www.cedesa.com.mx
www.cedesa.com.mx
Hacienda La Muralla No. 136, C P. 7618 0
Jardines de la Hacienda. Querétaro, Méx.
[email protected]
Tel.: +52 (442) 212 20 12
Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments . . . . . 1
Semiconductor Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Low Level Measurements and Sourcing . . . . . . . . . . 85
Switching and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Digital Multimeters and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
DC Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Optoelectronics Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
387
388
390
395
396
398
Table of
INDEX
Contents
Customer Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sales Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacement Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side Text
Table of Contents
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
i
Index
Products and General
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347–386
Laser Diode LIV Test System . . . . . . . . . . 329–331
ACS Automated Characterization
Suite Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78–83
Laser Diode Mounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Adapter, Cable, and Stabilizer Kits . . . . . 375–376
Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364–374
Products
Sideand
Textgeneral
Selector Guide—Low Current/High
Resistance Measurement Products . . . . . 105–106
Low Voltage/Low Resistance
Measurement Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85–102
Audio Analyzing Multimeters . . . . . . . . . 239–246
LXI Products . . . . . . 129–132, 136–145, 194–199
Battery/Charger Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . 290–310
Microwave Switch Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 208–216
Selector Guide—Optoelectronics
Test Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Battery Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290–310
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248–256
Selector Guide—Plug-In Cards for
Series 3700A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147–148
Multimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217–277
Selector Guide—Rack Mount Kits . . . . . . . . . . 380
Nanovoltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91–96
Selector Guide—SourceMeter Instruments . . 8–9
Optical Switch Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . 190, 344–345
Selector Guide—Switch Card Accessories
for 7001, 7002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352–363
Calibration Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Carrying Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Optoelectronic Test Solutions . . . . . . . . 317–345
Selector Guide—Low Voltage/Low
Resistance Measurement Products . . . . . . . . . . 90
Selector Guide—Switch Cards and
Accessories for 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A . 200
Charger Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290–310
Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388–389
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364–374
Parametric Test Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70–81
Current Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117–118
Photodiode Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114–116, 335
Selector Guide—Switch Cards for
7001, 7002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176–177
Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97–101, 339–342
Picoammeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107–116
Selector Guide—Test Leads and Probes . . . . . 348
Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387–398
Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279–316
Semiconductor Characterization
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56–69
DC Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279–316
Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348–351
Digital Multimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217–277
Pulsed Laser Diode Test System . . . . . . . 321–325
Semiconductor Parametric Test
and Device Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–83
Electrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119–127
Rack Mount Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380–382
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270–271
Ethernet Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248–256
Remote PreAmp Mounting Accessories . . . . . 383
Source Measurement Unit (SMU)
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–54
ExceLINX-1A Excel Add-In . . . . . . . . . . . . 270, 271
Fiber Alignment Photodiode Meter . . . . 114–116
GPIB Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385–386
Hall Effect Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128, 189
IEEE-488 Communications . . . . . . . . . . . 385–386
INDEX
Selector Guide—Integra Systems . . . . . . . . . . 252
Airbag Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272–276
Bench Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Repair Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Replacement Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Source and Measure . . 1–54, 272–277, 339–342
RF/Microwave Switch Systems . . . . . . . . 208–216
SourceMeter
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–51, 272–277
Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396–397
Switching and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133–216
Sales Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390–394
TEC SourceMeter Instruments . . . . . . . . 339–342
Integra Systems Multimeter/Data
Acquisition/Switch Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 248–256
Screw Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367–368
Test Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Selector Guide—Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352–353
Test Leads and Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348–351
Integra Systems Plug-In Modules
and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257–269
Selector Guide—Connectors,
Adapters, and Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364–365
THD Multimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239–246
Integrating Sphere . . . . . . . . . . 326–328, 336–338
Selector Guide—Digital Multimeters . . . 220–221
Voltage Sources . . . . . . 1–54, 110–113, 339–342
I-V Characterization Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 56–69
Selector Guide—IEEE-488 Interface Boards . 385
Warranty Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
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ii
Low Current/High Resistance
Measurement Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103–131
Selector Guide—Integra System
Plug-In Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256–257
A
G R E A T E R
Trigger Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378–379
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2107-*
Low-Thermal Input Cables with Spade Lugs. . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Silver Solder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
2182-325A
2182ANanovoltmeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Low-Thermal Connector with Strain Relief. . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
2182-KIT
2187-4
Test Lead Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Low-Thermal Calibration Shorting Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
2188
2200-20-5
20V, 5A Programmable DC Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
30V, 5A Programmable DC Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
2200-30-5
2200-32-3
32V, 3A Programmable DC Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
60V, 2.5A Programmable DC Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
2200-60-2
2200-72-1
72V, 1.5A Programmable DC Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Battery Simulator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
2302
2303
High Speed Precision Readback Power Supply (45W) . . . . 311
High Speed Precision Readback Power Supply (45W,
2303-PJ
500mA range replaces 5mA range). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
High Speed Precision Readback Power Supply (100W) . . . 311
2304A
2306
Battery/Charger Simulator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Battery/Charger Simulator with 500mA Range. . . . . . . . . . 297
2306-PJ
2306-VS
Dual-Channel Battery/Charger Simulator
with External Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Portable Device Battery/Charger Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
2308
2361
Trigger Controller Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
200V, 1A, 20W SourceMeter® Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2400
200V, 1A, 20W SourceMeter Instrument
2400-C
with Contact Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
20V, 1A, 20W SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
2400-LV
2401
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1100V, 1A, 20W SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2410
2410-C
1100V, 1A, 20W SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
60V, 3A, 60W SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
2420
2420-C
60V, 3A, 60W SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
2425
100V, 3A, 100W SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
100V, 3A, 100W SourceMeter Instrument
2425-C
with Contact Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2430
100V, 10A, 1000W Pulse Mode SourceMeter Instrument. . . 33
100V, 10A, 1000W Pulse Mode SourceMeter Instrument
2430-C
with Contact Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
40V, 5A, 50W SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
2440
2440-C
40V, 5A, 50W SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
2499-DIGIO Digital I/O Expansion Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
2500INT-2-Ge Integrating Sphere with Germanium Detector. . . . . . . . . . 336
2500INT-2-IGAC
Integrating Sphere with Cooled Indium Gallium
Arsenide Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
2500INT-2-Si Integrating Sphere with Silicon Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
2500INT-FC/APC
