Epson | Apex+ | User's Manual | Epson Apex+ User's Manual

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Apex by Epson User’s Guide
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IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express or
implied, by or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable
for any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular
purpose or for any indirect, special, or consequential damages. Some states do
not allow the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so this
exclusion may not apply to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of Epson America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed
with respect to the use of information contained herein. While every
precaution has been taken in the preparation of this publication, Epson
America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability
assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained
herein. Further, this publication and features described herein are subject to
change without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Apex is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer Technology, Inc.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
Kraft is a registered trademark of Kraft Systems, Inc.
MS-DOS, GW-BASIC, and Microsoft are registered trademarks of
Microsoft Corp.
XTREE is a registered trademark of Executive Systems, Inc.
Copyright © 1988 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California
ii
(250188021
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT
FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not
installed and used properly, that is, in strict accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions, may cause interference to radio and television
reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a
Class B computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart J
of Part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection
against such interference in a residential installation. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause interference to radio and television reception, which
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, you are encouraged
to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
l Reorient the receiving antenna
l
Relocate the computer with respect to the receiver
l Move the computer away from the receiver
l
Plug the computer into a different outlet so that the computer and
receiver are on different branch circuits.
If necessary, consult your dealer or an experienced radio/television
technician for additional suggestions. You may find the following booklet
prepared by the Federal Communications Commission helpful:
“Television interference Handbook”
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington DC 20402. Stock No. 004-000-00450-7
Note:
If the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or
its peripheral devices. To further isolate the problem:
Disconnect the peripheral devices and their input/output cables one
at a time. If the interference stops, it is caused by either the
peripheral device or its I/O cable. These devices usually require
shielded l/O cables. For Epson peripheral devices, you can obtain
the proper shielded cable from your dealer. For non-Epson peripheral devices contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance.
WARNING:
This equipment has been certified to comply with the limits for a Class B
computer device, pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules. Only
peripherals (computer input/output devices, terminals, printers, etc.)
certified to comply with the Class B limits may be attached to this
computer. Operation with non-certified peripherals is likely to result in
interference to radio and TV reception.
The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to this
equipment will invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may
cause interference levels that exceed the limits established by the FCC for
this equipment.
iii
iv
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Get Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
3
4
Chapter 1
Setting Up your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
l Unpacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Removing the disk drive protector cards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
2 Choosing a Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Arranging the components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
The front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
The back panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
3 Connecting the Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
4 Connecting the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
5 Connecting a Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Parallel interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 13
Serial interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
6 Connecting the Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
7 Turning On the Computer and Loading MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Safety rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
System startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Initial screen display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Loading MS-DOS on the Apex Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
The command prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
8 Copying System Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Copying diskettes on the Apex Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Copying diskettes on the Apex Plus 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24
9 Setting the Real Time Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Contents v
Chapter 2
Using Your Apex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Special Keys on the Apex Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Selecting Execution Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Stopping a Command or Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Resetting the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Turning Off the Computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Using Diskettes and Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
How diskettes work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Choosing diskettes for the Apex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Caring for your diskettes and diskette drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Inserting and removing diskettes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Write-protecting diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Making backup copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Using Your Hard Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Using a single diskette drive system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Preparing the hard disk for moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Chapter 3
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introducing MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting and Exiting MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Default Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering MS-DOS Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naming a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Using Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using pathnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other directory commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying from one directory to another. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying a list of directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting diskettes with an Apex Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting diskettes with an Apex Plus 20 . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
Contents
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-13
3-13
3-14
Copying Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Using the DISKCOPY command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Using DISKCOPY with an Apex Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Using DISKCOPY with an Apex Plus 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Using the COPY command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Using the BACKUP command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
The HELP Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Messares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
The XTREE Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
What XTREE does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Using XTREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
3-28
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting your Application Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32
Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32
Creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33
Chapter 4
Installing Option Cards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4-2
Removing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting the Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Replacing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Post-installation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Removing Option Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Chapter 5
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Fails to Start Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Video Display Does Not Appear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Locks Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Card Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expanding Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-8
Cnntents vii
Appendixes
Appendix A
Setting the DIP Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch 1 (serial port) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch 2 (parallel port) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switches 3 and 4 (monitor and adapter type). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-3
Appendix B
Preparing a Hard Disk for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using HDFMTALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting and checking options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conditional format (normal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unconditional format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destructive surface analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-destructive surface analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using FDISK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SELECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finishing Your Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-4
B-7
B-9
B-10
B-11
B-13
B-14
Appendix C
Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Main Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-1
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Mass Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Physical Characteristics (CPU Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Video and Display Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
Other Apex Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary 1
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 1
viii Contents
Introduction
TM
®
Your Apex by Epson personal computer comes in two versions: the Apex Plus with two 360 KB (kilobyte) diskette drives,
and the Apex Plus 20 with one 360 KB diskette drive and one
20 MB (megabyte) hard disk drive.
Both versions have 512 KB of internal memory, called random
access memory or RAM. RAM determines the size of software
programs you can run and the data files you can create. With
512 KB of RAM, you can run most large programs and create
large data files.
Most software programs expect a computer to have two diskette
drives, one for the program diskette and one for a data diskette.
The Apex Plus provides two diskette drives so you do not have
to spend time switching diskettes. The Apex Plus 20 hard disk
drive and diskette drive provide the same convenience and let
you take advantage of the hard disk’s large storage capacity and
faster performance.
Depending on your needs, you can use either a TTL monochrome monitor or an RGB (red-green-blue) color graphics
monitor with your computer. The Apex monochrome monitor
is a good choice if you are using word processing and spreadsheet programs. The Apex color monitor is an excellent choice
if you use software designed for color graphics.
Your Apex comes with a multi-graphics adapter (MGA) card so
you can display color or monochrome graphics on your monitor.
The card is already installed in one of the five option slots in the
computer. The MGA card also includes a game port so you can
easily connect a joystick to your computer. You can replace the
MGA card to use another type of monitor, such as an enhanced
graphics adapter (EGA) monitor or a video graphics array
(VGA) monitor.
Introduction 1
Your Apex includes built-in parallel and serial interfaces that let
you connect almost any peripheral device to the computer. A
peripheral device is one that you attach to your computer, such
as a printer, mouse, or modem. You can use the parallel interface
to connect an Epson printer or plotter or any other parallel
printer. You can use the serial interface to connect a serial
printer or a mouse.
Your computer comes with version 3.2 of the MS-DOS’ disk
operating system and the GW-BASIC® programming language.
An operating system controls how programs run on the computer and supervises all input and output. MS-DOS is one of
the most commonly used operating systems. It supports most
popular software programs available, including those designed
for the IBM” personal computer.
GW-BASIC is simple to learn and provides advanced features
for the experienced programmer.
If you have used MS-DOS or GW-BASIC before, you’ll find
these programs work the same way on the Apex. Check
your Apex MS-DOS or GW-BASIC reference manuals for
descriptions of special features added by Epson.
You can add more devices by installing an option curd in one of
the computer’s five option slots. An option card is an installable
circuit board containing a device, such as a modem, or providing an additional interface to connect other devices. You can
use most of the option cards designed for the IBM PC on your
Apex.
You can also install an optional 8087 math coprocessor to speed
up the computer’s ability to perform calculations. You may want
to add a coprocessor if you frequently use your computer for
spreadsheet or other calculation-intensive applications.
2 Introduction
How to Use This Manual
This manual describes how to set up and care for your computer.
It also introduces the basics of using MS-DOS and shows you
how to install option cards so you can connect optional devices.
You may not need to read everything in this manual; some
sections may describe a particular option or accessory you don’t
have.
The information in this manual applies to both the Apex Plus
and the Apex Plus 20 computers unless indicated otherwise.
Chapter 1 provides instructions on setting up and using
your Apex computer.
Chapter 2 describes general operating procedures for
using the computer.
Chapter 3 explains how to use MS-DOS with your Apex.
It also introduces the XTREE® utility provided by Epson
and describes how you can use XTREE to perform many
file operations.
Chapter 4 provides the steps for installing option cards.
Chapter 5 contains troubleshooting information and a
question and answer section about expanding your system.
Appendix A shows how to change the DIP switch
settings in your computer. You can use DIP switches to set
or change the configuration of your system. You do not
need to change the DIP switches unless you add or remove
hardware from your system.
Introduction 3
Appendix B describes how to prepare an unformatted
hard disk for use.
Appendix C lists the hardware specifications, operating
requirements, and options of your computer.
The glossary defines the computer terms used in this
manual.
Where to Get Help
For warranty repairs and technical assistance for your Apex
computer, call toll-free 1-800-922-8911 (24 hours a day, seven
days a week) for the location of your nearest Epson Customer
Care Center.
To purchase accessories such as printer ribbons and option
cards, check with the store where you purchased your computer
or call toll-free 1-800-922-891 1 for the location of your nearest
Epson Customer Care Center.
4 Introduction
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Apex personal computer is easy - just follow
the steps in this chapter and you’ll be on your way. You can also
check the “Read This First” sheet included with your computer.
1 Unpacking
Inspect each component as you remove it from its carton. If you
discover any missing or damaged items, contact the place of
purchase to obtain the missing items or an exchange. If you are
unable to obtain an exchange, please call 1-800-922-891 1 for
the location of your nearest Authorized Epson Customer Care
Center. When you call, please have the serial number of your
computer available.
Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the best
possible protection for your computer if you need to move or
ship it later. When you unpack your Apex, you’ll find the
following:
The main unit and power cord
The keyboard with an attached cable
An MS-DOS operating system diskette (version 3.2)
A diskette containing supplemental MS-DOS utilities, the
GW-BASIC programming language (version 3.2), and the
XTREE utility
An MS-DOS reference manual and a GW-BASIC
reference manual.
Setting Up Your System
1-1
You’ll also find a registration card with your Apex; fill out this
card now and mail it to Epson. With this registration card on
file, Epson can send you update information.
Removing the disk drive protector cards
A protector card occupies each diskette drive in your computer.
This card is inserted at the factory to protect the disk drive
heads that read from and write to diskettes,
Be sure to remove the card from each diskette drive before you
turn on the computer. Turn the latch that covers the disk slot
until it is horizontal and carefully pull out the card.
1-2 Setting Up Your System
Save these cards to use whenever you move the computer. Also,
if you don’t intend to use your computer for a week or more,
insert the cards to help prevent dust from entering the drives.
2 Choosing a Location
Before you set up your Apex, it’s important to choose the right
location. Make sure it provides the following:
A large, sturdy area and surface, such as a desk or table,
that can easily support the weight of your Apex and all its
components.
A flat, hard surface. Don’t set the Apex on a soft surface
like a bed or a carpeted floor. Soft surfaces attract static
electricity, which may erase data on your diskettes and
damage the computer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces can also
prevent proper ventilation.
Good air circulation. Your Apex needs air to circulate freely
under it as well as behind it. Leave several inches of space
around the computer for proper ventilation.
Moderate environmental conditions. Avoid extremes in
temperature and humidity; also avoid direct sunlight or
other heat sources. High humidity also hinders operation, so
it’s best to select a cool, dry area for operation. Dust and
smoke, which can cause damage to diskettes and disk drives,
could cause you to lose valuable data.
Appropriate power sources. Static charges can be damaging.
Connect all equipment to three-prong, 120-volt, grounded
outlets. You need at least three outlets, one for the main
unit, one for the monitor, and one for your printer. If you
need more outlets, you may want to buy a power strip.
Available at any electronics store, a power strip provides
four to eight additional outlets. A power strip with surge
suppression is recommended.
Setting Up Your System
1-3
No electromagnetic interference. Choose a spot for your
computer away from any device that generates an electromagnetic field (like a telephone).
Arranging the components
Decide how you want to arrange your system components. The
illustration below shows a typical setup. The monitor is on top of
the main unit and the keyboard is directly in front. This leaves
enough space for you to insert diskettes into the disk drives.
If you have special computer furniture, you can arrange your
Apex components to suit your own particular needs.
Before you begin to connect the cables, take a look at the front
and back panels of the main unit.
1-4 Setting Up Your System
The front panel
On the front panel you see the power light, the power switch,
and the keyboard cable socket. If you are using an Apex Plus,
your computer has two diskette drives. If you are using an
Apex Plus 20, your computer has one diskette drive and one
hard disk drive.
Here’s how the front panel components work:
Power switch. Press this switch to turn the main unit on
and off.
Power light. This light is on when the power is on. Your
Apex computer can operate at two different speeds. The
light is orange when the system is running at 4.77MHz
(megahertz). The light is green when the system is running
at 9.54MHz. Do not change the operating speed while you
are running a program. See Chapter 2 for more information.
Keyboard cable socket. Use this socket to plug the keyboard
into the computer.
Setting Up Your System
1-5
Diskette drives. In the Apex Plus, both the top and bottom
diskette drives use 5 l/4-inch, 360 KB diskettes. In the
Apex Plus 20, the diskette drive also uses 5 l/4-inch,
360 KB diskettes.
Disk lock/release latch. After you insert a diskette, turn this
latch down until it is vertical. To remove a diskette, turn it
up until it is horizontal.
Diskette drive light. This green light is on when the drive is
in use. To avoid losing data, never remove a diskette or turn
off the computer’s power when this light is on.
Hard disk drive. In the Apex Plus 20 (shown below), the
hard disk drive is the bottom drive. The green light on the
hard disk drive panel is on whenever the computer is
writing to or reading from the drive.
1-6 Setting UP Your System
The back panel
Take a look at the back panel and note the power inlet,
the universal power supply, the DIP switches, the built-in
input/output ports, and the option card access slots.
WARNING
Do not connect the power cord until you have connected the
printer and any other optional devices. Always check to see that
the power switch is off before you connect or disconnect the
printer.
The back panel components are:
AC input. This inlet supplies electrical power to your
computer when you plug in the power cord. Always turn
the power switch off before you plug the power cord from
this inlet into an electrical outlet.
DIP switches. These switches give the computer information about its video card type, and parallel and serial
interfaces. The switches are preset to match your system
Setting Up Your System
1-7
configuration. Do not change them unless you are adding
option cards that require different settings. Appendix A
describes how to set these switches if you change your
system configuration.
Parallel port. Lets you connect any printer or plotter with a
parallel interface.
Serial port. Lets you connect any serial device, such as a
serial printer or a mouse.
Option card access slots. The Apex has space for five option
cards to control any peripheral devices you add. The
multi-graphics adapter (MGA) card, which allows you to
use either a monochrome or color monitor, occupies one of
these slots. If you have an Apex Plus 20, the hard disk
controller card occupies another slot. You can use the other
slots to add special devices, such as an internal modem, to
your Apex system.
Monitor port. Lets you connect an RGB color graphics
monitor or a TTL monochrome monitor.
Color/mono switch. Set this switch to color or mono,
depending on the type of monitor you are using.
Game port. Lets you connect a joystick, track ball, or other
pointing device.
1-8 Setting Up Your System
3
Connecting the Monitor
It is easiest to connect the monitor cable if the backs of the
monitor and the main unit are facing you.
Your Apex comes with an installed multi-graphics adapter
(MGA) card. You can connect an RGB color graphics monitor
or a TTL monochrome monitor to the port on this card.
The way you connect your monitor depends on the type you
have, so check your monitor manual for instructions, or follow
these guidelines:
1.
If necessary, connect the monitor cable to your monitor.
Some monitors have permanently attached cables.
2.
Connect the monitor cable to the connector at the back
of the main unit.
Setting Up Your System
1-9
3.
Tighten the screws (if any) on the plug with a screwdriver.
4.
Plug the monitor’s power cable into an electrical outlet.
5.
Set the color/mono switch on the back panel for the type of
monitor you are using.
1-10 Setting Up Your System
6.
Make sure the DIP switch settings are correct for the type
of monitor you are using. The Apex computer is set at the
factory to 80x25 color, for a color graphics monitor. If
you are connecting a monochrome monitor, you need to
change the DIP switch settings. See Appendix A for more
information.
If you are using a monitor other than a color graphics or
TTL monochrome unit, you’ll need to install another video
card in your computer. See Chapter 4, “Installing Option
Cards,” for instructions. You’ll also need to check the DIP
switch settings (defined in Appendix A) to be sure they are
set correctly for the type of video card you are installing.
Setting Up Your System
1-11
4
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:
1.
Insert the keyboard connector into the keyboard socket
on the front panel of your Apex.
Do not force the connector, but make sure you completely
insert it.
