Hendricks Park Plant Identification Guide

Hendricks Park Plant Identification Guide
Hendricks Park Plant Identification Guide
Prepared for
City of Eugene Parks and Open Spaces Division
Prepared by
University of Oregon Environmental Studies’ Service Learning Program
University Student Group
Jody Bleisch
Elizabeth Guzman
Katrinka Knox
Chin-Wei Tang
University Project Coordinator
Steve Mital
Contents
Acer macrophyllum, Big Leaf Maple.............................................................................................. 2
Actaea rubra, Baneberry................................................................................................................. 3
Adenocaulon bicolor, Pathfinder .................................................................................................... 4
Berberis aquifolium, Tall Oregon Grape ........................................................................................ 5
Berberis Nervosa, Dwarf Oregon Grape ........................................................................................ 6
Camassia leichtlinii, Camas............................................................................................................ 7
Claytonia perfoliata, Miner’s Lettuce ............................................................................................ 8
Claytonia Sibirica, Candy Flower .................................................................................................. 9
Holodiscus discolor, Ocean spray................................................................................................. 10
Hydrophyllum tenuipes, Pacific waterleaf .................................................................................... 11
Smilacina racemosa, Western Solomon’s Seal ............................................................................ 12
Maianthemum stellatum, Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal.............................................................. 13
Oemleria cerasiformis, Osoberry.................................................................................................. 14
Osmorhiza chilensis, Sweet Cicely............................................................................................... 15
Philadelphus lewisii, Mock Orange .............................................................................................. 16
Polystichum munitum, Sword Fern ............................................................................................... 17
Prosartes (Disporum) hookeri, Hooker's fairy bells..................................................................... 18
Prunus emarginata, Bitter Cherry ................................................................................................ 19
Ribes sanguineum, Red Flowering Currant .................................................................................. 20
Rosa gymnocarpa, Baldhip Rose .................................................................................................. 21
Rosa nutkana var. nutkana, Nootka Rose..................................................................................... 22
Rubus parviflorus, Thimbleberry.................................................................................................. 23
Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry ........................................................................................... 24
Sambucus mexicana, Blue Elderberry .......................................................................................... 25
Symphoricarpos albus, Snowberry ............................................................................................... 26
Tellima grandiflora, Fringe cup.................................................................................................... 27
Trillium Ovatum, Western Trillium .............................................................................................. 28
Viola glabella, Woods Violet ....................................................................................................... 29
Geranium robertianum, Herb Robert ........................................................................................... 30
Hedera Helix, English Ivy ............................................................................................................ 31
Lapsana communis, Nipplewort ................................................................................................... 32
Prunus Avium, Sweet Cherry........................................................................................................ 33
Rubus discolor, Armenian (Himalayan) Blackberry .................................................................... 34
Solanum dulcamara, Bittersweet Nightshade............................................................................... 35
Vinca Major, Greater Periwinkle.................................................................................................. 36
Vinca minor, Lesser Periwinkle.................................................................................................... 37
Plant Leaf Guide ........................................................................................................................... 38
Glossary ........................................................................................................................................ 40
1
Acer macrophyllum, Big Leaf Maple
General Botanical Characteristics
Acer macrophyllum is a long-lived deciduous
tree exhibiting a high degree of variation in
size and form. Mature trees commonly attain
heights of 50 feet to 70 feet with 1.5 feet
diameter trunks. They can live 150 to 300
years or more. The root system is shallow but
wide spreading. The leaves are generally 6
inches to 12 inches across and nearly as long.
Leaf color is shiny dark green above but paler
underneath. The leaves are palmately divided
into five broad, coarsely toothed lobes. The
greenish-yellow perfect or staminate flowers
are arranged in a raceme at the end of twigs.
The fruit is a fused, double-winged samara.
Seasonal Development
Flowering and leaf emergence occur simultaneously in late March or April. Fruit ripening
generally occurs between September and October, and seed is dispersed from October through
January. Leaf fall in western Oregon is mostly completed by the third week in October.
Distribution/Habitat
Big leaf maple occurs in the Pacific Coast region from just south of the Alaska Panhandle in
British Columbia south through the western portions of Washington and Oregon to southern
California.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Big leaf maple is the only commercially exported maple of the Pacific coast region.
Native Americans used the bark for making rope and carved bowls, utensils, and canoe
paddles from the wood.
References
US Forest Service Shrub Database, December 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/index.html
Photo from Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs, December 2002,
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/eesc/environmental/
2
Actaea rubra, Baneberry
General Botanical Characteristics
Actaea rubra is commonly known as
baneberry because of its poisonous berries.
Baneberry is most often recognized by its
scarlet red berries, but it also produces snow
white berries. Baneberry is a perennial herb
with a thick root stock buried in the soil. It
frequently grows in moist micro-sites where
fire severity and frequency may be lower.
While survival is better in the shade,
seedlings in the sun are slightly larger and
have more biomass allocated to roots.
Seasonal Development
Baneberry blooms in late May to mid-June. It is pollinated by a variety of insects. Baneberry can
be self-fertile. Its seeds require a dormant period and usually take 2 years to germinate in the
wild.
Distribution/Habitat
Baneberry grows in moist woods in the northern temperate zone of North America and Eurasia.
Seedling growth is good in both sun and shade. Seedlings begin to bloom in their third year. The
seeds are dispersed by birds and small mammals. Chipmunk may bury the seed.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Native Americans in Alberta and British Columbia used a weak decoction made from the
roots as a stimulant in treating colds, arthritis, syphilis, rheumatism, and emaciation.
They also chewed leaves and put them on boils and wounds to stimulate blood flow.
Berries are eaten by many small mammals and birds.
References
US Forest Service Fire Effects Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/actrub/.
Earl J.S. Rook, Herbaceous Plants List, November 2002,
http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/herbs/.
Photo from Lynn Overtree, CalFlora Plant Database, November 2002,
http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/.
3
Adenocaulon bicolor, Pathfinder
General Botanical Characteristics
Adenocaulon bicolor, commonly known as
trail plant or Pathfinder, is a fibrous rooted
perennial herb with a single, slender stem up to
1 meter tall. Leaves are primarily basal and
long-petioled with large, thin, triangular leaf
blades. The leaf surfaces are green and
glabrous above and white-wooly beneath.
Flower heads are small and contain 6-14
whitish disk flowers.
Seasonal Development
The flowering and fruiting period occurs in
June and July.
Distribution/Habitat
Ranges from southern British Columbia to California and east to northern Idaho and
northwestern Montana. Disjunct populations occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota and
Wyoming and in the northern Great Lakes area. Wyoming populations are restricted to Crook
County. It is found primarily on shady, north-facing lower slopes and bottoms on moist organic
soils.