FC/APC Connector for 2500-INT Integrating Sphere. . . . . 366
2500INT-FC/PCFC/PC Connector for 2500-INT Integrating Sphere. . . . . . 366
2500INT-SMA SMA Connector for 2500-INT Integrating Sphere. . . . . . . 366
2502
Dual-Channel Picoammeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114, 335
Autotuning TEC SourceMeter Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
2510-AT
2510
TEC SourceMeter Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
25
Laser Diode Test System Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
41
RF/Microwave Signal Routing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
46
RF/Microwave Switch System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
46T
RF/Microwave Switch System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
213-CON
Analog Output Connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
236-ILC-3
Safety Interlock Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
237-ALG-2
Low Noise Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
237-BAN-3A Triax to Banana Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
237-BNC-TRX Male BNC to 3-lug Female Triax Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
237-TRX-BAR 3-lug Triax Barrel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
237-TRX-NG 3-slot Triax to 3-lug Female Triax Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
237-TRX-T
3-slot Male to Dual 3-lug Female Triax Tee Adapter. . . . . . 365
237-TRX-TBC 3-lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
248
High Voltage Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
RG-8A/U Coax Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
248-MHV
248-RMK-*
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
248-SHV
RG-8A/U Coax Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
428-PROG
Programmable Current Amplifier w/IEEE-488 Interface. . 117
707B
Six-slot Semiconductor Switch Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
708B
Single-slot Semiconductor Switch Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . 194
1600A
High Voltage Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
1651
50 Ampere Shunt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
1681
Clip-on Test Lead Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
1751
Safety Test Leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
1752
Premium Safety Test Lead Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
1754
Universal Test Lead Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
1938
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
1939
Slide Rack Mount Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
2000
6½-Digit Multimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
2000/2000-SCAN
6½-Digit DMM/Scanner Combination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
2000-Benchkit Benchtop Restore Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
2000-MTC-2 Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
2000-MTCD-2 Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
2000-SCAN 10-channel, General-Purpose Scanner Card. . . . . . . . 226, 232
2001
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
2001/MEM1 High Performance 7½-Digit DMM with 32K Memory. . . . . 232
2001/MEM2 High Performance 7½-Digit DMM with 128K Memory. . . . 232
2001-SCAN
10-channel Scanner Card with two
high-speed channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226, 232
2001-TCSCAN 9-channel, Thermocouple Scanner Card
with built-in cold junction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226, 237
2002
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
2002/MEM1 High Performance 8½-Digit DMM with 32K Memory. . . . . 232
2002/MEM2 High Performance 8½-Digit DMM with 128K Memory. . . . 232
2010
Low Noise 7½-Digit Autoranging Multimeter. . . . . . . . . . . 237
6½-Digit THD Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
2015
2015-P
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
2016
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeter
w/9V Source Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Audio Analyzing DMM w/9V Source Output. . . . . . . . . . . . 239
2016-P
2100
6½-Digit USB Digital Multimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
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Model
Sidenumbers
Text
Model Numbers
INDEX
Index
C O N F I D E N C E
iii
Index
Model Numbers
3722-MTC-1.5 104-pin D-sub Male to 104-pin D-sub Female Cable,
1.5m (5 ft). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3722-MTC-1.5/MM
104-pin D-sub Male to 104-pin D-sub Male Cable,
1.5m (5 ft). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3722-MTC-3 104-pin D-sub Male to 104-pin D-sub Female Cable,
3m (10 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3722-MTC-3/MM
104-pin D-sub Male to 104-pin D-sub Male Cable,
3m (10 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Dual 1×30, High Speed, Reed Relay, Multiplexer Card . . . 154
3723
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3723-ST-1
3723-ST
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Dual 1×30 FET Multiplexer Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
3724
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3724-ST
6×16, High Density, Matrix Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
3730
3730-ST
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
6×16 High Speed Reed, Reed Relay, Matrix Card. . . . . . . . 161
3731
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3731-ST
Quad 4×28, Ultra-High Density, Reed Relay Matrix Card. 163
3732
3732-ST-C
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3732-ST-R
General Purpose Card with 32 Independent Channels. . . 167
3740
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3740-ST
3750
Multifunction Control Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3750-ST
3790-KIT50-R 50-pin Female D-sub Connector Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3791-CIT
3791-KIT78-R 78-pin Female D-sub Connector Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3792-KIT104-R 104-pin Male D-sub Connector Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3792-KIT104-R/F
Female D-sub Connector Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
4200-BTI-1A Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package for the Model 4200-SCS. . . . 63
4200-CART
Roll-around Cart for 4200-SCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Transport Case for 4200-SCS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
4200-CASE
4200-CVU-PROBER-KIT
Accessory Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
4200-CVU-PWRAdapter Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
4200-KEY-RM Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
4200-MAG-BASE
Magnetic Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
4200-MOUSE Microsoft Ambidextrous 2-button Mouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
4200-MTRX-* Ultra Low Noise SMU Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Remote PreAmp Option for 4200-SMU and 4210-SMU. . . . 57
4200-PA
4200-PRB-C SMA to SSMC Y Adapter Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
4200-RM
4200-RPC-* Remote PreAmp Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Semiconductor Characterization System . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 56
4200-SCS
Medium Power Source-Measure Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4200-SMU
Triax Mounting Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
4200-TMB
4200-TRX-* Ultra Low Noise PreAmp Triax Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
4200-VAC-BASEVacuum Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Integrated C-V Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4210-CVU
4210-MMPC-C Multi-measurement Cable Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 376
INDEX
Model
Sidenumbers
Text
2520INT
2520/KIT1
2520
2600-ALG-2
2600A
2600-BAN
2600-KIT
2600-TLINK
2600-TRIAX
2601A
Integrating Sphere for Pulsed Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . 326
Pulsed Laser Diode Measurement Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . 322, 327
Pulsed Laser Diode Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
2m (6.6 ft.) Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
System SourceMeter Multi-channel I-V Test Solutions . . . . . 10
Banana Test Leads/Adapter Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Screw Terminal Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
25-pin Digital I/O Port to Trigger Link Adapter . . . . . . . . . 378
Triax Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Single-channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2602A
Dual-channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Single-channel System SourceMeter Instrument
2611A
(200V, 10A Pulse). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2612A
Dual-channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Single-channel System SourceMeter Instrument
2635A
(1fA, 10A Pulse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2636A
Dual-channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2651A
50A, High Power System SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . 26
High Current, Low Impedance, Coaxial Cable Assembly. . 354
2651A-KIT
2700
DMM, Data Acquisition, Datalogging System w/2 Slots . . . 248
DMM, Data Acquisition, Datalogging System w/2 Slots
2701
and Ethernet Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
DMM, Data Acquisition, Switching,
2750
Datalogging System w/5 Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
2790
SourceMeter Airbag Test System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
50MHz Arbitrary Waveform/Function Generator. . . . . . . . 129
3390
3700A
System Switch/Multimeter and Plug-In Cards. . . 102, 136, 247
3706-BAN
Banana Test Leads/Adapter Cable, 1.4m (4.6 ft) . . . . . . . . . 349
3706-BKPL
Analog Backplane Extender Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3706A-NFP
Six-slot System Switch with High Performance DMM,
without front panel display and keypad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3706A
Six-slot System Switch with High Performance DMM. . . . . 136
3706A-SNFP Six-slot System Switch, without front panel display
and keypad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3706A-S
