provides:
n
n
n
technical information
jumper settings in your system
information on moving your computer
This manual is not a technical reference manual; however,this chapter
provides some technical information about your system. If you need
more information, you can go to a technical library or bookstore to find
technical reference books.
Chapter 6: Appendix
1
6-1 Installing Disk Drives
Three 5.25” floppy/hard disk drives and two 3.5” floppy/hard disk drives
may be installed in the system unit. Installation of a hard disk is
essentially the same as that for a floppy disk.
You may at sometime want to add to or exchange your floppy or hard
disk drives. Follow the instructions below to do so.
Be certain to refer to the manuals for both the disk drive and the
controller card for any additional specific information regarding them
that may be of importance.
5.25” Disk Drives
To install or remove 5.25” disk drives, follow the steps below:
• Open the system unit case as described on Figure 2-16.
• Screw the metal guides to the disk drive as shown below:
Figure 6-1: Installing a 5.25” Disk Drive
Slide the back end of the disk drive first into the disk drive
bay.
2
Chapter 6: Appendix
• Screw the disk drive to the disk drive bay as shown below:
Figure 6-2: Screwing the 5.25” Disk Drives
• Next, connect the floppy/hard disk controller cable and one
of the four cables from the power supply. The power cable is
simple to connect: simply plug it in to the correct adapter.
The shape of the plug ensures that no mistakes will be
made. See the figures on the following pages.
Chapter 6: Appendix
3
Figure 6-3: Connecting a Floppy Disk Drive
Figure 6-4: Connecting a Floppy Disk Drive to an FDC Card
4
Chapter 6: Appendix
Figure 6-5: Connecting a Hard Disk Drive
Figure 6-6: Connecting a Hard Disk Drive to an HOC Card
Chapter 6: Appendix
5
• One edge of the ribbon cable is marked with a color line.
This specific line side of the connector should be at pin 1
when attached to the card. Pin 1 is clearly marked on the
card. See the figure below:
Figure 6-7: Cables for Disk Drives
Follow the same procedure for any additional drives you want to install.
Removal
To remove a drive, just reverse the procedure described above. Disconnect the cables, undo the screws and slide the drive out.
6
Chapter 6: Appendix
3.5” Disk Drives
The installation of a 3.5” disk drive is similar to that for a 5.25” disk
drive. Follow the steps below:
• Fasten the drive to the bracket as follows:
Figure 6-8: installing a 3.5” Disk Drive
Ž Place the disk drive inside the bay and fasten the bracket to
the chassis.
Refer to the figure on the next page.
Chapter 6: Appendix
7
Figure 6-9: Screwing the 3.5” Disk Drives
Connect the power cable and the hard disk controller cables. Note that
there is only one possible way to connect the power cable and hard
disk cables owing to the shape of the connectors, so it is impossible to
make a mistake.
The two hard disk controller cables are of different sizes: the red wires
on the cables should be connected so that they are toward the central
portion of the case.
Removal
To remove a 3.5” disk drive, reverse the procedure described above.
Disconnect the cables, undo the mounting screws, slide the drive out
and remove the mounting guides.
8
Chapter 6: Appendix
6-2 Entering 20MHz Turbo Mode
The main advantage of your mainboard over ordinary PC/AT mainboards is its dual clock system. This innovation makes it possible for
your computer to operate at either of two clock speeds: 10MHz or
20MHz.
Entering 20MHz Turbo Mode
Your system supports both a software and hardware switch to toggle
between 10MHz and 20MHz (Turbo) modes. The two switches are set
up using jumper J3 and are mutually exclusive. You must choose either
software or hardware if you are setting up the board yourself.
Software Turbo Switch
When jumper J3 is covered with a jumper cap or is connected to a
closed hardware Turbo switch, the speed can be toggled between
Turbo and Normal from the keyboard. The clock speed when you turn
the system on will be 10MHz (or 20MHz). To switch the speed to
20MHz (or l0MHz), do the following: press and hold down the control
<Ctrl> and alternate <Alt> keys on the keyboard while you press the
minus <-> key. The Turbo LED on your panel, if you have one, will light.
For more information on the Turbo LED, refer to the Connectors
section.
Hardware Turbo Switch
If your hardware Turbo switch is connected to pins one and two of
jumper J3, pushing the switch on and off will toggle between 10MHz
Normal mode and 20MHz Turbo mode.