2.
If you would like to adjust the angle of the keyboard, turn
the keyboard over and lift each leg upward until it locks
into place.
1-12 Setting Up Your System
You can lock each leg in a 15 degree position or an 11
degree position. To lock a leg into the 11 degree position,
lift up the entire leg and then push the portion marked
15” back until it snaps into the keyboard.
5
Connecting a Printer
Follow the steps in this section to connect your printer to either
the parallel or serial interface.
Parallel interface
Your Apex computer has a parallel interface to which you can
connect a printer. Of course, Epson offers a full range of printer
products for you to choose from. Check with the store where
you purchased your computer or call 1-800-922-891 1 for the location of your nearest Authorized Epson Dealer.
To connect a printer to your Apex, make sure you have an IBM
PC-compatible printer cable. Then follow these steps to connect
your printer to the parallel interface on the main unit:
1.
Place the printer next to your system.
2.
Before you connect the printer, make sure the power
switches on the main unit, monitor, and printer
are off.
Setting Up Your System
1-13
3.
Connect the printer cable connector to the parallel port
on the back panel of the main unit. If the connector has
retaining screws, tighten them with a small screwdriver.
4.
Connect the other cable connector to the printer. Secure
the cable by pressing together the squeeze locks from the
printer port and pushing them into each side of the
connector.
5.
Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet.
1-14 Setting Up Your System
Serial interface
If you have a printer (or another peripheral such as a modem)
with a serial interface, connect it to the serial (RS-232C) port
on the back panel. The Apex uses a DB-25P connector, so be
sure you have an XT-compatible cable. To connect a serial
device, follow the same steps as for connecting a parallel
printer.
You need to ensure the serial port is set up so it functions
properly. If you are using the port for a serial printer, you must
also redirect printer output to the serial instead of the parallel
port. Use the MS-DOS SETMODE program (or the MODE
command) to make these changes. See your MS-DOS reference
manual for instructions.
6
Connecting the Power Cord
To avoid an electric shock, first insert the power cord into the
AC input connector on the back panel as shown below, then
plug the other end into the wall socket.
Setting Up Your System
1-15
7
Turning On the Computer and
Loading MS-DOS
Before you turn on the computer, be sure to read the safety rules.
Safety rules
Follow these rules to avoid accidentally damaging your computer or
injuring yourself:
Never turn the computer on with a disk drive protector
card in the disk drive.
Do not attempt to dismantle any part of the computer.
If there is a hardware problem you cannot solve after
reading Chapter 5 on troubleshooting, contact your
Authorized Epson Customer Care Center.
Do not unplug cables from the computer while the power
switch is on.
Never turn off or reset the computer when any disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on a disk or make
an entire diskette unusable.
Always wait at least five seconds after you switch the
power off before switching it on again. Turning the power
off and on rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
Never leave a beverage on top of or next to your Apex or
any of its components. Spilled liquid damages the circuitry
of your components.
To install or remove an option card, always turn off the
power, disconnect the main power cord, and wait for a
minute before removing the cover from the computer.
(Installing option cards is described in Chapter 4.)
1-16 Setting Up Your System
System startup
Now you’re ready to turn on your Apex. Follow these steps:
1.
Make sure one end of the power cord is securely plugged
into the power inlet (AC input) on the back panel of the
main unit and the other end is plugged into a 3-prong,
120-volt, grounded electrical outlet.
2.
Turn on the monitor so you can see messages that appear
as your computer starts up. If you have a printer, turn it
on.
3.
You can turn on your computer with or without a system
diskette in the top disk drive, but for now, leave the drive
empty. Press the power switch on.
The power indicator on the front panel lights up and the
cooling fan inside the main unit starts. After a few seconds, the
computer begins to perform a power-on self test.
Setting Up Your System
1-17
Initial screen display
Before the self test begins, a message similar to this displays:
Phoenix 8088 ROM BIOS Ver. 1.00
Copyright (c) 1984, 1985, 1987
Phoenix Technologies Ltd
All Rights Reserved.
Then the computer immediately begins to test the memory. The
Apex computer checks each kilobyte of memory twice, counting
from 0 to 512 and then starting over again. It displays this
message as it performs the test:
RAM Testing . . . XXXKB
The test takes about 45 seconds to complete. You can skip the
memory test by pressing the space bar after you turn on the
computer.
NOTE
If you can’t see the screen display clearly, make sure the power
light is on. Then use the controls on your monitor to adjust the
brightness and contrast until characters on the screen are clear
and bright.
If you have an Apex Plus, the following messages display:
Non.-system disk or disk error
Insert system diskette in drive A
and strike any key when ready
These messages tell you that the computer is ready to load an
operating system from a diskette in the top drive. The Apex Plus
comes with MS-DOS version 3.2. Continue with the section
called “Loading MS-DOS on the Apex Plus.”
1-18 Setting Up Your System
If you have an Apex Plus 20, your computer automatically loads
MS-DOS version 3.2 from the hard disk drive. The MS-DOS
command prompt C> displays. Continue with the section called
“The command prompt.”
Loading MS-DOS on the Apex Plus
Before you can use a software program designed to run on the
MS-DOS operating system, MS-DOS must be running in the
computer’s memory (this is also called booting the system).
Once MS-DOS is loaded, you can give instructions to the
computer and begin to use various software programs.
Follow these steps to load MS-DOS on the Apex Plus:
1.
Make sure the disk latch is in the horizontal position.
Hold the diskette with the label up and the notch to the
left as shown. Insert your MS-DOS system diskette
completely into the top drive.
Setting Up Your System
1-19
2.
Turn the latch down until it locks in the vertical position.
For a complete description of inserting diskettes, see
Chapter 2, “Using Diskettes and Diskette Drives.”
3.
Press any key to begin. Your computer begins loading
MS-DOS into memory.
If you did not insert your system diskette, or you inserted
another diskette by mistake, you see these messages:
Non-System disk or disk error
Insert system diskette in drive A:
and strike any key when ready
4.
In this case, insert your MS-DOS diskette, and press any
key to continue.
After MS-DOS is loaded, the operating system title and
version number display on the screen. Then you see the
date prompt, which appears every time you boot the
system:
Current date is
Enter new date:
1-20 Setting Up Your System
DDD mm-dd-yy
5.
You can enter the correct date or leave it unchanged by
pressing Enter. For now, press Enter to leave the date
unchanged.
6.
After accepting the date, MS-DOS displays the time
prompt:
Current time is hh:mm:ss
Enter new time:
You can enter the correct time or bypass the prompt by
pressing Enter. For now, press Enter to bypass the prompt.
The system now displays the MS-DOS command prompt,
A>, which is your starting point for putting MS-DOS to
work.
The command prompt
The command prompt tells you that MS-DOS is loaded and
your computer is ready to receive instructions. The command
prompt also identifies the current operating drive: A, B, or C.
It displays on the screen when you load MS-DOS, complete an
MS-DOS command, or return to MS-DOS from an application
program. If your current operating drive is A, it looks like this:
A>
On the Apex Plus system, the top drive is drive A and the
bottom drive is drive B. On the Apex Plus 20 system, the
diskette drive is drive A and the hard disk drive is drive C.
MS-DOS reserves the label B for a second diskette drive,
whether or not it is installed.
If you are using an Apex Plus 20 and you booted from the hard
disk; you’ll notice that your prompt is not the MS-DOS default
command prompt c>. Instead, your prompt looks like this:
c:\ >
Setting Up Your System 1-21
That’s because Epson changed the prompt by adding a command
in a file named AUTOEXEC.BAT. This file contains a series of
commands that your computer automatically runs when you
turn it on. One of these commands is PROMPT $P $G, which
modifies the prompt to display your directory location on the
disk. For simplicity, all of the examples in this manual show the
default command prompt, A> or C>.
For more information about the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, see
“Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT file” in Chapter 3, or see your
MS-DOS reference manual.
Before you continue, make a working copy of the diskette
containing the MS-DOS operating system and the diskette
containing GW-BASIC; then store the originals safely away.
8
Copying System Diskettes
Follow the steps below to make copies of your two system
diskettes. Use these working copies for daily use and store the
originals in a safe place.
The procedure for copying a diskette differs slightly depending
on whether you have an Apex Plus or an Apex Plus 20. Follow
the procedure below that applies to your system. In either case,
you will need two blank 5 1/4-inch, 360 KB double-sided,
double-density diskettes. Make sure the system diskettes are
write-protected to prevent accidental erasure (see “Writeprotecting diskettes” in Chapter 2).
Copying diskettes on the Apex Plus
1.
The A> prompt should be displayed on the screen. If it
is not, follow the steps in the previous section, “Loading
MS-DOS on the Apex Plus.”
1-22 Setting Up Your System
2. Type:
DISKCOPY A: B:
and press Enter. The screen displays these prompts:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Insert TARGET diskette in drive B:
Press any key when ready...
3.
Insert the MS-DOS system diskette you want to copy (the
source) into drive A.
4.
Insert a blank 5 l/4-inch, 360 KB diskette (the target) in
drive B, the bottom disk drive, and close the diskette drive
latch.
5.
Press any key to begin the copy process. If the diskette in
drive B is not formatted, the DISKCOPY program formats
it. Then the program copies the data from drive A to the
formatted diskette in drive B.
When the copy is complete, the screen displays the
following prompt:
Copy another diskette? (Y/N)
6.
Press Y so you can make a copy of the diskette containing
GW-BASIC. Remove the diskettes from drives A and B
(turn the latch on each drive to remove the diskette).
Then insert the GW-BASIC diskette in drive A and
another blank diskette in drive B. Follow the prompts to
copy this system diskette.
When the copy is complete, this prompt displays again:
Copy another diskette? (Y/N)
Setting Up Your System
1-23
7.
Press N to return to the MS-DOS command prompt.
8.
Store the original system diskettes in a safe place.
9.
Properly label the working copies you just created.
Copying diskettes on the Apex Plus 20
1.
The C> prompt should be displayed on the screen. If it is
not, type C : and press Enter.
2. Type:
DISKCOPY
and press Enter. The screen displays the following prompts:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...
3.
Insert the MS-DOS system diskette (the source) into drive
A and turn the diskette drive latch to lock the diskette in
place. Then press any key.
The DISKCOPY program copies the contents of the
diskette to the computer’s memory and then displays these
prompts:
Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...
4.
Release the disk latch and remove the MS-DOS system
diskette from drive A.
5.
Insert the blank diskette (the target) in the drive and turn
the diskette drive latch to lock the diskette in place. Then
press any key.
1-24 Setting Up Your System
If the diskette in drive A is not formatted, the DISKCOPY
program formats it. Then the program copies the data from
the computer’s memory to the formatted diskette. When
the copy is complete, you see this prompt:
Copy another diskette (Y/N)?
6.
Press Y so you can make a copy of the GW-BASIC
diskette. Follow the instructions above and the prompts
on the screen to make the copy.
When the copy is complete, this prompt displays again:
Copy another diskette? (Y/N)
9
7.
Press N to return to the MS-DOS command prompt.
8.
Store the original system diskettes in a safe place.
9.
Properly label the working copies you just created.
Setting the Real Time Clock
Your Apex computer includes a real time clock. This battery
powered clock stores the current time and date even if you turn
off the computer.
To set the real time clock, use the SETRTC program supplied
by Epson on your GW-BASIC diskette.
NOTE
You cannot set the real time clock using the MS-DOS TIME
and DATE commands; when you reset or turn off the computer,
any time or date settings you make are erased from memory.
Setting Up Your System 1-25
To set the real time clock, follow these steps:
1.
If you are using the Apex Plus, insert the GW-BASIC
diskette into drive A. At the command prompt, type the
following and press Enter:
SETRTC /I
The screen displays a prompt similar to this:
Set Real Time Clock Ver. 1.00
Current Time is 12:05:31
Enter New Time:
2.
Using a 24 hour format, type the new time and press
Enter. Use colons to separate the hours, minutes, and
seconds. It’s not necessary to type the seconds.
The screen then displays a prompt similar to this:
Current Date is Wed 05-25-88
Enter New Date (mm-dd-yy) :
3.
Type the new date and press Enter. Use dashes to separate
the month, day, and year.
4.
The screen displays the current time and date you set and
returns you to the command prompt.
1-26 Setting Up Your
System
Chapter 2
Using Your Apex
This chapter covers these basic procedures for using your Apex
computer and keyboard:
Using the special keys on the keyboard
Changing your computer’s operating speed
Interrupting a command or program
Resetting and turning off your computer
Using diskettes, diskette drives, and hard disk drives.
Special Keys on the Apex Keyboard
Some of the keys on your keyboard serve special functions
when your computer is running application programs.
Using your Apex 2-1
Take a look at the special keys and their functions:
Key Name
Purpose
Perform special functions within
application programs.
Moves the cursor to the right in
normal mode (and to the left in shift
mode in some application programs).
Works with other keys to perform
special control functions, such as
editing operations in MS-DOS and
GW-BASIC.
Produces uppercase characters or
symbols when used with the main
character keys. Produces lowercase
characters when Caps Lock is on.
Works with other keys to enter
alternate character codes not
otherwise available.
Moves the cursor back one space,
deleting the character to the left.
Ends a line of keyboard input or
executes a command (may be called
the Return key in some manuals).
Changes the letter keys from lowerto uppercase; changes back to lowercase when pressed again.
Cancels the current command line or
operation.
2-2 Using Your Apex
Key Name
Purpose
Changes the function of the
keys on the keypad from numeric
entry to cursor movement; changes
when pressed again.
Controls scrolling in some
applications.
When you hold down the Ctrl key
and press this key, it sends a break
signal to the computer to terminate
the current operation.
Prints the screen display on a dotmatrix printer.
Within application programs, these
keys control cursor movement.
Turns the insert function on and off.
Deletes characters to the right of the
cursor position.
The Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Scroll Lock keys work as
toggles, that is, they alternately turn functions on and off when
you press them. When the function is enabled, the corresponding light on the top right corner of the keyboard is on to show
the feature is on. When the function is disabled, the light is off.
Using Your Apex 2-3
Selecting Execution Speed
The Apex can operate at two speeds: 4.77MHz or 9.54MHz.
At 9.54MHz, the Apex performs all tasks faster. Certain applications may have specific timing requirements and only operate
at the slower speed. See the application program manual to
determine the best operating speed.
When you turn on the computer, it runs at 4.77MHz. An
orange power light indicates the system is set at the slower
speed.
You can change the execution speed by typing a keystroke
combination, or by running the SPEED program that Epson
supplies on the GW-BASIC diskette.
To change the execution speed using the keystroke combination, hold down the Ctrl and Alt keys and press the slash (/) key.
The computer changes from one speed to the other each time
you press Ctrl Alt /.
You can also change the execution speed by running the SPEED
program. To change the execution speed to 4.77MHz, type the
following and press Enter:
SPEED /1
To change the execution speed to 9.54MHz, type the following
and press Enter:
SPEED /2
When you change the speed to 9.54MHz, the power light is
green and the computer sounds a high-pitched beep. When you
change the CPU speed to 4.77 MHz, the power light is orange
and the computer sounds a low-pitched beep. You can also
display the current execution speed by typing SPEED and
pressing Enter.
2-4 Using Your Apex
NOTE
If you want to set your computer to run at 9.54MHz every time
you turn on or reset the computer, insert a SPEED command in
your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. See “Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT
File” in Chapter 3 or your MS-DOS reference manual for more
information.
Stopping a Command or Program
You may need to stop a command or program while it is running. To stop the operation of an MS-DOS command, hold
down Ctrl and press C or hold down Ctrl and press Break. Both
combinations send the ASCII code 03, which is known as the
Break signal, to the computer.
You can try the same approach to stop the operation of an
application program. If it the program does not stop, you may
need to reset the computer, as described in the next section.
Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to clear the computer’s current
settings or memory without turning it off. This is called
resetting the computer.
You may want to do this if an error occurs and the computer
does not respond to your commands. In this case, you can reset
the computer and try the same operation again. However, since
resetting erases all data in the computer’s internal memory
(RAM), you should reset your computer only as a last resort.
Using Your Apex 2-5
WARNING
Do not reset the computer simply to exit a program. Some
application programs classify and store new data when you exit
the program. If you reset the computer without properly exiting
the program, you may lose data.
To reset the computer, hold down Ctrl and Alt and press Del
(on the numeric keypad at the right of the keyboard). The
screen is blank for a moment, then MS-DOS is loaded from the
diskette in drive A or from drive C.