Six-slot System Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3706-TLK
Test Lead Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
3720
Dual 1×30 Multiplexer Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
3720-MTC-1.5 78-pin D-sub Female to 78-pin D-sub Male Cable,
1.5m (5 ft.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3720-MTC-3 78-pin D-sub Female to 78-pin D-sub Male Cable,
3m (10 ft.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3720-MTC-* 78-pin D-sub Female to 78-pin D-sub Male Cable . . . . . . . 355
3720-ST
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3721
Dual 1×20 Multiplexer Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
3721-MTC-1.5 50-pin D-sub Female to 50-pin D-sub Male Cable,
1.5m (5 ft.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3721-MTC-3 50-pin D-sub Female to 50-pin D-sub Male Cable,
3m (10 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
3721-ST
Screw Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3722
Dual 1×48, High Density, Multiplexer Card . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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iv
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model Numbers
Multi-measurement Cable Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 376
High Power Source-Measure Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
High Voltage Pulse Generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Ultra-Fast I-V Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Remote Amplifier/Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Rear Support Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Rear Support Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Heavy Duty, Single Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Heavy Duty, Dual Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Universal Single Unit Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Universal Dual Unit Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
1U Vent Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Low Noise Coax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Low Noise Coax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Low Noise Coax Cable Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
BNC Shorting Plug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Test Lead Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Kelvin Probes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Kelvin Clip Lead Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Helical Spring Point Test Leads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Low Cost, Single Pin, Kelvin Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Low Cost, Kelvin Clip Lead Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
2-slot Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
3-slot Male to 2-lug Female Triax Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
2-slot Male to 3-lug Female Triax Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Complete Delta Mode System, w/DC Current Source,
Nanovoltmeter, and all necessary cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6220/6514/2000/7001
High Impedance Semiconductor Resistivity
and Hall Effect Test System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
DC Precision Current Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6220
6221/2182A Complete Delta Mode System, w/AC and DC Current
Source, Nanovoltmeter, and all necessary cables. . . . . . . . . 97
AC and DC Current Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6221
6430
Sub-femtoamp Remote SourceMeter Instrument. . . . . . . . . 48
6485Picoammeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6487
Picoammeter/Voltage Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Programmable Electrometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6514
6517B
Electrometer/High Resistance Meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
6517B-ILC-3 Interlock Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6517-ILC-3
Interlock Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Humidity Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
6517-RH
6517-TP
Thermocouple Bead Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
6521
Low Current, 10-channel Scanner Card
(for Model 6517B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6522
Low Current, High Impedance Voltage, High
Resistance, 10-channel Scanner Card
(for Model 6517B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
7001
80-channel Switch/Control Mainframe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
369
174
382
382
386
386
357
386
178
369
357
178
369
179
179
369
Model
Sidenumbers
Text
Blank Panel for Model 7001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
400-channel Switch/ Control Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed Rack Mount Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slide Rack Mount Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single-Shielded GPIB Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double-Shielded Premium GPIB Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shielded RS-232 Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shielded IEEE-to-IEEE Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer with 96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7011-KIT-R
96-pin Female DIN Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7011-MTC-1 1m (3.3 ft) Mass Terminated Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . .
7011-S
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer with Screw Terminal
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extra Quick Disconnect Screw Terminal Board. . . . . . . . .
7011-ST
7012-C
4×10, 2-Pole Matrix with 96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4×10, 2-Pole Matrix with Screw Terminal
7012-S
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7012-ST
Extra Quick Disconnect Screw Terminal Board. . . . . . . . .
20-channel, 2-pole Independent Switch with 96-pin
7013-C
Mass Terminated Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7013-S
20-channel, 2-pole Independent Switch with
Screw Terminal Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7013-ST
Extra Quick Disconnect Screw Terminal Board. . . . . . . . .
7014
39-Channel Thermocouple Scanner with Screw
Terminal Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7014-ST
Extra Quick Disconnect Isothermal
Screw Terminal Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7015-C
40-channel, 2-pole Independent Switch with 96-pin
Mass Terminated Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40-channel, 2-pole Independent Switch with Screw
7015-S
Terminal Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7015-ST
Extra Quick Disconnect Screw Terminal Board. . . . . . . . .
Dual 1×4, 2GHz, 50W Multiplexer with Optional
7016A
Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7017
Dual 1×4, 800MHz, 50W Multiplexer with
SMA Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7018-C
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer with 96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7018-S
Dual 1×14 Multiplexer with Screw Terminal
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extra Quick Disconnect Screw Terminal Board. . . . . . . . .
7018-ST
7019-C
Dual 3×6 Matrix with 96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7019C-MTC-1 Kelvin Extender Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7019C-MTCI-2 6-wire Kelvin Extender and Instrument Cable. . . . . . . . . .
7020-D
Digital I/O Card with D-sub Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7020
Digital I/O Card with 96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7020-MTC-2 2m (6.6 ft) Mass Terminated Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . .
7021
30-channel Multiplexer with Digital I/O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-slot Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7024-*
7025-10
2-slot Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 Bank 1×4 Multiplexer Switching Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7035
7001-PNL
7002
7002-RMK-1
7002-RMK-2
7006-*
7007-*
7009-5
7010
7011-C
4210-MMPC-S
4210-SMU
4220-PGU
4225-PMU
4225-RPM
4288-1
4288-2
4288-4
4288-5
4288-7
4288-9
4288-10
4299-1
4299-2
4299-3
4299-4
4299-5
4801
4802-10
4803
4851
5804
5805
5806
5807-7
5808
5809
6011
6171
6172
6220/2182A
180
180
369
180
369
181
181
369
181
182
182
182
370
183
357
357
184
184
357
185
357
357
186
INDEX
Index
C O N F I D E N C E
v
Index
Model Numbers
7168
7173-50
7173-50-CSEP
7174A
7401
7700
8-channel Nanovolt Scanner Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4×12, High Frequency Two-pole Matrix Card . . . . . . . . . .
Cable Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8×12 High Speed, Low Current Matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type K Thermocouple Wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20-channel, Differential Multiplexer Module
w/Automatic CJC and Screw Terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32-channel, Differential Multiplexer Module . . . . . . . . . . .
7701
7702
40-channel Differential Multiplexer Module with
Screw Terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32-channel, High Speed, Differential
7703
Multiplexer Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DB50 Male Connector Kit (solder cup) with Shell . . . . . . .
7703-306A
40-channel, Single-pole Control Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7705
7705-MTC-2 2m (6.6 ft) 50-conductor Male to Female D-sub
Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All-in-One I/O Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7706
32-channel Digital I/O Module with 10-channel
7707
Differential Multiplexer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7707-MTC-2 2m (6.6 ft) 25-conductor Male to Female D-sub
Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40-channel Differential Multiplexer Module with
7708
Automatic CJC and Screw Terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6×8 Matrix Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7709
DB25 Male Connector Kit (solder cup) with Shell . . . . . . .
7709-308A
20-channel Solid-state Differential Multiplexer Module . .
