Radio-Electronics-197..
HOW TO DE
COVER STORY
SOLAR ENERGY CONTROL
guide to interfacing and controlling
solar energy panels. Story starts or page 35.
A
HI -FI SPEAKER SYSTEM
State -of- the -art time -compensated design
you can build yourself for true hi -fi sound.
Construction starts on page 38.
REMOTE TELEPHONE EAR
telephone accessory lets you
monitor the sounds in your home
from a remote location. Turn to page 67.
Easy to build
NUMBER CRUNCHER
Math board for 1802 -based microcomputers
speeds execution time and saves memory.
Construction details start on page 45.
TO THE RESCUE
ions for the PROM make digital
yr. Story starts on page 43.
44.
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r Own Computer Power Supply
taker Cables Make a Difference?
Quality Tank Game
ling Dynamic Headroom
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9000 Receiver
h Peak Power
Indicator
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GERNSBACK
www.americanradiohistory.com
VERO BOX
PLASTIC
Attractively molded
-in two -tone gray ABS
with aluminum front and rear panels
Accepts circuit boards
horizontally
ORDER CODE
or vertically.
75-12380
75.3008J
75-1411D
A
B
C
PRICE
154
180
85
120
205
140
60
65
75
$6.82
$8.90
$9.02
FLIP TOP BOX
Molded in one piece from black
VEROCASE
PLASTIC
polypropylene to provide
protective housing tor pocket
keyboard instruments or
field test equipment
Anodized aluminum
panel supplied.
H
B
SLOPING FRONT BOX
Vacuum formed from textured black ABS.
Designed for instruments incorporating
a keyboard and display.
Anodized aluminum panel supplied
or component mounting.
Sloping front boxes. Two-tone gray
with aluminum front panel.
Provisions in base for circuit
board or plate mounting.
ORDER CODE WIDTH DEPTH HEIGHT PRICE
75 -1800J
220
276
100
$25.70
753960E
550
120
340
C
PRICE
130
196
22
32
$5.76
$7.50
ORDER CODE WIDTH DEPTH HEIGHT PRICE
171
121
75
$10.94
220
156
100
$11.74
kit containing a tilt leg and four
molded feet with rubber inserts
which replace the existing box feet
and raise the front panel to a
convenient viewing angle.
A
A
B
C
PRICE
44,0
64,0
134,0
224,0
123,0
176,5
$12.07
$18.32
ORDER CODE WIDTH LENGTH HEIGHT PRICE
$3.25
4.09
4.68
ORDER CODE
75-2682L
75-2683F
75-2684A
A
ORDER CODE A
75 -1493A
85-1494G
75-1492F
New additions to the series of two-tone gray ABS
boxes with aluminum front and rear panels.
25
40
50
75-1798K
65 -2523E
TILT LEG ASSEMBLY
FOR PLASTIC VEROBOX
A
Two-tone gray boxes molded in
high impact polystyrene.
Lower section provided with
threaded inserts for mounting
components or circuit boards.
100
120
150
B
75
127
G SERIES CASES
Anodized aluminum cover with visor
front, black base, front and rear
panel.
ORDER CODE
91 -2672A
91 -2673G
50
65
80
A
75-3018C
75-3019J
$50.31
/
B
65 -2514F
65-2518H
65 -2520J
ORDER CODE
A
B
C
PRICE
125
125
125
65
65
30
40
65
50
$5.24
6.08
6.79
144
170
193
171
Tel
75-14110
PRICE
$2.39
2.45
2.48
ORDER CODE WIDTH LENGTHHEIGHT PRICE
65 -2036H
65-2068B
65 -2073K
Bridge Road. Hauppauge. N Y 11787
516 - 234 -0400 TWX 510 -227 -8890
No C.O.D.'s. Include $1.50 for Shipping, with Check or Money Order.
www.americanradiohistory.com
75-1238D
75 -3008J
Attractive light gray boxes of high impact
polystyrene come complete with anodized
aluminum front panel and molded -in
compartment for standard 9V. battery.
Vero Electronics, Inc.
vero
COMPATIBLE
VEROBOX
68
92
138
110
155
190
33
45
68
$5.78
8.90
1269
The Age of Affordable Personal
Computing Has Finally Arrived.
Ohio Scientific has made a major breakthrough in small cornouter technology which dramatically reduces the cost of personal computers. By use of custom LSI micro circuits, we have
managed to put a complete ultra high performance computer
and all necessary interfaces, including the keyboard and power
supply, on a single printed circuit board. This new computer
actually has more features and higher performance than some
home or personal computers that are selling today for up to
$2000. It is more powerful than computer systems which cost
over $20,000 in the early 1970's.
This new machine can entertain your whole family with spectacular video games and cartoons, made possible by its ultra
high resolution graphics and super fast BASIC. It can help you
with your personal finances and budget planning, made possible
by its decimal arithmetic ability and cassette data storage capabilities. It can assist you in school or industry as an ultra powerful
scientific calculator, made possible by its advanced scientific
math functions and built -in "immediate" mode which allows
complex problem solving without programming! This computer
can actually entertain your children while it educates them in
topics ranging from naming the Presidents of the United States
to tutoring trigonometry all possible by its fast extended BASIC,
graphics and data storage ability.
The machine can be economically expanded to assist in your
business, remotely control your home, communicate with other
computers and perform many other tasks via the broadest line of
expansion accessories in the microcomputer industry.
This machine is super easy to use because it communicates
naturally in BASIC, an English -like programming language. So
you can easily instruct it or program it to do whatever you want,
but you don't have to. You don't because it comes with a complete software library on cassette including programs for each
application stated above. Ohio Scientific also offers you
hundreds of inexpensive programs on ready -to -run cassettes.
Program it yourself or just enjoy it; the choice is yours.
Ohio Scientific offers you this remarkable new computer two ways.
Challenger 1P $349
Fully packaged with power
supply. Just plug in a
video monitor or TV
through an RF converter to be up and
running.
Superboard
II $279
For electronic buffs. Fully
assembled and tested. Requires + 5V. at 3 Amps
and a video monitor or TV
with RF converter to be up
and running.
Features
Uses the ultra powerful 6502 microprocessor
8K Microsoft BASIC -in -ROM
Full feature BASIC runs faster than currently available
personal computers and all 8080 -based business computers.
4K static RAM on board expandable to 8K
Full 53 -key keyboard with upper /lower case and user
programmability
Kansas City standard audio cassette interface for high
reliability
Full machine code monitor and I/O utilities in ROM
Direct access video display has 1K of dedicated memory
(besides 4K user memory), features upper case, lower
case, graphics and gaming characters for an effective
screen resolution of up to 256 by 256 points. Normal TV's
with overscan display about 24 rows of 24 characters;
without overscan up to 30 X 30 characters.
,.ORDER FORM
Order direct or from your local Ohio Scientific dealer.
I
l:] I'm interested. Send me information on your:
Personal Computers
Business Systems
I
Send me a Superboard II $279 enclosed
Send me a Challenger 1P $349 enclosed
I
Include 4 more K of RAM (8K Total) $69 more enclosed
I
I
I
I
I
Name
I
I
I
Address
I
City
I
State
Payment by: BAC (VISA)
Credit Card Account
Interested in a bigger system? Ohio Scientific offers 15
other models of microcomputer systems ranging from
single board units to 74 million byte hard disk systems.
I
I
Extras
Available expander board features 24K static RAM (additional), dual mini -floppy interface, port adapter for printer
and modem and an OSI 48 line expansion interface.
Assembler /editor and extended machine code monitor
available.
I
I
Expires
Money Order
_
Ì
I
#
I
Interbank #(Master Charge)
I
Ohio Residents add 4% Sales Tax
I
I
Master Charge
Zip
TOTAL CHARGED OR ENCLOSED
All orders shipped insured UPS unless otherwise requested FOB Aurora. OH
L
OHIO NIENTIFIC
America's Largest Full Line Microcomputer Company
1333 S.
Chillicothe Road
CIRCLE 36 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Aurora, Ohio 44202 (216) 562-3101
j
PIÈCE DE
RÉSISTAN
SYLVANIA
2 °b toI
R175
750 ohms
Sylvania, of course. And there are 594
more just as good. It's the most complete
line of flameproof resistors in the industry.
Our flameproof resistors come in '/a, ' /2, 1
and 2 -Watt sizes for use in home entertainment, communications, industrial equipment or any job requiring a fuse resistor.
They can replace carbon composition, carbon film, metal film, wirewound and fuse
resistors with tolerances of 2, 5, 10 or 20,
percent. And noncombustible ceramic construction provides stable resistance plus
indefinite shelf life.
All Sylvania flameproof resistors come
in color -coded blister packs for easy identification. For a good look see your nearest
distributor. You can find his location by contacting GTE Sylvania, Distributor and Special Markets Div., 1025 Westminster Drive,
Williamsport, Pa. 17701.
SYLVANIA
CIRCLE 34 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
C
//`v+
SCE
)MPONENTS
Electronic
Components
Radio - Electronic
THE MAGAZINE FOR NEW IDEAS IN ELECTRONICS
Electronics publishers since 1908
BUILD ONE
OF THESE
35
Solar Energy Controller
A guide to interfacing and controlling solar energy panels.
38
Time -Compensated Speaker System
State -of- the -art design you can build yourself for true hi -fi sound.
45
NOM Card For The 1802
DECEMBER 1978
Irmttag
SEASON'S
gREETINQS
Number crunching math board for 1802 -based microcomputers
speeds execution time and saves memory.
DIGITAL
ELECTRONICS
67
Remote Telephone Ear
Lets you monitor the sounds in your home from a remote location.
74
Tank
Part II: Final details of this dedicated TV battle game.
43
Making PROM's Work For You
New applications make digital circuits simpler.
56
Designing Hobby Computer Power Supplies
How to design and add a power supply for your S -100 mainframe.
63
Digital Circuit Design
Everything from combinational switching circuits and the Karnaugh
The editors and staff
of Radio- Electronics
join in sending
holiday greetings and
our best wishes for
map to the Quine-McCluskey method and sequential circuits.
78
Computer Corner
a happy new year
Software required to control an 8- channel analog signal monitor.
STEREO
HI -FI
PRO SOUND
Vol. 49 No. 12
Lab Tests Sansui G -9000 Receiver
This 160 -watt FM receiver rates excellent.
49
R -E
52
R -E
Lab Tests Lectrotech Peak Power Indicator
A new add -on for your hi -fi.
53
Dynamic Headroom
A new amplifier measurement from the IHF
tells why amplifiers
with the same rated power may perform differently under varying
-it
signal levels.
60
Speaker Cables
Ordinary speaker cables can adversely affect sound quality. An
in -depth look at newly developed uniquely constructed cables and
Hi -Fi
how well they solve this problem.
TELEVISION
GENERAL
ELECTRONICS
80
Jack Darr's Service Clinic
Trouble with the color and how to localize the problem.
81
Service Questions
R -E's Service Editor solves reader problems.
4
Looking Ahead
Preview of tomorrow's news -today.
14
Radar Speed Traps, Detectors, etc.
Editorial
76
Hobby Corner
solutions to radar problems including a
rocket launching circuit, a super simple oscillator and a low voltage
detector.
A look at clever reader
EQUIPMENT
REPORTS
a=xy+xz+y
DESIGNING DIGITAL CIRCUITS from scratch.
The step -by -step approach starts on page 83.
27
Super Sleuth Descrambler
32
Continental Specialties LP -2
& DP -2
Logic Probes
Radio- Electronics, Published monthly by Gernsback
Publications, Inc., 200 Park Avenue South, New York,
NY 10003. Phone: 212 -777 -6400. Second -class postage
paid at New York, NY and additional mailing offices.
One-year subscription rate: U.S.A. and U.S. possessions,
$9.98, Canada $12.98. Other countries, $14.98. Single
copies $1.25. d 1978 by Gernsback Publications, Inc. All
rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.
Subscription Service: Mail all subscription orders,
DEPARTMENTS
130
14
96
131
16
100
Advertising Index
Advertising Sales Offices
Computer Products
Free Information Card
Letters
103
6
94
101
98
Market Center
New & Timely
New Products
Next Month
Stereo Products
New Books
changes, correspondence and Postmaster Notices of
undelivered copies (Form 3579) to Radio-Electronics
Subscription Service, Box 2520, Boulder, CO 80322.
stamped self- addressed envelope must accompany all
submitted manuscripts and /or artwork or photographs if
their return Is desired should they be rejected. We
disclaim any responsibility for the loss or damage of
manuscripts and/or artwork or photographs while In our
possession or otherwise.
A
As a service to readers, Radio -Electronics publishes available plane or information relating to newsworthy products, techniques and scientific and technological developments.
Because of possible variances in the quality and condition of materials and workmanship used by readers, Radio-Electronics disclaims any responsibility for the safe and proper
functioning of reader -built projects based upon or from plans or information published in this magazine.
3
www.americanradiohistory.com
/oh**'íeof
42
TV and hi -fi: Important developments are
in the wind in
the field of TV sound
chain of events set in motion by
the very limited use of satellites for domestic networking
and followed by the telephone company's conversion of its
intercity relay systems to diplexed sound (Radio- Electronics, July, 1978). Both relay systems now accommodate
sound channels capable of a frequency response up to 15
kHz, compared with 5 kHz under AT &T's old system of
transmitting TV sound by separate telephone line. Since
last January, most network broadcasting (except for an
occasional 16 -mm movie) has been accompanied by
noticeably better sound. But that's not all- AT &T's network lines now are capable of handling two discrete multiplexed sound channels, each with a frequency response
out to 15 kHz.
This two -channel sound will be available with the TV
signal as soon as a rate schedule is worked out by AT &T
and approved by the FCC. There are no stereo TV sets, of
course, and TV stations aren't allowed to transmit stereo
sound signals -even if they were equipped to do so -so
the first use of two -channel sound is likely to be for the
simulcast FM- station sound accompanying TV music
broadcasts. The diplexed signal along with the TV picture
eliminates the complicated synchronizing and phasing processes that are needed when the stereo sound is networked separately from the picture, as traditional in
network stereo simulcasts.
So now we have an interesting situation: Most TV broadcasting is accompanied by true hi -fi sound, but virtually no
TV receivers are capable of passing it on to viewers.
Network television is capable of transmitting stereo or
other types of dual -sound signals, but stations aren't
permitted to broadcast with dual sound. However, there
are signs that this impasse will be broken. Most TV set
manufacturers are now working on improved sound systems to take advantage of the better vibes coming from the
stations. Don't expect hi-fi perfection, but starting with next
spring's lines of sets, some models will offer wider frequency response, higher -powered amplifiers, bigger speakers
and better baffling.
For those who can't wait for better TV sets to provide
higher -quality sound, there will be a growing number of hi -fi
video tuners and receivers, such as those now being developed by Pioneer and Wintec, both in direct response to the
better sound offered by stations.
Will the next step be stereo sound? The whole subject is
highly controversial, and many broadcasters, as well as
some TV set manufacturers, will tell you at the drop of a
decibel that stereo isn't suitable for TV- there's not
enough music being broadcast, the picture is too small,
and so forth. But there are exceptions in both ranks.
Projection TV manufacturers are gung ho for stereo sound;
as is the Public Broadcasting Service, whose associated
stations originate many musical programs. Sylvania also
hopes to take leadership among set manufacturers in pushing for stereo.
Even if broadcasters and manufacturers collectively
don't want stereo, this doesn't mean they're against two channel sound. Many approve of a system that was used in
-a
Japan in 1970 (and about to be revived there). This system
provides two completely discrete channels, and can be
used for language translations, stereo or any other application in which two sound tracks can be used. The broadcasters -led by ABC -TV -see the dual -sound track concept as
a winner in bilingual areas such as New York, southern
California and Miami, where viewership is low among those
whose primary language isn't English. Manufacturers certainly wouldn't mind producing TV sets with special circuitry for selecting sound Channel A, Channel B or stereo.
The next step is expected to be the formation of an
industry committee to develop and test various two -track
proposals before any proceeding by the FCC. It could take
from three to five years before definitive standards are set
for stereo and other dual -sound TV broadcasts but they do
finally seem to be on the way. And the pressure for stereo
won't be lessened in any way when videodiscs come on the
market. Many of these discs will have stereo sound, and all
videodisc recorders will have jacks for stereo inputs.
New VCR's: Home videocassette recorders are proliferating, with new, more versatile step -up units reaching the
market this fall. Perhaps the most fascinating is a programmable unit made by Matsushita Electric and being marketed in two slightly different versions under the Magnavox
and RCA brandnames, with other similar units to come. The
new VCR takes maximum advantage of the four- hour -percassette recording mode of the VHS format. Using a built in microprocessor, a fluorescent digital display and a 14pushbutton varactor tuner, the new VCR may be programmed up to one week in advance to record four different shows, automatically turning on and off and switching
channels. An optional mode of programming permits the
recording of the same show every day of the week.
An interesting feature of the programmable VCR is
"electronic indexing." A special electronic cue is placed on
the tape at the start of each recording, whether the
machine is in the manual or the programmed mode. The
beginning of any program then may be located automatically by pushing the fast -forward button.
New VCR's in the Beta and VHS formats have been introduced for outdoor recording. The Sony and JVC units each
weighs about 20 pounds. A rechargeable battery will operate the VCR and its associated color camera for one hour
on a charge. Accessory tuners and timers are available for
recording TV programs off the air.
A new VHS -format recorder by JVC lets you double your
television viewing without increasing the amount of time
you watch -that is, if you don't mind speeded -up action. A
special remote -control switch plays tapes at double speed.
Digital encoding keeps the sound at the proper pitch and
comprehensible. The same unit provides a freeze -frame
picture when the pause button is pressed. A new Hitachi
VHS recorder also has the freeze -frame feature. With a new
recording head, Hitachi claims a picture signal -to -noise
ratio of 46 dB, which it says is the best of any home VCR.
www.americanradiohistory.com
DAVID LACHENBRUCH
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR
This ccmponent test instrument works
of circuit. Simple hook -up to any
standard oscilliscope. High, medium and
in or out
low range switch for matching impedance.
Dealer Net $54.95.
Tune in a clearer profit with four new
profit -makers from PTS. and you'l discover
four ways to higher profits with PTS.
REPLACEMENT
A' r
BALURI.S
Orr NET N. 71
External power supply for substituting
voltages in televisions, stereos. radios,
computers, micro -processors, appliances,
CBs and many other electronic units.
Dea'er Net. $114.95.
Crtl of ]
PT6 ne
A new profit -maker from ITS that will
more than pay for itself after you sell the
first two baluns. Selection of seven
replacements (five models) will replace
most baluns found in TV sets, antenna
systems. MATV or CATV systems.
Dealer Net. $9.75.
Independently produces four variable
supply voltages. Excellent for substituting critical control voltages for TV
electronic /varactor tjners, and many
other electronic products.
DC
Dealer Net
S
PI S
Now available from PTS stocking distributors
or at any o' the PTS' 42 company -owned Servicenters.
Check the _fellow pages for the one nearest you or contact:
PTS
5233
S.
HWY. 37
P.O. 272
Nm
BLOOMINGTON, IN 47401
CIRCLE 56 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
812 -324 -9331
178.50.
Quartz analog watches tells time
with "electronic hands"
Radio Shack's TRS -80 system), and peripheral systems to businesses and institu-
Texas Instruments' completely electronic
Time Indicator watch is an antimagnetic,
shock-resistant LCD quartz analog watch
that tells time without any moving parts,
using "electronic hands." TI believes this
design may provide the answer for those
who want a watch without gears or other
moving parts to wear out, yet need to see a
visual time relationship.
tions."
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS new Time Indicator
watches combine the advantages of both mechanical and digital watches.
The liquid crystal display that sweeps the
face of the watch (in similar fashion to
mechanical hands) is driven by an IC. Several timekeeping modes are availal le:
hours /minutes; minutes /seconds; hours/
minutes in another time zone; plus day and
date; and a stopwatch gives the elapsed
time in hours /minutes, minutes /seconds
and seconds /10ths of seconds.
The watch is powered by a lithium manganese dioxide battery and comes in
two styles: round, in either white-gold or
yellow -gold tone metal or square in either
stainless steel or gold -tone metal; the strap
can either be of leather or matching metal
clasp bracelet. The watches range in price
from $275 to $325.
50 Radio Shack Computer Centers
to open in 1978 -1979
Lewis Kornfeld, president of Tandy Corporation's Radio Shack Division, has announced that 50 new computer sales and
service stores will open in 1978 -1979; the
new ventures will be called Radio Shack
Computer Centers.
Although some of the Computer Centers
will be located in new or existing Radio
Shack stores, most will be separate operations in major market areas. According to
Mr. Kornfeld, "their purpose will be to
assist area Radio Shack stores in answering computer questions, closing sales and
developing quantity sales (particularly of
The Centers will provide classroom areas
to teach computer use and programming to
customers. In addition to servicing Radio
Shack computer products, the Centers will
sell a variety of components, software and
some hardware of brands other than the
TRS -80 system.
Video inventions use
liquid -crystal switches
Two new inventions use liquid -crystal optical transmission switches that can help
reduce the size, price and power requirements of video cameras, screens and projectors.
The "Flying Hole Video Camera" and
"Flying Hole Display and Projector" use a
two-dimensional array of liquid -crystal
switches operated so that all but one are
opaque. This "hole" is moved around in a
scanning pattern.
In the camera, the light that is transmitted through the hole is converted to electrical signals by a photo detector or color sensitive photo detectors. In the projector
and display, the light is projected through
the hole by a light source or a group of
color-sensitive light sources. Since the video projector/display does not require a
cathode -ray tube, it is small and flat
enough to be either wall- mounted or worn
on the wrist. The inventions were announced by an independent Canadian inventor, Donald L. Orr.
Wrist device prints messages,
aids handicapped
Canon, U.S.A., a subsidiary of Canon,
Inc., Tokyo, has developed a small batteryoperated wrist device that prints messages
`"!
0001110
0111111010111
1116110111
III
0 000
1110O©0
WRIST DEVICE, the Communicator, keyboard
contains 26 letters, and shift, back and space
keys to print messages at a 10 character-persecond speed. The device is a special fast
communication aid for nonverbal, deaf and other handicapped persons.
on paper tape designed to provide fast
communications for persons suffering from
a variety of verbal or motor disabilities.
The device called the Communicator is
www.americanradiohistory.com
distributed by Telesensory Systems, Inc.,
3408 Hillside Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304.
It is as small as a pocket dictionary, weighs
11 ounces and can also be worn around the
neck. Messages are printed on paper tape
at a speed of 10 characters -per- second,
with a tape storage capacity of 12,500
characters. The keyboard contains 26 alphabetical letters arranged according to
frequency of use, plus it contains shift,
back and space keys. Pressing the shift
pushbutton allows numbers and symbols
to be used, and vowels and consonants are
differentiated by color. The Communicator
sells for $549.
Computerized information system is
developed for Canadian TV viewers
Three Canadian firms, Bell Canada.
Southam Press, Ltd., and Torstar Corporation have agreed to cosponsor a pilot demonstration of a data system that will provide information stored at a central computer and transmitted via telephone lines to
TV viewers whose sets are connected to
the computer center.
The data system (known generically as
videotex) consists of a computer connected to a single TV set with an attached
keyboard. Using the keyboard a viewer can
retrieve preprogrammed data, which is
then displayed on the screen either as
words or graphically. A Bell Canada
spokesman said that this pilot demonstration will be followed by a more extensive
market study later in 1980, in which the
computer will be connected to several
home TV terminals. Suggested future applications for the system are in providing
weather news, travel data, general news
programs, entertainment and even some
advertising.
NESDA /ISCET choose officers and
distribute awards at 1978 NESC
Approximately 600 persons attended the
August 1978 National Electronics Service
Convention (NESC) in Portland, OR.
Among the many scheduled events, including a trade show, seminars and many socia(
functions, were both the NESDA and ISCET
conventions.
The ISCET and NESDA agenda included
the election of officers for 1978 -1979, as
follows:
For NESDA -president, Robert A. Villont; vice president, Warren Baker; secretary, West Correll; treasurer, George Simpson; and regional officers Ted Stackhouse,
Dorothy Cicchetti, Joe Gately, Billy Williams, Art Nelson, Bill Abernathy, Keith
Knos, Jack Kelly, Bill Lawler, and Dick
Scott.
For ISCET president, Jesse Leach (also
serving ex- officio on the NESDA executive
committee and council); vice chairman,
continued on page 12
-
We've done the impossible again!
A versatile and superior
frequency counter kit for only $89.95
Now you can forget about price /performance trade -offs
when you select a frequency counter. In Sabtronics'
Model 8100 you get features you once expected to pay
several hundreds of dollars for. But you pay only our low,
low price of $89.95!
Dare to Compare. This frequency counter, using LSI
technology, has the performance and input characteristics you demand. Note the specifications: You will see
that the frequency range is guaranteed all the way to
100 MHz; and a high or low input impedance allows you
to select for high- frequency operation. And you'll see a
sensitivity that holds well over the frequency range; convenient selectable gate -time for best resolution; and
selectable attenuation; and even an optional pre -scaler.
Note the highly accurate time base, and its excellent
ageing and temperature characteristics. And a full 8 -digit
LED display with floating decimal point, leading zero
suppression, and overflow indicator.
You would expect to find all these features together only
on a much higher -priced instrument. But Sabtronics' advanced digital technology combines with your own skill
assemble this kit from our easy -to- follow instructo make it possible for you to have this fine
tions
frequency counter at a fraction of what you would otherwise expect to pay.
-
-you
Free 10 -day trial
Examine the 8100 Frequency Counter Kit for 10 days. If
not completely satisfied, return unassembled for full
refund of $89.95 purchase price.
sabtronics
INTERNATIONAL INC.
13426 Floyd Circle Dallas, Texas 75243
Telephone 214/783 -0994
Brief Specifications
Frequency Range: 20 Hz to 100 MHz guaranteed (10
Sensitivity: 25 mV RMS, 20 Hz
Hz to 120 MHz typical)
to 70 MHz (20 mV typical); 45 mV RMS, 70 MHz to 120
Selectable Impedance: 1 Mn at
MHz (30 mV typical)
Selectable Attenuation: X1, X10, or X100
25 pF, or 50 E2
Ageing
Accuracy: ± 1 Hz plus time -base accuracy
Temperature stability: -±- 10 ppm, 0°
rate: -!- 5 ppm /yr
Selectable Gate -time: 0.1 sec, 1 sec., or 10
to 50 °C
8 -digit LED display with floating D.P., overflow
sec.
indication
Input: 9 -15 VDC, 350 mA (550 mA with opInput protection: 150 V RMS, 20 Hz to
tional prescaler)
10 kHz; 30 V RMS to 2 MHz; and 3 V RMS to 100 MHz
Optional prescaler extends frequency range to 650 MHz.
(Available soon)
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To: Sabtronics International, Inc.
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new & Limeig
continued from page 6
Forest Belt; secretary, Leon Howland; and
treasurer, George Sopocko.
Those present at the ISCET convention
voted unanimously to return ISCET headquarters to NESDA facilities in Indianapolis. A Joint Internal Affairs Committee was
appointed by ISCET and NESDA presidents to study and consider the question of
ISCET /NESDA autonomy. A report, incorporating tre results of an opinion survey
taken among the respective bodies, will be
presented at a joint ISCET /NESDA membership meeting in 1979. The committee is
composed of ISCET members Herschel B.
Lawhorn, Dorman L. McDonald and Larry
Steckler (chairman), and NESDA members
Warren Baker, Jack Kelly and Dick Scott.
Among other scheduled events was a
NESDA awards banquet at which LeRoy
Ragsdale, outgoing president, received
both the "Man of the Year" award and the
" NESDA Outstanding Officer" award. Other winners were Don Surrette, Leo Cloutier,
Nolan Boone, Fred Schuneman, Warren
Baker, Gene Dillingham, Ray McAllister,
Keith Knos, and Morris Finneburgh, Sr.
Another NESC highlight was the induction into the Electronics Hall of Fame of two
new members: Enos Rice (CES /CET) and
(posthumously) the late Ralph Johonnot.
Mr. Rice, who is 74 years old, was honored
for his 441/2 years in the service industry
and for his long involvement in and support
of NESC activities. The late Mr. Johonnot
was cited for his long career in the service
industry; for his many years as an officer
with the California State Electronics Association; and for his part in the inception of
the CET program and the Western States
Conference.
The 1979 NESC will be held in Tucson,
AZ, concurrently with the Arizona State
Electronics Association Convention.
onto an electro -optic lithium -niobate substrate. Incoming light rays are reflected
back and forth between dielectric mirrors
affixed to the cleaved ends of the substrate
material. A beam splitter transmits a portion of this light to the detector whose
output is used to create an electric field
Zenith releases three -hour VCR,
color cameras, tape
A three -hour video cassette recorder,
two color cameras and a three -hour -format
cassette tape are all part of Zenith Radio
BELL LABS integrated optical device is FabryPerot resonator formed by dielectric mirrors on
the ends of the electro -optic lithium -niobate
substrate material.
A small integrated optical device that can
have multiple applications has been developed by Bell Labs. It can be used as a logic
between the electrodes on the crystal that
modulates the refractive index of the crystal and produces the nonlinear characteristics.
In multilevel operation or A/D conversion, a high gain is required in the feedback
loop, providing as many as 15 transmission
levels. With less feedback and the resonator tuned for transmission showing a hysteresis characteristic, the device functions
as a memory element. When operated in a
high- transmission state, its constant power
output lets it operate as an optical limiter.
In the "optical triode" mode, when the
resonator is tuned to transmit an S- shaped
waveform, power transmitted through the
waveguide changes rapidly according to
the output. A small degree of light at the
detector produces a vast change in transmitted light; a weak light signal falling on
the detector controls the transmission of a
power light beam on the device.
element
optical memories; a pulse
shaper and limiter; an optical switch; a
difference amplifier; and as an "optical
Morizono, Leonard, Staes win
SMPTE awards
Integrated optical device has
multiple applications
in
triode."
Operating at extremely low power levels
over a wide range of wavelengths, the
device is an optical waveguide version of a
nonlinear Fabry -Perot resonator whose
nonlinear characteristics are produced by
using a photodetector output to drive the
resonator's electro- optical elements. Other
features include acceptance of electrical or
optical outputs; its nonlinearity can be
modified using a nonlinear circuit; acceptance of multiple logic inputs; and multilevel operation.
The device is processed using standard
IC techniques by diffusing titanium ions
rectors, cameras and accessories.
SMPTE also presented its 1978 Journal
award to Eugene Leonard, Da Vinci Systems Group, with honorable mention to K.
Staes, Agfa -Gevaert N.V., for their paper
published in the October and August 1977
SMPTE Journal, respectively.
The award was presented at the Society's annual Awards Presentation in October, 1978, at the Americana Hotel, New
York City.
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) awarded the 1978
David Sarnoff Gold Medal to Masahiko
Morizono of Sony Corporation. Mr. Mori zono, general manager of Sony's Video
Products Division, was cited for his leadership and outstanding engineering accomplishments in developing TV electronic
news gathering (ENG) equipment. Mr. Morizono's other achievements include the development of portable helical -scan VTR
systems exhibiting high -calibre editing capabilities; plus the design and development
of audio and instrumentation recorders, U-
matic cassette recorders, time-base cor-
www.americanradiohistory.com
Corporation's new fall line.
The model KR9000W is a single -speed
VCR that can record up to three hours of
programming using Zenith's three -hour
tape. The remote PAUSE switch lets you stop
the tape in either playback or record
modes, so that you can edit during recording or stop playback if you must leave the
room. Other controls include a six -pushbutton keyboard, a clock /timer, UHF /VHF
tuners, automatic fine tuning control, and a
special tracking feature to handle variations in prerecorded tapes.
THREE -HOUR VIDEO CASSETTE RECORDER
(model KR9000W) released by Zenith is a
single -speed unit with built -in UHF /VHF tuners;
timer; standard pushbutton controls; tracking
switch; remote PAUSE control; and tape counter
with memory.
The two color cameras for use with the
VCR (models KC1000and KC1250) offer a
number of significant features: the model
KC1000 has a pop -up viewfinder that
matches the view angle of the 25 -mm -long
barrel lens designed to be used with a trielectrode vidicon tube; a built -in mike; a
remote PAUSE switch; plus adjustable temperature and brightness controls and an
automatic light -level switch. The model
KC1250 (which incorporates all the fea-
tures of the model KC1000 color camera)
also has a 6:1 Canon zoom lens incorporating a viewfinder with a 11/2-inch black -andwhite monitor screen. Suggested retail
R -E
price range: $2095 -$1395.
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P.C. board construction
Provides a solid 1 amp @ 5V
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* Output
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Size: 3-1/2" x 5" x
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to over
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4 -Digit Clock Kit
JE200 5v lamp
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* Quartz crystal controlled
* Three stopwatches in one:
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penlite batteries
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Uses 3
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* Sequential flashing colon
* 12 or 24 hour operation
* Extruded aluminum case (black)
* Pressure switches for hours, minutes and hold functions
* Includes all components, case and wall transformer
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6-Digit Clock Kit
Jumbo 6-Digit Clock Kit
* Bright
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* Switches for hours, minutes and hold functions
* Hours easily viewable to 20 feet
* Simulated walnut case
*115 VAC operation
*12 or 24 hour operation
* Includes all components, case and wall transformer
*Size: 6 -3/4 " x 3 -1/8 " x 1 -3/4 "
* Uses MM5314
JE701
* Four .630" ht. and two .300 " ht. common anode displays
* Uses MM5314 clock chip
* Switches for hours, minutes and hold functions
* Hours easily viewable to 30 feet
*Simulated walnut case
*115 VAC operation
*12 or 24 hour operation
*Includes all components, case and wall transformer
*Size: 6-3/4" x 3 -1/8 " x 1 -3/4 "
$19.95 JE747
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CIRCLE 15 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Radio-Electronics°
editorial
Hugo Gernsback (1884 -1967) founder
M. Harvey Gernsback, editor -in -chief and
publisher
Larry Steckler, KTX -3644, CET, editor
Radar Speed Traps, Detectors
and Countermeasures
Arthur Kleiman, KTZ -3288,
managing editor
Robert F. Scott, CET, W2PWG,
KXK -8533, technical editor
Sonia Greenbaum, copy editor
Jack Darr, CET service editor
Leonard Feldman
contributing high -fidelity editor
Karl Savon, semiconductor editor
David Lachenbruch, contributing editor
Earl "Doc" Savage, K4SDS, hobby editor
Technology is a wonderful thing. It starts off by doing a job. We can use radar to
identify speeders on the highways
those people who endanger the lives of
others using American highways. It can also help increase the monies received by
a municipality in traffic fines. And it's been with us for a long time now.
.
.
.
Vincent
P.
Harriet
I.
Arline
R.
Cicenia, production manager
Matysko, circulation director
Bailey, advertising coordinator
Cover design by Louis G. Rubsamen
Recently, electronic countermeasures have become available to the public in
the form of detectors that warn you when you near a radar trap. Government
agencies have fought these devices in several ways -made them illegal in some
states, used portable units, different frequencies. Here's the latest development
.
.
police departments are buying miniature low-power radar transmitters to
sprinkle along the sides of the road to trigger those radar detectors. Maybe they
hope that after you've run through three or four false alarms you'll ignore the real
radar and contribute some dollars to the local budget. By the way, those transmitters are frequently made by the same people who make your radar detector.
.
Then comes the latest countermeasure, a nifty little radar transmitter for the
motorist. According to the outfit offering it, you simply dial in the speed you want
the radar trap to clock you at. Your transmitter then issues a signal that tells the
police you're only going 30 MPH or whatever you select. We're deliberately not
listing the name or address of the manufacturer since we don't think such a device
is legal under FCC rules. Please don't write us for that information because we
won't respond. But what we would like to know is what you think of such devices
and can you dream up any that are even better.
Electronic countermeasures aren't new, but what a funny world it is when so
many dollars are being spent in a battle with the traffic laws. Maybe some serious
thought to raising the speed limits to a reasonable level would make more
sense.
LARRY STECKLER
Editor
Cover photo by Bob Homan
Radio Electronics is a member of the Institute of High Fidelity and is indexed in
Applied Science & Technology Index and
Readers Guide to Periodical Literature.
Gernsback Publications, Inc.
200 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10003
(212) 777-6400
President: M. Harvey Gernsback
Vice President: Larry Steckler
Treasurer: Carol A. Gernsback
Secretary: Bertina Baer
ADVERTISING SALES
Paul McGinnis
Director of Marketing
EAST
Stanley Levitan
Radio -Electronics
200 Park Ave. South
New York, NY 10003
(212) 777-6400
MID WEST/Texas /Arkansas /Okla.
Ralph Bergen
The Ralph Bergen Co.
540 Frontage Road -Suite 361 -A
Northfield, Illinois 60093
(312) 446 -1444
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Jay Eisenberg
J.E. Publishers Representative Co.,
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(213) 659 -3810
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San Francisco, CA 94124
(415) 467 -0125
sia
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771 -2051
riciiers.
WHAT IS AN ELECTRONIC
ENGINEER?
As an engineer and head of a growing
organization, often meet people who don't
really know what an electronic engineer
does. All too often these people visualize
an engineer as "someone who sits in a cave
and designs things." Nothing could be
farther from the truth, and I'd like to dispel
this myth.
As see it, the electronic engineer has
the job of creating new electronic equipment or devices using the latest technology
and to be manufactured at the lowest cost.
In short, his job is to make money for the
company that employs him. Besides circuit
design, you'll find the engineer assisting in
all areas from design to final product. And
he will often be there when the design is
being upgraded!
To be more specific, a typical engineer
can spend as little as 10% of his time on
actual circuit design. (This depends on the
project, of course!) The rest of his time is
I
I
spent assisting draftsmen in circuit -board
layout, assisting in package design, writing
specifications for the product, selecting
components and materials for the production models -not to mention the building
of the prototypes!
After the device is built on the production
line, there are process -control problems to
resolve, quality -control problems and
more. Ever see 20,000 pieces of equipment
roll off a production line- defective? This
same engineer may step in and solve the
problem- saving the company money.
This is engineering in its finest hour, and an
important distinction. You'll find most engineers in industry doing at least most of
these things, and often much more. The
engineer is rewarded with a sense of
accomplishment, a modest salary and, if
he's good, a chance at getting a management level job.
Now that you know what an engineer
does, let's look at working with IC's. Actually, working with IC building blocks on
paper isn't too hard. The computer fans do
this often, as can anyone with the IC handbook. believe this sort of work should be
called designing. It is different from engineering because the designer generally
does not become involved with all the areas
mentioned previously; at least this has
been true of the "designers" know. Also,
an engineer designs a circuit by either
selecting components known to best fit the
job from past experience, or by using components of the latest design. This process
requires an extensive knowledge of electronic circuitry, electronic components,
plus manufacturing processes. All this expertise is necessary to build a project easily
at the lowest cost
and cost is the name
of the game in electronics today. None of
the designers know have the knowledge
to optimize their circuitry. Also an extensive knowledge of electronics is important
when the production line shuts down -an
engineer would know how to start it up, a
designer might not. And that's what sepaI
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-
rates the designers from the engineers
knowledge and experience!
If there are any doubters among the
designers, let's see them design an 8 -bit
A/D converter for under $5. It's been
done -but not by designers. Cost is the
reason; an IC block approach costs too
much.
To sum up, propose that the people who
string IC's together should be called "designers," and people who do the same but
have extensive knowledge about their
product should be called "engineers."
GARY McCLELLAN
I
S -100 BUS COMPANIES
recently received from you a list of
companies dealing with the S -100 bus.
was somewhat surprised to see that the
list was only two pages long. And it didn't
even include the manufacturers of the
have running in my system.
equipment
Therefore, decided to do a bit of research
on a small scale. looked through just the
February 1978 issue of Interface Age and
the February 1978 issue of Kilobaud, and
knew about that
the only company
couldn't find was PolyMorphic Systems,
the manufacturer of my computer.
Therefore,
am including a list of the
companies found less the ones on your
list, plus phone numbers. I've listed them in
the order found them:
Seattle Computer Products
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
16611 111th St. S.E.
Renton, WA 98055
(206) 255 -0750
Alpha MicroSystems
17875 Skypark North
Irvine, CA 92714
(714) 957 -1404
Space Byte Systems Group
1720 Pontius Ave., Suite 201
Los Angeles, CA 90025
(213) 468 -8080
Paratronics, Inc.
800 Charcot Ave.
San Jose, CA 95131
(408) 263-2252
MECA
7026 O.W.S. Rd.
Yucca Valley, CA 92284
(714) 365-7686
Info 2000 Corporation
20630 South Leapwood Ave.
Carson, CA 90746
(213) 532 -1702
Trace Electronics, Inc.
P.O. Box 3247
Hampden Station
Reading, PA 19604
(215) 779 -3677
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continued on page 22
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amp circuit problemi
Pub. Pr., 529.65
617/97X
Club Pr., $17.50
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS
DESIGN. By F K. Manasse 562 pp.. illus.
Today the microelectronics
industry is going
places 'aster than ever before. Are you going
with it?
get and keep yourself completely up
to date. you will do well to keep this volume
nearoy. Es chapters on design techniques are
among the most complete and detailed ever
published.
b
7721522
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MICROPROCESSOR APPLICATIONS
MANUAL.
By Motorola Semiconductor Products. Inc. 720 pp., illus. Here's every piece of
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board layouts. lower your hardware costs. save
precious time. design better and faster. and verify ycur designs from the start! Overflowing with
illustrations!
435/278
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BE SURE TO CONSIDER THESE IMPORTANT TITLES AS WELL:
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR ENGINEERS.
By T M
135/10X
Creese 8 R M Haralick
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APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC FILTER DESIGN. By
153/086
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OPTOELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS MANUAL.
R W
Daniels
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DIGITAL COMPUTER ELECTRONICS. By A P
Malvin
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DESIGNING WITH OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIERS, Applications
Alternatives. By J.G. Graeme. 269 pp., 203
illus. You can now guarantee that every electronics decision you make will be easier. more
productive. freer of error -and more consistently cost -effective! Topics include signal
amplifiers. signal conditioners. absolute -value
circuits. signal generators. computing circuits.
data transmission circuits. and test and measurement circuits.
238/91X
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STANDARD HANDBOOK OF
ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS. By TG.
Hicks. Editor -in Chief. 1,200 pp.. 428 illus. Tells
you what to do. when to do it. and how to do
giving step -by -step solutions to the design
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procedures accompanied by worked -out numerical examples. it also features 4.000 related calculation procedures.
287/341
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it-
ELECTRONICS DESIGNERS' HANDBOOK. Edited by L. J Giacoletto. 2nd
Ed.
2,344 pp., 1,686 illus. Now doubled in size and
with 90 % of its material new, this famous classic
(first edition by Landee, Davis, Albrecht) has
been thoroughly revised and updated to give
you not only the how and the why of all your
design work but also the how much of every
design step you take!
Pub. Pr., $52.50
231/494
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A USER'S HANDBOOK OF D/A AND A/D
CONVERTERS. By E R Hnatek
767/149
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HANDBOOK OF COMPONENTS FOR ELECTRONICS. By C A Harper
HANDBOOK 3F ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS, 3/.. By O Eshbach 8 M Souders
DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AND OPTOELECTRONIC CIRCUIT DESIGN.
COMPLETE GUIDE TO DIGITAL TEST EQUIPMENT. Ey W Buchsbaum
772/088
Pub. Pr., 514.95
Club Pr., 510.50
Edited by B. Norris. 206 pp., 400 illus. Having
this vast amount of case -tested data, proven
shortcuts, worked -out circuit designs, and circuit diagrams handy saves you valuable time for
your other, more vital, areas of creative design -and cuts down costs in all areas!
MANAGEMENT OF ENGINEERING PROJECTS,
2/.
By V G Hajek
255/342
266/824
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ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS, 3 /s.
Hayl 8
Kemmerly
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By W
J
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637/539
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CIRCUITS FOR ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERS. Edited by S. Weber. 396 pp.,
346 circuits. This book is filled with the circuits
you need in 51 areas -from amplifiers to voltage regulators- arranged in alphabetical
order and grouped for easy finding. Use them
"as is" or adapt them. Each has been tested and
proved in action.
191/573
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Club Pr.. $16.00
MICROCOMPUTER-BASED DESIGN. By
J. P Peatman. 604 pp.. 400 illus. Do all your
best day-to-day and supercreative designs
around today's microcomputers with the specific "how -to" help here! Big new printing has
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data on such "hot" third generation micros as
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491/380
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www.americanradiohistory.com
offer to new members of the
and Control Engineers' Book Club
ELECTRONICS ENGINEER'S HANDBOOK. Editor -in- Chief, D. G. Fink. 2,104 pp.,
2,026 illus. Huge in every sense, this instant reference volume gives you every latest essential in the field, 2,100 formulas and equations, a
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you need to clarify all of modern electronics!
209/804
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GUIDEBOOK OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS. By J. Markus. 1,018 pp., illus. Are you
constantly on the lookout for circuits that will
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404/453
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PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS' EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
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360/936
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DESIGN TECHNIQUES FOR
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Electronics Book Series.
By ELECTRONICS Magazine. 370 pp., illus. The whole
gamut of complex techniques required when
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and shown in the superb collection of the "best
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191/581
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HANDBOOK FOR ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS. By M. Kaufman and A. H. Seidman. 520 pp., 695 illus.
Rely on this technician's godsend for all your
work with analog and digital integrated and discrete circuits. Here are the stiff brush -up you
want and the solutions to every possible problem.
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any one
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FOR ENGINEERS & SCIENTISTS. By G.A.
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quick reference for expert advice on product
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ELECTRONICS DICTIONARY. Edited by
John Markus. 4th Ed., 768 pp., 1,173 illus.,
17,090 terms. With the new edition of this
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quickly find the meaning and correct usage of
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APPLIED ELECTROMAGNETICS.
values up
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ELECTRONIC TROUBLESHOOTING,
A Manual for Engineers and Technicians. By C.N. Herrick. 2nd Ed., 348 pp., illus.
Special $1.89 bonus
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One of the best manuals ever published for engineers and technicians, this new edition moves
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MASTER OP-AMP APPLICATIONS
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saves you both time and money!
1
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Here is a professional book club designed to meet your on- the -job engineering
needs by providing practical books in your field on a regular basis at below
publisher prices. If you're missing out on important technical literature -if today's
high cost of reading curbs the growth of your library- here's the solution to your
problem.
The Electronics and Control Engineers' Book Club was organized for you, to
provide an economical reading program that cannot fail to be of value. Administered by the McGraw -Hill Book Company, all books are chosen by qualified
editors and consultants. Their understanding of the standards and values of the
literature in your field guarantees the appropriateness of the selections.
How the club operates: Thirteen times a year you receive free of charge The
Electronics and Control Engineers' Book Club Bulletin. This announces and
describes the Club's featured book for that period as well as alternate selections
available at special members' prices. If you want to examine the Club's featured
selection, you do nothing. If you prefer one of the alternate selections -or if you
want no book at all -you notify the Club by returning the card enclosed with
each Bulletin.
As a Club member, you agree only to the purchase of four books (including
your first selection) over a two -year period. Considering the many books published annually, there will surely be at least four you would want to own anyway.
By joining the Club, you save both money and the trouble of searching for the
best books.
-1
ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL ENGINEERS' BOOK CLUB
P.O. Box 582, Hightstown, New Jersey 08520
Please enroll me as a member and send me the two books indicated. am to receive the bonus book at the introductory price of
$1.89 plus my first selection. plus tax, postage and handling. If not
may return the books within 10 days and
completely satisfied,
request that my membership be cancelled. If keep the books,
agree to take a minimum of three additional books during the next
two years at special Club prices (guaranteed 15% discount, otter
more). will receive the Club Bulletin 13 times a year. If want to
examine the featured selection. need take no action. It will be
shipped automatically. If, however, want an alternate selection
rq book at all -1 simply notify the Club by returning the convenient
card always enclosed. will always have a minimum of en days in
which to return the card and you will credit my account fully, including postage. if this is not the case. Membership in the Club is
continuous but cancellable by me at any time after the four-book
purchase requirement has been filled. This order subject to acceptance by McGraw -Hill. Orders from outside the continental U.S.
must be prepaid. All prices subject to change without notice.
-or
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Offer good for new members only Postage and handling
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WRITE BELOW:
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EXTRA SAVINGS: Remit in full with your order, plus any local and
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E33366
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CIRCLE 18 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
J
LETTERS
continued from page
Santa Barbara, CA 93111
(805) 967-0468
Realistic Controls Corp.
404 W. 35th St.
Davenport, IA 52806
(800) 553-1863
17
Digital Micro Systems
Box 1212
Orem, UT 84507
realize this list isn't quite complete, but
thought you should update your list. would
like to add that Vandenberg Data Products
has the only 16K RAM board available for
the S -100 bus for $330, fully static (kit) and
rated at 250 µs, quite suitable for a Z -80.
Anybody else's static RAM costs roughly
double that. am currently running 32K of
their memory and am thinking hard about
another 16K. All components in my system
(except the TV) were built from kits.
MARCUS S. LEWIS
I
I
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Integrand
8474 Avenue 296
Visalia, CA 93277
(205) 733 -9288
Electronic Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 212
Burlingame, CA 94010
Vandenberg Data Products
P.O. Box 2507
Santa Maria, CA 93454
(805) 937 -7951
(408) 374 -7951
Micro Designs, Inc.
499 Embarcadero
Oakland, CA 94606
I
Omaha, NE
PolyMorphic Systems
460 Ward Drive
(415) 465 -1861
S -100 BUS
ADDITIONS
enjoyed the S -100 article (April 1978
issue, page 48) and S -100 bus listing. In the
listing you asked to be informed of other
S -100 products not listed.
CGRS Microtech manufactures three
boards for the S -100:
1. The 6502 MPU Board
our knowledge, this is the only S- 100/6502 board for
the S -100. It has been in production for 18
months and is working very well.
2. The T.I.M. II I/O Board -this is a "system monitor board" that provides ROM,
RAM, and parallel and serial I/O ports.
3. The Multi -I /O Board
provides I/O
for the Persci 1070 floppy -disc controller
card as well as 4K of ROM, two parallel
ports and two serial ports.
WILLIAM M. GOBLE
CGRS Microtech
I
FAIIIVI
TC-100
-to
-
P.O. Box 368
Southampton, PA
(215) 757 -0284
WHERE ARE THE
ELECTRONIC DESIGNERS?
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aa
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FLECTROIV/C
www.americanradiohistory.com
now does.
In answer to the question, "What does an
electronic designer do ?" think am qualified to respond since am an electronics
engineer with IBM. My job is to design,
oversee construction and debug electronic
circuits. It also requires taking sometimes
as many as 100 separate inputs and creating the proper responses at the proper
time.
use digital IC's to create these
circuits and do consider each circuit to be a
new one.
This is designing, just as engineers in the
1950's designed using only transistors,
tubes and other less-complicated devices.
don't think it has slowed either the
development or development time of new
devices; it has simply made it economically
continued on page 24
I
CHRISTMAS SPECIAL
blades and handles,
kits,
R -144
R -146
wish to respond to your June 1978
editorial entitled "Where Have All The Designers Gone ?"
Electronic designers have always been
wiring up "black boxes" to form new
devices. What are resistors, transistors,
capacitors, inductors, transformers, etc.,
but "black boxes "? A black box is simply a
device with known characteristics.
The designer today uses IC's to reduce
the amount of drudgery and cost in his
designs. How would you like to redesign
the NAND gate hundreds of times for each
digital project? If every general -purpose IC
(i.e., gates, op -amps, latches, etc.) had to
be built from discrete components, a digital
clock, stereo, CB radio and any other electronic device would cost much more than it
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www.americanradiohistory.com
I
I
LETTERS
continued from page 22
arsenic remain the same
the designers
just do different things with them.
JONATHAN TITUS
.
feasible to develop more complicated
products. For example, with IBM's Series Ill
copier (yes, know I'm biased), would so
many functions have been possible without
IC's? think not.
Finally, an electronic designer is someone who extracts information from electriI
I
cal signals (inputs) with electronic components, and who controls (via outputs) other
devices with that information. The process
of creating the device between the inputs
and outputs (which, by the way, are usually
defined before the design is begun) is electronic design.
DENNIS A. ROWE
Boulder, CO
With respect to your June 1978 editorial,
think that persons who use and apply integrated circuits are, indeed, designers. They
may be using available devices to design
something that is totally new, unique, and
perhaps useful, too. think that the IC has
freed us to concentrate upon the task at
hand without having to craft the tools that
are necessary to accomplish it. Remember
the days of the tube -based op -amp, the
tube -based counters and flip -flops, etc.?
They are gone, luckily.
If IC users aren't really designers, then
neither are the solid -state physicists and
semiconductor engineers, since all they are
doing is moving around the same atoms in
different ways. The silicon, gallium and
I
I
ee
.
.
In reply to your June editorial,
feel that
the designer is still with us.
It seems to me that the designer's role
has taken three different paths -on one
path he devises all the IC's we use. On
another path, he is a systems designer,
responsible for the design of the complete
complex system. And the third path is that
of designing the new instrumentation used
to service complex devices.
Today, the engineer can take the IC's
and connect them together to make a
circuit or simple electronic device.
really don't envy the job of the instrumentation designer for he has to design
instruments that are to be used repeatedly
by people not in the electronics field. For
example, automotive mechanics are finding more and more electronics in our modern cars. They cannot just exchange one
module for another; because of increasing
complexity, they must use instruments to
troubleshoot the entire system to find the
malfunction.
Twenty years ago, when graduated from
electronics school, we did not have very
many test instruments. We could troubleshoot and repair just about everything
electronic with an OS -8 oscilloscope, TS352 VOM, TV -7 tube tester and BC -221
frequency meter.
would hate to troubleshoot and repair
I
I
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I
some of today's complex electronics systems with those Stone Age instruments. If
you look at some modern instrumentation,
you can see the designer has been busy.
And there is always something new being
released to make our jobs easier.
feel that economics, not the integrated
circuit, has slowed down the development
of new electronic devices. The question is
now when a new product is developed, is it
to be made inexpensive enough to be
disposable when it malfunctions or is it to
be made repairable? And who will repair it?
There are a few products on the market
that are disposable because of their low
cost -radios, LED watches and calculators. But now feel that many manufacturers are taking a wait- and -see attitude before producing any more low -cost products.
JERRY W. CLARK
New Richmond, IN
I
I
HOME COMPUTERS
have a hobby computer. have not yet
and probably never will wire it up to "run
I
I
the house." Most household applications
can be controlled just fine with a motor and
cam for several operations per day. If did
"control the house" with my computer,
couldn't experiment with new programs
might erase the household prosince
gram.
really do with my computer is
What
write game programs. After spending many
hours writing and debugging the program,
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CIRCLE 68 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
play the game a couple of times and start
writing a new program.
agree with you that the "Home Computer" is nonsense. The only application I
might have for it is to balance my checkbook. Even then would pull out my pocket
calculator.
Many people ask, "Well then, what good
is your computer ?" guess the best answer
is, "What good is your home TV set ?"
E. MORRIS
Midland, Ml
I
I
I
do not own a hobby computer. I do have
three hi -fi sets, a VCR, model railroad,
darkroom and studio to support; so when I
received several estimates of the cost of a
computer system ($8000) with enough
memory and "crunch" to cross -reference
my collection of 1000 LP records and
songs into several categories, I bailed out.
do know about computers since we use
one to roll our film and tapes at the TV
studio I work at.
also can remember
anytime, anyplace that next month the real
estate tax is due. know how much I have in
several savings and checking accounts.
don't need an expensive computer to remind me (if happen to be near it), but if the
price were $200 for the system described
above with a cassette, easily interchangeable programs, a video (or TV) monitor or
hardcopy at additional cost, might buy it.
guess what mean is don't like to "play
games" just for the sake of playing games,
and if it takes possibly more time to
program the computer to do a job than it
might take to do the job the usual way, why
bother? But if the cost of computers drops
as it did with small calculators, we will have
a different ball game.
DICK WARTENBERG
Brooklyn, NY
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
DARKROOM TIMER
With respect to my article in the July and
August 1978 issues ( "Build A Digital Timer
for Your Darkroom"), the accuracy of the
schematic was excellent. However, there
were six errors that must be noted:
1. In the table shown in Fig. 3 that lists
the power and ground connections for the
IC's, I wrongly listed pins 14 and 7 as power
and ground for IC13. The correct pins are
16 for power and 8 for ground.
2. In Fig. 3 again, an LED is missing
between pins 10 and 1 of DIS4, but this is
an internal LED contained within DIS4 as
are the others.
3. The point at which S4 connects to the
main PC board should be labeled "D."
4. The Parts List did not have numbers
for the transistors. They can be any NPN
silicon transistors whose beta is between
50 and 150, such as 2N2222, 2N957, etc.
5. The part number given for S1 -S3 is
incompatible with the PC board /front panel
combination. The correct UID Electronics
part numbers are: S1: RSW- 0622-SD -BBS- B1 -BK; S2 and S3: RSW- 0022-SD -BBS -B 1 -BK.
6. One of the key cap part numbers
should be 42- 3100 -03, not 40- 3100 -03.
The "42" indicates double- width, which is
what the "0" key cap is.
RAYMOND G. KOSTANTY
R -E
Where should
you start in your
search for better sound?
At the beginning. With
a new Audio-Technica
Dual Magner stereo phono cartridge.
Our AT12XE, for instance. Tracking smoothly at
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(better than most speakers available). With a minimum
24 dB of honest stereo separation at important mid
frequencies, and 18 dB minimum separation even at the
standard high -frequency 10 kHz test point. At just $65
suggested list price, it's
an outstanding val le
in these days of
inflated prices.
1
Audio -Technics
cartridges have been
widely -acclaimed for
their great sound, and
for good reason. Our unique, patented£ Dual Magnet
construction provides a separate magnetic system for each
stereo channel. A concept that insures excellent stereo
separation, while lowering magnet mass. And the AT12XE
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stylus on a thin -wall cantilever to further reduce moving
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PIVOT
Listen carefully at your
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in Canada: Superior Electronics, Inc.
CIRCLE 5 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
25
EquipmEnt report
Super Sleuth Descrambler
CIRCLE 118 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
AS MORE AND MORE LAW- ENFORCEMENT CHAN-
nels are being monitored by unauthorized
listeners using scanners, many agencies have
attempted to improve voice security by using
"scramblers." A scrambler is an audio frequency inverter. High frequencies become low
and low frequencies, high; the result is unintelligible.
The Super Sleuth descrambler is designed
to reinvert audio signals to normal. It plugs
into the external speaker jack of a scanner and
is usually left switched to the normal mode.
When conventional transmissions are received,
the descrambler's internal speaker is connected
directly to the scanner's speaker jack, and the
descrambler circuitry is off. When a scrambled
message is received, the Super Sleuth is
switched to the scrambled mode, and an
internal ring-demodulator circuit rearranges
the inverted speech to normal speech.
The Super Sleuth is entirely self- contained,
including eight internal AA batteries (not
provided), and its three adjustable decoding
controls are switch -selectable.
Many law- enforcement agencies use more
than one audio code, switching codes at different times; the three switch -selectable controls
allows the listener to individually adjust each
control to correspond to a given code, and then
leave it set so that rapid switch -selectable
decoding of the scrambled message is possible
the next time it is encountered.
A FINE TUNE control allows an occasional
adjustment of the audio for natural voice quality (however, it is seldom needed).
Since descramblers (and scramblers) inject
an audio signal into their circuitry, that signal
should be removed from the resultant audio
output so that it doesn't cause annoying interference. The Super Sleuth has a CARRIER/
BALANCE null control knob to accomplish
this.
Finally, the volume control permits you to
adjust the audio output to a comfortable listening level.
The Super Sleuth looks impressive, functions well and its audio quality is very natural.
Although the top- mounted internal speaker
would be inconvenient for under -dash mobile
mounting, most listeners would probably use
the unit next to a scanner in the home or
office.
A 741 op -amp audio oscillator injects an
continued on page 32
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TELEX 125091
sophistìcated solderíno of space -age
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DEMANDS THE RELIABILITY OF
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Modern, ultra- sophisticated electronic technology calls for totally dependable soldered connections. This requires not only sensing the soldering tip temperature, but applying and removing
wattage at precisely the right moment to control the selected operating range of the iron.
That, in a nutshell, is what the Wel "er family of Controlled Output Soldering Equipment is
all about. And that explains how it can avoid defects in soldered connections and damage to
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eliminated. But there are other significant benefits from the Weller controlled output soldering
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What's the secret of Weller's controlled output? It's really no longer a secret. Today it's
a time- proved principle: Closed loop, ow voltage circuitry and a ferromagnetic sensor control
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Conplete with footswitch, twin safety -ool holder, vacuum
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Yes, of course, the entire fam ly is UL listed
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and soles. 123V, 60 /40Hz, 22W.
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CIRCLE 74 ON FREE INFORMATION CARE
www.americanradiohistory.com
MODEL NP
At CIE, you get
electronics
career
training
from
specialists.
If you're interested in learning how to fix air
conditioners, service cars or install heating
systems - talk to some other school. But if
you're serious about electronics, come to
CIE -The Electronics Specialists.
U
Z
o
17.44444.4.7
Special Projects Director
Cleveland Institute of Electronics
ó
ó
cc
28
www.americanradiohistory.com
father always told me that
there were certain advantages to putting all your eggs in one
basket. "John," he said, "learn to
do one important thing better than
anyone else, and you'll always be
in demand."
I believe he was right. Today is
the age of specialization. And I
think that's a very good thing.
Consider doctors. You wouldn't
expect your family doctor to perform
open heart surgery or your dentist to
set a broken bone, either. Would you?
For these things, you'd want a
specialist. And you'd trust him. Because you'd know if he weren't any
good, he'd be out of business.
My
Why trust your education
and career future to
anything less than a
specialist?
the exams get their Licenses. You
may already know that an FCC
License is needed for some careers
in electronics -and it can be a
valuable credential anytime.
Plus there's a professional quality
oscilloscope you build and use to
"see" and "read" the characteristic
waveform patterns of electronic
equipment.
Find out more Mail this
card for your FREE
CATALOG today!
You work with experi-
enced specialists.
When you send us a completed
lesson, you can be sure it will be
reviewed and graded by a trained
electronics instructor, backed by a
team of technical specialists. If you
need specialized help, you get it fast
... in writing from the faculty specialists best qualified to handle
your question.
If the card is gone, cut out and
mail the coupon.
I'll send you a copy of CIE's
FREE school catalog, along with a
complete package of independent
home study information.
For your convenience, I'll try to
arrange for a CIE representative to
contact you to answer any questions
you may have.
Remember, if you are serious
about learning electronics ... or
building upon your present skills,
your best bet is to go with the electronics specialists -CIE. Mail the
card or coupon today or write CIE
(and mention the name and date of
this magazine ), 1776 East 17th
Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44114.
People who have known
us a long time, think of us
as the "FCC License
School."
You shouldn't. And you certainly
don't have to.
FACT: CIE is the largest inde-
pendent home study school in the
world that specializes exclusively
in electronics.
We have to be good at it because
we put all our eggs in one basket:
electronics. If we hadn't done a good
We don't mind. We have a fine
record of preparing people to take
and pass ... the government administered FCC License exams.
In fact, in continuing surveys nearly
4 out of 5 of our graduates who take
.
.
job, we'd have closed our doors
long ago.
Specialists aren't for
everyone.
Ill tell it to you straight. If you
think electronics would make a nice
hobby, check with other schools.
But if you think you have the
cool and want the training it takes
to make sure that a sound blackout
during a prime time TV show will be
corrected in seconds -then answer
this ad. You'll probably find CIE has
a course that's just right for youl
-
-
At CIE, we combine
theory and practice. You
learn the best of both.
Learning electronics is a lot
more than memorizing a laundry list
of facts about circuits and transistors. Electronics is interesting because it's based on some fairly recent
scientific discoveries. It's built on
ideas. So, look for a program that
starts with ideas and builds
on them.
That's what happens with CIE's
Auto -Programmed® Lessons. Each
lesson uses world- famous
"programmed learning" methods to
teach you important principles. You
explore them, master them completely ... before you start to
apply them!
But beyond theory, some of our
courses come fully equipped with
the electronics gear to actually let
you perform hundreds of checking,
testing and analyzing projects.
In fact, depending on the course
you take, you'll do most of the basic
things professionals do every day
things like servicing a beauty of a
Zenith color TV set ... or studying a
variety of screen display patterns
with the help of a color bar generator.
Patterns shown on TV and oscilloscope screens are simulated.
-
-
Cleveland Institute of Electronics, Inc.
1778 East 17th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44114
Accredited Member National Home Study Council
...
John, I want to learn from the specialists in electronics -CIE.
YES
Send me my FREE CIE school catalog including details about troubleshooting
courses - plus my FREE package of home study information.
RE -50
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Print Name
Apt
Address
,
,
,
, Mail today!
City
Zip
State
Age
Check box for G. I. Bill information:
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Phone (area code)
Veteran
Active Duty
EQUIPMENT REPORTS
continued from page 27
adjustable tone into a diode- bridge ring modulator (mixer), where it heterodynes with the
inverted audio from the scanner's speaker -jack
output. The difference frequency (in this case,
normal unscrambled speech) is fed to an
LM38ON amplifier IC for up to two -watts
audio output.
The Super Sleuth weighs only 2 lb. and
measures 10 W X 31/2 H X 5 inches D. Its
power drain is 12 VDC at 25 to 300 mA
depending upon audio -output level. The unit is
available for $79.95 from Krystal Kits, Box
R -E
445, Bentonville, AR 72712.
pedance, and it lacks a pulse- memory feature.
In the model LP -2, a single switch selects
either DTL /TTL or CMOS /HTL levels. For
static tests, the upper LED illuminates when
the voltage at the probe tip is within the selected logic family's high -level range. The TTL
and DTL logic 1 threshold is 2.25 volts ± 0.15
volt, and for CMOS and HTL, the threshold is
70% of the supply (V,,c) or higher. Similarly,
the lower LED indicates logic levels within the
low range. Logic 0 levels are 0.8 volt ±0.1 volt
for TTL /DTL, and 30% or less for CMOS/
TTL. No LED illumination means there is an
open circuit. Observing LED's near the probe
tip is much simpler and less tiring than reading
a voltmeter or oscilloscope screen, and then
having to mentally translate that reading to
Continental Specialties
LP-2 and DP -2 Logic
Probes
ALTHOUGH USING AN OSCILLOSCOPE AND EX-
pensive logic analyzers to solve knotty troubleshooting problems is really best, logic probes
save time in most situations. Using very few
controls, the models LP -2 and DP -1 probes
manufactured by Continental Specialties offer
a combination of simple "go, no -go" testing
and a high degree of diagnostic sophistication.
The model LP-2 logic probe is a hand -held
instrument that uses three LED indicators to
display logic levels and pulse transitions via a
dual -threshold window comparator and bipolar
edge detector. The model LP -2 probe is a less
expensive version of the model DP -1; it has
reduced frequency response, higher input im-
CIRCLE 119 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
acceptable or abnormal limits.
The pulse indicator flashes for 0.1 second
every time the input signal makes a 0 to 1, or a
1 to 0 logic -level transition. A repetitive signal
causes the indicator to illuminate constantly
with an intensity that depends on duty cycle
and frequency. Duty cycle is determined by
observing the upper and lower LED's when the
pulse light is lit. For example, if the upper
LED illuminates, the signal is high most of the
time and therefore consists of negative-going
pulses. If both the upper and lower LED's have
equal intensity, the duty cycle approaches 50%
(or a squarewave).
Signals greater than 10 Hz but less than 100
kHz cause the LED to flash at a 10 -Hz rate
determined by the probe's 0.1- second pulse
stretcher. With signals greater than 100 kHz
and near 50% duty cycle, only the pulse LED is
illuminated. The upper or lower LED's light as
the waveform duty cycle deviates from symmetrical squarewave pulses at the higher fre-
quencies.
The model LP-2 operates with pulses as
narrow as 300 ns and a maximum frequency of
1.5 MHz. Overload protection is effective up
to 50 volts DC, or 117 volts AC, for 15
seconds. To use the probe, power must be
provided through black and red clip leads that
are connected to the power source supplying
the circuit under test. The probe's drain is 30
mA at 5 volts and 40 mA at 15 volts; and the
input impedance is 300,000 ohms.
Several accessories are available, including a
2.5 -inch probe tip, hooks and adapters, and
ground clips. The model LP -2 can be used for
troubleshooting an inoperative divider chain by
quickly finding the defective binary stage. It
could also be useful to determine the static and
pulse logic conditions on IC terminals. Using
this probe to examine a microprocessor's ad-
Now! RCAoffers you three
time and money - saving
options in Color TV Test Jigs.
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dress leads could help pinpoint a grounded bus
run when compared wúth the other active bus
lines.
probe to a variable -state point, such as a cross connected feedback lead of a gate -wired flip flop, generates a 50% duty cycle (continuous
waveform).
In the TT L mode, the model DP-! produces
a 1.5 -µs puke with 100 -ns risetime, and 500 -ns
storage and falltimes with a single TTL load.
The storage and falltimes decrease with increased loading. The probe drives outputs as
well as inputs, as long as the combined load is
within the probe's 100-mA source and heat sink capability.
The CMOS mode produces wider pulses for
the higher -impedance (and generally slower)
logic family. Pulse width is 10 µs with a rise time under 100 ns, 8 -µs storage and falltimes
with a 100K load, and sink and load capacity of
impedance is greater than 300,000 ohms when
the probe is in the open -output mode. And
similar to the model LP -2, power is supplied to
the model LP -! via color -coded clip leads, with
less than 30 mA consumption.
The model LP -2 sells for $24.95 and the
model DP-!, $74.95. They are both available
from Continental Specialties Corporation, 70
Fulton Terrace, P.O. Box 1942, New Haven,
CT 06509.
R -E
Christmas
Seals
50 mA.
In both
CIRCLE 120 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
The model DP-/ s a digital pulser probe
with tristate output. It resembles the model
LP-2 physically, except it has only one LED
pulse indicator plus a pulse -control pushbutton. A TTL /CMOS switch chooses output
logic levels. The generator produces
a
single
output pulse for each pushbutton operation.
Depressing the pushbutton transmits a 100
pulse -per-second pulse train. Depending on the
present logic level of the circuit area being
probed, this produces d fferently formed logic
pulses. If the probe senses a low logic level, it
generates a positive -going pulse in an attempt
to switch the logic-level state high. Conversely,
if the logic level is high, the probe generates
narrow negative-going pulses. Connecting the
TTL and CMOS, the probe output
is current -limited and generates continuous
safety pulses into a short circuit. The LED
indicator displays pulse- output states by flashing once fcr single pulse operation, and by
constant illumination for continuous pulse output trains.
If used with other logic probes such as the
model LP-2 or with a logic monitor that simultaneously d splays all IC outputs, the model
DP -1 can test various types of logic devices.
The probe is very useful in checking circuits
that are only occasionally, or never activated.
Using the logic pulser, these circuits can be
activated repeatedly without elaborate test
equipment and without disconnecting any auxiliary logic.
The model DP -! comes with a plug -in
ground clip lead and the accessories that are
available for the model LP -2. The output
Fight
Lung Disease
With the new RCA 10J106A Color TV Test Jig you
can troubleshoot a TV chassis without bringing the
cabinet and picture tube into the shop. The 10J106A
helps you isolate picture tube or chassis malfunctions quickly, and without disturbing your customer's picture -tube alignment.
The 10J106A features a 19 -inch shielded picture
tube; built -in high voltage meter calibrated to 35 kV;
two unique front -panel switches for easy changing
of yoke impedances; and a built -in speaker. Yoke,
picture tube socket, and high -voltage extension
cables are supplied, plus a Set -Up Index and
instruction book. With the 10J106A you can service
thousands of sets whether tube, hybrid or solid -state
including Precision -in -Line types.
The new RCA 10J 106AX Color TV Test Jig is exactly the same as the 10J106A except that it comes
without a picture tube for those who prefer the
economy of installing their own tube.
The RCA 10J107 Color TV Test Jig Adapter modernizes most older test jigs to perform like the
10J106A. And, if you're a do- it- yourselfer, you can
build your own jig from a salvaged TV receiver.
See your RCA Distributor for all the details about
which option suits you best. Or contact RCA
Distributor and Special Products Division, Deptford,
-
NJ
08096.
Rcn Tst
JigV
www.americanradiohistory.com
Performance
and Price...
there's no tradeoff in
B&K- PRECISION
scopes.
Model 1474 $999 including probes
Model 1432 $780 including probes
Fr field or lab work, Dynascan has a
quality scope to fit your needs. B &KPRECISION has taken a no- nonsense, costeffective approach to oscilloscope design.
Our scopes are rugged dependable instruments, designed to match the features and
performance of far more expensive scopes,
without matching their high prices. Typical of
this approach is our Model 1474 30MHz dual trace lab scope and our new Model 1432
15MHz portable dual -trace scope.
Off -the -shelf delivery is another of our features, and its the one you can take advantage
of first. We're so sure that B &K- PRECISION
scopes will fill your needs, that we can offer
a no- obligation, ten -day free trial. Contact
your local B &K- PRECISION distributor for
immediate delivery or a demonstration.
The B &K-PRECISION
Model 1474 is the most
cost -effective dual -trace
scope available. No compromise features include a
built-in signal -delay line,
5mV /cm sensitivity, switch able high- and low -pass triggering filters and
a TTL compatible Z-axis input. Vertical response is typically down only -6dB at 49MHz.
The 1474 is excellent for microprocessor
work, as signal delay and the 30MHz minimum bandwidth allow you to examine
short pulse waveforms.
