Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export

Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
This module contains information about and instructions for configuring NetFlow to capture and export
network traffic data. NetFlow capture and export are performed independently on each internetworking
device on which NetFlow is enabled. NetFlow need not be operational on each router in the network.
NetFlow is a Cisco IOS application that provides statistics on packets flowing through the router. NetFlow
is a primary network accounting and security technology.
• Finding Feature Information, page 1
• Prerequisites for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export, page 1
• Restrictions for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export, page 2
• Information About Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export, page 4
• How to Configure NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export, page 22
• Configuration Examples for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export, page 34
• Additional References, page 36
• Feature Information for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export, page 38
• Glossary, page 39
Finding Feature Information
Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and
feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To
find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each
feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.
Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support.
To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.
Prerequisites for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Before you enable NetFlow, you must do the following:
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Restrictions for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
• Configure the router for IP routing
• Ensure that one of the following is enabled on your router and on the interfaces that you want to configure
NetFlow on: Cisco Express Forwarding, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, or fast switching
• Understand the resources required on your router because NetFlow consumes additional memory and
CPU resources
Restrictions for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Preset Size of NetFlow Cache
NetFlow consumes additional memory. If you have memory constraints, you might want to preset the size of
the NetFlow cache so that it contains a smaller number of entries. The default cache size depends on the
platform.
Egress NetFlow Accounting in Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1 or Later Releases
The Egress NetFlow Accounting feature captures NetFlow statistics for IP traffic only. Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) statistics are not captured. The Egress NetFlow Accounting feature can be used on a
provider edge (PE) router to capture IP traffic flow information for egress IP packets that arrived at the router
as MPLS packets and underwent label disposition.
Egress NetFlow accounting might adversely affect network performance because of the additional
accounting-related computation that occurs in the traffic-forwarding path of the router.
Locally generated traffic (traffic that is generated by the router on which the Egress NetFlow Accounting
feature is configured) is not counted as flow traffic for the Egress NetFlow Accounting feature.
Note
Egress NetFlow captures IPv4 packets as they leave the router.
Restrictions for NetFlow Version 9 Data Export
• Backward compatibility--Version 9 is not backward-compatible with Version 5 or Version 8.
• Export bandwidth--Export bandwidth use increases for Version 9 (because of template flowsets). The
increase in bandwidth usage versus Version 5 varies with the frequency with which template flowsets
are sent. The default is to resend templates every 20 packets, which has a bandwidth cost of about 4
percent. If necessary, you can lower the resend rate with the ip flow-export template refresh-rate
packets command.
• Performance impact--Version 9 slightly decreases overall performance, because generating and
maintaining valid template flowsets require additional processing.
• Management Interface--NetFlow data export is not supported through the Management Interface port.
Policy-Based Routing and NetFlow Data Export
If a local policy is configured, an Aggregation Services Router (ASR) checks the injected packet and applies
policy-based routing (PBR) to the packet. When NetFlow Data Export (NDE) packets are injected in the data
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NetFlow Data Capture
path during Cisco Express Forwarding lookup, the PBR local policy is not applied to the NDE packets.
Therefore, NDE features on ASR cannot work with PBR.
NetFlow Data Capture
NetFlow consumes a significant amount of memory. If you have memory constraints, you might want to
preset the size of the NetFlow cache so that it contains a lower number of entries. The default cache size
depends on the platform. For example, the default cache size for the Cisco 7500 router is 65,536 (64K) entries.
Memory Impact
During times of heavy traffic, additional flows can fill up the global flow hash table. If you need to increase
the size of the global flow hash table, increase the memory of the router.
Cisco IOS Releases 12.2(14)S, 12.0(22)S, or 12.2(15)T
If your router is running a version of Cisco IOS prior to releases 12.2(14)S, 12.0(22)S, or 12.2(15)T, the ip
route-cache flow command is used to enable NetFlow on an interface.
If your router is running Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S, 12.0(22)S, 12.2(15)T, or a later release, use the ip
flow ingress command to enable NetFlow on an interface.
Cisco IOS Releases 12.4(20)T or Earlier Releases
The ip flow ingress command behavior depends on the Cisco IOS release:
If your router is running a version earlier than Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T, and your router does not have
a VPN Service Adapter (VSA)-enabled interface, enabling the ip flow ingresscommand will result in the
ingress traffic being accounted for twice by the router.
If your router is running a version earlier than Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T, and your router has a VSA-enabled
interface, enabling the ip flow ingress command will result in the encrypted ingress traffic being accounted
for only once.
If your router is running a version of Cisco IOS Release12.4(20)T or later, enabling the ip flow ingress
command will result in the encrypted ingress traffic being accounted for only once.
Egress NetFlow Accounting in Cisco IOS 12.3T Releases, 12.3(11)T, or Later Releases
The Egress NetFlow Accounting feature captures NetFlow statistics for IP traffic only. Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) statistics are not captured. The MPLS Egress NetFlow Accounting feature can be used on
a provider edge (PE) router to capture IP traffic flow information for egress IP packets that arrive at the router
as MPLS packets and undergo label disposition.
Egress NetFlow accounting might adversely affect network performance because of the additional
accounting-related computation that occurs in the traffic-forwarding path of the router.
Locally generated traffic (traffic that is generated by the router on which the Egress NetFlow Accounting
feature is configured) is not counted as flow traffic for the Egress NetFlow Accounting feature.
Note
In Cisco IOS 12.2S releases, egress NetFlow captures either IPv4 or MPLS packets as they leave the
router.
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NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow export is not supported over IPSec VPN if the source of the NetFlow data is the same device at which
the VPN tunnel is terminated. In such a situation, the NetFlow packets will egress the crypto-map interface
in clear text. This may cause issues with ISP connections (cellular interfaces) due to RFC 1918 anti-spoofing.
As an alternative, you can use Flexible NetFlow with the output-features command.
Restrictions for NetFlow Version 9 Data Export
• Backward compatibility--Version 9 is not backward-compatible with Version 5 or Version 8. If you
need Version 5 or Version 8, you must configure it.
• Export bandwidth--The export bandwidth use increases for Version 9 (because of template flowsets)
when compared to Version 5. The increase in bandwidth usage varies with the frequency with which
template flowsets are sent. The default is to resend templates every 20 packets; this has a bandwidth
cost of about 4 percent. If required, you can lower the resend rate with the ip flow-export template
refresh-rate packets command.
• Performance impact--Version 9 slightly decreases the overall performance because generating and
maintaining valid template flowsets requires additional processing.
Restrictions for NetFlow Version 8 Export Format
Version 8 export format is available only for aggregation caches; it cannot be expanded to support new features.
Restrictions for NetFlow Version 5 Export Format
Version 5 export format is suitable only for the main cache; it cannot be expanded to support new features.
Restrictions for NetFlow Version 1 Export Format
The Version 1 format was the initially released version. Do not use the Version 1 format unless you are using
a legacy collection system that requires it. Use Version 9 or Version 5 export format.
Information About Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow Data Capture
NetFlow captures data from ingress (incoming) and egress (outgoing) packets. NetFlow gathers statistics for
the following ingress IP packets:
• IP-to-IP packets
• IP-to-MPLS packets
• Frame Relay-terminated packets
• ATM-terminated packets
NetFlow captures data for all egress (outgoing) packets through the use of the following features:
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NetFlow Flows Key Fields
• Egress NetFlow Accounting--NetFlow gathers statistics for all egress packets for IP traffic only.
• NetFlow MPLS Egress--NetFlow gathers statistics for all egress MPLS-to-IP packets.
NetFlow Flows Key Fields
A network flow is identified as a unidirectional stream of packets between a given source and destination--both
are defined by a network-layer IP address and transport-layer source and destination port numbers. Specifically,
a flow is identified as the combination of the following key fields:
• Source IP address
• Destination IP address
• Source port number
• Destination port number
• Layer 3 protocol type
• Type of service (ToS)
• Input logical interface
These seven key fields define a unique flow. If a packet has one key field that is different from another packet,
it is considered to belong to another flow. A flow might contain other accounting fields (such as the autonomous
system number in the NetFlow export Version 5 flow format) that depend on the export record version that
you configure. Flows are stored in the NetFlow cache.