Alternate Use of Both Switches
Both the hardware and the software switches may be used alternatively, but this is not advised because you may become confused about
the mode of operation. When using both switches alternatively, the
Turbo LED will be the only accurate indicator of the actual mode: the
LED will be on in Turbo mode and off in Normal mode.
Chapter 6: Appendix
9
6-3 Software
Your system supports shadow RAM and Expanded Memory System
(EMS) to increase the system memory capability.
Note that If you have more than one megabyte memory, you may
enable or disable the 384K memory as shadow RAM. The 384K is
always allocated at the same address for shadow RAM, even if you
disable the shadow RAM.
Important:
You can only enter the setup program by pressing <Esc> when the
power is just switched on. You may reset the system to enter the setup
program, too.
Shadow RAM Enable
For efficient execution of BIOS, it is preferable to run BIOS code
through RAM rather than through the slower EPROMs. Your system
can support shadow RAM for BIOS and video.
To enable shadow RAM, follow the steps below:
ž Hold down the <Esc> key to enter the setup program as you
turn the power on.
• Select item 6 to enter the NEAT Chip Setup Configuration
menu.
• Select item 1 to enable BIOS or video shadow RAM. (Refer
to the BIOS manual for details.)
EMS Driver Setup
The mainboard supports LIM 4.0 EMS. Toset up the EMS driver, follow
the steps below :
l
Hold down the <Esc> key to enter the setup program.
Choose item 6 to enter the NEAT Chip Setup Configuration
menu. From this menu, you may enable EMS and select
EMS size. (Refer to the BIOS manual for details.)
Note:
If you only have one megabyte onboard memory, you must disable the
shadow RAM function first in order to use 384K extended memory as
expanded memory.
10
Chapter 6: Appendix
• Insert the EMS driver diskette into drive A and enter a: .
•
Enter this command:
INSTALL
You will see the following screen.
• The next screen will be as below if you continue setup.
Indicate the path name where NEMM.SYS is to be located. If you want
the program to create a directory with the default name (NEMS) on
your hard drive, press the <Enter> key. Otherwise, type in the path and
directory name of your choice
Chapter 6: Appendix
11
• A screen like the following will appear.
Indicate two parameters for EMS-page register I/O base address and
frame start address.
• Choose the correct configuration as you desire, then press
<F1> to complete setup.
You will get a warning if you give an incorrect response. For example,
if you give D000H as your frame start segment, and shadow RAM in
the same area, the following message will appear.
12
Chapter 6: Appendix
• If the installation is complete, the following will appear:
• Reboot your system. The screen will look like this:
DTK NEAT Expanded Memory Manager Ver. 1.10 1990
(C) Copyright Datatech Enterprise Co.,Ltd
All Rights Reserved
# 11060790
User specified PAGE PORT = 208H
User specified PAGE FRAME = D000H
Test Expanded Memory Page 128
There are 128 PAGE S for EMS.
NEMM.SYS has been installed.
Chapter 6: Appendix
13
6-4 Quick Reference for Jumper Settings
W1 - W6 — Bank Selection
1 & 2 shorted — One or two RAM banks
2 & 3 shorted —Three or four RAM banks
W7 — ROM Selection
1& 2 shorted — 27256 chip selected
2 & 3 shorted — 27128 chip selected
W8 — Pipeline
1 & 2 shorted — Pipeline disable
2 & 3 shorted — Pipeline enable
W9 — 80387SX
1 & 2 shorted — Coprocessor enable
2 & 3 shorted — Coprocessor disable
W11 — Power Good Selection
1 & 2 shorted — Onboard
2 & 3 shorted — External
W12 — Display Mode
1 & 2 shorted — Mono
2 & 3 shorted — Color
W13 — Battery Selection
1 & 2 shorted — External
2 8 3 shorted — Onboard
14
Chapter 6: Appendix
J1 — CPU Frequency indicator
J2 — Keylock & Power LED
J3 — Turbo Switch
J4 — Speaker
J5 — Turbo LED
J6 — Hardware Reset
J7 — External Battery Connector
J8 — Keyboard Connector
J9 — Power Connector
Chapter 6: Appendix
15
6-5 Moving Your Computer and Peripherals
Your personal computer and its peripheral components are highly
sensitive machines that can be damaged easily through bad shipping
and handling. We recommend that you take the following steps before
moving the equipment to another location.
Short Move
An example of this is moving from one location to another in the same
building. Ensure that you have taken the following steps before
moving any items:
• Be sure that all data in your hard disk is backed up onto floppy disks.
• Enter the DOS system program and invoke the PARK command. This command will lock up your hard disk to protect it
from damage while the computer is being moved.