Interesting Facts
• It is called Pathfinder because the underside of its leaves – which can be overturned when
people walk past - are highly noticeable and suggest recent human traffic.
References
Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, November, 2002,
http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/WYNDD/.
Photo from Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College, November 2002,
http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/.
4
Berberis aquifolium, Tall Oregon Grape
General Botanical Characteristics
Berberis aquifolium is a low-growing shrub
from 2 feet to 5 feet in height. The leaves
are pinnately compound and divided into 59 spiny, dark green leaflets that are glossy
on the upper surface. The flowers of Tall
Oregon grape are yellow and born in erect
clusters. The fruit consists of a cluster of
blue berries. The rootstock and roots are
more or less knotty, about an inch or less in
diameter, with tough yellow wood and
brownish bark.
Seasonal Development
Flowering of Tall Oregon grape occurs in
April through May. The fruits of Tall
Oregon grape may be harvested in late fall.
Distribution/Habitat
Tall Oregon Grape is distributed from Nebraska to the Pacific Ocean, but it is especially
abundant in Oregon and northern California. It grows commonly in dry open spaces at low to
middle elevations.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Oregon Grape was adopted as Oregon’s state flower in January 1899.
Oregon Grape can be used to treat syphilis.
References
Purdue University, Center for New Crops and Plant Products. 3 December 2002.
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html
5
Berberis Nervosa, Dwarf Oregon Grape
General Botanical Characteristics
Berberis Nervosa is a low-growing rhizomatous
evergreen shrub that typically reaches 4 inches to
24 inches in height. The simple stems are
ascending to erect and generally occur in loose
colonies of several stems. Compound leaves are
borne in terminal tufts. Leaflets occur in groups
of 7 to 21. Leaflets are dark green, thick, and
leathery.
Seasonal Development
Plants flower in early to late spring. Fruit ripens during July and August. Yellow flowers are
borne in erect clusters or racemes up to 8 inches (21 cm) in length. The fruit is a large, dark
blue, globose berry with a grayish or whitish bloom. Berries are 0.3 to 0.4 inch (8-10 mm) in
diameter, occur in clusters, and contain a number of black seeds.
Distribution/Habitat
Dwarf Oregon-grape occurs across a wide range of habitats in
submontane to montane forests of the Pacific Northwest. It is
a characteristic shrub of spruce-fir forests but also occurs in
northern coastal coniferous forests and in redwood, mixed
evergreen, and bottomland forests. This shrub occurs on dry
to fairly moist sites but reaches its greatest abundance on
warmer sites. Dwarf Oregon-grape is also common in the
warmer Port-Orford-cedar communities. It grows well in sun
or shade. It also grows well on a variety of soil types including
coarse, shallow rocky soils, coarse alluvium, and glacial
outwash. Soils are well drained to poorly drained.
Interesting Facts
•
The berries look good, but watch out—they’re poisonous!
References
US Forest Service Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/berner/
Humboldt College, November 2002, http://www.humboldt.edu/~treefarm/ shrubs.html
Photo from http://www.rockisland.com/~taichi/natural/ graphics/oregongrape.htm
6
Camassia leichtlinii, Camas
General Botanical Characteristics
Camassia leichtlinii is a native perennial forb. Its peduncle is
from 8 inches to 20 inches (20 cm - 50 cm) in height and
supports a terminal raceme. The peduncle and basal leaves
attach to a bulb that is up to 1.5 inches (6 cm) across. Its roots
are fibrous. The fruit is a three-celled capsule with 5 to 10
seeds per flower.
Seasonal Development
Camas flowers from May to July, depending upon elevation
and snow cover. Its leaves die and the seeds are dispersed
from late May to August.
Distribution/Habitat
Camas grows on sites that are moist to wet in spring but dry by late spring or summer. It is
commonly found near pools, springs, and intermittent streams.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
Camas is shade intolerant.
It is found on open sites created by disturbance.
It is most prevalent in initial and early seral communities but also occurs in later seres.
References
US Forest Service Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/camqua/introductory.html
Day Trails, November 2002, http://www.daytrails.com/Camas.html
Photo from http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/photom/R370.jpg
7
Claytonia perfoliata, Miner’s Lettuce
General Botanical Characteristics
Claytonia perfoliata is a native winter or spring
annual. It is branched from the base with stems
growing up to 14 inches tall. Leaves are mostly
basal, simple, and 2.4 inches to 8.0 inches long,
including the stalk. Miner's lettuce has two stem
leaves that fuse to form a disc just below the
flower stalk. The elongate stalk bears numerous
small flowers. Fruits are tiny, three-valved
capsules containing one to three seeds.
Seasonal Development
The time from germination to flowering varied
from 33 to 90 days in a Columbia River Gorge
population. Miner's lettuce flowers from
February to May in Arizona and California. In
Utah, it flowers from June to July.
Distribution/Habitat
Miner's lettuce is distributed from British Columbia south to Guatemala and east to North
Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and Arizona. Miner's lettuce usually occurs on moist or
vernally moist sites
Interesting Facts
•
•
The blossoms, leaves, and stems of miner's lettuce may be eaten by humans at any time
during the growing season. They are eaten raw or cooked, and are a good source of
vitamin C.
Miner's lettuce is a shade tolerant species and is more prominent under a canopy than in
openings, in oak savanna, or western white pine communities.
References
US Forest Service Shrub Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/index.html
Photo from University of Maryland Life Sciences, November 2002,
http://www.life.umd.edu/emeritus/reveal/pbio/LnC/LnCpublic.html
8
Claytonia Sibirica, Candy Flower
General Botanical Characteristics
Claytonia Sibirica has attractive, shiny, fleshy, spatulashaped leaves. White to pink flowers are borne on racemes
for as long as there is moisture.
Distribution/Habitat:
Candy flower grows in dense shade. This native perennial
can reseed to form a lovely spring-summer blooming
carpet under conifers or damp, dark areas.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Other Common name—“Western Spring Beauty”
Candy Flower is a cousin to the Miner’s lettuce.
References
Annie’s Annuals, November 2002, http://www.anniesannuals.com
University of Maryland, November 2002,
http://www.life.umd.edu/emeritus/reveal/pbio/slides8/8403b.jpg
Photo from
http://www.boga.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/html/ Montia_sibirica_Foto.html
9
Holodiscus discolor, Ocean spray
General Botanical Characteristics
Holodiscus discolor is a deciduous shrub up to 3m - 4m
high. Its leaves are alternate, ovate, dull green, coarsely
toothed to shallowly lobed, and slightly hairy on the upper
surface. The flowers are attached to large terminal
panicles that may reach up to 12 inches (30 cm) in length.
