Girl Scouts Eclipse Box Activity Guide
Eclipse Box Activity Guide
Our Place in the Solar System —
Sun, Earth, Moon and Eclipses
Credit: Girl Scouts of Northern California
CREDITS FOR ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES —
The Eclipse Box and this Activity Guide were developed by the Girl Scout Stars team at the SETI Institute, ARIES
Scientific, Inc., Girl Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts of the USA, University of Arizona , and the Astronomical
Society of the Pacific. Louis Mayo and Edna DeVore co-authored the booklet of activities, with significant contributions by Pamela Harman, Larry Lebofsky, Vivian White, Theresa Summer, Jean Fahy, Jessica Henricks, Elspeth Kersh,
and Wendy Chin. Further contributions were made by Joanne Berg, Cole Grissom, Amanda Hudson, Don McCarthy,
and Wendy Friedman. The team was led by Edna DeVore, Principal Investigator of “Reaching for the Stars: NASA
Science for Girl Scouts,” which is funded by NASA Cooperative Agreement # NNX16AB90A. Additional funding was
provided by Aerojet Rocketdyne Foundation to support the distribution of Eclipse Boxes to Girl Scout councils across
the United States.
ACTIVITY OR RESOURCE
AUTHOR and SOURCES
LIVING IN A BUBBLE—PLAY WITH MAGNETS AND COMPASSES
L. Mayo, and Multiverse—UC Berkeley Space Sciences Lab
SUNBURN—ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DETECTORS
L. Mayo, E. DeVore
SEEING THE INVISIBLE—INFRARED LIGHT DETECTORS
L. Mayo, NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors
LET’S SEE LIGHT IN A NEW WAY—DIFFRACTION SPECTRA
L. Mayo, E. DeVore
A LIGHT SNACK—COOKIE BOX SPECTROMETERS
L. Mayo, E. DeVore, NASA: The Science of the Sun
MAKE SUN S’MORES!
NASA Climate Kids
HOW BIG IS BIG? SOLAR PIZZAS
L. Mayo, NASA Sun-Earth Day
EARTH AS A PEPPERCORN—SIZE AND SCALE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Guy Ottwell, The Thousand Yard Model
SUN TRACKING
J. Henricks, P. Allan and D. Schatz, Pacific Science Center
WAXING AND WANING—PHASES OF THE MOON AND ECLIPSES
E. DeVore, L. Mayo
HOW DO ECLIPSES WORK? YARDSTICK ECLIPSE
Astronomical Society of the Pacific
WHEN DAY TURNS TO NIGHT
L. Mayo, P. Harman, E. DeVore
MAKE AN ECLIPSE VIEWER
L. Mayo, J. Henricks E. DeVore
ECLIPSE CHALK ART
J. Henricks, L. Mayo, E. DeVore
NASA ECLIPSE GUIDE
NASA
HOW TO VIEW THE 2017 SOLAR ECLIPSE SAFELY
COMO VER EL EXLIPSE SOLAR DEL 2017 CON SEGURIDAD
American Astronomical Society, American Academy of
Opthalmology, NASA, American Academy of Optometry, NSF
NASA ECLIPSE RESOURCES
NASA: https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov
MORE RESOURCES
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, SETI Institute
COMPLETE LIST OF MATERIALS
E. DeVore
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION AND HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
4
ECLIPSE BASICS
4
LEARN ABOUT THE SUN, LIGHT AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM
1. LIVING IN A BUBBLE 6
2. SUNBURN 8
3. SEEING THE INVISIBLE 10
4. LET’S SEE LIGHT IN A NEW WAY 12
5. A LIGHT SNACK
14
6. MAKE SUN S’MORES!
18
7. HOW BIG IS BIG? 20
8. EARTH AS A PEPPERCORN 22
9. SUN TRACKING 24
LEARN ABOUT ECLIPSES
10. WAXING AND WANING 26
11. HOW DO ECLIPSES WORK? 28
12. WHEN DAY TURNS TO NIGHT 30
13. MAKE AN ECLIPSE VIEWER 32
14. ECLIPSE CHALK ART 34
D
B
J
C
S
A
D
B
J
C
S
A
RESOURCES
NASA ECLIPSE GUIDE 36
HOW TO VIEW THE 2017 SOLAR ECLIPSE SAFELY
38
COMO VER EL EXLIPSE SOLAR DEL 2017 CON SEGURIDAD
39
NASA ECLIPSE WEBSITE RESOURCES 40
MORE RESOURCES 41
COMPLETE LIST OF MATERIALS 42
NOTES
43
The materials in the guide may be reproduced for personal and educational uses, but not for commercial purposes.
INTRODUCTION AND HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
Welcome to the Eclipse Box!
The Eclipse Box and this guide support activities for learning about the Sun, light, our solar system, and eclipses.
They draw upon hands-on, safe activities suitable for girls as well as adults. While these activities are designed to
help girls prepare for the total eclipse of the Sun in 2017, they can be used beyond the eclipse as part of your Girl
Scout programs. And, there is another total eclipse of the Sun crossing the US in 2024!
Activities: Although the activities are listed in two groups (see page 3), each activity is designed to stand alone so
you can pick and choose the most suitable things for your events, meetings, and camp programs. In the Eclipse Box,
you will find bagged resources identified by activity title and number. The plastic bags of resources also include a
Quick Start Guide for the activity. Although, the Quick Start Guide card are there to help you, it’s important to read
the activity in this guide to prepare. Some activities do not have materials in the Eclipse Box, and do not have Quick
Start Guide cards.
Girl Scout Levels: Each activity shows the recommended Girl Scout levels. The Table of Contents has a chart that
shows the same information. You know best what will be fun for your girls!
Materials List: Each activity includes a materials list of what is provided in the Eclipse Box, and what you
need to obtain to do the activity. Mostly, the materials that you are asked to provide are the basics: paper,
pens and pencils, cardboard boxes, aluminum foil, tape, etc. There are also activities that offer Girl Scouts the
opportunity to use smartphones and digital cameras as sensors. The items provided in the Eclipse Box are less
common, or can be re-used many times. The one exception are the UV beads and chenille stems (Activity 3) that
will need to be restocked as they are used up. In addition, there are printed materials from NASA, and a storybook
about going to see a total eclipse of the Sun. These are to share as you wish.
2017 Total Eclipse of the Sun: NASA and others have created guides for safely observing the 2017 solar eclipse
(pages 36-39.) You are welcome to copy these for distribution. You may also download the original files from NASA’s
website: https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov. Have fun, and keep looking up!
ECLIPSE BASICS
What Are Eclipses?
Eclipses are all about shadows. Eclipses occur when one astronomical object moves in front of another, or when an
astronomical object moves into the shadow of another object. In the Sun-Earth-Moon system, eclipses occur when
the Sun, Earth and Moon all line up. In astronomical terms, this is called syzygy, a word derived from Ancient Greek
that means “yoked together.”
Total Solar Eclipses:
Eclipses of the Sun occur when the New Moon passes between the Earth and Sun. When the Moon covers the
entire disk of the Sun, we see a spectacular total eclipse of the Sun with the corona glowing. During the eclipse, the
Moon’s shadow is cast upon the Earth and travels across the surface at more than 1,000 miles per hour. From start
to finish, from when the Moon first starts to cover the Sun to when the Sun is completely uncovered, a solar eclipse
takes a couple of hours. During most of that time, the sky is bright because the Sun continues to light the Earth. You
need eye protection the entire time when only part of the Sun is covered by the Moon. When the Sun is completely
covered—during totality—darkness descends, and it’s safe to view the Sun’s corona without eye protection for a
short time. Totality lasts only a few minutes. The longest total solar eclipses last just over 7 minutes. The total eclipse
of the Sun on August 21, 2017 can last up to 2 minutes and 40 seconds, depending upon where you are.
4
Earth’s
Moon’s
orbit
orbit
penumbra
Earth’s
penumbra
orbit
umbra
Moon’s
orbit
Sun
Sun
Total solar eclipse
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
umbra
Total lunar eclipse
Partial Solar Eclipses:
People inside the shadow’s path see a partial solar eclipse if they are in the penumbra of the Moon’s shadow, and
a total solar eclipse if inside the umbra. (See diagram above.) Only part of the Sun is covered during partial eclipse.
You need eye protection the entire time during the partial phases of an eclipse. (See back cover for a composite
photograph of partial and total solar eclipse phases.)
Annular Eclipses:
The Moon’s orbit is elliptical. On average, it is about 240,000 miles from Earth, but it can be as far as 251,900
miles (maximum distance), and as close as 225,300 (minimum distance). If the solar eclipse occurs when
the Moon is far from the Earth (near the maximum distance), the Moon will not fully cover the disk of the Sun,
and an annular eclipse occurs. During an annular eclipse, we see a bright ring of sunlight around the Moon. Eye
protection is required at all times during annular eclipses.