NetFlow Cache Management and Data Export
The key components of NetFlow are the NetFlow cache or data source that stores IP flow information and
the NetFlow export or transport mechanism that sends NetFlow data to a network management collector such
as the NetFlow Collection Engine. NetFlow operates by creating a NetFlow cache entry (a flow record) for
each active flow. A flow record is maintained within the NetFlow cache for each active flow. Each flow record
in the NetFlow cache contains fields that can later be exported to a collection device such as the NetFlow
Collection Engine.
NetFlow is efficient, with the amount of export data being about 1.5 percent of the switched traffic in the
router. NetFlow accounts for every packet (nonsampled mode) and provides a highly condensed and detailed
view of all network traffic that enters the router or switch.
The key to NetFlow-enabled switching scalability and performance is highly intelligent flow cache management,
especially for densely populated and busy edge routers handling large numbers of concurrent, short duration
flows. The NetFlow cache management software contains a highly sophisticated set of algorithms for efficiently
determining whether a packet is part of an existing flow or whether the packet requires a new flow cache
entry. The algorithms are also capable of dynamically updating the per-flow accounting measurements that
reside in the NetFlow cache, and determining cache aging or flow expiration.
The rules for expiring NetFlow cache entries include the following:
• Flows that have been idle for a specified time are expired and removed from the cache.
• Long lived flows are expired and removed from the cache. (Flows are not allowed to live for more than
30 minutes by default; the underlying packet conversation remains undisturbed.)
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NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
• As the cache becomes full, a number of heuristics are applied to aggressively age groups of flows
simultaneously.
• TCP connections that have reached the end of the byte stream (FIN) or have been reset (RST) are expired.
Expired flows are grouped into "NetFlow export" datagrams for export from the NetFlow- enabled device.
NetFlow export datagrams can consist of up to 30 flow records for Version 5 or Version 9 flow export. The
NetFlow functionality is configured on a per-interface basis. To configure NetFlow export capabilities, you
need to specify the IP address and application port number of the Cisco NetFlow or third-party flow collector.
The flow collector is a device that provides NetFlow export data filtering and aggregation capabilities. The
figure below shows an example of NetFlow data export from the main and aggregation caches to a collector.
Figure 1: NetFlow Data Export from the Main and Aggregation Caches
NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
Overview
NetFlow exports data in UDP datagrams in one of the following formats: Version 9, Version 8, Version 7,
Version 5, or Version 1:
• Version 9--A flexible and extensible format, which provides the versatility needed for support of new
fields and record types. This format accommodates new NetFlow-supported technologies such as
Multicast, MPLS, and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) next hop. The Version 9 export format enables
you to use the same version for main and aggregation caches, and the format is extensible, so you can
use the same export format with future features.
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NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
• Version 8--A format added to support data export from aggregation caches. Export datagrams contain
a subset of the usual Version 5 export data, which is valid for the particular aggregation cache scheme.
• Version 5--A later enhanced version that adds BGP-AS information and flow sequence numbers. (Versions
2 through 4 were not released.) This is the most commonly used format.
• Version 1--The initially released export format that is rarely used today. Do not use the Version 1 export
format unless the legacy collection system that you are using requires it. Use either the Version 9 export
format or the Version 5 export format.
Details
The following sections provide more detailed information on NetFlow Data Export Formats:
NetFlow Export Version Formats
For all export versions, the NetFlow export datagram consists of a header and a sequence of flow records.
The header contains information such as sequence number, record count, and system uptime. The flow record
contains flow information such as IP addresses, ports, and routing information.
The NetFlow Version 9 export format is the newest NetFlow export format. The distinguishing feature of the
NetFlow Version 9 export format is that it is template based. Templates make the record format extensible.
This feature allows future enhancements to NetFlow without requiring concurrent changes to the basic
flow-record format.
The use of templates with the NetFlow Version 9 export format provides several other key benefits:
• You can export almost any information from a router or switch, including Layer 2 through 7 information,
routing information, and IP Version 6 (IPv6), IP Version 4 (IPv4), Multicast, and MPLS information.
This new information allows new applications of export data and provides new views of network behavior.
• Third-party business partners who produce applications that provide collector or display services for
NetFlow are not required to recompile their applications each time a new NetFlow export field is added.
Instead, they might be able to use an external data file that documents the known template formats.
• New features can be added to NetFlow more quickly, without breaking current implementations.
• Netflow is "future proofed" because the Version 9 export format can be adapted to provide support for
new and developing protocols and other non-NetFlow-based approaches to data collection.
The work of the IETF IP, Information Export (IPFIX) Working Group (WG), and the IETF Pack Sampling
(PSAMP) WG are based on the NetFlow Version 9 export format.
The Version 1 export format was the original format supported in the initial Cisco IOS software releases
containing the NetFlow functionality; it is rarely used today. The Version 5 export format is an enhancement
that adds BGP autonomous system information and flow sequence numbers. Versions 2 through 4 and Version
6 export formats were either not released or not supported. The Version 8 export format is the NetFlow export
format to use when you enable router-based NetFlow aggregation on Cisco IOS router platforms.
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NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
The figure below shows a typical datagram used for NetFlow fixed format export Versions 1, 5, 7, and 8.
Figure 2: Typical Datagram for NetFlow Fixed Format Export Versions 1, 5, 7, 8
NetFlow Export Packet Header Format
In all the five export versions, the datagram consists of a header and one or more flow records. The first field
of the header contains the version number of the export datagram. Typically, a receiving application that
accepts any of the format versions allocates a buffer large enough for the largest possible datagram from any
of the format versions and then uses the header to determine how to interpret the datagram. The second field
in the header contains the number of records in the datagram (indicating the number of expired flows represented
by this datagram). Datagram headers for NetFlow Export Versions 5, 8, and 9 also include a "sequence number"
field used by NetFlow collectors to check for lost datagrams.
The NetFlow Version 9 export packet header format is shown in the figure below.
Figure 3: NetFlow Version 9 Export Packet Header Format
The table below lists the NetFlow Version 9 export packet header field names and descriptions.
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Table 1: NetFlow Version 9 Export Packet Header Field Names and Descriptions
Field Name
Description
Version
The version of NetFlow records exported in this
packet; for Version 9, this value is 0x0009.
Count
Number of FlowSet records (both template and data)
contained within this packet.
System Uptime
Time in milliseconds since this device was first
booted.
UNIX Seconds
Seconds since 0000 Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) 1970.
Package Sequence
Incremental sequence counter of all export packets
sent by this export device; this value is cumulative,
and it can be used to learn whether any export packets
have been missed.
This is a change from the NetFlow Version 5 and
Version 8 headers, where this number represented
"total flows."
Source ID
The Source ID field is a 32-bit value that is used to
guarantee uniqueness for each flow exported from a
particular device. (The Source ID field is the
equivalent of the engine type and engine ID fields
found in the NetFlow Version 5 and Version 8
headers.) The format of this field is vendor specific.
In Cisco’s implementation, the first two bytes are
reserved for future expansion and are always zero.
Byte 3 provides uniqueness with respect to the routing
engine on the exporting device. Byte 4 provides
uniqueness with respect to the particular line card or
Versatile Interface Processor on the exporting device.
Collector devices should use the combination of the
source IP address and the Source ID field to associate
an incoming NetFlow export packet with a unique
instance of NetFlow on a particular device.
NetFlow Flow Record and Export Format Content Information
This section gives details about the Cisco export format flow record. The table below indicates which flow
record format fields are available for Versions 5 and 9. (‘Yes’ indicates that the field is available. ‘No’ indicates
that the field is not available.)