Seasonal Development
Ocean spray’s buds appear in early spring and it flowers
in June or July. The flowers turn brown and remain
drooping from the plant over winter. The seeds ripen in
October. Flowers are scented and hermaphroditic (have
both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
insects.
Distribution/Habitat
Ocean spray is native to the United States. It occurs from
British Columbia south to California, from the west side of the Cascade Mountains to the Pacific
Coast, east to northeastern Oregon, in northern Idaho, and eastern and western Montana. It is
dominant or subdominant throughout the Pacific Northwest. It grows in woodlands, sunny edges,
dappled shade, and at low to middle elevations. It requires moist soil.
Interesting Facts
•
•
An infusion from the seeds has been used in the treatment of smallpox, black measles, and
chicken pox.
The inner bark can be made into eyewash.
References
Plants for a future database search, November 2002,
http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/D_search.html
USDA Forest service shrub index, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/
Holodiscus discolor, November 2002,http://www.ups.edu/faculty/kirkpatrick/
fieldbotany/family_pages/Rosaceae/holodiscus_discolor.htm
Photo from funet database, November 2002,
http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/plants/magnoliophyta/magnoliophytina/magnoliopsid
a/rosaceae/holodiscus/index.html
10
Hydrophyllum tenuipes, Pacific waterleaf
General Botanical Characteristics
Hydrophyllum tenuipes, is a rhizomatous
perennial herb with a stem that can grow
20 cm-80 cm high. Both the leaves and
stem have a hairy texture. The leaves are
pinnately lobed or divided with pointed
tips and coarse teeth edges. Sometimes
they are parted with 5 to 7 leaflets.
Inflorescences found at the tip of the
stem are loose or in tight cymes
(fiddlehead arrangement). The flowers
have stamens longer than the petals, are
bell-shaped, and are yellow, light purple
or blue in color.
Seasonal Development
It flowers in late spring or summer.
Distribution/Habitat
The waterleaf family is widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions. Hydrophyllum
tenuipes is found mainly in western North America from southern British Columbia to northern
California. It is distributed through the Pacific Coast and west of the Cascades. It grows in
moist shady woods at low elevations.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Grazing animals eat its leaves.
Native Americans ate the roots.
References
Hydrophyllaceae, 11/18/02,
http://www.ups.edu/faculty/kirkpatrick/fieldbotany/family_pages/Hydrophyllaceae/hydro
phyllaceae.htm.
Paul Slichter Pacific waterleaf, 11/18/02,
http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/nature/gorge/5petal/water/h2oleaf.htm
Pacific waterleaf , 11/18/02,
http://www.boskydellnatives.com/description_page\Hydrophyllum_tenuipes.htm
Photo from Allyn Weaks, 11/18/02,
http://tardigrade.org/natives/photogallery/page5.html
11
Smilacina racemosa, Western Solomon’s Seal
General Botanical Characteristics
Smilacina racemosa is a tall herbaceous perennial plant growing from thick, whitish, branching
rhizomes. It is often found in dense clusters. The leafy, arching stems grow to about 3' tall. The
leaves are smooth-edged, broad and elliptical, and are borne
alternately along the stem in two rows. They are distinctly
parallel-veined. The flowers are small and densely clustered,
white, and strongly perfumed. The berries are small (5mm-7
mm diameter) and densely clustered. They are bright red
when ripe.
Seasonal Development
Western Solon’s Seal produces berries from July to August.
Distribution/Habitat
Western Solomon’s Seal generally is an indicator of moist
environments. It also occurs on rocky, well-drained hillsides. It is
common in thickets and open forests on gently sloping benches
adjacent to streams. Soils are usually shallow and derived from
calcareous and non-calcareous parent materials. Soil texture ranges
from gravelly loams to silt and sandy loams.ÿÿ
Interesting Facts
•
Native people ate the berries and the rhizomes
References
http://www.ionxchange.com/order_pages/wildflowers/s/smilacina_racemosa.htm
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/environment/eao/culres/ethbot/q-s/Smilacina.htm
Photos from:
http://www.usi.edu/science/biology/TwinSwamps/Smilacina_racemosa.htm
http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/nature/plants/3petal/lily/fss.htm
12
Maianthemum stellatum, Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal
General Botanical Characteristics
Maianthemum stellatum is an herb species from 8
inches to 24 inches tall. Stems are found erect with
alternating leaves. The flowers at the end of the
stem are white, and have 5 - 10 petals. One large
root grows straight downward from the stem of the
Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal with many small roots
that run in all directions from the rhizome.
Seasonal Development
Shoots of Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal generally
appear in late April, and flowering occurs from late
May through early June.
Distribution/Habitat
The Star-flowered Solomon’s Seal is distributed
throughout the United States from Alaska to
California, south to Colorado, Nevada, and Arizona,
east to the New England states, and south through
the Carolinas. Generally an indicator of moist environments, it also occurs on rocky, welldrained hillsides. It is common in thickets and open forests on gently sloping benches adjacent
to streams.
Interesting Facts
•
•
The Nuxalk Indians of British Columbia collected the ripe berries from July to August for
food.
This species is moderately resistant to fire. Fire will consume above ground parts,
sparing the rhizome, which will sprout new species.
References
The Swanson Party, BWCA Homepage, Earl J.S. book, 3 December 2002,
http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/
Texas A&M Bioinformatics, December 2002,
http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/gallery.htm
13
Oemleria cerasiformis, Osoberry
General Botanical Characteristics
Oemleria cerasiformis is a deciduous shrub or small tree and
grows between 5 feet and 10 feet high. Its leaves are alternate,
light green, and grow 2 inches to 5 inches long. Its flowers are
separate for male and female plants. Both male and female
flowers have white petals. Male species flower with 15 stamen
while female species flowers with 5 carpels. The 1 to 5 fruits
per flower are bean shaped and orange to yellow colored when
young and blue to black when mature.
Seasonal Development
Osoberry is often one of the earliest understory shrubs to
flower in March and continues throughout April.
Distribution/Habitat
Oemleria cerasiformis is distributed in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. In
Washington and Oregon it can be found from the coast to the west slope of the Cascades. It
commonly grows in dry to moist, open woods, stream banks, open areas, and coastal plains at
low elevations.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Native Americans made a bark tea
from the Osoberry as a purgative and
tonic.
In flowering season, its fruits are
quickly eaten by birds and the seeds
of Osoberry are spread by birds as
well.