Lunar Eclipses:
Eclipses of the Moon occur when the Full Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth. Everyone on the nighttime
side of the Earth can view a lunar eclipse. If the Moon passes through the penumbra of the Earth’ shadow, it will
be slightly dimmer. Penumbral eclipses are hard to detect. When the Moon passes through the central part of the
Earth’s shadow—the umbra—it will dim to a dark red color. Like red skies at sunset, the Earth’s atmosphere bends
the redder (longer wavelength) light into the Earth’s shadow. (The other colors are scattered by the atmosphere.)
During lunar eclipses, the Moon is illuminated with this red light. Lunar eclipses last for several hours as the Moon
moves through the Earth’s shadow. It is completely safe to view the Moon during lunar eclipses because the Moon
is actually dimmer during the lunar eclipse than when it is full and outside Earth’s shadow.
Why Don’t Eclipses Happen Every Month?
Eclipses only happen when the Sun, Moon and Earth all line up (syzygy). The Moon’s orbit is tilted about 5
degrees from the plane of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The lunar orbit crosses the plane of Earth’s orbit in two
places called nodes. Most months, the lunar orbit carries the New Moon above or below the Sun, and so there
is no solar eclipse. The same is true for lunar eclipses: most months, the lunar orbit carries the Moon above or below
the shadow of the Earth, and there is no lunar eclipse. Solar eclipses happen when the New Moon occurs near a
node of the lunar orbit. Likewise, lunar eclipses happen when a Full Moon occurs near a node.
5
1. LIVING IN A BUBBLE —
PLAY WITH MAGNETS AND COMPASSES
What Is This About?
Magnetic fields are all around us! You can’t see them or feel them, but they play an important role in
supporting life on Earth. Though they are invisible, you can sense magnetic fields with a compass. You can
use a compass to measure the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field and find north and south. Compasses
have been used for hundreds of years to help sailors at sea find their way. The earliest compasses were
invented by the Chinese about two thousand years ago. These used lodestones (naturally magnetized
iron) made into the shape of a spoon. It pointed toward north when put on a smooth metal plate. Later
compasses were made of magnetic needles floating in a bowl of water.
Materials —
Small compasses and magnets (from Eclipse Box)
Paper, tape, pen or pencil (you provide)
To Do —
Use a bar magnet to make a model of Earth’s magnetic field and sketch the shape of a bar magnet’s magnetic
field.
• Tape the bar magnet to the middle of a piece of paper.
• Draw a dot somewhere near the magnet and place the center of a compass over the dot. • Draw another dot at the location of the arrow head (or tail) of the compass needle.
• Draw a line to connect the 2 dots, and add an arrow head pointing toward the north. • Move the compass center directly over the second dot, and again draw a dot at the location of the
compass needle head or tail. • Repeat these steps, marking the direction of the needle with dots and connecting them until the line meets
the magnet or the edge of the paper. Go back to the first dot and repeat these steps
until the other end of the line also meets the magnet or the paper edge. • When finished with the first line, pick another spot near the magnet and repeat the process to trace more
field lines. 6
What Do You See?
• What shape is the magnetic field you sketched?
• What happens to the field lines when you get
near the north or south pole of the
magnet?
• Compare your sketch with other Girl Scouts’
sketches. Do they look similar?
Credit: Multiverse—University of California at Berkeley
For More Fun —
• Add another magnet and sketch the resulting fields of the two magnets.
Credit: image used by permission
of Peter Reid ([email protected])
• Take one of the small compasses from the box and set it in front of you on a table. Notice the
direction it points. Can you confirm that the compass is pointing north? Now, slowly bring a magnet near
the compass. The compass needle should move. Why? The magnetic field generated by the bar magnet is
stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field.
Space Science Tie-In —
We live in a magnetic field bubble around the Earth. The Sun, Earth, and all the gas giant planets
(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) have their own magnetic fields generated by the movement of molten
materials around their cores. Planets’ magnetic fields look like the field you sketched around the bar magnet.
These fields are called “magnetospheres” except for the field around the Sun, which is called a “heliosphere.”
Earth’s magnetosphere protects the atmosphere from the solar wind, and helps to protect us from harmful
radiation from space.
7
2. SUNBURN —
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DETECTORS
What Is This About?
Our Sun shines brightly in the daytime, warms our planet, and helps plants grow. But the sunlight we see with
our eyes is only a very small part of the light the Sun gives off. Most sunlight cannot be seen with just our eyes.
One type of this invisible light is called “ultraviolet light,” also known as UV. This is the light that gives us suntans
and sunburns. Bees see in UV, and it helps them to find flowers. Since we cannot see ultraviolet light with our
eyes, we build and use instruments to detect UV.
We have known about UV light for over 200 years. In 1801, a Polish physicist, Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovered a
special kind of light just beyond the blue part of the visible spectrum. He called this light “chemical rays” because
of its intense interaction with the chemical silver chloride. Later, it was renamed ultraviolet light.
Materials —
• UV beads and chenille stems (from the Eclipse Box)
• Materials that may filter ultraviolet light (you provide)
sunscreen, sunglasses, regular glasses, paper, cloth,
hats, plastic, window glass, water
To Do —
Make a UV Detector with chenille stems and UV beads.
• Begin inside a building away from any sunlight.
Before exposure
to sunlight
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
• Give each Girl Scout a chenille stem and 3 to 5 beads
to make a bracelet, ring or belt hanger.
• What color are the beads? (White, indoors.)
• Ask the girls to explore light sources (lamps, light through
window glass) with the UV beads. Any changes?
• Now go outside on a sunny or partly sunny day.
• What happens to the beads?
• What can girls say about how sunlight effects their UV beads?
*Note: UV beads react to ultraviolet light from the Sun by changing color.
They go back to being white out of sunlight after a bit of time.
8
After exposure
to sunlight
Going Farther — Test for UV blockers
Girls can test several things to find out what does or does not block UV. Begin the tests inside so that the UV
beads are white.
• Sunscreen: Girls can apply sunscreen to their UV beads before going outside, and see how well it works!
• Sunglasses: Girls can use sunglasses to block sunlight from UV beads. Do the glasses work? What about
regular eyeglasses?
• Other tests: Girls can test other things that might block UV: paper, cloth, plastic, glass, car
windows, brims of caps, water, and differences between mid-day and evening.
Space Science Tie-In —
Although some UV light passes through our atmosphere to the ground, most UV light from the Sun is filtered
out by our atmosphere and never reaches the surface of Earth. To study UV light from the Sun and other stars,
scientists use high altitude balloons, suborbital rockets, or spacecraft to get above the atmosphere. All stars
emit UV light; some more than others. The UV light emitted by planets tells us about their atmospheres.
The Sun photographed in visible light.
The Sun photographed in UV light.
Credit: NASA/European Space Agency: SOHO: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
9
3. SEEING THE INVISIBLE —
INFRARED LIGHT DETECTORS
What Is This About?
Have you ever wondered how remote controls work?
They send signals in a special type of light called “infrared light.” You can’t see infrared light (IR) with just
your eyes, but smartphones and digital cameras can.
Infrared light was discovered accidentally in 1800 by
British scientist, Sir Frederick William Herschel. In
what is now famously known as the Herschel Experiment, he attempted to measure how different colors
of light change the temperature of a thermometer by
passing sunlight through a prism. He placed one of
his thermometers outside the red part of the visible
spectrum, where no light appeared to be falling as a
control unit. He expected the control thermometer
to stay unchanged. To his surprise, the control thermometer got hotter than all the rest! He called this
invisible radiation “calorific rays.” Today, it is known
as infrared light.
Materials — (you provide)
• Smartphones or digital cameras
• TV remote controls
Sir William Herschel & his famous IR light experiment.
Credit: NASA/IPAC
Space Science Tie-In —
Astronomers understand the universe by observing it in many types of light. Infrared light is important in understanding planets, stars, and galaxies because in IR light we can see things that are warm, but not hot enough
to shine like stars. Most IR light is filtered out by water vapor in our atmosphere. So, scientists launch infrared
telescopes into space or use infrared telescopes in high-altitude airplanes or balloons. They also use large
ground-based telescopes on top of tall mountains, such as the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii at 14,000
feet elevation, which can see part of the IR spectrum
10
To Do —
Your smartphone or digital camera takes pictures and videos electronically. They have imaging chips that detect both visible and IR light.
• Take a TV remote control that you know works.
• Look at the end of the remote control that you point toward the TV and press any button.
• Hold the button down. Can you see any light coming from the end of the remote control?
• Now, do the same thing, holding down any button on the remote control, but view the remote control
through your smartphone or digital camera.*
• What can you see? If you see the blinking light from your remote control, you have just used an infrared
detector to “see” invisible light!
*Hints: With smartphones, switch to the screen-side camera if the other camera does not detect IR. Some
digital cameras do not detect IR because they include a filter that blocks IR.
More to Explore —
Credits: NASA/SOFIA
Visible light image: Akira Fujii; Infrared image: Infrared Astronomical Satellite
Does infrared light pass through the same materials at visible light? Use your remote control, smartphone or
digital camera to experiment. Try paper, cellophane, plastic bags of various types, hard plastic, and glass. Does
IR pass through sunglasses or regular eyeglasses?