:41(PREC/S/ON
Canada: Atlas Electronics, Ontario
compact portable offers
optional rechargable battery pack and full lab -scope
features. An automatic
battery charger is built-in as a standard feature. Sensitivity is 2mV/division over a DC
to 15MHz range. Bandwidth response is typically down only -6dB at 25MHz. Special
features include algebraic addition and subtraction of two input signals, 19 calibrated
sweep ranges and front -panel X -Y operation.
DYNASCAN
CORPORATION
6460 West Cortland Street. Chicago. Illinois 60635
In
The new Model 1432 portable dual -trace scope is
one of our best values. This
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Intl. Sls: Empire Exporters, Inc., 270 Newtown Road. Plainview, L.I., NY11803
CIRCLE 60 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
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(((IÌ
COSTROL
the
energy crisis,
present
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to read any temp the Kelvin scale is as
water. (Colored system.)
This article attempts an understand colored
must
with
providing
eaksé
leaks
conIf yyou
one-time system,
step further by P
.)
be used to warn of
other scale. is:
k
any
to
good
as
storage
a blow
the
to
ro of a simple
formula, it
The water in is well insulated, will stay
is not meant
no
convert :he
trot system. It
guide because is
and, if the tank
°x+273.
of the
some time.
by -blow construction
the same. It
are
warm for quite
°F to
into loop 2
working °Ctemperature
B
a
The
enters
systems
to
°C
design
solar
water
85
two
When cold
tank and
enable you to needs.
is
-25
storage
range
a
the
LM3911
hoped
LX5600 has
ente heat
lmeet ou special
)
°F); while the
F to 257
system that lwill
hot-water
will
the
( -67
water
°C
enters
to 125
the two
úede file
-55°C
cost,
destg
and
it
well
range
preheater
has been
energy to bring
analExcept for their
Hot -water p
need just a little more
started in solar
similar.
is
get
are
to
devices
way
A
A good
temperature.
of the transducers
P
hot-water preheater.
to the necessary sounds simple enough,
operation
The
two
solar
a
utility
e
operated
with
gy is
Two diodes
of the average
flaws! The
The system
a voltage
quite wimp le:
Well, it has a few
preheaters.
substantial amount
.
it
there
levels reduce
t
if
d
standard
only
current
does,
tors
tee
is
to
p roP or
11 ecis
co
different
that
goes
the
bill
The storage
a solar Ppreheater
will warm
of
between
sun
energy.
and
difference
rest
great
1
radiant
Another advantage
absolute temperatures
time is not too
is sufficient
from loop if
tional to their The output of the transabsorb heat water in the
that the payback tog et started is within
only
will
tank
so, dependthan
(hence, Kelvin).
the cash outlay
3 volts or
warmed onlye
loop 1 is warmer
be
will be about
ducers
htforward
Loop
storage tank.
the cold -water
is a rather straightforward
the coldA preheater
is warmer than
tank
the
if
it
tank
device.
water
g hot-water
inlet to aaneexist
water inlet
s
ft
ti
n
vi
sy
(-
a.,' rorest,
___...,,aie5, Box 275,
IL
60466.
(7)
V
37
www.americanradiohistory.com
ing on how hot
indoor -outdoor the IC is. (Very simple
analog therm.,.,,,.._
you hay« -_
called flakeboard and particle board)
is recommended for strength and rigidity. You can use plywood, but voids
in some plywood boards can be a
nuisance when they appear at exposed edges. Oak or other hardwood
bracing is necessary to further prevent
cabinet vibration. To avoid counter boring holes for each of the drivers,
two different boards with different size cutouts are glued together (see
Fig. 4) and the base is constructed
Zener dinrtP
before installing. Use white glue again,
this time on the side of the woofer and
bottom -panel assembly. Again, align
the panels and drive the nails into
place (see Fig. 6). These three panels
form a rigid assembly that can be put
aside for the glue to set.
3" DIA (8)
33/4" DIA (N)
41 /2
---
" DIA IDI
55/16" DIA (M)
FIG. 8
113/8" DIA (L)
125/8" DIA (K)
FIG. 6
141
Next, add the other side panel,
(see
which can be installed similarly
can be
Fig. 7). The remaining panels
of the
added, working toward the top
each
check
to
enclosure. Continue
2"
FIG. 4
from a common 2 X 4 (see Fig. 5).
Before assembling the cabinet, cut all
the required holes. Each piece should
be checked for fit before it is glued
and nailed in place. Check the cutouts
for the speakers as well.
FIG. 9
BASE (R) (S) (T) & (U)
e
te
tia
FIG. 7
121/4"
wF,
the
ete
pro
inpt
fere
.
Ú
usin,
Fig.
z
Nc
o
based
cc
Ú
Ili
cr
enced
transe
this w
somew
tion to
Refe
o
2
O
IL
o
w
-J
w
ó
8
¢
40
Start assembling the cabinet by
joining the woofer panel (shown as K
in Fig. 1) to the bottom panel, F. Prior
to gluing the panels together, three or
four finishing nails should be hammered partway into the woofer panel.
White glue should then be spread on
both surfaces, the panels aligned
properly and the nails driven into
place.
Next, assemble one of the side panels (I or J). Nails can be partly driven
into the side panel on two edges
part for fit before adding it to the
assembly. The last major part to assemble is the back, H. Before installing the back permanently, be sure the
woofer subpanel, L, and braces G, O
and P are in place (see Fig. 8). Run a
bead of glue around the joints in the
woofer section to form a good seal.
Finally, make sure the two 3/8 -inch
holes are drilled in panels C and E to
allow passage of wires from the crossover network to the mid -range driver
and tweeter circuits. After the back is
installed, brace Q can be glued in
place (see Fig. 9).
This completes the cabinet assembly. All the remaining components are
installed from the outside. The cabinet
can be completely finished at this
painted the entire enclosure
time.
with several coats of white vinyl Latex
paint (see Fig. 10). Prior to painting,
I
FIG. 10
you should fill all cracks with wood filler compound and sand the entire
enclosure thoroughly.
Crossover
The heart of any good multi -way
L
J
GODTIOL
During the present energy crisis, the
sun is in the running as the most viable
alternate energy source. Here's how
basic electronics can be adapted
to solar heating in home and industry.
RODNEY A. KREUTER
SOLAR ENERGY, IT SEEMS, HAS BECOME
so that the tank itself won't need as much
almost a universal interest. Companies
offering solar collectors and associated
hardware are springing up like glitches on
a TTL breadboard. However, most companies sell complete systems and most
"do -it- yourself" magazines concentrate
on collectors or storage system. Very
little information seems to be available
concerning the instrumentation or control portion of the systems.
This article attempts to proceed one
step further by providing an understanding of a simple instrumentation and control system. It is not meant to be a blow by -blow construction guide because no
two solar systems are quite the same. It is
hoped that it will enable you to design a
system that will meet your special needs.
energy to warm the water to the required
Hot -water preheater
A good way to get started in solar energy is with a solar hot -water preheater. A
substantial amount of the average utility
bill goes to feed standard preheaters.
Another advantage of a solar preheater is
that the payback time is not too great and
the cash outlay to get started is within
reason.
A preheater is a rather straightforward
device. All it does is warm up the coldwater inlet to an existing hot -water tank
temperature. (Note the phrase "as
much. ") A small solar collector in a less than -ideal climate will not supply all your
needs; it will, however, help save a great
deal of energy.
Figure 1 is a diagram of a hot -water
preheater system. Basically, what happens is that the sun warms a water -antifreeze solution in loop 1. The pump sends
the warmed solution around from the
collector to a storage tank that is filled
with colored water. (Colored water can
be used to warn of leaks in the system.)
The water in the storage tank heats up
and, if the tank is well insulated, will stay
warm for quite some time.
When cold water enters into loop 2, it
gains heat from the storage tank and
enters the hot -water heater. If the system
has been well designed, the water will
need just a little more energy to bring it
to the necessary temperature.
The system sounds simple enough,
doesn't it? Well, it has a few flaws! The
sun will warm the collectors only if there
is sufficient radiant energy. The storage
tank will only absorb heat from loop if
loop 1 is warmer than the water in the
storage tank. Loop 2 will be warmed only
if the tank is warmer than the cold -water
1
www.americanradiohistory.com
inlet and the hot water tank isn't full. If
you don't know what the temperature of
each component is, you shouldn't waste
the energy used by the pump. This brings
us to the LM3911.
Temperature transducers
National Semiconductor's LM3911
and the LX5600 are temperature transducers; they provide an answer to most of
our temperature- measuring problems.
The output of the sensors is 10 mV-perdegree Kelvin. Don't let the word Kelvin
concern you; the output can be modified
to read any temperature scale, but for a
one -time system, the Kelvin scale is as
good as any other scale. If you must
convert the formula, it is: °C =
°K+ 273.
The working temperature of the
LM3911 is -25 °C to 85 °C ( -13 °F to
185 °F); while the LX5600 has a range of
-55 °C to 125 °C ( -67 °F to 257 °F).
Except for their range and cost, the two
devices are similar.
The operation of the transducers is
quite simple: Two diodes operated at two
different current levels produce a voltage
difference between them that is proportional to their absolute temperatures
(hence, Kelvin). The output of the transducers will be about 3 volts or so, depend-
ing on how hot the IC is. (Very simple
indoor-outdoor analog thermometer if
you have a good VOM.)
COLD
SOLAR
COLLECTOR
WATER
IN LET
T,
T3
ELECTRICALLY
OPERATED
LOOP 1I
VALVE
PUMP
STORAGE
TANK & HEAT
EXCHANGERS
12
HOT
WATER
TANK
T4
FIG.
1
-BASIC SOLAR ENERGY hot -water pre -
heater showing important temperature measuring points.
TAB
V-
V0'
1
V
INPUT
2
3
TOP VIEW
FIG. 2-BASIC SENSOR CONNECTION and pin
location.
V0
=
V1
-V2
V7
FIG.
3- DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER; the power
connections are not shown.
Figure 2 shows the basic connection
and pin location of the transducers. Note
that the output voltage of the devices is
not referenced to ground but to pin 3.
Differential thermometer
It's useful to know the temperature of
each component of the solar energy system, but it's not essential. What is essential is to know that component A is somewhat warmer than component B. This is
the principle of the differential thermometer. The output of the thermometer is
proportional to the difference of the two
input temperatures. This requires a differential amplifier, which is easy to obtain
using an op -amp such as the one shown in
Fig. 3.
Note that the differential amplifier is
based on two input voltages that are referenced to ground. Since the output of the
transducers is not referenced to ground,
this would seem to complicate the circuit
somewhat. Luckily, there is a simple solution to this problem.
Referring to Fig. 2, note the 6.8 -volt
Zener diode from pin 3 to ground. This
Zener diode is internal to the transducer
and maintains the voltage from pin 3 to
ground at 6.8.
Since V. increases at a rate of 10 -mVper °K, and the sum of V° and V'° must
equal 6.8 volts, V'° must decrease at 10mV-per °K.
Using this data, we can arrive at the
differential thermometer shown in Fig. 4.
The output will be proportional to the
difference between temperatures T, and
T2 and will rise as T, rises, assuming that
T2 remains constant. When T, equals T2,
the output may not be exactly zero,
because op -amps are not perfect and the
6.8 -volt Zener diodes may not be exactly
matched. This will not affect the operation of the circuit, and, as a matter of fact,
may be used to an advantage. You should
interchange the sensors if you don't get a
small positive voltage (about 30 mV to
100 mV) when the sensors are at the same
temperature.
Hysteresis
All control systems need some type of
hysteresis, which is a type of "dead band"
or buffer zone. For example, thermostats
have a built -in hysteresis of about 2 °F.
Assume that the hysteresis is plus or
minus 1 °F of the setting. If the thermostat is set at 68 °F, the furnace will come
on when the temperature falls to 67 °F
and stay on until the temperature rises to
69 °F. If no hysteresis was built into the
system, the furnace would cycle on and
off continuously.
The hysteresis in a solar system should
be fairly large
°F to 10 °F is not
unreasonable. Figure 5 shows a comparator that is used to provide an adjustable
amount of hysteresis. The LED lights as a
status indicator and alarm when the set
amount of temperature difference has
been attained.
-5
Interfacing
At this point, the system monitors
temperature, subtracts one temperature
from another, compares this value to
some preset value, and lights an LED if
all the conditions are met. It still won't
pump much water or close a valve.
Lighting an LED has a purpose other
than just providing an output of the
system. When devices must be operated
s--
at 117 VAC, such as a pump or a motor,
it is necessary to isolate the control
system from the AC lines. By using an
LED and a phototransistor sealed in a
light -tight tube, a very high degree of
isolation can be achieved. You can even
use two LED's -one as an output and the
other as part of the photocoupler.
A circuit that handles the control of
FIG.
4-
FIG.
5- COMPARATOR
DIFFERENTIAL THERMOMETER measures temperature difference.
the pump is shown in Fig. 6. The components might have to be scaled up or down
depending on the amount of load current.
And don't forget to heat -sink the triac.
Assembling the system
The complete control system is shown
in Fig. 7. A regulated 12 -volt power
supply (see Fig. 8) is also necessary to
power the system. The cost of such a
supply is very low, so there is no reason to
use an unregulated supply.
If you want to measure the actual
temperature of one of the system components, you can use a good voltmeter.
LOAD
)I
I
(4)1N4004
SBS
0.05
2N4992
117VAC
with hysteresis con-
trol.
200V
TRIAC
N
N
e
0.1NF
T
R
200V
7.5K
NC
PHOTO
TRANSISTOR
2N5779
6- LIGHT-CONTROLLED TRIAC circuit. For diac triggering, C = 0.22 µF, R = 10K. Substitute
diac for 2N4992 (silicon bilateral switch) and phototransistor with Vo of 80 volts or two 2N5779's
connected in series.
FIG.
www.americanradiohistory.com
First, measure voltage V, of each sensor.
This (Vs) is measured from pin 3 to
ground and should read about 6.8 volts.
Write it down for each sensor because it
will not change but will be different for
each one. Any time that you want to
know the actual temperature, measure
voltage Vo from the output to ground.
The temperature can be found from: °C
= 100 (V, Vo 2.73).
A voltmeter, calibrated in degrees, can
even be permanently installed in your
system if you desire.
Next, you must consider the sensor.
The LX56OO costs a little more than the
LM3911, but it has an extended operating range and slightly better absolute
accuracy. Naturally, the sensors must be
thermally connected to the device to be
monitored. A recommended technique
would be to fabricate a heat sink that the
sensor will slip into. (Use the TO-5 case.)
The heat sink can then be mounted to the
device. Grease the sensor with heat -sink
compound (silicon grease) and slip it into
the heat sink. This will prevent damage to
the sensor. A solar collector should be
monitored in the center if possible.
It will also be necessary to insulate and
weatherproof the sensor leads. Some
RTV insulation should work well. It may
be possible to immerse the sensor in
water if you are careful. The top of the
case should have very little RTV on it to
make sure it isn't thermally insulated.
Another method would be to seal it in a
test tube. Just make sure that the leads
are well insulated.
Run shielded cable to your sensors to
reduce noise pickup since open wire runs
of longer than a few inches tend to
produce too much noise.
Check the pump and valve specifications and choose the triac accordingly.
Many different types of triacs are available, and most should work with this trigger system. Don't be afraid to experiment
with different triac types.
Make sure that the phototransistor is
-
+12V
4.7K
+12V
1
L
fessional Sound Systems now manufactures a line of Tesla coils, kits and components that can be custom -built to fit individual needs. The coils are modular and
symmetrical y constructed, conservative in
0.001 µF
T
VW
X5600
2
T2
'/4 LM324
14
0.1µF
'/4 LM324
+12V
3
5
-
Custom -built high -voltage Tesla
coils now available
The Ultra High Voltage Division of Pro-
100K
+12V
2N2222
100K
4.7K
11
3
LX5600
T1
2
+12V
100K
1
18052
LIGHT -TIGHT
TUBE
47K
100K
T
0.001
14
1K
TO
HYSTERESIS
CIRCUIT
SHOWN
IN FIG. 6
4752
7- SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM of complete control system. Note bypass capacitors for greater noise
immunity and slight change of some component values. The LM324 contains four op -amps, so two
complete loops could be handled by one IC.
FIG.
117V
AC
12V
300mA
+12v
7812
3
OUT
lpF
47052
Z
GND
FIG. 8 -12-VOLT POWER SUPPLY consists of bridge rectifier and regulator.
rated at 80 volts Veo° or more if you plan
to use a diac to trigger the triac. The silicon bilateral switch (shown in Fig. 6)
might be hard to locate, although a GE
semiconductor parts supplier should have
it and the 2N5779 photo- Darlington
transistor.
Calibrating the hysteresis control will
be somewhat time- consuming. Allow one
sensor to reach room temperature. This
will represent the cooler component
(storage tank). Feed this output into the
noninverting input of the op -amp.
Prepare a warm water bath and place
the other sensor in the bath (insulate the
leads). This represents the warmer component (the solar collector). Feed the
output of this sensor into the inverting
input of the op -amp.
Now use a good thermometer to measure each temperature. Rotate the hysteresis control until the LED lights up. At
this point, mark down on the dial the
difference between the two temperatures.
Repeat this at least five times. The total
range, with the component values given,
will be from about °C to 20 °C. Therefore, do not raise the temperature of the
bath to any warmer than room temperaR -E
ture plus 20 °C.
design and can be used in high -voltage
applications and for demonstrations.
There are 10 basic configurations from
which to choose, with spark- discharge
lengths ranging from 1.5 inches to over 15
feet. A full line of stock components is also
available, from power -supply control consoles to oscillation transformer assemblies.
All of these can also be tailored to a
customer's special requirements. For information, write Professional Sound Systems,
Ultra High Voltage Division, 4914 Baldwin
Avenue, Temple City, CA 91780.
average national service manager's salary
is presently $25,658 and that of field service representative, $13,291. The report
categorizes these and other job listings by
type of product or service (also by the size
of the service company or manufacturer
involved), as well as containing data on
various types of employers. More than
25,000 positions in over 200 organizations
are listed, including salaries for national
regional and local service managers; field
service supervisors, engineers and senior
representatives; parts managers; service
training instructors; technical writing supervisors; and more. Employers represented include firms manufacturing business, electrical and communications equipment; consumer electronics; computers
and allied products; and medical and sci-
Report states service industry
salares are rising
It appears that salaries in the service
industry are on the rise, according to a
report entitled Salaries and Related Matters in the Service Department -1978,
published by Abbott, Langer & Associates,
Park Forest, IL.
For example, the report lists that the
1
entific equipment.
The report is available for $60 from
Abbott, Langer & Associates, Box 275,
Park Forest, IL 60466.
37
www.americanradiohistory.com
J
_I-
Time Compensated
Hì-Fì SneaKer
SYstem
THIS ARTICLE GIVES YOU AN OPPORTUNITY
to keep up with the latest advances in
loudspeaker design by showing how to
build a pair of high -quality, time-compensated speakers for less than $200.
Practically any multi -way speaker system can be improved by adjusting the
drivers for signal arrival time. Sound
from the high- frequency speakers usually
arrives first. By moving the high- frequency speakers back, the sound from the
woofer, mid-range driver and tweeter can
be made to arrive at your listening position simultaneously. Many of the good
sounds from electrostatic speakers can
now be heard with nonelectrostatic systems. Time -compensation can help pro-
duce a smoother frequency response
(compared with flat baffle mounting) by
reducing interference between drivers at
the crossover frequency. This also produces improved transient response as well
as incredible depth and stereo imaging.
The secret of proper system design is to
align the acoustic center of each driver, as
seen from the side, so that they are in the
same vertical plane. Each type and size of
driver has its own effective acoustic center that can be located at either the voice
coil, behind the coil, or in front of it.
To locate the acoustic centers and position them correctly relative to each other,
I recommend using an oscilloscope, a
Bruel & Kjaer condenser microphone
and a bucket -brigade audio -delay line.
Each driver selected for this system has
very little shift of its acoustic center
through its frequency range. The crossover network is adjusted for smooth frequency response. It also maintains a uniform time response when combined with
the driver time characteristics. Other
kinds of drivers should not be substituted
in this system since their time characteristics may not be the same.
Testing
The system should be tested for errors
or a cold solder joint. Connect a l'/2-volt
battery across the input terminals, with
the positive end going to the red terminal.
The woofer cone should move out. Connect the system to your amplifier and put
on FM interstation hiss. A distinct band
of frequencies should be heard from each
speaker-lows from the woofer, mid frequencies from the mid -range and highs
from the tweeter. These frequencies
should be of approximately equal amplitude. The system can be fused with a 1'/2amp normal -blow or fast -acting fuse.
The time -compensated system can be
driven without stress by musical peaks of
up to 100 watts. Of course, the continuous or RMS power rating of the drivers is
less. Use an amplifier of 35 watts or more
to avoid clipping on peaks. A severely
clipping amplifier can damage the drivers
and the crossover network.
Using the system
The best location for the speakers is on
the floor against the long wall of the
listening room. The distance between the
speakers should be equal to or less than
the distance from either speaker to your
listening position. Avoid placing the
speakers in the corners because this may
provide too much bass and cause excessive room standing -wave problems. You
may want to toe the speakers in toward
the listening position to maintain the best
38
www.americanradiohistory.com
time response for each speaker.
Now, you are in for a real stereo treat.
In playing various types of stereo material, you will notice an unusually well defined stereo image. You will also notice
this image will vary considerably from
one recording to another. Recordings
made with microphones close to the
instruments may sound almost monophonic in the left and right channels. A
solo instrument or voice will sound almost monophonic in the center. With the
microphone placed farther back and adding more of the reverberant field, recordings will have an incredible spaciousness
and an evenly spread stereo image.
I have made many true stereo recordings using only two omnidirectional microphones. The recordings range from
katydids on a summer night to church
choirs. The realism of these recordings is
increased dramatically with the time compensated system. Another benefit is
in transient performance. Try guitar,
harp, or harpsichord recordings; then try
cymbals, triangles, or snare drums.
The high frequencies in this system
have been adjusted for the smoothest
response. Depending on how recordings
are made, however, the high- frequency
balance will seem to vary. The easiest and
best way to compensate for this is to use
the treble control: By varying the setting
from 10 o'clock to 2 o'clock, you can
adjust the frequency balance for the best
sound in each recording.
Once you get hooked on the superior
sound from the time-compensated speaker system, you won't settle for anything
less from any other system.
Here's your chance to own a state -of- the -art stereo
speaker system designed so the sounds from the three
drivers reach your ears simultaneously. Build it for
less than $200 using ordinary hand tools.
ROGER H. RUSSELL
O O
Cabinet construction
©
FOR CORRECT SIGNAL- ARRIVAL TIME, THE MID -
range driver must be placed so that it
is 71/a inches back from the woofer.
The tweeter must be placed so that it
is 21/2 inches back from the mid -range.
The result is a stepped -back arrangement whose construction is only
slightly more complicated than that of
a normal flat baffle design. The improvement in sound is well worth it.
(Figs. 1, 2 and 3 are the construction
LES
i
diagrams for the front, sides and back
of the speaker cabinet.)
With careful layout, many of the
parts for the pair of cabinets can be
made from a single 4 -foot by 8-foot
sheet of wood. Some lumber yards
have smaller sheets available at lower
cost that can be used to construct the
remainder of the cabinet. A portable
circular saw, a saber saw, or even a
handsaw can be used to cut the panels. Visible surfaces can be painted or
covered with vinyl, or wood veneer can
be used.
Three -quarter -inch chipboard (also
71/4-43/4"
BACK (H)
313/8"
327/s"
SIDES (II & (Jl
285ía"
21'2
13
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r
iL
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i
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WY
4
O
FIG.
1
O
TA"
111/4"
i
X61/2,
91/2"
143/4"
FIG. 2
16"
FIG. 3
39
www.americanradiohistory.com
called flakeboard and particle board)
is recommended for strength and rigidity. You can use plywood, but voids
in some plywood boards can be a
nuisance when they appear at exposed edges. Oak or other hardwood
bracing is necessary to further prevent
cabinet vibration. To avoid counter boring holes for each of the drivers,
two different boards with different size cutouts are glued together (see
Fig. 4) and the base is constructed
3"
D
before installing. Use white glue again,
this time on the side of the woofer and
bottom -panel assembly. Again, align
the panels and drive the nails into
place (see Fig. 6). These three panels
form a rigid assembly that can be put
aside for the glue to set.
IA (B)
33/4" DIA (N)
41/2" DIA (D)
55/16" DIA (M)
FIG. 8
113/8" DIA (L)
125/8" DIA (K)
FIG. 6
Next, add the other side panel,
which can be installed similarly (see
Fig. 7). The remaining panels can be
added, working toward the top of the
enclosure. Continue to check each
141/2"
FIG. 4
from a common 2X4 (see Fig. 5).
Before assembling the cabinet, cut all
the required holes. Each piece should
be checked for fit before it is glued
and nailed in place. Check the cutouts
for the speakers as well.
FIG. 9
BASE (R) (S) (T) & (U)
FIG. 7
121/4"
U
z
0
lL
U
w
Jw
Ó
0
cr
Start assembling the cabinet by
joining the woofer panel (shown as K
in Fig. 1) to the bottom panel, F. Prior
to gluing the panels together, three or
four finishing nails should be hammered partway into the woofer panel.
White glue should then be spread on
both surfaces, the panels aligned
properly and the nails driven into
place.
Next, assemble one of the side panels (I or J). Nails can be partly driven
into the side panel on two edges
part for fit before adding it to the
assembly. The last major part to assemble is the back, H. Before installing the back permanently, be sure the
woofer subpanel, L, and braces G, O
and P are in place (see Fig. 8). Run a
bead of glue around the joints in the
woofer section to form a good seal.
Finally, make sure the two 3/6-inch
holes are drilled in panels C and E to
allow passage of wires from the crossover network to the mid -range driver
and tweeter circuits. After the back is
installed, brace Q can be glued in
place (see Fig. 9).
This completes the cabinet assembly. All the remaining components are
installed from the outside. The cabinet
can be completely finished at this
time.
painted the entire enclosure
with several coats of white vinyl Latex
paint (see Fig. 10). Prior to painting,
FIG. 10
you should fill all cracks with wood fillEr compound and sand the entire
enclosure thoroughly.
I
40
www.americanradiohistory.com
Crossover
The heart of any good multi -way
INPUT +
l
°
L1
6.OrnH
-T
L2
R1
.1mH
312
4.7µF
'An `-MA.--C3
C4
47NF
10uF
R2
6S2
BLACK
BLACK
+/
C2
1OUF
WOOFER
INPUT
-
form. Then scrape the insulation from
the lead ends and tin the wires with
solder.
The electrolytic- capacitor losses are
sufficiently low not to affect the output
of either the mid -range driver or
tweeter. In the woofer and the midrange circuit, 10- and 4.7 -µF capacitors are connected in parallel to produce a total capacitance close to 15
µF. The resistors in series with the
mid -range and tweeter are 5 -watt
"cinder- block" types. All components,
particularly the 6 -mH coil, should be
.1.C5
L3
L4
.3m H
MID RANGE
1.6m H
TWEETER
Cl
47NF
BLACK
FIG. 11
speaker system is the frequency -dividing network. Numerous listening
tests as well as acoustic response
measurements were made to insure
that each speaker output complements the others closely in frequency
range and amplitude. The frequency dividing (crossover) network, (see Fig.
11) was adjusted for best performance
using Norelco (Philips) drivers (Fig. 12).
The network board is made of '/2-
a
a
COIL
L1
-6.OmH
L2- .1mH
a
2''/'
1"
DOWEL
LENGTH
WIRE
SIZE
NUMBER
TURNS
OF
1A'
#18
%'
#24
77
675
L3 -1.6mH
1'A"
1"
#22
338
L4- .3mH
1"
'A"
#24
133
FIG. 14
FIG. 12
inch particle board and is 7 inches
square. A push -type connector is
mounted on the opposite side of the
components (see Fig. 13) so that it will
be in the hole in the enclosure's back
Masonite glued to 3/4- inch -diameter
dowels. Three different coil forms are
used for the four coils in the network,
which are made of ordinary enameled
magnet wire. The number of coil turns
is based on "scramble" winding. This
means neat orderly rows of turns are
not necessary. However, windings
should be kept reasonably tight. The
finished 6 -mH coil weighs about 1'/4lb.
Gluing the ends of this coil form will
not be sufficient. Drive brass screws
through the faces into the dowel to be
sure the coil form stays together.
Coils can be started by winding a
few turns of wire around your finger
and then taping this wire to one face of
the coil form (Fig. 15). The coil can
FIG. 15
FIG. 13
panel (H). The four coils are wound as
detailed in Fig. 14. Coil forms are
made from squares of '/a -inch thick
then be wound. After the coil is wound,
wrap tape around the turns to hold
them in place. The tape holding the
wire on one coil form face can then be
removed and both leads cut off at a
length of about 3 inches from the
www.americanradiohistory.com
well glued to the board to hold them in
place and prevent vibration. recommend using RTV silicone adhesive for
this purpose.
Wiring of the board is a perfectly
straightforward procedure using terminal strips and mounting hardware.
Component placement is shown in Fig.
16. Number 20 stranded wire with
I
color -coded insulation is adequate as
leads to the speakers. Use black colored wire for the negative lead on
all the drivers. The following wire
lengths should be used: the tweeter,
24 inches; the mid -range, 20 inches;
and the woofer, 21 inches.
Final installation
Place caulking compound around
the inside of the crossover opening in
the back panel and then push the
crossover panel into place. The cornpound holds the board while you center the terminal in the cutout. Start
drilling 7/64- inch -diameter screw holes
in the back of the cabinet using the
holes in the crossover panel to locate
them (see Fig. 13). Drill only partway
into the cabinet back. Using No. 8 X
1 -inch sheet -metal screws, fasten the
crossover panel in place. Dress the
purple and black tweeter wires from
the crossover through the 3/a -inch
holes in E and C and out of the tweeter
cutout. The orange and black wires go
through the 3/8-inch hole in E and out of
the mid -range driver cutout. Seal this
%-inch hole with caulking compound
to create an airtight woofer compartment. The red and black woofer wires
can be brought out and taped to the
front of the cabinet.
Ì
SPEAKER SYSTEM PARTS LIST
r
I
I
L3
L2
O
-
LI
MID +
MID
-
L4
TWEETER +
TWEETER-
`-
RI
O
Y
2- TERMINAL
BLOCK
WOOFER --
O
-
WOOFER +
FIG. 16
The following items are available from
McGee Radio & Electronic Corporation,
1901 McGee Street, Kansas City, MO
64108:
Part No. AD12250 W8: Two 12 -inch Norelco woofers, two for $77.
Part No. AD0211 SQ8: Two 2 -inch soft dome Norelco mid -ranges, $19.95 each.
(This part not in McGee catalog but available.)
Part No. AD0162 T8: Two 1 -inch dome
tweeters, $9.95 each.
Two 3 -ohm 5 -watt resistors, $.20 each.
Two 6 -ohm 5 -watt resistors, $.49 each.
The following items are available from
Radio Shack stores:
Part No. 272 -999: Four 10 -µF, 50 -volt
nonpolar capacitors, $.99 each.
Part No. 272 -998: Six 4.7 -pF, 50 -volt
nonpolar capacitors, $.89 each.
Part No. 274 -688: Two 5 -lug terminal strip packs of 4, $.69 each.
Part No. 274 -621: Two terminal boards,
$.99 each.
Part No. 40 -1951: Three foam grilles,
$5.95 each.
Miscellaneous: One roll of glass -fiber
insulation (approximately $5.95); two 4 -foot
by 8 -foot sheets of 3/4 -inch particle board
($17); five 1/2-lb (100 -foot) rolls No. 18 magnet wire; two '/4-pound (93 -foot) rolls No. 22
magnet wire; two '/4 -pound (150 -foot) rolls
No. 24 magnet wire; white glue ($1.79);
eight No. 8 X -inch sheet -metal screws;
16 No. 10 X 1 -inch sheet -metal screws; 14
No. 6 X '/2 -inch sheet -metal screws; 2 flathead brass wood screws; hookup wire;
solder; paint; caulking compound; hardwood bracing; 8- foot -long two -by -four;
1'/4 -inch finishing nails.
1
With a driver in place, use the
mounting holes as guides to drill the
screw holes into the mounting board.
For the mid -range driver and tweeter,
use a 5/64 -inch drill. The mounting holes
for the woofer are 9/64 inch.
Next, fill the woofer compartment
with glass -fiber insulation material
(Fig. 17). Ordinary pink home insulation material 2 or 3 inches thick can be
FIG. 17
used. A roll of this insulation costs less
than the small packages of acoustic
glass -fiber material needed to fill two
systems. Insulation performance is the
same or better, and you can use the
remainder in your attic or under the
hood of the family car.
Remove the vapor- barrier backing
and cut the glass -fiber into small
pieces. This will produce the smooth-
est bass response. Three -inch cubes
will do nicely, although size is not too
critical. Wear rubber gloves to avoid
possible irritation to your hands. Fill
the enclosure completely with loosely
packed insulation material. And make
sure to fill under the brace, G. No
material is needed in the upper compartments because both the midrange driver and the tweeters have
sealed backs. The drivers can now be
connected and installed.
Solder the color -coded wire to the
positive terminal and the black wire to
the negative lead. A red mark on or
near the terminal indicates it is positive; if no mark appears, briefly connect a 11/2-volt battery to the terminals. When the speaker diaphragm
moves away from the magnet, the
positive end of the battery is connected to the positive lead of the speaker.
The mid -range driver and tweeter can
be installed using No. 6 X 1/2-inch
sheet -metal screws. The woofer can
be installed with No. 10 X 3/4 -inch
sheet -metal screws. Place caulking
compound only around the woofer; it
should be placed between the woofer
basket and the woofer subpanel, L
(see Fig. 18). Again, this insures a seal
in the woofer compartments.
The foam grille can be cut and
installed using the self- adhering strip
that comes with the grille along with
cutting instructions. Three grille packages are all that are needed to cover
two systems. This completes the assembly.
R -E
www.americanradiohistory.com
CABINET LUMBER DIMENSIONS
To construct the cabinet for the time compensated speaker system, the following lumber should be purchased:
'/4- inch
-thick flakeboard:
Top panel (A): 3% inches X 16 inches
Tweeter board (B): 41/4 inches X 16
inches
Tweeter bottom (C): 5'/a inches X 16
inches
Mid -board (D): 7'/a inches X 16 inches
Woofer top (E): 13'/4 inches X 16 inches
Woofer bottom (F): 14 inches X 16
inches
Mid -brace (G): 61/4 inches X 16 inches
Back panel (H): 31'ía inches X 16 inches
Side panels (I & J): 32'/a inches X 141/4
inches (see Fig. 2)
Woofer board (K): 21/2 inches X 16
inches
Woofer board (L): 13'/4 inches X 16
inches
'A- inch -thick flakeboard:
Mid -board (M): 71/4 inches X 16 inches
Tweeter board (N): 4'/4 inches X 16
inches
'/4 -inch
hardwood:
Braces (O & P): 12 inches X 21/2 inches
Brace (Q): 10 inches X 2'/2 inches
2
X 4 inch fir:
Base (R & S): 121/4 inches
Base (T & U): 15 inches
L
Making
cm
m
Lr
c.,
.-
Ffal)
PROM'S
-
c
n
c.,
Suu
Work ForYou
The programmable read -only memory is becoming the workhouse
of modern digital electronics and will play an ever-increasing role
in your everyday activities. Here is what it's all about.
ROBERT H. PENOYER
THE PROM (PROGRAMMABLE READ-ONLY
Memory) is increasingly being accepted
as a circuit element. The electronic hobbyist or home computer owner should
become familiar with this very useful
device. Because there have been numerous articles written about both the
PROM and the EPROM (Erasable
PROM), this article will just briefly mention their theory of operation, and concentrate on the ways these devices can be
put to use.
What is a PROM?
Figure shows the basic configuration
of a 16 X 4-bit PROM; that is, there are
4 address lines, and, therefore, 24 = 16
states can be represented. Each of these
1
16 states is decoded into a single control
line that leads to a set of junctions in the
memory array. These junctions are either
closed or fused open depending upon how
the PROM is programmed. The logic
state of the junctions selected by the
address decoder passes through the buffer and appears at the output. Figure
shows 4 output lines; thus, there are 24 X
4 or 16 X 4 junctions. This PROM can
also be described as containing 16 words
with 4 bits -per -word. There are as many
words as there are address states. Therefore, if the PROM had eight address lines
1
and one output line, it would be a 2g X
-bit or a 256 X -bit PROM, or
containing 256 -bit words.
Just as there are closed or fused -open
junctions in a PROM array, the EPROM
uses static charges on MOSFET transistors to achieve the effects of an open or
closed junction. The charges on the
MOSFET's can last for years or be erased
in a few minutes by special ultraviolet
lamps.
1
1
1
Using the PROM
The PROM serves two main purposes:
First, a single PROM IC can replace an
entire multiple-gate logic array. Say, for
example, you needed a set of gates that
would perform the function described in
the truth table of Fig. 2. If standard gates
were used, a complex network would
result. Instead, let the four left -hand
columns of Fig. 2 represent the address
lines, and let the column on the right
represent the output line of a 16 X 1 -bit
PROM. Thus you would achieve the
desired function using only a single IC.
The result is a savings in wiring time,
troubleshooting time and board space.
The second main use of a PROM is as a
"look -up table." For example, suppose
you wanted a counter to count in the
sequence shown in the right -hand side of
Fig. 3. This could be extremely difficult
to accomplish using ordinary logic. Instead, you can apply the output lines of an
ordinary binary counter to the address
lines of a PROM. Upon reaching any of
the 16 possible states, the counter causes
the internal logic of the PROM to "look
up" the desired output state and pass it
through its buffer to the output, according to the truth table. Only two IC's, a
4-bit binary counter and a PROM are
needed to arrive at a rather complicated
sequential output.
Another example of using a PROM as
a look -up table is a Baudot to ASCII code
translator. The Baudot code can act as the
address for a PROM, and the PROM
output can yield equivalent ASCII characters.
Propagation delay and access time
As with any logic device, propagation
delays in PROM's are important, particularly so if a PROM's output lines are used
to drive counters or clocked logic of any
type.
A specifically limited amount of time is
required to receive an address, decode it,
drive a set of junctions in the PROM
array and transmit the result through the
buffers to the PROM output. This is
called the PROM's access time, and is
43
www.americanradiohistory.com
table shown in Fig. 3. Therefore, as the
counter passes through each binary state,
the desired output appears on the PROM
output lines. These lines are always enabled as shown in Fig. 5. Note that both
the counter and the latch are triggered by
positive-going clock edges, and there is an
inverter in the latch clock line. This
means that while the counter still triggers
on the positive-going edge of the clock,
the latch will trigger on the negative going edge. This provides a delay of one half clock period between the time the
counter is updated and the resulting
PROM output appears at the latch output. If the PROM access time is shorter
than one -half clock period, its output will
be settled by the time the latch uses it.
The result is a clean accurate set of waveforms at the latch output.
ENABLE
Apv
s
A, o
.
ADDRESS
LINES
00
o,
MEMORY
DECODER
ARRAY
Ato
A3
FIG.
1
BUFFER
c,
02
03
-PROM consists of an address decoder, output buffer and memory array.
A0
A,
A2
A3
0
0
0
0
F
0
0
o
0
0
o
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
o
through, say, 10K resistors (in the case of
TTL logic) then when the output lines
are disabled they will be at a known high
logic level. Therefore, no output line can
go low unless that particular bit was
programmed low and the PROM output
was enabled. Thus, it is only necessary to
disable the output when changing addresses. Using such an arrangement, no
glitches appear at the output and low going pulses appear only when desired.
Figure 4 shows a typical circuit using this
technique.
PROM
sources
PROM's and EPROM's are available
in many configurations. Just check
through manufacturers' catalogs for the
type of PROM you need for your application. Sometimes the required number of
2- COMPLEX LOGIC
FUNCTIONS such as
the one shown in the above truth table can be
easily handled by a PROM.
FIG.
-ID.
OUTPUT
LINES
A0
A,
A2
0
0
0
0
A3
0
00
0,
02
03
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
o
1
1
1
0
0
o
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
PROM
0,
AO
00
Q2
A,
0,
03
03
A2
02
D4
Q4
A3
03
D1
INCOMING
ADDRESS
LINES
132
3 -STATE
BUFFERED
OUTPUT
LINES
ENABLED
WHEN LOW
CLOCK
UPDATE
PU LSE
1
1
+V
POSITIVE EDGE
TRIGGERED LATCH
FIG.
J
-I
if
L
LONGER THAN PROM ACCESS TIME
4- DISABLING
PROM during access time prevents glitches from appearing at the output.
0
1
0
3- COUNTERS wi h an unusual counting
sequence can easily be designed using a
FIG.
RESET
PULSE
r
listed in the manufacturer's data sheet.
During the access delay time, the state of
the output lines on a PROM is unpredictable. A set of outputs can pass through
several states during the transition from
one address to the next. Therefore, if the
outputs are driving clocked logic, the
logic could receive undesired data. Obviously, this should not be allowed to
happen. Luckily there are methods to get
around this problem.
Buffer and latch isolation
As shown in Fig. 1, the output buffer
of the PROM often has an enable control
line. Typically, this enable line is used to
select the device that is to be connected to
a parallel bus system when many such
tri -state devices are used. When enabled,
the buffer outputs are at normal logic
levels. When not enabled, the buffer outputs appear to be open circuits. If all the
buffer output lines are pulled to +V
LATCH
PROM
RESET
PROM.
04
A3
03
Dq
04
03
A2
02
D3
Q3
Q2
A,
0,
02
Q2
Q1
AO
00
D1
Q1
COUNTER
ENABLED
1
WHEN LOW
CLOCK
CLOCK INPUT
FIG. 5 -CLOCK SIGNAL in synchronous
OUTPUT
1
CLOCK
circuits can be used to inhibit output during access time.
You can use a similar more desirable
technique that requires no pull -up resistors on the buffered output lines. Let's
say, for example, you want a circuit that
counts as shown in the Fig. 3 truth table.
Also assume that you could not arbitrarily allow the outputs to go high, as shown
in Fig. 4.
Figure 5 shows an alternative technique: a synchronous binary counter
drives the address lines of a PROM that
is programmed according to the truth
www.americanradiohistory.com
words and word length are not available
and you have used a PROM with more
words or bits than you need. In this case,
you should consider the economics of
wasting PROM capability.
Most large distributors can program a
PROM for you if you purchase it from
them. Find out all the necessary information before placing the order for your
PROM; often the distributors will program the device for a small fee or at no
R -E
additional cost.
Th
-
--I--I-11-
--LJ1
NOM Card
For The 1802
Add -on math board for an 1802 -based microcomputer.
Based on a number-crunching IC, this board speeds
execution time, reduces software overhead and saves memory
L. STEVEN CHEAIRS
NOW THAT YOU HAVE YOUR RCA 1802 -
based microcomputer up and running,
what do you do next? You might consider
putting it to some serious work, but in
doing so, you will probably run into the
software wall. In other words, for most
applications a good deal of programming
will be required, and a good portion of it
will be for mathematical operations. It's
also a known fact that you can age very
rapidly writing all the software needed to
perform the required mathematical operations.
One alternative is to use hardware
instead of software to perform these operations. The first idea I had was to use a
scientific calculator IC. This would certainly reduce the software development
time, leaving me only the interfacing to
worry about. While this apparently solves
the software problem, it creates a Pandora's box full of new ones.
First, most calculator IC's have onchip debounce circuitry designed to solve
the problems generated by multiple character entry due to noisy keyboard switches. This is a very positive feature for a
calculator, but, unfortunately, it tends to
slow a microprocessor down.
Second, a calculator IC in its natural
habitat is interfaced to a keyboard via a
set of multiplexed input /output (I /O)
pins. This requires complex interfacing to
convert incoming data into the signals
necessary to imitate a keyboard switch.
While this is not an impossible task, it is a
bit messy.
Third, a calculator is designed to stand
alone, not act as a slave processor for a
microcomputer system. The data is outputted in a multiplexed 7- segment, non TTL format. Multiplexing data is not
only acceptable but desirable. On the
other hand, a 7- segment format is not
exactly the easiest format for a computer
to manipulate. It could of course be
converted to a BCD (Binary -Coded Decimal) format by several methods, such as a
software look-up table, or a PROM could
be programmed to convert a minimum of
five input lines into the four BCD output
lines. Another point to consider is that
the calculator IC's do not have the control lines required to interface it to the
processor.
You could try another approach, such
as dedicating a CPU and a ROM as a
mathematical processor. National Semiconductors has done just that with its new
v
-
Number -Oriented Microprocessor
(NOM). This special- purpose microprocessor, the MM57109, is available
through distributors. This single IC will
provide most, if not all, of the mathematical operations needed for any computer
system. The software overhead is drastically reduced when this processor is
used.
The MM57109
Figure I is the internal block diagram
of the MM57109, showing both the signal lines and their point of origin. The
internal register file is composed of five
+5V
Vdd-s. -4V
HOLD
ROY
01
OSC
02
POR
INTERNAL CLOCKS
03
SYNC
04
BR
CONTROL
SIGNALS
ISE L
RIW
DAS
MICROPROGRAM
STORAGE ROM
FI
INTIALIZATION
FLAGS
F2
ERROR
Ig/JC
ARD
15
14/04
13/03
CONTROL
LOGIC
X
8 -DIGIT
Y
12/02
STACK
ll/DI
MANTISSA
REGISTER
FILE
Z
T
MEMORY
DIGIT
ADDRESS
COUNTER
ARITHMETIC
UNIT
4 -BIT
DIGIT DATA
DIGIT
DATA
OUT
FIG.
1
-BLOCK DIAGRAM
OF THE MM57109 number -oriented mic oprocessor.
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
DAl (LS)
DA2
DA3
DA41MS)
D01 (LS)
002
D03
D04 (MS)
registers (X, Y, Z, T and M); each has
eight mantissa digits, two exponent digits, a decimal -point position indicator,
and the mantissa and exponent sign bits.
The program- storage ROM stores about
1500 eight -bit micro -instruction words.
The 6-bit -long program instructions enter through the 11_6-lines and are converted into a sequence of these microinstructions. The BCD data words enter
the control logic via the I,_,- lines.
Data is outputted, after receiving the
our instruction, through the digit -dataout block. The digit- address -counter
block sequences each digit during the
I/O operations. The Read /Write control
line is used during the our instruction to
latch the data words into the interface
register.
Figure 2 shows a table of the
MM57109's important features. These
features can be classified into four categories: scientific calculator -type instructions, I /O, branch control and interface.
Basically, the MM57109 looks like an
RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) scientific
calculator. The only major difference is in
the I/O and control -interface circuitry.
National Semiconductor engineers state
that the MM57109 is a modified scientifTABLE
Instructions
Branch
Input/Output
HOLD for asynchronous
RPN
and single step operation
Conditional and
unconditional
1
to 8 -digit
Asynchronous digit
input instruction (AIN)
with AIN ready (ADR)
input
mantissa
2 -digit
Increment /decrement
branch on non-zero
for program loops
Generation of I/O
control signals
instructions (IN, OUT)
Four -register
stack, one -memory
Floating point or
scientific notation
Separate digit input,
output, and address
bus
location
Trigonometic
functions,
logarithmic
functions, Y',
e ",
n, etc.
Error Flag
FIG.
Programmable mantissa
digit count for IN, OUT
instructions
Sense input and
flag output
2- FEATURES OF THE
MM57109 that are important to the NOM card constructor.
is calculator. First, we'll take a look at the
1802-type interface; then, the instructions and programming techniques will
be discussed. If you are not yet convinced
that the MM57109 is the way to go, then
look at Table 1. As stated earlier, the
NOM is very easy to interface to almost
any computer system. The MM57109 is
CLOCK
DO-D7
MICROPROCESSOR
Microprocessor
CALCULATOR
0.5 -500 ms
14 -400 ms
Variable (1- to
8 -digit mantissa)
Fixed
Fixed
Data format
Floating point, and
scientific notation
Binary
Floating point, and
scientific notation
I/O
Multidigit,
asynchronous digit
and single bit
Data bytes and single
bit
Keyboard /display
Program
External ROM /PC,
µP or FIFO
External ROM, internal
Key sequence
R8- 18,000 ohms
R9, R10, R12 -R15 -2000 ohms
R11, R16 -9100 ohms
Cl, C5-1-/AF, 35 -volt, electrolytic
C2, C3, C8, C11, C12- 0.01 -µF, disc
C4, C9, C10- 100 -pF, disc
C6, C7- 10 -AF, 20 -volt, electrolytic
D1 -1N703 Zener diode (or equal), 3.9
volts
IC1, IC2 -4508, dual 4 -bit latch
IC3, IC13 -4069, hex inverter
IC4 -4073, triple 3 -input AND gate
IC5, IC6, IC8 -4013, dual D -type flip -flop
IC7 -4049, hex inverter buffer
IC9 -4528, BCD-to- decimal
decoder /binary-to -octal decoder
dual TTL- to -MOS voltage
IC10- DS8800,
B
H
0 UTPUT
PORT
/
MM57109
NOM
I.
4
Nt, N2,
MRD, MWR, TPB
1
I/O
Data length
R7 -1000 ohms
INPUT
PORT
No,
I
All resistors 'h watt, 5% unless noted.
R1 -R5, R17, R18- 10,000 ohms
R6 -300 ohms, '/z watt
N
4
EF OR IRO
0.5 -400 ms
Low power operation
Multidigit I/O
exponent
and Calculator IC's
Speed
(math or /O)
Single phase clock
program branching
1- Comparison of MM57109 to the Average
MM57109
Interface
Control
PC
PARTS LIST
converter
IC11- MM57109, NOM
IC12 -4072, dual 4 -input OR gate
S1 -S4 -DIP switch (8 SPST switches)
Misc. -One 28-pin DIP socket for IC11,
and a PC board.
The following are available from Questar Engineering Co., 50 S. MacDonald St.,
Mesa, AZ 85202:
PC board, predrilled and etched, $33
Complete kit of all parts, $98
Elf II to SB -44 converter card, $6.95
MM57109 NOM IC, $18
DS8800 TTL- to-MOS converter IC, $6.45.
Questar also has a PROM containing a
subroutine that will perform all the power-up housekeeping and FIFO interface
between the 1802 and the NOM. Also
included on the PROM is a monitor -type
software package, $28.50.
Note: The decision to use a dual 22 -pin
www.americanradiohistory.com
LOGIC
FIG. 3 -1802 MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACE
for the MM57109.
only one of two NOM interfaces that
Questar Engineering is marketing; the
other is for the S -100 bus.
Circuit operation
The basic circuit operation is shown in
the block diagram of Fig. 3, while the
complete schematic is shown in Fig. 4.
The I/O signals (No, N,, N2, TPB, MRD,
MWR) from the 1802 are decoded, and
are used to move data into and out of the
NOM via two 8 -bit data latches. One -half
of the data output port, Do-D,, is the
card was based on the fact that this card
has been a standard component of the
electronic field for many years. The Vector-size card and hardware are readily
available and less expensive than other
components. There are a variety of other
printed-circuit cards using this same bus,
a few of which will be available in the
future. These PC cards include a Vectortype graphic display that uses an oscilloscope as a display; a 2K -byte EROM /2Kbyte low-power RAM card; and a nonvolatile 4K -byte RAM board; the EROM's are
programmed in place on the card. This
permits the EROM to be treated like a
RAM, plus a program can be developed in
RAM and transferred to EROM without
unplugging any components. The program can then be executed immediately
from the EROM.
5V
4V
-15V
IN
OUT
R6
+
C6
+
01
300S2
C1
1N703
T10/20V
T
1C12-b
C11
R7
1K
1/24072
10/20V
2
T.01
I C7-a
4
5
I
"
IC10
¡5V 1/3
ST
Vss
D6
0
18
D,
V
ST
20
Do
C2
ICI
4508
8
'(-±
O4
5
11
4
04
D3
17
21
07
D
+
O 15
016
15
R
3
5V
+1E1.
R14
2K
2K
DO
Da
D1
D
1NSr
Y
OUT
19
3
IC2
23
04
4508
0
Wt,
R16
9.1K
002
20
13
MRD
12
R
11
1/34073
12
10
10
1
R11
R
015 016
13 13
1
15
13
D
D
CK
Q
3
NO
r
10
11
1
D
1/2
12
D
d
1/24013
4013
D
C
0
2
10
4
CK
IC5-b
IC6-b
C
4
C4-a
6
IC3-a
N1
1C3 -b
N2
11
210
16
0
CK
IC12-a
9
14
R1
1/24072
s--yyt.-fii
100pF
R18
10K
14
12
L:Ì/ÌS1S4
0
12
9
10
3
5
17
C4
EF3
C
100pF
L
10
+5V
1
1
Q
D
11
IC9-b
IC9-a
12
1/24528
1/24528
.l.
NOTE:
1C3,IC13
11
1+
15
10K
C8-a
C10
+5V
+5V
13
13
I
=4069
=4049
0
9
-
QI3
R3
R4
R5
R2
10K
10K
10K
10K
0-1-5V
FIG.
COMPLETE SCHEMATIC FOR THE NOM interface. The top end of R17 goes to
is equivalent to V. The
-volt level is equivalent to
II
4-
11
1/34073
4 1/34073
3
IC7
CK
D
1/24013
0
2
C
10
I
13
3
CK
1C6-a
1/24013
12
8
IC4-b
IC7-d
l>3
9.1 K
IC3-e
MWR
12
06
1C5-a
IC3-c
R10
2K
18
D7
1C4-c
1C3 -d
10
IC7-c
O 6
TPB
RDY
R/W
04
-5V
2K
D
19
17
R9
004
22
D5
VW
ERROR
D03
16
21
6
-4V
Do,
10
-f
5
7
IC13-d
02
D3
4;
3
2
18
1C13
IC13-e
2
2K
9
O2
18K
100pF
MM57109
6
11
R8
F
1
+5V
13
IC13-b
1C13-a
815
2K4
7
12
11
C9
R12
R13*
14
12/02
IC11
ST
ST
IC13-c
7_80,19_10
OSC
13
C12
5
HOLD
14/04
R
1
V
.01
I5/ADR
9
I, /D,
DO
C5
1/35
2
19
D6
+5V
R EST
13/03
D2
5
6
C8
+I(-
16/JC
9
22
.01
4
D5
3
C3
10K
23
10
.01
I5
21
R17
07
16
2
I
1
11¡12
14
I6
8
IC7-b
2
-
91
3
-4
BCD data from the NOM, while the
other 4 bits are used to provide status
information to the 1802 CPU. Note that
the address counter digit from the NOM
is not provided. This is because the
address digit requires 4 bits of the I/O
port (thus requiring a second output
port). This may seem like a poor decision
just to save one output port, but it is not.
The output format of the NOM is
defined by the internal architecture, and
with a minor amount of software added to
the 1802's program, the same informa-
V.
4
+5VA
+5 volts which
tion may be derived. Figure 5 shows the
data formats for both the scientific-notation mode and Fig. 6 shows the floating point mode.
The other 4 data bits inform the 1802
of the NOM's status; also any of these 4
bits can be configured to output an active
low signal, which should be used to set
one of the event flags or initiate an interrupt. Bits DoD5 of the input port supply
the instructions to pins I, -16 pins; input
data is placed on the 130D, lines and
enters through 1,2-13. The 1802 uses the
www.americanradiohistory.com
upper input data, bits D6 and D,, to reset
and /or halt the NOM. This data is shown
in Fig. 7, along with port decoding information.
The control logic is actually quite simple; and in fact, the whole circuit is also
very simple. It can be described in three
parts -the input decode, the NOM status register and the interrupt request
circuitry.
The input decode circuit is formed by
IC3, IC4 and IC9 -a. These IC's are used
to decode Ñ0, N,, N2, MRD, and TPB
(No.N1.N2.MRD.TPB), and to clock data
and /or instruction into the input buffer.
The product of No, N,, N2, MRD, and
MWR (No.N,.N2.MRD.MWR) is used
to enable the output buffers allowing
status information and data from the
D00-DO, output of the NOM to be
transferred to the 1802. One -shot IC9 -a
produces a pulse on the falling edge of
control line N2, which is used to reset
input -ready flip -flop 106 -a.
The NOM status register is formed by
one -half of the output buffer, IC2 (bits
D4 -D7), and four D -type flip -flops along
with two inverters. The least significant
bit, D4, is the error flag; eight possible
types of errors are shown in Table 2.
TABLE
2
-Error Conditions
IN:
OUT:
DA4-DA,
D3
02
D
DO4
DO3
002
D01
Most Significant
O
2
3
4
Mantissa Digit
Count + 3
Least Significant Mantissa Digit
-IN /OUT INSTRUCTIONS
(Scientific Notation Mode).
IN:
Decimal point
DA4-DA,
position
OUT:
2
of the
4
D4
D3
D2
D,
DO4
D03
002
DO,
Sign (Mantissa) 0
0
Decimal Point Position
Most Significant Mantissa Digit =0 -9
3
MM57109 NOM
Exponent Digit
Least Significant
Sign (Mantissa)
0
0
Sign (Exponent)
Unused
Most Significant Mantissa (Followed by Decimal Point)
1
FIG. 5
04
11
0
10
and LOG X when X 0
When any result is 10 -99 or 10100
When TAN 90 °, 270 °, 450 °, etc.
SIN X, COS X, TAN X for X 9000°
SIN -1X, COS -1X for X 1 or X 10 -5o
For SQRT X when X O
For /, INV, 1/X when X = 0
In the floating -point mode for the our
instruction if the number of digits to
the left of the decimal point is equal
to the Mantissa Digit Count.
1. LN X
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Whenever an error occurs, an ECLR (Error Flag Clear) instruction must be executed. The error flag can be tested at any
time by the TERR instruction, a branch type instruction (branches if ERROR =
1). The 1802 can also check this condition by reading the D4 bit of the output
port; this bit is reset after its access. Bit
D5 is the input -ready signal; it indicates
the NOM is ready to execute the next
instruction or to get the second word of a
two -word instruction.
In order to permit asynchronous operation between the 1802 and the NOM on
the rising edge of bit D5, the NOM is
placed into a hold state, hold = 1. When
flip -flop 106 -a is reset by control line N2
(as stated earlier, this occurs on the falling edge of control line NO, which is used
to load new instructions into the input
port) the NOM will execute the next
instruction. When the user's program is
informed by bit D5 that the input is ready,
then the program provides the next instruction to the NOM.
Bit D6 is the output -ready signal. Upon
receiving this information, the user program stores the data into a software
FIFO
table in memory that acts like a
first -in /first -out memory. The reason
that a software FIFO is needed is due to
the method in which the NOM outputs
data. An OUT instruction is sent to the
NOM, which, in turn, causes the NOM
to output the first digit. Ten microseconds later, the output -ready flip -flop is
set, and the D01-DO4 output bits are
clocked into the lower bits (Do-133) of the
output port. This data must be read and
-a
Mantissa
12- Mantissa
Digit Count
Digit Count
+3
Where:
-DA
Least Significant Mantissa Digit =0-9
the digit address
the digit data out
D, -D4 is the digit data in
Also:
The mantissa digit count is set by the SMDC instruction, initially it is equal to eight.
For the sign of the mantissa zero represents positive and one represents negative.
The sign of the exponent is equal to zero in the floating point node.
The decimal point position indicator is a value in the range from 11 down to (12- mantissa
digit count), which indicates a digit, as given by the decimal point position indicator
column in the table. The decimal point is located to the right of this digit.
FIG. 6 -IN /OUT INSTRUCTIONS (Floating -Point Mode).
DA1
is
DO1 -004 is
07
Do
R
H
16
14
15
13
D7
Do
BR OR
12
IR
ER
a
D4
D3
D2
D,
b
At:
TPB =1
At:
MWR=0
When:
No =O, N1 =1, N2 =0, MRD =O
When:
No=O, N,=1, N2=0, MRD=1
Where:
R is
reset,
H is
hold,
instruction inputs,
the digit data out,
BR is the branch output,
OR is the output ready,
IR is the input ready,
11
-16 is the
D1
03
is
ER is the error output.
FIG. 7 -PORT FORMAT. a) Input; b) Output.
the flip -flop cleared (by reading the port)
within 140 µs because the second digit
will be outputted at that time. Every 140
µs, a new digit will be made available,
along with a data -ready signal, until the
full number is outputted. The last bit, D7,
is the branch signal. This signal indicates
a program branch has been encountered;
input ready is set during this signal.
The interrupt- request circuitry
is
formed by the 4 -input OR gate, IC12 -a,
and the D -type flip -flop, IC8 -b, along
with a DIP switch and four pull -down
resistors. The four status signals (error,
input ready, output ready and branch) are
connected to a 4-input OR gate via a set of
SPST switches, along with the pull -down
resistors. This permits any of the status
48
www.americanradiohistory.com
signals to clock a logic I into the D -type
flip -flop, providing a total of 16 possible
interrupt (or event -flag) conditions. For
example, if you're only interested in
knowing when the output is ready (this
implies that no branch instructions are to
be used, that the data /instructions inputted are free of errors, and sufficient time
is allowed between instructions so that a
new instruction can never be inputted in
the middle of an instruction already being
executed), then all but the output -ready
switches are opened. Thus, a logic I is
clocked into IC8 -b only when the output ready signal is active. The Q output relays
this information to the 1802 via either the
IRQ, or one of the four event flags (EF,,
continued on page 79
Radio -Electronics
Tests Sansui G -9000
AM /FM Receiver
LEN FELDMAN
CONTRIBUTING
HI -FI
EDITOR
SANSUI'S TOP RECEIVERS THIS YEAR ALL
feature a DC- configured power- amplifier sec-
tion. This means that there are no input
coupling capacitors to the power section, and
that all capacitors in the feedback network
have been eliminated. The advantages claimed
for this circuitry are in improved transient
response (lower transient intermodulation distortion) and a frequency response that goes
right down to DC. The audible difference
between an AC- coupled amplifier and a DCcoupled one may be subtle to inexperienced
listeners, but serious audiophiles report somewhat cleaner and more accurate sound reproduction from such DC- configured circuits.
From our point of view, the Sansui model
G -9000 offers a good deal more than just a DC
amplifier. The front panel, shown in Fig. 1, is
loaded with features that will delight the audio
buff seeking maximum control and flexibility.
The light-colored, sloped frequency scales (the
FM scale is linearly calibrated with markings
at every 200 kHz) are surmounted by four
well -illuminated meters, two of which are power- output meters, logarithmically calibrated
from 0.1 watt to 300 watts (referred to 8 -ohm
loads). The other two meters are signal strength and center -of- channel indicators for
the tuner. To the left of the meters are four
il
cc
.
r
r
1
CIRCLE 104 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
smoothest -acting flywheel -dial arrangement
we've ever experienced) and master volume control settings. The volume control contains
an index tab that can be set at preferred
maximum listening levels. Its clutch-like action prevents the volume control from being
accidentally turned to overload or excessive
nice feature if there are
listening levels
young children in the house who might inadvertently turn the volume all the way up and
destroy speaker voice coils in the process!
Three square pushbuttons between these two
large controls activate subsonic and high -cut
filters as well as the loudness compensation
circuits. A similar pushbutton near the program selector switch provides a third circuit interruption point for the insertion of a four channel adapter, graphic equalizer, audio time delay unit, or a Dolby noise -reduction adapter.
A headphone jack just below the POWER switch
on the lower left completes the panel layout.
The rear panel of the model G -9000 contains three AC convenience outlets (one
switched, two unswitched). One of the most
pleasing physical features of this receiver is
how the input /output jacks and terminals are
positioned. These connections are located in
recessed areas in the side wood panels of the
unit, rather than at the rear. All input and
(tape -out) terminals, as well as AM and FM
antenna terminals, can be reached from the
right side of the unit, while two sets of spring loaded speaker terminals, preamplifier-out put /main amplifier -input terminals and a
switch that separates the two major receiver
sections electrically are located on the opposite
side panel (see Fig. 2). A cleverly designed
channel along each side of the unit keeps cables
indicator lights, two showing which speaker
pair is activated; the other two serve as a
power -on indicator and a "protector" indicator. The protector indicator flashes intermittently for a few seconds when the power is first
turned on until voltages have been fully stabilized, after which sound is heard from the
speakers.
Five indicator lights to the right of the
meters denote the program source selected. A
series of positive -feel toggle switches just
below the dial area to the left handle power,
speaker selection, bass and treble control turnover frequencies (200 Hz or 400 Hz for the
bass control, 3 kHz or 5 kHz for the treble),
tone control defeat and 20 dB audio muting.
Similar toggle switches to the right handle FM
muting, stereo or mono listening modes, 25 -its
or 75 -µs de- emphasis, FM noise filter and wide
or narrow bandwidth for the FM IF circuits. A
microphone mixing level control and microphone input jack are located at the extreme
lower right -hand side of the panel.
Major controls along the bottom of the front
panel include BASS. TREBLE and MID -RANGE
tone controls (each with fixed, detented steps
for easy resetting), balance control, program
SELECTOR switch and TAPE MONITOR switch
(with positions for monitoring either of two
connected tape decks or dubbing from one to
another). Two massive knobs in the center of
the panel take care of frequency tuning (the
-a
-
MANUFACTURER'S PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS:
FM TUNER:
Usable Sensitivity: mono, 8.7 dBf (1.5 AV); stereo, 15 dBf. 50 -dB Quieting: mono, 12.5
dBf; stereo, 34.0 dBf. S/N Ratio: mono, 80 dB; stereo, 76 dB. Harmonic Distortion
(wide): mono, 0.06% at kHz and 100 Hz; 0.08% at 6 kHz; stereo, 0.1% at 100 Hz and 6
kHz, 0.08% at 1 kHz. Selectivity: 90 dB (narrow); 55 dB (wide). Capture Ratio: 0.9 dB.
Image, IF and Spurious Rejection: 110 dB. Frequency Response: 30 Hz to 15 kHz,
+0.2, 1.0 dB. Stereo Separation: 50 dB at kHz; 40 dB at 100 Hz and 10 kHz.
1
-
.
WO
.,
1
1.4.
AM TUNER:
Usable Sensitivity: 300 µV /M internal antenna. Selectivity: 30 dB. S/N Ratio: 50 dB.
Distortion: 0.45 %. Image and IF Rejection: 70 dB.
AMPLIFIER:
Power Output: 160 watts -per -channel into 4 or 8 ohms, 20 Hz to 20 kHz at no more
than 0.03% total harmonic distortion. IM Distortion: 0.03 %. Damping Factor: 60.
Frequency Response: power amplifier section, DC to 200 kHz, +0, -3 dB; overall,
auxiliary inputs, 5 Hz to 50 kHz, +0.2, -1.5 dB; phono, RIAA ±0.2 dB. Input Sensitivity: phono 1 & 2, 2.5 mV; high level, 150 mV; mike, 6.0 mV. S/N Ratio: phono, 78 dB
-Hz turnover): ± 10 dB at 50
( "A" weighted); high level, 95 dB. Bass Control Range (400
Hz. Treble Control Range (1.5 kHz turnover): ± 10 dB at 10 kHz. Mid -Range: t 5 dB at
1.5 kHz. Subsonic Filter: -3 dB at 16 Hz (6 dB -per- octave). High -cut filter: - 3 dB at 3
kHz (6 dB -per- octave).
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Rated Power Consumption: 680 watts. Dimensions: 22' /1e W X 8H X
Net Weight: 59.3 Ib. Suggested Retail Price: $1050.
191/2
inches D.
www.americanradiohistory.com
_.iAran
2
neatly tucked out of sight. This innovative
arrangement makes installation extremely simple, especially for a large, heavy unit such as
this one, which might be difficult to hook up if
all connections had to be made at the rear
panel.
No schematic diagram was supplied with
our sample test unit, but it is clear from the
receiver's internal layout (shown in Fig. 3) that
the huge toroidally wound power transformer
has two separate secondary windings, each of
which supplies power to a single channel; voltages are filtered separately by two pairs of
large filter capacitors.
TABLE
1
RADIO -ELECTRONICS PRODUCT TEST REPORT
Manufacturer: Sansui
Model: G -9000
FM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS
SENSITIVITY, NOISE AND
FREEDOM FROM INTERFERENCE
IHF sensitivity, mono (AV) (clef)
Sensitivity, stereo (µV)
50-dB quieting signal, mono (MV)
50-dB quieting signal, stereo (µV)
Maximum S/N radio, mono (dB)
Maximum S/N ratio, stereo (dB)
Capture ratio (dB)
AM suppression (dB)
Image rejection (dB)
IF rejection (dB)
Spurious rejection (dB)
Alternate channel selectivity (dB)
3
The power amplifier, as mentioned earlier, i
a DC- coupled circuit from input to output
with no capacitors either in the signal path or
in the overall negative- feedback loop. If components are connected directly to the main
amplifier (by separating the preamplifier and
main amplifier sections electrically), and if the
outputs of those components contain any DC
signal, the protection circuit immediately disconnects the speakers from the output stages.
In that event, the switch separating the preamplifier output from the main -amplifier input
has a third setting that introduces an input
capacitor so that operation can be resumed.
FM measurements
Table
summarizes FM measurements
made for the model G- 9000. Where measurements differ between the wideband and narrowband positions, both sets of measurements
are shown separated by a slash ( /). For example, while -kHz mono distortion measured an
incredibly low 0.03% in mono using the preferred wideband setting, when using the narrowband setting (used only if adjacent- channel
interference is encountered in crowded FM
listening areas), distortion increased to
0.15 %.
Sansui evidently decided to make the narrowband IF response very narrow indeed because distortion rises markedly when this
setting is used, particularly in the stereo mode.
Wideband distortion readings, on the other
hand, are among the lowest we've ever encountered for an FM tuner section or, for that
matter, for a separate component tuner.
Separation capability of the model G -9000
also varies depending upon whether the narrow
or wideband settings are used. Figure 4 shows
the frequency response of the left channel as
well as crosstalk in the opposite channel (lower
trace). The vertical scale is IO dB -per- division,
and we measured static separation of nearly 50
I
1
R -E
R -E
Measurement
Evaluation
Superb
Very good
Superb
Superb
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Superb
Superb
Superb
Excellent
1.5 (8.7)
5.5 (20.0)
1.5 (8.7)
18 (30.3)
80
76
1.0
65
100+
100+
100+
92/53
FIDELITY AND DISTORTION MEASUREMENTS
Frequency response, 50 Hz to 15 kHz (±. dB)
Harmonic distortion, 1 kHz, mono ( %)
Harmonic distortion, 1 kHz, stereo ( %)
+0, -1.5
0.03/0.15
0.06/0.5
Harmonic distortion, 100 Hz, mono ( %)
Harmonic distortion, 100 Hz, stereo ( %)
0.06/0.07
0.09/0.7
Harmonic
Harmonic
Distortion
Distortion
0.06/0.13
0.10/0.45
3.0/5.0
0.8/0.6
distortion, 6 kHz, mono ( %)
distortion, 6 kHz, stereo ( %)
at 50 -dB quieting, mono ( %)
at 50 -dB quieting, stereo ( %)
STEREO PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS
Stereo threshold (MV) (dBf)
Separation, 1 kHz (dB)
Separation, 100 Hz (dB)
Separation, 10 kHz (dB)
MISCELLANEOUS MEASUREMENTS
Muting threshold (µV) (dBf)
Dial calibration accuracy (± kHz at MHz)
Good
Superb
Superb /see
text
Superb
Superb /see
text
Superb
Excellent
See text
Good
3.0 (14.8)
Very good
48/36
43/34
42/30
Very good
Excellent
4.5 (18.3)
Perfect
Excellent
Very good
Superb
EVALUATION OF CONTROLS, DESIGN,
AND CONSTRUCTION
Control layout
Ease of tuning
Accuracy of meters or other tuning aids
Usefulness of other controls
Construction and internal layout
Ease of servicing
Evaluation of extra features, if any
Very good
Superb
Good
OVERALL FM PERFORMANCE RATING
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Very good
dB at mid -frequencies.
AM section of the model G-9000 were both
within specifications, the AM frequency response (not specified by Sansui) was as poor as
it is on most "hi -fi" receivers. To demonstrate
this, we swept modulating frequencies much as
we do for FM response measurements; the
results (although hard to believe) are shown in
the scope photo of Fig. 6. Perhaps Sansui and
other manufacturers will pay more attention to
Note that our test equipment is now
equipped to provide flat frequency- response
readings (compared with the response readings
shown in previous test reports that include the
de- emphasis characteristics of the tuner) so the
5
scope traces represent actual response.
When the narrowband setting is used, separation is somewhat diminished, as shown in
Fig. 5, although overall frequency response
remains unaltered and quite good.
In recent months, we have received requests
to report on the AM sections of the tuners and
receivers we test. While the harmonic distortion and signal-to -noise ratio measured for the
50
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their AM bandwidth if and when stereo AM
becomes a reality in the near future. For the
moment, the less said about AM response in
typical high- fidelity receivers and tuners the
better.
Amplifier measurements
Table 2 lists amplifier measurements made
on the model G-9000. The amplifier delivered
more than its rated output at all frequencies
before significant distortion was observed. The
reason for the two power readings at 20 kHz
(into 8 -ohm loads) in Table 2 is because we
were uncertain whether Sansui wishes to rate
distortion at 0.02% or 0.03% (rather an academic point, since neither level of harmonic
distortion would be audible). In any event, if
the figure is 0.03 %, the amplifier delivers
greater than its 160 -watt rating even at the
20 -kHz extreme; if 0.02% is really the rated
specification, it falls a bit short of the 160 -watt
mark at the high- frequency extreme.