References
Washington State Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs, December 2002,
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/eesc/environmental/
Dendrology at Virginia Tech, December 2002,
http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/fall/biglist_frame.htm
14
Osmorhiza chilensis, Sweet Cicely
General Botanical Characteristics
Osmorhiza chilensis, is a perennial herb with an
erect stem usually 25 cm -100cm high. It is
branched on the top portion of the plant. Leaves
branch out from a point into 3 parts and further
divide into 3 leaflets. They are coarsely toothed with
several long stalked basal leaves. Flowers are small
and greenish white and organized in loose umbrels.
Seasonal Development
Flowers are scented and are pollinated by insects.
Distribution/Habitat
Native to the U.S., Sweet Cicely occurs mostly in the West and in the northern states stretching
from the East to the West. It grows at low and middle elevations in open mixed or coniferous
forests, forests edges, and thickets.
Interesting Facts
•
•
The roots are sweet and often licorice flavored.
It can be used in teas, stews, or soups.
References
BC biodiversity carrot family, November 2002,
http://www.bcbiodiversity.homestead.com/carrot.html
Backcountry ranger's edible Sierra Nevada plants, November 2002,
http://www.backcountryrangers.com/edibles/plants_soloframe.html?OSMORHIZA.html
USDA plants database, November 2002,
http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/plant_profile.cgi?symbol=OSBE - synonyms
Photo from Richard W. Wright, November 2002,
http://www.rockisland.com/~taichi/natural/graphics/sweetcicley.html
15
Philadelphus lewisii, Mock Orange
General Botanical Characteristics
Philadelphus lewisii is a native, deciduous,
erect to spreading shrub that grows 3 feet to 10
feet (1m -3 m) tall. The showy flowers occur
in clusters of three to fifteen.
Seasonal Development
Lewis’ mock orange buds tend to open in early
April and leaf April through May. Flowering
occurs from May through July. Fruit matures
in late summer and seeds are dispersed in
September or October. Leaves fall in late
September through November.
Distribution/Habitat
Lewis' mock orange occurs in the northwestern United States and southern Canada. It occurs
from extreme southern British Columbia south to California, and east to central Idaho, western
Montana, and southwestern Alberta. Philadelphus lewisii ssp. Californicus occurs from the
southern Cascade Range of southwestern Oregon south through the Sierra Nevada to Tulare
County, California.
Lewis' mock orange commonly occurs in open coniferous forests and at forest edges and in
douglas-fir forests on the western slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon. It is usually associated
with other shrubs like ocean spray, baldhip rose, and bearberry.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Native Americans used the strong, hard branches of Lewis' mock orange for bows,
arrows, combs, tobacco pipes, cradles, and netting shuttles.
Lewis' mock orange is the Idaho state flower. It is illegal to collect Lewis' mock orange
in Idaho for export or sale.
References
US Forest Service Fire Effects Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/philew/index.html.
Photo from Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College, November 2002,
http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/.
16
Polystichum munitum, Sword Fern
General Botanical Characteristics
Polystichum munitum is a large, evergreen, long-lived fern with
fronds from 20 to 72 inches (50 cm-180 cm) long. They are
divided pinnately. Individual fronds live for several years and
remain attached to the rhizome after withering. The largest
leaflets are 1.2 to 16 inches long (3 cm -15 cm). Spores are born
in clusters called sori that are found between the midline and the
edge of the middle and upper leaflets.
Seasonal Development
Fronds unroll by late May. Spores are near maturity by late July
Distribution/Habitat
Sword Fern can be found growing in shade or in small openings
within moist coniferous forests.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Western sword fern frequently indicates productive, moist forest
habitat types. It may also indicate deep soils.
Western sword fern is an indicator of high quality sites for black
cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
menziesii).
References
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/fern/polmun/
http://www.clunet.edu/wf/nca/ flowers/fwr-200.htm
Photo from http://bss.sfsu.edu/.../courses/Fall00Projects
17
Prosartes (Disporum) hookeri, Hooker's fairy bells
General Botanical Characteristics
Disporum hookeri, is a rhizomatous perennial
herb that has a single upright stem. It can grow
up to 2 feet high. The upper portion splits in a
fork-like manner. Commonly, two creamy-white,
narrow, and bell-shaped flowers hang from the
tip of the branch. Flowers have six petal-like
segments. Leaves have parallel veins and a dull
hairy upper surface. The fruits are 4-6 eggshaped, drooping berries.
Seasonal Development
Flowers from May to July. Berries turn red in late summer to fall.
Distribution/Habitat
In the Pacific Northwest, it is commonly found in moist wooded areas near streams. It grows in
moist coniferous or mixed forests at low elevations. It is common in the western United States,
extending from central Oregon's Coast Range and the Cascades to the north, through Washington
and British Columbia, and to northwestern Montana and northeastern Oregon avoiding the dry
Columbia River Basin.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Other common names include: "Drops of Gold", and "Oregon's Fairy Bells".
It is considered to be an endangered species in the state of Michigan.
References
USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, Fairy-Bells-CA.pdf, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/docs/Fairy-Bells-CA.pdf
Photo from William Ashworth, November 2002,
http://id.mind.net/~ashworth/Dscn0562.jpg
18
Prunus emarginata, Bitter Cherry
General Botanical Characteristics
Prunus emarginata is a shrub or small tree that grows
up to 25 feet tall. Its bark is reddish-brown or gray,
with horizontal rows of raised pores (lenticels). The
alternate leaves are deciduous, oblong to oval, 3" long,
finely toothed, and rounded at the tip. There are
generally 1-2 small glands at the base of the leaf blade.
Bitter Cherry has 5 sepals and 5 white petals, numerous
stamens (20), 1 pistil, and 2 ovules.
Seasonal Development
Bitter Cherry flowers are fragrant and bloom in April to
May. It produces a bright red pea-sized fruit.
Distribution/Habitat
Bitter Cherry likes to grow in moist disturbed areas. Bitter cherry prefers open sandy or gravelly
sites and stream banks.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
The fruits are edible, though disagreeable in flavor. They are best used in jams.
The bark can be peeled from the tree and polished to a rich red.
Strips of the bark have been woven into baskets.
References
Washing State Department of Transportation, November 2002,
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/eesc/environmental/programs/culres/ethbot/m-p/PrunusE.htm
Photo from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/cherry4b.gif
19
Ribes sanguineum, Red Flowering Currant
General Botanical Characteristics
Ribes sanguineum is a twiggy deciduous
shrub less than 4 meters high. Leaves are
irregularly toothed and finely serrate with
blade 2 cm to 7 cm. It has bright to pale pink
flowers that droop in luscious bunches. Each
flower has a short tube at its mouth with five
sepals and five reduced sepals spreading out.