• Turn off all power switches.
• Insert the cardboard diskette(s) supplied with the system
unit into the disk drive(s) and close the disk drive levers.
• Detach all cables and cords. Next, coil and tie them to
protect the connectors.
•
Move each item separately.
Long Move
This kind of move involves use of a motor or a vehicle to carry your
computer and its peripherals from one location to another. Before
moving any items, follow the instructions stated above. Next, repack
all items in their original packing cases.
16
Chapter 6: Appendix
6-6 Technical information
Microprocessor
The 80386SX is a high-performance microprocessor with a 16-bit
external data path, up to 16 megabytes of directly addressable physical memory and up to 64 terabytes of virtual memory space. The
operating speed of the 80386SX chip is 10MHz in Normal mode and
20MHz in Turbo mode.
The 80386SX operates in two modes: protected virtual address mode
and real address mode.
Protected Virtual Address Mode
In protected mode, software can perform a task switch to enter virtual
8086 mode tasks. Each task behaves with 8086 semantics, thus
allowing 8086 software (an application program or an entire operation
system) to execute. The virtual 8086 tasks can be isolated and
protected from one another and the host 386SX microprocessor operation system by use of paging.
Protected mode will use one of two different address spaces, depending on whether or not paging is enabled. Every selector has a logical
base address of up to 32 bits in length. This 32-bit logical base address
is added to the effective address to form a final 32-bit linear address.
If paging is disabled, this final linear address reflects physical memory
and is truncated so that only the lower 24 bits of this address are used
to address the 16 megabyte memory address space. if paging is
enabled this final linear address reflects a 32-bit address. This is
translated through the paging unit to form a 16-megabyte physical
address.
Chapter 6: Appendix
17
Real Address Mode
In real mode the 386SX microprocessor operates as a very fast 8086,
but with a 32-bit extension if desired. Real mode is required primarily
to set up the processor for protected mode operation.
The segmentation unit shifts the selector left four bits and adds the
result to the effective address to form the linear address. This linear
address is limited to 1 megabyte. In addition, real mode has no paging
capability.
System Timers
The system has three programmable timer/counters controlled by the
Intel 8254-2 chip. These are channels 0 through 2 defined as follows:
Table 6 -1: Channel 0
Table 6-2: Channel 1
NOTE: Channel 1 is programmed to generate a 15 microsecond
signal.
Table 6-3: Channel 2
18
Chapter 6: Appendix
The 8254-2 timer/counter is treated by system programs as an arrangement of four programmable external I/O ports. Three are treated as
counters; the fourth is a control register for mode programming.
System interrupts
Si xteen levels of system interrupts are provided by the 80386SX NMI
and two 8259A interrupt controller chips. The following shows the
interrupt-level assignments’ decreasing priority:
Table 6-4: Interrupt Level Assignment
Chapter 6: Appendix
19
ROM Subsystem
The ROM subsystem has a 32K by 16-bit arrangement consisting of
two 32K by 8-bit ROM/EPROM modules. The odd and even address
codes reside in separate modules. The top of the first megabyte and
the bottom of the last megabyte address space is assigned to ROM
(hex OF0000 and hex FF0000). Parity checking is not done on ROM.
BIOS has been provided in this subsystem.
RAM Subsystem
The RAM subsystem starts at address hex 000000 of the 16M address
space. It consists of either 640KB or 1MB in the form of 256K or 64K
by l-bit RAM modules. Memory refresh forces one memory cycle
every 15 microseconds through channel 1 of the timer/counter. The
following functions are performed by the RAM initialization program:
• Write operation to any memory location.
• Initialization of channel 1 of the timer/counter to the rate
generation mode (15 microseconds).
Note:
Memory can be used only after being accessed or refreshed eight
times,
20
Chapter 6: Appendix
Direct Memory Access
Eight DMA channels are supported by the system. Two Intel 8237-5
DMA controller chips (four channels in each chip) are used to provide
eight DMA channels. The DMA channels are assigned as follows:
Table 6-5: DMA Channels
DMA Channel
Channels 0 through 3 are contained in DMA controller 1. Transfers of
8-bit data, 8-bit I/O adapters and 8-bit or 16-bit system memory are
supported by these channels. Each of these channels will transfer in
64KB blocks throughout the 16-megabyte system address space.