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Table 2: NetFlow Flow Record Format Fields for Format Versions 5, and 9
Field
Version 5
Version 9
Source IP address
Yes
Yes
Destination IP address
Yes
Yes
Source TCP/UDP application port Yes
Yes
Destination TCP/UDP application Yes
port
Yes
Next hop router IP address
Yes
Yes
Input physical interface index
Yes
Yes
Output physical interface index
Yes
Yes
Packet count for this flow
Yes
Yes
Byte count for this flow
Yes
Yes
Start of flow timestamp
Yes
Yes
End of flow timestamp
Yes
Yes
IP Protocol (for example, TCP=6; Yes
UDP=17)
Yes
Type of Service (ToS) byte
Yes
Yes
TCP Flags (cumulative OR of TCP Yes
flags)
Yes
Source AS number
Yes
Yes
Destination AS number
Yes
Yes
Source subnet mask
Yes
Yes
Destination subnet mask
Yes
Yes
Flags (indicates, among other
things, which flows are invalid)
Yes
Yes
Other flow fields1
No
Yes
1 For a list of other flow fields available in Version 9 export format, see Figure 5 .
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NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
The figure below is an example of the NetFlow Version 5 export record format, including the contents and
description of byte locations. The terms in bold indicate values that were added for the Version 5 format.
Figure 4: NetFlow Version 5 Export Record Format
The table below shows the field names and descriptions for the NetFlow Version 5 export record format.
Table 3: NetFlow Version 5 Export Record Format Field Names and Descriptions
Content
Bytes
Descriptions
srcaddr
0-3
Source IP address
dstaddr
4-7
Destination IP address
nexthop
8-11
Next hop router’s IP address
input
12-13
Ingress interface Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP)
ifIndex
output
14-15
Egress interface SNMP ifIndex
dPkts
16-19
Packets in the flow
dOctets
20-23
Octets (bytes) in the flow
first
24-27
SysUptime at start of the flow
last
28-31
SysUptime at the time the last
packet of the flow was received
srcport
32-33
Layer 4 source port number or
equivalent
dstport
34-35
Layer 4 destination port number or
equivalent
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Content
Bytes
Descriptions
pad1
36
Unused (zero) byte
tcp_flags
37
Cumulative OR of TCP flags
prot
38
Layer 4 protocol (for example,
6=TCP, 17=UDP)
tos
39
IP type-of-service byte
src_as
40-41
Autonomous system number of the
source, either origin or peer
dst_as
42-43
Autonomous system number of the
destination, either origin or peer
src_mask
44
Source address prefix mask bits
dst_mask
45
Destination address prefix mask
bits
pad2
46-47
PAD2 is unused (zero) bytes
The figure below shows a typical flow record for the Version 9 export format. The NetFlow Version 9 export
record format is different from the traditional NetFlow fixed format export record. In NetFlow Version 9, a
template describes the NetFlow data and the flow set contains the actual data. This allows for flexible export.
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Detailed information about the fields in Version 9 and export format architecture is available in the NetFlow
Version 9 Flow-Record Format document.
Figure 5: NetFlow Version 9 Export Packet Example
For all export versions, you can specify a destination where NetFlow data export packets are sent, such as the
workstation running NetFlow Collection Engine, when the number of recently expired flows reaches a
predetermined maximum, or every second--whichever occurs first. For a Version 1 datagram, up to 24 flows
can be sent in a single UDP datagram of approximately 1200 bytes; for a Version 5 datagram, up to 30 flows
can be sent in a single UDP datagram of approximately 1500 bytes.
For detailed information on the flow record formats, data types, and export data fields for Versions 1, 7, and
9 and platform-specific information when applicable, see Appendix 2 in the NetFlow Services Solutions Guide
.
NetFlow Data Export Format Selection
NetFlow exports data in UDP datagrams in export format Version 9, 8, 5, or 1. The table below describes
situations when you might select a particular NetFlow export format.
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Table 4: When to Select a Particular NetFlow Export Format
Export Format
Select When...
Version 9
You need to export data from various technologies,
such as Multicast, DoS, IPv6, and BGP next hop. This
format accommodates new NetFlow-supported
technologies such as Multicast, MPLS, and BGP next
hop.
The Version 9 export format supports export from
the main cache and from aggregation caches.
Version 8
You need to export data from aggregation caches.
The Version 8 export format is available only for
export from aggregation caches.
Version 5
You need to export data from the NetFlow main
cache, and you are not planning to support new
features.
Version 5 export format does not support export from
aggregation caches.
Version 1
You need to export data to a legacy collection system
that requires Version 1 export format. Otherwise, do
not use Version 1 export format. Use Version 9 or
Version 5 export format.
NetFlow Version 9 Data Export Format
The NetFlow Version 9 Export Format feature was introduced in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(24)S and was
integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3(1) and Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)S.
NetFlow Version 9 data export supports Cisco Express Forwarding switching, distributed Cisco Express
Forwarding switching, and fast switching.
NetFlow Version 9 is a flexible and extensible means for transferring NetFlow records from a network node
to a collector. NetFlow Version 9 has definable record types and is self-describing for easier NetFlow Collection
Engine configuration.
Using Version 9 export, you can define new formats on the router and send these formats to the NetFlow
Collection Engine (formerly called NetFlow FlowCollector) at set intervals. You can enable the features that
you want, and the field values corresponding to those features are sent to the NetFlow Collection Engine.
Third-party business partners who produce applications that provide NetFlow Collection Engine or display
services for NetFlow need not recompile their applications each time a new NetFlow technology is added.
Instead, with the NetFlow Version 9 Export Format feature, they can use an external data file that documents
the known template formats and field types.
In NetFlow Version 9
• Record formats are defined by templates.
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• Template descriptions are communicated from the router to the NetFlow Collection Engine.
• Flow records are sent from the router to the NetFlow Collection Engine with minimal template information
so that the NetFlow Collection Engine can relate the records to the appropriate template.
• Version 9 is independent of the underlying transport protocol (UDP, TCP, SCTP, and so on).
NetFlow Version 9 Template-Based Flow Record Format
The main feature of NetFlow Version 9 export format is that it is template based. A template describes a
NetFlow record format and attributes of fields (such as type and length) within the record. The router assigns
each template an ID, which is communicated to the NetFlow Collection Engine along with the template
description. The template ID is used for all further communication from the router to the NetFlow Collection
Engine.
NetFlow Version 9 Export Flow Records
The basic output of NetFlow is a flow record. In NetFlow Version 9 export format, a flow record follows the
same sequence of fields as found in the template definition. The template to which NetFlow flow records
belong is determined by the prefixing of the template ID to the group of NetFlow flow records that belong to
a template. For a complete discussion of existing NetFlow flow-record formats, see the NetFlow Services
Solutions Guide.
NetFlow Version 9 Export Packet
In NetFlow Version 9, an export packet consists of the packet header and flowsets. The packet header identifies
the NetFlow Version 9 Data Export Format, on page 14f"> Figure 3 for Version 9 export packet header
details. Flowsets are of two types: template flowsets and data flowsets. The template flowset describes the
fields that will be in the data flowsets (or flow records). Each data flowset contains the values or statistics of
one or more flows with the same template ID. When the NetFlow Collection Engine receives a template
flowset, it stores the flowset and export source address so that subsequent data flowsets that match the flowset
ID and source combination are parsed according to the field definitions in the template flowset. Version 9
supports NetFlow Collection Engine Version 4.0. For an example of a Version 9 export packet, see NetFlow
Version 9 Data Export Format, on page 14.
NetFlow Export Templates
NetFlow implements a variety of templates, each exporting a different set of fields for a specific purpose. For
example, the MPLS templates are different from the Optimized Edge Routing (OER) templates and the various
option templates.
The table below lists the export templates and the specific set of fields the export pertains to.
Table 5: NetFlow Export Templates
Number of Export Templates
Exports Fields Pertaining to...
1
IPv4 main cache
8
MPLS labels 0 to 3
21
Aggregation caches with or without BGP subflows
3
BGP, BGP Next Hop (NH), and Multicast
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Number of Export Templates
Exports Fields Pertaining to...