7710
7711
2GHz 50W RF Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7711-BNC-SMA Male SMA to Female BNC Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5GHz 50W RF Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7712
7712-SMA-1 SMA Cable, Male to Male, 1m (3.3 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7712-SMA-N Female SMA to Male N-Type Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Voltage Source/Switch Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7751
Low Voltage, Current-Source-Only
7752
Source/Switch Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77531MW High Voltage Source/Switch Module. . . . . . . . . . . . .
BNC to Alligator Cable: 0.9m (3 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7754-3
775550W Feed-Through Terminator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Fixed Rack Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7768
7788
50-pin D Subminiature Connector Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50-pin/25-pin (both male) D-Shell Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7789
50-pin Male, 50-pin Female, 25-pin Male IDC D-Shell
7790
Connector Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard 10-in. High, 19-in. Wide Equipment Cabinet. . . .
8000-10
8000-14A
Standard 14-in. High, 19-in. Wide Equipment Cabinet. . . .
Standard 17-in. High, 19-in. Wide Equipment Cabinet. . . .
8000-17A
Standard 28-in. High, 19-in. Wide Equipment Cabinet . . .
8000
8007-GND-3 Safety Ground Wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8007-MTC-3 Mass Terminated Cable Assembly, 3m (10 ft) . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistivity Chamber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8009
Test Socket Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8011
4-pin Transistor Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8101-4TRX
8101-PIV
DC and Pulse I-V Demo Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trigger Link Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8501-*
8502
Trigger Link Adapter Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INDEX
Model
Sidenumbers
Text
7035-MTC-2
7036-MTC-2
7036
7037-D
2m (6.6 ft) Mass Terminated Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . 358
2m (6.6 ft) Mass Terminated Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . 358
Single-Pole Relay Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Single-Pole Relay Digital I/O Card with
D-sub Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7038
Three 1×4, 2GHz, 75W Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
7051-*
General Purpose BNC to BNC Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7053
10-channel High Current Scanner with Screw Terminal
Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Hall Effect Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7065
7067
4-Wire Scanner Card with Screw Terminal Connections. . 188
Dual 4×12 General Purpose Matrix Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
7071-4
7071
8×12 General Purpose Matrix Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8×12 Semiconductor Matrix Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
7072
7072-HV
8×12 High Voltage Semiconductor Matrix Card. . . . . . . . . 204
Triax Removal Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7072-TRT
7074-CIT
Contact Extraction Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7074-HCT
Contact Crimping Pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7075
Eight 1×12 Two-pole Multiplexer Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
7075-MTC
3m (10 ft) Mass Terminated Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . 358
7076-CMTC High Isolation 3m (10 ft) Mass Terminated
Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7076-RMTC High Isolation 3m (10 ft) Mass Terminated
Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
7078-CIT
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7078-CSHP
Eight 3m (10 ft) Cables and Four BNC-to-Triax Adapters. . 359
7078-DIN
1.8m (6 ft) Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7078-HCT
Contact Crimping Pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7078-KIT
38-pin Plug Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7078-MTC-5 1.5m (5 ft) Mass Terminated Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . 359
7078-MTR
38-pin Bulkhead Mount Receptacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7078-TRX-*
3-slot Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7078-TRX-6IN 3-slot Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7078-TRX-BNC 3-slot Male Triax to BNC Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
7078-TRX-GND3-slot Male Triax to BNC Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
7078-TRX-TBC 3-lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
7079
Slide Rack Mount Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
7090-8-4
1×8 Multimode with FC/SPC Fiber Pigtail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7090-16-6
1×16 Single-mode with FC/SPC Fiber Pigtail. . . . . . . . . . . 190
7090
Optical Switch Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190, 344
7111-S
Quad 1×10 Form C Multiplexer with Screw Terminal
Connector Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7116-MWS
16-Channel Microwave Switch System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4×5 Low Current Matrix Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7152
7152-HCT
Contact Crimping Pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
7152-KIT
6-pin Plug Assembly with Strain Relief and Contacts. . . . . 371
7152-MTC-* Five Low Noise Triax Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
7152-MTR
6-pin Bulkhead Mount Receptacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
7152-TRX-10 Five 3m (10 ft) Low Noise Triax Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
7153
4×5 High Voltage Low Current Matrix Card. . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7153-TRX
2m (6.6 ft) Low Noise Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
7154
High Voltage Scanner Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7158
Low Current Scanner Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
w w w.keithley.com
vi
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
193
206
360
207
351
258
259
260
261
371
262
360
263
264
360
265
266
371
267
268
360
269
360
371
277
277
277
361
372
382
372
372
372
383
383
383
383
361
361
377
377
377
377
378
378
Index
8544-TEC
8605
8606
8607
8610
8620
8680
8681
378
378
386
361
CS-846
CS-970
CS-1247
CS-1249
CS-1251
CS-1252
CS-1281
CS-1305
CS-1382
CS-1390
CS-1391
CS-1423-3
CS-1479
CS-1592-2
CS-1626-2
CS-1629-8
CS-1638-12
343
343
343
351
351
361
372
372
372
351
A
EM-23B
Keyboard with Integrated Trackball Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Modified Power Splitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
EM-50A
ExceLINX-1A Excel Add-In. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
K
B
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488.2 Interface Board for the PCI Bus. . . . . . . . . . . . 385
KUSB-488B IEEE-488.2 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter for USB Port. . 385
Dual Banana to BNC Coaxial Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
C
CA-18-1
CA-19-2
CA-109A
CA-126-1
CA-180-3A
CA-321-1
CA-322-1
CA-404B
CA-405B
CA-406B
CA-446A
CA-447A
CA-451A
CA-452A
CA-557-*
CA-558-2
CAP-18
CAP-31
CS-400
CS-458
CS-565
CS-630
CS-631
CS-701
CS-719
1.2m (4 ft) Shielded Cable, Dual Banana Plug . . . . . . . . . .
RG58 Cable, 1.5m (5 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Lead Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital I/O Cable, 1.5m (5 ft). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAT5 Crossover Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature Control Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual Temperature Control Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RG188 Coax Cable, 2m (6.5 ft). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RG188 Coax Cable, 15cm (6 in). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RG188 Coax Cable, 33cm (13 in). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coax Cable, 3m (9.8 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coax Cable, 1.5m (4.9 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RG188 Coax Cable, 10.8cm (4.25 in). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RG188 Coax Cable, 20.4cm (8 in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-pin Male to 8-pin Male Cable Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25-pin D-sub Interlock Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective Shield/Cap for BNC Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective Shield/Cap for 3-lug Triax Connectors. . . . . . . .
DB25 Male Solder Cup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interlock Connector Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BNC Barrel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-slot Male Triax Cable Mount Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BNC Tee Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-lug Triax Jack Receptacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
w w w.keithley.com
373
373
373
373
373
373
373
374
374
374
374
374
374
374
374
374
374
E
ACS-2600-RTM Wafer Level Reliability option to ACS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
ACS
Automated Characterization Suite Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
ACS Basic Edition
Semiconductor Parametric Test Software for
Component and Discrete Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
BG-18
Eight Position Connector with Screw Terminals . . . . . . . .