If this does not correct the problem, remove any diskettes from
the disk drives. Turn off the computer. Wait for five seconds,
then turn off the monitor and any peripherals. Wait for another
five seconds, then turn the computer, monitor, and peripherals
on again.
Turning Off the Computer
Normally, when you are through working with an application
program, you save your data, exit the program, and remove all
diskettes from the disk drives.
If you are using an Apex Plus 20, run the HDSIT program to
position the hard disk drive heads. Running HDSIT moves the
read/write heads away from the recording area. See “Preparing
the hard disk for moving” in this chapter.
Turn off the computer first, then turn off the monitor and any
peripherals.
2-6 Using your Apex
Using Diskettes and Diskette Drives
The disk drives in your computer let you store your work and
programs for use at any time. Apex Plus systems have two 360
KB diskette drives. Apex Plus 20 systems have one 360 KB
diskette drive and one 20 MB hard disk drive.
Read the following sections to learn how diskettes work and how
to do the following:
Choose diskettes
Care for your diskettes and disk drives
Cl
Insert and remove diskettes
Write-protect diskettes
Cl
Make backup copies of your diskettes.
If you have an Apex Plus 20, also read these sections to learn
how to do the following:
Use a hard disk
Use a single diskette drive system
Prepare the hard disk before moving the computer.
How diskettes work
The diskettes you use are made of flexible plastic, coated with
magnetic material, and enclosed in protective jackets. Like a
record, a diskette has circular tracks on both sides. Your computer stores the data you enter as magnetic patterns on these
circular tracks.
Using Your Apex 2-7
A small read/write head in the computer’s disk drive interprets
the magnetic patterns. When you put a diskette in a drive, the
read/write head is directly over the large oval hole. The hole
allows read/write head access to the diskette so you can store,
retrieve, and delete data. The data is stored magnetically so
you can retrieve it, record over it, and erase it - just as you
play, record, and erase music on cassette tapes.
Choosing diskettes for the Apex
The Apex uses diskettes that are 5 l/4-inch, double-sided,
double-density, 48 TPI (tracks per inch). The diskette boxes
are usually marked DS-DD or 2S-2D, soft sector, 48 TPI. Each
diskette can hold 360 KB of data, which is the equivalent of
about 150 pages of text. For best results, use only high-quality
diskettes with reinforced hub rings - the added reliability is
well worth the extra cost.
These diskettes are compatible with those used with the IBM
PC. This means you can use diskettes on the Apex that were
prepared and used on another IBM-compatible computer.
You need to format new diskettes before you can use them with
MS-DOS. The process of formatting erases all data on a diskette
and prepares it to receive new data, so be sure to format only
2-8 Using Your Apex
new blank diskettes or diskettes that contain data you want to
erase. See Chapter 3 (or your MS-DOS reference manual) for
instructions on how to format diskettes.
Caring for your diskettes and diskette drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes and help
you avoid losing data:
Keep your diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small
particles of dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface
and destroy data. Dust can also ruin the read/write head
in the disk drive.
Keep your diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember that diskettes store their information magnetically.)
Be careful of the many sources of magnetism in and
around your home or office, such as electrical appliances,
telephones, and loudspeakers.
Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near a
hard disk drive.
Keep your diskettes in a moderate environment. They
work best at normal room temperature and in normal
humidity. Don’t leave your diskettes sitting in the sun, or
in extreme cold or heat. Extreme temperatures inside a
car in the middle of summer or winter can damage a
diskette.
Never touch your diskette’s magnetic surface. Even the
oils on your fingertips can damage it. Always hold a
diskette by its protective jacket.
Store your diskettes properly. Do not store diskettes flat
or stack them on top of each other. When you are not
using them, keep your diskettes in their protective
envelopes and store them in a diskette container.
Using Your Apex 2-9
Do not place anything on top of your diskettes, and do
not bend them. A diskette does not rotate properly in the
drive if it has been damaged.
Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
Carefully label diskettes. Attach the label firmly but
gently, and only along the top of the diskette (next to
the manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several labels on
top of one another; too many labels can prevent the
diskette from spinning freely in the disk drive.
It is best to write on the label before you attach it to a
diskette. If you must write on a label that is already on a
diskette, use only a soft-tip pen, not a ballpoint pen or a
pencil.
Do not remove a diskette from the disk drive or turn off
the computer while the drive light is on. The light you
see indicates that the computer is copying data to or from
a diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy
data.
Remove all diskettes from the disk drives before you turn
off the computer.
Inserting and removing diskettes
When you insert a diskette into a disk drive, hold it with the
label up and the write-protect notch to the left (so that the
read/write slot is away from you). Then gently slide the diskette
into the disk drive.
2-10 Using Your Apex
When the diskette is all the way in, turn the latch down until
it locks into the vertical position. This keeps the diskette in
place and lets the read/write heads in the disk drive access the
diskette.
To remove the diskette, turn the latch up until it is horizontal.
Carefully pull out the diskette, place it in its protective envelope, and store it properly. Keep your diskettes in a special
diskette container.
WARNING
Never remove a diskette or turn off the computer while the
drive indicator light is on. You could lose data. Also, be sure to
remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Using Your Apex 2-11
Write-protecting
diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read data
from it, but you cannot store new data on the diskette or delete
any files it contains. If you try to change data stored on a writeprotected diskette, the computer displays an error message.
To write-protect a diskette, cover the small, rectangular notch
with an adhesive write-protect tab. These write-protect tabs
usually come in the box with new diskettes when you buy them.
If you need to change data on a write-protected diskette, remove
the write-protect tab.
Making backup copies
Always make backup copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Copy all diskettes that contain programs, such as the
master system diskettes that come with your Apex, and use only
the copies. Store your original system diskettes in a safe place
away from your working diskettes.
2-12 Using Your Apex
Copy your data diskettes regularly (preferably every day, or
every few hours if you’re creating a lot of data) to keep your
backup data current, then store the backup copies away from
your originals.
Chapter 1 describes how to use DISKCOPY to copy your
MS-DOS system diskettes. To make backups of other MS-DOS
diskettes, use the DISKCOPY command or the DU (Disk
Utility) program. See your MS-DOS reference manual for
instructions on using DISKCOPY and DU.
If you are using an Apex Plus 20, it’s best to put most of the
programs and data files you use regularly on the hard disk.
Keep backup copies of all your program files on diskettes and
regularly copy important data files to diskettes as well. For
more information, see “Copying Data” in Chapter 3 and refer to
your MS-DOS reference manual.
Using Your Hard Disk
The Apex Plus 20 system includes an internal 20 MB hard disk.
Here are some precautions to take when using a hard disk
system:
Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk
itself is enclosed in an airtight container to protect it
from dust.
If you are going to move your computer (even to
another part of the room), run the program called
HDSIT to prepare the hard disk for moving. See
“Preparing the hard disk for moving” in this chapter for
more information.
Working with a hard disk is very similar to working with a
diskette. MS-DOS treats files on a hard disk just like files on a
diskette. However, the hard disk provides several advantages:
Using Your Apex 2-13
The 20 MB hard disk can store as much data as 55
360 KB diskettes.
Your computer can read from and write to a hard disk
faster than when using a diskette.
You can store all your frequently used programs and
data files on the hard disk, reducing the amount of time
you spend swapping between diskettes with different
information on them.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and
forth between different programs and data files. However,
because it is so easy to add programs and files to your hard disk,
you may find yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories. Epson also includes the XTREE utility with your
Apex system, which gives you an easy-to-understand visual
representation of your directory structure. XTREE contains
many powerful features that let you move, create, delete, and
rename files and directories, and view and execute files. See
“The XTREE Utility” in Chapter 3 or your MS-DOS reference
manual for instructions.
Using a single diskette drive system
An operating system expects the computer to have at least two
physical disk drives, and it displays prompts and messages
accordingly. Although the Apex Plus 20 system has a single
diskette drive, MS-DOS recognizes this one drive as two logical
diskette drives. This helps you perform operations that normally
require two diskette drives.
For example, if you give a command to copy from one drive to
another, MS-DOS copies from the first diskette you place in the
drive to the computer’s memory. Then MS-DOS prompts you to
2-14 Using Your Apex
insert another diskette and copies from memory to the new
diskette. When copying is complete, you see a prompt to insert
the original diskette.
Because you may often swap diskettes this way, it is important
to remember which diskette is which. One way to avoid accidentally losing data is to hold the diskette for one drive in your
left hand and the diskette for the other drive in your right. You
can also write-protect your source diskette.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
If you need to move your Apex Plus 20, even across the room,
you should prepare the hard disk for moving to avoid damaging
it. To do this, run the HDSIT program just before turning off
the computer.
The HDSIT program moves the read/write heads away from the
disk surfaces and securely locks them into position. If the heads
are not secured and the computer is subjected to shock or vibration, the heads may bump the disk surfaces and the drive may
be damaged or you may lose valuable data.
To run HDSIT, at the command prompt type:
HDSIT
and press Enter. The screen displays a message reminding
you that the heads will not be unlocked until you reset the
computer or turn it off and on again. The heads are locked and
the keyboard is disabled. You can now turn off the computer
and move it to a new location.
Using Your Apex 2-15
2-16 Using Your Apex
Chapter 3
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
In this chapter, you’ll learn the basics of using MS-DOS with
your Apex. The MS-DOS operating system manages the routine
work of your system, such as keeping the computer’s memory
organized, controlling the monitor display, accepting keyboard
input, and directing external communication.
Introducing MS-DOS
Your application software cannot communicate with your Apex
hardware without instructions from MS-DOS. The operating
system controls the system input and output, and the operation
of all disk drives.
Before you can use an MS-DOS application program, MS-DOS
must be running in the computer’s memory. This means you
must first load MS-DOS so that the operating system can accept
your instructions and make the right connections.
To communicate with the operating system, you need to enter
MS-DOS commands. How much you need to know about the
MS-DOS commands depends on how you plan to use your
Apex. If you plan to use it only for running application programs, the few MS-DOS commands you need are introduced in
this chapter. If you plan to use advanced features or create your
own programs, you’ll want to know as much as possible about
MS-DOS. See your MS-DOS reference manual.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-1
Starting and Exiting MS-DOS
Before you can run an MS-DOS application program, MS-DOS
must be running in memory. Follow these steps to load
MS-DOS:
1. Turn on your monitor and any peripherals, such as the
printer.
2. Turn on the computer.
3.
If you have an Apex Plus, insert your MS-DOS system
diskette into the top drive and press any key.
NOTE
If you are using an Apex Plus 20, your system is set to boot
MS-DOS automatically from the hard disk when you turn on or
reset the computer. To boot from the hard disk, make sure that
drive A does not contain a diskette. You can load MS-DOS
from the diskette drive instead of the hard disk drive if you
insert your MS-DOS system diskette before you reset or turn on
your computer. Your computer, however, remembers that you
loaded MS-DOS from drive A and prompts you to insert the
system diskette whenever it needs to access a command.
4.
If you have an Apex Plus, respond to the Date and Time
prompts, or press Enter twice to skip them.
Now you see the MS-DOS command prompt, which tells you
that MS-DOS is loaded and identifies the current drive. You
can now enter commands to instruct MS-DOS to perform tasks
and run application programs.
Always end your sessions with MS-DOS from the command
prompt. Then it is safe to remove your diskettes, turn off the
computer, and all peripherals.
3-2 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Changing the Default Drive
When you see the A> prompt, you know that MS-DOS is
operating from drive A.
If you want to run a program or find a file on a different drive,
however, you must specify that drive. You can do this by
including the drive identifier with the filename or by logging on
to that drive. The drive identifier is the letter of the disk drive
followed by a colon.
For example, to log on to drive B (the bottom diskette drive),
type B : and press Enter.
Your screen now displays the B> prompt. This means that you
are now operating from drive B as the default drive. The system
continues to read from drive B until you log on to another
drive, or turn off or reset your computer.
To access a program or file without changing the default drive,
use a drive identifier with the filename. For example, if you are
logged on to drive A and want to access a file on drive B, type
the drive identifier and the filename together like this:
B:README.TXT
Entering MS-DOS Commands
You can enter an MS-DOS command whenever you see the
MS-DOS command prompt. To enter a command, type the
command name and any necessary parameters, and then press
Enter to execute the command. Parameters include items that
identify the data you want to process and switches that alter the
effects of a command.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-3
You can enter command names and parameters in either uppercase or lowercase letters. However, you must separate command
names and parameters with delimiters; most commands require
spaces or commas as delimiters.
If you make a mistake when typing a command and you notice
it before pressing Enter, you can do one of two things:
Use the backspace key to back up and correct the error
Press E SC to cancel the command line.
If you press Enter and a command line has an error in it, you see
this message:
Bad command or file name
Then MS-DOS displays the command prompt so you can try
again. Just type the correct command line and press Enter.
Creating Files
All your data and programs are stored in files. A data file stores
information, such as words, numbers, or pictures. A program file
stores instructions that the computer can understand and
execute.
The kind of file you can create depends on the MS-DOS
command or application program you use to create it. In general,
a data file that you create using an application program is stored
in a special format. If you use a different application program to
read that file, you may encounter problems.
Once you create a file, you need to give it a name. You must
name your files in a certain format MS-DOS requires.
3-4 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Naming a File
Each file requires a unique filename. The filename consists of
two parts: the file’s name and the file’s extension.
You can use up to eight characters in a filename. Create a name
that identifies the information the file contains. The name can
contain any characters or numbers except for blank spaces and
the following symbols:
* \ / { } : I < > + = ; . ?
The file extension is optional and can be up to three characters
long. You can use these characters to describe what type of file
it is, such as a text file or program file. Some application programs add extensions to the files you create. The application
program uses the extension to determine whether it is a compatible data file. Avoid using the same extensions your application
programs use. When you use an extension, separate it from the
file’s name with a period. For example, an MS-DOS filename
might look like this:
DATA.TXT
Do not use uppercase and lowercase letters to distinguish
between files. MS-DOS does not recognize the difference and
displays filenames in uppercase.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-5
Creating and Using Directories
MS-DOS stores the names of the files in directories. This makes
it easy for you to organize and find your files. A directory
contains specific information about each file such as its name,
size, and the date and time you last updated the file.
As you create more and more files within a directory, you may
find it difficult to quickly locate files. You may want to create
subdirectories within your main directory so you can group files
more efficiently. This kind of organization is called a treestructured directory.
At the top of the tree-structured directory is the main directory,
also called the root directory. The root directory can contain
many subdirectories, and each subdirectory can contain other
subdirectories. The structure of a directory may look like this:
The root directory does not have a name, but is always identified by a backslash (\). Each subdirectory has a name, and you
can access any file in any subdirectory by using a pathname. The
name of a subdirectory can be up to eight characters long,
consisting of letters and numbers.
3-6 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
The directory you are working in is called the cm-rent directory.
Usually, when you first load the operating system, the root
directory is the current directory. To list the files in the root
directory, type DIR and press Enter. The screen displays the
following above the file names:
Directory of A:\
If you are working in a directory named LEDGER, the screen
displays the following above the list of files:
Directory of A:\LEDGER
There are six basic operations you need to know about to use
directories:
Creating directories
Changing directories
Using pathnames
Copying from one directory to another
Displaying a list of all directories
Deleting a directory.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-7
Creating directories
Use the MKDIR command to create a directory. For example,
to create the LEDGER directory under the root directory, type
the following and press Enter:
MKDIR \LEDGER
You can abbreviate the name of this command to MD. For
example, to create the SALES directory under LEDGER, type
the following and press Enter:
MD \LEDGER\SALES
To check that the LEDGER directory is in the root directory,
type DIR and press Enter. The screen displays a list of files in
the root directory, along with the new subdirectory:
LEDGER
<DIR>
The <DIR> after a name identifies it as a subdirectory of the
current directory (in this case, the root directory).
Storing files in separate directories is almost the same as storing
them on separate disks. You have to specify the pathname or
change directories to access files in different directories just as
you have to specify the drive or log onto a different drive to
access files on different disks.
Changing directories
To change directories, type CHDIR (or CD) followed by a
backslash and the name of the directory. For example, to
change to the LEDGER directory, type the following and press
Enter:
CD \LEDGER
3-8 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
`The backslash identifies the new directory LEDGER as a subdirectory of the root directory.
Once you are in the directory, you can directly access any files it
contains.
