The RCA 110A computer - American Radio History

The RCA 110A computer - American Radio History
."101'151 No 6
Apr 1 May
A technical journal published by
RCA Corporate Engineering Services 2-8,
Camden, N.J.
RCA Engineer articles are indexed
annually in the April-May Issue and
in the "Index to RCA Technical Papers."
OOJ]3LJO Engineer
• To disseminate to RCA engineers technical
information of professional value • To publish
in an appropriate manner important technical
developments at RCA, and the role of the engineer • To serve as a medium of interchange of
technical information between various groups
at RCA. To create a community of engineering interest within the company by stressing
the interrelated nature of all technical contributions • To help publicize engineering achieve-
ments in a manner that will promote the interests and reputation of RCA in the engineering
field. To provide a convenient means by which
the RCA engineer may review his professional
work before associates and engineering management • To announce outstanding and unusual achievements of RCA engineers in a
manner most likely to enhance their prestige
and professional status.
-Editorial input
Engineer and the corporation
RCA out west
The changing role of the electronic engineer
R. H. Aires
College recruiting and RCA
M. C. Kidd
R. J. Ellis
R. P. Crow
M. Masse
H. Vol me range
J. H. Pratt
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division-a profile
VHF communication and navigation systems for general aviation
The AVN-210-an integrated aircraft navigation system
The AVC-110-a compact airborne communication transceiver
The AVQ-30-a new airline weather radar
Human factors for an instant airport
Engineering design support
P. H. Berger
R. E. Delm I O. E. Colgan
Value engineering at EASD
S. Steinfeld
Engineering support and logistics-the EASD approach
G. Fairhurst
Power supply overload protection techniques
F. C. Easter
Case history of an ideal reliability program
David Sarnoff Outstanding Achievement Awards
Two-color alphanumeric display
Character generators
Graphic displays
K. C. Adam
R. C. Van den Heuvel
G. P. Benedict I R. H. Norwalt
A. Levy
A, Lichowsky
A. J. Freed
Hybrid microelectronic fabrication techniques
Custom microcircuits in product engineering
The RCA 110A computer-ground checkout and launch control of Saturn
Safety and arming devices
S, C. Franklin
Professional TV systems
New one-tube color-camera for live or film use
T, M. Wagner
PK-610 color film system
R. Jorgenson
J. L. Hathaway
J. Gerber
Hum buckers for television remotes
Generating cold gas for photomultiplier cooling
Copyright 1970 RCA Corporation
All Rights Reserved
Pen and Podium
Patents Granted
Dates and Deadlines
News and Highlights
Index to Vol. 15
RCA out west
This is the first issue of the RCA
Engineer devoted primarily to papers written by engineers at RCA's
California locations - Van Nuys,
Los Angeles, and Burbank. Readers who have had prior contact
with these activities will probably
not be surprised by the level of engineering competence displayed
in these pages; but, unless that
contact was very extensive, they
cannot help being impressed by
the wide range of products and
services covered. To the majority
of our readers, however, this issue
will be a revelation.
Although a few papers had been
published in the RCA Engineer
during the rapid growth years of
the west coast groups, many of
these activities were somewhat of
a mystery, and in fact, many will
remain mysterious because of security restrictions in certain areas.
Nevertheless, from the standpoint
of opening new channels of communications, we are glad to see
that all is no longer quiet on the
western front. This blossoming of
publication activity, hopefully, will
engender yet a higher level of professional commitment on the part
of west coast engineers to continue
to communicate their ideas. This
issue demonstrates three major
benefits of publishing: increased
professional prestige for the authors, wider exposure for products
and services both inside and outside RCA, and increased awareness on the part of management
regarding the accomplishments of
its engineers.
This burgeoning of publications
activity did not happen overnight;
nor is the present issue solely a
result of editorial prodding and
cajoling. Two ingredients-sincere
management interest and thorough
follow-up by Editorial Representatives-were vital to the success of
this effort, first planned over two
year ago. Yes, plans that were
revised and updated every two
months until the present fruition.
But this type of planning is not
unique to the present issue. The
foundation for each RCA Engineer
is laid at least two years in advance
through meetings between division
Editorial Representatives, local engineering management, and the
editoral staff. At that embryo stage,
we attempt to decide which areas
of technology will be appropriate
and timely two years hence. Naturally, such early plans provide
only a skeletal thematic framework; in subsequent bi-monthly
meetings, new topics-from all
areas of RCA-are added to support the basic theme; authors and
tentative paper titles are included;
and the plans are repeatedly updated and revised-to achieve
timeliness, topical coverage, and
reader interest.
To reiterate, each issue of your
journal requires a generous amount
of local management support and
consistent and thorough follow-up
by Editorial Representatives. Issues are now being planned for
1972, but in such long-range planning, there is enough flexibility to
cover new papers, new topics, or
entirely new issues. If you would
like to participate in the planning
cycle, contact your Editorial Representative (listed in the inside
back cover of each issue); the information and ideas he brings to
your magazine depend upon the
participation and planning of
groups he represents.
Future issues
The next issue, the fifteenth anniversary of
the RCA Engineer, will contain representative papers from most areas of RCA. Some
of the topiCS to be covered are:
Holographic research and applications
Airborne data automation
Selection of small computers
Design automation
Color TV camera design
Undersea testing
Waveguide limiter design
Recording studio equipment design
Discussions of the following themes are
planned for future issues:
RCA engineering on the West Coast
Linear integrated circuits
Consumer electronics
RCA engineering in New York
Computers: next generation
Mathematics in engineering
Advanced Technology Laboratories
•The changing role of the
electronic engineer
H. Aires
The computer, the transistor, and the integrated circuit have produced revolutionary
changes in engineering. Circuits are no longer designed by specialists, who have all
the available component type numbers in their memories. Today, engineers use
computer-aided design techniques to combine entire groups of functional circuitry for
.ophisticated applications. This paper reminisces on some of the design methods of
past decades, highlights some of the innovations that have caused those methods to
change, and extrapolates today's methods into the future.
an electrical engineer could catalog, in
~is head, nearly all the available components needed to fulfill most requirements. For example, to design a
power-supply circuit, he had the option of using a type 80 or a type 83.
The type 83 automatically spelled
• quality, first because of the exotic blue
glow, and second because with a voltage drop of only 15 volts ( independent
of current) it required a choke input.
These tubes required a separate 5-volt
rectifier filament winding, and the differences between supplies consisted
.,rimarily in the quality of regulation
and ripple reduction required. Some
engineers with unlimited budgets used
two chokes. Those who chose the blueglow tubes often used a "swinging"
choke. I am not sure whether it was
~ value engineer or the car radio that
caused the need for a rectifier with a
6-volt filament and an indirectly heated cathode like the type 84, which
eliminated the need for a separate filament winding. Gas rectifiers such as
the OZ4 with ionically heated cath.Jdes could be used for more efficient
power supplies. Although the OZ4 was
part of the vocabulary, it was not
widely used except in car radios, perhaps because it required no filament
power-a thought that staggered the
.onfidence of all those who knew that
a rectifier should really have a filament.
For power output tubes, there were
several choices. Initially, troides such
as the 45 and 2A3 were the main
source of quality audio power. To obt~ttain more efficiency, pentodes such as
"the 41 and 42 (later to be called 6K6
and 6F6) were used even though they
Reprint RE-15-6-17
Final manuscript received November 7, 1969
had slightly more distortion. In a short
time, the beam power tubes such as
the 6V6, 6L6, and 807's dominated.
For amplification, there were triodes
such as the 6F5 (fL= 100) and the 6J5
(fL=20), the 6J7 sharp-cutoff pentode,
the 6K7 remote cutoff pentode, the 6L7
dual control grid tube for use as a
frequency converter or for dual control
applications, and the 6H6 twin diode
detector. With characteristics of these
devices well-known, any circuit could
be designed from audio amplifiers
(Fig. 1) to shortwave sets (to 20
R. H. Aires, Chie!.-Engineer
Engineering Department
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE from Cornell University in 1950,
and the MSEE from the University of Pennsylvania
in 1959. Under Mr. Aires since 1965, the EASD
Engineering Department (with a staff or 425, including 175 engineers) has placed heavy emphasis
on the development and utilization of custom integrated circuits and LSI technology in its product
lines, stressed acquisition of new young engineers
to the staff and undertaken in-house and other
technical courses to keep the engineers technically
updated. EASD's patent submissions per engineer
are among the highest for RCA operating divisions.
Company-sponsored programs and technique con-
Of course,
have over-simplified
somewhat, since there were already
equivalents of these tubes with different pin arrangements. Cost conscious
engineers had already found that a
radio could be built without a filament
transformer by using higher voltage
filaments (25Z6 and 25L6 for exampie). There were even a few tubes
with 117V filaments which were ideal
for the experimeter and for one-tube
phonographs .
Although I have indicated that an individual engineer could design with most
of the component information in his
head, the tendency was to specialize in
audio, IF, RF, or power-supply circuits.
This approach continued when the
tracts are carefully selected to complement and
augment the quality and innovativeness which
characterize EASD's design. development, and
production programs. From 1963 to 1965, Mr. Aires
was responsible for the formation and management
of RCA's Defense Microelectronics activity. As
manager 01 DME, he also served as a primary consultant at the corporate level for planning microelectronic programs for DEP and other RCA
activities. He has personally contributed to RCA's
accomplishments in the field of high-speed monolithic digital circuits and high-performance monolithic analog circuits, which were developed to
fulfili critical performance requirements in a large
variety of military electronic equipment. From 1959
to 1963, Mr. Aires was Staff Engineer reporting to
the Chief Defense Engineer, responsible for management of the DEP's IR&D program. The scope
of work ranged from basic physics through advanced studies of military and space systems.
From 1958 to 1959 he was Manager, TIROS Electrical Design-his direct contributions including
development of state-of-the-art circuitry to achieve
small size and minimum power dissipation with
maximum reliability, utilizing solid-state devices.
From 1954 to 1958, as Leader and Manager, he
supervised the development of antenna control
syst.ems and power supplies for airborne firecontrol systems. Before joining RCA, Mr. Aires
worked for the Philco Corporation where he was
engaged in the development of very precise de·
flection and high voltage circuitry for a single-gun
color tube. Several patents were issued for these
developments. Mr. Aires is a member of Eta Kappa
Nu, a Senior Member of the IEEE, and past Chairman and member of the Executive Committee of
the San Fernando Valley Section. He is a Director
of the San Fernando Valley Engineers' Council,
and was Chairman of Engineer's Week Committee for the San Fernando Valley in 1967.
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Fig. 1-Power amplifier schematic using RCA80, 83, and· 2A3 tubes. The amplifier was part
of the RCA Photogphone Theater Sound System of the 1930's.
scope suddenly widened into radar and
TV. By the way, tubes improved slightly, but most of the progress was made
by making them much smaller and by
putting more than one type in single
envelope, expanding the number of
types until very few engineers could
keep the information on all the types
in his head.
Fig. 2-Block diagram of E. A. Goldberg's patent for
stabilized DC amplifier-a big assist for analog computers.
Enter the computer (Fig. 2)
A revolution occurred when the analog
computer was invented: the same device could now be used for many
purposes. Some engineers began to
think of a new level of blocks such a .
the amplifier, the integrator, and the
multiplier. The theory of control systems became important everywhere
and EE undergraduate courses began
to include servomechanisms. The real
explosion came when people began t~
talk about digits, binary numbers, and
digital logic. Large groups of engineers began to build general-purpose
digital computers, and other words entered our vocabulary such as software
and programming.
Reliability and solid-state devices
(Fig. 3)
Just when it appeared that the reliability of existing components would
be the major limitation in the size of
a system that could work for mor.
than an hour, solid-state devices became a reality. The preceding sentence
implies that reliability engineers and
solid state engineers were already at
work in their specialities developing,
among other things, several more Ian.
guages. New words such as MTBF,
beta, emitter, base and collector crept
into the language of the electrical engineer. And thousands of transistor type
numbers entered the catalogs.
New thoughts on old subjects
Communication engineers had also
come up with new theories on how
to improve the ability to find the signal in noise utilizing statistics. The
tube engineers didn't give up either.
they invented magnetrons, TWT's,
BWO's, klystrons and other high frequency devices. Although CRT's were
important elements during the second
world war, many improvements have
been made including the addition of
color, storage, and multiple guns. •
Integrated circuitry-the major
revolution (Fig. 4)
Fig. 3-Comparison of a Closed-circuit TV
generator using tubes (top left) with the
solid-state monoscope circuitry used in the
6050 Video Terminal (top right). Boltom
right is one of several integrated-circuit
logic boards used in new data terminal for
CSD to generate information for alphanumeric displays.
During the past decade, the most revolutionary component to appear was the
integrated circuit. More new term:f;
came into the language: dual gates,
quad fours, flipflops, hex inverters, and
many more. A battle for acceptance
developed between DTL, T'L, EeL, RTL
and several more types of logic families. Linear circuits had a harder time
getting started but OP AMPS of all
types appeared and the differential
amplifier in almost any form became
.he answer to any amplification requirement. Within the last few years
another race has developed. This time
it is related more to silicon processing
techniques than to types of circuitry
and includes MOS VS. bipolar, P-MOS VS.
C-MOS, MOS vs. sos, and even high~hreshold vs. low-threshold P-MOS.
Today's engineer (Figs. 5 and 6)
By this time, I hope I have convinced
you that no engineer can keep all of
*hese details in his head. In fact you
can't find all the data needed in several books. What is the answer to the
question of specialists? In Van Nuys
we have a total of 160 engineers, including the leaders and managers. If
we had specialists in the way it was
.done in the 1940's we would not have
enough engineers to cover all the specialities required. Does this mean that
by definition we have generalists?
Perhaps it is possible that the definition of a design engineer is changing.
_Except for a small percentage of electronic engineering that use component
specialists, most design engineers today work with less circuit detail, but
cover a much greater number of functions than was possible ten years ago.
'-1 believe we are in a transition period
where the engineer will once again be
able to keep most of what he needs to
know in his head; that is, very fundamental ideas. The computer will keep
all the details at his fingertips. The
.communications expert who previously used pages of calculations to
finally arrive at the proper combination of elements for a Tchebysheff
filter need only tell the computer what
fundamental conditions he would like
.to meet, and the detailed circuit parameters will come back to him with not
only a schematic but a detailed list of
parts with breakdowns for purchasing
and released drawings for the factory.
The future
Can you visualize that only one or two
engineers will design and test a new
computer main frame in a few months?
I believe we are almost there now.
There are automated design programs
in existence that contain, in memory,
very large portions of logic such as
shift registers, adders, coders and decoders which can automatically generate a large amount of logic on a
single silicon chip after entering only
gross logic diagrams. Other programs
exist which can generate the wiring
layout to combine these complex elements onto a printed-circuit board.
Backplanes or automated wire wrap
programs can now be automatically
generated to interconnect the printedcircuit boards by additional computer
programs (Fig. 7) . In a few more years,
new programs will create the inputs
that are now required to produce integrated circuits, boards, and backplanes. In other words, only a fundamental statement of the kind of
computer main frame is to be designed
will be necessary. All future subdecisions will be made automatically;
best of all, the computer will print-out
all the documentation required.
If I am creating the impression that
we are going to put ourselves out of
a job it is because I haven't continued
to stress the amount of engineering
that will be required to build the machines and create the programs that
are going to do all these wonderful
things. I do believe that more engineers will return to thinking in terms
of fundamental requirements with less
thought given to detailed arrangements. After all, not too many engineers in the '40's worried about how
each electron got from the cathode
to the plate. Why then should we
worry about how a multiplication is
accomplished in a computer as long
as it happens reliably.
For the division controllers reading
this-who by the way have received
most of the advantages of the computer so far-get ready to re-program
the financial.--accounting programs because when all this happens there will
be only a few engineers left who can
charge D L. All the rest of the operation will be on overhead. Can you
imagine the result when one engineer
can create enough in one hour to cause
an expenditure of $100,000 of automated design and production to occur
by pushing a button. The overhead
rate will approach infinity unless you
Fig. 4-Ruby being cut for custom integrated circuit designed
by EASD engineers.
Fig. 5-L. W. Poppen using Hewlett-Packard calculator to
design Tchebysheff filter circuit.
Fig. 6-Don Clock using a data terminal for computer-assisted
Fig. 7-Backplane that was designed by a computer for the
4101C computer.
College recruiting and RCA
M. C. Kidd
How can RCA provide itself with a continuous thrust of new methods, creativity, and
enthusiasm? One way is through college recruiting. In a dynamic, competitive business such as electronics, college recruiting is vital to a company's long range growth
and stability. The requisite skill levels and balance of working groups can be maintained only by a continual addition of capable people. Most big companies find it in
their best interest to hire as many people directly from the colleges as practical. The
recruiting, however, is competitive. At Ohio State, where I recruit, 650 companies
compete for the hundred or so electrical engineers in a graduating class. The outstanding graduates get as many offers as they desire, so recruiting must be given
sufficient priority to get results.
that everyone wants the top people. When
you meet the exceptional individual,
you must offer him a real opportunity
to win his interest. The challenge is to
convince him that he should come to
RCA where his interests and abilities
can be immediately useful. The recruiter's awareness of the wide range
of activity going on in the various organizations and operating divisions
can make a big difference. Since we
are looking both for specific skills and
long range potential, the more diverse
the experience of the recruiter, the
more he can relate to the interests of
the prospective employee and inform
him where he would best be able to
The difference between college recruiting and recruiting for your own group
is quite significant. If you are a circuit
design leader, it is very tempting to
give a little circuit quiz to each man
you interview. This, I believe, is inappropriate unless the candidate expresses specific interest or claims special knowledge in circuit design. The
students will also get smarter as the
day goes on if you ask the same
Many of today's graduates are aware
that they must match their academic /
capabilities with the type of work they
will have the opportunity to do. Research demands much more analytical
skill than design, development, or manufacturing. The practical and personal
skills will be more important in manufacturing operations. While maturity
may be substituted somewhat for technical ability, the proper balance will
make the difference in one's ultimate
Reprint RE-15-6-24
Final manuscript received May 23, 1969.
success. There are many alternatives
for the young,graduate in RCA in addition to design engineering. It is important now to describe the total range
of opportunity that RCA offers. Since
each job is usually so individualized,
imagination is needed to create a hypothetical situation that is realistic.
Marshall C. Kidd, Administrator
We have two jobs to do when we recruit: evaluate the candidate and convince him that RCA is a good company. I believe that we should try to
do both at the same time. Possibly
the best way to do this is to help him in
any way possible. I have given advice
to a number of people which had
nothing to do with their future at RCA
and their response made me realize
that we have a unique opportunity to
give guidance because of our understanding of the industry and its requirements. Many professors don't
have this background and cannot help
the students that frequently need guidance in moving into industry. Also,
whether we want to be or not, we are
each Mr. RCA and the company benefits or suffers by our image.
Advanced Technology
Aerospace Systems Division
Burlington, Mass.
received the BChE and BEE from Ohio State University in 1944 and 1948 respectively. After experience with the Bakelite Corporation as a Chemical
Engineer and employment with the Allen B. DuMont Labs where he did circuit work on projection
televiSion, he joined the RCA Home Instruments
Advanced Development group. His work included
development of a loud speaker transient measuring
equipment, transistor television and automatic con • .
trol circuits. Basic patents were obtained on avalanche circuits from work with transistor video
amplifiers. In 1958, he transferred to the Electronic
Data Processing Advanced Development group,
where he helped develop the TRACE system which
resulted in the Vee Det detector for vehicle detection. As a leader in the Industrial Computer Systems Department of EDP, he had responsibility for
the development of the RCA 110 Computer i .
which his group received the David Sarnoff Team
Award. The computer was later used as the Saturn
Checkout Computer by EASD. At ASD, in Burlington, Massachusetts, he performed studies on selftest and application of integrated circuits to Automatic Test Equipment. In the circuit design of the
LM ATCA and DECA, his group used the first analog integrated circuits on the Apollo program. Th'iilll.
ASD Hybrid Microelectronics facility was set u~
and operated under his direction in its initiBI
phase. In his current assignment, he is responsible for the ASD IR&D program. Mr. Kidd is the
author of a number of technical papers on transistor circuits instrumentation techniques and microelectroniCS. He holds twelve U.S. Patents, is a
Senior Member in the IEEE, and a member of the
EIA Microelectronics group.
I feel that college recruiting is a most
challenging and stimulating job, since
each individual is completely unique
with different abilities, experience,
and interests. Because of this, each interview will vary completely with the
person interviewed. It would seem
that most graduates from a good college can be very useful in RCA if they
are in the right job. Fortunately, the
engineering rotational program allows
those potentially universal engineers
to look around and find a home with
some selection possible. A great many
of the young men that I interview are
not the top students and in general are
not spectacular when I talk to them.
The recruiting decision becomes more
difficult with them, since I have seen
a number of young engineers who did
not impress me at first later turn int~
outstanding engineers. How do you
know in advance that a graduate will
follow a job through to completion
overcoming all obstacles without giving up? This is a very valuable characteristic and it isn't necessarily related
to grades. This kind of man may
try hard to impress you and may only
answer your questions without volunteering any information. You cannot
afford to miss this type of person, and
every effort should be made to identify
him because RCA needs him.
While RCA needs brilliant people for
many jobs, one should beware of the
brilliant but inflexible person, who im.presses everyone he talks to and is so
superior to the previous individuals
that if you make an elimination because of limited requirements, you may
make a serious mistake. This type is
limited by his inflexibility. He cannot
• always adjust to the practical require'ments of the job. His perspective is
distorted and his demands are frequently unreasonable. He may give
the impression of being discriminated
against or persecuted in some subtle
way. He is usually articulate, but he
.will often indicate his problem to you
if you are alert and perceptive. It is
very hard to generalize here, but the
presence of negative traits should be
Since the person interviewed is trying
• to make a good impression on you, or
should be, anything observed that is
truly negative such as arrogance and
bad manners will most likely worsen
on the job when his guard is down.
People that are really difficult to get
along with have to compensate with
• some special ability to be as productive as the more personable though
less talented individuals. Usually, however, it is possible to find extremely
capable people that do get along reasonably well with most others on the
.' job. Getting along means being able to
take orders and follow through on an
assignment with support from others
when necessary. I remember a brilliant PhD who would prove after some
time on each problem he was given
that it was the wrong problem to solve
. . and at least philosophically he would
be right. Unfortunately, while being
one of the world's great critics, he was
not very creative in producing useful
ideas and concepts. Because of his intelligence, he was quite a challenge to
__ his management and to each of the
companies that he had worked for before he joined RCA. Fortunately, the
brilliant person usually lines up his
objectives with those of the company
and this becomes a major factor in his
I often think that if young Tom Edison or Henry Ford were to ask for an
interview and somehow got on the
schedule, they wouldn't make the
grade. Our requirements tend to be
rigid. If a student is not in at least the
upper half of his class, we don't want
to take a chance on him for most assignments. This, I believe, is unfortunate but it is not easy to do anything
about. Thirty minutes is not much
time to determine such important
things as drive, ambition, creativity,
stability, integrity, and most important
of all, will he be really productive on
the job. Past performance is still the
best way to predict the future. Grades
are important but so is the amount of
work done to offset expenses during
college and the maturity developed
from each job, both technically and
personally. Students who have worked
on any difficult job are ahead of those
that will have to learn how to handle
their first challenges at RCA. The coop student is easily a year ahead of
the typical non co-op student when he
starts. One of my friends who had
seen many trainees go through his department frequently referred to "late
bloomers." It may take a year or two
and even longer for some engineers to
become sufficiently self-motivated to
be able to apply their intelligence and
creativity to the problems at hand and
make contributions beyond those of
merely following direction. It would
be quite an achievement to predict this
characteristic in the initial interview.
The engineering graduate is technically well trained today, particularly
compared to 20 years ago. He has invariably worked with computers to
solve his problems and most often will
have a knowledge of solid-state phys-
ics that will make microelectronics
more easily understood. He is more sophisticated and knowledgeable about
industry since we have been living in
a highly technological society for some
time now. He may still not know what
he wants to do and this should not be
held against him because once he gets
on the job he probably won't work on
exactly what he likes best.
College recruiting is critical to our future. It requires a high degree of perception and intuition combined with
experience. If you are asked to recruit,
the fact that it is difficult for you to
get away makes you more valuable as
a recruiter. If you are technically involved in a current program, you will
be able to relate more closely to the
technical graduate. It is important that
the barriers be broken between school
and industry in the most effective way.
This can be helped by having graduates return to their alma maters on a
regular basis so that continuity can be
maintained. Your best recruiting help
can come from a friendly professor
or placement officer. Sufficient time
should be planned for you to talk with
them and understand what they consider important for their graduates.
Feedback is important as well since
bad experiences of graduates in any
step of the recruiting process must be
corrected wherever possible. The pipelines between students rivals RCA's
most sophisticated communication systems. In recruiting, as in anything else
that RCA does, the results are directly
related to our skill and effort.
Electromagnetic and Aviation
Systems Divis ion-a profile
R. J. Ellis
One of RCA's major Divisions, Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems is a primary
supplier of electronic warfare equipment, intelligence data systems, intrusion-ordance systems, and aviation equipment. Applying modern engineering methods (e.g.,
computer-aided design and microminiaturization) EASD has established a solid
reputation for technical excellence, cost consciousness, and schedule performance
with its commercial and military customers. This Division profile looks briefly into
EASD's background, describes the product lines, and provides an insight into the
engineering organization that supports these product lines. It serves as a brief introduction to the other papers in this issue, which deal with some of EASD's products
and services in more detail. For a closer look at the underlying engineering philosophy, the reader should refer to the paper by R. H. Aires in thjs issue.
N THE FALL OF 1950, the Los Angeles Plant of the RCA Victor
Division received a contract from the
United States Navy to develop an Airborne Weather Radar, the AN/ APS42. This was the modest beginning of
what was later to become the Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division, which comprises plants in Van
Nuys, California (Fig. 1), West Los
Angeles (Fig. 2), and in Huntsville,
Alabama (Fig. 3). Sidney Sternberg,
Division Vice Presideht and General
Manager, has his headquarters in Van
Nuys. An integral part of this operation is the Aviation Equipment Department in West Los Angeles with
Joseph R. Shirley as Division Vice
be needed to accommodate engineers
from M&SR. Concurrently, a company
survey indicated the advisability of
forming a DEP Division on the West
Coast; the decision was made to build
a new plant at 8500 Balboa Blvd.,
Van Nuys, California.
The Atlas design engineers from
Moorestown moved temporarily into
the Los Angeles plant while the new
Van Nuys facility was being built. In
September 1959 the Van Nuys plant
was opened for business, under the
name of West Coast Missile and Surface Radar.
The Division's employment mushroomed during the early years of its
existence as the Atlas program went
into production. The technological
From 1950 to 1958 the fledgling Los
expanded into computers, disAngeles Plant expanded its technologplays, and electronic warfare equipical manufacturing base from the
ment. As the Atlas program began to
APS-42 Airborne Weather Radar to
phase out, the Division was successful
AN/APN-70 Airborne LORAN, to AN/
in capturing another large contract for
AIC-I0 Aircraft Intercommunications
computerized checkout for the Saturn
Equipment, and to Electronic CounterLaunch Vehicle used in the Apollo
measures Systems. In 1957 and 1958
program. Additional technical competwo events resulted in the establishtence in displays and mass-memories
ment of a full-fledged DEP division in
developed and several electronic
Van Nuys.
warfare production contracts were
In 1958, Missile and Surface Radar
won and fulfilled. A new facility was
Division in Moorestown, N.J. was
constructed in Huntsville, Alabama,
fully loaded with the BMEWS program
to house the Saturn field engineering
and a new major contract for the
and logistics work.
Atlas Checkout Equipment. Since
In the latter half of the 1960's the divimost of the early Atlas engineering
sion entered the ordnance field, manudevelopment and integration work was
facturing various fuzes and arming
to be done at the Vandenberg Air
devices for the Vietnam war effort.
Force Base, California, space would
Airlines message switching systems
also successfully delivered. Mass
Reprint RE-15-6-18
memories and drums were developed
Final manuscript received January 14. 1970.
Robert J. Ellis, Mgr.
Publications Engineering
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received his education as a business administration major at Columbia University and as a~.
English major at Syracuse University. He studied
electronics through the Capital Radio Engineering
Institute. He is presently studying law for a LLB.
Mr. Ellis has had more than twenty years experience in all areas of integrated logistic support.
Those areas include technical publications, prOVisioning. training, field support, data management,
documentation control, and reproduction, and supply support. His present responsibilities include.
preparation and production of technical publications, proposals, brochures, presentations, reports,
and all similar documentation. He also is responsible for all reproduction services including microfilm, drawing vault files, and drawing distribution.
Mr. Ellis is Deputy Chairman of the Technical
Publications Section of the American Ordnance
and manufactured for the RCA commercial market. Early in 1968, a major
contract was received from the Navy
for a transportable electronic warfare
system, the AN/SLO-19 Countermeasure set (Fig. 4). This was a ORe..
(quick-reaction contract) program
with the first system to be delivered
in only 13 weeks. The Division received a commendation from the Navy
for schedule performance on this
More recently, new products such a""
intrusion-sensors are being developed.
Military aviation products, such as airborne integrated data systems, and several types of military drum memories
are now in development and production. The Aviation Equipment Depart.
ment's technology and manufacturing
base has further expanded in the general aviation and the airline markets
into the advanced weather radars,
transponders, distance measuring
equipment, and communication and
navIgation eqUIpment.
The products
The equipment and systems which
EASD currently designs, manufac-
Fig. 3-EASD, Huntsville, Alabama.
Fig. 1-Aerial view of the EASD Van Nuys facility at 8500 Balboa Blvd.
Fig. 4-Mr. Sternberg (at left) briefing Mr. Sarnoff and Mr.
Watts on the AN/SLQ-19 Countermeasures Set. Program Manager Jackson is at the right.
Fig. 2-Aviation Equipment Department, West Los Angeles.
tures, and markets are divided into
five major product lines:
Electronic warfare systems,
Intelligence data systems,
Military aviation products,
4) Intrusion-ordnance systems, and
5) Aviation equipment.
Electronic warfare systems
The major strength of the Division
in recent years has been electronic
warfare (EW); Fig. 5 illustrates, in
... summary form, the nature of the
equipment and technology that supports the EW product line. The function of most of EASD's electronic
warfare equipment is to detect and
locate the threat, and then immedi• ately to analyze, display, and record
vital information for the command
and control decision. EASD has been
a major EW supplier to the Navy
with primary emphasis upon electronic
countermeasures to confuse and/or
deceive the threat. Typical EASD electronic warfare equipments for the
Navy are: deception repeaters, jammers, traveling-wave-tube oscillators,
high-power amplifiers, and automatic
control equipment. Complete threat
reactive systems were delivered to the
Navy on a quick-reaction basis in the
form of the SLQ-19 Countermeasure
System. A new multiple-target electronic warfare system for installations,
such as tanks or jeeps, is under development now for the Army (Fig. 5).
Airborne decoys for ship protection
are also being developed under contracts to the military. EASD has also
designed and proposed the ship electronic warfare system for the new
DD963 destroyers soon to be built.
Intelligence data systems
The intelligence data systems (IDS)
product line is directed toward the
man-machine relationship in the computer and p;ripheral equipment field.
EASD has been a prime supplier of
computer peripherals to the Computer
Systems Division. Recent efforts have
been to expand this capability to serve
the military. Major equipments are
alphanumeric displays; random-access
mass memories (Fig. 6); drum memories (Fig. 7); and central processors. Several complete computer systems have been developed including
a switching system for airline use and
a communications and checkout system for the Saturn launch vehicles.
Under a present system contract,
EASD is developing operational support equipment for the Mariner Mars
'71 program (Fig. 8). In the last two
years, EASD has brought into development and production a new drum
memory system. Drum memories are
under contract for the Army (Tacfire)
and the Navy (NADC). The largest
single program potential is in the S-3A
ASW aircraft now under contract to
Sanders Corp. Airborne displays have
been delivered to the Air Force and
are being evaluated.
Military aviation products and systems
Military aviation products and systems
(MAPS) is a relatively new product
line at EASD. The knowledge, experience, and products of the Aviation
Equipment Department, added to the
EASD capability for systems design
and integration, provide the basis for
combining transportation / housekeeping avionic equipment into integrated
avionics systems. To date, distance
measuring equipment has been delivered to the Army, and signal adapters that are part of an airborne
integrated data system are being developed for the Army.
Intrusion-ordnance systems
Fig. 10-S. Franklin verifying a design in the fuze
Fig. 5-Multiple-target electronic warfare system.
Fig. 6-70/568 random-access mass memory.
Fig. 11-Hybrid microelectronics laboratory.
Intrusion-ordnance systems are divided into three significant product.
1) intrusion-sensing devices; 2) intrusion systems; and 3) fuze devices for
height-of-burst control of bombs, missiles, rockets, and motar and artillery
Intrusion-sensing devices have becom.
more important lately because of the
evasive "hit-and-run" tactics of the
Vietcong and North Vietnamese. Past
intrusion sensors used an electronic
beam cutting across roadways and
paths; however, this was easily dis.
cernable. Modern intrusion sensing
devices are primarily seismic accelerometers that sense ground waves due
to earth vibrations. They detect the
movement of personnel or vehicles
and transmit the warning signals to
a diagnostic receiving station. EASlJ'e
is one of the top companies in the
development of intrusion devices. Currently under development are both
seismic and microphonic intrusion devices for the Army.
The development of intrusion system.
has been greatly emphasized by the
requirements of Vietnam operations.
Various designs and applications of
intrusion systems are currently being
investigated by EASD.
Fig. 12-Hal Rocheleau in the chemical and metallurgical laboratory.
RCA's experience in producing fuze_
dates back to World War II. With
the escalation of the Vietnam conflict,
the demand for fuze devices increased.
and EASD was designated as the division to pursue this development and
production. Motar fuzes have been de.
livered to the army in large quantities.
EASD also has been successful in highvolume production of fuzes for air-toground rockets for the Navy.
Fig. 7-Spectra 70/567 drum memory.
Aviation equipment
Aviation equipment for commerciaii'
and general aviation is the responsibility of the Aviation Equipment Department. These equipments include
distance measuring equipment, weather radars, transponders, navigation/
communication receivers and trans.
mitters, and airborne integrated data
systems. Most of these equipments are
described in some detail in several
related papers in this issue.
Fig. 8-Mariner Mars '71 equipment checkout laboratory.
Fig. 13-Test equipment laboratory.
RCA is a leader in the commercial
aircraft equipment market-domestic
and international. For example, RCA
weather radar is used on fifty percent
of the world's commercial airlines and
~ over sixty percent of the general
aviation applications.
Engineering organization
Fig. 9 shows the engineering organization; Table I shows the functional
~esign activities of the various groups,
arranged according to product line
and technical competence.
Table I-Technical contributions of the design engineering groups.
,:-'- - - - - - - - EW systems and technology
Systems and equipment
Equipment development
Power conversion systems
Systems integration
Mechanical development
Systems and techniques
Intercept techniques
ECM techniques
.APS and ordnance systems engineering
Ordnance systems
Ordnance equipment
Ordnance development
MAPS systems
MAPS development
MAPS mechanical engineering
Advanced EW systems
Displays and peripheral systems engineering
Displays and peripheral systems design
Commercial peripheral products
System programming
Commercial display products
Military system design
Displays and peripheral systems programs
NASA programs
Mass memories and computer systems
Computer systems engineering
Automation systems
Command & control systems
Military product design
S-JA Program and advanced peripheral
Advanced mechanical development
Subsystem development
Advanced mass memory development
S-3A coordination
Advanced peripheral techniques
.Staff engineers
The Engineering Activity at EASD's
Aviation Equipment Department operates as a separate entity that reports
,.to the Division Vice President of
Aviation Equipment Department.
Modern engineering requires many
tools to achieve reliable and maintainable products. Such tools include
computer-aided design, coordinato:~~graphs, scientific calculators, and modern laboratories. Figs. 10 through 13
show some of the laboratories and
other equipment used at EASD as
tools for the engineers.
Fig. 9-Engineering organization.
Research and development
Engineering is currently investigating
techniques and advanced hardware
for each of EASD's product lines.
Research in electronic warfare includes:
1) Lightweight, low-volume, high-efficiency traveling-wave-tube supplies;
2) Advanced threat detection, identification, and processing;
3) Detecting low-level signals of unknown characteristics embedded in a
noise environment; and
4) Reduced-size frequency memory.
Advanced hardware development for
EW includes:
1) A solid-state modulator for highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifiers;
2) Electronically alterable digital PRP
filter /trackers utilizing content-addressable memories; and
3) An amplitude comparison directionfinding system.
Present research in intelligence data
systems inclttdes:
1) The development of data-base management and inter-operator communication systems; and
2) Display keyboards.
Advanced hardware development for
the IDS product line includes:
1) Advanced graphic display terminals;
2) Improved existing recording technology on drum and disks systems; and
3) A stand-alone, TV-oriented, alphanumeric display using cost-effective LSI
logic exclusively.
Military Aviation Products and Systems are currently engaged in the definition and design of VLF navigation
receiver front ends and digital phase
comparators for a navigation receiver.
Another program is devoted to the
definition and specification of LSI processing for aircraft communication and
navigation functions associated with
flight management processors.
Investigations in Ordnance include:
1) Improved packaging and heat transfer techniques to survive gun environments;
2) Increased detection and sensitivity
of seismic sensors; and
3) Minimized seismic sensor power requirements.
A satellite of DEP Advanced Technology Laboratories was opened at
EASD in January 1970. This joint
venture will perform research that is
vital to EASD's growth plans.
The Future
Much of the present engineering work
at EASD foreshadows several future
trends. EASD Engineers will rely more
on automation through computeraided design with greater emphasis on
microminiaturization to improve reliability, reduce weight and size, and
ease maintainability problems. As
always, the accent will be on the development of system concepts and
hardware in each product line.
VHF communication and
navigation systems for
general aviation
R. P. Crow
Already the major world supplier of airborne weather radar, RCA now produces the
most commonly used types of avionic equipment, as well as air·traffic·control transponders and distance-measuring equipment both for airlines and general aviation.
Leading the way in avionics integration, RCA has applied integrated circuit tech·
nology, advanced component miniaturization, and new materials to the integration of
aircraft avionics systems.
navigation and communication
equipment line are shown in Fig. 1.
They are
1) The AVN-210 Integrated VHF Navigation System,
2) The AVC-IIO VHF Communications
3) The AVI-201 RMI/Converter, and
4) The AVA-310 Audio System.
Those familiar with avionic equipment can see that this new line represents a high degree of avionic
systems integration and that there are
many advantages. Originally designed
for the general-aviation market, all
units have received Federal Aviation
Agency TSO requirements for commercial aviation. A TSO (Technical
Standard Order) is generally equivalent to a government specification for
commercial aviation equipment.
AVN-210 navigation system
The AVN-210-described in detail by
Masse in this issue-combines all the
indicators, controls, and circuits necessary for complete vOR/localizer,
gUdeslope, and marker-beacon functions. It also serves as the control head
for a remote distance-measuring
equipment, including the self-test'
function. The AVN-210 is the basic
model of a series including the AVN211, AVN-212, AVN-214, and AVN215. The latter models, while similar
in appearance to the AVN-210, lack
one or more of the basic capabilities
of the AVN-210.
Volmerange in this issue-includes
the normal functions of control head,
transmitter, and receiver of a 360channel airborne communications system operating in the 118- to 136-MHz
band. All frequencies for both the
transmitter and the receiver are derived from a divide-by-N digital frequency synthesizer. The 20-watt
transmitter includes protective circuits
which reduce the transmitter supply
voltage under adverse temperature or
antenna-VSWR conditions.
AVI-200 series RMllconverters
The AVI-200 RMI (radio magnetic indicator) /converter is a companion to
the AVN-21O navigation system; in
fact, the AVN-210 output drives the
AVI-200 automatic VOR converter. As
with the AVN-210 and AVe-l1O, the
AVI-200 is also packaged in a 3-in.
AT! (Air Transport Indicator) case. It
extends 81;2 in. behind the instrument
The RMI series provides all traditional
RMI functions; namely, the slaved
gyro compass card and dual needles
for indicating automatic VOR or ADF
(automatic direction finder) compass
bearings with respect to aircraft heading. At least one automatic VOR converter (two for the AVI-202 model)
is included in the unit. Input switching enables various combinations of
ADF and VOR readouts to be obtained.
In addition, the AVI-201 provides
selected heading information to the
automatic pilot.
AVC-110 transceiver
The AVC-11 O-described in detail by
Reprint RE-15-6-1
Final manuscript received October 28, 1969.
AVA-310 audio system
The AVA-31O audio system is used in
conjunction with all of the aircraft
Robert P. Crow, Mgr.
NAV/COM Engineering
Aviation Equipment Department
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Los Angeles, California
received the BSEE from Purdue University in
1943. He was an Air Force fighter pilot during
World War II, and was in the active reserves for
several years thereafter. Mr. Crow has more than
20 years of experience in the navigation/communications field. His background includes
years at Motorola, where he headed the first group
responsible for solid-state equipment design work
and was involved in the development of several
new product lines in the communications and
industrial control fields. Later he was Chief Engineer of the Motorola Aviation Electronics facility
in California. He has been associated with RCA
since 1961. He is currently responsible for the
design of navigation and communications equip.
ment. Mr. Crow has 16 patents to his credit.
navigation and communication equipment. It provides the means for
switching the various communications
or navigation equipment audio out,.
puts either to earphone or loudspeaker
channels. Separate amplifiers are used
for these two audio channels. The amplifiers include compressing circuitry
which tends to equalize the amplifier
output over wide-ranging input levels.
Filtering enables selection of voice oridentification Morse code tones. Auxiliary inputs and outputs, along with
electronic switching, provide the versatility of passenger entertainment,
intercommunication, announcements,
Advantages of system integration
The RCA approach has been to pro
vide high performance and quality ir
instrument - panel - mounted avionics
Although a number of panel-mounte(
equipments have been available fo
years, they have all been in th
low-cost category intended for no!
instrument-flying single-engine ai
. AVA-310
.-Fig. 1-The navigation and communication line of equipment produced by the Aviation Equipment Department of EASD.
craft. Even the equipment that is
most competitive with RCA's new
line is all remotely mounted and controlled, and only the indicators and/or
control heads are panel-mounted. For
• example, Fig. 2 shows a group of modern remotely mounted equipments
along with their associated control
heads and indicators. The equipment
equivalently performs functions identical to those of RCA's single-package
AVN-21O navigation system. The ad.vantages of integrating the several
avionics functions in a single package
are as follows:
1) Considerable weight reduction;
aside from the weight saving of miniaturization, a savings in weight of two
or more remote packages and associated aircraft wiring is substantial. In
the case of the navigation system, the
weight savi~ in an AVN-21O installation is typically 20 to 25 pounds.
2) Reduction of cockpit workload; integration eliminates potential pilot
confusion resulting from multiple control heads and separate indicators.
3) Substantial space savings; elimination of separate control heads and indicators relieves instrument-panel congestion and conserves room in the
4) Notable improvement in system reliability. Studies and field reports show
that system reliability improves with:
a) a reduction in the number of system
components, brought about by circuit
integration and elimination both of
remote control circuitry and of multiple
components, such as power supplies;
b) a considerable reduction in wiring
and interconnections; c) lower operating temperatures as a result of the low
power demands of some miniaturized
circuit forms; d) the use of monolithic
integrated circuits which, on a circuit
function-per-function basis, are more
reliable than discrete components; and
e) an idealized environment, such as
the cockpit.
5) Reduction of system costs; although
many miniature components are relatively expensive, initial equipment costs
are lower because most redundant components are eliminated and packaging
costs are reduced.
6) Low current drain; a safety factor
derives from the possibility that power
for the equipment could be supplied
from an emergency battery in the event
of an aircraft power failure.
General design aspects
The availability of competitively
priced monolithic integrated circuits
has been a major factor in the design
of RCA's integrated avionics. Numerous single-function integrated circuits
are used, and in the frequency synthesizer of the AVC-110 transceiver
medium-scale integration techniques
were applied. Use of small, stable ceramic capacitors has greatly improved
circuit function densities. Although
multilayer printed-circuit boards offer
packaging advantages, consideration
of cost and reliability dictates the use
of double-sided printed-circuit boards
with plated-through holes. An eyelettype of device called a griplet is used
in most holes to attain the added reliability of redundant connections
from one side of the printed-circuit
board to the other. Redundant paths
on both sides of the boards serve the
same purpose. With these approaches,
intermittent connections are virtually
Maintenance costs throughout the life
of avionic equipment has historically
been more than twice the original
equipment cost. Notwithstanding reliability improvement, serviceability is
an important design factor. In the integrated navigation and communication equipments, the majority of the
components are located on printedcircuit boards. In a typical case, the
boards are mounted along the surfaces
of the unit so that all of the board com·
ponents are readily accessible for test
or replacement.
Fig. 2-Typical navigation system with traditional remotely-mounted black boxes before the
introduction of the AVN-210.
craft types. Performance is essentially
constant from approximately 11.5 to
32 VDC. Each unit contains some form
of DC regulator set typically to 9.5
volts. Where" a low average current
drain is required, such as the 300 mA
drawn by the AVN-210, a series-type
regulator is used. The communications transmitter, however, requires
approximately 13 VDC for full output;
also currents in the order of 5 amperes
are drawn. Hence a series DC regulator
would be inefficient and would produce a serious dissipation problem.
Thus, in this particular instance, a
switching-type regulator is used.
Power supply design is of particular
importance, especially where a single
supply is used by two or more subsystems, as in the case of the AVN210. Careful attention must be paid
to circuit design, component ratings,
and quality to achieve an adequate
MTBF for the system. Subsystems must
be isolated with respect to the power
supply so that. one cannot adversely
affect another.
With increasing avionic complexity,
the pilot must have an effective means
of monitoring the equipment operation. The AVN-210 contains a simple,
but effective, self-test for each
function. The AVC-110 enables the
In general, each printed-circuit board
pilot to monitor both receiver and
consists of a complete sub-system. For
transmitter operations and to observe
example, the marker-beacon receiver
of the AVN-210 is a complete sub- /' whether transmitter protective circuits
system entirely mounted on a single
have decreased communications range
board. Isolating a subsystem to a sinunder adverse conditions.
gle board minimizes the number of
Emergency provisions in the AVAexternal leads and makes subsystem
310 audio system enhance system
testing less complex.
reliability for all navigation-andSince each unit operates directly from
14- or 28-volt aircraft power supplies,
without wiring changes, there is no
need for several models to fit all air-
communication audio aboard the
aircraft. Interconnections allow earphone operation for the units in the
event of a total electronic failure; that
is, failure of both amplifiers and/or
the power supply.
Digital circuits, with recent advances'"
in components, offer size advantages in
areas that heretofore have strictly followed analog approaches. Traditionally, VOR converters handling 30-Hz
signals have usually contained bulky
components, but the AVN-210 vo~
converter is considerably smaller
thanks to active filters and digital circuit techniques.
With the exception of the audio system, each unit is mounted in the aircraft instrument panel by means of
standard instrument clamp. It enables
one man, unaided, to remove the unit
from either the front or rear of the
panel merely by loosening two front
panel screws.
Main connectors in each unit are of
the PT type, but size and keying differ'"
ences prevent misconnecting them.
Antenna connectors are keyed in the
same manner for the same reason.
Market potential
RCA's new aviation nav/com line i. .
the start of a trend based on a solid
technical foundation. Quality and
performance heretofore found only in
remotely mounted equipments are now
available in panel-mounted equipment
with the attendant advantages of
smaller size, lighter weight, and lowe~
equipment and installation costs. Together with operational advantages
and high reliability, these are attractive factors in a market that ranges
from light twin-engine aircraft to the
business jet. There appears to be •
natural fit in the growing community- I
airline market. Some of the smaller
military aircraft also offer a potential
The AVN-210-an integrated
aircraft navigation system
The AVN-210 VHF Navigation System combines several previously separate navigational functions in one compact instrument package. To accomplish this, some
unconventional circuit and packaging techniques were used. This paper first introduces the reader to some aircraft navigational concepts and then describes the
electrical design and packaging techniques used to achieve this unique, integrated
unit. Some of the problems encountered, and their solutions, are also discussed.
used aircraft navigational aids:
1) A VOR receiver and converter for enroute navigation. VOR is an abbreviation
for VHF omnidirectional range (also
known as "omnirange").
2) An instrument landing system
(ILS) which by means of localizer,
glideslope, and marker-beacon functions provides the pilot with course,
descent, and range information on final
The AVN-210 Navigation System provides the pilot with all necesary radio
instrumentation for both VOR and ILS
• flight.
VOR receiver and converter
The VOR receiver operates in the 108to 118-MHz frequency band with a
ground transmitter power of 200
• watts. Because of the modulation
process at the VOR ground station, the
VOR converter will be able to recognize a phase difference between two
30-Hz signals transmitted-a reference-phase signal and a variable-phase
~signal. This phase relationship will
. . depend on the azimuth of the airplane
relative to the ground station and magnetic north. For example, the VOR receiver of an airplane located on a
magnetic north azimuth from the VOR
station receives a signal in which the
• variable and reference 30-Hz audio are
exactly in phase. At an easterly azimuth, the variable phase lags the reference phase by 90° and so on. The
purpose of the VOR converter is to
recognize the phase difference between
the variable and reference signals, and
process the information for display
to the pilot on a course indicator.
Reprint RE-1S-6-2
Final manuscript received October 28, 1969.
Localizer receiver and converter
At the airport site, an RF signal is
radiated along the runway. "'The signal
is modulated at 90 Hz along the left
side of the runway and at 150 Hz
along the right side. The radiation patterns of the two modulations are of
equal field intensity along the centerline of the runway. When the navigation receiver is tuned to a localizer
frequency, the detector sees a composite signal of 90 and 150 Hz. [In
the RCA AVN-21O system, this receiver is the same as that used for
VOR.] The respective amplitudes of
the 90- and ISO-Hz components, as
seen by the receiver, depend upon the
angular displacement of the airplane
from the centerline of the runway. In
the localizer converter, the 90- and
ISO-Hz components are isolated, rectified, and differentially compared (see
Fig. 1). The amplitude difference,
displayed by the right-left meter, indicates to the pilot the lateral displacement of the airplane with respect to
the runway center.
Glideslope receiver and converter
From the glides lope antenna array at
the airport, a horizontally polarized
RF beam is radiated at a vertical angle
of from 2t;2 ° to 3° (see Fig. 1). The
upper side 9f the beam is modulated
at 90 Hz; the lower side is 150 Hz.
At the center of the beam, the 90- and
ISO-Hz components are of equal field
intensity. An aircraft following the
center of the beam descends toward
the runway at an angle equal to that
of the radiated beam. The glideslope
receiver and converter receives the
signal and transforms it to a visual
display representing the vertical displacement of the airplane from the
center of the beam.
Michel S. Masse, Ldr.
Navigation Engineering
Aviation Equipment Department
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Los Angeles, California
received the BSEE from the Advanced Industrial
Studies School (Hautes Etudes Industriel/es) 01
the University of Lille, France, in 1948. He joined
the RCA Aviation Equipment Department in 1964,
and participated in the design 01 the AVQ-75 DME
and the AVN-210 VHF Integrated Navigation System. During prior job tenure with Lear and then
Motorola, Mr. Masse worked on VOR/Localizer
and Glideslope receivers, marker-beacon receivers,
automatic direction finders, and automatic VOR.
Prior to this he was employed by Canadair Ltd
where he worked on the F86 and T33 electrical
and electronic simulators. Mr. Masse has been
awarded one pattnt since joining RCA.
Marker-beacon receiver and light
Two 75-MHz transmitters, called the
outer and middle markers, are normally part of an airport's ILS installation. Each transmitter radiates a
fan or dumbbell-shaped pattern. The
outer marker is typically located from
four to seven miles from the approach
end of the runway, and within 250
feet of the extended centerline of the
runway. The carrier is amplitudemodulated at 400 Hz and keyed to
produce successive dashes. The middle marker is typically located 3500
±250 feet from the runway and within
50 feet of the centerline extended. The
carrier is amplitude-modulated at
1300 Hz and keyed to produce alternate dots and dashes.
As the airplane on an ILS approach
passes over the outer marker, a blue
lamp lights in accordance with the
400-Hz modulation. During passage
over the middle marker, with the
1300-Hz modulation, an amber lamp
lights. Since the location of the middle
marker is relatively fixed, and the distance from the runway of the outer
marker is published on approach
plates, the pilot has a distinct indication of his position. Passage over the
marker is emphasized by the keyed
tone audible through the aircraft
audio system.
The 75-MHz carrier of the airway
markers is amplitude-modulated at
3000 Hz. The airway markers are
located on prominent airways or holding points. They are used for navigation location references. The Morse
Code identification keying indicates
the direction of the marker from the
associated VOR station with respect to
magnetic north.
108.1 TO 111.9 !",HZ, ODD TENTHS ONLY.
Fig. 1-lnstrument landing system.
installed in the standard instrument
panel hole normally provided for the
indicator only.