High Voltage Bulkhead Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMA Female to BNC Male Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMA Female to SMB Plug Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BNC Female to SMB Plug Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMA Male to BNC Female Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMA Female to SMA Female Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interlock Connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Female MMBX Jack to Male SMA Plug Adapter. . . . . . . . . .
Male LEMO Triax to Female SMA Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMA Tee Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miniature Mating Connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMA Male to BNC Male Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-pin Male Screw Terminal Connector Plug. . . . . . . . . . . .
2-pin Female Screw Terminal Connector Block. . . . . . . . .
8-pin Female Cable Termination Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-pin rear panel output connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model
Sidenumbers
Text
8544
DIN-to-BNC Trigger Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Male to 2 Female Y-DIN Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centronics Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8m (6 ft) LIV Test System Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual In-Line (DIL) Telecom Laser Diode Mount
Bundle with 8542-301 and CA-321-1 cables . . . . . . . . . . . .
Butterfly Telecom Laser Diode Mount Bundle with
8542-301 and CA-321-1 cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Butterfly Telecom Laser Diode Mount Bundle with
TEC, thermistor, and AD592CN temperature sensor,
with 8542-301 and CA-322-1 cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Performance Modular Test Leads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Performance Modular Probe Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1kV Source Banana Cable Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Thermal Shorting Plug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four-Wire DMM Shorting Plug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RTD Probe Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low Cost RTD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L
361
361
351
361
361
361
362
362
362
362
362
362
362
362
362
363
372
372
373
373
373
373
373
373
373
LR8028
Component Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
S
S46-SMA-0.5 SMA Cable, Male to Male, 0.15m (0.5 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
SMA Cable, Male to Male, 0.3m (1 ft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
S46-SMA-1
S500
Integrated Test System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
S530
Parametric Test Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
SC-9
Low Noise Coax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Low Noise Triax Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
SC-22
SC-93
Low Thermal, 2-Conductor Shielded Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
SC-182
Low Inductance Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
SC-200
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Series 2200 Programmable DC Power Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Series 2400 SourceMeter Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 332
Series 2600A System SourceMeter Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Series 3700A System Switch/Multimeter and Plug-In Cards. . . . . . . . . . . 136
Parametric Test Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Series S530
System 25
Laser Diode Test System Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
System 41
RF/Microwave Signal Routing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
System 46
RF/Microwave Switch System, 32 Ch., Unterminated. . . . . 210
RF/Microwave Switch System, 32 Ch., Terminated. . . . . . . 213
System 46T
INDEX
8503
8505
8530
8542-301
8542
Model Numbers
T
TL-24
A
G R E A T E R
SMA Torque Wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
vii
Advancing Our Leadership in Source Measurement Technology
Characterize and test today’s
advanced high power electronic
components with the Model 2651A
High Power SourceMeter® Instrument:
n Test power FETs, HBLEDs, and
optical devices
n Characterize GaN, SiC, and other
compound materials and devices
n Study electromigration
n Examine semiconductor junction
temperatures
+50A
DC and Pulse
Pulse only
+20A
+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
–20A
–50A
–40V
–20V
–10V
0V
+10V
+40V
+20V
Unprecedented power, precision, and speed for
today’s high power, high current electronics
Model 2651A High Power SourceMeter Instrument
n 2,000W of pulsed power, 200W of DC power (source and sink up to ±40V and ±50A)
n 100A or 80V source and sink when two Model 2651As are connected
n 1pA and 1µV resolution
n 1µs per point, 18-bit signal sampling
See page 26 for more information.
a
greater
measure
of
confidence
with Breakthrough Capabilities and Unmatched Performance
a
Most cost-effective, precision
SMU instrument in the industry
Outstanding performance, excellent
versatility, and exceptional ease of use
Model 2401 Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
n Compact, single-channel, DC parametric tester
n 20W precision sourcing and measurement (1µV-20V, 10pA-1A)
n Unprecedented low price
Series 2200 Programmable DC Power Supplies
n Five cost-effective models from 20V to 72V for a
wide range of applications
n 1mV, 0.1mA resolution
n Low noise, linear regulation
n Front and rear outputs and remote sensing for both
bench-top and system applications
See page 41 for more information.
See page 286 for more information.
greater
measure
of
confidence
Ensuring High Quality Performance in
Advanced Technology Components and Devices
Energy components and devices
n High power semiconductors
n Advanced batteries
n Low power integrated circuits
n Solar cells
Multi-function, Source-Measure Topology
Electrical components
n Sensors
n Resistor networks
n Varistors
n Thermistors
I meter
V
The ultimate high-speed I-V
measurement solution
I
V meter
The precision instrument that performs:
•Precision sourcing and sinking of voltage and current
• Measurements of current, voltage, and resistance
Dual-Channel Series 2600A System
SourceMeter® Instruments
n Ultra-sensitive sourcing/sinking: 5µV, 20fA
n Ultra-sensitive measurement: 1µV, 1fA
n Pulse operation and embedded
programming
Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments
n Voltage and current source sensitivity: 5µV, 50pA
n Voltage and current measurement sensitivity: 1µV, 50pA
n Source and measurement up to 1000V and 10A
See page 33 for more information.
See page 10 for more information.
a
greater
measure
of
confidence
with Precision, Sensitive Source-Measure and Switching Solutions
I (Amps)
+I
SMU
Optoelectronic devices
n HBLEDs, OLEDs, and solid-state lighting
n Photodiodes
n Laser diodes
Medical/automotive/computer
devices and modules
n Hybrid automotive electronic
components
n Implantable medical devices
n GMR heads
–100
–V
V meter
+100
+V
–I
c
b
e
SMU
I source
V meter
SMU
IC
I meter
Ib4
Ib3
Ib2
V V Source
Ib1
VCE
High speed switching and measurement
solution optimized for automated testing
Model 3706A System Switch with High Performance Digital Multimeter
n Extensive set of switch cards
n Switch only or switch with built-in 7½-digit DMM
n Integrates seamlessly with Series 2600A
SourceMeter instruments
greater
measure
of
Model 2010 Autoranging Digital Multimeter
n 7½-digit resolution
n 100nV rms noise floor
n 1µΩ sensitivity
See page 237 for more information.