Channels 4 through 7 are contained in DMA controller 2. To cascade
channels 0 through 3 to the microprocessor, use channel 4. Transfers
of 16-bit data between 16-bit adapters and 16-bit system memory are
supported by channels 5, 6 and 7. DMA channels 5 through 7 will
transfer data in 128KB blocks throughout the 16-megabyte system
address space. These channels will not transfer data on odd-byte
boundaries.
Chapter 6: Appendix
21
The addresses for the page register are as follows:
Page Register
I/O Hex Address
DMA Channel 0
0087
DMA Channel 1
0083
DMA Channel 2
0081
DMA Channel 3
0082
DMA Channel 5
0088
DMA Channel 6
0089
DMA Channel 7
008A
Refresh
008F
Table 6-6: I/O Hex Address
Address generation for the DMA channels is as follows:
Table 6-7: DMA Channel 3 Through 0
Note: To generate the addressing signal “byte high enable” (BHE),
invert address line AO.
Table 6-8: DMA Channels 7 Through 5
Note: The BHE and A0 addressing signals are forced to a logical 0.
DMA channel addresses do not increase or decrease through page
boundaries 64KB for channels 0 through 3 and 128KB for channels 5
through 7.
22
Chapter 6: Appendix
I/O Channel Slots
The I/O channel supports:
• Refresh of system memory from channel or microprocessors
• Selection of data accesses (either 8- or 16-bit)
• Interrupts
•
24-bit memory addresses (16MB)
•
I/O wait-state generation
• I/O address space hex 100 to hex 3FF
• Open-bus structure (allowing multiple micro-processors to
share the system’s resources, including memory)
•
DMA channels
The pinouts of the expansion bus I/O channels are shown as below
and on the next page.
B
A
Figure 6-10: 62-Pin Expansion Bus l/O Channels
Chapter 6: Appendix
23
D
C
Figure 6-11: 36-Pin Expansion Bus I/O Channels
Math Coprocessor Control
The math coprocessor functions as an I/O device through I/O port
addresses hex 0F8, 0FA and 0FC. The microprocessor sends OP
codes and operands to I/O ports. The microprocessor also receives
and stores results through the same I/O ports. The “busy” signal sent
by the processor forces the microprocessor to wait until the coprocessor is finished executing.
The following describes the math coprocessor controls:
OF0
The latched math coprocessor busy signal can be cleared with an 8-bit
“out” command to port F0. The coprocessor will latch “busy” if it asserts
its error signal. Data output should be zero.
OF1
The math coprocessor will reset if an 8-bit “out” command is sent to
port F1. Again, the data output should be zero.
24
Chapter 6: Appendix
Chapter 7
Glossary
Glossary
Some of the terms you will come across frequently in this manual are
defined here.
add-on card
- This card connects through expansion slots to the
motherboard. Also known as an adapter, an expansion
card or an interface card, this is used to increase the
capabilities of your computer.
address
- This is a value that is given to specific memory locations
so that data can be read or written, Make sure that
devices do not have the same address. Otherwise, there
will be an address conflict,
ASCII
- This is an acronym for the American Standard Code for
Information Interchange. The ASCII code includes both
control and graphic characters, and is used for exchanging information between data-processing systems, datacommunication systems and related equipment.
asynchronous communication
- A type of information vehicle whereby data can be transmitted at any time without requiring synchronized timing.
back up (v)
- To make a spare copy of a disk or of a file.
backup (n)
- A copy of a disk or file.
bank
- The area on a printed circuit board for RAM chips is
usually divided into rows. These are called banks.
Chapter 7: Glossary
1
BIOS
- This stands for Basic Input Output System, BIOS controls the real-time clock and disk drives as well as the
computer’s peripheral equipment.
bit
- This is a binary data digit, either 1 or 0. 1 or 0 represents
a single unit of data.
boot
- This means to turn on the power switch and load the
operating system (DOS) into the computer so that it is
ready to accept software applications.
bus
- This is a set of lines that transmit signals/information between the components within the computer. If the I/O
channel is 32-bit, this means the data travels at least
twice as fast as data on a 16-bit data bus.
byte
- A group of data units forming a single unit of data. There
are eight bits in a single byte.
clock (processing) speed
- This measurement, usually given in MHz (megahertz)
tells how fast the microprocessor in your computer handles data. The higher the number, the faster your computer.
CPU
- Central Processing Unit. Also known as a microprocessor. This chip processes all the instructions in the computer.
computer
- An electronic device that can receive, store and transmit
data, and process arithmetic or logic operations.
cursor
- The blinking, moving spot of light that marks the active
place on the monitor.