The AVN-210 navigation system concept, as illustrated in the block diagram of Fig. 3, adheres closely to what
has been the industry practice for a
number of years. However, the concentration of all functions into a single
black box of greatly reduced size
(available at competitive prices, and
offering equal performance) makes
System concept
the ensemble unique. Approaches and
Until recently, equipping an airplane
techniques were judiciously chosen
for VOR-ILS flight required installation
throughout the. design stage to mainof a number of distinct units of varitain compatibility between cost, size
ous dimensions and weights; the funcand required performance. In fact, the
tions of these units were typically as
applicable FAA TSO requirements
shown by the separate blocks in Fig.
had to be met, or exceeded, over both
2. Moreover, for commercial flight
standard and extreme environmental
under instrument flight rules (IFR) ,
conditions. [TSO is technical standard
two navigation receivers and indicaorder, an environmental and operators are required by Federal Aviation
tional specification based on minimum
Administration regulation. With the
performance standards. Issued by the
advent of semiconductor components, / FAA, the TSO may be subdivided
various combinations of the functions
into categories of location or condishown in Fig. 2 began to take place.
tions. TSO approval is required for
Examples of such combinations are
all equipment used by the airlines.]
the frequency selector and vORl
electrical portion of the navigalocalizer receiver, vOR/localizer contion
unit may be divided into four
verter and indicator, or the vORl
localizer receiver and converters. Integrated circuits have made possible the
1) The navigation receiver,
2) The VOR and localizer converters,
AVN-210 Integrated Navigation Sys3) The glideslope receiver and convertem, which combines all of the VOR-ILS
ter, and
functions shown in Fig. 2 into a single
4) The marker-beacon receiver and
3-x3-xl0V2-in. package that can be
light amplifiers.
The navigation receiver
The navigation receiver, also commonly known as the vOR/localizer receiver, is designed to retain the
integrity of information received at
the antenna since it must be trans.,
formed both to a visual display for
the pilot and to a command to the
automatic pilot. The receiver must
therefore be optimal throughout the
applicable range of RF input signal
level with respect to: immunity to
cross-modulation, IF bandpass charac-.
teristics, and audio phase and amplitude distortion.
The vOR/localizer receiver is of the
well-known double-superheterodyne
configuration. The received freque
cies, ranging from 108 to 117.95 MHz
in 200 discrete channels, are spaced in
50-kHz increments. A bank of 10 crystals, individually selected by means of
the MHz knob, initiates a local oscillator signal ranging from 76.025 to
85.025 MHz in I-MHz steps. This sig.
nal is fed to the first mixer for a resultant first IF at a frequency sliding
from 31,975 to 32,925 MHz which, in
turn, is fed to the second mixer. A
bank of 20 crystals, ranging from
44.705 to 45.655 MHz in 50-kHz steps~
(selected by means of the KHz knob),'~
constitutes the source of the second
local oscillator signal for a resultant
12.73-MHz second intermediate frequency.
The RF and IF gain averages 122 dB
which, together with the automatic
gain control (AGC), provides usable
navigation information throughout an
RF-signal-input range of from 1.5 to
.50,000 antenna-generated microvolts.
Selective use of dual-gate field-effect
transistors and integrated cascode-connected IF amplifiers provide state-ofthe-art capabilities in the optimization
of cross-modulation and AGC charac• teristics, and holds distortion to a
minimum. The AGC filtering, important to the integrity of the audiomodulation phase, is achieved by an
adaptive filter. The filter provides adequate 30-Hz attenuation, but does not
greatly penalize AGC recovery time in
i"" the event of large variations in the
amplitude of the RF input signal. The
required IF bandpass is provided with
optimum volume efficiency by a crystal filter that maintains a 6-dB bandwidth greater than ±21 kHz and a
• 60-dB bandwidth of less than ± 60
The receiver board also embodies the
audio (speech) amplifier capable of
delivering up to 100 mW of audio
signal into a standard 600-ohm load.
The audio output is adjustable by
manual volume control knob.
VOR and localizer converters
The VOR signal conveyed from the receiver detector to the VOR converter
consists of a 9960-Hz subcarrier, frequency-modulated at 30 Hz; this is
the reference-phase signal. A 30-Hz
fixed-frequency audio signal, the variable phase signal, is also fed to the
VOR converter. With the aid of an FM
detector, the 9960-Hz sub carrier is
converted to 30 Hz, which then becomes the 30-Hz reference phase. The
modulating process at the VOR
ground station results in a definite
phase relationship between the 30-Hz
reference and variable signals for any
given azimuth of the airplane relative
to the ground station and magnetic
north. The converter discriminates
the phase difference between the two
signals and processes this information
for display.
Because of space restrictions, the most
common design approach that makes
use of bulky inductors and transformers was avoided. Maximum utilization of integrated circuits was
achieved by use of
Operational amplifier active filter techniques.
Operational amplifier zero-crossover
detector networks to transform the
sinewaves into square waves without
degradation of phase information.
Quad gates as phase discriminators,
level sensors, and disable circuits.
In the localizer converter, to conserve
space, highly stable active bandpass
filters were used for frequency selection instead of the more common LC
filters. The right-left deviation-meter
amplifier (an integrated circuit) is
common both to the VOR and localizer
functions. The right-left information
requires smoothing to be usable in an
autopilot system. In a typical nonAVN-210 installation, smoothing is
effected by paralleling the deviation
meter and additional loads by large
values of capacitors (typically larger
than 5000 fLF) located outside of the
system black boxes. The AVN-21 0
achieves the damping at the highimpedance input of the deviation
meter amplifier, allowing for internally mounted low-value capacitors,
and thus reducing installation complexity and cost.
Glideslope receiver and converter
In addition to performance requirements, which are nearly identical to
those of the vOR/localizer receiver, the
glideslope receiver must offer an extremely flat AGC characteristic and be
capable of handling large percentages
of modulation.
The receiver is of the doubleconversion type with an RF and IF gain
of approximately 95 dB. A bimk of 20
crystals ranging from 88.767 to 90.667
MHz provides the primary frequency
selection of the first oscillator. Coupling of the selected crystal to the oscillator is effected through an MHz/KHz
wafer-switch combination to ensure
proper pai!:ing with the localizer frequencies. The first oscillator frequency
is tripled and mixed with the incoming signal varying from 329.3 to 335.0
MHz to obtain a 63-MHz first IF. A
single-crystal oscillator at 51.6875
MHz provides an injection signal to
the second mixer for a second intermediate frequency of 11.310 MHz.
State-of-the-art devices, such as
double-gate field-effect transistors and
integrated IF amplifiers, are used
where they offer advantages in per-
Fig. 2-Grouping by black box of airborne
VOR/ILS receiver functions before RCA's
AVN-210 system.
formance, size, and cost. Bandpass
requirements are efficiently met with
the use of a multiple-section crystal
The converter is identical to that described for the localizer except for
minor differences in bandpass and
gain characteristics.
Marker beacon receiver and light amplifier
The AVN-21O marker receiver can
operate in either high- or lowsensitivity modes. A switch enables
the pilot to make the selection. One
dual-gate field-effect transistor and
two cascode-connected integrated RF
amplifiers provide the 45-dB gain required in the high-sensitivity mode.
For all practical purposes, receiver
selectivity is determined by the input
crystal filter. The audio and AGC amplifiers are integrated circuits. The
three audio bandpass filters are low-Q
series-tuned circuits. They provide the
necessary selectivity so that one lamp
only can light for any incoming
marker signal. The audio (tone) amplifier can deliver up to 75 mW to a
standard load of 600 ohms.
The self-test function is provided for
the entire AVN-21O by a 30-Hz square
waveform generated by a simple freerunning multivibrator that is excited
when the self-test pushbutton is
pressed. The square wave is fed concurrently to the vOR/localizer converter, the glideslope converter, and
the marker-beacon light amplifier.
If a VOR frequency is selected, depressing the self-test pushbutton
activates the VOR circuit, and a 60°_
from bearing is displayed on the indicator. The three marker lamps light.
If an ILS frequency is selected, and the
self-test pushbutton is depressed, the
third and fifth harmonics present in
enables the operator to select any desired VOR bearing. The following are
located within the inner circular area
of the bearing angle selector ring:
GL10ESlOPE RECEIVER & CONVERU'"R- - - - - - - - -
The cross pointer needles; the vertical,.
and horizontal needles that indicate,
respectively, left-right and up-down deviations from localizer and glideslope
The to/from (rip) indicator, located
in the window above the horizontal
needle, indicates in VOR operation
whether the selected course bearing is.
from the aircraft to the station or from
the station to the aircraft.
The VOR/LOC and GS warning flags,
which drop out of sight whenever a
usable signal is present and the equipment is operating properly.
The display of the selected vOR/localizer receiver frequency.
The casting on the outer periphery of
the bearing dial provides support for
Fig. 3-AVN-210 VHF integrated navigation system.
generated signal be used for checking
the 30-Hz square wave pass through
the accuracy of VOR receivers prior to
the 90- and ISO-Hz filters, causing the
IFR flight.
right-left needle to deflect to the right
(90 Hz dominant) and the glideslope
needle to deflect downward. The three
Power requirements
marker lamps also light. The approThe current drain of the system
priate warning flags are deflected from
averages 300 rnA from a voltage
view, and the remote DME self-test ./ source of 11.5 to 32 VDC. Conventional
function is actuated for both the VOR
series regulators provide the 9.5 and
and ILS channels. Such a simple sys4.75 VDC required for the solid-state
tem provides the user with an operacircuits.
tional test only. There is no specified
accuracy verification by means of
Physical aspects
self-test; however, for a given unit,
Fig. 4 is a photograph of the AVNsubsequent reproducibility of the
210 without its dust cover. The omniindications given by the self-test signal
range bearing selector (OBS) card,
generates confidence that the systems
graduated through 360 0 in 50 increare operating accurately. Furthermore,
ments, appears on the dial face. It is
Federal Aviation Regulation Part
geared to the OBS selector knob, and
91.25 specifies that an externally
1) Three marker-beacon lamps, identified A (airways), 0 (outer), and M
(middle) ;
2) The marker-beacon HI/LO sensitivity. .
selector switch;
3) The self-test pushbutton switch;
4) The OBS selector knob coaxial to the
volume control knob; and
5) The coaxial MHz and KHz frequency-selector knobs.
The enclosed portion of the unit,.
located behind the instrument dial
face, contains:
The five sensitive DC meter movements
that actuate the deviation needles, the
r/p indicator, and the warning flags.
The gearing arrangement necessary to
actuate the resolver coupled to the OBS •
card, and the wafer switches coupled
to the frequency selector knobs.
Four printed-circuit cards are mounted
in the rear section. Concentrated on
these cards are the circuits and components that perform the functions of •
the vOR/localizer receiver and power
supply (top), the vOR/localizer converters (left side), the glideslope receiver and converter (bottom), and
the marker-beacon receiver and light
amplifiers (right side). In Fig. 4, one
of the boards is swung out to show.
the switch assembly. Sandwiched
along the center shaft, the successive
wafer switches provide crystal selection for the desired channel, VOR or
localizer and glideslope function.
They also provide the necessary logic
for selecting the frequency for the
remotely mounted distance-measuring
equipment (DME). The main connector, three antenna jacks, and the
power elements of the voltage regu-
lator are mounted on the rear plate.
Although compact, the unit is easily
serviceable as both side boards swing
out, making all internal elements and
wiring accessible. All printed circuit
"boards can be removed from the frame
in a few minutes.
Problem areas
Several of the problems normally an.. ticipated in the design and development of a new product proved to be
of greater than usual complexity, primarily because of the multiplicity of
functions within a small package. The
most significant problems were
Receiver spurious responses and oscil·
lator beats,
Power supply and distribution, and
Component-size limitation.
Receiver spurious responses and
oscillator beats
• Although precautions are taken in
printed-circuit layout and in the location of critical-function elements,
high-density packaging, such as that
of the AVN-210, leaves little freedom
to provide isolation between the vari• ous sections of a receiver, or even
between two or more receivers within
the system.
Complete shielding of the oscillators,
mixers, and RF sections of the vORl
localizer and glideslope receivers of
.. the AVN-210 is neither practical nor
desirable as it would impair serviceability and increase the cost of the
A three-step procedure was followed
.,to avoid undesirable spurious re. sponses and to preclude oscillator
beats that could be generated by the
presence of four live oscillators in a
limited space:
1) Oscillators and mixers were mounted
on separate "baby" printed-circuit
boards and boxed into RF-shielded enclosures. This provided sufficient isolation.
2) Separate ground returns from crystal decks to oscillator· mixer assemblies
were used to prevent disturbances that
would be created by ground loops between receiver sections and between
individual receivers.
3) Field·effect transistors, rather than
their bipolar counterparts, were used
for their ability to provide oscillator
signals with lower high-order harmonic
Power supply and distribution
Common power sources, in the form
of Dc-voltage regulators, are used for
the entire AVN-210 system. Internally
created ripple would cause inaccuracies in the displayed navigation information; for instance:
A 30-Hz ripple originating at the VOR
converter could add to the modulation
of the RF signal present at the lowlevel stages of the VOR receiver. This
would probably result in a phase shift
of the incoming signal and a display of
false information by the right-left
needle and possibly by the T IF indicator.
A 90- or ISO-Hz ripple originating at
the localizer converter could add to the
90- or ISO-Hz modulation of the RF
signal present at the low-level stages of
the glideslope receiver. If The modulation depth characteristics of the incoming signals were thus altered, the
glide-slope needle would deviate erroneously.
To prevent such inaccuracies, the
power sources are designed to offer a
very low source impedance to the
loads (0.01 ohm) while interconnecting wires and protective-fuse resis·'
tances are kept to a minimum, thus
avoiding the use of large-size elements
necessary for low-frequency (30, 90,
and 150 Hz) decoupling. Also, signal
paths, power, and ground distribution
within a single board are carefully
laid out to avoid interstage interference, especially in the presence of adverse environmental conditions.
Component-size limitation
The cost and size definitions of the
AVN-210 package demanded a minimum number of the smallest size components. Integrated circuits provided
an immediate answer for the "active"
part of the circuit. Keeping in mind
that low frequencies (30, 90, and 150
Hz) carry the navigation intelligence,
one sees that the inductor and capacitor elements offered more of a chal/'
lenge. Active RC filters are used
wherever there are low-frequency discrimination requirements, and highimpedance circuits allow use of small
capacitors of relatively low value.
To achieve the high degree of reliability most essential to a navigation and
approach-aid system, special attention
was paid to:
Fig. 4-AII AVN-210 subystems are accessible for servicing.
Reducing the number of components in
minimizing circuit complexity.
Reducing eventual component failure
through careful evaluation of electrical,
mechanical. and thermal stresses.
Reducing the quantity of interconnecting wiring by optimizing the packaging
functional distribution .
Eliminating eventual intermittencies by
use of redundant circuit paths, platedthrough holes, and feed-through griplets, where practical.
Although the AVN-21 0 contains all of
the elements necessary to perform the
functions generally provided by
several discrete equipments, it is calculated that a minimum mean-timebetween-failure (MTBF) of 1500 hours
should be obtained by the AVN-21O
series. While there is not enough data
available at this time to confirm this
engineering evaluation, available information is favorable.
The AVN-21 0 series offers a new concept of an airborne navigation system;
it embodies some unconventional circuit techniques for optimum use of
miniature components, such as integrated circuits, monolithic ceramic
capacitors, and multiple solid-state
devices. It represents a first step toward an overdue miniaturization of
aircraft navigation equipments. The
low power consumption, light weight,
ease of installation, and competitive
cost should be attractive features to
most avionic users.
The AVC-110-a compact
airborne communication
H. Volmerange
The AVC-110 VHF Communications Transceiver utilizes all solid-state circuitry with
extensive use of integrated circuits and medium-scale integration. In fact, the only
mechanical devices are the operating controls and the associated channel-selector
switch. At the heart of the unit is a digital frequency synthesizer which provides the
precise RF signals utilized by both the receiver and transmitter. The combination ot
reliable solid-state components, advanced but proven circuit techniques, and
reliability-oriented design approaches, have given the AVC-110 a calculated meantime-between-failure (MTBF) of more than 1500 hours.
many manufacturers, including
RCA, have contributed design fundamentals to airborne communications
equipment which is virtually an indispensable part of the avionics package
of an airplane. In more recent years,
refinements, rather than fundamentals, have preoccupied designers, but
with the AVC-1lO VHF Communications Transceiver, entirely contained
in one package for instrument-panel
mounting, a substantial forward step is
achieved. In company with formidable
competitors, the AVC-110 provides
360 channels with 50-kHz spacing
in the 118.00- to 135.95-MHz frequency band. It has 20 watts of transmitter output power for a rated 200nautical-mile range, and weighs only
4.8 pounds instead of 10, 15, or even
20 pounds, characteristic of competitive remotely controlled units. Notwithstanding its small size
(approximately 3.2 x 3.2 x 10 inches),
the AVC-110 ranks among the best
since it qualifies for the Federal Aviation Agency TSO (technical standard
order), a set of performance and environmental tests comparable to those
of military specifications.
The unit consists of five principal subassemblies, most of which can be
readily identified in the block diagram
(Fig. 1). These are
1) Control head
Frequency synthesizer
Transmitter (including modulator)
Power supply
Reprint RE-15-6-3
Final manuscript received January 16, 1970.
Note that the relative simplicity of the
system is made possible by the digital
frequency synthesizer.
The AVC-110 without the protective
dust cover is shown in Fig. 2. Ease of
factory production and serviceability
are not sacrificed to compactness, as
may be noted in the photograph.
The control head is contained in approximately the front two inches of
the AVC-llO. It consists of the various
control knobs, gearing, frequency
readout, and transmitter monitoring
lamp. The rear portion of this assembly includes the wafer switches necessary for selection of the desired
channel frequency. The selector switch
also provides voltages for electronic
tuning of the receiver RF section.
The frequ~ncy synthesizer is mounted
on the right side of the unit in a
shielded enclosure. The receiver consists of a printed-circuit board assembly and, as can be seen in Fig. 2, is
mounted on the top of the unit. The
transmitter and modulator assembly is
mounted on the finned heat sink and
becomes the left-side structural member of the unit. Lastly, the power supplies are mounted on the central
chassis and tear plate assembly.
The transmitter/modulator susbsystem
consists of a VHF power amplifier and
an amplitude modulator. The VHF
part of the transmitter consists of four
wideband stages of amplification
which provide more than a 20-W output from a 20-mW input. The first
Hubert Volmerange
Aviation Equipment Department
Electromagnetic and Aviation System Division
Los Angeles, Calif.
received the BS from the University of Paris"
France, in 1947, and graduated in electrical engi.
neering from the Conservatoire National des Arts
et Metiers, Paris, in 1951. In France, Mr.
Volmeranrre evaluated airborne communication and
navigation electronic equipment for the French
air ministry. He came to the United States in
1957, and engaged in advancecj development of
semiconductor high-speed logic at the Philco
Corporation. In 1958, Mr. Volmerange joined the
Radiation Instrument Development Laboratory.
where he designed digital circuits, From 1960 to
1964, with Standard Kollsman Industries, he partiCipated in VHF and UHF research and development programs associated with television receivers.
In 1964, he joined Motorola Semiconductors as a
senior applications engineer, and he worked in
Phoenix, Ariz .. and in Geneva, Switzerland. Mr.
Volmerange joined the RCA Aviation Equipment,.
Department in 1967 where he has been instru-tt:¥"
mental in the development and design of the
airborne AVC-110 VHF Communication Transceiver. A member of the IEEE, Mr. Volmerange
has been granted one patent and has two patent
applications in process.
r----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ---------!
---------- - -- --I
L~R~9.~E~C_Y.:~:.N2~E~ ~~R..~~~E..~~l~
__________ .__________________________________________________________________________ J
Fig, 1-AVC-110 VHF Communication Transceiver; the heart of this unit is the digital frequency synthesizer which provides precise RF signals
for both transmitter and receiver.
.two stages operate in class-AB to pro·
vide higher gain at a power level
where efficiency is not paramount. The
last two stages operate in class-C. The
collector efficiency of the final stage is
60% and the overall amplifier efficiency is 40%. The final stage is a
• single package consisting of two dual
chips of multiple-emitter transistors
with matching diffused emitter resistors. The VHF output of the transmitter
passes through a low-pass filter which
"ejects VHF and UHF harmonics gen.. erated in the non-linear power stages.
Other circuits related to the VHF output are the sidetone, the VHF TR
switch, and the reflected power de·tector.
Amplitude modulation in transistor.-ized RF power amplifiers is of the
collector type and must be applied to
several stages to overcome both the
loss of power gain at modulation peaks
and the feed through of drive power to
the output at modulation troughs. In
the AVC-II0, stages 2, 3, and 4 are
,. modulated. Stage 2 receives only the
modulation peaks; stages 3 and 4 receive full modulation.
An RCA integrated circuit is used to
boost the microphone output to a
power level that properly drives the
~qJnal 15-W push-pull stages driving the
modulation transformer.
In a communication system, it is desirable to maximize speech compre-
hension. This is accomplished by a
high index of modulation. The modulator contains a compressor circuit (an
AGC at audio frequencies) . The output
level remains essentially independent
of the loudness of the operator's voice.
The compressor, while maintaining a
relative high modulation level, also
prevents overmodulation and has a
range of more than 30 dB.
At the heart of the solid-state transmit/receive switch are two PIN diodes.
One is used in series with the transmitter output; the other is in shunt
with the receiver input at the center
of a broad series-tuned circuit. Both
are held in a low-impedance conduction mode by current from the transmitter power supply. A fraction of a
dB insertion loss to the respective
ports is provided, while some
40-dB transmitter-receiver isolation is
The receiver is a single-conversion
type. It has a full RF and IF gain of
more than 130 dB and has a sensitivity
(6 dB signal + noise/noise) of better
than one microvolt. It includes a
squelch system which maintains a reI·
atively constant threshold over a wide
range of input noise.
Receiver front end
The receiver front end consists of two
RCA dual-gate MOSFET's used as an
RF amplifier and as a mixer. These devices, chosen for their almost perfect
square-law characteristics, reduce the
effects of cross modulation and spurious mixing products to a minimumimpossible to achieve with bipolar
transistors or even with many tubes.
Their cascode configuration reduces
the feedback capacitance to a point
where neutralization is not necessary
at high-gain levels. Front-end selectivity is provided by three tuned circuits and a tracking image-rejection
trap. Tuning is achieved by varactors
whose tuning voltage is provided by a
resistance divider controlled by the
MHz frequency selector.
Local oscillator and IF amplifier
Local-oscillator voltage is fed to the
mixer by the frequency synthesizer at
a frequency 16 MHz higher than the
received frequency. The IF first passes
through an eight-pole crystal filter
(6 dB bandwidth greater than
± 14kHz, 60 dB bandwidth less than
±30KHz) matched to avoid in-band
ripple. The IF amplifier consists of
three wideband stages using high-gain
RCA integrated circuits in cascode
configuration. Conventional detection
and audio amplification through a
squelchable RCA integrated circuit
completes the receiver chain. An interesting feature of the AGC amplifier is
that two of the IF integrated-circuit
stages are used in sequence as DC
local oscillator frequencies. This solution would create both reliability and
spurious frequency problems.
The availability of digital integrated
circuits makes the digital frequency ..
synthesizer a practicality. It requires
only one reference crystal oscillator
to generate any number of discrete
frequencies through the use of a
voltage-controlled oscillator (veo) and
a programmable counter. Use of a
phase-locked loop ensures an exact"
output frequency.
Fig. 2-The AVC-110 transceiver package weighs only 4.8 Ibs., is 3x3x10 inches in size, yet
delivers 20W of transmitter power for a rated 200-n mi. range.
3-kHz speech band. Noise quieting as
differential amplifiers to control their
well as the detected rise in the carrier
own IF gain and to provide the voltage
gain necessary for the delayed AGe ./ voltage (upon reception of a desired
RF signal) cause the squelch to open.
action in the RF amplifier.
Digital' frequency synthesizer
Simple squelches mute the receiver
audio output as long as the RF input
signal is too weak to activate the AGe.
This type of squelch presents adjustment difficulties as it opens on high
noise levels at the antenna. A balanced squelch is used in the AVC-II0.
It operates on noise outside of the
With crowding of the spectrum, tolerances of ±0.005% are placed on
transmitting frequencies. These tolerances can only be met by the use of
crystal oscillators. For the AVC-ll0,
with 360 channels, multiple mixing of
30 to 40 crystal frequencies would be
required to generate transmitter and
The 5-MHz frequency chosen for the
crystal oscillator presents the best
compromise among size, frequency
tolerance, and crystal cost. The 5-MH~
reference is divided by 400 in a digital
divider using three stages of MSI integrated circuits. The 12.5 kHz thus
obtained determines the reference
phase, and it is used to trigger an
SO-p.s ramp with an amplitude that
includes all voltages necessary to thetuning of the voltage controlled oscillator (veo) in the design range. The
veo is a varactor-tuned oscillator covering the frequency range 11S.00 to
135.95 MHz plus 16.00 MHz necessary to the transmitter and receiver.
local oscillator. The veo is followed by
three stages of wideband amplifiers
insuring distribution of proper drives
to the transmitter, the local oscillator,
and the programmable counter.
Owing to speed limitations of digital
circuits, a 4-to-1 frequency divider is"
placed between the veo and programmable counter. The latter, usually
called an N-counter, is programmed to
count a number of pulses equal to
one-fourth the ratio of the desired VHF
frequency to the reference 12.5 kHz,.
and deliver an output pulse each time
it has counted the programmed number of pulses. The N-counter output
pulse closes the MOSFET switch of the
"sample-and-hold" phase detector for
about O.5p.s. As the MOSFET switch
closes, it charges the integrating filterto the ramp voltage of that instant.
If the veo is exactly at the desired frequency, the counting cycle of the Ncounter will last exactly SO p.s, and the
successive N-counter output pulse~
will occur at exactly the same phase~'
of the ramp. The voltage appearing on
the integrating filter, and on the veo
varactor, is constant, thus holding a
constant output frequency. If, for any
reason, the vco frequency deviates, the
time required to count the programmed number of pulses will no
longer be 80p.. In such a case, the N•. counter output pulse will appear at a
different phase of the ramp, and the
varactor bias voltage will then be
modified to bring the vco back to the
desired frequency.
There are several design approaches
~ to the circuitry of a digital frequency
synthesizer. Considerations such as
frequency coverage, environment, and
available power supply determine
whether the synthesizer will use a
high- or low-speed N-counter, one or
. . several vco's, coarse tuning by application of a bias to the veo varactor,
auxiliary phase loops, frequency mixing or multiplying, etc. The AVC-ll0
with a high sampling rate and a
straightforward approach has a highperformance wideband phase loop.
. . The high sampling rate is made possible by the use of high-speed emittercoupled logic for the kHz-setting part
of the N-counter. The MHz-setting
part of the N-counter uses slower
medium-scale integrated circuitry. The
• resetting after each counting cycle is
time-staggered and makes use of a
small auxiliary counter to overcome
critical propagation delays.
Due to the nature of the N-counter, a
digital frequency synthesizer is a
.. sampled system. In this sampling lie
most of the limitations and drawbacks of the synthesizer. The first
limitation is on the phase-loop gain. If
the phase-loop were to run continuously, the gain could theoretically be
1t'infinite without affecting stability.
Sampling introduces a delay in the
correction of phase errors and limits
stability versus gain of the phase loop.
Since the output of the N-counter
closes the sampling switch for about
O.5p.s each 80p.s, an updating of the
... varactor bias occurs at a 12.5-kHz
rate and introduces frequency modulation inherent to the system. Another
undesirable effect of sampling is the
switching transients that take place
at a 12.5-kHz rate as the reference
• ramp and the N-counter are reset to
start. These switching transients can
generate a spectrum of harmonics extending into the VHF band. The harmonics modulate the vco both in
frequency and amplitude and create
spurious outputs or responses. Care
in design, including filtering of power
supply leads, limiting of digital circuit
bandwidth, and judicious printedcircuit-board layout (especially with
regard to ground returns), was required to keep spurious outputs 80 dB
or more below the carrier level.
Power supplies
A prerequisite is that the AVC-ll0 be
capable of operating on primary aircraft power supplies of 27.5 or 13.75
VDC without wiring changes. Three
regulated power supplies are used in
the AVC-ll0. The current drawn for
both the frequency synthesizer and
the receiver is less than 0.5 ampere at
9.5 volts, obtained with worst-case
voltage conditions in a low 13.75-VDC
supply. A conventional series regulator handles this current and serves
as a reference for the other two.
To cover the varactor tuning range in
the synthesizer and the receiver, more
than 9.5 volts is needed. A regulated
low-current DC/DC converter steps up
the 9.5 volts to 25 volts. It operates
at a high chopping rate, 125 kHz,
from the synthesizer, and regulates on
a principle of variable duty cycle.
The transmitter-modulator subsystem
draws a high current, although normally for short transmission periods;
yet, the heat dissipation of the small
AVC-ll0 package is limited. For this
reason, a high-efficiency switching
regulator is used to supply this subsystem. The nominal output voltage
of 13.5 VDC is reduced When the
protection circuits (described in
subsequent paragraphs) modify the
reference voltage. The separate transmitter-modulator power supply is ON
during transmission only. In turn it
controls the solid-state transmit-receive
(TR) switch which directs transmitter
output to tlle antenna or directs the
receive signal from the antenna to
the receiver.
Protection and controls circuits
Protection and feedback control of
operation is used throughout the AVC110 in several unique ways. In
transistorized RF power amplifiers, the
output stage is usually critical since it
is used to the fullest of its capabilities.
Excessive transmitter duty (exceeding
normal requirements by several times)
can overheat the output transistor. A
high VSWR in the antenna and/or antenna coaxial cable reflects changes of
impedance to the collector of the output transistor and can cause excessive
voltage or current peaks. Either situation can have destructive effects, but
is prevented in the AVC-110 by control circuitry which reduces the supply
voltage. A reflected-power detector
(directional coupler) located in the
VHF output line and a heat-sinkmounted thermostat are used as sensors for this control circuit. In
conditions of reduced supply voltage
to the VHF power amplifier, the Q.lodulator compressor adjusts automatically
to a reduced modulation output to
prevent overmodulation. In this way
a minimum of communication power
(about one quarter of normal, depending on conditions) is transmitted
while the output transistor remains at
conservative levels of operation. The
operator monitors transmitter operation by both aural and visual means.
A portion of the detected output signal
supplies a transmitter monitor lamp
and an audio sidetone. Both the
brightness of the lamp and the level
of audio sidetone are proportional to
the VHF output power.
Another protection circuit is associated with the frequency synthesizer.
It keeps the transmitter-modulator
power supply off whenever the frequency synthesizer is not locked on
frequency-as during the few milliseconds it takes to change channels
or in the event the synthesizer should
fail to lock on.
Compact, reliable, self-protected, and
self-monitoring, the AVC-ll0 is in
harmony with present aircraftinstrument design philosophy, as evidenced by the growing market it
enjoys. Embodying advanced techniques and components, the AVC-110
reflects the present period of rapid
technological progress. As improved,
more complex and/or less costly integrated circuits, medium-scale integration, and large-scale integration
become available, they can be incorporated to offer further advantages in
reliability, size, and weight savings.
The AVQ-30-a new airline
weather radar
J. H. Pratt
Weather radar has become an indispensable part of the electronic equipment carried
by commercial aircraft. It has proved itself in increasing safety and comfort by reduc"
ing the incidence of turbulence, and it has resulted in cost savings by reducing
detours and holdings, and by reducing damage to aircraft from lightning, hall, and
turbulence. It is expected that the new generation of radars described in this paper
will further extend this usefulness, will operate with greater reliability, and will require
less operator skill.
AVO-30 is the latest in the line
of airborne weather radars produced by the RCA Aviation Equipment Department for commercial
airlines and general aviation. It is
available in two versions: the AVO30X operating at X-band (9345 MHz) ,
and the AVO-30C operating at C-band
(5400 MHz). Each radar consists of
four basic units: Receiver-Transmitter
(RT), Indicator, Antenna, and Control
Panel. The equipment is designed to
be installed with either single or duplicate Receiver-Transmitters. In both
single and dual installations either one
or two Indicators may be used. The
equipment for one type of dual installation, with the exception of the control panel, is shown in Fig. 1. A special
Antenna is available for dual installations in which most of the electromechanical parts are in duplicates. This
increases the degree of redundancy
considerably and improves the operational reliability. The Indicator may be
modified by the addition of a module
to display information in television
form from external sources as well as
the primary radar returns.
The principal specifications for the
two radars are listed in Table I.
Background of weather radar
RCA has been active in the field of
airborne weather radar for over 16
years. It was in June 1953 that United
Air Lines, in conjunction with RCA,
began flight tests of an experimental
5.5 cm (C-band) weather radar. This
was the beginning of the wholesale
commitment of the air transport industry to the use of weather radar as an
Reprint RE-1S-6-4
Final manuscript received January 3. 1970.
aid to safety and comfort. It led to the
development of the AVO-lO C-band
Weather Rada"r which has been the
most widely accepted radar for airline
The decision of most airlines to buy
C-band radar in the 1950's was based
upon studies which showed that,
among the available wavelengths, 5.5
cm gave the best compromise between maximum range and resolution
on the one hand, and ability to penetrate rain to show distant storms on
the other. However, since the original
airline requirements were issued, operational requirements have changed.
We have gone from the relatively slow,
low-flying piston-engine aircraft to
the high-speed, high-flying turbojet. At
their high en-route altitudes, jets encounter less thunderstorms. Because of
their greater speed, they cannot take
the chance of encountering turbulence
which is involved in penetrating
stormy areas. This has tended to shift
emphasis from penetration to avoidance, and has created the requirement
for greater maximum radar range. In
1962, the Airlines Aeronautical Engineering Committee started work on a
new characteristic to describe a radar
suited to the jet age, and (hopefully)
/to the supersonic transport. This resulted in ARINC Characteristic No.
564-1. This new characteristic tightened requirements on antenna stabilization accuracy, reduced the number
of major units from five to four by
eliminating the synchronizer unit, and
added provisions for dual installations.
It includes an objective performance
index which can be used to estimate
the range performance of a particular
radar under both "avoidance" and
"penetration" conditions. It was to fill
John H. Pratt
Aviation Equipment Department
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Div.
Van Nuys, California
graduated from the General Engineering Course of
RCA Institute in 1938 and has studied at McGill
University, Montreal. He joined RCA Victor Ltd.,
Montreal in 1939 where he completed various
assignments in the fields of ground equipment for
air naVigational systems. high-power airborne communications transmitters, and radar. Transferring
to the newly-formed West Coast Division in 1951,
he has worked on airborne radar, airborne LORAN"
receivers, air traffic control transponders, and distance measuring equipment. specializing mainly
in the deSign of UHF transmitters and receivers.
Mr. Pratt is a Senior Member of the IEEE and
holds five U.S. Patents.
these requirements for a new airborne •
weather radar that the AVO-30 was .
Performance index formula
The performance index formula was
originally developed by a subcom- .mittee of EUROCAE, the European
Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee and is an example of the international cooperation that exists in the
airline industry. The formula is based
upon the standard radar equation. It
is essentially a measure of the range a t .
which a spherical storm of three nautical miles diameter, precipitating at
50 mm/hour, can be seen on the radar
indicator with a certain probability of
detection and a certain false-alarm
:ate. The performance index, PI, in dB, ..
PI=P+2G+2T+I-NF-B,+K (1)
P=transmitter peak power in dB above
1 watt
G = antenna gain in dB
T = 10 log (pulse length in microseconds)
I = display integration factor given by
ant. horiz. beam width
3 og ( ant. horiz. scan angle X PRF)
NF=receiver noise figure in dB
B, = receiver bandwidth factor given by
B,=O for B <: 1.5(7; B,=5 log (B7(1.5) for
B> 1.5; where B=receiver 3-dB bandwidth
in MHz and 7= transmitter pulse length
in /lS
K = frequency function as tabulated be-
Frequency Penetraband
-6 dB
K factor
+3 dB
+6 dB
+1.5 dB
+1.0 dB
The relationship between performance
,,.index and maximum range, in nautical
miles, is given by,
R = log-l
(PI -
20) /40
The performance index will be recognized as being related to the effective
¥.ower returned to the receiver as given
· by the standard radar equation.
The square-law effect of pulse length
may appear to be incorrect, but it
comes about because Eq. 1 accounts
for the fact that weather targets consist
of a large number of randomly-distributed scatters. The effective target cross-sectional area is proportional
to the number of scatters illuminated,
and this is proportional to pulse
length. Optimum receiver bandwidth
is inversely proportional to pulse
• length. This puts a second pulse length
factor in Eq. 1 because the bandwidth
factor B, takes into account only the
deviation from optimum pulse length.
In other words, the second T takes the
place of the bandwidth, B, in the de. . nominator of the usual radar equation.
The factor K is intended to take into
account the difference in both the reflectivity and attenuation of rain at C
and X bands. Based upon frequency
alone, X band should be 4.8 dB better
than C band. A difference of 3 dB ap• pears under "avoidance" because some
allowance was made for attenuation
even under "avoidance" conditions. It
is obvious that the K factor can account for the differences in attenuation
at X and C band only in a special case.
For this reason, the performance index
• cannot be used to compare the performance of radars operating in different bands, but it does serve as a
convenient measure of the relative performance of different radars operating
in the same band.
1) The need to meet the requirements
of ARINC Characteristic 564-1 as regards performance index, physical characteristics, stabilization accuracy, and
compatibility with standard aircraft
2) The need to meet FAA Technical
Standard Order requirements for performance under specified environmental conditions.
3) The need to meet airline requirements for a high degree of operational
reliability as measured by the probability of completing an operating day with
an operational radar.
4) The need to meet airline requirements for major unit reliability as defined by mean time between confirmed
Primary power
Single installation
Dual installation (with one RT operating
and the other warmed up and ready for
Instant operation)
600 VA
750 VA
115V, 380 to 420 Hz, single phase
700 VA
850 VA
Transmitter characteristics
Power output
Pulse length
Pulse repetition frequency
9345 ±30 MHz
5400 ±30 MHz
200 pps
200 pps
Receiver characteristics
Noise figure (max)
Sensitivity control
Automatic frequency control
Sensitivity time control
8.1 dB
500 kHz
8.2 dB
500 kHz
Automatic and manual
Maintains sensitivity within I dB for all transmitter frequency changes
Gain Increases as the second power of range
within ±3 dB out to the point where a 3-nautlcalmile (nm) target fills the antenna beam. Adjustable for different antenna reflector sizes. Rain
attenuation compensation available.
Antenna characteristics
Beam shape
Pencil Beam
Mapping beam
Minor lobes
Scan angle
Scan rate
Stabilization system
Stabilization range:
Manual tilt (calibrated in 10 increments)
Combined pitch and tnt:
Stabilization accuracy:
Antenna pattern characteristics maintained at all
tilt angles and stabilization excursions.
Follows the law G=Go csc2 8 cos 8 within 3 dB
for depression angles 8 between 2 0 and 20 0
(AVQ-30X only), where G stands for Antenna
Approximately 24 dB below the main lobe
45 0 (second
Split-axis mount (axis sequence: roll, azimuth,
Within ±0.5° of selected tilt angle for all combinations of roll, pitch, and tilt up to ±20° at
roll and pitch rates up to 200 per second (does
not include gyro signal and geometric errors).
Display characteristics
Range display:
Display accuracy
AVQ-30 system design
Since most airlines had indicated a
need for a maximum range capability
of 300 nm, it was desirable to attain a
performance index of about 1 t 9 dB.
Table I-AVO-30 performance specifications.
Azimuth angle:
During the design of the AVO-30
Weather Radar system, four important
factors were kept in mind:
These factors are all interrelated to
some extent. Striving for the utmost in
performance may tend to reduce reliability if insufficient margins are allowed for degradation. Operational
reliability is improved by using redundancy, but the added parts result in
reduced mean-time-between failures.
The relative weight given to the various factors in the design must be
largely a matter of judgment based
upon experience.
Display brightness
Contour display
Full-scale ranges of 30, 100, and 300 nm, with
25-nm range marks on the 30- and 100-nm ranges,
and 50-nm marks on the 300-nm range. Other
range scales available up to 360-nm. Left-right
offset permits full range display at extremes of
Within 5% of target range or I nm, whichever
is the greater.
Within ±2° with zero pitch and roll signals.
(Does not include radome aberration and Antenna mounting errors.)
Storage-tube indicator with adjustable filter for
brightness control.
Single contour level with adequate adjustment
range to cover all proposed contour criteria.
Fig. 2-0perational reliability model.
and IF center frequencies, there
would be little or no performance degradation due to receiver mistuning
under any environmental conditions.
When all the various factors are
placed in the PI formula, (Eq. 1) the -.
resulting performance index figures are
as follows:
Fig. 1-The dual system AVQ-30X (ARINC Characteristic 564) Weather Radar for commercial
transport aircraft.
Preliminary studies showed that it
would not be easy to do this under
"penetration" conditions at X band
and very difficult for both "penetration" and "avoidance" at C band.
However, the performance index formula includes a 7-dB allowance for
installation losses <waveguide and
radome) and allows correction to be
made for losses that differ significantly
from this. It is known that losses are
considerably less than this at C-band
and this permitted a 4-dB increase in
the C-band figure.
When the performance index equation
(Eq. 1) is examined, it can be seen
that the factors under control of the
designer which most significantly affect the total are transmitter pulse
width and noise figure. Transmitter
power is limited by the availability of
suitable magnetrons, equipment size
and weight, and voltage breakdown
problems. Antenna gain is limited by
available space; a 30-inch diameter is
the greatest that can be used in most
present and projected aircraft. The
bandwidth factor has a lower limit,
and the integration factor varies as
only the 0.3 power of the pulse repetition frequency.
Since it gave a satisfactory balance
between range and azimuth resolution,
the maximum rated magnetron pulse
length of 6 fLs was used for both the
AVQ-30X and the AVQ-30C. The
RCA 6521 magnetron of proven reliability was chosen for the AVQ-30C,
and a modern coaxial magnetron of
about the same power capability was
used in the AVQ-30X.
In the later versions of the AVQ-lO
Weather Radar, a tunnel-diode amplifier was added to improve receiver
noise figure. The availability of lowernoise mixer diodes, improved mixer
designs, and low-noise transistors for
the IF amplifier made the value of a
tunnel-diode amplifier doubtful in the
new design, particularly at X band.
Studies showed that, if the intermediate frequency was lowered to
30 MHz and the best mixer diodes
used, the tunnel diode amplifier would
improve noise figure by only 0.2 dB at
B band and 0.74 dB at C band. It was,
therefore, not used. Noise figures finally attained are 8.1 dB maximum
---'at X band and 8.2 dB maximum at C
band. These figures may seem rather
high, but come about mainly because
of duplexer loss. Duplexer design is
discussed in a later section.
Receiver bandwidth was set at 0.5
MHz which is 1.5 dB below the optimum value according to the PI formula (Eq. 1). Experience indicated
that, if a fast-acting automatic frequency control system were used and
sufficient attention paid to tracking the
119.0 dB
117.4 dB
131.0 dB
120.4 dB
We have met the desired 119 dB figure . .
for both penetration and avoidance in
the case of the AVQ-30X and have
come quite close in the case of the
AVQ-30C. A performance index of
117.4 dB corresponds to a maximum
range of 275 nautical miles.
Antenna stabilization
The successful operation of an airborne weather radar depends to a great
extent upon accurate stabilization of
the antenna beam. In normal opera- •
tion, the beam is adjusted s.o as to just
clear the ground. If the beam does not
travel in a horizontal plane, independent of aircraft attitude, ground clutter will wipe out weather targets
whenever the attitude of the aircraft
changes. The airlines had recognized ..
the need for better stabilization accuracy and had written into Characteristic 564-1 a requirement for ±0.5°
maximum stabilization error for all
combinations of pitch, roll, and tilt
with a ±20° allowance at pitch and •
roll rates up to 20 /second.
Previous weather radars (including
the AVQ-lO) have used "line-of-sight"
stabilization. In this arrangement, the
antenna beam is tilted as the antenna
turns on the scan axis so as to keep •
the beam horizontal. While this system is theoretically capable of perfect
stabilization, the complexity of the relationship between roll, pitch, scan,
and tilt angles makes it necessary to
use approximations that limit practical
accuracies to more than ± 10. The ideal . .
stabilization system is one that maintains the scan axis of the antenna vertical; but to implement such a system,
rotary joints would be required in the
transmission system on the four axes
of movement: roll, pitch, scan, and
tilt. As a compromise, it was decided
to combine the pitch and tilt axes but
provide a separate roll axis. This is the
.. so-called split-axis stabilization system. An approximation in determining
the tilt angle as a function of scan
angle is still necessary; but since the
need to correct for roll has been removed, it is possible to attain a stabili. . zation accuracy of ±0.5°. Because the
roll axis carries the whole mass of the
antenna, it would require excessive
power to correct for roll at the maximum error rate. This difficulty is
avoided by providing for roll-error
__ correction under dynamic conditions
in the tilt axis. In other words, a complete line-of-sight stabilization system
is mounted on a roll-correction axis.
The combination gives fast-acting, accurate antenna stabilization.
Operational reliability
' . The need for greater operational reliability had led the airlines to provide
for dual radar installations in ARINC
Characteristic 564-1. However, no
commercial aircraft have sufficient
space allowance for two radar an• tennas. Complete duplication of all
subunits is, therefore, not possible.
The so-called dual system is actually
a two-component switched redundant
system with an extra series component
as shown in Fig. 2.
-. In Fig. 2, A, is the failure rate of the
operating portion of the duplicated
equipment, A, is the failure rate of the
duplicated equipment in standby, A3 is
the failure rate of the non-duplicated
equipment, and R, is the reliability of
the switching devices for one opera• tion. The reliability of this system
(probability of survival for time t) is
R (t) = {exp [ - t (AI + A3) ] }
{I +R, ~: [1-exp( -A2t)]}
To obtain the operational reliability,
we would like to know the average
failure rate if the system is regularly
renewed at stated intervals. For the airlines, this interval is generally an operating day. The aircraft normally starts
every day with all components operating. The general equation for the average failure rate of a redundant system
regularly renewed at periods tm is given
AAl'G=Q(tm) jR(t)dt
where Q (tm) is the probability of failure in time t m , and R (t) is the probability of survival for time t.
When Eq. 3 is substituted in Eq. 4 and
normalized to the failure rate of a nonredundant system consisting of block 1
and block 3, the following expression
In this equation, r= A,j A, and M = (1 +
r- K) /rwhereK=A3/ (A , +A3 ) , and T=
tm (A, + A3)' The quantity (A, + A3) is
the failure rate of the non-redundant
system; T is the ratio of the renewal
period to the mean time between failure (MTBF) of the non-redundant system. Eq. 5 gives the ratio of the
reliability of the redundant system to
that of the non-reundant system.
As one would expect, for renewal
times small compared to single system
MTBF, the reliability improvement
factor approaches the reciprocal of K,
because under this condition the system failure rate is determined almost
entirely by that of the non-duplicated
In Fig. 3, Ass/ ASH is plotted as a function of K for various values of T. It is
assumed that r, the ratio of the failure
rate of the duplicated portion of the
duplicated portion of the operating
equipment tl> that of standby equipment is 4, and R, is assumed to be
unity. These curves illustrate very
well 1) the large improvement possible
in operational reliability when a dual
system is used, and 2) the importance
of reducingAo a minimum the equipment common to both systems. This led
to the decision to duplicate as many as
possible of the electrical parts in the
antenna to attain a low value of K. It
is estimated that, with no duplicated
parts, the failure rate of the Antenna
may be 20% of the single system failure rate, and that, with the degree of
parts duplication used, the failure rate
of the non-duplicated parts is about
4% of the single-system failure rate.
Then, for a single-system MTBF of 1000
hours, and a renewal period of 10
hours (an operating day), the operational reliability improves by a factor
of 22/5=4.4 because of the additional
Antenna redundancy. Compared to a
non-redundant system, the improvement factor is 22.
The improvement in operational reliability attained by redundancy is, of
course, attained at the expense of a
greater equipment failure rate, and a
greater number of required spare units.
But the airlines appear to be willing to
pay this price to reduce the chances of
having to delay aircraft departures for
equipment replacement during an operating day.
Unit reliability
While redundancy helps to give relatively good operational reliability even
with not-so-good unit reliability, unit
reliability cannot be neglected. Most
airlines today insist that contracts for
new equipment include a clause specifying the minimum MTBF of each
line-replaceable unit. The penalty for
failure to meet unit MTBF requirements
is that extra spare units must be provided to allow the airline to maintain
the operational reliability it could normally expect.
There are three important factors involved in attaining high unit reliability
in airline operation.
1) The obvious need to use reliable
components, properly derated, and reliable circuits with plenty of margin for
2) Because each unscheduled removal
is treated as a failure, the need to provide means for checking the performance, and the need to indicate which
unit is at fault when a failure occurs;
3) The need to establish overhaul and
parts-replacement schedules which will
insure that the units do not reach the
wear-out stage. This requirement is
complicated by the fact that the airlines
will perform preventive maintenance
only on an opportunistic basis. An operating unit will not be removed from
an aircraft on a time schedule. However, when a unit is removed because
of failure or suspected failure, any
maintenance scheduled to be done at,
or before, the number of operating
hours actually reached will be performed.
Experience with the AVO-I0 and other
earlier weather radars showed that the
two components which contributed
most to receiver-transmitter failures
were the gas transmit-receive (TR) tube
used in the duplexer, and the hydrogen
before he takes off or at any time during flight.
In the Receiver-Transmitter, the following signals and operating parameters are monitored:
...... 1'..'-' ~
R=::~~=~ =:~~ ~~ ~~!:~~~N~::TRSTS ;: -i; 4
Fig. 3-Single-system versus dual-system reliability.
thyratron switch tube used in the
modulator. Both these components
have been eliminated in the AVO-30.
The TR tube has been replaced by a
solid-state switching duplexer, and a
completely solid-state modulator elim·
inates the hydrogen thyratron. These
new components are described in more
detail below. Other components replaced by solid-state devices with
greater reliability are the klystron receiver local oscillator, replaced by a
transistor oscillator-frequency multiplier, and power relays replaced by
silicon-controlled rectifier switches. A
new display-storage tube developed by
the Electron Tube Division has already
been used in other weather radars with
improved reliability.
To meet the second requirement listed
above, an extensive monitoring, selftest, and failure-indicator system has
been designed into the AVO-30. This
system, which is described in more detail below, is expected to indicate the
proper unit to remove in case of failure
at least 90% of the time.
The third requirement, that overhaul
and parts replacement schedules insure
that wearout does not occur, is difficult
to attain when maintenance is performed opportunistically. Inspection,
overhaul, and parts-replacement schedules have been established that should
prevent wearout. However, calculations indicate that in the Antenna,
which contains most of the components subject to wear, the wear-out
period will be reached if the guaranteed MTBF is attained. It seems probable that the policy of opportunistic
maintenance will have to be modified
in the case of the antenna unless the
lower-than-maximum MTBF determined by the wear-out failure function proves to be acceptably high.
Self-test and fault isolation
As mentioned above, considerable attention has been given to self-testing in
the AVO-30 design. Self-test provisions
are of three general types:
On-line monitoring for automatic
fault indication and isolation,
2) Pilot-actuated to aid in making operating adjustments and for further
fault isolation, and
3) Service-technician-operated for faultisolation and performance checking
both in the field and during bench testing.
The idea is to reduce the number of
times the wrong unit is removed when
a fault occurs, and to give the pilot a
means of checking general operation
1) Control signals from RT to Indicator
and Antenna (on-off and high-voltage
control) ;
2) Transmitter power output;
3) Receiver automatic sensitivity control voltage;
4) Sensitivity-time control (STC) signal; .5) Automatic frequency control (AFC)
6) Receiver local oscillator power level
(mixer crystal currents) ;
7) Waveguide voltage standing wave
ratio (VSWR);
8) Antenna azimuth and stabilization
drive changeover-clutch currents; and
9) Servo error signals (average levels
in roll and pitch channels).
In the Indicator, only two quantities
are monitored; the sweep voltage to the
Antenna, and the resolved sweep volt- __
ages from the Antenna.
Two types of failure indicators can be
provided; two lights on the control
panel, and two latching-type annunciators on the front panel of the RT. Some
airlines want both, others want only •
the annunciators. One light and one annunciator are marked RT; the other
light and annunciator are marked ANT.
If any of the monitored parameters (1
through 6 listed above) go outside limits, the RT indicators are energized. If ..
parameters 7 or 8 are out of limits, the
ANT indicators are energized. If signal
) - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ T O ANTENNA
Fig. 4-Block diagram of microwave system.
9 is out of limits, both the RT and ANT
indicators are energized.
Most faults that occur in the Indicator
result in a faulty display and can be
recognized by sight. There is, there.. fore, no Indicator fault-indicator. Absence of Indicator sweep could be due
to either absence of drive from the Indicator or a faulty sweep resolver in
the Antenna. This ambiguity is resolved
by energizing the ANT indicators if
there is sweep drive to the Antenna but
none from the Antenna. If there is no
sweep and the ANT indicators are not
energized, the fault is assumed to be
in the Indicator.
Stabilization system faults are difficult
,.. to isolate to the RT or the Antenna without applying test signals. For this reason, both the RT and ANT indicators are
energized when a stabilization fault
occurs. Servo test pushbuttons on the
front panel of the RT make it possible
to inject test signals into the servo sys• tem and to determine whether the fault
is in the RT or the Antenna by means of
two indicator lights. This test will normally be performed by a service technician when he discovers that both the
RT and ANT annunciators are tripped.
To aid the pilot in setting the Indicator
• controls and give him an indication
that the radar is operating prior to
take off, a TEST position is provided on
the Control Panel function switch. In
this position, the RT is connected to a
dummy load and two simulated signals
-. are injected into the receiver. One is a
noise signal which is applied to the
receiver input. It is pulsed on for the
first 60 miles of sweep. Due to sensitivity-time control (STC) action, it
shows up on the Indicator as a noise
band increasing in amplitude from
• zero miles. The other signal is a triangular video pulse which starts 10 miles
after the noise signal and lasts for 30
miles. Its amplitude exceeds the normal contour setting and results in two
bright bands separated by a dark band.