We were pleased to find variable turnover
tone controls on this high -powered, high- quality stereo receiver because the user then has
much greater tone control capability. The
range of tone controls using inner 400 -Hz and
2.5 -kHz turnovers is shown in Fig. 7, along
TABLE 2
RADIO -ELECTRONICS PRODUCT TEST REPORT
Model: G -9000
Manufacturer: Sansui
AMPLIFIER PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS
POWER OUTPUT CAPABILITY
RMS power /channel, 8 -ohms, 1 kHz (watts)
RMS power /channel, 8 -ohms, 20 Hz (watts)
RMS power /channel, 8-ohms, 20 kHz (watts)
RMS power /channel, 4 -ohms, 1 kHz (watts)
RMS power /channel, 4 -ohms, 20 Hz (watts)
RMS power /channel, 4 -ohms, 20 kHz (watts)
Frequency limits for rated output (Hz -kHz)
DISTORTION MEASUREMENTS
Harmonic distortion at rated output,
1
R -E
174.8
169.3
Evaluation
Excellent
Excellent
158.0/162.0
256.0
232.0
203.0
10 -30
See text
Excellent
Excellent
Very good
Good
0.006
0.009
0.018
0.025
Superb
Superb
Very good
Excellent
100
Excellent
+0, -0.5
Very good
Superb
kHz ( %)
Intermodulation distortion, rated output ( %)
Harmonic distortion at 1 -watt output, 1 kHz ( %)
Intermodulation distortion at 1 -watt output ( %)
DAMPING FACTOR, AT 8 OHMS
PHONO PREAMPLIFIER MEASUREMENTS
Frequency response (RIAA ±dB)
Maximum input before overload (mV)
Hum /noise referred to full output (dB)
(at rated input sensitivity)
340
78
HIGH LEVEL INPUT MEASUREMENTS
Frequency response (Hz -kHz, ±dB)
Hum/noise referred to full output (dB)
Residual hum /noise (minimum volume) (dB)
TONAL COMPENSATION MEASUREMENTS
Action of bass and treble controls
Action of secondary tone controls
Action of low-frequency filter(s)
Action of high- frequency filter(s)
with the high -cut filter action. This filter, with
its very moderate slope, clearly offers no
advantages over treble -cut filters since the two
curves almost coincide. Sansui could have
provided a steeper slope (12 dB -per- octave) or
at least raised the cutoff frequency of their
high -cut filter.
R -E
Measurement
COMPONENT MATCHING MEASUREMENTS
Input sensitivity, phono 1 /phono 2 (mV)
Input sensitivity, auxiliary input(s) (mV)
Input sensitivity, tape input(s) (mV)
Output level, tape output(s) (mV)
Output level, headphone jack(s) (V or mW)
(
"A" weighted)
3 -80, 3.0
93
102
Excellent
Superb
Superb
Excellent
See Fig. 7
See Fig. 8
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
See Fig. 8
Fair
2.5/2.5
150
150
150
100 mW
EVALUATION OF CONTROLS,
CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN
Adequacy of program source and monitor switching
Adequacy of input facilities
Arrangement of controls (panel layout)
Action of controls and switches
Design and construction
Ease of servicing
Very good
Good
OVERALL AMPLIFIER PERFORMANCE RATING
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
TABLE 3
OVERALL PRODUCT ANALYSIS
Retail price
Price category
Price /performance ratio
Styling and appearance
Sound quality
Mechanical performance
Figure 8 shows the bass and treble control
range when the 200 -Hz and 5 -kHz turnover
points are selected. Superimposed on these
curves is the mid -range tone control range
whose well- centered frequency provides the
type of presence control action expected of it.
The loudness compensation circuit at various listening levels has a fairly typical response.
Summary
Table 3 contains our overall product evaluation along with our summary comments. We
believe the Sansui model G-9000 represents
the most advanced circuit design yet seen in
all -in -one receivers, and, considering what separate components offering the same quality,
power and flexibility can cost, turns out to be
R -E
very fairly priced.
$1050
High
Excellent
Very good
Superb
Very good
Comments: If ever a manufacturer could boast that a receiver offers all the features and performance of high-priced separate components, Sansui has certainly earned that right
with their model G -9000. The DC- amplifier configuration of the power section provides
sound quality as good as any we have heard from the most sophisticated separate
power amplifiers. To judge this quality, in our listening tests we used several mint condition direct -to -disc recordings.
As for control flexibility, the model G -9000 has it all; so much, in fact, that the front
panel may seem somewhat intimidating on first use. Soon, however, the logical front panel arrangement becomes familiar, and easy to use and enjoy.
Sansui was among the first to offer variable IF bandwidth for FM in a tuner, and they
have extended that feature into this receiver. We found, however, that while the wide
setting offers about the lowest distortion FM we've ever measured, the narrow position
(useful when stations are very close together on the dial) is almost too narrow and
should be avoided unless there is just no alternative for a desired incoming signal.
The well -calibrated power- output meters should insureagainst inadvertent overload
and clipping, although that is hardly likely to happen because of the receiver's high
power- output capability. Since many otherwise excellent speakers cannot handle the
full power output of this receiver, prospective users are urged to check out the
maximum power -handling capacity of the speakers they intend to use with it. The
model G -9000 is truly one of the best "component" systems we have ever checked.
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Lectrotech Model PPI -400
Peak Power Indicator
LEN FELDMAN
CONTRIBUTING HI -FI EDITOR
TABLE
1
RADIO -ELECTRONICS PRODUCT TEST REPORT
Manufacturer Lectrotech
Model PPI -400
OVERALL PRODUCT ANALYSIS
CIRCLE 105 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
THE LECTROTECH MODEL PPI -400 PEAK -POWER
indicator is an accessory device intended for
connection either to the amplifier output terminals or to the speaker terminals of a high fidelity component system. It indicates instantaneous peak -power output from a stereo amplifier by means of flashing LED's, each calibrated to light at a different input voltage to
the unit.
The front panel of the model PP1 -400 is
shown in Fig. I. The left side of the panel
contains a pushbutton POWER on /off switch.
The dark -colored center of the panel contains
two vertical rows of LED's, calibrated from 0
dB at the top to -30 dB for the lowest indicator in each row. The bottom four LED's in
each row are green, the next pair are yellow
and the top two LED's in each row are red.
A selector switch on the right -hand side of
the panel selects the sensitivity range of the
indicators, as related to the nominal impedance
of the speakers being used. For 4 -ohm speakers, the six calibrated switch settings provide a
power range (for 0 -dB indications) from 25
watts to 600 watts -per- channel. For 8 -ohm
speakers, the ranges are from 12.5 watts to 400
watts; whereas for I6 -ohm speakers, the power
ranges from 6.25 watts to 200 watts. This
arrangement demonstrates that the unit actually responds to input voltage rather than to true
power input and, therefore, will not take into
account any variations in speaker impedance
with frequency. The device, therefore, displays
errors depending upon a speaker's departure
from nominal impedance at different audio
frequencies.
A seventh selector switch setting permits
you to calibrate the instrument to any desired
0 -dB reference level other than those already
provided. This switch position, labeled AUX on
the panel, is calibrated by installing two appropriate resistors across two sets of terminals at
the left of the rear panel that come supplied
with jumpers. The jumpers are removed and
resistors are substituted. You select the resistors in accordance with the formula, R
Retail price
Price category
Price /performance ratio
Styling and appearance
4129.95
Sound quality
Mechanical performance
N/A
Medium
Fair
Good
Good
Comments: Certainly this accessory device does what it is supposed to do with a fair degree of
accuracy. It provides an approximate indication of instantaneous peak -power output
from a stereo audio amplifier. The LED indicators do not suddenly light up or go out.
Rather, there is a transitional region for each LED that spans between 2 dB and 3 dB.
You must decide subjectively when a given LED is really lit. A vague area of indication
that is 3 dB in amplitude represents a power difference of 2:1 -which can be trying
when you are judging whether or not your amplifier is going into clipping or not!
In addition, by just adding a bit more circuitry and switching, the model PPI-400
could have been made to read voltages that are typical of those applied to tape -deck
inputs. Thus, the unit could have served as a peak indicator to augment most cassette
or open -reel tape -deck VU meters. We are told by the people at Lectrotech that such a
dual-purpose unit is evidently planned, but it will undoubtedly cost more than the
single- purpose model PPI-400 we tested. Presently, the minimum sensitivity of 3.13
mW across 8 ohms is equivalent to 0.16 volt, somewhat more than is usually available
at the record -out jacks of most amplifiers or receivers, and greater than the amount of
drive usually required by most tape -deck line inputs.
If you want to know approximately how much power you are feeding to your loudspeakers at all times, the model PPI-400 will serve that purpose, and if your hi -fi
component system is fairly expensive and lacks peak -power indication, the added cost
of a device such as the model PPI-400 may not seem unreasonable -especially if it
prevents speaker burnout even once in the life of your stereo system
2
JPZ -10,
where P is the desired power for
0 -dB reference, Z is the loudspeaker impedance and R is the required resistor, in 1000
ohms.
This additional switch position makes it
possible to calibrate and use the instrument
with two monophonic amplifiers (for example,
musical instrument amplifiers) even if the
power- output rating of each amplifier is different (two different resistance values can be
used).
Measurement and use tests
To test the model PPI -400 we hooked up a
suitable amplifier with which to evaluate the
unit.
Since the device is most useful in measuring
short -term or instantaneous power, we used a
variety of tone bursts to determine whether the
LED's respond quickly enough to music -like
transients. Specifically, we used the new test
signal required in the dynamic headroom test
of the recent IHF Amplifier Measurement
MANUFACTURER'S PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS:
Input Impedance: 20,000 ohms, minimum. Accuracy: ! 0.25 dB. Frequency
Response: 20 Hz to greater than 20 kHz. Maximum Input Power: 1250 watts continuous at 8 ohms. Minimum Input Sensitivity: 3.13 mW at 8 ohms. Loudspeaker Impedance Range: 2 to 35 ohms. Power Range and Impedance Combinations: 18 plus
auxiliary. Dimensions: 14 W X 33/. H X 8 inches D. Weight: 3', Ib. Power Requirements: 105 to 125 V. 50 to 60 Hz, 7 watts. Suggested Retail Price: $129.95 (optional
walnut cabinet, $24.95 extra).
(IHF -A -202). This signal consists
of 20 ms of a I -kHz test tone at full amplitude,
followed by 480 ms of the same test frequency
Standards
reduced by 20 dB. The signal's repetition rate
is twice per second. Under these test conditions, a standard output meter reads approximately 12 dB below the full -amplitude value of
the signal, while the LED's continued to read
correct peak instantaneous power.
It was somewhat difficult to judge the accuracy of the device since individual LED's do
not light up completely when triggered, but
start dimly and then with increased signal
amplitude, begin lighting up fully. The change
in amplitude of applied voltage between the
barely visible illumination of an LED and the
full brightness of the same LED ranged from
about 2 dB to 3 dB. It is possible, of course, to
calibrate the model PP! -400 so that when the
LED's are either barely lit or fully bright, this
corresponds to the desired power level, but
some eyeball judgment is necessary.
Summary
Our overall product evaluation, together
with a summary of its usefulness, is shown in
Table 1. The model PPI -400 is not a precision
instrument, but then it is not very expensive
for a device of this type. It could prove useful if
you own an amplifier with higher poweroutput capabilities than your speakers can
handle. Setting the 0 -dB calibration point for
the speakers' maximum power- handling value
could protect the speakers against possible
overdrive damage.
R -E
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erstandìng
namìc
Jadroom
Dynamic headroom, a new addition to
the Institute of High Fidelity amplifier measurement standards. Tells why amplifiers with the same rated
power may perform differently under varying signal levels.
LEN FELDMAN
CONTRIBUTING HI -FI EDITOR
EVER SINCE THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMIS -
sion issued its rule regarding disclosure of
the power output ratings of audio amplifiers, manufacturers of high-fidelity amplifiers and receivers have been faced with a
mixed blessing. On the one hand, the
requirement that amplifier makers list
the continuous power rating of their amplifiers has forced less-than -honest manufacturers to abandon such meaningless
power output terms as "peak power," "instantaneous peak power," "music power," "dynamic music power" and more.
The continuous power rating, coupled
with a statement of load impedance, power bandwidth (the frequency extremes
over which the product will actually
deliver its rated power) and harmonic
distortion has enabled prospective buyers
of audio amplifiers to compare brands
..
HIGH
INTERNAL
RESISTANCE
+50VDC
(
+40V D
C
*)
1,000NF
LOWER
VALUES
OF
"C"
TO OUTPUT
TRANSISTORS
1,000µF
-50VDC
(-40v0C *1
and models on a reasonably equal basis.
This uniformity of specifications is all to
the good.
On the other hand, it didn't take the
experts long to conclude that two amplifiers that have exactly the same continuous
power output rating (including the same
power bandwidth and even the same rated
harmonic distortion) may not necessarily
deliver the same program loudness to
identical speaker systems when fed with
actual program signals. Obviously, to
properly define the useful power output
capability of an amplifier, more information is needed than the simple statement
of "continuous power output" capability.
Power supply reserve
The reason for this can be found by
examining the two power supply diagrams of Figs. and 2. Note that both
supplies have nominal output voltages of
plus and minus 50 volts under no -load
(no- signal) conditions. The alternate voltages (designated with an asterisk) are
those that are present when the amplifier
is delivering a large amount of current to
the speaker loads. Under a full-load condition, the power supply shown in Fig.
delivers plus and minus 48 volts, while
the power supply shown in Fig. 2 delivers
a much lower output of only plus and
minus 40 volts. What does this mean in
terms of continuous power output capability?
Assuming that the output signal can
swing over the entire peak -to-peak value
of the power supply voltage, we see that
in the case of the power supply of Fig. 1, a
1
1 -POWER SUPPLY for hi -fi amplifier has large filter capacitors. There is little variation in output
voltage between no -load and full -load conditions.
FIG.
+50VDC
( +48VDC *)
1
10,000µF
TO OUTPUT
TRANSISTORS
10,000µF
-50VDC
(-48VDC *1
amplifier has small filter capacitors and a high internal resistance in
either the transformer or bridge rectifiers. This supply delivers an output voltage with a wide variation between no -load and full -load conditions.
FIG. 2 -POWER SUPPLY for hi -fi
53
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peak-to -peak swing of 96 volts is possible
under full -load conditions. This corresponds to an RMS AC value of 33.94
volts (peak -to-peak value divided by
2.828, or multiplied by 0.5 X 0.707). The
continuous power output of this first
amplifier, before clipping, would be approximately 144 watts. (P = Ez /Z,
where E = 33.94 volts and Z, the impedance, is assumed to be 8 ohms.)
Now let's calculate the continuous
power output for the amplifier being
powered by the supply shown in Fig. 2,
where the available supply voltage has
dropped to plus and minus 40 volts. The
permissible peak -to-peak swing of the
output signal voltage is 80 volts. This
corresponds to an RMS value of only
28.29 volts, or an equivalent power across
8 ohm loads of 100.03 watts.
Thus we see that even though both
power supplies (under no -load conditions) provide the same operating voltages to their associated amplifiers under
no- signal (or low -signal) conditions, their
maximum continuous power output
ratings will differ substantially, with the
amplifier powered by the supply shown in
Fig. 2 able to deliver only 69% as much
continuous power as the amplifier powered by the supply shown in Fig. 1.
Power supply regulation
There are several reasons why the voltage output of the supply shown in Fig. 2
dropped more quickly than the voltage
delivered by the supply shown in Fig. 1.
For one thing, its filter capacitors are of
considerably lower value. The primary
filter capacitors in such a supply act as a
power or energy reservoir. The greater
their value, the greater the amount of
energy that can be stored in them. Note,
too, that the primary and secondary windings of each of the power transformers
used in the two supplies may have different internal resistances and, therefore,
different AC voltage drops may appear
across these windings before the AC voltages are ever rectified. The bridge rectifiers, too, may differ in internal resistance
and may therefore develop greater voltage drops across their terminals as the
current demand increases.
Short -term signals
If we were to apply a very short signal
burst to each of the amplifiers associated
with the power supplies, the situation
would be quite different. If the signal
burst were short enough, the filter capacitors would maintain their full (or nearly
their full) charge for the duration of the
short pulse and the available voltage at
the power output stages of each amplifier
would be very close to the no -load value
of plus and minus 50 volts. Under these
circumstances, each amplifier would be
able to provide a peak -to-peak signal
swing of 100 volts, which would correspond to a short-term power output of
156.3 watts!
These short -term musical signals are
exactly what an amplifier is called upon
to reproduce when it is hooked up to
speakers and fed with program sources in
a "real- world" high-fidelity system. No
one (at least no one we know of) spends
much time listening to continuous sine wave test signals. Yet, if we were to be
guided by the continuous power ratings
of the two amplifiers used in our example,
one would have a rating of just over 100
watts -per -channel while the other would
be rated at 144 watts- pet-channel. In
auditioning these two amplifiers you
might well conclude that the 100 -watt
unit (which would undoubtedly sell for
less money than the higher powered model) "sounds" just as loud as the higher
powered unit before audible clipping
takes place.
At the present time, the Institute of
High Fidelity is completing its work on a
new amplifier measurement standard.
One of the most important new measurements that is being incorporated in this
new standard has been given the tentative
name, Dynamic Headroom. This measurement seeks to take into account the
wide discrepancies that may occur between the continuous power ratings of
amplifiers and their ability to deliver
power over the short terms typically
required during music signal reproduction. In order to simulate these short term conditions, studies were conducted
by the IHF committee regarding the
actual duty -cycle and power distribution
of musical signals. A test signal was
arrived at which, it is felt, approximates
what an amplifier must be able to handle
when reproducing typical music signals.
This new test signal is shown in Fig. 3. It
consists of a -kHz signal which is at an
We de.
to check ov
an amplifierto0
lab at the timb,'t
ten. The amplil?a,,, sOe
er output rating c,ge.6,wfes
To confirm this, wed ead fs¡
test signal into the ail
°.% *a¡
our scope display so th'sj, i? 0 , 0r
sion equalled 10 volts 1, wr¡f r
reached clipping when dip,
the sinewaves reached 40
sions), as shown in Fig. 5.
FIG.
5- CONTINUOUS
POWER OUTPUT can be
determined by determining the input level required to drive an amplifier into clipping with a
1 -kHz input signal.
sponded to an RMS value of 14.14 volts,
or just over 25 watts across an 8 ohm
load.
Next, we applied a signal similar to
that shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The oscilloscope's sweep rate was increased so that
we might be able to examine the crests of
the sinewaves during the 20- millisecond
duration of the higher amplitude pulses.
1
6- OUTPUT OF AMPLIFIER that is being
driven just to the point of clipping by new test
signal.
FIG.
III
II
20
~MILLISECONDS
/1980msec
2
SECONDS--
-
FIG. 3 -NEW TEST SIGNAL for determining
dynamic headroom of an amplifier. Signal
consists of 1 -kHz sinewaves with
amplitude change.
a
10
dB
arbitrary level for 20 milliseconds (twenty cycles of this signal will therefore
appear) and the same frequency at an
amplitude 10 dB lower for another 1980
milliseconds. This complex signal is repeated, therefore, every two seconds. A
portion of the test signal is shown in the
scope photo of Fig. 4.
I"1II111101I""
FIG. 4-NEW TEST SIGNAL as it would appear
on an oscilloscope.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Again, the gain was increased until evidence of clipping appeared, without
changing the vertical sensitivity of the
scope input. The results are shown in Fig.
6. Using our new test signal, the peak to -peak amplitude of the sinewaves
reached 60 volts. This corresponds to an
RMS value of 21.22 volts, or a short -term
power output capability of 56.27 watts!
Specifying dynamic headroom
The IHF Amplifier Standards Committee was faced with the problem of how
best to specify the new measurement
results. They could, of course, simply list
a second power rating and call it "dynamic power." If that were to be done, however, the Federal Trade Commission requires that such a "secondary" power
rating must be printed in the spec sheets
(or in any advertising material) using
letters that are no greater than two- thirds
the size of the letters used to specify the
continuous power rating. In addition, the
appearance of an alternate power rating
in watts might, in time, lead to the same
sort of confusion that arose years ago and
that prompted the Federal Trade Commission to promulgate the power rule for
audio amplifiers in the first place.
The committee therefore decided that
Dynamic Headroom should be specified
in terms of decibels above the rated
continuous power. Not only does this get
around the problem of having multiple
(and confusing) wattage listings for the
same amplifier, but it serves to give the
potential purchaser some idea as to how
much louder the amplifier will sound
when reproducing music signals as compared with its ability to reproduce a
continuous sinewave test tone.
In the example just taken from our
actual measurements in the lab, since the
short -term power was 56.27 watts and the
continuous power rating was 25 watts, the
ratio of those two numbers is 2.25, which
translates to a Dynamic Headroom of
3.52 dB. Based upon our experience with
a variety of amplifiers, that degree of
Dynamic Headroom is very great indeed.
Generally, you can expect the Dynamic
Headroom of typical audio amplifiers to
range from 0 dB to around 3.0. dB. A
Dynamic Headroom of 0 dB would mean
that the amplifier has a very stiff power
Checking dynamic headroom
Pioneer Electronics receives
award for contribution to arts
ic
supply -one whose voltage does not vary
at all from "no- signal" to full-signal conditions. An amplifier with a Dynamic
Headroom of 3 dB would be one with a
very "soft" or poorly regulated power
supply whose voltage drops by a factor of
approximately 30% when full current is
delivered to the load.
U.S. Pioneer Electronics, a leading audio
component manufacturer, was a first -time
winner this year in the 12th annual "Business in the Arts" awards program, cosponsored by Forbes magazine and the
Business Committee for the Arts, a national
organization that promotes greater business and industry involvement in the arts.
The award this year was an original print by
American artist Romare Bearden.
Pioneer was awarded its prize for a
national campaign to raise funds for the
Metropolitan Opera. Not only did the company match every dollar contributed by the
general public and authorized Pioneer
dealers, but obtained matching funds from
the National Endowment for the Arts; this
helped quadruple the original public donations. The company footed the bill for all
advertising and promotional campaigns. A
quarter of a million dollars was raised for
the Met.
Electronic town meeting
via 2 -way cable TV
Upper Arlington, OH, a suburb of Columbus, recently experienced its first electron-
You can check the dynamic headroom
of your own amplifier or receiver even if
you lack the test equipment needed to
produce the special signal we have described. All you need is an accurately
calibrated oscilloscope and an audio oscillator which can apply a single -tone 1 -kHz
signal to the high level inputs of your
equipment. First, determine the amplitude of a -kHz output signal that causes
the amplifier to barely clip. Record the
amplitude in peak -to -peak volts, as observed on the scope. Then, apply a music
signal to the set (either from a recording
or from an FM tuner) and observe the
new clipping level, which should be somewhat greater than that obtained during
the first sinewave test. Even if your scope
is not calibrated, you can still determine
the Dynamic Headroom of your equipment quite accurately, in dB. For example, we used still another amplifier and,
without regard to its continuous power
rating, we applied a -kHz test tone until
clipping occurred. We set the sensitivity
of the vertical amplifier of the scope so
that this amplitude occupied four divisions, vertically (see Fig. 7). Then, applying a music signal to the amplifier, we
noted that at clipping, the vertical amplitude was 4.6 vertical divisions on the
scope (positive peaks were about 3 /10ths
of a division higher than before, and so
were negative clipped peaks). These results are shown in the scope photo of Fig.
8. To calculate the Dynamic Headroom
of this amplifier, divide 4.6 by 4.0 to
obtain a voltage ratio of 1.15. This corresponds to a dB difference of 1.21. So, the
Dynamic Headroom of this amplifier is
1.21 dB.
The concept of Dynamic Headroom is
1
7-
AMPLIFIER'S DYNAMIC HEADROOM
can be obtained by first determining the input
level required to drive the amplifier into clipping with a 1 -kHz input signal.
FIG.
1
"town meeting of the air." This was made
possible by Warner Cable's participatory
two -way cable QUBE system, which allows
viewers to express their opinions on the air
on matters of public interest, such as
municipal services, public utilities, etc., in
their areas.
Here's how QUBE works: Town officials,
broadcasting live from QUBE's TV studios,
posed questions to which viewers responded by pressing a button on their
home terminals,, registering their opinions
or criticisms. Th'e results were then tabulated by a computer for display on home TV
screens. A special hookup to the QUBE
studios also made it possible for participants to phone in their own questions to
the town officials. Random numbers were
assigned so that no individual home was
known or identified with the opinions expressed.
National satellite network transmits
public service programs
This past September, the Public Service
Satellite Consortium (PSSC) used Denver,
CO, as the "launch site" of a new continuing education program transmitted via a
communications satellite. This transmis-
www.americanradiohistory.com
8-
CLIPPING LEVEL of program material is
used to determine amplifier's dynamic headroom.
FIG.
just one of the new measurement ideas
which will be incorporated in the new
IHF Amplifier Measurement Standards,
but it is one which should help to clarify
one of the seeming discrepancies which
still exists when comparing the performance of similarly power -rated audio
products that, under actual use, "sound
different." As soon as the members of the
IHF approve of the entire new standard,
we will detail the other important measurement techniques incorporated in that
R -E
standard in a future article.
sion was
a pilot demonstration of the non broadcast use of the public television satellite system.
The program was a special education
presentation created for members of the
American Dietetic Association who viewed
it at more than 100 selected locations in
eight major cities across the U.S. Pretaped
portions of the program were linked up with
a panel of experts in Denver, and the dieticians viewing it on screens in auditoriums,
schools and hospitals could question the
experts via telephone.
The signal was beamed to Western
Union's communications satellite Westar I,
which then retransmitted it to public television stations in Anchorage, AK, San Diego,
Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Columbus, OH,
Cleveland, OH, Columbia SC and Spokane,
WA.
According to the PSSC, this new satellite
system will connect all PBS stations by the
end of 1978. Because the system allows
each station to receive up to four transmission simultaneously, this will allow PBS to
transmit nonbroadcast programs for its
members, more than 100 nonprofit organizations and other nonprofit groups. The
system is expected to be operative by early
1979.
R -E
o
/ó\
ó 0 0
-L.
C
",
Hobby Computer
STATIC RAM MEMORY from Vector Graphic is
designed for the S -100 bus structure. Four
Motorola MC7805CP 3- terminal voltatge -regulator iC's are along the right -hand edge.
TYPICAL POWER SUPPLY for hobby computers has heavy power transformer and computer -grade electolytic filter capacitors. The voltage regulators are mounted on the motherboard.
VECTOR model 1+ microcomputer has power
supply along right side of cabinet. Cooling fan
in right rear corner exhausts hot air.
The power supply is perhaps one of the most critical of all
often used in microcomputer circuitry, operate from a DC supply
be allowed to go above 5.6. This is the story of high- current power
MICROCOMPUTERS BUILT WITH THE S -100 BUS USE DISTRIBUTED
regulation to supply +5 volts DC to the various circuits.
Distributed regulation uses one or more three -terminal IC regulators (i.e., LM309, 7805, LM340 -5) mounted on each printed
circuit board. The main high- current power bus on the S -100
motherboard is unregulated +8 volts DC.
Tl
impossible. In this article we will discuss several approaches to
solving the problem of high-current supplies.
Pseudo -distributed system
The microcomputer kit I purchased recently uses a motherboard with the +5 volt DC and ground foil traces connected to
the individual card -edge connectors. The total current demand
of a fully populated motherboard is approximately 16 amperes.
In trying to develop a power supply, one solution I tried with
moderate success was to cut the +5 -volt foil trace on the
motherboard at strategic points, and then mount external three terminal IC regulators nearby. One regulator served each
section of the board. The three types mentioned earlier are
suitable for current drains of ampere in the TO -3 case, and
750 mA in the plastic case. The LM323 will handle 3 amperes,
and the Lambda LAS -1905 will handle 5 amperes.
The pseudo- distributed system works well, but is sloppy. In
some cases, this approach is made more difficult by the fact that
not all motherboards are laid out in the nice straight lines of the
S -100 bus! The +5 -volt DC line may wander, breaking off at
points, and then rejoining later on. These difficulties often force
us to look at other alternatives.
1
FIG.
1- SIMPLE
FULL -WAVE RECTIFIER uses two diodes and
a
center -
tapped transformer.
But certain other mainframes use +5 volts DC regulated on
the main power distribution bus, and obtaining that type of
supply at a reasonable cost is quite a chore! At current levels of
around 5 amperes, you cannot use a simple three -terminal IC
regulator. Finding a series -pass transistor able to handle the load
current and possessing a beta high enough to allow use of the
simple Zener -controlled base circuit type of regulator is almost
Rectifiers and filters
In the regulator circuits to follow we will show only the regulator and associated circuitry, since this is where the main problem in design is. All these circuits will be preceded by a rectifier
and filter circuit such as those shown in Figs. and 2.
Both of the circuits shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are full -wave
rectifiers, meaning that they make use of both alternations of
the AC sinewave from the power mains. This type of rectifier is
not only easier to filter (the traditional justification) but also
results in a higher average DC output voltage, and requires less
power (i.e., V X A) from the transformer primary for any given
load current.
The rectifier circuit in Fig. uses two solid -state diodes and a
center -tapped transformer. The center tap is taken as the
1
1
FIG.
2- BRIDGE RECTIFIER
provides full -wave rectification.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Power Supplies
,.'`
SIALII
11.1111111
tIt.ti itattt
RAM MEMORY BOARD from Electronic Control
S -100 bus. Type
LM340T regulator IC's are on massive heat -sink
in upper left corner.
Technology mates with
VECTOR'S VP2 ENCLOSURE permits you to
design and house your own microcomputer.
Card -guides are provided. Power supply can be
COMBINATION RAM AND ROM memory board
is designed for S -100 bus configuration. Distributed voltage regulation uses six 3- terminal
voltage-regulator IC's.
installed in smaller compartment.
hobby computer components. TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) IC's,
with a nominal level of 5 volts and a maximum level that must not
supply regulation and how you can design and build your own supply.
JOSEPH J. CARR
common (or ground) terminal, while the positive output is taken
from the junction of the two diode cathodes. The alternate
circuit, shown in Fig. 2, is a bridge rectifier that can be made
from four discrete diodes, or be purchased as a prepackaged
bridge.
Almost all voltage regulator circuits require a DC input that
is at least 2.5 volts higher than the rated output voltage. In our
case, with +5 -volts DC output, the DC input voltage should be
not less than +7.5. In case you have wondered, this is probably
the reason why Altair, the original S -100 bus designers, specified +8 volts for the main power bus. An ordinary 6.3 -volt AC
(RMS) filament transformer will deliver this potential when
full -wave rectified and filtered. The filter will charge to 1.4 X
ERMS, which in this case is 1.4 X 6.3 = 8.8 volts. In most cases,
a 6.3 -volt high- current filament transformer is sufficient.
The standard 6.3 -volt filament transformer is a good choice
for use in a circuit such as Fig. 2 because the bridge rectifier
uses the entire secondary. Keep in mind, however, that the
transformer can deliver only half its rated current in the bridge
configuration. In the case of Fig. 1, a 12.6 -volt transformer will
provide 6.3 volts AC either side of the center tap, so it is a good
choice. It will deliver the same output potential as the bridge
rectifier used with a 6.3 -volt transformer, and will supply its
rated current.
Fortunately, 6.3 and 12.6 volts AC are the filament ratings of
many high -power transmitting tubes used in commercial and
military transmitters. Many such transformers are still available
on the surplus market, although the supply is down from its
heights of only a few years ago. You should be able to save a
considerable amount of money by checking the local electronic
surplus outlets, ham friends (who tend to save such items), or by
attending hamfests and auctions. If a push comes to a shove, or
you have money to spend, then go to your local parts distributor
and buy a new transformer outright. I have used several Triad
types that are particularly useful because their tapped primary
offers secondary AC voltages of either 6.3 or 7.5. Table gives
the type numbers and ratings.
1
The rectifier diodes or bridge -rectifier stacks should be rated
to handle more current than is expected at full load, but keep in
mind that they will tend to run very hot if operated at a point
near their maximum ratings. It is preferable to select diodes
with a 25 or 50 percent margin. For example, for a 20-ampere
power supply select a 25- to 30- ampere diode. Also keep in mind
that the minimum peak inverse voltage (PIV) rating must be not
less than 2.82 times the applied RMS voltage. This is not too
much of a problem in +5 -volt circuits operated from 6.3 -volt
transformers, but is very definitely a factor at higher voltages.
You cannot, for example, use a 25 -volt PIV rectifier in a 12 -volt
DC supply!
TABLE
1- TYPICAL FILAMENT TRANSFORMERS
Triad No.
Secondary voltage
Amperes
F-22U
F-24U
F-28U
6.3VAC
6.3/7.5 VAC
6.3/7.5VAC
20
F-56X'
25.2 VAC
2.8
8
25
*Ideally suited to making the ± 12 volt regulated supplies needed
for most microcomputers. Use a fullwave bridge and the transformer center tap to form two halfwave bridges. This supply will
deliver up to 1 ampere at each voltage.
Capacitor C in Figs. and 2 should have a capacitance of not
less than 2000 HF -per- ampere of load current. In a 20- ampere
supply, then, the filter capacitor should be at least 40,000 F. It
should have a DC working voltage rating of at least 15 volts
(WVDC). I used an 80,000 µF /15 WVDC capacitor in testing
these circuits with a 15-ampere load. The 2000 SF -per- ampere
spec is a minimum, not an optimum, rating.
1
1
The 5-volt, 5-amp supply
The Lambda Electronics (515 Broad Hollow Rd., Melville,
L.I., N.Y., 11746) model LAS -1905 is one of the most powerful
www.americanradiohistory.com
5 -volt three -terminal IC regulators on the market; it has an
output-current specification of 5 amperes!
Figure 3 shows a typical circuit using the LAS -1905. Note
that this circuit is not too much different from other three terminal IC regulator circuits. This regulator, however, has
better protection than some less powerful and less costly
versions. Some of the features more than justify its $14 price
tag. A block diagram of the internal circuitry is shown in Fig. 4.
Note that it contains safe-area protection, thermal -overload
LAS1905
C2
3
2pF
EIN
EOUT
Eo,=3.5
0.1µF
EOUT
DISC
Cl
2000µF /A
(3)
CASE TO BE
GROUNDED
0.420
0.440
0.15101A
0.161
0.655
0.675
2
HOLES
*SEE FIG. 7
C2, C3 MOUNTED AS CLOSE TO
CASE OF THE IC AS POSSIBLE
C4 > 100µF /A
1.173
1.197
3- THREE -TERMINAL
X
+
1
IC REGULATOR
-0.6
RS
Transistor Q2 and resistor R1 serve as the current-limiting
circuit, and will shut down series -pass regulator Q1 if the voltage drop across R exceeds 0.6; the forward bias potential of
Q2. The maximum output current, then, is set by resistor R1
and is equal to 0.6/R1. In the case of our 10- ampere supply, R I
is 60 milliohms, i.e., 0.060 ohm. This is not a standard offthe -shelf value so it must be made. I used five 0.33 -ohm auto
radio fuse resistors, while a friend made one from magnet wire
using the ohms /foot data given in the ITT Radio Engineers
Data Book (Howard W. Sams & Co.).
1
C4
(SEE FIG. 1)
FIG.
deliver up to 15 volts DC for use with CB and ham transceivers
if resistors R4 and R5 are changed appropriately. The output
voltage is given (approximately) by the formula
C3
+2.5V
0.205
0.225
A 5 -volt DC, 10 -amp supply
Figure 5 shows a regulator circuit taken from the Motorola
applications literature on their MC1469R voltage regulator IC.
This circuit can deliver up to IO amperes with the transistor
shown and the 60- milliohm series resistor. The same circuit can
0VP
(CASE)
TANTALUM
Use the LAS -1905 for applications where an LM -323 might
have to work close to its 3- ampere rated output current.
provides
volts at
5
3
Q1
2N3771
(HEAVY
LEADS)
OVP*
OR
SEE FIG. 7
R1
HEP S7000
O6L2
+5VDC
am-
CONNECT TO
+5VDC LINE
AT LOAD END
peres.
¡
SENSE
protection and the all -important current -limiting protection.
The use of current -limiting is almost mandatory once the
current level goes much over an ampere or two because of the
damage short circuits can cause to printed- circuit traces and
other components, including the power supply itself! As the
current level increases, so does the possibility of vaporizing the
main power bus in your mainframe! In my own Z -80 system,
current -limiting saved the motherboard once when some of the
protective foil that comes wrapped around 2102 memory IC's
accidentally stuck to a printed- circuit card right where the +5volt DC and ground terminals enter the board. Without the
10-ampere current -limiting circuitry then used in my supply
(the circuit in Fig. 5), the tracks may well have vaporized!
The power supply regulator in Fig. 3 is especially useful for
powering single -board computers that normally tax 3- ampere
regulators, and wipe out 1- ampere types! Note that most regulators tend to offer deteriorated transient response near their full
rated output current, so the extra margin of the LAS -1905
would prevent certain types of power- supply- induced "glitch."
--
r
INPUT
(PIN
1)
SAFE AREA
PROTECTION
LIMIT
CURRENT LIMITING
AMPLIFIER
THERMAL
OVERLOAD
OUTPUT
0.0352
(PIN 2)
SENSE
0-25K
VOLTAGE REGULATION
AMPLIFIER
(DEPENDS
ON VO)
R2
10052
C4
o
Q2
+
0.001,4E
_E-0
-5VDC
2N706
FROM
4
11
RECTIFIER/
FILTER
5
IC1
(SEE FIG. 1)
C2
MC1469R
C3
OR
0.1µF
0.1NF
.Z
+
C5
HEP C6049R
2
61
9
8
CASE
R3
1K
I1µF
Ra
C2, C3, C4
2.7K
AND C5:
MOUNT AS CLOSE
R4
TO IC1 AS POSSIBLE.
3K
VOLT
Rb
R5
1K
6.8K
ADJ
SOW1
USE SHORT LEADS
TO ICI, AND HEAVY
LEADS WHERE
INDICATED BY
FIG. 5 -10- AMPERE REGULATOR based on Motorola IC regulator and
series -pass transistor.
The power supply in Fig. 5 uses a sense line. The MC1469R
regulator is a feedback type that uses an error amplifier to
compare the actual output voltage with an internal reference
voltage. The sense terminal is the input to the internal error
amplifier. In supplies that deliver more than 5 or 10 amperes, it
is considered good engineering practice to run the sense line to
.the load separately from the main power bus. This arrangement
allows the regulator to sense the voltage actually delivered to the
load, rather than the regulator output voltage. If the main power
bus is more than a few inches long, or if it is made of a marginally sized conductor, then the IR -drop due to current flow can
be considerable. In one large -scale TTL project I built, this drop
was almost volt in an 18 -inch line, and that can cause all kinds
of trouble in ticklish TTL circuits! There are enough real problems in digital electronics without making more by poor power
supply technique!
1
t
1K
UREF
L
FIG.
4- INTERNAL
terminal regulator.
COMMON
(CASE)
J
o
CIRCUITRY of Lambda Electronics LAS -1905 three -
5 -volt, 20- or 30-amp
supply
The design and construction of a thermally stable, regulated,
power supply able to deliver over 10 amperes or so is not an easy
58
www.americanradiohistory.com
chore. While it is easy to theorize on paper, you find that it is a
long way from the design desk to the final product! Techniques
that should have worked sometimes succumb to some unsuspected glitch or hitch that inevitably fouls up the works. In that
case, it might be wise to use a 20- or 30-ampere hybrid voltage
regulator such as the Lambda LAS -5205 (20 A) or LAS -7205
(30 A). Figure 6 shows a circuit based on these devices. Both of
these modules contain all required circuitry to make a regulator
circuit with complete current-limiting and thermal -overload
protection.
These regulators have two heat-dissipating surfaces. The
lower and larger of the two is thermally connected to the high current series -pass transistors, while the upper is thermally
FROM REGT /FILTER
(FIG. 1)
R1
EREF
NON -INV
+VOLT
INPUT
SENSE
+EIN1
(CONNECT TO
+E0Ú7 AT LOAD)
+EOUT
T+
05
LAS5205
Overvoltage protection
All series -pass transistors work hard and tend to get very hot
inside of the case. This heat tends to cause marginal transistors
to give up and short out prematurely, which would place the full
rectifier -filter voltage on the main power bus of your expensive
computer. TTL IC's may well blow out with as little as 7 or 8
volts, so the short -prone series-pass transistor is a scenario for
disaster! Your cabinetful of expensive microcomputer may well
become a silicone -to- carbon converter in a quick hurry!!!
The way to protect your equipment from this type of disaster
is to use an overvoltage- protection circuit such as the SCR
crowbars of Figs. 7 and 8. The circuit in Fig. 7 uses discrete
components, while the circuit in Fig. 8 is an IC version produced
by Lambda.
The circuit in Fig. 7 uses a high- current SCR to blow the
main bus fuse if an overvoltage condition is sensed. This brute
force approach is probably the origin of the inelegant nickname
"crowbar." Diode D1 is a 5.6 -volt Zener, so it will not pass
current as long as the output voltage is normal (i.e., +5 volts).
But if the series -pass transistor goes bananas and places the +8
OR
E
OUT
100µF /A
LAS7205
-EIN
-EOUT
(CONNECT TO
-VOLT
+EIN2
-EOUT AT LOAD)
SENSE
TO
+SOURCE
>_ 12.5VDC
? 3K. A 12.5K, 5W WIREWOUND RESISTOR IN SERIES
WITH A 3K, 3W POTENTIOMETER GAVE GOOD RESULTS.
R1
6-
FIG.
HYBRID REGULATOR circuit and external components can be
used to provide output currents in the 20- to 30 -amp range.
connected to the regulator reference and control circuitry,
affording a degree of thermal isolation for these circuits. The
regulators also have two separate En terminals, labeled E; and
Eau in Fig. 6. Terminal E,,,, is to the main series -pass transistor,
and must be at a potential of 2.5 volts higher than E0, or in this
5 -volt example, 7.5 volts DC. The other terminal, E;,,2, supplies
the control circuitry and must be at a potential that is 7.5 volts
greater than the output potential, or in this case, 12.5 volts. If
the main, high- current, supply delivers a potential of 12.5 volts
or more from the rectifier-filter, then E;,,, and E;,,2 may be
strapped together. But if an 8 -volt DC high- current supply is
used, then E,2 must be tied to some other source. In most
microcomputers there is a + 12 -volt regulated supply, and this
will usually be fed from a + 15 -volt unregulated source. Use the
+5 -volt terminal to supply Eiii2 in that case.
,
C11.Í
F1
FROM
A
REGULATOR
ó-1
01
5.6VDC
1M
ci _L
0.1T
RI
22052
8- CROWBAR
PROTECTION circuit from Lambda Electronics is
available in self-contained modules.
volts on the output, then D1 will conduct and pass current to the
gate of SCRI. This current will turn on SCRI, creating a short
circuit across the +5 -volt line, thereby blowing the fuse. Not
very elegant as circuits go, but it will save hundreds of dollars
worth of circuitry in the event of a catastrophe. Select an SCR
with a current rating considerably higher than the line current; a
30- to 50- ampere rating will do nicely.
I have used the 2 -, 6- and 35-ampere Lambda two-terminal
overvoltage protectors in various power supplies. In my main
computer mainframe, an L- 35 -0V -5 is used as a reasonably
priced alternative to the discrete circuit. The internal circuitry
for these devices electronic crowbar is shown in Fig. 8 while the
ratings of various 5 -volt models (i.e. 6.6V trip point) are given in
Table 2.
Transient protection
Lightning and other disturbances can create voltage transients close to 1000 volts on the primary side of your computer
OPTIONAL FUSE
+
o
FIG.
SCRI
C
r-4
R2
1012
SOME DESIGNERS USE A TRANSFORMER PRIMARY FUSE INSTEAD
OF F1 TO ELIMINATE THE I X R DROP AT THE FUSE HOLDER.
FIG. 7 -SCR CROWBAR using discrete components provides short -
circuit protection.
The high cost of these hybrid modules may seem a little steep
for amateur and hobbyist use, until one begins to price out
commercial +5 -volt, 20- ampere supplies. There is at least one
on the market that will deliver the current and costs only $115,
but most run closer to $200. The $80 price of the LAS-5205
then seems less frightening, especially if you are able to
scrounge or buy the transformer and filter capacitor from a
surplus source. Note that 6.3- and 12.6 -volt center -tapped transformers have a high "scroungability" quotient!
TABLE
2- CROWBAR PROTECTION MODULES
Lambda Model No.
Current Rating*
L2-0V-5
2 amperes
6 amperes
12 amperes
L6-0V -5
L12-0V-5
L20-0V-5
L35-0V-5
*All models have
a
20 amperes
35 amperes
trip voltage of 6.6 volts
supply. One amateur computernik friend of mine lost over 20
TTL devices in a single thunderstorm! The General Electric
MOV (metal -oxide varistors) offer some degree of protection
against this type of damage. Check the GE literature for a
suitable model for the current level expected.
continued on page 101
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
I
D
SPEAKER
how
various types
Recently audio engineers have found that ordinary
that a loudspeaker sounds. Newly developed
THERE IS A GROWING BODY OF OPINION IN
some audio circles that speaker cables
have been neglected when considering the
performance of a high -fidelity system.
However, when one prominent speaker
engineer was asked what part he felt
cables contributed to speaker performance, his answer was: "Ever since I
discovered that no one -not you, not
can hear the difference between 10 -kHz
sinewaves and squarewaves, I've been
cynical of the claims made by the ultra wide band and no- phase -shift advocates."
He was referring to the fact that research
has shown that even the best -quality conventional speaker cable cannot pass a
squarewave, and causes phase rotation at
high frequencies.
Today's thinking has it that the inductance and capacitance of lamp cord (zip
cord) should not present a problem in
today's audio systems. However, it is
generally conceded that for very long
runs of speaker wire that is connected to
low- impedance speakers, it might be necessary to artificially lower the cables'
typical impedance. Therefore, if we assume there is no significant magnetic
coupling to other cables capable of absorbing power in low -impedance circuits,
there is no reason to believe that speaker
cable should significantly affect frequency response.
If you visit some hi -fi stores today,
you'll find an increasing number of socalled "super cables," such as Disc
Washers' Smog Lifters, Polk's Sound
Cables, Audio Source's High Definition
Cables, M & K's Mogami cables, or the
Fulton line of cables. These represent
several different types. For instance, 140 strand braided cable (Smog Lifters); 10
pairs of braided insulated wires (Audio
Source's High Definition); a stacked coaxial cable (M & K's Mogami); the
Fulton cable, which is a very large paral-
I-
lel multishroud type, or the Polk cable,
which is also braided with a very fine
intertwine. The price of these cables runs
from 50 cents - per -foot to $1.50- per -foot
and more, making them considerably
more expensive than conventional zip
cord that costs 15 cents or less per foòt.
Zip cord is usually recommended by most
audio stores and industry authorities.
It is stated in a typical amplifier
instruction manual that No. 18 lamp cord
is sufficient for normal lengths (to about
30 feet) between speaker and amplifier.
However, No. 16 wire is generally recommended depending on distance. A leading
speaker manufacturer has prepared a recommended connection -wire chart that is
shown in Table 1.
The wire lengths listed in Table I were
calculated on a maximum audible coloration of ±0.5 dB. Following the guide
lines provided, the most discerning listener will be unable to detect any coloration
introduced by the speaker wire. Most
listeners will not notice any effect even if
wire lengths are increased as much as
50 %.
Audio critics like Leonard Feldman,
Radio- Electronics' Contributing High Fidelity editor, have stated that the
1- Recommended
Connection Wire
TABLE
Maximum
wire length
(ft)
Wire gauge
30
18 gauge, zip cord
(or two- conductor
wire)
45
16 gauge,
two -conductor wire
70
14 gauge,
two -conductor wire
www.americanradiohistory.com
damping factors of a good amplifier can
be practically eliminated by a poor hookup to the speakers, and you should play it
safe by using heavy wire and making good
connections. Even the finest cables can be
rendered ineffective with poor connections.
Speaker designer Roy Cizek has emphasized in a series of articles and
speeches to audio groups that "even the
`heavy' gauges No. 14 and No. 16 lamp
cord are often insufficient." Mr. Cizek
discovered that even small amounts of
resistance can affect frequency response
by destroying the effective damping of
the amplifier-speaker system. He also
pointed out the effects of a speaker -line
fuse, and recommended using No. 12 or
No. 10 wire.
Both Mr. Feldman and Mr. Cizek have
pointed out that using heavier speaker
wire should not be just the concern of the
audiophile trying to extract the last bit of
performance out of a hi -fi system. Most
audio systems sold have 25 watts of
amplifier power or less, and combined
with a low- impedance speaker, certain
wire lengths may throw away up to 30%
or 40% of the amplifier power. As Mr.
Cizek states, "contrary to common practice, it can be especially important to use
heavier wire with smaller amplifiers or
receivers, since they have low power output and low damping factors to begin
with."
What the advocates of better cables
point out is that many speakers are
designed to provide good efficiency and
transient response when effective damping is high. The low internal impedance
of today's modern transistorized amplifiers reduces the amplifier's damping capability. With a low damping factor, the
speaker continues to vibrate after the
signal is cut off, which results in muddiness and overhang. Good speaker damp-
CABLES
affect sound
speaker cables can adversely affect the way
cables of unique construction solve the problem.
HARRY MAYNARD
ing plays the same role as a shock absorber on a car, preventing the suspension
system from overoscillating on a bumpy
road. The damping factor of a good amplifier can be critical to reproducing
sharp, clean transients and to the integrity of the bass.
Those who champion the new super
cables claim that the damping factor can
be rendered ineffective because the
speaker impedance can be increased by
up to two or three measurable ohms by
using zip cord. The goal is to keep the
impedance of the speaker cable low.
The damping factor is defined as the
ratio between speaker impedance and amplifier output (or internal) impedance.
Mr. Cizek's recommendation of No. 12
or No. 10 wire is based on the assumption
that "if you decrease the effective damping factor by using a small wire and fuse
in the line you tend to produce peaks in
the frequency response corresponding to
those in the impedance curve as well as
poor response and increased ringing."
(See Fig. 1.)
8522 -WAY SPEAKER SYSTEM
i 25
o 20
'ES'
á
ó
a
15
/211111S111G1111
10
i1IGa:r1111111
5
0111/11
0
10Hz
100
1kHz
10k Hz
-SMALL
WIRE DECREASES the effective damping factor and produces peaks in the
FIG.
1
frequency response.
Now the plot thickens. On several trips
to Japan I discovered that leading Japanese companies presently offer for sale
super cables of varying configurations;
for example, J.V.C.'s Super Cord (sold
only in Japan, not in the U. S.). You will
also find Pioneer cable and several other
brands. The merits of various cables is a
topic of much discussion among Japanese
audiophiles, who are a match in their
enthusiasm for high -quality audio with
any audiophiles in the world. Much of the
advanced research on the effect of speaker cable on hi -fi systems has been done in
Japan.
Using a pair of J.V.C. Super Cords,
my not- too-golden ears detected a significant improvement in sound quality coming through my speakers as compared
with the No. 16 wire I had been using. I
have since experienced the same improvement in sound quality with a wide variety
of super cables compared with conventional cables.
Research conducted by J.V.C. showed
that conventional cable could not pass a
100 -kHz squarewave and that there was
phase rotation. In addition, the magnetic
fields of wires running parallel to each
other set up what is known as self- inductance. Parallel wires create phantom
channels to each other and round off high
frequencies. In tests, several researchers
have discovered this results in a loss of
audio articulation.
In discussing the merits of super cable
and various experiments conducted by
J.V.C. and other electronics manufacturers, several leading Japanese executives
admitted that there was much that the
audio industry has yet to learn about the
complex interfaces of different speaker
cables and amplifier- speaker combinations. To condemn certain amplifiers because they do not perform properly with
certain speakers is similar to condemning
certain high -performance cars when given improper fuel
is an unfair judgment.
Perhaps the most extensive research
was performed by Kenwood in Japan in
developing their model L -07M amplifier
and model L -07C preamplifier. Discovering the effects of "the neglected cable,"
as described by Kenwood engineers, oc-
-it
www.americanradiohistory.com
curred quite by chance. Kenwood feels
that the super cables "have yielded improvements in sound quality on account
of their superior transmission qualities,"
but this is only part of the picture. A
speaker cable has to be considered an
extension of the amplifier.
The problem is carefully defined and
fully explained in the 47 -page owners'
manual (No. 7454859- 0084 -00) for the
model L -07M amplifier and model L07C preamplifier system. For those who
wish to delve deeply into the complex
interface problem of speaker /wire /amplifier, I strongly recommend getting this
manual. We can only summarize its main
points here.
Kenwood engineers, using very elaborate testing techniques, found that the
speaker -cable impedance plays a significant role in high- frequency response and
that the DC resistance contributes significantly to distortion (see Fig. 2). Furthermore, they claim that there is "surprisingly large distortion at the speaker inputs that is caused by speaker cables of
even high quality and emphasizes the
importance of solving this problem." (See
Fig. 3.)
The importance of the neglected cable
was discovered by measuring various energy losses for different lengths and kinds
of cables. The greatest losses, even when
using the best cables, could be held to
from 0.5 dB to 0.6 dB below 10 kHz but
there were still problems above 10 kHz.
As described by Kenwood engineers,
"when we made actual listening tests, we
sensed there was something missing. It
was like a bucket with a hole near the top
and performance never went above the
level of that hole.
"So our engineers devised a new test
using a 30 -kHz tone burst and measuring
cable performance at the speaker terminals. They found that although the pulse
signal was perfect, there was a deformation of the waveform. The difference in
wave height and overshoot is actually
caused by the counter -electromotive
force from the speaker, the result of
greater resistance and weaker damping of
the long cable. Fundamentally, even very
low distortion, which cannot be measured, can be detected by our sense of
TABLE
2- Comparison of Audio Cable and Speaker Cord
Audio cable
Voltage transmission
Transmitting impedance
10
Load conditions
20 ohms
100,000 ohms.
Changes somewhat with
frequency and is constant
hearing."
ohms
'
'
Power transmission
1000 ohms
without regard to signal
level; slight input
capacitance only; no
reactance.
MEDIUM GRADE
SHIELDED WIRE
Cs
0
= 3000pF
SHIELDED
HOOKUP
WIRE
-2
14 M SUPER
CORD
8E2
- SPEAKER
- LOAD
PARALLEL AC CORD
SPEAKER OR 8t2
I
1kHz
I
10kHz
100kHz
2- SPEAKER -CABLE
1MHz
IMPEDANCE has
a
significant effect on high- frequency response.
MEASUREMENT LEVEL =
CONSTANT 10V AMP OUTPUT
CORD
DC POWER AMP
SPEAKER
0.5
0.1
0.05
0.01
0.005
0.0025
I
1kHz
100
I
10kHz
8E2DUMMY LOAD, AMP OUTPUT
METER "A" CO'S IMPROVED
SPEAKER CABLE
15 METERS "A" CO'S IMPROVED
SPEAKER CABLE
1
PARALLEL VINYL AC CORD (40
STRAND)
15
Indication 4-14 ohms.
Changes considerably with
frequency; changes with
signal level; reactance
component is large and
complex;
counterelectromotive force
produced by speaker.
Small
Large
Effect on tonal quality
Small
Large
Change with length
Small
Large
Extraneous induction
Easy
Difficult
Effect of cord
Since the load conditions
other than component C
are large, effect is small.
Components L, C and
have a large effect.
R
Note: In the past the quality of the system was not improved while pursuing the characteristics on
the amplifier side because the dynamic characteristics with the speaker connected such as these
were not considered. As shown in Fig. 7, the deterioration in distortion when the speaker is connected exceeded our imagination.
/
8E2SPEAKER LOAD
Almost zero
Effect on performance
characteristics
8E2 LOAD
(PURE RESISTANCE)
FIG.
Speaker cord
Role
METERS
3- SPEAKER CABLE CAN CAUSE surprisingly large distortion at the speaker inputs.
FIG.
The most disturbing finding was that
the amplifier should ideally be located
much closer to the speakers -this is hardly reassuring for the millions who can't or
find it inconvenient to do so. The farther
the speaker is from the amplifier the
slower the slew rate.
Obviously, to do away with the speaker
cable is impractical. Kenwood found
however that their specially developed
cable (not sold in the U. S.) could be used
up to one meter (3.25 feet) from the
speaker system, with virtually no effect
on tonal quality. On the other hand, the
audio cable between power amplifier and
control amplifier can be long since it is
merely a signal transmission line (see
Table 2). I know some people who have
suffered from RF problems, which they
claimed was only eliminated by using
specially constructed (expensive) audio
cables like Verion, who might suggest
that audio cables are important too. But
that's another subject.
The Kenwood solution is obviously
directed at the perfectionist audiophile
(assuming you agree with their analysis
of the problem). There are alternative
solutions if you agree that the problem of
transmission losses does exist and can be
heard. If you don't like the price of the
super cables, for less cost you can use the
heaviest zip cord you can find, if your
amplifier is not bothered by capacitance
problems. Don't be afraid of reducing the
size of the wire at the speaker terminals
(by no more than half) so it will fit into
spring -loaded speaker or amplifier terminals. But be careful, since the total resistance of the length of the wire must be
considered.
If you believe that there is a problem of
self-inductance, you'll usually find that
the super cables are sold on a money -back
basis. So if you don't hear a difference
you can return them. Most of the special
cables are sold by specific lengths and
several have special tip ends that allow
you to make excellent uniform connections.
For example, Disc Washers' Smog
Lifters, shown in Fig. 4, have special plastic Y- finished tip ends that resist poten-
www.americanradiohistory.com
tial shorting, these cables sell for $1.40 per -foot.
The M & K Mogami cable (sold for
$1.50 -per -foot) must be debraided, and
should not be tinned if splicing is neces-
FIG. 4-DISC WASHERS' Smog Lifter cables
have special plastic tips.
...-.--
...Yrr+W-...
-M & K MOGAMI cable must be debraided; no tinning before splicing.
FIG. 5
sary. (See Fig. 5.) A firm connection
between the wire ends to be joined should
be made before soldering. You are also
warned to avoid speaker switches,
continued on page 93
How To
Design Digital
Circuits
Part 1- With digital circuitry becoming an increasingly important
factor in our everyday lives, it's time that we learn how to design logic circuits.
Get in on the start of this series as the author discusses
digital logic design- beginning with Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps.
JERRY WOOLSEY
TODAY'S ELECTRONICS HOBBYIST HAS
available to him a previously undreamed of assortment of hardware for his projects. Whereas 15 or 20 years ago electronics magazines ran construction articles on simple two- or three-tube circuits,
using point-to -point wiring, the projects
of today consist of computer CPU boards
and computer terminals on complicated
double-sided PC boards. Digital circuits
are now appearing in almost everything
electronic, including "linear" applications such as tuners, TV sets and synthesizers.
To enjoy fully the electronic technology of today, a hobbyist needs to know not
only how to bias transistors and match
impedances, but also how to analyze and
design digital circuits. Although most
experimenters can do this using brute force methods, there are some fairly
simple methods for reducing the number
of gates in, and hence the complexity of,
a digital circuit.
Digital electronics is the realization of
Boolean algebra, and some knowledge of
it is required to design a digital circuit.
Since the subject of Boolean algebra has
been covered in magazine articles as well
as in many textbooks, it is assumed the
reader has a fair knowledge of it, and is
able to write his desired function in both
equation and truth -table form. In this
article, we will see how to apply the
fundamentals of Boolean algebra to construct both parallel and series circuits
from a truth table, and then reduce the
gates to the minimum needed. Throughout this article, the AND function will be
implied between two variables if no operator is given between them, i.e., x . y will
be written simply as xy.
Combinational switching circuits
A combinational switching circuit is a
digital circuit whose output at any time is
dependent only on its input at that time,
regardless of any previous input or output. Thus, no "memory" circuits are
included. (A flip -flop is considered a
memory circuit.) The first part of this
article is concerned only with these circuits.
A Boolean equation, no matter what
form, can always be reduced or expanded
to give an equation in either a sum-ofproducts (S -P) or product -of-sums (P -S)
form. In the S -P form, the equation is an
OR (sum) of several AND (product)
groups. In the P -S form, the equation is
an AND of several OR groups. As an example, take the following equation:
a= x(y +z) +y
1)
This can be expanded by multiplying
through the x to get
a = xy + xz + y (S -P) 2)
which is in S -P form, or may also be written in P -S form as
a
=(x +y+
z) (x
+y +z)
(x
+y +z)
(P -S) 3)
A primitive implementation of equation is shown in Fig. 1, using the S -P
form of the equation. So we pick up the
IC data book and notice one peculiar
thing: almost all the gates available are
NAND, with several AND, but few OR and
NOR types. Why should this be so when
most functions are written as strictly AND
1
and OR? To understand why, we can
apply DeMorgan's theorem to equation 2.
This theorem states that if we invert the
individual members of one side of an
equation, then change the signs between
members from AND to OR and vice -versa,
then invert the entire side of the equation,
the equation is still true. To illustrate,
let's apply this theorem to equation 2.
First, we invert the individual members
to obtain
a=
xy
+
-xz
+ÿ
Now we change the signs between members and get
a= xy.xz.y
Finally inverting the entire string, we
get
a=
-xy . -xz
.ÿ
This says that to obtain the result a, we
NAND x and y, NAND x and z, INVERT y,
and NAND the three results. Figure 2
shows the logic circuit. Thus, the NAND
gates can perform the AND and OR functions. When a group of NAND gates feed
another NAND gate, the first gates perform an AND function, and the gate they
feed performs the OR function on each
AND'ed group. We thus only need to keep
a supply of NAND gates to realize any
equation in S -P form. In this case, an
extra inverter is needed, but inverted
variables are often already available from
another output, and even if not, this could
be performed by a NAND, keeping the
three input gates on one package.
It should be noted that the P-S form
can be implemented in circuit form by
using NOR gates, the first input gates
63
www.americanradiohistory.com
perform the OR function, and the second
set of gates perform the AND function.
However, P -S forms can always be expanded to S -P forms, so the remainder of
the article will deal only with S -P forms.
numbered in binary, and the value in each
box is the output of the circuit when the
coordinates of the box are the input. The
numbering of the columns starts at the
left at zero, and is arranged such that the
number of the next column to the right
differs in only one bit position. Thus, 00
is followed by 01, which is followed by
11, which is followed by 10. The rows are
a
FIG.
1
=
xy + xz
+ y
-LOGIC CIRCUIT that performs the Boo-
lean algebra expression shown.
numbered similarly. Figure 4 illustrates
the numbering and the corresponding
decimal coordinates of the boxes for functions with two, three and four inputs.
Beyond four inputs, the Karnaugh map
becomes too cumbersome, so other methods have been designed for these situations.
As an example, suppose a three -input
circuit with inputs x, y and z were to
produce a logic -1 output when x = 0 and
y = z = 1. Then we would enter a 1 into
the box numbered 3 in Fig. 4 -b (xyz =
011 = 3,o). If a zero were to be produced
when x = y =
and z = 0, the box
numbered 6 would contain a zero. In
certain cases, such as BCD circuits, some
input combinations are meaningless
(1010 is not a BCD number). In these
instances, we enter a "d" in the appropriate box to indicate a "don't- care" condition. This tells us the output may be
either 0 or with the given input, since
that input would never occur. This may
be used to further aid in circuit reduction.
Figure 5 -a shows the truth table for
equation 1, and Fig. 5 -b shows the Karnaugh map derived from it.
Now we come to the interesting property of the map. By definition of the
structure of the map, any two adjacent
boxes (horizontally or vertically, but not
diagonally) differ in coordinates, i.e., in
input conditions, by only one bit. For
1
a=xy+xz+y
FIG. 2 -NAND GATES can be used to perform
the same function as shown in Fig. 1.
1
a=xy+xz+y=xz+y
FIG.
3- SIMPLIFIED LOGIC
ent to circuit shown in Fig.
CIRCUIT is equival2.
Using the theorems of Boolean algebra,
it can be seen that equation 2 can be
reduced to:
a = xz + y
This means that the circuit shown in Fig.
3 is equivalent to the one shown in Fig. 2.
Obviously, this is much simpler, and can
be done on only one IC.
Reduction of mathematical expressions
by Boolean algebra theorems is tedious
and often hit -and-miss. To alleviate the
problem, we turn to a tool that eliminates
much of the work.
The Karnaugh map
The Karnaugh map is simply a rearranged truth table that can readily give
valuable information for circuit design
and reduction. There are 2^ boxes in the
map, where n is the number of inputs to
the circuit. Each row and column is
example, the boxes where (x = 0, y = z
= 1) and (x = z = 0, y = I) are adjacent, and differ in coordinates in only the
z- input. This property also holds when
"wrapped- around," i.e., the top right hand box (x = z = 0, y = 1) is adjacent
to the top left -hand box (x = y = z = 0),
since they differ only in the y-bit of the
coordinate. The same holds true for vertical wrap-around. Two of these adjacent
boxes are said to form a -cube, since
there are 2' boxes in the cube.
Now refer to Fig. 5 -b. If we take two
adjacent boxes that contain a 1, for example (x= z = 1, y = 0) and (x = y = z
= 1), we find that the output of the
circuit must be a 1 whenever x = z = 1,
independent of the value of y. That is,
whenever xz is true, the equation is true.
Similarly, box (x = 0, y = z = 1) and
box (x = z = 0, y = 1) are adjacent and
contain ones, so we see that the output is
true whenever x = 0 and y = 1, independent of z. Thus, xy being true will cause
the equation to be true, or a 1 to be
output. Taking all combinations of two
adjacent boxes, both of which contain a 1,
the following equation is derived
a=
+
xz
-xy
+xy +yz +yz
which is equivalent to equation I, but is
obviously not reduced. The reason for
this is that several conditions for an
output have been duplicated by more
than one term of the equation. For example, if x = y = z = 1 is entered, the three
terms xy, xz and yz will all be true, causing the output to be true, but it is only
necessary to have one term true to cause
the output to be true. Thus, we have
redundant members in the equation. If
we take only three adjacent sets of boxes
to cover all the 1- outputs, we can obtain
the equation
a= xz
+-xy
xy
Now all the boxes containing a 1 have
been covered by at least one of the terms
of the equation, which means that the
equation is a true representation of the
truth table. But the equation is still not
completely simplified. If we look at the
1 -cube (two adjacent boxes) consisting of
(x= 0,y
1) and (x = z = 0, y =
=z=
x
y
z
COORDINATE
VALUE
a=xy+xz+y
o
o
o
0
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
2
o
4
o
3
o
o
o
5
o
6
7
00
o
2
1
0
0
4
1
5
0
1
10
11
01
0
3
1
7
1
6
1
b
1
FIG. 5-TRUTH TABLE for equation a = xy + xz
+ y is shown in a and resulting Karnaugh map
derived from the truth table is shown in b.
1), and the I -cube consisting of (x = y =
= 1) and (x = y = 1, z = 0), we see
z
that the output of the function is always
whenever y = 1, regardless of the value
of x or z. Thus, we have formed a 2 -cube
(22 boxes), and have found that y = 1
satisfies the conditions for generating a
logic -1 output for each of the four boxes.
Note that, in looking at the coordinates of
each of these boxes, y is the only coordinate that does not change, and is always 1.
We need now to cover only one more box
where a logic -1 output is to be generated,
1
a
b
C
FIG.
4- KARNAUGH MAPS are used to
shown in
a, 3 -input
circuit
is
simplify logic circuits. A Karnaugh map for
shown in b and a 4 -input circuit is shown in c.
a 2 -input
circuit is
www.americanradiohistory.com
box (x
=
z
=
1, y
= 0). To do this, we
1
i
a = y + xz
as our final equation, and implement it as
shown in Fig. 3.
When "d" (don't-care) outputs are
specified, these are included as 1- outputs
if it enables us to make larger cubes with
other 1- outputs, hence simplifying the
equation, or as 0- outputs if they are not
used in making larger cubes.
Even larger cubes may be found in
four -input functions. A 1 -cube is two
adjacent boxes containing either a or
"d "; a 2 -cube is two adjacent 1 -cubes
(i.e., a 2 X 2 box or 4 X 1 horizontal or
cd
00
ab
'
00
1
01
d../
1
vertical row); and a 3 -cube is two adjacent 2 -cubes (i.e., a 4 X 2 horizontal or
vertical box). If a map consists only of land d- labeled boxes, the function is always true, or a constant 1.
The step-by-step procedure for circuit
reduction, then, is as follows:
1) Draw the truth table, and fill in the
boxes of the Karnaugh map with a
1, 0 or d, using the inputs as coordinates and the outputs as box entries.
For example, see Figs. 6 -a and 6 -b.
2) Examine the map for any 3- cubes,
i.e., a 4 X 2 box containing no
zeroes. Don't forget to check for
possible wrap-around. In Fig. 6, a
3 -cube is formed by decimal coordinate boxes 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7
(see Fig. 4 -c). The coordinates abed
of these boxes are examined, and it
is found that b, c and d take on all
10
11
01
J
J
J
1
1
d
1J
d
1
0
o
o
o
o
OUTPUT
d
c
0
o
DECIMAL
o
o
d
2
o
d
4
1
5
3
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
1
o
1
o
o
1
6
d
7
1
8
0
s
0
1
10
1
o
11
0
o
12
d
13
o
14
o
o
4)
J
11
0
d
1
10
1
0
0
1
11
10
5)
a
00
ab
00
01
01
o
10
1
dV
1J
1J
dJ
11
1J
1J
1J
dJ
1J
0
o
0
1
J
7- KARNAUGH MAPS are reduced
by first
looking for a 3 -cube (a 4 X 2 box containing no
zeroes). When a 3 -cube is found, check the
individual boxes as shown in a Next, look for
2 -cubes and check these boxes as shown in b.
FIG.
3) Examine the map for any 2- cubes,
that is, any 2 X 2 or 4 X 1 box
containing no zeroes, and at least
one 1- labeled box not yet checked.
In our example, decimal boxes 5, 7,
13 and 15 form such a cube. Examining the binary coordinates of
these boxes, we find that b and d are
always 1, while a and c may take on
any value. Thus, our second term of
the equation is bd, giving f = á +
15
a
1
6)
d
J
This is the cube containing decimal
boxes 0, 2, 8 and 10. From the binary coordinates, we find b and d are
always 0, while a and c can take on
any value. Thus our next term for
an output of 1 is bd = 1, and our
function is now f= á +bd +bd.
Check off the boxes covered. The
map now looks like Fig. 7 -b.
Examine the map for any 1- cubes,
i.e., two adjacent boxes each containing a or a d that also contains
one 1- labeled box not checked.
Write down the nonvarying coordinates as a term of the function, and
check for more 1- cubes. No 1cubes remain in the example.
If any 1- labeled boxes remain unchecked, write down their coordinates as a term of the function. For
example, if the box with coordinates (a = 0, b = c = d = 1)
contained a 1 but was not yet
checked off, we would write the
coordinates as ábcd and insert it as a
term in the equation. At the completion of this step, all boxes with a
in them should be checked off.
By inspection, make sure no cube is
completely covered by other cubes.
Each cube, no matter what size,
must contain at least one 1- labeled
box not contained in any other
cube. If it does not, discard its
corresponding term from the equation.
OR all the terms derived above to
get the final reduced function. In
our example we get:
1
b
b
bd so far. Check off the boxes
covered by the second term. Check
for more 2- cubes. In the example,
we have another 2 -cube that is not
so obvious, due to wrap- around.
values (0 and 1) while a is always 0.
Thus, when a = 0, the output is
always independent of b, c and d,
so one term of the final equation is
Place a check in each of
simply
the boxes of this 3 -cube to indicate
that they have been covered. When
the coordinates of any of these boxes are input, the output will be 1
simply because á is 1. The map now
appears as in Fig. 7 -a.
could simply say we need xÿz to be true
for the output to be a logic 1, but we have
another adjacent 1- labeled box (x = y =
z = 1) and if we use this to form a 1cube, that term of the equation reduces to
xz, since a 1- output is independent of y if
x and z are 1. Thus, we obtain
7)
f= á +bd +bd
8) Feed each term into a NAND gate,
and feed the outputs of the NAND
gates to another NAND gate. The
circuit is complete. See Fig. 8 -a.
In searching for cubes to cover an
unchecked 1- labeled box, the largest possible cube should be chosen, even if it
covers other boxes already checked, so
that the number of inputs to each gate is
minimized.
Note that Fig. 8 -a has á as an input that
simply gets inverted before going to the
output gate. Instead of this, it would be
simpler to feed a directly to the output
gate, as in Fig. 8 -b. Also note that the
cd
00
ab
01
11
00
10
d
01
d
11
o
d
d
10
0
0
d
0
b
FIG. 6 -TO SIMPLIFY
logic circuit, first draw a
truth table that represents the circuit function
as shown in a Next, a Karnaugh map is derived
from the truth table as shown in b.
a
a
b
FIG. 8 -LOGIC CIRCUIT is derived from reduced Karnaugh map and is shown in a Inverter can be
eliminated as shown in b.
www.americanradiohistory.com
output of the pate fed by bd cannot be
used as input b d to the gate below it since
bd.
As was noted earlier, the Karnaugh
map method is too difficult beyond four
inputs. The designer has to start considering mirror- images, and mistakes are easily made. It also does not reduce the
circuit fully if multiple outputs are desired, as in a BCD to seven -segment
decoder. Fortunately, there is another
fairly simple method to use in these
cases.
Quine-McCluskey method
The Quine- McCluskey method works
on the same principle as the Karnaugh
map, but is performed in tabular form. As
an example of this method, we will construct a circuit to produce a 1-output,
called f, whenever a 2 -bit number A,
whose bits are designated as a, and a2, is
larger than a 2 -bit number B, whose bits
are b, and b2. The truth table for this
function is given in Fig. 9.
a,
a2
b,
b2
f
o
0
0
o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
FIG.