To change to a subdirectory of the current directory, you do not
need to enter the backslash. For example, to change to the
SALES subdirectory while you are in the LEDGER directory,
type the following and press Enter:
CD SALES
To return to the root directory from any subdirectory, type the
following and press Enter:
CD \
This command takes you back to the root directory from any
subdirectory.
Using pathnames
You can access files in a different directory by specifying a
pathname. The path consists of a series of directory names
separated by backslashes and the filename you want to access.
The filename is always last and is always preceded by a backslash. A backslash at the beginning of a pathname signifies the
root directory; subsequent backslashes separate directory levels.
Normally, MS-DOS begins searching for a file in the current
directory. When you set a path, MS-DOS searches for the file in
all the directories in the designated path.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-9
For example, if you are in the LEDGER directory and want to
access a file named MICHELLE under the PERSONAL directory, you would type the following pathname and press Enter:
\WORDPROC/PERSONAL/MICHELLE
The pathname \ WORDPROC\PERSONAL\MICHELLE is
the full pathname for the file MICHELLE. You can use it no
matter what directory you are in (as long as it is on the same
disk). The first backslash (for root directory) signifies that the
path to the file starts in the root directory. WORDPROC is
the name of the subdirectory under the root directory, and
PERSONAL is the subdirectory under WORDPROC.
If you want to access a file on a different drive, include the drive
letter in the pathname as in this example:
B:\WORDPROC\PERSONAL\MICHELLE
Other Directory Commands
SUBST command lets you substitute a drive letter for a directory path. This is helpful when you use a long path.
The APPEND command lets you set a search path to directories
containing data files.
The PATH command lets you specify a search path for external
commands or program files (those having an extension of
.COM, .EXE, or .BAT).
See the descriptions of SUBST, APPEND, and PATH in your
MS-DOS reference manual.
3-10 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Copying from one directory to another
You use the COPY command to copy files from one directory to
another. Specify the pathname of the file you want to copy,
then specify the directory where you want to place the copy. For
example, if you are in the WORDPROC directory and want to
copy MICHELLE from the PERSONAL subdirectory to the
BUSINESS subdirectory, type the following and press Enter:
COPY PERSONAL\MICHELLE BUSINESS
Be sure to type a space between the filename and the new
pathname. You do not type a backslash before PERSONAL or
BUSINESS because they are subdirectories of the current
directory. If you do enter the backslashes, MS-DOS looks in the
root directory for the directory and does not find them.
MS-DOS provides two special notations to identify the current
directory and the next directory. These two notations are the
first entries in each directory other than the root directory:
This represents the current directory. Typing DIR. is the
same as typing DIR without the period.
This represents the next directory above the current one,
called the parent directory. If WEST is your current
d i r e c t o r y , t y p i n g D I R . . displays the contents of the SALES
subdirectory.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-11
Displaying a list of directories
The TREE command lets you display a list of all the directories
on the specified drive. For example, to see the names of all the
directories on the default drive, type the following and press
Enter:
TREE
The screen displays a report for every directory on the drive, for
example:
Path:
C:\LEDGER
Sub-directories:RECEIV
PAYABL
SALES
If you want to see a list of all the files in the directories, add
the /F switch to the command (see your MS-DOS reference
manual):
TREE /F
The screen displays the directory information shown above plus
the names of all files in each subdirectory, for example:
Path:
C:LEDGER\SALES
Sub-directories:None
Files:
DECSALES
FORECAST.88
OCTSALES
NOVSALES
NOTE
To use the TREE command, you must log onto the drive (and
directory) where TREE.COM is stored or specify the drive
location in the command.
3-12 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Removing a directory
If you no longer need a directory, you can remove it with the
RMDIR (remove directory) command. To remove a directory,
first delete any files it contains or move them to another directory. You cannot remove a directory that is not empty.
To remove an empty directory, such as the WEST directory
under LEDGER, type the following and press Enter:
RMDIR \LEDGER\WEST
You must give the complete pathname when removing a
directory.
Formatting Diskettes
Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format it.
Formatting prepares the diskette to accept data written by
MS-DOS.
You can also format previously used diskettes. This process
erases all data on the diskette. Always be sure you do not want
to save any of the data on a diskette before you format it.
The formatting procedure you use depends on whether you are
using an Apex Plus or an Apex Plus 20. Follow the appropriate
procedure below for the computer you are using.
Formatting diskettes with an Apex Plus
1.
Insert your working copy of the MS-DOS diskette in drive
A (and press any key, if necessary).
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-13
2. When you see the A> prompt, type:
FORMAT B:
and press Enter. You see this prompt:
Insert diskette for drive B:
and strike ENTER when ready
3.
Insert the diskette you want to format into drive B and
press Enter. MS-DOS displays the head and cylinder
numbers as it formats each cylinder of the diskette:
Head: n Cylinder: nn
4. When the diskette is formatted, you see these messages:
Format
362496
362496
Format
complete
bytes total disk space
bytes available on disk
another (Y/N)?
You can press Y to format another diskette or press N to
return to the MS-DOS command prompt.
Formatting diskettes with an Apex Plus 20
1.
Insert the diskette you want to format in drive A.
2.
If necessary, type C: to log onto drive C.
3-14 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
3. When you see the C> prompt, type:
FORMAT A:
and press Enter. You see this prompt:
Insert new diskette for drive A:
and strike ENTER when ready
4. Insert the diskette you want to format into drive A and
press Enter. MS-DOS displays the head and cylinder
numbers as it formats each cylinder of the diskette:
Head: n Cylinder: nn
5. When the diskette is formatted, you see these messages:
Format
362496
362496
Format
complete
bytes total disk space
bytes available on disk
another (Y/N)?
You can press Y to format another diskette or press N to
return to the MS-DOS command prompt.
Copying Data
It’s important to create backup copies of the files you store on
your diskettes or hard disk. You can copy data and program files
several ways:
You can use the DISKCOPY command to copy the contents
of an entire diskette.
You can use the COPY command to copy select files.
You can use the BACKUP command to back up the files on
a hard disk or diskette in a compressed format.
Using MS-DOS with your Apex 3-15
Using the DISKCOPY command
The DISKCOPY command lets you copy all the files on a
diskette to another diskette. Epson also provides a disk utility
called DU to copy diskettes; this utility is described in your
MS-DOS reference manual.
The procedure for copying diskettes depends on whether you
are using an Apex Plus or an Apex Plus 20. Follow the appropriate procedure for the computer you are using.
NOTE
If you are using an Apex Plus 20, be aware that you cannot use
DISKCOPY to copy files from a hard disk to a diskette.
DISKCOPY only copies files between diskettes. To copy a file
from a hard disk to a diskette, use either the COPY command
or the BACKUP command. See the appropriate section in this
chanter or your MS-DOS reference manual for instructions.
Using DISKCOPY with an Apex Plus
When you use the DISKCOPY command, you need to specify
the disk drive (A: and B:). If you do not, MS-DOS copies the
diskette in drive A to a second diskette that you insert in drive
A. This means you must swap diskettes during the copy process.
MS-DOS displays prompts to tell you when you need to change
diskettes.
1.
Make sure your original diskette is write-protected. (See
Chapter 2 for instructions.)
2.
Insert your working copy of the MS-DOS system diskette
in the top drive (drive A).
3-16 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
3. At the A> prompt, type:
DISKCOPY A: B:
and press Enter.
4. MS-DOS prompts you to insert your diskettes. You see
these messages:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Insert TARGET diskette in drive B:
Press any key when ready ...
5.
Insert the diskette you want to copy from (the source) in
drive A and the diskette you want to copy to (the target)
in drive B. Then press any key.
DISKCOPY checks to see if the destination diskette is
formatted. If it is not, DISKCOPY formats the diskette.
You see the message:
Formatting while copying
The copy operation begins when the format is complete.
You see this message:
Copying 40 tracks
9 sectors/track, 2 side(s)
When the copy is complete, you see these messages:
Copy complete
Copy another (Y/N)?
6.
Press Y to perform another copy or N to end the
DISKCOPY command.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-17
Using DISKCOPY with an Apex Plus 20
1.
Make sure your original diskette is write protected (see
Chapter 2 for instructions).
2.
If necessary, type C : to log onto drive C.
3.
At the C> prompt, type:
DISKCOPY
and press Enter.
MS-DOS displays these messages:
Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready ...
4.
Insert the diskette you want to copy from in the diskette
drive and press any key.
DISKCOPY copies the contents of the diskette to the
computer’s memory. The screen displays a message similar
to this while copying:
Copying 40 tracks
9 sectors/track, 2 side(s)
When all the files have been copied, the screen displays
these messages:
Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready ...
3-18 Using MS-DOS with your Apex
5. Remove the diskette from drive A and insert the blank
diskette in the drive. DISKCOPY checks to see if the new
diskette is formatted. If not, it formats the diskette. You
see this message:
Formatting while copying
The copy operation begins when the format is complete.
You see these messages:
Copying 40 tracks
9 sectors/track, 2 side(s)
When the copy is complete, you see this message:
Copy another diskette (Y/N)?
6.
Press Y to perform another copy or N to end the
DISKCOPY command.
Using the COPY command
You can use the COPY command to copy files in several ways:
Copy individual files from one diskette to another or to the
same diskette
Copy a group of files using wildcard characters
Copy one or more files and give them new names
Combine or merge files into one file.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-19
A few simple rules apply when copying files:
You must tell MS-DOS where to find the source file
and where to write the target file.
You cannot create a new file with the same name as an
existing file.
If a file on the target diskette has the same name as a file on
the source diskette, the copy automatically replaces the file
on the target diskette. There is no warning that the file on
the target diskette is being replaced, so be careful that you
do not accidentally erase a file you want to keep.
The target diskette must be a formatted diskette.
To copy a file, simply type the COPY command and the filenames at the command prompt, and then press Enter.
To copy a file from the diskette in drive A to the diskette in
drive B using the same name, type:
COPY A:REPORT.EXT B:
If you want to copy a file from the diskette in drive A to the
diskette in drive B using a new name, type:
COPY A:REPORT.EXT B:FACTS.EXT
To copy a file onto the same diskette with a new name, type:
COPY REPORT FACTS
In this case, you can omit the drive identifier because the source
and target files are on the current drive.
An easy way to copy a group of files is by using wildcard characters in the filenames. You can use two wildcard characters: *
and ?. The asterisk represents any group of characters and the
question mark represents any single character.
3-20 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
To copy all the files on the diskette in drive A to the diskette in
drive B, type:
COPY A:*.* B:
To copy all the files on drive A whose names begin with the
four letters “MEMO” and end with any single character to drive
B, type:
COPY A:MEMO? B:
Another task you can perform with the COPY command is
combine a number of files into one file. Use this format:
COPY REPORT + FACTS + MEMO DATA
When you use the COPY command this way it copies the file
REPORT, then FACTS, and then MEMO into the new file,
DATA. In this example, the files are located on the current
drive.
Using the BACKUP command
You typically use the BACKUP command to back up hard disk
files. It lets you store files in a compressed format for archive
purposes. You can use BACKUP to copy files from any disk to
another (hard disk to diskette, diskette to hard disk, diskette to
diskette, even hard disk to hard disk).
Unlike DISKCOPY and COPY which make exact duplicates of
files, BACKUP creates files that you cannot use until you
restore them using the RESTORE command.
You can use switches with BACKUP to back up files created
after a certain date, or to specify files stored in a certain
directory.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-21
You can also completely back up all your files and then tell
BACKUP to add only those files that have been modified since
the last time you ran BACKUP. This process, called an incremental backup, makes regular backups faster to perform.
Be sure you have enough formatted diskettes to back up the
data on your hard disk drive. It can take about 50 360KB
diskettes to copy a 20MB hard disk drive that is completely full
(although it is rare that you would store this many files on a
hard disk). In any case, you don’t want to run out of formatted
diskettes during the backup process.
See your MS-DOS reference manual for complete instructions
on using BACKUP.
The HELP Utility
The HELP command provides information on all MS-DOS
commands and utility programs. This help function provides
useful information but is not intended to be a substitute for the
MS-DOS reference manual.
The format of this command is:
HELP [command...]
Type HELP only to see a menu of all commands. Type HELP
followed by the name of one or more MS-DOS commands, each
separated by a space, to bypass the menu and display the messages for each command.
When the menu is displayed, you see this prompt at the bottom
of the screen:
Select command name, Enter to
display command,
Esc to Exit
3-22 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Use the cursor keys to highlight a command name and press
Enter to display the help screens for this one command.
If there is more than one page of text, you see the prompt PgUp
on the top of the screen. Press PgUp to display the rest of the
text. After reading the help information, press ESC to return to
the menu.
If you type HELP and one or more command names on the
command line, the help information for the first command is
displayed. Press ESC to see the help information for the next
command. When you press ESC after viewing the information
for the last command, MS-DOS returns to the command
prompt.
NOTE
The help information is stored in the HELP.TXT file, which is
located on your GW-BASIC and Supplemental Utilities
diskette. If you copy HELP.COM to another diskette or to your
hard disk, you must also copy HELP.TXT to the same disk. If
they are not in the same path, you can use the APPEND
command to locate HELP.TXT.
Examples
To see help information for the COPY command, type the
following command and press Enter:
HELP COPY
To see help information for the DISKCOPY and FORMAT
commands, type the following and press Enter:
HELP DISKCOPY FORMAT
To see the help menu, type
HELP
and press Enter.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-23
Messages
command not found
You may have misspelled the command name. Press Enter to
return to the command prompt and try again.
Failed to open HELP.TXT
HELP could not find the HELP.TXT file. HELP.COM and
HELP.TXT must be in the same directory, or use APPEND to
locate the directory that contains HELP.TXT.
The XTREE Utility
Epson has included the XTREE program with MS-DOS to make
it easier for you to manage files and run other MS-DOS programs. It is located on the GW-BASIC diskette.
Using XTREE, you can do the work of nine MS-DOS internal
commands using a convenient menu format.
What XTREE does
XTREE offers a wide variety of special functions that allow
you to:
Display all the directories in a disk, the files they contain,
and the file statistics
Display, copy, and delete files individually or in groups, to
any directory on a disk
Make new directories, rename directories, remove empty
directories, and change from one directory to another
Create, display, or change volume labels
3-24 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Move a file, or files, from one directory to another on the
current disk
Display and change the attributes of any file; attributes are
special switches, which you use to designate files as readonly, hidden, system, or archived
Display data in both ASCII and hexadecimal format
Execute programs
Display how much space is available on your disks
Modify screen parameters.
Using XTREE
To run XTREE, move to the directory where XTREE is located.
Type XTREE at the command prompt, and press Enter. A title
screen appears while XTREE reads your disk’s directory, then a
menu similar to this displays:
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-25
The XTREE display shows you:
PATH
Provides the current location as
an MS-DOS style pathname.
\
Provides a tree diagram of the
directory structure of the disk.
This window currently shows
the disk only has a root
directory (\).
FILE
Shows you the files XTREE is
set to display. This window
shows that XTREE is set to
display all files matching the
DOS specification *.*, in other
words, all files.
DISK
Shows the name of the disk
being displayed and the number
of free bytes.
DISK Statistics
Summarizes information about
the files on the disk.
FILES
Lists all filenames on the disk.
DIR COMMANDS
Shows you a menu of keystroke
commands you can give
XTREE. Regardless of which
XTREE function you are using,
this line identifies the keys that
control the screen display and
the commands you need to
complete the function.
You use the cursor keys, character keys, function keys, the Ctrl
key, and the Alt key to perform various functions in XTREE.
3-26 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Cursor keys move the pointer. To select a file, use the arrow
keys to highlight the file and directory names within the Directory and File windows. Press Enter to move the cursor from the
Directory window to the File window and back again.
Character keys execute an XTREE command. The available
XTREE commands appear on the DIR/COMMANDS or
FILE/COMMANDS line at the bottom of your screen. The
highlighted letter of the word (D in Delete, for example)
indicates the key you press to execute the command. You can
execute some commands on more than one file or directory by
tagging all the desired files or directories with the Tag command, and then holding down the Ctrl key as you press the
character key.
Alt key commands execute additional XTREE commands. The
available XTREE commands appear on the DIR/COMMANDS
or FILE/COMMANDS line when you press the Alt key. To
execute the command, hold down the Alt key and press the
highlighted letter of the command name.
Function keys control XTREE itself. Press F1 to quit XTREE,
press F2 to display a screen of help information, and press F3 to
cancel a command. XTREE displays the available commands
and the key that executes the command on the lower right of
your screen.