Seasonal Development
It blooms upright from mid-February
through early May. Blackish berries appear
late spring and summer.
in
Distribution/Habitat
It grows in open to wooded areas (full sun to part shade), moist to dry valleys (good drainage to
drought tolerant), and lower mountains. It is native to the Pacific Northwest. It is distributed
from the coast to the eastern side of the Cascades in Washington and northern Oregon.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
Native people use them as a food plant.
Despite their bland taste, Coast Salish people ate them fresh.
It is also called “White Icicle” because of the white flowering form that blooms before
the colored varieties.
References
Ketzel Levine's talking plants, November 2002,
http://www.npr.org/programs/talkingplants/profiles/ribessanguineum.html
Natural history research paper, November 2002,
http://rbcm1.rbcm.gov.bc.ca/nh_papers/nativeplants/ribes.html
Photo from Central Washington native plants, November 2002,
http://www.cwnp.org/photopgs/rdoc/risanguineum.html
20
Rosa gymnocarpa, Baldhip Rose
General Botanical Characteristics
Rosa gymnocarpa is a native, long-lived,
deciduous shrub generally 3 feet or less in
height. The stems are slender with straight
prickles. The compound leaves have 5 - 7
leaflets that are 0.5 inches to 1 inch long and
0.25 inches to 0.5 inches wide. Baldhip rose
is rhizomatous and has a shallow root
structure. Propagation occurs when the seeds
are eaten and dispersed by birds and
mammals.
Seasonal Development
Baldhip rose flowers in the late spring and
early summer. Hips appear at the end of July and remain on the plant throughout the winter
Distribution/Habitat
Baldhip rose has a range extending from southern British Columbia south to the Sierra Nevada in
California and east to western Montana and Idaho. It is found in both mountainous and riparian
areas at elevations of 5,000 feet or less. It grows best on eastern and southern exposures.
Interesting Facts
•
•
The hips are high in vitamin C and are also a source of calcium, phosphorous, and iron.
The leaves were often chewed and applied to reduce pain and swelling by Native
Americans and were also used to make tea.
References
US Forest Service Shrub Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/index.html
Photo from Seattle Rose Society Archives, December 2002,
http://www.bmi.net/roseguy/
21
Rosa nutkana var. nutkana, Nootka Rose
General Botanical Characteristics
Rosa nutkana is a native, deciduous, perennial
shrub 3 feet to 6 feet (0.9m -1.8m) tall. Nootka
Rose reaches its maximum height within 10
years. Stems and branches are unarmed to
prickly.
Leaves are compound and have five to seven
leaflets. The fruits contain several long, hairy
achenes. Nootka Rose has rhizomes.
Seasonal Development
Nootka Rose flowers from May through July. Its fruits ripen in early fall and remain on the plant
through winter.
Distribution/Habitat
Nootka Rose is commonly found in moderately dry to moist
climates in submontane to montane zones. It occurs on
nitrogen-rich, moist soils. It frequently occurs in floodplains,
open stream banks, and meadows. It is sporadic in opencanopy forests with fluctuating groundwater tables. It is
occasionally found on brackish-water sites or sites exposed to
ocean spray. It grows best at pH ranges of 5.6 to 7.0. It thrives
on moderately fertile, well-drained clayey-loam, sandy-loam, or
sandy soils.
Interesting Facts
•
It attains sexual maturity at 2 years to 5 years of age.
• Good seed crops are produced about every other year.
References
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rosnut/
Photo from http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/pictures/a3359.jpg
Photo from http://www.nps.gov/klgo/flora/florafoto/rosa%20nutkana01.jpg
22
Rubus parviflorus, Thimbleberry
General Botanical Characteristics
Rubus parviflorus, commonly known as Thimbleberry for the
small “thimble” shaped berries it produces, is a low scrambling or
upright deciduous shrub ranging in height from 1 to 8 feet. They
can be identified by their large green unevenly serrated leaves,
which are pale underneath, and the succulent fruit that turns red to
scarlet when ripe. They have adapted well to fire and reestablish
after burns through seed banking and rhizome sprouting.
Seasonal Development
Thimbleberry growth varies with elevation and weather
conditions. It generally leafs out in mid to late
Spring. However, buds may become active by late February in
parts of Oregon and Washington. Leaves begin to fall in late
summer to autumn. Leaf fall may be early in dry years. In
Oregon, leaves shed by late August in particularly dry years.
Distribution/Habitat
Thimbleberry is found from Alaska to California and into northern Mexico, and east to the Great
Lakes States. It commonly grows on open, wooded hillsides, along stream banks and canyons, on
borders, and roadsides. Thimbleberry typically becomes established in disturbed sites and
distribution declines with succession.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
The fruit was a staple for indigenous inhabitants throughout its
range. The fruit was eaten fresh in summer and dried for winter
use.
The bark was boiled and made into soap, and leaves were used to
make a medicinal tea.
Leaves were powdered and applied to burns to minimize scarring.
References
Rook, Earl. Plants of the North, November 2002,
http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/shrubs/rubuspar.html
US Forest Service Shrub Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/
23
Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry
ÿ
General Botanical Characteristics
Sambucus racemosa, a deciduous shrub
from 20 inches to 20 feet in height. Its
leaves are large, opposite, compound
with 5 – 9 leaflets. The stems are
usually young, soft, and pithy, twigs but
the wood is quite hard. The creamy
white flowers are in pyramidal heads
and followed by round, berry-like fruits
called drupes. The fruit normally
contains 2-4 seeds and is usually bright
red. It propagates by seed following
cold stratification.
Seasonal Development
The growing season usually begins in
early June, and flower buds begin to open from mid-June to early July. Fruits and seeds of the
Red Elderberry mature between late July and mid-August.
ÿ
Distribution/Habitat
Sambucus racemosa is found across North America from Newfoundland to Alaska. It is
restricted to moist, cool sites in the south, extending into California in the coastal mountains,
Arizona and New Mexico in the Rockies, and Georgia and Tennessee in the Appalachian
highlands. Red elderberry is not well adapted to warm climates and in the southern part of its
range. There it is found in cooler uplands, swamps, and along cool drainages
ÿ
Interesting Facts
•
•
Red elderberry is moderately fire resistant, re-sprouting from rhizomes or root
crowns following fire.
The hollow stems have been fashioned into flutes and blowguns.
References
US
Forest Service Shrub Database. 9 November 2002, http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/index.html
Photo from Washington State Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs.