0
9- OUINE -McCLUSKEY
METHOD is used
circuit with four or more inputs must be
designed. First a truth table describing the
circuit function is generated as shown.
when
=
1
1
1
NO. OF 1 -BITS
1-BITS
INPUT
(DECIMAL
EQUIVALENT OF
a,
a2 b, b2)
4
1
8
2
9
12
3
13
14
10-ADJACENT
BOXES and cubes are
determined in a table generated from the truth
table shown in Fig. 9.
The Karnaugh map obviated adjacent
boxes and cubes. In the Q -M method, we
write down a table to help show adjacency
(see Fig. 10). The decimal value of each
set of inputs that will generate either a
1- or don't -care output is listed in ascending order in groups according to the
number of -bits in the input. For example, A = a,a2 = 10 and B = b,b2 = 01
produces a 1- output, and the number of
1
INPUT
4
8
1
9
2
12
a
NO. OF
FIG.
-bits in A and B is two, so a 9 (a,a2b,b2
1001) is placed in the 2 -bits group.
Within each group, the decimal inputs
are listed in ascending order. It can now
be seen that two inputs producing a 1output are adjacent, in the same sense as
in the Karnaugh map, if three conditions
are met:
1) The number of I -bits of each input
differs by exactly one.
2) The decimal input with the smaller
number of -bits must be smaller
than the input with the larger number of 1 -bits.
3) The difference of the two decimal
inputs must be a power of two.
According to condition 1, inputs listed
in the 3 -bit group can only be adjacent to
inputs in the 2 -bit or 4 -bit groups; inputs
in the 1 -bit group can only be adjacent to
inputs in the 0 -bit or 2 -bit groups, etc.
This is consistent with the definition of
adjacency being a difference in only one
bit of the input.
According to condition 2, the decimal
input 4 may be adjacent to decimal input
12, since 4, having fewer -bits than 12, is
smaller than 12. If, for example, the decimal input 3 produced a 1-output, it would
be placed in the 2 -bits group, but could
not be adjacent to 4, since it has more
-bits but is less than 4. This would cause
more than one bit in the input to be
different.
Condition 3 is obvious, since only one
input bit may differ for adjacency. If the
difference of the two numbers is not a
power of two, more than one bit differs.
1
3
13
14
1
-CUBES
4,12 (8)
8,9 (1)
8,12 (4)
9,13 (4)
12,13(1)
12,14(2)
FIG. 11- SIMPLIFICATION starts by listing the
1- cubes.
We now use these rules to make a third
column, consisting of a list of adjacent
boxes, or 1-cubes. We take the first input
number in the table, 4, and check it for
adjacency with the entries in the next bit
group. Box 4 is not adjacent to 9, since
the difference, 5, is not a power of two.
Box 4 is, however, adjacent to 12, since
the difference is 8, and 4 is less than 12.
Thus, we enter into the third column the
numbers 4 and 12 together, with their
NO. OF 1 -BITS
INPUT
1
4
8
2
9
12
3
13
14
difference in parentheses (see Fig. 11).
Since the inputs 4 and 12 have been
covered by a higher cube, we place a
check next to them in the column labeled
input.
The input 4 cannot be adjacent to any
other bit group, so we look at input 8. Box
8 is adjacent to 9, since the difference is a
power of two, so we enter the numbers
and difference as a -cube and place a
check next to the 8 and 9 inputs to indicate they have been covered by a higher
cube. Box 8 is also adjacent to box 12, so
we repeat the process for them. Since we
are through checking the -bit group, we
place a line under 8,12(4) in the -cube
column and start checking the 2 -bit
group. Box 9 is adjacent to box 13 but not
to box 14. Box 12 is also adjacent to box
13, as well as 14, and we are finished
creating 1- cubes. The I -cube column now
contains a list of all the possible 1 -cubes
that could be extracted from the Karnaugh map. Since all the inputs in the
input column have been checked off, they
are all contained in higher cubes.
We now have two groups of 1- cubes,
and use these to form 2-cubes. The same
conditions hold for forming adjacent
cubes, except now the numbers in parentheses must also match. Looking at the
first -cube entry, 4,12(8), we see that it
is not adjacent to any -cube in the
second group, since none have an 8 in
parentheses. Going to 8,9(1), we find an
entry, 12,13(1) in the second group that
has the same number in parentheses.
Since the difference of 8 and 12 (or 9 and
13) is also a power of two, and 8 is less
than 9 and in a lower group, we enter this
in the next column as a 2 -cube, and indicate both the first and second differences
in parentheses. The two entries that
formed this cube are checked, since they
are covered by the higher cube (see Fig.
1
1
1
1
1
12).
Another entry, 8,12(4), is adjacent to
the entry 9,13(4), so it is entered as a
2 -cube and the separate 1 -cubes are
checked. However, this is identical to the
previous 2 -cube and is thus stricken. No
further adjacency is found, and there are
no more groups to check for adjacency, so
the checking of the I -cube column is
complete.
We now go to the next column and
continue until no adjacencies are found.
The same rules are followed in each
column, checking each entry against each
continued on page 92
1
-CUBES
2 -CUBES
4,12(8)
8,9,12,13(1,4)
8,9(1)
(4)
9,13 (4)
8,12
12,13 (1)1/
12,14(2)
FIG. 12 -ALL 2 -CUBES are listed. Second 2 -cube is crossed off since it is covered by first entry.
www.americanradiohistory.com
REMOTE
TELEPHONE EARListen via Long Distance
of phone gadgets -the fourth
in a series
lets you monitor sounds in your home or office
when you call your telephone from a remote location.
This device
JULES H. GILDER
IN THE APRIL AND MAY 1977 AND MAY 1978
issues, we showed how to construct add on telephone accessories that let you turn
on and turn off various household appliances by remote control, build a hands off telephone amplifier and assemble an
autodialer and cassette interface that dialed authorities or neighbors in case of a
fire or intruders in your home.
If you were interested in these items,
you'll flip over the Remote Ear that lets
you dial your home phone and then listen
for the sound of running water or a radio
that was inadvertently left on. Or maybe
you just want to check your house and see
that everything is quiet and no one has
broken into it.
The Remote Ear is an adaptation of the
Teleswitch circuit (April 1977). It automatically connects a microphone and amplifier to the telephone so that you can
monitor a remote location. As you will
quickly see from the schematic, the Remote Ear uses the same type of signal
detectors as the Teleswitch. However,
instead of having controlled outlets to
turn devices on and off, the Remote Ear
has a small three-transistor amplifier connected to it.
This amplifier is identical to the one
described in the Speakerphone circuit
(May 1977). Its signal is very clear and
audible. The output of the amplifier,
which is located in the area that you want
to monitor, is fed to a small speaker that
is acoustically coupled to the telephone
mouthpiece.
Since it is unlikely that remote listening will be done for long periods of time,
the Remote Ear has a built -in timer that
allows you to listen for about three minutes. Longer or shorter listening times
can be set by adjusting the timing resistor
in the emitter circuit of unijunction transistor Q2.
About the circuit
and the unijunction
Sound switch
timer that is associated with it (Q1) are
the same as were used in the Teleswitch.
1
Sound switch 2, however, is slightly modified. Instead of having one relay connected to the 2N3904 collector, there are two
relays, RY2 and RY4.
The operation of the Remote Ear
involves several steps. When the telephone rings the first time, sound switch
triggers and causes RY1 to close. This
applies power to sound switch 2 and to
the two timing circuits consisting of unijunction transistors Q1 and Q2.
If the phone rings more than once,
within 20 seconds sound switch 2 triggers
and RY 2 closes. Contact RY2-1 disconnects the pówer from the first unijunction
transistor timing circuit and from sound
switch 1. This prevents the Remote Ear
from being activated and makes it necessary to wait three minutes before the next
1
attempt.
If, however, the phone rings only once,
there is enough time for a charge to build
up on CI and for Q1 to trigger, activating
RY3. When RY3 is activated it switches
the RY2 coil out of the control circuit of
sound switch 2 and replaces it with the
RY4 coil.
The first time the telephone rings only
once it arms the circuit. The next time
the telephone rings it turns on the listening circuitry. This is done by sound
switch 2 activating RY4, which, in turn,
controls the amplifier and the answering
solenoid.
Relay RY4 latches closed and is held in
that position until a reset pulse from
unijunction timer Q2 turns off the
2N3904 controlling RY2 and RY4 and
unlatches SCR2.
The telephone is actually answered by
a solenoid that pulls up when RY4 closes.
This releases the cradle switch and answers the phone. The handset of the telephone is placed on the table alongside the
telephone. The loudspeaker connected to
the output of the amplifier is held next to
the mouthpiece (rubber bands can be
used). Thus, the sound picked up by the
crystal microphone is amplified and
acoustically coupled to the telephone.
After three minutes, or whatever time
period you selected has elapsed, a reset
pulse is generated and the bases of the
control 2N3904's are brought to ground
potential, turning these transistors off
and unlatching the SCR's. The unit is
now ready for its next monitoring period.
Construction
This project is constructed from four
modular circuits. The first two circuits
are sound switches identical to those built
in the Teleswitch (April 1977). After the
sound switches are built, they should be
mounted in a metal chassis that is large
enough to be placed under the telephone.
A 5 X 9 X 2-inch aluminum chassis was
used for the prototype. A '/s -inch hole
should be drilled where each of the crystal microphones is mounted so that sound
will reach them more easily.
After the sound switch modules are
mounted, assemble the control module
using the circuit shown in the schematic.
The circuit can be fabricated by wiring
m
C)
m
m
m
(O
67
www.americanradiohistory.com
the components on perforated board or
you can design a printed circuit.
After the control module is completed,
mount the board, using spacers, at any
convenient spot under the chassis. The
only component left to be mounted is the
amplifier. The amplifier used here is
identical to the one used for the Speakerphone. Mount this module also on the
chassis, using spacers.
Once all four modules are mounted, do
the relays. Now connect all the wires
solenoid until the fully extended plunger
holds the cradle switch down. Attach the
solenoid to the wooden support with two
screws.
Now attach two conductors of conventional lamp cord to the two terminals on
the solenoid. Then, insulate these terminals with electrical tape. Bring the lamp
cord down the support, attaching it to the
wood in several places with staples. Be
careful that staples do not pierce the insulation of the wire, causing a short circuit.
o
RY2-2
1OUND
SWITCH
1
+
22K
^
0.1
33µF
12V+`
1N914
i,
100K
0.1
47052
33K
--1Nr-
47K
C
+
106Y
Cl
T
2N3904
DE
20SESEOELAY
10K
22K
v1h
MIKE
+
**
5NF
47052
i
MEG
3M1
802 SPEAKER
2
N.C.
RY2
12V
XTAL
3
VOLUME
10052
16V
®
XTAL
MIKE
1
100/
2N3055
2N3904
101
0.01
0UND SWITCH
5pF
2N3904
2N2646
106Y
4
4.7K
_
200K
1K
4700:#
MEG
Q1
C
o
RY4-1
1N914
RY3
12V
CC
1
O.
47052
2N3904
101
'
;
RY2-1
1N914
-I(+
MIKE
N.C.
12V
5K
XTAL
,
RY1
IOK
0
radio. Place the speaker next to the telephone mouthpiece.
Ask a friend to call and let the telephone ring several times. On the first
ring, RY1 should close. On the second
ring, RY2 should close, opening RY1.
After three minutes, a reset pulse from
Q2 should reset the lower SCR opening,
RY2.
After another three minutes have
passed and RY2 has reset, have your
friend call again, tell him to ring only
33µF
100K
1N914
I
0.1
SOLENOID*
o
4
N.O.
RY3-1
-45K
117VAC
2N3904
2
1N914
RY4
12V
o
o
RY4-2
tai
L
C
2N 3904
T001
106 Y
J
Fig.
from the modules and the relays that go
together directly to the positive side of
the supply. If an external battery is going
to be used to supply power, connect these
leads to a screw terminal that is insulated
from the chassis. If the power supply
described for the Teleswitch is used, connect the leads to the positive terminal of
the supply. Do the same for all ground
leads. Connect all remaining wires to
their proper locations.
Cut a piece of X 2 -inch wood to a
length of 10 inches. This will be used as a
vertical support for the solenoid that will
hold the phone in the unanswered position until the proper command signal is
given. To position the arm, place the telephone on top of the phone cradle where
the handset is normally placed. Mark the
spot, because that is where you want to
mount the arm, and mount the arm using
at least two screws. Next, place the sole noid on the inside of the arm and take the
handset off the telephone. Position the
1
t/
z
¢
Ú
w
Ó
cc
1
Bring the wire into the bottom portion of
the chassis through a grommet -lined hole
and attach one of the two strands to one
set of normally open contacts on RY4.
Attach another piece of single- conductor
lamp cord to the other contact of the set.
This wire, along with the unused wire
from the solenoid, will be connected to
the AC line.
Mount two miniature jacks to the chassis for the microphone and the speaker.
The speaker can be acoustically coupled
to the telephone by simply holding it next
to the telephone mouthpiece with a few
rubber bands. The microphone should be
located in the spot you want to monitor.
Installation and operation
Installing the Remote Ear simply requires placing the telephone on the chassis, removing the handset and allowing
the solenoid to hold the cradle switch
down. Now, place the microphone in the
room you want to monitor and turn on the
68
www.americanradiohistory.com
once, and then call back 20 seconds later.
On his second call, the phone should be
answered automatically after the first
ring. This is done by RY4, which becomes activated by sound switch 2 when
the phone rings the second time. Relay
RY4 closes the circuit to the solenoid and
causes it to lift up, releasing the cradle
switch of the telephone.
Relay RY4 was activated because after
20 seconds had elapsed, Q1 produced a
pulse that activated RY3 and switched
the power line from RY2 to RY4.
When the call is answered your friend
should hear the radio playing. If he does
not, check to make sure that the speaker
is properly placed next to the mouthpiece
of the telephone. Three minutes after the
first ring, Q2 generates a reset pulse and
releases RY4. This causes the solenoid to
drop and hang the phone up. Simultaneously, it opens the circuit to the amplifier. The Remote Ear is now ready to use
again.
R -E
We wrote the book (s)
RATIONAL
AMpt.tFlE
tNCTA "ENEF
8-
8C
I
DATA
Exar designs and manufactures linear integrated
circuits - custom, semicustom, and standards. We also
make digital IC's such as our Darlington array drivers,
and we are expert at putting both linear and digital
functions on the same chip. No wonder then that we
have innovated some of the most ingenuous IC's on
the market today and that we support our circuit
families with a set of invaluable "Data Books."
For example, the Exar Timer Data Book describes
our XR -2242 long -range timer, which provides delays
from microseconds to years, and our L-555 micropower timing circuit, capable of operating in remote
locations for up to 1500 hours on two tiny NiCd
batteries. Outstanding circuits like that, plus our
broad line, make Exar your first source for timers.
But that's just a sample. Check our Phase -Locked
Loop Data Book. This book is complete with PLL
fundamentals, application notes, selection hints, plus
specifications of some of the industry's most popular
circuits like the 567 and our own new XR -2212. See
why our PLL's may be the best in the industry.
The Exar Function Generator Data Book contains
equally essential information on a circuit family that
includes our XR-2206 with its outstanding stability
of 2Oppm /°C. The Exar Operational Amplifier Data
Book covers the full range of op -amps from the
standard 4558 all the way through the quad
programmable BIFETS.
Whether you have yet moved up to specifying Exar
circuits or not, you will find these new Exar Data
Books an invaluable reference source. To purchase
any of these technical Data Books and receive a free
copy of the Exar Product Guide, use the coupon
.
F
FHA
ASE.
r
Please send me copies of the
Exar Data Books indicated at
your list price of $1.75 each.
My check or money order is
enclosed.
Exar Timer Data
Book -48 pages
E Exar Function
Generator Data
Book -52 pages
Exar Phase -Locked
Loop Data Book74 pages
Exar Operational
Amplifier Data
Book -60 pages
Send all four data books at your special discount
price of S5.00.
Serd a free copy of your Product Guide.
Name
Title
Address
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state
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XIIEXAR
EXAR INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, INC., P.O. Box 62229,
Sunnyvale, California 94088
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Phone (408) 732 -7970
J
Advanced Electronic Career
ANNOUNCING
...ANew
CREI Program:
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Microprocessor
Technology
Including A
Microprocessor
Laboratory
The microprocessor has ushered in the
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will never again be the same. The microprocessor has made possible the placing
of an entire computer on a silicon chip
one quarter inch square. The microprocessor "miracle chip" is in the process of
changing the world. Soon all technical
personnel in electronics will have to understand and work with the microprocessor. It is invading virtually every area
of electronics. And it is profoundly affecting your electronics career.
Brand New
Program
CREI
has a brand new program to help
you learn how to work effectively with
this revolutionary electronics development. CREI's new program in Minicomputer and Microprocessor Technology is
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giving you the education and practical
experience you need.
The program provides solid preparation in electronics engineering technology with a specialization in minicomputers and microprocessors. In addition.
it includes a microprocessor laboratory
which features a fully programmable
microcomputer which utilizes the Motorola 6802 microprocessor chip. This
is an extremely important element of
your program.
Programming
Essential
ou mad well know. you must learn
how to program the microprocessor in
order to design. service or troubleshoot
microprocessor electronic systems.
There is only one effective way to learn
this all- important skill of programming.
and that is by actually doing it. CREI's
new program gives you this opportunity
as you work with the exciting microprocessor laboratory.
Programming
Is Easy
With CREI's new program. learning the
skill of programming is simple. Within a
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microprocessor and in a short time you'll
Now you can learn at home
the new technology that is
revolutionizing electronics
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learn how to program it in three languages: BASIC. assembly and machine
languages. In addition. you will learn
how to interface the microprocessor
with other systems and to test and debug
specialized programs.
Preparation at Home
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Please note, however, that CREI's new
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Program 68ü:
MINICOMPUTER &
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INCLI.DI :ÓR,AIORY PR7GRAM
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11911111111111011111
TANKS
arcade quality TV game
Part 2. The object is to use your cannon to destroy your
opponent first, but watch out for the land mines and
anti-tank barriers. The circuit provides a composite
video signal to your TV set and produces realistic sound
L. STEVEN CHEAIRS
LAST MONTH, WE PROVIDED THE COM-
plete schematic of the tank game and
discussed in detail the circuit operation.
This month, the article concludes with
the foil pattern, component placement
diagram and construction details.
Building the game
Before beginning construction, you
will need an etched and drilled PC board.
You can use the foil pattern in Fig. 4 or
purchase the board from the source listed
in the parts list. Begin by installing the
five jumpers on the drilled board (Fig. 5)
and then solder all resistors, capacitors
and IC sockets to the board. Next, solder
in the diodes, transistors and the regulator IC.
Before proceeding, connect a 12 -VAC
transformer to the AC input; connect a
DC voltmeter across the power -supply
pins of the game IC; pin 1 is ground and
pin 16 is +Va. Now, apply line power to
the transformer
volts should be indicated on the meter. If 7 volts is not shown
but some value close to it, then a new
value for R1 or R2 can be chosen by
trial- and -error. If the voltage is drastically different, then a circuit problem exists;
use normal troubleshooting techniques to
locate and repair the problem.
Next, install the CMOS IC's. Again
apply power; using an oscilloscope, adjust
-7
the amplitude of the clock at pin 19 of the
LSI IC. Remove the power source and
discharge the capacitor. Install the AY3- 8700-1 or AY- 3- 8710-1 IC; the circuit
board is now complete. Wire the external
components to the PC board (see Fig. 6)
and install the unit into a case. If an RF
modulator is used, it can be mounted in
the case with the PC board or inside the
TV set. One last note, the best results
were obtained from the prototype with
the TV set's contrast control turned up
and the brightness control turned to medium -low.
Special considerations
There are several considerations that
should be noted for the AY -3- 8700-1.
First, as the tanks rotate, the shape of
their images will vary. Next, the border
width will vary from integrated circuit to
integrated circuit. Also, the mines could
disappear upon interaction with the
tanks. When a score is recorded the black
tank rotates and the white does not. The
4- second delay makes this effect immaterial. If the tanks exit the screen area,
sometimes they will disappear and never
return.
For the AY-3- 8710-1, the following
considerations are important. Upon resetting of the game a random explosion may
occur (it may be visible below the bottom
www.americanradiohistory.com
border). Also, during the game the gun of
either tank may misfire; that is, shells
may explode in a spot where the player is
not aiming or the shell may not fire from
the tank. These do not affect the normal
events of the game.
It is possible for a tank to get trapped
in a border. When this happens, the game
is ended and the other tank is declared the
winner. If the barrier interaction switch is
4.6
NON-
I
COMP,
S
IDE
o
FIG. 4 -FOIL PATTERN for the battle game PC
board.
PARTS LIST
TD SPKR
All resistors are'/. watt,
R1 -180 ohms
R2 -510 ohms
R3 -470 ohms
R4 -1800 ohms
R5 -1000 ohms
R6 -270 ohms
f
-1/1014
,9
M0J
3012
XTAL
R7, R16, R19, R20, R23,
5 %.
R28- 10,000
ohms
1
R8 -1600 ohms
R9 -2400 ohms
6-
R10 -12 megohms
R11 -220 ohms
R12- 5000 -ohm, PC -type potentiometer
R13 -2.2 megohms
R14 -2200 ohms
R15, R21, R26 -20 megohms
R17, R22 -3.9 megohms
R18- 22,000
ohms
R27- 30,000
ohms
R24, R25 -10 megohms
R29 -15 ohms
C1, C2- 100µF, 50 -volt electrolytic
C3- 2.7 -µF tantalum
C4 -C6, C13, C14- 0.1 -µF disc
C7, C8 -30 -pF disc
C9, C10- 0.01 -µF disc
C11, C12 -0.22 µF
µF
C15, C16, C2O
C17 -0.47 µF
C18 -200 pF disc
C19- 100 -pF disc
C21- 220 -µF, 15 -volt electrolytic
D1- D1O- 1N4148 or similar
D11- D14- 1N4005 or similar
-5
Q1- Q3- 2N3904 or similar
IC1 -AY -3-8700 -1 or AY -3-8710 -1 LSI
game
5- COMPONENT
LAYOUT showing positions of all on -board parts. Switches, speaker and
power transformer are mounted in the case.
FIG.
IC2, IC3 -4001, CMOS quad NOR gates
IC4- 78M05,
5 -volt
regulator
J1- miniature open -circuit jack
S1 -S4 -SPDT
Ir+``-i-el+-+i+
4T1fT
J1
AC
IN
TO T
SECONDARY
47'
0 0 90 0
A
A
o
A
S2
S
LEFT
O
RIGHT
0
b"
lc
ó
S3
S4
LEFT
RIGHT
o
S5
FIRE
S7
S8
RESET
BARRIER
S6
FIRE
RIGHT PLAYER
(BLACK TANK)
LEFT PLAYER
(WHITE TANK)
TANK CONTROL:
A AND
B
AND
C
D
-
-
FORWARD MOTION
REVERSE MOTION
AND
C
A AND
D
B
-
LEFT TURN
RIGHT TURN
FIG. 6 -HOW SWITCHES ARE CONNECTED to the game IC on the board. Lower section of the
component side of board is shown for reference.
center -off,
momentary- contact toggle switches
S5 -S7 -SPST normally open pushbutton
switch
S8 -SPST switch
S9 -SPST toggle switch
T1- 12VAC, 1A secondary transformer
XTAL- 4.090900 -MHz crystal
ohms
SPKR
MISC. -12 X 7 X 3 -inch aluminum
chassis, line cord, hook -up wire, four
1'/2 -inch stand -off busings.
The following parts are available from
Questar Engineering Company,
McDonald Street, Mesa, AZ 85202:
PC board, $12.95; AY -3- 8700 -1 or
AY -3-8710 -1 (please specify), $29.00;
crystal, $5.50; set of all switches, $12.25.
Kit of all parts, $63.95.
-8
selected, the tank cannot drive through
barriers. If a tank gets trapped in a barrier, momentarily flip the barrier interaction switch to allow the tank to free itself.
Also, sometimes the tanks may get locked
together; the only way to separate them is
to reset the game. In playing both the
AY -3- 8700 -1 and AY- 8710 -1 games I
very seldom have problems of the type
outlined above. These special considerations are presented so that you know
what to do in case a problem is encounR -E
tered.
75
www.americanradiohistory.com
LHOBBY CORNER'
A look at some clever reader solutions to reader problems.
EARL "DOC" SAVAGE, K4SDS, HOBBY EDITOR
THE TIME HAS COME TO TRY TO CATCH UP
on some of the more interesting mail that
readers have been sending. I answer letters directly as much as possible, especially if an SASE is enclosed, but there just
isn't time to answer all of them. I'd like
now just to share some reader ideas with
you.
A reader in Puerto Rico makes the
point in his letter that he can find
published circuits to do everything he has
needed so far. These circuits can all be
found in manufacturers' data sheets, application notes and various magazines and
books. He then says that he would feel
pretty silly sending in a circuit obtained
from another source, and I agree with
him.
Well, it seems to me that although this
reader must have a tremendous collection
of well -filed and indexed publications
there is plenty yet to be discovered. There
are many new ways to do old things and
new applications for existing components
(IC's, etc.).
For example, the lowly 555 has been
around for several years now and I would
like to have just 1/1000th of a penny for
every word that has been written about it.
I doubt (although I'm not absolutely
sure) that there remains any undiscovered way to make the 555 function as a
timer. Quite probably, they all have been
discovered and discussed.
Yet, in spite of all that has been written, I am sure that many other applications for the 555 remain. Perhaps some
are being discovered right now. There are
ways to use the 555 that have not yet been
dreamed of.
I agree that we should keep up with
what is going on by buying all the magazines and books we can find or afford!
After all, there is no point in "re- inventing the wheel" every time we begin a
construction project. Someone is always
finding new and better ways of doing
things and we should be aware of them.
Recently, I received a letter describing
a fantastic reader -built project. There was
not a single new device in the project, but
the way some of them were used
WOW! I immediately sent the letter to
the editor of Radio-Electronics, and if
things go as planned, that article may
-
appear in Radio -Electronics.
So, keep on reading, learning, experimenting and building. There is plenty to
be discovered. Even if we don't find
anything new, though, trying is more fun
than anything else I can think of!
Rocket -launching circuit
A while back (July 1978) we discussed
several problems on which readers had
asked for help. Well, at least one of those
problems hit a nerve. Apparently there
are a number of model rocketry buffs or
rocketeers among us.
A reader asked for a rocket- launching
circuit, and it has been interesting to
observe the different approaches that
have been developed. Once again this
proves that there are many approaches to
solving a problem.
One of the best launching circuits was
sent in by Tim Coffman (Route 2, Box
448, Liberty, MO 64068). I have given
his full address because he wrote that he
would be glad to correspond with other
readers who are interested in model rocketry.
Unfortunately, there isn't enough
space to go into Tim's system in detail. In
brief, then, he uses eight IC's and two
7- segment digits to count down to 0, fire
the igniter and, finally, count up until
rocket touch -down to give the flight time.
Three of those IC's are used to detect the
0 count, reverse the counters and start the
firing. The timer is the ever-useful 555
operating at I Hz.
This rocket circuit is complete with
appropriate safety switches and LED status indicators. The count can be placed on
HOLD at any time, and the firing is done
through an SCR rather than a relay.
Altogether, it is a very straightforward
circuit.
I must admit I am not a rocketeer. I
have had a healthy respect for rockets
ever since I saw someone's hand badly
damaged by carelessly handled fuel. If
you are just starting this hobby, be very
careful to observe strict safety rules and
precautions.
More rockets
A further note about model rockets: I
received a letter and catalog from CNA,
www.americanradiohistory.com
Box 1252, Lewiston, ME 04240. This
company specializes in rocketry electronics with small and large launching sys-
tems and other devices. Company president Alfred Celetti recommends that
readers interested in model rockets and
electronics write the National Association of Rocketry, Box 275, New Providence, NJ 07974.
Super -simple oscillator
A Canadian reader, Guy Isabel, sent in
two useful circuits. One is an interesting
timer with no moving parts -not even a
pushbutton switch. The other is a neat
oscillator.
Guy's super-simple oscillator uses four
of the six gates in a 7404 hexadecimal
inverter plus one additional part (see Fig.
1). The output frequency is determined
by the value of the capacitor (which
should not be an electrolytic). As capacitor C is changed from 300 µF to 300 pF,
the frequency changes from 1 Hz to I
MHz.
C
> > >
7404
FIG.
1
This oscillator can be used to drive
LED's, counters, transistor switches, relays and so on. It could be used as a signal
source to test audio amplifiers and certain
receivers. In many circuits, it could replace a 555. Used with a switch and several capacitors, it could provide selectable
frequencies. And why not use a variable
capacitor from an old broadcast radio to
cover a range of frequencies?
In addition, Guy Isabel has offered to
help those who need circuits for special
applications. You can write him at 1725
East, Henri -Bourassa, Apt. 25, Montreal,
P. Q. H2C 1J5, Canada.
Low -voltage detector
Hobby Corner received an interesting
letter and circuit from Dave Corner of
Chicago. Figure 2 is a diagram of Dave's
low- voltage alarm circuit.
The values of R1, R2 and D1 are
selected for the voltage applied. Using a
12 -volt battery, R1 = 10K, R2 = 5.6K
and D1 is a 5 -volt Zener diode, or a string
of forward- biased silicon rectifiers equaling about 5 volts. Transistor Ql is a
general -purpose UJT (Unijunction Transistor), and Q2 is any small -signal or
switching NPN transistor.
47011
R2
82
2N2646
+o-
B1
0/
APPL /ED
VOLTAGE
-o-
.0/
types of solder cream, one an all- purpose
variety that can be used for many kinds of
metals, including stainless steel and silver. It can be used in the place of the
acid -flux solderwire that cannot be applied on electrical joints.
The third solder cream is a lead -free
cream composed of tin and silver. This
cream can be used on stainless steel, silver
and other metals; it is also nontoxic.
Solder cream is handy to have around.
If you can't obtain it from a local dealer,
write to Multicore Solders, Westbury,
R -E
NY 11590.
E
r 0/
5V
Stereo
Q2
Icon
10012
WE WANT
YOUR PROJECT
2N2222
6n
J
SPIC
FIG. 2
When this detector is connected across
the battery terminals, it draws little current and does not interfere with other
devices powered by the battery. If the
voltage drops below the trip voltage you
have selected with the R1 setting, the
speaker beeps a warning. The frequency
of the beeps is determined by the amount
of undervoltage.
If other voltages are being monitored,
select RI so that it draws only 1 mA or 2
mA (remember E = IR). Zener diode
D1 is about one -half of the desired trip
voltage, and R2 is selected to bias it at
about I mA.
Thanks, Dave, for sharing this useful
circuit with us.
Solder cream
Multicore Solders has a new line of
solder cream that comes in tubes like
toothpaste. This product doesn't even
look like solder, but it is and does a beautiful job.
The type of solder useful for your
projects is labeled "Ersin . . . for electrical soldering." All you do is squeeze a dab
onto a joint and apply heat. For small
joints that can't conduct the heat away so
fast, the heat source can be a candle,
match or cigarette lighter. On larger
joints, you should use an iron or torch.
The rosin flux is incorporated in the
cream along with the invisible solder. As
the cream is heated, it changes to solder
and then solidifies to make a good electrical and mechanical joint.
This solder cream is especially handy
for use in places that are hard to reach
with wire solder. For example, you can
coat the end of a wire with cream, insert it
into a pin like a phono plug or a PL -259,
and then just heat the outside of the pin.
It really simplifies the process.
I don't think solder cream will ever
replace regular solderwire, but it can
perform some jobs more conveniently.
Multicore also manufactures two other
.
Eleven Bands Per Channel
Extremelytow Noise& Distortion LED
Peak Indicators Center Detent ("flat")
sliders Built -in "record" Switching
As you have seen, Radio -Elec-
Line and Microphone Level Inputs /Outputs Fully Guaranteed Horizontal
Kit or Fully
or Vertical Cabinets
Assembled Plus Mtxh, Much More!
tronics regularly publishes construction articles covering all aspects of electronics. If you've just
completed an interesting project,
tell us about it. If we like it, we'll ask
you to become one of our authors
and prepare your project as an article. Even if you have never written
for a magazine before, this is an
opportunity to get your article published and to be paid for your
efforts.
Send your proposals to Larry
Steckler, Editor, Radio- Electronics, 200 Park Ave. South. New
York, NY 10003.
0
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www.americanradiohistory.com
77
rComiNfirizcilrne
look at
software required
8085 channel
analog signal monitor.
the
A
to control an eight
C. TITUS, P. RONY, D. LARSEN, and J. TITUS*
IN A PREVIOUS COLUMN, WE DESCRIBED
necessary for proper operation of the
system. It is assumed that the control
process is very simple, perhaps just sensing only upper and lower limits of the
analog signals.
The programmable timer within the
8155 generates an interrupt every 10 ms.
the needs of the 8085 control system and
the use of the I/O ports and programmable timer to form an eight channel
analog monitor. The necessary initialization of the I/O ports was also discussed.
Now we will discuss the software that is
RST75,
PUSHPSW
MVIA
/SAVE REG A & FLAGS
/CLEAR INTERRUPT FLAG
020
SIM
MVIA
/RE- ENABLE INTERRUPTS
013
SIM
LDA
/GET
#
OF LOOPS REMAINING
SEC
o
DCRA
or continue timing for another 1- second
interval. A read /write memory location,
SEC, is set aside that will be used to
count the 100, 10 -ms interrupts. Another
location will be required to contain the
number of seconds that must be delayed
between sampling. Since the thumb wheel- switch data will be entered in binary -coded decimal (BCD) format, you
have to decide whether it will be processed in binary or BCD format. We have
chosen to process it in BCD format to
eliminate a BCD -to- binary code conversion process.
A typical timer control subroutine is
shown in Fig. 1. Note that there are steps
in this subroutine that clear the RST 7.5
flag and then re- evaluate the RST 7.5
interrupt mask. The information stored in
location SEC and BCDTIM has also been
used.
/DECREMENT IT BY ONE
/SAVE IT
STA
SEC
RST75,
MAIN
PUSHPSW
0
PROG
JNZ
/IF NOT ZERO, DO ANOTHER LOOP
NOTYET
/THROUGH THE INTERRUPT
o
MVIA
/YES, IT'S ZERO, SO RESET THE SECOND
/COUNTER TO 100 (10 MSEC LOOPS)
144
STA
/STORE IT
SEC
0
LDA
BCDTIM
o
STC
CMC
ADI
STA
BCDTIM
/GET THE TIME
0
ADC,
NOP
/STEPS TO INPUT ADC VALUES
/SET THE CARRY FLAG
/COMPLEMENT IT TO CLEAR IT
/ADD 239 = DECIMAL 99
143
DAA
/DECIMAL ADJUST IT FOR A SUBTRACTION OF ONE
/OF ONE, AND THEN STORE IT
STA
BCDTIM
0
JNZ
/IF THE RESULT
NOTYET
/AGAIN
IS
NOT ZERO, LOOP THROUGH
PROCES
INXSP
INXSP
JMP
PRO CES
0
o
JMP
/ADC
IN
/INPUT THE BCD DATA FROM THE SWITCHES
201
STA
/UPDATE THE BCD TIME
BCDTIM
o
ADC,
NOTYET,
--i
SERVICE ROUTINE
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
POPPSW
/THE ADC SERVICE STEPS GO HERE
RET
/RETURN TO MAIN PROGRAM
/ETC.
/RESTORE REG A & FLAGS
FIG.
This article is reprinted courtesy American Laboratories. Dr. Rony, Department of Chemical
Engineering, and Mr. Larsen, Department of
Chemistry, are with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. Both Mr. J. Titus and Dr.
C. Titus are with Tychon, Inc.
1
Since the basic unit of time in this system
is a 1- second interval, 100 1- second interrupts must be counted before any action
can occur. When the 1-second point has
been reached, the program must check to
see if it must perform some other action,
78
www.americanradiohistory.com
FIG. 2
In our example, it can take up to about
200 µs to proceed through the steps
shown, leaving 9800 µs for the remaining
program steps. If a slow A/D converter is
used to acquire the eight samples, much
of the 9800 -µs period would be gone,
leaving little time in the interrupt-service
subroutine before the next 10 -ms interrupt occurs. If this happens, the interrupt- service subroutine is interrupted and
the computer becomes interrupt- bound.
Most A/D converters can perform conversions quickly so this will not be considered further.
We suggest that you acquire the analog
data in the subroutine and then proceed
to a data or control -processing section of
the program that is outside of the interrupt- service subroutine. The control or
processing of the program will be interrupted briefly every 10 ms, but it will
second to process the old
have up to
data. It has been assumed that the processing takes less than second. The software example in Fig. 2 shows how the
control processing software has been removed from the interrupt- service subroutine. There are other equally valid solutions to this problem. Remember, however, that when you do not intend to use a
return address on the stack, you must
increment the stack pointer twice to avoid
loading the stack with useless information.
This application does not use the serial in (SID) or serial -out (SOD) connections
on the 8085. These connections could be
used as a single line -control input and a
single line- control output, respectively.
They can also be used to serialize ASCII
characters for output or to parallel the
serial bit stream to reconstruct parallel
data bytes. Thus, a software UART could
R -E
be constructed very easily.
1
1
NOM CARD FOR 1802
continued from page 48
EF2, EF,, EF4). The flip -flop is reset
when the status /output register is read.
The only portion of the interface we
have not discussed is the clock a simple
400 -kHz RC oscillator operating between
+5 volts and -4 volts, and the hold/
reset circuits. The reset circuit is a TTL to-MOS voltage converter since the reset,
hold and oscillator pins are non -TTL
inputs. The reset must be held low for at
least eight oscillator periods as part of its
power -on sequence (8 oscillator periods
equals 20 µs). Thus, when the system is
powered -up as part of the initialization
routine, the reset is set for a minimum of
20 µs, during which time the input -ready
flip -flop is clocked three times. The first
two times it is set, write an 80HEx to the
input port to clear the flip -flop; this is
necessary because the hold is set each
time the output ready occurs. When the
third signal occurs, the NOM interface is
ready for its first instruction. If it is not
needed at this time, store a 40HEx in the
input port. The hold circuit is formed by
a TTL- to -MOS voltage converter driven
by a 2 -input OR gate.
continued next month
NLS LEADS AGAIN!!
MS-215
DUAL TRACE
INISCOPE
Have regular
medical check -ups.
American Heart Association
Were Fighting For Your
(
Life)
ANNUAL INDEX
JANUARY -DECEMBER
1978
To present the maximum number
of articles to our readers, we have
not published the Annual Index as
part of this issue. A 4 -page brochure containing this index is available for those who need one. To get
your free copy, send a stamped
self- addressed envelope (legal size)
to:
Radio -Electronics
Annual Index
45 East 17th Street
New York, NY 10003
Any requests postmarked on or
before February 28 are free. After
that date there is a 25d fee. Questions and comments about anything other than the Index that are
included with your request cannot
be handled. Send them separately
to our Editorial Offices.
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service c mit
Trouble with the color and how to localize the problem.
JACK DARR, SERVICE EDITOR
THERE ARE REALLY ONLY THREE COLOR
problems and they should be easy to
analyze. These are: no color at all, the
wrong color and the loss of color sync.
These problems originate in three separate circuits -the bandpass amplifier, the
3.58 -MHz reference oscillator and the
color AFPC (Automatic Frequency and
Phase Control) circuit. If you check a set
and a perfect black -and -white picture appears, this clears everything else in the
set!
A complete loss of color can be due to
several causes. First, a loss of the color
signal itself can be due to a dead 3.58 MHz oscillator, or to faults in the color killer circuit. To find out which circuit is
at fault, feed a color -bar signal into the
set and scope the bandpass- amplifier output signal. This signal is normally present
at the color control, but it will always
appear at the input to the demodulators.
If you see a normal "comb" pattern at the
right amplitude, the bandpass- amplifier
stage is working all right, as well as the
killer circuit.
Check for the oscillator signal with a
scope. This signal must be at the right
amplitude. If the oscillator isn't working,
there will be no color.
If you do not see the comb pattern at
the bandpass -amplifier output, check all
DC voltages, tubes /transistors and pay
special attention to the bias on the second
bandpass amplifer. This is where the killer bias is used. The DC voltage shown on
the service schematic are for no- signal
conditions, meaning no color.
The grid will be at a high negative
voltage (for a tube circuit; cutoff polarity
for a transistor). This voltage should drop
to a much lower value when a color signal
is fed in. Remember, this is just a plain IF
amplifier circuit! If necessary, you can
override the killer bias on the grid to
check whether the color signal goes
through. If so, check out the killer -bias
circuitry. This may mean bad diodes,
tubes, transistors, or just control misadjustment.
With reference to color alignment, the
key word is don't! If you must perform
alignment, do so only as a last resort and
only after finding definite clues that it is
needed. Use a sweep curve on your scope
to check for misalignment. This will give
you a definite clue. However, you should
remember that, unless it is very bad,
misalignment does not cause a complete
loss of color, nor will it ever cause a
sudden dropout of color. In most cases,
alignment is only needed because someone has tampered with the set. Check the
scope pattern. If the comb is flat on top
and the bars are clean and sharp, it is
probably not necessary to align. (Hint
with older scopes, for a clearer pattern
use a crystal- detector probe to trace the
-
signals through the bandpass -amplifier
stages.) With wideband scopes, use a low capacitance probe.
If the color oscillator doesn't function
at all, this causes a complete loss of color.
Some Service Clinic readers write: "My
color bars are bluish and greenish, but I
can't get any reds!" In quite a few sets,
this is because of a dead oscillator. The
weak tints observed are because enough
of the signal burst leaks through to make
the demodulators try to work. The color
burst phase is between blue and green.
(By the way, this usually means that the
demodulators are working!)
The 3.58 -MHz signal is critical. A
phase shift of only one -sixteenth of onecycle causes blue to change to green, etc.!
A working oscillator /AFPC circuit holds
the frequency so steadily that this shift
seldom occurs. For a network program, a
frequency counter on this oscillator
should read 3,579,545 Hz. (This frequency is generated by networks using atomic
clocks, rubidium and caesium.)
A defective crystal changes the frequency. So far, I have not yet discovered
a set that has a dead oscillator due to a
bad crystal. If the crystal is just a little
off- frequency, the oscillator tends to pull
against the AFPC circuit control signal.
This makes the color -sync extremely sensitive and prone to fall out with interruptions.
There are two types of oscillator circuits. One is a Pierce oscillator circuit.
The crystal controls the frequency, which,
in turn, is controlled by the signal burst
through the AFPC circuit. Don't be
afraid of the AFPC circuit
basically
resembles any horizontal AFC circuit!
The oscillator frequency is controlled by
a DC voltage developed across a diode
pair. To adjust this, kill the AFPC circuit
-it
www.americanradiohistory.com
so that the oscillator works independently. Now, adjust the reactance coil, etc.,
until the colors lock in momentarily. Tak-
ing the shunt off the AFPC circuit should
lock the color in firmly. If the color falls
out of sync, the AFPC circuit isn't oper-
ating.
There is one obscure external cause for
color -sync problems. This is the horizontal oscillator automatic frequency control. In many older sets, this control held
the picture in sync over a considerable
range. However, at the ends of the control
range, the color changed hue and fell out.
This was due to the change in phase of
the pulse from the flyback used to gate out the burst signal. Changing the phase
of this pulse far enough results in no
signal burst or a very weak burst. Make
sure that the horizontal -hold control is
centered in its range.
The other type of color oscillator circuit is actually a burst amplifier. This
circuit picks off the burst signal and feeds
it to a sharp filter, usually a crystal. This
causes the crystal to ring; this ring lasts
long enough for the next burst signal to
arrive. It therefore develops a continuous
output that is actually the network signal
burst itself. If the gating pulse is out of
phase, the burst will not be strong enough
to make the circuit work.
In circuits with a reactance -tube
AFPC control, this control is actually a
voltage -controlled oscillator (VCO). The
AFPC diodes develop a small DC- control
voltage by comparing the signal burst to
the oscillator frequency, similar to horizontal AFC. In many sets, there should
be zero voltage on the grid of the reactance tube with the oscillator locked on.
(In some, this voltage is offset. Make sure
to check the schematic voltage values.)
Typical voltage values might range from
+5 to
-5.
If you run into one with tricky color
sync, check to make sure that this voltage
"crosses zero" to about the same voltages.
This is actually just like any FM discriminator, which it is. Its output signal is an
S -curve. If the crystal is just slightly off,
you'll probably discover that the grid
voltage is either a positive or a negative
voltage, but it will not cross zero. It will
come down to zero perhaps, and then
return in the same polarity. Try a new
crystal to see if you can obtain a zero
crossing and lock in at 0 volt.
All TV set service data includes com-
plete instructions for making color -setup
tests, alignment tests and so on. Follow
these instructions to the letter. Watch out
for deviations; some instructions are different. The tests are usually quite simple;
in most, the only instrument you need is a
DC voltmeter. Watch the screen to observe what's happening. Color troubles
can be easy to troubleshoot if they are
approached methodically and logically,
one step at a time.
R -E
Accuracy like
For
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questions
VERTICAL PROBLEM
David Day, of Flori -Day Electronics,
Apalachicola, FL, sends these tips along.
(He had two Zenith model 14B38Z chassis, both with automatic -gain control
(AGC) problems. I suggested some possible cures, including replacing the VDR in
VTVM...
Convenience like a VOM...
USE
ZIP
CODE
on
the AGC circuit.)
"Here's some feedback for you! I
changed the VDR's on both chassis. This
didn't help, so I started on the first chassis. I checked all DC voltages around the
AGC tube, and found that the voltage on
pin 5 of the 8BA11 was only -4 instead
of -11. You also suggested tracing the
circuit and following it back to the
continued on page 82
all
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SERVICE QUESTIONS
continued from page 81
21HB5 horizontal-output grid. When I
did this, the bias on the 21HB5 was only
-20 volts or so! (I found that I could
clamp the pin 5 voltage to -11 and the
picture and sound were good.) Why was
the voltage so low? Was there leakage in
the capacitor? When I checked, capacitor
C65 was leaky. I replaced it and bingo!
Button this one up.
The second chassis went white in a few
minutes and then lost the horizontal drive
completely. I followed same circuit; same
problem, only heat-sensitive. I replaced
C65; no luck. I replaced C66; no luck.
Although the 21HB5 tube had been
checked and showed good, I didn't
change it because I didn't have a new one
at the time. So I replaced the 21HB5.
Hallelujah! Now the grid bias holds steady at -39 volts, which it should. It
wouldn't do this before. So much for
AGC problems (which aren't)!
(Congratulations on the persistence
and perspicacity, Dave! We have run into
quite a few oddball problems like this in
horizontal- output tubes in the past few
years. In general, it's a good idea to try a
new tube and see if this clears the problem. The cause seems to be excessive grid
emission (although this is only my opinion). In this case, the analysis became
complex until we traced down the source
of the negative voltage used to bias the
AGC tube. This is a mildly unusual
circuit, although quite workable if everything is in good shape.)
FUSE BLOWS VERY FAST
The main power -supply fuse blows very
quickly in this Truetone model GEC 4316B. I've checked everything without
result! I replaced a few parts, including
the horizontal output transistor; no luck.
It looks simple but isn't! -D. M., Brunswick, GA.
Here's my favorite remedy: Hook the
set up to a variable voltage transformer
(variac). Connect an AC ammeter across
the empty fuse holder. (If you don't own
an AC ammeter, hook up a 0.5 -amp pilot
light across the fuse holder.) Turn the
line voltage up very slowly until you
notice just a small current flow, or until
the bulb lights up a little.
Check the DC power -supply voltages
at a point where there should be voltage
but it's missing. This solid -state power
supply starts to conduct at a very low
voltage, which allows you to get data
without excessive smoke!
HEATER CIRCUIT OUT
Have I got problems in this Philco model 4C4901 The high voltage is 28 kV,
there's good sound, the dial lights work,
but there's no raster because the picture
tube heater is dead! The heater is not
continued on page 84
Personal Computers
& Microprocessing
Design of
Digital Syst
Here are two inexpensive programmed
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Book 2
Design of Digital Systems
six volumes
The products of digital electronics technology will play an important role in your
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CONTENTS
The contents of Design of Digital Systems
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Book 1: Octal, hexadecimal and binary
number systems; representation of negative
numbers; complementary systems; binary
mulitplication and division.
Book 2: OR and AND functions; logic
gates; NOT, exclusive -OR, NAND,NOR and
exclusive - NOR functions; multiple input
gates; truth tables; DeMorgan's Laws; canonical forms; logic conventions; Karnaugh mapping; three -state and wired logic.
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Digital Computer Logic
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CONTENTS
Digital Computer Logic and Electronics is
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Contents include: Binary, octal and decimal
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half- adders.
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SERVICE QUESTIONS
continued from page 82
open. Also, D101 was bad. I replaced it,
but the new one lasts about 5 or 6
seconds and then shorts. Helpl-D. W.,
Feeding Hills, MA.
The picture tube heater circuit in this
set uses an instant -on transformer that
places 5.0 volts on the tube heater. When
you turn the switch on, the primary of
this transformer is shorted out. In operation, the picture tube heater is fed from a
winding on the flyback circuit. (This
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volts P -P, which is equal in heating effect
to the normal 6 VAC 60 -Hz pulse.)
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recommended in the parts list -RCA
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FR
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INSULATED
11
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10
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40
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fata W.
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35 CLOSED END
QUANTITIES IN SOLD TYPE
gag
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tap
a.
steppn0
The hardware
cos around
would retail prices!
$100 Price it out
3
Wre
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3
ALLIGATOR CUPS
215 SPADE TERMINALS
NOtiNSUJJED
o
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No more high prices!
No more less- than -professional
repair jobs!
No more frustrating searches for the
right piece of electrical hardware!
No more time -consuming soldering!
No more Saturday- morning trips to
the hardware or electrical supply store!
To Order -24 -hour Phone Service: Send check, money order.
No more
or company purchase order for full amount. Or charge it to anyone
of 5 major credit cards (see Order Coupon¿. Credit card buyers
can also call our 24 hour. toll -free number. 800- 247 -2160 (in Iowa
Stailey, Industri
"Jotmaster"
A
1-800-362-286G).
crimper at
our vvlolese'e
cost!
r
-I UNCONDITIONAL 30-DAY GUARANTEE
12243
Mail to and make remittance payable to:
D.R.I. Industries, Inc., Dept. RE -128
6864 Washington Avenue South Eden Prairie MN 5534
Limit One crimper per shop.
Crimpers not sold separately.
All high -quality, 99% conductivity, plated copper terminals and connectors.
Meet or exceed UL, CSA, and (where applicable) OEM standards. Not inexpensive "stamped- out-tin" hardware. No "seconds" or "rejects." All high -quality!
Indicate
Order:
Hew ma "Y'
HpW m8 "Y'
()
Check
Method
of Payment:
Truly $100 worth of hardware alone! Check out prices yourself ... you'll be
amazed!
I. Industries. Inc.. Eden Prairie. MN
."WORKSHOPS" and the
"ElectricaI Terminal 8 Connector Shop" are trademarks of D R Industr,es In.:
O 1978 D R
I
MAG -1
& Connecter Shop(s) @ $29.95
plus $3.90 shipping and handling each.
Stanley Crimper(s) @ $2.99 plus 756 shipping and
handling each. (Limit: one per Shop purchased.)
Check, money order, or company purchase order
enclosed (MN residents add 4% sales tax).
Charge it to:
VISA,BankAmencard
Maste- Charge
E American Express
Diners Club
Unconditional 30 -Day Guarantee: If you're dissatisfied in any way or for any
reason, just return your Shop(s) within 30 days for an immediate, full refund.
No questions asked!
Exactly what you receive. One 25 -tray, polystyrene bin -cabinet (tray dividers
form 45 bins). 1,012 terminals, connectors, and electrical accessories. 25 preprinted, color -coded I.D. labels. One FREE Specifications Chart.
Electrical Terminal
Carte Blanche
CARD EXP DATE
CARD NO
SIGNATURE
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
D.R.I. Industries, Inc., 6864 Washington Ave. So., Eden Prairie, MN 55344 L
STATE
ZIP
85
www.americanradiohistory.com
HICKOK
PHILIPS
FLUKE
Non -Linear Systems
DIGITAL MULTIMETERS
8020A
26 Ranges
-5 Functions
plus New Conductance Function for up to
10.000 M,, Leakage Measurements
Extensive Overload and Transient Protection
Rugged Construction -1 Year Warranty
Hi /Lo Power Ohms for In- circuit Resistance and Diode Testing
10 M:: AC /DC Input Impedance Doesn't Load Circuit
200 Hour, gV- Battery Life -Low Battery Indicator
Large LCD Readout -2000 Counts
1 Year Calibration
Cycle-Only 3 Adjustments
Cne Hand Operation
Completewith Battery aqd Test Leads
1L
C- Meter:
MODEL 130
Measures AC /DC Volts. Current and ReslstanraTrue RMS on all AC Functions
Diode Test
In- Circuit Resistance Measuremenl
Overload Protection on an Functions
F uncliocal Sell Check
precision, autoranging,
capacitance meter
A
15e 842.150
8010A
Joeret
Ns
io
oast,. wth rho
peen
rang are a
tally le( red hum lull .rate
value of 200 poolaralds lo 200.000 n ',,farads. with
a mar/mum revolution of 0.1 pit ufarads10
Mwins
teste
The
I
(- "trier
,rads .roll
larads.
tr
,
0.1".,1_1 (00011 up to 200 mn ro
ons 200 mn rotarads In 200.000 mnrn-
want on all ranges at
Ir
Long te rm
a1'
I,a
ä175.11
min alun. from
Ir
warm.
seem
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onnem
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ar
MT0I0M
BASIC
SPECIFICATIONS
Auloranging
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usen m
ensient prO 'e
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8010A
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New Low Distortion Function Generator
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MODE(
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ie¡or
Regular price $175.
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10
:»:r° m...a,amenr sNx
on°.awa.erv
115
rW
ar
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i!ular price
...45O.
FLUKE
LEADER
Instr urne nts C oc to
MULTIFUNCTION COUNTERS
LCR -740
DISTINCTIVE PERFORMANCE FEATURES YOU CAN USE
Transistorized LCR Bridge
The 1910A, 1911A And 19120 Family
Precise. rapid dilerminat,nn .n trryne v. pend anJ prmd urn tg, coupled with Media ,upuhilin'. up,
sent superior mrsutility u,,,/ ryCnnnnanre in the Fl,,I, 191ri-f 1911.4 and 1912.4 nlultirouniers. Hera' are the
features and I.'o,filo that drabnguish theta hard t,,,kits enamels from all others in their price range.
Multifunction
Aut,,,ange
Full.wemmOam c .m,PI, n, ,,,d h,
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wall,
Ii4M I¡xma
mammon 1-Aem readout
1m MIAs Ms, me wok ta t,wm,es
owing meth mar nun nwanum
!:,s1N,(IV10Ar.'!.
MIIrmI1YI 1A1. and 5'2n 51Ha Ngl'2AM1
5101.
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lnd
..Ilh monitor, IM nnn,1 Mid sn
tuto ,idwl ws,
nnvrlhnsMalnfllw nutter ,mml
The
Sensitivity
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gm, gam
costs,
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15
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or
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01
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SPECIFICATIONS
Input Lharxteristita
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NT,mihe iPWMel nhnm
naNe.
eme v
magi readings
Rite
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IW MHz
25mV ow. IWMW
1[5Mlh
15
mV rms.
s
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15
SW-1WMHi
2.5mVmu. 1W MHz
1T5
Autorrk'et
.
nos
hhn
IomrMn
Ir> Ih, , M ì
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Regular pries $319.
LCG -395
SOLID STATE
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SIGNAL SOURCE
a
ut', w
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.
h1.
-
Input Signal Conditioning
w!
Automatic Clean Dmpoue
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Highly accurate 3 digit readout.
Measures Inductance ILI, Capacitance IC) and
Resistance IR). within .O 5 °. accuracy.
Range expandable built -in 10% over range.
Loss Factor scale ID).
Battery. or AC adapter operation
.r
r
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s,n. mxI
w45-1 a new
neon low
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.rwl r,l1enerrvs
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ml
125
MH:
1910A $395
zsB
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1911A $495
520
MH:
1912A $620
W Mw
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15m5'raw
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IFLLIKEI
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5 He
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I1MHa
z
M14
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LEADER
instromantaCorn
Pos. °, staircase. window
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Molt, purpose applications for CATO.
MATV. CCTV. VTR and NTSC testing.
Segment display Information provides data
details for every color check requirement.
Exclusive convergence check facility gives
n: t and ve,f'l lines and dots me. SO%
safety margin
5. step staircase signaller checking
modulation levels to 20% segments Iron
O (black) to 100% (sonnet.
Window and noiseless white raster position.
10 gated rainbows. plus 3 gated cotir bars:
plus overall rain.. pattern
Return trace blanking for von hall signals.
2 switch selectable RF chan. frequencies.
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Regular
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TRIPLETT
DATA PRECISION
VIZ
Dual-Trace 5" 30MHz Triggered Scope...
LBO -520
30MHz, Fixed Delay
MODEL
1474
Insti uments Corp.
Dua trace, 30MHz bandwidth.
Vertical Sensitivity.
Feral delay facilitates hi -speed reading: of the eading
edg. of a pulse or pulse train.
Add subtract. alternate selection, chopoed andfront
panel X-Y modes broaden areas of appica i.n.
TV
and TV -H sync. for both CH -162.
5m'cm
-'
Probes not included
in
Regular price
$l
,C
50.
price
LBO -508
20MHz, Dual Trace
Model 517
Dual -Trace
15 MHz
Triggered
Snotrtenente Corp.
Oscilloscope
HICKOK
Regular price $695.
Opal
m':a«ï
u. e.cxw
w«
.°
«
ioIc.os.
m«...
ó°ó
Add. = ubtract modes on CH -1 6 CH -2 faáliteta easy
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dictation 6 noise cancelling.
Frontpanel X-Y operation useful for phase skit
meas.rring. sweep alignment vector scope se rice.
17.5reec rise time.
Automatic chop and alternate selection brlcorasd
high fequency checks.
Automatic trigger for CH -1 or2 includes TV 5 -rc.
10m\ to2OV /cm Vertical Sensitivity, 11 :taps
TV ynC
"''ä:M`°Y:$ó:
built in
i
_iñ ñ.nne. n n..°.uiip: om iós é Iss.xu
Resiular price $^6E.
0 5p15/cm to 200mS /cm sweep speed: i n steps:
55 magnification.
E°m°mr::
SUPER
3 -1/2 Digit DMM with .5% Accuracy
SPECIALS
Shipping not inc lud,.d in
pries
Sul
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IN,. 31, 1i-; n
New 15MHz portable 3" dual-trace scope
5MHz Solid State 3' Oscilloscope
1403A
Regular price $130.
w,.« .co..rv
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95 Regular price $780.
:#1( PRECISION
mw.HUr.°i
«,ryx«i
rem
Re;ular price $250.
we Wm;
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New
ManNew
Computerized
Weather Monitor
If you need weather information for ANY
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Digital Readout Car
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Superb features,
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Low -cost microprocessor -controlled line
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VF -2031 a
terrific
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r
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,
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Noy Noy
Battery- Operated
Portable Timing Light
Operates on its own rechargeable batteries
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on boats or other vehicles where
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pistol grip, extra -bright xenon tube
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Low -Cost
Dual -Trace
Oscilloscope
Low -priced
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ARIZONA - Phoenix, 85017, 2727 W. Indian School Rd.
KENTUCKY - Louisville, 40243,
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Designing Digital Circuits
Continued from page 66
entry in the group below it, seeing if the
differences in parentheses are the same
(though they may be in any order), and
seeing if the difference of the first numbers is a power of two. Indicate the end of
the check of each group by a horizontal
line in the next column, to show a new
group there.
We now have a list of cubes that cover
the 1- output boxes, similar to the cover
created in the Karnaugh map. However,
using the Karnaugh map, one can visually
inspect to obtain the largest cubes to
cover each 1- labeled box. This is not the
case using the Q-M method, so a "cover
map" must be drawn. On this map, we
draw vertically the decimal equivalents of
the cubes that are left unchecked in Fig.
12, and draw horizontally the decimal
equivalent of each input that is to produce
a I (but not a don't -care) output (see Fig.
13). A check is now placed in each box of
4
address
8
9
12
13
14
4,12
city
state
zip
12,14
check, choose the largest possible cubes
to cover the most unchecked columns. In
this manner, the function will be completely reduced. In any case, all columns
must have a check above them when
done, so that all output situations are
covered. Any rows that do not have a
check beside them are eliminated.
The remaining rows (those with a
check to the left of them) then correspond to the inputs to each of the gates.
To determine the inputs, the decimal
numbers in the labels of each row are
written in binary, and the input bits that
do not change between the numbers are
the inputs to the gate. For example, Fig.
15 illustrates that for row 8,9,12,13, bit a,
a1
a2
b1
b2
8
1
0
0
0
9
1
0
0
1
12
1
1
0
0
13
1
1
0
1
FIG. 15 -TRUTH
TABLE of final function is
shown.
must always be on, and bit b, must always
be off, while a2 and b2 may be either 0 or
1, to generate a 1- output for this term of
the expression. Thus, the output is if
= 1. Similarly, row 4,12 indicates a
I- output if a2b,b2 = 1, and row 12,14
indicates a output if a,a2b2 = 1. Our
final function is thus:
1
BMA
ELECTRONICS
.
DEPT.
8, 9,12,13
R
1020 W. WILSHIRE BLVD.. OKLAHOMA CITY.
OK
73116
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Put Professional Knowledge and a
COLLEGE DEGREE
in your Electronics Career through
FIG. 13-COVER MAP is obtained by list ng the
decimal equivalents of the unchecked cubes
from Fig. 12.
the table under the column that is covered by a given row, i.e., the row labeled
4,12 has a check in columns 4 and 12.
Now we look at each column to see
which rows are needed. We see that the
column labeled 4 has only one check, in
row 4,12. Thus row 4,12 (i.e., the term
corresponding to -cube 4,12, as in the
Karnaugh map) is essential to obtain an
output of when 4 is input, so we place a
check by row 4,12. We then place a check
above the columns numbered 4 and 12 to
indicate that these have been covered.
Column 8 has only one check, indicating
row 8,9,12,13 is essential. A check is
placed by this row and above columns 8,
9, 12 and 13. The only uncovered column
is 14, which can only be covered by row
12,14. That row and column 14 are
checked. The map now appears as shown
1
f = a, b, + a2b,1 b2 + a,a2b2
This function is implemented as shown in
Fig. 16.
a,
h1
a2
f
- A>B
b2
1
1
Earn Your
DEGREE
by correspondence, while continuing your
present job. No commuting to class. Study
at your own pace. Learn from complete and
explicit lesson materials, with additional
assistance from our home -study instructors.
Advance as fast as you wish, but take all the
time you need to master each topic. Profit
from, and enjoy, the advantages of directed
but self-paced home study.
The Grantham electronics degree program begins with basics, leads first to the
A.S.E.T. degree, and then to the B.S.E.E.
degree. Our free bulletin gives complete
details of the program itself, the degrees
awarded, the requirements for each degree,
and how to enroll. Write for Bulletin R -79,
Grantham College of Engineering
2000 Stoner Avenue
P. O. Box 25992
Los Angeles, CA 90025
92
Worldwide Career Training thru Home Study
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a1
a2
b2
FIG. 16 -LOGIC CIRCUIT implementation of
truth table shown in Fig. 15.
Next month we will discuss multiple output functions and sequential circuits
along with cover maps and truth and state
tables used in digital circuit design. R -E
in Fig. 14.
4
8
9
12
13
14
4,12
12,14
v8,9,12,13
14- ESSENTIAL ROWS are determined
and then confirmed by placing a check next to
them.
FIG.
All columns with only one check in
them should be handled first in this
manner. For the remaining unchecked
columns with more than one table entry
www.americanradiohistory.com
"Don't let on you know -but actually it's just a
simple project requiring the plugging of a few units
into a prewired PC board."
SPEAKER CABLES
continued from page 62
patches, etc., because they deteriorate the
quality of the audio signal. M & K claims
its cable has an inductance that is 12
times lower than No. 12 zip cord and
comparable resistance.
The Fulton cable uses silver -plated
wire; the tips are finished off in spade
lugs; 30 -foot sections of No. 16 wire cost
$1.34 -per -foot; and No. 12 cable costs
$2.60 - per -foot.
How
do you really use a
multimeter?
FIG. 6 -POLK AUDIO SPEAKER CABLE consists of 144 strands of low- resistance wire
braided into two sets of conductors at right
angles to each other.
FIG. 7 -AUDIO SOURCE's High
Definition cable, with 10 -ohm impedance, has 10 pairs of
braided wire, connected in parallel and with
special tips.
The Polk cable comes in a round
version (see Fig. 6) at $1.34- per -foot; in
four different lengths, up to 50 feet; and
is claimed to have a characteristic 9 -ohm
impedance. The Polk cable consists of
144 strands of separately insulated, low resistance wire braided into two sets of
conductors that constantly lie at right
angles to each other to avoid inductance.
All the braided cables are arranged this
way because it is claimed that this eliminates interference between the adjoining
magnetic fields, thus minimizing selfinductance. In addition, the two polarities
are brought as close as possible to each
other to insure minimal and correct characteristic impedance.
The Mogami cable's stacked arrangement has an inner core of nonconductive
material for spacing and extra strength; a
final conductor layer has 60 strands of
wire about equal to No. 11; a layer of
insulation made of tough synthetic material; and another conductor layer wound
continued on page 102
Usually at your bench, in the shop,
shared with others. And, if it's a Fluke
multimeter, you use it with confidence.
Now you can carry that same bench
precision on the job. Introducing the
new Fluke 8020A DMM for only $169.
This rugged beauty packs more field valuable features than any other DMM
available, at any price. And that means
field versatility when you need it most.
The 8020A has six resistance ranges,
including a 20 megohm range for those
special high-resistance TV components.
Plus, you can measure focus dividers,
pcb and capacitor leakage clear up to
10,000 megohms with the new conductance function. And conductance allows
you to measure transistor beta- unique
with the 8020A.
Ever damaged your meter in the flyback circuit? Rest easy. The 8020A is
MOV- protected to 6000V against hidden spikes and transients.
Your 8020A comes with a full -year
warranty, with worldwide service backup. Regardless of what happens to it,
we'll fix it inexpensively and quickly,
making the 8020A a truly cost- effective
investment.
Call (800) 426- 0361*, toll free. We'll
tell you the location of the closest Fluke
office or distributor for the best value
in DMMs around.
Price U.S. only.
*Alaska, Hawaii and Washington
residents please call (206) 774 -2481.
-
The DMM for Home Electronics Experts.
2507 7207
FLUKE
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THE COUNTERS
YOU REALLY
wahr
new produces
More information on new products is available from
manufacturers of items identified by a Free Information
number. Free Information Card is inside back cover.
DIP SOCKET low- profile unassembled Molex
sockets available in 14 -pin and 16 -pin versions.
IC DIP sockets come in display card package
containing four terminal carrier strips and four IC
nests. When assembled, components form two
complete DIP sockets whose terminals are made
of 70/30 spring- tempered tin -plated brass. Assembly instructions are given on the back of the
image rejection -50 dB (VHF) and 40 dB (UHF');
input impedance -75 ohms; tuner frequency
bands -55.25 to 83.25 MHz, 175.25 to 211.25
AT AFFORDABLE
PRICES.
A Model
for every need.
MODEL 380.
1
Hz to 80 MHz, 10 ppm
MODEL 380X.
1
Hz to 80 MHz. 1ppm
MODEL 385.
1
Hz to 512 MHz, lOpprn
MODEL 385X.
1
Hz to 512 MHz, 1ppm
$209
$269
$419
$499
Perfect for communications. CB,
audio, TV and digital work. servicing and laboratory applications.
All 4 field -proven models feature
full 7 -digit display with automatic
decimal and full autoranging. Our
exclusive SPEED READ mode provides fast update (5 /sec) time for
easy tuning and adjusting.
Handsome, rugged metal case
with brushed aluminum panel
including all -angle tilt stand. (Low
cost rack mounting kits for standard 19" rack also available.) All
models come packaged in a plastic
carrying case that protects the unit
in shipment and in use
Why settle for less than the best.
See these hard -working counters at
your distributor now.
If you're outside of Ohio, call us toll
free at 800-321 -4664 for the name of your
nearest Hickok distributor.
HICKDK
the value innovator
INSTRUMENTATION tî CONTROLS DIVISION
THE HICKOK ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT CO.
10514 Dupont Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44108
(216) 541 -8060
TWX: 810-421 -8286
94
MHz (VHF); 471.25 to 888.25 MHz (UHF). The
model GP -500 components are encased in two tone high- impact plastic; the receiver measures 6
X 101/4 X 3'/ inches; the transmitter measures
21/4 X 51/4 X
1
inch. Suggested list price:
$99.95. -GP Electronics, Ltd., Subsidiary of
Gold Peak Industries, Ltd., Box 261, Middletown,
NJ 07748.
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card. Socket assemblies are available from Waldom distributors. Prices: parts for two 14 -pin
sockets, 956; two 16 -pin sockets, $1.- Waldom
Electronics, Inc., 4301 W. 69th St., Chicago, IL
60629.
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MAGNETIC SCREWDRIVER, model 70035, has
magnet built into the shank to hold interchangeable bits plus the screw. Confordome handle has
a removable dome cap that keeps three extra bits
400/1 sta
SOLDER STRIP PACKAGE, Emergency Solder,
is designed for on-the -spot repairs and requires
only a match to melt the solder. Multiple cores of
noncorrosive, nonconductive flux are contained
in the strips. Emergency Solder can be used on
any solderable metal (not suitable for aluminum).
Package includes 36 inches of solder strip, and
complete directions. Multicore Solders, Westbury, NY 11590.
CIRCLE 117 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
-
DUAL -TRACE 30 -MHz OSCILLOSCOPE, model
LBO -520, offers built -in 120 -ns delay line. Among
the unit's other features are a 5 mV -per-division
vertical sensitivity; display modes include Channel 1, Channel 2, alternate, subtract, add and X -Y
modes; continuously variable sweep speeds from
0.2 As-per-centimeter to 0.5 second -per -centi-
stored inside handle while fourth bit is being
used. Comes with' /,-in. and % -in. slotted, No. 1
and No. 2 Phillips bits. -Vaco Products, 1510
Skokie Blvd., Northbrook, IL 60062.
CIRCLE 115 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
WIRELESS REMOTE CONTROL, model GP -500,
attaches to the antenna terminals of any black and -white or color TV set. The unit's 10- channel
capacity is tunable to either VHF or UHF, and
each channel can be preset. A built -in RF preamplifier has a power gain of 30 dB (typical). Other
specifications include: Maximum noise -90 dB
(VHF) and 12 dB (UHF); IF rejection -40 -dB minimum (VHF) and 60 -dB minimum (UHF); minimum
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meter; X 10 magnification. In addition, the model
LBO -520 provides trace rotations; + and
polarity: an uncalibrated warning indicator lamp;
and lever -type input switches. Priced at under
$1000, the instrument comes with contoured
-
handle that doubles as locking bale; probes and
accessories are included.- Leader Instruments
Corp., 151 Dupont St., Plainview, NY 11803.
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LOGIC MONITOR, model LM -2, is a self -powered
unit that clips right onto IC under test; a series of
16 LED's at top of the clip follow IC pin pattern. A
rotary switch selects the proper logic threshold
ive a Great GVTse!
for monitoring RTL /DTL, TTL /HTL and CMOS
circuits. A separate cable for CMOS circuits uses
the circuit voltage to determine the logic level and
operates up to a 30 -kHz input frequency at 50%
of duty cycle. The model LM -2, with selfcontained 117 VAC 50- to 60-Hz power supply, is
priced at $129.95. A 220 VAC 50- to 60 -Hz model
is also available.- Continental Specialties
Corp., 70 Fulton Terrace, New Haven, CT 06509.
CIRCLE 129 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
SCREWDRIVER SET, model 31802. Five -piece
mechanic's screwdriver set comes packaged in
heavy vinyl pouch. It contains one '/. X 4 -inch
blade ('i. X 23/.-inch handle); '/,. X 4 -inch blade
(1 X 3% -inch handle); '/. X 4 -inch blade (1'/. X'
4'/. -inch handle); 3/,. X 3 -inch blade with No. 1 tip
PanaVise ... a great gift idea. Everyone loves a PanaVise. It tilts, turns and
rotates every which way to quickly and securely position electronic parts and
PC boards exactly where wanted.
Sturdy all metal construction. Model 396 PanaVise shown. Available at your
electronic distributors, boxed ready to go, along with a variety of other
PanaVise interchangeable bases, holders and accessories.
® Write for FREE brochure and distributor list.
CA 90806
LCLS 2850 2588 Sneet Long Beach
Dent
ANA
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and see E &L's
complete line of
micro -accessories
and aids for versatile, professional
circuit design. All compatible with
both E &L Microprocessor systems and many others: from Hex
Keypads for E &L's Mini Micro Designer °(MMD -1) and MMD -1
Student Stations, to breadboarding cards and aids for the
Altair /Imsai and DEC systems.
E &L has the products, instruments and educational materials
to help you master the world of
electronics. See them in your free
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}i2 El
El
X 3% -inch handle); and v. X 4 -inch blade with
No. 2 tip (1'/. X 4'/. -inch handle). Screwdrivers
(1
are made of chrome vanadium steel, with cross ground tips and easy-grip handles. Suggested
resale price, $7.63.- Hunter Tools, 9674 Telstar
R -E
Ave., El Monte, CA 91731.