There are many ways you can put XTREE to work. All disk
setup and maintenance functions can benefit from this utility.
You can add XTREE to batch files like any other MS-DOS
command-you could even put it in an AUTOEXEC.BAT file
to display a disk’s file structure when you turn on the computer.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-27
Cautions
With a utility as powerful and as fast as XTREE, you must
always be aware of the danger of accidentally erasing important
files. Follow these guidelines to protect your files:
You can cancel commands, even commands in progress, by
pressing F3. This stops any function.
Use Ctrl A (the attributes command) to give read-only
status to all the files in the directories. Then, in order to
erase a file, you must first remove its protection.
XTREE is limited in the number of files and directories it
can handle. XTREE checks to see if a disk has more than
180 directories or 2800 files; if the disk does, XTREE automatically aborts.
Example
XTREE offers too many commands to demonstrate all the
various combinations in this introduction; just remember that
everything you can do is shown on the screen display.
The best way to learn XTREE is to use it. In this example, you
create a new directory on your system diskette or hard disk, copy
a few files into it, and then remove them all.
3-28 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
1. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type XTREE and press
Enter. You see the XTREE menu:
Path:\
I FILE:'.*
\
DISK: A:
Available
Bytes
ANSI
ASSIGN
ATTRIB
CHKDSK
COMMAND
DEBUG
DISKCOMP
DISKCOPY
DU
EPSON
FC
FIND
SYS
COM
EXE
COM
COM
COM
COM
COM
EXE
TXT
EXE
EXE
FORMAT
GRAFTABL
GRAPHICS
IO
KEYBFR
KEYBGR
KEYBIT
KEYBSP
KEYBUK
LABEL
MODE
MORE
COM
COM
EXE
SYS
COM
COM
COM
COM
COM
EXE
COM
COM
MSDOS
POWER
PRINT
RECOVER
REVERSE
SELECT
SETMODE
SETUP
SORT
SPEED
SYS
SYS
COM
COM
COM
COM
COM
EXE
EXE
EXE
COM
EXE
49, 152
DISK
Statistics
TOtal
42
Files:
292,637
Bytes:
Matching
42
Files:
292,637
Bytes:
Tagged
0
Files:
0
Bytes :
Directory
Current
\
292,637
Bytes :
DIR
Available Delete Filespec Log disk Makedir
execute
COMMANDS
^Showall
^Tag ^Untag Volume
scroll
RETURN file commands
ALT menu
F1 quit
Print
F2
Rename
help
2. Press M (for Makedir) to create a directory for your files.
Type TEST1 and press Enter to name your directory.
XTREE opens a new directory and updates the directory
structure so it looks like this:
Path:\
FILE:*.*
A:
DISK:
Available
Bytes
T E S T 1
ANSI
SYS
ASSIGN
ATTRIB
CHRDSR
COMMAND
DEBUG
DISKCOMP
DISKCOPY
DU
EPSON
FC
FIND
COM
EXE
COM
COM
FORMAT
GRAFTABL
GRAPHICS
IO
KEYBFR
COM KEYBGR
COM
COM
EXE
TXT
EXE
EXE
KEYBIT
XEYBSP
KEYBUK
LABEL
MODE
MORE
COM
COM
EXE
SYS
COM
COM
COM
COM
COM
EXE
COM
COM
MSDOS
POWER
PRINT
RECOVER
REVERSE
SELECT
SETMODE
SETUP
SORT
SPEED
SYS
SYS
COM
COM
COM
COM
COM
EXE
EXE
EXE
COM
EXE
48,129
Statistics
DISK
Total
42
Files:
292,637
Bytes:
Matching
42
Files:
292,637
Bytes:
Tagged
0
Files:
0
Bytes:
Current
Directory
\
292,637
Bytes :
DIR
Available Delete Fileapec Log disk Makedir Print Rename
COMMANDS
^Showall
^Tag ^Untaq Volume execute
scroll
RETURN file commands
ALT menu
F1 quit
F2 help
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-29
3.
Now you can copy files into this directory. Press Enter
to move the cursor from the root directory to the files
window.
4.
Press T to tag a few files. A diamond appears next to each
file you tag. Copying duplicate files uses up space quickly.
It is a good idea to always check the total of Tagged Bytes
in the DIRECTORY Statistics box to make sure you don’t
tag more bytes than the Available Bytes (shown in the
DISK box).
5.
Press Ctrl C to copy all tagged files in the directory. Press
Enter to use the *.* file specification. If a destination
already appears on the prompt line, press the backspace
key or ESC to remove it.
6.
Now type \TEST1 and press Enter; you don’t need to
include a drive letter and a colon. Press either Y or N at the
file replacement prompt (it doesn’t matter because there are
no files in the new directory).
XTREE displays the name of each file as it copies it. When
the process is complete, the commands display and the
cursor appears at the beginning of the list of files in the
originating directory.
3-30 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
7. Press Enter twice to return the cursor to the root
directory; then move the cursor to the new directory. Your
display should look like this:
Path:\
FILE:*.*
T E S T 1
ANSI
ASSIGN
ATTRIB
CHKDSK
DISRCOMP
DISRCOPY
SYS
COM
EXE
COM
COM
COM
DISK: A:
Available
Bytes
7,168
DISK
Statistics
Total
Files:
48
331,246
Bytes:
Matching
Files:
40
Bytes :
331,246
Tagged
7
Files:
Bytes :
45,921
Current
Directory
TEST1
Bytes:
38,609
DIR
Available
Delete Fileepec Log disk Makedir Print Rename
COMMANDS
^Showall ^Tag ^Untag Volume execute
scroll
RETURN file commands
ALT menu
Fl quit
F2 help
8.
You probably don’t want to keep this directory on your
diskette or hard disk. The first step in deleting your new
directory is to delete its files. Make sure the cursor is on
the TEST1 directory; then press Enter to place it in the
files window.
9.
Press Ctrl T to tag all the files in this directory. Press Ctrl
D to delete the files. Press Y to delete them without
confirmation (after first making sure you have the right
directory). When this is done, XTREE reports that there
are no more files in the directory, and the cursor returns to
the directory name.
If any of the files you tagged are marked read-only, you have
to use the A command, with its -R switch, to remove their
protection before you can delete them.
10. Press D to delete the directory. Confirm the deletion by
pressing Y. The cursor returns to the root directory.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-31
Starting Your Application Program
Once you have loaded MS-DOS, you can start using your
application program. Remove your MS-DOS diskette from drive
A and insert your application program diskette.
Once you start using your application program, you see the
prompts and screen displays that are unique to the application
program. See your application manuals for more information.
Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File
You may find that there are some commands you want to run
every time you turn on your computer.
To run a command or a series of commands automatically upon
startup, you can type the commands into a batch file called
AUTOEXEC.BAT. MS-DOS automatically looks for this file at
startup. If MS-DOS finds an AUTOEXEC.BAT file in the root
directory, it executes the commands in that file.
If you are using an Apex Plus 20, Epson has included an
AUTOEXEC.BAT file in the root directory of your hard disk. It
contains these commands:
ECHO OFF
PATH C:\;C:\DOS;C:\BASIC
PROMPT SPSG
CLS
The first line instructs MS-DOS not to display the commands in
the batch file before executing them. The second line sets a
command search path; now MS-DOS automatically looks for
programs in the root directory (C:\), the DOS directory, and
the BASIC directory as well as the current directory. The third
3-32 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
third line changes the command prompt to display the current
directory as well as the current drive, and the fourth line clears
the screen.
Here are some other suggestions for commands you can include
in an AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
Modify the PATH command to include the directories
containing other software programs you commonly use.
Add the XTREE command to the end of the list of
commands so that you start each session within XTREE.
Add the SPEED command so your computer is running at
fast speed at startup.
Creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT file
You can create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file using any command or
program that lets you create a text-only file. If you have a word
processing program that can save a file as a text-only file (sometimes called an ASCII text file), you can use that program to
create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
The MS-DOS COPY command provides an easy way to create
an AUTOEXEC.BAT file. At the MS-DOS command prompt,
type the following and press Enter:
COPY CON: C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT
C : is the drive which will contain the AUTOEXEC.BAT file
you are creating. Type the commands you want to include in
the file exactly as you want MS-DOS to execute them. Press
Enter at the end of each line. After you type the last command,
press Enter to move the cursor to a blank line. Now press F6
and then Enter. COPY copies everything you entered (from
CON:, a special name for the keyboard) to the file
AUTOEXEC.BAT.
Using MS-DOS with Your Apex 3-33
3-34 Using MS-DOS with Your Apex
Chapter 4
Installing Option Cards
You can use your Apex in many additional ways by adding
option cards to its present configuration. Option cards are
accessories that provide extra capabilities to your Apex. For
example, you may want to install an internal modem so you can
communicate with another computer over the telephone, or a
video card that allows you to use an EGA monitor.
You can install up to five option cards in the Apex at one time,
but keep in mind that one position is always occupied by the
video card that operates your monitor. If you are using an
Apex Plus 20, a second position is occupied by a hard disk
controller card.
Option cards are available from Epson as well as other vendors.
In addition, multifunction boards (available from various
vendors) allow you to add multiple features using only a single
slot.
Before you install an option card in your computer, you need to
remove the cover from your computer. Remember that static
electricity can damage the computer’s circuitry. Therefore, be
careful when you remove the cover and install the option card.
This chapter describes how to remove and replace the
computer’s cover and install and remove an option card.
on
Installing Option Cards 4-1
Removing the Cover
To remove the cover, you’ll need a cross-head screwdriver.
Follow these steps:
WARNING
Never open the cover of the Apex while it is plugged into an
electrical outlet. Turn off the power switch to the computer,
then turn off any other peripheral devices connected to it. Wait
for a few seconds, then unplug the power cord before removing
the cover.
1.
If your monitor is on top of the computer, disconnect it
and move it to one side. Disconnect the keyboard and
your printer and set them out of the way, too.
2. The top cover is secured by two screws on either side of
the computer, as shown below. Remove the screws and
place them to one side. Turn the computer around so that
the back panel faces you.
3.
You’ll see that the cover is secured to the back panel with
one screw. Remove the screw and put it safely to one side.
4-2 Installing Option Cards
4.
Now tilt the cover up slightly from the back and push it
away from you and the computer.
5. Set the cover aside for now.
Inserting the Option Card
Now that the cover is off, you can place the option card in any
of the open option slots. Even though option cards are designed
to fit only one way, it is a good idea to examine the card first
and follow the instructions closely.
Installing Option Cards 4-3
1. Touch the power supply cover inside the computer to
discharge any static electricity that may be on your clothes
or body.
2.
Decide which option slot you want to use, then remove
the retaining screw from the metal cover plate at the back
of the slot. Lift out the metal cover and keep it in a safe
place to use later if you remove the option card. Keep the
screw close by; you’ll need it to secure the option card to
the computer.
4-4 Installing Option Cards
3.
Next, unpack the option card and read all instructions that
come with it. Adjust any switches or jumper connections
on the option card if necessary.
NOTE
Pay special attention to the warnings in your option card
instructions. Some devices have delicate CMOS chips that you
should not touch.
When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any
of the contacts on the circuit board, especially along
the gold edge connections. If you need to put the card
down before installing it, place it with the component side
(the chips and transistors) facing down on top of the
original packing.
4.
Grip the card firmly by the top corners. Keep the contact
pins pointing down and the components facing toward the
inside of the computer.
Installing Option Cards 4-5
5. Now, insert the card straight down into the slot. Slide the
tab at the bottom of the retaining bracket between the
back panel and the green main circuit board.
6. Once you have the connector pins sitting in the connector
slot, push down firmly (but carefully) to fully insert the
card. If you feel that the connector isn’t going in smoothly,
do not force it; pull it all the way out and try again. Be sure
to keep it straight.
7. When the card is properly inserted, secure the retaining
bracket to the frame of the computer with the small screw.
4-6 Installing Option Cards
Replacing the Cover
After you have installed the card, all you need to do is replace
the cover of the computer:
1. With the back of the computer still facing you, position
the cover over the computer with the front edge pointing
slightly downward.
2. Lower the cover onto the computer making sure that the
edges fit around the back panel.
3. Secure the cover by replacing the screw on the back of the
computer and the four screws on the sides of the top cover.
4. You can return the computer to its original position and
reconnect it to the monitor, the keyboard, and any other
peripherals you have.
5. Check to make sure the power switch is off before you
reconnect the power cord to the back of the computer
and then to an electrical outlet.
Installing Option Cards 4-7
Post-installation Setup
With the option card in place, your Apex may need a few
adjustments to accommodate its new configuration. If you have
already replaced the computer’s cover and reconnected the
power cord, you may now need to change your DIP switch
settings to reflect the new configuration. For example, if you
add an extra parallel interface, you need to change switch 2 so
the computer recognizes the additional interface. See Appendix
A for more information on DIP switch settings.
NOTE
When you change DIP switch settings, you must turn the
computer off, then turn it on for the setting to be in effect.
You may also need to add some commands to the configuration files on your system diskette as well. Your MS-DOS
reference manual provides you with instructions.
When you finish installing option cards and reconfiguring the
system, you should test the option if possible. Some option cards
come with their own diagnostic test programs.
Removing Option Cards
If you find that you need to remove an option card, first turn off
the computer and unplug the power cord, then detach any
cables connected to the option card. Disconnect the monitor
and keyboard, and remove the computer cover. Then check the
option card installation instructions and follow them in reverse.
Be sure to follow all the same safety instructions you did while
installing the card, and make sure you pull the card straight up
4-8 Installing Option Cards
and out of the connector to avoid damaging it. When the card is
removed, rewrap it (using the original packing materials) and
place it inside the packing box for safe storage. Next, replace the
metal access slot cover, and finally replace the computer’s cover.
When you have reassembled the computer, remember that you
may need to reset the computer’s DIP switches to properly configure your system.
Installing Option Cards 4-9
4-10 Installing Option Cards
Chapter 5
Trobleshooting
You should not encounter any serious difficulties as you set up
and use your Apex. But if anything out of the ordinary happens,
check this chapter for a solution. You can usually correct most
problems by adjusting a cable connection, repeating a software
procedure, or resetting the computer.
Use the suggestions in this chapter to help you solve most of
the problems that you may encounter. If the problem still exists,
call toll-free 1-800-922-891 1 for the location of your nearest
Epson Customer Care Center (24 hours a day, seven days a
week). You can also send any questions you have about the
Apex to Epson at the following address:
Epson America, Inc.
Product Support Department
23610 Telo Avenue
Torrance, CA 90505
When you contact Epson, please provide the serial number of
your computer, the configuration (Apex Plus or Apex Plus 20,
number of drives, type of monitor, option cards), and the
software you are using.
WARNING
If you need to turn off the computer for any reason, always wait
at least five seconds before turning it back on. You can damage
your computer if you turn it off and on rapidly.
Troubleshooting 5-1
The Computer Fails to Start Up
If your computer does not start up when you turn on the power
switch, follow these steps to find a solution:
1.
First, check to see if the power light on the front panel of
the main unit is on. If it is not, remove any diskettes you
have in the drives and turn off the power. Wait five
seconds, then turn the power back on.
2.
If the light still does not come on, turn off the power
switch again. This time check to see that the power cord is
securely connected to both the AC input-inlet on the back
panel and the electrical outlet. Then turn the power
switch on again.
3.
If the computer still does not start up, check the electrical
outlet. To do this, plug a portable lamp into the outlet you
are using for your computer, and turn it on to see if the
outlet supplies power.
The Video Display Does Not Appear
If your computer starts up (the power light on the main unit is
on) but you don’t see any images on the screen, follow these
steps to find a solution:
1.
First, check to see that the monitor’s power switch is on
and the power indicator on the monitor is lit. If the power
is on but you don’t see the indicator light, turn off the
monitor’s power switch, wait five seconds, then turn the
power back on. Wait a few seconds to see if the screen
displays any text.
5-2 Troubleshooting
2.
If the display doesn’t appear on the screen, use the
controls on the monitor to adjust the brightness and
contrast of the display.
3.
Check DIP switches 3 and 4 on the back panel of the main
unit to make sure they are set correctly for your video card.
If you need to adjust a DIP switch, turn off your computer,
make the adjustment, and then turn on the power.
4.
Remove any diskettes you have in your disk drives, then
turn off the computer. Check to see that the monitor’s
power cord is securely connected to its power outlet, and
that the monitor cable is properly connected to both the
monitor and the correct option slot on the back panel.