The constellation Orion in visible light
and in infrared light.
11
4. LET’S SEE LIGHT IN A NEW WAY —
DIFFRACTION SPECTRA
What Is This About?
white light
diffraction
grating
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
Credit: NASA Space Place
Most of us take our sight for granted. We see the world around us in reflected light from the Sun or artificial
light sources. Today, we understand that light can be composed of many colors or “wavelengths.” Our eyes and
brain work together to blend these wavelengths into a single color. Isaac Newton first used the word “spectrum”
to describe these individual colors that can be seen when passing light through a prism. These are the familiar
colors of rainbows.
Materials —
• 10 spectroscopes (from Eclipse Box) that Girl Scouts can share
• Light sources (see next page)
• White paper to reflect sunlight (you provide)
12
Credit: E. DeVore,
SETI Institute
In this activity, you will explore various light sources using a “spectroscope.” The spectroscope is made with
a transparent plastic film that has thousands of lines etched in it. When light passes through the etched film,
it bends relative to its color or wavelength like it does through a prism. The diffraction grating spreads out the
visible light, making it easy to see all the colors. For more information on the spectrum, see pages 14 and 15.
WARNING: Do not look directly at the Sun.
Doing so can damage your eyes.
To Do —
• Look at your spectroscope. Read the safety label. DO NOT LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN.
• Look at the ends of the spectroscope.
• One end has a slit—that’s the front end that you point at light sources. The other end has a small opening
with a transparent piece of diffraction grating mounted in it.
• Be careful not to touch the diffraction grating. Your fingerprints will make it work poorly.
• Look through the spectroscope at a lamp or ceiling light. What do you see?
Are All Sources of Light the Same? Check These out!
• Incandescent (old fashioned) lamp
• Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)
• Fluorescent lights (in the ceiling)
• A white piece of paper on the ground in sunlight. DO NOT LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN.
• Brightly colored cars or flowers
• Neon signs
• Television and computer screens
• Stoplights
• LED lamps, flashlights, and holiday lights
• Bug lights
• Floodlights
• The Moon
Space Science Tie-In —
Credit: N. Sharp, NOAO/AURA/NSF
Today, scientists build sensitive instruments
called spectrometers to study the light from
distant objects: stars, galaxies, planets, dust
and gas in space. Like people, each atom
and molecule shows its own unique set of
fingerprints—lines in the spectrum. By
studying these fingeprints—the spectrum
of an object—the astronomers can tell what
a star or planet is made of. The spectrum
can also tell us about the temperature and
pressure, motion, and ultimately, the
formation and evolution of celestial objects.
The spectrum of the Sun.
13
5. A LIGHT SNACK —
COOKIE BOX SPECTROMETERS
What Is This About?
When you look at a rainbow, you are seeing the
spectrum of white light from the Sun. Tiny spherical
raindrops refract (bend) and spread out white light
into its component colors. In this activity, you will
go deeper to explore the science and engineering of
spectroscopy—the study of the spectrum and what
it tells us about our world and the universe.
When atoms of different materials are excited by an
electric current or another source of energy, they
produce a unique spectrum. Atoms of different
elements have different colors in their spectra.
Each atom or molecule’s spectrum is unique to that
element or compound, just as fingerprints are
unique for every person.
Dive deeper into spectra with NASA ­—
https://science.nasa.gov/ems
Credit: Mark Tiele Westra
In 1665, Isaac Newton demonstrated that a prism
can break light into its component colors and
that a second prism can re-assemble them back
again into white light. He was the first to call this
the “spectrum.” In 1814, Joseph Fraunhofer invented the spectroscope to study light, and discovered
absorption lines in the spectrum of the Sun. Helium
was first discovered in the spectrum of the Sun!
What Is Going On With Light?
14
The Computers —
The first spectra of stars were made with a telescope, a prism and a photographic glass plate. Beginning in 1870s,
women were hired as “computers” at Harvard College Observatory to classify these stellar spectra.
Harvard computers at work circa 1890:
Henrietta Swan Leavitt seated, third from
the left, with magnifying glass, Annie Jump
Cannon in center also with magnifying
glass, and Williamina Fleming standing, in
the center, and Antonia Maury, far right.
Credit: Harvard Astronomical Plate Collection
Annie Jump Cannon studied the spectra of more than 225,000 stars as a “computer” at Harvard Observatory.
She perfected the classification system we use today. She compiled the largest accumulation of astronomical information ever assembled by a single individual—the nine volume Henry Draper Catalog. She won many
honors and awards in the United States and Europe during her lifetime. Today, the Annie Jump Cannon Award is
presented each year by the American Astronomical Society to a North American female astronomer in the first
five years after her doctorate.
Henrietta Swan Leavitt worked alongside of Cannon as a “computer.” Leavitt studied variable stars—stars that
dim and brighten repeatedly. She discovered the “Cepheid Variables” that allow astronomers to accurately
measure distances in our galaxy, and to other galaxies. Her discovery helped other astronomers discover that
the Universe is expanding. Leavitt was deaf most of her career. Lauren Gunderson’s play “Silent Sky” portrays
these women at the dawn on modern astronomy.
Space Science Tie-In —
Astronomers study light of all types—the electromagnetic spectrum—to understand the Universe and everything in it. From the spectrum of a star, we can discover its composition, temperature, motion through space and
deduce its size, mass and age. All from just light. This is true for planets, comets, moons, asteroids, gas clouds,
star clusters, galaxies—everything in the universe.
Astronomers build spectrometers to launch into space or to use with ground-based telescopes to observe the
spectrum of distant objects. Launching a spectrometer above the atmosphere allows us to observe high energy
light sources in UV, X-rays, or Gamma rays that would normally be filtered out by our atmosphere. It also allows
astronomers to inspect the full infrared spectrum, much of which is filtered out by atmospheric water vapor.
15
Making your
CEREALBOX SPECTROSCOPE
1. Select one end of the cereal box, and close
the flaps. Place a diffraction grating on this
end and outline it with the sharpie. This will
be referred to as the front of your
“Spectroscope”.
2. Open the flaps and cut a hole
smaller than the size of your outline
in the cereal box.
Cereal Box
top
Cereal Box
G ti
4. Tape the cereal box flaps closed. Arrange your
diffraction grating right side up (so you can read
the label), then tape it over the hole you just cut.
Make sure you can look through the grating and
see inside the box.
Cereal Box
5. Rotate the box around so you are now looking at
the opposite end. (This will be the back of your
“Spectroscope”). Close the two flaps and draw a line
down the center (top to bottom, not side to side).
The line should be directly opposite the diffraction
grating, and centered.
Cereal Box
G ti
6. Cut along the mark you just made, making a
very, very narrow slit in the box.
Cereal Box
7. Close and tape the flaps on the
back of your box.
Cereal Box
You’re done!! Look
through the grating in
your spectroscope to
see the light spectrum!
Credit: NASA — The Science of the Sun—Solar Dynamics Observatory Education Unit
https://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/assets/docs/UnitPlanSecondary.pdf
16
Materials — (you provide)
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
• Cereal or cookie boxes, one per spectroscope
• Tape
• Scissors
• Sharpie or other pen
• Diffraction gratings, one per spectroscope*
• Black electrical tape (optional)
*Diffraction gratings are readily available.
Search online for “Diffraction Grating Slides.”
Look for “single axis” or “linear” gratings with 500 to 1,000 lines per inch.
They cost about $1.00 each.
Cookie box spectrometer
Scope Out the Light— Use your spectroscope
• You may need to troubleshoot your spectroscope.
• If you don’t see a broadband of colors, try rotating the diffraction grating 90° (1/4 turn).
• If the slit is too wide, use pieces of black electrical tape to make it narrower and crisper.
WARNING: Do not look directly at the Sun.
Doing so can damage your eyes.
Are All Sources of Light the Same? Check These Out!
• A white piece of paper on the ground in sunlight. DO NOT LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN.
• Incandescent (old fashioned) lamp
• Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
• Fluorescent lights (in the ceiling)
• Brightly colored cars or flowers
• Neon signs
• Television and computer screens
• Stoplights
• LED lamps, flashlights, and holiday lights
• Bug lights
• Flood lights
• The Moon
Fluorescent ceiling lamp seen
through cookie box spectrometer.
17
6. MAKE SUN S’MORES!
A Bit of History
For more than 2000 years, people have converted sunlight into different or more concentrated forms to stay
warm and to cook. Many ancient cultures built their houses to have the most energy efficient Sun exposures,
facing their buildings towards the southern sky to get the most Sun. Ancient Egyptians lined pools with black
tiles that absorbed the sun’s energy during the day. The warmed pool water was then piped into palaces as a
heating source. In this activity, you will build a solar oven that collects the Sun’s rays to cook food.
Materials — (you provide)
• Oven thermometer (in Eclipse Box)
• Cardboard pizza box (or similar box with an attached lid that has flaps so that the box can
be closed tightly. Box should be about 3 inches
deep.)
S’Mores Supplies — (you provide)
• Graham crackers
• Large marshmallows
• Plain chocolate bars (thin)
• Box knife or scissors (with adult help, please!)