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1
111
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®
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6,
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Si,eei Deftly Coo,, 06418
12031735-8174 Telex No 96 3536
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Automotive
3 instruments
in
1
Eornpupro!ti
Today's most exciting automotive accessory,
AUTOCOMP, is actually three complete instruments in one
each operated by electronic
microprocessor control. AUTOCOMP mounts
easily in or on your dash and provides large
LED readouts of these functions by pushbutton
control. With this valuable data at your fingertips, you can significantly reduce fuel bills by
monitoring and improving your driving habits.
-
DIGITAL
CLOCK
AUTOCOMP is a digital clock. Press the TIME
button and the LED display reads the correct
time in hours and minutes). The clock may instead be used to display ELAPSED TIME
More information on new products is available from
manufacturers of items identified by a Free Information
number. Free Information Card is inside back cover.
90F/MPS, is a Z80based, single -board device with resident floppy disc controller that supports up to four 51/4-inch
or 8 -inch single- density floppy -disc drives. The
basic board contains 41( bytes dynamic RAM
(expandable to 64K bytes); six 2708/2716
EPROM sockets; 1K byte resident PROM monitor
Z80 COMPUTER BOARD,
MPG
METER
AUTOCOMP is also a true MPG meter, utilizing
patented flowsensor and a speedsensor to
compute instantaneous miles -per -gallon or
average miles- per -gallon as you drive. Press
the INST MPG button and read how many miles
per gallon your vehicle is attaining at each
moment. Press the AVE MPG button, and read
the average miles per gallon the vehicle has
attained since the last reset (up to 200 MPG).
a
TRIP
COMPUTER
AUTOCOMP is a complete trip computer. Press
the FUEL button and read the amount of fuel
the vehicle has used since last reset (up to 1000
gallons). Press the DIST button and read the
distance the vehicle has traveled since last reset
(up to 1000 miles).
AUTOCOMP can be installed on most American
and Japanese (special adapter is required at
$9.95) make autos and vans except those with
fuel injection. It is supplied with all necessary
components and hardware and illustrated instructions that make it easy to install. AUTO COMP is covered by a
year Manufacturer's
Limited Warranty.
1
M0SEl70GGA
:9995
i7
FOR ORDERS ONLY
CALL TOLL FREE ANYTIME!
PRICE
REDUCEDI
1- 800 -423 -2355 Ext. 601
In California 1- 800 -232 -2175 Ext. 601
For more Information call 805 -965 -1015
SPACEKOM -AUTOCOUP
212 E. Gutierrez Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Please send me
with static RAM scratch pad; PROM programmer;
counter /timer; hardware UART with RS232C /TTY
serial /O; plus a prograntmable 8 -bit parallel I/O
port with two expansion sockets for additional
PIO IC's. Prices: single unit, $995; OEM discounts
available. -Ouay Corp., Box 386, Freehold, NJ
07728.
CIRCLE 121 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
tors and transient suppressor capacitors at approximately 6 -inch spacing. Prices: kit, $29.95;
SS -50 bus extender board, $49.95; edge connectors available separately. -AUM- Ideas, Box
2582, Richardson, TX 75080.
CIRCLE 123 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
COMPUTER SYSTEM, PeCos I, is a complete
personal computing system that does not require
hookup to any RF adapters, TV sets, audio
cassettes, etc. It provides 24K ROM and 16K
RAM; a 60-key keyboard with upper and lower
case; a 9 -inch CRT displaying 16 lines of 40 characters each with automatic scrolling and speed
control; built -in dual cassette decks, each with
80K byte storage capability; 6502 microprocessor; power supply; and RS 232 port for connecting a printer. Software is implemented in PeCos,
an English -like language derived from Rand
JOSS; and includes full 9 -digit floating point
I
COMPUTER PRINTOUT PICTURES are now
available in a 23- picture set printed on 58 14% X
11 -inch sheets. The set includes four pictures of
Snoopy, five Christmas scenes, Abe Lincoln and
others. Price: $7.75. -Data Analysis Systems,
Dept. F, Box 162, Franktown, CO 80116.
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PROTOTYPE BOARD is a two -sided wire -wrap
board that comes in kit form, complete with
layout, instructions, 4 matching heat sinks plus
hardware mounting, and 2 yards of AWG No. 18
wire. One side of the 10 X 5.5 -inch board is fully
S- 100 -bus compatible with 100 contacts spaced
at 0.125 -inch intervals. The board's other side
has 50 contacts spaced at 0.156 -inch intervals for
the SS -50 bus but is only electrically compatible
with the SS -50 bus. An SS -50 bus extender
board is also available with a 22 -slot maximum
IALIT[r COMP
arithmetic computation. The unit measures 181/2
X 19'/2 X 8'/2 inches. Suggested retail price:
$1695. -APF Electronics, Inc., 444 Madison
Ave., New York, NY 10022.
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GRAPHIC /TEXT VIDEO DISPLAY INTERFACE,
Merlin, comes assembled and tested, or as a kit.
It can be used to interface to any S-100 bus
computer and provides 4K bytes of ROM, keyboard input port, plus text and graphic displays.
The text display consists of 20 lines, 40 characters- per -line, suitable for BASIC and assembly
programs. The medium -resolution bit -mapped
AUTOCOMP(a) at $99.95 each.
1356 sales tax.)
(California residents must add
Car on which AUTOCOMP
will be Installed
Model
Make
Factory Cruise Control?
E Yes
Total enclosed (Cal. res. add tax)
Year
Ya-eRCOSttrNi10
.: No
e.e1. 102.06
S
USE YOUR CHARGE CAROI
(Postage and handling will be added.)
¡I BankAmericard (VISA)
Master Charge (Interbank
Charge
a
llUllll11111i1 IIIllilll
0
PRINT NAME
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siti--e%),
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capability (no edge connectors are provided). The
board accepts from 14- to 40 -lead DIP packages,
and additional space is provided for up to 26 or
more resistors or transistors. The board also has
provision for three-way keyed mounting, 2 card
ejectors, filter capacitors for the voltage regula-
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/EñLlt!
SNIPER
óÉNSE
6RRPNICs
saes
t
t
SO
eee:
4e
Y2S'
te
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NINITERN
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graphic display is 160H by 100V with expansion
to 320H by 200V using super -dense graphic
option.
The keyboard contains the following modes:
edit function, scrolling, monitor, 25 cursor /edit
functions, graphic subroutines and graphic drawing. The display address and display mode (text,
graphic or "split screen ") are software- programmable. Prices: assembled (with 4K ROM control
and super -dense graphic option) $499.95; kit
(without ROM software) $299.95. -MiniTerm Associates, Inc., Dundee Park, Andover, MA
01810.
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PROGRAMMABLE TERMINAL SYSTEM, EXOR
68, is multifunctional -consists of basic display
unit with 12 -inch CRT, six keyboard options and a
group of micromodule subassembly boards. The
CRT display unit consists of video monitor that
can display 128 ASCII characters in 24 lines (up
to 1920 characters); switches select word length,
baud rate, communications mode and modem
U
D
IVI BEST
V _BUYS
J
MICKOK OSCILLOSCOPES
High Performance . American Made . Discount Prices!
Reg.
30 MHz, Dual trace
$995.00
Our
4e
575
11 7 MS nseume
Fixed delay for leading edge viewing
of fast rise time signals stable pushbutton triggering to
50 MHz High and Low pass filters Bright, ultra sharp
trace PDA CRT Deluxe probe kits included Full time
4X expansion and multlturn horizontal position control
Ideal for logic and pulse circuits, microprocessor
applications.
SPECIFICATIONS:
VERTICAL
Ranges: 10mV /DI V in
variable control.
11
calibrated steps plus
Accuracy: ± 4 %.
Frequency Response: DC to 30 MHz.
Risetime: 11.7ns
Overshoot: 4% or less.
Vertical Modes: Channel A only; Channel B only;
Alternate A & B, Chopped A & B, Add (A + B).
TIME BASE
Sweep Rates: 2 SEC/DIV to 0.05 SEC /DIV in 24
calibrated steps plus variable control.
Accuracy: ± 4%. Except 7% slowest 3 speeds.
TRIGGERING
Modes: AC -HF; AC -LF
Sources: Line, internal. External.
Slope: Positive and negative; continuously Variable
level.
Sensitivity: Internal, 1/2 division to 30 MHz
GENERAL
CRT: 4 -inch flat faced round with viewing area of
6 x 10 divisions. P31 phosphor with 3.8 kV accelerating voltage.
Power Requirements: 105-125V, 50 -400 Hz,
35 watts.
DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT
6 -7/8" h x 11 -1/4 " w x 17 -3/4 " d, 27 pounds.
ACCESSORIES
Rack mounting kit RM -4 (P /N 100 -138) also
available.
SPECIFICATIONS:
VERTICAL
control. Other features include inverted cursor,
scrolling and page /edit /protect display modes;
remote or keyboard data entry capability; and
optional motherboards. Basic display unit is
available separately for end applications without
keyboards. Keyboard options include Standard
TTY /control key format plus 5 other variations.
End -use micromodule options range from partial
computers (memory, interface, etc.) to complete
single -board assemblies; all are compatible with
EXOR 68 system. Basic display unit with extended communications and display features plus
keyboard and cable assembly sells for $2600
(approx.) in single quantities.- Motorola Microsystems, 3102 N. 56th St., Phoenix, AZ 85018.
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COMPUTER TERMINAL, model 0E1000, comes
as a kit or assembled, and interfaces to any
computer having a 300 -baud serial data output
port. It offers the full duplex mode with either a
20 -mA current loop or an RS 232 voltage swing.
Displays 96 ASCII characters and 32 special
characters in a 16 -line by 64- character format,
Ranges: 10mV/cm to 50V /cm in 12 calibrated steps
Variable control from 5mV /cm to 50V /cm.
Accuracy: ± 3 %.
Frequency Response: DC to 15 MHz.
Risetime: 24ns.
TIME BASE
Sweep Rates: 0.2 SEC /cm to 0.5 ASEC /cm (0.1
/.ISEC /cm with X5 expander) in 18 calibrated steps.
Variable control from 0.1 LI SEC /cm to SEC /cm.
Accuracy: ± 5 %.
1
TRIGGERING
-, Variable level control.
Sensitivity: division on CRT) to 27 MHz
guaranteed.
TV Sync: Separator circuitry permits locking to TV
video waveform. TV -H (Line) and TV -V (frame) sync
automatically selected by TIME /CM switch.
EXTERNAL HORIZONTAL (X-AXIS):
Variable from 0.5V /cm to 50V /cm with X5
Slope: r &
1
15 MHz, Dual trace
expander.
Frequency Response: DC to MHz.
GENERAL
CRT: 5 -inch flat faced round with viewing area of
1
24nS rise time
for all signal levels
5 mV sensitivity
Foolproof pushbutton triggering to
27 MHz TV Sync separators for easy locking to
complex video waveforms at any sweep speed TIME
/cm switch automatically selects line or frame sync as
well as Chop or Alternate sweep in Dual mode Perfect
for VCR, TV, and audio service as well as digital and
Industrial work CHA, CHB, Dual, Add, Subtract
15 MHz response
modes TTL compatible intensity modulation
(X-AXIS): Large 8cm + 10cm viewing area
Front
panel Vectorscope operation.
-
8 cm
10 cm.
Z -Avis: (Intensity Modulation) Rear panel connector
for display blanking by 5V signal (TTL compatible).
Power: 105-125V, 50.400 Hz, 35 watts.
DIMENSIONS
14 -5/8 " w x 7"
ACCESSORIES
h x
17-1/2" d.
RM3 (P/N 100 -2051
Rack mounting kit
available.
also
Reg. $495. 00
$ Our Price
575
incl. probes
15 MHz, Triggered Sweep
cs-
Same specs and performance as Model 51 7 except
single trace 15 MHz frequency response 5mV
sensitivity TV Sync separators built -in Bright 8cm
x 10cm display
Front Panel vectorscope operation
Lightweight, portable Designed for industrial and
consumer service applications as well as educational and
lahoratory
purposes.
lit
ford
rods?
Model 515
Immediate Delivery...
To Place Your Order
Call TOLL FREE (800) 645 -9518
N.Y.
State call
with either upper and lower case or TTY modes.
Other features are full cursor control, automatic
scroll, erase to end of line, erase to end of screen
and clear screen. Prices: kit, $275; assembled,
$350. -Otto Electronics, Box 3066, Princeton,
R -E
NJ 08540.
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DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
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More information on new products is available from
manufacturers of items identified by a Free Information
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DIRECT -DRIVE TURNTABLE, model PS -TI, is a
semiautomatic unit that features a linear- torque,
brushless, slotless DC servomotor with ring shaped magnet and fixed coil. The speed -monitoring system consists of a magnetic coating on
outer rim of the platter, which is tracked by a
magnetic head to detect speed variations. Other
CEILING SPEAKERS, models DK5-F, RS69 -F
and RSQ8-F are made of acrylic plastic and
feature cloth -roll suspension, 1Y -lb magnet construction and an aluminum voice coil. The speakers are easily mounted and come with complete
mounting instructions. The model DK5-F(shown)
is a 5 -inch two -way speaker with a 360° swivel
tube for directional sound and a decorative grille;
its specifications include a 48 -Hz -20-kHz frequency response, 8-ohm impedance, 65-Hz resonant frequency and 25 -watt power handling capability. The model RS69 -F is a 6 X 9 -inch two-
The INDIANA
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features include a J- shaped tonearm (statically
balanced to provide 7 -9-Hz resonance), counterweight with stylus pressure gauge, antiskating
device, safety clutch, reject button and illuminated strobe. Suggested list price: $130. -Sony
Corp. of America, 9 W. 57th St., New York, NY
10019.
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AM /FM STEREO RECEIVER, model CR -3020,
incorporates preamp containing peak-reading
meters, coil -head amplifier, signal meter, LED
display and two headphone jacks (with separate
:.2
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volume control). General specifications: continuous RMS power, 200 watts -per -channel (at 4
ohms, 0.05% THD); 20-Hz -20 kHz THD (phono 1
& 2 to record output), 0.003% at 5 volt output;
input sensitivity (phono 1), 2 mV; frequency
response (aux, tape 1 & 2 to speaker output) 5
Hz -100 kHz, -3 ±2 dB; S/N ratio (phono 1 & 2)
96 dB (10 -mV input).
FM section: usable sensitivity at 300 ohms,
11.2 dBf; 50 -dB quieting (mono) 15.3 dBf, (stereo)
37.2 dBf; IHF distortion (stereo), 0.1% (local),
0.6% (DX). AM section: 1000 -kHz selectivity, 45
dB (± 10 kHz), 35 dB ( ±9 kHz).
The model CR-3020 comes in an ebony cabinet, measures 24% X 7' /, X 19'/ inches and
weighs 81 lb, 8 oz. Price: $1400.- Yamaha International Corp., 6000 Orangethorpe Ave., Buena
Park, CA 90622.
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way recessed round speaker with a 35Hz- 19,500 -Hz frequency response, 8 -ohm impedance, 50-Hz resistant frequency and 40-watt
power handling capability. The model RSQ8-F is
an 8-inch two -way recessed square speaker with
a white exterior and chrome grille. Its specifications are: a 28 -Hz -21 -kHz frequency response,
8 -ohm impedance, 50 -Hz resonant frequency and
45 -watt power handling capability. List prices:
model DK5-F, $54.95; model RS69 -F, $64.95;
model RSQ8 -F, $69.95. -Rohn Electronics, Ltd.,
5 Pearsall Ave., Glen Cove, NY 11542.
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AM /FM TAPE CAR STEREO, 8 -track model 873
and cassette model 633, both deliver 20 watts per- channel RMS; the tuner sections feature FET
frontends and PLL circuitry in the multiplex
decoder, plus local /distance switch and FM muting. The model 873 player had indicator lights
and a dial -in -door cartridge slot. The model 633
cassette player (shown) provides automatic reverse, pushbutton eject, locking rewind /fast forward switches, plus tape direction indicators.
Both units contain bass/treble, balance /fader,
and volume /loudness controls. Suggested retail
prices: model 873, $209.95; the model 633,
$244.95.-J.I.L., Dept. P, 737 W. Artesia Blvd..
Compton, CA 90220.
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HI -FI CABLES /CONNECTORS, full line of stereo
cables and connectors for all systems. Product
line includes 2-pin DIN speaker, line plugs and
sockets; 3- and 5 -pin DIN plugs and sockets;
leads with either RCA or DIN plugs and sockets in
You can build
a better organ
than you can buy!
A magnificent Schober Electronic Organ
different lengths and configurations; leads with
combined RCA /DIN plugs or sockets; a headphone extension cable; and an FM dipole anten -'
na.- AudioSouree, 1185 Chess Drive, Foster
City, CA 94404.
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What a marvelous way to put your special
talents to work! With our Schober Electronic
Organ Kits and your skill, you can build yourself some very special satisfaction. and a lifetime of great music!
Schober Organs are literally far superior
to comparably-priced "ready -made" units. You
could actually pay twice as much and get no
better organ...and miss the fun of assembling
it yourself. A PC board at a time, component by
component, you'll assemble your own "king of
instruments." And when you're done, you'll
wish there was more to do. And there is! For
then, Schober will help you learn to play, even
if you've never played a note before!
Schober Organ Kits range from $650 to
$2850, and you can purchase in sections to
spread costs out...or have two-year time payments. Combine the incomparable quality of
Schober components with your talent...and
produce a far better organ than you can buy!
Thousands of others have, ever since 1955.
You can have ail the details, without cost
or obligation. Just send the coupon for the
fascinating Schober color catalog (or enclose
$1 for a record that lets you hear as well as
see Schober quality.) Why not clip it right now,
before you forget'?
ihigdefè
Organ Corp, Dept. RE -181
The
43 west 61st Street, New York, N.Y. 10023
Please send me Schober Organ Catalog
Enclosed please find $1.00 for 12 -inch L P
record of Schober Organ music
NAME
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ZIP
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B
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5
THE DESIGN OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
CIRCUITS, WITH EXPERIMENTS, by Howard M.
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The beginning experimenter and hobbyist will
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operation of different types of op -amp circuits.
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Instrumentation amplifier used in augmenting
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The student and technician with previous training in electronics will find this book helpful in
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This how -to guide on building antennas contains complete down -to -earth instructions on de-
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lines, baluns, etc., plus instructions and schematics for constructing dummy antennas, SWR meters, impedance bridges, L- and Pi- networks, and
many more. Contains four appendixes and an
Index.
R -E
Build
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_
next month FREQUENCY
INTERNATIONAL FM- 2400CH
JANUARY 1979
Build An Audio Test Station
How To Troubleshoot Communication
Receivers
Build An Arcade Quality Motorcycle
Game
METER FOR
TESTING MOBILE
TRANSMITTERS
AND RECEIVERS
Portable
Solid State
Rechargeable Batteries
The FM- 2400CH provides an accurate frequency standard for testing
and adjustment of mobile transmitters and receivers at predeter-
All About Optical Fiberquides
Simplifying The Wire -Wrap Jungle
mined frequencies.
The FM- 2400CH with its extended range covers 25 to 1000 MHz.
The frequencies can be those of the radio frequency channels of
operation and /or the intermediate frequencies of the receiver between 5 MHz and 40 MHz.
PLUS
Lab Tested Hi -Fi Test Reports
Build A Compact 600 MHz Freq
Counter
CET Test
Frequency stability: ±.0005% from +50° to +104 °F.
Frequency stability with built -in thermometer and temperature corrected charts: ± 00025% from +25° to +125° (.000125% special 450
MHz crystals available).
Tests Predetermined Frequencies 25 to 1000 MHz
Extended Range Covers 950 MHz Band
Pin Diode Attenuator for Full Range Coverage as Signal
Generator
Measures FM Deviation
Computer Corner
HOBBY COMPUTER POWER SUPPLIES
Continued from page 59
Keep it cool
While giant strides have been made in the miniaturization of
electronic components, nobody has yet miniaturized the joule
(i.e., watt- second). Heat causes many electrical component failures, and it is likely that series -pass transistors and regulators
will fail if allowed to get too hot. Additionally, most such
devices have a temperature coefficient that defines an output
voltage change in percent -per- degree centigrade ( % / °C).
At current levels up to about 5 amperes, ordinary heatsinking and convection cooling will usually suffice, but at higher
current levels it becomes increasingly necessary to use a blower
or fan in addition to the heat sink.
In one configuration of my Z -80 system, I used a heat-sinked
HEP S7000 in the circuit of Fig. 3 to provide 5 volts at 10
amperes. The heat sink was one of the large finned International
Rectifier models sold in hobbyist outlets. This transistor got so
hot after 20 minutes of operation at near full load that a first
degree burn would reward anyone foolish enough to touch it!
But a 50 -cfm "whisper" fan reduced the temperature to the
"barely hot" level in only a few minutes!
In short, it is good practice to always use forced -air cooling on
power regulators and series -pass transistors operated at more
than a few amperes of constant load current. Keeping the case
temperature low will not only improve longevity, but will also
prevent output voltage drift due to thermal changes. The rules
for keeping a regulator and rectifier cool are:
Mount the IC regulator, series -pass element and rectifiers on heat sinks, not just on the chassis.
2. Use silicone /heat- transfer grease between all devices
and their respective heat sinks.
3. Blow 40 to 105 cubic-feet -per- minute (cfm) of air across
the heat -sink fins. Such fans or blowers can usually be
obtained at low -cost surplus or somewhat higher cost at
remember that bit
retail. The investment is well worth
R -E
about the silicon -to- carbon converter!
$595.00
24.90 ea.
18.90 ea.
FM- 2400CH (meter only) Cat. No. 035320
RF crystals (with temperature correction)
RF crystals (less temperature correction)
IF
catalog price
crystals
Write for catalog
1.
OGlnnl
INTERNATIONAL CRYSTAL MFG. CO., INC.
it-
10 North
Lee /
Oklahoma City, Okla.
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73102
SPEAKER CABLES
continued from page 93
binations will perform. Some amplifiers
cannot handle capacitances greater than
6000 pF and shut down. Some amplifiers
cannot handle too little capacitance, and
shut down or produce a metallic or ringing sound. Dr. Maier, president of the
Disc Washer Group, distributors of
Smog Lifters, says: "Very fine amplifiers
with highly balanced output stages, with
complementary power supplies will sustain up to one microfarad just like certain
amps will play 'into' and sound good on
electrostatic speakers. Amps, which do
not like electrostatic speakers, and which
sound terrible on them, tend to be candidates for super cable problems."
in the opposite direction. Both conductor
layers are wound at a 45- degree angle,
constantly crisscrossing each other.
The High Definition cable manufactured by Audio-Source (see Fig. 7) is the
least expensive, costing 80 cents -per -foot,
with a characteristic 10 -ohm impedance;
having 10 pairs of braided wire; and
connected in parallel to reduce DC resistance and with specially finished tips.
It is impossible to predict accurately
how certain speaker /wire /amplifier corn-
i`
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MOTION DETECTOR
th.r
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Th. Wm..n D.+.coa works .,n ., ,- ID \NGE IF 1.0:1I'í' Ac..
hinge .1
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range of 0
Iqu,te linte, a rang. of I000 to I N11 external light source i.
5'
xDELTA
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rrt
toweled
When left in a darkened or semi darkened room. the Moto,.
Detector acts as a fantastic FIRE Al. ARM The light from o
gle man'h. anywhere in the room. nggers the alarm. s., that
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D 5611ß P.C. hoards, set of 2
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protection of everybody."
The problem is somewhat similar to
using penicillin or any other drug-not
all people respond the same way. There is
a dynamic equation between speaker wire
and amplifier. So here's a word of caution
for any potential user: Not all people will
hear the difference between a No. 16 wire
and a No. 22 wire; nor may they hear the
difference between the super cables and
the best of conventional cord. You may
discover that upgrading your cable
doesn't actually make a difference. In my
tests, which were not highly controlled
blind listening tests, I discovered there
was a difference
cleaner percussive
sounds and a tighter bass.
If you're looking for better sound from
your audio system, try the super cables
(or even just heavier wire) on a moneyback basis; you may be pleasantly surprised with the results.
R -E
-a
(COUNTER-LATCH-DECODER)
MA MOVEMENT
1
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51.7st4 ter s6r
rakes
time before that ,le.el..pment os o.al,rr to hohhyasts "and
experimenters
Th s time we have
ppe.ert IIy at surplus y
reversed the trend and armour.. a DELTA EXCLUSIVE. the
MOTION IH:
This (levity detects any mnuon
movement for a minimum distance tart h Th ,,,n u, in the
Itrteromplex custom I cl hip. whi ch c mbines the latent
Ìín
s
linear
& digital c i rcuitry r The d v
mpleti4v
If
e
6 x :1 x 2 ,' and "perm...
contained.
in a
m hour "AA"
NtCad hanrnes Nothing else is needed for flied vine to perform
its haste function. mutton detection When motif nor movement
is dented. a "whoop' alum -s sounded The MOTION
DETECTOR to deigned to provide either ant udoble or silent
harm The silent alarm is controlled hr a time which delays
the alarm up
seconds. The silent alarm a two.%a relay.
whose contacts are brought out o plug. and wt I activate ANV
device such as siren
n
horn tape ' nvarder telep ....dialer. etc
Ó
record
I
DELTA
Surglar ALARM
24
When
AMPEX N'e na., r ilwro d 'mentor: of A MPEx o mb
Thranr
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TAPE 'ap
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h.minstandard ;
6aÌp"
ON LY AT
50
$
IJ
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Some high -powered amplifiers have
had problems with too small a capacitance -1500 and 15,000 pF. Engineers
say this can be avoided by inserting an
inductor in the output circuit.
The Smog Lifter cables are claimed to
have a lower capacitance (480 pF) than
other super cables. Dr. Maier believes
"the capacitance of the Smog Lifters
allows most amps to be used, but we are
including a disclaimer of consequential
damage with our words of caution for the
distnhuons The !Ina....
out d nlpt hm a
hav
, digits
guaranteed
contain i ñt. 1117, & the I
att the
METERS
previous!,
meters
user! for
meter, loud blow all have a
scale ,ha
f I" to :V :
the
mein depth is 4 " All the.
meters haves removable' pleaLr
vn, s, t
yflu ran rma y
Each
CC the.rxI.& phan..t wtlhra scale
your rhotn. The rains' price
of
of these meters w,i, cyl.'w,ach
ulThe
B'
,, -:
,
ts
TIL
307
9 reasons why
the real pros
prefer Endeco
desoldering
irons
.
ill
'
2 for IS.
Dena NO.
A487ß
A6486R
AB489R
AB488R
A8485ß
TEXAS
PRECISION
.$4.95
'
CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR
LEGEND:
Systolic mm Mg...Scale: 0 to 300
Diastolic/MEAN mm Hg... 0 to 300
Rate...Scale: 0 to 300
RESP /min...Seale: O to 120
mm HG...Scales: 0 to 300 0 to 25
7-SEG. READOUT
WITH LOGIC
'I
7
COMP!!
A'
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2-95
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has
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with
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band & u enrineed in a plastic
13.95(2°.
2 for 517'
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14ereÌl
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HORIZON LINE
TAUT BAND METER
G -E
tit.: Mdel2'1
Model
-amirroamp
movement 2Sraln y11011
. rate hole. Shielded
movement
strihmors price
1l sl .
spectacular prier
I. s than
Na. 54435
S7tor.95
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Massachusetts or
Southern New Hampshire,
shover cm,
visit our n
loaded with many
Items that
get in the
catalog or ads, due to a
limited auanthty.
When In o
.
'll ton. M,s41 OS4' 67
.
54145 3,2 D155
56155 4', Digit
*** * ******
\
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Output trill is 3,40 till,
The Irrntuenc readily dir.1.-
useable (regular....
the use of standard
SN741gi sanas 11.5 Among h.
many frequencies are 640 Ell,
ba KHa 32 KHz. rit KID
,
Please enclose
sumcksnt postage.
Ea oss
funded.
desirable
.
GEORGIA
with
t
K
ilt. 6 EH,.
.t
I
K
Hr. agi
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r"
Hz. UI Hs
Bir. & many morn
We provide' dota showing the
Ir.
needed to get the.
frequencies The .roll
ro
prert tir lo 2 pots per min.'', & r.
adjustable to
y n
greater
pr t s ton Ideal for computers.
fret' standards. clocks. rte This
'
dlator
is
current
a
production item. & the one piece
prat ta the factory is 51:14'aí
I00Iot. 549Wí fir j
of 5149', each is
bargain
x.
st, ou
I.
PC mount
required or.
t IIC
Output
compatible
'\
5
,
fantastic
a
1
Voltai
VIE'
Var s
lI
85152E
s
is
Fitfflf
-I
These units consist of
5151 BUFORD RWY. DORAVILLE.
l
05614R
2
2
tor 519.
for $24.
A
readouts. plus r - readout
Readouts Ind thems.l, es L. use
of many different color filters
that almost an, .. lnr is
oihnunable Assemblies are out
of egpt & most contain several
Pn for
chg p" 6
tdun .
M ma
he. dig. chips contain three
SN7a75s &awn GN 744 72 The
3
digit a. a hlirs may
,tam three 9N7447.. two
'N71I'.:nd :, SN7175
i
2'a
Digit
sane ter
n...' catalog I5-
TELEPHONE
ANEA
388
-3705
Operates at I20v.
40w Idles at 20w
for longer tip life
Flexible.
burn resistant
Neoprene
cord set
unbreakable
polycarbonate
handle
4. Exclusive
bracket
insures
alignment,
prevents
damage
5. Safety
MODEL
2 for s5.
6. Stainless
r.
2
562IR
J
construction
7.
8. Eight tip sizes.
Comes with
.063 I.D.
7 OAKLAND ST,
AMESBURY, MASS.
01913
CIRCLE 46 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
on
Temperature
control.
Low, high
or off.
soldering iron
with y4" shank type tip
9. Converts to
See your
ELECTRONICS
P.O. BOX 2, DEPT. 12R
it's
steel
Digit
for U.
light
in handle
tells when
510
distributor or write
.
.
Enterprise Development Corp.
5127 E. 65th
SI
Indianapolis
IN
46220
PHONE 13171 251 1231
¢
102
2
3. Cool,
.56225
A
1]0 asar. etN acosan
N.Uronk
save... t..
1
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DELTA ELECTRONIC HOBBIES
510.00
512.50
chutt assemblies of Ito \
Numitron 7sea mcandes. eat
(.I1'.ILOc
7
10
NUITRON
21/2 & 31/2
DIGIT
ASSEMBLIES
a
ratio
50 MICRO AMP DC
DUAL SCALE
.. ice
t
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Your n p lrr is only a
as its ',lock Delta has f,.
fortunate in acquiring n I..t
OVENAIRE pon -ro,
,r..1.ß
o
.doto.
.
I."
mounts in a I6
ran
DIP socket. & all that is
r
tad.,l Is the input signal
OVENAIRE figea,
.
a ploatic cas
,,vahl... scale Site
v :
d 8N22 R
all the
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for 928.
2
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MW.1n6l1
, I,cal.w
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TIT U!'.-
instrumentation Overfill
dimensions
x l'and the digit
CENTER
READING
METER
US
is Instrument
sett readout with
f..r ...ranters built ins,
the chip This aimpldlesde,. es
& makes for small packages i
50 -0 -50 MICRO AMP DC
2 for
INSTRUMENT
1
CIRCLE
9 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
market center
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When normal closing date falls on Saturday, Sunday or a holiday, issue closes on preceding
working day.
...
..
FOR SALE
PRINTED CIRCUIT
FREE catalog (anglais). IC's, semi's. CORONET
ELECTRONICS, 649A Notre Dame W., Montreal,
Que., Canada, H3C-1H8. US inquiries.
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Send stamp & address label for flyer
RADIO & TV tubes 366 each. One year guaranteed. Plus many unusual electronic bargains.
Free catalog. CORNELL, 4217 -E University, San
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TRUMBULL
833 Beira Dr.,
BLITZ ZOINK ZATT: UNSCRAMBLE
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informed. Tunes all scramble frequencies, works with all scanners, and is factory built and guaranteed.
534.95PP. UNSCRAMBLER KIT: Latest Technology, 2' /.X2' /.X' /, -inch, com1lnl'. Itnt:_1KF;ft
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Order from KRYSTAL KITS, BOX 445,
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RECORDS -TAPES! Discounts to 73 %; all labels;
no purchase obligations; newsletter; discount
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Dept. 3 -1278, New Rochelle, NY 10801
NEW, adjustable, three -output, regulated power
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BENTONVILLE, ARK. 72712. COD orders. 501- 273 -5340.
complete cartrivision television recorder electronics assembly. Documentation included. Perfect for microprocessor and all electronic applications. $16.95 plus $4.50 S&H. Master Charge,
VISA. Free brochure. MADISON ELECTRONICS,
369, Madison, AL 35758. Satisfaction guaranteed. 205- 837-6658, Res.
TUBES sale!!! Sylvania, G.E.- Brand -new receiv
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Billions of dollars lost annually due
to lock of protective warning alarms.
CATALOG
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Shows you how to
protect your home, business
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prices. Do- it- yourself. Free
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FIR!
tl.aweik
Box 82802
Lincoln, Ne. 68501
RE -128
NAME brand test equipment. Up to 50% discount. Free catalog and price list. SALEN ELECTRONICS, P.O. Box 82, Skokie, IL 60076
LIGHT -triggered relay driver. 6VDC adjustable
threshold. Completely assembled only $3.00
302AT. Sonic switch turns on lamps, radio, tape,
etc. Completely assembled, solid -state super buy
only $3.00 210AT. 3 transistor audio preamp for
mike, phono, tape, etc. Hi -Q- input, 8 -45-ohm
output. 9VDC completely assembled, only $4.00
AT032. ABT SYSTEMS, P.O.B. 173, Schererville,
IN 46375
SPEAKER INFORMATION KIT
Get 70 pages of speaker facts. specs. construction tips
plus info on our raw speakers, crossovers and a line of 9
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system, for Free. Even if
you don't buy from us we
want you to have the facts.
That's how we got to be the
world's largest manufacturer of speaker kits.
Send to:
Speakerleb,
Dept. RE -I
735 N. Northlake
Seattle. WA 98103
TEST equipment catalog listing used Tektronix,
HP and GR equipment at bargain prices. Price
$1.00 refundable with first order. PTI, Box 8699,
White Bear Lake, MN 55110
CIRCUIT boards from camera -ready artwork.
Quantity discounts. Free details. CM CIRCUITS,
22 Maple Avenue, Lackawanna, NY 14218
1
2
3
4
5
PICTURE TUBE MACHINE
We buy and sell NEW and USED CRT
rebuilding machinery. COMPLETE
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
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19
20
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22
23
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27
28
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30
TRAINING. Buy with CONFIDENCE from
the ORIGINAL MFGR.
For complete details send name. address.
rip to
LAKESIDE INDUSTRIES
4071 N. Elston Avenue
Chicago, III. 60618
Phone: 312 -583 -6565
test equipment. Free catalog. Free shipping. Dinosaur discounts. SPACETRON-DM, 948
Prospect, Elmhurst, IL 60126
B & K
Ldl.idt tiit c.it.
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KIT Catalog
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TEST &
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BOX 1054R LIVERMORE CA
o
nmm
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103
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deco
'
ATTENTION
SERVICE DEALERS
Buy Directly
SOLID -state brownout protector for central air conditioning systems. Simple 3 -wire connection
to existing 24V control transformer. $14.95 ppus.
S & S Electronics, Box 430260, Miami, FL
33143
YOUR PHONE CALLS ON TAPE
Record incoming and outgoing calls automatically
with this all solid state unit connected to your
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Top Line Solid State Replacements, Original
Japanese Transistors and Integrated Circuits
2.26
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ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT HOTLINE is a classified advertising newsletter for professional, industrial, and surplus electronic equipment. Subscriptions $6 /year, ads 506 /word. PO Box 4768,
Dept RE, Panorama City, CA 91412
Custom case for above kit Over
11
T.
BOUGHT
WE
fr
LARGE
A
QUANTITY OF THESE HOUSE
NUMBERED PARTS AT A
}
BARGAIN PRICE THAT
ALLOWS US TO SELL THEM
AT A LOW, LOW
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j
.T.
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'1
CA3Un
WIDEBAND
AMPw /apece
IF
MN EPDXY 1W
OP AMP 6 PIN DIP
VOLTAGE REG
PIN DIP
ïï
741
a
723
MPS8530
T
Des
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of.
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Torpid & zener noise 0 overvolta9er oei
Magnified 15 ...6 digit LEO readers.
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/v
1.0001
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.00
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PNP POWER
IDENTICAL TO 2N3790
150 WATTS
80 VCEO
10 AMPS
1.00
00
-01
REVIEWED IN
ISA CONT.
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14,95
Provides cheap
a
Ov. RETAKE
106 DISCOUNT
:4 :d-4;+;;4;;i;
73 NAG.
ao
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-
hold, and count functions. Full
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protection. 24 hour only. Readouts has dimmer feature
or they can be turned off without disturbing the clock or
timer. TimeW %included 1.01% accuracyl. Because of the
any options and mounting considerations the case and
m
switches are not Included. Switches are standard types.
Will I,t infide standard aircraft instrument case.
9
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-14VDC
8
28.95
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ULTRASONIC SENDER RECEIVER KIT US 02
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.1
t1
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MK 03A CLOCK /TIMER KIT
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42.95
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c 1230021 Sound beam works tike a pholoerecsr c beam bur is
by light, heat or noise. Superate Transmitter and rReceiver can be used Nom 6 inches to 25 feet, A solid object breaking c
causer an output to o
ith
p tp 150 Mq ro Oirva a Relay, TgCrei
en 100 Mq. Use it for burgles
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Ipt
;4;;+;;+;;4;;+;
boom.
7/78
lo, your
ran
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heavy duty trans
me on the same set of six digit LED readouts. Totally
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WN
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BOCMpeani
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`2.50n
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}
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j.
tie regulation
p,or,ge
Trip yvoltage rs ad Astable from 3 to 30 volts.
tantly fires a 25A SCR and shorts the output to protect
equipment. should be used on units that are fused. Ch
reedy compatible with the PS42 and P&14. All electron
m pDIiM. Drilled end plated Pt board IOrd¢r OVP 11
ö
t
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ORDER WB -02
THIS 2g PIN MARVEL CONTAINS A LOW
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OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION KIT
A
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AVAILABLE OILY FROM BULLET,
IL-1 OPTO ISOLATORS
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FANTASTIC SOUND EFFECTS
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sN
xO
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DUPLICATE THE SOUND OF
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and
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Adjustable Currpepnt Limiting
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L
15 amps 11.5 t0 14.5V
All parts supplied Including
-'
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RADIAL
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EVER WISHED YOU COULD
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USE YOUR IMAGINATION TO CREATE ORIGINAL-
Teo
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f
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y
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CAPACITORS
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Alela components mqui.ed
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speaker/.
Top quality drilled and dated PC hoards
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::::
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OuaHZ crystal rmehese
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7e1s 15V lA REGULATOR HOUSE a
TION swaps.
TgIAC 2WV 0A UNMARKED
.
ï
ere haS
sEATUe,r
MahN Tn'me
WITH ONLY ONE
ADDITIONAL TRANSISTOR AND A
f`
."
POWER SUPPLY
AUDIO AMP
PN1O5
:
19442R DALLAS, TEX. 75219
(214)823 3240
FND510 696
ale
8/1-00
NPN MOUSE
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25 -UP
TYPE
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
2SA
102
.20
234
.45
.45
473
484
495
497
509
1.50
.30
1.00
561
562
564A
634
643
673
678
682
683
684
695
699A
706
719
720
733
747
818
1
.35
.85
.30
1.0C
TYPE
-9
.30
.59
.59
1.95
.40
1.30
.40
.40
.40
.30
.50
.45
45
.45
1.00
.40
.45
.59
.70
1.10
.27
.53
.53
1.75
.35
1.20
.30
.30
.30
.20
.40
.30
.35
.35
.80
.30
.35
.40
.50
35
.35
.27
.45
.40
.40
.40
.90
.35
.40
.53
.64
.30
35
40
.40
.20
4.20
.27
.30
4.4(
4.90
.90
.30
70
20
2SA 841
10 -24
.35
81
2)
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2S8
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
22
54
75
175
186
324
337
405
407
434
435
463
473
474
492
507
528D
595
596
.30
.20
.35
.20
.20
.30
.351
.70
.80
.30
.35
.90
.80
.80
.90
.90
.80
.70
.60
.80
.70
1.10
1.10
27
40
.2'
.27
35
.90
1.10
1.10
.90
.80
.70
.90
.80
1.40
1.40
I
.40
.30
45
30
30
.40
90
40
1.00
1.00
1.20
1.20
1.00
90
80
1.00
.90
1.50
1.50
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
2SC
281
.30
372
373
380
394
458
495
509
.20
.20
.20
.20
.20
.45
.35
.80
2.50
.30
.35
515A
517
535
634A
.35
.27
.40
.30
.27
.27
.27
.27
30
.30
.55
.40
.60
.45
1.00
3.00
.40
.45
.90
2.70
.35
.40
.30
.30
696
710
711
730
732
735
756
756A
2SC 781
2SC 784
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
2SB
25 -UP
1
2SC 799
2SC 828
2SC 839
2SC 867
2SC 867A
2SC 897
2SC 930
2SC 945
2SC 983
2SC 959
2SC 1000BL
2SC 1014
2SC 1018
2SC 1030C
2SC 1061
2SC 1079
2SC 1096
2SC 1098
2SC 1111
2SC 1124
2SC 11728
2SC 1173
2SC 1226
2SC 1226A
2SC 1239
2SC 1306
2SC 1307
2SC 1318
2SC 1383
2SC 1384
2SC 1419
2SC 1675
2SC 1678
2SC 1728
2SC 1730
2SC 1760
2SC 1816
2SC 1856
2SC 1908
2SC 1909
2SC 1945
2SC 1957
2SC 1970
2SC 1978
2SC 2028
2SC 2029
2SC 2076
2SC 2091
2SC 2092
2SC 2166
10 -24
1.00
20
.20
3.00
20
.20
1.50
1.50
1.90
.30
2.00
.20
.30
3.20
3.20
2.00
.20
.20
.50
1.10
.35
.50
.60
1.80
.70
3.40
.45
.50
2.10
.80
3.20
.50
.50
.50
2.20
1.30
1.90
.35
.30
.35
.60
.20
1.10
.70
.45
.70
1.50
.50
.30
1.80
4.50
.60
2.10
5.40
.50
1.50
.50
.90
1.80
1.40
1.20
.27
.27
3.20
.27
.27
1.80
1.80
2.10
.35
2.20
.27
.35
3.40
3.40
2.20
.27
.27
.64
1,20
.40
.64
.70
2.10
.80
3.55
.55
.64
2.50
.90
3.60
.55
.55
1
-9
1.30
.30
.30
3.40
.30
.30
2.00
2.00
2.40
.40
2.50
.30
.40
3.70
3.70
2.50
.30
.30
.70
1.30
.45
.70
.80
2.40
.90
3.90
.60
2.80
1.00
3.95
.60
.55
2.70
1.45
2.10
.40
2.90
1.60
2.40
.45
.35
.40
.70
.27
1.25
.80
.53
.80
1.75
.40
.45
2.00
5.00
.80
.30
1.40
.90
.59
.90
1.95
.70
.40
2.25
2.50
6.00
5.60
.80
2.80
6.60
.64
.70
1.80
.64
1.10
2.00
1.60
2.00
.70
1.20
2.25
1.80
.70
2SD
2SD 72
.50
.64
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
2SD
234
235
261
287
313
315
325
427
525
526
25 -UP
10 -24
1.80
.90
.70
.70
.40
2.70
.70
.70
.70
2.00
1.10
60
70
.60
.60
.35
2.50
.60
.60
.60
1
-9
.80
.80
.45
2.90
.80
.80
.80
2.25
1.20
80
FET
2SK
2SK
2SK
2SK
2SK
3SK
3SK
3SK
3SK
3SK
3SK
3SK
19BL
23
30
33
55
22Y
39
40
41
45
48
49
.45
.70
.40
.60
.60
1.40
.90
.90
1.30
1.30
.55
.60
.80
.45
.70
.70
1.60
1.10
1.10
1.45
1.45
90
.50
.80
.80
1.80
1.20
1.20
1.60
1.60
3.40
1.30
3.55
1.45
3.90
1.60
1.70
4.40
2.70
1.75
3.20
2.00
2.00
2.10
1.75
1.80
2.20
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.70
2.00
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.20
2.20
4.00
8.00
4.40
5.00
2.20
1.90
4.90
3.00
1.95
3.40
2.25
2.25
2.40
1.95
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.90
2.90
2.90
2.25
2.25
2.40
2.50
2.502.50
4.40
8.80
4.90
5.60
2.50
.80
1.10
1.25
.90
1.20
1.40
2.50
IC
.70
.60
.60
.64
.35
TYPE
.70
AN 2140
AN 239
AN 247
AN 274
AN 313
AN 315
BA 511A
BA 521
HA 1151
HA 1156
HA 1306W
HA 1322
FIA. 1339
HA 1339A
HA 1366
HA 1366W
HA 1366WR
LA 4031P
LA 4032P
LA. 4400
LA 4400Y
LA 4420
M51513L
STK 011
STK 013
STK 015
STK 435
TA 7045M
TA 7060P
TA 7061P
TA 7062P
TA 7089P
TA 7202P
TA 7203P
TA 7204P
1.30
4.20
2.50
1.50
3.00
1.80
1.80
1.90
1.50
1.60
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
1.80
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.80
7.60
4.20
4.50
2.00
.70
.90
1.10
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.00
2.20
2.70
2.70
2.20
2.90
2.90
2.50
TYPE
TA 7205P
TA 7310P
TBA 810SH
TC 5080P
TC 5081P
TC 5082P
UHIC 002
URIC 004
URIC 005
UPC 20C
UPC 563
UPC 575C2
UPC 576
UPC 592HZ
UPC 1001
UPC 1008C
UPC 1020H
UPC 102514
UPC 1154
UPC 1155
UPC 1156
UPC 14305
UPD 861
UPD 857
UPD 858
PLL 01A
PLL 02A
PLL 03A
25 -UP
10 -24
1.60
1.30
1.90
5.00
1.80
1.45
2.10
5.20
3.20
3.55
4.40
3.00
3.40
4.20
4.20
4.20
2.10
1.90
1.30
1.90
.70
1.90
4.20
1.90
1.90
2.00
2.00
1.90
3.00
8.00
8.00
6.00
3.00
5.00
7.60
4.40
4.40
2.50
2.10
1.45
2.10
.80
2.10
4.40
2.10
2.10
2.20
2.20
2.10
3.20
8.40
8.40
6.30
4.20
5.30
8.00
ORDER TOLL FREE
EAST
Nationwide
Ohio
800 -543. 1607
800-582-1630
Mon-Fro 10:0010 7:00 Saturday 10 00 lo 5 00
Cincinnati. Ohio 45240
0 Box 40325
P
WEST
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Nationwide
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21
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DIODES
1S 84
15 332
1S 953
1S 1007
1S 1209
1S 1211
IS 1555
15 1588
IS 1885
15 2076
1S 2093
1S 2473
1N 34
1N 60
10D 1
10D 10
VO6B
45
35
16
35
35
35
20
20
16
20
.35
16
12
.12
.30
.45
.30
55
.40
.60
.45
18
.40
40
.40
.22
.22
18
.22
.40
.18
.13
.13
.35
.55
.35
.20
45
.45
.45
22
22
25
25
.22
.22
22
.25
.25
.25
5.40
1.00
1.70
5.95
1.10
1.90
.25
.25
20
.25
45
.20
.15
15
.40
.60
.40
ZENERS
WZ 071
WZ 075
WZ 090
WZ 120
WZ 192
.20
.20
.20
20
20
MISC.
SG 613
5.20
78L05
.90
1.50
MPS U31
Minimum order 55.00. Add $1.00 postage and handling. Ask br our complete price list when ordering. Overseas
buyers. Manufacturers. Distributors or Dealer orders welcome All parts we guaranteed against factory defects
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Telex:
1
2.00
1.60
2.40
5.80
3.40
3.90
4.90
4.90
4.90
2.80
2.40
1.60
2.40
.90
2.40
4.90
2.40
2.40
2.50
2.50
2.40
3.40
9.50
9.50
7.00
4.60
5.90
8.80
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SCANNER users -build many useful accessories. Free kit catalog. CAPRI ELECTRONICS,
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TELEPHONE ORDERS
Inside Cal 213 886 9200
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Includes ni -cad batteries and wall plug transformer
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THE NEW ELENCO 31/2 DIGIT SOLID STATE MULTIMETER
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DEALERS
WANTED
J
Entire Car or Van
Proximity Triggered Theft Protection for valuables,
Ham equipment.
-
Voltage Triggered Entry Protection
-
CB or
for doors and trunk.
Mechanically Triggered Entry Protection
-
for under -hood parts.
Activated by Personal 4 -Digit Code.
Uses Your Auto Horn As An Alarm, Or Add A Siren.
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Proximity Detection. Even if the
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just approaching the protected area will
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Attention is the one thing the "rip -off" artist doesn't want.
-
-
And, there's more protection. Raising the hood sounds the alarm.
Any change in voltage (dome or trunk light on, starting the car)
sounds the alarm. If the cable connecting the units in the passenger
compartment is cut, the OCULAR 2 turns itself on and sounds
the alarm.
Your personal 4 -digit code activates and deactivates the whole
system. Just enter your code through the attractive push- button
"Code Lok" keyboard when you leave your car and the system is
activated. When you return, there's enough time to enter your code
to deactivate the system before the alarm sounds.
Installation is easy and requires only simple hand tools. Complete
with all hardware, instructions and your personal code. For 12 -volt,
negative -ground electrical systems only.
Sorry, but at this price, we must limit each order to only two syst
per customer.
Was $49.95,now
LE 44 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
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Ocular 2 $19.f
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Parts Place
1
Low Prices and New Items Everyday!
Top- quality devices, fully functional, carefully inspected. Guaranteed to meet all specifications, both electrically and mechanically. All are made
by well -known American manufacturers, and all have to pass manufacturer's quality control procedures. These are not rejects, not fallouts, not
seconds. In fact, there are none better on the market! Always count on Radio Shack for the finest quality electronic parts!
Linear ICs
-
By National Semiconductor
and Motorola
first quality
Type
301CN
324N
339N
386CN
555CN
556CN
566CN
567CN
723CN
741CN
741H
3900N
3909N
4558CN
75491
75492
7805
7812
7815
Cat. No
Counts
ONLY
1.49
1.49
994
794
1.39
1.69
1.99
e90
490
490
990
990
790
990
990
1.29
1.29
1.29
om
100 Hz to 45 MHz
kHz and MHz
494
276-017
276 -1711
276 -1712
276 -1731
276 -1723
276-1728
276 -1724
276.1721
276 -1740
276 -007
276 -010
276-1713
276 -1705
276-038
276 -1701
276-1702
276 -1770
276 -1771
276 -1772
Wire Wrapping Accessories
Hand -Held 6 -Digit
Frequency Counter
Decimals
high quality "pocket" counter with
accuracy of 3ppm at 25°C or less than
30 Hz at 10 MHz! Overload-protected
1 -meg input. Sensitivity, 30 mV up to 30
MHz. Lead -zero blanking. Just 3x41/2?
With mini -rod antenna, leads, case, inA
structions. Requires
9V
alkaline
battery. 22-351
r.
Socket W appin9 Tool. Strips and wraps
wire. 276.1570
14 -Pin Woe Wrapping Sockets. 276-1993
16 -Pin Wire Wrapping Sockets. 276 -1994
DIP Header. 16 pins. 276 -1980
50 Red 30- a. Kynar Wire. 278 -501
50 White 3D -ga. Kynar Wire. 278-502
50 Blue 30 -ga. Kynar Wire. 278-503
99.95
IC Breadboard
NEW
16 -Bit
Address Bus
8080A Microprocessor. 100% prime
CPU handles up to 65K bytes memory.
12.95
275 -2510.
RAM Memory IC
from Light
.81M1111
Modular boards snap together and feature standard 0.3" center. Accepts 22 through 30 -gauge solid hookup wire.
0 550 connections in 2 bus strips of 40 tie points each with 47 rows of
5 connected tie points. 2141x6" 276.174
9 95
® 270 connections in 2 bus strips of 40 tie points each with 23 rows of
5 connected tie points. 21/4x3 411" 276 -175
5 95
© Mlni- Socket. 22 rows of 5 tie points each, plus 2 bus strips with 10
connections each. 2Yex17/e". 276-176
3 95
2102 1K Static RAM. Low power version 16 -pin DIP. Buy 8 and save!
2 49 Ea. or 8/14.95
276 -2501
TTL and
CMOS Logic ICs
Direct from
J
Motorola and
National Semiconductor
7441
7447
7448
7451
7473
7474
7475
7476
7485
7486
7490
7492
74123
74145
74150
74154
74192
74193
74194
74196
4001
4011
4013
4017
4020
4027
2761815
276-1809
276-1823
276-1824
276-1804
276-1805
276-1816
276.1825
276-1803
276-1818
2761808
276-1813
276-1826
276-1827
276-1808
2761819
Cell
Cell
276-2427
2762449
Highly efficient! Delivers up to
400 mA at 0.5V. Ideal for solar
power projects, battery char9tug and operating electronic
equipment.
599
278.121
up to 100 mA at 0.5V. Use several in series -parallel for
higher voltage or current.
276 -120 Reg. 2.99.... Sale 2.29
6.3
6.3
12
24
24
Volts
Current
Cat. No.
Each
1.2A
300 mA
300 mA
300 mA
1.2A
1.2A
273 -050
273 -1384
273 -1385
273 -1386
273 -1480
273 -1505
2.49
1.99
1.99
2.49
2.99
2.89
6.3 CT
12.6 CT
25.2 CT
3A
3A
2A
5A
4A
273 -1510
273 -1511
273 -1512
273 -1513
273 -1514
273 -1515
3.99
4.69
4.99
8.95
8.95
4.99
35C
12
18 CT
18 CV
2A
NEW 3 -Amp
4PDT
Relay
Protective
Cover
Switch up to four different circuits!
Contacts rated 3 amps at 125VAC.
12VDC coil, 160 ohms resistance. Solder terminals. Just 134exlVtiO3Ire ".
4 99
275-214
Digital Integrated Circuits. Complete
specs. AC test circuits, waveforms.
CMOS Integrated Circuits. Covers 74C
series, CD4000 with data specs.
82-1370
62 -1375 Reg. 3.95
3 95
Voltage Regulator Handbook.
494
390
794
390
490
494
994
994
994
394
490
490
790
82-1371
L inear
Sale 2.29
Memory Data Book.
2 95
62 -1376 Reg.
3.95
Sale 2.29
Integrated Circuits. Covers Intel° 8080/8085 Programming Manual. Uses Intel s assembly language.
op -amps, voltage regulators, more.
3 95
62-1372
Unbar Applications. Fully indexed and
2 95
cross -referenced. 82-1373
L inear Applications, Vol. 2. The latest
data sheets, applications.
62-1374 Reg. 2.95
Sale 1.95
62.1377
3 95
Intel Memory Design Handbook.
Companion to Data Catalog, below.
62.1378
3 95
Intel Data Catalog. 928 pages of complete specs on most Intel standard devices. 62 -1379
4 95
59C
1.19
49C
794
694
99C
2762420
NO=
Silicon type cell converts light
to electrical power, delivering
Each
354
390
1.19
1.39
1.29
1.19
1.19
1.19
1.29
490
490
890
1.49
1.49
694
276-1831
276-1820
276-1832
276-1833
276-2401
276-2411
276-2413
276-2417
r
W tales
Mir
MINIM
SALE
eaa
IMINIMIL
Radio Shack Reference Books
276-2450
r62447
WO
660
4511
4518
2762490
1.69
1.49
4050
Silicon
Cat. No.
ONLY
2761828
2761834
Dia.
Silicon
Current
J
276-1817
276-1829
1.99
1.99
1.99
With Clear
Volts
1
Cat. No.
278-1801
276-1811
276-1802
276-1821
276-1807
21/a
Primaries Designed to Operate from 120VAC, 60 Hz
Solde Lugs for Easy Wiring or PC Board Mounting
12.6 CT
7400
7402
7404
7406
7410
7413
7420
7427
7432
2cm
Ideal for 5V (using CT) o 12V solid-state regulators
Full -Spec Devices
Type
x
Low -Cost Power Transformers
Under 450 nS
Access Time
2'1.39
1.29
_w1ir.
Electricity
4cm
Data Bus,
6.95
2.1 29
Solar Cells
Sockets
Computer Chip
8 -Bit
0,gauye
IC
Paddle
Switches
NEW
Lighted DPDT
Pushbutton
Switch
Mounts in t/4" round hole -no
need to cut square opening.
SPST Black. 275 -641
SPOT Red. 275 -642
POT Black. 275-643
1
69
1.89
2.19
PC
Boards
DIP
Push-on/push -off
switch rated 4A
at 12VDC. Button
glows red in "on"
position. Mounts
in e/1e" hole. U.L.
listed.
275 -675.... 4.69
WHY WAIT FOR MA L ORDER DELIVERY?
IN STOCK NOW AT OUR STORE NEAR YOU!
Prices may vary at individual stores and dealers
DIP Switch
Standard
.100x.300"
NEW
Rated 6 Amps
at 125VAC
Epoxy -Glass
Plug -In
8- Rocker
A
For 22 -pin connectors.
Designed for easy change of
preset logic states in digital circuits. Fits 16 -pin IC socket or
mounts on PC board.
275 -1301
.................1.99
41/254".
grid. 3 styles available.
Standard. 276155
449
Digital. 276-156
449
41o"
Op -Amp. 276 -157
22 -Pin Dual Connector.
276-1551
449
2.99
adre IhaeK i
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OVER 7000 LOCATIONS IN NINE COUNTRIES
107
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AMPLIFIER kits: Low TIM, Class A, BI -FET circuitry. Free 60-page manual. MOONLIGHTER
ELECTRONICS, 117 Inverness, San Francisco,
CA 94132
CATCNAPULSE II
(LOGIC PROBE
HOBBYIST give your project the professional
look. Printed circuit boards from your sketch or
artwork. Affordable prices. Also fun kit projects.
Rush free details. DANOCINTHS, Westland, MI
48185
10 Nsec SPEED AT
4 to 15V LEVELS
\
Compatible with
DTL. TTL,
inquiries
welcome
try
ONLY
$4 4 95
.
1
LEVnR TERMINAL
EDUCATION & INSTRUCTION
.1
GRANTHAM's FCC License Study Guide -377
pages, 1465 questions with answers/discussions -covering third, second, first radiotelephone examinations. $13.45 postpaid. GSE PUBLICATIONS, 2000 Stoner, Los Angeles, CA
BNC OUTPUT
E
" SPACED ` «,`,I
TEST STRIP
t
TTL &
FOR CX
CMOS
INPUT
COMPAT-
ABLE
90025
LOUDSPEAKER repair -complete how -to. 26 illustrations. $2: REPAIR, 2860 Park St., Hono., HI
96817
10 Nsec pulse response
Open
DIGITAL PULSES. The C -PROBE replaces
the usual probe and causes a direct readout of
a capacitor's value from
pF to over 10,000
Mfd. on the scope or C /T.
11421
too
circuit detection
Replaceable tip & cord
TEN TURN
TRIMMERS
RANGES
ASSURE EXACT
pF & MM SETTINGS AND
ZERO CONTROL FOR
1- 10,000pF
L01- 10,000Mfd.
Resolution t pF & .0001 Mfd
High input impedance
STRAY CAPACITANCE
.
Pulse stretching
lilt
Multi- family
6 ON FREE
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.
character common
rrrrrrffttttttt
for use with multi-
(AC XFMR 51.951
ZULU VERSION!
we nave a limited number of the 24 HR Real
bine version of MIS module in stock
NMA1008D
-
262 144KHZ. This frequency Is
Bits. 16 Pin Package. Same as Mostek 4116 -4.250 NS access. 410 NS cycle
time. Our best price yet for this state of the art RAM. 32K and 64K RAM boards
using this chip are readily available These are new. fully guaranteed devices by a
major mfg.
VERY LIMITED STOCK!
FND -503- Common Cathode
FND -510- Common Anode
YOUR CHOICE 69t
10 FOR $5.75
FET SALE!
2N4304. Brand New
Channel, Junction Fet
BVGDO -30V IDSS -15 MATyp.
1500 uMHOS. TO -18 Plastic
Case. Mfg by Teledyne.
6 FOR $1
N
FOR $89.95
MFD 16V. P.C.
leads. Most popular
value!
By Sprague.
Full Wave Bridge
4 Amp 200 PIV
694ea. 10/5.75
20 for $1.00
Motorola PNP Power!
2N4905 TO -3 case. 90W.
VCEO -60. HFE -100 max. at
2.5A Good mate for the
PRIMEZ
2N3055
75C
ea.
4/$2.50
O. BOX 401247B
COMPUTER
CAPACITOR
By GE. 36,000 MFD 15W VDC.
Small Size. 4'r. x P. Inches.
SUPER DEAL! $2.95 Each
3 FOR $8
(OF TEXAS)
GARLAND, TEXAS 75040
(214) 271 -2461
SALE!
$1.25 each
DISC CAPACITORS
.1
MANUFACTURER'S CLOSEOUT!
1N4148 DIODES
High speed switching diodes.
Silicon. Same as 1N914.
2
to the 18th power Easily divided
down to any power of 2. and even
to 1HZ New by CTS -Kn Ight. A S5
value,
Digital Research Corporation
P.
PERFECT FOR USE
WITH A TIMEBASE.
$9.95
1
FAIRCHILD
JUMBO READOUTS
FEATURES
FOUR JUMBO 'h INCH LED DISPLAYS
12 HR REAL TIME FORMAT
24 HR ALARM SIGNAL OUTPUT
50 OR 60 Hz OPERATION
LED BRIGHTNESS CONTROL
POWER FAILURE INDICATOR
SLEEP & SNOOZE TIMERS
DIRECT LED DRIVE (LOW RFI)
COMES WITH FULL DATA
EXPERIMENTER'S CRYSTAL
16K DYNAMIC RAM CHIP
.5 Inch Char High Efficiency,
MA1008A
BRAND NEW!
COMPARE AT UP TO TWICE
OUR PRICE!
ASSEMBLED! NOT A KIT!
$2.25
8
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JUMBO CLOCK MODULE
1
each
55v-$2.013: EUROPE.54.50
NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR
$695
Brand New. Full Leads. Prime!
100 FOR $2 1000 FOR $17.50
MALLORY
POWER SUPPLY CAPACITOR
1500 MFD
3/$1.00
16 WVDC
10/$2.95
FACTORY FRESH, SMALL SIZE
RECTIFIER SALE!
1N4006. Prime
New by ITT.
AMP. 800 PIV.
15 FOR $1
1
RCA MICRO-POWER OP AMP.
OCA3078T Metal Can Most OPAMPS require_ 15V to operate But Ine CA307P =Hncgn.
to operate from L 75 V to =60111 Perfect for battery use Standby POW!' as low as 700 NW
High Gain 92 DB typical Open Loop Gain Requires only one 1%Eitor for dompensalion
more details Similar to 5'Ononal LM112 Originally Cost
See RCA Linear Data Book form
about 62 each
,
754
EAOFe
3 FOR $2
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tisau ormornm w,iru,r,el
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8212
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1
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1"
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LIMITED STOCK
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COMPUTER PARTS
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Z -80
$24.95
Z -80A
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8080A
16K X
A
PnOBE
r- HIPPED
TELEPHONE bugged? Don't be Watergated!
Countermeasures brochure $1.00. NEGEYE LABORATORIES, Box 547 -RE, Pennsboro, WV
26415
JUMBO LED READOUT ARRAY
%
C:
-Test
.
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Ability Test. $9.91 postpaid. Moneyback guarantee.
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(714) 447 -1770
e
El
OC EXAMS! Memo,ire, study
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ELECTRONICS
7
ACI UAL COUNT En, TIME
F.C.C. EXAM MANUAL
SPI'.0 I.AL PAK -Il 551.95
Includes a standard coiled cord, coiled cord
with micro hooks, adapter for using CATCH A -PULSE on logic families whose power
supply is 15V to 25V. Shipping add $2 00 per
probe.
CIRCLE
POF
..
Ih,, CI'KI)óL
a precision test instrument
using the Idtest CMOS IC technology to trans
form a capacitor's value into something your
scope or counter /timer already understands
DIGIT LED voltmeter kit $19.60 complete.
S.A.S.E. brings specifications, -schematic. ALPHA-SUPERKIT, Box 21105 -A, Woodhaven, NY
programmed. Automatic resetting
memory. No adjustment required.
Visual indication of logic levels, using
LEDs to show high, low, bad level or
open circuit logic and pulses. Highly
sophisticated, shirt pocket portable
(protective tip cap and removable
coil cord). Eliminates need for heavy
á,m test equipment. A definite savings
K'tjc1D in time and money for engineer
and technician
Dealer
r
3
CMOS. MOS, and Mlcroproces
4 to 15V power
``sors using a
supply. Thresholds automatically
Pat Pend
YOUR SCOPE OR COUNTER/
TIMER CAN INSTANTLY MAKE
PRECISE CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENTS WITH THE
1
ADVANCED
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PRODUCTS
Z- 801Z-80A CPU BOARD
*
* Low Power
* Selectable Memory Protect
* Totally Buffered
* Battery Back-up
* Address on K boundary
*
*
On board 2708
2708 included (45ons.)
* Power on jump
completely socketed
Assembled and tested
$185.00
Kit
$129.95
Bare PC Board
$ 34.95
* For 4MHz Speed Add $15.00
1
check, money order or charge card will be shipped same day as received.
AM9517 DATA Controlar
AM9519 Ú0105,54l i0101,uOl
3881 1280 P101
3691 .d I4MHt1
3042(L80 cTC) I.
10 45
1a 95
1045
1495
295
/O
Sr
9
Inl
Bus Driver
Clock Gen
82204
)412 =I
8226 Bus Driver
8726 Bus (Amer
8238 Sys Con+.
250ns.
450ns.
199.95
250ns. 149.95
179.95
450ns. 125.95
Bare PC Board w /Data
$21.95
Now over 1 year successful field experience
"Special Offer" Buy (4) 8K 450ns. Kits $117.00
6251 POq. PO
6253 Int timer
8255 Prog UO
8257
DMA
8259 Prop Int
8275 CRT Controller
8279 Prop Keyb0erd
68101 128.8 RAM
6820 Pta
6821 PIA
6820 Prrorny Int
6834.1 512 8 Eprom
MICRODESIGN MR-16 2716
EPROM BOARD MB-8 Also Available
st same price)
* Individual Prom Address
* Uses Low cost 16K TI
* Optional 1K RAM *
ea.
Assembled and Tested
EXIDY SORCERER
Kit
Complete expandable Z -80 based computer.
w /8K $8.9514 -6 weeks)
w /16K $11.50 stock
w/32K $13.95 stock
S-100 Expansion module
$299.00
ó8T IA
DIGITAL PLOTTER
SPECIAL KEYBOARD BUY
WHILE THEY LAST
"Clare Pender 63 Key ASCII
w /26 Pin 8 34 Pin Output Conn:'.... $54.95
*
*
*
*
RS 232
High Resolution
2.4" /sec Plot Speed
*
PRICE
BYTE USER 8K EPROM BOARD
Power on Jump
Assembled 8 Tested
* Memory Mapping * Low Power
Phantom
*Only
* 250 ns. or 450 es.
*
*
*
S100 Compatible
JumperSelectable
Assembled and tested
K
*
025123
626126
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
NSC
M
TTL Oeta
Linea, Data
Linee APP /note
Linee APP /nose
5
395
495
2.95
Tl TTL Data
CMOS Dala
Data
Vat Reg Data
2.95
3 95
Memory Dala
3 95
Power Trans,slars
si
3.95
II
Au.
M05051 Data
395
AMI MOS/LSI Data
MOS /LSI Data
4 95
Osborne InIO lu Mero Va 0 850
Osborne
orne Intro to Micro Vo 1115.00
Osborne 8080 Programmmg 850
Osborne 6800 Programming 8.50
Osborne Z80 Proglammulq 8.50
TI Posyr Semis Dai.
7 50
3.95
295
Datazmk
695
050
Dlopes
el 500585 Manual
lei MC550 Manuel
MCS40 Manual
AMD 8080 Handbook
MAO Une.
AMI) Schottky Dala
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6800
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7
50
TI
7
95
TI
495
595
495
495
Tl
Tl
Ti
Memory Oeta
Obteelectromcs
Linear Data
3.95
3 95
395
395
495
&polar Memory
Interface Data
Moto,. Semi
Data
I,1
3
Meci Dala
5CMOS Data
Vol 6 Lmear Daia
Vol. 95cho11ky 7TL
MPU Appkcauons
MPU Prop R e Manual
Power Dala
e, Data
Swllchmg Tran
VOi 4
Vol
lenes
Basic
Baso
Basic
Basic
bao
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295
2500
395
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295
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Software SRI Va
5000,15 SRI Va IV Or V
5oltwal5 SRI Voi VI
Sopeare SRI Voi VII
1
197810 Master
24 95
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$450 each
54.10 /10
BOX 17329
AMI 6800 Micro Assembler Rom
6800 Tiny Basic Paper Tape
6800 Tiny Basic Eprom
95.00
75.00
35.00
45.00
129.00
6.50
30.00
30.00
20.00
125.00
PCG PROGRAMMABLE
CHARACTER GENERATOR
1219
995
995
2495
LOI
Green/Yellow
P 5092/7731
27.95
3295
29 95
3495
8038
"Eprom" Eraser
IMAM
395
150
695
375
595
24 95
095
29 95
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A/D CONVERTERS
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5169.95
795
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MM5369
5.100 Compatible 2MHz
code on &,bell or cuts
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25
9400
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4350
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Fides oral mduslrel Model
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89 RS232
1
95
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13.95
11.95
1.95
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3500
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II /16K
ucolor II
oldo
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59500
TEI FT208
TEI 50.5122
Cromemco 222
Cromemco SOS III
.495.00
180.00
II
Decerrner
24.00
1
180.00
ROE Tuai 751
Communnalwns Iro Card
180.00
PR40Pnnter l /Ow /caaerte
49.95
2216 Eeom Burner w /adept 99.05
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5ío000400
197.50
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ow Co a 5.100 Bus
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24900
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185.00
Day Jones Stoa, Ch ole Pkg 25.00
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drr 510000 .ad 5r.
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24.95
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ATTENTION TNSW USERS
595
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TV INTERFACES
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89
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ATTENTION APPLE
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CW3005. FUnneon
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395
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695
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1795
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995
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4.95
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2.20
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10
19.95
29.95
15
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1450
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UV
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22 Pin
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10.95
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595
HP7340 HEx 0saay
27.95
.
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18
91520MHz
FSC 8024 4 Oigd CC 800
99.1)0
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5.25
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9113 B00/80] CC/CA 800
Bowmer 9 digit bubble
3495
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13 sia MolherBoardlWMC1
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1075
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3495
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3.95
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I
2295
A.5101./161215.1.1
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150
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60MHZ
S 495
095
61 .4
95
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565
4.95
65536
295
10 OMHZ
495
ï09745254Z
585
130MHz
495
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1457651Ht
585
4.95
150
5795458 05
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4.95
4 CMW
195
18 432M(13
595
449430491Z
595
20 01161.12
495
50688
MNZ
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795
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Fundion Gen
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2708/2716 Epren (Macle --3495
30.00
49.95
39.95
501602815V 1201
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Vector 8800 Roto
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7.95
1.50
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5390/10
8 STANDARD
EVK Kluge Board
EVK 16K Byte Ram Board
EVK 6 Slot Motherboard
EVK Extender Board
EVK Solid Frame Chassis
EVK Connectors
AMI 6800 Proto Rom
041
SI 95
CT52099
2708/2718 Eeom IVOMC).
Realtale Clock...
95
MC14411
4702
WD1941
DESIGNER BOARDS
MODULES PROTO BOARDS
CT5208-8
UARTS/USRTS
3995
4995
3995
4750
175
51 75
KEYBOARD ENCODERS
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54.50/10
5495 each
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650
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21.95
16K Salk RAM (21141..... 29.95
32K Stalk RAM 121141
59.95
Floppy VO (renelle
39.95
Casseee I/O (Tarbe10
2995
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2195
1702 Eprom Boa.
3000
-Iá.95
53600
5450 each
1
795
795
325
Frequency
MHz
125
BK
195
4.95
MCM6571A
0 Sector
a 16 Sector
35
CRYSTALS
3.25
3.75
Z.60 CPU (lne.)
8080A CPU
495
0Mó574
12.16575
Sbl Sector
I
75
7
$18.98 each !reg. 49.00)
ON 65K ROM
THAT'S RIGHT ON ROM"
OUP PRICE nniy
59500
4.95
MCM6571
MINI
5.'
595
LIVERMORE BASIC
1.95
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0032513001 15V) Upper
R032513.0051516 Lowe,
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DISKETTES
395
10 25
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6.50
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CHARACTER GEN
9.95
Motorola Compatible Modules '
MEK 6800 02 Kit
$235.00
9600 6800 MPU Module
495.00
9601 16 slot Mother Bd.
175.00
9602 16 slot Card Cage .....
75.00
9603 8 slot Mother Bd.
99.00
9604 System Power Supply
250.00
9610 Prototype Board
36.00
9615 4KEprom Module
250.00
9620 16 port parallel I/O
375.00
9626 8K Static RAM
295.00
9626K 8K Static RAM Kit
225.00
9630 Extender Card ..
60.00
9640 Multiple Tuner Prog.
395.00
9650 8 pon Duplex Asyn. I/O 395.00
Mot 43/86 Connectors w/w or s/t
5.95
AMI EVK 99' 6800 sub Kit
99.00
AMI EVK 200 Kit
249.95
AMI EVK 300 Assembled
275.00
P. O.
Mol
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Mot
Mot
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Moi
Moi
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CT52W0
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425
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NAKED PC BOARD SALE
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1
1
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
295
Pon Submmeure
25
14.95
6.95
4 45
4 45
4.25
4.95
15154070 166
For Low Cost 8 Slot Bus to expand
$149.95 Kit
your Pet only
$279.95
Assembled 8 Tested
95
2.35
4,1 00
RAMS DYN.