. . It checks both range-mark accuracy
and contour-level setting.
Switching duplexer
The duplexer used in the AVO-30 deserves special attention because, as
mentioned above, it is an entirely new
type. Fig. 4 is a block diagram of the
microwave system. The primary separation between the transmit and receive
channels is accomplished by a highpower ferrite circulator. This provides
A~ 6 / M
-- -.....-
-~ = ~CONLY_
E~~~(T S~~:N~~~11J'T~JG ~~P5L~:~.DJA~g~~~i>:S)
Fig_ 5-Gain versus range in rain-attenuatIon-compensation circuit operation.
from 20 to 30 dB isolation under normal conditions. Another 6'0 dB of attenuation is required to reduce the
power due to reflections in the transmission system and leakage through
the circulator to a value which will
insure long life to the mixer diodes.
This attenuation is provided by a series
of three latching-type switch able ferrite circulators. A single current pulse
is required to reverse the direction of
circulation of the three circulators.
Once switched, they remain in that
direction until a current pulse of opposite polarity is applied. These circulators were developed by the RCA
Microwave Research Laboratory at
Princeton under the direction of Dr. F.
Sterzer and are produced by Electronic
Components at Harrison.
Switchable ferrite circulators of the
type used are limited in both their peak
and average power-handling capability. If an arc occurred in the waveguide or if the antenna were damaged,
almost all the transmitter power could
be reflected into the receiver channel.
To protect the circulators and the receiver diodes under such a condition, a
ferrite limiter is installed between the
high-power circulator and the switchable duplexer and the power in the
receiver arm during transmission is
monitored. At power levels above 10
kW, the limiter provides up to 10 dB
of additional attenuation. At the same
time, the power monitor causes the
transmitter duty cycle to be reduced to
limit the average power to a safe value.
Another problem with the switchable
circulator duplexer is that it has a
relatively narrow band over which full
attenuation is maintained. To prevent
out-of-band power from reaching the
circulators, a band-pass filter is also
placed in the line between the highpower circulator and the switchable
duplexer. Out-of-band power might
result from "moding" of the magnetron or from external power entering
the Antenna.
Still another possibility that must be
guarded against is that of excessive inband power resulting from the antennas of two nearby radars pointing toward one another. This power cannot
be prevented from reaching the receiver, but, under the usual conditions
the power will build up gradually as
the scanning antennas begin to point
toward one another. A second detector
monitors the received power in the receive mode. When this power reaches
a level that represents a danger to the
receiver, the duplexer is switched to
the transmit mode and held there until
the power level is reduced below a safe
lower threshold for 10 milliseconds.
Other protective circuits are provided
to insure that the system is always in
the transmit mode when the transmitter modulator is triggered and to prevent the system from switching to the
receive mode if the magnetron arcs.
Special design features
There are several special features to
the AVO-30 design, some of which
are not specifically called out as requirements in ARINC Characteristic
564-1. These include a ground-mapping
mode, automatic sensitivity control,
isocontour display, rain attenuation
compensation, and television display.
Ground-mapping mode
The ground-mapping feature, which is
provided in the AVO-30X only, re-
quires an antenna which can be switched from a pencil beam to one which
varies as csc' a cos a where a is the
depression angle. This type of pattern
produces equal-amplitude return from
targets of equal reflectivity on the
ground and thus gives improved
ground-mapping performance. The
change in beam shape is accomplished
by means of a "spoiler" on the antenna
dish, responsive only to horizontallypolarized waves. The radiation is
changed from vertical to horizontal by
means of a mechanically-rotated sec·
tion in thc antenna feed.
Automatic sensitivity control
Automatic sensitivity control helps to
simplify operation for the pilot by
making it unnecessary for him to set
receiver gain. Receiver noise is sampled in the time between the end of a
300-mile sweep and the next transmittcr pulse. Gain is automatically adjusted to hold the noise level constant
at a value which produces a satisfactory false-alarm rate.
Isocontour operation has been provided in practically all weather radars
and is not much different in the AVQ30. In the isocontour mode, all signals
above a certain level are inverted. This
produces a display having dark areas
representing the locations of the heaviest rainfall in the normally-bright PPI
display. In accordance with ARINC
requirements, the contour level is set
at that which corresponds to a beamfilling storm precipitating at about 11
mm/hour. Contouring can only be
used as an indicator of actual rainfall
rate within the sensitivity-time-control
(STC) range of the radar, because only
in that range is signal strength proportional to target reflectivity and independent of range. Both contour level
and STC range are adjustable so that
different airlines can set them to what
they consider to be optimum conditions for their operations.
and attenuation, are both known, it
should be possible to compensate for
the effects of attenuation by increasing
system gain as a function of the integrated signal return. The compensation
can only be accomplished within the
STC range where extra system gain is
available, and it is necessary to assume
that all targets are beam-filling in this
range. If the commonly-accepted equations for reflectivity factor and rain
attenuation at X-band are substituted
in the equation for power returned
from a radar target. and the gain is
assumed to vary with range in such a
way as to make the receiver output in
the presence of rain attenuation equal
to that when no rain attenuation is
present, the following equation is
G'=~JR164 p,O.
dR - 20 log
Here G, is the receiver gain in dB relative to the maximum that is reached at
the end of the STC period; R is the
range in nautical miles, p, is the power
input to the receiver in milliwatts; R,
is the range at which the STC ends in
nautical miles; and K is a constant of
the radar set given by K=2.071xlOlO
(L/PO'TG"')0818, where P is the peak
transmitter power in kW; 0 is the beam
width in degrees; T is the pulse length
in microseconds; Go is the antenna
gain; and L is the system loss (L> 1).
In practice, it is not possible to begin
the integration at zero distance; it is
necessary to wait until after any possible ground return from the antenna
sidelobes-a distance corresponding to
at least 5 nautical miles. For checking
the RAC circuit, is it convenient to use a
constant signal level Pin gated on at
some range R,. When this is done, it
can be shown that the receiver output
~)loltage E at range R relative to the
output E, at range R, is given by
Rain-attenuation compensation
The accuracy of contouring is improved somewhat by the addition of
what is called rain-attenuation compensation (RAC) in the AVQ-30X. This
feature was originally suggested by H.
P. Reichow of Deutsche Lufthansa. It
operates on the principal that, since
the relationships between rainfall rate
and radar reflectivity, and rainfall rate
It is assumed that the receiver detector
is linear. This equation is plotted in
Fig. 5 using the value of K calculated
for the AVQ-30X, for various values
of Pin starting at 5 nautical miles. The
actual gain-vs.-range curves approximate the theoretical. In setting up the
circuit, most attention is paid to the
point at which the gain reaches maximum.
It is difficult to test the RAC circuit
under operating conditions; but during one widespread storm of relatively
constant rainfall rate in Los Angeles, ..
the receiver gain control voltage wave
shape was checked against the theoretical curve calculated for the reported
rainfall rate, and was found to agree
quite well.
Display variations
Several airlines are interested in using
the radar indicator to display information other than storm and terrain returns. The displays are derived from
closed-circuit TV systems or from
LORAN equipment. Choice of display ....
information is particularly attractive
in dual-indicator installations. The TV
display allows the flight crew to view
parts of the aircraft not normally visible from the cockpit: for example, the
landing gear and the relationship of •
the wheels to the runaway during
landing. Used in conjunction with the
aircraft LORAN set, the DST indicator
becomes the A-scope presentation of
the LORAN output.
The AVQ-30 Indicator can be pro- •
vided with a TV display capability.
After a modification of the characteristics of the display storage tube normally used in airline weather radar
indicators, it was found that the erase
speed could be made fast enough to
give acceptable TV pictures, but at the ~
same time retain the proper erase-rate
capabilities for radar returns. The TV
raster can be adjusted to either of two
1) CCIR 625-line/50-field-per-second, or
2) EIA 525-line/60-field-per-second.
The TV module, which can be added
to any AVQ-30 Indicator, accepts synchronizing and video signals from an
external TV system and enables the indicator to be switched from radar to
TV or LORAN operation as commanded •
by a switch on the Indicator front
panel. LORAN sets are now being built
that are compatible with the A VQ-30
Indicator. An additional circuit is required in the DSTV Indicator to operate
with the LORAN set. For LORAN mode
operation, part of the TV blanking circuit is used along with a dynamicerase unijunction transistor which is a
part of the DSTV /LORAN adapter circuit.
•Human factors for an
instant airport
• P. H. Berger
A mobile air traffic control tower that can be assembled by four men, be completely
operational in 90 minutes, and provide full 360 0 visibility for three air traffic controllers imposes some unusual human factors constraints. This paper describes the
deployment techniques, console arrangement, equipment design, workspace allocation, environmental control, and maintainability of the AN/TSW-7 tower with major
emphasis on the human factors involved.
Paul H. Berger
FORCE, Aerospace Systems Division
has developed the AN/TSW-7 mobile
. . air traffic control tower. When operational, the control tower may be used
autonmously or in conjunction with
fixed or tactical air traffic control
facilities and other communications
systems. During operation, tower personnel control all incoming and de. ' parting aircraft, ground vehicles, and
personnel within the airfield.
The tower, with its ancillary equipment pallet, can be delivered by helicopter, fixed wing aircraft, or vehicle.
After delivery, it can be deployed at a
• specific site and be totally responsive,
under all climatic conditions, in approximately one hour. Fig. 1 shows the
AN/TSW-7 as it is deployed.
Normal deployment requires three operators, or controllers. They are desig.. nated as local, data, and ground. These
three operators perform all of the
various interrelated tasks required to
land and launch aircraft and control
ground vehicles and personnel. For
this reason, human factors engineering
recommendations became a primary
input to the system design during the
development phase of the AN/TSW-7.
The AN/TSW-7 configuration is based
on the AN/TSW-6 control tower
which was part of the AN /TSQ-4 7 Air
Traffic Control/Communications Sys• tem designed for the Air Force in the
early 1960's. The present mechanical,
electrical, and human factors design
requirements are based on the acceptance test results of the AN /TSQ-4 7 as
reported by RCA and the Air Force.
The author was charged with the task
of designing to conform to these requirements rather than establishing a
design criteria and then configuring.
Reprint RE-15-6-21
Final manuscript received January 5, '1970.
Most of the problems discussed are not
uncommon to other field-deployed, enclosed shelters. Some of the problems
are unique, because, in thMi case, they
are associated with a shelter which has
more than half of its wall area covered
by glass. To fully understand the areas
of human factors consideration and
the solutions implemented, a review of
the performance requirements, as they
apply to the operating personnel, are
presented prior to discussing the individual problems:
Rapid deployment: A capability for
rapid field deployment is vital to any
tactical system, especially one that
would be the first piece of equipment
"into a hot" area. Specifications require
that the AN/TSW-7 have a limited
operational capability within forty-five
minutes and be fully operational within
ninety minutes after arrival on site.
Another requirement is that the system
be assembled for operation by a trained
team of four men.
Control console design: The control
console design had to accommodate
three controllers yet permit them maximum comfort and easy access to the
control panels and associated equipments, while in either a standing or sitting position. A further consideration
was the visibility of controls and indicators during night operation.
Control panels and equipment: The
configuration of the console, equipment, and control panels had to facilitate performance of air traffic control
tasks, as defined by Air Force procedures, ane( also those tasks employed
by active controllers as determined by
detailed conversations with these personnel. Basically, the configuration had
to allow for one to three controllers to
perform the duties required to launch
and land aircraft and to control ground
vehicles and personnel.
Operator workspace: Console placement and equipment installation had to
be arranged to allow sufficient aisle
space to permit one operator to pass
behind another during operation. In
addition, sufficient space had to be provided to allow operators to manipulate
Fig. 1-0perationai
Human Factors Engineering
Aerospace Systems Division
Burlington, Massachusetts
received the BA from Northeastern University in
1967. Since joining RCA in 1967, Mr. Berger has
been engaged, for the most part, in the human
factors engineering associated with the Air Traffic
Control Central AN/TSW-7. He has also made
significant human factors contributions to the
ADA, 100 Laser Range Finder, Igloo White, and
High-Power Jammer programs. At present, Mr.
Berger is reponsible for all human factors technical and administrative requirements as defined
by contractual commitments. Prior to joining
RCA, Mr. Berger was employed by the Sylvania
Electronic Systems, Applied Research Laboratory,
as an Associate Researcher in Human Factor
studies. In this capacity, he assisted in the design
of simulation equipment to verify the decisionmaking processes of civilian and military weather
forecasters. He also collected and analyzed handprinted alpha-numeric characters for a characterrecognition program. This program was utilized in
studies dealing with computer-recognized constrained hand-printing.
their chairs while controlling and monitoring the surrounding equipments.
Maintainability requirements dictated
a need for workspace to allow rapid
removal of any chassis from either a
rack or floor mounting.
Illumination: Internal shelter and console panel illumination had to adhere
to human factors and Air Force standards to assure that the operator's night
vision, outside the tower, would not be
Visibility: The visual acquisition of aircraft, and control of ground vehicles
and personnel demanded an unobstructed 360 0 field-of-view from either
a seated or standing position. Therefore, minimizing or eliminating overhead obstructions had a high priority
when equipment positions were designated.
Noise level: Audible background noise
had to be attenuated to a level that
would permit any combination of radio, telephone, or face-to-face communications to proceed efficiently. The
established level could not exceed the
noise criteria (NC) level of 45dB in the
speech interference level (SIL) range.
Shelter atmosphere: The environmental
control unit chosen had to provide 1)
sufficient air flow to cool equipments in
any ambient temperature; 2) heat, during winter operations, to defrost the
windows and prevent ice build-up; and
3) sufficient cool air, during summer
months, to allow a shirtsleeve environment for the operators while keeping
the windows clear regardless of the
outside ambient temperature.
Maintainability: Maintainability requirements specified that repairs would
be accomplished in a repair hut. Therefore, from the maintainability aspect,
each item of equipment had to be designed for easy access for ready checking and easy removal and replacement.
Chassis weights had to be held to a
level so that one or two men could lift
and carry them.
Human factors considerations
Rapid deployment
The rapid deployment capability is
achieved by using a trained team and
easy-to-assemble components. Specifically, four men can assemble the
various components in 45 minutes,
allowing limited capability, or in 90
minutes, allowing full operational capability. Because of the stringent time
requirements, rigorous attention was
given to the system installation procedures. The installation procedure is
essentially predicated on the concept
of two, two-man teams working
simultaneously. Occasionally the team
members would alternate tasks such
as, anchor-driving in order to reduce
fatigue and strain (e.g., see Table 1).
One of the main concerns was the
weight, size, and position of components on the equipment pallet. The
requirement for a multi-vehicle transport capability dictated, in one sense,
the size and weight of the items. In
another sense, the lifting and transport
capabilities of the deployment team
were to be seriously considered in
view of the stringent setup time. It is
commonly known that an inverse relationship exists between the amount of
weight to be lifted and the height from
which it is picked up.' The heavier the
weight, the closer to the ground the
person must be to lift it. Hence, the
components of each antenna system
and shelter equipment were evaluated
with regard to their position on the
pallet, their weight, and the number
of men required to remove them from
the pallet.
Control console design
The AN/TSW-7 control console is aivided into three main sections (Fig.
2). Inside the shelter, the control console sits atop racks which contain the
numerous electronic equipments. MILSTD-1472 dictates that in this configuration the rack height could not be less
than 25 inches. In addition, the required width of the leg room beneath
the console could not be less than 15
inches. The only requirement concerning the leg depth is that it be optimized. These physical parameters
would insure that a controller with
./ physical characteristics in the fifth to
ninety-fifth percentile could sit at the
console and be assured optimum acessibility to the controls and indicators.'
The console surface was inclined at an
angle of 45 to allow the controllers to
sight over the top of the console when
seated, and yet be able to view each
display and indicator with no distortion or parallax while standing.
The console normally accommodates.
three traffic controllers: local, data,
and ground. Table II lists the equipments available at each operator's
position. Note that five of the indicator / control units are duplicated at the
local and ground positions. This con-.
figuration permits either of these two
controllers to assist the other during
peak traffic periods, and should the
wind direction change, aircraft could
be landed from the ground position.
Should radio contact become impossi-.
ble or an emergency arise, the local
and ground controllers have access to
a lightgun that can be used to signal
aircraft or ground vehicles to stop,
proceed, exercise caution, etc.
Control panels and equipment
The console positions listed in Table II
indicate the positions of the controls
and indicators on the console sections;
the encircled notations indicate that
the display or control is accessible
during normal operation. These pan-.els, whether purchased or RCA-built,
were subjected to a meticulous human factors engineering evaluation.
Particular attention was paid to the
types and positions of controls and
indicators for each task, as well as
nomenclature, titling, and indicatorl'
color-coding. These control panels are
of particular interest because of unique
design considerations required to
make them usable by air traffic controllers. They are the RDF (radio direction finder) display/receiver control.
panel (Fig. 3); the telephone control
unit panel (Fig. 4); and the communications selector panel (Fig. 5) .
The RDF display/receiver control
panel is located in the upper righthand corner of the local controller'a~
console section. Positioning of the indicators and controls on this panel was
determined by studying the tasks performed by the local controller. The
Display /Receiver
Control Panel.
Man 3
Man 2
Man 1
Man 4
Remove communications antenna modules
Remove transit bags, tool kit, wind set and
secure antenna baseplate
Assemble antenna modules, attach guys, gin
pole, etc.
Orient anchor A with tie-back cable and drive.
Orient and drive anchor B.
Orient and drive anchors C & D.
Connect power
& signal cables
Erect communications antenna
Remove wind set parts
from shelter, set up
chairs, light guns,
erect wind set &
remove screens
Drive ground stakes and secure guys
Table I-Preparation sequence for limited operation.
studies showed his performance would
be enhanced by positioning the displays on the left and the receiver
controls on the right side of the panel.
Table II-Equipments available and accessible from each console position.
Console positions
local data ground
Bail-out alarm
NavAids monitor
Flight strip holders
UHF remote control head
VHF remote control head
OF display/control
Wind speed/direction
Communications selector
Gooseneck lamps
Signal lightguns
X -positioned on console section
X -accessible during normal operation
The display portion of the panel contains three numerical indicator nixie
tubes and two dual indicators. The
nixie tubes display a numerical azimuth (heading or bearing) which is
derived from digital information. The
left-hand dual indicator informs the
operator that a signal has been received and whether the sender is immediately overhead or at a distance
from the antenna. The right-hand dual
indicator is also a control. It illuminates when either a heading or a bearing is being displayed on the nixie
tubes. When this indicator is pressed,
the reciprocal of the heading or bearing being displayed is instantaneously
shown on the nixie tubes. This type of
display constitutes the most advanced
state-of-the-art in processing and displaying direction-finding data and replaces the older method of determining
the position of an aircraft by viewing
a dot on a CRT.
Indicator color coding is consistent
with indicators on other parts of the
console. That is, indicators which denote normal operation are green and
those designating other than normal
operation are amber. On this panel, all
indicators are green except the display
labelled OVERHEAD and the receiver /
control indicator labelled SQUELCH
DISABLE, which are amber.
There are two telephone control unit
panels on the console. One is located in
the lower right-hand part of the local
controller's section; the other is in the
lower left-hand corner of the ground
controller's section. This configuration
allows anyone of the three controllers
to have access to a telephone control
unit and permits two simultaneous
conversations to take place. There are
ten indicators on the panel and each
one has its own switch. Seven of these
are tied to landlines and are the normal communications channels used
with a handset. The remaining three
are designated as hot-lines. Hot-line
conversations are received on the overhead speakers while the transmissions
may be via the telephone headset; the
dynamic, or hand-held microphone; or
the boom microphone on the headset.
Color-coding of these indicators is the
same as the RDF control panel. Consequently, the telephone landlines, or
normal channels of conversation, are
green. The hot-lines, or emergency
communication channels, are amber.
The communications selector panels
are located at the bottom, center of
each console section. The panel configuration emphasizes the tactile and
visual accessibility to controls and indicators. The indicators serve a dual
purpose in that, the top sections
(which are multi-colored) denote the
radio frequency being keyed by a pilot
while the bottom section· (which is
singularly colored) tells the controller
that that frequency is being used by
another controller.
Operator workspace
Operators in the AN /TSW-7 respond
to auditory and visual cues and their
responserfiay necessitate reaching for
a pair of binoculars, a signal lightgun
or even the frequency tuning head of
a transceiver. Consequently, performance of these tasks may require a
controller to go around another seated
controller or stand next to or behind
his own chair. Furthermore, numerous
interviews with military and civilian
controllers indicated that they prefer
standing while performing their duties, especially during peak traffic
Fig. 4-Telephone control unit panel.
periods. Therefore, aisle space and
chair space were allocated with the
standing operator in mind, in addition
to the following two guidelines:.1) all
rear-wall equipments were positioned
below the air plenum to minimize their
protrusion into the aisle, 2) the console writing surface was made only
eight inches wide instead of the recommended 16 inches.
There are three sources of illumination
in the control console: the console
lights, which are an integral part of
the console; the gooseneck lamps,
which are attached to the top of the
console; and the panel indicator lights.
Each light source has a separate intensity control which permits each controller to adjust the light level at IUs
console section to a comfortable level.
The shelter contains two other sources
of illumination but are not vital during
night operation. They are the theatertype lights mounted at floor level, and
the overhead lights which are used for
maintenance purposes. Distracting internal reflections and external glare
was accomplished by using blue-green
tinted glass and by tilting the glass 18°
off vertical, inclined outward.
Early in the design phase, the question
arose as to whether low intensity
white light or red light should be used
in the console. A separate task analysis
was performed to determine which
light had the least effect on the controllers' night vision. The areas examined were the type, color, and probable
intensity of light that might be exr.erienced by a controller. The analysis
showed that the controllers could experience medium to high intensity
white light from aircraft landing lights,
runway lights, maintenance lights,
flares, and rockets.
As a result of the analysis, which included an evaluation of red light vs
white light in reports by W. F. Grether'
is adjusted by positioning the duct
vents in the desired direction.
Fig. 5-Communications selector panel.
and Reynolds and Planet' relative to
nighttime vision, the decision was
made to use low-intensity white light
for console and instrument lighting.
Unlike other field shelters, control
towers must provide maximum visibility for 360°. This is especially true for
the local and ground controllers in the
AN/TSW-7. Therefore, little or no
equipment could be mounted on the
ceiling, nor could, equipment to be
mounted on the top of the console or
on the window ledges surrounding the
console. Consequently, the signal light
guns were suspended between the local and data controller console sections, and between the data and
ground controller sections. Although
this does cause a small amount of
visual obstruction, it is readily alleviated by a slight movement of the head.
The ceiling-mounted speakers do not
obstruct either the controllers forward
or upward visibility when either standing or sitting. However, the normal
configuration of a civilian tower,
which is sixty to seventy feet high and
has only 3 to 5 speakers, was not
acceptable. Mounting the speakers
atop the console in a civilian tower
does not obstruct either the forward or
upward visibility. The AN/TSW-7
shelter with its sixteen speakers and
only a four-foot elevation would have
a serious visibility problem if the
speakers were mounted on the top of
the console. The solution of mounting
the speakers on the ceiling resulted
from a detailed anthropometric analysis of the size and proportions of the
human body which showed that control accessibility was not compromised.
Noise level
Communication and command/control
instaIlations whether fixed or mobile,
require that audible background noise
be reduced to a level that will permit
voice communications. Studies show
that if these levels exceed 60dB in the
speech interference level (SIL) range
(600-4000 Hz), face-to-face communications is seriously compromised.'
RCA has found, through AN/TSQ-47
experience, that equipment cooling
fans are usually the major contributors
to a high background noise level.
Other significant contributors are
power generators, nearby vehicles, and
aircraft.' Experience with the AN /
TSW-7 during design, development,
and Category-I test has shown that the
glass windows are effective noise reflectors. Therefore, noise dampening
efforts must be within the equipment
rather than in the surrounding structure and ceiling.
To reduce the background noise to a
level of approximately 45dB, the following steps were taken:
a) Equipment cooling fans, except the
VHF transceivers, were eliminated
because solid-state components were
used throughout.
b) The controllers were supplied with
noise-cancelling microphones.
c) Acoustical tile was used on the
d) The air conditioner plenums, encompassing the controllers, were
lined with polyurethane foam.
e) The environmental control unit was
remotely mounted on the equipment pallet.
Shelter atmosphere
The AN/TSW-7 requires air conditioning for equipment and personnel cooling and to defrost and de-ice the
windows. The required shirtsleeve
environment within the shelter is defined as a relative humidity of approximately 50% in a temperature range of
68°F to 72°F with an air circulation
of 15 to 25 cubic feet/minute. The
shelter atmosphere is directly correlated to operator workspace. That is,
if either or both are below standard,
then operator performance is degraded.
Control of the air conditioner, or
environmental control unit (ECU) , and
the ducting vents is achieved by the
operators. The ECU control box is located in the knee hole of the ground
controller's console. The ECU mode of
operation can readily be changed from
cooling to heating or vice-versa. The
air flow on the personnel and windows
Removal and repair of equipment inside the AN/TSW-7 shelter is not a
requirement. The only maintenance __
tasks to be performed within the shelter are of a preventive nature. Therefore, the human factors effort in this
area were the anthropometric considerations as applied to sufficient work
space and access to components. Atso
of particular concern was the proper
coding and/or labelling of cable connections, use of interlocks and/or caution labels for personnel safety and
the use of failure indicators to facilitate rapid and accurate checkout.
In the task analysis for system deployment showed that component weight
was an important design consideration.
In the same respect, chassis weight
(radios, filters, etc.) had to be carefully
scrutinized to ensure that no item
exceeded the limits for one and twoman transport. Specifically, the proper
number and position of lifting handles
were designated so that removal, transport and replacement of chassis or
"down-time" was minimized.
At present, this system is to be used
for tactical remote landing strip operations. However, the AN/TSW-7 may
find applications in commercial aviation in the foreseeable future. With its
portability and rapid assembly features, it could be rushed to a major
airport as a replacement for a permanent tower that is temporarily inoperative. Also, because of its compactness
and ease of convertibility for operation, it could become the most efficient
and economical permanent tower for •
a new airport.
1. AN/TSQ-47 Air Traffic Control/Communications Systems. "Human Engineering Report",
CR62-548-7 (14 Sep 1962).
2. MiL·STD-1472, Human Engineering Design
Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and
Facilities, (9 Feb 1968) p. 113.
3. Grether, W. F., "Lights in the Cockpit . . .
Red or White", Aerospace Safety (Sep 1968).
4. Reynolds, H. N., and Planet, J. M., "The
Visual Effects of Exposure to Red, Unfiltered
White, and Blue-Filtered White Aircraft instrument Lighting", a paper presented to the
SOCiety of Automotive Engineers, A20A, Committee in Aircraft Lighting (2 Apr 1968).
5. Personnel Subsystem Development Plan, Part
II, Air Traffic Control Central, AN/TSW-7,
(TSAF) QIOI, FI9628-68-C-0069, (9 Jan 1968).
6. Morgan, Cook, et aI., Human Engineering
Guipe to Equipment Design (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963).
7. AN/TSQ-47 Air Traffic Control/Communications System, "Human Engineering Report No.
3", CR62-548-7 (IS Mar 1963).
• Case history of an ideal
reliability program
R. E. Oehm I O. E. Colgan
Field failure reporting and analysis can be more than simply a contract task. Properly
established and controlled, it can pay future dividends to the performing division in
terms of competitiveness and confidence. This article shows an ideal, but actual, case
-how it was handled-and what resulted.
we learn
more from our failures than from
our successes. This statement is particularly true in reliability. Manufacturing is concerned with building
hardware that will pass inspection and
test and gain customer acceptance.
Design Engineering wants the clean
program where nothing goes wrong.
Even a repair function puts primary
emphasis on the good hardware that
it has produced for reinsertion into
the system. The reliability engineer
recognizes that everything has its failure potential, and that this can be
guessed at, written about, predicted,
measured and modified, as well as
specified. In performing his function,
he must think failure-so that others
can think success.
Usable reliability data on equipment
can be obtained in two ways. The first
way is the special reliability testing
program. Equipment conditions and
environment can be regulated, and
failure occurrences can be carefully
observed and well documented. The
limitation is the number of equipments and the number of hours that
one can expect to use for such artificial
application. The opposite is true in
the second way: the monitoring of
actual field performance. Here, equipment environment can vary in
unknown ways; operation and maintenance may not be applied 'by the
book' and may involve differing degrees of skills; reports of equipment
failure, at their worst, may be misleading and, as a rule, may be rather uninformative. The advantage, however, is
the countless hours of equipment
operation that can be monitored.
The fact remains that, when the opportunity presents itself to secure such
Reprint RE-15-6-12
Final manuscript received August 18, 1969.
data under controlled conditions,
something of value is in hand. When
this opportunity includes provisions
for evaluating and classifying this data
while it is still fresh, that value is
A succession of contracts on the
Saturn/ Apollo program for NASA involved the delivery of twenty-four
RCA computer systems. NASA requirements on this program called for
continued integrated reliability programs that would provide for the
design of high reliability into the
equipment, would maintain reliability
through manufacture, and would monitor and assess reliability in field use.
As a result of the unique demands of
this program, NASA established a uniform failure reporting program which
was implemented by the NASA equipment contractors. Prepared failure reports were distributed to contractors
having design responsibility for each
equipment. The contractor, in turn,
maintained a data bank of failure history applicable to his equipment and
provided NASA with identification of
failure trends, updated reliability
assessments, and prediction of mission
success; the contractor also submitted
a separately documented close-out report against each failure reportgiving repair details, analysis of the
failure and, where applicable, corrective action to the design or to existing
R. E. Dehm, Ldr.
Reliability and Maintainability Engineering
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE from the University of Buffalo
in 1952. Since 1963 he has been responsible for
the direction and control of reliability tasks performed to NPC 250-1 on the NASA-contracted
Saturn Ground Computer, Dual Display, and Data
Link Systems. The engineering tasks associated
with these contracts include field failure data
reduction and analysis, failure trend prediction,
failure analysis, and corrective action recommendations, and comprehensive reliability reports.
Previously, Mr. Dehm was a Design Engineering
Leader responsible for the development and
delivery of ground recording and display equipment for the Ranger TV System. Mr. Dehm joined
RCA in 1952 and was given responsibility for
electronic design of tracking radar circuitry for
the Terrier and Talos Missile Programs. As a
supervisor and manager he was responsible for
much of the design and program direction of the
control equipment for the three forward Ballistic
Missile Early Warning Systems. Mr. Dehm is a
member of the IEEE Reliability Group.
O. E. Colgan
Reliability and Maintainability Engineering
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
joined RCA as an Electrical Design Engineer in
November 1945 after having served as an instructor in the Navy R/T school during World War II.
In his present position, Mr. Colgan is actively
involved on several Reliability and Maintainability
Programs including the Saturn Ground Computer
System, Tacfire Random Access Memory (Drum)
and Voice Warning Systems Signal Adapters.
These programs involve Reliability and Maintainability predictions, Math Models, Failure Analysis
and Corrective Action, Equipment Performance
Assessment and Human Factors Analysis, While
at RCA, Mr. Colgan has performed as a Design
Engineer, a Systems Engineer, and a Project
Engineer prior to joining the Reliability Engineering Section. Mr. Colgan has two U.S. patents and
is a member of ASOC.
The effects of this extensive program
emphasis on post-delivery reliability
measurements were that
1) Incorrect or incomplete data could
be investigated and improved while
it was still fresh;
2) Classification of each failure record could be made, permitting later
selective considerations;
Table I
Discrete part reliability data.
Failure rale
(failures/lOS hours)
3) The entire past history could be
continuously reviewed and reclassified when later developments provided more information; and
4) Most important, the program
would run for several years, providing large data sources, minimizing
the effect of random errors in data
from all sources, and providing high
confidence in resultant computations.
Diode, germanium switching
Transistor, germanium
(typical 2N1301)
Resistor, RL
Capacitor, CM
Coil, RF
On this program, all data and data
sources related to the RCA equipment
were returned to a central collection
point with the EASD reliability group.
This included NASA failure report
forms, repair record forms, failed
parts removed in repair, and periodic
elapsed-time meter readings from all
Fig. 1-Failure-report coding form.
3 435
" S
w •
into one of the more specific failure
Fig. 2 illustrates the computer printout
format used in the analysis of random
or residual failures. The observed random failure rate is computed at both
assembly and part levels from system
operating hours, system part application records (for quantities), and
screened failure records. These rates
can be visually compared for differences with existing handbook values
and are also statistically compared to
indicate the "significance" of any difference. (A failure rate based upon a
few observed failures does not have
the same meaning or usefulness as
the same failure rate based upon many
observed failures).
In brief, the level-of-significance analysis can determine the probability (or
odds in favor) of the observed results
being obtained from a population of
that part in the equipment truly represented by the prediction. In practice,
the computation is set up to indicate
a few discrete levels such as: observed
results consistent with predicted failure tate (one chance or greater in
ten), 5% level (one chance in twenty),
and 0.5 % level (one chance in twohundred). These levels, indicating
where a part or component is underperforming its prediction in a statistically significant sample, are used as
a flag to direct a more detailed analysis
of that item's failure history.
The complete screening operation described above is illustrated by Fig. 3.
With continued analysis for failure
trends, action to correct the equipment, and reclassification, the random
failure category becomes more of a
measure of what can be taken as the
inherent failure rate of a given part in
a specified application and environment.
Of the several descriptions offered
above, the most important type of
failure for the program is residue.
Where an underlying cause of failure
is significant and generally inherent in
a specific part, circuit, environment,
manufacture, or use, it will occur
more than once and, in time, will indicate itself as a trend of similar failures. Directed failure analysis applied
to each such trend uncovers correctable causes and allows more items of
the random category to be reclassified
The accomplishments of this program
required early planning for machine
assistance. The essential data from
both the failure report and the repair
report was reduced to 80 columns of
information in machine-card format
(see Fig. 1) . This permitted automatic
sorting and print-out records for any
item of interest in further failure diagnosis; e.g., assembly, part, failure
classification, etc.
21222 2
Although nearly all of the above involve some degree of follow-up analysis, the one identified as random
failure holds a special interest. This
grouping contains all failure occurrences which could not justifiably be
assigned to one of the other typesin a sense a screening residue. Random
or chance failures can be defined
as those occurring independently of
known or correctable causes. Handled
on a statistical basis at the part level,
they also provide the source of the
generic failure-rate data presented in
Some cause/effect interpretations
could be established at this first
(paper) level. In a few critical cases,
immediate analysis was performed on
the failed part. The emphasis of the
program,. however, was on the analysis for failure trends for common
cause/effect and possible elimination.
This would allow the long-running
program to be most cost effective.
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 104 15 6 11 18 19
Type i-random failure
Type 2-dependent failure
Type 3-wearaut failure
Type 4-initial defect failure
Type 5-performance deterioration
Type 6-non-operational defect
Type 7-workmanship-type defect
Type 8-design change (documenting modification action)
Type 9-design-oriented failure
Type O-not a failure (or failure not
Failure classification into one of nine
distinct conventional failure categories
was a first step in the screening of the
raw data. This reduced the total volume of data, where the basic type of
cause could be determined, into
smaller groups that could be separately treated and analyzed for correction, as follows:
Since the start of this field-data phase
in 1965, over 375,000 system hours
have been accrued on the RCA equipment along with a complete reliability
history recorded to the componentpart level. Part-hours, in turn, range
up to the billions of hours. A situation like this will make eyes gleam in
any reliability department. Failure-rate
data in available handbooks is frequently based on far smaller samples.
Observed Random Average Part
Normalized Observed
failure stress
ambient Junction
Part type
5556 7
• 5 6
Fig. 2-Computer readout format for random failures.
In the current EASD data bank, no
significant failure-rate data exists for
integrated circuits, since these were
not in use in the subject equipment.
Also, no new application factors (airborne, shipboard, etc.) were generated
since the equipment providing the history was only used in a laboratory
environment. These will have to be developed from future programs. Table I
gives some of the discrete part data
produced, to date, as fallout from the
stages of analysis.
A second failure history screening,
diverging from that performed for
diagnostic purposes, was performed as
part of reliability assessment. This
screening did not establish inherent or
limiting reliability, but was designed
to measure the equipment failure-rate
performance that existed at that instant of time due only to the equipment, excluding corrected problems
and human foibles. The progression
of this assessment measure, at the
equipment and system level, established a 'present status' reliability
growth curve which existed from early
field performance and moved toward
the measure of limiting reliability.
Collecting good screened data has several associated problems and requires
controls. There is a continuous need
for review and correction of the equipment user's approach to documenting
failures and the repair group's approach to troubleshooting and repair
reports. Misleading reports will be
written, repair action may hide the
original cause of failure, and failed
parts will be lost preventing further
analysis. This cannot be eliminated
but can be minimized so that longterm cumulative records can replace
weak data.
To take advantage of cumulative data,
the system must provide for continual
retrieval and review of the entire history. Properly screened to today's
knowledge of failure occurrences and
corrective action for this equipment,
last year's history becomes just as use-
ful. It does not merely involve an addon process to older posted records.
To permit continual life retrieval of
the reliability history requires organization in the data-bank system that
will give living records rather than a
succession of dead files. In the end,
for each analysis you must leave the
coded summary printouts and return
to the original report text.
Machine-assisted operations and special working forms must be designed
for as much flexibility as possible. All
the needs of an extended data-processing program cannot be anticipated
from the start, yet major changes cannot be economically introduced halfway through the program.
The screened failure-rate data at the
part level, which resulted from the
described program, is being used by
EASD reliability in current new business proposals and on equipment
development programs. It exists as a
more current data source, and, properly used, contains more accurate data
than current standard handbooks.
Since it reflects a constant, limiting
performance that can be attributed to
part reliability levels alone, the other
factors that will exist in various degrees from early life through well-aged
field performance are reintroduced
by a multiplying factor derived from
assessment screening. Typically, failure rates for early life, when reliability demonstration may be required,
are taken as four times the basic
equipment prediction, while middlelife failure rates, mostly experienced
by the customer in field use, will be
around twa times the basic prediction
for a program involving problem feedback and corrective action. The range
of multiplying factors must be
selected and used with caution, however, since it is here that the quality
level of purchased parts and assembled equipment, as well as engineering attention to worst-case design, has
its effects.
The use of this in-house prediction
data in place of standard handbook
Fig. 3-Failure report classification and use.
data is inviting since, even when degraded by the multiplying (growth)
factor, it results in a substantially
higher predicted mean time between
failures (MTBF). Its use can be substantiated to customer groups in terms
of the source data and approach. To
the degree that it permits closer predictions of reliability to what will be
the actual case, it requires that more
attention be paid to safety margins
between contract specified requirements and current predictions. Closer,
more accurate reliability predictions
must be the aim of the Engineering
Department - as reliability guarantees, equipment warranties, and lifecycle costing become more frequent
topics in requests for quotation.
Development of reliable reliability
data is a cost item and cannot be
done on every job. But, where failure
reporting and failure analysis is required to any degree, the extra planning to set up and support a useful
system to provide this secondary output can bring company returns in
terms of competitiveness and confidence .
Value engineering at EASD
S. Steinfeld
In his program planning, the design manager must chart a course that has three
basic parameters-function, schedule, and cost. In considering function, two conditions must be satisfied: 1) it can be built; 2) it will work. These two conditions of
function must be proven within a time limitation, and problems mount rapidly as
schedule and cost factors come into play. Costs are a prime concern but these concerns can add to the complications of restricted time. Where is priority attention
placed: on function? on schedule? or on costs? A similar question is: which is the
most important leg of a a-legged stool? This paper shows how a manager can effectively use value engineering as one of many tools to help establish the success of
his total program. It will explain some key factors in the effective application of value
engineering relative to the rest of the company's operations, and discuss its importance toward increasing the worth of a product through the lowering of final cost at
which the product provides its function.
S. Steinfeld, Adm.
Value Engineering
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received his education in Mechanical Engineering
at Newark College of Engineering, New Jersey.
He received his professional designation in Value
Engineering and Analysis at U.C.L.A. He has had
over 20 years of engineering and management
experience in Electro-Mechanical Packaging Product Design, Tooling, and Manufacturing-eight 01
these with Bendix and Lockheed, managing design
groups on the Sparrow, Talos, Eagle, and Polaris
Missile Programs. After joining RCA in 1962, he
managed the Specifications and Standards Department engaged in Component Engineering, Design
jleview, Vendor Surveys, etc. He then assumed
the task of Administrator, Value Systems and
Control. Mr. Steinfeld is executive V.P. of the Los
Angeles Chapter, Society of American Value Engineers.
Reprint RE-15-6-13
Final manuscript received November 7, 1969.
in the Aerospace/Electronic Industry to negotiate R&D contracts under very tight
production schedules. This arrangement opposes the industrial psychologist's advice that we should have a
clear, easy schedule and a relaxed atmosphere as a stimulant for true creativity. In spite of this burden, EASD
has established a reputation with DoD,
NASA, and the commercial world for
concurrent development and production. This is a necessity in our competitive environment; we must satisfy
the customer's requirements within a
necessary time constraint and at a
profit. A good track record with our
customers proves that proper techniques have been developed by RCA
to do its critical job. Each division has
its own variety of these techniques,
and this paper examines a specific
EASD management tool-value engineering. In some cases, cost reduction
and value applications may start in
the proposal stage, as a marketing advantage, or to assist manufacturing in
their producibility studies. The emphasis here, however, is toward its real
usefulness as a management discipline
when the contract arrives-to start the
design, development, support planning, and implementation.
When engineering gets its contract
commitment assignment, the design
engineer goes into action. Because of
EASD's diverse product line but relatively small organization, the design
engineer has developed a jack-of-alltrades ability. He must be a Solomon
to steer his program through all disciplines, and he must develop a store-
house of all ingredients essential to
satisfy contractual elements.
From his spectrum of talents, the engi.
neer is capable of providing concepts;
selecting parts, materials, processes
and finishes; designing tools; provid.
ing test procedures; packaging and
packing; writing manuals; and capably
perfonning many other peripheral
skills - including value engineering.
However, if he has planned and organized his task properly, he will summon only those people and skills
necessary to accomplish his goals:
Function-it must work
Schedule-on time
Cost-at a profit
The designer. like most of us, is a
victim of Parkinson's law: at the
moment of commencing a task, all
available time is used up. He is now
time-constrained and must quickly
concentrate on getting the device to
Back in the cost·reduction void of
post WW-II his program would have
reached this point:
DESIGNER: Well, boss, here's the package
ready for production. It's been successfully breadboarded, prototyped, tooled,
environmentally tested and tomorrow is
our deadline ... but, one thing ...
MANAGER: I'm impressed! Give it over to
production, now!
DESIGNER: But, boss, give me another two
weeks and I'll reduce the manufacturing costs by 15%.
MANAGER: I'm impressed! Give it over to
production, now!
Let's carry this play to the point,
where we check costs as the job progresses.
MANAGER: Do you have these costs under
DESIGNER: Yes, sir, we know what our
costs are at all times.
MANAGER: That's fine, what do you do
when you identify an over-run condition?
DESIGNER: We cry a lot.
The well-planned and organized engineer should rarely find himself in such
a situation. But, if management did
not provide all the engineering support functions to put at the design
engineer's disposal, the above dialog
could become biographical.
Value engineering is one of the engineering support functions. Over 12
years ago, DEP Procedure 0605 (Value
Improvement Program) established
Fig. 1-EASD value engineering plan.
value engineering as a means of providing its customers with the highest
value for their dollar. Like all procedures, this was a guide, and as such
had to be shaped through a divisional
operating instruction to accommodate
the needs of EASD; the basic plan is
illustrated in Fig. 1.
Upon examining other VE programs
over the years, one premise stood out
as an uncompromising baseline: the
major factor in a successful VE function is its relation to the rest of the
company's operations. Value engineering is sought after when it demonstrates consideration for the impact of
change on all departments. To be
meaningful, a VE program must
1) Blend with all functions without
compromising cost reduction;
2) Serve the program director; and
3) Be oriented to contractual obligations and divisional procedures with
cost reduction as a common denominator.
As EASD management has found, the
addition of a value engineer to the staff
does not provide the elixir for all
economic ills and ails. There must be
a plan, and there must be funding.
Pull me out oj the cave and I'll give
you the lamp.
No, give me the lamp and I'll pull you
out oj the cave.
Interchange "VE" for the "lamp" and
"excess costs" for the" cave", and it is
apparent how many a VE effort is as
frustrated as Aladdin was.
As described before, the program
director will align disciplines that will
provide him the tools to 1) make it
work, 2) ship on schedule, and 3)
make a profit-in that order. This does
not imply that profit is ignored. But,
if the design doesn't work, it can earn
no profit. If it is not shipped on schedule, there is an immediate negative
impact-and perhaps a loss of profit,
if not future business.
I t may appear paradoxical that the
very purpose of this engineering program should take the low order of attention. But there must be efficient
execution of the first two phases"make it work" and "ship on schedule"-to accomplish the third-Hmake
a profit." Therefore, most resources
and disciplines are brought to bear on
accomplishing those phases.
As a result, funding proposed for the
design task either
1) Did not include an allocation for
value engineering or
2) It was there, but was used for the
design effort.
Under these conditions, where value
(30 HRS)
Fig. 2-Value engineering workshop plan.
recognized as tangible but seldom
Q: Suppose the VE effort shows no
A: A feedback report is analyzed for
subsequent action. It is also weighed
as an input to establish the average
return. A realistic recognition by
management that "you can't win 'em
all" relieves the perfect-record pressure from subsequent decision making.
Q: Suppose he has no funds?
A: The program director will assign
the uS.e of his Shop Order, nonetheless. A small overrun due to VE
activity is preferable to a larger
overrun without VE activity.
Q: How is the value engineer turned
A: 1) The program director calls for
his service; or, 2) the VE provides
engineering is not a mandatory function, it will atrophy. If we were to
mediate Aladdin's problem today, we
would have put his lamp in escrow
while the two principals got on with
the negotiation, each, later claiming
his fair share of the lamp. This analogy
gave EASD the breakthrough for some
initial value engineering program successes. Value engineering is "investment" funded during its "search
mode," that is, until it "homes in" on
a specific problem.
Q: Then who pays?
A: The program that benefits.
Q: When does he pay?
A: As soon as the value engineering
effort begins.
Q: How does the program benefit?
A: Its funding allocation is credited
proportionately. The benefit may be
cost-avoidance action and this is
Specialist Pool
Value Engineering Chairman
*~_ I
~~ •
. '"
~ .. " '--I
I "-,.
Fig. 3-The ad hoc study team approach.
•••• 1'
.... "
the program director a VE proposal
for consideration.
Q: Who arbitrates conflict?
A: The program director exerts auton',i
omous control because he is respon1
sible for the success or failure of his. ,
project. Therefore, it behooves any
VE proposal to provide some validation of its potential. VE processing
also provides substantiating test
data for implementation considerations.
The value engineering activity concentrates on three basic elements to search
out superfluous costs:
1) The VE workshop-training-seminars . .
2) An ad hoc study team
3) Cost reduction awareness program
Value engineering training is an essential ingredient to any cost-reductionconscious organization. Courses and
curricula are available at accredited
colleges, such as UCLA; courses are
also given by the Department of Defense, RCA, and the Society of American Value Engineers. EASD has
developed a curriculum to satisfy its
particular needs. Most educators advise, and many insist, it is vital to run
a course uninterruptedly. Were we to
ask some 20 persons, including design
engineers, buyers, methods engineers,
draftsmen, etc., to leave their jobs for
one work week straight to attend class,
the program would not get off the
ground. To be successful, the program
must consider the rest of the operations. The in-house seminar has proven
to be the answer to EASD. It not only
imparts the VE methodology to 20
people at a time, but the company
benefits in direct savings by having
in-house "live" projects for study by
the teams.
Fig. 2 shows the typical plan for a
workshop. The key? It is sensitive to . .
EASD. It does not meet the best criteria for a training program, but the
tradeoff provides EASD with a working plan that pays off.
Results? Some are direct, such as one
workshop that returned over $750,000
to the division-a return of 1300% on
the investment. Some are intangible,
such as an increase in the number
of employee suggestions and the increased quality. We encourage a heavy
mix of design draftsmen and technicians in these workshops on the
premise that a healthy level of cost
avoidance can happen on the drawing
board. Buyers and manufacturing personnel greatly contribute to that area
in producibility.
An ad hoc study team
The burdensome compliment is the
management assumption that the addition of a value engineer to the staff will
anesthetize the high-cost pains, or that
the customer will nod approvingly by
noting the presence of a VE block in
an organization chart. The prescribed
dollar savings goal, a percentage of the
division's gross business, cannot be
met by the value engineer alone. The
complexity of only a few product lines
and the coverage dictated by a DoD
program requirement through MIL-V38352 (contractual requirement forVE
as a funded line item) demands the
concerted effort of a team of experts
before any appreciable costs can be
extracted. So, taking a lesson from the
data-bank concept, we use the expertbank concept, generally known as the
ad hoc VE study team (Fig. 3) . Theoretically, this is an ideal approach.
Practically, it won't work unless
middle management accepts or is given
to understand that value engineering is
a mandatory function, much the same
as design reviews. This condition
arises because the value engineering
studies are usually unscheduled events
and the experts must now be summoned from a scheduled program and
become responsive to a VE team captain. It is not easy to convince a program manager you are out to aid his
cause by disengaging his people from
scheduled work. How then is this
reconciled? Certainly not by the DEP
Procedure that holds him responsible
for accommodating such an effort. But
where he has seen striking results from
this probing discipline, he will deposit
some of his expertise in the expert
bank, looking forward to the value
engineering benefits that one of his
subsequent programs may enjoy. In
addition, his program will not suffer
from unscheduled expenses because
his people will be "investmentfunded" or funded by the program
benefiting from the services.
With that management problem
solved, the value engineer selects this
special team and guides them through
the VE methodology. Once involved,
designers will note "there's nothing too
special about this cost reduction
thing!" And they will be correct! Except that the goal is profit and more
business, through greater value, rather
than cost reduction as an end in itself.
If expediting the schedule or improving
performance will yield greater profit,
additional cost may be invested to accomplish these ends. The only thing
special is the organized approach and
the stage to let it happen. Cost reduction is greatest when value engineering
techniques are applied along with the
basic elements of managing: planning,
organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. The teams will vary from two
to six people and may complete their
study within from one hour to one
week. This program at EASD is a softsell campaign in constant motion.
to change the shipping classification
of a DoD commodity. At this writing,
technical approval has been given to
the value engineering change proposal,
the negotiations are under-way for a
potential six figure share for EASD.
Most changes initiated under the value
engineering probe generally are subject to approval of a design manager;
the implementation is then his responsibility. Where the recommendation is
a class-I change on a DoD contract,
the ECP will become a VECP when
there is a cost savings to the customer.'
Here, again, is the need for more team
work. The value engineering incentive
clause in a DoD contract allows value
engineering to become a business
within a business. As such, both
marketing and contracts administration are needed to negotiate with the
customer through the Armed Services
Procurement Regulations (ASPR).
Cost reduction awareness
Reporting on the effectiveness of our
studies is conducive to advertising
dramatic results. However, in so
doing, we are apt to squelch one of
the prime requisites for a fruitful costreduction program, i.e., the constant
effort, and the think-cost-reduction atmosphere. A moderate cost reduction
suggestion might very well be aborted
in its embryonic stage because it
would pale before a mighty five-figure
saving recently published. We make
no announcement which would develop a "tough-act-to-follow" effect.
This makes room for a flow of motivational and technical presentations
readily digestible. Posters are placed
throughout the facility depicting cost
savings from all functions, e.g., production, employee suggestions, material handling cost reduction team, etc.,
with amounts ranging from several
hundred to several hundred thousand
dollars saved.
Noontime presentations by specialty
vendors directed toward cost reduction are arranged periodically in cooperation with our purchasing value
analyst. A Value Engineering Bulletin
is published whenever there is something of value to discuss. Bulletins can
be technical or philosophical. A costawareness action may be no more than
a casual conversation with our value
engineer. Recently, following such an
exchange of ideas, our shipping and
receiving manager conceived the idea
Management cannot be expected to
accept any program on good faith
alone. A reporting schedule is maintained to provide management review
and program assessment. Internal
audits are done to satisfy DEP Procedure 0700 (Cost Reduction Program) for monthly reports to DEP
Staff and to maintain an up-to-date
status for DoD contractor performance
evaluation. Because our government is
increasing its cost reduction awareness, pre-contract award evaluation
places a heavy weighting on value
engineering. On most proposals to
DoD agencies, we are obliged to report on the sustaining action value
engineering generates. A good VE
track record is good business.
Value engineering reinforces the
strength of other programs and disciplines which serve management. By its
complementary relationship, those disciplines and programs increase their
likelihood of achieving total management objectives.
1. Robinson, s.,
"Value engineering-the profit
is mutual", RCA Quality Assurance, reprint
prochure, PE·435; RCA ENGINEER, Vol. 15,
No. 1 (June/July, 1969); pg. 84.
2. Fallon, C., "The Design Engineer and the
Concept of Value", RCA Quality Assurance,
reprint brochure, PE·435; RCA ENGINEER,
Vol. 14, No.6 (April/May, 1969); pg. 7 .
Engineering support and
logistics-the EASD approach
G. F. Fairhurst
This paper describes the engineering support and logistics organization that has
evolved at the Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division over the past four years.
The increased performance and success of this group has been a gradual processmade possible by adopting the philosophy that the support function is a partner to,
and an integral part of, the engineering organization. Crucial to this evolution was the
recognition that RCAIDEP is basically an engineering and scientifically-oriented
organization; this approach has many real advantages for the support group, for engineering, for the division, for the company and, most importantly, for our military and
commercial customers.
to describe the
support approach at EASD is by
a review of the engineering support
and logistics organization chart, Fig. 1.