Then turn both power switches back on.
5.
Finally, you can check the electrical outlet for power. Turn
off your monitor. Then plug a portable lamp into the
monitor’s outlet, and turn it on to see if it supplies power.
The Computer Locks Up
If the computer “locks up” and does not respond to the keyboard, try the following:
1.
Wait a few seconds. Remember that some operations take
longer to perform than others, and your computer may still
be performing an internal function. For example; a spreadsheet program takes quite a bit longer to recalculate an
entire spreadsheet than to record one figure. Also,
GW-BASIC programs with many calculations to perform
can take several minutes, or even hours to complete. Be
aware of the task the computer is performing and judge the
time accordingly.
Troubleshooting 5-3
2.
If the computer remains locked up after you’ve allowed a
reasonable amount of time, follow the steps in Chapter 2
under “Resetting the Computer.”
Diskette Problems
If you have trouble with one of your diskettes, read the following questions to see if they apply to the problem:
1.
Is the diskette damaged? To find out, copy the diskette and
repeat the operation that caused the problem using the
copy you just made. (If you have trouble copying the
entire diskette, some of the sectors may be bad. Try to
copy one file at a time with the COPY command.) If the
operation works using the copy diskette, the original
diskette is probably damaged. Make another copy to use as
a backup.
2.
Have you inserted the right type of diskette? Your Apex
uses 5 l/4-inch, double-sided, double-density, 48 TPI,
soft-sectored diskettes.
3.
Is the diskette write-protected? There may be a writeprotect tab over the notch on the side of the diskette,
which means that you can’t write data to this diskette.
Before you remove the tab, check the diskette directory
to determine what files it contains. If it contains information you do not want to change or lose, leave it writeprotected. Although you should normally write-protect all
program diskettes, some programs store temporary files on
the diskette and do not work if you write-protect the
diskette. See Chapter 2 for information about writeprotecting diskettes.
5-4 Troubleshooting
Hard Disk Problems
If you have problems with your hard disk when you first start to
use it, make sure it has been set up properly. First check to see if
you can boot from the hard disk.
1.
Can you boot from your hard disk? You may be missing one
of the MS-DOS system files needed to boot from the hard
disk. Turn off your computer. Insert a working copy of the
MS-DOS system diskette into drive A and turn your
computer on to boot from the diskette. Then log on to
your hard disk drive and make sure you have the file
COMMAND.COM in the root directory of your hard disk.
If not, use the COPY command to copy COMMAND.COM
from the diskette to the hard disk, and then restart your
system. If you do, use the COMP command to compare the
COMMAND.COM file on your diskette with the
COMMAND.COM file on your hard disk.
2.
If COMMAND.COM is okay, you may be missing
IBMBIO.COM or IBMDOS.COM from the root directory
of your hard disk (these two files are hidden files that do
not display when you list the files in the root directory
using the DIR command). To copy these system files from
your MS-DOS system diskette to the root directory of the
hard disk, log on to the diskette drive, type the following
command, and press Enter:
SYS C:
3.
If you can boot from a diskette, but cannot access data
stored on your hard disk, you may have accidentally repartitioned or reformatted part or all of the disk. Use the
FDISK program to see if your hard disk has a bootable
(active) DOS partition on it. If it doesn’t, use FDISK to
create one. If it does have a bootable DOS partition, then
try reformatting your hard disk using FORMAT or
SELECT. Reformatting destroys all the data currently on
your hard disk, so do this only after careful consideration.
Troubleshooting 5-5
4.
If reformatting the hard disk using FORMAT or SELECT
doesn’t work, you can try to prepare the hard disk as if it
were a new, unformatted hard disk using the HDFMTALL
program. See Appendix B, “Preparing a Hard Disk For
Use,” for instructions.
As a last resort, have an Authorized Epson Customer Care
Center check your hard disk. Never open the airtight container
that encloses the recording disk.
Software Problems
If you are having trouble with a software program, check the
following possible problems and solutions:
1.
The software program does not start. Check to be sure you
are following the correct procedure for an MS-DOS application. Make sure you inserted the application diskette in
the top drive.
2.
An application routine does not work. Check the application software manual and try the routine again according
to the instructions. If this does not work, reset the
computer, reload the program, and try the routine again.
Remember, some programs require the computer to run at
4.77MHz or 9.54MHz. Try changing the CPU operating speed
by holding down the Ctrl and Alt keys and pressing the slash (/)
key. See “Selecting Execution Speed” in Chapter 2.
5-6 Troubleshooting
Printer Problems
Your printer manual describes methods to solve most of your
printer problems. However, if your printer does not work
correctly right after you install it, check to make sure the printer
has power and is properly connected to the computer. If you
need additional help, the printer manual gives detailed instructions on how to connect your printer.
If you have printing problems, check the printer manual for the
printer’s correct DIP switch settings. The DIP switches on a
printer help it communicate properly with the computer and
you may need to make an adjustment for your configuration.
Be sure your software is set up for your printer.
Option Card Problems
If you install an option card and get unexpected results, check
the following:
1.
Is the option card installed correctly? Check the setup and
operation procedures in the option card instructions.
2.
Did you set the necessary DIP switches or jumpers on the
option card? See your option card instructions for these
settings.
3.
Did you set the necessary DIP switches on the main unit
(as required by your option card)? See “Setting the DIP
Switches” in Appendix A.
4.
If you added an external device to your Apex, did you use
the proper cable to connect the peripheral to the port or
option card connector on the back panel?
Troubleshooting 5-7
5.
Did you perform any necessary post-installation setup
procedures for the operating system? If you did, check your
MS-DOS reference manual to see that you properly
followed the instructions in your option card manual.
Expanding Your System
Q: Can I use other types of diskette drives with the Apex?
A: Half-height, 720KB 3 l/2-inch diskette drives and
1.2MB 5 l/4-inch high-density diskette drives are not
supported.
Q: Can I install a math coprocessor chip? What type do I
need?
A: A math coprocessor chip is an option that speeds up the
math functions used in many spreadsheet and mathintensive software applications. You can buy the chip at
electronic parts retailers and computer stores (Epson
America, Inc. does not supply them). An 8087-1 math
coprocessor chip which runs at 10MHz is recommended
for use with the Apex computer. The math coprocessor
is installed in the socket provided on the Apex CPU
board.
Q: What other monitors are compatible with the Apex? Is it
possible to use a television set?
A: IBM-PC compatible RGB color or TTL monochrome
monitors work with the multi-graphics adapter card
provided with the Apex computer.
IBM compatible Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)
monitors can also be used if an EGA video board is
installed (available from computer dealers).
5-8 Troubleshooting
Composite monochrome monitors can be used if a
composite video board is installed (available from
computer dealers). The multi-graphics adapter card
supplied with the Apex does not support composite
monitors.
A standard television set cannot be used with the Apex,
although there are some new TV sets being manufactured that can also be used as computer monitors with
the proper interface card. Check with your dealer.
Q: Will my Apex work in foreign countries?
A: The Apex computer can be used in both the United
States and internationally simply by selecting the
appropriate input voltage with the voltage selection
switch located on the rear of the unit. The Apex will
operate on either 115VAC or 230VAC at 50/60 Hz
power. Use a hard, thin object, such as a small screwdriver, to slide the switch to the appropriate setting.
Check the specifications of your other system components such as the monitor and printer before using them
in foreign countries.
Q: What kind of mouse works with the Apex?
A: There are many IBM-PC compatible mice that work
with the Apex. Some come with their own interface
boards which must be installed in an option slot, such as
the Microsoft bus mouse. A serial mouse like the
Microsoft serial mouse can be connected to the serial
port. See your local computer dealer for more
information.
Troubleshooting 5-9
Q: What kind of joystick can I use with the Apex? Where do
I connect it?
A: There are many IBM-compatible joysticks and some
have different types of connectors. Make sure the
joystick connector matches the connector type on the
board you are using. An IBM-compatible joystick such
as the Kraft® Premium III Joystick with a 15 pin IBM
compatible connector must be used with the connector on
the multi-graphics adapter card.
5-10 Troubleshooting
Appendix A
Setting the DIP Switches
The DIP switch settings on the Apex provide your computer
with information about its configuration. Each time you turn on
your Apex, it checks the settings to determine the type of
monitor and the type of interfaces in use. The DIP switches are
located on the back panel of your main unit:
These switches are preset for you by the manufacturer. However,
read this appendix to become familiar with the DIP switch
settings and to check that the settings match your system’s
setup. If you add optional devices to your system, you may need
to alter the DIP switch settings.
NOTE
Set the DIP switches only while your computer is off. Software
programs check the settings only when you turn on the Apex, so
changing the settings while a program is running has no effect.
The Apex has four DIP switches. To turn a DIP switch on or off,
use a hard, thin object, such as a small screwdriver, to flip the
switch to the appropriate setting.
Setting the DIP Switches A-1
This table lists functions controlled by each DIP switch:
Function
1
Serial (RS232-C) port
COM1 primary *
OFF
COM2 secondary ON
Parallel port
LPT1 primary l
LPT2 secondary
Video type
40x25 color
80x25 color l
80x25 mono
Special settings
2
3
4
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
*Factory setting
Switch 1 (serial port)
Switch 1 tells the computer how to access the built-in serial
port, as follows:
The built-in serial port functions as either the primary or
secondary serial port. You may decide to install an option
card that has its own serial port. Make sure you set the DIP
switch or jumper on the option card as well as the DIP
switch on the Apex so there is no conflict between the
built-in serial port and the added card.
If you install an option card that has only a serial port, you
must set the DIP switches to designate this as the secondary port and leave the built-in port as the primary port.
MS-DOS needs to know the number of serial ports you
have. If MS-DOS searches the system for a serial port and
finds only one, it names it COM1:. If it finds two serial
ports, it names the primary port COM1: and the secondary
port COM2:.
A-2 Setting the DIP Switches
Switch 2 (parallel port)
Switch 2 tells the computer how to access the built-in parallel
port, as follows:
The built-in parallel port functions as either the primary or
secondary parallel port. You may decide to install an
option card that has its own parallel port. Make sure you
set the DIP switch or jumper on the option card as well as
the DIP switch on the Apex so that there is no conflict
between the built-in parallel port and the added card.
If you install an option card that has only a parallel port,
you must set the DIP switches to designate this as the
secondary port and leave the built-in port as the primary
port.
MS-DOS needs to know the number of parallel ports you
have. If MS-DOS searches the system for a parallel port
and finds only one, it names it LPTl:. If it finds two
parallel ports, it names the primary port LPTl: and the
secondary port LPT2:.
Switches 3 and 4 (monitor and adapter type)
These switches define the type of video card and monitor you
are using and help the system address the adapter memory
correctly. The factory setting is 80x25 color for a CGA color
graphics monitor. If you are using a monochrome monitor, set
the DIP switch for 80x25 mono. If you are using an EGA or
VGA monitor, set the DIP switches for special settings. If you
install a different video card, follow the instructions included
with your card.
Setting the DIP Switches A-3
NOTE
The Apex computer can automatically detect the correct video
mode for the connected monitor and make the appropriate
adjustments regardless of the current DIP switch settings.
However, to ensure complete compatibility between your
computer, video card, and monitor, you should set the
computer’s DIP switches for the correct monitor.
A-4 Setting the DIP Switches
Appendix B
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
The Apex Plus 20 comes with a preformatted hard disk that has
MS-DOS and GW-BASIC already loaded and ready to use. You
do not need to format this hard disk drive unless you have a
serious problem with it.
If you encounter signs of a hard disk problem when booting
MS-DOS, run the Non-destructive surface analysis test (option
4 on the HARD DISK FORMAT MENU) to make sure that
formatting is absolutely necessary. If errors occur during this
test, back up your disk, and run the Conditional format followed
by Destructive surface analysis. These tests are described below.
There are several steps to preparing an unformatted hard disk
drive for use with MS-DOS. First, you format the hard disk drive
to accept data. After the hard disk is formatted, you partition
and format it for a particular operating system. Formatting
destroys all data on the hard disk, in all partitions, so follow this
procedure with extreme care.
After the disk is partitioned and formatted for MS-DOS, you
can copy your programs onto it, and then reorder the files into
an efficient working arrangement.
This chapter shows you how to use the following MS-DOS
commands to prepare a hard disk:
l
HDFMTALL lets you check your hard disk for the location
of bad sectors and format it to accept data.
FDISK reserves all or part of your hard disk for use by
MS-DOS.
SELECT formats your hard disk to receive MS-DOS files
and installs MS-DOS on your disk.
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-1
MKDIR and COPY let you move the files on your hard disk
into the recommended arrangement.
COPY lets you create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file to
automatically execute the PATH command so you can keep
the MS-DOS commands and the GW-BASIC program in a
separate directory from the rest of your program and data
files.
Using HDFMTALL
To format or check the integrity of the hard disk, run the
MS-DOS HDFMTALL command.
After you install a new hard disk drive, run HDFMTALL and
choose option 1, Conditional format (Normal). After formatting, you need to partition and format the hard disk for your
operating system(s). Follow the procedures described in this
chapter to partition and format your hard disk for MS-DOS, or
see your MS-DOS reference manual for complete details.
Formatting and checking options
Use the HDFMTALL command to check or format the hard
disk drive. Insert your MS-DOS system diskette into drive A,
and at the command prompt, type the following and press
Enter:
HDFMTALL
B-2 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
You see a menu of formatting and checking options:
HARD DISK FORMAT MENU
1 - Conditional format (Normal)
2 - Unconditional format
3 - Destructive surface analysis
4 - Non-destructive surface analysis
0 - Exit
Enter selection number:
The first two options format a hard disk. Normally, you use
option 1, Conditional format (Normal). This option automatically locates any bad tracks that are flagged by the manufacturer
and marks them so that they cannot be used. Option 2, Unconditional format, requires you to enter the list of bad tracks.
The other two options test a hard disk for problems. Use option
3, Destructive surface analysis, to test the entire disk and update
the bad track table. Because this option writes data to the disk
as well as reads it, it destroys all data on tracks that produce
errors. To check for unflagged bad tracks without destroying
data, use option 4, Non-destructive surface analysis.
Many hard disk drives are supplied with a list of bad tracks.
These drives may also have the bad track list printed on a
sticker attached to the disk, but do not have the bad tracks
flagged on the disk. Other hard disks are supplied with the bad
tracks already flagged. The hard disk that comes with the
Apex Plus 20 has all its bad tracks flagged at the factory.
In all cases, run Non-destructive surface analysis before
formatting the hard disk drive; this routine finds all bad
tracks that are not flagged.
If the analysis shows that all tracks listed as bad are already
flagged, you can then use the Conditional format (Normal)
option to format the disk. If the analysis matches the list of bad
tracks, but they are not flagged, run the Destructive surface
analysis (to flag the tracks) before formatting the disk. If the list
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-3
provided by the drive manufacturer contains bad tracks that the
analysis does not detect, you can use the Unconditional format
option to flag all the bad tracks manually.
When you select an option from the HARD DISK FORMAT
MENU, the program determines the number of hard disk drives
installed in your computer. If you have more than one drive,
each time you select an option you see this prompt:
Enter drive letter (C/D)?
Press C or D, and then press Enter.
If you have only one hard disk drive, the option you select starts
immediately.
Conditional format (normal)
Use this option to format the hard disk. All flagged tracks are
marked so that they are never used.
To start the Conditional format, press 1 and then Enter.
The program starts to scan the disk to find all tracks flagged as
bad, starting from the innermost cylinder of the disk. During the
scan, you see the number of the cylinder being checked. For
example, if you have a 20MB hard disk, the first messages you
see are:
Format Hard Disk
Scanning for flagged bad tracks...
Current cylinder is 614
B-4 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
When the scan is complete, the program displays information
about the condition of the disk. For a 20MB hard disk with no
bad tracks, the display looks like this:
Scanning
Count of
Count of
Count of
finished.
= 0
tracks flagged bad
tracks with other errors = 0
= 0
good tracks
The program then displays a warning about the consequences of
proceeding with formatting:
WARNING! ALL DATA WILL BE DESTROYED IN
ALL PARTITIONS OF HARD DISK, NOT JUST IN
MS-DOS PARTITION!
Do you want to start formatting (Y/N)?
If there are no other tracks with other errors and you are
absolutely sure that you want to format the hard disk, press Y
then Enter.
The program then asks you once more if you want to continue.
You see this message and prompt:
DOUBLE CHECK THAT YOU HAVE BACKUP
DISKETTE COPIES OF ALL YOUR FILES.