4
OER
2
MAC and auxiliary information
11
Random sampler information, interface names,
sampling option, and exporter status options
NetFlow Version 8 Data Export Format
The Version 8 data export format is the NetFlow export format used when the router-based NetFlow
Aggregation feature is enabled on Cisco IOS router platforms. The Version 8 format allows for export datagrams
to contain a subset of the Version 5 export data that is based on the configured aggregation cache scheme.
For example, a certain subset of the Version 5 export data is exported for the destination prefix aggregation
scheme, and a different subset is exported for the source-prefix aggregation scheme.
The Version 8 export format was introduced in Cisco IOS Release 12.0(3)T for the Cisco IOS NetFlow
Aggregation feature. An additional six aggregation schemes that also use Version 8 format were defined for
the NetFlow ToS-Based Router Aggregation feature introduced in Cisco IOS 12.0(15)S and integrated into
Cisco IOS Releases 12.2(4)T and 12.2(14)S. Refer to the "Configuring NetFlow Aggregation Caches" module
for information on configuring Version 8 data export for aggregation caches.
The Version 8 datagram consists of a header with the version number (which is 8) and time-stamp information,
followed by one or more records corresponding to individual entries in the NetFlow cache.
The figure below displays the NetFlow Version 8 export packet header format.
Figure 6: NetFlow Version 8 Export Packet Header Format
The table below lists the NetFlow Version 8 export packet header field names and definitions.
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Table 6: NetFlow Version 8 Export Packet Header Field Names and Descriptions
Field Name
Description
Version
Flow export format version number. In this case 8.
Count
Number of export records in the datagram.
System Uptime
Number of milliseconds since the router last booted.
UNIX Seconds
Number of seconds since 0000 UTC 1970.
UNIX NanoSeconds
Number of residual nanoseconds since 0000 UTC
1970.
Flow Sequence Number
Sequence counter of total flows sent for this export
stream.
Engine Type
The type of switching engine. RP = 0 and LC = 1.
Engine ID
Slot number of the NetFlow engine.
Aggregation
Type of aggregation scheme being used.
Agg Version
Aggregation subformat version number. The current
value is 2.
Sampling Interval
Interval value used if Sampled NetFlow is configured.
Reserved
Reserved.
NetFlow Version 5 Data Export Format
The Version 5 data export format adds support for BGP autonomous system information and flow sequence
numbers.
Because NetFlow uses UDP to send export datagrams, datagrams can be lost. The Version 5 header format
contains a flow sequence number to find out whether flow export information has been lost. The sequence
number is equal to the sequence number of the previous datagram plus the number of flows in the previous
datagram. After receiving a new datagram, the receiving application can subtract the expected sequence
number from the sequence number in the header to get the number of missed flows.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
All fields in the Version 5 export format are in network byte order. The figure below shows the NetFlow
Version 5 export packet header format.
Figure 7: NetFlow Version 5 Export Packet Header Format
The table below lists the NetFlow Version 5 export packet header field names and descriptions.
Table 7: NetFlow Version 5 Export Packet Header Field Names and Descriptions
Bytes
Field
Description
0 to 1
Version
Flow export format version
number. In this case 5.
2 to 3
Count
Number of export records in the
datagram.
4 to 7
System Uptime
Number of milliseconds since the
router last booted.
8 to 11
UNIX Seconds
Number of seconds since 0000
UTC 1970.
12 to 15
UNIX NanoSeconds
Number of residual nanoseconds
since 0000 UTC 1970.
16 to 19
Flow Sequence Number
Sequence counter of total flows
sent for this export stream.
20
Engine Type
The type of switching engine. RP
= 0 and LC = 1.
21
Engine ID
Slot number of the NetFlow
engine.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
18
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow Export Format Versions 9 8 5 and 1
Bytes
Field
Description
22 to 23
Reserved
Reserved.
NetFlow Version 1 Data Export Format
The NetFlow Version 1 data export format was the format supported in the initial Cisco IOS software releases
containing the NetFlow functionality. It is rarely used today. Do not use the Version 1 export format unless
the legacy collection system you are using requires it. Use either the Version 9 export format or the Version
5 export format.
The figure below shows the NetFlow Version 1 export packet header format.
Figure 8: Version 1 Export Packet Header Format
The table below lists the NetFlow Version 1 export packet header field names and descriptions.
Table 8: NetFlow Version 1 Packet Header Field Names and Descriptions
Field Name
Description
Version
Flow export format version number. In this case 1.
Count
Number of export records in the datagram.
System Uptime
Number of milliseconds since the router last booted.
UNIX Seconds
Number of seconds since 0000 UTC 1970.
UNIX NanoSeconds
Number of residual nanoseconds since 0000 UTC
1970.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Egress NetFlow Accounting Benefits NetFlow Accounting Simplified
Egress NetFlow Accounting Benefits NetFlow Accounting Simplified
The Egress NetFlow Accounting feature can simplify the NetFlow configuration. The following example
shows how.
In the two figures below, both incoming and outgoing (ingress and egress) flow statistics are required for the
server. The server is attached to Router B. The "cloud" in the figure represents the core of the network and
includes MPLS VPNs.
All traffic denoted by the arrows must be accounted for. The solid arrows represent IP traffic and the dotted
arrows represent MPLS VPNs.
The first figure below shows how the flow traffic was tracked before the introduction of the Egress NetFlow
Accounting feature. The second figure below shows how the flow traffic is tracked after the introduction of
the Egress NetFlow Accounting feature. The Egress NetFlow Accounting feature simplifies configuration
tasks and facilitates collection and tracking of incoming and outgoing flow statistics for the server in this
example.
Because only ingress flows could be tracked before the Egress NetFlow Accounting feature was introduced,
the following NetFlow configurations had to be implemented for the tracking of ingress and egress flows
from Router B:
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router B to track ingress IP traffic from Router A to Router B.
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router D to track ingress IP traffic from Router B to Router D.
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router A to track ingress traffic from the MPLS VPN from Router
B to Router A.
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router B to track ingress traffic from the MPLS VPN from Router
D to Router B.
Figure 9: Ingress-Only NetFlow Example
A configuration such as the one used in the figure above requires that NetFlow statistics from three separate
routers be added to obtain the flow statistics for the server.
In comparison, the example in the figure below shows NetFlow, the Egress NetFlow Accounting feature, and
the MPLS Egress NetFlow Accounting feature being used to capture ingress and egress flow statistics for
Router B, thus obtaining the required flow statistics for the server.
In the figure below, the following NetFlow configurations are applied to Router B:
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router B to track ingress IP traffic from Router A to Router B.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
20
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow Subinterface Support Benefits Fine-Tuning Your Data Collection
• Enable the Egress NetFlow Accounting feature on an interface on Router B to track egress IP traffic
from Router B to Router D.
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router B to track ingress traffic from the MPLS VPN from Router
B to Router D.
• Enable NetFlow on an interface on Router B to track ingress traffic from the MPLS VPN from Router
B to Router A.
After NetFlow is configured on Router B, you can display all NetFlow statistics for the server by using the
show ip cache flow command or the show ip cache verbose flow command for Router B.
Figure 10: Egress NetFlow Accounting Example
NetFlow Subinterface Support Benefits Fine-Tuning Your Data Collection
You can configure NetFlow on a per-subinterface basis. If your network contains thousands of subinterfaces,
you can collect export records from just a few of them. The result is lower bandwidth requirements for NetFlow
data export and reduced platform requirements for NetFlow data-collection devices.
The configuration of NetFlow on selected subinterfaces provides the following benefits:
• Reduced bandwidth requirement between routing devices and NetFlow management workstations.
• Reduced NetFlow workstation requirements; the number of flows sent to the workstation for processing
is reduced.
NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations Benefits
The NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations feature enables configuration of multiple destinations for the
NetFlow data. With this feature enabled, two identical streams of NetFlow data are sent to the destination
host. Currently, the maximum number of export destinations allowed is two.
The NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations feature improves the chances of receiving complete NetFlow data
because it provides redundant streams of data. Because the same export data is sent to more than one NetFlow
collector, fewer packets are lost.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
21
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
NetFlow on a Distributed VIP Interface
NetFlow on a Distributed VIP Interface
On a Cisco 7500 series router with a Route Switch Processor (RSP) and with VIP controllers, the VIP hardware
can be configured to switch packets received by the VIP interfaces with no per-packet intervention on the part
of the RSP. This process is called distributed switching. When VIP distributed switching is enabled, the input
VIP interface switches IP packets instead of forwarding them to the RSP for switching. Distributed switching
decreases the demand on the RSP. VIP interfaces with distributed switching enabled can be configured for
NetFlow.
How to Configure NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
This section contains instructions for configuring NetFlow to capture and export network traffic data. Perform
the following tasks to configure NetFlow to capture and export network traffic data:
Configuring NetFlow
Perform the following task to enable NetFlow on an interface.
SUMMARY STEPS
1. enable
2. configure terminal
type number
3. interface
4. ip flow {ingress | egress}
5. exit
6. Repeat Steps 3 through 5 to enable NetFlow on other interfaces.
7. end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
• Enter your password if prompted.
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Example:
Router# configure terminal
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
22
Enters global configuration mode.
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Verifying that NetFlow Is Operational and Displaying NetFlow Statistics
Command or Action
Step 3
interface
type number
Purpose
Specifies the interface that you want to enable NetFlow on and
enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
Step 4
ip flow {ingress | egress}
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip flow ingress
Enables NetFlow on the interface.
• ingress --Captures traffic that is being received by the
interface
• egress --Captures traffic that is being transmitted by the
interface
Example:
Step 5
exit
(Optional) Exits interface configuration mode and enters global
configuration mode.
Example:
Note
Router(config-if)# exit
You need to use this command only if you want to enable
NetFlow on another interface.
Step 6
Repeat Steps 3 through 5 to enable NetFlow on This step is optional.
other interfaces.
Step 7
end
Exits the current configuration mode and returns to privileged
EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Verifying that NetFlow Is Operational and Displaying NetFlow Statistics
Perform the following task to verify that NetFlow is operational and to display NetFlow statistics.
SUMMARY STEPS
1. show ip flow interface
2. show ip cache flow
3. show ip cache verbose flow
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
show ip flow interface
Use this command to display the NetFlow configuration for an interface. The following is sample output from this
command:
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
23
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Verifying that NetFlow Is Operational and Displaying NetFlow Statistics
Example:
Router# show ip flow interface
Ethernet0/0
ip flow ingress
Router#
Step 2
show ip cache flow
Use this command to verify that NetFlow is operational and to display a summary of NetFlow statistics. The following
is sample output from this command:
Example:
Router# show ip cache flow
IP packet size distribution (1103746 total packets):
1-32
64
96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480
.249 .694 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
512 544 576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608
.000 .000 .027 .000 .027 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
IP Flow Switching Cache, 278544 bytes
35 active, 4061 inactive, 980 added
2921778 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures
Active flows timeout in 30 minutes
Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds
IP Sub Flow Cache, 21640 bytes
0 active, 1024 inactive, 0 added, 0 added to flow
0 alloc failures, 0 force free
1 chunk, 1 chunk added
last clearing of statistics never
Protocol
Total
Flows
Packets Bytes Packets Active(Sec) Idle(Sec)
-------Flows
/Sec
/Flow /Pkt
/Sec
/Flow
/Flow
TCP-FTP
108
0.0
1133
40
2.4
1799.6
0.9
TCP-FTPD
108
0.0
1133
40
2.4
1799.6
0.9
TCP-WWW
54
0.0
1133
40
1.2
1799.6
0.8
TCP-SMTP
54
0.0
1133
40
1.2
1799.6
0.8
TCP-BGP
27
0.0
1133
40
0.6
1799.6
0.7
TCP-NNTP
27
0.0
1133
40
0.6
1799.6
0.7
TCP-other
297
0.0
1133
40
6.8
1799.7
0.8
UDP-TFTP
27
0.0
1133
28
0.6
1799.6
1.0
UDP-other
108
0.0
1417
28
3.1
1799.6
0.9
ICMP
135
0.0
1133
427
3.1
1799.6
0.8
Total:
945
0.0
1166
91
22.4
1799.6
0.8
SrcIf
SrcIPaddress
DstIf
DstIPaddress
Pr SrcP DstP Pkts
Et0/0
192.168.67.6
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.200
01 0000 0C01
51
Et0/0
10.10.18.1
Null
172.16.11.5
11 0043 0043
51
Et0/0
10.10.18.1
Null
172.16.11.5
11 0045 0045
51
Et0/0
10.234.53.1
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.2
01 0000 0800
51
Et0/0
10.10.19.1
Null
172.16.11.6
11 0044 0044
51
Et0/0
10.10.19.1
Null
172.16.11.6
11 00A2 00A2
51
Et0/0
192.168.87.200 Et1/0.1
172.16.10.2
06 0014 0014
50
Et0/0
192.168.87.200 Et1/0.1
172.16.10.2
06 0015 0015
52
.
.
.
Et0/0
172.16.1.84
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.19
06 0087 0087
50
Et0/0
172.16.1.84
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.19
06 0050 0050
51
Et0/0
172.16.1.85
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.20
06 0089 0089
49
Et0/0
172.16.1.85
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.20
06 0050 0050
50
Et0/0
10.251.10.1
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.2
01 0000 0800
51
Et0/0
10.162.37.71
Null
172.16.11.3
06 027C 027C
49
Router#
Step 3
show ip cache verbose flow
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
24
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Verifying that NetFlow Is Operational and Displaying NetFlow Statistics
Use this command to verify that NetFlow is operational and to display a detailed summary of NetFlow statistics. The
following is sample output from this command:
Example:
Router# show ip cache verbose flow
IP packet size distribution (1130681 total packets):
1-32
64
96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480
.249 .694 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
512 544 576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608
.000 .000 .027 .000 .027 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
IP Flow Switching Cache, 278544 bytes
35 active, 4061 inactive, 980 added
2992518 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures
Active flows timeout in 30 minutes
Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds
IP Sub Flow Cache, 21640 bytes
0 active, 1024 inactive, 0 added, 0 added to flow
0 alloc failures, 0 force free
1 chunk, 1 chunk added
last clearing of statistics never
Protocol
Total
Flows
Packets Bytes Packets Active(Sec) Idle(Sec)
-------Flows
/Sec
/Flow /Pkt
/Sec
/Flow
/Flow
TCP-FTP
108
0.0
1133
40
2.4
1799.6
0.9
TCP-FTPD
108
0.0
1133
40
2.4
1799.6
0.9
TCP-WWW
54
0.0
1133
40
1.2
1799.6
0.8
TCP-SMTP
54
0.0
1133
40
1.2
1799.6
0.8
TCP-BGP
27
0.0
1133
40
0.6
1799.6
0.7
TCP-NNTP
27
0.0
1133
40
0.6
1799.6
0.7
TCP-other
297
0.0
1133
40
6.6
1799.7
0.8
UDP-TFTP
27
0.0
1133
28
0.6
1799.6
1.0
UDP-other
108
0.0
1417
28
3.0
1799.6
0.9
ICMP
135
0.0
1133
427
3.0
1799.6
0.8
Total:
945
0.0
1166
91
21.9
1799.6
0.8
SrcIf
SrcIPaddress
DstIf
DstIPaddress
Pr TOS Flgs Pkts
Port Msk AS
Port Msk AS
NextHop
B/Pk Active
Et0/0
192.168.67.6
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.200
01 00 10
799
0000 /0 0
0C01 /0 0
0.0.0.0
28 1258.1
Et0/0
10.10.18.1
Null
172.16.11.5
11 00 10
799
0043 /0 0
0043 /0 0
0.0.0.0
28 1258.0
Et0/0
10.10.18.1
Null
172.16.11.5
11 00 10
799
0045 /0 0
0045 /0 0
0.0.0.0
28 1258.0
Et0/0
10.234.53.1
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.2
01 00 10
799
0000 /0 0
0800 /0 0
0.0.0.0
28 1258.1
Et0/0
10.10.19.1
Null
172.16.11.6
11 00 10
799
0044 /0 0
0044 /0 0
0.0.0.0
28 1258.1
.