Basically, this organization, which reports directly to the chief engineer, is
structured into two coordinated functions with, roughly, equal personnel
complements. The two major line organizations on the left of the chart
have the function of direct support of
the engineering design and development responsibilities. The two line
organizations on the right of the chart
have responsibility for supporting our
customers during product design and
manufacture and after delivery. Fig. 2
gives the charter of the engineering
support and logistics organization at
Customer interest and influence
The responsibility of this doublebarreled functional role in one organization allows rapid identification of,
and response to, customer requirements as they relate to the basic design
and development responsibilities. For
example, reliability engineering (on
the left side of the chart, Fig. 1)
works closely with the designers in
drafting and with product support
engineering groups in the maintenance, provisioning and field engineering responsibilities. The structure
which places parts standardization and
data management within design drafting has proven to be valuable from an
information standpoint, since it is
within the drafting department that
the basic documentation starts to become formalized for the first time.
Reprint RE-15-6-16
Final manuscript received January 5,1970.
A more operatiEmal description of the
dual-purpose engineering support and
logistics organization is shown in Fig.
3. Note the almost direct repeat of the
dual functional roles described in
Fig. 1. To the left of this chart are
the functions of the basic design support role as it receives requirements
from the customer; on the right, again,
we see the customer and the product
support element functions which deliver the necessary data and talents
after the equipment has been designed,
built and delivered. An operational
bridge between these two organizations is the maintenance engineering
analysis function. The evolution and
product of the maintenance engineering analysis influences at a very early
stage, all of the important and customer-oriented functions seen on the
right of Fig. 1.
Real contributions are important
In the final analysis, the successful
performance of a support and logistics
operation rests in the confidence of our
engineering associates and in the professional service-oriented attitude of
all the support personnel. With this
confidence' and professionalism, the
support functions can truly be an
integral part of every program. Competency and professionalism is also the
only real factor which can overcome
the basic psychological handicap
which every service organization must
face. There is, within all of us, this
psychological trait which cries out
"anything you can do, I can do better." A support organization has to
continually prove, by performance,
that this is not true of the specialized
disciplines within its realm. Technical
George F. Fairhurst, Mgr.
Engineering Support and Logistics
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys. California
received the BSEE from the Worcester Polytechnic
Institute in February 1943 and has over 25 years
experience in Engineering and Product Support
areas. He is responsible for all the integrated
logistics and product support responsibilities of
the division. Before his RCA assignment, he had
managerial responsibilities at IBM and Litton
Industries. His duties included executive management assignments in product support, customer
engineering, field engineering and engineering
laboratory responsibilities. He served as a Naval
Aviation Radio/Radar Officer in the Central and
South Pacific areas in World War II. He was
employed as a civilian instructor in Electrical
Engineering and Physics at the United States
Naval Academy Post Graduate School from 1946
to 1948. He is a member of the Product Support
Committee of Aerospace Industries Association,
a member of American Management Association,
was President of the Litton Data Systems Management Club, a past member of National Security
Industrial Association, a member of the Board of
Directors of the American Institute for Design and
Drafting, a Charter member and Fellow in the
Society of Logistics Engineers (SOLE), and a
member of the National Board of Directors of that
organization. Mr. Fairhurst was the General Chairman for the Third Annual Convention of SOLE held
in Los Angeles in September 1968, and in September 1969 he was elected to the office of
National President of the Society of Logistics
competence in support disciplines also
means leadership in the use of new
tools and techniques. The logistics organization, for example, must use the
same tools that are available to design
engineers; system-simulation models,
queuing theory, and life-cycle cost
models must be as much a part of our
performance as it is in design engineering. We become and remain a part
of the engineering team only by continuous educational updating of our
skills and by the experienced application of those skills.
Fig. 1-Engineering Support and Logistics Organization.
Engineering Support and Logistics
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
ENGINEERING SUPPORT AND LOGISTICS is structured to provide this Division with a
capability to meet three major responsibilities:
1. Provide design activities with the liaison and the engineering design support needed
during development of new equipment.
2. Insure that the impact of logistics requirements are recognized and considered during the
design phase.
3. Analyze, plan and implement the logistics support needed to insure that the operational
and performance goals of the equipment are efficiently met throughout the equipment
life cycle.
This organization recognizes the financial and operational performance advantages gained by a
centralized grouping of technical and administrative disciplines needed to provide the special
emphasis being placed on engineering design, logistics support and life cycle costing by both
government agencies and our commercial customers. Specific detailed tasks and descriptive
general functional responsibilities of the various support and logistics groups are shown in the
two following pages.
Fig. 2-Engineering Support and Logistics Charter.
Fig. 3-Functional role of the Engineering Support and Logistics Organization.
Steps to success
The steps in management and planning of a successful support program
Interpretation of requirements;
Definition of tasks;
Selection of milestones;
Identification of problem areas,
Preparation of a plan; and
Implementation and control.
Program urgency, timing, and other
factors will cause variations in the
amount of involvement in these steps,
but unless the support organization
has truly considered (and can influence) these factors, then they are not
the important part of the team that
they should be. The performance of
a service group must be better and
more cost effective than can be obtained either from with the engineering design groups or from outside
sources. In the areas of environmental
testing, test planning, field engineering, publications, maintenance engineering, training, we must be so
competent that all temptation to "do
it myself" or go to outside vendors or
consultants is removed. Both management and design engineers must be
motivated, because of our performance, to think "in-house," The logistics organization, because it cuts
across so many of the programs of a
company, is in an excellent position to
see which requirements keep popping
up from program to program and to
provide specialists to perform these
Our real technical competence is also
improved by participation with the
Design Engineering groups in a liberal
rotation of assignments program. Design engineers can, and do, benefit
greatly from a tour with field engineering; they can learn about the real
problems which will be encountered
in the operational environment.
Assignment in test engineering, maintenance engineering, and training
groups can help to give the young engineer a well-grounded backgroundand help him to see the big picture.
The logistics groups must help groom
these people and then willingly give
them up to other activities, thereby
creating an alumni from logistics
working in design, manufacturing, and
program offices.
To provide the right product and the
right services and the best and most
effective operational life of the equipment to our customers, there is a very
urgent need for a company's support
disciplines to penetrate, to influence,
and to permeate the engineering organization. These actions take expertness,
commitment, involvement, a service
attitude, control and true professional
Power supply overload
protection techniques
F. C. Easter
Not allowing for load conditions outside the normal operating limits of the supply is
the most prevalent cause for failure in otherwise well designed supplies. Various
overload protection techniques are described in this paper, with particular emphasis
on foldback current limiting. Foldback current limiting allows safe operation with the
thermal design and current capability of the supply determined by full load requirements, rather than possible overload conditions. Such protection can be provided by
the additions of a few low power components.
in other-
C wise well-designed power supplies occur most often from overload
or short circuiting of the load. Various
techniques are available for current
limiting regulated power supplies.
The following techniques will be examined and the advantages and limitations of each will be discussed:
1) Passive current limiting
2) Current limiting by base drive of
pass transistor
3) Active current limiting
4) Supply shutdown on overload
5) "Fold-back" current limiting, with
automatic recovery from overloads
Passive current limiting
F. C. (Hap) Eastar
Advanced Technology
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE from the University of Kansas.
As a Staff Engineer of the Advanced Technology
group, Mr. Easter provides technical direction and
consultation for the engineers in the group and
support for management.. He has made significant
contributions in Circuitry and in concept for the
AN/SLQ-19 Countermeasures System and for the
AN/ULQ-6 and Radio Frequency Oscillator countermeasure equipments. He has been a primary
contributor in circuit development for three TWT
power supply systems. Mr. Easter has pioneered
in the application of solid-state devices to developmental and end-item equipments since transistors became commercially feasible. He developed
the first all-so lid-state power supplies RCA produced for a military equipment and designed the
mst two bipolar custom integrated circuits developed at RCA Van Nuys. During his 19 years with
RCA, Mr. Easter was in the Aviation and Special
Devices Sections in Camden and Missile and
Surface Radar in Moorestown before being transferred to the West Coast in 1959. He is a member
of the Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Tau Engineering
Honor Societies. Mr. Easter has one patent approved and one patent pending.
Reprint RE-15-6-11
Final manuscript received September 29, 1969.
A commonly used, extremely simple,
regulated supply with passive current
limiting is illustrated in Fig. 1, which
is the schematic for a zener regulated
supply. Maximum dissipation occurs
in the active device at maximum supply voltage (high line) and no load.
This is (Eo",) (E1 - E ou ,) / Rl. Maximum system dissipation occurs at high
line and short circuit, where E12/R1
watts is supplied from E1 and is dissipated in resistor R 1. As in most shunt
regulated supplies, the short circuit
Fig. 1-8asic voltage-regulated supply.
current is determined by the source
voltage and series impedance:
Another example of current limiting
via source impedance is found in ionpump power supplies. An ion-pump
power supply is used to maintain a
high vacuum in a large volume cavity,
such as a traveling wave tube. When
the cavity is properly evacuated, the
ion current is low. If an arc occurs,
or the tube has not been operated
for some time, a gaseous condition
may exist and ion current will be high.
The terminal voltage of the ion-pump
power supply may decrease with load
without seriously impairing the operation of the ion pump. However, shortcircuit current must be limited for the
protection of the load and the ionpump power supply.
An ion-pump power supply often
takes the form of a 3000-volt unregulated supply with a short-circuit current of 1mA. This can be mechanized
-with a transformer/rectifier/storagecapacitor combination and a 3megohm series resistor.
Load current limited by drive of the
pass transistor
A somewhat improved regulator may
be obtained by using an emitterfollower configuration following the
zener diode of Fig. 1. The load regulation is normally improved, as loadcurrent variations are isolated from
the zener by the current gain of the
transistor. Further, a smaller, more
economical zener may be used. Supply efficiency is improved as a seriesregulated supply (as this has become
with the added emitter follower)
draws current as determined by the
load requirements. In a simple shuntregulated supply, full load current is
drawn from the source even when
there is no load.
However, the following is a more ac-
Fig. 2-Basic voltage-regulated supply.
Transistor Q2 amplifies the difference
between the reference zener-diode
voltage and a sample of the output
voltage to be regulated. When the outage divider to provide a sample of
put voltage is higher than desired,
h"ansistor Q2 conducts more current,
thereby shunting turn-on current
away from transistor Q1, causing the
supply output voltage to decrease to
its desired value.
cepted explanation of the operation
of a basic series-regulated supply. Fig.
2 is a diagram of a very rudimentary
voltage regulated supply. A complete
supply would include protective devices, feedback stabilization, and
probably greater current amplification. Power supply E1 is normally
provided by a transformer/rectifier /
filter combination. Power supply E2
is often a zener-regulated supply
which is referenced to the output
voltage. The function of E2 and resistor R 1 is to provide a turn-on current to the pass transistor, Q1. Zener
diode CR 1 provides a voltage reference against which the supply output
is compared. It may be noted that if
CR1 is a 6.2-volt diode, its current
can be adjusted such that its temperature coefficient nominally compensates for the base-emitter junction of
Q2, resulting in an economical, lowtemperature-coefficient .supply.
Resistors R3, R4, and R5 form a voltthe output voltage for regulation. Resistor R2 provides quiescent bias current to the reference zener diode, CR1.
In a supply as described above, the
short-circuit current limit is:
_ E2- VBE(Ql) QQ
I scRl
~ 1
As E2, V BE and R1 are fixed values,
the short-circuit current is directly dependent on the beta of transistor Q 1.
The basic series-regulated supply of
Fig. 2 is a straight-forward extension
of the above concept. Transistor Q 1
acts as an emitter follower, isolating
the load from the transistor base circuitry; Q2 and its associated components can be thought of as a zener with
feedback. The circuit would function
so if R3 were returned to the base of
Q1 rather than to its emitter.
CR1 ~
Fig. 3-Supply with fold back current limiting .
Therefore, the short-circuit current
will normally vary over a range of
greater than 3 to 1. For reliable operation, transistor 01 and its heat sink
must then be chosen to be able to
dissipate three times the high-line
INPUT power. This constitutes a large
design penalty, to say nothing of efficiency and system cooling which will
not be discussed in this paper.
function as in previous circuits with
the exception that its threshold is a
function of both load current and supply output voltage. Transistor 03 does
not conduct and current limit the supply until the voltage drop across R7 • i
exceeds the voltage across R9. The
R8, R9 voltage divider provides a
sample of the supply output voltage.
When 03 conducts, the output voltage
will drop for the same reasons as ~:
described for the circuit of Fig. 3.
When the output voltage drops, the
threshold for 03 decreases. This action provides a current limit that decreases as load is increased.
approximate the product of source
voltage, E 1, and full load current.
Thermal considerations are extremely
important as most semi-conductor
failures occur due to thermal stress.
As systems increase in density and
complexity, the problem of removing
heat from the equipment often becomes the major problem.
Supply shutdown on overload
Active current limiting
Short-circuit-current limiting can be
provided by the technique shown in
Fig. 3. In this circuit, when the load
current provides an IR drop across R7
in excess of the base-emitter turn-on
voltage for 03, 03 provides a shunt
path for the turn-on current, thereby
lowering the output voltage. It should
be noted that in this configuration,
short-circuit current will be slightly
in excess of the maximum current
which can be voltage regulated. Under
short-circuit conditions, the source
voltage E 1 appears across the pass
transistor 01. Therefore, its maximum
dissipation is considerably more than
that incurred in operating at full load.
The short-circuit current can be approximated by
The power dissipated within a regulator circuit is determined by the characteristics of the regulator and the
load. With passive current limiting, it
was seen that resistor R 1 (refer to
Fig. 1) dissipated all the power under
short circuit conditions.
In the circuit shown in Fig. 3, transistor 01 dissipates nearly all the
short-circuit power. This will closely
If in the circuit of Fig. 3, a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is substituted
for transistor 03, the power supply
is automatically shut off when an overload condition is encountered. This
limits circuit dissipation to that at full
load. This has JI disadvantage in that
when the supply is overloaded, it remains off until external action is
The short-circuit current is determined by the value of R7 and the baseemitter potential of 03. Under normal
conditions, voltage divider R8 and R9 ...
provide a reverse biasing potential
and, therefore, resistor R7 can be a
larger value as compared to its
equivalent in the previous circuit
(Fig. 3). (R7 of Fig. 3)
The SCR function can be accomplished
by an NPN-PNP transistor combination
as shown in Fig. 4. One advantage of
this combination is that the base emitter turn-on voltage of a transistor is
generally better controlled than the
gate firing potential of an SCR. This
configuring of an SCR is compatible
with integrated-circuit techniques. An
ordinary NPN transistor may be used
with a lateral PNP transistor.
The major advantage of foldback current limiting, as shown in Fig. 6, is
that the thermal design of the supply
is dictated by full load operation. The
dissipation of the pass element under
overload conditions is less than when
the supply is operating at full load.
Foldback current limiting
Patent #3,445,751 was granted to the
author for a circuit configuration that
overcomes many of the disadvantages
of the previously described circuits.
The configuration is shown in Fig. 5.
Its operation can be described as follows: transistor 03 provides the same
A second advantage is that recovery
from overload is automatic. Less load
current results in a decrease in voltage
across R7. Hence, more voltage can
The voltage-current characteristic of
such a circuit configuration is shown
in Fig. 6. The maximum current can
be set just above full load level by
selection of R7, R8, and R9.
Fig. 4-This transistor pair can replace the
SCR shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5-A supply with foldback current limiting.
The voltage across R9 of the R8, R9
divider normally reverse biases the
base-emitter junction of transistor 03.
Since R9 is returned to the base of the
output transistors, the VnE of the output transistors offsets the V BE of 03.
The alternate configuration provides
two possible advantages:
1) The short-circuit current may be reduced because the V BE of Q3 is provided external to the current sensing
resistor (s).
2) The base current of Q3, instead of
emitter current, flows in the RS, R9
voltage divider. This further reduces
the short-circuit current.
Fig. 6-Characteristics of foldback current
appear across R9 (and the supply output terminals) at the threshold of 03
conduction. If the load is further decreased to within its operating limits,
the output voltage is again regulated
to the desired potential.
It is interesting to support the above
mathematically. For the convenience
of this paper, it will be assumed that
V HE is constant and equal for all transistors. In support of 1) assume that
the beta of 03 is infinite and that negligibly small current flows in Rl. Now,
in the circuit of Fig. 5, under shortcircuited load conditions, the top of
resistor R8 is at the same potential as
the right end of resistor R7 and the
base of transistor 03. Then in accordance with Kirchoff's voltage law,
An alternate configuration for foldback current limiting is illustrated in
Fig. 7. Again the individual components have been designated identical to
those in foregoing descriptions in order to avoid the repetition of functional explanations.
The 01 equivalent is more typical
than a single-pass transistor. A Darlington drive of multiple-pass transistors with current-sharing emitter
resistors is often used in regulated
power supplies.
IscR7= (RS+R9) VnE/RS
Under overload conditions, transistor
03 again robs drive current from the
pass transistor. The current-sharing
emitter resistors serve a dual function
as they also sense load current.
VnE( R9
Isc=m Rs +1
for Fig. 5.
r - - - - - - - - - - - ,I
'- ____ .J
Similarly (in Fig; 7) under shortcircuit conditions, the bottom of R8
is at the same potential as the right
end of the R7 equivalent. The voltage
of En (shown on the schematic) with
respect to the short-circuited load is
EB=VnE (
from which
VBE)( R9 )
Isc= ( R7 R8
for Figure 7.
For the same voltage-divider ratio in
both circuits, the above simplifying
assumption infers that the ratio of the
short circuit currents is
Disallowing the above assumption of
infinite beta and negligible current in
R1, a more realistic number for shortcircuit currents can be calculated.
The principal error in the above equations results from ignoring the current
through resistor Rl. In Fig. 5, this
current must flow through R9, thereby
increasing the required drop across
and current through R7. Short-circuit
load current is increased by I R1
(R7/R9) .
In Fig. 7, the short-circuit load current
is increased by I Rl> as Q3 just shunts
this current around the pass transistors. Additionally, the drop across R7
equivalent must increase due to 03
base current flowing through R9.
:'- ___________ ..JI
The short circuit currents with first
order corrections are:
lscs= R7 1+ RS + IRt R9
Fig. 7-Alternate configuration for foldback current limiting .
V BE (R9 )
R9 )
IsC7= R.7 RS + IRt 1+ f3R7
The David Sarnoff.
The 1970 Individual Awards for Science
Dr. Perry Nie! Yocom of the Materials Research Laboratories, RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N.J. is a
recipient of the 1970 David Sarnoff Outstanding Achievement Award in Science .•. "for outstanding
research leading to superior inorganic compounds for, luminescent and electro-optic applications."
Dr. Perry Niel Yocom
Dr. Yocom has prepared many new sophisticated inorganic materials by a wide variety of ~ynthesis
techniques, and has made imp()rtant· contributions not only to their preparation, but to their characterization and utiJ.jzation:. Of. particular significance is his contribution to improved understanding of
the relationship between the synthesis of inorganic compounds and their luminescent properties,
including the mechanis,msof energ.y transfer in. such systems. His work has had an important impact
on the use of inorganic compounds as pJ:i'bsphors in commercial color television kinescopes. In addition, he has synthesized several other phosphors of practical importance, including smail-particle highbrightness silicates as perll~trationphosphors;avery efficient ZnS:Tm blue-emitting phosphor having a
narrow spectral characteiistic, which ma(jepQssiblethe development of a television systemtl:!at can
be. viewed in direct sunlightwitllthe.llid oUnterterence filters; and phosphors, double~(joped with
rare-earth ions, which convert the infra-ted (!mh;sion ota..GaAselectro-luminescent diode to green or
blue light. These. latter phosphors are equiv~lent to the. best .yet· produced. In .addition. to his .'contributionsto the" deveIQpmentofptJosPtJors,Dr~. Yoqpmhas made" very significllnt' contributions' fothe
synthesis ()fmllter.ials used assoli(j;., the.fielqof photochromic materials; Dr. Yocom has
sucpeeded. in synthesisingCa TiO.:FEi Mo \vvith the highest known concentration of~witching centers.
The 1970 IndividuaIAw,rdsf()rEng~I)~.rillg
A,Llchowsky of the Electromagnetic .and. AYia~ionSyst",m~,.9i\(i§ioO'V!lnNu~l:I,¢allf.,js.a.r~Gjpient
of the. David Sarnoff Outstanding Achievement Award. illEngine~rngi •. ; .. :'fCl~puts.tandin:gtechnical
leadership and contributions in the fili\l(js of computer drl,lmmemories<andimicroelecttoOic' devices."
Mr,. Lic!loVl~ky'.has,.Jn. large.measureibe~hr~sPQhsll>,e \for",uchOfRGA'~~Uccess .in· drum .' memories,
fuse. devices,.' result.ofad~tall~d. analYsis G()oducted in 1964,. he
found that drummemorie~cC!lulpnQtbeu$edJn, high~relial>iIi'!y~pplications. He. tli!:!n. develope,d 1I. li.Qht-'
weight, high-rl3Hability drU'!l.ffiemory.which wouldrn.eet a wide..rangeof enVironmental requiremenf$.
This .workresultedinseveralcollllTlercial. and.milital)1, design; .development; .and production cont"apts
that .have been worth '.. more . thl:i0 '. $~.l'IlnUon;.Hls< contribUtions .in .fTl.icroelectronj.cshavesimilarly
encompassed a broad ·range.starlimrwith the! l:Inaly~,s.of4ser.requiremelJts .andapplications-+-:leacling
through the various .stages of ~ey~19pmenti·de~ign;an~.constructjon,Jn·19a8, M designed. the first
three~ampereoutputs.tag.e()f . . ~ . mO!lolithicel~()troni()prQ~jmjty }uze:-a rnu.c/"l.bettergeylce than was
previously ayailable jntileipc:lu~try'TNis .$ucoes!S<i()nvi!1l,l~dMt:.L.i.ch9wskytl'l~t. higherc\Jrrent .devio~s·
could .be J?uiltjancj apropos~l·wa~.vJrjtt~(lwhl(:h .·.~e.s!Jlt~d . . inthe ,. a\N~rd ·..9f~oon:trl:!ct .for·a,.~5,a.mperEl
putputstage to driyeaferrit",.pha$(!)~l'IiftEJr.for ~ll:Ictr()nj()flnystee(edantennas •. Hel:lasdeVelope<:l...ntl;'··
merous otheruni.que . rricr.o. . alectr()"!1iq\Jeso~erthe. Pl:lst.s.averalyears.. M~;· Uchowsky
recently devel9ped .·a .new,. coocePtfC)rarr IJIIJ"sqlid7stliteL$I' cOJJ:lpoter mass. mal11orYvvhioh C}ould
replace electromech/l.nicalmeJJ:lory.c:!evices. Heh~ .. discovereda.combination of new techniques in
microcircuiH$1 andmernory-PElII(jesi!;jAwhichshowspromise,clf making s!Jcn a c()llcept cost~
competitive. SuccessfuLdemonstratlon>ofsu«hadevioepoul(j have a major impact on EASD. business,
as well as enhance RCA's. posiUorintheg~neral c9!T1p\Jter market..
Jarrett L. Hathaway of National. Broadcasting Company; .is a recipient of' tile 1970 David . Sarnoff
Outstanding Achievement Award In Engineering ;.;. "in. recognition of his. many outstanding. tech.
nical innovations in the field of broadcasting."
Jarrett L. Hathaway
Mr. Hathaway has been !9Sttumentalindevelopments .""hichare highly.useful .in modern day broad"
casting. Many of his origrnalconcepts have matured into systems and apparatus of great value to the
National Broadcasting Company. Based on his early deSign of a radio microphone (which sold over the
world by RCA), he ,has developed the present-dayhighlysophistjcated radio. microphone systems.
These modern systems represent.a new high in reliability ·of .broadcast quality two-way communications
without cable connections.rhe newradiornicrophones became practicalthrough.the application Of. his
experience and knowledge; also thrQughnispersistence in obtaining anew frequency allocation for
such devices. He also invented and developed the "interleaved sound" system which utilizeS;only the
video circuit in supplying both pjctureand~oundtoselected stations on the network whenever there is
a failure of the regular sound circuit. This unique system has saved NBC hundreds of thousands of
dollars in rebates resulting.frornsound failures. He has developed automatic audio gain controls in
cooperation with the CommerciaL Electronic .Systems Division. The first units ·manufactured ,by RCA
were.based on his orlginalequipmentalJ<:I.since then,up.tothe advent of solid state components,all
have followed principles describ.edin hiss~v~raJpatents.Duringthe 1950's and 1960's, he developed
ultra-portable camera equipment for picking up o(!wsptograms such as ball games and national
political conventions. His .¢fforts. allowed. NBC to be tile only network which obtained satisfactory
close-ups via carryablecam~ras .fromthe floor during the 1960 andt9E)4 conventions; By 1968, with new
ultra-portable color cameras, he was again instrumental il1 successfully integrating them into programming equipment at the national· politcal. conventions.
.outstanding Achievement Awards
RCA's highest technical honors, the annual David Sarnoff Outstanding Achievement Awards, have
been announced for 1970. Each award consists of a gold medal and a bronze replica, a framed
citation, and a cash prize.
The Awards for individual accomplishment in science and in engineering were established in 1956
to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary in radio, television and electronics of David Sarnoff. The
awards for team performance were initiated in 1961. All engineering activities of RCA divisions and
subsidiary companies are eligible for the Engineering Awards; the Chief Engineers in each location
present nominations annually. Members of both the RCA engineering and research staffs are eligible
for the Science Awards. Final selections are made by a committee of RCA executives, of which the
Executive Vice President, Research and Engineering, serves as Chairman.
This year, faced with two candidates for the I ndividual Award in Engineering whose achievements
were very different but equally outstanding, the selection committee took the exceptional action of
making two awards in that category.
The 1970 Team Award for Science
Dr. Ralph E. Simon, Dr. Alfred H. Sommer, and Dr. Brown F. Williams of the
Conversion Devices Laboratory, Electronic Components, Princeton, N.J., and
Dr. James J. Tietjen of the Materials
Research Laboratory, RCA Laboratories,
Princeton, N.J., are recipients of the 1970
David Sarnoff Outstanding Team Award
in Science ..". "for the conception and
sucessful embodiment of new principles
and materials technology in markedly
superior photomultiplier tubes."
Drs. Simon, Sommer, Tietjen, and Williams have made outstanding contributions to the development of a new line
of photomultiplier tubes which exhibit
superior pulse-height resolution characteristics and improved signal-to-noise
ratios. Applying a new principle-called
negative electron affinity-which allows
much higher secondary emission and
photoemission in photo multiplier dynode
sections, the group developed the new
materials technology required to incorporate this principle and then cooperated
with Electronic Components in Lancaster,
Pa., to develop the means for manufacturing the new tubes. Two tube typesRCA 8850 and RCA 8851-are already
commercially available, and approximately twenty five new tube types have
been developed. It is estimated that this
new line of photomultipliers will lead to
approximately $2 million in new business
for 1970 alone. In addition, the improved
tubes are no more costly to manufacture
than previous photomultipliers-provIding substantial profit increases.
The 1970 Team Award for Engineering
Mark H. Burmeister, Hans U. Burri, Miles
J. Kurina, Robert A. Morley, Herbert L.
Slade, and Lynn B. Wooten of Aerospace
Systems Division, Burlington, Mass.;
Frank A. Hartshorne and Daniel W. Wern
of Defense Communications Systems Division, Camden, N.J.; James J. Napoleon
of Electronic Components, Harrison, N.J.,
and Wayne W. Carter, Robert J. Mason,
and Dr. Manfred Weiss of Missile and
Surface Radar Division, Moorestown, N.J.
are recipients of the 1970 David Sarnoff
Outstanding Team Award in Engineering
... "for design, development, and construction of highly successful major electronic systems for the Lunar Module."
Messrs. Burmeister, Burri, Carter, Hartshorne, Kurina, Mason, Morley, Napoleon, Slade, Wern, and Wooten and Dr.
Weiss developed and implemented the
Lunar Module electronic systems, which
performed flawlessly during the lunar
landings and rendezvous of Apollo XI
and XII. The ability of the equipment to
meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements in a space environment was fully demonstrated in advance
of the actual manned lunar mission. This
effort, which took more than seven years
and involved over $250 million worth of
delivered eqUipment, consisted of four
general tasks: 1) system development
and mission analyses in which RCA participated with Grumman and NASA to
determine the deSign of the overall mission, the hardware system parameters,
and the manual and backup modes of
operation; 2) development of the radar
that provided precise direction, distance,
and rate-of-change information during
the critical rendezvous operation of the
Lunar Module and Command Module; 3)
development of the attitude and translation control assembly (ATCA) and the
descent engine control assembly (DECA)
which provided accurate attitude and
position information to the Lunar Module
and 4) development of the communications subsystem which provided the sole
radio link between the Lunar Module and
the earth while the Lunar Module was in
flight and on the lunar surface. RCA's
total partiCipation in this program was
characterized by a high level of interdivisional cooperation, individual technical excellence, and a sense of
dedication to the overall mission goals.
The successful culmination of these efforts was witnessed by more people than
any other single event in history.
Two-color alphanumeric
A two-color alphanumeric display has been developed by the Electromagnetic and
Aviation Systems Division, using a proprietary cathode ray tube with two layers of
phosphor (red and white) developed by RCA Lancaster. The primary design task
centered around the requirement to switch the CRT anode potential between 11kV and
16.5kV in 1.5 milliseconds. Secondary design tasks included switching the deflection
sensitivity and the focus voltage to compensate for the changing ultor voltage. Three
units were constructed which successfully demonstrated the capability and usefulness
of a two-color display.
being used more frequently for
the man-machine interface in large
computer complexes. Such a display
can supply vast amounts of data to the
operator for his perusal and action. A
requirement for vivid, attention-getting
characteristics in certain portions of
the presented data has become evident.
Color has been used in the past for
coding purposes' and it is this method
of displaying certain alphanumeric information in contrasting colors that is
used by the two-color alphanumeric
display developed at EASD.
Former color alphanumeric displays
used the tri-color shadow-mask CRT as
the output device and not only suffered
from poor resolution and character
quality, but had stringent static and
dynamic convergence requirements as
well. The development of the singlegun, layered-phosphor CRT has disposed of the convergence requirement
and made possible a brighter and
higher resolution display.
Layered phosphor CRT
Fig. 1 represents the important construction and operating differences in
the layered-phosphor (or two-colortype) CRT. The phosphor is deposited
in separte layers, a layer for each color,
separated by a barrier. The color of
the light produced is a function of the
energy of the electron beam used to
excite the phosphor (s). Color switching is accomplished by changing the
screen voltage (thereby changing the
beam energy). For the lower anode
voltage condition, the electrons strike
the layer of phosphor closest to the
Reprint RE-15-6-5
Final manuscript received January 12,1970.
gun causing it tQ emit light in its characteristic color. The electrons do not,
however, have sufficient energy to penetrate the barrier and reach the second
layer of phosphor which is deposited
next to the face plate. As the anode
voltage is increased, a point is reached
where some of the electrons have sufficient energy to penetrate both the
first layer of phosphor and the barrier
and energize the second layer of phosphor, thus producing the second color.
I t should be noted that this color
change or shift is continuous rather
than abrupt; that is, as the screen
voltage is increased, the color shifts
accordingly. The tube is usually operated in a switching mode; the screen
voltage is switched between two values
sufficiently large to allow for the color
differences to be easily distinguished.
Although the method of obtaining two
colors from the layered phosphor tube
may seem rather uncomplicated when
compared to the ·shadow-mask tube,
other tube parameters are functions of
the anode voltage and must be modified for acceptable operation. Of
primary concern is the change in magnetic deflection sensitivity and focus
The magnetic-deflection sensitivity
ct1anges as the square root of the anode
voltage. For a two-to-one increase in
anode voltage, a 41 % larger deflection
signal would be required if the page of
date being displayed is to remain uniform. The focusing voltage required
to maintain beam focus varies directly
(approximately) as the screen voltage.
A two-to-one increase in screen voltage
would, therefore, require a 100% increase in focus voltage to maintain
beam focus.
K. C. Adam
Computer Systems Engineering
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, Calif.
received the BS in Physics, with minors in Electronics and Mathematics from the University of
Missouri at Rolla in 1959. Since his graduation, he
has attended the University of California at Los
Angeles taking courses in computer programming,
transistor theory, and circuit analysis; he has also
attended various in-plant classes at RCA covering
integrated circuits and engineering mathematics.
Since joining RCA in June 1959, he has worked
in both the digital and analog fields. The analog
responsibilities included transistorized magnetic
deflection and electrostatic deflection circuitry
developed for a direct-view storage tube used in a
computer memory readout display for NASA's
Saturn Program. The digital responsibilities included display equipment logic design for both
the Saturn Program and the Air Force's Ballistic
Missile Early Warning System Program. More recently he has been responsible for the analog
design of an airborne display employing a multimode storage tube, for digital and analog design
of a color CRT alphanumeric display, and for
systems design involving military, ground based
radar displays. Mr. Adam is a member of the
Society for Information Display, Tau Beta Pi, and
Sigma Pi Sigma.
Other parameters which are related to
the screen voltage are the spot size and
brightness. The spot size is larger for
lower anode voltages so that a higher
resolution capability is available at
higher anode voltages. Light output
varies because of the difficulty in
matching phosphor color and efficiency to the degree necessary to maintain a constant light output at different
energy levels. Consequently, the light
output at the higher screen voltage is
greater than at the lower screen voltage.
Initial evaluation
For the initial investigation of the twocolor CRT as a display output device, a
prototype Model 70/752 Video Data
Terminal was used as a test bed. This
terminal is a self-contained unit using
a delay-line memory and a monoscope
character generator and may be operated off-line without a processor. Data
input is made via a keyboard, and the
output display is 20 lines of 54 characters each, refreshed at a 60-Hz rate.
The normal output device for the
Model 70/752 is a 12-inch rectangular
CRT with a P4 phosphor, producing
single-color white characters approximately 0.14 inches high by 0.10 inches
wide. A type 7TP4 monitor kinescope
was modified at the Electronic Components facility at Lancaster using
phosphors developed by the David
Sarnoff Research Laboratories and by
Electronic Components. Operation of
this tube was similar to the two-color
tube previously described, with green
being produced at 16kV DC and blue
at 20kV DC.
The simplest method of integrating
this tube into the Model 70/752 display and demonstrating two-color capability was to use a frame-sequential
system. Using this method, a greencolor frame was alternated with a bluecolor frame-each frame consisting of
10 lines of 54 characters each. The 10
lines of characters for each color occupied the same physical positions so
that the combined display consisted of
10 lines of 54 characters per line. Any
character position of a line was available for either a blue character or a
green character, with the refresh rate
remaining at 60-Hz. To effect this mode
of operation in the prototype display,
changes were made in the logic, deflection amplifiers, tickler amplifiers
(used for character generation), and
the high-voltage power supplies of the
Model 70/752. The most difficult of
these changes to implement was in
the high-voltage power supply area.
The Model 70/752 used a fixed screen
voltage of 12kV DC, while the blue/
green two-color CRT required a supply
with the capability of switching between 16kV and 20kV DC. Ideally, it
would be desirable to have the high
voltage switched as rapidly as possible.
For a frame-sequential system, high
voltage switching during vertical flyback would be satisfactory.
The vertical-retrace time required for
the prototype display was 130.2f.ts. For
evaluation purposes, laboratory highvoltage power supplies were used in
conjunction with a 6BK4 vacuum tube
as a high voltage switch. The char-
acteristics of the switch resulted in a
switching time of 1.8 ms from blue to
green and 5.1 ms from green to blue.
As a penalty for these long switching
times, only the last 8 lines of the green
field and the last 4 lines of the blue
field were usable.
Initial results
The results of this initial investigation
demonstrated the importance of color
as a means of encoding additional information for display on the CRT.
However, this feature would be more
pronounced, and perhaps more appealing to the operator if colors with
more separation than green and blue
were used. Red and white, for example, would prove more satisfactory
and perform better as an "attention
getting" device in a display full of
data. Also, to provide a usable display
in a saleable configuration, the switching time would have to be improved
to make available all 10 lines of data,
and the necessary circuit changes
would have to be packaged in the final
developmental type C2~092). The resulting two-color CRT produced white
at an ultor voltage of 11.0kV DC and
red at an ultor voltage of 16.5kV DC.
Circuits were developed to switch the
ultor voltage between these two levels
and to switch the focus voltage between 2.4kV DC and 1.8kV DC. Other
circuit changes were made to switch
the horizontal and vertical deflection
sensitivity, tickler sensitivity, and
video signal amplitude. Fig. 2 shows
a block diagram of the unit as modified.
Subsequent developments
Although the basic character timing of
the Model 70/752 was retained, i.e.
13.02 f.ts character and 10 charactertimes for horizontal retrace, the delayline memory was changed from 16.7ms unit to a lO-ms unit. The logic was
modified to allow the red and white
data fields to alternately pass through
the delay line, with the red characters
being identified by the presence of the
format bit. The format bit is part of
the lO-bit character code in the standard Model 70/752 logic. This bit is,
in turn, used by the logic to control
gain and high voltage switching.
As a subsequent development, three
Model 70/752 Video Data Terminals
were modified to display 540 characters with a two-color capability. The
12-inch rectangular CRT normally employed in these production units was
modified by RCA Lancaster by replacing the P4 phosphor with red and
white two-color phosphors (Lancaster
presently designates this CRT as RCA
Data organized in this manner increases
the page-refresh time from 16.7 ms (60
Hz) to 20 ms (50 Hz); one-half of the
additional 3.3 ms was used at the end
of each color field to increase the vertical retrace time (originally 130.2f.ts)
by 1.65 ms. Thus, a total retrace time
of approximately 1.78 ms is available
for ultor voltage switching and stabilization.
Fig. 1-Conventional two-color layered-phosphor CRT.
Switching-regulator circuit
As previously noted, the principal
technical problem was that of switching the ultor voltage between 11.0kV
DC and 16.5kV DC during the 1.78 ms
vertical retrace. Fig. 3 represents a
compromise solution in that it is a
hybrid system employing both vacuum
tubes and transistors rather than being
entirely solid state. The unavailability
of transistors with V CEO ratings of several thousand volts resulted in the
use of the type 7235 vacuum tubes for
voltage switching. This tube is rated
at 10kV DC maximum and, as used in
the circuit of Fig. 3, provides an active
drive for both positive and negative
switching signals. This is important
because both the tube capacitance of
50 pF and the stabilization capacitance
of 250pF must be alternately charged
and discharged by 5.5kV in the 1.78
ms allocated.
A voltage switching signal derived
from the format bit is applied to the
positive input of the MOS FET differential amplifier (Ai) and after further
Fig. 2-Simplified block diagram of the two-color display.
115V 6()0.0
0 - - - < -15V
8.9 MEG
L - - -.....---=:....==--i~
+75 -15 GNO
@ '.. ~:
VR> l00V
Fill. 3-High-voltage switching for the two-color display.
differential amplifier regula-
Three two-color video data terminals
were constructed using the circuit
modifications previously described. An
enlarged rear cover was employed to
contain the bulky components comprising the high voltage power supply.
The unit was packaged as shown in
Fig. 4 with only this minor modification to its external appearance. These
units functioned satisfactorily, and
have created considerable attention
wherever demonstrated. The 600,000
inches/second writing rate, which results from the use of the monoscope
character generator, limits the brightness of the red characters to somewhat
less than optimum, however, they are
quite vivid in a room not brightly illuminated. Fig. 5 shows the two-color
output of the display.
Fig. 4-Two-color video data terminal.
Fig. 5-0utput of the two-color display.
amplification by the 40327 transistor is
used to drive the cathode of V2. The
40327 transistor switches approximately 45 volts under transient conditions and the anode of V2 switches
from 3.0kV to 8.5kV. The 8-kV zenerdiode string (A4) translates this to the
desired output voltages of 11.0kV and
16.5 kV. While V2 is used to actively
remove charge from the load, V1 is
used to actively recharge the load capacitance to 16.5 kV and ultor voltage
switching is accomplished in 1.5 ms.
Drive for V1 is obtained from the emitter follower on A3 which derives its
supply voltage from a voltage tripler
operating off the floating filament supply for V1. In this fashion, it is possible to supply charging currents at
the high-output-voltage level without
requiring excessive currents be drawn
from the 17-kV DC power supply at the
low-output-voltage level. Finally, the
output voltage is sampled by the 237megohm feedback-resistor string and
used to drive the negative input of the
The feasibility of a two-color display
is undeniable, and its merit under
certain circumstances is also unquestioned. Additional efforts to implement
such a display with graphic capabilities would be well spent. Utilization
of such a machine might for example
encompass printed circuit layout with
one side of the board in one color,
and the opposite side in a second
color. Benefit would also accrue if
more than two colors could be generated.
The switching circuit and deflectiongain-change circuits should be improved, and transistorized if feasible.
A multiple-gun CRT with the guns held
at different potentials would obviate
the requirement for voltage switching.
Such a study is in progress at the RCA
Laboratories, utilizing a partial deflection-yoke-shielding technique on
the lower-voltage guns to automatically compensate for the increased deflection sensitivity.
While the layered-phosphor CRT is not
anticipated to replace the shadowmask CRT for general use, the characteristics are such as to assure it a place
for high resolution applications such
as high quality alphanumeric display
I. Conover, Donald W., and Kraft, Conrad L.,
"The Use of Color in Coding Displays,"
Wright Air Development Center Technical Report 55-471, ASTIA Document No. AD 204214
(Oct. 1958).
Character generators
R. C. Van den Heuvel
Character generators and their associated display circuits represent a vital link
between man and computer. However, the development of character generators is
lagging far behind the state-of-the-art of computers; as a result, the resources of
present-day computers are not yet fully utilized. This paper outlines some general
design problems and surveys the current state of development of character generators. It concludes with a description of two RCA-developed systems.
can be
compared to a typewriter-both
are machines used to write. The typewriter prints on a sheet of paper, and
the character generator "paints" on the
screen of a display CRT. The major
difference is that the typewriter is a
mechanical (or electromechanical) device, limited in speed by the mechanical moving parts; the character
generator, is electronic, capable of
writing up to a million characters!
The CRT display is analytic device in
that the illuminated spot can be in one
location at a time only. Thus, any
presentation on the screen must be
generated by moving the spot aboutmuch as a drawing is created by the
point of a pencil as it moves across a
sheet of paper. The spot can be moved
from one point of the screen to another
without leaving a visible trace by turning off the electron beam; this corresponds to lifting the pencil away from
the paper. Like the hand guiding the
pencil, deflection circuits exhibit inertia, and the accuracy depends on writing speed and transient characteristics.
Digital versus analog circuitry
Character generation in a computer
system involves a transition from digitally- or incrementally-coded information to analog or continuous pictorial
messages. The digital mode presents
few problems with precision; the contrary is true of analog circuits. On the
other hand, the generation of continuous (smooth) functions is easy with
analog circuits but incompatible (by
definition) with digital circuits. As a
consequence, the success of a given
method of generating characters is a
complex function of the assignment of
digital and analog sub-circuits to the
Reprint RE-15-6-7
Final manuscript received January 12. 1970.
generation of precise and continuous
analog deflection waveforms.
Emphasis on analog circuits can lead
to overly critical circuits, subject to
cumulative errors (drift, lack of closure, etc.), whl1e emphasis on digital
circuits can result in poor continuity.
Disturbances and discontinuities also
result from the need to reset and reprogram analog circuits, such as ramp
generators and integrators, during the
character generation cycle.
Character storage
A special memory circuit (usually a
local read-only memory) is used to
store the information needed to generate the characters. In simpler terms,
the character memory stores information as to what the characters should
look like. The amount of data to be
stored is a function of the number and
complexity of the symbols to be generated. Memory capacity, in turn, has a
direct bearing on the cost of the character generator, and often constitutes
the major part of that cost. Another
element which strongly influences the
type, criticality, and cost of the memory is the data rate from the memory
to the rest of the generator circuits.
Finally, the ease with which the memory can be modified or expanded is an
important consideration.
Cross-coupling problems
/1\.t high generation speeds, signal paths
play an important role in preventing
unwanted signal components from
reaching the output of the generator.
Digital signals and their derived transients too often contaminate the analog
output of character generators, causing "wiggles," "hooks" and other disturbances to occur in the line segments
that compose the characters. The propagation of unwanted signals takes
place mostly in the power distribution
Raymond C. Van den Heuvel
Circuit and Subsystem Development
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE in 1960 from the Milwaukee
School of Engineering. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Mr.
Van den Heuvel has had experience in RF measurements and
(image intensifiers, vidicons, ebicons). He has also
had experience in CRT deSign, including monoscopes. He was the main designer on Mars Mariner isolation circuits, high-speed stroke-writer,
vector and circle generators (RCA alphanumeric/
graphic display terminal), and character generators for 70/752 VDT and Moduler Display System. He has designed analog circuits for video
data terminals. Specific aSSignments include the
design of character generators, vector generators,
D/A converters and high voltage power supplies.
He is a member of the IEEE.
and ground return busses. In particular, a solid, unified ground reference in
the analog portion of the circuit is a
must. Special problems are also due
to arise when analog signals must be
generated in the memory itself, or in
remote areas of the generator. Analog
signal wires act as antennas and pick
up ambient noise.
Human factors
Perhaps the most significant factor to
consider is the operator, His reaction
to what he sees on the screen is the
end result. In evaluating the quality of
the characters, one must not only consider their legibility, but also their
psychological effects, Little is known
as to how the brain recognizes written
patterns, and the effects of font (or
style), flicker, color, and background
are difficult to determine. Since character font as well as the total number
of characters to be generated have a
direct impact on required memory
capacity and generator cost, the end
product invariably involves a hazardous tradeoff between cost and functional aesthetics,
A common pitfall is to neglect or underestimate symbol degradation originating in the electronic circuits. The
human operator (especially the untrained variety) is quick to react to the
slightest distortion and cannot always
be reconciled with such accidental effects as variations in brightness, wavy
lines, inability to close such symbols
as B, 0, 8, etc., or failure to effect a
smooth yet well-defined transition
from one line segment to the next.
Types of character generators
Character or symbol generators exist
in many types and categories which
can be differentiated according to
method of generation, symbol memory,
style or aspect of the generated symbols, reliability, speed and efficiency of
the circuits, versatility, and cost. Typical generators include the monos cope
symbol generator, the dot writer, the
lissajous generator, and the stroke
Monoscope symbol generators
The monoscope symbol generator is,
in effect, a modified, closed-circuit
television system. The camera tube
(Fig. 1) is known as a monoscope because the target (screen) image never
changes. That image consists of an
array of all the symbols required and
is printed or etched on the target. To
generate a symbol on the screen of the
main display CRT, a scanning raster
similar to that used in conventional
television, but of smaller size, is used
to explore an area corresponding to the
size of a symbol-both on the main
CRT screen and the monoscope target.
The raster scan used on the main CRT
screen is synchronous to, and exactly
duplicates, the one used on the monoscope target. However, the gross positioning of the raster on the main CRT
display screen corresponds to the location where a symbol is to appear;
while on the monos cope target, it corresponds to the location of the symbol
to be generated. Whenever the monoscope cathode-ray beam sweeps across
a symbol element (that is, line portion,
etc.), on the target, an intensifying
video signal is generated and applied
to the main CRT electron gun, which
paints a bright dot or line at the corresponding location on the main display
screen. As a result, a faithful rendition
of the selected symbol, as inscribed on
the monoscope target, appears at the
chosen location on the CRT screen.
The monoscope symbol generator is
relatively simple and inexpensive,
hence its popularity. The symbols generated are not limited in style and have
a very pleasing aspect (Fig. 2) . On the
other hand, the scanning feature makes
high-speed scanning deflection and
very high-speed video circuits mandatory. The efficiency of the system is low
in terms of the time spent writing
versus time spent scanning. The use of
a monoscope tube greatly simplifies the
selection circuitry and takes care of all
symbol memory requirements since the
memory is embodied in the high-resolution, two-dimensional, and permanently-inscribed image on the target.
Perhaps the greatest shortcoming of
the monoscope symbol writer stems
from the use of a monos cope camera
tube, which is fragile, Ras a limited
lifetime, and is subject to drift and
structural changes.
The electrical output of the monoscope
tube consists of a rapid succession of
ON and OFF video voltages. The same
video pulse sequence can be generated
by digital circuits, as is the case in the
solid-state monoscope and the digitally-generated-video (OGv) generator.
The difficulty rests mostly with the
relatively large-capacity, high data
rates and critical timing associated
with the digital memory.
The solid-state monoscope uses the
same scan pattern on the main display
screen as its camera-tube counterpart.
The DGV generator is intended for use
with television monitors and the scan
pattern on the display screen is identical to that used in standard broadcast
television. The problems associated
with the solid-state monoscope are due
to the unusually wide video bandwidth
requirements, the critical timing of the
video bursts, and the non-linear vertical scan function (sinewave).
In the OGV, slower digital circuits can
be used, but extensive additional buffering is required at the output of the
generator 15ecause the generation sequence is not such that symbols are
generated one after the other in sequence. Each horizontal scan spans the
whole display screen in one continuous
sweep and paints a portion of each
symbol in a given line of text. Thus
video information pertaining to a full
line of text must be held in output buffers until symbol generation can begin.
The aspect of the symbols generated
by the DGV (Fig. 3) and the solid-state
Fig. 1-ln the external view on the .Ieft, the circui.t. board on
top of the monoscope tube is th.e vld~o pre-amplifier; to ~he
right is the internal structure including socket, deflectIOn
plates, character stencil (target), and signal electrode.
monoscope (Fig. 4) lacks the smoothness of the monoscope-generated symbols. The illuminated cross-hatched
pattern within the structure of a symbol appears as definite, distinct line
segments, and the character font must
usually be modified to compensate for
the loss in legibility.
Dot writer
The dot writer is a symbol generator
in which the major emphasis is on
digital circuits. Here, symbols appear
to be drawn with dotted lines (see
Fig. 5). This effect is obtained by intensifying a number of dots within a
rectangular array of typically 35 dots
(5 dots wide x 7 dots high). To generate a given symbol, the electron beam
of the display CRT is positioned successively in each of the 35 locations corresponding to a single symbol area at
the desired display-screen location. At
the same time, the video circuits of the
symbol generator cause an intensifying
signal to be applied to the grid of the
display CRT whenever the spot location corresponds to an element of the
symbol to be generated. The use of
digital circuitry makes it possible to
use standard, uncritical solid-state circuits. There is some restriction on the
quality, style, or aspect of the generated symbols, depending on the number of available dot locations-which
is to say that symbol quality remains
marginal where cost, speed, and efficiency are important considerations.
One variation from the above method
includes a version where only the illuminated dots are generated. Here, a
lower number of dots is used for every
symbol. In all cases, each dot corresponds to a switching operation: a
jump in both x and Y CRT inputs and a
memory location.
Fig. 4-Unretouched photograph of characters and symbols as generated by the prototype solid-state monoscope; the minor "glitches" are
due to distortion in the vertical scan sine-wave and can be eliminated.
this problem could be the restriction to
more or less standard circular or ellipsoidal curves, resulting in uncontrollable stylizing effects.
Stroke writer
A compromise measure-where the
advantage of reduced memory requirements is in great part retained and
circuit flexibility enhanced-consists
of using only interconnected, straightline segments to compose the various
symbols. The resulting symbol generator is a stroke writer (Fig. 6). An
economical way of building a stroke
writer consists of generating the same
deflection waveform for all symbols.
To this end, a single basic symbol is
generated which contains all the line
Fig. 3-Digitally-generated video (DGV) symbols as
generated on a TV screen. White characters on a
segments encountered in the symbols
background can also be produced.
of the whole symbol repertoire (the
same idea was previously exploited in
Lissajous generator
the Nixie tube). When a given symbol
In some symbol generators, which use
is generated, the CRT spot follows the
both digital and analog circuits, memsame standard path as for all other
ory locations correspond to a great
symbols (sometimes referred to as a
variety of straight or curved line seg"track") but the video is turned on
ments. As a result, memory requireonly when painting a line segment enments can be reduced and generation
countered in the intended symbol (Fig.
speeds increased for a given symbol
7) . The memory must store only a simquality. A typical embodiment is
plified sequence of video pulses for
known as the lissajous symbol geneeach symbol; hence the low cost of the
rator. By combining the outputs of a
generator. The simplified stroke-writer
number of analog circuits (mostly
just described is characterized by proramp generators, integrators, oscillanounced stylizing effects and rather
tors, and gating circuits) a great vari-/
unsatisfactory characters. The human
ety of curvilinear shapes can be
engineering factors involved will preobtained. However, the critical timing
vent its wide acceptance by the public.
and phasing of the various circuits
result in complex switching requireEASO-built displays
ments. The difficulty of changing the
The Electromagnetic and Aviation Sysnumerous time constants and periods
tems Division has traditionally relied
of oscillation makes it complicated, if
on the monoscope character generator
not impractical, to contemplate variin its display product line. Where
able generation speeds. Finally, the
style or aspect of the generated symmany display manufacturers have had
problems with character generation,
bols is strongly influenced by the nature of the analog circuits. Typical of
RCA has consistently maintained high
quality characters and the display terminals are well received by industry.
The most recent monoscope character
generator belongs to the Modular Display System. Character time is 7.5 p's; ....
total repertoire is 96 characters (upper
and lower case alphabet, plus numerals
and miscellaneous symbols; see Fig 8).