I
95
11
CLD Only 51895 Earn
02206 Funclion Generator
95
1
S25
I
M561 Cara Gmdes
195
450
-
1008L
$189.95
$269.95
BOJE
1.49
50.100 Altau WAN/SR
195
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1
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9 25
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WAVEFORM GENERATORS
63
895
9.95
VP4312 Nec FOppy
1781 Duel Floppy
1791 Duel FIOppY
Assembled
41
995
..12.95
a
12
.
725
10 25
35
475
I5.95
820129
dK
4K
6.25
9.96
795
1095
1
CMOS
5131964 let Ram
50 /t001MSAI WAN
50 /1001MSAI 5/7
150
.
81(
1
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16K a l
8.95
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11.50
51C4024 VCO
L9566 VCO
40/80 WAN
43/86 Dual W/W /SR
5.95
3.95
.
$269.95
$179.95
6Ús.
Kit
34
5.50
7.00
7.00
9.95
9
14 95
0002
* Telephone/TWX * S-100 compatible
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SR
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22/44 Dual 5/E
995
5262
5270
5280
1103
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31
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14.95
273
CM6.054Ka 1..
CATIONS ADAPTER
6
3851 F8 Prop Store
4116
4115
4050
0060
5/7 22
8.75
8.75
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P2125/93425145 0s 7 95
6508 IF a I CMOS
795
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De25P
DB255
11.95
PET TO S-100
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4
15 50
15
520390
520400
88341
I
4
WAN 149
15 50
210]ó46 45 41
DC HAYES DATA COMMUNI-
b Pin
15.50
210446 .1
*
28 Pin WAN
6530.004
6530-005
40.95
.24.95
16K with Jumpers 8 Instructions
for either Level or Level II
$119.95
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$117.95
05
16 Pd
18 Pin
20 Pin
22 Pln
24 Pin
8.95
355
285
255
825
8 95
2716.5V
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4096 46
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Trigger Expander Model 10
$229.00
Baseplate
9 95
Model 10 Manual
4 95
Model 150 Bus Grabber Kit ...
.. 369.00
93
1095
1702A
*
*
90
W/W'
2.39
27086
Bare PC Board
$ 39.95
NOTE: For CPM Add $70.00
Documentation Add $20.00
Cassette I/O Kit only
$115.00
PARATRONICS LOGIC
ANALYZER KIT
W/W
750
995
1702A6
*
*
60
Pen
Pon
16 95
2708
TARBELL FLOPPY INTERFACE
37
7.95
10 95
FSC 460.46416K
1101
38
1.10
385
285
270
975
150
1150
795
4220.30/31
Pin SR 17
8 Pin S/T 20
32
W.
PROMS
NOTE: 2708-6 only $5.95
Uses 4115 or 4116
200 ns.
Write Protect
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Lowest Cost/Bit
Expando 32 Kit (4115) Expendo 64 Kit (4116)
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16K $245.95
16K $239.95
32K $469.95
24K $325.00
48K $675.00
32K $400.00
64K $869.95
1750
Pr
995
3853 F8 Memory
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EXPANDORAM MEMORY KITS
Bank Selectable
94.95
64.95
21.95
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available assembled 8 tested
250 es.
450 es.
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$209.00
$189.00
16K Static
$449.00
$399.00
32K Static
$869.00
$819.00
*
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*
8035
1100410142001
20 9 40/ 4
24
251x1
6520 PIA
IMS STATIC RAM BOARDS
2995
22
8 25
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1852 CD bn 1/O
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1557 C01 /O
$999.00
6802P
20
1450
2595
6875
2350 USRT
6680 Bus Driver,
NEW
List: $1085.00
OUR
Plot Size 7" x 10"
Digitizer Avail. Soon
E5M4404
51010E
Pin WAN
148 Pin
16 Pin WAN
18 Rn WAN
105
1.15
7.95
E18104-102
SOCKETS
5
155
1
11
1940
.
.25
1.59
895
7554045
E544200A
2995
6100
1500 .
1
25
95
7 20
9 95
as 95
14 50
754044
3.95
60502
75
1295
2114.4 450015.
39.95
720
7
21143 30005.
2995
6995
99096
CP1600
95
11
21121
21011
'00
25-99
1.30
25
375
195
290
995
211.1
14 95
21 95
2901
TMS
21102 4500s
21L02 250ns
2102
1995
10.aó
SALE BOSS
2901A
4
1695
2495
80800
0080946105
250
295
975
395
239
19
OMH OSC
t
19.95
9.95
19.50
74 95
6850 ACTA
6852 Serul Adapter
6845 /H046505CRTf Ir
6860 Modem
6862 Modulate
Hi PLOT LOW COST
CD1502
1950
1150
1950
Pr.
EPROMS
Phantom control
174.95
99.50
26.95
Fd 138501
2650
80081
6.95
6.95
I1 50
144
Z-80A
50
6 95
Z
Priory
STATIC RAM HEADQUARTERS
ruas
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24 95
)882.4 óM551
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8212
8214
8216
8224
MICROPROCESSORS
95
71
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SUPPORT DEVICES
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SECTION
1
600/360v
2000/24v
2500/30v
6000/50v
20/200v
1500/75v
2500/30v
8/250v
1000/35v
2000/75v
2500/30v
C -2175
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15
25
30
60
15
50
30
10
20
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450
450
500
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1000
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1500
1600
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3200
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PLEASE INCLUDE SUFFICIENT POSTAGE
-
_
Assembled
..FREE CATALOG...
PIN -FOR -PIN
WITH A 741 OP
AMP, BUT IyjTH AN INPUT Z
OF 5 x 10
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LF 13741 BY NATIONAL.
59c
.59
-WANTED-
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SPRING VALLEY, IL 61362
(o
IFET INPUT
741
6A 200V TRIAC .59
MECHANICALLY INCLINED INDIVIDUALS
IAMONOBACK
ELECTRONICS COMPANY
®
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1
PAGE DATA SHEET $1.00
12
"POWER TAB"
CASE, HIGH GATE SENSITIVITY.
FAMOUS MFRS. LOSS IS YOUR GAIN
6A 200V SCR
8 Independent outputs:
Use any or
!
KIT INCLUDES ALL
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8038 SUPER
TO-220
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ONE -MAN
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excellent spare -time income, others operate for
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K-4000
±0.001 %15to35 °C
Hz TO
Jiu VV\
594. 10/$5
-2006
CMOS,
or MOS
FUNCTION GENERATOR
200V
i tetad unit
out puts.
HIGHLY
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Investment unnecessary, knowledge not required, sales handled by professionals.,ideal
home business. Write today for facts!
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Walnut Creek, CA 94597.
TTL,
IC
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T
Add $3 for asUmbled
r
MHz, SINE,
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J
PRE -PROGRAMMED
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SUPPLIED W /DATA. GREAT
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$395
r
.89
.89
189
.39
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.59
20
.79
RHYTHM
I
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GROUND, OUTPUT. SIZE 1.2"
Frequency trimmer
x 1.5 ". FAN OUT 10 TTL
Use with TTL,CMOS
LOADS. ASSEMBLED UNITS ARE
FACTORY CALIBRATED. CALL
OR WRITE FOR PRODUCTION QUOTES.
.79
.25
ROM
KIT INCLUDES ALL PARTS,
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ONLY 3 CONNECTIONS -- +VCC,
5 to12v OperetIon
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long leads, fresh stock.
Stock up while they last
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I
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---
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Specify frequency.
EA.
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AND YOU CAN ORDER TOLL
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INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
BA1310,
2
34
HÁ1125
HA1329
2
10
511010
511020
2
45
HA1366W
HAI366WR
3
30
HA1388
HA1406
LA1222
3 35
LA1365
LA!368
LÁ3101
LA4220
LA4430
LD3000
L13080
2
1.031105
3 75
L13150
195
M5109P
M5112Y
3.30
6 70
M51181.
2
M5130P
M5135P
M5142P
M534OP
M5930P
M5935P
M5946P
M5953P
M5962P
3 30
120
159
3
20
42
3 75
2
55
2
70
2 25
2
70
50
3 12
3.40
5 70
155
85
1
20
85
2.55
85
N.J. Residents add 5s,
M51202
M53216P
M53273P
M58473P
MB3710
MB8719
MN30o6
MN3007
NPC5107
PLLO3A
5G264A
SG609
SG629 3
SG6523
55
I
80
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
20
UPC574
3.30
UPC583C
TRANSISTORS
25C1429
49
2SC1452
40
2SC1474
96
2SC1548
79
25C1583
68
2SC1622
49
2SC1630
3.60
2SC1681
39
25C1682
39
2SC1761
58
2SC1762
4.85
2SC1775
54
2501778
45
2SC1787
62
2SC1811
129
2501844
54
2SC1885
79
2SC1906
48
2SC1923
39
2SC1940
64
2SC1945
6 75
25C1951
59
2SC1959
39
2SC1963
3.30
2SC1981
260
25C1982
3.30
2SC2009
85
2SC2021
65
25C2072
3.95
2SC2120
.45
2SC2212
165
25C2213
1.45
2SC2214
295
250388
3.65
250477
165
250528
3 30
25H58
4.45
25K97
4 85
t5
251007
2SK120
1.20
2S1021
20
25K125
75
25K130A
3 90
1
160
UPC1028
7 90
UPC103111
180
298
2
95
UPC1032H
1.35
7
70
1
95
14
95
7
80
4
50
3 40
17 50
6 90
13 95
19 00
27 80
8 90
II 95
STK013
STK014
STK041
STK075
STK413
TA7092P
TA7117P
TA7206P
TA7214P
TA7217AP
TA7222P
Il
25
II
85
17 40
8 22
6 75
6
50
3
60
06
3
5 15
3
TA7521M
TA7607P
TA7609P
TBA810AS
TBA81005
TBA810S
TBA810SH
TBA820
TDA119oZ
TDA2002
UPC141C
UPC572C
30
1
TRANSISTORS
255772
255786
255991
3.55
258509
258528
258549
258567
258618
25C3525
250356
2SC583C
25C895
2SC983
2SC1056
2SC1424
4
80
330
3 30
3.30
3 30
2
10
6 50
4.60
2
50
4 10
39
54
1
05
135
1
68
39
43
1
129
93
2SÁ880
255911
255915
255922
255923
2SA940
3.50
9 90
89
255811
255818
255835
255840
255841
255842
255861
255879
75
6
33
77
98
4.50
3
96
58
2.79
99
79
2
30
2.65
2.55
95
81
1
4.90
89
1
5.50
2
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
1
5 90
14
SM5104
5M5107C
Sales
1
19 95
511030
511050
1
98
AN217
AN239
AN241
AN247
AN315
BA511A
170
6 50
2 10
4
10
2
80
65
85521
2
75
CXrDtG
HA1306W
HA1339A
LA1366
LA4051P
LA4400
6 20
2
3
3.75
3.60
2 70
3
103141
M5115P
M51513L
MN3001
MN3002
MN3003
PLL01A
PLLO2A
PLLO2A-G
STK011
STK015
STK032
STK050
STK056
STN415
STK439
TA7045M
TA7060P
TA7063P
TA7074P
TA7089P
TA7092P
TA712oP
TA7153P
TA7201P
TA7203P
TA7201P
TA7205P
TA7310P
50
10
1.80
4
90
3 90
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
UHIC004
5 60
UH1C005
5 60
UH1C006
6 40
UPC20C
UPC555H
UPC563H2
UPC566H
UPC575C2
UPC592H2
UPC1001H2
UPCI008C
UPC1020H
UPC1025H
UPC1152H
UPC1156H
UPD857C
UPD858C
3.65
180
3 65
115
2.35
05
1
3 40
5
of
$50.00
under S50. 00. add 51.00. Canada S1 50
or
more.
-
Hours
Daily 9 AM
Au PARIS GUARA5lI
-
7
PM
F
r
.
set 9 AM
....Ivy
75
305
285
3.25
2.80
9 99
7
20
11
70
8.60
8 40
TRANSISTORS
8.40
5 80
6.15
1380
23 75
10 90
8 10
10 10
2.80
1
05
1
10
2.90
2.75
5 45
05
6.75
3.15
3.60
3.20
1
255102
255473
2SÁ484
255496
25A497
2555645
255634
255636
255643
255678
255682
255683
255684
2556995
255706
255733
25822
25054
39
65
225
89
39
39
65
1
25
1
55
55
1
80
1
2.95
www.americanradiohistory.com
1
250460
25
35
45
35
25C482
2SC495
2SC509
25C517
2SC535
2SC627
1
79
45
3
25
45
135
45
2SC634A
2SC710
2SC730
2SC732
25C735
2SC756A
250778
2SC781
2SC784
25C789
2SC793
2SC799
250828
2SC839
25C8675
2SC930
2SC945
2SC1014
2SC1018
45
45
1.35
37
3 95
35
2
35
40
3 35
2 50
2SC1061
2SC1079
25C1096
25CI166
2SC1172
2SC1173
2SC1226A
2SC1237
25C1239
2SC1306
2SCI307
2501383
2SC1384
2SC1675
2SC1678
25C1728
2SC1760
25C1909
2SC1957
2SC1973
2SC2028
2SC2029
2SC2091
2SC2092
20C2098
25072
25092
250180
250218
250234
250235
45
250261
85
25D313
250315
250325
250330
25K19
25K33
2SK55
2
45
2
65
35
43
3
TRANSISTORS
2SC1034
5 45
95
35
35
83
.85
301(22
3SK40
35845
1
3
00
95
75
40
4
80
70
70
2 15
3 15
2
45
3
85
45
55
40
1
90
100
105
2
75
95
55
74
3 35
2
40
3 10
3 40
78
175
2 35
3.45
80
80
49
90
1.05
85
89
68
85
.89
1
80
1
90
2 -10
NEW-TONE ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL
s PM
CIRCLE 43 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
35
45
45
2.60
DEFECTS
TRANSISTORS
258175
39
258324
55
258337
35
258370
62
45
258405
120
258407
1.25
258435
1.40
258463
258474
85
2SB492
85
2SC372
35
2SC373
35
2SC380
35
45
25C387Á
2SC394
39
45
2SC458
2SC481
19 50
11 70
COD's WELCOME
Tax.
We pay postage tor prepaid orders
110
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TEGRATED CIRCUITS
AN115
225
ÁN228
4 65
AN272
390
AN3!3
4 85
AN321
2 25
AN326
3 30
AN362
2 70
ÁN366
2 49
ÁN606
4 50
ÁN612
2 70
150
BÁ401
BA402
150
BÁ505
6 30
BÁ612
2 40
NTERNATIONAL
P.O. Box 1739, Bloomfield, N.J. 07003
New Jersey Phone: 201 /748-5089
COMPUTER INTERFACES & PERIPHERALS
For free
E
catalog including parts lists and schematics, send a self -addressed stamped envelope.
APPLE II SERIAL I/O
INTERFACE *
T.V.
TYPEWRITER
Baud rate is continuously adjustable
from 0 to 30,000 Plugs into any peripheral connector Low current drain. RS232 input and output On board switch
selectable 5 to 8 data bits, 1 or 2 stop
bits, and parity or no parity either odd or
even
Jumper selectable address
SOFTWARE Input and Output routine
from monitor or BASIC to teletype or other serial printer.
Program for using an Apple II for a video or an intelligent terminal. Also can output in correspondence code
to interface with some selectrics. Board only
$15.00;
with parts
$42.00; assembled and tested
$62.00.
--
-
32 char/ line, 16
lines, modifications
for 64 char/ line included
Parallel
ASCII (TTL) input
Video output
1K
on board memory
Part no. 300
8K Altair bus memory
Output for computer controlled cur ser
Auto scroll
Non -destructive curser
Curser inputs: up, down, left,
right, home. EOL. EOS
Scroll up, down Requires +5
volts at 1.5 amps, and -12 volts at 30 mA All 7400, TTL
chips Char. gen. 2513 Upper case only Board only
$39.00; with parts $145.00
MODEM *
Part no. 109
Type 103
Uses 2102 Static memory chips Memory protect
Gold contacts Wait states On
board regulator S -100 bus compatible Vector
input option
TRI state buffered
Board only
$22.50; with parts $160.00
RF MODULATOR*
Part no. 107
TI DMA *
Converts video to AM modulated RF, Channels 2 or 3. So
powerful almost no tuning is required. On board regulated
power supply makes this extremely stable. Rated very
highly in Doctor Dobbs' Journal. Recommended
by Apple. Power required is 12 volts AC C.T., or
+5 volts DC
Board $7.60; with parts $13.50
Full or half
Works up to 300
duplex
baud
Originate or Answer
No coils, only low
TTL
cost comporents
input and output -serial
Connect 8 ohm speaker
and crystal mic. directly to board
demodulator Requires +5 volts
with parts $27.50
8K STATIC
RAM
Part no. 106
Stand alone TVT
Part no. 2
Uses XR FSK
Board $7.60;
RS
DC POWER SUPPLY*
Part no. 6085
Board supplies a regulated +5 volts
at 3 amps., +12, -12, and -5 volts at
amp. Power required is 8 volts AC
at 3 amps., and 24 volts AC C.T. at 1.5
Board only $12.50; with
amps.
parts excluding transformers $42.50
1
TAPE INTERFACE
Part no. 112
Tape Interface Direct Memory Access Record
and play programs without bootstrap loader (no
prom) has FSK encoder /decoder for direct connections to low cost recorder at 1200 baud rate,
and direct connections for inputs and outputs to a
digital recorder at any baud rate. S -100 bus com-
patible
*
Part no. 111
Play and record Kansas
City Standard tapes
Converts a low cost tape
recorder to a digital recorder Works up to 1200
Digital in and out
baud
are TTL- serial Output of
board connects to mic. in
of recorder Earphone of
recorder connects to input on board No coils
Requires +5 volts, low power drain Board $7.60;
with parts $27.50
Board only $35.00; with parts $110.00
UART & BAUD RATE
GENERATOR*
der:
232/TTY*
INTERFACE
Part no. 600
Converts RS -232 to 20mA
current loop, and 20mA current
loop to RS -232 Two separate
circuits Requires +12 and -12
volts
Board only $4.50, with
parts $7.00
RS
Part no. 101
232 /TTL*
INTERFACE
Converts serial to parallel
and parallel to serial
Low
cost on board baud rate
generator Baud rates:110,
150, 300, 600, 1200, and
2400
Low power drain +5
volts and -12 vols required
TTL compatible All characters contain a start bit, 5 to
8 data bits, 1 or 2 stop bits, and either odd or even parity
All connections go to a 44 pin gold plated edge connector Board only $12.00; with parts $35.00 with connector
add $3 00
r ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
rTo
E
Dept. RE -9
Part no. 232
Converts TTL to RS -232,
and converts RS -232 to
TTL Two separate circuits
Requires -12 and +12 volts
All connections go to a 10 pin gold plated edgí
connector Board only $4.50; with parts $7 OC
with connector add $200
A
P.O.
Box 21638, San Jose, CA. USA 95151
J
Mention part number and description. For parts kits add "A" to part number. In USA, shipping paid for orders accompanied by check, money order, o'
Master Charge, BankAmericard, or VISA number, expiration date and signature. Shipping charges added to C.O.D. orders. California residents add 6.5°ró
for tax. Outside USA add 10% for air mail postage, no C.O.D.'s. Checks and money orders must be payable in US dollars. Parts kits include sockets for all
Cs, components, and circuit board. Documentation is included with all products. All items are in stock, and will be shipped the day order is received via
first class mail. Prices are in US dollars. No open accounts. To eliminate tariff in Canada boxes are marked "Computer Parts:' Dealer inquiries invited.
24 Hour Order Line: (408) 226 -4064
Circuits designed by John Bell
*
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CARBON
RESISTOR KITS 1/4W
FIRST QUALITY
MULTI-TESTER
SANYO HYBRID
Audio
power amplifiers I.C.
Max. hi -fi output power, minimum ext. components needed.
IT TESTS
Each kit contains
all the EIA designated 10% values
from 2.2 ohms to 8.2 megohms.
Your cost: Only $.02 per resistor.
TRANSISTORS AND LED's
AS WELL!!
YX-360TR
KIT A
TRANSISTOR TESTER
20K OHMS /VOLT
1,000 Pcs. 1995
Includes FREE
9- drawer box
($5.00 value)
PPd'
SPECIFICATIONS
0cv 0Á.1.0.5.2.5- 10 -50- 2501000 1204/!'
OCA
& 250mVl
ACV
n
KIT B
3%
0,10.50.250.100018kn /VI
Freq. 30H: 10 30kH:
.1.10.1k .10k Imsa. 20M:
Batt 1. SV.2 & 9V.1
-10Io*62
as
ICED 0
500 Pcs. 995 ppd.
hr.
150.4 0-15.150n1A .5%
$28.50
0.1000 3% Ivy/connector)
150.100,57 420,
Includes FREE
compartmentalized
box ($2.00 value)
STK- 28
$ 8.50
$13.50
STK -054
30 Watts
STK -056
$17.50
Watts
50
STK -050
$26.50
10W + 10W (stereo) STK -040
$14.50
15W + 15W (stereo) STK-041
$25.50
20W + 20W (stereo)
STK -043
$31.50
'data sheet comes with purchase
15 Watts
23 Watts
V/ _3%. 25k Iw /HV probe)
0 -50.A 0 2 5.25,,,A 0.0.25A /100.'V
COMPUTER GRADE
CAPACITORS
THE MOST POPULAR
MM5314 CLOCK KIT
Features:
12/24 Hours Display
H 50/60 Hz Input
6 Digits Bright Orange
KIT C
250
495
Pcs.
in Poly Bag
PPd'
17
[1:2
Aluminum Electrolytic,
Tantalum and Ceramic
Capacitor Kits. Semiconalso.
ductor Kits, too. Lamps
111
IIII
over 2,000
quality Receiving Tubes.
Many hard -to -get types.
All at 75% off list.
i
0
case, MM
5314 I.C. One set transistor
drivers, P.C. Board, gas discharge displays, all other electronic parts and transformer. Catalog no. DC -8SP
SPECIAL PRICE
$16.95 PER KIT
9 STEPS LED
We have
tiReadouts
y
Kit includes plastic
MANY OTHER KITS
3
LEVEL INDICATOR KIT
All capacitors
are Brand New
U.S. made in standard size
9000M FD
11000MFD
14500M FD
23000M F D
58000M F D
100,000M FD
50V
35V
40V
20V
20V
6V
$3.25
$3.20
$3.40
$3.00
$3.20
$2.50
EA.
EA.
EA.
EA.
EA.
EA.
ULTRA -SONIC REMOTE
CONTROL SWITCH KIT
Kit includes the transmitter, the
receiver, ultra sonic transducers,
P.L.L. I.C., all other electronic
parts and P.C. Boards. Ideal for
control TV, light, fan or garage,
door. Case not included.
for most stereo amplifiers
This new project works as a pair of VU
meter to indicate the output level of your
amplifier from -20dB to +3dB. Kit includes
all LED, transistors, electronic components,
P.C. Board and instructions.
Easy to build and fun to see.
ONLY $12.50 EA.
$18.50 PER KIT
DIP SWITCHES
60W + 60W
IL
ORIGINAL JAPANESE
SEMICONDUCTORS
Full range available to
fill just about any
requirement.
Call (516) 752 -0060
or send for
complete
catalog
TO ORDER:
-
Send check or Money Order
residents add appropriate tax.
N.Y.
/ ,[
-7-
i
COMPLETED UNIT -NOT A KIT!
OCL pre amp. & power stereo amp. with
bass, middle, treble 3 -way tone control.
Fully assembled and tested, ready to work.
Total harmonic distortion less than 0.5%
at full power. Output maximum is 60 watts
per channel at 8
. Power supply is 24 36V AC or DC. Complete unit
only $49.50 ea.
Power transformer
$ 8.50 ea.
698, MELVILLE, N.Y. 11746
positons
positions
7 positions
8 positions
10 positions
5
6
ELECTRONIC WHEEL OF FORTUNE KIT!
With 10 numbers split into black and white
on dial. The LED turns whep you hit the
play switch, then it slows down and stops
on one number. It sounds like a motor
inside, but there is none. Lots of fun and
easy to build. Kit comes with nice looking
case,
all
electronic
,'.,
s \,
parts, P.C. Board and
LEDs. Battery not included.
$12.50
22W + 22W STEREO HYBRID AMPLIFIER KIT
It Works In 12V D.C. As Well! Kit includes 1 PC SANYO STK024 stereo power amp. IC LM 1458 as pre amp, all other electronic parts, PC Board, all control pots and special heat sink
for hybrid. Power transformer not included. It produces
ultra hi -fi output up to 44 watts (22 watts per channel) yet
gives out less than 0.1% total harmonic distortion between
100Mz and 10KHz.
$32.50 PER KIT
STEVEN PRODUCTS
P.O. BOX
(On-Off Contacts)
$1.50
$1 .60
$1.70
$1.70
$1.80
$2.00
4 positions
POWER TRANSFORMER 16.50 EACH
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CIRCLE 33 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
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SUPER 15 WATT AUDIO AMP KIT
_0,
STK -015 Hybrid Power Amp
Kit Includes: STK -015 Hybrid IC, power supply with
power transformer, front Amp with tone control, all
electronic parts as well as PC Board. Less than 0.5%
harmonic distortion at full power 1/2dB response from
20- 100,000 Hz. This amplifier has QUASI -Compli mentary class B output. Output max is watt (10 watt
FM WIRELESS MIC
Uses
ONLY $23.50 each
RMS) at 451
--
(I1/JI.,i.
the FM range 188 -108
MHz I. It transmits the
EACH KIT sound wave fidelity clearly over long distances lup to 250 ft.). Kit cornes w,th all
electronic parts, P.C. Board and mini microphone!
$2.50 each
FET Transistor Built -In
FLUORESCENT LIENT DRIVER KIT
ftlk
mately
/u" X
1
Model EB2116 (Continuous)
Model EB2126 (Slow Pulse)
Model EB2136 (Fast Pulse)
$3.60 EACH
III
EN
11111
Transformer for Power SupPly, 2 AMP 24V x
30V DC Panel Meter $4.20
12V DC MINI RELAY
illP.C. Board Solder Type
Malt
AUDIO AMP
All parts are pre assembled
ELECTRONIC
SWITCH KIT
6-
CONDENSER TYPE
55.50 each
-
Super Buy Only $18.50
5W AUDIO AMP KIT
LM 380 with Volume Control
Power Supply 6 .--18 V DC
Only $5.00...
TIMER KIT
Time Controlled from 1- 100sec.
Ideal to be used as timer delay
unit for burglar alarm, photo
service, and other purposes.
Max. loading 110V, 2 AMP.
Supply voltage 12 -18V DC.
$11.50 each
FT -.p ELEcTnuN,a ,a TIMER
Crlmeflghter Auto
Alarm Is an electronic,
self-controlled auto protection system, normally
mounted within the glove
box of an automobile.
Two minutes after turning off the Ignition the alarm automatically
turns Itself "on ". When auto Is re -entered, the
horn will sound after a 10.5 second entry delay. The automobile owner, by Inserting the
Ignition key, will activate the alarm. Once activated, the alarm will sound for two minutes
before automatically turning of /. The alarm
then resets and Is ready
ady to again protect the
vehicle from unwanted entry.
FEATURES: Simple Installation: 5 wires,
Automatically turns on when auto Is parked
Adjustable entry time Extended exit time to
allow for unrushed exit from vehicle, Numerous applications Include protection of boats,
campers, trailers, motorcycles, trucks, Cannot be deactivated by "hot wiring" an auto,
Cannot be turned off without Ignition key,
Negative ground only.
ONLY $14.00 PER KIT
Voltage Supply
Au-999
SCR win
Ideal for
a,ewa,
w
rats
Orn2
a,
,
a
buzzer
to sec
l
er asara
Or stagger
adlurtaal)
duo
nd
ornar
onrrouso toss
many other
Supply volt., 4.5V ß-9v D.C.
1.75 ea. /2 for $3.00
2
A
$6.50 ea.
doo
4
Mos Ic.
N ciRCUIT
2V4"
buprrglar
etc.
alarmm,
Dogramable
Ar,
to
Any
Combination
RELAY AND K EY PAD NOT INCLUDED
8a
certain low voltage.
cool /daylight miniature flourescent tube.
6 X 1.5V UM -1 (size D) dry cell battery.
Easy sliding door for changing batteries.
Stainless reflector with wide angle increasing lumination al the lantern.
drops to
9"
6W
a
J
Only $8.50
TOGGLE SWITCH
PANEL METER I(D.C Type)
'
_,
I
SI
$5.50
0 -50 UA
0 -1MA
ea.
0.5MA
0 -100MA
rated
0-30V
0 -50V
0 -100V
M5 244
4AMP
3AMP
3AMP
3AMP
0.BAMP
CT
CT
CT
CT
12V CT
12V CT
AC
OPDT
1.9
10.99
1.00
1.20
0.90
1.10
LARGE QUANTITY AVAILABLE
FOR OEM
O.BAMP
120MA
$1 25
SUSMINIATURES TOGGLE
SWITCHES
$7.50 EA.
$6.50 EA.
$6.50 EA.
56.50 EA.
$1.80 EA.
Si 80 EA.
SPDT
I
DPDT
3PDT
3
HOUR
INDICATOR
This unit is 1 5/8" long operating volt.
age 4V D.C. will tell you how many
hours your circuit or machine has been
in ervice up to 100 hours.
ea.
for $2.00
PUSH- BUTTON SWITCH
N /Open Contact
Color: Red, White, Blue,
Green, Black.
4/$1.00
N/Close also
Available
50. ea.
LARGE QTY. AVAILABLE
(scale marks 0 -100)
$1.50 each
Limited Quantity ONLY $1.75
ea
ea
Approx. 1" square
SPST Normal Open
Contact rated 1AMP
Coil 6--12V DC
All brand new by AMF
100MA $1.90 EA.
WIDE ANGLE PANEL METER
$
$1.50
$1.75
MINI SIZE REED RELAY
200MA $2.75 EA.
100MA 52.10.EA.
120MA SISO EA.
l
0001f
OnOff
4)
EA.
POWER SUPPLY
Output
Output
Output
Output
$1.30 ea
OnOtt
Mini size Rocker Type
¡Also available at the same price
Well Type Transformer
12V AC
16V CT AC
SPOT
MS 245
TRANSFORMERS
ALL 117 VOLT INPUT
30V
36V
48V
24V
24V
slats of subminl toggle twitch
3 amo 125v AC contact
Mall
Size COMM X 66MM
White Face Type
11/4" x ha"
$2.75 per pair
colors
Size smaller than a box Of matches!
Receives all AM stations
Batteries and ear phone included
IMA Full Scale
E Z clips
With 20" Long Leads
In Black and Red Colors
5
MINI -SIZED I.C.
AM RADIO
ONLY $1.20 ea
025W
Same as the
-
Alligator clips on
a 22" long lead. Ideal
for any testing.
$1.85 /pack
500 UA
e-
6V DC
SPECIAL 3 for $2.00
I.C. TEST CLIPS
FEATURES
Circuitry: designed for operation by high
efficient, high power silicon transistor
which enable Illumination maintain In a
standard level even the battery supply
d
for most sound projects
BATTERY POWERED
FLUORESCENT LANTERN
CLIP LEADS
10 pairs
Sub Mini Size
PANEL METER
y44
12V DC
ROUND SPEAKER
FOR $1.20
for auto ignition, entry
1
NOT A KIT
0.5" RED LED READ OUT
24 HRS. ALARM SET
10 MINS. SNOOZE SET
AM /PM ALARM INDICATORS
SECOND DISPLAY SWITCH
AUTOMATIC BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL
COMPACT AND HANDSOME
PACKING
$17.50 EACH
DIGITAL ELECTRONIC LOCK KIT
w1,)
DIGITS
a
X 61
HEAVY DUTY
BRAND NEW
EVEREADY CH15 AA size NI4 for $5.50
CD 500 MA /HR.
Only limited quantity available
r'S
110V AC 60HZ INPUT
LINEAR SLIDE POT 500KS2 SINGLE
Metal Case 3" Long
cax.h
L
pack !1.2V
500 MA /HR
54.60 PER PACK
-NM
ALARM CLOCK
COMPLETE UNIT
6.-12v $7.50
SOUND ACTIVATED SWITCH
11411,
4
COMPLETE UNIT
Ideal for use as an Alarm Unit
or hookup to your car back up
to make a reverse Indicator.
Light Output up to 130dB
E24.50
6 in
The
N`rt7+TT-.
SALE!
AA SIZE NI.CD BATTERY
AUTO ALARM KIT
ELECTRONIC ALARM SIREN
-_.....
4
ONLVea.
and 12V relay
MAIN AMP 115W X 21
Kit includes 2 PCs. Fisher PA 301
Hybrid IC all electronic parts with
PC Board. Power Supply ± 16V
DC (not Included). Power band
with (KF 1 %y 3dB). Voltage gain
33dB. 20Hz
20KHZ.
2
4" blue color
boat and campers.
Touch On Touch Off
uses 7473 I.C.
"FISHER" 30 WATT STEREO AMP
ONLY $5.50 PER KIT
12V D.C. AUTO
DIGITAL CLOCK
Complete Unit
Not a Kit!
digits display. Turn oft
readouts when car is not running. X'tal
controlled time base for time accuracy.
Special designed case for easy mounting
on top of your dashboard. Ideal for car,
0
on a mini PC Board
Supply Voltage
9V D.C.
SPECIAL PRICE $1.95 ea.
light tube not included!
$6.50
2
Iàe
2AMP Contact SPOT $1.30 EA
2AMP Contact DPOT SI 75 EA
5AMP Contact 4PDT 52.20 EA
Fast pulse
Slow pulse
Continuous
Lights up 8^-15 Watt
Fluorescent Light Tubes
Ideal for camper, outdoor
Auto or Boat
Kit includes high voltage coil, power transistor
heat sink. all other electronic parts and PC Board,
REGULATED
Uses UA723 and ZN3055 Power
TH output can be adjusted from
0 -30V, 2 AMP. Complete with PC
board and all electronic parts.
-1
$10.50 each
0 -30V D.C.
",
11 /a
12V DC POWERED
POWER SUPPLY KIT
Solid state sound indicator
operating voltage 6V DC
30/1 A. Small size approxl-
E
Sub-Mini Size
Condenser Microphone
CASE 030
MANY SOUND DECISIONS!
$5.95
WE FOUND THE CASE FOR THE FM MICH
Small nice looking aluminum case size like a pack
of cigarettes. It is an intercom. Audio amp inside
with a reinc jack, a mini toggle sw on Comm. can be
used for many projects. We give you the
data as well.
VERY SPECIAL PRICE
2 for $4.99
PROFESSIONAL CASE
for our 0.30V Power Supply. It
is a nice looking metal cast case
with giant 4" volt /amp meter;
output blinding post and fuse
holder, on /off switch and line
cord!
ONLY $21.50 EA.
SPECIAL
$ 56.50
NOT A KIT!
freq. transistors, works in
rr
.
63 KEYS ASCII DECORDED
COMPLETE KEYBOARD
by Honeywell
with dual color key tops, uses TMS 5000
decorder LSI. (schematic data included)
KIT
This new model FM wireMIC kit uses 3 high
_
SOLID STATE ELECTRONIC BUZZER
Mini size 1' x >/ " x54"
12V
Supply voltage 1.5V
ideal for Alarm
or Tone indicator
51.50 each
MINIMUM ORDER $10.00. California residents add 6% sales tax and 10% shipping.
Out of atete add 15% of total purchase for dipping charges, out of USA and O erses add 25% of total purchase.
12/78
vm
SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO
FORMULA INTERNATIONAL INC.
HAWTHORNE, CALIFORNIA 90250
12603 CRENSHAW BOULEVARD
For more information please call (2 131 973-1921, (2131 6795162
m,ltilel chatlf
STORE HOURS 10-7 Monday - Saturday
t7
m
,Qi
co
DI
'Y`YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYVVYYYYYYYYYYYVYYnVnYYVVYYVn
a
$9.60 EACH
MODEL 088 R
I
m
BANRi1MERIGRO
SEND $1.00 FOR DETAILED CATALOG
CIRCLE
11 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
ço
V
co
1
13
Ja
Kits
Regulated Power Supply
ELECTRONICS
.
Uses LM 309K
. Heat sink provided
* P.C. board construction
.
Provides
a
solid
amp
1
(ay
5V
Includes
components,
CPU
8212
8214
8 -13i1
821 6
8224
$14.95
Function Generator Kit
.
.
Provides 3 basic waveforms: sine, triangle &
square wave
Frequency range from
to 100K Hz
1
Hz
0
.
-volts to over
6
volts
(peak to peak)
Uses a 12V supply or a -_
6V split supply
Includes chip, P.C. board,
components and instruc-
tions.
JE2206B
$19.95
Digital Stopwatch Kit
I p
Intersil 7205
.
8238
8251
8253
8255
system Controller
Prop Comm 1 /0(USART)
Prop. Interval Timer
Prop. Penph 1,0 (PPI)
14
8257
8259
Prop DMA Control
Prop. Interrupt Control
19.95
19.95
McooiovP1
.
.
te
tit .ari
'n
JUN
MC6828
80683018
MC6850
MC6852
MC6860
MC6862
MC688OA
-
795
Pnoriry Interrupt Controller
1024E8 BR ROM (1068430 -8)
Asynchronous Comm Adapter
12 95
CPU
CPU
MPU
14.95
7.95
9.95
12 95
14 95
2.25
GRIPS-MISCELIANEOUS$19.95
24.95
19.95
19 95
MPU w /clock. RAM. I/O lines
B -89
P8085
19.95
CPU
TM59900JL
49
7
CPU
COP1802
2650
19 95
MPU w/hardware. multiply
16-611
4995
9 divide
SHIFT REGISTERS
MM500H
Dual
Dual
Dual
Dual
Dual
MM503H
MM504H
MM506H
MM510H
MM5016H
25045
2518
2522
25 89 Dynamic
5.50
50 Bit Dynamic
16 Bit Static
100 Bit Stale
2
95
99
2.95
2.95
4.00
4.00
25681
1103
2101(8101)
2102
21L02
2111(8111)
2112
2114
2114L
2114 -3
2114L-3
5101
1024E1
5260/2107
7489
745200
93421
4096%1
1604
256x1
UPD414
(MK40271
UP0416
(M641161
TM5404445NL
TM54045
2117
41(
Static Testate
Stab<
Oynemic 16 pin
166
Dynamic 16 pin
4K
Static
14 95
1024%4
16,384 91
static
14.95
MM5262
2K %1
1702A
TMS2516
(2716)
TM52532
2708
2716 T
2048
2
95
2
95
195
5
Parts
25664
102461
1024 %1
99
3 95
95
10204
1024E4
102444
256X4
2561(1
tP
679
. Bright .300
a
ht. common cathode display
Uses MM5314 clock chip
,n
anJ
a
dieu)
Lln,l,
a
Size: 6
-3/4"
z 3 -1 /Br" x
1
ges Oar Ir.
ayu
[email protected]'n nearly
m
rq'
int
JE747
-15 dbm nominal
Power
Physical....,.
EIA 135 -2320 or
20 mA current lace (receiver :s
oploisolated and nonpolarl
120 VAC. single phase, 10 Watts.
All components mount on a single 5" by 9
printed circuit board Ad components included
Audm Osc,llalo, Frequency Coumer and or Dscnloscopelo align
a
VOM
TRS -80
16K Conversion Kit
Expand your 4K TRS -80 System to 16K. Kit
comes complete with:
8 each UPD416 (16K Dynamic Rams)
Documentation for conversion
$115.00
TRS -16K
Special Offer
Sup'R' MOD
S144 95)
your TRS -16K and the
Interface kit together (retail value
- Order both
II
for only $139.95
14 95
49
3
2 95
3 95
19 95
3
COMPUTER CASSETTES
.6
95
995
.
3 95
2
95
.
EACH 15 MINUTE HIGH
QUALITY C -15 CASSETTES
PLASTIC CASE INCLUDED
12 CASSETTE CAPACITY
ADDITIONAL CASSETTES
AVAILABLE #C -15 -52.50 ea
CAS -6
$14.95
Case and 6 Cassettes)
q
0 as
LED D
Ac
p,
ton
J
IP
01 -100 MHI Hange
6' LED Display
Crystal- controlled timebase
Fully Automate
Portable
completely
*01
,arm
sen.eenlrned
Size
size
-175"
a
7
38"
.563-
31n
a l
y hatter.
4
--
6 4
D
r 4
100 MHz
MOD Il
$29.95 Kit
Custom Cables & Jumpers
8 -Digit
I
$134.95
MAX -1110
DB 25 Series Cables
Part No.
DB25P -4 -P
DB25P-4 -5
DB25S -4 -S
Cable Length
1- DP25P/1
ft
DJ14-1
DJ16-1
DJ24-1
ACCESSORIES FOR MAX 100:
Mobile Charger Eliminator
use power from ca, banery
wee!
Charger /Eliminator
Adapter BC -28
59.00
Rechargeable
Batteries BP -26
20.00
Carrying Case LC -28 7.50
use
6
,
100
Model 100
10 V AC
-
CIA S3.95
-
CAI 59 95
DJ14-1-14
DJ16-1-16
5J24 -1 -16
-All zeros to the left of the first non -zero digit are
and Mega Hertz decimal points automatically
Built in input overvonage protection.
Use 9V Battery or 110/220V power.
wighwith
antenna
Complete
-Oily65e
ete
thOnly
blanked. Kilo Hertz
light up when the unit is turned on
MINI-MAX
$89.95
Accessories For Mini -Max
Part No.
Description
-
S5.00 Minimum Order
U.S. Funds Only
California Residents
Add 6% Sales Tex
-
IVA
'
-'
NE\o9
\a
Z
a
.7%919
,
1.14 Pin
SI 59 ea
1.79 ea
2.79 ea.
2.79 ea.
-
PHONE
ORDERS
WELCOME
(415) 592 -8097
Advertised Prices Good Thru December
www.americanradiohistory.com
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
3
2,24 Pin
19
ea.
4 95 ea
_
CONNECTORS
25 Pin -D Subminiature
0825P(as pictured) PLUG
00255
SOCKET
0851226 -1
Cable Cover for 0825
P
or
S
52.95
3.50
1.75
63 -Key Unencoded Keyboard
3.95
9.95
9.95
WORLDWIDE
CIRCLE 16 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
1
595
-
ELECTRONICS
MAIL- ORDER ELECTRONICS
-16
-24
2 -14
2 -16
1
s 3.95
Spec Sheets
250
1979 Catalog Available -Send 41 c stamp
arreco
ea
Price
Antenna
Carrying case
Input cable with clip leads
110V adapter
220V adapter
MM-05
MM-IPC
MM-AC2
MM-AC3
ea
S17.95 ea.
For Custom Cables 8 Jumpers, One JAMECO 1979 Catalog for Pricing
Digit 50MHz Frequency Counter
Hz to 50 MHz
Full 6 digit display with antiglare window
Fully automatic -range, olarlry, slope, to5per, input level switching not required.
Lead -zero blanking
515 95
-255 516 95
-OP25S
2
ft.
ft.
h.
ft.
ft
ft
Guaranteed frequency range of 100
'
-DP25P
2
4 Ft.
4
Price
Connectors
4 Ft.
Dip Jumpers
AC
and antenna
Counter
Four power sauces,
e
oanerks. 110 or 220V with
charger 12V with auto
lighter adaper and external
7 2 -roo power suppry
2
Imo_ C Mini-Max
pretuned to Channel 33
transformer.
mm tor
IO meg ohm
e
II Is
(UHF).
Accessories:
Inano
etc
*Includes coaxial cable
50 400 OZ
4
Band B/W or Color System
Converts TV to Video Display Inr
home computers, CCTV camera,
Apple II, works with Cromeco Dazzler, SOL -20, IRS -80, Challenger,
* MOD
a res
oe
current 0.100mA
Res,slance
teal
spare mse
-
1000V
Response
DC /AG
Model 2800
$99.95
op ,a1ng
O
in
n
HO
1
Peg
count
Options: 1i`,dantern,rll;
= =
Portable DMM
6
So.kem Sundam
Zero.ng
Vollge
1
1020 8111
tit reading
Power -PPIe:
Iva 01 ntIrl, ,'sotto
overange ,ean,ng
10 ,leg local ,mpendence
DC Accurato °, 100,081
Ranges: DC Voltage '0 1000.
AC
-
A,n
Weighs:
Ircd
-
*Wide
*
-
0l nA
,trdeti,un.uonae.r ranges
Battery
A
UHF Channel 33 TV Interface Unit Kit
.Dia.
n
Resiarues (5 merges,
P
I
SUP 'R' MOD Il
_leituni
rn[ ooc
..lung
dbm
Require..
AG,. 101 .3kalel
Rana
-6
Adjustable from
-20 dbm
frequency reference automatically adlusls to
allow for operation between 1800 Ha and 2400 Hz
Digital Data Interlace
p, ritnput impedance
Note
1021 HOWARD AVENUE, SAN CARLOS, CA 94070
$29.95
29.95
Ha
to
Receive Frequency Tolerance
ro 1000 V
Note Stoa eeolul,on
$64.50
31/2 -Digit
MPBECIS/ON
$19.95
-3/4"
89.95
10.95
to mark level required
for mark
Switch selectable Low (normal) = 1070 space
Transmit Level
e
Range 1nri
200 mA
Arums:, al ream'. 10.
+,,,
arnpgJ buiiryhrPn.kef,,.e
(Retail value $73.85)
Simulated walnut case
. 115 VAC operation
12 or 24 hour operation
. Includes all components, case and wall transformer
. Size: 6-3/4" x 3 -1/8" x 1 -3/4"
Four .630," ht. and two .300" ht. common anode displays
Uses MM5314 clock chip
. Switches for hours, minutes and hold functions
a Hours easily viewable to 30 feet
a Simulated walnut case
. 115 VAC operation
12 or 24 hour operation
. Includes all components, case and wall transformer
4,1 00
49 95
XMAS SPECIAL - Get your PDM -35
PLUS the 117 volt AC Adapter and
Padded carrying case for only
eads
Jumbo
6 -Digit
Clock
Kit
9.95
55.95
the Sm<l*, Pn\I ?i e Lulu, Inde h.,
eulnmeri,
S,ntl.u,
Itic
a
JE701
95
between each character)
2025 Hz for space 2225
1210 mark. High
025 space. 2225 mark
46 9bm aecea8,cally coupled
Receive Sensitivity
aeuunes
a Curren' le rages)
i,,.,e.Inen.,,l1e,
c.ln,,,ne.hulks ...,
00111'
. Switches for hours, minutes and hold functions
. Hours easily viewable to 20 feet
4
Transmit Channel Frequencies
14 95
S
wore
$14.95
Clock
Kit
2 95
Receive Channel Frequencies
A personal digital
multimeterforonly $59.95
Now everyone can oxford to own
6 -Digit
7:0
95
4
EPROM(lntel 27161
ouneneioner
JE730
75
1
FAMOS
Aase
J:cud m
Bright .357" ht. red display
Sequential flashing colon
. 12 or 24 hour operation
. Extruded aluminum case (black)
. Pressure switches for hours, minutes and hold modes
a Includes all components, case and wall transformer
. Size: 3 -1/4" x 1 -3/4" x 1 -1/4"
10.95
11.95
7.95
4.95
/synchronous Serial (return
DC cum le ranges,
ivakaped
a
10 95
Dynamic 350ns
(house marked)
Dynamic
166'
ad)
300 Baud
The Sinclair PDM35.
1.01's
gm all the
.
3.95
4.95
9.95
FreguencyShXl Keying, lull-duplex (hall- duple.
Maximum Data Raw
Dala Formal
1.95
Static MOS
Static 45014
Static 450ns low power
5106 300ns
Static 300ns low power
Stalle
Dynamic
Static
1024X4
75
1
Stalk
25664
256 %4
OM. Tranemiaslon Method
5149
Static
Dynamic
Static
Static
Slade
JE900
$39.95
4 -Digit Clock Kit
PennyhIstle 103 le capable of recording data to and from audio lape without
critical speed requirements for the recarder and it is able to communicate directly with
another modern and terminal for telephone "hamming" and communications In
add,10n. 4 is tree of crihcaladluslmems and is burn with non -precision, readlry available
The
95
1
1031"
$13 9.95 Kit Only
10 95
I
6 95
30K BAUD
auto reset
Quartz crystal controlled
. Three stopwatches in one:
single event, split (cummulative)
and taylor (sequential timing)
. Uses 3 penlite batteries
. Size: 4.5" x 2.15" x .90"
1101
59.95
9.95
'Requires single .5V power supply
410(8
EPROM
8K
EPROM
16K1'
EPROM
--Requires 3 voltages -5V. .51/ .12V
5203
FAMOS
2048
Tns0te Bipolar
6301-1(76111 1024
6330176021 256
Open C Bipolar
82523
32 %8
Open Collector
4096
825115
Bipolar
Tristate
825123
32X8
74186
TTL Open Collector
512
74168
256
TTL open Collector
745287
1024
01801
4.95
uART'S
A-Y-5-1013
MM5230N
Character Generatorl1ower easel
Character Generator
2045 -a1 Read Only Memory
PROM
50
09
3 95
Dual 250 Static
Dual 240 Bit static
Quad 80 Bit Static
1024 Static
Rfo
484 Register He (TriOtale)
2532
Character Generatorlupper easel
2513230211
2516
50
50
Dual 132 89 Static
512 Static
1024 Dynamic
Dual 256 Bit Stan
2533
3341
74L5670
2513(2140)
5.00
50
64 SII Accumulator
5001512 Bit Dynamic
1024 Dynamic
Eva 32 Bit Static
2524
2525
7 50
RAM'S
24 85
5 95
2130A(7110 -1)
User Manual
User Manual
"Pennywhistle
95
$14.95
Synchronous Serial Data Adapt.
0600 bps Digital MODEM
2400 bps Modulator
Quad 3 -State Bus. Trans. IMC81261
Z80(780C)
57 50
995
128XB Static Ram
Peaph. Inter. Adapt (MC6820)
MICROPROCESSOR
User Manual
ROM'S
5.95
890018800 SUPPORT DEVICES
MPU
MPU with Clock and Ram
MC6800
MC6802CP
M-280
M-COP1802
M-2650
49
3
5 95
2528
2529
Use
Chip
Plated thru double -sided
P.C. Board
LED display (red)
Times to 59 min. 59.59 sec. with
3.25
5.95
3.95
3.49
2527
FI
Input /Output
Prionty Interrupt Comm!
BoDirechonal Bus Driver
System Controler /Bus Driver
8035
. Output amplitude from
9 95
Clock Generator /Drover
Bus Driver
8226
MC6821
JE200
MICROPROCESSOR MANUALS
S
8228
-
hardware and instructions
Sizes: 3-1/2" x 5" x 2" high
The Incredible
MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS
808111/80808 SUPPORT OEVICESBOBOA
This is a 63 -key, terminal keyboard newly manufactured by a
large computer manufacturer. It is unencoded with SPST keys
unattached to any kind of PC board. A very solid molded plastic 13
x 4" base suits most application. IN STOCK
$P9.95 /each
Hexadecimal
Unencoded
Keypad
19 -key pad includes 1 -10 keys.
ABCDEF and 2 optional keys and a
shift key.
$10.95 /each
/
P 7400
0
Ir!
SN7400N
SN1401N
5N7402N
SN7403N
SN7404N
SN7405N
SN7406N
SN7407N
SN740BN
59740904
5N7410N
51474115
55711211
SN1413N
SN1414N
5N7416N
SN7417N
5N7420N
5N7421N
.16
TTL
.29
29
35
3N7/160N
89
89
1.95
9474749
5574755
35
SN74161N
A9
5574162N
SN74765
.35
SN741635
69
18
55747911
00
95141619
50
99
59
SN74165N
.89
.89
95741669
S5741675
1.25
1.95
.79
514741708
1.59
35
59741729
6.00
75
SN74173N
125
56741749
56741759
.79
SN711769
6574177N
SN74179N
.79
1.95
18
20
5974805
29
29
SN7482N
SN7483N
20
20
SN74855
S974866
5
18
SN748941
.25
56119014
.25
40
5N7491N
5674929
45
59
43
70
SN7493N
43
25
65
20
5N74904
5971959
5974969
29
SN7497N
9474229
39
SN74100N
69
604742311
25
29
SN741076
29
95741165
56741219
59741225
25
25
91742911
SN7430N
.39
5974329
.25
SN7437N
SN7a38N
SM7439M
91744011
25
5574419
.89
5574141N
5N74142N
SN7442N
4B
56741439
SN7443N
75
557414/N
59741459
56741479
20
20
75
5974469
5674479
5N74486
SN74505
.69
SN7451N
.20
20
.20
75
79
20
SN14535
5974546
657459A
25
20
5574609
20% Discount 100
vs
054000
z1.
CD/1006
1
C04007
C04009
054010
C04011
C04012
C04013
004014
19
25
CD4D15
1
49
49
23
25
39
39
1
19
49
1
19
99
49
19
139
19
1
23
79
23
2
74COo
25
69
39
74C14
1.95
39
39
39
49
39
2
49
89
.89
1.75
99
80
35
75
1.00
LM305H
LM3070494
LM308CN/H
LM309H
LM310CN
95
1
78MG
LM106H
LM300H
LM301CNM
LM302H
LM3O4H
1M3091(
60
35
1.00
I 10
1.25
1
15
LM311NM
LM3I2H
153171(
LM3180N/H
LM319N
LM320K-5
6.50
1.50
1.30
1.35
LM32093.2
1.35
LM320K-12
114320K-15
LM32014-18
[email protected]
LM320T-5
LM3207-5.2
LM320T-8
1
1
1
90
95
1.35
1.35
125
1.25
1.25
1.25
183201-15
12$
LM320T-18
LM320T-24
1.25
1.25
LM32395
695
LM32411
1.80
LM339N
LM340K-5
LM340K-6
LM340K-8
LM340K-12
LM340K-15
99
1.35
741501
741502
741303
741504
741205
741605
741509
741010
74L511
741613
741014
741615
741520
741521
741522
741526
741527
741528
741530
741132
741537
741240
59
5571186N
569741886
995
315
59741909
1.25
.39
.49
614741919
1.25
39741929
49
49
SN74193N
.79
.79
89
.69
.89
.89
59741949
75
115
1.35
1.35
1.35
.23
23
23
23
29
29
23
29
23
60
49
99
29
23
29
29
29
29
29
23
29
35
29
.69
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p.4.
amp.
In
m Fo,
SN74285N
55743659
S6743665
S6743675
.69
69
SN74155N
79
69
65741565
56741579
79
SN74368N
SN743905
SN74393N
65
combined order 25% -1000
C04028
C04029
CD4030
C04035
89
119
49
99
19
004040
1
CD4041
1.25
C04042
C04043
CD4044
C04046
004047
004048
C04049
C04050
CD4051
004053
C04056
CD4059
C04060
CD4066
CD4068
C04069
99
89
89
79
1
2.50
35
49
49
I
I
19
1
19
2
95
9 95
149
79
39
45
49
74C85
2
74090
74093
74095
740107
740151
710154
740157
740160
740161
195
95
1
1.95
125
2.90
3
00
2 15
249
2.49
LINEAR
1
35
1.25
1.25
1.25
1
25
125
ou
C04070
C04071
CD4072
C04076
C04081
CD4082
C04093
004098
MC1a409
MC14410
MC1441I
MC14419
MCI4433
MC14506
MC14507
MC14562
MCI4583
C04508
CD4510
C04511
C04515
COe510
C04520
C01566
55
23
49
39
23
23
99
2 49
14 95
14 95
14.95
4 95
19 95
75
99
14 50
350
3
95
39
1
1
29
2
95
29
29
1
1
2 25
2 49
74C163
74C154
740173
74C192
74C193
74C195
740922
74C923
14C925
740926
80095
80197
2A9
2
6 25
895
8.95
50
7.50
1
15171014
79
LM711N
LM723N/H
LM733N
.39
55
1.19
.35
39
.19
39
191747NM
LM7486/H
1.95
I
LM2901N
2.95
6 00
600
95
1.30
4
.39
99
500
5.00
560
1.25
1.75
99
4.95
69
29
74LSOOTTL
69
23
23
23
35
35
49
35
39
75
99
35
49
741.592
59
741593
741595
741296
7415107
7410109
7416112
7415123
7415125
7111132
7415136
59
79
89
35
35
35
99
69
79
.39
2.95
LM1458CN,H
59
95
95
1.75
100
95
1
1.50
1.49
LM3065N
LM390164134011 49
LM390511
.89
1.25
LM3909N
MC5558V
59
114305314
90386
LM75450N
75451CN
75452CN
7515305
15454CN
7549105
75492CN
754939
4 95
49
.39
39
39
39
79
X02095
yellow
red
6/51
1/4'51/4%1/16r flat
XC111C
5/$1
clear
89
89
1
R04151
5.95
6C4194
5 95
RC4195
4.49
25
69
69
69
69
69
POCARITY
Common Mode -rem
5 x 7 Dol Matrix -red
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Commas
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
MAN 6610
MAN 6630
MAN 6640
MAN
MAN
MAN
MAN
HT
1
Ca11101e
1
-1.
Anode -yellow
Cathode -yellow
Anode-orange -D. O.
Anode-orange n
1
Cathode- orange -0.D
Common Cathode -oranges 1
Common Mode -orange
Common Cathode -orange
Common Mode -red -D. O.
6650
6660
6680
6710
249
89
89
89
89
09
89
79
1
1
69
39
55
59
59
59
95
T1001- Transmiseles
T1001A- Reflective
POLARITY
Common Anode -rah
4.95
MAN 6740
MAN 6750
Common Cathode-redA.O.
Common Cathode -red x 1
MAN 6760
MAN 6780
Common Anode -red
OL7O1
Common Almde -red s
DL704
DL707
0L128
D1711
01746
51747
D1749
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
D1750
DL33B
FND70
FN0358
Common Cathode -red
Common Cathode -red
25
95
300
100
99
99
125
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
560
560
160
560
560
HT
r
Common Cathode-red
1
Cathode-red
Mode -red
Cathode-red
Mode -red
Anode-rad x
Anode -red
Cathode -red
1
50827730
99
5052 -7300
99
99
99
50827302
50827304
HDSP-3400
H1)5F -3403
500
.300
800
Boo
600
600
600
600
0151-RHDP
4 x 7 Sgl Oigd -LHDP
Overrange character 1! 11
4 o 7 Sel. 01011- Hexedeoma
CLOCK CHIPS
CALCULATOR
CHIPS/DRIVERS
2.15
2.56
2.44
CA30825
85
MM5725
MM5738
0430391
1.35
1.30
3.25
3.25
C8306904
3 75
058864
0631307
0431401
0531601
1.39
1.25
OM4865
1. GO
059887
75
.85
CA34015
2.00
CA36005
CA304611
CA3059N
CA30605
0430807
118308111
2.00
1.60
CA309.1N
C4108614
1
3.50
50-100
8 pin LP
-24
.017
14 pin LP
20
25-49
.16
19
re
22
.21
.20
.29
28
.32
27
16 pin LP
18 pin LP
20 pen LP
14
.34
pin ST
25
21
30
27
25
32
30
A5
42
5.30
.27
24
35
49
24 pin ST
8 pin SG
14 pm SG
30
0.27
5r
ST
18 pin ST
16
15
35
32
5$
.38
.35
29
32
le pin 5G
52
47
43
16 pin
8 pro WW
539
35
31
10 pin WW
.45
41
37
WW
39
16 pm WW
18 pin WW
43
38
42
37
.41
.62
14 pro
75
66
52.95
2.95
2.00
-
LED dnvel
C
1.50
.
35
69
99
.75
99
99
30
1
2.10
2 10
19.95
19.95
15.00
2250
33
5 I
19752
19753
16754
15757
1N759
19959
18965
155232
155231
1N5235
185236
1N5242
5 6
6.2
8.8
9.0
12 0
8.2
1s
5.6
6.2
68
7 5
12
1145245
15
19456
ASST.
1
4.95
9 95
MC4044P
4
MM
_
RN
UR
5.70
$G
1.10
36 pin SG
1
63
65
1.75
40 pin SG
(GOLO) LEVEL o
22 pin WW
3
2405
WW
28 pin WW
36 pin WW
40 pin WW
15
472 1/HM
560 OMM
680 OHM
ASST. 4
5
ea
5 ea
ASST. 6
ASST.
5 ea
7
15 OHM
180 OHM
5ea
ASST. 5
12 OHM
5 ea.
I
-.h
10
011'
.ß.
19OHM
4.1111M
87 UHM
100 7000
170 OMM
150 OHM
'20 woo
770 OHM
330 OHM
000 OHM
J3 OHM
I,bn
1.05
1.40
1.59
1.75
22E
50 PCS
$1.75
50 PCS
1.75
50 PCS
1.75
1,91,
7h
5.611
6.31.
10h
17K
1Sn
IAn
50 PCS
1.75
33n
9h
50 PCS
1.75
5611
ONK
82E
1001.
1101
look
Iron
'00k
770h
330K
.190/
570h
580E
580k
070n
IM
1.2M
1500
1.85
0.26
1.7M
1.3M
3
SM
4
Includes Resistor Assortments
-
4/1.00
21122196
2/1 00
20422210
4/1.00
5/1.00
5/1.00
1
$5.00 Minimum Order U.S. Funds Only
California Residents Add 6% Sales Tax
30
66M
700
1
50 PCS
-7 (350 PCS.
252369
2523696
MPS2369
252484
2N2906
252907
2N2925
MJE2955
2N3053
253055
1.75
$9.95 ea.
-
arreco
ELECTRONICS
MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS
-
PHONE
ORDERS
WELCOME
(415) 592.8097
WORLDWIDE
1021 HOWARD AVENUE, SAN CARLOS, CA 94070
Advertised Prices Good Thru December
CIRCLE 10 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
28
28
28
50 PIV 35 AMP
100 PIV 35 AMP
150 PIV 35 AMP
200 PIV 35 AMP
400 PIV 35 01417
1
60
170
170
180
3.00
50
100
263905
253906
4/1 00
254123
P54249
MP536384
MP53702
253704
MP53704
253705
MP53705
5/1.00
254400
5/1.00
2144401
5/1.00
254402
5/1.00
5/1.00
5/1.00
2N4403
5/110
255087
4/1.00
2N3706
MPS3706
5/1 00
2015088
5/1.00
263707
5/1.00
1/160
253711
5/1.00
2N5089
255129
4/1.00
2113724A
65
PN5134
5/1 00
5/1.00
1.25
2/1.00
2537250
1.00
PN3569
PN2222
03
05
pl
pf
pl
of
05
05
05
04
04
01
63
04
03
.035
04
100 VOLT
001111
0022
0047m1
Olmi
1/356
15/356
22/35V
33/355
47/356
688356
1.0/350
0/505
3.3/500
4.7/255
10/250
1
10/500
.12
10
00470F
.01ÁF
022oF
.0170F
.1µF
05
05
05
06
022ml
5/1.00
5/1.00
5/1.00
91
00
5/1 00
3/1.00
3/1.00
ee
M
04
05
I0á
.035
.035
035
04
.06
.05
04
12
09
.075
13
11
MUR FILM CAPACITORS
07
4/1 00
CORNER
.001ÁF
03
03
5/1.00
1/1.00
4/1.00
1/1.00
255086
255951
óSObCOPeCI;O1,
05
411.00
411.00
2144400
7/1 00
1.00
PM0110
PN4250
5,110
2 25
253523
253903
4/1.00
3/1.00
6/1.00
4/1.00
4/1.00
1/1.00
1/1.00
2144013
P55136
295139
255210
255449
2113772
95
4/1 00
3/1.00
4/1.00
4/1,00
P93566
95
1
2N3904
5/1.00
5/1.00
05
95
1
ROC
PN3567
.89
SI 95
1
293392
253398
5/1.00
6/1.00
6/1.00
1.75
p
47 /50V
Spee Sheets
250
1979 Catalog Avellable-Send 414 stamp
28
28
1w
1w
In
15
FW BRIDGE
10 p1
22
47
100
220
470
1.75
50 PCS
)
12
28
iw
1.2
2k
-
175
1.40
6.8
8.2
00
12/1.00
10/1.00
10/1.00
1011.00
6/1.00
1511.00
12/1.90
15/1.00
12 /1
FW BRIDGE REC
04E3055
1.75
1
PRICE
12/1.00
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
800 PIV 1 AMP
1000 PIV 1 AMP
50
200m
75
10m
35
10m
75
25m
56 1w
6.2
1w
TRANSISTORS
-5% CAPACITOR
9
1.1k
e
50
.30
40673
25918
85
1.10
145
1.55
7,1.00
40410
%
1.25
VOLTS
W
100 PIV 1
200 PIV 1
400 PIV 1
600 P11/1
SCR
12A W. 200V
40409
010 OHM
I. N/
9803
MDA
er
.75
.75
1.15
1.47
SCR
81
85
5/100
12/1 00
2.05
SC152510491
58
165
6/1.00
6/1.00
160
X84558
984739
X84741
350 @ 600V
I 6A @ 300V
.43
.57
90
1.26
25
28
28
28
28
28
120 @ 50V
MOA 980 -I
21422220
1.00
1.40
1.59
4/1.00
2.99
1.25
1.25
2.85
1,45
x84212
15A @ 400V
11597
71598
1.15
30
21 pro SG
28 pin
0360
036M
2X2329
MP5406
1.26
1.45
I.59
411.00
411.00
411.00
41100
4/1 00
4/1.00
4.25
3.20
SCR AND FW BRIDGE RECTIFIERS
MPSA05
1.39
4/1 00
400m
400m
400m
400m
500m
500m
500m
500m
500m
500m
40m
36
00
I
154002
914003
154001
154005
164006
194007
163600
194148
154154
164305
184734
194735
154736
151738
194742
151741
151183
191184
1N1185
191186
1X1188
4/1.00
40án
35
99
4
400m
400m
400m
400m
50 -100
60
63
28 pin LP
36 pe LP
40 pin LP
TYPE
NIKE
50
WIRE WRAP SOCKETS
ea
ASST. 3
6.95
36
37
44
59
62
t8
28 pin ST
36 pin 5T
40 pin ST
25-49
-24
3
5
24 pin LP
SOLDERTAIL STANDARD (GOLO)
270HM
S
50
3 95
1.75
5,25
4.35
3.45
082240
25
150
7m
180
10m
50 PIV I AMP
PN2907 P8nlc
C10661
1
SOLDERTAIL STANDARD (TIN)
5ea
68 OHM
ASST. 2
2.95
3.50
7
1/4 WATT RESISTOR ASSORTMENTS
IO OHM
15485A
1N4001
54.95
5.75
2.95
082208
082209
X82211
XR2212
W
083403
094136
X94151
084194
X94202
3.20
4.40
3.85
5.20
X81800
092206
DIODES
16746
x82264
X82556
682567
EXAR
1.39
1.39
VOLTS
¡$
f
7.95
/See+
XR2242CP 1.50
53.40
4.40
4.40
1.55
1.50
.39
091488
X81489
111751
49
1
MC10161744161
MC4024P
50,41340P
225111F
Programmable
-
(Chip
Crystal
e
angl
etc.
Crystal
.99
.99
1.25
XR1310P
1.30
XR1468CN 3.85
1.49
1
LOW PROFILE (TIN) SOCKETS
aie
Low Power
3.95 each
0856701
TYPE
1
MOTOROLA
995
295
MM5318
MM5369
MM5307/1998A
MM5841
SN 78477
SOUND GENERATOR
Generates Complex Sounds
XR567CP
25
49
49
1
94.95 MC1408L7
4.95 MC1458L8
1.95 MC1439L
4.95 14C302217
695 MC3061P
14145316
75
D148889
9374 7 Deg
SOLOERTAIL
IC
1
25
49
MM5309
MM5311
MM5312
MM5314
11
X8205
X8210
09215
X8320
XR -1555
X8555
09558
104458
RCA LINEAR
2.49
Switching Regulator
4.49
1.75
Single Switching Regulator
Divide 10/11 Prescaler
19.95
Hi -Speed Olvide 10/11 Pressler
11.95
Photo- Da #Ington Opto- Isolator
3.95
17.50
Top Octave Freq. Generator
3.75
5Mhz 2 -phase MOS clock driver
10.50
27" red num. display w /integ. logic chip
TV Camera Sy c. Generator
14.95
444 Digit DPM Logic Block
5.95
25.00 /set
314 Digit A/D Converter Set
49
1
500
4 x 7 091
5082 -7340
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
110
250
357
357
1
99
.99
99
PRICE
600
Common Cathode x
Common Cathode
Common Cathode1FN05001
Common Mode (FN05101
Common Mode -red
Common Anode -red
Common Cathode red
FN0503
FND507
MISCELLANEOUS
Quad Low Noise bi -fet Op Amp
and
630
600
630
Common Camote
495359
Character Generator
includes score display. 6 games
600
1
13.50
13.50
13.50
9 X 7 ASCII Shifted with Greek
9 X 7 Math Symbol a Pictures
X 7 Alphanumeric Control
TV GAME CHIP AND CRYSTAL
560
560
560
.560
560
300
300
300
500
1
X
2/99¢
57.95
8.25
MAN 6730
125
TYPE
C830137
CA2023T
CA30357
ASST. OR
19
5/51
4/$1
4/$1
4'51
-.
X
128
LITRONIX ISO -UT 1
Photo Transistor Opto-Isolator
(Same as MCT 2 or 4625)
0101T
5' CHARACTERS
THREE ENUNCIATORS
200-- X 1.20" PACKAGE
INCLUDES CONNECTOR
2 95
1
300
300
.300
300
300
300
.300
300
400
400
400
.400
.400
400
560
.560
Mode-red
Anode-red z
PRICE
.270
300
125
187
Cathode-red
Cathode -red
Anode -green
Mode -yellow
Anode-red
Cathode -red
Anode -yellow
Calhade- yellow
Mode -orange
Anode-orange s
Cathode -orange
Anode-orange
Cathode-orange
89
89
89
4
128
128 X 9
TL074CN
TL494CN
TL496CP
11C90
LD11Ó
Eu
DISPLAY LEDS
TYPE
MAN
MAN 2
MAN 3
MAN 4
MAN 7G
MM 7Y
MAN 72
MAN 74
MAN 82
MAN 84
MAN 3620
MAN 3630
MAN 3640
MAN 4610
MAN 4640
MAN 4710
MAN 4730
MAN 1740
MAN 4610
MAN 4640
Clock Generator
TIL308
MM5320
'
r_r _
4/51
4/51
4/$1
.190" dia.
501118 red
00111G green
XC111Y yellow
.0e5" dia.
Seven Decade Counter
DS0026CH
FIELD EFFECT
51
4/51
4/S1
red
green
yellow
clear
24.95
19.95
7.50
19.95
6.95
Osdl0tor Controller
95690
4X33
MK50240
TIMEX T1001
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY
.155 dia.
XC526R
XC526G
XC5265
XC526C
INFRA -RED LED
19
75494CN
6C4136
7415138
7415139
7410151
7410155
7415157
7415160
7415161
7415162
7415163
7415164
7415175
7415191
7415190
7415191
7410192
7415193
7415194
7415195
7415253
7415257
7415250
7415260
7415279
7415367
7455366
7415670
4/$1
XC209G
red
preen
441
red
100
LM7395
1M741CN/H
15741-14N
MC1489N
LM1496N
LM1550V
MC1741SCP
LM21115
6.00
4.95
3.95
green
yellow
.170" dia.
MV50
49
2.49
5.95
MC148804
800
502098
541
441
441
red
MV10B
249
100
3.25
4.50
1.25
99
1.79
1.79
yellow
clear
dia.
.125" dis.
5/$1
4/$1
4/51
2.60
LM1310N
95
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coco
41..ame.raw.wir.w.dn
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1.95
1.95
1.25
1.25
1
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green
505560
X05560
.99
Combined order
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VGL-1
S39.95 ea.
.200' dis.
XC556G
CMOS Precision Timer
CMOS LED Stopwatch/Tmer
MCM6571
MCM6574
MCM6575
Part NumWr
DISCRETE LEDS
5022G
XC22Y
59
59
99
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00556R
ICM7045
ICM7205
ICM7207
ICM7208
ICM7209
$14.95
14.95
4.95
14.95
7.95
9.95
NMOS READ ONLY MEMORIES
W,
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S5745200
195
195
home
w.