• Aluminum pie pan
• Aluminum foil
• Napkins
• Tape
• Glue stick
• Plastic wrap
• Ruler or straight edge
• Stick or ruler—about 1 foot long to prop the lid
Space Science Tie-In
NASA uses solar energy to provide power for spacecraft in the Solar System. Solar cells on Earth orbiting
and deep space flyby missions, orbiters, and landers
power spacecraft and their instruments. The most
distant spacecraft to use solar cells is the JUNO
mission, now orbiting Jupiter.
Completed solar oven in action
18
To Do —
Have an adult cut the box!
#1
#1 — Using the straight edge of the ruler as a guide,
cut a three-sided flap in the top of the box, leaving at
least a 1-inch border around the three sides.
#2 — Cover the inside of the flap with aluminum foil,
spreading a coat of glue from the glue stick onto the
cardboard first and making the foil as smooth as
possible. Line the inside of the box with aluminum
foil, again gluing it down and making it as smooth as
possible.
#2
#3 — Tape two layers of plastic wrap across the
opening you cut in the lid—one layer on the top and
one layer on the bottom side of the opening in the lid.
Test the stick you will use to prop the lid up. You may
have to use tape or figure another way to make the
stick stay put.
#3
flap
lid
Make Sun S’mores in Your Solar Oven —
Set the oven in the direct sunlight with oven
thermometer inside in view. Close the oven lid (the
part with the plastic wrap on it) tightly, and prop up
the flap to reflect the sunlight into the box. You may
need to tape the prop in place.
Preheat the oven for at least 30 minutes and check
the thermometer. It should be at least 125°.
Break graham crackers into squares. Place four
squares in the pie pan with a marshmallow on each.
Place the pan in the preheated solar oven.
Once the marshmallows are soft, open the oven lid
and place a piece of chocolate (about half the size of
the graham cracker square) on top of each marshmallow.
IMPORTANT! Unlike most recipes, our s’mores have
the marshmallow UNDER the chocolate. That’s
because it takes the marshmallow longer to melt
than the chocolate in the solar oven.
Place another graham cracker square on top of the
chocolate and press down gently to squash the
marshmallow.
Depending on how hot the day is, and
how directly the sunlight shines on the
oven, the marshmallows will take 30 to 60
minutes to get soft.
Close the lid of the solar oven and let the Sun heat it
up for a few minutes to melt the chocolate.
ENJOY!
Credit including illustrations NASA Climate Kids http://climatekids.nasa.gov
19
7. HOW BIG IS BIG?
SOLAR PIZZAS
What Is This About?
How big is the Earth? The Sun? How far away is the Sun? These questions puzzled people for a long time. Eventually they were answered using a little geometry and careful observations. This activity is about the relative size of the
Sun and Earth and the distance between them, which is called the “Astronomical Unit.”
Materials —
• Solar pizza (in Eclipse Box)
• 100-foot (or shorter) measuring tape
To Do — Model the Earth and Sun
How big is the Sun in comparison to Earth?
• Go outside.
• Have one girl hold the cardboard Sun—the solar
pizza.
• Hold it up high so everyone can see it.
• If the Sun were as big as the solar pizza (about
8-inches across), how big would the Earth be?
• Everyone can show their guesses using their
fingers, hands, or arms.
• Turn the solar pizza over and show all the girls
the Earth, which is scaled to the size of the Sun.
• Were the girls’ guesses close to the actual
scaled size? Surprises?
• Fun fact: The Sun is 109 times the diameter of
Earth.
Be sure to return the solar pizza and the
tiny Earth to the plastic bag in the box
so that they can be reused.
20
How far apart are the Sun and Earth?
• Have one girl hold the cardboard Sun —
the “solar pizza.”
• Pull out the Earth tab on the back of the solar
pizza and hand it to another girl.
• Have the Earth and Sun stand together.
• Ask “If the Sun is the size of this picture, how far
away is the Earth?”
• Ask the person holding the Earth to slowly walk
away from the Sun.
• Each person says “STOP” when she thinks it is
the right distance.
• The Earth keeps walking until everyone has had
a vote.
• Look on the back of the solar pizza for the
correct answer. Measure that distance and have
the Earth stand at that distance from the Sun.
• This distance is the “Astronomical Unit.”
Solar Pizza —
• Cut out the images of the Sun and Earth.
• At this scale, the Sun and Earth are separated by about 20 meters
(about 65 feet). The actual distance between the Sun and Earth is
about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers).
This image is scaled to the correct
size in relation to the image of the
Sun.
Credit: NASA
https://sunearthday.nasa.gov
For More Fun with Numbers —
Sun and Earth Facts
Diameter of Sun: about 863,000 miles (1,490,000 km)
Diameter of Earth: about 8,000 miles (13,000 km)
You can fit 109 Earths across the Sun’s diameter!
The distance from Earth to the Sun is called the
“Astronomical Unit.” How long would it take you
to travel the distance to the Sun in a car? In an
jet airplane? The distance to the nearest star,
Proxima Centauri, is about 25,000,000,000,000 miles.
How long would it take you to go there in a car? An
airplane? A spaceship?
21
8. EARTH AS A PEPPERCORN —
SIZE AND SCALE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
What Is This About?
Can you picture how big the Solar System is? It’s really hard because the Solar System is really big! You may have
seen a picture of the Solar System in a book or on the web. To get all the planets into the picture, they were all
scrunched together. Or, you may have seen a picture of their orbits, and the planets were so tiny they were hard
to find. In this activity, the sizes and distances use the same scale.
Materials — (you provide)
• 9 index cards (in Eclipse Box)
• Marker
Mercury
• Outdoor area up 6/10th mile in length
Venus
• Sun—any ball, diameter= 8 inches
Earth
Mars
• Mercury—a pinhead, diameter = 0.03 inch
• Venus—a peppercorn, diameter = 0.08 inch
Jupiter
• Earth—a peppercorn, diameter 0.08 inch
• Mars—a pinhead, diameter 0.03 inch
• Jupiter—a chestnut or a pecan
diameter 0.90 inch
• Uranus—a peanut or coffee bean
diameter 0.30 inch
Uranus
• Neptune—a peanut or coffee bean
diameter 0.30 inch
Neptune
• To include the dwarf planet, Pluto—
a pinhead (or smaller, since Pluto is
a dwarf planet.)
Pluto
Sun
Scaled Sun and planets
22
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
Saturn
• Saturn—a hazelnut or an acorn
diameter 0.70 inch
To Do —
In this activity, you will make a scale model of the
Solar System and hike to the planets. The sizes and
distances will be much smaller than they are in real
life, but both will be to the same scale. What does
this mean?
Let’s start with the Sun, which is 800,000 miles in
diameter. An 8-inch diameter ball represents the
Sun. So, in our model, one inch represents one hundred thousand miles in reality. Our planet, Earth, is
almost 8,000 miles in diameter. That’s about 1/100th
the diameter of the Sun. In our scale model, that
means Earth is the size of a peppercorn, about 0.08
inches across.
The planets: The list of materials has suggestions for
objects to use, but you make substitutes. Or you can
draw a dots on the cards to represent the planets. It’s
a good idea to glue or tape the objects to cards and
write the name of the planet on the card.
First Step: There are 8 planets plus the dwarf planet,
Pluto. Set them out on a table, and compare them
with the Sun.
Second Step: How much space do we need to make
our Solar System? To arrive at the answer, we need
to return to our scale. One inch equals 100,000 miles.
This means that one yard (36 inches) represents
3,600,000 miles. It’s 93,000,000 miles from the Sun
to the Earth. That’s 26 yards.
So, it’s time to take a hike! Give the Sun and planets
to girls. You will need to find a place where you can
hike about one thousand yards in something like a
straight line. It’s good to be able to turn back and see
the Sun and other planets, but not essential. Pick a
route that will make a good story afterwards like “All
the way from the flagpole to the Japanese garden!”
Place the Sun where you can see it from a distance,
and begin the hike. The girls can count out the yardlong paces.
Fun Fact: At each planet, look back at the Sun. It will
appear the actual size that you would see from each
planet. Can you still see the Sun from Neptune?
Object
Sun
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Paces
0
10
9
7
14
95
112
249
281
242
Total
Paces
from
the Sun
0
10
19
26
40
135
247
496
777
1,019
Average
Distance
(millions
of miles)
0
36
67
93
142
484
887
1,784
2,794
3,675
You have marched more than half a mile! The
distance in the model adds up to 1,019 1-yard paces.
A mile is 1,760 yards.
Look back toward the Sun ball. Can you see it? Then,
at the pinhead representing Pluto. The Solar System
is REALLY BIG!
On this scale, the nearest star, Proxima Centauri is
about 4,000 miles away! How far is that? It’s the
distance between Miami, Florida and Anchorage,
Alaska!
Credit: NASA/JPL
Space Science Tie-In —
Today, we can measure accurate distances to the
planets by bouncing radio waves off their surfaces.