Do you want to exit and check your file
copies (Y/N)?
When you are certain that you won’t lose any valuable data,
press N and Enter.
If you cancel formatting at either stage, you see these messages:
Format cancelled.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
If you continue with formatting, you see:
Now formatting . . .
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-5
When formatting is complete, any bad tracks are flagged, and
you see a series of messages like these:
Format finished
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is xxxx, head is yy
Format completed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Flagged tracks are identified by xxxx and yy. At this point, press
Enter to return to the HARD DISK FORMAT MENU.
If there are any tracks with other errors, scanning stops and you
see these messages:
Scanning cancelled.
Warning: This drive has an unflagged
error(s), or is unformatted.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press Enter.
This may mean that the drive has never been formatted or that
an error was not flagged. If you want to format the disk after
receiving this error message, do the following:
1.
If the drive is not formatted, run the Unconditional format
(option 2) and enter any tracks you know are bad in the
Bad Track Table. (See “Unconditional format” below.)
2.
Run the Destructive surface analysis (option 3) to flag any
remaining bad tracks. (See “Destructive surface analysis”
below.)
3.
Run the Conditional format again. No errors should occur;
if one does, contact the store where you purchased your
computer or call the toll-free Epson number for the location
of your nearest Authorized Epson Customer Care Center.
B-6 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
Unconditional format
You can also use this option to format your hard disk. The difference between unconditional and conditional formatting is
how bad tracks are identified. The unconditional format requires you to enter a list of bad tracks before formatting begins.
To start the Unconditional format, press 2 and then Enter.
You are first given the option to change the interleave factor for
formatting from the default value of three. Only do this if the
documentation with your hard disk recommends a different
value. The hard disk that comes with the Apex Plus 20 uses the
default value of three. You see this prompt:
Do you want default interleave of 3
(Y/N) ?
To accept the default, press Y and Enter. To change the value,
press N and Enter. You see this prompt:
Enter interleave factor (1-16):
Type the recommended value and press Enter. Next, enter the
list of bad tracks. The empty bad track table looks like this:
Bad Track Table
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Heed I
Move highlighted area to desired track with cursor keys.
A - Add track, F - Finish editing
Enter command letter:
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-7
To add a bad track, follow these steps:
1.
Press A. You see this prompt:
Enter cylinder number (1 - xxxx)
2.
Type the number of the cylinder containing the missing bad
track, and press Enter. You see this prompt:
Enter head number (0 - yy):
3.
Type the head number for the bad track, and press Enter.
The maximum valid cylinder and head numbers
(xxxx and yy) vary according to the type of hard disk.
To cancel this operation, press Enter without entering a value.
You see this message:
Table unchanged.
If you enter an invalid cylinder or head number, a reminder of
the range of values is displayed, and the program asks you to
enter the value again. When you complete a valid entry, it
appears in the table, and you can select another command.
If you make a mistake, move the cursor block to the incorrect
track, and press C to change the track data. Or, press D to
delete the track from the table. If you need to correct the track
data you just entered, follow the procedure for adding a track.
When you have finished editing, check the entries in the table
once more. When you are sure the table is correct, press F.
The program displays a warning about the consequences of
proceeding with formatting. The remaining steps are exactly
the same as for a normal conditional format.
B-8 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
Destructive surface analysis
Use this option to accurately locate any bad tracks on a hard
disk, and to flag any bad tracks that are not flagged.
WARNING
If any errors occur during this check, all data on the track that
produces the error is destroyed. For this reason, if you think that
an unflagged bad track is causing trouble, first run option 4,
Non-destructive surface analysis, to check the disk surface.
This test operates by a complex process of writing, reading, and
verifying information on every track of the hard disk, except for
tracks that are already flagged as bad tracks.
To start the test, press 3 and then Enter. You see these
messages:
Analyze Hard Disk
Read/Save/Write/Read/Restore/Read
check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is xxxx
As each track is checked, the cylinder number (xxxx) counts
down to zero. When the analysis is complete, the program
displays a complete report on the status of the disk, including a
table of unflagged tracks that produced write, read errors. For a
20MB hard disk with one unflagged bad track, you see this
display:
Analysis finished.
=1
Count of tracks flagged bad
Count of tracks with write, read errors=0
=2459
Count of good tracks
No write, read error was detected.
No data was destroyed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
If the program finds one bad track that is not flagged, the summary above shows one track with a write, read error, and only
2458 good tracks. The report is then followed by a table like
this:
Cylinder Head
Write, Road Error Trackn
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
237
2
Confirm
to register the tracks in the Write, Read Error
Track Table as bad tracks.
Do you want to register the error tracks as bad tracks (Y/N)
To flag the error tracks as bad, press Y and Enter. You then see
a list of the tracks as they are flagged. You see these messages:
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is 237, head is 2
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press Enter to return to the HARD DISK FORMAT MENU.
Non-destructive surface analysis
The Non-destructive surface analysis is not as complex as the
Destructive surface analysis. It does not destroy any data, and
you can safely use it to check the condition of your hard disk
drives. However, this test will not flag any bad tracks that are
detected.
To start the test, press 4 and then Enter. You see these
messages:
Analyze Hard Disk
Read/Verify check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is xxxx
B-10
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
As each track is checked, the current cylinder is displayed. The
cylinder number counts down to zero as the disk is checked.
When the analysis is complete, the program displays a summary
of the status of the disk. This summary lists these counts:
Flagged bad tracks
Tracks with read, verify errors
Good tracks.
If no errors occur, you see this message:
No read, verify error was detected.
If errors are found, the program displays a table of the tracks that
produced errors.
After the status reports, you see this message:
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Check the information displayed, then press Enter.
Using FDISK
FDISK partitions a hard disk so it can run the operating system
you want to use. Follow these steps to partition your hard disk
for MS-DOS:
1.
If you have not already done so, insert your MS-DOS
system diskette into drive A and press Enter. The MS-DOS
command prompt displays:
A>
2.
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type FDISK and press
Enter. The screen displays the FDISK Options menu.
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-11
3.
Press 1 and then Enter to select the Create DOS Partition
option. The screen displays:
Create DOS Partition
Do you wish to use the entire fixed
disk for DOS (Y/N) . . . . . . . . . . . .?[Y]
4.
Press Y and Enter. The system creates the MS-DOS
partition.
The screen displays the following message:
System will now restart
Insert DOS diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...
5.
Press any key to restart the system. You do not have to
insert any diskettes because the DOS diskette is already in
drive A. Your computer begins reloading MS-DOS. After
the preliminary copyright information displays on the
screen, the date prompt displays.
6.
Press Enter twice to accept the current date and time.
(Don’t worry about entering the correct date and time;
you’ll set the real time clock in a later step.) The A> prompt
redisplays.
B-12 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
Using SELECT
SELECT formats your hard disk and copies the files on your
MS-DOS system diskette to it. You’ll tell SELECT that you
want to copy the MS-DOS files to a directory called DOS.
Follow these steps to use SELECT:
1.
If you have not already done so, insert your MS-DOS
system diskette into the top drive. Press Enter. The
MS-DOS system prompt displays:
A>
2. At the A> prompt, type the following and press Enter:
SELECT A: C:\DOS 001 US
The screen displays this message:
SELECT is used to install DOS the first
time. SELECT erases everything on the
specified target and then installs DOS.
Do you want to continue (Y/N)?
3. Press Y. Formatting does not begin immediately. SELECT
gives you one more chance to change your mind. The
screen displays this message:
WARNING, ALL DATA ON NON-REMOVABLE DISK
DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST!
Proceed with Format (Y/N)?
4. Press Y to format the DOS partition. MS-DOS begins
formatting your hard disk’s DOS partition. The screen
continuously displays the changing head and cylinder
numbers.
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-13
Besides formatting the hard disk partition, SELECT also
creates a directory named DOS and copies the operating
system files to the hard disk.
When the procedure is complete, the screen displays:
Format complete
System transferred
Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for
none)?
5. To name the hard disk (or, as the prompt says, give it a
volume label), type in an 11-character string. If you do not
want to name the hard disk, do not enter any characters;
just press Enter.
Now you have formatted your hard disk and installed MS-DOS
on it.
Finishing Your Installation
When you ran SELECT, you copied all the MS-DOS files on
your system diskette into a directory called DOS on the hard
disk.
You should perform a few additional operations to organize
MS-DOS into an efficient working arrangement:
Copy the files from your GW-BASIC diskette onto the hard
disk
Set the real time clock
Create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file so that you can easily
access the MS-DOS and GW-BASIC programs while you
work.
B-14 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
Follow these steps to complete your installation:
1.
Insert the working copy of the GW-BASIC diskette into
drive A. At the A> prompt, type the following and press
Enter:
COPY *.* C:\DOS
This copies all the files from the diskette into the directory
called DOS on the hard disk drive. The computer displays
the name of each file it copies, and then tells you how many
files it copied. The A> prompt redisplays.
2.
To create a directory on your hard disk named BASIC,
type the following and press Enter:
MKDIR C:\BASIC
3.
Now type the following command to create a copy of the
GW-BASIC program within that directory, and press Enter:
COPY C:\DOS\GWBASIC.EXE C:\BASIC
4.
Type the following command to delete the GW-BASIC
program from the DOS directory, and press Enter.
DEL C:\DOS\GWBASIC.EXE
Now you’ll set the real time clock. This is a battery powered
clock in your computer that maintains the correct date and
time even if the computer is turned off.
5.
To set the real time clock, type the following and press
Enter:
SETRTC /I
Follow the prompts to set the date and time. Press Enter
when you are done.
Preparing a Hard Disk For Use B-15
6.
Next, you’ll create a file called AUTOEXEC.BAT. Type
the following and press Enter at the end of each line:
COPY CON: C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT
ECHO OFF
PATH C:\;\DOS;\BASIC
PROMPT $P$G
CLS
7.
Press F6 and then Enter. The computer displays this
message:
1 File(s) copied
and the A> prompt redisplays.
8.
Remove the GW-BASIC diskette from drive A. To reset
the computer, hold down Ctrl and Alt and press Del.
You have completed formatting your hard disk and installing
MS-DOS and GW-BASIC.
B-16 Preparing a Hard Disk For Use
Appendix C
Specifications
Main Unit
8-bit CPU
8088-1 microprocessor; 4.77MHz or
9.54MHz clock rate; keyboard selectable
Main. memory
512 KB; expandable to 640 KB
Math coprocessor
8087-1 microprocessor (optional)-for
use at 4.77M/9.54Hz
8087-2 microprocessor (optional)--for
use at 4.77MHz only
Interfaces
Parallel interface
Standard 8-bit parallel, 25-pin, D-shell
female
Serial interface
25-pin, D-shell male
Speaker interface
Internal, non-adjustable
Option slots
Five IBM PC-compatible, 8-bit, inputoutput expansion slots (one used by
video card; one used by hard disk controller card, if a hard disk is installed)
Keyboard
Detachable, two positions, 84 sculpted
keys
Layout
56-key QWERTY main keyboard, 18key numeric/cursor pad, 10 function
keys (user-definable); LEDs for lock
keys
Function keys
Three levels (normal/shift/alternate);
user-definable
Specifications
C-1
Mass Storage
Two internal drives maximum
Standard
Two 5 l/4-inch, half-height diskette
drives; double-sided, double-density,
360 KB storage capacity
Optional
One 5 l/4-inch, half-height diskette
drive; double-sided, double-density,
360 KB storage capacity; one 20 MB
internal hard disk drive
Power Requirements
88W switching mode power supply
115/230 VAC switch selectable
+5 VDC, +12 VDC, -5 VDC,
-12VDC; 50/60 Hz
Environmental Requirements
Temperature
Operating range:
59° to 95° F
(15° to 35° C)
Non-operating range: -4° to 140° F
(-20° to 60° C)
Humidity
Operating range: 20% to 80%
non-condensing
Non-operating range: 10% to 90%
non-condensing
Physical Characteristics (CPU Only)
Width
13.8” (356 mm)
Depth
15.4” (395 mm)
Height
5.8” (148 mm)
Weight
Dual diskette system, 20.9 lbs. (9.5 kg)
C-2 Specifications
Video and Display Options
Standard
Multi-graphics video card; switchselectable; installed in option slot; game
port included
Supports Epson and IBM-compatible
monochrome monitor: monochrome
text, 80-character x 25-line display,
9 x 14-character block
Supports Epson and IBM-compatible
color monitor: color graphics,
40-character x 25-line display (lowresolution text), 80-character x 25-line
display (high-resolution text),
640 x 200 (high-resolution graphics),
320 x 200, four colors; 160 x 200, eight
colors, and Hercules® (monochrome)
720 x 348 text/graphics
Other Apex Options
Check with the store where you purchased your Apex computer
for the following options:
Monitors
RGB 13” color monitor with tilt swivel
stand. High-contrast screen; 16 colors;
etched surface to reduce glare; 18MHz
video bandwidth (AP1020B)
TTL 12” monochrome monitor with tilt
swivel stand. High-persistence, P-39
phosphor screen; etched surface to
reduce glare; 22 MHz video bandwidth;
35w
Specification
C-3
Printers and
printer accessories
ActionPrinters by Epson
Apex80
9-pin, 80-column, dot-matrix printer;
(180 cps draft/30 cps near letter quality)
(U110)
Black ribbon (8750)
Single bin cut sheet feeder
(7341A)
T-750
9-pin, 136-column, dot-matrix printer;
(240 cps draft/48 cps near letter quality)
Black ribbon (8755)
L-1000
24-pin, 80-column, dot-matrix printer;
(180 cps draft/60 cps near letter quality)
Black ribbon (7753)
Single bin cut sheet feeder
(7341A)
Optional letter quality font
modules:
Courier (7400A)
Prestige (7401A)
Script (7402A)
Universal printer stand
(CPD-552-A)
Printer cable (C1-9E-A)
C-4 Specifications
Computer
accessories
Internal 300/1200 baud modem
card (C203A-A)
External 300/l200 baud modem
(C202A-A)
Specifications C-5
C-6 Specifications
Glossary
Application program
A software program designed to perform a specific task, such as a
word processing or spreadsheet program.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A
standardized coding system for representing characters, such as
numbers, letters, and graphic symbols. An ASCII character
occupies one byte of storage. Files transmitted in ASCII code
can be used by many different computers, printers, and
programs.
Asynchronous
A method of data transmission in which one machine sends
data one character at a time to another, without either machine
preparing for the transmission.
Backup
An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, kept in case your
working copy is damaged or lost.
Batch file
A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files with
the filename extension .BAT. In a batch file, each command is
entered on a separate line. When you type the filename, all the
commands in that file are executed sequentially.
Baud rate
A measure of the speed of data transmission. Usually equivalent
to bits per second.
Bit
A binary digit (0 or l). The smallest unit of computer storage.
The value of a bit represents the presence (1) or absence (0) of
an electric charge.
Glossary 1
Boot
To load a program or an operating system.
Byte
A sequence or group of eight bits that represents one character.
CGA
Color/graphics adapter. A type of color monitor that can
display up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters on each line, or
monochrome graphics with a 640 x 200 resolution. The monitor can display four-color graphics at 320 x 200 resolution and
eight-color graphics at 160 x 200 resolution.
Character
Anything that can print in a single space on the page or the
screen. Includes numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and
graphic symbols.
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A method of
making silicon chips.
Code
A system of symbols for representing data or instructions. Also
any software program or part of a program.
Command
An instruction you enter on a keyboard to direct the computer
to perform a specific function.
Command prompt
The message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and ready to
receive instructions. The default command prompt in MS-DOS
also displays the current operating drive; if it is drive A, the
command prompt looks like this: A>. See also Prompt.
Configuration
The particular setup of a group of components. For example, a
typical system configuration consists of a main unit with two
diskette drives and a monitor, connected to a printer.
2 Glossary
Control code
A command (generated when you hold down Ctrl and press
another key on the keyboard) that instructs the computer to
perform a specific function.
CPU
Central Processing Unit. The piece of hardware that interprets
instructions, performs the tasks you indicate, keeps track of
stored data, and controls all input and output operations.
Current directory
The directory you are working in.
Cursor
The highlighted marker that shows your position on the screen
and moves as you enter and delete data.
Cylinder
See Track.
Data
Information stored or processed by a computer.
Data diskette
A formatted diskette used to store files.
Data length
The number of bits per character in serial transmissions.