.
.
Et0/0
172.16.1.84
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.19
06 00 00
799
0087 /0 0
0087 /0 0
0.0.0.0
40 1258.1
Et0/0
172.16.1.84
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.19
06 00 00
799
0050 /0 0
0050 /0 0
0.0.0.0
40 1258.0
Et0/0
172.16.1.85
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.20
06 00 00
798
0089 /0 0
0089 /0 0
0.0.0.0
40 1256.5
Et0/0
172.16.1.85
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.20
06 00 00
799
0050 /0 0
0050 /0 0
0.0.0.0
40 1258.0
Et0/0
10.251.10.1
Et1/0.1
172.16.10.2
01 00 10
799
0000 /0 0
0800 /0 0
0.0.0.0
1500 1258.1
Et0/0
10.162.37.71
Null
172.16.11.3
06 00 00
798
027C /0 0
027C /0 0
0.0.0.0
40 1256.4
Router#
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
25
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Configuring NetFlow Data Export Using the Version 9 Export Format
Configuring NetFlow Data Export Using the Version 9 Export Format
Perform the steps in this optional task to configure NetFlow Data Export using the Version 9 export format.
Note
This task does not include instructions for configuring Reliable NetFlow Data Export using the Stream
Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). Refer to the NetFlow Reliable Export with SCTP module for
information about and instructions for configuring Reliable NetFlow Data Export using SCTP.
Before You Begin
This task does not include the steps for configuring NetFlow. You must configure NetFlow by enabling it on
at least one interface in the router in order to export traffic data with NetFlow Data Export. Refer to the
Configuring NetFlow, on page 22 for information about configuring NetFlow.
SUMMARY STEPS
1. enable
2. configure terminal
3. ip flow-export destination {ip-address | hostname} udp-port
4. Repeat Step 3 once to configure an additional NetFlow export destination.
5. ip flow-export source interface-type interface-number
6. ip flow-export version 9 [origin-as | peer-as] [bgp-nexthop]
7. ip flow-export interface-names
template refresh-rate packets
8. ip flow-export
template timeout-rate minutes
9. ip flow-export
template options export-stats
10. i p flow-export
packets
11. ip flow-export template options refresh-rate
12. ip flow-export template options timeout-rate minutes
13. end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enters privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
• Enter your password if prompted.
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Example:
Router# configure terminal
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
26
Enters global configuration mode.
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Configuring NetFlow Data Export Using the Version 9 Export Format
Command or Action
Step 3
Purpose
ip flow-export destination {ip-address | Specifies the IP address, or hostname of the NetFlow collector, and the
UDP port the NetFlow collector is listening on.
hostname} udp-port
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-export
destination 172.16.10.2 99
Step 4
Repeat Step 3 once to configure an additional (Optional) You can configure a maximum of two export destinations for
NetFlow export destination.
NetFlow.
Step 5
ip flow-export source
interface-number
interface-type
(Optional) Specifies the IP address from the interface. The IP address is
used as the source IP address for the UDP datagrams that are sent by
NetFlow data export to the destination host.
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-export source
ethernet 0/0
Step 6
ip flow-export version 9 [origin-as |
peer-as] [bgp-nexthop]
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-export version
9
(Optional) Enables the export of information in NetFlow cache entries.
• The version 9 keyword specifies that the export packet uses the
Version 9 format.
• The origin-as keyword specifies that export statistics include the
originating autonomous system for the source and destination.
• The peer-as keyword specifies that export statistics include the peer
autonomous system for the source and destination.
• The bgp-nexthop keyword specifies that export statistics include
BGP next hop-related information.
Caution
Step 7
ip flow-export interface-names
Entering this command on a Cisco 12000 series Internet router
causes packet forwarding to stop for a few seconds while
NetFlow reloads the RP and LC Cisco Express Forwarding
tables. To avoid interruption of service to a live network, apply
this command during a change window, or include it in the
startup-config file to be executed during a router reboot.
Configures NetFlow data export to include the interface names from the
flows when it exports the NetFlow cache entry to a destination system.
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-export
interface-names
Step 8
ip flow-export
packets
template refresh-rate (Optional) Enables the export of information in NetFlow cache entries.
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-export
template refresh-rate 15
• The template keyword specifies template-specific configurations.
• The refresh-rate packetskeyword-argument pair specifies the number
of packets exported before the templates are re-sent. You can specify
from 1 to 600 packets. The default is 20.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Configuring NetFlow Data Export Using the Version 9 Export Format
Command or Action
Purpose
Example:
Step 9
ip flow-export
minutes
template timeout-rate
• The template keyword specifies that the timeout-rate keyword
applies to the template.
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-export
template timeout-rate 90
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
i p flow-export
export-stats
template options
• The timeout-rate minuteskeyword-argument pair specifies the time
elapsed before the templates are re-sent. You can specify from 1 to
3600 minutes. The default is 30.
(Optional) Enables the export of information in NetFlow cache entries.
• The template keyword specifies template-specific configurations.
Example:
• The options keyword specifies template options.
Router(config)# ip flow-export
template options export-stats
• The export-statskeyword specifies that the export statistics include
the total number of flows exported and the total number of packets
exported.
ip flow-export template options
refresh-rate
packets
(Optional) Enables the export of information in NetFlow cache entries.
• The template keyword specifies template-specific configurations.
Example:
• The options keyword specifies template options.
Router(config)# ip flow-export
template options refresh-rate 25
• The refresh-rate packetskeyword-argument pair specifies the number
of packets exported before the templates are re-sent. You can specify
from 1 to 600 packets. The default is 20.
ip flow-export template options
timeout-rate minutes
(Optional) Enables the export of information in NetFlow cache entries.
• The template keyword specifies template-specific configurations.
Example:
• The options keyword specifies template options.
Router(config)# ip flow-export
template options timeout-rate 120
• The timeout-rate minuteskeyword-argument pair specifies the time
elapsed before the templates are re-sent. You can specify from 1 to
3600 minutes. The default is 30.
end
Example:
Router(config)# end
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
28
(Optional) Enables the export of information in NetFlow cache entries.
Exits the current configuration mode and enters privileged EXEC mode.
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Verifying that NetFlow Data Export Is Operational
Verifying that NetFlow Data Export Is Operational
Perform the steps in this optional task to verify that NetFlow data export is operational and to display the
statistics for NetFlow data export.
SUMMARY STEPS
1. show ip flow export
2. show ip flow export template
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
show ip flow export
Use this command to display statistics for the NetFlow data export, including statistics for the main cache and for all
other enabled caches. The following is sample output from this command:
Example:
Router# show ip flow export
Flow export v9 is enabled for main cache
Exporting flows to 172.16.10.2 (99)
Exporting using source interface Ethernet0/0
Version 9 flow records
0 flows exported in 0 udp datagrams
0 flows failed due to lack of export packet
0 export packets were sent up to process level
0 export packets were dropped due to no fib
0 export packets were dropped due to adjacency issues
0 export packets were dropped due to fragmentation failures
0 export packets were dropped due to encapsulation fixup failures
Router#
Step 2
show ip flow export template
Use this command to display statistics for the NetFlow data export (such as the template timeout rate and the refresh
rate) for template-specific configurations. The following is sample output from this command:
Example:
Router# show ip flow export template
Template Options Flag = 1
Total number of Templates added = 1
Total active Templates = 1
Flow Templates active = 0
Flow Templates added = 0
Option Templates active = 1
Option Templates added = 1
Template ager polls = 0
Option Template ager polls = 140
Main cache version 9 export is enabled
Template export information
Template timeout = 90
Template refresh rate = 15
Option export information
Option timeout = 120
Option refresh rate = 25
Router#
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Clearing NetFlow Statistics on the Router
Clearing NetFlow Statistics on the Router
Perform the steps in this optional task to clear NetFlow statistics on the router.