Space Scientists use these measurements along
with observations of the motion of the planets and
a knowledge of physics to accurately target planetary space probes like Cassini, Curiosity, Dawn,
Juno, New Horizons and many others.
Juno at Jupiter.
23
9. SUN TRACKING —
What Is This About?
Long before humans kept track of time with mechanical clocks, atomic radiation, or computer chips, they used
the Sun to tell time. As the Earth spins around like a top, the Sun appears to move across our sky. This movement
causes shadows to move and change over the course of a sunny day.
The simplest Sun tracker is called a gnomon, pronounced “no min.” A gnomon casts a shadow, and can be as
simple as a vertical pole. It can be used to track time on its own, or to measure time in hours and minutes as
part of a sundial.
Materials — (you provide)
• Vertical pole, stick (straight branch, stake, pencil)
• Open location on a sunny day
• Rocks or other markers, 3 or more
To Do —
If you are installing your own stick as a temporary gnomon,
• Find a clear, sunny space with soft dirt
• Press the stick straight down into the ground until it stands up on its own
• Find your gnomon’s shadow and mark the shadow’s end with a rock
• Decide when you can return to your gnomon, at least 30 minutes later
• Estimate where the gnomon’s shadow will be at this future time
• Place a second rock at the location of your guess.
• Groups can make multiple guesses with more rocks
• Return to your gnomon after the planned amount of time
Check your guess. Is the rock close to the shadow? Did the shadow move more, less, or differently than you
expected? Based on this movement, where do you hypothesize the shadow might be if you waited the same
amount of time again? If you have time, guess again check back a second time. Did the shadow move as you
expected?
24
Make a Pocket Sun Clock —
Make a simple Pocket Sun Clock. Pick the pattern for your location, and
print on heavy paper or glue onto cardstock. Cut out the Sun Clock, and
carefully cut the short notch at each end. Fold along the dotted line, with
the print on the inside. Take about 7 inches (20 centimeters) of string,
and place the ends through the notches. Tape one end to the back of the
clock. Make the string tight when the two parts of the clock are at a 90
degree angle. Tape the second end of the string to the back of the clock.
Take the Pocket Sun Clocks outside on a sunny day. Ask the Girl Scouts to
place the clocks on a flat surface and experiment with them until they tell
the right time. Which way are the clocks facing? Is there only one correct
position? If possible mark the position on the ground, and return about an
hour later to experiment again. Any changes?
Use this Sun Clock if you live in:
So. CA, So. NV, AZ, NM, A, TX, AL,
LA, TN, MS, AL, GA, FL, NC or SC
Use this Sun Clock if you live in:
No. CA, No. NV, UT, CO, So. WY, NE,
KS, IA, MO, IL, IN, OH, KY, VA, WV, MD,
DE, NJ, PA, So. NY, MA, CT, or RI
Use this Sun Clock if you live in:
WA, OR, ID, MT, ND, SD, No. WY, MN, WI,
MI, No. NY, VT, NH, ME, So. Canada
Credit: Paul Allen and Dennis Schatz, AstroAdventures, Sun Watching, Lesson 4: Making a Sun Clock, © Pacific Science Center
25
10.WAXING AND WANING —
PHASES OF THE MOON AND ECLIPSES
A Bit of History —
People have watched the Moon go through its predictable phases from full to new and back again for tens of
thousands of years. We don’t know who first understood and described the reasons for the phases of the Moon.
We do have evidence that people followed and recorded the phases of the Moon as much as 30,000 years ago
through lunar calendars where notches and holes were carved into sticks, reindeer bones and mammoth tusks.
In this activity, you will create a model of the Sun—Earth—Moon system and demonstrate the changing phases
of the Moon.
Materials —
• 20 Moon balls (in Eclipse Box)
• 20 pencils, skewers or other short sticks (you
provide)
• The Sun a single light bulb in a lamp without a
shade (or a bright flashlight)
• Darkened room
• Masking or duct tape to tape down the lamp
cord (safety)
Get Ready —
• Set up the lamp in the middle of the room. This
is the Sun. Tape the cord to the floor to avoid
tripping hazard. Alternative: One girl holds the
flashlight, and is the Sun.
• Give each girl a Moon ball, and pencil, skewer or
stick. Mount the ball on the pencil, and form a
circle around the lamp.
• Each girl’s head is the Earth, and each girl holds
up her Moon ball at arm’s-length.
26
Phases of the Moon
Credit: NASA/ Bill Dunford
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/galleries/phases-of-the-moon
To Do — Phases of the Moon
• Always the Moon ball at arm’s-length front of you as you do this activity.
Credit: E. DeVore, SETI Institute
• First, hold the Moon in the direction of the light source.
Where is the light on the ball? Since the light is shining on the
other side of the Moon, you (the Earth) should see a dark Moon
in front of you. This is the New Moon.
• Turn to the left and watch the Moon. What’s happening?
When you see a little of the Moon illuminated,
it’s called a Waxing Crescent.
• When you’ve turned one-quarter of the way around
the circle, how much of the Moon is lit up?
This is called a First Quarter Moon.
• Keep turning, and you will see more of the Moon
illuminated as it becomes a Waxing Gibbous Moon.
Two Girl Scouts
with Moon balls.
• Next, turn so that you back is to the Sun. Make sure to
hold the Moon high enough that your head does not block
the light from the Sun. What do you see now? How much of the Moon is illuminated?
This is the Full Moon.
• Keep turning, and you will notice that less of the Moon is illuminated. This is the Waning Gibbous Moon.
• Continue until half of the side facing you is illuminated. This is the Third or Last Quarter Moon.
• Finally, turn back through the Waning Crescent Moon to the New Moon.
• The full cycle of lunar phases from New Moon to New Moon takes 29.5 days.
• Waxing and Waning: As the Moon goes from New Moon to Full Moon, we say that the Moon is “waxing.”
And, when the Moon goes from Full Moon to New Moon, we say it is “waning.”
To Do — Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
• Eclipses are all about shadows.
• Cover up the Sun with your Moon ball. What is the phase of the Moon? (New Moon)
• This is a solar eclipse. Look at a friend’s face—you will see the shadow of the Moon on her face. To see a
total eclipse of the Sun, you have to be inside the central part of the Moon’s shadow, called the umbra. If
you are on the daytime side of the Earth, but outside the umbra, you may see a partial eclipse in the part of
the Moon’s shadow called the penumbra.
• To make a lunar eclipse, turn around with the Moon held out at arm’s-length until it goes into the shadow
of the Earth (your head). What is the phase of the Moon? (Full) Everyone on the dark side of the Earth can
see a lunar eclipse.
• Eclipses only happen when the Sun, Earth and Moon all line up.
Try This —
Go outside at the same time on 3-5 successive days—daytime or nighttime--when you can see the Moon. Each
time, note the location of the Moon and its phase. Draw the image of the Moon you see on a sheet of paper. What
do you see happening? Is it like the model you created?
27
11. HOW DO ECLIPSES WORK?
THE YARDSTICK ECLIPSE
What Is This About?
The Moon and Sun each appear to be about 1/2 degree across in the sky. That is about the width of your pinky
finger when held at arm’s-length. Earth is unique in all the Solar System having a moon that appears to be almost
exactly the same size as the Sun.
How is this possible when our Moon is only 1/400th the size of the Sun? It is because the Moon is also 400 times
closer! This wonderful coincidence coupled with the fact that the Moon orbits in about the same plane as the
Earth allows us to see total solar eclipses every year or two. But how, exactly does do eclipses work?
Materials — (in Eclipse Box)
• Folding yardsticks
• Binder clips
• 1-inch balls
• 1/4-inch beads
• Long wooden toothpicks
• Index cards (optional)
Space Science Tie-In —
Total solar eclipses are more than just beautiful natural displays. They also help astronomers who study the Sun
(called heliophysicists) learn about the Sun’s extended atmosphere called the corona. Many spacecraft that
observe the Sun create an artificial eclipse by putting a mask over the bright solar surface (the photosphere) to
study the much dimmer corona. These masks usually cover more than just the photosphere of the Sun, so the
spacecraft only observe the outer part of the corona. A natural solar eclipse allows astronomers to study the
lower corona, much closer to the surface of the Sun. (See diagram of the Sun on page 35).
For More Eclipse Information and Images —
American Astronomical Society — https://eclipse.aas.org
NASA — https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov
28
Get Ready —
You are making a model of the Earth, Moon, and Sun to demonstrate how they align to produce eclipses. What is a
model? It’s a simulation that shows how the real Earth, Moon, and Sun line up, but at a scale you can play with.
• Unfold the yardstick so that it is straight.
• Put the Earth ball on the end of a long toothpick. Clamp the other end of the tooth pick to the yard stick near
one end (at the 2 or 3-inch mark). How large is the real Earth? It’s almost 8,000 miles in diameter. The Earth
ball in the kit is one inch in diameter. That means that one inch = 8,000 miles in our model.
• How large is the real Moon? It’s just over 2,000 miles in diameter, about 1/4 the diameter of Earth. So, the
Moon is the 1/4-inch bead in our model. Attach the 1/4-inch bead Moon bead to the end of another toothpick.