See page 136 for more information.
a
High resolution, low noise
measurements with superior low
level resistance measurements
confidence
Bringing the Next Generation of Semiconductors to Market
Device characterization – Material characterization – Failure analysis – Wafer level
AdvanceD memory technologies
n Flash
n Phase change memory
n Resistive memory
emerging technologies
n Quantum power and compound
semiconductor devices
n Graphene and carbon nanotube devices
Extensive measurements
n Superconductive, low resistance materials
n Surface/volume resistivity of insulating materials
n Bias temperature instability
n Electromigration
n Through silicon vias
Industry’s most cost-effective,
fully automatic parametric testers
Series S530 Parametric Test Systems
n High throughput, high flexibilty
n Optimized for high-mix test environments
n fA and µV resolution
n Sources up to 1000V
n KTE software for easy migration of older systems
n Full Kelvin high voltage performance (with High Voltage Model S530)
See page 70 for more information.
a
g r e a t e r
m e a s u r e
o f
c o n f i d e n c e
with Sensitive, High Speed Lab-to-Fab Measurement Solutions
re l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g – P ro c e s s m o n i t o r i n g – Q u a l i t y a s s u ra n c e t e s t i n g
Current Measurements vs. Time Comparison of
Various Keithley DC and Pulsed I-V Instruments
1A
10mA
4200-SMU
1mA
4225-PMU
Model 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System
n DC I-V, C-V, pulse, and transient characterization
n Real-time plotting, and analysis
n Over 400 sample device libraries
1µA
4225-RPM
1nA
4200-PA
PreAmp
1pA
0.1fA
son
John
No
4210-MMPC cables
reduce transmission
line impact
1fA
1
100m 10m
1m
)
ient
amb
its (
im
ise L
100µ 10µ
1µ
100n
10n
Time (seconds)
Increase test throughput, reduce time to
market, and test more types of devices
Software for semiconductor device testing and analysis
Model 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization Systems
n Performs very low frequency C-V measurements
n Tests more devices in parallel than with any
competitive system
n Up to 12 simultaneous ultra-fast I-V channels with pulse capability
Automated Characterization Suite (ACS)
n Wide range of instruments, systems, and probers
n Interactive or fully automated
n Device and wafer level results
See page 56 for more information.
a
greater
measure
See page 78 for more information.
of
confidence
Enabling Advanced Research into the Physical and
Chemical Properties of New Materials
New Materials
n Graphene and carbon nanotubes
n Organic electronics
n Superconductors
n Magneto-resistive materials
Materials for new power sources
n Biofuels
n Solar cells
n Renewable energy sources
Materials for new applications, such as
n Organic polymer e-ink displays
n Flexible plastic TFT displays
n OLED displays
Source both low-current AC and DC with
exceptionally low-current noise
Measure low currents with ease
Models 6220/6221 Current Sources
n 100fA programming resolution
n 1014Ω output impedance
n Arbitrary waveform generator (6221)
Models 6485/6487 Picoammeters
n 10fA sensitivity
n <200µV voltage burden
n Built-in 500V source (6487)
See page 97 for more information.
See pages 107 & 110 for more information.
a
greater
measure
of
confidence
with Ultra-Sensitive Sourcing and Measurement Instrumentation
n Low resistance
n Low current
n Low voltage
n High resistance
n Ultra-high input impedance
Switch ultra-low signals
10nΩ
1fA
1nV
1018Ω
>200x1012Ω
page 91
page 123
page 91
page 123
page 123
Characterize highly
conductive materials
Characterize insulating
materials (up to 1018Ω)
Model 7001 Switch/Control Mainframe
Model 7158 Low Current Scanner Card
n Unique Hall Effect card
n Nanovolt 1×8 multiplexer
n Low current multiplexer and matrix
Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter
n 15nV p-p noise
n 1nV resolution
n Measure 10nΩ with 6220/6621
Model 6517B Electrometer/High
Resistance Meter
n 100aA sensitivity
n 20012Ω input impedance
n 10fC charge measurement sensitivity
See pages 172 & 192 for more information.
See page 91 for more information.
See page 123 for more information.
a
greater
measure
of
confidence
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a
greater
measure
of
confidence
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Selector Guide
Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments . . . . . 8
Series 2600A
2651A
Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Power) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Series 2400
2401
2400
2410
2420
2425
2430
2440
SourceMeter Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
21V SourceMeter Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
General-Purpose SourceMeter Instrument
High Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
High Current SourceMeter Instrument
100W SourceMeter Instrument
1kW Pulse Mode SourceMeter Instrument
5A SourceMeter Instrument
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote SourceMeter Instrument . . 48
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System . . . . . . . . . . 52
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
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Source Measurement Unit (SMU ) INSTRUMENTS
System SourceMeter®
Multi-Channel I-V Test Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2601A Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Current)
2602A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Current)
2611A Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V)
2612A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V)
2635A Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(Low Current)
2636A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(Low Current)
C O N F I D E N C E
1
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
All of Keithley’s source measurement unit (SMU)
instruments can source voltage while measuring
current and source current while measuring
voltage. Some also measure resistance. All are
fully programmable instruments that can stand
alone as complete source, measurement, and
automation solutions. They are also easy to integrate into larger systems.
Keithley’s SMU instruments are faster, easier to
use, and more economical than using individual
power supplies and measurement instruments
that are harnessed together. Additionally, they
provide more accurate and repeatable results.
Keithley’s SMU instruments are ideal for production and automation, yet precise and sensitive
enough for laboratory applications.
Voltmeter Configuration
HI
Ileakage
LO
Source I = 0A, Measure V
Ammeter Configuration
+
I meter
Keithley’s SMU instruments include our Series
2400 SourceMeter® instruments, Series 2600A
System SourceMeter instruments, Model 237
High-Voltage Source-Measure unit, and Model
4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization
System.
V
How does an SMU instrument work?
SMU instruments can be used as stand-alone
constant voltage or constant current sources and
as stand-alone voltmeters or ammeters. However,
their real strength is their ability to simultaneously source and measure—applying voltage to a
device under test (load) and measuring the current flowing through it, or supplying current to a
load and measuring the voltage drop across it.
Ohmmeter Configuration
The SMU instrument topology (Figure 1) protects the device under test (DUT) from damage
due to accidental overloads, thermal runaway,
and other problems. Both the current and voltage source are programmable with readback to
maximize device measurement integrity. If the
readback reaches a programmed compliance
limit, then the source is clamped at the limit,
providing fault protection.
Technical Tip: Use the lowest current range setting to
­minimize Ileakage.
V meter
I = 0A
V = 0V
HI
Technical Tip: Use the lowest voltage source range to
­minimize voltage burden.
Vburden
–
LO
Source V = 0V, Measure I
Technical Tip: The Auto
Ohms feature in Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments
automatically selects the
best test current and voltage
range for optimal resistance
measurements. Use 4-wire
remote sensing (Kelvin
sensing) for the best accuracy.
HI
I meter
Sense HI
I = test
current
V meter
Sense LO
LO
Source I = test current, Measure V and I, Remote Sense ON
Power Supply Configuration
HI
Sense HI
I meter/
limit
Technical Tip: Use 4-wire
remote sensing to deliver an
accurate voltage to the load at
high output current levels.