2
Chapter 7: Glossary
data
- Any kind of information. However, this word is generally
used to describe computer-related information.
debug
- A method for correcting computer errors.
default
- This is an existing setting in a computer.
DIP
- This is an acronym for Dual In-line Package, which is a
method for packaging integrated circuits.
directory
- A directory works like a desk drawer to keep files. It
contains not only your files but also the information on the
size of the file and the dates they were created and updated. It is always good to organize all the related files in
the same directory.
diskette
- This refers to removable data storage disks, sometimes
also called floppies or floppy disks. Diskettes generally
come in two sizes: 5.25” and 3.5”.
disk drive
- A device that stores and retrieves data.
display
- The information/graphics visible on the monitor screen.
DOS
- Disk Operating System. This is a set of commands is
used to control the operations of a computer and its
peripheral components.
DRAM
- Dynamic Random Access Memory. This type of RAM
chip differs from Static Random Access Memory (SRAM).
Chapter 7: Glossary
3
driver
- A program that lets a peripheral device and a computer
function harmoniously; a hard disk driver controls exchanges between a hard disk and a computer.
expansion slot
- This is a slots in which adapters and/or cards can be
housed.
file
- A file is a collection of related information/data you store
on a diskette or a hard disk drive.
filename
- Each file on a disk has a name. This name has two
parts: a filename and an extension. In DOS, filenames
are from one to eight characters long. An extension
starts with a period, has three characters and follows
immediately after the filename.
fixed or hard disk
- This is a non-removable disk used for storage of large
volumes of data.
format
- The arrangement of data on a magnetic disk. Format
also means to prepare a disk.
hardware
- All physical components of a computer.
Hz
- Hertz. This signifies one complete cycle of a wave signal.
I/O
- Input/Output. The transfer of data between the computer
and its peripheral components.
IC
- Integrated Circuit.
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Chapter 7: Glossary
interface
- A means for electronic machines to communicate. Interface also means to communicate with a computer and its
peripheral components.
kilobyte (KB)
- A single data unit that is composed of 1024 bytes.
math coprocessor
- A math coprocessor lets you do arithmetic and calculations more efficient.
megabyte (MB)
- A single data unit that is composed of 1,048,576 bytes.
memory address
- A hexadecimal or decimal value given to a memory location.
microprocessor
- This is an integrated circuit that receives coded instructions for execution. It is also referred to as a CPU.
modem
- A modem lets your computer communicate with other
computers over telephone lines.
motherboard
- It is the main printed circuit board in the system case. It
is also known as a mainboard or systemboard.
MS-DOS
- The Microsoft Disk Operating System. This is the most
popular operating system for IBM PCs and compatibles.
network
- A network lets everyone in your group communicate with
one another or share the cost of high-performance
resources.
Chapter 7: Glossary
5
ns
- Nanoseconds. This is a unit of time measurement for
processing speed.
operating system
- This is software that controls the execution of programs.
output
- Any information or bits of data that are channeled from
one electronic device to another.
partition
- A disk drive can be divided into several logical sections or
partitions, each of which becomes a logical device with a
drive letter.
peripheral
- Output devices which are driven by the computer.
port
- A communication channel between a computer and its
peripheral components.
printed circuit board
- An electronic circuit board sandwiched between
fiberglass plates.
program
- A series of instructions that command the computer to
perform certain tasks.
prompt
- A screen message or position of the cursor at the beginning of a line.
RAM
- Random Access Memory; read/write memory.
The
memory in a computer while it is activated. When the
power is turned off, this type of memory is cleared.
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Chapter 7: Glossary
ROM
- Read Only Memory. This is data that is stored on an IC in
the computer.
RS-232
- RS232 is a standardized communications interface between data communication equipment and your computer.
setup
- This section guides you through the preparations you’ll
need to make before operating your computer. If this is
your first computer, you’re advised to read this section
carefully. Although this system has been designed to be
as foolproof as an ordinary television set, a careful reading of this section will help you to ensure the long life and
troublefree operation of your computer.
software
- Computer programs such as a word processor, operating
system or programming languages.
synchronous transmission
- Syncopated transmission of signals between devices.
Turbo
- High-speed.
virtual disk
- Also referred to as a RAM disk, this is a portion of
memory used to simulate a hard disk.
wait state
- Wait states are pauses. Zero wait state means there are
no pauses when the contents of the memory chips are
being read.
window
- An independent screen that can be invoked onto the
monitor and in which data can be viewed, altered or
stored.
Chapter 7: Glossary
7
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