Default
Values or settings that take effect when the computer is turned
on or reset. A default value stays in effect unless you override it
temporarily by changing a setting or you reset the default value
itself.
Delimiter
A character or space used to separate different parts of an
MS-DOS command, usually a space or a semicolon.
Glossary 3
Device
A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and
performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a
printer.
DIP switches
Small switches on a piece of hardware such as the computer, an
option card, or a printer. DIP switch settings control various
functions and provide a system with information about itself.
DIP stands for Dual In-line Package.
Directory
A list of the files stored on a disk or a part of a disk.
Disk
The collective term for diskettes and hard disks.
Disk drive
The physical device that allows the computer to read from and
write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which you
insert a diskette. A hard disk is permanently fixed inside the
main unit.
Diskette
A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material
and used to store data permanently. Also called floppy disk.
DOS
The Disk Operating System that controls the computer’s input
and output functions. See Operating system.
Double-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store twice as much
data as the standard-density format. A double-density diskette
for the Apex has a storage capacity of 360KB.
4 Glossary
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A type of high-resolution color
monitor. It can display up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters
on each line. It can also display monochrome or 16-color
graphics at 640 x 350 resolution.
Execution speed
See Operating speed.
Extension
A suffix of up to three characters that can be added to a file
name to better identify it.
File
A group of related pieces of information called records, or
entries, stored together on a disk. Text files consist of words and
sentences. Program files consist of code and are used by computers to interpret and carry out instructions.
File name
A name of up to eight characters that MS-DOS uses to identify
a file.
Floppy disk
See Diskette.
Format
To prepare a new disk (or erase an old one) so that it can store
information. Formatting a disk divides it into tracks and sectors
and creates addressable locations on it.
Graphics
Lines, angles, curves, and other nonalphanumeric data.
GW-BASIC
Microsoft’s extended version of the Beginner’s All-purpose
Symbolic Instruction Code. A programming language designed
to be easy to use and understand.
Glossary 5
Hard disk
The enclosed unit used to store data permanently. Unlike a
diskette, it is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly and
store many more files than a diskette.
Hardware
Any physical component of a computer system, such as a
monitor, printer, keyboard, or CPU.
Hexadecimal
A base 16 numbering system frequently used by programmers.
Any decimal number between 0 and 255 can be represented by
a two-digit hexadecimal number.
High-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store more data
than normal. A 5 l/4-inch high-density diskette can store
1.2MB of data. High density diskette drives are not supported
by the Apex disk controller.
Input/output (I/O) port
See Port.
Interface
A physical or software connection used to transmit data between equipment or programs.
Joystick
A pointing device that uses a moveable stick mounted in a
socket. When you push the stick in a certain direction, the
cursor moves in the same direction on the screen.
Keyboard
A device to enter letters and numbers to the computer that
consists of a number of typewriter-like keys mounted on a
board.
Kilobyte (KB)
A unit used to measure storage space (in a computer’s memory
or on a disk). One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes.
6 Glossary
LED
Light Emitting Diode. A substance that illuminates when
electricity passes through it, like the indicator lights above the
Apex’s keyboard.
Main unit
The Apex computer.
Megabyte (MB)
A unit used to measure storage space (in a computer’s memory
or on a disk). One megabyte equals 1,048,576 bytes.
Megahertz (MHz)
A unit used to measure oscillation frequency (of a computer’s
internal timing clock). A megahertz is one million cycles per
second. The Apex computer operates at 4.77 MHz and 9.54
MHz.
Memory
The area where the computer stores data. Memory contents can
be permanent and inalterable (ROM) or temporary (RAM).
MGA
Multi-graphics adapter. A type of video card that can be operated with more than one kind of monitor. The multi-graphic
video card that comes with the Apex operates a TTL monochrome monitor or a color/graphics monitor.
Microprocessor
A small version of a CPU contained on one semiconductor
chip.
Modem
A device that allows a computer to transmit signals over telephone lines so it can send and receive data. Modem stands for
Modulator/DEModulator.
Monitor
The piece of hardware that contains the screen and displays
information.
Glossary 7
Monochrome monitor
A monitor that displays in only one color, such as green or
amber, as opposed to a color monitor which can display in
several colors.
Mouse
A hand-held pointing device, usually with buttons. When you
slide the mouse over a flat surface in a certain direction, the
cursor moves in the same direction on the screen.
MS-DOS
An operating system from Microsoft. See DOS, Operating
system.
Numeric keypad
The number keys grouped on the right side of the keyboard.
Operating speed
The speed at which the central processing unit can execute
commands. Also called execution speed.
Operating system
A collection of programs that allow a computer to control its
operations. The operating system determines how programs run
on the computer and supervises all input and output-for
example, MS-DOS.
Option card
A circuit board with connectors you install inside the Apex
main unit to provide additional capabilities, such as more
memory, a hard disk drive, or an internal modem.
Parallel
The type of interface that transmits data in groups of bits. See
Interface, Serial.
Parameter
A qualifier added to a command that tells the computer what
particular conditions to look for.
8 Glossary
Parity
Data signals sent during communications to detect errors in
transmitting or receiving data.
Partition
To divide a hard disk drive into separate sections for use by
different operating systems.
Pathname
The list of directories and subdirectories you need to travel
through to locate a file. For example, the pathname for the file
sales which is located in the subdirectory business of the root
directory ( \ ) is \ business \ sales.
Peripheral
A device (such as a printer or a modem) connected to a computer that depends on the computer for its operation.
Port
A physical input/output socket on a computer where you can
connect a peripheral.
Program
A disk file that contains coded instructions and tells a computer
what to do and how to do it.
Prompt
A message displayed on the computer screen that tells you what
action you need to perform next.
RAM
Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s
memory used to run programs and store data while you work.
All data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off the computer; so you must store any data you want to save on a diskette
or hard disk.
Glossary 9
Read
To copy data from one area to another. For example, when you
open a text file stored on disk, the computer reads the data from
the disk and displays it on the screen.
Read/write head
The physical device inside a disk drive that reads and records
data on the magnetic surface of a disk.
Real time clock
A battery powered clock in the computer that keeps track of
the current time and date even when the computer’s power is
turned off.
Reset
To reload a computer’s operating system so you can retry a task
or begin using a different operating system. Resetting clears
RAM.
RGB
Red Green Blue. An RGB monitor displays in high-resolution
color.
ROM
Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be read
and cannot be used for temporary storage. ROM retains its
contents even when you turn off the power.
Root directory
The top level directory in MS-DOS, designated by a \ (backslash). All other directories are subdirectories of the root
directory.
RS-232C
A widely-used, standard type of serial interface. You can easily
connect an RS232C-compatible device to the Apex computer.
Sector
A contiguous section of a disk track that provides an address at
which the computer can access data.
10 Glossary
Self test
The initial diagnostics procedures a system performs to check its
hardware.
Serial
The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See
Interface, Parallel.
Software
The programs that enable the computer to perform the tasks
and functions you indicate.
Source diskette
The diskette that you are reading or copying data from during a
copy or backup operation.
Stop bit
A signal sent in serial communications to mark the end of a
character.
Subdirectory
A directory or group of files that branches down from another
subdirectory or from the root directory.
Switch
An option added to an MS-DOS command that redirects the
way the command works. Switches must be preceded by a /
(forward slash). For example, if you add the /S switch to a
FORMAT command, MS-DOS installs the operating system on
a diskette as it formats it.
System diskette
A diskette that contains the operating system.
Target diskette
The diskette that you are writing or copying data to during a
copy or backup operation.
Glossary 11
Track ball
A pointing device that consists of a ball in a socket mounted
over motion sensors. When you roll the ball in a certain direction, the cursor moves in that direction on the screen.
Tracks
Addressable, concentric circles on a diskette, resembling the
grooves on a record, which help to divide the diskette into
separate accessible areas. There are 40 tracks on each side of a
double-sided 360KB diskette.
TTL
Transistor to Transistor Logic. A type of integrated circuit logic
that accepts digital input. The Apex monochrome monitor uses
a TTL circuit to produce its screen display.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. A type of high-resolution color monitor
that can display monochrome text and graphics at 720 x 400
resolution, 16-color graphics at 640 x 480 resolution, or 256color graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Wildcard
A character that represents an unknown character or group of
characters. The wildcard character * (asterisk) represents a
group of characters, and the wildcard character ? (question
mark) represents a single character.
Write
To store data on a disk.
Write-protect
To prevent a diskette from being overwritten by placing a
write-protect tab over the notch on the side of a 5 l/4-inch
diskette. When a diskette is write-protected, you cannot erase,
change, or record over its contents.
12 Glossary
Index
A
AC input, 1-7
Adjusting the keyboard angle, 1-12 - 13
APPEND command, 3-10
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 1-22, 2-5 ,3-33, B-2, B-16
B
Back panel, 1-7
Backing up diskettes, 2-12 - 13
BACKUP command, 3-15, 3-21 - 22
Bad tracks (hard disk), B-3, B-7
Break signal, 2-5
C
Caring for diskettes, 2-9 - 10
Changing operating speed, 1-5, 2-4 - 5, 5-6
Changing the configuration, 4-8
CHDIR command, 3-8
Choosing diskettes, 2-8
Clock rate, C-1
Clock, setting, 1-25 - 26, B-15
Color graphics monitor, 1-8, 1-11, C-3
Color/mono switch, 1-8, 1-10
Command prompt, 1-21
COMMAND.COM, 5-5
COMP command, 5-5
Composite monochrome monitor, 5-9
monochrome, Intro-1, 1-8, 5-8 - 9, C-3
port, 1-8, C-3
specifications, C-3
Conditional format (hard disk) B-1, B-3
Connecting the keyboard, 1-12
COPY command, 3-10, 3-15, 3-19 - 21, B-2
Copying diskettes, 1-22 - 25, 2-12 - 13
CPU, C-1
Index 1
D
Date prompt, 1-20, 1-26
DB-25P connector, 1-15
Default drive, 3-3
Delimiters, 3-4
Destructive surface analysis test (hard disk), B-1, B-3, B-9
DIP switches, Intro-3, 1-8, 1-11, 4-8, 5-3, 5-7, A-1-4
Directories, 2-14, 3-6 - 13
DISKCOPY command, 1-23, 2-13, 3-15 - 19
Diskettes,
caring for, 2-9 - 10
choosing, 2-8
compatibility, 2-8
copying, 2-12 - 13
formatting, 2-8 - 9, 3-13 - 15
inserting, 2-10 - 11
labeling, 2-10
problem solving, 5-4
removing, 2-10
storing, 2-9
write-protecting, 2-12, 5-4
Display options, C-3
DOS partition, 5-5
Drives,
compatibility, 5-8
default, 3-3
diskette, 1-6, 2-7
hard, 1-6, 2-7, 2-13 - 14
identifiers, 3-3
lights, 1-6
lock/release latch, 1-6
protector cards, 1-2
read/write head, 2-8
storage capacity, C-2
using a single diskette drive, 2-14
DU (Disk Utility) program, 2-13
Index 2
E
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA) monitor, Intro-1, 4-1, 5-8
Entering commands, 3-3
Environmental requirements, C-2
Execution speed, 1-5, 2-4 - 5, 5-6
Expanding the system, 5-8 - 10
Expansion slots, C-1
F
FDISK command, 5-5, B-1, B-11
Files,
creating, 3-4
naming, 3-5
FORMAT command, 5-5
Formatting,
diskettes, 2-8 - 9
hard disk, B-2
Front panel, 1-5 - 6
Function keys, 2-2, C-1
G
Game port, Intro-1, 1-8
GM-BASIC, Intro-2
H
Hard disk,
controller card, 1-8, 4-1, C-1
directories, 2-14
FORMAT MENU, B-3
formatting, B-1
HDSIT program, 2-13, 2-15
moving, 2-15
partitions, B-1
precautions, 2-13
preparing, B-1
problem solving, 5-5 - 6
storage capacity, C-1
Index 3
HDFMTALL program, 5-6, B-1 - 2
HDSIT program, 2-6, 2-13 - 14
Head, read/write, 2-8
HELP command, 3-22 - 24
Hidden files, 5-5
I
IBMBIO.COM, 5-5
IBMDOS.COM, 5-5
Inserting an option card, 4-3 - 6
Inserting diskettes, 2-10 - 11
Installing option cards, 1-1 1, 4-1
Interface, Intro-2, 1-8, 1-13, 1-15, 4-8
J
Joystick, Intro-1, 1-8, 5-10
K
Keyboard,
cable socket, 1-5
connecting, 1-11
function keys, 2-2, C-1
layout, 2-1, C-1
legs, 1-12 - 13
-special keys, 2-1 - 3
L
Labeling diskettes, 2-10
Loading MS-DOS, 1-19
Lock/release latch, 1-6
M
Math coprocessor, Intro-2, 5-8, C-1
Memory test, 1-18
MKDIR command, 3-8
Modem, Intro-2, C-5
Monitor,
color, Intro-1, 1-8, 5-8, C-3
Index 4
Mouse compatibility, 5-9
Mouse, Intro-2
Moving the computer, 2-15
MS-DOS,
exiting, 3-2
loading, 1-19
starting, 3-2
Multi-graphics adapter card, Intro-1, 1-8 - 9, 5-8, 5-10, C-3
Multifunction boards, 4-1
N
Naming files, 3-15
Non-destructive surface analysis test (hard disk), B-1, B-3, B-10
Numeric/cursor pad, C-1
O
Operating speed, 1-5, 2-4 - 5, 5-6
Option
card, Intro-2, 1-8, 1-11, 4-1, 4-3, 5-7 - 8
slots, Intro-1, 1-8, C-1
P
Parallel,
DIP switch settings, A-3
interface, Intro-2, 1-8, 1-13, C-1
port, 1-8
Parameters, 3-3
Partition (hard disk), B-1
PATH command, 3-10, B-2
Pathnames, 3-9
Peripheral device, Intro-2, 1-8
Physical characteristics, C-2
Ports, 1-8, 1-15
Positioning hard disk read/write heads, 2-6
Power,
AC input, 1-7
connecting the power cord, 1-15
light, 1-5
Index 5
requirements, C-2
sources, 1-3
strip, 1-3
switch, 1-5, 5-9
voltage, 5-9
Power-on self test, 1-17
Printer, Intro-2, 1-13 - 15, 5-7, C-3
Problem solving, 5-1 - 8
PROMPT command, 1-22
Protector cards, 1-2
R
RAM (random access memory), Intro-1
Removing diskettes, 2-10
Removing option cards, 4-8 - 9
Removing the computer’s cover, 4-2 - 3
Resetting the computer, 2-5 - 6
RGB color graphics monitor, Intro-1, 1-8 - 9, 5-8, C-3
RMDIR command, 3-13
Root directory, 3-6
RS232-C port, 1-15
S
Safety rules, 1-16
Screen display, 1-18
SELECT command, 5-5, B-1, B-13
Serial
DIP switch settings, A-2
interface, Intro-2, 1-15, C-1
port, 1-8
SETMODE command, 1-15
SETRTC program, 1-25
Setting the real time clock, 1-25 - 26, B-15
Setting up your computer, 1-1 - 26
Software problems, 5-6
Source diskette, 1-23 - 24
Speaker interface, C-1
Specifications, C-1 - 5
SPEED program, 2-4 - 5
Index 6
Starting the system,
normal startup, 1- 17
problem solving, 5-2
Stopping a command or program, 2-5
Storage capacity, C-2
Storing diskettes, 2-9
SUBST command, 3-10
Switches, 3-3
SYS command, 5-5
T
Target diskette, 1-23 - 24
Television set, 5-9
Time prompt, 1-21, 1-26
Track ball, 1-8
TREE command, 3-12
Tree-structured directories, 3-6
Troubleshooting, 5-1 - 8
TTL monochrome monitor, Intro-1, 1-8 - 9, 1-11, 5-8, C-3
Turning off the computer, 2-6
Turning on the computer, 1-17
U
Unconditional format (hard disk), B-3, B-7
Unpacking your computer, 1-1
Using the computer in other countries, 5-9
V
Video card, 1-11, 4-1, 5-8 - 9, A-3, C-1
Video display, 5-2 - 3, C-3
Video graphics array (VGA) monitor, Intro- 1
Voltage selection switch, 5-9
W
Wildcard characters, 3-20 - 21
Working copies, 1-22
Write-protecting diskettes, 2-12, 5-4
Index 7
X
XTREE, Intro-3, 2-14, 3-24 - 32
Index 8
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