As a consequence, it represents probably the most advanced monoscope
character generator of its kind on the.
market. But stich performance does not
come easily. The specifications of the
various circuits and sub-assemblies
speak for themselves:
1) The monoscope camera tube has
closely controlled horizontal and vertical deflection gains; horizontal and ver- .,
tical deflection linearity must be in the
neighborhood of 0.1 %. Also, the monoscope tube is fragile and has a limited
lifetime. Periodic adjustments must be
done to the deflection and centering
controls because of drift in the mechanical structure.
2) The deflection amplifiers for the -monoscope (one for the x and one for
the y axis) are known as (character)
selection amplifiers and must be accurate to 0.1 % also. Risetime is on the
order of 2001'S, and slew rate on the
order of 100 volts II's when driving a
sOpF load. The amplifier is allowed a •
maximum time of 1.31's to deflect the
monoscope electron beam from the target location of the previous character
to the location of the new character to
be generated.
3) The monoscope target accelerating
potential is 1.8kV. Accumulated drift
and ripple deviations must not exceed
4) The video pre-amplifier has a typical
gain of 60 dB and a bandwidth of
40MHz (high resolution TV is 3sMHz) .
5) The monoscope character generator
features some 12 potentiometer adjustments and is expensive to maintain
because of the need for semi-periodic
maintenance by qualified service-men.
Subassemblies, such as, monoscope
tubes, high voltage power supplies, and
deflection amplifiers are difficult to
specify, procure, repair, and retrofit.
Fig. 5-Dot-generator symbols; a simulated
presentation. This font was featured in the
CC-30 system demonstrated by Computer
Communications Corp. around 1966.
Fig. 6-Unretouched photo of alphanumeric symbols generated by prototype
stroke writer. Differences in stroke width
and intensity are due to lack of video
control in the breadboard unit and are
not problems in production units.
Fig. 7-Simplifi d
strOke-Writer symbols
tions of th~r~~fan~tio~", using illuminated 'porr urs track pattern (6th line,
8th symbol).
Fig. 8-Portion of a typical presentation of a modular display screen.
Because of the shortcomings and problems associated with the monoscope
character generator, and because of the
increasing need for faster and all-solidstate character generators in some
applications, the stroke writer is beginning to receive increasing attention.
Recently, new vector and stroke generation analog circuits have come of
age at EASD which are capable of high
speed, high quality performance. The
latest among these circuits is the
interpolating stroke writer. The interpolating generator uses a standard digital-to-analog (D/ A) converter where
the digital selection circuits have been
replaced by special ramp generators.
This is simple to implement with
standard hardware, works well at high
speeds, and offers good control over
linearity and transitions between vectors. Cumulative errors are minimized
and are resolved at the end of each
single stroke.
acter generator now used in the Modular Display System.
The high-speed interpolating circuits
can be modified for the "Curviline"
option as well as for constant speed
of writing. The memory configuration
takes full advantage of hybrid circuit
technology to the extent that memory
cost, per character or symbol, is now
estimated at 40 cents or less (minus
decoders and buffers). Because the
selector (i. e., interpolating) circuits
and the sense or summing amplifiers
are used repetitively in great numbers,
a long-range effort to produce the Ie
version of these circuits will further
enhance the prospect of inexpensive, stancfard, solid-state charactergenerator sub-circuits. The specifications of the present stroke writer are
Total symbol time
(max.) at the highest speed.
16 max.
A typical stroke writer capable of
generating a total of 64 characters and
symbols (as shown in Fig. 7) can be
built for approximately the same cost
of components as the monos cope char-
Symbol repertoire
64 alphanumeric and special symbols; easily
modified, easily increased.
Font and special symbols
No limitation except that beginning and
end points of component strokes must be
located on (any) inter-section of an m x n
grid pattern wh
equal to or less ~~:n~. and n are normally
Optional features and uses
Programmable italics (slant)
~~~~~mmable change in height and/or
Pr?ghrammable variable line thickness and
bng tness.
of corners (.I.e., curviline operation).
Programmable symbol rotation
with sl~w major de752 t
~mphfiers as used in standard 70/
o ernllnals.
er~~~~:ion as both character and vector gen-
~e~~r~~ion co~patible
Precision pattern generation
generated e Image generation for computer
ii!,~tIPle (simultaneous) character generaI ntermed',a t
x-y plotter output.
Character generation will have a long
development future, because the fundamental requirements of data transf~r, function generation, memory and
dIspl~y media are still difficult to define
and I~tegrate. As the necessary understandl11g
an d tec hmques
l11creasl11gly simple and standard procedure~ will be available. The first
step "':lll be a transition to all-solidstate CIrcuits. This will be followed by
the eVolution of universal memory
and function generation circuits.
Graphic displays
G. P. Benedict I R. H. Norwalt
The Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division has developed a low-cost display
that represents a significant advance in the field of computer graphics. Past systems
have been limited either by their reliance on the computer interface and the large
amount of software support needed or by their reliance on high-cost complex hardware to provide a functional capability. The RCA-developed system uses proven,
low-cost techniques to provide the high degree of interactive capability without
requiring that the computer input/output channels be dedicated to the display.
TRENDS in computer
graphic displays have moved in
two, essentially different, directions.
One approach has been to develop
display systems which possess extensive capabilities in the area of off-line
composition and editing of graphic and
alphanumeric information. This type
of system, although functionally attractive, has not received popular market
acceptance because of the complexity
of the hardware and the correspondingly high production costs. The other,
and most popular approach, has resulted in the development of systems
which are basically software oriented.
These systems contain comparatively
little hardware and can therefore be
marketed at a significantly reduced
price, e.g., $8,000 to $15,000. These
systems, however, have functional disadvantages which limit their versatility
and general capability, thus limiting
the effectiveness of operator/computer
communications. In addition, although
they maintain minimum hardware
costs, systems of this latter type have a
significant cost impact on the software
and computer time involved.
Disadvantages of present displays
Low cost, software-oriented graphic
displays currently available are usually
provided with either a storage-type
CRT, thus eliminating the need for
refresh of the displayed data, or they
require that the central processor provide refresh over an input/output
(I/O) channel. The inherent disadvantages of such systems are:
1) The type of storage tube currently
used in this type of display has the
disadvantage of low light output and
Reprint RE-15-6-6
Final manuscript received January 12, 1970.
low conlrast ratio, thus restricting the
user to low-ambient-light environments.
2) The relatively slow reaction time
and transient .display effects associated
with changing or updating the displayed image on a storage tube of this
type are relatively displeasing to the
eye; thus, the application of such a
display to future situations (in which
rapidly changing or dynamic data conditions may exist) could be rather
undesirable. In addition, "selective update" (i.e., selective erasure-and write)
cannot be accomplished on these storage tubes. Old data cannot be removed
or repositioned without erasing the
entire screen.
3) Storage tube displays are not capable of maintaining a static presentation
for any extended period of time without "fading." Repetitive message transmissions are therefore required from
the computer at specified intervals
when static display conditions exist.
4) Those systems which do not contain
storage tubes or local memories and
are refreshed from the computer have
the obvious disadvantage of requiring
that one I/O channel and a portion of
computer memory be totally committed
to the display interface. This results in
inefficient communication, inefficient
utilization of computer time, and renders the I/O channel useless for other
5) None of the display systems under
discussion provides the operator with
an effective means of composing and
editing graphic information off-line.
This places the control of interactive
graphic communication with the com./' puter rather than with the operator,
thus either limiting the display to those
applications in which the role of the
operator is essentially passive, or else
requiring that a costly amount of complex software be generated to achieve
the level of interactive communication
Future requirements
Future displays will have increasingly
greater functional capabilities for more
diverse and complex applications than
currently exist, e.g., animation, figure
R. H. Norwall, Ldr.
Circuit and Subsystem Development
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Div.
Van Nuys, California
received the BS in Physics from the University of
Southern California in 1961. He joined RCA at Van
Nuys after receiving his undergraduate degree and
has been responsible for the design and development of drum and disc memories and coincidentcurrent core memory systems. Before receiving his
degree, Mr. Norwalt was actively involved in tlie
design and development of magnetic drum memory systems and associated solid-state control
circuitry for Litton Industries arid Magnavox
Research Laboratories. From 1962 through 1964, he
was responsible for the design and development
of a large, switched-head drum memory, a large,
fast, coincident-current core memory, and a miniaturized coincident-current core memory. During
1965 and 1966 he was responsible for specialized
military displays and the EASD display research
and development programs. Before his current
assignment, Mr. Norwalt was Leader, Military
and Advanced Displays Group-a position he assumed in 1966. His group is presently developing
state-of-the-art character generators, memories,
and deflection systems for future RCA Display
Systems. He holds a patent on a semi-conductorcontlrolled pUlsed' shaper and has a numbersof . ~.
disc osures pen Ing. He is a member of the 0- . .
ciety for Information Display and the American
Management Association.
analysis, three-dimensional projections, functions for drawing with topological restraints, etc. This will, in
turn, require that the operator be given
the means for rapidly converting ideas
into visual objects which can be modified, repeated, expanded or contracted,
Fig. 2-Viewer screen showing a typical display.
Fig. I-RCA alphanumeric/graphic display
system described in this article, which
was developed and produced on a
recent IR&D program, provides the
basic groundwork for filling this need,
and, as such, represents a significant
advance in the field of computer
Basic design philosophy
G. P. Benedict, Ldr.
Advanced Mass Memory Development Group
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Div.
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE from the Milwaukee School of
Engineering in Wisconsin. Mr. Benedict performed
circuit design on the 4102' Computer and the
Spectra 70/752 and 70/751 Systems. He also
performed circuit design and component evaluation on the Saturn Ground Computer System. On
the Navy Mass Memory. Mr. Benedict performed
circuit and logic design. system checkout. and
system installation. Mr. Benedict has also been
program director of the TIPI II display program
and program director of the RCA alphanumeric/
graphic display program. He is a member of IEEE.
developed in three-dimensions,
rotated, and otherwise subjected to
precise computational analysis, Therefore, the most effective approach to
computer graphics should be one in
which control of the display/computer
communications link is given to the
operator, who can then define his
data, command the operations to be
performed, and interpret the results
of such operations.
These requirements point to the need
for a completely self-contained system
which, while providing the operator
with an effective means of composing
and editing graphic and alphanumeric
information, can be manufactured at a
cost that is attractive to a large percentage of the display market. The
To develop a low-cost system with
extensive off-line compose and edit
capabilities, the primary design efforts
must necessarily be focused on the
major cost items of the system, i.e.,
the character generator, vector/circle
generator, deflection electronics, and
the system logic. In addition, the cost
and performance of each subassembly
must be evaluated before the optimum
design approaches can be determined.
For optimum character quality and
resolution at minimum cost, a monoscope character generator was chosen
as the best approach. In addition to
the hardware savings inherent in this
type of system, many of the necessary
components, such as the selection
amplifiers and monoscope, were readily available from other production
systems .. /
The hardware complexity of the analog circuitry, especially in the area of
the vector/circle generator, was of
prime importance in reducing system
costs. For this reason, the more sophisticated techniques of implementing
vector operation (i.e., "constant velocity" systems, etc.) were rejected in
favor of a "constant time" system.
Although this type of approach requires a small amount of additional
hardware for Z-axis compensation, the
net simplification in circuitry resulted
in lower hardware costs than otherwise could have been achieved.
To conserve power, and thus limit the
cost and physical size of the low voltage power supplies and deflection system, the design limit of the deflection
amplifiers were selected for half-axis
operation only; i.e., the longest vector
that can be generated without degradation of image quality should not
exceed one-half the width or height of
the viewing area. The remainder of
the system, however, was designed
with full-axis capability so that future
expansion could be readily accommodated.
The mechanical design (packaging)
and fabrication costs of the viewer
unit were minimized by utilizing as
many existing subassemblies as possible. These included the 12-inch CRT,
monoscope, high voltage power supply, video-driver and tickler modules
from a Model 70/752 Video Data T-erminai, and the video preamplifier and
character selection amplifiers from a
Model 70/756 VDG system (ModularDisplay Character Generator).
Although most of the circuit-board
assemblies required some degree of
modification before being incorporated.
into the system, the basic design and
hardware configurations remained virtually unchanged.
Two important design considerations
were the selection of the refresh memory and the methods of implementing
each of the logic functions of the system. A 2048-by-8 core memory was
selected on the basis that
1) It is rugged and able to withstand
the environmental conditions specified
for most military equipment;
alone display unit which provides the
operator with the capability of composing and editing text and graphic
information off-line from the computer, transmitting this information to
the computer, and exchanging and
processing information on an interactive basis (see Figs. 1 and 2) .
Fig. 3-Simplified block diagram of the horizontal vector
2) It provides the capability of highspeed random access, thus alleviating
some of the constraints which are imposed on the system by delay-line memories; and
3) It provides greater flexibility in the
design of the I/O logic in that either
parallel high speed or serial EIA-type
interface structures can be provided
without extensive logic modifications or
Economical implementation of the system logic was accomplished by
1) Using the same integrated circuits
as in standard production line systems
wherever possible
2) Minimizing the total quantity of
required IC'S through judicious integrntion of system functions; and
3) Limiting the number of off-line functions in accordance with the cost goals
of the system_
Alphanumeric/ graphiC display
The alphanumeric/graphic display system (developed by EASD) is a standTable I-Functional control keys available to
the operator of the alphanumeric!
graphic display system
Operational mode
Function keys
graPhiC execute
circle-size keys
Light-pen operation
The system is comprised of basically
three separate assemblies: the viewer,
the cabinet or console assembly, and
the keyboard. The viewer unit is a
modified Model 70/752 VDT chassis
and cabinet which contains a 12-inch,
70° CRT and yoke assembly; a highvoltage power supply; horizontal and
vertical deflection amplifiers; tickler
coil driver; a video chain with all associated pre-amplifier, driver, and Z-axis
intensity compensation circuitry; a
monoscope character generator and
associated selection amplifiers; a vector generator; circle generator; and all
of the required blanking, delay, and
synchronization circuits. The CRT, high
voltage power supply, tickler coil
driver, video pre-amplifier and monoscope, video driver, and selection
amplifier assemblies are packaged in
the conventional manner as they are
in the Model 70/752 Display System.
The remaining circuitry, which constitutes the heart of the analog system,
is contained in a six-card analog nest
located in the top rear corner of the
viewer. The logic cards for the system
were packaged in the lower cabinet
or console assembly.
The lower cabinet or console assembly
is a standard 30-inch high BUD cabinet with an attached shelf. It contains
an 18-card logic nest, a 4096-by-8 core
memory (only half of which is utilized
by the system), a light-pen amplifier
module, and two low-voltage power
..--supply racks. The top of the cabinet,
in conjunction with the extended shelf,
serves as supporting surfaces for the
viewer and keyboard assemblies.
The keyboard assembly contains all
the controls and indicators necessary
to the operation of the system except
those associated with the alignment of
the viewer. It contains a conventional
4-row alphanumeric keyboard which
is used to generate ASCII data characters; a graphic function key assembly
which provides the necessary mode,
execute, operational, and position controls required for operation in the
PARITY, and OVERFLOW indicators; a
function-switch interface module; and
a keyboard interface module. Two
connectors are provided at the rear
of the unit for interface signals and
System operation
The system operates off-line in either
of two major modes; the TEXT mode
or the RANDOM mode. In the TEXT •
mode, the operator, using the standard
alphanumeric keyboard, can compose
text information in a 56-character/line,
32-line, page format (1792 total characters). A total of 64 different uppercase characters and symbols may be
entered in this mode. In the RANDOM "
mode, the operator has the capability
of composing vectors and circles as
well as alphanumeric information
through the use of the appropriate
graphic control keys, three RANDOM
sub-mode keys and the alphanumeric •
keyboard. Approximately 448 vectors,
61 circles, 1792 characters, or any
combination thereof can be entered on
the display when the system is in the
RANDOM mode. Information entered
in either the TEXT or RANDOM mode
is displayed on a viewing area measur- 11
ing 6 inches wide by 6 inches high.
A pointer-type light pen is provided
which enables the operator to "hook"
or identify any elements displayed on ..~
the screen. When an element has been ..
"hooked," it is identified in memory
by setting the appropriate bit. In addition, any element or elements which
have been "hooked" are made to blink
at a is-cycle rate to enable identification by the operator. Once an element ..
has been identified, it can be manipulated by the use of the various function keys that are provided. These
keys enable the operator to reset the
blinking element, selectively transmit
information associated with it to the
computer, relocate it to another position on the screen, or erase it. If more
than one element has been "hooked,"
depression of the appropriate function
key will either simultaneously or
sequentially affect all the blinking e~e­
ments. The functional controls avaIlable to the operator through tne
keyboard are given by Table r.
A GRAPHIC TEST key is provided
which, when held depressed, enables
the operator to observe all graphic
data (blanked or unblanked) which
have been entered in memory. In addition, the last 30% of each vector is
made to blink at a IS-cycle rate so
that the operator can also determine
in what sequence and in which direction each vector was entered.
Transmission of all displayed data is
. . accomplished by depressing the XMIT
key located on the alphanumeric keyboard. This key is active in both the
TEXT and RANDOM modes. A PROCESSOR OVERRIDE switch is also provided
which locks out arbitrary interruptions from the computer.
Graphic generation is accomplished in
CIRCLE modes. When the system is in
either of these two modes, positional
information is indicated in the following manner:
In the RANDOM/VECTOR mode, a movable displayed (dashed) vector which
emanates from the last X-Y coordinate
entered in memory provides the operator with location information. One endpoint of the vector is fixed at the point
last entered in memory, and the other
end-point moves at a fixed rate in
response to the 4-key position control.
This vector is called the "positional"
vector. Once the positional vector is
moved to the desired location, it is
"fixed" and either blanked or unblanked with the appropriate graphic execute key (BLANK or ENTER) .
In the RANDOM/CIRCLE mode, a displayed (dashed) positional circle,
which moves at a fixed rate in response
to the 4-key position control, provides
the operator with position information.
The radius of this circle can be controlled by the operator with the use of
the two circle-size keys. The INCREASE
key increases the radius of the circle
at a fixed rate when held depressed;
the DECREASE key decreases the radius
of the circle at the same rate when held
depressed. Once the circle is positioned
at the desired location, it is "fixed"
with the ENTER execute key. The BLANK
execute key is disabled when the system is in the RANDOM/CIRCLE mode.
For generating vector information, the
6 x 6-in. viewing area is divided into
128 X-axis by 128 Y-axis position
grids. The electron beam can be positioned at any point on this grid system, and straight line vectors can be
drawn between any two grid points
which are no farther apart than V2
axis vertically, 1/2 axis horizontally, or
1/2 diagonal. Position information is
controlled by data in memory. This
information specifies electron beam
deflection to X-Y coordinates on the
square grid system. Each grid point
is uniquely defined by a 14-bit code
(7 bits for X and 7 bits for Y). Beam
deflection is always from the previously addressed coordinates to the new
coordinates. In this manner, vectors
are drawn in a "chain" fashion; i.e.,
each movement of the beam will necessarily result in the generation of a
vector. Provisions are made, however,
so that anyone or more vectors may
be blanked. Each vector, no matter
what its length, is drawn in approximately 30 fLs.
~~~~~ATION ~:g~~ 1------------'
Fig. 4-Simplified block diagram of the circle generator.
age, in conjunction with the output
of the from DACON, is fed into a summing amplifier, which then provides
the resulting composite signal to the
deflection amplifier. The two additional inputs shown on the horizontal
summing amplifier are used to accept
signals from the circle generator and
text mode ramp generator.
Vector generation
A simplified block diagram of the horizontal (X portion) of the vector generator is shown in Fig. 3; the Y portion
is identical. The vector generator employs a to-from DACON scheme which
always retains the last X-Y coordinate
received from memory. The to DACONS
are driven from registers in the logic
nest which contain the new X- Y beam
coordinates to which the beam will
move. This information is transferred
at the beginning of each vector period.
The from DACONS are driven from registers which contain the existing X-Y
beam coordinates. This information is
transferred at the end of each vector
period. It is important to note that the
from coordinates, which are transferred to tJ:1e from DACONS at the end
of a vector period, are identical to the
to coordinates which were transferred
to the to DACONS at the beginning of the
vector period. The outputs of the from
DACONS therefore represent the reference point from which the beam will
move during the current vector period.
The outputs of the to and from DACONS
are algebraically added to obtain the
deflection distance and are fed into an
integrator which generates the appropriate ramp voltage. This ramp volt-
Circle generation
The block diagram (Fig. 4) illustrates
the principle of operation of the Circle
generator. First, a vector (blanked or
unblanked) is generated at the desired
center point. This can be any point on
the 128X 128 grid system. The radius
of the circle, in digital form, is then
transferred from the logic to the radius
DACON associated with the circle generator. The radius DACON, in conjunction with the circle generator, then
provides a voltage step (whose amplitude is consistent with the radius of
the circle to be drawn) to the horizontal summing amplifier, thus causing
the beam (which is blanked during
this time) to move to the periphery
of the circle. After the appropriate
settling time has elapsed, the circle
generator, which consists of two integrators and an inverter connected in
a ring to form a sine/cosine oscillator,
is enabled. The resulting cosine signal
is transferred to the horizontal summing amplifier while the sine signal
is transferred to the vertical summing
amplifier. The beam is then unblanked,
and the outputs of the summing amplifiers are transmitted to the horizontal
and vertical deflection amplifiers, caus-
ing the beam to move in a counterclockwise direction. Upon returning to
its original starting position on the
circumference, the beam is blanked,
the radius information from the logic
is reset to zero, and the integrators are
collapsed. The beam then returns to
the center point of the circle, settles,
and is ready to move again in accordance with the next positioning order
from the logic.
the from Y DACON by four counts at
the end of each line of text. Vertical
spacing of the lines is therefore directly
related to the graphic grid system.
Horizontal spacing of the characters,
however, is not necessarily related to
the grid system since the text-mode
ramp generator is independent of the
vector generator functions.
Data Transfer
The system timing is such that circle
and vector generation periods are integral multiples of a character period.
One character time is equal to 7.52 fLS.
One vector time is equal to four character times or 30.08 fLS. The time
allowed for traversing the circumference of a circle is equal to six vector
times, or 180.48 fLs. One vector time is
allowed for the beam to travel from
the center point to the periphery of a
circle. This therefore limits the maximum radius of any circle to 1J2 the
width of the viewing area (3 inches).
Character generation
The character generator converts digital data received from display memory
into the video signals required for
character display on the face of the
CRT. The character generator employs
a high quality monoscope identical
to the type used in the Model 70/752
Display System. The monoscope stencil, in conjunction with the character
selection amplifiers, provides the capability of selecting up to 64 different
alphanumeric characters and symbols.
To accommodate the relatively higher
character rate associated with this system, slightly modified versions of the
high speed selection amplifiers used
in the modular display system were
With the exception of the technique
used for deflecting the main CRT beam
when generating text information, the
character generation scheme employed
in this system is quite conventional.
Main beam deflection in the horizontal
direction is accomplished by providing
an appropriate ramp signal to the horizontal summing amplifier. This signal
is generated by the text-mode ramp
generator located in the analog nest.
Vertical deflection, however, is accomplished by decrementing the input to
The transfer of data between the
alphanumeric/graphic display system
and a remote processor is accomplished using voice-grade facilities terminating in a Bell System 202C or
202D data set.'
The alphanumeric/graphic interface
operates in a bit-serial, half-duplex
mode at a transmission rate of 120
lO-bit characters/second. Each 10-bit
character consists of a start bit, seven
data bits, one parity bit, and a stop
bit. No provisions for automatic dialing or unattended operation over the
dialed voice network are included in
this unit.
Character transmission is in the form
of eight-bit bytes; i.e., seven data bits
denoting the character code and one
parity bit. Transmission of graphic
information, however, is in the form
of four 8-bit bytes. Normal transmission begins with the first address in
memory. If transmission is initiated
while the system is in the TEXT mode,
transmission will continue until the
first ETX that has been entered in memory is reached. If no ETX codes exist,
transmission will continue until the
entire content of display memory
(except NULLS) is transferred to the
computer. If the system is in the
RANDOM mode when transmission is
initiated, transmission will continue
~ntil 1) the first ETX code is reached,
2) the first NULL character in memory
is reached, or 3) if no ETX codes or
NULLS exist, transmission will continue until the entire content of display
memory is transmitted to the computer. "Blink transmission" is accomplished by depressing the BLINK XMIT
key located on the keyboard assembly.
When this is done, an appropriate control code is transmitted to the computer followed by the memory location
and all other data necessary to describe
the blinking element (character code,
X-Y coordinates, circle radius, etc.).
If more than one blinking element
exists on the display, they are all transmitted in the same sequence in which
they were entered in memory.
When a received message is headed
with an STX (indicating TEXT-mode
data) under normal operation, all
subsequent data will be sequentially
stored in memory, beginning with the . .
,first memory location, and will be displayed in character form; i.e., only
ASCII characters and symbols will be
displayed if the message is headed with
an STX. If the received message is
headed with an SOH (indicating RAN- . DOM mode data), all subsequent data
will be sequentially stored in memory
beginning with the first available memory location; i.e., the first memory
location that contains a NULL (all
zeros). In this case, all data are displayed in accordance with their mes- •
sage structure (both characters and
graphic elements can be displayed) .
The capability is provided for storing received data from the computer
beginning at some specified address. •.
To accomplish this, the computer will
transmit a special 3-byte control word
immediately following the STX or SOH
header code. This control word specifies the memory address location in
which the first 8-bit data character of ..
subsequent data stream is to be stored.
The capability is also provided for
decoding and processing certain commands from the computer. These commands include ERASE and READ. When
an ERASE command is received, the display immediately erases the memory . . .
When a READ command is received,
the display will transmit the content
of memory to the computer beginning
at the memory location specified in
the command.
The authors thank Messrs. Johnson,
Katagi, Luzansky, McAfee, Van Den
Heuvel and Way for their extraordinary efforts. Also Messrs. Davis, Helbig and Turner whose counsel and
guidance determined the basic configuration and aided the development of
the display.
• Hybrid microelectronic
fabrication techniques
.. A. Levy
In microelectronics, hybrid technology is essentially a packaging technique. Choosing
the proper combination of microelectronic techniques will yield devices with improved
reliability, reduced cost, and overall optimum performance. This paper describes the
methods used for fabricating hybrid assemblies in the Electromagnetic and Aviation
... Systems Division (EASD).
ODAY, the hybrid approach to microelectronic assembly has attained
the popularity of the printed-circuit
board. The reason being the unlimited
flexibility it affords. In the widest
sense, a monolithic chip mounted and
bonded to a ceramic flat pack constitutes a hybrid assembly. A hybrid
circuit could conceivably encompass
thick- or thin-film networks, discrete
and integrated uncased devices, plus
a myriad of cased and discrete components.
Thin-film circuits
The term "thin" as applied here is
somewhat ambiguous. Rather than defining thickness of deposition, it relates
to the fabrication process involved.
There are a variety of methods by
which thin films can be manufactured.
The most common is vacuum deposi__ tion. The basic equipment used for
vacuum deposition of thin films consists of a vacuum chamber with its
associated pumps and gauges, plus
hardware to support and manipulate
the evaporation source and the substrates. Sophisticated film monitoring
... equipment can be added to any degree of automation or mechanization
After the chamber has been evacuated
and the evaporation sources are heated, atoms are emitted from the source
II( and are propagated until they impinge
on the substrate. The deposited thickness is a function of the time elapsed,
the source temperature, and the chamber pressure.
Thin films may be evaporated selec. . tively through a metal mask or over
the entire surface of a substrate. Networks on substrates thus deposited
Reprint RE-15-6-14
Final manuscript received September 17,1969 .
are delineated through photo etching
Materials most commonly used for
conductor networks are gold and copper. A variety of metals are available
for resistor networks, most used being
nichrome. Although glass substrates
can be used for thin-film networks,
high-density alumina (99.5% Al20 3 )
is commonly used for hybrid applications.
For the special case of microwave circuitry, initial layers are vacuum deposited with the subsequent buildup
In general, the high fabrication costs
of thin-film hybrid circuits limits their
practical use to tight-tolerance resistor
networks and high-frequency applications.
Thick-film hybrid circuits
Thick-film hybrid circuits are basically
passive networks printed and fired
onto alumina substrates. For defense
applications, 96% Al20 3 alumina substrates are almost universally used.
Lower density alumina, such as 85 %,
is used in certain industrial applications.
A. Levy, Mgr.
Microelectronics Activity
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received the BS in Physics from LaSalle College
in Philadelphia. Mr. Levy has been with RCA since
1953. He is responsible for the technical direction
of EASD's microelectronic development programs.
in this capacity he oversees the operation of the
Hybrid Microelectronics Laboratory, the Wet Process Laboratory, and Microelectronic Advanced
Manufacturing Technology. The groups' capabilities include the fabrication of hybrid and other
microelectronic prototypes and the development of
wet processes pertaining to rigid and flexible
organic circuit boards. Mr. Levy has published
numerous technical papers on microelectronic interconnections and applications. He is a Senior
Member of the IEEE.
Conductor, resistor, and insulating materials are "printed" onto the ceramic
substrate through metal mesh screens
or metal masks. All process parameters
in the fabrication of thick-film networks are critical as to their effect on
repeatability. Fig. 1 shows a precision
printer used in EASD. Printer parameters must be carefully adjusted, as
their effect on deposition thickness and
uniformity is considerable .
After printing, the deposited ink is
dried to evaporate the solvents. Drying
cycles range from 10 to 15 minutes
at temperatures of 100 to 125°C. At
Fig.1-Precision printer for fabricating thickfilm networks.
Fig. 3-Typical furnace profile for resistor
Fig. 4-Furnace equipment for firing substrates.
Fig. 5-Resistor trimming by sand abrasion.
this time, samples are checked for deposited thickness (Fig. 2) and the
substrates are readied for firing. The
first phase of the firing process is the
burning out of the organic binders,
and this is done at a temperature
range of 300 to 500°C.
formance and yield, however, this ratio
is kept below 20: 1. Fig. 6 shows a
typical simplified process flow of a
two-conductor, two-resistivity, thickfilm substrate.
The next phase in the firing cycle consists of heating the substrate to higher
temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere. Most of the metallic particles
are partly reduced and the glass frit
particles start to soften. Temperature
and time are both very critical in this
phase. Typical resistor inks are fired
at temperatures ranging from 760 to
After fabrication of passive components on the substrate by either thickor thin-film process, active devices are
attached and their terminations are
bonded or soldered to contact points ...
on the substrate.
Fig. 3 shows a- typical furnace profile
used for resistor firing. As the substrate reaches the highest temperature,
the oxidation/reduction reaction continues until the glass material melts
and seals off the metallic material from
further contact with the atmosphere.
The melting glass also forms an intimate bond with the alumina substrate.
This is a critical point in the process
since it fixes the electrical characteristics of the fired film. Fig. 4 shows the
placing of substrates onto a furnace
With good process controls in screening and firing and careful control of
substrate materials and ink viscosities,
it is possible to screen resistors to a
tolerance of ± 15% of the desired
resistance values. Tighter resistor tolerances require a trimming operation.
Sand-abrading, a highly reproducible
process, is the most widely used
method of trimming resistors today.
The process does not damage the substrate, but merely removes fired resistor materials. The abrasive flow is
started by the operator and stops
automatically when the pre-selected
resistance value is reached. Using
equipment shown in Fig. 5, thick-film
/resistors have been trimmed to within
Depending on circuit complexity, two
or more conductor patterns can be
deposited with insulating crossovers,
forming a multilayer interconnection
media. The number of resistivity
screening operations depends on the
range of resistor values on a given
substrate. A maximum resistor ratio
of 50: 1 can be achieved with one
screening operation. For optimum per-
Component attachment
Cased devices are best attached using
a solder reflow process. The assembly
equipment shown in Fig. 7 is used
for this purpose. Here, an AC current •
of adjustable pulse amplitude and
duration is pulsed through the solder
tip. Tip temperature is controlled by
a miniature thermocouple to assure
temperature control and repeatability.
Hand soldering of discrete components
must be accomplished with extreme •
care so as not to leach fired conductor
materials into the solder compound,
i.e., to prevent the combination of the
materials with the solder. In extreme
cases, solder leaching can cause the
complete removal of the fired conductor from the substrate.
Equipment and technology for the attachment of uncased active devices,
often called bare chips, is identical to
that used in the semiconductor industry. The method most commonly used.,
for chip mounting is alloying. Factors
that are of primary importance are
adhesion, thermal conduction, environmental stability, and cost.
Alloying consists of combining the
silicon on the back of the chip with ...
another metal to form a liquid phase
which adheres to both the substrate
and the back of the chip. Gold is often
used because it forms a eutectic compound with silicon at 370°C, which is
high enough to withstand additional
processing steps, but low enough to II
preclude any damage to the chip. The
gold is usually supplied in the form of
gold, gold-germanium, or gold-silicon
preform. To allow the alloy to form,
the thin layer of silicon dioxide on the
back of the chip must be removed.
This is usually accomplished by me- . .
chanically scrubbing the chip on the
gold material at 390 to 450°C. A protective atmosphere of nitrogen is used
to reduce the formation of new oxides
during this operation. Fig. 8 shows dieattach equipment used in EASD's
microelectronic products activity.
The difficulty in attaching many active
.~ devices to a hybrid substrate is mainly
~ in the repeated temperature elevation
of the substrate. Fired resistors can be
susceptible to these temperature elevations. One method used to overcome
this problem is heating of the capillary
tool rather than heating the substrate.
Where extreme sensitivity to temperature elevation exists, chips may be
attached to the substrate using conductive epoxy adhesives. Such adhesives can be cured at temperatures
as low as 150°C.
shows such an operation. Sophisticated
equipment is available which snips the
wire tail remnants at the end of the
operation. A tail-less wire bonder is
shown in Fig. 10 .
Thermocompression bonds are formed
by pressing a thin gold wire lead
against the surface to which it is to
be bonded by a heated capillary or
wedge tool. The heat and pressure
cause the gold wire to melt, thus forming the connection.
Beam leads and flip chips
The next generation of hybrid circuits
will contain discrete and integrated
beam-lead or flip-chip devices. The
main advantages to their use in hybrid
assemblies will be their sealed or
glassivated junction and the ability to
mass bond, i.e., to make all electrical
connections with one operation.
Fig. 7-Solder reflow process equipment for
attaching cased devices to substrate.
Final package sealing
Fig. 6-Simplified process flow diagram for
multilayer fabrication.
Wire bonding
Wire bonding today is the costliest
operation, both on the semiconductor
manufacturing assembly line as well
as in the hybrid shop. Ultrasonic aluminum wire bonding and thermocompression gold bonding are standard
processes used to form electrical connections between the active chips and
the conductor networks on the substrate.
The ultrasonic bond is formed by agitating the bonding tool at ultrasonic
frequencies (nominally around 60
kHz) while pressing the wire against
the surface to which it is to be attached
The agitation scrubs away surface
oxides while heating the thin aluminum wire to weld temperatures. Fig. 9
Until active devices become available
in flip-chip and beam-lead form, final
hybrid modules for most military applications must be hermetically sealed.
Packages without temperature sensitive components can be sealed through
a conveyorized sealing furnace. Seam
or perimeter welding is used where
package temperature cannot be elevated. Sealed modules are then tested
for hermeticity in the same manner and
to the same specifications as semiconductor packages.
Fig. 8-0ie-aUach equipment for chip mounting.
Microelectronic applications of the
future will utilize hybrid techniques in
the same manner as multilayer boards
are used today. The ability to fabricate
high-quality resistor networks at low
costs will see the emphasis placed on
the thick-film approach. Where extreme tolerances are required, small
thin-film t'esistor networks can be
mounted onto thick-film substrates.
Fig. 9-Ultrasonic wire bonding.
Monolithic devices will be utilized in
combinations that yield best performance at cost effective prices. In tomorrow's world of electronics, the lion's
share of business, both military and
commercial, will be reaped by those
who understand the interrelationships
between all microelectronic techniques
and have access to quick turn-around
low-cost total hybrid capabilities.
Fig. 10-Sophisticated
wire bonder for
producing tail-less
Custom Microcircuits in
product engineering
A. Lichowsky
In the more progressive engineering organizations, microcircuit technology is
gradually becoming a way of life. The daily routine for the average electronics engi·
neer includes working with the microscope and microprobe, wire bonding diagrams,
thick·film mask layout, etc. In short, the tools of micro lithography, chip handling, and
hybrid devices are beginning to replace the soldering iron, wire clippers, and
vector board.
TRANSITION from vacuum tube
circuit design to transistor and
standard "off the shelf" integratedcircuit utilization was gradual and, for
the average engineer, relatively painless. While many were reluctant to
learn the details of the new technology,
the interface between the component
manufacturer and the circuit designer
was not seriously disturbed. The familiar data sheet remained the principal
communications media, with some
new vocabulary causing only temporary confusion concerning the significant properties of the new tiny black
The microcircuit era
A more drastic change, perhaps revolutionary, seems upon us as microcircuits become of age. The MSI and
LSI concepts have seriously disturbed
the interface between the component
manufacturer and the systems/equipment design house. The search continues for clear definitions for this more
complex interface.
The electronics industry is apparently
convinced that the basic micro-circuit
technology is sound, durable, and has
fantastic potential for accelerating the
expansion of automation and computerization of many tasks and industries.
Direction is needed, however, in facilitation and in training of our manpower
to cope with the technology. A complete realignment of business relationships between component and equipment manufacturers is not necessary
or forthcoming. There exist new,
simple communications media that can
replace the data sheet, namely, the
photomask/screen and the process rule
sheet. [The process rule sheet states
Reprint RE-15-6-15
Final manuscript received August 14,1969.
the component manufacturer's criteria
for developing specific controlled characteristics of d~vices and interconnections.]
A. Lichowsky
Problems in custom microcircuit
Much of today's product (especially
defense-oriented product) is manufactured in excessive variety yet insufficient quantity to interest component
manufacturers. They are talent-limited
and incapable of coping even with today's initial demand for custom monolithic MSI circuits. Thus, it is up to
the systems/equipment manufacturer
to acquire possession and control of
photomasks and printing screens for
his own dedicated, in-house designed
circuits and/or subsystems. He can do
this by training his circuit and system
designers in the microcircuit disciplines (specialized circuit design and
layout techniques unique to monolithic
Ie's and thick-film circuits). For pro·
duction quantities of his circuits, he
has a choice of component manufacturers to process monolithic wafers
and thick-film circuits for him through
well-defined standard processes.
The component manufacturers have
long recognized that they must have
in-house circuit design capability (appJication engineers) to make their data
sheets useful as the principal communications media with their customers.
This means the equipment/ circuit
design engineer must understand the
details of process rules, layout techniques, and trade-offs to communicate
his output intelligently to the component manufacturer via the mask/
screen. Of course, the component manufacturer will continue to fabricate
more complex standard monolithic
and thick-film circuits for off-the-shelf
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received his initial engineering training at the Technical High School of Hebrew Technical College,
Haifa. Israel. He also attended Columbia University
from 1951 to 1953. Mr. Lichowsky joined the Defense Communications Systems Division in 1962
and became Manager of Design and Development
Engineering in the magnetic recording activity.
In this capacity, Mr. Lichowsky was responsible
for the successful redesign of the first wide band
spacebome military recording system. He also
initiated development of a low-cost television signal recorder. Mr. Lichowsky was transferred to
EASD in 1964 as Manager of Design and Development Engineering in the RCA 3488 Mass Memory
Program. In this capacity, he was responsible for
the redesign of the Mass Memory Recording System prototype and system integrated prior to production release. As a staff engineer, reporting to
the Chief Engineer, Mr. Lichowsky is presently
responsible for technical innovations and concepts
applicable to all EASD product lines. His recent
major contributions have included a low-mass
high-performance drum memory, a spiral-scan disc
memory, a very high current monolythic IC pulse
amplifier, advanced monolythic proximity fuze circuits, and other Significant advances in microcircuit technology. Mr. Lichowsky also acts as a
consultant on recording and memory devices to
other RCA activities.
distribution. In many cases, deliverable system hardware will be completely or partially fabricated from
such stock items. Certainly, system ..
breadboarding and prototype fabrication will be greatly facilitated, and
data sheets will continue to serve as
the communications means in this
Design of a custom circuit chip
How difficult is it then for an established engineering organization to
adapt to custom microcircuit technol-
ogy? A case history of a dedicated
monolithic design will serve best to
answer this question. At EASD, Van
Nuys, several complex custom monolithic circuits have been designed over
• the past two years. However, our Aviation Equipment Department at West
Los Angeles had been utilizing strictly
off-the-shelf IC'S. In March 1969, aviation equipment engineers expressed interest in the development of a custom
IC for motor control. The existing cir• cuit design comprised several standard
digital IC'S and numerous discrete linear components on a printed-circuit
card. On March 18, 1969, three logic
and circuit designers from the Aviation
Equipment Department were assigned
.. to receive training in monolithic IC
technology. One of these engineers
was to design a monolithic motorcontrol circuit simultaneously with his
training, with the other two observing
and assisting. To aid these engineers,
Van Nuys personnel supplied approx,; imately 40 man-hours of lecture and
consultation services. The complete
circuit redesign was available in late
April (only one trainee was assigned
full time to detail design and layout) .
By the end of May, a composite micro·
,. circuit layout was ready. Approxi.
mately $1,400 was spent at Van Nuys
for drafting and ruby cutting on a coordinatograph. Mask fabrication (2
sets of chrome masks, 9 layers ) was subcontracted at a cost of about $2,200.
Around the middle of June the masks
.. were delivered to Electronic Components in Somerville for processing. On
July 9, 1969, processing of the initial
wafers of the T A 5782 new monolithic
motor-control circuit (Figs. 1a and 1b)
was completed at Somerville, and pre·
.,. liminary testing of chips was started.
Before completion of the initial pro·
gram, a number of new dedicated
monolithic circuits were being considered and designed independently by
the Aviation Equipment Engineering
Microcircuit training techniques
Once exposed to actual experience
with modern microcircuit concepts,
the fantastic cost reduction capabilities
(even in limited production quantities) become obvious to the Engineering Manager, and he is bound to
place priority on retraining his staff to
take advantage of such techniques.
Fig. 1a-Logic and simplified circuit diagram for motor controller.
Fig. 1 b-Magnified view of monolithic motor control circuit chip.
How does one go about training uninitiated engineers in microcircuit technology? One method is by sending designers to a formal training class. However, for monolithic design alone, this
offers several disadvantages.
1) It maY take several weeks away
from the engineer's home base;
2) It can cost well in excess of $10,000
per engineer, and
3) In most cases, it could result in
insufficient retained capability to do
independent work, thereby requiring
considerable outside consultation.
Certainly such training is not regenerative and may decay rapidly resulting in a total loss of investment and
a setback in timely technological
In contrast, a small-scale in-house facility for processing thick-film and
monolithic circuits, with two or three
qualified personnel, may require a
somewhat greater initial investment
but in the long run will be far more
profitable. Such a fabrication facility
provides continuous exposure to microcircuit technology. In this environment, the exercising of skills is highly
regenerative, resulting in accelerating
re-orientation of the entire engineering
and manufacturing staffs. Thus, a minimal cost in-house training program,
dependent on inside and outside lecturers and laboratory classes, will result in rapid upgrading of skills and
rapid response to continuing changes
and development in the field.
The RCA 110A computerground checkout and launch
control of Saturn
A. J. Freed
The RCA 110A Saturn Ground Computer System currently being used by NASA for
integrated checkout and launch control of the Saturn-Apollo manned lunar mission
was originally conceived and designed for industrial process control. * To meet the
early NASA requirement, the original system progressed through a series of major
design changes. These changes provided larger memory storage, new discrete
input/output capability, more data channels, and increased complement of peripheral equipment.
INCE THE SATURN'S PROGRAM'S INCEPTION, RCA/EASD has delivered to NASA a total of 30 computer
systems, and provided a continuum
of Engineering and Logistics support
through the present time. The precepts
of the original engineering thoughts
concerning checkout and launch of a
complex vehicle may be summed up
through the following goals for an
automatic checkout system:
Provide for processing large numbers
of parameters;
Reduce the man/machine interface;
Remain flexible so as to accommodate change;
Provide a high degree of reliability.
To reach these goals, NASA surveyed
available equipment in the early
1960's and chose the RCA 110 System.
This paper discusses the seventeen
Saturn V Ground Computer Systems
delivered to NASA under contract
General Characteristics
To meet the goals previously outlined,
the design of the original RCA 110
was realigned to meet the requirements for increased checkout capacity
with corresponding emphasis on speed
and flexibility. The result was the
RCA 110A Saturn Ground Computer
System which provides a number of
significant capabilities:
Reprint RE-15-6-9
Final manuscript received November 6. 1969.
'The RCA-110 Industrial Control Computer was
developed by the I ndustrial Computer Systems
Dept., Natick, Mass.: the engineering team of
S. B. Dinman, J. F. Cashen, G. C. Hendrie, G. D.
Rummel, and L. W. Honans received the first David
Sarnoff Outstanding Achievement Team Award for
this work.
Input/output processing simultaneously,
General purpose data processing and
Ability of two RCA 110A's to work
in tandem via data link,
General purpose computing,
Real-time control monitoring and
testing of multiple digital and analog
systems, and
Versatile peripheral equipments.
The RCA 110A System consists of the
following complement of cabinets:
Main frame
Power supply
Data link
The peripherals consist of a line
printer, card reader, card punch and
magnetic tape stations. Fig. 1 illustrates a typical computer system configuration; Fig. 2 shows the functional
interconnections 'of the various equipment cabinets. Note that Fig. 1 also
shows the display equipment; while
not considered as part of the Saturn V
system, RCA/EASD did deliver a
number of S 1B Display Systems under
contract to NASA. These systems were
used during the launch of Saturn S 1B
/vehicles from Complex 34 and 37 and
Kennedy Space Center.
Speed of operation, while not outstanding by today's technology standards, is considered acceptable for this
application. The clock rate is 9.36 kHz;
memory cycle is 9.7 fLS; word time,
including access, is 28.9 fLS; and the
add time is 57.7 fLS. Operationally, the
system has sufficient speed to perform
at the upper limit required by the test
A. J. Freed, Mgr.
Saturn Program
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE from the University of Southern
California in 1958. He has completed graduate
studies in digital computers at the University of
California at Los Angeles and finished a program
through the seminar phase on advanced management techniques. Mr. Freed joined RCA in 1958
as a member of the Missile and Surface Radar
Division Design Engineering Staff. He participated
in a wide variety of design and development programs, including design of solid-state circuits for
portable mortar-detection equipment, airborne
communication receivers, BMEWS display consoles, analog switching equipment and a power
amplifier for radars at the five megawatt power
level. In 1961 he was assigned to Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division Project Enginee rig Staff. His experience includes the project
responsibility on three systems of electronic display equipment for the USAF. During the period
of 1962-1964 he was Project Engineer on the
Ranger ground display equipment and Program
Manager for three general-purpose digital computers now in use as the BMEWS checkout data
processors. From 1964 through 1967, Mr. Freed
was assigned to the Project Engineering Staff for
the design, development, and production of the
Saturn Ground Computer System, its peripheral
equipments, and the Saturn l-B Displays. For the
past two years, Mr. Freed has held the assignment as Manager, Saturn Program. This effort
involves five major NASA contracts and responsibilities that encompass the total RCA support
provided to NASA. Mr. Freed is a member of Eta
Kappa Nu, the IEEE, and is a licensed amateur
radio operator.
condition frequency in real time. Program speed may be considered as enhanced by the system's capability at
the input/output level. A number of
buffered input/output data channels
(lODe) permit simultaneous operation
of [/0 and general calculations or
The priority interrupt system was retained from the original industrial
processor. Thus, a program may be
interrupted by one of a higher priority
with all the register contents of the
lower priority program stored until
the higher level program has been
. . Fig.1-The RCA-110A computer system configuration, Including display equipment.
serviced. In addition to the simple
form of interrupt described above,
multiple-priority interrupts may cause
the computer to sequence through several priority levels prior to returning
to the program originally interrupted.
This feature will permit incomplete
programs to be finished during available time increments. This concept
permits the RCA llOA to monitor
overall vehicle status while servicing
requests from test operators/ conductors. It may be noted that in periods of
slack time during the checkout of a
vehicle, the computer system will run
those programs assigned the lowest
priority levels. These are primarily
W self-check routines.
The storage capacity of the RCA 110A
System complements the system requirements; 32 k words of high-speed
magnetic-core storage with 32 k words
on drum plus up to 20 magnetic tape
stations are provided. The 24-bit word
length provides a precision to better
than one part in eight million and the
validity of data transfer is verified by
an additional parity bit. During a par-
ity alarm, the address of the executed
instruction is stored to enable use of
automatic software recovery routines.
Multiple computer operation is provided via a full duplex high-speed data
link. This system, independent of the
processor, performs all synchronization, formatting, and error detection/
correction. The technique of retransmission is used for correcting errors
without interruption of the word sequence. The detection of errors is
accomplished through the following:
Horizontal and vertical parity,
Retransmission count,
Parity check on data channel transfer,
Incoming modulation check.
I t should be noted that the undetected
error rate is 2.8 x 10-14 words/word for
a 10-' single-bit error rate.
Fail-safe operation in terms of local
power failure has been incorporated
into the system design. Upon detecting
an interruption of the power, the contents of all registers required in order
to reinitialize at the proper program
point are automatically stored in core
memory. In addition, the computer's
power system is down sequenced in
the proper order. These actions permit
the computer to resume operation at
the point of interruption once power
has been restored.
System Considerations
RCA 110A computer system
The RCA 110A Saturn Ground Computer primarily supports the Saturn V
manned lunar missions from Complex
39 as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Computer systems are located in the
Launch Control Center (LCC) and in
each Launch Umbilical Tower (LUT).
These systems provide central processing with communication to other
equipment through Input/Output
Data Channels (lODe); an lODe is provided to route each general class of
signal (discrete, analog, command,
etc.) to the central processor.
Discretes (28-volt commands) may be
processed in this manner at operational speeds of up to 15,000 signals/
second. The discrete lODe is capable of
(lOS 0-7)
(lOA 0-7) ..
(lOR 0-7)
DATA 1/0
Fig. 2-The RCA-110A computer equipment interconnection.
Fig. 3-Saturn launch complex No. 39.
outputting in excess of 1,000 separate
command signals to the vehicle and
responses from the vehicle can exceed
3,000 separate inputs. The system
utilizes a converter to process the inputs in 24 increments corresponding
to the 24-bit computer word in anyone
of four operational modes.
1) Single-scan mode-all discrete input
lines sensed once and condition stored
in core memory.
2) Continuous-scan mode-all discrete
input lines sensed continuously with
core memory updated to latest condition.
3) Monitor mode-when a change is detected between latest and previous condition, core memory is updated with
the latest condition and the time of
4) Selective monitor mode-same as
monitor mode with the exception that
only preselected groups may be monitored. If a change occurs in a pre-
selected group, a priority interrupt may
be given the computer system.
The IODC'S are capable of providing
data transfers that are not under
direct program control. This may be
accomplished in parallel with normal
computer operations. The complement
of IODC'S available is summarized be- •
1) lODe I-control I/O operations of
drum memory and the Ampex magnetic
tape stations. This IODC is also capable
of operating with an output typewriter,
paper tape reader, paper-tape punch,
and the RCA SiB display system.
2) Magnetic tape IODC-controls I/O .
operations of the line printer, card
reader, card punch plus additional
magnetic tape stations and a communications data set.
3) Data link IODc-controls data transfers between RCA 110A systems.
4) DDAS lODe-controls I/O operations )I
between the digital data acquisition
system and the computer.
S) Discrete IODC-controls I/O activity
of discrete signal converters.
6) Display IODC-controls I/O operations between the computer and the
Saturn V Display System.
Input/output registers (lOR'S), input/
output address lines (lOA'S), and input/output sense lines (lOS'S) provide
alternate paths for communication be-
UNDER .-J<:~--"""'''----~
RCA 110A
Fig. 5-RCA-110A input/output capabilities.
Discrete actions called up from the
Call up from the display consoles of
test programs and discrete requests or
monitoring; and
Periodic monitoring of test points, discrete status, and red-line values.
Fig. 4-Equipment interconnection for prelaunch checkout and launch control.
tween the computer and external devices. The lOR'S are standard 24-bit
registers that provide additional data
transfer paths to remote computers
and telemetry systems. The lOA'S are
generally used to set up command signals to external devices, while lOS'S
will sense the response of these devices. Contrary to the IODC concept,
lOR'S, lOA'S, and lOS'S are under the
direct control of the program and
number as follows:
1) IOR-8 registers.
2) IOA and IOs-192 lines.
Fig. 5 i1lustrates and summarizes the
RCA 110A input/output capabilities.
Additionally, the system provides
other features such as D/ A and A/D
conversion at a rate of 2,000 signals/
second, real-time clock registers to
permit the reading of countdown or
time inputs, and a capability for data
communication with the digital computer on-board the launch vehicle.
Automatic saturn ground checkout
Ground Support Equipment
under computer control is used
to check out each stage of the Saturn
V vehicle. Responses from each stage
are evaluated based on the applied
stimuli. Such entities as hydraulics or
pneumatics may not originate with the
computer and are therefore generated
by devices external to the computer,
but under its control. The test conductor's CRT console is the focal point for
maintaining control of all test operations and the computer.
Two general modes (semi-automatic
and automatic) of operation are available for use. The normal mode now
being used is semi-automatic. This
mode consists of the following operations (refer to Fig. 4):
Command initiated through electrical
support equipment (ESE) panels or the
display system keyboard in the Launch
Control Complex (Lee).
Upon receipt of command, the computer at Lee transmits a signal via data
link to the Launch Umbitical Tower
(LUT) computer.