• How far away is the Moon? The actual Moon is about 240,000 miles away from Earth. That’s 30 Earth
diameters away. So, in our model, each inch on the yardstick represents one Earth diameter. Clamp the Moon
toothpick to the yardstick, 30 Earth diameters away from the Earth ball. You now have a scale model of the
Earth—Moon system.
Assembled yardstick model
Moon bead casting shadow
on Earth ball.
To Do:
• We need the Sun* to make our model work! On a sunny day, take the eclipse yardstick model outside with
another Girl Scout.
• Turn your back to the Sun—you are using the real Sun in this model—to play with the shadows of Earth and
Moon.
• Hold the yardstick model up with the Earth ball closest to you (but out of your shadow.)
• Have your Girl Scout partner hold her hand or an index card behind the Moon so that you can find the
shadow of the Moon as a tiny dot.
• Can you make an eclipse of the Moon? Move the yardstick model until the Moon bead is covered by the
shadow of the Earth ball. That’s a lunar eclipse!
• Can you make an eclipse of the Sun? That happens when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth, and the
Moon casts its shadow on the Earth.
• Turn the yardstick model around so the Moon bead is closest to you. Slowly adjust the position of the
Moon until its shadow falls on the Earth ball. You have just created a total solar eclipse!
• Trade places with your Girl Scout partner, and let her make eclipses.
• *A bright flashlight in a darkened room can substitute for doing this outside with the real Sun.
Yardstick Eclipse used with permission of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Photo credits: Astronomical Society of the Pacific and E. DeVore, SETI Institute
29
12.WHEN DAY TURNS TO NIGHT —
MEASURING LIGHT LEVELS AND TEMPERATURE
What Is This About?
One of the eeriest sensations you will experience during a total solar eclipse is the rapid drop in light levels
around you. Though the sky has been getting slowly darker for a while, the jump from a sliver of partiality to total
produces a huge drop in brightness. As darkness falls during totality, both animals and plants prepare for actual
night time. Crickets chirp, birds and squirrels nest, cows start to return to their barns, and roosters crow. It has
even been reported that fish are more likely to bite. Animals that are normally active at night, come out to prowl
or hunt. In this activity, you will measure this drop in sky brightness.
Solar Eclipse at Your Location —
Everyone on the continental United States will be
able to see the August 2017 eclipse (sorry, Hawaii).
Most people will see a partial eclipse where the
Moon covers only a part of the Sun. To see the total
eclipse, you need to be along the central path of the
Moon’s shadow. NASA provides maps and tools to
help you find out about the eclipse for you
Materials —
• Smartphone
• Google Science Journal Application (free download), or other light-level app for smartphones
• Digital thermometer (in Eclipse Box)
NASA Eyes: an interactive animation of the
eclipse you can set for your location.
https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/nasas-eyes
Eclipse Maps: US maps for the path of totality
https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/maps-cartography
Get Ready — Before the Day of the Eclipse
• Download an application: you may need an adult’s
help or permission to download a smartphone
application that measures light levels.
• For Android smartphones:
search for “Google Science Journal”
• Tape and string to make a hanger for the digital
thermometer
•
• Paper or notebook and pencil or pen
• Note: the IOS version of Google Science Journal
is anticipated in summer of 2017.
• Outdoor location
For IOS smartphones:
search for “light meter” select an application.
Space Science Tie-In —
Total solar eclipses are more than just beautiful natural displays. They also help astronomers who study the Sun
(called heliophysicists) learn about the Sun’s extended atmosphere called the corona. Many spacecraft that
observe the Sun create an artificial eclipse by putting an mask over the bright solar surface (the photosphere)
to study the much dimmer corona. These masks usually cover more than just the photosphere of the Sun, so
the spacecraft only observe the outer part of the corona. A natural solar eclipse allows astronomers to study the
lower corona, much closer to the surface of the Sun.
30
To Do ­—
Figure out how to access and use the light level or light meter app on your smartphone. Your smartphone
camera is used to measure light levels. Try putting your hand over your phone or pointing your phone at a bright
light. Can you see the graph or meter go up and down as the light levels change?
Measuring light
levels with
Google
Science Journal.
Be a Scientist ­— Sample Light Levels ­
• Start taking 10 second samples of the ambient
light an hour before the eclipse. Repeat every 10
minutes until maximum eclipse has occurred.
For each 10 second reading, record the lowest
and highest reading value.
• On the path of totality: As the total eclipse time
approaches, begin a continuous recording. Start
one minute before totality and stop recording
one minute after totality ends. Your total record
will be about 4 to 5 minutes.
• Off the path of totality: Do the same experiment.
You may or may not detect changes in light level.
It depends on how much of the Sun is eclipsed.
Analyze Your Data —
• Review your results with other Girl Scouts
• Did you all record the same readings?
• Were there differences? Why?
• How dramatic were the changing light levels?
• How did the temperature change?
Make a hanger for the
digital thermometer
Credit: P. Harman, SETI Institute
Credit: Google Science Journal
When you are comfortable with recording light levels, you will be ready to record the drop in light levels from the
eclipse of the Sun. The closer you are to the path of totality, the more dramatic the change in light levels will be.
Farther off the path and you may not register any change, but try it! Right on the path, where the eclipse is total
for a short time, the change should be dramatic! If you are using the Science Journal, your can record the light
level changes with your smartphone through the eclipse! You can add photos, and voice recordings as the light
levels are being recorded.
Be a Scientist ­— Sample Temperatures
• Hang your digital thermometer from a tree limb
or other object out of direct sunlight.
• Don’t touch the thermometer during the experiment as your body’s heat will change the
temperature being measured.
• Record the temperature at 10 minute intervals
starting an hour before maximum eclipse to an
hour after. Be sure to get at least one measurement during totality! More is better!
• Graph the results: time vs. temperature.
Going Farther —
We all enjoy the beauty of sunrise and sunset. You
can also be a scientist at these times of day by
measuring the change in temperature and light
level at sunrise or sunset, using the same sampling
method as for eclipses. Start an hour before sunset,
or just as the Sun rises. It’s a good way to practice if
you are going to record data during the eclipse!
• Did you notice the drop with just your eyes?
31
13. MAKE AN ECLIPSE VIEWER —
Credit: Gemma Frisius, De Radio
Astronomica et Geometrica, 1545.
What Is This About?
It is not safe to look directly at the Sun without taking precautions to protect your eyes. The Sun is far
too bright to view directly. But you can build a simple
pinhole projector to help you see an image of the
Sun, safely.
“Pinhole cameras” were originally called “Camera
Obscura.” This drawing by Leonardo da Vinci of a
“Camera Obscura” shows the Sun projected through
a pinhole onto a wall. This is just like the projector you
will make.
Materials — (you provide)
• Cardboard box: carton, cereal box, shoe box
The longer the box, the larger the image
of the Sun.
Try These —
During an eclipse of the Sun, any small hole will make
an image of the Sun. Here’s some other fun ways to
project images of the Sun during partial eclipses.
• Scissors or box knife
• Masking or transparent tape
• 1 piece of white paper
• Pin
• Duct (opaque) tape, as needed.
Astronomers have observed the Sun with ground
based observatories for about 400 years. Galileo
proved that the Sun rotated by observing the motion
of sunspots on its surface. Today, we observe the
Sun in many wavelengths from large ground-based
observatories like the National Solar Observatory
and from spacecraft: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and
the Solar Dynamics Observatory.
32
Colander
Leaves
Crossed fingers
Credit: Public domain (top)
and R.T.Fienberg (bottom)
Space Science Tie-In —
Build the Box Projector —
Any box will work. The longer the box, the larger the
image of the Sun. These instructions are for a cardboard box. If using a box with open seams, seal up the
box with opaque tape to make the inside dark. Only the
pinhole in the foil should let in light when you are
looking through the viewing opening.
Tape white paper
inside on one end
of box.
CAUTION:
Never look at the Sun without
eye protection.
Cut or poke eye
and Sun holes.
Tape aluminum foil
over Sun hole.
It it safe to project the Sun
through small holes, and look
at the projected image.
Poke hole in foil
with pin.
Never look directly at the Sun
through pinholes
in paper or foil.
Tape box shut to
block light leaks.
Sunlight
enters
here.
To Do —
• Stand with the Sun behind you.
• Point the pinhole end of the box toward the Sun.
Move around until, looking through the viewing
opening, you see an image of the Sun projected
inside the box.
• An easy way to align with the Sun is to make the
shadow of the box and your head as small as
possible.
• Your pinhole projector will show a small image
of the Sun that is useful during a partial eclipse
to see the “bite” the Moon takes out of the Sun.
• The longer the box is, the larger the image of the
Sun will be.
Cut-away to show
path of sunlight only.
This side is closed up
when in use.
Graphics: Credit: Jessica Henricks, Girl Scouts of Northern California; Conor McQuaid
33
14.ECLIPSE CHALK ART —
What Is This About?