Technical Specifications
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Push Button Telephone Dialler
Repertory Dialler
CMOS Clock Generator
Keyboard Encoder (88 keys)
Keyboard Encoder 76 keys
Keyboard Encoder 16 keys
1CM CHIPS
mer.. reKn
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AY-5-911XI
AV-5-9200
AY-5-9500
AY-5-2376
1100165
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741575
741576
741070
741583
741505
741586
741590
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2.95
597425164
LM382N
NE501N
NE510A
NE529A
NE531HN
NE536T
NE540L
NE544N
NE550N
NE555V
NE556N
NE5fi0B
NE5618
NE5628
NE5658/H
NE566CN
NE567V/H
NE5705
LM703CNM
LM709N/H
arpsl..wmrylgmaon..Mlna-raq
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2.95
79
LM340K-18
LM340K-24
LM340T-5
LM340T-6
LM310T-8
LM310T-12
LM340T-15
LM340T-18
LM340T-21
LM358N
LM370N
LM373N
LM377N
LM380N
LM3800N
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SN74195N
SN74196N
SN74197N
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75
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35
35
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741500
1.95
1.95
74C00
39
74002
74004
74C08
74010
74020
74C30
74C42
74C49
74C73
74C74
557418414
SN74185N
C/MOS
CD4001
CD40o2
C04016
C04017
C04018
C04019
C04020
C04021
C04022
C04023
C04024
CD4025
CD4026
C74027
.35
Electronic
Security Timer
79
1.95
1.29
56741489
5N74150N
59
79
1.95
35
59741265
59741325
55741386
25
79
1.95
SN74123N
SN74125N
25
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59741809
59741816
5574182N
65
65
00
3
SN74109N
5574275
5174449
5974459
1
Homavigilite
y
.18
.18
SN7425N
SN7426R
TELEPHONE/KEYBOARD CHIPS
I
SN7470N
SN7472N
SN7473N
.047mí
07
21
1ml
07
27
22m1
07
33
020% DIPPED TANTALUMS 1901.101 CAPACITORS
28
23
.17
5/355
30
23
.28
17
2.2/256
31
a
12
.10
17
13
12
10
10
23
27
.17
12
.22
26
27
.21
.22
27
22
4 7/256
32
28
fi. 8/256
36
31
17
10/255
23
40
35
17
23
15,256
63
50
MINIATURE ALUMINUM ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
AAlal Lasa
Ratio Leed
23
25
29
15
.13
16
.14
IO
.11
15
13
10
18
14
11
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16
to
11
4.1/166
15
13
10
1
23
23
23
17
17
17
3.3/256
10
16
13
14
14
12
09
15
13
10
47/255
47/505
1.0/165
1.0/256
15
16
13
14
10
12
28
28
26
31
28
28
15
11
1
40
17
15
12
47/255
15
.13
10
20
17
18
15
14
II
14
.12
17/505
09
25
21
19
15
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100/250
100/506
220/255
24
20
18
35
.30
28
16
24
14
21
10
12
19
32
28
25
19
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14
45
33
55
41
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62
38
27
45
55
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10 /16V
10/25V
10/500
47/500
100/166
100/258
100/506
220/165
16
47256
24
19
22/255
22/506
220/500
470/255
1000/165
2200/160
29
50
470/256
24
20
18
35
30
28
23
17
16
31
28
264
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'
MCMURy ERPH1151011 :
*15g !
(3,
Our Conversion Kit contains all parts (and detailed instructions) necessary to upgrade a TRS -80 mainframe from 4K to 16K, or populate the Memory Expansion Module. Also works with APPLEs. Only $159
kltel$450) ... and we back up our parts with a 1 year warranty.
N..
GREAT
IDEAS FROM
WEST SIDE ELECTRONICS
.1
HUB
CEO; Ì'LU
MULE: X16.50 SUPPLY *44_50
IT1I11U[
17 Digit, 10 Function Digital Clock Kit
The
Ultimate Electronic Timepiece. 17 digits continuously read out the
time, date. alarm setting, and timer. 12/24 HR, AC /DC. crystal timehase.
3 mode timer, status LEUs. snooze, and more. Now with DIGISET"
thumbwheel preset option (see below) Featured in Radio -Electronics
(Aug /Sept 1977)
MT1 -C kit. less case
3129.95
$13.95
,Pink Noise Generator Kit
NOW IMPROVED!' with 5% tolerance components
Allows proper set -up of graphic equalizer in a stereo system to achieve
acoustically flat response. Uses latest MOS IC. See Jan. '78 Radio
Electronics.
PNG -2C Panial kit
PNG -2K Complete kit with case
PNG -2W Assembled and tested
Add 3 time- setting switches, 12V DC, and you're
and running. Crystal -controlled timebase
makes this unit ideal for car, van, boat, other
mobile applications. Large (0.3 ") blue -green
flourescent readouts are visible under conditions
where LEDs would wash out. Includes special options for car applications (for example, turning on
headlights dims display slightly for night viewing).
Whether you need a clock for yourself or want to
present someone with a fine gift, this is an ex,cellent choice. With applications data. 3t$46.
Handles 12A with 50% duty cycle. Ideal for
powering mobile equipment (CB rigs, portable
TVs, transceivers, etc.) in the home; can also
up
plem wiirin wire
?
request uur timer
Our flyer is lull of parts. music kits, computer kits. enclosures.
specialty tools. capacitors, resistors .., 40 pages of bargains in
all. It's free: send us your name and address. we'll take care of
the rest.
-
913.95
$19.95
$27.95
WRITE FOR DETAILS
power bunches of floppy disc drives. Crowbar
overvoltage protection, foldback current limiting,
adjustable output 11 -14V, custom heavy -duty
transformer, RF suppression, and easy assembly
(all parts except xfrmr/filter caps /diodes mount on
circuit board). Does not include case. With full
assembly instructions.
Thumbwheel preset for MT I. Simply dial in alarm setting,
timer, etc. and DIGISET' does the rest. Also adds second ALARM feature
Will work with other 7001 based clocks.
APPLE II OWNERS: Real Time Clock plugs directly into any I/O slot
Crystal oscillator and AC supply (with battery backup) keeps clock running
at all times.
TERMS: Cal res add tax. Allow 5% shipping, (more for power
supply). excess refunded, COD OK with street address for UPS
delivery. VISA'lMasterchargee call 24 hr order desk at 1415)
562 -0636). Thank you lee your business.
16K MEMORY EXPANSION KIT
$130.00
Includes 8 MK4I16 RAMs and instructions
Upgrade NOW at this LOW PRICE
and TRS-80.
@Dag
!
BILL
GODBOUT ELECTRONICS
BOX 2355, OAKLAND AIRPORT, CA 94614
CIRCLE 49 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
DIGISET"
-
* *
* *
SPECIAL
tor Apple
WEST SIDE ELECTRONICS
a
P.O- Box 636, Chatsworth, CA 91311
""
We pay all,shipping in Continental U.S.A.
Others add 10 %, California residents add 6% tam.
CIRCLE 69 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Everything you ever want to know
about Personal Computers . . .
ffomfliW'DP
t
r
áf
`°O`-°ÿgW
gáZi
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Olrn
Here it is- everything you need to know
about the state of the art, just as it appeared
in the big, colorful special section of the June,
1978 RADIO -ELECTRONICS -"Your Own
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This complete, colorful, 32 -page reprint of
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Listing you can find!
d
N
<
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C
We've reprinted this giant special section of
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Every serious experimenter and technician
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Don't delay. We're ordering a big reprint of
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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Visit our
3 LEVEL
GOLD WIRE WRAP
SOCKETS
$318.
MS15 MINISCOPE
Time bane
Rechargeable batteries and charger included
Measures DC Volts, AC Volts, Ohms and
Current
Automatic polarity, decimal and overload
indication
Nev.°wed 11 -a 1.35
Caw sae 27'H. 8Car
P
PIERCED
J
Purchase any of the LM series
Meters and buy the LEATHER CASE
for 1C
8803
MOTHER
BOARD FOR
s
Ipn
copper
GOLD
1.
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39darns
;ö,"sa:4
nmpsare per
Mes
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1.10
1.50
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1.00
1.40
.78
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1.30
1.20
.63
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1.04
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89
CLOCKCALENDAR
125 ors
EYELET lads
Cone
For Auto, Home, Office
Small in size (2x2 W x 141
Push button for seconds release for date.
Clocks mount anywhere with either 3M doubla
7.36
864.3
1load tape Or VELCRO. Included.
2 MODELS AVAILABLE:
LCD 101, portable modal runs on MIIContalned
batter. 101 better than year
LCD -102, runs. On 12 Volt system and Is back
22,44 Cot 156 or. WIRE
GOLD
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11020120
LC13.101 or LCD.102
Naar connectors wadable Dell or Boatel:,
$34.95..
5 -9
519.95
517.95
Price:
puse, 8 hear
¡XOI
BOARD
.042 dia holes on
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1,16
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5 -9
513.46
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Insole., woe on 025 square posts
FOUR TIMES FASTER
Wraps
$1.49
1.34.
83.51
3.16
SPOOL-FED WIRE.
o 1
4.5x6.5"
4.5x8.5"
4.5x17"
8.5x17"
69P4
169P84
$1.70
82.10
84.30
$7.65
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spooled wire psseef W aughIIM
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new o Me weep pose s
g1ledmu cat Is made en IM
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1.53
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caw
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aeon.
Gen. Purpose D.I.P.
Boards with Bus Pattern
for Solder or Wire Wrap.
Epoxy Glass 1/16" 44
pin con. spaced .156
3662 -2
P1504T
6.89
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4.5"
pattern plugboards for
IC's Epoxy Glass 1/16"
44 pin con. spaced 156
pl., YaperHw
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+
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Price
3
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Systems
14 & 16 PIN
GOLD 3 LEVEL
WIRE WRAP
SOCKETS
9.00 EA.
S
25
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3690 6.5" 22/44 pin .158
$12.00
eers. Extenders
P
FACTORY PRIME
runs
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Manua! t
2
x
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l
$75.0ö
SLIT-N -WRAP
12" P.e.ape
WIRE
NO. 26 GAGE INSULATED
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Wall
4P102
Ltill woo zchg
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w2229 hp
Pea
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pop
awe
Wes Ns.
9.6"
$11.45
8K 450 ns
Coop..
CARD EXTENDER
Card Extender has 100
contacts -50 per side on .125
centers -Attached connector -is
compatible with S-100 Bus
6.5
2708
wrtn two
3690 -12
"x4.5'
$7.65
3662
lm' spools
o.MBa.
/$24.50
©
4.5"
$9.74
P180
tel
NO PFIE.sTRIPPING
NO PRECUTTING
Epoxy Glass
64P44
84P44
r
511 96
1- 910 -19
SIZE
Epoxy Glass 1/16" 44
pin con. spaced .156
10 -24
PRICE
PART NO.
64P44XXXP 4.54.5"
169P44XXXP 4.5x17"
3677-2 6.5" x
6.5" x 4.5"
$9.81
Hi- Density
Dual -In -Line
Plugboard for Wire Wrap
with Power & Grd. Bus
015.96
sink
1-4
014 95
$10.90
$10.97
10 -24
8801 -1
$29.50
pak
9.6" x 4.5"
3682 -2
1.4
96 "x4.5'
3677
3682
Same as 8800V except plain. less power
res mlM59120B0meocompulerase.owdarSoya
-1
50/100
PIERCED
*4 71
x1/16
10'
roe
U
.36
53
.57
LIQUID CRYSTAL DIGITAL
8800V
Ippe,e°
Dorn Wow
0681.3
Universal
Microcomputer /processor
plugboarO use with S-100 bus Complete with heat sink 8 hardware 5 3 o
aomreBelwsmsmalNmeaneruwmo
Cunene
.42
.58
.80
.47
.63
.70
ANSI
GOLD
10.24
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.70
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.58
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wan
se0uews.en100cpnlxesl2
2S0
sowing
aMPS1
6.9
.63
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Plugboards
owqoo'rAwennrswm
pull
100 Com 125 ears
TAIL on 250 spaced
10 VECTOR and
herbouds GOLD Jaded
14
5.9 10.24
4.00 *375
$350
rows
WRAP cals
s,
000
targe°u ses
DIP SOLDER
EYELES earls
3.00 2.26 *260
Arto OEM 'S
Dwlen. many
ïwe.Mm;u.asewdwwndwsonOOP
pluS
SOLDER
plat,
.27
.30
All sockets are GOLD 3 level closed entry
End and side stacable 2 level, Solder Tall, Low
Prohle. Tin Sockets and Dip Plugs available CALL FOR QUOTATION
s100sTG 50/
156 ors
Cone
.29
.32
MICRO
COMPUTERS
Dare
louons
G0eoorlan
24 pin
28 pin
40 pin
S
F
w
.32
.35
S100BUS
P mw0mn
mponml
21
.36
.39
$ 435.
Other Popular Edge Connectors
644-G
.38
.42
20 pin
22 pin*
$27.
$45.
500
O
.39
.43
18 pin
-
s 2.80
pin'
pin'
this MAGAZINE
5-100 BUS EDGE CONNECTORS
.
14
16
and .the MENTION of
pontes
a
$20.00
ei.
3
w
O0810
50, 100 Cone 125 cu. DIP
SOLDER TAIL on
40 spaced rows for
ALTAIR motherboards GOLD pealed
Size: 1.9 "Hx2.7Wx4 "1)
Parts a labor guaranteed 1 year
'°°e61
m sapw
//^(r
s10OWWG 50. 1W Cone 112poses
c
cos
3 LEVEL WIRE WRAP 025
on 250 spaced tows GOLD plated.
14
10 .24
5.9
*4.00 1375 113.50
-
adjust
NICad batteries; also AC
Battery-operated
line operation.
Large LED display for easy reading without
interpolation
g
tom*mú
óM°'
ore,
1.513.
1C
PROBE 1C with the
purchase of SCOPE
21
ALMS -215 Dual Trace Version of MS -15
No zero adjustment and no lull -scale ohms
Tilt stand option
Leather use
-
Power consumpllon G 15 wens.
VomcM Gun- Ot l0 SO VIOLA. 12 sallmgs SJ %.
indication
-2win0in1Ywxing s6 '"bo«e
Bea
PROBE
microsec. to 0.5 Secldiv
.1
Battery or line operation.
Automatic 8 line sync moles.
Rechargeable batteries and charger
Measures DC Volts, AC Volts, Ohms and
Current
Automatic polarity, decimal and overload
rwta .5.
-
settings. 03 %.
250.00
Sockets purchased ln multiples of 50 per type may be combined fo bes price.
1 -24
25 -49 50 -99 100 -249 250-999
K -5K
8 pin* .41
.38
.35
.31
.27
.23
Cherpr on,r
SarUrsos a
megahertz bandwidth.
External and Internal trigger.
15
$ 158.50
$ 209.00
$
Rechwgeeble
Weln
$134.00
LM3A 3 dig 1% DC
LM3.5A 31/2 dig .5% DC
LM40A 4 dig .1% DC
LM4A 4 dig .03% DC
II
II
14
G3 100 for
-
$30.00
16 -G3 100 for
$30.00
50 of each for $32.00
Sockets are End & Side stackable,
closed entry
$16.95
315
-5
LOW -PROFILE
BASE
STANDARD
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ping molnfaìned to 9 VDC Automatic display brightness control
logic blanks the display with the ignition off. educes brightness to
33°. with park or head lights and (allows the dash lamp dimming control
setting. Its crystal time base assures on occura-SY of 7 seconds per day
at 25 C and 5 seconds per day over the range of -25 C to 65C.
AN ATTRACTIVE INLAID WALNUT
CHROME TRIM BEZEL- Designed to
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display
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ADAM OSBORNE MICROPROCESSOR BOORS
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Ideal for Car, Van
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Rockwell AIM 65
The Head -Start in Computers
AIM 65 Technical Overview
THERMAL PRINTER
Most desired feature on low -cost
microcomputer systems
Wide 20- column printout
Versatile 5 x 7 dot matrix format
Complete 64- character ASCII alphanumeric
format
Fast 120 lines per minute
Quiet thermal operation
Proven reliability
FULL-SIZE ALPHANUMERIC KEYBOARD
Provides compatibility with system terminals ...
Standard 54 key. terminal -style layout
26 alphabetic characters
10 numeric characters
22 special characters
9
3
Instruction Entry and Disassembly
-Enter mnemonic instruction entry mode
K -Disassemble memory
Display /Alter Registers and Memory
I
control functions
user -defined functions
A
X
Y
P
TRUE ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY
Provides legible and lengthy display ...
20 characters wide
16- segment characters
High contrast monolithic characters
Complete 64- character ASCII alphanumeric
format
S
R
M
/
-Display all registers
-Displays four memory locations, starting
-Alter current memory location
Manipulate Breakpoints
-Clear all breakpoints
4
-Toggle breakpoint enable on /off
B
-Set one to four breakpoint addresses
?
-Display breakpoint addresses
technology...
R6502 Central Processing Unit (CPU),
operating at 1 MHz.
Has 65K address capability, 13 addressing
Control Instruction /Trace
G
Z
modes and true index capability. Simple. but
powerful 56 instructions.
Read /Write Memory. using R2114 Static RAM
devices. Available in 1K byte and 4K byte
versions.
8K Monitor Program Memory. using R2332
Static ROM devices. Has sockets to accept
additional 2332 ROM or 2532 PROM devices. to
expand on -board Program Memory up to 20K
H
-Execute user's program
-Toggle instruction trace mode on /off
-Toggle register trace mode on /off
-Trace Program Counter history
Control Peripheral Devices
L
-Load object code into memory from
peripheral I/O device
D -Dump object code to peripheral I/O
device
-Toggle Tape control on /off
-Toggle Tape 2 control on /off
-Verify tape checksum
CTRL PRINT -Toggle Printer on /off
1
1
2
3
bytes.
R6532 RAM -Input /Output -Timer (RIOT)
combination device. Multipurpose circuit for
AIM 65 Monitor functions.
Two R6522 Versatile Interface Adapter (VIA)
devices, which support AIM 65 and user
functions. Each VIA has two parallel and one
serial 8 -bit. bidirectional I/O ports, two 2 -bit
peripheral handshake control lines and two
16 -bit
-Alter Program Counter to (address)
-Alter Accumulator to (byte)
-Alter X Register to (byte)
-Alter Y Register to (byte)
-Alter Processor Status to (byte)
-Alter Stack Pointer to (byte)
at (address)
(SPACE) -Display next four memory locations
PROVEN R6500 MICROCOMPUTER
SYSTEM DEVICES
Reliable, high performance NMOS
fully -programmable
counters.
LF
-Line
Feed
Call User-Defined Functions
F1 -Call User Function 1
F2 -Call User Function 2
F3 -Call User Function 3
Text Editor Commands
R
-Read lines into text buffer from peripheral
I/O device
-Insert line into text buffer from Keyboard
K
Delete current line of text
(SPACE) -Display current line of text
L
-List lines of text to peripheral I/O device
U -Move up one line
D -Move down one line
T -Go to top line of text
B -Go to bottom line of text
F
-Find character string
C -Change character string
O -Quit Text Editor, return to Monitor
1
BUILT -IN EXPANSION CAPABILITY
44 -Pin Application Connector for peripheral
add -ons
44 -Pin Expansion Connector has full system
bus
Both connectors are KIM-1 compatible
TTY AND AUDIO CASSETTE INTERFACES
Standard interface to low -cost peripherals ...
20 ma. current loop TTY interface
Interface for two audio cassette recorders
Two audio cassette formats: ASCII KIM -1
compatible and binary. blocked file assembler
-
-
LOW COST PLUG -IN ROM OPTIONS
4K Assembler
symbolic, two -pass
8K BASIC Interpreter
POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS
+ 5 VDC * 5% regulated @ 2.0 amps (max)
*24 VOC * 15% unregulated @ 2.5 amps (peak)
0.5 amps (average)
compatible
ROM- RESIDENT ADVANCED INTERACTIVE
MONITOR
Advanced features found only on larger
systems ..
Monitor- generated prompts
Single keystroke commands
Address independent data entry
Debug aids
Error messages
Option and user interface linkage
AIM 65 (1K) $375.00 (315.00)
AIM 65 (4K) 5450.00 (315.00)
Assembler ROM
Add $85.00
BASIC Interpreter
Add $100.00
Power Supply
Add $45.00
'Shipping and handling charge.
Calif. residents add 6% sales tax.
- -
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE
If you are not convinced that the AIM 65 is the best of its kind on the market,
we will refund your money immediately.
INTERNATIONAL
2795 -L West Lincoln Ave.
Anaheim, CA 92801
(714) 821-0234
Store Hours 10
VISA
-
7,
Mon.
-
Rockwell's AIM 65 Advanced Interactive Microcomputer can get you into the exciting world of
microcomputers a lot easier and at a lower cost than you may have thought possible. And you'll be
working with the 6500 family, the advanced state -of- the -art NMOS system that's an
everincreasing favorite for new commercial and hobbyist applications.
As a learning aid, AIM 65 gives you an assembled, versatile microcomputer system with a
fullsize keyboard. 20- character display and, uniquely, a thermal printer. An on -board Advanced
Interactive Monitor program provides extensive control and program development functions. And
our AIM 65 User's Manual will help you along each step of the way.
You'll master fundamentals rapidly. Then you'll appreciate the fact that unlike the computer
"toys" on the market. AIM 65 offers flexibility and expandability you would expect to find in a
sophisticated microcomputer development system.
-
THERMAL PRINTER GIVES YOU HARD COPY
FAST AND QUIET.
AIM 65's 20- column Thermal Printer prints on low-cost, thermal roll paper at a fast 120 lines per
minute. It produces all of the standard 64 ASCII characters with a crisp -printing five -by -seven dot
matrix. AIM 65's on -board printer is a unique feature for a low -cost computer.
PRINT -Print Display contents
interval timer /event
'FEW
r
ADVANCED INTERFACE MONITOR
COMMANDS
Major Function Entry
(RESET Button) -Enter and initialize Monitor
ESC-Re -enter Monitor
E
-Enter and initialize Text Editor
T -Re -enter Text Editor
N -Enter Assembler
5
-Enter and initialize BASIC Interpreter
6
-Re -enter BASIC Interpreter
Sat.
MASTERCHARGE
EXTENDED ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY IS BUILT FOR UNDERSTANDING, NOT
DECIPHERING.
AIM 65 comes with a 20- character true Alphanumeric Display. Information is displayed with
bright, magnified 16- segment font monolithic characters. It's both unambiguous and easily
readable.
FULL-SIZE KEYBOARD IS DESIGNED FOR HUMANS, NOT ELVES.
AIM 65's terminal -style keyboard frees you from the hassles of fumbling around with a tiny
calculator -type keypad. And its 54 keys provide 70 different alphabetic, numeric. control and
special functions.
ON -BOARD ADVANCED INTERACTIVE MONITOR GETS YOUR PROGRAMS
UP AND RUNNING.
The ROM -resident AIM 65 Advanced Interactive Monitor Program provides a comprehensive set
of easy -to -use. single- keystroke commands for debugging your programs, and offers features
normally available only in larger, expensive microcomputer development systems. And with the
AIM 65 Monitor. there's no guesswork involved; the Monitor gives a self-explanatory prompt when
it needs information and it will generate a meaningful error message if an error has occurred.
The AIM 65 Monitor includes commands to
Enter and edit programs directly
no "opcode" memorization
List programs on Printer or TTY
Display /alter registers and memory
Set breakpoints, trace and debug program execution
Control the Thermal Printer
Transfer information to /from attached Cassette Recorders or TTY
Execute programs in on -board or external RAM, ROM or PROM memory
Interface the optional AIM 65 Assembler and BASIC Interpreter
-
AIM 65'S ADVANCED R6500 NMOS ARCHITECTURE.
The R6502 Central Processing Unit is the heart of the AIM 65. It provides demonstrated speed and
simplicity, plus 65K addressability and the power of a 56- command. minicomputer-like
instruction set.
The R6532 RAM -Input /Output -Timer (RIOT) combination device is used by the AIM 65
Monitor for scratchpad memory and Keyboard operations.
Two R6522 Versatile Interface Adapter (VIA) devices are provided. One device supports AIM
65's Thermal Printer and the TTY and Cassette Interfaces, the other supports two user-dedicated
8 -line I/O ports, plus an 8 -bit serial I/O port and access to two 16 -bit interval timer /event counters,
on the module's Application Connector.
AIM 65 comes with two R2332 4K Read Only Memory (ROM) devices installed. These hold the
Advanced Interface Monitor program. Spare sockets allow the user to expand on -board ROM up
to 20K bytes. These sockets will accept user programs on R2332 ROMs or compatible PROMS. or
can be used to install the optional AIM 65 Assembler and BASIC Interpreter ROM devices.
On -Board Read /Write RAM memory is available in 1K-byte and 4K -byte configurations.
AIM 65 HAS EXPANSION BUILT IN.
And to allow AIM 65 to grow the way you want it to, we've provided an Application Connector and
an Expansion Connector. The Application Connector permits you to plug on a TTY (20 ma.
current loop) and one or two standard audio cassette recorders. It also has the pinouts for the
VIA's General- Purpose I/O ports. The Expansion Connector extends AIM 65's system bus
address, data and control
out to additional memory, or anything else you might attach.
And, BASIC high -level language programming is a built -in option.
-
CIRCLE 26 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
TAPE RECORDER I
5 TRACK, 4CASSETTE,
YEAR -END
EASILY MODIFIED TO PLAY ONE
RECORD ANOTHER ALL CONTTOL SIGNALS ON EDGE CONNECTORS! 2000FT I/4°TAPE /CASSETTE, PRINTED CIRCUIT MOTORS
a TACH GEN; BALL BEARINGS, TOP
QUALITY MFG! REQUIRES 12 VOLT 5AMP DC;
DATA BOQK 81 I CASSETTE FURNISHED WT85
LBS SHIP D COD. BOOK $25, CASSETTE $25.
SPECIALS
DC-DC CONVERTER Outputs
15VDC @ 100 mA, for 15 VDC input. URrahi isolation, .05% reg'n. Only 2" sq. by .375' thick. An extremely unusual
bargain
$19.00
SYNTHESIZER (MUSIC) VCO: Sawtooth & trigger outs: . 10 v P.P. 1010kH, out
volt per octave response (exponential), linear input Needs
.15 VDC
$25.50
ANALOG DELAY IC: Identical to SAD 1024A. Produces real timee audio
delay. w /data
$17,95
ARTICLES b SYNTHESIZER LITERATURE "TECH NOTES ", our own R&D
newsletter. Featuring articles on building Active Filters, Audio Freq. Shifters,
VCO's, VCF's, Hangers. Synthesizers, b other Audio /Electronic devices.
Tech Notes SubscHptIonll2 Issues
$19.50
DUAL SEC. PWR. TRANSFORMERS: 115 /230V-50/6OHz Primary, output
=2x 19V @ 1 amp. Hi quality
$4.25
5 VOLT, 50 WATT ZENER: TO-3 pkg., 10 amp capability.
34.95
1
STEPPING MOTOR
15°/STEP,
28VOLT, LEAD
UNSUAL IC: 14-pin DIP, generates psuedo- random musical sequence. A
'synthesizeron.a.ohip'. Clear plastic pkg, also, senses motion VISUALLY.
A unique buy
SEND SELF ADDRESSED STAMPED
ENVELOP FOR FREE COPY NOW!
DC MOTORS al
-
r
SMALL SIZE 15/8" DIA
27/161LG, SHAFT I /8p
DIAI /21LG, PM FIELD, BALL BEAR ING,28 VOLT
REMOVED FROM EQUIP. 16.00 EACH
HI TORQUE 3 /16 "DIA 33/4'LG SHAFT, PM FIELD
W/MU-METAL SHIELD,B.B., 28 VOLT EA.$7.50
MOTOR a TACH GENERATOR SET $ 11.00
TACH GENERATOR l' DIA 13/41'LG, SHAFT 1/8"
DIA 3 /8'LONG, PM FIELD, WIRE LEADS,$5.00
ADD $3.00 POSTAGE -BALANCE REFUNDED
-
repairs and pollution.
The TIGER can be built and installed in
your car in 80 minutes. The TIGER is
unique!
The TIGER comes with a switch for TIGER
or standard ignition for 12V negative ground
only.
1514"7
1
only $3.50
DUAL 15 VOLT REGULATOR IC: Outputs 215 VDC ® over 50 mA, more
with pass Xsistors. Balanced, tracking outputs with 5% reg'n or better.
w /data
99'ee
MINIDIP SOCKET. Solid nylon w, machined gold plated pins Spin. made
by Augat.
3181.00
.1 uF, 50 VDC CAPACITORS: War construction, PC leads..
12/31.00
CIRCUIT BOARD
WIREWRAF GOLD, 8 -16PIN
32- 14PIN, 8-26 PIN .025 SG,
Simpli -Kit $21.95
POST PAID U.S.A.
OP AMP SPECIALS
CA
LM
LM
LM
MALE RIBBON CONNECTORS,
YOU STRIP EACH $10.00
NEW KLUGE BOARDS! EPDXY-GLASS,
2 SIDE COPPER, /16'X71 /2X101 /2' DRILLED
FOR 7- 16PIN, 28- 14PIN, -24 PIN, a 4 -28 PIN
SOCKETS, MANY THRU HOLES, EACH $5.00
NO.2 SAME EXCEPT HAS 13- 16PIN,a 36 -14PIN
PATTERNS, YOU ETCH. $7.50 MIN ORDER $10.00
WE ACCEPT:
Mastercharge or BankAmericard.
Send check or money order with order to:
3140 minidip
65'ea
12'ea
18'ea.
35`sa.
709 minidip..
741
minidip
733 dip
'
.
.
CA3401 quad dip
TL-084 quad bifet
SG 14367 TO 99. Hi V...
5G 307 M -LM 307 minidip
area.
$1.19
.. 99'ea.
19'ea.
We have many unusual and unique bargain in our CATALOG /FLYER.
Send a stmp or 25' (for poetpel for a FREE COPY and get on ow
MAILING LIST.
I
iStar Corporation
$7.95
STATE VARIABLE FILTER IC: Hybrid, identical to the AF 100 ICJ 4 onboard op amps, DC- 10kHz. Hlpase, Bandpass, Lopess, b Notch
56.95
POWER TRANSISTORS:' 3055 TO -3: 49' ea. I'3772 TO -3, more power 79.sa.
2N6487/2N6490 TO-220, Complimentary pair
99'pr.
EXAR 2209: Current -Controlled oscillator minidip. w /data
$3.50
4.000 MHZ CRYSTAL .005 tolerance
$2.49
2 WATT, STERO DIP IC: Improved version ULN 2277LM377.. ..
$1.49
1101 STATIC RAM: 256 x 1. prime; 99.
MOSTEK MK2102P Char. Gen.: 9296
MINIATURE ELEC'TROL RELAYS: 500 ohm, 12 VDC -SPOT,
8VDCSPST
Both Wee.
HI,CURRENT DIODE: Sim. to IN1196. 35 amps OP 200V min
$1.19
HISLEW RATE OP AMP: NE531 minidip. By Signetics b Raytheon.
Wee
RECTANGULAR CERMET TRIMMERS: Standard, multi -turn. 10K H 103K
Both 59' ea., 2/81.00
REGULATORS: 7815.15VDC dil amp.
LAMBDA 'LAS-141T 12 VDC ®3ernes
..$3.49
POWER ZENERS: TO -3, 5V ® 50 watt; 53.95
[email protected] 50 wan: $1,95
COMPUTER GRADE ELECTROLYTIC: 40,000 MFD ® 25 VDC, 40 V surge
NEW CATALOG! PLEASE
Electronic ignition is "in." Update your car
with the TOPS in power, efficiency and reliability
the TIGER SST capacitive discharge ignition.(CD).
The TIGER delivers everything other CD's
promise
and more: quicker starting, more
power, more gas mileage, tune -ups eliminated, lifetime plugs and points, reduced
f
PRECISION BALL
BEARING, 5 LEAD WINDING $4.95
WITH FOLLOWER a GUIDE $9.50
SHAFT 310 DIA 5 I /I6LG 4 "WORKING,
MOTOR 17/16 "DIi1 2 15/16 "LONG
FROM KIT TO CAR
IN 80 MINUTES!
AF-1001CJ
... they won't last long of these low prices."
5 A6
SCREW SHAFT
1!
I
DEPT. FF, P.O. Box 1727
Grand Junction, Colorado 81501
81
J
PO BOX
CIRCLE 41 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
BFR
Associates, Inc.
ELECTRONICS SALES
Newton, N
03858
603/3825179
4504, FT.WORTH,TX.76106
CIRCLE 17 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Minimum order 510.00
Add $2.00 for shipping
VISA, & C.O.D. accepted
MC,
Phone orders are welcome
SATISFACTION GUARANTEED
CIRCLE 64 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
I
COG CONTINENTAL SPECIALTIES
100 MHz 8 -Digit Counter
Fully
6' LED Display
20 He 100 MHz Range
Innsees 100 IPC rhplead mpul able.
K
Alomalu
n''$119.00
31/2
PRE CISION
-Digit
Portable DMM
31/2
overhead Protected
Battery or
AC operation
3" nigh LED Osplay
Auto Zeroing
Model 2800
complete with test
WAHL
Wellef- Xcelite
Digit DMM
Model 270 wined
$85
Reg $80 00
1
Kit $65.00
Bads oprating manual and spare lus
7
,,.
MODEL
7800
more
3 or
u
ib
IS(1ICrIP
NEW ISO -TIP
"Quick Charge '
Flashing Over Range Indicator
Auto Polarity
Overload Pr rimmed
S27.95 $26.95
7500 Cordless
Service Master Attache Style
2*_
Tool Cases
Tool Kit
/ST
MO
Made1990M
Roll Kit
$39.95
$230.50
13.95 7;4
Model
Soldering Iron $17.95
Spot
Model 5800 Thermal
Circuit Tester $22.50
SEB,TBCC-100
Reg.
$318.00
$270.30
Battery or ens operation
Automatic and hoe sync modes
15
Power consumption less than
NOW AVAILABLE
Dual race Version
Model MS 215 Reg. $435.00
Logic
$40.00
Model
ul
$305 00
e's'' cocuir
ttv
ii compaWbrl
as
Detects pulses
as
short
Dual Trace
Add. subtract modes on
`"
9vollbattery
1,9rcd
an
CM05 lb
Dacus powere
ddesrgn
"Model Leal
(cantor ms to
Movable base pin
"in fL
TO 5, TO 18 and small
LEO dnpav
'
$67.50
1
rn pr eut
Tests trensislprs
na r1 sal
Clear speaker ter,.
Plate
c. ENCOFRE
Prescaler
UHFPR-47
Transistor
Checker
Model LTC -906
Reg. $159.95
$22.00
mdueee
,.
$136.00
Model
Extends
counter range
to 600 MHz
FCC 125.0
flag.
5125.00
$79.95
Colors
Model XL -334A
on
rnnun
Magnifier
,sl
Trace
Scope
with probes
LAMP
Model MG 10E
°
ill
U
L n
$14.95
3-Way
$42.50
1.
1
K ohm /v $9.95
120
CIRCLE 65 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Model
210
Speakermagnet
Reg.
$199,00
. 700 Series
ground d
Puuo
magnihalimt lens Uses
hutrasant
20W T 9 Carhoe
VOM Multimeters
$1r,;95
20K ohn1/
$780.00
$24.95
6" x
ens,
$14.95
leas
3" Dual
Red
ck oyster
ob,,ls,lions in make
ER( $663.00
BUY
$59.95
100
15MHz Portable
Reg.
1
$120.00
Econo.Lamep
t.,,l
Model 1432P
with
Reg.
with accessories
Tester
50 'Sec
Model
1827
$654.50
Front panel 2 Y oDeratmn
17 5 'Sec rise time
complete
L80508
$769 95
tKCH2
CMOS
DI LITT L :HTLi
d1$pon,
dv'omit
HTL TT
Model
Record
Changer
Accessories
Full 6'digit display
30MHz reading guaranteed, 50MHz typical
Hz, resolution -even at
8 -digit accuracy
Ideal for field service and MR0 applications
30MHz and beyond
with range switch allows
Is
5GProbe
Mod
C
SUPER SPECIAL
Frequency Counter
Portable
New 30MHz
W
BSR
$169.15
TOLL FREE 1918
(800) 645 -9518 Catalo
252
Call
N y
Stale tai1,5161
0050
Befo,, you buy test equipment
any make or model ''check ow plc
M
.rtharge
Mnk.Are.Hxard
Man.y Oed.r
Chaek
COO
Fr,:
Add S3.00 lot shipping and insurance
C U t!
Extra New York Slate residents
VISA
add
approp sales tax
INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONICS UNLIMITED
YEAR END CLEARANCE
TTL PACKAGE
IC
dual -in -line
LOW POWER TTL PACKAGE
IC 's
tested functional B marked
5 each of
the following
7400 7430 7453
74153
7402
7432
7454
74153
7437
7438
7439
7440
7403
7404
7406
7410
7416
7423
7425
7426
7427
7460
7474
7476
7483
7441
7485
7442
7445
7446
7448
7450
7493
7495
7496
dual -in -line package
74100
74102
74L03
74L04
74106
741_51
74178
741_10
741_20
741_72
74L86
74193
74L95
.30"
.8"
01.702
813400
LINEAR IC PACKAGE
HP7651
$26.50
low profile
I
100/$15.00
I
$12.95
each of following
291132Á PNP Gen. purpose trans.
252218A NPN Low power trans.
?52219A NPN Low power trans.
EN2222
NPN Low power trans.
252369
NPN Low power trans.
PNP Low power trans.
292904
293227
NPN Low power trans.
TO -39
TO -5
TO -5
TO -106
TO -18
TO -5
TO -18
293565
NPN Low power trans.
R
294304
SCA
FET N Channel
400V Power trans
$15.00
307 mDIP op amp
311 mDIP V comp
3401 5V reg.
376 mOIP volt reg
sag driver
15
LM3201
LM322N
LM324N
LM339N
LM340K
CAPACITOR PACKAGE
$3.95
tested functional g marked
5 each of the
following
301 mDIP op amp
565 DIP PLL
739 DIP dual op amp
comp
timer 741 mDIP op amp
748 eOIP op amp
cono
340T 6Volt reg
3900 DIP quad amp
3401 15Vott reg
15453 mDIP dp drvr
-110
R97b
TO -5
LM340T (78XX)
5,6,8,12,
15,18,24
1.19
.49
.20
.45
.80
45
LM370
LM372N
LM376CN
LM377N
LM380N
LM380-8CN
.20
.30
.39
1.05
1.05
DIP dual op amp
748 mDIP op amp
1414 DIP dual comp
3900 DIP quad amp
739
polyester radial
' 10%
10 each of following values
.0047uf/100V
.022uf/100V
.015uf /100V
.033uf/100V
.018uf/100V
.047uf/200V
.65
LM3829
LM385K
LM386CN
LM387CN
NE531V
NE540L
NE546A
NE550A
LM555CN
NE556A
LM560N
LM561N
-05650
015658
LM565H
1.29
(79581
1.19
.69
.95
.69
5,6,8,17,
15,18,24 1.29
TRIMPOT PACKAGE
120
solid dipped
-10 II.25 .20
10u /16V
.25 .20
1Du /20V
1
.22u/35V
.33v/35V
1u /35V
2.2020V
2.2035V
.25
.28
.30
.35
.20
.30
.10
.30
.75
.25
.25
I
22u /I6V
33u/107
47u/6V
47u20V
.75
56u/6V
.30
100u/20V
cvllndrical (axial)
3.37/35V
4.7u/16V
6.8u /6V
6.8u /16V
6.8u/50V
.30
1
.10
.33
.1
20K,
.43
.50
50V
22pf 56pf
27pf SSpf
120pf 270pf 820pf
5pf
150pf 390pf .001uf
180pf 470pf .0047uf
33pf 82pf
7pf
lOpf 47pf 100pf 220pí 600pf .01uf
1pf
.1050u
lo
1110 per
110100
value
b.10
.05
.10
.06
...
.022uf
.030uf
.050uf
.luf
f
50V
330 825
5
/$1
6/51
1.09
.75
.39
.85
2.95
2.95
.59
1.39
1.39
-
Miniature,
Solid State
6V
12V
(4 -9V
15ma
15ma
oper.)
0-200 oper.)
ELEKTOR MAGAZINE
above
a
m steel
511.95
cannel
n,
...
1
10 /51
10 /51
7/11
7/S1
10/11
10/S1
$1.29 ea.
$1.29 ea.
No.
TANTALUM CAPACITOR KIT
solid dipped, 12 values, 5 each
10/25
.1uf /35V
2.2/35
33/10
.33/35
4.7/16
15/20
47/25
1/35
6.8/16
56/6
22/16
capacitors only
$14.95
SUMMER CIRCUITS
ELEKTOR 78
Double issue containing more than
100 circuits - such as high -perf.
disc pre -amp, Audio control ampl.,
LED level indicator, Cir ammeter,
Bible speedometer, A/D converter
and many more.
with order
mag only
100,
220,
4.7K 6.8K,
film, !I`,
a
ea.
/4w. 50pcm
from 10.5 to 4644
027.95
I
Sum /lied in steel cae;net w;tn clear
s tryene
drawers
579.50
Cabinet shipping chr9. u5 5 Can. 52.00
1
%,
8
31
8
5
$4.00
5hippin:
handlinc
UPS dely only
&OP
1
Qty.
Ea.
-99
$.20
1
100 -999
1000-
$5.45
Metal
30,
FILM RESISTORS
/4w, + 50 PPM/0C
Standard Decide Values 10.5
+
470, 1K, 1.5K, 3.3K
IOK, 33K, 100K, 1M.
240 resistors.
29,
METAL
1/2
PRECISION
g.11.
RESISTOR PACKAGE
26.
available only in U
53.00
4.25
Carbon Film + 5% 1/4 w or
15 ea. of 12 values:
25,
S1
Includes articles on:
ELEKTOR music synthesiser
Surround sound
Stereo encoder
Active loudspeaker crossover filters
Levi tator
Microprocessors
Logarithmic dark room timer
TV pattern generator
Kirlian photography
Biorythm program 8 calendar
Infra red stereo transmitter
Ioniser
Magnetiser
Video bio feedback
lanadaj.cnr,l
..
SPECIAL
issue
each of back
I
PRECISION RESISTOR PACKAGE
Metal Film + 1% 1/4 watt
Starter Kit-- 2eä. 60 values
120 Resistors 10.5 ohm- 464K
$14.95
Supplied in 15 Drawer 60 Comp.
Cabinet - $26.50 + $2.00 5h.
VECTOR BOARD - Phenolic
169144 -062 (.1 "spacing .42" dia.)
4 -1/4" x 4 -1/2" x .0625 "...$1.15 ea.
Min
+ 5%
hi
perf op amp
7494
.59
7495
7496
74100
74105
74107
74121
74123
74125
74126
74132
74141
74145
74150
74151
74153
.59
.49
.89
.29
.79
1
.18
.15
.35
7444
.50
7445
7446
7447
7448
7450
.50
7454
.40
.60
.70
7413
7414
7415
.30
.55
7460
7464
7465
.10
7416
7417
7420
7425
.14
.20
.14
.28
.32
.55
1426
.15
.40
.45
1427
.55
7432
.65
.60
7437
.20
.17
.15
.15
.89
.50
.50
.95
.22
7423
7430
7438
7440
.95
.15
.13
74163
74164
74165
74166
74170
74173
74114
74175
74176
/4177
74180
.45
.55
.55
.60
.15
.15
7451
7453
.13
.10
7470
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7480
7483
.10
.20
74182
74185
.20
.27
74190
.30
.75
.95
1.50
1.25
1.05
.65
.70
.70
.40
74192
74193
1.95
.70
1.85
.95
.85
74191
.50
.50
.85
.50
74194
74195
.42
.29
.17
.58
.75
.27
7486
7489
7490
.65
74181
.29
.18
7485
.75
74196
74197
74198
74199
745200
74279
1.25
.80
.75
1.40
1.25
3.25
.65
.35
SOCKETS
IC
Low Profile Solder Tail
8
pin
24 pin
$.16
14 pin
.19
28 pin
16 pin
.21
40 Pin
18 pin
.28
.50
.65
Wire Wrap
8
.45
pin
14 pin
.49
16 pin
.55
$.36
.44
.61
BEZELS - with red filters
140 -2
cut -out 1.125" x 2.375"
max .062" panel thickness
140 -4
cut -out 1.160" x 4.375"
max .125" panel thickness
3.95
3.95
6.95
ilicon,
SIGNAL DIODES
.95
400mv
51.75
$2.75
25/51
200/15
LED DISPLAY
2.75
OLIDA
MAN66
9.95
MA93620
MAN3630
9ÁN4610 .40" 'Orange CC
HP5082 5 dig .11 "mag.
HP5082 4 dig .11 "nag.
HP5082 5 dig .11 "mag.
15V
3 LM34AT and 3 LM320T
regulators, 115V/29V CT transformer
plus PC board capacitors I diodes.
All parts, schematic, instructions
P5 -29
$12.95 + 51.00 Shppng.
TRIMPOT
,SINGLE ruer,
I/4"
Mepto /Electra
dia,
!
1.9
10 -99
.69
.59
.59
.69
.69
.79
.79
1.25
1.25
.79
.49
.59
.49
.39
.49
Single Turn
-
.1507
hel9nt
available sites
loo ohm,
lox,
20,
204,
sox,
100K,
5004.
lw
205
5.75eä
.39
.59
RHD
Red CC RHO
Red CC RHD
Red CC CD
senses 8014 7E7147
100epm /9C
.Sw
.49
Dig .I/" Red CC
Red CA LSD
.30" Red CC RHO
.30" Red CC RHO
.30" Yellow CA LHD
.30" Red CC LHO
.5" Red CA RHD
.5" Red CC RHD
.8" Red CA LHD
.8" Red CC LHD
.30" Orange CA LHD
.30" .1 Orange CA RHD
HP3405
Uses
.79
1.19
.29
.30"
HP7653
HP3400
minus
LHD
3
MA974
955744
MAN82
DL702
HP7651
3.95
Red CA
.60" Red CA LSD
Dig .17" Red CC
3 Dig .17"
Red CC
2
NSN33
MAN72
4.95
&
.27"
01336
01338
17.95
Min 100/value
100 -999
.60
1000.57
16 pin
DIP IC's and
interconnection holes.
$1.00
-
.17
.15
.15
.75
7442
7443
.19
Silver plated copper circuits
5
.35
.25
75452CN
.25
75453CN(351).25
75454CN
.35
75491N
.65
75492N
.75
X6320
1.19
X82207
1.49
X62567
1.49
Kß4136
1.49
X84202
.69
X84212
.69
X84739
.69
.50
BREADBOARD
holds
.12
.14
7441
.10
12V
$3.00/100
2.50/100
.10
.15
.14
7411
.32
.45
.ISV
/2w
7400
7401
7402
7403
7404
7405
7406
7407
7408
7409
7410
.29
-161
7162
2511
Dual
200bit static
shift register
2513
64x8x5
Char gen
upper case
64x845
2513
Char gen lower case
6446x8
2516
Char gen ASCII
F93410
256bit RAM bi -polar
745200 (82516)
256bit RAM tri -state
8008
8 bit microprocessor
10110 /111 set
3 1/2 digit A/0 convert
F7001
Calendar clock
Tß1602
UART
4.59
OFF ON S25.00
1S% OFF ON 550.00
.38
.25
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
1.05
.04
.39
.39
74155
74156
74157
74158
'4160
.49
Dual diff comp
LM3900N
Quad op amp
084136N
Quad op amp
SL -5 -4025
Quad 25bit shift reg.
2510
Dual 100bit static shift
shift register
Plus
/4w,
10/value
.59
.64
7492
7493
74154
$9.00 /100
1
.29
S
LM1414N
8.00/100
Ea.
C
Dual
LM311CN
comparator
7491
Min 100 /value
.10
$.10
.10
1
LM311N,
Volt.
LM739N
464K
Min 10 /value
$.15
.20
Carbon Film Fesistors
Qty.
-99
100 -999
1000-
-
pans
peel 8 stick
.53" sq. X .23" high
12/$1.00
100/55.00
10/51
1500
5601
6f
f
wni to v nyl
8 /S1
100r.
'Orr
BUMPONS
10/51
8/51
.35
.79
.79
.45
TTL - 7400
electrolytic - axial
5 each of the following
.1 of /200V
22uf/50V
luf /16V
100uf/10V
2.2uf/25V
150uf/25V
Suf /25V
220uf/25V
10uf/50V
500uf/30V
shipping B handling
US, Canada B Mexico $1.00
Other countries
52.50
10 /$1
.89
.89
1.19
1.49
1.97
1.45
1007o
IC'S
15/$1
ELECTRONIC BUZZER
ERAMIC CAPACITOR
ASSORTMENT -
19
150
5.15
100-
500K,
ME4 Infra -red emitter .17" radial
MV106 clear red lite .17" radial
MV50
clear red lite .09" axial
951100 red .19 radial
Submin. red .125" (14.209)
Submin. green .125"
Submin. clear red lite .125"
Submin. white red lite .125"
White red lite .160" 1ßL203)
Jumbo red .200"
Jumbo green .200"
Jumbo yellow .200"
Jumbo clear .200"
Jumbo red .200" current reg.
.55 .50
.65 .55
.75 .65
1.45
-
100K,
DISCRETE LED's
11-
DISC CAPACITORS
50K,
.4
.20 .15
.40 .35
.68u/15V
15u/25V
CERAMIC
-I0
II-
.35
.37
.38
.45
.45
.55
15u/6.3V
15u /20V
.23
.25
-10
LM739N
LM741CN(8)
LM741CN(14)
LM741CH
LM747H
LM747N
LM748CN
LM13105
2.25
LM14145
.60
1.29
LM1456CN
LM1458CN
.59
.89
LM14965
1.75
LM1800N
.49
1.90
1.90
$7.95
$11.95
miniature cermet
single turn, Mepco 8014
2 each of following
values
500 ohm, 1K, 2K, 5K, 10K,
1.97338
.25
.49
CAPACITOR PACKAGE
TANTALUM CAPACITORS
.59
.39
.25
.29
.59
.35
.55
.52
.59
.65
.25
.32
.35
.79
.65
.25
LM703CN
LM709N
LM709H
LM710N
LM711N
LM723H
LM723N
.25
.95
.79
.59
1.75
1.75
ULN2208
ULN2209
CA3046
CA3081N
CA3081H
CA3082
1939005
LM7524
197525
LM7535
80388
75450AN
75451CN
1.19
1.19
1.49
LM566CN
LM567CN
LM567H
LM703H
2.93
19381111
1.07
.40
.50
1.13
5,12,15
LINEAR IC PACKAGE
V
75491
5.59
.99
.99
.69
.69
soldertail
100 /115.00
10/41.65
723 DIP V reg
733 T05 vid amp
reg
CC LHDP
PIN IC SOCKETS
14
TI
DIP prec
DIP quad
V
red
red
CA LHDP
red CC LHDP
.43" red CA SHOP
.43" red CC RHDP
tested functional B marked
5 each of the following
301 eOIP op amp
380 DIP and amp
302 T05 V follower 565 DIP PLL
376 mDIP
1-1-7
TRANSISTOR PACKAGE
.8"
HP7653
322
339
LINEAR CIRCUITS
LM300H
LM301CN
LM302H
013048
LM305H
LM307CN
LM307H
LM308H
LM309H
LM309K
LM310CN
1931105
LM311H
LM319N
LM320K
5,5.2.12,
1
5
$24.50
311 eOIP
74L73
74L74
741_42
5/11.00
LED DISPLAY SPECIALS
74145
307 nDIP op amp
308 105 op amp
for T0 -220 package
aluminum, PC mt tabs
tested functional 8 marked
10 each of the following
74164
74165
74166
74175
74177
74180
74182
74190
74195
74141
f>Á
HEAT SINK
$15.00
UNIVERSAL
COMPLETE SATISFACTION GUARANTEED.
SHIPMENT TO U5 AND CANADA PREPAID
UNLESS INDICATED OTHERWISE. OTHER COUNTRIES ADD 10% - EXCESS REFUNDED.
ORDERS SHIPPED IN 3 WORKING DAYS FROM RECEIPT. MINIMUM ORDER $10.00
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. MINIMUM COD OR CHARGE ORDER $15.00
BREADBOARD
INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONICS UNLIMITED
Silver placed copper circuits
fits any IC and related
components.
2 triple rows of
27 holes for DIP.
3- 3/16 "x5 -1/16"
$1.00
CIRCLE
VILLAGE SQUARE,
P.O.
BOX
449,
CARMEL VALLEY, CA
TELEPHONE NI
31 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
455.3171
113924
USA
P.O. Box 4430E Santa Clara, CA 95054
For will call only: (408) 988-1640
Same day shipment. First line
2322 Walsh Ave.
parts only. Factory tested.
Guaranteed money back. Quality IC's and other components
at factory prices.
ELECTRONICS
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
TOUTS
74009
71029
71049
74099
.17
.17
.19
741011
.17
741/1
.63
.17
23
74209
74229
74309
74129
74459
74479
1.39
Cosmac Super Elf Computer $106.95
Compare features before you decide to buy any
other computer. There is no other computer on
the market today that has all the desirable benefits of the Super Elf for so little money. The Super
Elf is a small single board computer that does
many big things. It is an excellent computer for
training and for learning programming with its
machine language and yet it is easily expanded
with additional memory, Tiny Basic, Ascfi
Keyboards, video character generation, etc.
The Super Elf includes a ROM monitor for program loading, editing and execution with SINGLE
STEP for program debugging which is not included in others at the same price. With SINGLE
STEP you can see the microprocessor chip
operating with the unique Ouest address and
data bus displays before, during and after
executing instructions. Also, CPU mode and instruction cycle are shown on several LED indica-
tor lamps.
An RCA 1861 video graphics chip allows you to
connect to your own TV with an inexpensive video
modulator to do graphics and games. There is a
speaker system included for writing your own
music or using many music programs already
written. The speaker amplifier may also be used
to drive relays for control purposes.
keyboard includes 16 HEX keys
plus load, reset, run, input, memory protect.
A 24 key HEX
memory select, monitor select and single step.
Large, on board displays provide output and optional high and low address. There is a 44 pin
standard connector for PC cards and a 50 pin
connector for the Guest Super Expansion Board.
Power supply and sockets for all IC's are included in the price plus a detailed 90 page instruc-
tion manual.
Many schools and universities are using the
Super Elf as a course of study. OEM's use it for
training and research and development.
Remember, other computers only offer Super Elf
features at additional cost or not at all. Compare
before you buy. Super Elf Kit $106.95, High
address option $8.95, Low address option
59.95. Custom Hardwood Cabinet with drilled
and labelled front panel $24.95. NiCad Battery
Backup Kit $4.95. All kits and options also come
completely assembled and tested.
Guestdals, a 12 page monthly software publication for 1802 computer users is available by subscription for $12.00 per year.
Tiny Basic for ANY 1802 System
Cassette $10.00. On ROM Monitor $38.00.
Super Ell owners, 30 % off. Object code listing or
paper tape with manual $5.50.
Original ELF Kit Board $14.95.
Super Expansion Board with Cassette Interface $89.95
This is truly an astounding value! This board has
been designed to allow you to decide how you
want it optioned. The Super Expansion Board
comes with 4K of low power RAM fully addressable anywhere in 64K with built-in memory protect and a cassette Interface. Provisions have
been made for all other options on the same
board and it fits neatly into the hardwood cabinet
alongside the Super Elf. The board includes slots
for up to 6K of EPROM (2708, 2758, 2716 or TI
2716) and is hilly socketed ($12.00 value).
EPROM can be used for the monitor and Tiny
Basic or other purposes.
A IK Super ROM
Monitor $19.95 is available
as
an on board option in 2708 EPROM
which has
been preprogrammed with a program loader/
editor and error checking multi file cassette
read /write software, (relocatible cassette file)
another exclusive from Ouest. It includes register
save and readout, video graphics driver with
blinking cursor and block move capability. The
Super Monitor is written with subroutines allowing users to take advantage of monitor functions
Auto Clock Kit
$15.95
DC clock with 4 -.50" displays. Uses National
MA -1012 module with alarm option. Includes
light dimmer, crystal timebase PC boards. Fully
regulated, comp. instructs. Add $3.95 for beautiful dark gray case. Best value anywhere.
RCA Cosmac VIP Kit
229.00
Video computer with games and graphics.
Not a Cheap Clock Kit $14.95
Includes everything except case. 2 -PC boards
6 -.50" LED Displays. 5314 clock chip, transformer, all components and full instruct. Green
and orange displays also avail. Same kit w /.80"
displays. Red only.
$21.95
60 Hz Crystal Time Base Kit $4.40
Converts digital clocks from AC line frequency to
crystal time base. Outstanding accuracy. Kit includes: PC board, MM5369, crystal, resistors.
capacitors and trimmer.
Other on board options include Parallel input
and Output Ports with full handshake. They
allow easy connection of an ASCII keyboard to the
input port. RS 232 and 20 ma Current Loop for
teletype or other device are on board and if you
need more memory there are two S -100 slots for
static RAM or video boards. A Godbout 8K RAM
board is available for $127.95. Parallel I/0 Ports
$9.85, RS 232 $4.50, TTY 20 ma I/F $1.95,
S -100 $4.50. A 50 pin connector net with ribbon
cable is available at $12.50 for easy connection
between the Super Elf and the Super Expansion
Board.
The Power Supply for the Super Expansion Board
is a 5 amp supply with + 8v ± 18v + 12v
5v,
Regulated voltages are +5v 8 +12v $29.95.
Deluxe version includes the case at $39.95.
-
1.15
4.50
5.00
1.00
LM381
160
1.382
160
C134528
C54553
C04566
69
LM74101
7450N
747411
.17
.29
114741M
LM747WM
7a5N
A9
LM748N
LM13039
.35
.25
.62
35
82
1.10
1.27
74(48
74(74
115
200
71C78
110
2.75
.47
1.75
7.50
3,00
1.75
1.50
74(90
74193
740154
71(160
71(175
74(192
74(221
88
74C955
2.00
3.00
1.75
.50
74(906
74(901
74(922
1.95
5.50
2.89
71C923
5,50
15
74(925
195
A3
.79
74C926
74(927
6.95
.88
71939
74959
741001
741079
7412111
200
1013114
.43
101305
13
43
LM1307
LM1310
89
.90
1511450
1191900
.29
LM1812
LM1889
34
.59
.39
.89
741239
741259
741459
741509
.95
.69
1.00
7415111
741549
7415711
69
.81
.87
.87
.96
90
1.15
.87
.85
1.55
1.65
66
.66
88
741619
74182N
7416311
741749
741759
741909
741929
741939
742219
742989
743659
743669
713679
741500
74L502N
741.5019
741505M
74LS/8M
7115109
7415131
7415144
7415209
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
LM2111
1142902
15/39009
LM3905
LM3909N
MCI458V
905401
NE55DN
NE555V
NE5564
NE5fi5A
NE588V
NE567V
ME5708
9057111
78105
78108
79105
78M05
75108
75451 C11
A M
D
74152211
74152811
25
157103
.41
111.7107
7115309
7415339
7415309
7415749
7415759
741.0909
7411939
7115959
7/151079
74151129
7/151139
74111329
7415136N
7Q5151N
74101559
74101579
74151629
74151639
.25
.39
CMOS
_35
.47
.51
.51
1.89
.35
.35
.35
.72
35
.67
.67
.67
,91
.91
74101909
74102219
74LS2509
7415367N
.95
06
1.50
1.20
5.00
500
.80
.60
.70
85
1.75
0034001 FM.
cO40W
C04001
C54002
CD4006
CD4007
C04008
C04009
CD4010
004011
C04012
Co4013
C51014
CD4115
C54016
(04017
(01018
.89
8725
8726
450
1195
2200
1195
195
7.40
150
1425
.21
1.10
.21
.21
.39
.39
.21
.21
1.51
C04027
2.95
(04029
.35
.87
.35
.89
1.15
.95
.90
CD403D
.21
(04035
1.02
1.02
292
C04049
120
1.60
1.60
1.50
1.60
1.15
1.55
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
(54050
(51051
C01060
C54I66
C04068
054569
004070
C04071
004072
C54073
004075
(04076
004078
C54081
C51082
CD1116
00190
1.10
1.15
C04507
1.10
C04510
(54504
16
/9
$49.95
Clock Calendar Kit
$23.95
CT7015 direct drive chip displays date and
time on .6" LEDS with AM -PM indicator.
Alarm /doze feature includes buzzer. Complete
with all parts, power supply and instructions,
less case.
TERMS: S5.00 min. order U.S. Funds. Calif residents add
BankAmericard and Master Charge accepted.
6 °o
CIRCLE 53 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
1100
3.00
.36
MM5865
16
C17001
580
1.13
1.12
C17002
C77010
C17015
8.95
MM59754101
MM5375A601
3.90
4.90
/1
10
.40
.40
.21
.21
.21
.21
1.75
.40
7205
7207
7208
7209
D50025CN
DS0056CN
MM53104
CRYSTALS
I MHz
1.50
<.
310
3.90
4.00
5,00
3.60
2.10
11.45
7.95
150
MHz
MHz
1.25
10 MHz
18 MHz
20 MHz
4Y5
2 4576
$37.50
$47.75
19.95
pin
adp
195
7.25
16.50
7.50
AY5.2376
AY5 -3600
711922
74(923
H00165.5
Operas SOSIA KN
0p100 5-18 Volt
top.
50
1224.00
Model 150
Grabber
0229.00
Gn
0369.00
KM
r3
1RANOFOMMERS
300
85
300 ma transformer
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
121V
CT 600 ma
12V 250 ma wau dug
12V CT 250 ma well plug
4.50
4.25
4.50
4.50
toV
2
ampwall Mug
amp
18V B
517277728
017477750
O 1750
11
47
47
804
1.50
mp rdspec. /sock.
500 1,90
(MCC .600 1.95
CC
CC
.600 1.95
.357
70
950500/507
CC/CA
.500 1.35
111905031510
COCA .500
.90
CC/CA .800 2.20
3
digit Bubble
4
Mot bubble
50
BO
DGIO Florescent
1.75
1.75
5115014pan
I.00
its..
NSN69 9 Mpit displry
7520 Cirez phd0cells
60
39
150
T11311 Het
293904
29390e
293055
.69
4.95
3.75
3.75
2.50
lO
18
295
350
A.9
DG8 fluorescent
5r
15.95
3.75
12.95
CNCC
1:110359
MO800/007
.18
125
DISPLAY LEOS
MANI
CA .270 2.90
MAN
CC
39
/ál72774
CACA .3300 1.00
01704
CC .300 1.25
DL707lOL707R
CA .300 100
1.50
5.25
TN
MHz
15.50
Lolls
00áe1 10 Trigger
4.50
TRANSISTORS
5
.splay
1001
3.13200 KN
4,50
1.20
1,95
196
1
K
125" LED
Pantrplca
alp
55
6.95
DC to
Vera. plu.100 .01100
012.50
13.50
5.50
5.50
.55
Red
Black
7.27
udepol
S 01011
CONNECTORS
IDO pin edge WW
900
Mom. Pushbutton
9550áe, 00050165.5
MHz
18 432 MHz
221184 MHz
1150
1250
oppplyn0199
5551
MM5865 Stopwatch Timer
3.90
3.90
4.00
3.2768 MHz
5.0688 MHz
5.185 MHz
5.7143 MHz
5.5536 MHz
14.31816 MHz
0134.05
114.95
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
390
2.0190 MHz
2.097152 MHz
Ted
ed5.50
Video Interlace board kit
125.00
160 EPROM baud Id oro PROMS 74.50
160 Static RAM
Id
39500
North
b1oard OK
0405.50
4.25
32 MHz
32788 MHz
1.M32 MHz
3.5795 MHz
IC
mical
60 Board MI
Wender Board wrconnedor
80.9ág
2Mal
29 95
$8.95
COMPUTER WARD KITS
BK RAM Board KM
10 EPROM Mt
3.50
8223
271671
2716 Intel
MICROPROCESSOR
6800
17 50
6802
24 95
90804 war data
8 95
8085
27.00
Z80
1
3.95
0.4577
11
11.0.
THERMOMETER
purpose or
compact case
2708
4
5
dad
32°-230Dposable probe cover
L. ° accuracy Camp Assy In
0
3.75
8.75
8.75
12.50
2.90
2.50
22.50
48.60
21
21
47
5,50
1.00
4.25
1.02
018R
KEYBOARD ENCODERS
14M5841
1978 IC Update Master Manual $30.00. Corn plete IC data selector, 2175 pg. Master reference guide. Over 42,000 cross references.
Free update service through 1978. Domestic
postage $3.50. Foreign $6.00.
tax,
10.00
,83
.83
1978 IC Update Master Manual
Shipping charges will be added on charge cards.
195
195
150
CLOCKS
2.5 MHz Frequency Counter Kit
Complete kit less case
Prescaler kit to 350 MHz
9.95
4.50
30 MHz Frequency Counter Kit
Ultraviolet, assembled
000
1195
195
Convert your TV set into a high quality monitor
without affecting normal usage. Complete kit
with full instructions.
Complete kit less case
5.94
4.00
600185-5
Digit Multimeter
Video Modulator Kit
1.95
4,95
3.75
3.95
8.50
17.95
6.30
1.49
,40
3,00
9.95
MM57100
GIAY38500-1
MC5165710
9368
4100
416
Batt. /AC oper. 1 mV and .1 NA resolution. Resistance to 20 meg. 1% accuracy. Small, portable,
completely assem. in case. 1 yr. guarantee. Best
value ever!
$59.95
31/2
.95
yy
I
OK WIRE WRAP TOOLS le
Portable 0081mder
RAM
117
,71
alp
é50
3.75
3.75
1.69
1.69
15
CONTINENTAL SPECIALTIES M .8900
Complete tine of breadboard test 6e095u
MAX -loo
MDR fn9. C9.
3121.185
110
9825129
9825131
9825138
9025137
1.69
55.950
Green. Orange, Yellow 1018
.20
m Or
bo
Green, Orange. Yellow Jumbo
.25
Monte LED Meendei
831.25
Wert/ red, amber, preen, yellow. Berl
20
M82S126
275
962.50
72.50
lied 7018
5E
WIRE WRAP LEVEL S
PIN
PIN
25
86
16
27
28
1.00
18
1.23
57
40
UART8
5per type 6.75
key5Oerd01
LEOS
57
5.50
1.25
1AM5309
pan 0.w
1000 per type 012
350 piece pack
025
015
Wí150061111.0 65.00 510090m 11.95
0505
100
110
150
120
53
le ph. 27
295
MM5311
MM5312
MM5313
MM5314
MM5315
MM5316
MM5318
0195309
1.02
25
watt 5%
7pe 03
nlOMd
y ASCII kryb.rd Ivi
Fs
.42
982523
N825123
1.75
.75
29
.27
iá0.10 n wry
PROM
1702A
91102A
.21
15
20
24
28
36
40
20
O6
es
1,25
290
.94
.18
4.50
82525
.M
14
16
18
3311
21E02
005330
30
15.95
KEYBOARDS
tap
PIN
22
65
65
110
19195320
10 per
25 per type
100 per type
56 key ASCII
15
Áy5 -1013
Áy5.1014
.36
1.50
1.90
1.35
195
LOP
':
RESISTOR5
1250
6
295
3'
peen fluor. display
25.00
12.95
9.95
12.95
la on
75
P51011
4200A
CA30D9
LM301AN7AH
6.95
1,35
1.35
1.35
1.55
P04110J
CO4025
(010/6
3.00
144
.86
.86
(04123
(04024
004041
1.15
1,40
210241-4
4116
25138
21102-1
MM5282
MM5280
MA1003 car module
19 95
IC SOCKETS
RN
11.95
2.25
Spezi.1 transformer and sis
donne. when pur00a,ad
module
10.00
9.2S
19.50
19.50
M14r no Lou Profile
.75
.34
C51021
(54045
(04043
28
2.25
&
102P1 Transformer
.28
P0111153
.67
.89
001040
6820
6850
6502
21
3088
CA3082
LM305H
1143079
1M3049
LM309H
1M309k
LK1311W9
LM317T/K
LM318
LM320K-5
LM3230-5
1M320K-12
LM220K-15
LM320T-5
LM320T-8
LM3201-12
1N320T-15
L.32411
LM339M
1M3100-5
1M341K-B
LM341K-12
1M310K-15
LM340K-24
LIA340T-5
LM340T-8
LM340T-12
LM340T-15
COMM,
33
.28
195
2114
a
102P3 Trendermer
MA1010A, C or E
950
28
2.10
2101-1
2102-1
21
.21
004028
110M1MqRV
.16
.50
1,02
1,02
.86
(04026
81'28
8797
8798
21044-4
21070
2111-1
2112-2
C04020
C04022
INTERFACE
8095
8096
8097
8098
5709
BT10
8713
8720
BT23
8124
CD4019
90
57
74C00
74C04
74C10
74C14
74C20
74030
50
55
115
1
3NEAR
CA3045
1.0
CONVERTER
40389
.90
.25
.30
.61
7549201
7549401
8700CJ
6701CM
875553
L0130
9400010rF
AO
.50
67
(54583
Cw585
(040192
Indoor and outdoor. Switches back and forth.
Beautiful. 50" LED readouts. Nothing like it
available. Needs no additional parts for complete, full operation. Will measure -100° to
+200°F, tenths of a degree, air or liquid.
Very accurate.
$39.95
Beautiful hardwood case w /bezel
$11.75
PROM Eraser
8255
8257
8259
(1)P1802C0
(DP18020
744N
.28
Sinclair
Opens shorted cells that wont hold a charge
and then charges them up, all in one kit w /full
parts and instructions.
$7.25
5.75
2.25
1.50
1.10
7.00
102
(04527
Digital Temperature Meter Kit
NiCad Battery Fixer /Charger Kit
1.51
79
2.52
1.10
1.02
.69
.fio
7451749
simply by calling them up. Improvements and
revisions are easily done with the monitor. If you
have the Super Expansion Board and Super
Monitor the monitor is up and running at the push
of a button.
450
LM370
LM377
LM379
LM380N
Complee alarm docks
ready 89 500k up with transformer 'and
swatches. Very camped *to .50- and
84 Mons
MA1002A, C
E .506.95
2.90
8.00
2.90
2.90
5.35
8212
8211
8216
8224
8228
8251
8253
94
.a
50
7485M
7489N
749014
719214
OUEST
13M30
(04511
001515
C04516
C04518
CD4520
LM703H
LM709H
LM723H/N
LM733N
.20
rooms
CLOCK
1,10
1.10
LM3401-18
LM3407.24
COMPUTER GRADE CAPS
1600
mid
200V
2000
mid
3200
5500
5800
6100
8100
7700
8000
9400
10000
12000
35000
55000
82000
60000
45V
50V
25V
40V
406
50V
500
55V
05V
20V
30V
25V
25V
150
IOV
Stopwatch Kit
4.50
250
250
250
300
3.00
3.00
2.50
2.50
3.00
2,50
150
5.00
5,00
6.00
6.00
$26.95
Full six digit battery operated. 2 -5 volts.
3.2768 MHz crystal accuracy. Times to 59
min., 59 sec., 991/100 sec. Times std., split
and Taylor. 7205 chip, all components minus
case. Full instructions.
D
Connectors RS232
25 Pin Subminiatures
DB25P
2.95
D825S
Cover
RS232 Complete Set
3.95
1.50
6.50
S -100 Computer
8K Static RAM Kit
16K Static RAM Kit
Boards
DE9P
DE9S
DA15P
DA15S
1.50
1.95
2.10
3.10
$127.00
265.00
24K Static RAM Kit
423.00
32K Dynamic RAM Kit
449.00
64K Dynamic RAM Kit
945.00
8K /16K Eprom Kit (less PROMS)
$89.00
Video Interface Kit
$139.00
Motherboard $39.
Extender Board $8.99
FREE: Send for your copy of our NEW 1978
OUEST CATALOG. Include 28c stamp.
KITS KITS KITS
Perforated Boards NOT INCLUDED w/100 Series
502 POWER SUPPLY. Switch from 6 to 9V DC. 100mA
output. Filtered. Manual. Stepdown transformer. Insulated test clips.
Perforated Boards NOT INCLUDED w /100 Series
$6.95 Complete
103 MINI -WINK NEON FLASHER. Random
540 BINARY CLOCK. Handcraft tomorrow's timepiece
flash pattern. Interesting displays. 6 neon
today. Watch constantly changing patterns of LED's as
lamps. AC operated.
they display Binary Time. This unique clock project en103
$3.00 hances the learning of Digital Logic and the Binary Coding
103A (103 w /PCB)
4 65
System, as well as offering a beautifully styled conversa103B (103 w /PCB,CASE)
6 90
tion piece.
10 TTL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
MANUAL TEACHES BINARY SYSTEM
FAST, SLOW
AND HOLD CONTROLS 115VAC 50 or 60Hz.
110 ELECTRONIC WHOOPER SIREN. Powerful wailing sound. Dual oscillator circuit. Use
with any alarm circuit. Battery not included.
110
$4.95
110A (110 w /PCB)
6 50
110B (110 w /PCB,CASE)
9 60
$39.95 Complete
523 STROBE LITE. Create flashing light effects. Ideal for
creating kaleidoscope effects for photography. Long life
flash tube. PCB. Manual. Variable flash control. On -off
switch. Silicon diodes. 117VAC 50 -60 Hz.
?"'
124 WARBLING SIREN. Two -tone oscillating
siren. Loud and penetrating, 2 IC's. For automobile or other 12 volt systems.
$5.65
124
124A (124 w /PCB)
7 10
124B (124 w /PCB,CASE)
10.20
105 FISH CALLER. Clicking sound imitates
distressed fish. Adjustable speed. Battery
not included.
105
$3.15
4 30
105A (105 w /PCB)
5 80
105B (105 w /PCB,CASE)
$22.95 Complete
117 TUNABLE ELECTRONIC ORGAN. Tunable
7 -note scale. Play sing -a -long favorites. Battery not included.
117
$7.55
117A (117 w /PCB)
9 50
117B(117 w /PCB,CASE)
12.60
536 8- TRANSISTOR AM RADIO. Experience jewel -like
clarity in sound. The best superheterodyne kit circuit
available. SEPARATE LOCAL OSCILLATOR for high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. Unique IF Transformer
mounting system. Manual. 9V battery required (not
included).
,U
-
3 CHAN107 COLOR ORGAN CONTROL
NEL. Over 200W per channel. Separate sensitivity control. Hi- mid -lo frequency response.
AC operated.