A command is then furnished to the
stage und,5:1' test via ESE, with a response
returning by the same route.
The automatic mode would consist of
the initial command, initiated by ESE
panel or display system keyboard,
being generated by the execution of a
stored program instruction. All other
sequences of events would remain as
previously stated.
To summarize the checkout of a Saturn V vehicle at Kennedy Space Center, three basic features are available:
Data received through these tests are
displayed locally at the stimulus-generating equipment. In addition, data
received via the digital-data-acquisition system (DDAS) is recorded for
later hard copy (strip) printout. Certain functions are monitored by test
personnel on a full-time basis. To supplement the capability of the RCA110A computers to monitor discrete
events, a digital events evaluation
(DDE) computer continuously scans a
large portion of the ground support
equipment and stage discrete information and records changes and the time
they happen.
RCA's present role
Through June of 1970, RCA/EASD is
under contract to the NASA Marshall
Space Flight Center for program management, engineering, field service,
and quality assurance in support of
the RCA-II0A computers. Also, in
support of this contract, EASD has a
15,000 square foot facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and a sustained/dedicated group of support personnel at
the Van Nuys plant.
Saturn launches
Through the writing of this article, the
RCA 110A Computer System has successfully supported all Saturn 1B
launches (AS 201-AS 205) and all
Saturn V launches (AS SOl-AS 507).
This schedule included Apollo 11 and
12 and meant that NASA was able to
meet all major test schedules plus all
launch windows.
Safety and arming devices
s. C. Franklin
In general, fuze designs require the use of sensitive explosives, in the form of
detonators, and lead charges to initiate detonation. It is essential that the fuze be
safe to handle and transport, therefore, the U.S. has adopted, as standard practice,
the out·of-Iine detonator principle to remove the possibility of detonation either
because of a violent mechanical shock or because of the heat resulting from a fire.
This paper describes several of the safety and arming concepts developed for mechanical and electrical fuzes by the Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems Division
is to detonate the bursting charge
in a missile at a specified time or
place. The need for many types of
fuzes is apparent when we consider
some of the various items of ammunition in use-projectiles, bombs, rockets, and mines. The conditions to
which a fuze is subjected when used
as intended may be myriad.
Fig. 1-Basic mass and spring system.
The primary purpose of a safety and
arming device is to maintain the fuze
in an unarmed, safe condition until
it is subjected to all of the forces it
experiences when released against the
enemy. The arming process provides
a transition between two conditions:
1) The safe condition which is normal
for handling with the detonator is in an
out-of-line position, and
2) The armed condition which is normal for functioning with the detonator
in an in-line position so that detonation
of the bursting charge will occur at the
selected time and place.
The time for the arming process to
take place is controlled so that the
fuze cannot function until it has traveled a safe distance from the projectile
launch site. This distance is usually
measured in terms of elapsed time
from launching; hence, the arming
mechanism often consist of a device to
measure an elapsed time interval.
Fig. 2-First-order integrating accelerometer.
Arming concepts
Arming mechanisms operate upon an
input of energy resulting from the
launching environment. This may
come from a source contained in the
fuze itself, or it may arise from a potential created by the external environment such as acceleration, spin, or
pressure. The space in a fuze is often
Reprint RE-15-6-10
Final manuscript received October 24, 1969.
Fig. 3-Runaway escapement.
C. Franklin, Ldr.
Advanced Technology
Electromagetic and Aviation Systems Division"
Van Nuys, California
received the BSEE from the University of Portland
and the MSEE from Drexel Institute of Technology. He also completed the RCA Specialized
Training Program. He is currently developing
integrated-circuit timing devices for electronic
time fuzes and is also responsible for supplying
engineering support to manufacturing on the
M414Al program. Mr. Franklin has completed a ...
redesign of the Mark 15 Amplifier under contract
to Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Corona. He has
performed and directed engineering tasks on fire
control and tracking radar systems, as well as the
Saturn ground checkout computer system.
small; thus, the energy stored within . .
the fuze is much less than that obtainable from a change in external conditions. Hence, the environment is
usually the more convenient source of
energy. Generally, present-day safety
and arming designs are mechanical -.
devices which utilize spring-loaded g
weights (Fig. 1), integrating accelerometers (Fig. 2), and runaway escapments (Fig. 3).
The environmental forces which a
bomb experiences at launch are negli- •
gible. Also, the elapsed time required
for safe separation varies as a function
of launch conditions. Therefore, the
safety and arming device for most
bombs is an electronic timing device
where the sequence is initiated at . .
Safety and arming developments
Two types of electronic safety and
arming devices have been investigated
through IR&D programs at EASD.
The first such device was intended for
bomb applications and was an integral part of the timing fuze (Fig. 4) .1
r------+---+--+-........~~ ~I
L ________________~
Fig. 4-Two-phase clock circuit.
The second type of safety and arming
device can be used with projectiles,
missiles, rockets, or mortars. In this
technique, presently being investi. , gated, the energy obtained from a
loaded piezoelectric ceramic is used to
perform the arming sensor functions.
The piezoelectric ceramic can be used
in a number of ways to accomplish
the arming function. The geometry,
• size, and loading of the ceramic determine the voltage and energy output
characteristics of the sensor. When
the loaded piezoelectric ceramic is
used with electronic circuits, it should
result in a very accurate and reliable
. , system. If these circuits are capable
of measuring amplitude and time delay, the output of the device will
indicate whether the proper acceleration and terminal velocity have been
attained before the arming sequence is
initiated. The piezoelectric ceramic
III will generate the waveform in Fig. 5
during the acceleration or boost phase.
The amplitude of the positive pulse
will be proportional to the initial
buildup of the accelerating force, and
the negative pulse will be proportional
.... to the decay of the accelerating force.
The time period between the positive
and negative pulses is a measure of
the period of constant acceleration
and is proportional to the velocity
Most electronic fuzes employ a battery which is initiated when the
proper environment is experienced.
An electronic timing circuit can be
used to measure elapsed time follow-
Fig. 5-Waveform generated during boostphase of projectile trajectory.
Fig. 6-Electronic safety-and-arming device.
ing battery activation to determine
that a safe separation distance has
been achie~d and the arming process
A bellows motor is an example of a
mechanical device which could be
used to remove a barrier between the
detonator and booster, thereby achieving the in..line armed condition.
Fig. 6 is a functional block diagram
of an electronic safety and arming
device for a surface-to-air missile
The mechanical type of safety and
arming mechanism which is progressively becoming more expensive to
produce will be replaced with electronic type devices in the near future.
The electronic type device will provide greater accuracy and reliability
than the existing mechanical devices.
I. Ambler, F. E., "A Timing Fuze Employing P
type MOS Arrays", RCA Engineering, reprint
PE-408; RCA ENGINEER, Vol. 14, No. I
(June/July, 1968).
New one-tube color-camera
for live or film use
T. M. Wagner
A new low cost 1-vidicon-tube color-camera (Fig. 1) has been designed, featuring
zoom lens, special color encoding filters, and state-of-the-art modular construction.
The same basic camera module, with minor modifications, is also used in a slide and
film chain (Fig. 2). This paper describes the 1-vidicon camera system and explains
its characteristics.
HE RCA I-tube color camera has
been greeted with considerable interest by the television world since its
introduction to the public at the
NAEB-show in November 1968 in
Washington, D.C.
During the past two decades many attempts have been made to overcome
the inherent problems of registering
multiple tube color cameras. Principles
of I-tube color systems were patented
20 years ago. (See refs. 1 through 10)
The closest description of our present
system was made by R. D. Kell in a
patent issued in 1956.'
Only the present state-of-the-art in
electronics, optics, and pick-up tubes
made it possible to forge components
to yield the required performanceallowing the design of a system with a
simplicity of operation similar to a
home color Tv-receiver and with a production cost low enough to open new
Area sharing
The RCA 1-vidicon color system is
basically an area-sharing system. That
is, the frequency spectrum used to
transmit picture content and resolution also contains color information in
some encoded way. This encoding is
achieved by optically converting color
into stripes which create carrier frequencies by the vidicon's scanning
A set of stripes from a cyan dichroic
filter (red-stop) is reimaged on the
vidicon faceplate. For example, red
color, as well as blue and green, is
passed by the clear portions while red
is stopped by the cyan portions of the
Reprint RE-15-6-20
Final manuscript received September 2, 1969.
Blue color is similarly treated by a second set having yellow stripes (bluestop), alternating with clear stripes.
Thus, a red or blue picture are appears
to the vidicon t'O be chopped in stripes.
The different spatial frequencies of the
filters and their different angle of inclination, encode red and blue color areas
in different frequencies which will
later be decoded in the terminal electronics to reproduce the red and blue
If needed for special applications,
green can be matrixed from the red,
blue, and the luminance signal. If redyellow and blue-yellow encoding is
chosen to derive an NTSC signal, green
need not appear on separate terminals
at all.
Resolution and bandwidth
The present state-of-the-art consumertype color receivers were used as a
criterion. Those receivers are nominally capable of 220 TV lines horizonal resolution. None of them utilize the
higher definition I and Q-demodula~
tion axis or exceed 256 TV lines horizontal resolution.
We have taken advantage of this fact
and cut off the luminance bandwidth
at 3 MHz. The band from 3 to 5.5 MHz
is reserved for red and blue colorcarrier transmission, the red being at
-"'3.5 MHz and the blue at 5 MHz with
±O.5-MHz bandwidth each. This insures good signal-to-noise ratio and
camera sensitivity while still providing
at those frequencies, good resolution
uniformity with the 8507 A vidicon
NTSC Compatibility
In the NTSC system the color information is encoded as phase vectors of the
subcarrier, each phase representing a
Theodor M. Wagner
Advanced Design and Development
Professional Electronics Systems Division
Burbank, California
received the Ing. grad. degree from the Oscar von
Miller-Polytechnikum in Munich, Germany in 1953.
He was employed with Rohde und Schwarz in Circuit Design of TV-measuring equipment. He was a
group leader at Agfa-Gevaert's lab of physics, __
where he worked for six years on the solution of
photographic and optical problems with electronics
prior to coming to the United States in 1964. In
1964 and 1965 he worked on chroma circuits of
color TV-receivers with General Electric in Syracuse, N.Y. A patent is pending from that time on
syncronous detectors phase conirol. In 1966 and
1967 he performed basic studies on vidicon tubes
and was project engineer on the design of a high ' .
resolution camera for special purposes with
General Electrodynamics Corp. in Garland, Texas.
He joined RCA Burbank in 1968, where he was
employed in the electro-optical design of the
1-vidicon program. The author was a member of
the team that received the 1968 David Sarnoff Outstanding Team Award in Engineering for the single
tube color camera. He is co-inventor of two patents
pending and is a member of the Society of Motior, . .
Pictures and Television Engineers.
different color and each vector amplitude the chroma saturation.
It is one of the great inventions of the.
NTSC-system that the decoding or encoding of a particular color does not
have to be in the higher definition
1- and Q-axis but can also be done in
the direction of the R- Y and B- Y axis.
In fact, the values of the I and Q sig-..
nal are so chosen that the resultant
phase for any hue is constant, whether
it is formed from detection along the
1- and Q-, or the R-Y and B-Y axis.
Since the majority of receivers do not
employ the I and Q system, a greatly",
simplified encoder circuitry is used in
which the R-Y and B-Y signals directly
modulate the subcarrier in a quadrature relationship.
For closed circuit use, a built-in crystal
provides a non-locked subcarrier. Its"
moving pattern is nearly invisible at
normal viewing distances. Provisions
are made for a separate input where a
standard locked subcarrier can be fed
in if so desired for broadcasting
Circuit description of
camera module
. . Video processing
The video processing amplifier does
not contain any unconventional circuitry. However, great consideration
has been given to the optimization of
all parameters of the system.
Good signal-to-noise ratios are obtained by the use of a FET-preamplifier
input stage. In fact, sensitivity is limited by the graininess of the photoconductor rather than the amplifier noise.
A dark current clamp makes the black
level independent of target voltage
variations. An exchangeable gamma
board adapts the camera to live, film
or special application operations.
that have the characteristic of reflecting some wavelengths while transmitting others.
If a red or blue color arrives at the
filter, it is chopped by the striped
dichroics in the form of alternating
brightness values. The horizontal scan
of such an area of the photoconductor
produces a frequency which is selected
to be above the frequency domain allocated for picture detail (see Fig. 3) .
The colorimetry of the system is determined mainly by the picture tube and
the dichroic filters. The vidicon parameters are, for all practical purposes,
fixed since economy does not warrant
a special design.
The best dichroic filter combinations
and half-peak transmittance points
have been found by using computers
to make speedy evaluations of the filter
curves desired with all variables that
affect colorimetry taken into account
(see Fig. 4).
The dichroic filters must be of nearly
perfect quality. Any deficiency will
show up as color shading, increased
chroma noise, and therefore less sensitivity if the transmittance-to-reflectance
ratio is not high enough. A flat slope of
The bandwidth of the system is restricted to 7 MHz to increase the signal• ." to-noise ratio. Between 0 and 10 dB of
delay-line-type aperature correction
can be added, peaked at 5 MHz <the
highest color carrier frequency). Besides increasing the color-carrier amplitude it adds pre- and over-shoot to the
luminance transitions, thus increasing
At' the apparent horizontal resolution.
Timing circuit
The camera system is self-contained.
A standard EIA sync generator is built
in and locked to the line frequency. All
. . pulses (sync, blanking, clamps and
drive pulses for deflection) are devised
in the timing circuits. It is also possible
to drive the camera externally from
studio pulses.
Fig. 1 (above)-One-tube color camera.
Fig. 2 (below)-Color slide and film chain
using 1-tube camera.
Deflection and focus
A high degree of current feedback is
employed to insure sweep linearity,
centering, and size stability. Since any
change in resolution would be interpreted as a color change, special consideration has been given to the focus
. . current regulator. Its amplifier is referenced to a temperature-compensated
zener diode.
Striped dichroic filters
The color separation in this i-vidicon
system is achieved by encoding red
and blue colors into different frequencies by means of striped dichroic
filters. Dichroic filters are essentially
glass substrates with chemical coatings
rei. A
~--I--- 1-,
0-3 MHz
3.5 MHz
5.0 MHz
Fig. 3-Frequency allocation of luminance and chrominance.
transmittance characteristics will produce colorimetric errors, especially in
the transition areas.
Carrier detection (see Fig. 5)
The camera output contains luminance
information and encoded red and blue
subcarriers. In the decoder, two bandpass amplifiers with I-MHz bandwidth
each (one for a frequency of 5 MHz
which was chosen to be the blue carrier frequency and one for 3.5 MHz
which represents the red carrier frequency), derive and detect the blue
and red signal with a bandwidth of
500 kHz each.
Traps in the bandpasses insure that
minimum red carrier is in the blue
channel and vice versa. The luminance
channel is also cleared from spurious
red and blue as well as subcarrier frequencies before compatible NTSCencoded chroma gets added at the
output stage.
Color encoding (see Fig. 5)
After the red and blue signals are detected, they are either channeled out
together with a green matrixed signal
(if R, B, G, and Y output is desired),
or the B-Y and R-Y color-difference
signals are derived and fed into balance modulators.
After combining the B- Y signal and the
R-Y signal and filtering out any harmonics, the chroma signal is added to
the luminance signal to form the
NTSC-compatible composite waveform. This signal is then fed to the
output stage.
The burst is obtained by keying the
B- Y modulator negatively during the
burst duration. The burst phase must
therefore always be -180 from the
B- Y phase and need never be adjusted.
Live camera
The optical design in the I-vidicon
color camera is·unique. From the many
possible ways of making a single-tube
color system with a standard vidicon,
the configuration shown in Fig. 6 was
chosen for the production live camera.
The zoom lens is an inexpensive 35mm-format type. The basic studio lens
has a focal length of 50 to 300 mm
(reduced by the demagnification of the
relay lens to 20 to 120 mm). This
allows a horizontal taking angle of
approximately 36° to 60 , which makes
it very suitable for small studio use.
In the focal plane of the zoom lens are
a set of dichroic filters which are
imaged by a relay lens onto the vidicon
The relay lens has a demagnification
of 1: 2.58 (the ratio of the 35-mm
zoom-lens format to the 16-mm format
of the I-inch vidicon). This reduction
ratio provides many more advantages
besides the usage of a low-cost zoom
lens. The dichroic filters can have a
lower spatial frequency and are therefore easier to manufacture, dust spots
and dichroic deficiencies are less visible, and the systems aperture is in- . .
creased by the same factor which provides a much faster system than the
f/4.5 aperture of the zoom lens would
otherwise offer. Furthermore, a 2.5: 1
relay system is much easier to fabricate than a 1: 1 system which would
hardly provide the resolution perfor- . ,
mance at the required opening and the
short conjugate distance.
A field lens is inserted between the
zoom lens and the stripe filters. It refracts the otherwise divergent rays •
from the zoom lens into the entrance
pupil of the relay lens. This insures
that no "portholing" takes place which
would darken the edges of the picture.
If the field lens is kept between zoom
lens and dichroics, and as close as
practicable to the first image plane, ' .
then the resolution uniformity of the
relay lens-and therefore chroma rendition-is fundamentally unaffected.
The optical arrangement is assembled
to yield the most uniform resolution
possible over the entire picture area ......
and is then locked in place. Since the
picture is never optically taken apart
during the stripe encoding process, no
misregistration can occur with this
I-vidicon principle. Optical defocusing
of the picture with the zoom lens does ...
not alter the color rendition since the
stripe filters will still be focused and
re-imaged on the vidicon faceplate by
the relay lens.
- --- ,-,
FILTER ......
Fig. 4-ldealized dichroic-filter curves.
5 MHz
(SEE FIG. 3)
3.5 MHz
Fig. 5-Carrier detection and color encoding.
The zoom lens is fitted with ring gears
which couple the focus ring with a
flexible drive shaft to a twist grip
control at the pan and tilt handle, and
allow the zoom control to be cranked
from the right hand side of the camera.
The lens iris can be operated by a pushpull cable from the camera operator's
... position.
Slide and film chain
The slide and film chain operates on
the same principle as the live camera
.. but is optically easier to assemble. The
longer throw distances do not necessitate a short-conjugate relay lens system
but can be handled with good C-mount
lenses. Fig. 7 shows the optical arrangement of slide projector, film projector,
camera, dichroic filters, field lenses,
III and mirror. If the mirror is in the UP
position, the I6-mm film projector
images its picture onto the stripe filter
plane ST.
Tlie field lens FL1 insures that all the
rays will enter the camera lens and
• : avoid any portholing. An additional
field lens FL2 is needed in the 35-mm
slide projector path because of the
shorter throw distance of the slide
projector SL. (see Ref. 13)
Due to higher light levels, the camera
lens can be operated at f/8, and with
the longer distances involved, the focal
range tolerance is much greater and
imposes practically no adjustment
problems with the dichroic filters.
Again, as in the live camera, focusing
of the object with the 35-mm slide
projector or the I6-mm film projector
does not affect the color rendition
since the dichroic filters are in a fixed
place with respect to the camera and
are therefore always imaged properly
on the vidicon faceplate.
Operational characteristics
Focus limitations
Utilizing the striped principle, which
converts chroma information into frequencies, makes the electrical focus
control of the camera a "color control."
Anything that affects the frequency
response and resolution of the vidicon
will cause a color change in the output
signal. This means that defocusing the
stripes by optical means or' changing
the electrical focus control of the vidicon will alter the hue or even cause a
complete loss of chroma. Defocussing
the zoom lens in the live camera will
not change the chroma because the
dichroic stripe filters remain in a fixed
position and are always re-imaged on
the vidic05faceplate .
The same holds true when defocusing
the lenses of the 35-mm slide and
I6-mm film projectors. However, defocusing the camera lens in the film
chain will defocus the stripes and
therefore cause a loss of chroma.
Even though the I-vidicon color camera is basically a high resolution
camera with an excellent uniform relative response, the system's luminance
resolution is limited by the fact that
the higher resolution spectrum is allocated to the two color carriers. Fortunately, the present low cost color
receivers do limit their resolution to
approximately 250 TV lines and their
frequency response is 6 dB down at 3
MHz. We take advantage of this fact
and limit our luminance response to
3 MHz.
The present state-of-the-art 8507 A vidicons have sufficient resolution at 3.5
and 5 MHz to provide the desired
chroma uniformity with the color carriers placed at those frequencies.
The utilization of a delay-line-type
horizontal-aperture correction minimizes detail loss when a picture is
viewed through a home color receiver.
Color uniformity
At first, one of the biggest problems
seemed to be the ability to produce
uniform color fields. Not only will a
loss of resolution cause a complete loss
of color in that particular area of the
picture, but a slight degradation of
resolution will change the colorimetry
and show up magnified in pale areas
of mixed colors like flesh tones. The
dichroic filters have to be of excellent
quality, as pointed out in the above
discussion of these filters.
The relay lens must be specially designed and must represent the state-ofthe-art in optical design to satisfy the
resolution and uniformity requirement
of the system.
The pick-up tube, with its associated
circuitry, including the deflection assembly, is another major factor which
contributes significantly to the color
It was necessary to use a new yoke
design, employ focus modulation and
correct the remaining percentages of
non-uniformity in the RF-bandpass
amplifiers. In this way it was possible
to achieve as much as 95% or more
resolution throughout the entire picture area with the center being 100%.
Setup techniques
To obtain full color rendition, there
are some basic setup procedures which
must be observed besides optically focussing the object and viewing angle
for the live camera. The 1-tube color
camera is no different from any other
black-and-white camera in this parameter.
Five electrical controls are provided on
the back of the live camera, and the
front panel of the slide and film chain,
or remotely for the video engineer.
They are the standard black-and-white
camera controls (pedestal, beam, gain,
focus, and target). Some are unique in
their effect. Others, like gain and target, do not require a special knowledge
of this system to be set up properly.
The pedestal control will not only
affect the setup of the video signal but
will be interpreted by the encoderdecoder as an increase in luminance
without a proportionate increase in red
16 rml FORMAT
Fig. 6-0ptics of 1-vidicon color camera system.
and blue carriers. This will turn the
picture greenish (since, by definition,
picture contents having luminance
values and no carriers must be green) .
A decrease in pedestal will misbalance
the colorimetry to minus green (Le.
magenta) .
The beam control must be set to just
discharge the highlights. Any excessive
beam will scatter electrons around the
focused beam in the vidicon and cause
a loss of resolution and, therefore, a
loss of color in some areas of the picture. The same effect will be experienced when the camera is electrically
A decrease in resolution means a loss
of color-carrier amplitudes which
causes a change in chromaticity or a
complete shift to green if the picture
is sufficiently defocused.
The electrical stability of the system is
such that once the camera is adjusted
by its five controls, readjustment will
be practically unnecessary.
The warmup time of this color camera
is primarily determined by the heater
of the vidicon and is hardly longer
than the warmttp time of a simple
35mm SLIDE
LENS _ - , -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- '
Fig. 7-Slide and film chain.
FL 1
black-and-white camera (about 2 min- •
utes) . Misregistration, the big problem
in even the most expensive color
cameras, can never occur.
The author is indebted to Mr. H. Ball, ..
Manager of Engineering, who made
this project possible through his
personal guidance and technical leadership. He acknowledges the contributions of Mr. R. Blinn who managed the
first production run of the slide and
film chain, having only an engineering"
sample from which to work. Credit for
the majority of the electrical design
goes to Mr. L. Briel, group leader at
RCA-Burbank, and Mr. F. Lang from
the Astro-Electronics Division in
Hightstown, N.J.
1. 2,446,249,
2. 2,634,328,
7. 3,267,207,
8. 3,291,901,
9. 3,300,580,
10. 3,378,633,
A. C. Schroeder (1948)
E. D. Goodale, et al (1953)
R. D. Kel1 (1956)
D. H. Kel1y (1960)
D. V. Ridgeway (1962)
G. R. Watson (1962)
Masatoski Okazaki (1966)
Toshihiko Tagaki (1966)
Toshihiko Tagaki (1967)
A. Macovski (1968)
II. Borkan, H., "Simultaneous Signal Separation
in the Tricolor Vidicon," RCA Review
(March 1960).
12. Weimer, P. K. "A Developmental Tricolor
Vidicon Having a Multiple Electrode Target,"
IRE Transactions, (july 1960).
13. Lyman, D. F. and Neumer, A. E., Jr., "Basic
Optics of a Television Film Chain," SMPTE
Vol. 72, (jan. 1963).
14. Athey, S. W. and Hobbs, G. P. "A Simplified
Color Television Camera," SMPTE vol. 77
(Aug. 1968) pp. 799-803.
15. Livingstone, D. C., "Colorimetric Analysis of . . .
the NTSC Color Television System," Proc.
IRE 42, (jan. 1954) pp. 138-150.
16. de Vrijer, F. W. "Colour television transmission systems," Philips Techn. Rev., Vol. 27,
No.2 (1966).
17. "Colour television camera problems," J. Tel.
Soc. 9, (April-June) pp. 120-430.
18. Castleberry, J. and Vine, B. H., "An Improved Vidicon Focusing-Defiecting Unit,"
SMPTE Vol. 68 (Apr. 1959) pp. 226-229.
19. Leaman, J. R., "Electron Optics of Vidicons," RCA Engineering, reprint booklet
PE-408, RCA ENGINEER, Vol. 14, No. 1
(June-July 1968).
20. Neuhauser, R. G. and Miller, L. D., "Beam
Landing Errors and Signal Output Uniformity
of Vidicons," SMPTE Vol. 67 (March 1958)
pp. 149-153.
PK-610 color film system
R. W. Jorgenson
A simplified three-vidicon color film camera has been developed by the Professional
Television Design Group in Burbank. The PK-610 is intended for service in educational
and other eeTV markets, as well as in the many broadcast fields that are developing.
This article discusses the useful features of the camera as a straightforward system
and the design highlights of the important circuitry within the system. Emphasis is
placed on design approach through explanation of block diagrams.
for color film
cameras has long been categorized into two classes of equipments:
the top-of-the-line broadcast systems,
and the less versatile industrial class
of color film equipment. This product
gap has suited the needs of existing
markets; however, the rush for color
capability, as typified by the broadcast industry, has changed the marketplace to create demands for a color
film system that is more sophisticated
than industrial equipment, but less
expensive than full broadcast systems.
This new marketplace includes the
broadcasters, who are looking for auxiliary color sources to ease scheduling
requirements on primary sources; the
industrial trainers and school educators, who are looking toward color
equipment for specialized training
applications; and the cable television
operators who are currently looking
for color origination equipment to
offer color programming to their
Bob Jorgenson
Design Engineering
Commercial Electronic Systems Division
Burbank, California
is a graduate of the University of Idaho College
of Electrical Engineering. He began his professional career with RCA, Burbank in 1965 working
on audio products and interlock interface equip
ment. In 1967, Mr. Jorgenson was transferred into
the television group. He is the author of "Audio
Distribution by Carrier Methods" (RCA Engin.eer
Mar./Feb. 68) and is a member of SMPTE.
System concept
Several manufacturers are currently
marketing simplified color cameras in
both live and film versions. These
cameras are designed to provide only
the essential features necessary to perform the basic functions of a color
camera; extra features such as elabo.rate remote control consoles and monitoring facilities are, for the most part,
Fig. 1 depicts the components of the
PK-610 film camera system. All electronics and set-up controls are located
in the camera head, with the exception of an external rack-mounted
power supply which is used to keep
bulk and heat out of the camera head.
The camera cable is limited to 150
Reprint RE-15-6-19
Final manuscript received December 22, 1969.
feet to eliminate pulse-timing and
video-equalization circuitry, and the
remote panel contains operational controls (target, black, level, etc.) and
status tally indicators. The necessary
external support equipment (sync
generator, encoder, etc.) and monitoring components are not included as
part of the system, making the PK-610
a component that can be added to
existing as well as new systems.
Costs were reduced in designing the
camera head mechanical package. An
integral optical system and yokeassembly mounting plate defines the
optical axis for the camera. This heavy
tooling plate serves as a stable reference datum for mounting the camera
and allows the remaining mechanical
package to be fabricated from lightgauge sheet metal. The total package
is of rigid structure and attractive, but
Printed-circuit mother boards were
used to reduce wire harness costs;
all interconnections between modules,
including module edge connectors,
are made with etched circuitry on the
mother board. Camera-cable and
control-panel wiring, as well as deflection yoke and preamplifier harnesses,
terminate directly on the mother
board. Controls and tally indicators
for both the camera-control panel and
the remote-control panel are similarly
mounted directly to printed-circuit
boards to reduce wiring costs and
improve reliability.
Optical system
Two multiplex designs were considered
when designing the optical system
for the PK-610: the PMX-l multiplexer with a 5-diopter field lens, and
the auxiliary or "back-up" position on
the TP-15 multiplexer which uses a
3-diopter field lens. These applications (plus others which are similar)
VIDICON ~+-8~~4;3======~==CI
Fig. 2-Relay optical system and dichroic beam-splitter assembly.
Fig. 1-System components for economical color film camera.
provided the basis for the optical system shown in Fig. 2.
The optical system uses a 50-mm taking lens which images onto an internal
field lens. A precisely sized mask is
coated within the field lens which
blocks light falling outside the standard vidicon scanning format. This
masked image is relayed in a one-toone ratio through the dichroic beamsplitter assembly and is precisely
positioned on each vidicon faceplate.
The spectral response of each channel
is trimmed to provide the correct
bandpass of spectral energy to conform with the overall system transfer
function recommended by the NTSC.
Optical efficiency is less stringent in
a film camera than in a studio camera, but the opportunity to effect
economies at the expense of efficiency
was not carried too far. The vidicon,
although an inexpensive and highquality transducer, is limited by lag in
its ability to operate at low light levels.
Furthermore, the inherently inefficient
conversion of energy in the blue wavelengths plus the effective loss of one
f-stop in a relay system that operates
on one-to-one conjugates place further
requirements on the speed of the optical system.
As shown in Fig. 2, blue light is split
out first, yielding the most efficiency
possible, and the three preamplifiers
are mounted close to the vidicons to
provide optimum signal-to-noise performance for all the channels. This
configuration yields high-quality results with an effective aperture of
100 foot-candles light level at the taking lens.
The red, blue, and green outputs of
a color camera will usually be processed to form encoded signals for
distribution or broadcast. As this processing inherently degrades the signalto-noise (S/N) ratio-due in part to
subtractive matrixing-the siN performance of color cameras must be
the best obtainable. As such, the headend preamplifier must amplify the
camera-tube signal current with as
low a noise figure as the state of the
art will allow.
The block diagram in Fig. 3 shows
the final form of the preamplifier
developed for the PK-61O. Several designs were evaluated using spectrumanalysis noise measurement techniques
before the design was finalized. Essentially, the design centers around a
low-noise UHF field-effect transistor,
which is Ac-coupled to an equally lownoise silicon transistor, to form a highgain low-noise cascode amplifier with
wide dynamic range. To further improve the noise figure of the head-end
amplification, the preamplifier was
mounted within a shielded case close
to the vidicon. This mounting arrangement keeps the signal lead from the
target electrode as short as possible to
reduce interference coupling and to
aid in reducing the input capacity of
the amplifier. The input impedance to
the preamplifier proved to be an important factor in achieving a low noise
figure. Considering the vidicon as a
current source and the FET as a nearly
ideal voltage amplifier, an input resistor of 1 megohm was used in an attempt to obtain as much early voltage
gain as possible in the first stage. This
'T ...
Typically, 8507 A vidicons operate at
12 to 18 volts target potential with
Fig. 3-Preamplifiers use a FET for low-noise performance. The calibrated test pulse serves
as an aid in setting signal current levels.
value was found to be too high, as the
target impedance at peak highlights is
low enough to modify this value of
input impedance, making square-wave
compensation by a simple RC highpeaker stage impossible. This changing target impedance effect becomes
neglible when an input resistance of
the order of 200 kilohms is used.
High transconductance FET'S were
evaluated in an effort to increase early
voltage amplification but, due to the
larger input capacities of the higher
gain FET'S, the tum-over frequency
for the high peaker occurs lower in
frequency, which effectively causes
the high frequency noise figure to be
degraded. The final design parameters
for the input stages and for the high
peaker components, yielded a preamplifier which amplifies 0.5 {LA of
vidicon signal current up to nearly
2 mA with greater than 6-MHz response, and a broadband siN of 46
dB (peak video to RMS noise) .
sub-module here allows other gamma
circuitry to be selected for special
applications. The extension of the
gamma function to a 0.5 exponential
transfer function requires 6 volts of
video at TP-2, so a gain plug-in submodule was included to allow modifying the gain after the video level
control, thus maintaining the same
level setting at TP-l.
Two very important features of the
PK-61O are indicated on Fig. 4: the
automatic target control (ATC) sample and the automatic black level
(ABL) sample. These two features help
provide the "hands off" type of opera-
tion expected of television equipment
in many of today's marketplaces.
Automatic black level (ABL) or pedestal control is a servo loop which
operates on energy received from the
black clippers of the three processor
amplifiers to control the clamping
reference of each channel. In Fig. 5,
the ABL sample information from each
processor is shown summing into a
common point. This summing action
allows the ABL loop to servo to any
one input or to any combination of
inputs depending on which channel
TP 1
Processor amplifiers
The salient features of the video processing amplifiers are shown in Fig. 4.
Two test points and a local 75-ohm
BNC output jack are the only monitoring points required to perform the
three screwdriver adjustments on the
front panel of each processor.
The first test point (TPl) monitors
the input video, where the level is set
with individual target voltage trimming potentiometers. To aid in properly setting correct signal levels, a
precisely calibrated vertical interval
test pUlse, representing 0.5 {LA of signal current, is injected into the gate
of each preamplifier input stage (refer
to Fig. 3), allowing the operator to
match signal currents to a known
reference. This pulse is also serrated
with horizontal blanking pulses to
provide a square wave test for adjusting the high peaker on each preamplifier. The signal level at the second
test point (TP2) is set for 4 volts with
the video level control. The final
adjustment, black balance, is monitored at the local BNC jack.
Fig. 4 depicts a plug-in gamma correction network which is switchable
from both the camera control panel
and the remote panel to provide either
a fixed 0.7 exponential transfer function or unity. The use of a plug-in
'-----oPUNCH UP
Fig. 4-Processing amplifier showing setup adjustments and plug-in submodules.
r - - - - - I AMPL
~ ---",,",
Fig. 5-Automatic black-level circuitry which servos the clamping reference for the processor
Fig. 6-The automatic-target circuit uses a non-linear amplifier to create a linear closed-loop
servo system.
produces the most black clip information. This summing action in essence yields a non-additive mix type
of operation. The output of the summing amplifier is filtered and the De
level obtained is distributed as a
clamping reference to each processor
to complete the control loop.
Clamping action is timed to occur
during the last 3 fLS of horizontal signal blanking. During this period, the
beam is unblanked and allowed to
actively scan the black region just
inside the optical scanning mark. The
signal generated during this interval
produces a well-behaved clamping
interval which represents the combination of optical black signal plus
vidicon dark current. The contribution of dark current to scene black is
therefore clamped out and black level
settings stay fixed when target voltage
and face plate temperature changes
cause dark-current variations.
Fig. 7-Constant signal-current characteristic for a typical vidicon.
Fig. 8-The three vertical deflection yokes
are each individually driven by a current
feedback sweep amplifier.
A manual black level control and
mode switch are located on the camera control panel as well as on the
remote-control panel. The manual
mode completely disconnects the ABL
loop to provide the normal action of
a manual pedestal control.
A simplified ATe loop is shown in
Fig. 6. This loop is quite similar
to the ABL loop, in that the energy
which drives the loop is the sum of
the white peaks that pass through
video output sampling diodes. Again,
a non-additive mix operation is
effected, allowing the ATe to servo
against the highest signal levels. An
interesting feature of the ATe loop is
the nonlinear amplifier within the
loop which has a transfer function
the is essentially the inverse or
the constant-current characteristic depicted in Fig. 7. Equal increment
(2: 1) illumination changes at three
levels of illumination are shown on
this curve to illustrate the relative
magnitude of target voltage change
required in each case to return peak
highlights back to the same signal current. This nonlinear amplifier senses
voltage level, producing a gain characteristic which is directly proportional
to target voltage. The resultant closedloop is then essentially linear and
exhibits uniform dynamic characteristics in all regions of operation. This
desirable feature improves the ability
of the ATe system to follow a wide
range of changing light levels without
objectionable overloads. Here again,
a manual control can be switched into
the circuit at either the camera control panel or at the remote panel,
allowing normal manual target control from either location.
The importance of registration stability, and the ease with which this
important aspect of a 3-channel camera can be obtained, is highly emphasized when considering some of
the "non-technically" oriented areas of
today's marketplace. The dependence
of resolution on exacting registration,
and the inherent characteristics and
interactions of even the minimum
number of controls, can easily frustrate
even the most experienced operators
if steps are not taken to design stability
and operational ease into this circuitry.
A detailed discussion of the various
adjustments involved, and the relative
stability requirements controlling the
various aspects of registration, are beyond the scope of this paper, but several interesting design features were
evolved during the evaluation or registration design criteria.
Deflection assemblies
The deflection yoke designed for the
PK-610 has the unique feature that allows removal of the vidicon from the
rear of the assembly. The yoke assembly is never removed from the
optical assembly so precision alignment fixtures are not required and
vidicon replacement becomes a simple
operation. The assembly provides a
vernier mechanical focus and has sufficient range to accommodate production tolerances for vidicon faceplate
thicknesses. Mechanical horizon and
skew adjustments were designed using
gear segments to rotate the elements of
the deflection assembly. The direct
action of this type of drive was found
to be an advantage over similar leadscrew actuated schemes, in that the
precise matching of skew adjustments
(orthogonal relationship between horizontal and vertical scanning for the
three channels) is more straightforward.
Deflection circuits
The design concept for the vertical and
horizontal sweep circuitry is essentially the same; a precisely generated
reference sawtooth is compared with
a sample of yoke current in a high-gain
operational amplifier to form a class A
feedback loop around the deflection
coils. The primary differences between
these two circuits, as shown in the
block diagrams of Figs. 8 and 9, are
that the horizontal circuit controls
only the green yoke and that the horizontal reference sawtooth is processed
by a series of clipper circuits for linearity control.
Recalling that some 3 fLs of the horizontal blanking interval is required for
optical black clamping, it becomes
apparent that a short horizontal retrace
interval is required. A goal of less than
6 fLs retrace blanking was established,
during which time the sweep was to
be retraced and restarted linearly without ringing. The design shown uses a
standard I-mH deflection assembly
with the two coil windings connected
in parallel. The resulting 250-fLH
yoke yields a retrace time of less than
fLS and is free of ringing. The price
paid for these results is the extra current demand for the lower inductance
yoke-some 500 mA being required
for each yoke or a total of 1.5 A for
the circuit.
Control of horizontal scan linearity is
accomplished by summing clipped
components of the master reference
sawtooth for comparison with the
feedback waveform. The three clipper
circuits are set to provide beam acceleration control at various positions
across the left half of the raster. Once
the fed-back channel linearity has been
adjusted, the other two channels are
matched to the master using conventional circuitry.
High power integrated-circuit operational amplifiers were tested in the
vertical deflection circuit, but the
cross-over distortion present in the output stages was found to be too severe
for the application. The device tested
was employed in a circuit with nearly
80 dB of feedback control. The distortion was barely measurable with a high
gain differential comparator, but two
distinct lines appeared horizontally
across the video raster. It is interesting
to note that a recent article on the subject applies the term skrinch to video
deflects caused by vertical deflection
distortion, and places tolerable limits
of less than 0.01 % distortion on the
discontinuities of the deflection sawtooth. Recently announced IC'S show
better promise for this application, but
discrete circuitry remains more flexible
in that control of biasing in the output stnges yields better results.
Power distribution
Overall camera stabilijy and performance is based upon a precision integrated-circuit voltage regulator which
is located in the camera head. Besides
providing a stable voltage for deflection size and centering circuitry, the
positive and negative outputs of these
regulators serve as reference potentials
for active decoupling circuitry located
on the individual circuit boards. These
post regulators draw load current from
the power regulators in the remote
power supply and provide optimum
noise and ripple isolation. This approach to circuit decoupling has
Fig. 9-The horizontal deflection amplifier uses a non-linear reference sawtooth to create a
linear scan.
proven superior to RC networks and,
in most cases, is less expensive.
to these undesirable effects, and the
high-gain amplifier design is less expensive.
Shading generator
Precision white balance and grey-scale
balance requires that the three individual channels exhibit identical and
uniform sensitivity characteristics over
the target surface. In general, camera
tubes are somewhat less than uniform
and shading correction must be added
to compensate for non-uniform sensitivity as well as to balance for differential shading between channels.
Shading compensation is accomplished
by modulating the vidicon cathode
with sawtooth and parabolic waveforms-thus varying the cathode to
target voltage and, thereby, vidicon
sensitivity. Both waveforms are generated at the horizontal, as well as the
vertical, rate. Each waveform is individually adjustable with a continuous
positive through negative range of
about 6 volts. Three summing stages
amplify the composite of the four
waveforms for each channel and vidicon blanking is inserted. Lowimpedance output stages directly couple the signals to the separate cathodes.
Parabolic waveforms are formed using
a simple RC integrator followed by a
high-gain amplifier. Feedback integrators, using IC operational amplifiers,
were found to be too sensitive to noise
and DC level shifts, causing undesirable
modulation and noise injection. The
RC integrator offers greater immunity
Electronic equipment is being sold in
an increasing number of markets
where sophisticated features are not
required. In some cases, the technical
capability of the end user may not
prove adequate to cope with complex
equipment, while in other cases, the
requirement is for equipment that is
inexpensive yet has the quality necessary for routine programming.
The PK-61O is designed for this type of
straightforward color service. Stabilized circuitry and automated levelcontrol circuits, together with
simplified set up and operation controls,
allow the PK-61O to give optimum
performance for the unsophisticated
operator. Precision colorimetry and
quality low-noise performance make
the PK-61O an attractive inexpensive
color source for the broadcaster, both
on the airwaves and over cable systems.
The author wishes to extend credit to
Mr. Henry Maynard, Project Leader
for the PK-61O program, under whose
leadership much of the material in this
article was assimilated. Special thanks
to Mr. David Jones for his efforts on
this article.
Engineering and
Brief Technical Papers
of Current Interest
Hum buckers for television remotes
-=- dg
-=- Ig
Fig. 1-Hum voltage in video by AC ground potential difference
showing phase relationship from G.
Jarrett L. Hathaway
National Broadcasting Company
New York, N.Y.
Fig. 2-Video hum voltage bucked out by transformer.
Reprint RE-15-6-22I Final manuscript received January 22,1970.
A law, credited to Murphy, states that the worst thing that can
happen will happen, and at the worst possible time. Television
engineers, especially when involved in remote pickups, are all
too familiar with Murphy's law, especially as it relates to
ground-potential differences. Direct current is not generally
much of a factor unless the DC is subject to sudden changes
which produce bobbles through AC coupled amplifiers. Small
potential differences of AC, however, may ride through with
the video and, in many instances seriously, degrade picture
quality despite the use of stabilizing amplifiers.
Over the years broadcasters have attempted to tame ground
hum by two general methods:
1) Using differential input amplifiers. Unfortunately these
never seem available when Murphy's Law provides a ground
hum problem. Existing amplifiers can sometimes be modified
for differential input hum cancellation with only minor complication. NBC's first use of such an amplifier was in the
late 1930's when a coax was installed from Radio City to the
Empire State Building transmitter. Hum and bobble submerged the video until a differential input system was developed to cancel out the spurious signal.
2) Using video transformers to break the flow of ground
current from a distant source. This is very effective in eliminating interference, assuming that the coax sheath is not
allowed to contact ground except at the feeding end. The
problem has been that video transformers seriously degraded
the picture quality. Also, early video transformers were cumbersome and entailed appreciable video-level loss. At such
locations as Cape Kennedy, where long coax connections are
needed from cameras in different directions, the broadcasters
of necessity employed transformers which on color transmissions caused shifts of hue and loss of detail. Even when
followed by stabilizing amplifiers those transformers were
simply terrible, but without them the pictures were completely unusable because of ground potentials. Today,
vastly improved video transformers are available. One such,
manufactured in Japan, is good to 10 MHz. It does create
a minor low-frequency tilt, and consequently should be followed by a clamp amplifier.
NBC has now developed a third relatively simple solution to
the ground potential problem. It does not entail a differential
input nor does it use a video transformer in the ordinary manner. It is a so-called hum-bucker coil. An article by Yu N.
Yablin in the English Edition of Telecommunication and
Radio Engineering (April 1967), pointed out the advantages of
an "antinoise transformer." Thereafter, NBC constructed a
crude model which gave 7-dB hum suppression. This involved
no picture signal degradation whatever, encouraging further
development. More than 100 greatly improved units have now
been constructed and used. These have been highly satisfactory
as attested by the fact that after large remote field operations,
involving other broadcasters and the telephone company, several units have mysteriously disappeared.
The introduction of hum into a video circuit may be explained
by referring to Fig. 1. Here we have a 60-Hz potential between
the "distant" and the "local" grounds-dg and 19. This might
be caused by any of several factors such as three-phase power
unbalances. For simplicity, the diagram shows an AC generator
G connected to create a small AC ground potential difference.
This produces relatively heavy current flow through the coax
sheath. There can be no voltage from either sheath end to its
ground connection but the center conducter has hum voltage
applied at the distant end which cannot be grounded out without shorting the video.
Now suppose that we have a transformer whose secondary
can be connected in series with the 75-ohm video circuit without degrading video response. Further, suppose that this transformer secondary has 100% coupling to its primary and that
the primary is connected in series with the cable shield (as
shown in Fig. 2) . Current then flows from generator G through
Fig. 3-Hum-bucker winding and box.
the sheath, the primary, and the ground return. When the
phase produces positive voltage at the local ground-connection
side of the primary (negative at the sheath connection), a
similar phase appears across the secondary. For this phase condition, voltage on the coax center conductor was negative, so
addition of the secondary voltage tends to buck out the hum
voltage. Cancellation becomes significant only if the inductance
of the windings is quite appreciable. According to our measurements, a winding inductance of 8 mH gave hum suppression of 7 dB; an inductance of 30 mH gave 22 dB. For 250
mH, suppression was difficult to measure but was above 30
dB. It may seem that the conditions described would be difficult to attain without ruining video quality, but this is not the
case. Actually, the hum bucker is easily constructed, inexpensive, rugged, small in size, has negligible insertion loss, and
has no effect on picture quality.
NBC's present units arc made by winding a short length of
small-size teflon-insulated 75-ohm coax on an extremely highpermeability torroid core. The wound coil is mounted in a box
with coax connectors insulated from each other. The center
conductor serves as the secondary and the sheath as the primary (Fig. 2). It should be noted that primary and secondary
are essentially 100% coupled. Each winding has the same inductance value and, if either is short circuited, the other drops
to near zero.
The toroid core which is used has a mu of about 60,000. Including a protective casing, it measures 2~~n inches OD, has a
1:;R-inch hole, and is 1YR inches thiclz. A 14~~-ft length of RG
187/U coax is cut and wound on tightly by hand, as evenly as
possible. This results in about 39 turns which measures approximately 250mH with high Q on a 200-Hz bridge. A large toroidal
core was tried with longer coax to achieve the same inductance
and had the advantage of withstanding greater hum voltage without saturation. However, it required a larger assembly and
was more expensive. To date, we know of no instance where
saturation due to excessive hum voltage has been a factor. If
Murphy's Law brings about such a condition, two of the present small units in series should help.
Because of the nature of these extremely high-mu cores, it is
important to avoid dropping them prior to winding. After
winding, the coax serves as a partial mechanical-shock isolator.
Additional protection is provided by mounting in foam rubber
in a metal box. We use a 2x4x4-inch box with a formica board
mounted against one of the 2-inch sides. Before applying the
formica on which the connectors are mounted, the box should
have large clearance holes punched to preserve insulation between connectors and ground. Fig. 3 pictures the torroid coil
held above its foam rubber nesting place in the box.
In operation, the incoming cable sheath must not contact the
local ground, as that would short-circuit the primary and stop
all hum cancellation. When a cable includes a number of sections with connectors, each connector must be taped and definitely insulated from building grounds. Otherwise the desired
action may be shorted or, from Murphy's Law, a different
hum phase introduced. Where preferable, the hum bucker can
be connected in the coax line at the transmitting end or at
some in-between point.
The somewhat obvious, but relatively unused, techniq~e for
generating cold gas by bubbling room-temperature N, directly
into liquid nitrogen offers twice the cooling time of the conventional "immersed heater" or "continuous gas flow-through"
systems. An apparatus for implementing the technique is illustrated in this note.
Because of several temperature dependent factors,' including
thermionic emission, photosensitivity, and spectral response;
many photomultipliers sensitive in the near infra-red give bestoverall performance at some temperature between 0 and
- 50°C. Cold gas, about -195°C at the gener~ting poin~ t.o
allow for losses, is a suitable refrigerant for thiS range;. It .IS
commonly generated by a heater immersed in a dewar of ~lq~ld
nitrogen (LNJ, or by flowing dry N, gas through a cOlI Immersed in LN.
A method of cold gas generation which extracts greater cooling
power from the LN is to bubble N, gas directly into LN. The
thermodynamic calculations, summarized in Table I, suggest
that the volume of cold gas obtained using this technique is
about twice that of the other methods for a given mass of LN.
Thus, the nuisances of too frequent LN replenishment, and
condensables blocking the cooling coil in the continuous flowthrough system are overcome.
The arrangement shown in the diagram has proven very convenient in laboratory use. Photomultiplier temperature is easily
adjusted by controlling the input. gas flow ~ate. We o~tain
about 7 hours of continuous operation at -25 C from a smgle
2-liter charge of LN: cold gas flow is through 0.75m of styrofoam insulated tubing to a large "end on" type photomultiplier
(RCA C31000F) housed in 1.5-cm-thick styrofoam with a
3-mm-thick glass window. As with any photomultiplier cooling
technique, care should be taken to insure uniform, gradual,
refrigeration of the entire tube.
Table I-LN efficiencies of cold-gas generating systems.
Generated volume of Relative operating
N2 gas at -195° C
time or volume
Immersed heater
Continuous flow-through
Bubbling gas
(m/ p) (Hvar/220 CrJ
(m/ p) (1 + Hvap/220 CrJ
= mass of liquid nitrogen
= density of N, gas at -195°C
Hvap = heat of vaporization of LN = 47.6 caI/gOC
= specific heat of N, gas = 0.25 cal/g
220 = room temperature - LN temperature (OC)
1. Young, A.T., "Temperature effects in photomultipliers and astronomical photometry," Applied Optics, Vol. 2, No.1, p. 51 (Jan. 1963).
2. Krall, H., private communication.
Fig. 1-Typical apparatus for utilizing "bubbling gas" technique for
generating cold N, gas.
Generating cold gas for photomultiplier cooling
Jerry Gerber
Materials Research Laboratory
RCA Laboratories
Princeton, New Jersey
Reprint RE-15-6-22! Final manuscript received February 18. 1970.
CW POWER MODULE for Phased Arrays,
S-Band-E. F. Belohoubek, A. Presser, D.
M. Stevenson, A. Rosen, R. Zieger (EC,
Prj IEEE Solid-State Circuits Conference,
Phila., Pa.; 2/18/70; ISCC Digests; 2/70
BROAD-BAND RECEIVER, A 10.61' Optical Homodyne-M. J. Markulec (EC, Prj
4th Classified DOD Conference on Laser
Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/6-8/70
OSCILLATORS, A Coupled TEM Bar Circut for Solid-State Microwave-J. F. Reynolds, H. C. Huang, B. E. Berson, A.
Rosen (EC, Prj IEEE Solid-State Circuits
Conference, Phil a., Pa.; 2/18/70; ISSCC
Digest; 2/70
and Podium
subject-author index
to Recent RCA
technical papers
Both published papers and verbal presentations are indexed. To obtain a pub-
lished paper, borrow the journal in which it appears from your library, or write
or call the author for a reprint. For information on unpublished verbal presentations, write or call the author. (The author's RCA Division appears parenthetically after his name in the subject-index entry.) For additional assistance
Aurick (EC, Lanc) Ham Tips; 1/70
Technical Publcations Administrators and Editorial Representatives-who
should be contacted concerning errors or omissons (see inside back cover).
Subject index categories are based upon the Thesaurus 01 Engineering
AMPLIFIER (OTA) IC Array In Communications Systems, Application of a LowPower-H. A. Wittlinger (EC, Som) EE
Seminar in IC's for Communications,
Phil a., Pa.; 2/17/70; EE Seminar Publication; 2/70
in locating RCA technical literature, contact: RCA Stall Technical Publications, Bldg. 2-8, RCA, Camden, N.J. (Ext. PC-4018).
This index is prepared from listings provided bimonlhly by RCA Division
Terms, Engineers Joint Council, N.Y., 1st Ed., May 1964.
Subject Index
Titles of papers are permuted where
necessary to bring significant keyword(s)
to the left for easier scanning. Authors'
division appears parenthetically after his
Circuit-Stabilized Epitaxial GaAs Transferred-Electron Devices-B. S. Perlman
(EC, Prj IEEE Solid-State Circuits Con·
ference, Phil a., Pa.; 2/18/70; ISSCC Digests; 2/70
AMPLIFIER (OTA) IC Array in CommunIcations Systems, Application of a LowPower-H. A. Wittlinger (EC, Som) EE
Seminar on IC's for Communications,
Phila., Pa.; 2/17/70; EE Seminar Publication; 2/70
Extended Dipole Above an Extended
Ground Screen-Dr. W. T. Patton (MSR,
Mrstn) Conference on Environmental Effects on Antenna Performance; Proceed·
ings, Vol. II, Boulder, Colorado; 7/18/69
ISIS-A SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE, Antennasystem Design of th~. Zuran (LTD,
Montreal) Proc. IEEE, Vol. 116, No.6;
EqUivalent Circuit Formulation for an
Array of-W. Schaedla (MSR, Mrstn)
IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation; 1/70
Technology and Performance in-Po D.