Observing a total solar eclipse can be an exciting, once in a life time experience! Long before there were cameras
or telescopes, eclipse watchers recorded what they saw in the sky in words, drawings, and paintings. You can
have fun creating your own picture of a solar eclipse with chalk and paper!
Materials — (you provide)
• Paper, dark blue or black. Smooth cardstock paper works best
(not construction paper).
• White, non-toxic chalk
• Pencil
• Scissors
• Masking tape
• Circle templates cut from cardstock, file folders or cereal boxes
• OPTIONAL Brightly colored construction paper or foam sheets for
cut-out horizon detail.
To Do —
• Make circle templates on stiff paper. Trace around the masking tape roll
with a pencil, and cut out the template. Make several for group activities.
• Place the template on a piece of dark paper. Secure with a loop of
masking tape or simply hold down with one hand.
• Draw a thick circle of chalk around the template.
Go around 2 or 3 times. It does not need to be neat.
• Holding the template in place, smudge the chalk away from the
center of the circle using a finger to create the corona of the Sun.
• When you are done smudging, remove the circle template.
• Add words, pictures, or fun designs.
• You’ve made total solar eclipse art!
34
Images above—
Credit: J. Henricks, Girl Scouts of Northern California
Space Science Tie-In —
Until the advent of sophisticated and
highly specialized ground and spacebased solar telescopes, the only
opportunity anyone had to observe
the Sun’s corona was during a total solar eclipse. Eclipse photography was not in use until about 1860.
Before that, astronomers would
sketch what they saw at the eyepiece of their telescopes.
Sketch of 1860 total solar eclipse by
G. Temple showing a coronal mass
ejection. Credit: G. Temple
First photograph of a solar eclipse
by Charles A. Young, July 18, 1860.
Credit: C. Young
Credit: NASA
For More Eclipse Information and Images —
American Astronomical Society: https://eclipse.aas.org
NASA: https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov
35
NASA ECLIPSE GUIDE —
36
MAKE YOUR OWN ECLIPSE PROJECTOR
You can make this simple eclipse projector with some cardboard, paper,
tape, a pin, and foil.
The longer the distance from the
pinhole to the screen, the larger
the image of the Sun will be.
Sunlight enters
through
pinhole in foil.
Small image
of partially
eclipsed Sun.
Cut-away to
show path of
sunlight only.
This side is
closed up when in use.
View through
opening.
37
HOW TO HowtoViewthe2017SolarEclipseSafely
VIEW THE 2017 SOLAR ECLIPSE SAFELY
AsolareclipseoccurswhentheMoonblocksanypartoftheSun.OnMonday,August21,2017,asolareclipsewillbe
visible(weatherpermitting)acrossallofNorthAmerica.Thewholecontinentwillexperienceapartialeclipselasting2to
3hours.Halfwaythroughtheevent,anyonewithina60-to70-mile-widepathfromOregontoSouthCarolina
(http://bit.ly/1xuYxSu)willexperienceabrieftotaleclipse,whentheMooncompletelyblockstheSun’sbrightfaceforup
to2minutes40seconds,turningdayintonightandmakingvisibletheotherwisehiddensolarcorona—theSun’souter
atmosphere—oneofnature’smostawesomesights.Brightstarsandplanetswillbecomevisibleaswell.
LookingdirectlyattheSunisunsafeexceptduringthebrieftotalphaseofasolareclipse(“totality”),whentheMoon
entirelyblockstheSun’sbrightface,whichwillhappenonlywithinthenarrowpathoftotality(http://bit.ly/1xuYxSu).
•
•
•
•
TheonlysafewaytolookdirectlyattheuneclipsedorpartiallyeclipsedSunisthrough
special-purposesolarfilters,suchas“eclipseglasses”(exampleshownatleft)orhandheldsolarviewers.Homemadefiltersorordinarysunglasses,evenverydarkones,arenot
safeforlookingattheSun.Todatethreemanufacturershavecertifiedthattheireclipse
glassesandhand-heldsolarviewersmeettheISO12312-2internationalstandardforsuch
products:RainbowSymphony,AmericanPaperOptics,andThousandOaksOptical.
Alwaysinspectyoursolarfilterbeforeuse;ifscratchedordamaged,discardit.Readandfollowanyinstructions
printedonorpackagedwiththefilter.Alwayssupervisechildrenusingsolarfilters.
StandstillandcoveryoureyeswithyoureclipseglassesorsolarviewerbeforelookingupatthebrightSun.After
glancingattheSun,turnawayandremoveyourfilter—donotremoveitwhilelookingattheSun.
DonotlookattheuneclipsedorpartiallyeclipsedSunthroughanunfilteredcamera,telescope,binoculars,orother
opticaldevice.Similarly,donotlookattheSunthroughacamera,atelescope,binoculars,oranyotheroptical
devicewhileusingyoureclipseglassesorhand-heldsolarviewer—theconcentratedsolarrayswilldamagethe
filterandenteryoureye(s),causingseriousinjury.Seekexpertadvice
fromanastronomerbeforeusingasolarfilterwithacamera,atelescope,
binoculars,oranyotheropticaldevice.
Ifyouarewithinthepathoftotality(http://bit.ly/1xuYxSu),removeyour
solarfilteronlywhentheMooncompletelycoverstheSun’sbrightface
anditsuddenlygetsquitedark.Experiencetotality,then,assoonasthe
brightSunbeginstoreappear,replaceyoursolarviewertoglanceatthe
remainingpartialphases.
AnalternativemethodforsafeviewingofthepartiallyeclipsedSunispinholeprojection.Forexample,crossthe
outstretched,slightlyopenfingersofonehandovertheoutstretched,slightlyopenfingersoftheother.Withyourback
totheSun,lookatyourhands’shadowontheground.Thelittlespacesbetweenyourfingerswillprojectagridofsmall
imagesontheground,showingtheSunasacrescentduringthepartialphasesoftheeclipse.
Asolareclipseisoneofnature’sgrandestspectacles.Byfollowingthesesimplerules,youcansafelyenjoytheviewand
berewardedwithmemoriestolastalifetime.Moreinformation:
eclipse.aas.orgeclipse2017.nasa.gov
Thisdocumentdoesnotconstitutemedicaladvice.Readerswithquestionsshouldcontactaqualifiedeye-careprofessional.
38
v.160824
COMO VER ComoVerelEclipseSolardel2017conSeguridad
EL EXLIPSE SOLAR DEL 2017 CON SEGURIDAD
UneclipsesolarsucedecuandolaLunacubreunapartedelSol.Ellunes,21deAgostode2017,uneclipsesolarserávisible,sílo
permiteelclima,atravésdetodaNorteamérica.Elcontinenteenterovaapresenciaruneclipseparcialqueduraráentre2y3
horas.Alamitaddelevento,cualquierpersonadentrodeunatrayectoriade60a70millasdeanchodeOregónaCarolinadel
Sur(http://bit.ly/1xuYxSu)vaaverunbreveeclipsetotaldelSol,cuandolaLunacompletamentecubralabrillantecaradelSol
porhasta2minutosy40segundos.Estoconvertiráeldíaenlanocheyharávisiblelacoronasolar,laatmósferaexteriordelSol,
lacualusualmenteestacubiertayesunodelosfenómenosnaturalesmásasombrosos.Lasestrellasbrillantesylosplanetas
tambiénseharánvisibles.
VeralSoldirectamentenoesseguroexceptodurantelabrevefasetotaldeuneclipsesolar(“totalidad”),cuandolaLunacubre
porcompletolacarabrillantedelSol.Estosolosucederádentrodelcaminodeleclipsetotal(http://bit.ly/1xuYxSu).
LaúnicaformasegurademiraralSoldirectamenteduranteuneclipseparcialesusandofiltros
depropósitoespecial,como“lentesdeeclipse”(ejemplodemostradoalaizquierda)oconun
visorsolardemano.Filtroshechosencasaolentesdesolordinarios,aunqueseanmuy
oscuros,nosonsegurosparamiraralSol.Alafecha,tresfabricanteshancertificadoquesus
lentesdeeclipseyvisorsolardemanocumplenconlosrequisitosinternacionalesimpuestos
porelISO12312-2:RainbowSymphony,AmericanPaperOptics,yThousandOaksOptical.
•
Siempreinspeccionesufiltrosolarantesdeusarlo.Síestarayadoodañado,descártelo.Leaysigalasinstrucciones
impresasenelpaqueteconelfiltro.Siempresupervisealosniñosusandofiltrossolares.
•
EstarsequietoycubrasusojosconsuslentesdeeclipseovisorsolarantesdemirarhaciaarribaalSolbrillante.Después
deobservaralSol,deselavueltayquítesesufiltro—noseloquitemientrasesteviendoalSol.
•
NomirealSol,aunqueesteparcialmentecubierto,atravésdeunacámara,telescopio,binoculares,uotrodispositivo
ópticosinfiltro.Deigualmanera,noveaalSolatravésdeunacámara,telescopio,binoculares,uotrodispositivoóptico
mientrasestausandosuslentesdeeclipseosuvisorsolar—losrayosconcentradosdelSoldañaranelfiltroyentrarana
suojo(oojos),causandounaheridagrave.Soliciteasesoramientodeastrónomos
expertosantesdeusarunfiltrosolarconunacámara,telescopio,binoculares,uotro
dispositivoóptico.