SUMMARY STEPS
1. enable
2. clear ip flow stats
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
enable
Use this command to enter privileged EXEC mode on the router:
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
clear ip flow stats
Use this command to clear the NetFlow statistics on the router. For example:
Example:
Router# clear ip flow stats
Customizing the NetFlow Main Cache Parameters
NetFlow operates by creating a NetFlow cache entry (a flow record) for each active flow. A flow record is
maintained within the NetFlow cache for all active flows. Each flow record in the NetFlow cache contains
fields that can later be exported to a collection device, such as the NetFlow Collection Engine. NetFlow enables
the accumulation of data on flows. Each flow is identified by unique characteristics such as the IP address,
interface, application, and ToS.
To customize the parameters for the main NetFlow cache, perform the steps in this optional task.
NetFlow Cache Entry Management on a Routing Device
The routing device checks the NetFlow cache once per second and causes the flow to expire in the following
instances:
• Flow transport is completed (TCP connections that have reached the end of the byte stream [FIN] or
that have been reset [RST] are expired).
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Customizing the NetFlow Main Cache Parameters
• The flow cache has become full.
• A flow becomes inactive. By default, a flow that is unaltered in the last 15 seconds is classified as
inactive.
• An active flow has been monitored for a specified number of minutes. By default, active flows are
flushed from the cache when they have been monitored for 30 minutes.
Routing device default timer settings are 15 seconds for the inactive timer and 30 minutes for the active timer.
You can configure your own time interval for the inactive timer from 10 to 600 seconds. You can configure
the time interval for the active timer from 1 to 60 minutes.
NetFlow Cache Size
After you enable NetFlow on an interface, NetFlow reserves memory to accommodate a number of entries in
the NetFlow cache. Normally, the size of the NetFlow cache meets the needs of your NetFlow traffic rates.
The cache default size is 64K flow cache entries. Each cache entry requires 64 bytes of storage. About 4 MB
of DRAM are required for a cache with the default number of entries. You can increase or decrease the number
of entries maintained in the cache, if required. For environments with a large amount of flow traffic (such as
an Internet core router), Cisco recommends a larger value such as 131072 (128K). To obtain information on
your flow traffic, use the show ip cache flow command.
A NetFlow cache can be resized depending on the platform and the amount of DRAM on a line card. For
example, the NetFlow cache size is configurable for software-based platforms such as Cisco 75xx and 72xx
series routers. The amount of memory on a Cisco 12000 line card determines how many flows are possible
in the cache.
Using the ip flow-cache entries command, configure the size of your NetFlow cache from 1024 entries to
524,288 entries. Use the cache entries command (after you configure NetFlow aggregation) to configure the
size of the NetFlow aggregation cache from 1024 entries to 524,288 entries.
Caution
Cisco recommends that you not change the values for NetFlow cache entries. Improper use of this feature
could cause network problems. To return to the default value for NetFlow cache entries, use the no ip
flow-cache entries global configuration command.
Note
If you modify any parameters for the NetFlow main cache after you enable NetFlow, the changes will not
take effect until you reboot the router or disable NetFlow on every interface it is enabled on, and then
re-enable NetFlow on the interfaces.
>
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Customizing the NetFlow Main Cache Parameters
SUMMARY STEPS
1. enable
2. configure terminal
3. interface type number
4. no ip flow {ingress | egress}
5. exit
6. Repeat Steps 3 through 5 for every interface that has NetFlow enabled on it.
number
7. ip flow-cache entries
8. ip flow-cache timeout active minutes
9. ip flow-cache timeout inactive seconds
type number
10. interface
11. ip flow {ingress | egress}
12. exit
13. Repeat Steps 10 through 12 for every interface that previously had NetFlow enabled on it.
14. end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
• Enter your password if prompted.
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface type number
Example:
(Required if NetFlow is already enabled on the interface) Specifies
the interface that you want to disable NetFlow on and enters interface
configuration mode.
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
Step 4
no ip flow {ingress | egress}
Example:
Router(config-if)# no ip flow ingress
Example:
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(Required if NetFlow is enabled on the interface) Disables NetFlow
on the interface.
• ingress --Captures traffic that is being received by the interface
• egress --Captures traffic that is being transmitted by the interface
Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Customizing the NetFlow Main Cache Parameters
Step 5
Command or Action
Purpose
exit
(Optional) Exits interface configuration mode and returns to global
configuration mode.
Example:
Note
Router(config-if)# exit
Step 6
Repeat Steps 3 through 5 for every interface
that has NetFlow enabled on it.
Step 7
ip flow-cache entries
number
Example:
Router(config)# ip flow-cache entries
131072
Step 8
ip flow-cache timeout active minutes
Router(config)# ip flow-cache timeout
active 20
ip flow-cache timeout inactive seconds
Router(config)# ip flow-cache timeout
inactive 130
interface
(Optional) Changes the number of entries maintained in the NetFlow
cache.
• The number argument is the number of entries to be maintained.
The valid range is from 1024 to 524288 entries. The default is
65536 (64K).
(Optional) Specifies flow cache timeout parameters.
• The minutes argument specifies the number of minutes that an
active flow remains in the cache before the flow times out. The
range is from 1 to 60. The default is 30.
(Optional) Specifies flow cache timeout parameters.
• The inactive keyword specifies the inactive flow timeout.
Example:
Step 10
This step is required if NetFlow is enabled on any other interfaces. --
• The active keyword specifies the active flow timeout.
Example:
Step 9
You only need to use this command if you need to disable
NetFlow on another interface.
type number
• The seconds argument specifies the number of seconds that an
inactive flow remains in the cache before it times out. The range
is from 10 to 600. The default is 15.
Specifies the interface that you want to enable NetFlow on and enters
interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
Step 11
ip flow {ingress | egress}
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip flow ingress
Enables NetFlow on the interface.
• ingress --Captures traffic that is being received by the interface
• egress --Captures traffic that is being transmitted by the interface
Example:
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Configuration Examples for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Step 12
Command or Action
Purpose
exit
(Optional) Exits interface configuration mode and returns to global
configuration mode.
Example:
Note
Router(config-if)# exit
You need to use this command only if you need to enable
NetFlow on another interface.
Step 13
Repeat Steps 10 through 12 for every interface This step is required for any other interfaces that you need to enable
that previously had NetFlow enabled on it.
NetFlow on.
Step 14
end
Exits the current configuration mode and enters privileged EXEC
mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Configuration Examples for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow
Data Export
Example Configuring Egress NetFlow Accounting
The following example shows how to configure Egress NetFlow Accounting as described in the Egress
NetFlow Accounting Benefits NetFlow Accounting Simplified, on page 20:
configure terminal
!
interface ethernet 0/0
ip flow egress
!
Example Configuring NetFlow Subinterface Support
The following examples show how to configure NetFlow Subinterface Support as described in the NetFlow
Subinterface Support Benefits Fine-Tuning Your Data Collection, on page 21:
NetFlow Subinterface Support for Ingress (Received) Traffic on a Subinterface
configure terminal
!
interface ethernet 0/0.1
ip flow ingress
!
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Example Configuring NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations
NetFlow SubInterface Support for Egress (Transmitted) Traffic on a Subinterface
configure terminal
!
interface ethernet 1/0.1
ip flow egress
!
Note
NetFlow performs additional checks for the status of each subinterface that requires more CPU processing
time and bandwidth. If you have several subinterfaces configured and you want to configure NetFlow
data capture on all of them, we recommend that you configure NetFlow on the main interface instead of
on the individual subinterfaces.