Gardner, R. W. Ahrons (EC, Som) IEEE
Journal on Solid-State Circuits; 2/70
DIFFUSION SOURCES for Silicon, Doped
Oxld~. A. Amick, A. W. Fisher (Labs.,
Prj NEPCON, Anaheim, California; 2/1012/70
SlIIcon-on-Sapphire-J. E. Meyer, J. R.
Burns, J. H. Scott (Labs., Prj IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference,
Phil a., Pa.; 2/18-20/70
Diodes as-J. Assour, R. D'Aielio (Labs.,
Prj IEEE International Solid-State Circuits
Conference, Phila., Pa.; 2/18/70
Hi-Hf Mixtures, Low-Temperatur~. P.
Dismukes, E. R. Levin (Labs., Prj
A.U.Ch.E. Meeting, Processing of Microelectronic Materials, Atlanta, Georgia;
VOICE COMMUNICATIONS Systems, Secure-D. G. Herzog, E. G. Seybert (ATL,
Cam) 4th Classified Conference on Laser
Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/6-7/70
GATE-PROTECTED FET in Amateur Receivers, Using the New RCA-G. D. Hanchett (EC, Som) New Providence Amateur
Radio Club, Inc., Summit, N.J.; 2/9/70
and American Electronic Laboratories
Radio Club, Lansdale, Pa.; 2/10/70
Method for-A. J. Korenjak (Labs., Prj
Communications of the ACM, Vol. 12, No.
11; 11/69
Technology-M. Caul ton (Labs., Prj IEEE
International Solid-State Circuit Conference, Phila., Pa.; 2/18-20/70
System, RUDI-B. Mangolds (AED, Prj
Mid-Atlantic Chapter IES, King of Prussia,
Pa.; 3/30/70
The Technology and Design ol-H. Sobol
(EC, Som) Solid-State Technology; 2/70
(MSR, Mrstn) 1970 NEPCON, Anaheim,
Calif.; Technical Session on "Packaging
High Speed Computers"; 2/12/70
Session-W. J. Gray (ASD, Burl) Moderator, IEEE Reliability Symposium, Los
Angeles, Calif.; 1/27-29/70
PROCESS CONTROL in Microelectronics
and its Relation to MIL-STD-883-R. G.
Rauth (EC, Som) IEEE Philadelphia Section Meeting; 2/27/70
Silicon-on-Sapphire-J. E. Meyer, J. R.
Burns, J. H. Scott (Labs., Prj IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference,
'Philadelphia, Pa.; 2/18-20/70
(MSR, Mrstn) 1970 NEPCON, Anaheim,
Calif.; Technical Session on "Packaging
High Speed Computers"; 2/12/70
Read-noise Considerations in-So A. Keneman, L. S. Cosentino (Labs., Prj IEEE
Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. MAG-5, No.3;
OPTICAL MEMORIES, The Promise ofJ. A. Rajchman (Labs., Prj Colloquium of
the ACM, Pikes Peak Chapter, Colorado
Springs, Colorado; 1/13/70
for Very High Repetition Rate Pulses, A
Method of-A. L. Waksberg, J. I. Wood
(LTD, Montreal) The Review of Scientific
Instruments, Vol. 40, No. 11; 11/69
Rate Requirements for Relay Links inG. S. Kaplan, L. Schiff (Labs., Prj IEEE
Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol.
VT-18, No.2; 8/69
CARRIER RECOVERY CIRCUITS Employed in Communication Systems Subject to Multipath Fading, Design Criteria
for-J. C. Blair (AED, Prj International
Conference on Digital Satellite Communication, London, England; 11/26/69
COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS: Fundamentals of Planning and Design-F. P.
Congdon (ASD, Burl) Chairman, AMA
Seminar, AMA Chicago Ce'nter; 1/1923/70
Graphic-I. Finn (GSD, Dayton) term paper for Computer Graphics and Image
Processing course, New York University;
Characteristics and-A. L. Linton (GSD,
Dayton) 1970 IEEE International Convention, New York; 3/26/70 and Convention
and Control Systems-M. Buckley (MSR,
Mrstn) Presentation for Phila. Chapter of
the Society of Logistics Engineers;
Control for-W. Lindorfer (AED, Prj 3rd
IFAC Symposium "Automatic Control in
Space," Toulouse, France; 3/2-6/70
Rate Requirements for Relay Links inG. S. Kaplan, L. Schiff (Labs., Prj IEEE
Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. VT18, No.2; 8/69
ELECTROFAX COATINGS, Photosensltiv- "ity and Quantum Efficiency of-R. B.
Comizzoli, D. A. Ross (Labs., Prj Photographic Science and Engineering, Vol.
13, No.5; 9-10/69
B. Gennery (MTP, Cocoa Beach) Seventh
Space Congress, Cape Canaveral, Florida; 4/22-25/70
field IFF-D. G. Herzog, G. J. Ammon
(ATL, Cam) 4th Classified Conference on
Laser Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/67/70
LIQUID CRYSTALS: Structure and Properties of Mesomorphic Compounds-J. A.
Castellano (Labs., Prj Trenton Section of
American Chemical SOCiety, Trenton,,"*,
N.J.; 2/10/70
LIQUID CRYSTAL Matrix Displays-B. J.
Lechner (Labs., Prj SID, Delaware Valley
Chapter Meeting, Cherry Hill, N.J.;
Model and Stability Considerations, Conduction-Induced Alignment of-W. Helfrich (Labs., Prj Journal of Chemical"
Physics, Vol. 51, No.9; 11/1/69
COST CONTROL, Drafting-J. Valtos
(EASD, Van Nuys) University of California, Engineering Graphics Management
Seminar, Los Angeles, Calif.; 1/29/70
2001 A.D.-J. Valtos (EASD, Van Nuys)
ASEE Engineering Graphics Seminar at
California State Polytechnic College, San
Luis Obispo, Caif.; 1/24/70
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES in an Anlstropic Plasma, Effect of Electrostatic~
Field on Propagation of-M. P. Bachyn-....
ski, B. W. Gibbs (LTD, Montreal) The
Physics of Fluids, Vol. 12, No. 11; 11/69
Extended Dipole Above an Extended
Ground Screen, Radiation from an-Dr.
W. T. Patton (MSR, Mrstn) Conference on
Environmental Effects on Antenna Performance Proceedings," Vol. II, Boulder, •
Colorado; 7 /18/69
GAMMA RAYS, X-Rays, and Optical
Maser Radiation-P.V. Goedertier (Labs.,
Prj St. Peters General Hospital School of
Nursing, New Brunswick, N.J.; 2/3 &
PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS Against Electrostatic Probes, Assessment of Focused
Microwave System for-C. Richard, A. I.~
Carswell (LTD, Montreal) J. 01 Applied ""
Physics, Vol. 40, No.1 0; 9/69
Systems, RUDI-B. Mangolds (AED, Prj
Mid-Atlantic Chapter IES, King of Prussia,
Pa.; 3/30/70
DIGITAL FILTER COEFFICIENTS, Sensitivly Factors for-M. S. Corrington (ATl,
Cam) IEEE Seminar on Digital Filtering,
The State of the Art, Newark College of
Engineering, Newark, N.J.; 1/21/70
ARGON LASER, 100-Wall CW-J. R.
Fendley, Jr. (EC, lanc) 4th Classified
DOD Conference on laser Technology,
San Diego, Calif.; 1/6-8/70
DIGITAL FILTER MULTIPLIERS on PoleZero Locations, The Effect of Changes in
-M. S. Corrington (ATL, Cam) Arden
... House IEEE Workshop on Digital Filtering, Harriman, N.Y.; 1/11-14/70
Multi-Discipline Applications for-C. R.
Smith, P. Wood (AED, Prj AIAA Symposium on Earth Resources, Anapolis, Md.;
ELECTRO FAX COATINGS, Photosensitivity and Quantum Efficiency of-R. B.
Comizzoli, D. A. Ross (Labs., Prj Photographic Science and Engineering, Vol.
13, No.5; 9-10/69
. • 2001 A.D.-J. Valtos (EASD, Van Nuys)
ASEE Engineering Graphics Seminar at
California State Polytechnic College, San
Luis Obispo, Calif.; 1/24/70
Graphic-I. Finn (GSD, Dayton) term paper for Computer Graphics and Image
Processing Course, New York University;
HOME TV PLAYBACK, Holographic Motion Pictures for-M. Lurie (labs., Prj
Newark College of Engineering, Newark,
N.J.; 2/24/70
Holography and-A. H. Firester (Labs.,
Prj The Ohio State University Department
of Electrical Engineering, Columbus,
Ohio; 1/22/70
LASERS and Holograms-R. C. Alig
(labs., Prj Hofstra Physics Society, Hofstra University, Hempstead, Long Island,
N.Y.; 1/12/70
MEDIUM for the Message-A. Mezrich
(Labs., Prj Industrial Research, Vol. 11,
No. 11; 11/69
MOVIES FOR TV, Holographic-W. J.
Hannan (labs., Prj Joint Meeting of Boston Chapter OSA, SPSE, SMPTE, SPIE,
Cambridge, Massachusetts; 1/14/70
Part II, Holography and-A. H. Firester
(labs., Prj J. of Applied Physics, Vol.
40, No. 12; 11/69
Part I-A. H. Firester (labs., Prj J. of
Applied Physics, Vol. 40, No. 12; 11/69
MAGNET for Laboratory Use, A Modular,
Three-section, lS0-Kilogauss-H. C.
Schindler (EC, Hr) Cryogenics; 1/70
for very High Repetition Rate Pulses, A
Method of-A. L. Waksberg, J. I. Wood
(lTD, Montreal) The Review of Scientific
Instruments, Vol. 40, No. 11; 11/69
PHONON SPECTROMETRY and Interferometry-C. H. Anderson (labs., Prj
Physics Colloquium, Princeton University,
Princeton, N.J.; 1/8/70
of Deep Centers in Silicon by-H. Schade,
D. Herrick (labs., Prj Solid State Electronics, Vol. 12; 1969
THIN-FILM LUMPED ELEMENTS at MIcrowave Frequencies, Novel Technique
for Measuring the Q Factor of-J. J.
Hughes, L. S. Napoli, W. F. Reichert
(labs., Prj Electronics Letters, Vol. 15,
No. 21; 10/16/69
BROAD-BAND RECEIVER, A 10.61' Optical Homodyne-M. J. Markulec (EC, Prj
4th Classified DOD Conference on laser
Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/6·8/70
MANAGING and Controlling a ProjectI. Brown (AED, Prj Philadelphia Section
of IEEE, Valley Forge, Pa.; 12/2/69
Contracting-W. J. O'leary (MSR, Mrstn)
IEEE Group on Reliability, Phil a., Pa.;
Junction Lasers with 0 S X S 0.34-H.
Kressel, H. lockwood, H. Nelson (labs.,
Prj 4th Classified Conference on laser
Technology, San Diego, California; 1/18/70
Hi-Hf Mixtures, Low-Temperature-J. P.
Dismukes, E. A. levin (labs., Prj
A.U.Ch.E. Meeting, Processing of Microelectronic Materials, Atlanta, Georgia;
GALLIUM ARSENIDE Laser Array, 30Wall-P. Nyul (EC, Sam) 4th Classified
DOD Conference on laser Technology,
San Diego, Calif.; 1/6-8/70
(MSR, Mrstn) 1970 NEPCON, Anaheim,
Calif.; Technical Session on "Packaging
High Speed Computers"; 2/12/70
HOLGRAMS and Lasers-R. C. Alig
(labs., Prj Hofstra Physics Society, Hofstra University, Hempstead, long Island,
New York; 1/12/70
INJECTION lASERS-A Progress Report
-A. Glicksman (EC, Sam) H. Kressel
(labs., Prj 4th Classified DOD Conference
on laser Technology, San Diego, Calif.;
Compounds-H. Kressel (labs., Prj Seminar at North Carolina University; 1/29/70
IR ILLUMINATORS Utilizing Close Confinement GaAIAs Injection Lasers, Design
Considerations for-D. G. Herzog (ATl,
Cam) 4th Classified Conference on laser
Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/6-7/70
Efficient-D. G. Herzog, G. J. Ammon
(ATl, Cam) 4th Classified Conference on
laser Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/67/70
LASER/LIQUID CRYSTAL Optical Battlefield IFF-D. G. Herzog, G. J. Ammon
(ATl, Cam) 4th Classified Conference on
laser Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/67/70
Pulses, A Method of-A. L. Waksberg, J.
I. Wood (lTD, Montreal) The Review of
Scientific Instruments, Vol. 40, No. 11;
SURVEILLANCE Laser Techniques, 3-0D. G. Herzog (ATl, Cam) 4th Classified
Conference on laser Technology, San
Diego, Calif.; 1/6-7/70
TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC FIELD, for HeCd Laser, Effects of-K. G. Hernqvist
(labs., Prj J. of Applied PhysiCS, Vol. 40,
No. 13; 12/69
VOICE COMMUNICATIONS System, Secure-D. G. Herzog, E. G. Seybert (ATl,
Cam) 4th Classified Conference on laser
Technology, San Diego, Calif.; 1/6-7/70
PROCESS CONTROL in Microelectronics
and lis Relation to Mll-STD-883-R. G.
Rauth (EC, Som) IEEE Philadelphia
Section Meeting; 2/27/70
SPUTTERING, Current Practices in-J. L.
Vossen (labs., Prj American Vacuum Societ\", Delaware Valley Section; 1/15/70
Linear Models-V. Chew (MTP, Cocoa
Beach) Florida Chapter, American Statistical AssOCiation, Tallahassee, Florida;
OPTICAL PARAMETRIC IMAGE CONVERSION, The Thin-Lens Equation forA. H. Firester (labs., Prj J. of Opto·
Electronics, Vol. 19; 1969
TRANSPORT EQUATIONS for Anharmonic Lattices, Derivation of-R. Klein,
R. K. Wehner (labs., Prj Physik der
kondensierten Materie, Vol. 10; 1969
Technique for Obtaining Probabilities of
Correct Selection in a-Dr. P. N. Somerville (MTP, Cocoa Beach) Florida Chapter, American Statistical ASSOCiation,
Tallahassee, Florida; 3/5-6/70
Probabilities Associated with Correct
Selection in a-L. R. Minton (MTP,
Cocoa Beach) American Statistical Association, Florida Chapter, Tallahassee,
Florida; 3/5-6/70
Circuit~Stabilized Epitaxial GaAs Transferred-Electron Devices-B. S. Perlman
(EC, Prj IEEE Solid-State Circuits Conference, Phil a., Pa.; 2/18/70; ISSCC Digests; 2/70
E. Enstrom, A. R. Gobat (EC, Prj Elec·
tronics Letters; 1/70
and Control Systems-M. Byckley (MSR,
Mrstn) Presentation for Phila. Chapter
of the Society of logistics Engineers;
-G. A. Swartz, B. B. Robinson (labs.,
Prj J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 40, No.
11; 10/69
MASER-PACKAGING Approach, NewD. J. Miller, G. J. Weidner (ATl, Cam)
Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 58, No.1;
COMMUNICATION LIMITATIONS Deterrent to full-fledged Membership on Top
Management Team-H. D. Greiner
(DCSD, Cam) Quality Assurance, Vol. 9,
No.1; 2/70
COST CONTROL, Drafting-J. Valtos
(EASD, Van Nuys) University of California, Engineering Graphics Management
Seminar, los Angeles, Calif.; 1/29/70
DEPICT-A Management Information
System-So J. Brannan (AED, Prj Systems Engineering Methodolofy Class,
University of Pennsylvania; 12/11/69
Plasma-K. Suzuki (labs., Prj IEEE
Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-16,
No. 12; 12/69
ELECTROFAX COATINGS, Photosensitivity and Quantum Efficiency of-A. B.
Comizzoli, D. A. Ross (labs., Prj Photographic Science and Engineering, Vol.
13, No.5; 9-10/69
OPTICAL PARAMETRIC IMAGE CONVERSION, The Thin-Lens Equation forA. H. Firester (labs., Prj J. of Oplo-Electronics, Vol. 19; 1969
Part I-A. H. Firester (labs., Prj J. of
Applied Physics, Vol. 40, No. 12; 11/69
Part II, Holography and-A. H. Firester
(labs., Prj J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 40,
No. 12; 11/69
-G. A. Swartz, B. B. Robinson (labs.,
Prj J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 40, No. 11;
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES In an Anlstropic Plasma, Effect of Electrostatic
Field on Propagation of-M. P. Bachynski, B. W. Gibbs (lTD, Montreal) The
PhysiCS of Fluids, Vol. 12, No. 11; 11/69
PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS against Electrostatic Probes, Assessment of Focused
Microwave System for-C. Richard, A. I.
Carswell (lTD, Montreal) J. of Applied
Physics, Vol. 40, No.1 0; 9/69
Field Dependence of Recombination Radiation from-Po D. Southgate (Labs., Prj
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 15, No.3;
FA CENTER, Energy Levels of the-A. C.
Alig (labs., Prj American Physical Society Meeting, Chicago, Illinois; 1/26-29/70
CHARGE STORAGE in the MNOS Structure, Effects of Silicon Nitride Growth
Temperature on-E. C. Ross, M. T. Duffy,
A. M. Goodman (labS., Prj Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 15, No. 12; 12/15/69
LIQUID CRYSTALS: Structure and Properties of Mesomorphic Compounds-J. A.
Castellano (labs., Prj Trenton Section of
American Chemical Society, Trenton,
N.J.; 2/10/70
LIQUID CRYSTAL Matrix Displays-B. J.
Lechner (labs., Prj SID, Delaware Valley
Chapter Meeting, Cherry Hill, N.J.;
Model and Stability Considerations, Conduction-Induced Alignment of-W. Helfrich (labs., Prj Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 51, No.9; 11/1/69
VAPOR-DEPOSITED SINGLE-CRYSTALLINE GaN, The Preparation and Properties of-H. P. Maruska, J. J. Tietjen
(labs., Prj Applied Physics Letters, Vol.
15, No. 10; 11/15/69
Polycrystalline Films of Pbo.93Sno.o7SeR. Dalven (EC, Prj American Physical
Society Meeting, Chicago, III.; 1/26-27/70
THIN-FILM LUMPED ELEMENTS at MIcrowave Frequencies, Novel Techniques
for Measuring the Q Factor of-J. J.
Hughes, l. S. Napoli, W. F. Reichert
(labs., Prj Eletclronics Letlers, Vol. 15,
No. 21; 10/16/69
SPACECRAFT STRUCTURES,. Mechanical Design of-R. Molloy (AED, Prj AIAA
Student Chapter, Brooklyn Polytechnic
College, Brooklyn, N.J.; 11/18/69
Properties of-D. J. Dumin (labs., Prj J.
of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 117,
No.1; 1/70
Helium Below 0.6K-R. K. Wehner, R.
Klein (Labs., Prj 7th Annual Solid State
Physics Conference, Manchester, England; 1/6-8/70
the Far Infrared-W. Hayes, D. R. Bosomworth (Labs., Prj Physical Review Letters,
Vol. 21, No. 15, 12/15/69
ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODE Efficiencies, Highly Refractive Glasses to Improve-A. G. Fischer, C. J. Nuese (Labs.,
Prj J. of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.
116, No. 12; 12/69
EXCITONIC EFFECTS in the Electroreflectance of Lead Iodine-C. Gahwiller,
G. Harbeke (Labs., Prj The Physical Review, Vol. 185, No.3; 9/15/69
LUMINESCENCE from Evaporated Films
of CdS-J. Conradi (LTD, Montreal) Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 47, No.
23; 12/1/69
DIFFUSION SOURCES for Silicon, Doped
Oxide-J. A. Amick, A. W. Fisher (Labs., PHOTOCHROMISM and Color Centers in
Prj NEPCON, Anaheim, California; 2/10- CaF2-D. L. Staebler (Labs., Prj Solid
State Seminar, Physics Department,
Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.;
(Labs., Prj NEPCON, Anaheim, California; 2/10-12/70
Polycrystalline Films of Pbo.93Sno.o7SeSPUTTERING, Current Practices in-J. R. Dalven (EC, Prj American Physical SoL. Vossen (Labs., Prj Vacuum Industries ciety Meeting, Chicago, III.; 1/26-27/70
Sputtering Seminar, Boston, Mass.;
Optical Studies on-So B. Berger (Labs.,
CHARGE STORAGE in the MNOS Structure, Effects of Silicon Nitride Growth
Temperature on-E. C. Ross, M. T. Dully,
A.M. Goodman (Labs., Prj Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 15, No. 12; 12/15/69
n-lnSb at Low Temperature-J. R. Sandercock (Labs., Prj 7th Annual Solid State
Physics Conf., Manchester, England; 1/68/70
FERRITES-A Function, Fundamentals,
and Proparation Parameters, Properties
01-1. Gordon (Labs., Prj Graduate Seminar of the Department of Ceramics, College of Engineering, Rutgers University,
New Brunswick, N.J.; 2/7/70
and CdCr2S4, Raman Effect in the-E. F.
Steigmeier, G. Harbeke (Labs., Prj 7th
Annual Solid State Physics Conference,
Manchester, England; 1/6-8/70
Junction 01 CdCr,Se 4-M. Toda (Labs.,
Prj Meeting of the Physical Society of
Japan; 2/10/70
Temperature-R. S. Crandall (Labs., Prj
Solid State Communications, Vol. 7; 1969
SILICON PROPAGATION through a Nonlinear Network-R. Hirota, K. Suzuki
(Labs., Prj Meeting of the Physical Society of Japan; 2/10/70
Junction 01 CdCr,Se 4-M. Toda (Labs.,
Prj Meeting of the Physical Society ot
Japan; 2/10/70
Prj American Physical Society Mtg., Chicago, Illinois; 1/26-29/70
FERRITES-A Function, Fundamentals,
and Preparation Parameters, Properties
of-I. Gordon (Labs., Prj Graduate Seminar of the Department of Ceramics, Col·
lege of Engineering, Rutgers University,
New Brunswick, N.J.; 2/7/70
INFRARED IMAGE UPCONVERSION, Holography and-A. H. Firester (Labs., Prj
The Ohio State University Department of
Electrical Engineering, Columbus, Ohio;
B. Gennery (MTP, Cocoa Beach) Seventh
Space Congress, Cape Canaveral, Florida; 4/22-25/70
SIZE EFFECTS and Enhanced Transition
Temperatures in Superconductors-A.
Rothwarf (Labs., Prj Physics Letters, Vol.
30A, No.1; 9/8/69
STORAGE TUBE, The Silicon DioxideR. Silver, E. Luedicke (Labs., Prj IEEE
International Solid-State Circuits Conference, Phila., Pa.; 2/18/70
Analysis-T. J. Cunningham, K. Greene
(AED, Prj Proceedings of 1968 Annual
Symposium on Reliability; 1/16/68
Session-W. J. Gray (ASD, Burl) Moderator, IEEE Reliability Symposium, Los
Angeles, Calif.; 1/27-29/70
Contracting-W. J. O'Leary (MSR, Mrstn)
IEEE Group on Reliability, Phila., Pa.;
Technique for Obtaining Probabilities 01
Correct Selection in a-Dr. P .N. Somerville (MTP, Cocoa Bjlach) Florida Chapter, American Statistical Association,
Tallahassee, Florida; 3/5-6/70
FERRITES, A Function, Fundamentals,
and Proparation Parameters, Properties
01-1. Gordon (Labs., Prj Graduate Seminar of the Department of Ceramics, College of Engineering, Rutgers University,
New Brunswick, N.J.; 2/7/70
Probabilities Associated with Correct Selection 01 a-L. R. Minton (MTP, Cocoa
Beach) American Statistical Association,
Florida Chapter, Tallahassee, Fla.; 3/56/70
SPINELS-P. J. Wojtowicz (Labs., Prj
IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. MAG-5,
No.3; 9/69
Author Index
Subject listed opposite each author's
name indicates where complete citation
to his paper may be lound in the subject
index. An author may have more than
one paper lor each subject category.
Congdon, F. P. computer systems
Gray, W. J. circuits, integrated
Gray, W. J. reliability
Bingley, F. J. television equipment
Blair, J. C. communications components
AlrGal_rAs Avalanche Diodes-C. Yeh. S.
G. Liu (Labs., Prj Applied Physics Letters,
Vol. 15, No. 12; 12/15/69
(AED, Prj IEEE Student Branch, Brooklyn
Polytechnic College, Brooklyn, N.Y.;
Field Dependence of Recombination Radiation from-Po D. Southgate (Labs.,
Prj Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 15, No.
3; 8/1/69
Read-Noise Considerations in-So A.
Keneman, L. S. Cosentino (Labs., Prj
IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. MAG-5, . .
No.3; 9/69
CW POWER MODULE for Phased Arrays,
S-Band-E. F. Belohoubek, A. Presser, D.
M. Stevenson, A. Rosen, R. Zieger (EC,
Prj IEEE Solid-State Circuits Conf., Phila.,
Pa.; 2/18/70; ISCC Digests; 2/70
Liquid-Encapsulated and Solution-Grown
Substrates for-I. Ladany, S. H. McFarlane (Labs., Prj J. of Applied Physics,
Vol. 40, No. 12; 11/69
ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODE Efficiencies, Highly Refractive Glasses to Improve-A. G. Fischer, C. J. Nuese (Labs.,
Prj J. of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.
116, No. 12; 12/69
EVAPORATED HETEROJUNCTION DEVICE, The Heterode Strain Sensor: AnR. M. Moore, C. J. Busanovich (Labs., Prj
IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol.
ED-16, No. 10; 10/69
DEVICES, Impurity Distribution in-J. Assour (Labs., Prj IEEE International SolidState Circuits Conference, Phila., Pa.;
HIGH-FREQUENCY JUNCTION TRANSISTOR, Large-Signal, Nonlinear Analysis of
a High-Power-R. L. Bailey (EC, Lanc)
IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices; 2/70
Plasma-K. Suzuki (Labs., Prj IEEE
Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-16,
No. 12; 12/69
SILICON AVALANCHE DIODES as Oscillators and Power Amplifiers in S-BandJ. Assour, R. D'Aielio (Labs., Prj IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Confer·
ence, Phil a., Pa.; 2/18/70
STORAGE TUBE, The Silicon DioxideR. Silver, E. Luedicke (Labs., Prj IEEE
International Solid-State Circuits Conference, Phila., Pa.; 2/18/70
SPACE TV CAMERAS and the Television
Broadcaster-Dr. H. N. Kozanowski (CES,
Cam) SMPTE, Atlanta, Georgia; 2/30/70
Multi-Discipline Applications lor-C. R.
Smith, P. Wood (AED, Prj AIAA Symposium on Earth Resources, Anapolis, Md.;
ISIS-A SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE, AntennaSystem Design 01 the-J. Zuran (LTD,
Montreal) Proc. IEEE, Vol. 116, No.6;
Control lor-W. Lindorfer (AED, Prj 3rd
IFAC Symposium "Automatic Control in
Space", Toulouse, France; 3/2-6/70
(AED, Prj AIAA Student Chapter, Rutgers
UniverSity, New Brunswick, N.J.;
Brannan, S. J. management
Brown, I. management
Buntschuh, R. F. spacecraft
Cunningham, T. J. reliability
D'Arcy, J. spacecraft instrumentation
Greene, K. reliability
Lang, F. television equipment
Lindorler, W. spacecraft
Mangolds, B. computer applications
MAGNET for Laboratory Use, A Modular,
Three-section, lS0-Kiiogauss-H. C.
Schindler (EC, Hr) Cryogenics; 1/70
SIZE EFFECTS in Quasiparticle Lile-times
and Phonon Generation in Superconductors-A. Rothwarf (Labs., Prj Physical
Review Letters, Vol. 23, No.9; 9/1/69
COLOR MOBILE UNIT for Every TV Station-C. M. Eining (NBC, Chicago)
SMPTE Winter Television Conference,
Atlanta, Georgia; 1/30-31/70
Home TV Playback-M. Lurie (Labs., Prj
Newark College of Engineering, Newark,
N.J.; 2/24/70
MOVIES FOR TV, Holographic-W. J.
Hannan (Labs., Prj Joint Meeting of Boston Chapter OSA, SPSE, SMPTE, SPIE,
Cambridge, Massachusetts; 1/14/70
NOISE in Television Broadcast Equipment, Study ol-K. Sadashige (CES,
Cam) Journal of SMPTE; 12/69
SPACE TV CAMERAS and the Television
Broadcaster-Dr. H. N. Kozanowski (CES,'"
Cam) SMPTE, Atlanta, Georgia; 2/30/70
(EC, Lanc) IEEE Section Meeting, Lancaster, Pa.; 1/13/70
(AED, Prj Student Branch of IEEE, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.;"
F. J. Bingley (AED, Prj Journal of the
SMPTE; 11/69
Equivalent Circuit Formulation lor an"
Array of-W. Schaedla (MSR, Mrstn)
IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation; 1/70
SPUTTERING, Current Practices in-J.
L. Vossen (Labs., Prj Vacuum Industries
Sputtering Seminar, Boston, Mass.;
SPUTTERING, Current Practices in-J.
L. Vossen (Labs., Prj American Vacuum
Society, Delaware Valley Section;
lor the '70's-R. A. Bartolini (Labs., Prj
University of Pennsylvania, Phila., Pa.;
Dr. A. S. Robinson-A. S. Robinson
(MSR, Mrstn) Microwaves; 1/70
Nessmith (MSR, Mrstn) PGEM (IEEE),
RCA Moorestown; 2/3/70
Mangolds, B. environmental engineering
Mesner, M. television equipment
Molloy, R. mechanical devices
Smith, C. R. geophysiCS
Smith, C. R. spacecraft
Soltoll, B. M. television equipment
Wood, P. geophysiCS
Wood, P. spacecraft
Ammon, G. J. displays
Ammon, G. J. lasers
Corrington, M. S. filters, electric
Herzog, D. G. lasers
Herzog, D. G. displays
Herzog, D. G. communication, voice
Miller, D. J. masers
Seybert, E. G. communication, voice
.Seybert, E. G. lasers
Weidner, G. J. masers
Kozanowski, Dr. H. N. space
Kozanowski, Dr. H. N. television
Sadashige, K. television broadcasting
Greiner, H. D. management
... Valtos, J. documentation
Vallos, J. management
Valloa, J. graphic arts
Ahrons, R. W. circuits, integrated
Aurick, L. W. communications systems
Bailey, R. L. solid-state devices
' Belohoubek, E. F. communications
Belohoubek, E. F. solid-state devices
Berson, B. E. communications
Dalven, R. properties, surface
Dalven, R. properties, optical
Enstrom, R. E. masers
Fendley, J. R. lasers
Gardner, P. D. circuits, integrated
. . Gobat, A. R. masers
~'Glicksman, R. lasers
Hanchett, G. D. circuits, integrated
Huang, H. C. communications
Markulec, M. J. communications
Markulec, M. J. lasers
Narayan, S. Y. masers
Nyul, P. lasers
. . Perlman, B. S. amplification
... Perlman, B. S. masers
Presser, A. communications components
Presser, A. solid-state devices
Rauth, R. G. circuits, integrated
Rauth, R. G. manufacturing
Reynolds, J. F. communications
Rodgers, R. L. television equipment
Rosen, A. communications components
Rosen, A. solid-state devices
Schindler, H. C. laboratory techniques
Schindler, H. C. superconductivity
Sobol, H. circuits, integrated
Stevenson, D. M. communications
Stevenson, D. M. solid-state devices
Wiltlinger, H. A. amplification
Willlinger, H. A. communications systems
Zieger, R. communications components
Zieger, R. solid-state devices
Finn, I. computer systems
Finn, I. graphic arts
Linton, A. L. computer systems
Alig, R. C. holography
Alig, R. C. lasers
Alig, R. C. properties, atomic
Amick, J. A. circuits, integrated
Amick, J. A. properties, chemical
Anderson, C. H. laboratory techniques
Assour, J. solid-state devices
Assour, J. communications components
Bartolini, R. A. general technology
Berger, S. B. properties, optical
Bosomworth, D. R. properties, chemical
Burns, J. R. circuits, integrated
Burns, J. R. computer components
Busanovich, C. J. solid-state devices
Castellano, J. A. displays
Castellano, J. A. properties, molecular
Caulton, M. circuits, integrated
Comizzoli, R. B. displays
Comizzoli, R. B. graphic arts
Comizzoli, R. B. optics
Cosentino, L. S. computer storage
Cosentino, L. S. superconductivity
Crandall, R. S. properties, electrical
D'Aiello, R. communications components
D'Aiello, R. solid-state devices
Dismukes, J. P. circuits, integrated
Dismukes, J. P. manufacturing
Duffy, M. T. properties, molecular
Duffy, M. T. properties, electrical
Dumin, D. J. properties, surface
Firester, A. H. holography
Firester, A. H. radiation detection
Firester, A. H. mathematics
Firester, A. H. optics
Fischer, A. G. properties, optical
Fischer, A. G. solid-state devices
Fisher, A. W. circuits, integrated
Fisher, A. W. properties, chemical
Gahwiller, C. properties, optical
Goedertier, P. V. electromagnetic waves
Goodman, A. M. properties, molecular
Goodman, A. M. properties, electrical
Gordon, I. properties, electrical
Gordon, I. properties, mechanical
Gordon, I. properties, thermal
Hannan, W. J. holography
Transistor fabrication methods-H. W.
Becke, E. F. Cave, D. S:olnitz (EC, Som)
U.S, Pat. 3,488,835; January 13, 1970.
~ Granted
to RCA Engineers
As reported by RCA Domestic Patents,
Video output stage employing stacked
high voltage and low voltage transistors
-A. M. Austin (EC, Som) U.S. Pat. 3,499,104; March 3, 1970.
Cryoelectric memories employing loop
cells-R. A. Gange (EC, Prj U. S, Pat.
3,491,345; January 20, 1970.
Switchable circulator R. F•...-ampUfication
fault circuit for a microwave receiverF. Sterzer (EC, Prj U.S. Pat. 3,491,357;
January 20, 1970.
Unbalanced memory cell-R. W. Ahrons,
S. Katz (EC, Som) U.S. Pat. 3,493,786;
February 3, 1970.
Color killer circuits controlled by the
local oscillator-W. M. Austin (EC, Sam)
U.S. Pat. 3,495,030; February 10, 1970
Synchronous symmetrical A. C. switchG. F. Albrecht (EC, Mntp) U.S. Pat. 3,495,098; February 10, 1970.
Thermoelectric generator comprising
thermoelements of indium-gallium arsenides or silicon-germanium alloys and a
hot strap of silicon containing silicidesA. G. F. Dingwall, R. K. Pearce (EC, Hr)
U. S. Pat. 3,496,027; February 17,1970.
Hannan, W. J. television broadcasting
Harbeke, G. properties, electrical
Harbeke, G. properties, optical
Hayes, W. properties, chemical
Helfrich, W. displays
Helfrich, W. properties, molecular
Hernqvist, K. G. lasers
Herrick, D. laboratory techniques
Hirota, R. properties, electrical
Hughes, J. J. laboratory techniques
Hughes, J. J. properties, surface
Kaplan, G. S. communication, digital
Kaplan, G. S. control systems
Keneman, S. A. computer storage
Keneman, S. A. superconductivity
Klein, R. mathematics
Klein, R. properties, acoustic
Korenjak, A. J. computer applications
Kressel, H. lasers
Ladany, I. solid-state devices
Lechner, B. J. displays
Lechner, B. J. properties, molecular
Levin, E. R. circuits, integrated
Levin, E. R. manufacturing
Liu, S. G. solid-state devices
Lockwood, H. lasers
Luedicke, E. recording, image
Luedicke, E. solid-state devices
Lurie, M. holography
Lurie, M. television broadcasting
Maruska, H. P. properties, molecular
McFa"rlane, S. H. solid-state devices
Meyer, J. E. circuits, integrated
Meyer, J. E. computer components
Mezrich, R. holography
Moore, R. M. solid-state devices
Napoli, L. S. laboratory techniques
Napoli, L. S. properties, surface
Nelson, H. lasers
Nuese, C. J. properties, optical
Nuese, C. J. solid-state devices
Rajchman, J. A. computer storage
Reichert, W. F. laboratory techniques
Reichert, W. F. properties, surface
Robinson, B. B. masers
Robinson, B. B. plasma physics
Ross, E. C. properties, molecular
Ross, E. C. properties, electrical
Ross, D. A. displays
Ross, D. A. graphic arts
Ross, D. A. optics
Rothwarf, A. recording, image
Rothwarf, A. superconductivity
Sandercock, J. R. properties, electrical
Schade, H. laboratory techniques
Schiff, L. communication, digital
Schiff, L. control systems
Scott, J. H. circuits, integrated
Scott, J. H. computer components
Silver, R. recording, image
Silver, R. solid-state devices
Southgate, P. D. properties, atomic
Southgate, P. D. solid-state devices
Staebler, D. L. properties, optical
Steig meier, E. F. properties, electrical
Suzuki, K. masers
Suzuki, K. solid-state devices
Suzuki, /<. properties, electrical
Color signal processing circuits including
an array of grid-pulsed, grounded-cathode COlor-difference amplifiers-G. L.
Kagan (CED, Indpls) U.S. Pat. 3,499,106;
March 3, 1970.
Dynamic convergence circuits-M. W.
Hill, L. E. Smith (CED, Indpls) U.S. Pat.
,261; January 20, 1970.
Swartz, G. A. masers
Swartz, G. A. plasma physics
Tietjen, J. J. properties, molecular
Toda, M. properties, electrical
Toda, M. properties, magnetic
Vossen, J. L. properties, chemical
Vossen, J. L. manufacturing
Wehner, R. K. properties, acoustic
Wehner, R. K. mathematics
Wojtowicz, P. J. properties, magnetic
Yeh, C. solid-state devices
Bachynski, M. P. electromagnetic waves
Bachynski, M. P. plasma physics
Carswell, A. I. electromagnetic waves
Carswell, A. I. plasma physics
Conradi, J. properties, optical
Gibbs, B. W. electromagnetic waves
Gibbs, B. W. plasma physiCS
Richard, C. electromagnetic waves
Richard, C. plasma physiCS
Waksberg, A. L. communication, digital
Waksberg, A. L. laboratory techniques
Waksberg, A. L. lasers
Wood, J. I. communication, digital
Wood, J. I. laboratory techniques
Wood, J. I. lasers
Zuran, J. antennas
Zuran, J. spacecraft
Chew, V. mathematics
Gennery, D. B. displays
Gennery, D. B. recording, image
Minton, L. R. mathematics
Minton, L. R. reliability
Somerville, P. N. mathematics
Somerville, P. N. reliability
Buckley, M. control systems
Buckley, M. logistics
Nessmith, J. T. general technology
O'Leary, W. J. management
O'Leary, W. J. reliability
Patton, W. T. antennas
Patton, W. T. electromagnetic waves
Robinson, A. S. general technology
Schaedla, W. antennas
Schaedla, W. transmission lines
Surina, J. circuits, packaged
Surina, J. computer applications
Surina, J. manufacturing
Eining, G. M. television broadcasting
Variable radio frequency attenuator-L.
A. Harwood (CED, Som) U.S. Pat. 3,495,193; February 10, 1970.
Electro-optical device-G. H. Heilmeier,
L. A. Zanoni (Labs., Prj U,S. Pat. 3,499,112; March 3, 1970.
Color Television display system with reduced pincushion distortion-I. F.
Thompson, R. L. Barbin (CED, Indpls)
U.S. Pat. 3,495,124; February 10, 1970.
Cryogenic associative memory-R. W.
Ahrons (Labs., Prj U.S. Pat. 3,483,532;
December 9, 1969; Assigned to U.S. Government.
Oval loudspeaker basket-A. L. Coen
(CED, Indpls) U.S, Pat. 3,494,444; February 10, 1970.
Magnetic recording element and method
for preparing same-M. Siovinsky (Labs.,
Prj U.S. Pat. 3,490,945; January 20, 1970.
Voltage supply-W. F. W. Dietz (CED,
Indpls) U.S. Pat. 3,495,126; February 10,
Magnetic recording elements-N. E.
Wolff (Labs., Prj U.S. Pat. 3,490,946;
January 20, 1970.
Signal translating and angle demodulating systems-J. Avins (CED, Som) U.S.
Pat. 3,495,178; February 10, 1970.
Ferromagnetic-semiconductor composition-H. W. Lehmann, M. Robbins (Labs.,
Prj U.S. Pat. 3,491,026; January 20, 1970.
Electroluminescent device and method
of operating-A. M. Goodman (Labs., Prj
U.S. Pat. 3,492,548; January 27,1970.
Photosensitive device-E. P. Kaldis, R.
W. Widmer (Labs., Zurich) U.S. Pat.
3,492,620; January 27, 1970.
Hydrodynamically supported magnetic
head-R. D. Scott (DCSD, Cam) U.S. Pat.
3,479,661; November 18, 1969; Assigned
to U.S. Government.
Television message system for transmitting auxiliary information during the vertical blanking interval of each television
field-W. D. Houghton (Labs., Prj U.S.
Pat. 3,493,674; February 3,1970.
Integrated thin film translators-P. K.
Weimer (Labs., Prj U.S. Pat. 3,493,812;
February 3, 1970.
Light-emitting diodes and method of
making same-R. H. Comely, W. F. Kosonocky (Labs., Prj U.S. Pat. 3,495,140;
February 10, 1970.
Dates and
Be sure deadlines are met-consult
your Technical Publications Administrator or your Editorial Representative
for the lead time necessary to obtain
RCA approvals (and government approvals, if applicable). Remember, abstracts and manuscripts must be so
approved BEFORE sending them to the
meeting committee.
Calls for papers
AUG. 18-21, 1970: International Conference on Microelectronics, Circuits and
System Theory, The University of New
South Wales, Sydney, Australia, IREE
Australia, IEEE, Electronics Division of
lEE. Deadline info (1,000 words with key
illustrations; 2,000 words without illustrations; 50-word abstract) 5/22/70 to:
Joint Conference Secretariat, I.R.E.E.
Australia, Box 3120, G.P.O., Sydney,
2001, Austral ia.
SEPT. 14-16, 1970: 1970 International
IEEE/G-AP Symposium, The Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Deadline info (400-600 word sum) 6/1/70 to:
Dr. Curt A. Levis, P.O. Box 3115, The Ohio
State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210.
SEPT. 15-17, 1970: Fall USNC/URSI
Meeting, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Deadline info (two
copies of absts) 6/1170 to: Dr. Curt A.
Levis, P.O. Box 3115, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210.
SEPT. 21-23, 1970: AIAA Aerodynamic
Deceleration Conference, Dayton, Ohio,
Technical Committee on Aerodynamic
Deceleration Systems. Deadline info
(first draft) 4/20170: Solomon R. Metres,
USAF Flight Dynamics Lab., Recovery and
Crew Station Branch, (FDFR) WrightPatterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433.
OCT. 14-16, 1970: Syslems Science &
Cybernetics Conference, Webster Hall
Hotel, Pittsburgh, Penna., G-SSC. Deadline info (abst) 4/15170 to: A. Lavi,
Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Penna.
OCT. 26-28, 1970: 1970 IEEE Electronic
and Aerospace Systems Convention
(EASCON), Sheraton Park Hotel, Washington, D.C. Deadline info (four copies,
500-to-1000 word paper) 5/2170 to: Technical Program Chairman, Dr. Richard
Marsten, NASA Headquarters, Code SC,
Washington, D.C. 20546 or Program Vice
Chairman, Dr. Harold Braham, General
Electric Company, P.O. Box 8555, Philadelphia, Pa. 19101.
Image transmission through a fiber optics
device-H. A. Brill (DCSD, Cam) U.S. Pat.
3,489,482; January 13, 1970.
Split beam light modulator-J. L. Dailey
(MSR, Mrstn) U.S. Pat. 3,495,892; February 17, 1970.
OCT. 27-30, 1970: Electronics Division
Fall Meeting Concurrently With 23rd Pacific Coast Regional Meeting, St. Francis
Hotel, San Francisco, California, The
American Ceramic Society, Inc. Deadline
Info (150 word abst) 6/15/70 to: James
R. Floyd, Program Chairman, Electronicos
Division, The American Ceramic Society,
Inc., 4055 North High Street, Columbus,
Ohio 43214.
NOV. 1970: G-MTT Transactions is planning a special issue on Microwave Circuit Aspects of Avalanche Diode and
Transferred Electron Devices, IEEE.
Deadline info (complete ms) three copies
of each 4/15170 to: Guest Editor, Mr.
A. H. Solomon, Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., 100 Sylvan Road, Woburn,
Mass. 01801.
NOV. 4-6, 1970: Northeast Electronics
Research & Engineering Meeting
(NEREM), Sheraton Boston Hotel & War
Mem. Aud., Boston, Mass., New England
Sections. Deadline info: (abst) 5/29/70
(papers) 713/70 to: IEEE Boston Office,
31 Channing St., Newton, Mass. 02158.
NOV. 15-19, 1970: Engineering in Medicine & Biology Conference, Washington
Hilton Hotel, Washington, D.C., AEMB,
G-EMB. Deadline info (abst) 6/1/70 to:
Richard Johns, 522 Traylor Bldg., Johns
Hopkins School of Med., Baltimore, Md.
Optical correlator for determining the
longitiudinal displacement of similar information on two tracks-Po J. Donald,
R. W. Chambers (MSR, Mrstn) U.S. Pat.
3,453,439; July 1, 1969; Assigned to U.S.
High performance, wideband, VUF-UHF
amplifier-H. Chin, J. J. Cadigan, III
(ASD, Burl) U.S. Pat. 3,486,126; December 23, 1969; Assigned to U.S. Government.
Circuit for selectively altering the slope
of recurring ramp signals-R. A. Hansen
(ASD, Burl) U.S. Pat. 3,493,961; February
DEC. 14-16, 1970: International Sympoaium on Circuit Theory, Sheraton-Biltmore Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia, IEEE.
Deadline info: (two copies abst-100-to250 words) 6/1170; (four copies regl
Ghort papers) 7/1170 to: Mr. I. T. Frisch,
Network Analysis Corporation, Beechwood, Old Tappan Road, Glen Cove, New
York 11542.
JAN. 12-14, 1971: Reliability Symposium,
Sheraton Park Hotel, Washington, D.C.,
G-R, ASQC, ASNT, IES. Deadline info:
(abst) 5/1170 to: J. W. Thomas, Vitro
Labs., 14000 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring,
Maryland 20910.
APRIL 26-MAY 1, 1970: 107th SMPTE
Technical Conference and Equipment
Exhibit, Drake Hotel, Chicago, III. Prog
info: Leonard F. Coleman, Eastman
Kodak Co., Southwest Region, Motion
Picture and Education Markets Div., 6300
Cedar Springs Rd., Dallas, Tx. 75235.
APRIL 27-30,1970: National Telemetering
Conference, Statler Hilton Hotel, Los
Angeles, Calif., G-AES, G-Com Tech.
Prog info: A. V. Balakrishnan, UCLA,
Rm. 3531, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles,
Calif. 90024.
MAY 2-7, 1970: 72nd Annual Meeting &
Exposition, Philadelphia Civic Center and
NOV. 17-19, 1970: 1970 Fall Joint ComSheraton Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa., The
puter Conference, AstroHall, Houston,
American Ceramic SOCiety, Inc. Prog
Texas, IEEE. Deadline info (100-150 word
info: ACS, 4055 North High Street, Columabst; 6 copies complete draft ms)
bus, Ohio 43214.
4/10170 to: L. E. Axsom, Chairman, Technical Program Committee, 1970 Fall Joint
Computer Conference, P.O. Box 61449, 'MAY 4-5, 1970: Transducer Conference,
Governor's House, NBS, Gaithersburg,
Houston, Texas 77061.
Maryland, G-IECI. Prog info: H. P. KalDEC. 2-4, 1970: 1970 IEEE Conference on mus, Harry Diamond Labs., Dept. of the
Vehicular Technology, Statler-Hilton Ho- Army, Wash., D.C. 20438.
tel, Washington, D.C. Deadline info (six
copies of 800 to 1,000 word sum) 6/15/70
10: Dr. Peter M. Kelly, Kelly Scientific
Corporation, 3900 Wisconsin Avenue,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016.
DEC. 7-9, 1970: 19"1O'(9th) IEEE Symposium on Adaptive Processes: Decision
and Control, University of Texas; Austin,
Texas. Deadline info (short papers-700
word sum) 8/1170; (reg. papers) 5/1170
five copies each to: Prof. D. G. Lainiotis,
Program Chairman, IEEE 1970 Symposium on Adaptive Processes, Department
of Electrical Engineering, Engineering
Science Building 502, University of Texas
at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712.
DEC. 9-11, 1970: Conference on Applications of Simulation, Waldorf-Astoria, New
York, New York, IEEE, ACM, AilE,
SHARE, SCI, TIMS. Deadline info (three
copies of 50-100 abst) 3/31170 (five copies paper) 7/6/70 (ms) 9/30/70 to: Michel Araten, Program Committee Chairman, Celanese Chemical Company, 245
Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017.
Bistable circuits-A. K. Rapp (DME, Som)
U.S. Pat. 3,493,785; February 3, 1970.
Tape handling apparatus-J. P. Watson
(ISO, W. Palm) U.S. Pat. 3,490,669; January 20, 1970.
Timing system-G. H. Hilal, J. M. Miller...
(ISO, Cam) U.S. Pat. 3,493,729; FebruarY.
Length monitoring system-J. P. Beltz, H.
B. Currie (ISO, Cam) U.S. Pat. 3,493,771;
February 3, 1970.
Converter for self-clocking digital signals-J. A. Vallee (ISO, W. Palm) U.S. Pat.
3,493,962; February 3, 1970.
MAY 5-7, 1970: Spring Joint Computer
Conference, Convention Hall, Atlantic
City, New Jersey, G-C, AFIPS. Prog info:
AFIPS Hdqs., 210 Summit Ave., Montvale, New Jersey 07645.
MAY 7-8, 1970: Midwest Symposium on....
Circuit Theory, Pick-Nicolet Hotel, Minneapolis, Minn., G-CT, Univ. of Minnesota. Prog info: B. A. Shenoi, EE Dept.,
Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 55455.
MAY 11-13, 1970: Conference on Television Measuring Techniques, Middlesex
Hosp, Medical School, London, England,
info: IERE Office, 8/9 Bedford Sq., Lon,.
don W. C. 1, England.
MAY 11-14, 1970: International Microwave
Symposium, Newporter Inn, Newport
Beach, Calif., G-MTT. Prog info: R. H.
DuHamel, Granger Assoc., 1601 Calif.
Ave., Palo Alto, Calif. 94304.
MAY 13-15, 1970: Electronic Components
Technical Conference, Statler Hilton, Washington, D.C., G-PMP, EIA. Prog
info: Darnall Burks, Sprague Elec. Co.,
Marshall St., N. Adams, Mass. 01247.
MAY 13-15, 1970: AIAA Atmospheric
Flight Mechanics Conference, Tullahom,a,
Tenn. Prog info: American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1290 Sixth
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10019.
MAY 18-20, 1970: Aerospace Electronics
Conference (NAECON), Sheraton Dayton
Hotel, Dayton, Ohio, G-AES, Dayton Section. Prog info: IEEE Dayton Office, 124
E. Monument Ave., Dayton, Ohio 45402.
MAY 18-20, 1970: AIAA 5th Aerodynamic
Testing Conference, Tullahoma, Tenn.
Prog info: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1290 Sixth Ave-.
nue, New York, N.Y. 10019.
MAY 4-6, 1970: AIAAlNavy Marine Systems, Propulsion, and ASW Meeting,
Newport, R.1. Prog info: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
1290 Sixth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10019.
MAY 18-22, 1970: Air Force Materials
Symposium-1970, Miami Beach, Fla.
Prog info: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1290 Sixth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10019.
MAY 4-7, 1970: Ind. & Comm. Power Sys.
& Elec. Space Heating & Air Conditioning
Jt. Technical Conference, Jack Tar Hotel,
San Francisco, Calif., G-IGA San Francisco Section. Prog info: D. B. Carson,
Gen'l Elec. Co., 212 N. Vignes, L. A.
Calif. 90012.
MAY 19-21, 1970: Conference on Signal.
Processing Methods for Radio Tele-"?
phony, London, England, lEE, IERE,
IEEE, UKRI Section. Prog info: lEE Office, Savoy Place, London W. C. 2 England.
MAY 4-7, 1970: 4th Conference on AeroGpace Meteorology, Las Vegas, Nev.,
(AMS/AIAA). Prog info: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
1290 Sixth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10019.
MAY 5-6, 1970: Appliance Technical Conference, Leland Motor Hotel, Mansfield,
Ohio, G-IGA, North Central Ohio Section.
Prog info: J. G. Idle, Westinghouse Elec.
Corp., 246 E. 4th St., Mansfield, Ohio
MAY 25-27, 1970: 1970 Joint Conference
on Fluids Engineering, Lubrication and
Heat Transfer, Statler-Hilton Hotel, Detroit, Michigan, the Cavitation Forum.
Prog info: Albert G. Grindell, Chairman,
1970 Cavitation Forum, Reactor Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building
9201-3, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.
MAY 26-28, 1970: 6th Region Conference,
Washington Plaza Hotel, Seattle, Washington, Region 6, Seattle Section. Prog
info: P. R. Metz, Univ. of Wash., EE
Dept., Seattle, Washington 98105.