Load
V
Sense LO
LO
Source V, Measure I, Remote Sense ON
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Power Load Configuration
HI
I meter
V
I
Sense HI
V meter
V meter/
limit
Power
Source
Sense LO
LO
Sink I = Desired load current, Measure V, Remote Sense ON
Figure 1. Basic SMU instrument topology
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I = desired
load
current
Technical Tip: Make sure the
voltage limit is set above the
maximum voltage output of
the power source. Use 4-wire
remote sensing to assure an
accurate voltage measurement
with a large sink current.
Figure 2. SMU instrument configurations
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical
Information
Technical
Information
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Speed
0
Source/
Measure
Precision
1
2
3
4
ms
5
6
7
0
10µA measurement
uncertainty = 5nA
1
2
1µV
40V
1µV
3A
1pA
1mV
Current
Current
Source + Sink
6
7
40V
1mA
+I
II
I
–V
II
+V
IV
I
–V
+V
III
–I
SMU instruments offer a much broader
range of voltage and current resolution than
conventional power supplies. This allows
you to use SMU instruments in many more
types of applications.
3A
Source Only
+I
III
5
Voltage
1pA
4 Quadrant
Operation
4
ms
10µA measurement
uncertainty = 2500nA
Voltage
Voltage and
Current
Resolution
3
SMU instruments are optimized for speed
and precision. In most models, both the
source voltages and source currents settle
to within 0.01% of the specified accuracy
in as little as 50µs. This is 50 times faster
than what a conventional power supply
can provide.
IV
–I
A conventional power supply sources
(supplies) voltage and/or current. An
SMU instrument also sources power, but
it can additionally sink (dissipate) power.
It provides four-quadrant operation. In
quadrants I and III it sources power to a
load and in quadrants II and IV it sinks
power from a load. (Voltage, current, and
resistance can be measured during source
or sink operations.) A conventional power
supply only functions in quadrant IV.
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Typical Power Supply
Figure 3. Precision power supplies vs. SMUs
Advantages
Many advantages are achieved by combining source and measurement circuitry into a
single unit:
• Supports faster test times with improved
accuracy and repeatability
• Allows you to source voltage or current while
making time-stamped voltage, current, and
resistance measurements without changing
connections
• Eliminates many of the complex
synchronization, connection, and
programming issues associated with using
multiple instruments
• Minimizes the time required for test station
development, setup, and maintenance
• Lowers the overall cost of system ownership
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What are the most popular SMU
instrument configurations?
The fully isolated, floating configuration of
Keithley’s SMU instruments provide maximum
flexibility in configuring test setups. SMU instruments can be configured as many different
instruments (Figure 2). This makes them invaluable tools in flexible product test racks and in
R&D test bench tools.
How does an SMU instrument
compare to a precision power supply?
The power supply capabilities of Keithley’s
SMU instruments surpass those provided by
conventional power supplies. This is illustrated
in Figure 3. In addition to the highly stable
DC power source, low noise, and readback,
Keithley’s SMU instruments include other
features not usually available on conventional
power supplies. For example, most SMU instru-
A
G R E A T E R
ments offer a Pulse mode, include programmable delays, and provide a test sequencer that
allows you to set up and execute tests without
PC intervention. Figure 4 illustrates a typical
precision power supply test that uses an SMU
instrument.
I-V characterization
Keithley’s SMU instruments are core instruments
for I-V characterization tests. Their ability to
source voltage while simultaneously measuring
current or source current while simultaneously
measuring voltage can be combined with both
DC and sweep operations to perform measurements such as forward voltage (V F), reverse leakage, and reverse breakdown voltage (V B) without
changing a single connection to the device under
test (Figure 5).
Built-in features allow multiple SMU instruments
to be synchronized for parametric measure-
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
2602A SourceMeter Instrument
C O N F I D E N C E
3
Technical
Information
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
SMU INSTRUMENTS
I (Amps)
SMU
V
VD
Vbias
V
Test
Idd ON (5V)
IC
–100
–V
V meter
GND
Description
Power supply current,
V D = 5V, device active
Idd OFF (5V) Power supply current,
V D = 5V, device in standby
Idd ON (3.3V) Power supply current,
V D = 3.3V, device active
Idd ON (3.3V) Power supply current,
V D = 3.3V, device in standby
Input leakage current
IIL
Reading
14.294 mA
50.361 nA
+100
+V
–I
Figure 5. Typical diode characterization
12.871 mA
c
42.198 nA
b
1.2358 µA
Figure 4. Typical precision power supply tests
ments like threshold voltage, beta, and transconductance. Output interlocks provide controlled
access to a test fixture, which is particularly
important for the extended voltage range of
the Model 237 (up to 1100V). Guarded 4-wire
connections provide high quality measurements
over a wide range (1fA to 10A).
A family of semiconductor curves can be
obtained with just two SMU instruments (Figure
6). At each step of base current from SMU1,
SMU2 sweeps VCE and measures IC. An SMU
instrument can store data from a sweep in its
buffer, thus reducing data transfer time to a computer. A family of curves could also be produced
using pulse-sweeps to reduce power dissipation
within a device.
Built-In Sweeps
Keithley’s SMU instruments simplify capturing
the data needed to characterize a wide range
of devices with the SMU instruments’ built-in
pulsed and DC sweeps, including linear staircase, logarithmic staircase, and custom sweeps
(Figure 7). Sweeps coupled with other throughput enhancements like built-in limit inspection,
digital I/O, and a component handling interface
are ideal for high speed, nonstop production
environments. All sweep configurations can
be programmed for single-event or continuous
operation.
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+I
e
SMU
I source
IC
SMU
Ib3
I meter
V meter
Ib4
Ib2
V V Source
Ib1
VCE
Figure 6. Typical family of curves for transistors
Instrumentation and software solutions
for I-V characterization
Figure 8 illustrates various hardware and software solutions for I-V characterization. In the
first example, Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments are connected to a PC.
In the second example, Series 2600A Source­
Meter instruments are connected to a PC with
TSP-Link® technology. TSP-Link technology
seamlessly integrates multiple Series 2600A
instruments into a single system that can be programmed and controlled as a single instrument
through the master 2600A instrument or the PC.
The third example is the Model 4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System. This
system includes an embedded PC, Windows®
operating system, and mass storage. It is a complete DC characterization solution for semiconductor devices and test structures. It supports
up to nine SMU modules and provides an array
of Windows based software that is so intuitive
that even a novice can use the system with ease.
This point-and-click software supplies a full
range of functionality, including: managing tests,
A
G R E A T E R
generating reports, automating test sequencing,
and creating user libraries. The Model 4200-SCS
is a complete one box solution that combines
sub-femtoamp resolution with real-time plotting
and analysis. Key capabilities include instrument
and prober drivers, interfaces to popular modeling/circuit simulation software, and WLR test
capabilities.
High-Speed I-V Functional Testing
Keithey’s SMU instruments are designed for
maximum throughput on the production floor.