•
Síestadentrodelcaminodeleclipsetotal(http://bit.ly/1xuYxSu),remuevasusfiltros
solaressolocuandolaLunacompletamentecubralacarabrillantedelSolyde
repentesehagaoscuro.Luegodepresenciareleclipseensutotalidad,reemplacesu
visorsolarencuantoelSolbrillanteempieceaaparecerparaverlasfasesparcialesquerestan.
UnmétodoalternativoparaveralSolparcialmenteeclipsadoesconunaproyeccióndelagujerodealfiler.Porejemplo,cruce
losdedosestiradosyligeramenteentreabiertosdeunamanoconlosdedosestiradosyligeramenteentreabiertosdelaotra
mano.ConsuespaldaalSol,observelasombradesusmanosenelsuelo.Lospequeñasespaciosentresusdedosproyectarán
unacuadrículadepequeñasimágenesenelsuelo,enseñandoelSolcomouncrecientedurantelasfasesparcialesdeleclipse.
Uneclipsesolaresunodelosespectáculosmásgrandiososdelanaturaleza.Alseguirestassimplesreglas,ustedpuede
disfrutarconseguridadyserrecompensadoconmemoriasqueleduraránunavida.Paramásinformación:
eclipse.aas.orgeclipse2017.nasa.gov
Estedocumentonocontieneconsejomédico.Personasconpreguntasdeberíanconsularunprofesionaldecuidadodeojos.
v.160824e
39
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA
ECLIPSE
WEBSITE
RESOURCES
—
NASA
ECLIPSE
WEBSITE
RESOURCES
Learn all about the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse: when and where you can
see it, viewing techniques and safety tips.
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/safety
Find out which spacecraft, balloons and ground-based teams will observe the
August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse.
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/observations
Visit the NASA Science website to find celebrations, information and activities
for researchers, citizen scientists, educators, teens and kids.
http://science.nasa.gov
NASA’s Eyes on the 2017 Eclipse is an interactive, 3-D simulation of the
August 21, 2017 total eclipse.
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/nasas-eyes
NASA will host the Eclipse MegaCast, which will provide unique broadcast
coverage across multiple locations.
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/eclipse-megacast
Experience the 2017 solar eclipse in many fun, creative and challenging ways,
from family-friendly activities to sophisticated science projects. Explore activities
and find out about public engagement happenings in your community.
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/activities
Use the NASA toolkit to view videos and images, download a poster, or create
Eclipse in a Box–a portable eclipse demonstration kit. You can also make
3-D pinhole projection cards and share your do-it-yourself ideas.
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/toolkit
NP-2016-10-510-GSFC
EXPERIENCE
THE
2017 ECLIPSE
ACROSS AMERICA
THROUGH THE EYES OF NASA
http://eclipse2017.nasa.gov
www.nasa.gov
40
MORE RESOURCES —
Eye Safety:
It is never safe to look directly at the Sun without a special purpose filter. The only exception is during a
total solar eclipse, and then only for a few minutes when the Moon completely blocks the Sun. Safe solar filters can be
purchased from more than one vendor, but care must be taken to be sure that the filters meet the ISO 12312-2
international standard. Eclipse glasses manufactured in the United States meet these standards, and can be found via the
internet by searching on “eclipse glass manufacturers.” Buy American-made eclipse glasses to be safe.
Eclipse Resource Guide
A Resource Guide to Exploring Eclipses in General and the August 21, 2017 Total Eclipse of the Sun
by Andrew Fraknoi, Astronomical Society of the Pacific. The Eclipse Resource Guide provides an extensive list of
resources that includes books, articles about the Sun, eclipses and the 2017 eclipse, useful websites, sources of safe eclipse
glasses, interdisciplinary sites, and websites specifically about the 2017 eclipse. This is a treasure trove of information.
Search for Eclipses at https://www.astrosociety.org
Night Sky Network:
The Night Sky Network is national network of more than 400 amateur astronomy clubs that conduct outreach
activities for the public. Night Sky Network is sponsored by NASA and supported the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. You can
find out about star parties, club meetings and other astronomy-related events in your region online. There are search tools that
use your zip code to find contact information, and display event calendars at the Night Sky Network website. https://nightsky.
jpl.nasa.gov/
American Astronomical Society:
The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is the professional organization of astronomers in the United States and beyond.
For the upcoming eclipse, the AAS has a special website to prepare all Americans for the upcoming eclipse. There are many
resources available to help you prepare to view the eclipse from any location in the USA (except Hawaii, which is outside the
eclipse path). https://eclipse.aas.org/
All-American Total Solar Eclipse: Download this 8-page observing guide ideal for sharing with middle-school students and
their families as well as with community leaders. It is adapted from the book Solar Science: Exploring Sunspots, Seasons,
Eclipses, and More written by award-winning science educators Dennis Schatz and Andrew Fraknoi and published by the
National Science Teachers Association. The guide summarizes where and when to see the eclipse across North America, how to
observe it safely, and how to understand and explain what causes it. https://eclipse.aas.org/resources/downloads
Credit: M. Zeiler, GreatAmericanEclipse.com
41
COMPLETE LIST OF MATERIALS —
ACTIVITY OR RESOURCE
PAGES MATERIALS IN THE ECLIPSE BOX
MATERIALS YOU PROVIDE
6-7
magnets and compasses
paper, tape, pens or pencils
2. SUNBURN—ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT
DETECTORS
8-9
500 UV beads and 100 chenille stems
(These will need to be restocked in the box.)
sunscreen, sunglasses, regular glasses,
paper, cloth, hats, plastic, window glass
water
3. SEEING THE INVISIBLE—INFRARED LIGHT DETECTORS
10-11
NASA Lithograph: Infrared Astronomy: More
Than Our Eyes Can See.
smartphones, digital cameras, remote
controls for TV and other devices
4. LET’S SEE LIGHT IN A NEW WAY—
DIFFRACTION SPECTRA
12-13
10 spectroscopes
white paper, and various light sources
5. A LIGHT SNACK—COOKIE BOX
SPECTROMETERS
14-17
none
boxes (cookie, cereal, shoe boxes), scissors,
tape pens, black electrical tape (optional),
and diffraction grating slides, light sources
6. MAKE SUN S’MORES!
18-19
12 oven thermometers
boxes with closable lids, box knives or
scissors, aluminum foil, clear plastic wrap,
ruler or straight edge, glue stick, tape, sunny
location, pie tin, large marshmallows, plain
chocolate bars (thin) napkins
7. HOW BIG IS BIG? SOLAR PIZZAS
20-21
solar pizza--cardboard Sun and tiny Earth
measuring tape to measure up to 65 feet
8. EARTH AS A PEPPERCORN—SIZE
AND SCALE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
22-23
index cards
objects to represent planets
9. SUN TRACKING
24-25
none
pole or stick, sunny day outdoors, rocks or
other markers. Sun Clocks: scissors, string
and print copies of Sun Clocks on cardstock
10. WAXING AND WANING—
PHASES OF THE MOON AND
ECLIPSES
26-27
20 moon balls, 1.5” in diameter
20 pencils or skewers or short sticks (handles for Moon balls), darkened room, single
light bulb (clear and 40-60 Watts), tape to
safely tape lamp cord to floor.
11. HOW DO ECLIPSES WORK?
YARDSTICK ECLIPSE
28-29
5 folding yardsticks, 20 small binder clips, 5
- 1” balls (Earths), 5 - 1/4” beads (Moons), 10
large toothpicks
index cards (as screens). Hands or other
paper works too.
12. WHEN DAY TURNS TO NIGHT
— MEASURING LIGHT LEVELS AND
TEMPERATURE
30-31
Digital thermometers
smartphones with downloaded apps to
measure light levels, string and tape to make
a holder for the thermometers, paper or
notebook, pencils or pens, outdoor location
13. MAKE AN ECLIPSE VIEWER
32-33
none
cardboard boxes, opaque tape, aluminum
foil, pin, white paper, scissors or box knife,
outdoor location
14. ECLIPSE CHALK ART
34-35
none
smooth cardstock paper (dark color—blue
or black), white chalk, pencil, scissors
masking tape, file folders or cereal boxes to
cut up for templates, construction paper or
foam sheets for cut-out horizon details
1. LIVING IN A BUBBLE—PLAY WITH
MAGNETS AND COMPASSES
42
NOTES
43
Multiple images combined show the progress of the total solar eclipse of November 14, 2012, as seen from
aboard a cruise ship in the South Pacific. The lower right image of the sun was taken first and the upper
left image was taken last. During the partial phases before and after totality, the camera lens was covered
by a safe solar filter. No filter was used during totality, which is about as bright as the full Moon and just as
safe to look at. The background is an unfiltered view of the ocean and sky during totality, showing sunrise/
sunset colors along the horizon.
Credit: Rick Fienberg / TravelQuest International / Wilderness Travel
44
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