December 2002, http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/eesc/environmental/
24
Sambucus mexicana, Blue Elderberry
General Botanical Characteristics
Blue elderberry is a short-lived, shade intolerant (or slightly
tolerant) shrub or small tree, usually between 6.5 feet to 13
feet tall, but sometimes reaching 20 feet. Young twigs are soft
and pithy but the wood is quite hard with grayish bark or thin,
dark brown, irregularly furrowed and ridged bark. There may
be a thick taproot with fibrous, spreading, lateral roots. The
leaves are opposite and odd-pinnate with five to nine serrate
leaflets. The flowers are white or cream colored. The fruit is
edible (caution should be used before eating the fruit because
poisonous varieties look similar) and blue-black with a
gracious bloom that makes it appear to be powder blue.
Seasonal Development
In California Blue Elderberry blooms from June to September with fruiting in September. In
Utah blooms occurs in July and August with fruiting from August to October.
Distribution/Habitat
Blue elderberry's range in western North America is from southern British Columbia and western
Alberta to California, Arizona, and New Mexico. It extends east into western Montana, western
Colorado, and Trans-Pecos Texas and south into northwest Mexico. Blue elderberry usually
occurs in openings in moist forest habitats and in moist areas within drier, more open habitats. It
is part of the riparian communities of the Central Valley of California and it is frequently
associated with alder and quaking aspen communities.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
The fruit of blue elderberry is frequently gathered for wine, jellies, candy, pies, and
sauces and it is cultivated commercially in Oregon.
Native Americans gathered the fruit to cook, dry, or to eat raw. They used a liquid made
from the flowers and leaves for medicinal purposes.
In the spring the young sprouts can be cooked and eaten. Caution should be used in
eating elderberries since other species in the genus contain a cyanogenetic glycoside and
an alkaloid that can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal pain.
References
Forest Service Fire Effects Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/samcer/index.html.
Photo from CalFlora Database, November 2002, http://www.calflora.org.
25
Symphoricarpos albus, Snowberry
General Botanical Characteristics
Symphoricarpos albus, commonly known as
Snowberry for its snow-white berries, is a
deciduous shrub that is densely branched and
varies in height from 3 feet to 4.5 feet.
Snowberry can reach heights of 6 feet in
riparian areas. They can be identified by their
lobed, opposite leaves and clumps of fruit
that commonly remain on the plant over
winter. It propagates both by seed and
rhizomes.
Seasonal Development
Snowberry begins budding in April to May and leaves become full-grown within a month of
sprouting. Flowers appear any time from May to August and may be present as late as
September. Peak flowering time is June and July. Fruit ripening times are also variable, but
typically occur during late August and early September, coinciding closely with leaf fall.
Distribution/Habitat
Snowberry occurs as far north as Alaska, south to California and east to North Carolina.
Common snowberry is considered subdominant with Ponderosa Pine in Oregon, and is
considered subdominant to Douglas Hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and in dense tall shrub
communities with Wood's Rose (Rosa woodsii). Some species commonly associated with
Snowberry include Ocean spray (Holodiscus discolor) and Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi).
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
Snowberry was used on hair as soap, and the fruits and leaves mashed and applied to cuts
or skin sores as a poultice and to soothe sore, runny eyes.
The bark was used for medicinal teas, to treat tuberculosis and sexually transmitted
diseases. A brew made from the entire plant was used as a tonic.
The straight branches made good arrow shafts and pipe stems.
References
University of Connecticut Plant Database. 9 November 2002, http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/.
US Forest Service Shrub Database. 9 November 2002.
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/.
Photo from CalFlora Plant Database, November 2002, http://www.calflora.org.
26
Tellima grandiflora, Fringe cup
General Botanical Characteristics
Tellima grandiflora has leaves that cluster at the base of
theplant. The leaves are maple-like, hairy, and 2-5 inches
wide. It can grow to 50 cm - 80 cm with an erect stem.
Flowers of small nodding cups with strap-like petals are
arranged along the tall stem.
Seasonal Development
It blooms in March-June.
Distribution/Habitat
Fringe cup occurs in western North America. It grows in
thickets and woods where sites are cool and shady with
moist soil.
Interesting Facts
•
The flowers change color as they are pollinated. Colors
can range from white to red to brown on a single plant
along the stem.
References
Rocky garden plant database, 11/18/02,
http://web.kadel.cz/flora/c/kvCard.asp?Id=4363
Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage Family), 11/18/02,
http://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Saxifraga.html
Photo from Debra Teachout-Teashon (2000), 11/18/02,
http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/
27
Trillium Ovatum, Western Trillium
General Botanical Characteristics
Trillium Ovatum, is a perennial herb plant
that can grow up to 20 cm -45 cm (8''-20").
The plant blossoms into a single large white
flower with three petals, three long narrow
sepals, and a three-parted stigma surrounded
by six stamas. Three egg-shaped leaves are a
few centimeters beneath the flower. ÿ
Seasonal Development
The flower blooms from April to May. As
the flowers age (meaning after it is
pollinated), the flower changes from white to pink in color, then to purplish. The fruit is a green
colored capsule with lots of seeds.
Distribution / Habitat
Western Trillium's North American range extends from southern British Columbia to central
California eastward to Colorado and up to Southwest Alberta. It grows well in moist to wet
woods and open areas at low to mid elevations. Partly shaded places and soils that are deep and
damp are good for growth too.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
"Tri-llium" refers to the three leaves, three petals of the plant, and the Latin word "ovatum"
refers to the egg-shaped leaves.
Also known as the "wake-robin" trillium because it blooms in Spring.
Native people of British Columbia used the root extract for eye medicine.
References
Natural History Research Paper, 11/11/02,
http://rbcm1.rbcm.gov.bc.ca/nh_papers/nativeplants/trilovat.html
Plantwatch Presents Western Trillium, 11/11/02,
http://www.devonian.ualberta.ca/pwatch/westtr.htm#ETHNO
Photo from Dunn gardens-Trillium ovatum, 11/11/02,
http://www.dunngardens.org/early_spring/trillium_ovatum.html
28
Viola glabella, Woods Violet
General Botanical Characteristics
Viola glabella, is commonly known as Stream
Violet or Woods Violet. Woods Violet is a low
(5cm -300 cm [2''-12"]) colony-forming
perennial. Its pencil-thick, knobby green
rhizomes can be found on, or just under, the
surface of the soil. True roots extend from the
lower surface of the rootstock and grip the soil.
Its leaves swoop upwards from the end of the
rootstock on 5cm-10 cm (2''-4") long petioles.
Like those of many other violets, the leaf
blades are kidney to heart shaped and toothed.
Seasonal Development
Woods Violet's blossoms open early in the spring before trees leaf out. A brownish capsule
packed with seeds develops later. When ripe, the capsule explodes spreading the seeds away
from the mother plant.