Example Configuring NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations
The following example shows how to configure the NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations feature as described
in the NetFlow Multiple Export Destinations Benefits, on page 21:
configure terminal
!
ip flow-export destination 10.10.10.10 9991
ip flow-export destination 172.16.10.2 9991
!
Note
You can configure a maximum of two export destinations for the main cache and for each aggregation
cache.
Example Configuring NetFlow Version 5 Data Export
The following example shows how to configure the NetFlow data export using the Version 5 export format
with the peer autonomous system information:
configure terminal
!
ip flow-export version 5 peer-as
ip flow-export destination 172.16.10.2 99
exit
Router# show ip flow export
Flow export v5 is enabled for main cache
Exporting flows to 172.16.10.2 (99)
Exporting using source IP address 172.16.6.1
Version 5 flow records, peer-as
0 flows exported in 0 udp datagrams
0 flows failed due to lack of export packet
0 export packets were sent up to process level
0 export packets were dropped due to no fib
0 export packets were dropped due to adjacency issues
0 export packets were dropped due to fragmentation failures
0 export packets were dropped due to encapsulation fixup failures
Router#
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Example Configuring NetFlow Version 1 Data Export
Example Configuring NetFlow Version 1 Data Export
The following example shows how to configure the NetFlow data export using the Version 5 export format
with the peer autonomous system information:
configure terminal
!
ip flow-export destination 172.16.10.2 99
exit
Router# show ip flow export
Flow export v1 is enabled for main cache
Exporting flows to 172.16.10.2 (99)
Exporting using source IP address 172.16.6.1
Version 1 flow records
0 flows exported in 0 udp datagrams
0 flows failed due to lack of export packet
0 export packets were sent up to process level
0 export packets were dropped due to no fib
0 export packets were dropped due to adjacency issues
0 export packets were dropped due to fragmentation failures
0 export packets were dropped due to encapsulation fixup failures
Router#
Note
No autonomous system number or BGP next hop information is exported with the Version 1 export format.
Additional References
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Cisco IOS commands
Cisco IOS Master Commands List, All Releases
NetFlow Commands
Cisco IOS NetFlow Command Reference
NetFlow Version 9 Flow-Record Format
NetFlow Version 9 Flow-Record Format
NetFlow Services Solutions Guide
NetFlow Services Solutions Guide
NetFlow Reliable Export With SCTP
NetFlow Reliable Export With SCTP
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this -feature, and support for existing standards has not
been modified by this feature.
NetFlow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15S
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Additional References
MIBs
MIBs
MIBs Link
No new or modified MIBs are supported by this
feature, and support for existing MIBs has not been
modified by this feature.
To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms,
Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB
Locator found at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/go/mibs
RFCs
RFCs
Title
No new or modified RFCs are supported by this
feature, and support for existing RFCs has not been
modified by this feature.
--
Technical Assistance
Description
Link
The Cisco Support and Documentation website
http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/support/index.html
provides online resources to download documentation,
software, and tools. Use these resources to install and
configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve
technical issues with Cisco products and technologies.
Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and
Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID
and password.
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Feature Information for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Feature Information for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data
Export
Table 9: Feature Information for Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Feature Name
Releases
Feature Information
Egress NetFlow Accounting
12.3(11)T 15.0(1)S
The Egress NetFlow Accounting
feature allows NetFlow statistics
to be gathered on egress traffic that
is exiting the router. Previous
versions of NetFlow allow statistics
to be gathered only on ingress
traffic that is entering the router.
The following commands were
introduced by this feature: ip flow
egress and ip flow-egress
input-interface.
The following commands were
modified by this feature:
flow-sampler, match, show ip
cache flow, show ip cache
verbose flow, and show ip flow
interface.
NetFlow Multiple Export
Destinations
12.0(19)S 12.2(2)T 12.2(14)S
15.0(1)S
The NetFlow Multiple Export
Destinations feature enables
configuration of multiple
destinations of the NetFlow data.
The following commands were
modified by this feature: ip
flow-aggregation cache, ip
flow-export destination, and show
ip flow export.
NetFlow Subinterface Support
12.0(22)S 12.2(14)S 12.2(15)T
12.2(33)SB
The NetFlow Subinterface Support
feature provides the ability to
enable NetFlow on a
per-subinterface basis.
The following command was
introduced by this feature: ip flow
ingress.
The following command was
modified by this feature: show ip
interface.
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Glossary
Feature Name
Releases
Feature Information
NetFlow v9 Export Format
12.0(24)S 12.2(18)S 12.2(27)SBC The NetFlow v9 Export Format,
12.2(18)SXF 12.3(1) 15.0(1)S
which is flexible and extensible,
provides the versatility needed to
support new fields and record
types. This format accommodates
new NetFlow-supported
technologies such as Multicast,
MPLS, NAT, and BGP next hop.
The following commands were
modified by this feature: debug ip
flow export, export, ip
flow-export, and show ip flow
export.
Support for interface names added 12.4(2)T
to NetFlow data export2
The interface-names keyword for
the ip flow-export command
configures NetFlow data export to
include the interface names from
the flows when it exports the
NetFlow cache entry to a
destination system.
2 This is a minor enhancement. Minor enhancements are not typically listed in Feature Navigator.
Glossary
Autonomous system--A collection of networks under a common administration sharing a common routing
strategy. Autonomous systems are subdivided by areas. An autonomous system must be assigned a unique
16-bit number by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
Cisco Express Forwarding--A layer 3 IP switching technology that optimizes network performance and
scalability for networks with large and dynamic traffic patterns.
BGP --Border Gateway Protocol. An interdomain routing protocol that replaces Exterior Gateway Protocol
(EGP). A BGP system exchanges reachability information with other BGP systems. BGP is defined by RFC
1163.
BGP next hop --IP address of the next hop to be used by a router to reach a certain destination.
distributed Cisco Express Forwarding--A type of Cisco Express Forwarding switching in which line cards
(such as Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) line cards) maintain identical copies of the Forwarding Information
Base (FIB) and adjacency tables. The line cards perform the express forwarding between port adapters; this
relieves the Route Switch Processor of involvement in the switching operation.
export packet --Type of packet built by a NetFlow-services-enabled device (for example, a router) that is
addressed to another device (for example, the NetFlow Collection Engine). The packet contains NetFlow
statistics. The other device processes (parses, aggregates, and stores information on IP flows) the packet.
fast switching --A Cisco feature in which a route cache is used to expedite packet switching through a router.
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Configuring NetFlow and NetFlow Data Export
Glossary
flow --A set of packets with the same source IP address, destination IP address, protocol, source/destination
ports, and type of service, and with the same interface on which the flow is monitored. Ingress flows are
associated with the input interface, and egress flows are associated with the output interface.
MPLS --Multiprotocol Label Switching. An industry standard for the forwarding of packets along a normally
routed path (sometimes called MPLS hop-by-hop forwarding).
NetFlow --A Cisco IOS application that provides statistics on packets flowing through the router. It is a
primary network accounting and security technology.
NetFlow Aggregation --A NetFlow feature that lets you summarize NetFlow export data on a Cisco IOS
router before the data is exported to a NetFlow data collection system such as the NetFlow Collection Engine.
This feature lowers bandwidth requirements for NetFlow export data and reduces platform requirements for
NetFlow data collection devices.
NetFlow Collection Engine (formerly NetFlow FlowCollector)--Cisco application that is used with NetFlow
on Cisco routers and Catalyst series switches. The NetFlow Collection Engine collects packets from the router
that is running NetFlow and decodes, aggregates, and stores them. You can generate reports on various
aggregations that can be set up on the NetFlow Collection Engine.
NetFlow v9 --NetFlow export format Version 9. A flexible and extensible means for carrying NetFlow records
from a network node to a collector. NetFlow Version 9 has definable record types and is self-describing for
easier NetFlow Collection Engine configuration.
RP --Route Processor. A processor module in the Cisco 7000 series routers that contains the CPU, system
software, and most of the memory components that are used in the router. It is sometimes called a Supervisory
Processor.
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