New Solid-State Division formed
Robert W. Sarnoff, Chairman and President of RCA, recently announced estab·
lishment of a new Solid-State Division.
.Mr. Sarnoff announced that William C.
Hittinger, President of General Instrument Corporation, will join RCA, effective April 15, in the newly-created
position of Vice President and General
Manager, Solid-State Division. Mr. Hit·
tinger will report directly to Mr. Sarnoff.
If The
new Division was formed through
. the consolidation of RCA's Integrated
Circuit Technology Center of Research
and Engineering and the solid-state operations of Electronic Components.
According to Mr. Sarnoff, "RCA intends
to adopt a more aggressive program in
.order to participate more fully in the
growth that lies ahead in the solid-state
area. The centralization of our activities
under one of the outstanding executives
in the electronics industry represents a
major step toward the fulfillment of that
.. Dr. Brown made Fellow of British TV
Dr. George H. Brown, Executive Vice
President, RCA Patents and Licensing,
has been elected a Fellow of the British
Royal Television Society.
antenna, which has become the standard
broadcast antenna for television.
New consumer affairs activity to oversee
quality and reliability
Creation of a major new corporate function-the office of Consumer Affairswith far-reaching staff responsibility for
the quality and reliability of RCA's fullrange of products and services was announced recently by Robert W. Sarnoff,
Chairman and President of RCA.
Mr. Sarnoff said Herbert T. Brunn, a veteran of almost 30 years executive service
with various RCA divisions, has been
selected for the newly-created post of
Vice President, Consumer Affairs. In this
capacity, he will be responsible for directing a company-wide program to insure
that the rights and interests .of the consumer public continue to receive the
highest priority in all of RCA's diversified
operations. In his new position, Mr.
Brunn will report directly to Mr. Sarnoff.
In announcing the new activity, Mr. Sarnoff said all of RCA's customers-institutions, Federal and local governments and
private agencies as well as individualsare equally entitled to the assurance of
high quality and reliability in everything
they buy from RCA.
their inventions relate to the "maintenance or restoration of one of the basic
life-sustaining elements: air, water or
soil." The new procedure will apply to
existing and future patent applications.
Any RCA inventor who recognizes such
an application for his invention should
contact Patent Operations, Princeton,
In the article, "Light scattering with laser
sources," by Dr. G. Harbeke and Dr. E.
Stegmeir (Vol. 15, No.5, Feb-Mar 1970,
pp. 82-85), the following corrections
should be made:
p. 82, col 2, Eq. 2 should be:
= aE =
a, COS 2 'IT v,t) Eo cos 2 'IT vt
= aD Eo cos 2 'IT vt + 1!2 a, Eo
[cos 2 'IT (v + v,) t + cos 2 'IT (v - v,) t]
p. 82, col. 3, lines 12 and 1J should be:
excited state of energy hv, above the
ground state. The emitted photon lacks
p. 83 col. 1, lines 1 and 2 should be:
the sum of the momenta of the scattered photon hk, and the phonon
Herold and Rosenthal promoted
p. 83, col. 1, lines 19 and 20 should be:
The Royal Society is honoring Dr. Brown
for his "very distinguished career in the
field of television," according to T. H.
Bridgewater, Membership Committee
Promotion of Dr. Edward W. Herold and
Howard Rosenthal to newly created Director positions on RCA's Corporate
Engineering Staff has been announced by
Dr. James Hillier, Executive Vice President, Research and Engineering.
located very close to k = 0 on the abcissa of Fig. 2 extending to k ma .=27r/Fa
Dr. Brown, who has been associated with
RCA since 1933, has made outstanding
technical contributions to electronic com.. munications and to modern television,
particularly in antenna development and
systems design. Among his major achievements is the conception of the trunstile
The two new Directors are responsible
for coordinating the engineering activities
of RCA's product divisions with the Corporate research and planning functions.
In addition, they provide liaison between
the divisional engineering organizations
and Research and Engineering.
Contents: March 1970 RCA Review
Volume 31 Number 1
Fabrication and performance of kilowatt Lband avalanche diodes ................•..
S. G. Liu and J. J. Risko
High-power L- and S-band transferred electron oscillators ............... B. E. Berson,
R. E. Enstrom, and J. F. Reynolds
Sonic film memory .......... R. Shahbender,
P. Herkart, K. Karstad, K. Kurlansik,
and L. Onysh kevych
Electron optics and signal read-out of highdefinition return-beam vidicon cameras .....
O. H. Schade, Sr.
Stable solid-state vertical deflection for highdefinition television systems •....••.......
O. H. Schade, Jr.
Linear solid-state horizontal deflection circuit
for high-definition television systems •......
O. H. Schade, Jr.
The RCA Review is published quarterly. Copies
are available in all RCA libraries. Subscription
rates are as follows (rates are discounted 20%
for RCA employees):
1-year ............ $4.00 ............ $4.40
2-year ............ 7.00............ 7.80
3-year ............ 9.00 ............ 10.20
Priority for environmental .pollution
The Commissioner of Patents recently
announced that the Patent Office will
speed up the examination of patent applications covering devices "which can
aid in the curbing of environmental
abuses". The priority will reduce processing time from the present average of
about three years to a period of from six
to eight mori'ihs. Inventors who claim this
privilege are required to indicate how
p. 83, col. 2, lines 40 through 42 should be:
of phonon states is highest. Such critical points exist preferably at the Brillouin zone edges like at Ikl::::27r/a in
p. 85, col. 3, References 1 through 7
should be:
1. Lord Rayleigh, Philadelphia, Vol. 47 (1899)
p. 375.
2. Brillouin, L., Ann. Phys. (Paris) Vol. 17
(1922) p. 88.
3. Raman, C. V., Indian J. Phys. Vol. 2 (1928)
p. 387.
4. Mooradian, A., "Light Scattering in Semiconductors", to be published in FestkorperprobIerne X, Vieweg, Braunschweig.
5. Cummins, H. Z., Knable, N. and Yeh, Y.,
"Observation of Diffusion Broadening of Ray·
leigh Scattered Light," Phys. Rev. Letters,
Vol. 12 (1964) p. 150.
6. Fatuzzo, E., Harbeke, G., Merz, W. J.,
Nitsche, R., Roetschi, H. and Ruppel, W.,
"Ferroelectricity in SbSI," Phys. Rev. Vol.
127 (1962) p. 2036.
7. Baltzer, P. K., Lehmann, H. W. and Robbins,
M., "Insulating Ferromagnetic Spinels," Phys.
Rev. Letters Vol. IS (1965) p. 493.
Degrees Granted
P. Joy, ATL, Camden ... MS, Mechanical Engineering, Drexel Institute of Tech.; 6/69
F. R. McGuirk, MTP, Cocoa Beach ...... BSEE, Florida Institute of Technology; 9/69
L. R. Dodd, MTP, Cocoa Beach .... BS, Mathematics, Florida Institutes of Tech.; 9/69
S. A. Farra, MTP, Cocoa Beach ......... BS, Physics, Florida Institute of Tech.; 9/69
P. L. Beem, MTP, Cocoa Beach ..... BS, Mathematics, Florida Institute of Tech.; 9/69
A. J. Fandozzi, CES, Meadow Lands .......... MSEE, University of Pittsburgh; 8/69
R. S. Mezrich, Labs., Princeton ... PhD, Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic Institute
of Brooklyn; 2/70
R. C. Brauder, EC, Lancaster .... Master of Engineering Science, Penn State D.; 12/69
J. Elko, AED, Pro ..................... MSEE, Stevens Institute of Technology; 1/70
Electromagnetic and Aviation Systems
M. Masse from Principle Member Engineering Staff to Leader, Navigation Systems (R. P. Crow, Van Nuys, Calif.)
J. B. Harrison from Staff Engineering Scientist, Van Nuys to Manager, Mechanical
Engineering (G. A. Lucchi, Van Nuys,
R. H. Tuten from Ldr., Engineers to Mgr.,
Ship Pulse Radar (K. F. Wenz, Cocoa,
M. Rosenblatt from Ldr., Des. & Dev.
Eng. to Mgr., Comm. Eqp. Projects 0. B+
Howe, Camden)
T. D. Hummer from Associate Engineer to
Ldr., Trinidad Operations-Shift 0.
Brady, Trinidad Instrumentation Station)
C. R. Thompson from Ldr., Des. & Dev.
to Mgr., Rec. Equip. Projects <T. D. Rittenhouse, Camden)
Astro Electronics Division
R. M. Zieve from Engineer to Ldr., Des. &
Dev. <T. B. Howe, Camden)
Herbert Berkowitz from Senior Engineer
to Manager (Specialty) Engineering (J. F.
Baumunk, Hightstown)
Advanced Technology Laboratories
Commercial Electronic Systems
A. T. Montemuro from Class A Eng. to
Ldr., Des. & Dev. Engrs. (R. J. Smith,
J. Shelton from Engineer, Audio Visual to
Leader, Broadcast Audio (R. S. Putnam,
Television Picture Tube Division
J. J. Moscony from Sr. Engineer, Product
Development to Engineering Leader,
Product Development (R. H. Zachariason, Lancaster, Pa.)
A. C. Porath from Sr. Engineer, Product
Development to Engineering Leader,
Product Development (R. H. Zachariason, Lancaster, Pa.)
K. D. Scearce from Engineer, Equipment
Development to Engineering Leader,
Equipment Development (J. F. Stewart,
Lancaster, Pa.)
R. E. Salveter from Engineering Leader,
Product Development to Manager, Chemical and Physical Laboratory (D. J. Ransom, Marion)
Industrial Tube Division
J. J. Florek, Superintendent, Tube Assembly and Finishing to Manager, Tube and
Parts Preparation, Production Engineering (C. A. Hear, Harrison)
Computer Systems Division
C. D. Hughes from Engineer to Ldr., Design & Development Engrs. <T. K. Mulligan, Camden)
T. D. Floyd from Sr. Mbr., D&D Engrg.
Staff to Leader, Technical Staff (H. N.
Morris, West Palm Beach)
RCA Service Company
L. A. Freedman from Manager, Project
to Manager (Specialty) Engineering (G.
Barna, Hightstown)
Jack A. Frobieter from Engineer to Manager (Specialty) Engineering (G. Corrington, Hightstown)
J. E. Connaway
Engineer to Ldr.
field, Va.)
L. T. McCloskey from Engineer to Admin-
Instrumentation (S. L. Candler, Andros
R. F. Schneider from Engineer to Mgr.,
Acoustics Range (L. R. Whitehead, Andros Island)
E. D. Stone from Engineer to Mgr., Data
Acquisition (L. R. Whitehead, Andros
K. R. Keller from Sr. Member Tech. Staff
to Ldr., Technical Staff (H. Borkan,"Camden)
P. Schnitzler from Sr. Member Technical
Staff to Ldr., Technical Staff (L. West,
J. J. Cosgrove from Leader to Manager,
Core Engineering (Dr. H. P. Lemaire,
Needham, Mass.)
istrator, Customer Relations (H. D. Bradbury, Hightstown)
P. C. March from Leader to Manager,
Mechanical Production and Services (Dr.
H. P. Lemaire, Needham, Mass.)
Robert Miller from Senior Engineer to
Manager Project (C. K. Hume, Hightstown)
Graphic Systems Division
Anthony R. Pontoriero from Leader Project Administration to Manager Business
Operations (L. V. Fox, Hightstown)
E. W. Schlieben from Administrator, Long
Range Planning to Manager, Oceanographic Programs (W. T. Manger, Hightstown)
C. R. Corson, Senior Project Member,
Tech. Staff to Leader, Tech. Staff (D. S.
Sikora, Dayton, N.J.)
I. Finn from Technical Staff to Leader,
Digital Engineering (D. S. Sikora, Day- .
ton, N.J.)
J. R. Staniszewski from Mgr., Specialty
R. S. Eiferd, Ldr. Font Devel. to Mgr.
Font Develop. (G. O. Walter, Dayton,
Engineering to Mgr., Projects
Hume, Hightstown)
Defense Microelectronics
(C. R.
E. J. Vallas from Engineer to Mgr., Specialty Engineering (J. Staniszewski,
K. R. Keller from Member Technical"
Staff to Leader (Harold Borkan, DEP,
Missile and Surface Radar Division
P. Schnitzler from Sr. Member Technical
Staff to Leader (Laurice West, DEP,
W. J. Beck from Engineer to Ldr., Des. &
Dev. (W. S. Perecinic, Moorestown)
B. J. Matulis from Engineer to Ldr., Des.
& Dev. (W. S. Perecinic, Moorestown)
Defense Communications Systems Division
O. E. Bassette from A Engineer to Ldr.,
Data Handling (M. J. ....--Design & Development Engineers (J. D.
. Rittenhouse, Camden)
from Systems Service
W. Blackman from Engineer to Ldr., Des.
(D. Botticello, Spring& Dev. <T. B. Howe, Camden)
J. T. Herbert from Engineer to Mgr., Ship
W. A. Clapp from A Engineer to Ldr.,
Design & Development Engineers ( H. S.
Zieper, Camden)
Memory Products Division
John C. Graelmer from Senior Engineer
to Manager (Specialty) Engineer (J. F.
Baumunk, Hightstown)
L. Alexander from Associate Engr. to
Mgr., Navigation
VanBrunt, Cocoa,
Stephen C. Blum from Engineer to Manager (Specialty) Engineering <T. F. Baumunk, Hightstown)
D. J. D'Andrea from Engineer to Ldr.,
Des. & Dev. (J. B. Howe, Camden)
G. Galanek from Engineer to Ldr., Des. &
Dev. (J. D. Rittenhouse, Camden)
J. S. Griffin from Ldr., Des. & Dev. to
Mgr., Rec. Equip. Projects 0. D. Rittenhouse, Camden)
W. A. Hatsell from Class A Eng. to Adm.,
Design Integration (L. Iby, Camden)
Solid·State Division
D. Curry from Engineer Manufacturing
to Manager Quality and Assurance and
High-Reliability Programs (H. Hansen,
H. Donnell from Engineer Leader to Manager Manufacturing and Production Engineering (Liege, Belgium, Archer Moore).
William Allen from Engineer Manufacturing to Manager Design and Reproduction
(Evan Zlock, Somerville)
R. Espiano from Engineer Product Development to Engineer Leader (T. Hilibrand,
Professional Engineers
D. B. Dobson, ASD, Burlington, PE
#22852, Massachusetts
E. J. Sass, DCSD, Camden, PE #17217.
New Jersey
.Missile and Surface Radar Division
The following engineers were cited for
the Technical Excellence of their performances during the second and third quarters of 1969: A. Gorski for his outstanding
technical and timely accomplishment in
..a.developing a high-voltage, high-speed,
~olid-state modulator for the AN/MPS-36
radar transmitter; H. Halpern for originality in developing the concept of the
signal processor for the CAMEL Reentry
Radar and for presenting this concept to
the customer in a manner that was a
major factor in the award of this system
Jt.ontract to RCA in a competition with
fifteen other companies; F. Palmer for the
development of the Product Detector for
the AN/FPS-95 Receiver; W. Sheppard
for the direction of RCA's AM FAR, inhouse, development and the R&D effort
which resulted in a 128-element S-band
sub array complete with phase shifter and
..,eam steering equipment; and D. Wawrzyniak for major contribution to the
system design of the computer-display
control system for the AN/TPQ-27.
Aerospace Systems Division
Barry A. Bendel of Automatic Test EquipIlment Engineering was selected as Engi'If'neer of the Month for November for his
contribution to the DIMATE Program.
The team of C. G. Badstiibner, R. J. Bosselaers, J. S. Brodie, N. M. Clark, W. J.
Goldwasser, H. P. Hatch, A. J. Krisciunas, B. Norlund, K. D. Pigney, P. M. Pollara, and N. B. Wamsley from Automatic
.Test Equipment Engineering has received
a Team Award for November. The award
recognizes the outstanding work of the
team on the programmable RF-signal system for DIMATE III and IV.
Astro-Electronics Division
....Y. C. Brill received the Engineering ExcelTlence Award for the month of January,
1970 and P. Brandt received the Engineering Excellence Award for February. E. W.
Schieben received the Tiger award for
February for development of SKAMP (Station Keeping and Mobile Platform).
• Television Picture Tube Division
S. T. Villanyi received the 1969 Engineering Achievement Award for outstanding
engineering achievements in the development of a variety of new computer
programs and numerically controlled machining techniques which created an inhouse capability to produce facilities to
.make critical tube parts with a high
degree of precision.
The team of Harry R. Frey, Edith E.
Mayaud (Mrs.), Theodore A. Saultner,
and Bradford K. Smith have received a
1969 Engineering Achievement Team
Award for unique and outstanding tech, nical contributions in the development of
~"the RCA Hi-Lite Matrix Shadow Mask
Color Picture Tube which, when operated
in the RCA solid-state receiver, provides
2.4 times increased brightness and a 20%
contrast improvement at the same highlight resolution and with improved low
light picture sharpness.
Industrial Tube Division
The team of Paul W. Kaserman, George
S. Briggs, Thomas W. Edwards, and William N. Henry have received the 1969
Engineering Achievement Team Award
for significant engineering contributions
to the development of a novel camera
Robert V. Eggemann has been selected
for an Engineering Recognition Award
for 1969. His technical achievements include the development of methods for
zone leveling high silicon content silicongermanium alloys with predictable and
reproducible properties. He conceived
techniques and redesigned equipment to
prepare thermoelectric materials in a
diversity of designs.
Reinhard Otto Schlaefli has been selected
for an Engineering Recognition Award
1969 because of the outstanding technical competence he demonstrated in the
design of the RCA SS2104 C-band Solid
State TR Switch. His ingenuity in design
resulted in a device that was both smaller
than, and superior in performance to, the
comparable X-band device. He also developed and used a computer program which
facilitates the rapid design of ferrite
RCA Laboratories
Sixty-seven scientists on the staff of the
David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton have received RCA Laboratories
Achievement Awards for outstanding
contributions to electronics research and
engineering during 1969. Recipients of
the awards and brief descriptions of the
work for which they were honored are:
Arthur H. Firester for pioneering theoretical
analysis and experimental demonstration of highresolution parametric conversion of infrared to
visible images_
James A. Goodman for continued contribution
to the development of interactive editing languages and a series of file-editing programs to
mechanize them .
Ivan Ladany for research leading to the preparation of practical high-efficiency electroluminescent
SMng-Gong Liu for the development of techniques for the reproducible fabrication, of highpower silicon avalanche diodes and for development of I-kilowatt oscillators using such diodes.
Reuben S. Mezrich for the development of an
erasable optical storage medium.
Kazuo Miyatani for experimental investigation
of critical phenomena in magnetic materials.
Herbert I. Moss for research leading to advances
in pressure-sintering techniques which led to
improvements in ferrite and metal-alloy videotape recording heads.
Robert J. Ryan for devising new adhesive materials for use in novel printed-circuit boards.
Harold B. Shukovsky for fundamental investigations of multilayer electrodeposited magnetic
films for plated yire memories.
P. David Southgate for studies of electroluminescencee in III-V compounds and for the
first demonstration of bulk electroluminescent
laser action.
Ross Stander for research leading to the successful employment of stripline resonators in UHF
Alan Sussman for contributions to the understanding of the failure mechanism of liquidcrystal devices.
Barry N. Taylor for a new determination of the
fundamental constant ejh, using macroscopic
phase coherence in superconductors.
C. C. Wang for advancements made in the synthesis of lead oxide photoconductive thin films
for application in the Vistacon camera tube.
Cheng P. Wen for the invention of novel transmission systems including nonreciprocal and
reciprocal circuits compatible with microwave
integration and active solid-state devices.
Malcolm E. White for the conception, development, and implementation of numerical control
languages for the RCA Spectra 70 computer.
Aline Akselrad, Istvan Gorog, and William
Phillips for contributions to a team effort in
the synthesis of cathodochromic materials and
their imagination exploitation in cathodochromic
Henry M. Bach, G. Theodore Nygreen, and
Sherwood Skillman for contributions to a team
effort in the research, development, design, and
implementation of an advanced practical Management Information System for Patents and
William H. Barkow, Philip Kuznetzoff, and
Dalton H. Pritchard for contributions to a team
effort in the development of a novel thin television color kinescope.
Robert A. Bartolini, Joseph R. Frattarola,
Edward A. James, and Charles H. Morris for
contributions to a team effort in developing techniques for plating masters and replicating vinyl
holographic tapes.
Stanley Bloom and W. Michael Yim for contributions to a team effort in the epitaxial synthesis
and the characterization of II-VI compounds
and quaternary semiconducting alloys.
Edwad J. Boleky, III, Glenn W. Cullen, John E.
Meyer, Jr .. and Joseph H. Scott, Jr., for contributions to a team effort in the conception,
analysis, and realization of high-performance
silicon-on-sapphire integrated circuits .
Charles J. Busanovich and Robert M. Moore
for contributions to a team effort in the conception and development of a novel thin-film
heterojunction-diode strain sensor.
Victor Christiano and John A. van Raalte for
contributions to a team effort in producing new
large-area television light-valve display.
Roger L. Crane, Ralph W. Klopfenstein, Angelo
Pelio., and Franz W. Schneider for contributions to a team effort in the conception, implementation, and publication of a sophisticated
scientific subroutine library compatible with
Michael T. Duffy, Alvin M. Goodman, Edward
C. Ross, and Joseph H. Scott, Jr., for contributions to a team effort in optimizing the device
and material parameters of MNOS memory transistors.
Robert J. Farquharson, Steven L. Haas, Lawrence A. Rempert, Edward P. Helpert and
Fred W. Scheline for contributions to a team
effort in the development and reduction to practice of specialized production equipment for
integrated circuits.
James R. Fendley and Karl G. Hernqvist for
contributions to a team effort in the development
of the helium-cadmium gas laser
William H. Fonger and Charles W. Struck for
contributions to a team effort in providing improved understanding of the radiative efficiency
of red phosphors.
Larry J. French, James C. Miller, Hans F.
Schnitzler and Alfred H. Teger for contributions to a team effort in the development of an
interactive graphic system for computer-aided
William J. Hannan, Dainis Karlsons and
Michael J. Lurie for contributions to a team
effort in the development of techniques to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and scratch immunity of holographic video tapes.
Gunther Harbeke and Edgar F. Steigmeier for
contributions to a team effort in outstanding research in studying materials through observation
of Raman spectra.
John G. N. Henderson and Henry Tan for contributions to a team effort in research leading
to an all-electronic, all-channel television tuning
Hernqvist and Pankove named Fellows
Dr. Karl G. Hernqvist, Materials Research Laboratory, and Dr. Jacques I.
Pankove, Semiconductor Device Research
Laboratory, have been named Fellows of
the Technical Staff of RCA Laboratories.
In announcing the honors, Dr. William
M. Webster, Vice President, RCA Laboratories, said the Fellow designation is
comparable to the same title used by
universities and technical societies. It is
given by RCA in recognition of a record
of sustained technical contributions in
the past and of anticipated continued
technical contributions in the future.
Index to RCA Engineer
volume 15
This index covers Vol. 15-1 (June-July 1969), 15-2 (Aug.Sept. 1969), 15-3 (Oct.-Nov. 1969), 15-4 (Dec. 1969-Jan.
1970), 15-5 (Feb.-Mar. 1970), and the present issue, 15-6
(April-May 1970). Since RCA Engineer articles are also available as reprints, the reprint number (PE-OOO) is noted
throughout. RCA Engineer papers are also indexed along
with all other papers written by the RCA technical staff in the
annual Index to RCA Technical Papers.
Subject Index
Tilles of papers are permuted where
necessary to bring significant keyword(s)
to the left for easier scanning. Authors'
division appears parenthetically after his
Vol me range (EASD, Van Nuys) IS-6 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-6-3)
Current applications of-Dr. W. C. Curtis,
H. Honda (ASD, Burl) 15·3 (RCA reprint
booklets, RCA Microwave TechlTOlogy,
PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
AVN-210-an integrated-M. Masse
(EASD, Van Nuys) IS-6 (RCA reprint,
Gallium arsenide for-Dr. R. H. Dean
(Labs., Prj IS·2 (RCA reprint, PE-441)
-a new-J. H. Pratt (EASD, Van Nuys)
IS-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-4)
controller for-F. E. Brooks (CES, Cam)
IS·1 (RCA reprint, RE-15-1·14)
systems for general aviation, VHF-R. P.
Crow (EASD, Van Nuys) IS-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-1)
Broadband, high.gain-R. L. Bailey, J. R.
Jasinski (EC, Lane) IS·1 (RCA reprint
booklet, RCA Lancaster, PE.430)
Various Methods of-Dr. M. S. Siukola,
R. N. Clark (CESD, Gibbs) IS-3 (RCA reprint, RE-15-3-20)
MICROWAVE ANTENNA SYSTEMS, SolId-State-F. Klawsnik (MSR, Mrstn) 15-3
(RCA reprint booklets, RCA Microwave
Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459).
'ATE PROGRAMS, Pre-validation testing
of-A. M. Greenspan (ASD, Burl) IS-4
(RCA reprint, RE-15-4-10)
-M. Reiser, J. Kucera (EC, Hr) IS-2 (RCA
reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems
and Devices, PE-459)
VideoComp 70/830, System Tests for the
-R. M. Carrell (GSD, Dayton) IS-S (RCA
reprint, RE-15-5-22)
quency Difference Measurements-P.
DeBruyne (ASD, Burl) IS-3 (RCA reprint,
Phase-Iocked-W. J. Goldwasser (ASD,
Burl) IS·4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-5)
engineering-A. lichowsky (EASD, Van
Nuys) IS·6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-15)
terdisciplines of-Dr. W. A. Bosenberg
(Labs., Prj IS·4 (RCA reprint, PE-458)
wave systems, Potential of-Dr. l. S.
Nergaard (Labs., Prj IS-3 (RCA reprint
booklets, RCA Microwave Technology,
PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459 and PE-445)
ERS with IMPATT·diode pumping-Po
Bura, W. Pan, S. Yuan (DCSD, W. Windsor) 15·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
Techniques, Hybrid-A. Levy (EASD, Van
Nuys) 15·6 (RCA reprint, RE·15-6-14)
ERS with IMPATT·diode pumping-Po
Bura, W. Pan, S. Yuan (DCSD, W. Wind·
sor) IS·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
traffic control, new-E. Rose, O. Johnk
(EC, Hr) 15·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
FACES, Organizing effectively to-W. E.
Breen, H. K. Jenny (EC, Hr)IS'2 (RCA reo
print booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and
Devices, PE-459)
RESONATORS compatible with micro·
wave integrated circuits-A. Schwarzmann (ATL, Cam) IS·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452
and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE·
for combining-D. Staiman, M. E. Breese,
Dr. W. T. Patton (MSR, Mrstn) IS-2 (RCA
reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems
and Devices, PE-459)
TR SWITCH, High·power solid·state-W.
W. Siekanowicz, D. J. Blattner, T. E.
Walsh, R. W. Paglione (EC, Hr) IS·2 (RCA
reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
countermeasures-H. J. Wolkstein, M.
Freeling, M. P. Puri (EC, Hr) 15-2 (RCA
reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
UHF AMPLIFIER, 200-wal\ solid-stateD. Staiman, M. E. Breese (MSR, Mrstn)
IS·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave
Systems and Devices, PE-459)
Time·division multiple·access-V. F. Volertas (DCSD, Cam) 15·3 (RCA reprint
booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE452)
EQUIPMENT, Strategic/TransportableE. J. Sass, N. E. Edwards (DCSD, Cam)
IS'3 (RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
oratory-Dr. F. Sterzer (EC, Prj 15·2 (RCA
reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems
and Devices, PE·459)
MILLIMETER WAVES for communication
systems-Dr. H. J. Moody (LTD, Montreal)
15·3 (RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
PLiCATIONS, A review of-F. E. Gehrke
(EC, Hr) 15·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and MIcrowave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
array-Dr. H. Staras, L. Schiff (Labs., Prj
IS-3 (RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and PE-444)
INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS for microwave systems, Potential of-Dr. l. S.
Nergaard (Labs., Prj IS·3 (RCA reprint
booklets, RCA Microwave Technology,
PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459 and PE-445)
Current applications of-Dr. W. C. Curtis,
H. Honda (ASD, Burl) 15·3 (RCA reprint
booklets, RCA Microwave Technology,
PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
Gallium arsenide for-Dr. R. H. Dean
(Labs., Prj 15-2 (RCA reprint, PE-441)
duction-W. G,. Hartzell (EC, Hr) 15·2
(RCA reprint, RE-15-2-17)
Landry (MSR, Mrstn) 15·3 (RCA reprint
booklets, RCA Microwave Technology,
PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
engineering-F. E. Vaccaro, J. J. Napoleon (EC, Hr) IS·2 (RCA reprint booklets,
RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and
Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
skirts, Micro·skirts, and-R. E. Bridge
(EC, Hr) IS·5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-25)
TERS for rockets and projecliles-R. R.
Lorentzen, R. E. Askew, A. Presser (EC,
Hr) IS·2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
TROPOSCATTER, Diversity techniques
and coding for-R. W. Allen, V. F. Voler·
tas (DCSD, Cam) 15·2 (RCA reprint book·
let, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
design problems require-W. P. McDonald (ASD, Burl) 15-4 (RCA reprint,
of computers in-A. H. Coleman (GSD,
Dayton) IS·1 (RCA reprint, RE-15-1-17)
EDUCATION-a systems approach, The
computer in-Dr. W. R. Bush (IS, Palo
Alto) 15·4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-12)
assisted-R. W. Avery (IS, Palo Alto) 15·1
(RCA reprint, RE-15-1-S)
RCA llOA COMPUTER-ground check·
out and launch control of Saturn-A. J.
Freed (EASD, Van Nuys) 15·6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-9)
ARITHMETIC·UNIT ARRAY, COS/MOSR. M. Perrin, A. Alaspa (ASD, Burl) 15·4
(RCA reprint, RE-15-4-21)
den Heuvel (EASD, Va" Nuys) 15·6 (RCA
reprint RE-15-6-7)
DISPLAY, Two-color alphanumeric-K. C.
Adam (EASD, Van Nuys) IS-6 (RCA reprint RE-15-6-5)
H. Norwalt (EASD, Van Nuys) IS·6 (RCA
reprint RE-15-6-6)
(ATL, Cam) 15·1 (RCA reprint, RE-15-1-6)
den Heuvel (EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-6-7)
DISPLAY, Two-color alphanumeric-K. C.
Adam (EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA reprint RE-15-6-5)
H. Norwalt (EASD, Van Nuys) IS·6 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-6-6)
LIQUID CRYSTALS-the first electronic
method for contrOlling the reflection 01
light-Dr. G. H. Heilmeier (Labs., Prj 15·1
(RCA reprint, PE-434)
LEGAL RESTRAINTS on the exportation
of technical data-an update-R. J. Modersbach (AED, Prj 15·2 (RCA reprint, PE·
engineers and scientists, ALERT-a new
-E. R. Jennings (CS, Cam) IS-3 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-3-24)
RCA engineers should write-W. O. Hadlock (CS, Cam) 15-5 (RCA reprint, RE15-5-1)
for engineers-B. I. Daggett (Inst., N.Y.)
15·4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-24)
Kidd (ASD, Burl) IS·6 (RCA reprint, RE15-6-24)
COMPUTER·ASSISTED instructional systems-R. W. Avery (IS, Palo Alto) 15-1
(RCA reprint, RE-15-1-5)
COMPUTER in education-a systems ap·
proach, The-Dr. W. R. Bush (IS, Palo
Alto) 15·4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-12)
TION-Dr. J. M. Biedenbach (CS, Cam)
15·3 (RCA reprint, RE-15-3-21)
LASER in education-F. S. Philpott (LTD,
Montreal) 15·5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-6)
gineer-C. W. Sail (Labs., Prj IS·1 (RCA
reprint, PE-433)
ACOUSTIC SURFACE·WAVE devicesDr. D. Gandolfo (ATL, Cam) 15·2 (RCA reprint, RE-15-2-14)
Various methods of-Dr. M. S. Siukola,
R. N. Clark (CESD, Gibbs) 15-3 (RCA reprint, RE-15-3-20)
Power Supply-F. C. Easter (EASD, Van
Nuys) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-11)
OGY, Developing air·vac-R. E. Berlin,
L. H. Gnau, R. S. Nelson (EC, Hr) 15·3
(RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave
Technology, PE-452)
design concepts in-V. Raag (EC, Hr)
15-3 (RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
COLD GAS for photomultiplier cooling,
Generating-J. Gerber (Labs., Prj 15-6
(RCA reprint, RE-15-6-22)
-E. L. Meyer, P. C. Wise (AED, Prj 15-4
(RCA reprint, RE-15-4-18)
Fjarlie (LTD, Montreal) IS·5 (RCA reprint,
TIONS on printed-circuit boards-E. D.
Veilleux (ASD, Burl) IS-1 (RCA reprint,
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER for resislance-bulb or thermister sensors, A sim·
pie stable-H. O. Hook (Labs., Prj 15-4
(RCA reprint, PE-457)
NEODYMIUM AND RUBY LASER RANGEFINDERS, Tradeoff analysis ol-E. Kornstein, N. Luce (ASD, Burl) 15-5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-13)
PHOTOMULTIPLIER DETECTORS lor lasers, New-D. E. Persyk (EC, Lanc) 15-5
(RCA reprint, RE-15-5-5)
CHARACTER GENERATION system, Holographic-Dr. D. Meyerhofer (Labs., Prj
15-1 (RCA reprint, PE-431)
INSTANT AIRPORT, Human factors for an
-Po H. Berger (ASD, Burl) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-21)
with a CO, laser beam, method of producing a-Dr. D. L. Ross (Labs., Prj 15-5
(RCA reprint, PE-469)
PLATES for printing, Preparing-Po J.
Donald (Labs., Prj 15-4 (RCA reprint, RE15-4-21)
VldeoComp 70/830, System tests for the
-R. M. Carrell (GSD, Dayton) 15-3 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-5-22)
EMI PROBLEMS in the hospltal-U.
Frank, R. T. Londner (ME, Trenton) 15-3
(RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave
Technology, PE-452)
CO, LASER BEAM, Method 01 producing
a photographic type transparency with a
lit -Dr. D. L. Ross (Labs., Pr.) 15-5 (RCA
. . reprint, PE-469)
CO, LASERS, Sealed-olf-Dr. R. A.
Crane, J. I. Wood (LTD, Montreal) 15-5
(RCA reprint, RE-15-5-7)
9.4 and 10.61' vibration-rotational bands.
New-T. R. Schein (ASD, Burl) 15-3 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-3-24)
.... with the-Dr. D. Meyerholer (Labs., Prj
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-464)
M. Green, A. L. Waksberg (LTD, Montreal)
15-5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-2)
EDUCATION, The laser in-F. S. Philpott
(LTD, Montreal) 15-5 (RCA reprint, RE15-5-6)
PLATES for printing, Preparing-Po J.
Donald (Labs., Prj 15-4 (RCA reprint, RE15-4-21)
SOLID-STATE DETECTORS for laser applications-Dr. A. J. Mcintyre, H. C.
Sprigings, P. P. Webb (LTD, Montreal)
15-5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-3)
R. J. Pressley (Labs., Prj 15-5 (RCA reprint, PE- 463)
Laser-G. Ammon, S. Russell (ATL, Cam)
15-5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-15)
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-467)
Fjarlie (LTD, Montreal) 15-5 (RCA reprint,
-Dr. K. G. Hernqvist (Labs., Prj 15-5
(RCA reprint, PE-461)
GATED VISION techniques-D. G. Her, . zag (ATL, Cam) 15-5 (RCA reprint, RE15-5-23)
through log-Dr. H. J. Wetzstein, E. Kornstein (ASD, Burl) 15-5 (RCA reprint,
of-F. J. Gardiner (ASD, Burl) 15-5 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-5-16)
INFRARED IMAGES made visible by laser
techniques-Dr. A. H. Firester (Labs., Prj
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-466)
INJECTION LASERS, Recent progress in
-Dr. H. Kressel, H. Nelson (Labs., Prj
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-462)
LASER, Future of the-Dr. H. R. Lewis
(Labs., Prj and E. Kornstein (ASD, Burl)
15-5 RCA reprint, PE-460)
Measurement ol-A. L. Waksberg, J. C.
Boag (LTD, Montreal) 15-5 (RCA reprint,
LIGHT SCATTERING with laser sources
-Dr. G. Harbeke, Dr. E. F. Steigmeier
(Labs., Zurich), 15-5 (RCA reprint, PE465)
with the-Dr. D. Meyerhofer (Labs., Prj
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-464)
CERAMIC ENGINEERING-M. W. Hoelscher, J. L. Rhoads (EC, Lanc) 15-4 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-4-8)
Shepherd, K. R. Johnson (AED, Prj 15-1
(RCA reprint, RE-15-1-9)
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING in electronic equipment design-Dr. M. Weiss,
I. D. Kruger (MSR, Mrstn) 15-4 (RCA reprint booklet, Microwave Systems and
Devices, PE-459)
Strubhar (EC, Lanc) 15-4 (RCA reprint,
(EASD, Van Nuys) 15-4 (RCA reprint,
duration manned space missions, The
requirement for-M. L. Johnson (ASD,
Burl) 15-3 (RCA reprint booklet, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452)
approach, Engineering-G. F. Fairhurst
(EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE15-6-16)
CONCEPT ENGINEERING-the qualifications-A. F. Day (GSD, Dayton) 15-4 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-4-15)
Franklin (EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-10)
15-2 (RCA reprint, PE-452)
MODERN OPTICS..,..Dr. A. M. Sulton, C.
F. Panati (RCA Inst., N.Y.) 15-3 (RCA reprint, RE-15-3-9)
LIQUID CRYSTALS-the first electronic
method lor contrOlling the rellection 01
light-Dr. G. H. Heilmeier (Labs., Prj 15-1
(RCA reprint, PE-434)
CONCEPT ENGINEERING-the environment-Dr. H. J. Wetzstein (ASD, Burl)
15-4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-14)
ACOUSTIC SURFACE-WAVE devicesDr. D. Gandolfo (ATL, Cam) 15-2 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-2-14)
Forman, P. D. Strubhar (EC, Lane) 15-4
(RCA reprint, RE-15-4-13)
INTERDISCIPLINARY ASPECTS 01 contemporary engineering-R. F. Ficchi
(DCSD, Cam) 15-4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-423)
RCA's newest-M. R. Paglee (MSR,
Mrstn) 15-3 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
PHASED-ARRAY RADAR SYSTEMS, Synthesis ol-Dr. A. S. Robinson (MSR,
Mrstn) 15-3 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459
and PE-448)
INVENTIONS and obviousness-A. Russinof! (Labs., Prj 15-5 (RCA reprint, PE468)
IR COVERT ILLUMINATORS, Elfectiveness ol-F. J. Gardiner (ASD, Burl) 15-5
(RCA reprint, RE-15-5-16)
S. Kolodkin (ASD, Burl) 15-4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-2)
INFRARED IMAGES made visible by laser
techniques-Dr· A. H. Firester (Labs., Prj
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-466)
STANDARDIZING-a program for engineer and industrial management-So H.
Watson (CS, Cam) 15-1 (RCA Reprint
booklet, RCA Quality Assurance, PE-435)
INTERDISCIPLINARY COMMUNICATIONS-do you speak my language1Dr. N. E. Wolff (Labs., Prj 15-4 (RCA reprint, PE-456)
"'lIIIr ELECTRON-BEAM-PUMPED semiconduc- E. J. Dailey (Int., Clark) 15-1 (RCA reprint,
~ tor lasers-Dr. F. H. Nicoll (Labs., Prj
radar installation-B. R. Feingold, A. L.
Polish, D. J. Miller (ATL, Cam) 15-3 (RCA
reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
Modeling ol-B. Tiger (DCSD, Cam) 15-1
(RCA reprint, RE-15-1-18)
Steinfeld (EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-6-13)
VALUE ENGINEERING-the profit is mutual-S. Robinson (MSR, Mrstn) 15-1
(RCA reprint booklet, RCA Quality Assurance, PE-435 and PE-446)
applications, High power-K. K. N.
Chang, H. J. Prager (Labs., Prj 15-2 (RCA
reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems
and Devices, PE-459 and PE-440)
MICROWAVE APPLIED RESEARCH laboratory-Dr. F. Sterzer (EC, Prj 15-2 (RCA
reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems
and Devices, PE-459)
(EC, Hr) 15-2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
MICROWAVE OPERATIONS-an introduction-W. G. Hartzell (EC, Hr) 15-2
(RCA reprint, RE-15-2-17)
(RCA reprint, RE-15-1-4)
C. W. Mueller, Dr. F. Heiman (Labs., Prj
15-2 (RCA reprint, PE-439)
SOLID-STATE DETECTORS for laser applications-Dr. R. J. MCintyre, H. C.
Sprigings, P. P. Webb (LTD, Montreal)
15-5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-3)
lor a new horizontal-deflection systemD. E. Burke (EC, Sam) 15-1 (RCA reprint,
Time-division mulliple-access-V. F. Volertas (DCSD, Cam) 15-3 (RCA reprint
booklet, RCA Microwave Technology,
TV monitoring ol-J. R. Staniszewski, W.
Putterman (AED, Prj 15-3 (RCA reprint
booklet, RCA Microwave Technology,
with the-Dr. D. Meyerhofer (Labs., Prj
15-5 (RCA reprint, PE-464)
CLEANING AND PLATING engineeringR. W. Etter, N. Seidman (EC, Lanc) 15-4
(RCA reprint, RE-15-4-16)
Eastman, III (AED, Prj 15-2 (RCA reprint,
color TV, High-quaJity-L. V. Hedlund, K.
Louth (CES, Cam) 15-1 (RCA reprint,
applications, Advances in-E. A. Schearder, H. C. Schindler, F. R. Nyman (EC,
Hr) 15-2 (RCA reprint, RE-15-2-8)
COLOR GENLOCK, Remote-R. J. Butler
(NBC, N.Y.) 15-1 (RCA reprint, RE-15-113)
history of an-R. E. Dehm, O. E. Colgan
(EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE15-6-12)
HUM BUCKERS lor television remotesJ. L. Hathaway (NBC, N.Y.) 15-6 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-6-22)
engineer in a-E. B. Galton (ASD, Burl)
15-4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-3)
duration manned space missions, The
requirement lor-M. L. Johnson (ASD,
Burl) 15-3 (RCA reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
color TV, High-quaJity-L. V. Hedlund, K.
Louth (CES, Cam) 15-1 (RCA reprint,
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT-R. A. Alleman (EC, Lanc) 15-4 (RCA reprint, RE15-4-6)
I. Arnold (ASD, Burl) 15-4 (RCA reprint,
printed-wire boards, New developments
in-E. E. Gilbert (IS, Cam) 15-5 (RCA reprint, RE-15-5-21)
-G. Weidner, D. Miller (ATL, Cam) 15-3
(RCA reprint, RE-15-3-24)
Using tests and analyses to achieve-H.
H. Anderson, V. Staehejko (MSR, Mrstn)
15-3 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave
Systems and Devices, PE-459)
(RCA reprint, RE-15-1-4)
lor a new horizontal-deflection systemD. E. Burke (EC, Sam) 15-1 (RCA reprint,
(Labs., Prj 15-1 (RCA reprint, RE-15-1-7)
Sickles, L. computer components
COLOR-CAMERA for live and film use,
New one-tube-T. M. Wagner (CES, Burbank) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-20)
Weidner, G. masers
COLOR FILM SYSTEM, PK-610-R. Jorgenson (CES, Burbank) 15-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-19)
COLD GAS for photomultiplier cooling
Generating-J. Gerber (Labs., Prj 15-&
(RCA reprint, RE-15-6-22)
MICROWAVE OPERATIONS-an introduction-W. G. Hartzell (EC, Hr) 15-2
(RCA reprint, RE-15-2-17)
MICROWAVE SOLID-STATE TRANSMITTERS for rockets and projecliles-R. R.
Lorentzen, R. E. Askew, A. Presser (EC,
Hr) 15-2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
traffic control, New-E. Rose, O. Johnk
(EC, Hr) 15-2 (RCA reprint booklets, RCA
Microwave Technology, PE-452 and Microwave Systems and Devices, PE-459)
PHOTOMULTIPLIER DETECTORS for lasers, New-D. E. Persyk (EC, Lanc) 15-5
(RCA reprint, RE-15-5-5)
Alaspa, A. computer components
Arnold, T. I. reliability
Berger, P. H. human factors
Curtis, W. C. circuits, integrated
Curtis, W. C. communications
DeBruyne, P. circuit analysis
Galton, E. B. manufacturing
Gardiner, F. J. lasers
Gardiner, F. J. radiation detection
Goldwasser, W. J. circuit analysis
Greenspan, A. M. checkout
Honda, H. circuits, integrated
Honda, H. communications components
Johnson, M. L. logistics
Johnson, M. L. reliability
Kidd, M. C. education
Kolodkin, S. S. management
Kornstein, E. lasers
Luce, N. lasers
McDonald, W. P. computer applications
Perrin, R. M. computer components
Schein, T. R. lasers
Veilleux, E. D. environmental engineering
Wetzstein, H. J. management
Wetzstein, H. J. lasers
Croft, J. mechanical devices
Eastman, F. H. recording, image
Johnson, K. R. mechanical devices
Meyer, E. L. environmental engineering
Modersbach, R. J. documentation
Pullerman, W. spacecraft instrumentation
Shepherd, B. A. mechanical devices
Staniszewski, J. R. spacecraft
Sullivan, M. V. recording, image
Wise, P. C. environmental engineering
CERAMIC ENGINEERING-M. W. Hoelscher, J. l. Rhoads (EC, Lane) 15-4 (RCA
reprint, RE-15-4-8)
countermeasures-H. J. Wolkstein, M.
Freeling, M. P. Puri (EC, Hr) 15-2 (RCA
reprint booklet, RCA Microwave Technology, PE-452)
Strubhar (EC, Lane) 15-4 (RCA reprint,
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT-R. A. Alleman (EC, Lane) 15-4 (RCA reprint, RE15-4-6)
SPECIAL MATERIALS, Development and
production of-R. J. Blazek (EC, Lanc)
15-4 (RCA reprint, RE-15-4-11)
role ofthe-R. H. Aires (EASD, Van Nuys)
15-6 (RCA reprint, RE-15-6-17)
INTERNATIONAL MARKETS, RCA andE. J. Dailey (Int., Clark) 15-1 (RCA reprint,
PROFILE, Electromagnetic and Aviation
Systems Division (EASD)-R. J. Ellis
(EASD, Van Nuys) 15-6 (RCA reprint,
U.S.S.R. REVISITED-Dr. J. I. Pankove
(Labs., Prj 15-1 (RCA reprint, PE-432)
Author Index
Subject listed opposite each author's
name indicates where complete cltallon
to his paper may be found in the subject
index. An author may have more than
one paper for each subject category.
Dietz, W. F. solid-state devices
Dietz, W. F. television broadcasting
Brooks, F. E. communications
Clark, R. N. antennas
Clark, R. N. electromagnetic waves
Hedlund, L. V. recording, image
Hedlund, L. V. television broadcasting
Jorgenson, R. television equipment
Louth, K. recording, image
Louth, K. television broadcasting
Slukola, M. S. antennas
Slukola, M. S. electromagnetic waves
Wagner, T. M. television equipment
Biedenbach, J. M. education
Hadlock, VV. O. documentation
Jennings, E. R. documentation
Watson, S. H. management
Allen, R. W. communications systems
Bura, P. circuits, integrated
Bura, P. communications components
Edwards, N. E. communication systems
Flcchi, R. F. management
Pan, W. circyits, integrated
Pan, W. communications components
Sass, E. J. communications systems
Tiger, B. reliability
Volertas, V. F. communications systems
Volerlas, V. F. space communications
Yuan, S. circuits, integrated
Yuan, S. communications components
Ammon, G. lasers
Feingold, B. R. masers
Gandolfo, O. electromagnetic waves
Gandolfo, D. properties, surface
Herzog, D. G. lasers
Miller, D. J. masers
POlish, A. L. masers
Russell, S. lasers
Schwarzmann, A. communications
Aires, R. H. general technology
Benedict, G. P. computer components
Benedict, G. P. displays
Adams, K. C. computer components
Adams, K. C. displays
Colgan, O. E. reliability
Crow, R. P. aircraft instruments
Dehm, R. E. reliability
Easter, F. C. energy conversion
Ellis, R. J. general technology
Fairhurst, G. F. logistics
Franklin, S. C. mechanical devices
Freed, A. J. computer systems
Koch, D. W. logistics
Levy, A. circuits, integrated
Lichowsky, A. circuits, integrated
Masse, M. aircraft instruments
Norwalt, R. H. computer components
Norwalt, R. H. displays
Prall, J. H. aircraft instruments
Steinfeld, S. reliability
Van den Heuvel, R. C. computer
Van den Heuvel, R. C. displays
Vol me range, H. aircraft instruments
Avery, R.
Avery, R.
Bush, W.
Bush, W.
W. computer applications
W. education
R. computer applications
R. education
Daggell, B. I. education
Panati, C. F. optics
Sullon, A. M. optics
Dailey, E. J. management
Alleman, R. A. manufacturing
Alleman, R. A. tube components
Askew, R. E. communications
Askew, R. E. tubes, electron
Bailey, R. l. communications
Berlin, R. E. energy conversion
Blattner, D. J. communications
Blazek, R. J. tube components
Breen, W. E. communications
Bridge, R. E. communications
Burke, D. E. solid-state devices
Burke, D. E. television broadcasting
Eller, R. W. manufacturing
Forman, J. M. management
Freeling, M. communications components
Freeling, M. tubes, electron
Gehrke, F. E. communications
Gehrke, F. E. solid-state devices
Gnau, L. H. energy conversion
Hartzell, W. G. communications
Hartzell, W. G. sol id-state devices
Hartzell, W. G. tubes, electron
Hoelscher, M. W. mechanical devices
Hoelscher, M. W. tube components
Jasinski, J. R. communications
Jenny, H. K. communications components
Johnk, O. communications components
Johnk, O. tubes, electron
Kucera, J. checkout
Lorentzen, R. R. communications
Lorentzen, R. R. tubes, electron
Napoleon, J. J. communications
Nelson, R. S. enelgy conversion
Nyman, F. R. superconductivity
Paglione, R. W. communications
Persyk, D. E. lasers
Persyk, D. E. radiation detection
Persyk, D. E. tubes, electron
Presser, A. communications components
Presser, A. tubes, electron
Puri, M. P. communications components
Puri, M. P. tubes, electron
Raag, V. energy conversion
Reiser, M. checkout
Rhoads, J. L. mechanical devices
Rhoads, J. L. tube components
Rose, E. communications components
Rose, E. tubes, electron
Schrader, E. R. superconductivity
Schindler, F. R. superconductivity
Seidman, N. manufacturing
Siokanowicz, W. W. communications
Sterzer, F. communications components
Sterzer, F. solid-state devices
Strubhar, .P. D. management
Strubhar, P. D. mechanical devices
Strubhar, P. D. tube components
Vaccaro, F. E. communications
Walsh, T. E. communications components
Wolkstein, H. J. communications
Wolkstein, H. J. tubes, electron
Carrell, R. M. checkout
Carrell, R. M. graphic arts
Coleman, A. H. computer applications
Day, R. F. management
Gilbert, E. E. manufacturing
Bosenberg, W. A. circuits, integrated
Chang, K. K. N. solid-state devices
Dean, R. H. circuits, integrated
Dean, R. H. communications components
Donald, P. J. graphic arts
Donald, P. J. lasers
Firester, A. H. lasers
Gerber, J. environmental engineering
Gerber, J. tubes, electron
Harbeke, G. lasers
Heilmeier, G. H. displays
Heilmeler, G. H. properties, molecular
Heiman, F. solid-state devices
Hernqvist, K. G. lasers
Hook, H. O. environmental engineering
Kressel, H. lasers
Lewis, H. R. lasers
Meyerhofer, D. holography
Meyerhofer, D. lasers
Meyerhofer, D. manufacturing
Meyerhofer, D. mechanical devices
Mueller, C. W. solid-state devices
Nelson, H. lasers
Nergaard, L. S. circuits, integrated
Nergaard, L. S. communications
Nicoli, F. H. lasers
Pankove, J. I. general technology
Prager, H. J. solid-state devices
Pressley, R. J. lasers
Ross, D. L. graphic arts
Ross, D. L. lasers
Russinoff, A. management
Sail, C. W. education
Schiff, L. communications systems
Staras, H. communications systems
Steigmeier, E. F. lasers
Wolff, N. E. management
Boag, J. C. lasers
Crane, R. A. lasers
Fiarlie, E. J. environmental engineering
Fjarlie, E. J. lasers
Green, R. M. lasers
Mcintyre, R. J. lasers
MCintyre, R. J. solid-state devices
Moody, H. J. communications systems
Philpoll, F. S. education
Philpott, F. S. lasers
Sprigings, H. C. lasers
Sprigings, H. C. solid-state devices
Waksberg, A. L. lasers
Webb, P. P. lasers
Webb, P. P. solid-state devices
Wood, J. I. lasers
Yee, H. K. H. television broadcasting
Frank, U. A. interference
Londner, R. T. interference
Anderson, H. H. reliability
Breese, M. E. communications
Klawsnik, F. antennas
Kruger, I. D. mechanical devices
Landry, N. R. communications
Paglee, M. R. radar
Patton, W. T. communications
Robinson, A. S. radar
Robinson, S. reliability
Stachejko, V. reliability
Staiman, D. communications components
Weiss, M. mechanical devices
Buller, R. J. television broadcasting
Hathaway, J. L. television broadcasting
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