107
$9 20
11.85
107A(107 w /PCB)
14.95
107B(107 w /PCB,CASE)
$16.45 Complete
120 SIREN /CODE OSCILLATOR. Loud, piercing alarm. Practice Morse code. Battery not
included.
$4.20
120
120A (120 w /PCB)
1208 (120 w /PCB,CASE)
5
55
504 TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER. 4 Transistors. Push -Pull
output. Variable volume control. Requires one 9V battery
(not included). PCB. Manual. 3 transformer stages for
maximum gain. Power output 360mW. Can be operated
with any 3.2
ohm speaker.
-8
8 65
4
$6.95 Complete
104 VARIABLE STROBE LIGHT. Great for parties and photography. Variable flash rate. AC
operated.
104
104A (104 w /PCB)
104B (104 w /PCB,CASE)
118 TV SCRAMBLER. Tunable to all VHF stations. 30 foot range. Battery not included.
118
$1.95
2 90
118A (118 w /PCB)
4 40
118B (118 w /PCB,CASE)
$10.60
14.85
20.35
510 FIVE TUBE RADIO. Rediscover TUBES. This fun antique circuit offers high selectivity and sensitivity. 2 IF
Transformers. Hi-Q Ferrite antenna. Manual. Superheterodyne circuit. Large PM speaker. For 110 -120 VAC
or DC.
$34.95 Complete
122 COMPUTER SOUND EFFECTS GENERATOR. Produces weird, spacey sounds. 4 IC's.
Control tone, rate and blip or glide. Battery not
included.
$14.95
19.40
22.75
122
122A (122 w /PCB)
401 TACHOMETER. Know exactly when to shift. This fab-
126 PROGRAMMABLE DOORBELL. Adjustable rate and pitch for 15 musical notes. Play
favorite tunes. 6 IC's. Uses existing transformer and switch.
126
126A (126 w /PCB)
1268 (126 w /PCB,CASE)
ulous Tach, with a range from 0 -8 grand, will mount anywhere
dash, steering column, boat, motorcycle frame,
etc. 250° wide sweep scale. Reading accuracy within 2%
of full scale. PCB. Manual. Illuminated dial. For all cylinder engines.
-
$16.95
23.70
$27.95 Complete
122B(122w /PCB.CASE)
We accept:
VISA,
GIN
MASTER CHARGE
BANKAMERICARO,
IN CALIFORNIA CALL
29.20
CALL Ni
800 800 -8I
ASK FOR OPERATO
DO NOT SEND CASH
NO COD
Graymark
ORDER BY PHONE OR MAIL
MINIMUM ORDER $10.00. CALIF. RESIDENTS
ADD 6% SALES TAX.
SEND CHECK OR
MONEY ORDER TO:
WE PAY POSTAGE AND HANDLING
IN U.S.A. O VERSEAS COUNTRIES:
ADD 15%
TOTAL OFOR POSTAGE. 1 751 McGaw
Avenue
Dept.
12
o
m
n
m
+
International, Inc.
Irvine,CA 92714 (714) 540 -5480
W
m
V
CO
123
www.americanradiohistory.com
Lynnfield, Massachusetts 01940
g
Ii.
MOTION DETECTOR
540 Weddell Drive, #4, Sunnyvale, CA 94086
ELECTRONIC
SUPER riARKET
Phone Orders:
1617/ 512 2323
BA,MC or AE
11\'
Terms: Add postage.
No C.O.D's. Phone Orders BA- MC -AE: 1617) 5322323.
P.O. Box 619
DEPT.
(7.OSi:'o(
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Connector Kit
.
.
.
TOUCH
SWITCH
(C(,OS/;Q1
UHI1.1A II 1'ííH I
ALARM
SYSTEM
New package system.
I!
This han y control was part of an
Admiral remote control package for
color TV. The original funct o s
On -Off,
Volume, VHF -UHF, and
.
.
.
.
RACK CABINETS EQUIPTO
24 "x24 "x68%" with rails on
front & back tor mounting equipment
on 19" centers. No doors or sides
list
NEW SURPLUS! Your
price $185.00
cost only $50.00 each. Qty ltd. Frt.
Size:
owAJJ
.
for 569.88.
3
8030372.
MOTOROLA
-
S69.88/3,
`2X5" Horn Tweeter.
$17.88 Pr.
$17.88 /Pr.
$23.88/Pr.
'2X6" Horn Tweeter.
7!
II/ l Y7/ l HII. i I1 11111:1
/ /Il II. /H1I. IA/7l. i
IHII.:.
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PIEZO- ELECTRIC TWEETERS
`2X5 Super Horn S7.88
$50 00
'collect. 8082049
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VV
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,
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-
.20
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20
20
35
140
2.75
1.25
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74086
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74093
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80
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,75
1.00
1.10
1.25
2.75
7äC151
92
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740154
740757
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74C162
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1.40
1.70
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1.75
1.50
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.85
74Cí74
740902
740904
740905
740914
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.79
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.95
1.00
1.00
.70
.60
.35
1.10
.70
.40
.40
.20
100
195
TTL
7400
.16
.17
7401
23
.25
.45
32
7403
7404
7406
7407
7409
7410
7413
7414
7417
7420
.19
.40
.40
.25
.18
.78
.58
.38
.18
7121
35
.17
7427
7430
7432
7437
7440
7442
74. g
7146
7448
7450
7451
7453
7454
7460
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7483
7485
7486
7489
7492
7493
495
7496
74121
74122
74123
74126
74132
74141
74145
741481.
74150
74153
74154
74155
74157
74161
74163
74164
74165
74166
74173
74175
74177
74182
74191
35
22
74195
74196
74197
74199
74367
7.00
.!0
.55
.45
1.05
.
4.00
8556
8599
3.25
75451
75452
90
.80
.80
75453
95
75491
,í10
1.25
1.20
1.45
1.35
1.00
1.10
1.70
2.25
.90
75492
75491
1.40
1.50
Interface
1.10
.43
2.00
.
.85
.35
.49
.65
0025
J.50
002G
1.75
8640
864t
8806
8819
8820
8830
8833
725
2.75
3.00
1.25
5.00
4.90
245
8835
8836
8837
8838
8859
8865
8866
8867
8869
8879
8880
8884
95
1.25
1.15
1.10
1.20
.90
1.10
125
.75
1.00
Peripheral
8212
8214
8216
8221
8228
3.50
8.50
3,75
1.75
9.90
340Tó
3407.12
387N
340715
340724
3885
555N
5565
375
ST97
1.75
5615
566N
567N
709N
741H
3035
3401
95
.80
245
8098
8121
8136
8220
.60
.90
.90
2.25
8242
8250
8260
3.25
3.25
2.25
1.75
1.75
2.25
8281
1.00
8231
85
280
540
558N
8T70
8092
8094
ad in the June issue
3207.12
3245
10.50
9.50
9.50
6.50
8095
8096
.35
1.25
1.00
1.50
.88
1.25
1.25
1.75
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.15
.35
318H
318H -5
3207-5
1150
8000 TTL
.35
1.00
19H
8255
2513
2516
2.45
1.25
2.45
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.85
1.75
2.25
2.75
2.45
701N
307N
308M
309K
8251
1013
375
LINEAR
1.70
1.65
30
.25
2.40
125
74LSxx
711500
25
enough
7115670
195
of this magazine.
I
SPECIAL DISCOUNT
For
OFF ON ALL ORDERS OVER
$10.00
FROM THIS AD.
a
10';6,
(CB LOCKMOUNT
Minimum order 65.00 US nmsncy. Ovck or mon.,. order only. Add 5% to cover shipping
handling charges. Calif. rettd.nts sdd 6% sales tax. Sant. Para County rendent, odd 6.5% win
CIRCLE
51 ON FREE
Gallium Phosphide
LED's
499
Anti -Thett Protections
For CB or Monitors
SO -239 Antenna
For 6-12 VDC
2 Station INTERCOM
SYSTEM
HOBBY MOTORS
POg
LOW
AS
C
5
Ann
Reg. SAC
PL-233.1
PL-235
59c
89c
89c
L
PL-237.,
PL-249._
(
PL-274.i.
Well Withstand Many
89C
,
of Use
8.9.51
n
"TV -FM
RECORDER MIKE
49
Reg.
-L
A Pef
ect Replacement
Most Portable Cassette,
Recorders
Fits Easily in Hand
NOT Bulky
0//,'
/
F
-
Complete
Economical To Operat.e)
MO -333
Used in M OSI Slot Cars
Sturdy COnstrucllon
MK-093
AM-252
dwt.
INFORMATION CARD
AU-540
\
8334
2.95
3.25
1.00
OEM EDUCATORS AND SCHOOLS
low quote, send a list of your needs and, if possible, desired prices.
No quantity is too small.
CIRCLE 58 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
<_.
2.95
8976
75107
75450
1.35
1.20
1.70
1.05
74193
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8973
1
145
7!192
777144495899862
For mom 74LSxx, teller to our
i+
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(408)734 -8470
01
I
0ilo)
-
I
-
00
.
-
Protects your valuables;
CB's, stereo equipment, test equipment, etc
List Price $22.88
Sh. Wí.1 Lb
82010474.
$7.88
3 for $22.88
$M10474
S22 88/3
, n3_i,
Channel Select. Receiver contains 3relays and one four position stepping
relay. Also includes a complete data
pkg. Control section operates on 115
VAC. Good for toys, garage door openers, TV, stereo systems or any of
those STAR TREK lnovations you
would like to make on your
(Energize or de- energize your alarm
system remotely.
Range 30'.
Transmitter requires AA
cell (not included). Qty ltd
Sh. Wt. 1 Lb.
8030372$25
A super close
out item.
74C20
74C30
74C32
74C42
74C48
74C73
20
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4010
4022
4023
4024
4025
4027
4078
4029
4030
4035
4040
4041
4042
4044
4049
4051
4066
4068
4069
4075
4082
74000
74002
71004
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1.75
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74014
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4001
4002
4007
4010
4011
4012
$49,88
8D30336
$3.88
51.50
REMOTE
CONTROL
SYSTEM
r
n
8D0472
8D0504
74008
CMOS
4000
-
AVAILABLE:
Power Supply Kit
This alarm sensor has up to 50' range & fills
the protected area with an energy screen that
cannot be seen, felt or heard. Triggers your
alarm whenever burglar moves through detect
or field. Mounts on ceiling, wall, desk, shelf
etc.
Optional delay mode, auto -reset.
Operates on 12.5 V DC. A close -out that orig
rnally sold for $189.00 3 Lhs. Oty ltd.
If1TEGRRTE
E
S
Reg.
,
+
Wall Plates'
vv
Mounts
V
AA -051
Standard Wall Bor
For Flat TV Lead -In
Includes Plug
lb
Shpg wt
In
De t. LK 260 S. For e St. Akron, Ohio 44327
rn
tOMPACTTRUMPEP
olc"°"1c.s
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NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
STATE
499
ZIP
Sik
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Descriotiori
Price Ea.
R,
SS-453
Mounts Under Hood or
In /On Truck Cab
O Please send me a free subscription
...Ato
Olson Value Packed Catalog.
124
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Tax
Postage
Total
Total
POLY
/\
ALLEY
*NEW!
$8.88
AMP REGULATED
1
POWER SUPPLY KITS
+.
Es,,
r%
to assemble' l'se
LM340K positive voltepe
regulators. Reverse
leads fora
xJx
4
Sir,
IIix
h
*
% 1111
negative supply! Buy 2 for a
plus: minus supply) Complete
kit. nothing else to buy! lease
mit included With step by step
Wt
k
iI
Cat. No. Volts
0 3854
5
3857
12
0 3858
0 3859
-
l0 for
10 for
10 for
10 for
10 for
10 for
25
50
100
200
RECTIFIERS
400
Order by Cat. No.
5278 and PIS
600
MOTOR SPEED c°no-ale up to
CONTROL
$`1.95
L
Al
1N4002
194003
10
1114004
1114005
1114006
h
BLOCK
FANS
$9.95`'110
(
Order by
Caf. Na
.69
.89
1.09
1.49
or cooltog. hushing,
hest,ng
ti Hating' Quiet
d
&
dependable. Ltghtwetght, name
3
blades or better
tetxrdano
a
chancing'
fro mbna
Ibo. Cat.
I
Easy
90 WATT
Ñ P92CU330
4- 11/16" sq.
Famous USA Mekersl
11/2"
deep.
build, assembles
males
,
u
i
STEREO
Remawd
Shi
is
Lagoa
in
t
HybndeAmplifier Modules with
AMPLIFIER
KIT ¢
Q).0 6
oinks included! Power output 2 x 15W RMS, both channels
to 8 ohms from 40.22.000 Hz.
Total distortion leas than Ix.
Size: Sr x 2.3/4 ". Wt.
Ib. Cat.
No. 5408
he
Use with any
prix me/
'
1
Made For Fisher.
Order
c
By Cat.
No.
1981
& Type No.
SALE
.12
.12
.14
.12
.14
.14
.12
.20
TYPE
5N7400
5117401
5117402
5N7403
5117404
SN7405
51,17406
-1
S117409
5117411
S117413
S1,17416
5117420
587421
587423
597426
587430
567437
567438
557440
SN7441
5017443
5117444
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0 5117153
0 $67454
:1 SN7455
O SN7460
0 5117464
11
SN7474
:1
5117475
5117476
O
5117485
51174165
51174166
S1174173
51174174
SN74175
5N74177
51174179
5574180
S874182
S1174190
51174191
5974192
SN74193
SN74194
SN74195
5974197
SN74199
SN74200
51174251
51474284
SN74285
51174298
.69
.25
5N7486
597488
=: $67489
:.: 567490
0 SN7491
.79
1.25
.39
.19
E
FUWLL
5474164
.29
.29
.39
.35
.12
.12
.59
0 SN7480
7 597462
7 5117483
,1
;1
51974158
51174161
51174163
.12
.12
.12
.12
E 5117470
5117472
E SN7473
.39
.12
.12
.79
.25
.29
.49
.25
.29
SN74113
SN74114
5N74121
SN74123
SN74132
51174140
91174145
51174151
5N74153
51174155
SN74156
SN74157
.12
.19
.12
.19
D 5117485
.49
5117495
5117496
51174107
91,174109
.12
.12
.14
.12
.14
.12
.49
.29
.12
.65
.65
.12
.12
.567446
557447
7 587450
7 5117451
5N7494
557498
5N74100
.12
.19
.49
.25
.12
.25
SN7410
SN7493
.39
.43
51417192
.65
.39
.59
.55
.55
FREQUENCY
COUNTER
$77
.49
.29
More lectures for the money!
Easy to assemble and callibrate!
.55
.49
.49
E 100
0 200
0 400
0 600
0 800
-
TRANSFORMER SALE!
110VAC Primaries
RIBBON CABLE AT
TIN
Coud
025
E26
"-134
POLY PAKS'.
N
Sale
PRICES
H. $1.98
ü 36 3
46. $1.981 E40
k.
46.51.98 ESO 316.
3 6. 51.95
E 60
2
$1.98
91.98
6. 91.95
6
6.3
oars
Reu
18 AWG
Order by Cat.
No. 3939 and
conductor*.
FREQUENCY COUNTER
PRESCALER KIT
our F0050050!
8,outer
.
bLD'
C
ie
Works
IOOmA With ana ires frequency with all
truc
counters!
tomsCat. No. 5215 PRESCALER
KIT
$24.95
Cat. No. 5225
PRESCALER
WIRED 934.95
-
'24.95k,
Extends range
Io
3tPt
D3814 11
O 3399
3323
500 MNz!
V.
24VCT
3ZLVCT
Amps
IA
500m/,
300mÁ
lA
3A
30omA
Mac
¡
Top USA
Type
LM322H
LM324N
LM339N
LM340K-SV
LM340K-6V
LM340K-12V
LM340K-159
LM350N
LM377N
LM3795
LM380N
NE53lH
NE532N
NE540H
NE55SV
5351
0 5352
0 5411
0 5228
5353
STK014'
Stereo
13
15
20
30
Sc
1502
LMI414V
LM1458V
LMI800N
LM3028H
LM3900N
LM39099
III
75451
75453
75491
75492
75494
PA263
'DM8864
Order by Type No.
=2111'"5
by
c
II=TO-5,
10-
at. No.
V
IIII
Switches Sale
2
.77
3
.88
4
.99
7
1.79
9
1.99
10
2.50
3668
3669
3021
2677
5164
3672
Send for new FREE
20 page catalog
including the best bargains on:
SEMICONDUCTORS
Solar Energy)
Computer Components
Fiber Optical
Over 400 aesortmenl.! Plus more -n -morel
Digital clocks and teat 90ipmentl
IC'S
HI-FI otros., pakersl
LED'S
SEND FOR YOURS NOW!
.5a
¡ ' JL PAKS
4'l
o-,
B
Sala
$6.88
11.50
14.68
18.88
26.88
18.88
.49
.59
.19
.19
.39
.99
.99
2.49
.49
.29
.29
.69
.29
.69
1.99
.29
.29
.49
.49
.69
.77
.99
LM42S0H
DIP
SWITCHES
95
6
.39
LM723N
LM733N
,99
,79
1.48
5.50
.59
1.49
.25
2.50
.39
VInii JIp- h
$3.95
$6 R6
tnatructiona
LM71111
LM74IV
,99
,99
I
E2.49
El 98
01
NE565H
NE567V
LM703H
LM704N
LM709H
LM7ION
.99
.29
.29
1.99
.89
.79
1.20
.39
.19
.19
.29
LM741H
LM747H
LM1304N
LM1310N
MC1312N
Cat. No.
91
AMPS
,99
.99
,99
,99
.99
.99
,99
,99
,99
LM340K-24V
LM340T-5V
LM340T-6V
LM340T.12V
LM340T.I5V
LM340T-180
LM340T24V
OP
NES6SN
99
LM340K-189
x
ST8,009
STK013
STK028
STK -056
STN -050
.49
.49
.25
.25
.25
.29
.59
.99
.29
.99
.79
.59
.89
LM320T,6V
LM322N
Contacta gala
SPDT
$90
SPOT'
99c
DPDT
1.29
DPDT'
1.49
3PDT
1.69
{PDT'
1.99
enter off
NE550N
NE558V
NE558H
NES61N
Each
LM31lV
5%
E 5350
.
LM300N
LM300H
LM301V
LM301H
LM307V
LM308V
LM308H
LM309K
Sale each
Watts -RMS
4036
5085
4037
5422
5434
5097
"POP"
LINEAR
Ordr
Open frame
Metal Encased
Open frame
Open frame
Open frame
Open frame 1W
Type
at. No.
3A 125 VAC contacts
or better!
SANYO amPlreb°rar hi`.rmilape.aAM
PA, and mre. Response
AUDIO FM,
2020.000 Hz, less [hen
dis
t full
u
power Effirienr
AMPLIFIER Canton
heat .dieting construction.
Output 8 ohms. Sire 3!5
MODULES thick approx. wt or ts, egoB
Cat. No.
18.95
$1.59
.79
.99
.39
MM5280"
3.95
M114200P-11 3,95
MK4096
3.95
MK4176
19.95
17024
4.95
MM5202
2.95
2708
10.95
MINI TOGGLE SWITCHES
GIANT
Cat. No. 4049 COUNTER KIT... $77
Cat. No. 4050 COUNTER WIRED 8 CALIBRATED...
$112
Cat. No. 5433 COUNTER WITH PRESCALER
WIRED + CALIBRATED... 5150
3492
2.95
.99
6 AMP
1970
RESOLUTION: 1 Ha o 1 sec, 10 Hz " 10 sac.
GATE TIMES: t and 0.1 sac.
INTERNAL FREQUENCY STANDARD: 5.24258 MHz
INPUT IMPEDANCE: 1 meSohm
5259
2102,L1
1103
MM5260
MM5262
$7.95
9.95
3.50
7.95
3.50
3.50
6.95
7.95
9.95
19.95
10.50
19.95
r
ACCURACY: I PPM ,/. 4 MHz
LEAD ZERO
ING
SIZE: 8V.
205 x 555" deep. WT: 2 Ib..
POWER REQUIREMENTS: 110VAC, 60 Hz.
mV o 50 MHz.
SO
Cat. No. 3459 and typa
8008
6080A
8212
0214
8216
8224
0228
8238
8251
8253
6255
8257
high accuracy! Displays internal
frequency standard at the touch
of a button. Built in power eupFlip-top black vinyl covered
wooden cabinet for easy access.
j.t.
optional prscaler to 500 MHz.
-
10 AMP
25 AMP
(013461
"2456)
(02447)
1-,22731
.59
.88
1.29
1.59
.69
.99
1.49
1.79
.79
1.25
1.69
2.25
1.50
.89
1.99
2.49
.99
1.75
2.25
3.75
1.19
1.95
2.50
4.50
Order by Catalog Number nd voltage
CI)PYRIGHT
SENSITIVITY: 25mO to 35 MHz,
FREQ. RANGE: I011. to 50MHz,
MICROPROCESSORS!
MEMORIES! SUPPORT!
Order by
Easy to read .35" led digits.
dependable MO.35"
circuitry.
@"site crystal controlled for
SPECIFICATIONS:
.69
.39
.69
.99
.99
.79
.69
.59
1.49
,39
.29
.79
.99
.69
.69
.69
,19
.69
.79
1.99
.59
2.49
1
0 50
8 DIGIT
.39
BRIDGE RECTIFIERS
AVE
PIV
2 AMP
10
49
8 for 52.00
500 en for $2.00
701°` $1.00
80 to, $1.00
15 for 91.00
20 toe 91.00
6 tore 51.00
20 for 91.00
6 for 91.00
2 for 51.00
100 for 2.00
10 for 2.00
30 for 2.00
200 for 200
200 for 2..00
100 for 2.00
IS for 2.00
100 for 2.00
20 for 2.00
IS for 2.00
150 for 2.00
100 for 2.00
2001or 2.00
200 for 2.00
60 for 2.00
30 for 2.00
30 for 2.00
30 for 2.00
10 for 2.00
25 for 2.00
I for 2.95
250 for 2.00
for 100
30 for 2.00
1S for 100
10 for 2.00
100 for 100
30 for 2.00
40 ft. for 2.00
3 for 2.00
1 for 1.49
2 for 1.00
2 for 1.00
1 for 2.95
1 for 1.49
I for 1.95
2 for 1.49
20 for 2.00
75 for 2.00
100 ton 2.00
30 Ion 3.00
75 Ion 2.00
1 for 1.95
10 for 1.00
40 for 2.00
150 for 2.00
10 for 2.00
3 for 1.00
10 for 1.00
1 for
1.95
6 for 1.00
2000 for 1.00
fit
IOlor .49
200 1O for
400 10 for
600 IOIor
800 10 for
b
biggest
es with
anywhere! discounts available
150 for 2.00
100 for $2.00
50 for 92.00
200 for 92.00
40 Ion 2.00
30 for $2.00
I5 for 52.00
t'd
Sala
PIV
50
ifs
I95
I00
TRANSISTOR 'LYTICS, aaat pop value., upright, axlI.(o 2747)
MOLEX IC SOCKET PINS. cut to any length.(` 3144)
AXIAL ELECTROS,
velu.. 8 capacitance. (o 3227)
LED DRIVER IC'S, untested, lifte 75491 -2, S0 %+ good(, 33601
JUMBO RED LEDS, 100% prime, long leads.)" 3369)
LINE CORDS, 18g., 2 tond, with plug, 5 ft.(o 3843)
HARDWARE SURPRISE! screw.. nuts. washer., and more.(a 3987)
TUBULAR CAPACITORS, asst values from 100 pl up.(o 35A219)
COILS AND CHOKES, RF, AF, osc, peaking, and mors.(= 355297)
RCA PLUGS 8 JACKS, for audio. RF, tc.)= 358402)
SLIDE SWITCHES, pop types, )rom SPST up.l" 1495)
9 VOLT BATTE RO SNAPS,
std tep...). 2852)
1114148 SWITCHING DIODES. Ilk. 111914, 100% prlm,lo 3000)
UTILITY AC OUTLET. mot mounting.(" 3582)
I AMP CIRCUIT BREAKERS. Blase, thermal.io 39051
CAPACITOR SPECIAL, discs. mylar, lytics, more (o
2738)
VOLTAGE REGULATORS. hobby LM320. 340. T0 -3 (u
3330)
PANEL SWITCHES, .lido., rotaries, mod, etc
3268)
RESISTOR SPECIAL, w to 1 W, carbon. motel o
3054
HALF WATTERS, reol.tors, carbon, natal
al (o
3046)
NATIONAL IC BONANZA, II
7400. ROMS (o 2860)
LM340T VOLTAGE REGULATORS. S to 24V, 70.220 (o
2835)
POLYSTYRENE CAPS, asst'd value., voltage, hi -0 (o
2729)
B RIDGES, untested, 2, 4, 6, amp, lull rave 0
4022)
MIXED READOUTS, hobby, untostod, .127..3..5, etc. (o
3619)
QUARTER WATTERS, reei0tors, met.) film, marked (o
3413)
PLASTIC TRANSISTORS, untested. TO -92 (0 2604)
PREFORMED RESISTORS, v., 55, 1W, marked, ast'd (" 2608)
PRECISION RESISTORS. v., M, IW. 1%, 2% marktl "
212$)
DIPPED MOLARS, shiny finish. asst'd values (o
25871
VOLUME CONTROLS, Iodio, linger. asst'd value. (o
2421)
CLOCK CHIPS, National. hobby 8 untestod, alarm l+50891
MM5262 214 RAMS, hobby, untested (0
3940)
PUSH SWITCHES. push -to- break, spot, Harms lo
5289)
CD4000 SERIES CMOS. untested, SOS useable yield 1" 5254)
CONDENSER MIKES, sensitive, 500 ohms 1.5 Volt. (0
3175)
UNMARKED CAPACITORS. polystyrene, molded. pop velues (o
3505)
IC SOCKETS, 14, 18 pin. solder tall. (o
3621)
PC TRIM POTENTIOMETERS. thumbwhel, screwdrIvan asa't (e
3345)
SLIDE VOLUME CONTROLS. asst'd value., duals. singles (0
3097)
CRYSTALS, may Include CB, Ham A more I" 3250)
TERMINALS STRIPS, from 2 lugs up )o
3136)
NE -211EON LAMPS, all 100% good (o
2613)
SHIELDED CABLE. 1 tond, rnikes, phonos, 1=
35771
SOUND TRIGGER. sound tri
*or w /amp I"
3625)
VEEDER ROOT COUNTER, 000 -999, rsettable, panel ant. (o
5081)
DUAL GATE MOSFET, sin. to 311200, 39187, for RF & Mixer (o
5101)
LCD THERMAL INDICATORS, 81.108 "F, 7,1", Ilexlble (o
5155)
JOYSTICK, lour 100K pots, l0
3808A)
EECO THUMBWHEEL SWITCH. BCD, 0-7 1.21170A)
PLESSEY TV SIDEBAND FILTER. for chan. 3 or 4 lo
3975)
9V NI -CAD CHARGER PAK, plug-in. 125m., 125 VAC prl lu
4098)
DATA ENTRY PUSH -SWITCHES, *pst norm open, for keyboard. (0
5279)
597400 TEL IC., untested SO%+ yield, pop typos
24151
(-MINI DIP ICs, !Insane. untested 505+ yield, pop types
(o
3245)
LM380 AUDIO IC's. 2 watts on.a.dlp 50 %+ ylId (o
5254)
LINUARS, OP AMPS, untested So%+ yield, amp.- dips- minldipe (n
2416)
LED WATCH GUTS, men's. how good? WO don't know (o
5267)
SLIDE SWITCHES, out pop style. (0
1495)
UPRIGHT ELECTROS, aal'd values A capacitance. (o
3228)
PREFORMED DISC CAPACITORS, marked velue., asst'd (o 2605)
CALCULATOR KEYBOARDS. 20 koys and up. (o 5371)
ALARM WARNING STICKERS, for windows, 2 -3/4" a 3" (o
5338)
CALCULATOR SWITCHES, SPST-11.0., asst'd, a5" sq. (0
3524)
ITT 6 DIGIT COUNTER. 110VAC, with mounting flange (a
5392)
342368 TRANSISTORS. NPN switch, like 2N2222. (o 1$92)'
FACTORY REJECT DIODES, /angors. rct, signal,
(o
5369)
or botterv. Easy to
m-rrruenoru
Typa
1114001
t! Take LO%
Yhat'5
discount
any ny
min this ad! Or,
disco i shipment, take for
2fo
POLY PAKS
COUNTn A
ALLEY continu
DI S the
t
tg
6 80
mkd,
1N4000 EPDXY RECTIFIERS
al. No.
2377
37]
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
1
0 DYNAMIC MIKE. 500 ohm impedance, with stand. ("5330)
E LED RAY DIODES, emits coherent beam, 5 -9W. ("3508)
D 12VDC BLOCK RELAY, SA contact., SPDT. 700 ohms (04032) ..
RED DISC SPECIAL, Eri, mostly
pop values (0
5341)
LONG LEAD DISC CAPACITORS, pop valu... esst'd.(0 259$)
0
OFF
ic
K
$69.95
995
C ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER, 42k14z, alarms, remote cont. (05375)
1.09
1.29
1.89
2.39
2.69
ttransformer,
readb,nrd. u,tlt
_
seen
6'
covered wooden cabinet. wt 2 Iba.
Cal. No. 5235
Capanitanoe Meter Kit
Cat. No. 5239
Cewcitanc Motor Wired
BARGAIN PRICED ONE -LINE SPECIALS
N
AMpa, 1000
Liar °! works witn n nindes.
type uremia and io anass.
fighte.
Varia, fron 5'% to
=ant
96 %. Wt. 10 oz. Cat. No. 5327
'Bask kits Innode all necessary
ketronte components, less rPC
"BA SIC ''0
KIT
S`
Four .5 ' d its!
it at twice the price!
-
You
button. Easy t° assemble! Complete kit. nothing else required.
with step by u ep instructions. Size
x 2'h x 5'i' deep, vinyl
********** **************************** ******lb
Sale
89
PI\'
AMP
"TEFLON"
Measure any capacitor value from 100 pF to 10,000 uy Five
O-IuF,
100F. 100uF, 1000uF, 10,000uF. Also teat.
leakage! Directly reads all types of capacitors at the touch of a
Ranges! ranges.
$69.95
1t
'K
15
19
M
3
DIGITAL CAPACITANCE METER KIT
5
0
0
WE'RE PUTTING "GREENBACKS" IN YOUR POCKET!
B
9
1
X
N
Ma[
®s
P.O. BOX 952R12
SO. LYNNFIELD,
MA
01940
Terms: Add Posta
Rated: Net 3f
Phone: 1617) 2I45
-3828
COU's
I BE
1
PHOAEU'
Retail:
'
16 -18 Del Car
urne SL
:MINIMUM
i
I
ORDER: $8 Wakefield,
MA e
ORDE
!NSTRUC-
TONS:
"umber, type no., the
A IS°nrto,,ir
ordorin` tromma
IM1C.
CIRCLE 38 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
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STUDENTS & TEACHERS
WITH
YOUR
YOUR
ORDER.
STATUS
AND
PROOF
SEND
RECEIVE
5%
WITH
PRESENT ORDER AS A CREDIT CERTIFICATE YOU
CAN
ON YOUR
USE
8080 SYSTEM
8080A
5 95
8212
3.75
8214
8.95
8216
3.50
4.80
8224
8226
4.75
8228
7.25
8238
8.25
8251
9.45
8253
21.50
8255
10.75
8257
20.50
8259
20.50
FREE SOCKETS
OF
YOUR
OF
PURCHASE
THESE I. D.'S.
ANY OF
NEXT ORDER
OF
FFECTIVE
CHRISTMAS SPECIAL OF 5% OFF
ON ALL
ORDERS MAILED BEFORE DECEMBER 25, 1978.
THE FIRST MEMORY SPECIAL YOU WON'T FORGET
2102 -2
650ns
8/995
32/3100
64/71 °°
128/135 °°
21024
450ns
8/1095
32/4100
2114D
450ná
8/7900
16/149 °°
64/18°°
32/274°°
128/145°°
64/499 °°
250 MHZ
PRESCALER
$4995
$1995
$
4N -26
3.
650 me
CLAIRE% PHOTO
(USE AS VOLTAGE
ACTUATED
REED
RESISTOR-40
40
OHM- MILLION
RATIO
MINIMIZE
TO
MODULE
VARIABLE
MEG OHM TO
-OR
HIGH
VERY
AS
USE
VOLTAGE
OPTO
ISOLATOR)
CHANCES OF AC POWER SPILLOVER INTO
$149
5395
LOGIC CIRCUITS
ONE
TO
REFLECTIVE
100
CHEAPER BY THE
PHOTO COUPLERS
100/8.95
100 /9.95
(HP
AXIAL-RED)
(MINI -RED)
(JUMBO -RED)
(DUAL COLOR)
194001. (50V -I AMP)
1N4148- (SWITCHING DIODE)
294303- (N -1FET)
2N3392 (PRIME-NPN LOW NOISE)
LEDSLEDS.
LEDSLEDS-
111-139
LED INTO PHOTO
$795
TRANSISTOR
100/13,95
ROC100
INCANDESCENT
INTO CDS
CELL-
100/2195
20
100/ 9.95
RESISTANCE
MEG
OHM
95
AUDIO POWER AMPS
SINGLE
2020.20
STEREO
311020H 20 wan
$9.95
$10.50
S11130H 30
$12.50
TDA
STK-50
wan
wan
$18.95
-50 Wan
RADIO SHACK®
ADD RAM
AND
FOR
CLEAN
BETWEEN
AND
OPTION
YOU
FASTER
INSTALLATION.
SPECIAL'S!!
MODS
MODS
16K
1
2
SPEED
30%.
BY
2513
7.95
7.95
YOUR
US
TRS -80
2.66 MHZ
CLOCK
4
PARTS AND
2.
OR
THAN
WE INSTALL
75, 110,
RATE
BEAD
GLASS
BEAD
15
.95
.95
PHOTO DIODE
IR DETECTOR
READ
INSTALLATION
DATA
FOR
TRS-80
AND
PHOTO
WORK:
95
2
95
95
7
6
395
95
4
DIGIT
XSTR's,
FPTIOOA
79
MRD -250
1.95
-
dig.
8
3"
195
Mg
4
95
DARLINGTONS
MDI
LASCR
-I.95
195
2SHIGH
C1358
362
1.95
4.95
4.95
2.25
1.50
TO.3
100W
100W
W90á
800V-100
500V-5A
500V-IA
20W20W-
-4
3387
POJ
Plastic
Plastic
Plastic
3500.10
HIGH VOLTAGE DIODES
UNMARKED
1500V at
10/1.99
1
AMP
250
2500V at 35 AMP
HV60EL
6000V at 25 ma
SUBMINIATURE 20,000V at 100 ma
.95
EG
-
CARBIDE
--
DRILL BITS AND ROUTER BITS
MIXED SIZES
board work
100/9500
DRILLS
10/1295
ROUTERS
10/15.95
100/125.00
for P.C.
OUR
MIX
OUR
MIX
195
2.95
SERVICE AND
MODIFICATION
AND
1
CAN
plus
2
YOUR
INSTALL
2
IT
JUST
USE
(SEND LEVEL
WITH
Mod
1
LEVEL
2
BY
SO
YOU
KEEP
FLIPPING A
WITH YOUR TRS -80)
SB9e0
6. Mini Floppy Mod
LEVEL
YOU
1
PROVIDE
WE'LL INSTALL
INTERFACE
EXPANSION
A PERTEC
F
D
LABOR (PERTEC
F
D
AND
200 MINI FLOPPY.
200 MINI
FLOPPY
INCLUDED) FOR ONLY $42500
-WE
WILL REPAIR ANY
REPAIR
ORIGINAL TRS -80 MICROCOMPUTER OR
ONE OF OUR MODIFICATIONS.
ONLY!!
MAIL
FROM
ENGLAND ADD $30.00
FOR AIR.
$9 50
FROM
JAPAN
$35.00
FOR AIR.
$8.50 SURFACE MAIL
ADD
PARTS AND
$1190°
SURFACE
ALL PARTS AND LABOR
$6900
$15900
WE
WITH WILL BE
positive temperature
OHM
-DIODES,
3.25
-
3.95
MULTI
1.25
H -38
95
2
NE5008 (8 bit)
DAC 01 -SH (6 bit)
super fast 0.5ns
DEVICES
2N5771
SWITCH.
RETURN SHIPPING.
UNCONDITIONALLY FOR
TRS -80 MICROCOMPUTER AND
295
dig.
4".4.95
3,1/2
6 dig- 3.95
dig- 1.25
17 "-3
LED
WE
AND CURRENT LOOP OUTPUT.
1
YEAR
ACCEPT
ONLY
TRS-80
MICROCOMPUTERS!
AND SUITABLY PACKAGED AND WE WILL RETURN SAME FREIGHT COLLECT.
BEEN TAMPERED
295
OHM
SUPER MACHINE
NOTE-
ALL WORK GUARANTEED
95
5000 OHM
15000 OHM
OUTS
LCD-3-1 /2
1.95
1.95
1.95
81LS97
SEND TRS -80 KEYBOARD
$243
95
2
137.5, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600
$44900
$234W
3
1%
super sensitive
3. Level
PARTS AND LABOR
MOD
ONE
dual section
1%
202500
coefficient
2.60
2.60
4.75
2.45
2.60
2.10
SWITCH SELECTABLE BAUD RATES OF
EXTERNAL. EIA RS232
ANDMSOARE
AND 3
TERMS
YSI-
D/A CONVERTER
D/A CONVERTER
10.95
TTY
1.89
455 Kc miniature
FILTERS
CYLINDRICAL
01%
POWER THERMISTOR
.90
$189°°
CONTROLLED
$4900
LABOR
AND 5
PARTS AND
- ----
10/9.50
PRECISION THERMISTORS
LEVEL
CRYSTAL
29.00
single section 1.95
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.30
2.95
811596
7.95
MICROCOMPUTER
AND LABOR
includes both
for total isolation
1.10
.45
45
REST.
MEMORY
/10"
145
110
8IL395
FIFO's
TRS-80 INTO A
95
2
100/4.95
100/7 95
SPACED PHOTO TRANSISTORS
TTL compatible
REED RELAY
SOLID STATE RELAY
micro reed actuated
1
95
.95
3.25
DM8836
DM8837
74273
74390
8.95
9.95
8.95
3341
1502E
-
1.95
level
4
-
.95
D918835
8.95
TMS6011
19.95
19.95
19.00
14.95
y
MAKE YOUR OWN PAPER TAPE READER
tj jv
14 95
AY5 1013
e
VOLTAGE
ENCODER
DARTS
AY5 -1012
33.95
matrived
matnaed
s.y
level
100/395
WIRE WRAP SOCKET PIN
TAPE READER
12 level
IR sources and pickups
3.25
3.85
DM8251
DM8267
DM8267
DM8271
DM8544
DM8831
DM8833
995
KEYBOARD
AY5 2376
1995
Keys
Keys
53
74
2
INTERFACE CHIPS
D50026
053608
DM8093
DM8094
DM8095
DM8096
DM8097
DM8098
DM8131
DM8202
DM8233
DM8234
DM8241
DM8242
795
91916á11A
KEYBOARD
CRYSTAL
95
7
UC
2513 LC
2516
5240
KEYBOARD
MAXI
KEYPAD
16 key
KEYPAD
20 key
WIRE WRAP POSTS
CLAM CHIPS
MM5311
7.95
MM5312
4 -95
MM53I3
7.95
MM5314
4.95
MM5315
7.95
MM5316
4.50
MM5315
5.95
TMS3834
6.95
CT7001
6.50
OIARACTER GENERATCRS
54.00
SC /MP
OF
OPERATE
SWITCH-SELECT
CAN
AND 2
MEMORY.
66.00
23.75
19.50
54.00
PACE
THE
16K
OR
3,
SYSTEM
EDGE CARD CONNECTORS
$5900
1.77MHZ.
MODS 1, 2,
9900
9900
9901
9902
9980
14.95
12.75
12.50
17.50
-- -
-100
MAXI
5. Serial Printer Interface Mod
PROCESSING
YOUR
THE
SYSTEM
MM5060
2.95
3.75
5.95
6.95
7.25
6.95
5.95
11.95
50.00
4.95
12.95
46.95
8223
82523
825126
825129
825131
6306 -1
93427
D3604
2616
1702A
2708
2716-5V
11 -95
6500
6502
6520
6522
6530
JUST SEND
4. Clock Mod
THIS
9.95
13.75
MM5006AH
PROMS
CPU's
WE DO
PARTS AND LABOR
WITH
6852
6860
6862
MMI403AH
S
69 00
599.00
735.00
875.00
3.50
450ns
200ns
ultra low power
1.95
1.95
2.95
3.95
2. Install 16K Memory
CASE CHARACTERS
TRS80 MICROCOMPUTER ONLY)
INCREASE
4200A
2114
2114
2114
4116
4116
4116
8.50
TURN YOUR
HORIZONTAL SMEAR
UP
YOUR
(SEND
LOWER
6.25
18.50
17.50
13.50
19154060
UPD411
49.00
7.20
7.95
2650
2901
?3TM
Keyboard and Video Mod
1.
200ns
300ns
/SOns
CALWLATOR CHIPS
MM5725
1.95
MM5736
1.95
MM5738
1.95
1.95
MMS/39
MCS2511
1.95
S
95
SHIFT REGISTERS
Tfl 1602
$6.95
channel
STK435-t Watts per channel
$9.95
STK437-,o Watts per channel $11.95
STK439 -15 Wafts per channel $13.95
STK441-20 Waits per channel $16.95
FIRST TO
1015
12.50
12.50
6821
STK433 -5 watts per
BE
45Ons
22 -50
1800 SYSTEM
24,00
19.50
20.25
13.50
13.75
11.75
11.76
20.00
OFF
$1
C1402Á
200es
2.95
3.95
2.95
2.95
3.25
3.25
1.50
1.95
1.95
4.95
11.95
3.95
3.95
3.95
9.95
13.50
2101A-4
2102-2
2102L1
82510
82511
5101L-3
2107
6810
6820
1802
1821
1822
1824
1852
1856
1857
1861
11.95
21011
21012
SI6 95
9981
100/59.00
100/ 4.95
100/ 3.95
11
82S101
AND TESTED
EM
$ .95
825100
-
8 Slot Kit
-100 MOTHER BOARD
S-100 32K STATIC MEMORY BOARD
65Ons
ALL BURNED IN
PROG. LOGIC ARRAYS
8.95
19.95
RAM
73.00
68000
4. C11422
SOLID STATE RELAY
400 V at 3 AMPS TTL COMPATIBLE
MICRO
.79
.89
$
2. MOC1000
PRESCALER CHIP
-
MCT2
1.
complete
11C90
ISOLATORS
52395
650 MHZ
-
3881
3882
3883
3884
coot
7489
3101
8225
SYSTEM
Z
OPTO
complete
PRESCALER
-80
3880
CPU's
8008
8035
SHIPPED BACK IMMEDIATELY. MODS
LEVEL 2.
MOD 6
1,
SHIP
INDEPENDENT SERVICE EFFORT NOT AFFILIATED
WITH RADIO SHACK" OR TANDY CORPORATION.
THIS IS AN
YOUR
TRS -80
MICROCOMPUTER
2,
4
AND 5 SEND TRS -80 MICROCOMPUTER ONLY
SEND TRS -80 AND EXPANSION
INTERFACE
TO
INSURED
US,
ANY UNIT WHOSE SEALS
ALL FACTORY SEALS MUST BE INTACT
NORMAL TURN AROUND TIME
WITH
CERTIFIED
MOD
3
HAVE
SEND YOUR
IS UNDER 10
DAYS
FUNDS
F. REIGHERT SALES
020 MINIMUM ORDER
FREE
1110
E.
GARVEY
AVE.
U S
UPS
COVINA,
CA
91790
(213) 967-3846
NO COD'S.
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CALIF. RES. ADD 6%
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CANADA PUERTO RICO
8 U.S. POSSESSIONS
ADD U.S. S3.50. ALL
DROP INTO ONE OF OUR LOCATIONS
SORRY!
ON
ONLY--OR
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MAIL IF SPECIFIED.
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE
(MOS 8 LED DEVICES EXCLUDED)
UNDER 8 HOUR PROCESSING
ON MONEY ORDERS 8 CASHIER'S
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OTHERS ADD U.S.
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LOS ANGELES
PORTLAND
DENVER
(213) 967.4611
(503) 646 -4044
(303) 573 5214
LMN ELECTRONICS
WIZARD OF PARTS
ELECTRONIC LOLLIPOP
1042
8225
5643
WEST
E.
GARVEY
AVE
COVINA. CA
ALL ITEMS SUBJECT TO PRIOR SALE
126
CIRRUS DR.
BEAVERTON, OREGON
S
.
PRICES
CIRCLE 72 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
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N.
(1.25
SUBJECT TO
BROADWAY.
DENVER
8 58th AVE.I
CHANGE
WITHOUT
NOTICE
FREQUENCY COUNTER KIT
Outstanding Performance
Incredible Price
CT-50
$8995
SPECFICATIONS:
Frequercy range
6 Hz to 65 mHz. 600 mHz with CT-600
Resolution: 10 Hz pr 0.1 sec gate. 1 Hz C 1 sec gate
Readout: 8 digit. 0.4" high LED, direct readout in mHz
Accuracy: adjustable to 0.5 ppm
Stability: 2.0 ppm over 10` to 40° C. temperature
compensated
Input: ENC. megohm 20 pf direct, 50 ehm with CT -60(
Overload: 50VAC maximum, all modes
Sensitirty: less than 25 my to 65 mHz. 5) -150 my to 600
The CT-50 is a versatile and precision frequency counter which will measure
frequencies to 60 mHz and up to 600 mHz with the CT-600 option. Large Scale
Integration, CMOS circuitry and solid state display technology have enabled this counter to
match performance found in units selling for over three times as much. Low power
consumption (typically 300 -400 ma) makes the CT-50 ideal for portable battery operation.
Features of the CT -50 include: large 8 digit LED display, RF shielded all metal csse, easy
pushbutton operation, automatic decimal point, fully socketed IC chips and input protection
to 50 volts to insure against accidental burnout or overload. And, the best feature of all is the
easy assembly. Clear, step.by step instructions guide you to a finished unit you can rely on.
Order your today!
CT-50. 60 mHz counter kit
CT -50W7, 60 mHz counter, wired and tested
CT -600, 600 mHz scaler option, add
1
mHz
Power i 10 VAC 5 Wans or
Size.
6" x 4"
x 2
741 mini dip
5
12.95
15.95
FM MINI MIKE KIT
12:'S2.00
S2.00
super high pe.tormance FM
wireless mike kit' Transmits a stable
signal up to 300 yards with exceptional audio quality by means of its
built in electret mike Kit includes
case. mike. on -oft switch, antenna,
battery and super instructions This
is the finest und available
A
10
VIDEO TERMINAL
solder connections
s a super looking, rugged and accurate auto
clock .which is a snap to build and install Clock
movement is completely assembled -you only solder
3 wires and 2 switches takes about 15 minutes'
Display is bright green with automatic brightness
control photocell- assures you of a highly readable
display day or night Comes in a satin finish anodized aluminum case which can be attached 5
different ways using 2 sided tape Choice of silver
black or gold case (specify)
DC -3 kit. 12 hour format
$22.95
DC -3 wired and tested
$29.95
110V AC adapter
$5.95
Here
lbs
514.95
.
OP -AMP SPECIAL
The UN -KIT. only
2
DP-1, DC probe. general purpose probe
HP 1, High impedance probe, non- loadir
2995
CLOCK
410 ma
Cg1 Color TV calibrator-stabilize-
$89.95
159.95
CAR
12 VDC (a
", high quality aluminum case.
ICS 13 -snits, all socketed
A completely self-contained, stand alone video terminal card. Requires only an ASCII keyboard and TV
set to become a complete terminal unit. Two units
available, common features are: single 5V supply,
XTAL controlled sync and baud rates (to 9600),
complete computer and keyboard control of cursor.
Parity error control and display. Accepts and generates serial ASCII plus parallel keyboard input. The
3216 is 32 char. by 16 lines, 2 pages with memory
dump feature. The 6416 is 64 char. by 16 lines, with
scrolling. upper and lower case (optional) and has
RS -232 and 20ma loop interfaces on board. Kits
512.95
16.95
FM -3 kit
FM -3 wired and tested
CLOCK KITS
our Best Seller
yourr Bee Deal
include sockets and complete documentation.
RE 3216, terminal card
$149.95
RE 6416, terminal card
189.95
Lower Case option, 6416 only
13.95
Power Supply Kit
14.95
Videos RF Modulator, VD -1
6.95
Assembled, tested units, add
60.00
.
Under dash
car clock
24 hour clock in a beau
tiful plastic case features. 6
jumbo RED LEDS. high accuracy (1min mo ) easy 3
wire hookup display blanks with ignition, and super
instructions Optional dimmer automatically adjusts
display to ambient light level
527.95
DC -11 clock with mtg bracket
2.50
DM -1 dimmer adapter
1
12
Lip
CALENDAR ALARM CLOCK
The clock that's got it all 6- 5" LEDs. 12 24 hour.
snooze, 24 hour alarm. 4 year calendar, battery
backup. and lots more The super 7001 chip Is used
Size 5x4x2 inches
Complete kit. less case (not available)
DC -9
PRESCALER
Try your hand at building the hnest looking
clock on the market Its satin finish anodized
aluminum case looks great anywhere while six 4"
LEDdigds provide a highly readable display This is a
complete kit. no extras needed, and it only takes -2
hours to assemble Your choice of case colors
silver, gold. bronze. black, blue (specify)
522.95
Clock kit. 12 24 hour, DC -5
Clock with 10 min ID timer, 12 24 hour,
Simple Class C power amp features 8 times power
gain. Win for 8 out, 2 in for 15 out. 4 W m for 30 out
Max. output of 35W. incredible value, complete with
all parts, less case and T-R relay.
1
PA-1, 30 W pwr amp kit
TR -1 RF sensed T-R relay kit
$22.95
6.95
LINEAR ICs
30'
S
35
324
380
1.50
1.25
380 -8
1458
FM WIRELESS MIKE KIT
VIDEO MODULATOR KIT
SUPER SLEUTH
3900
.50
Transmits up to 300'
Converts any TV to video monitor
Super stable. tunable over ch 4 -6
Runs on 5 -15V, accepts std video
signal Best unit on the market'
A
super sensitive amplifier which will pick
up a pin drop at 15 feed
Great for monitoring baby's room or
as general purpose amplifier Full 2
W rms output, runs on 6 to 15 volts.
40'1
Ramsey's famous MINI -KITS
kil
sitive mike preamp stage
FM -1 kit $2.95
FM -2 kit $4.95
vD -I
$6.95
uses 8.45 ohm sneaker
TONE DECODER
ka
complete
A
COLOR ORGAN /MUSIC LIGHTS
a s decoder on
a si ngle PC board
See music come alive' 3 different
lights flicker with music One light
for lows. one for the mid -range and
one for the highs Each channel
individually adjustable. and drives
up to 300W Great for parties. band
music one clubs and more
400-5000
Features
Hz adjustable range via
20 turn pot. voltage regulation 567
IC Useful for touch -tone decoding
tone burst detection. FSK. etc Can
also be used as a stable tone encoder Runs on 5 to 12 volts
S7 95
LED BLINKY KIT
great attention getter which alternately flashes 2 jumbo LEDs Use
for name badges buttons warning
panel lights. anything' Runs on 3 to
15 volts
$2.95
Complete kit BL -1
A
-iiIrq''
kn
TO
v
-
WHISPER LIGHT KIT
An interesting kit small mike picks
up sounds and converts them to
light
The louder the sound
the
brighter the light. Completely self
contained includes mike runs on
110VAC controls up to 300 watts
Complete kit WL -t
$6.95
-
ramsU £IEctronics
air
55.95
POWER SUPPLY KIT
$5.95
r
27.95
brace
Hard to find PARTS
.75
.45
.85
1.15
1.25
50
to any FM broadcast
radio. uses any type of
mike Runs on 3 to 9V
Type FM -2 has added sen-
27.95
24.95
534 95
30 Watt 2 mtr PWR AMP
Y
Extend the range of your
counter to 600 mHz Works
with any counter Includes 2
transistor pre -amp to give super sens. typically 20
my at 150 mHz Specify
10 or + 100 ratio
PS-18, 600 mHz prescaler
559.95
PS -t BK, 600 mHz prescaler kit
49.95
DC -10
Alarm clock, 12 hour only, DC -8
12V DC car clock, DC -7
For wired and tested clocks add $10 00 to kit
Complete triple reguu9
lated power supply provides variable
6 to 18
volts at 200 ma and + 5V at t
Amp Excellent load regulation.
good filtering and small size Less
transformers, requires 6 3V p,
A
and 24 VCT
Complete kit. PS -3LT
56.95
1
SIREN KIT
Produces upward and downward
wail characteristic of a police siren
peak audio output. runs on 3 -15
volts uses 3 -45 ohm speaker
Complete kit SM -3
52.95
5 W
PHONE ORDERS CALL
716 271 -6487
BOX 4072, ROCHESTER, N.Y. 14610
555
556
566
567
CMOS ICs
40 3
4046
4049
4518
5369
TRANSISTORS
2N3904 type
2N3906 type.
NPN 30W Pwr
PNiP 30W Pwr
2r43055
UST 2N2646 type
FE.T MPF102 type
Uhf 2N5179 type
MRF -238 RF
SOCKETS
8 On
14 pin
16 pin
24 pin
28 pin
40 pin
REGULATORS
78MG
723
309K
7805
78L06
7905
7812'
7912'
7815
TTL ICs
74500
.20
.35
1.85
.40
7447
7475
7490
1.25
1.75
SPECIAL IC.
10/1.00
10/1.00
3/1.00
3/1 00
.60
3/2.00
3ß.00
3ß.00
11.95
10ß.00
10/2.00
10 /2.00
4/2.00
4/2.00
3ß.00
7419671
11C90
10116
4519
5314
5375AB
7001
4059 +N
7208
ups
Jumbo red
Jumbo green
Jumbo yellow
Minirred
Micro red
$1.25
.50
.85
85
.25
1.25
.85
1.25
.85
35
65
.50
.50
1.36
13.50
1.25
2.00
2.95
2.95
6.50
900
17.95
8/1.00
6/1.00
6/1.00
8 /1.00
8/100
.75
BÍPdlar
FERRITE BEADS
MIR info specs 15,1 00
5/1.00
6 hole balan
iJ
m
O
m
w
refunded COD, add 51.50. Minimum order,
56.00.Orders under $1 OO, add 5.75 Add
5% for postage. insurance, handling Over seas. add 15 %. NY residents, add 7% tax.
m
co
CO
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www.americanradiohistory.com
127
WIRE WRAP
-
-
WIRE WRAP SOCKETS
25 99
`00 -4' 2,999
PRECUT WIRE
Why buy wire on rolls?
1
PRECUT & STRIPPED WIRE IS:
Solar cell panels, used, OK condition
$ 75.00
20 cell panel, 2" cells 6 volt 1/2 amp
100.00
36 cell panel, 12 volt 1/3 amp
85.00
24 cell panel, 8 volt .45 amp
50.00
10 half cell panel, 5 volt 1/4 amp
40.00
5 cell panel, 2.5 volt 1/2 amp
8.50
Single 3.5 inch cell, 1 amp, .45 volt
Solar power kit, 3.5 inch cell, motor, propellor.. $ 10.25
ULTRASONIC room alarm, intrusion detection
with full data for hookup
40.00
Economical
BULK WIRE
3
MS 82
,on 0r.sof6' 41$106
w .reKrI aí5695 21/34/1t.
100
3
82
2611
4714
455K
.n
280
300
512K
4
86
90
5524
4884
4
In
94
321
593K
521K
n
5
98
3 42
6 34 K
5
365
385
675K
586K
115
120
405
425
445
465
129
132
136
485
40
45
525
551
board decoding for any 4 of 64 pages, standard
44 pin buss, may be used with F -8 & KIM
EXPANDABLE F8 CPU BOARD KIT
$99.00
featuring Fa.thuq PSU I Kot SIa11c rain, RS 232
interface, documentation, 64 BYTE regis.er
MOSIDIODE CLAMPED)
C
4001
-
18
4002
4006 4007
4009
4010
18
95
18
37
37
4011
18
4012
18
29
75
75
29
14013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
-
90
90
4019 4020
4021
4022.
4023
4024
4025
4027
4028
4029
4030
4035 4042 4046
37
90
90
90
.18
.75
18
37
.80
.95
33
35
35
-
110
-
1.25
70
-
65
74C73
7467445
74083- 115
7408674693-
1.40
74600-
1.05
1.05
1.05
740174
22 74C175
24 746193
22
7400274604-
-
1.05
120
22 74C901
48
27 746902
65 746914
.48
70
1
75
24 35
525
1,40507
4.2714.
5
250
500
6
500
3-
500
4
4
92,7
NI
47
99
75
14515270 45 xi
5
101
-APT
5
54157720
71/7171
4
711,77147
MCM 6571 A
7 o
.
3 3, 4.7. 5.6, 9 1,10.
..
.
6/51.00
..
.
9 character gen
$9.95
$10.75
...
3
80804
747
45
45
X224
8774
7
3
4
Silicon Power Rectifiers
75
95
95
rsT
V
yppA
14
4
itYSTALS 53.45
4000 NIB,
W.
000
6 000 MHz
8 000 MHz
10000 MH=
5
ea.
-
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C FS.206 -4 four nos. ion dip swnch
LIGHT ACTIVATED SCRs
TO 18. 700V lA
27X"
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.... $1.60
..$1.45
$
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SAD 1024 a REDI ON 1024 stage analog "Bucket
51,94de' shift register.
S18.95
IN414811N9141
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Send Cheek Of Money Order.
Include Posteile Minimum
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Send 251 for our catalog featuring
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HOODS
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65
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28
29
400
600
14 PIN
16 PIN
SANKEN AUDIO POWER AMPS
SI
Si
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G 10 W A TT S
1010
1020
1050
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188
1.20
95
85
75
75
65
1.90
1.00
1.00
79
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80
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741967427974367-
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6 8U 35V 4 51
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$ .35
$ b0
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560
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Si 35
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35
25
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150
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3.95
1.25
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1.70
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1
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70
15
1.60
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35
74471
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LA/ 370
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79
70
72737
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791
95
75
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LM308
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NO. 30 WIRE WRAP WIRE SINGLE
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ALSO MINIATURE TOGGLE SWITCHES
75
25
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LM307
741.5977
22/44 Pin Solder Tall .156" Conn.
CIRCUITS
LM 101
LM 301 748
50
75492 -
S.40
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150
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10UF
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40
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31
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58
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2.00
3.00
4.00
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250
1.25
1.50
1.75
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65
68
58
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15
6A
.75
.95
1.20
551(10
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DIP SOCKETS
2A
17o
3/S 1.00
TTL IC SERIES7445-
PRV
100
200
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... 5150
RF
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S. TO
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75
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2N3055
253904
2N3906
255296
256109
7438
RIBBON CABLE
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40 cond.
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N400H 1"'vn
IN6066
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250
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$ .75
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1000/58 00
12, 15. 18. or 22V
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2N6233 NPN SWITCHING POWER
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3
695.00
$145.00
$4.00
BOARD
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With FREE Wire Kit
($6.95 Value)
7844
8774
9214
,O
7V51IRlì PNP 5, Tü 9?
'VS1 ,1 NPNS. RF
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This board is a 1/16 "single sided paper epoxy
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will hold up to 21 single 14 pin IC's or 8,16 or LSI
47 7477147
95
3
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$a95
R
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CCD 201C 100a100 Image Sensor
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SOS
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52 K
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Lynn, Mass. 01904
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TTL LOW POWER SCHOTTKY PLASTIC DUAL-IN -UNE I.C.
Part No
Price
74LS00
74LS01
74LS02
74LS03
74LSO4
74LS05
15
15
15
15
19
19
74LS08
74LS09
74LS10
19
Part No Price
Part No. Price
Part No
Price
74LS47
74LS48
74LS49
74LS51
74LS54
74LS55
74LS63
74LS73
74LS74
74LS75
74LS76
74LS78
74LS83
74LS85
74LS86
74LS90
74LS91
74LS92
74LS93
74LS95
74LS96
74LS107
74LS109
74LS112
74LS113
74LS114
74LS122
74LS123
74LS124
74LS125
74LS126
74LS132
74LS133
74LS136
74LS138
74LS139
74LS145
74LS147
74LS148
74LS151
74LS153
74LS155
74LS156
74LS157
74LS158
74LS160
74LS161
74LS162
74LS163
74LS164
74LS165
74LS166
74LS168
74LS169
74LS170
74LS173
74LS174
74LS175
74LS181
74LS183
74LS190
74LS191
74LS192
74LS193
74LS194
74LS195
74LS196
74LS197
74LS221
74LS240
74LS241
74LS242
74LS243
74LS244
74LS245
74LS247
74LS248
74LS249
74LS251
74LS253
74LS257
Part No.
Price
Part No.
Dual In -line
Price
Sockets'
74LS11
74LS12
74LS13
74LS14
74LS15
74LS20
74LS21
74LS22
74LS26
74LS27
74LS28
74LS30
74LS32
74LS33
74LS37
74LS38
74LS40
74LS42
19
15
19
19
35
59
19
15
19
19
25
21
.21
15
25
.27
23
.23
19
54
89
89
.89
19
19
19
1.50
.29
35
49
.39
39
79
.99
35
59
.99
.59
49
.99
.39
32
32
.39
39
.50
79
99
59
59
79
29
39
64
64
99
1.95
99
59
59
99
.80
59
69
84
84
84
84
89
1.25
1.45
1.50
1.50
1.25
.95
74LS258
74LS259
74LS260
74LS261
74LS266
74LS273
74LS275
74LS279
74L5280
74LS283
74LS290
74LS293
74LS295
74LS298
74LS299
74LS324
74LS325
74L5326
74LS327
74LS347
74L5348
74LS352
74LS353
74LS362
74L5365
74LS366
74LS367
69
69
2.50
3.50
.89
.89
.95
95
.75
.66
1.09
1.09
1.25
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.25
1.25
1.25
85
.85
.60
LINEAR I.C.'S
LM324N
LM339N
LM555N -8
LM556N -14
LM723CN
LM723CH
LM741CH
LM741CN -8
LM1458N -8
.49
49
.29
.59
.34
39
.37
.24
39
.75
1.45
.29
1.85
.39
1.65
74L5368
74LS373
4.50
74LS379
74LS386
74LS390
74LS393
74LS395
74LS396
74LS398
74LS399
74LS424
74LS445
74LS447
74LS490
74LS668
74LS669
74L5670
74LS374
74L5375
74LS377
74LS378
.59
1.75
.85
.85
1.10
1.25
1.25
2.95
1.25
2.55
2.55
2.55
1.25
1.75
1.35
1.35
Quad Op Amp
Quad Comparator
Timer
Dual Timer
Voltage Regulator
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Stock level
Part No.
Price
41400
2114
7.50
2102LFPC 1.19
Million
Million
5
5 7
MIILo
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Minion
Million
8
18 Maillon
1614005
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029
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049
055
065
07
Stock level
29000
57000
390000
7000
Part No.
WO2M
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W06M
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W 10M
Price
200V
400V
6000
800V
1000V
28
32
34
1N914
1N4148
000V
41\151
1100V 4NSl
Z
log
Z80-DMA
14.95
24.95
7.95
11.95
7.95
11.95
46.00
Z80 -S10 /0
Z80A -S10/0
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16K 416-3 11.95
27550
200 N S
16K 416-5
300N
Stock level
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68.00
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Part No.
AY5.1013A 4.95
AY3 -1015 5.95
9200
1K CMOS RAM
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59.00
68.00
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UART's
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Z80 -SIO/1
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60
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Part No
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4060
4K 300
21110
29000
Z80-CPU
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350NS (Low Power
Part No.
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Price
14000
345000
156000
33000
18000
84000
25000
46000
8 PIN
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22 PIN
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28 PIN
40 PIN
.11
Stock level
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4400
5101
45ONS Low Power
(
Price
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MICROPROCESSOR
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21600
2700
8080A
6800
Corp.
i'
Pr
595 5.50
&9 7.95
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Part No
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1250
1800
11200
1700
2800
1500
1000
4900
500
5200
1100
300
8212
8214
8216
8224
8226
8228
8238
1.98
11:95 3.95
1.98
2.75
1.98
4.75
8251
8253
995 4.95
1500
1700
1400
2800
700
6810
6820
1Y:95 3.95
6821
ß18 3.95
6850
6852
396
8255
8257
8259
4.75
14.95
5.95
9.95
14.95
1,95 3.50
S>95 4.95
4.95
t>/
P.O. BOX 1035 FRAMINGHAM. MASSACHUSETTS 01701
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Sales
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CPU's
Stock level
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.13
.15
.19
.27
.28
.36
.48
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4K(1K x4)45ONS
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9
2.65
1.50
4.50
1.25
1.25
1.95
90
.90
2.00
MOS Dynamic RAM'S
INSTRUMENT
Part No.
154001
154002
154003
154004
1.35
.49
1.50
1.25
1.50
1.70
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1.75
1.75
65
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3
GE FAST CHARGE Nicad Pack
CONTAINS 3 SERIES CONNECTED AA SIZE CELLS
EACH RATED 1.2V AT 500MAH. CAN BE CUT
OR USED AS A PACK. RECHARGE THESE IN
LITTLE AS B. HOURS: BRAND NEW.
C23351
52.95
RELAY
-
SLA -1
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150 Watt Seconds
STROBE TUBE
COMMON
SEGMENT
ANODE READOUT.
CHARACTER HEIGHT
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108
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Audio -Technica
PTS Electronics
Personal Computers
Platt Luggage
Poly Paks
Priority 1 Electronics
Quest
Radio Shack
Ramsey Electronics
F. Reichert Sales
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Karel Barta
78I.5750
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Bullett Electronics
104
Burdex Security Co.
103
71
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116
81
125
117
122
107
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C F R Associates
7
66
74
Continental Specialities
Coy. 3
The Cooper Group Electronics Division
27
57
67
Spacekom
47
CREI -Div. of McGraw -Hill Continuing
Education
70 -73
Dage Scientific Instruments
103
Davis Electronics
100
Sabtronics
Schober Organ
Solid State Sales
Southwest Technical Products
46
Delta Electronics
102
33
37
Devco
104
28
61
Diamondback Electronics
110
48
Digi -Key
118
DRC
108
99
120
Chaney
130
CIE-Cleveland Institute of Electronics ...
28 -31
Command Productions
108
10
DRI Industries
E & L Instruments
8
EICO
18
Electronics & Control Engineer's Book Club
McGraw -Hill Book Division
18 -21
Electronic Development Lab
110
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102
79
Fluke
78
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49
69
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93
97,120
112,113
105
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G. T. E.-Sylvania-Consumer Renewal
Heath
55
59
Hickok Electrical Instruments
Hobby World
14
Indiana Home Study
100
120
103
24
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77
100
116
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83
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84
92
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Information Unlimited
Integrated Electronics
International Crystal Mfg. Co.
International Electronics
Intl Instrumentation Inc.
J & E Electronics
James Electronics
Krystal Kits
112
single copy of
tice
100
104
MOVING?
106
34
40
119
Golden Enterprises
-
39
Trinico International
Tri -Star
Trumbull
Six weeks' no-
Grantham College of Engineering
-
96
116
Gould
16
29
100
103
Vector
Vero Electronics
Viz. Mfg.
Wahl Clipper
Wersi Electronics
West Side Electronics
68
128
Speakerlab
A. F. Stabler Co.
Steven Products
Tab Books
Godbout Electronics
12
51
41
7
99
81
GFN
62
-
26
81
124
Exar
Fuji - Svea
Gavin Instruments
-
35
32 -33
Rye Industries
24
75
127
126
RCA
27
99
9
Formula International
72
95
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Electronic Supermarket
Electronic Systems
E
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85
58
17
Vise, MC and COD accepted.
Phone orders are welcome.
110
B & K Precision Dynascan Co
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Byte
54
1
25
92
80
31
Minimum order $5.00
Please include St for postage
27038. DENVER, CO. 80227 Ph: 303-
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INCLUDES PRE -ASSEMBLED
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THIS IS
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129
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Advanced Computer Products
98
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Active Electronics
Advance Electronics
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$ 3.95
C22706
AS
RADIO -ELECTRONICS does not assume
any responsibility for errors that may
appear in the index below.
Free Information Number
National Camera Supply
National Radio Institute-NRI
National Technical Schools
63
Netronics
44,43 New -Tone Electronics
International
36
Ohio Scientific
20
O.K. Machine & Tool
-
19
123
2
88 -91
Your old address and zip
code
94
106
98
106
Your new address and zip
code
124
101
121
name
(please print)
108
120
address
114,115
Lakeside Industries
Meshna
M T 1- Motorola Training Institute
130
www.americanradiohistory.com
103
103
128
84
city
state
zip code
Mall to: Radio- Electronics
SUBSCRIPTION DEPT., P.O. BOX 2520,
BOULDER, COLO. 80322
Spend less.
fest more.
Faster, easier and more economical digital testing. That's what CSC's Logic Probes are
all about. And that's what engineers, technicians
and hobbyists need, to deal with the increased
use and complexity of digital circuits.
Unlike oscilloscopes, meters
and other conventional test equipment, CSC
probes are logic -state oriented: Just touch the
probe to a circuit node and instantly read logic
state, detect level transitions, check duty cycles.
And store high- speed, low- rep -rate events
that even fast scopes miss.
By accurately detecting the state of individual logic elements without removing ICs or
cutting copper paths, CSC's circuit -powered,
s.
CSC
LOGIC PROBE
LP -1
multi -family Logic Probes locate over 95% of
circuit problems in minutes instead of hours.
And they're easy to use. Simply connect two clip
leads across the power supply, touch the probe
tip to a node and watch the LEDs.
LP -1 LOGIC PROBE. $44.95*
LP -1 has a minimum detectable pulse
width of 50 nanoseconds and maximum input
frequency of 10 MHz. This 100 K ohm probe is
an inexpensive workhorse for any shop, lab or
field service tool kit. It detects high -speed
pulse trains or one -shot events and stores
pulse or level transitions, replacing separate
level detectors, pulse detectors, pulse
stretchers and pulse memory devices. All, for
less than the price of a DVM.
LP -2 LOGIC PROBE. $24.95*
LP -2 performs the same basic functions
as the LP -1, but for slower -speed circuits and
© 1978,
Continental Specialties Corporation.
without pulse memory capability. Handling a
minimum pulse width of 300 nanoseconds, this
300 K ohm probe is the economical way to test
ó
Cs
0_
z
California
Ñ
?
0
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Ca
o
HIGH SPEED PROBE
LP-3
Use CSC's highly versatile logic probes
for testing, debugging or servicing any type of
digital circuit. They give you a lot of information
about IC circuit conditions ...and help you do
more in less time. For less money.
NEED MORE INFORMATION? CALL
203 - 624 -3103 to order, or for the name of
your local distributor. Prices slightly higher
outside U.S.A.
Manufacturer's suggested retail.
CONTINENTAL SPECIALTIES CORPORATION
Europe, Africa, Mid -East: CSC UK LTD.
Shire Hill Industrial Estate, Units and 2
Saffron Walden, Essex CB 11 3AQ
Telephone Number: SAFFRON WALDEN 21682
TLX 817477
Continental Specialties Corporation
70 Fulton Terr, Box 1942, New Haven, CT 06509
351
LP -e
circuits up to 1.5 MHz. It detects pulse trains or
single -shot events in TTL, DTL, HTL and CMOS
circuits, replacing separate pulse detectors,
pulse stretchers and node state analyzers.
LP -3 LOGIC PROBE. $69.95*
Our LP -3 has all the features of the LP -1
plus extra high speed. It captures pulses as
narrow as 10 nanoseconds, and monitors pulse
trains to over 50 MHz. Giving you the essential
capabilities of a high -quality memory scope at
about 1/100th the cost. LP -3 captures
one -shot or low- rep- rate -events all -butimpossible to detect any other way. All without
the weight, bulk, inconvenience and power
consumption of conventional methods.
Prices, specifications, subject to change without notice.
Corporate Headquarters:
LOGIC PROBE
1
San Francisco. CA 94104
1415) 421 -8872, TWX 910 -372 -7992
St.,
CIRCLE
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ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
New, K40
gnamount:
Grips like grapple,
actually improv s transmission.
APOP
-
We double guarantee it
Exclusive
Octopole Construction.
Exclusive K40 Flux Harmonics
for Greater Transmission.
That's eight magnets set in eight
different directions to give you a
magnetic seal so complete and
powerful, your antenna would stay
up there if you could squeeze
between two semis passing each other at 180
miles an hour. That's magnetic octopower.
The facts: Physics and Physical.
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match the K40 antenna radiation for greater distance than the standard K40. See our guarantee.
1. Magnamount is a bigger, stronger magnet
fact it's 8 bigger, stronger, magnets.
-in
2. It doesn't just hold the K40 antenna, it helps
* GUARANTEE I
Placed on the roof of a vehicle; properly tuned, the K40
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* GUARANTEE II
Materials and workmanship are guaranteed for a full 12
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it transmit further.
3. Remember the law of reciprocity. The antenna that transmits better, receives better.
4. It provides a flatter, lower SWR because the
Magnamount is capacitance grounded.
5. It puts your 5/8 wave K40 antenna securely in
place in the most advantageous place to work
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$15.95 buys it.
K40 Magnamount.
American Antenna
1945 South
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(SUGGESTED RETAIL)
60120
This professional CB equipment available only through Registered K40 Dealers!
CIRCLE
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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