Distribution/Habitat
It ranges from southern Alaska to California on both sides of the Cascades. Woods violet's
natural habitat includes moist woods and especially the edges of streams. It grows abundantly in
moist sub alpine environments. At mid to low elevations, the violet is particularly common
where deciduous trees form a major part of the forest canopy.
References
CalFlora Plant Database, November 2002, http://www.calflora.org/
Photo from Gerald and Buff Corsi, California Academy of Sciences, November 2002,
http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/
29
Geranium robertianum, Herb Robert
General Botanical Characteristics
Geranium robertianum commonly has white
glandular hairs on its stems that give it an oily
and sticky feel. Often called “stinky Bob,” these
glandular hairs create a distinct odor. The stems
fork at the nodes. At each node is a pair of longstemmed, deeply dissected leaves. Leaves
become smaller as they approach the flower.
The flowering stem also originates at the nodes
and end in a pair of individual stalked flowers.
The flowers usually have five petals. The color
of the flowers can range from magenta to pink to
white.
Seasonal Development
Flowering occurs early spring to late fall, and
sometimes early into winter months.
Distribution/Habitat
Geranium robertianum is commonly found in the moist forest understory west of the Cascade
Range. It can also be found on dry rocky outcrops along roadsides and in residential areas. It
originally comes from forests in Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Interesting Facts
•
•
Herb Robert has the ability to over-winter as seeds. Seeds that over-winter germinate in
the spring, producing flowers and fruit later in the summer.
Herb Robert was originally introduced as an ornamental species.
References
Noxious Weed Board, Washington State, December 2002,
http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/contents.html
Photo from Gallery of Connecticut Wildflowers, December 2002,
http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/galleryindex.html
30
Hedera Helix, English Ivy
General Botanical Characteristics
Hedera helix, is a widespread invasive species. It
wipes out the growth of other native plant
species in forest floors, riparian zones, and
wetlands. It is a kind of vine that can grow
massively on grounds including the understory
of forests and garden yards. It can attach to trees,
walls, and other kinds of surfaces with its
rootlets. Leaves are dark green, and waxy with
veins of whitish-green color. At juvenile stage,
leaf form is 3-lobed. Leaf is un-lobed and oval
with less prominent whitish-green veins during
the adult stage.
Seasonal Development
In the fall, clusters of greenish-white flowers are produced during the adult stage when sunlight
is sufficient. Fruits, which are mildly toxic, are produced in spring.
Distribution / Habitat
English Ivy is native to Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. European immigrants
introduced English ivy to the United States as an ornamental landscape plant. Currently, it is an
abundant and widespread invasive plant in at least 26 states.
Interesting Facts
•
It is widely used in commercial and residential projects since it is low-maintenance, provides
a uniform groundcover appearance, and grows in harsh conditions.
References
University of Minnesota, Department of Horticultural Science, 11/11/02,
http://www.hort.agri.umn.edu/h5015/00papers/okerman.htm
Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group, 11/11/02,
http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/hehe1.htm
Photo from Veterinary medcine line, 11/11/02,
http://www.library.uiuc.edu/vex/toxic/engivy/engivy.htm
31
Lapsana communis, Nipplewort
General Botanical Characteristics
Lapsana communis is an annual invasive weed with one erect
stem that grows from 15 cm -150 cm high. The leaves are dullgreen, simple, alternate, pinnately toothed or lobed, and ovalshaped. About 13 yellow flower petals are contained by each
dandylion-like flower head.
Seasonal Development
It flowers from June to September and the seeds ripen from
August to October. Flowers are hermaphroditic (having both
male and female organs), are pollinated by bees, flies, moths
and butterflies.
Distribution/Habitat
Nipplewort is native in Europe and Asia. An invasive weed
throughout the United States and Canada, it is common on the
western side of the Cascade Mountains of the Pacific Northwest. It can grow easily in disturbed
areas such as roadsides, waste areas, gravel bars along streams, gardens, yards, and open woods.
Interesting Facts
•
•
The leaves and the upper stem portion can be eaten raw with salad.
It has medicinal use for healing ulcers of the nipples of women's breasts.
References
Ariticle--nipplewort by Arthur Lee Jacobson, 11/28/02,
http://www.arthurleej.com/a-nipplewort.html
Plants for a future database, 11/28/02,
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/D_search.html
Illinois plant information network. 11/28/02.
http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/1646.co
Nipplewort, 11/28/02,
http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/nature/gorge/sun/dandy/lapsana.htm
Photo from Slichter (2001), 11/28/02,
http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/nature/gorge/sun/dandy/lapsana.htm
32
Prunus Avium, Sweet Cherry
General Botanical Characteristics
Prunus Avium is a deciduous tree with reddish
brown wood. Its leaves are alternate, simple,
toothed on the margin, and have two 2 small
glands at the base of the blade. The fruit is
fleshy, yellow or red, and has a large pit.
Seasonal Development
The flower is white. There are 3 to 5 per cluster
and they appear from April to May. The fruit
matures in June and July. It is sweet, dark red,
and up to 1 inch across.
Distribution/Habitat
Sweet Cherry prefers non-acid rich soils. It is found in woods and hedgerows.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
The poisonous parts of the plant are the wilted
leaves, stems, and seeds.
The poisonous parts are highly toxic and if eaten,
may be fatal.
The edible parts of the plant are the fruit which
can be eaten raw or cooked.
References
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Prunuav.htm
http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/rosa/prunu/prunavi5.jpg
http://www.rfs.org.uk/
Photo from http://www.first-nature.com
33
Rubus discolor, Armenian (Himalayan) Blackberry
ÿ
General Botanical Characteristics
Rubus discolor, formally known as the
Himalayan Blackberry, is a robust clambering or
sprawling evergreen shrub. In recent years it was
realized that this species doesn’t grow in the
Himalayas, but in fact is native to Armenia. This
invasive plant grows up to 9 feet in height and
aggressively competes with surrounding plants
by draping over them and crowding them out. Its
thorny stems and 3 to 5 compound leaflets can
distinguish the Armenian blackberry from native
blackberries. It propagates by seed banking and
cutlets.
Seasonal Development
The Armenian blackberry generally flowers from June to August. Fruit ripens in August and
September, with seed dispersal in the Fall.
Distribution/Habitat
Armenian blackberry is a good food source for wild birds and is widely distributed. It can be
found on disturbed sites in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest. It is also cultivated in gardens
for its berry crop.ÿ
ÿ
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
Armenian blackberry is the most commonly harvested wild blackberry in western
Washington and Oregon, although its fruit is reportedly less flavorful than that of the native
trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus).
It is a preferred berry for fruit pies.
The fruit, roots, and stems of blackberries have been used to make various medicinal
preparations.
References
US Forest Service Fire Effects Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/rubdis/
Photo from George W. Hartwell, November 2002,
http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/
34
Solanum dulcamara, Bittersweet Nightshade
General Botanical Characteristics
Solanum dulcamara is a woody perennial vine that can
grow 6 feet to 12 feet high. Its lower leaves are alternating
and ovate while commonly the upper leaves are found to be
3 lobed with 2 shorter lateral segments. Flowers are
generally purple or white. The berries are red colored. The
seeds are small (about 1 inch long), flesh colored, irregular
disks, and have a dull glistening appearance.
Seasonal Development
Flowering of Solanum dulcamara occurs July through
August and the berries ripen August through October.
Distribution/Habitat
Solanum dulcamara is native to Europe, northern Africa,
and eastern Asia. Naturalized in North America, it is often
found from Nova Scotia to
Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Missouri and from Idaho
to Washington and California. It is an indicator of moist
environments and thrives in disturbed areas, roadsides, edge of
moist woods, and waste places.
Interesting Facts
•
•
The berries of Solanum dulcamara are poisonous due to
the existence of solanine, a toxic alkaloid.
The poisonous berries have proven to be fatal to some
species of birds and rabbits.
References
Hypermedia for Plant Protection, December 2002,
http://www.dijon.inra.fr/malherbo/hyppa/hyppa-a/hyppa_a.htm
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina, December 2002,
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Digital Flowers, December 2002,
http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/digitalflowers/
Photo from Gallery of Connecticut Wildflowers, December 2002,
http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/galleryindex.html
35
Vinca Major, Greater Periwinkle
General Botanical Characteristics
Vinca Major is a semi-procumbent shrub with
12” – 36” trailing ascending stems. The leaves
are dark green and bigger than those of Vinca
minor. It has solitary violet flowers at the end
of its stems.
Seasonal Development
Vinca major is an annual plant. It has dark
green leaves all year and flowers throughout
the spring and sporadically during the
summer.
Distribution/Habitat
Greater periwinkle thrives in almost any soil, quickly forming a medium textured evergreen
groundcover. It requires full sun to partial shade. Sunnier positions result in more flowers and
shadier positions result in more ground covering foliage.
It tolerates dry soils but grows best in rich, moist soils.
Interesting Facts
•
•
•
•
•
Common name: Bigleaf periwinkle.
All the Vincas are poisonous if ingested
It is used internally in the treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding, abnormal uterine
bleeding and vaginal discharge.
It is used in chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.
Traditional uses include treatments for herpes, cancer, leukemia, and viral infections.
References
http://www.tropilab.com/vinca-maj.html
http://www.floridata.com/ref/v/vinc_maj.cfm
http://www.tropilab.com/vinca-maj.html
Photo from http://www.signaturelandscapes.com/plants/plant_images/perennials_gc/
36
Vinca minor, Lesser Periwinkle
General Botanical Characteristics
Vinca Minor, known as common periwinkle
or lesser periwinkle is native to Europe and
western Asia. It is a low, trailing evergreen
groundcover only 3" to 6" tall. It spreads
many feet, has thin, wiry stems and can be
grown in colder regions with snow cover.
Seasonal Development
Lesser Periwinkle prefers partial shade and
tends to yellow in full sun and high heat. It
grows better in moist, well-drained soil.
Distribution/Habitat
Native to Britain and Europe, lesser periwinkle can be found throughout North America because
it has been used by horticulturalists as ground cover.
Interesting Facts
•
•
It has been used to heal wounds.
Lesser Periwinkle is used for erosion control.
References
University of Connecticut Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/v/vinmin/vinmin1.html.
Ohio State University Plant Database, November 2002,
http://www.hcs.ohiostate.edu/hcs/TMI/Plantlist/vi_minor.html.
37
Plant Leaf Guide
Leaf Shapes
Luneate
Spatulate
Oval
Leaf Venation
Oblanceolate Ovate
(Inverted lance- (Egg-shaped)
shaped)
Oblong
Elliptical
Pinnate
Cordate
(Heart-shaped)
Leaf Margins
Palmate
Entire
Slightly wavy
Serrate
Doubly serrate Palmately lobed Pinnately lobed
Arcuate--Pinnate
Leaf Apex
Leaf Base
Acute
(Pointed)
Accuminate
Acute
Round
(Blunt)
Obtuse
38
Luneate
Obtuse
Round
Reference:
Diagrams from: Manual of Trees and Shrubs by Edward Jensen, Warren Bever, Robert Keniston,
and Dale Bever. 2000. Corvallis
39
Glossary
ÿ
Annual – A plant that lives its lifecycle in one growing season. Tomato is an annual plant.
Apex – Usually referring to the uppermost point, or the narrowing point at the end of a leaf.
Calyx – the usually green outer whorl of a flower consisting of sepals
Corymbs – a flat-topped inflorescence; specifically: one in which the flower stalks arise at
different levels on the main axis and reach about the same height and in which the outer flowers
open first and the inflorescence is indeterminate
Forbs – an herb other than grass.
Fructification – the reproductive organs or fruit of a plant
Fruit globose – fruit pollen
Inflorescence – the mode of development and arrangement of flowers on an axis; the budding
and unfolding of blossoms
Later seres – a series of ecological communities formed in ecological succession
Bottom of Form
Montane – of, relating to, growing in, or being the biogeographic zone of relatively moist cool
upland slopes below timberline dominated by large coniferous trees
Panicle – a pyramidal loosely branched flower cluster
Peduncle – a stalk bearing a flower or flower cluster or fructification
Perennial – present at all seasons of the year
Raceme – a simple inflorescence (as in the lily-of-the-valley) in which the flowers are borne
on short stalks of about equal length at equal distances along an elongated axis and open in
succession toward the apex
Rhizomatous – a somewhat elongate usually horizontal subterranean plant stem that is often
thickened by deposits of reserve food material, produces shoots above and roots below, and is
distinguished from a true root in possessing buds, nodes, and usually scale like leaves
Sepals – one of the modified leaves comprising a calyx
Seral Communities – of, relating to, or constituting an ecological sere.
Sere – series of ecological communities formed in ecological succession
Bottom of Form
Stamens – a microsporophyll of a seed plant; specifically: the pollen-producing male organ of a
flower that consists of an anther and a filament
Umbels – a racemose inflorescence typical of the carrot family in which the axis is very much
contracted so that the pedicels appear to spring from the same point to form a flat or rounded
flower cluster
Vincas – any of several trailing or woody evergreen herbs of the dogbane family
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