Each SMU instrument provides high-speed measurements, an internal pass/fail comparator, programmable test sequencing, and digital I/O to
control material handlers (Figure 9). Single- or
multi-point pass/fail testing can be performed on
a wide range of components, such as: network
devices, circuit protection devices, active discrete
devices, and sensors. The onboard pass/fail
comparator simplifies high-speed pass/fail tests
by avoiding the delay caused by computer and
GPIB bus interaction. The buffer memory stores
results, again avoiding the computer/GPIB bus
interaction delay.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
SMU Instrument
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Level
Bias
Bias
Fixed Level
LEVEL, COUNT (number of DELAYMEASURE cycles), DELAY, BIAS
A fixed level sweep outputs a single
level of voltage and ­current with
­multiple measurements to bias and/or
stress devices.
Stop
Step
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear Stair
The linear staircase sweep goes from
the start level to the stop level in equal
­linear steps.
START, STOP, STEP, DELAY, BIAS
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
START, STOP, POINTS/DECADE
(5, 10, 25, or 50), DELAY, BIAS
Logarithmic Stair
t off
The logarithmic staircase sweep is
s­ imilar to the linear staircase sweep,
but it is done on a log scale with a
specified number of steps per decade.
t on
Level
Bias
Bias
Pulse
Start
LEVEL, COUNT, ton , toff , BIAS
Stop
Step
Pulsed sweeps greatly reduce the
power dissipation within a device, so
the effects of temperature (drift, device
failure, etc.) are virtually eliminated.
Bias
Bias
Linear Stair Pulse
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Delay
Meas.
Delay
Meas.
START, STOP, STEP, ton , toff , BIAS
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Logarithmic Stair Pulse
Custom
START, STOP, POINTS/DECADE
(5, 10, 25, or 50), ton , toff , BIAS
Custom sweeps allow the user to
program individual steps to create
waveforms
The custom sweep allows you to
­construct special sweeps by specifying
the number of measurement points and
the source level at each point.
Figure 7. Various sweeps supported by SMU instruments.
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Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical
Information
C O N F I D E N C E
5
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Advanced automation for system throughput
Series 2600A TSP® Technology
Any Series 2600A instrument or 2600A-based system can run high speed,
embedded test scripts with Test Script Processor (TSP) technology. The
test sequence is processed and run on the embedded computer in the
instrument, rather than from an external PC controller, so delays due to
GPIB traffic congestion are eliminated (Figure 11). TSP test scripts allow
throughput gains of up to 10x over equivalent PC-based programs controlling the same instruments via GPIB. TSP test scripts can be loaded and run
from the front panel or over the system’s GPIB interface. A single TSP test
script, running on the master 2600A unit, can control all Series 2600A channels and acquire data from any Series 2600A instrument connected to the
system with TSP-Link technology.
Discrete instruments with
remote control capability
PC
Series 2400
Low Cost
• Modular
Series 2400
• PC control with
LabVIEW, Labtracer, or
ACS Basic
Series 2400
Scalable instruments with
TSP-Link
PC
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Turnkey SMU systems with
built-in Graphical User Interface (GUI)
SMU
Modules
Model
4200-SCS
High Speed
A Series 2600A-based system can stand alone as a complete measurement
and automation solution for semiconductor device or component testing
with the master 2600A unit controlling sourcing, measurements, pass/fail
decisions, test sequence flow control, binning, the component handler,
prober, and much more.
• Scalable, script-based
smart instruments
• PC control or
self-contained
execution for highest
throughput
Series 2400 Source-Memory List
The Source-Memory List in Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments is a key
feature for production testing. This programmable sequencer lets you set
up a complete sequence of up to 100 tests. Each test can contain totally different test conditions, measurements, math, pass/fail, and binning criteria.
The tests are executed sequentially without additional external commands.
Conditional branching leads to different points on the test list, depending
on the results.
Performance +
Capability
• Complete
semiconductor
characterization system
• Configurable
SMU/Pulse/C-V
channels with remote
low current preamps
The Source-Memory Sweep feature allows you to store up to 100 unique
source and measure configurations in nonvolatile memory. This feature
makes it possible to sweep through a group of source memory locations
and execute a complete test sequence all at one time.
Digital I/O
Digital communication is one of the most common requirements of a production test system because of the need to communicate with handlers,
binning equipment, and user controls. The SMU instruments’ digital I/O
can also be used to interact with racks of instruments to trigger events,
start readings, and collect results. Digital triggering and response enable
fast and reliable results that are not dependent on the communication bus
in use. (Digital I/O is not available on the Model 2401.)
Figure 8. Examples of I-V characterization solutions
Need more test pins?
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Keithley’s new TSP-Link technology is a high speed interface for system
expansion. It allows you to connect a virtually unlimited number of Series
2600A SourceMeter instruments in a master/slave c­onfiguration (Figure
10). All connected Series 2600A instruments can be programmed and
operated under the control of the master instrument. TSP-Link technology
provides an easy way to scale your system’s channel count up or down to
match changing application needs. There is no chassis involved.
In Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments, Trigger Link can be used to coordinate multiple instruments with hardware triggers.
Parallel test capability
Series 2600A instruments support true parallel testing. Each 2600A in a
system can run its own test sequences, so the number of devices that can
be tested in parallel is equivalent to the number of 2600A instruments in
the system. Parallel testing coupled with the 20,000 rdgs/s of each 2600A
creates a system that offers extremely high throughput.
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Contact check
The optional Contact Check function eliminates measurement errors and
false product failures by verifying good connections to the DUT quickly
and easily before testing begins. In just 350µs (Series 2400) or 1ms (Series
2600A), this function’s verification and notification routine ensures that
you have good contact to a device before sending energy through it and
spending time testing it (Figure 12). (The Contact Check function is not
available on the Model 2401.)
Some of the problems this function can detect while verifying connector,
fixture, and test harness integrity are contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, corrosion, loose or broken connections, and relay failures. If a bad
contact is detected, it can abort the measurement, protecting the DUT.
Three methods of fault notification are provided.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical
Information
Technical
Information
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
I
Test B
Test A
Test A
Test B
Test C
Test D
Pass/Fail Test
Check Vf(A) at 100mA
against pass/fail limits
Check Vf(B) at 1A
against pass/fail limits
Check leakage current,
Ir(C), at–10V and test
against pass/fail limits
Check Vbr(D)
V
Test C
Test D
Description
Forward voltage
test at 0.1A
Forward voltage
test at 1.0A
Reverse leakage
current at –10V
bias
Breakdown
voltage
Reading
0.6534 V
0.7268 V
Test
Time If Passes Test
300 µs Go to Test B
If A Test Fails
Figure 10. Series 2600A back panel
300 µs Go to Test C
10.122 nA
5 ms
Go to Test D
146.12 V
1 ms
1.Bin part to good bin.
2.Transmit readings to
computer while handler
is placing new part.
3.Return to Test A.
1.Bin part to bad bin.
2.Transmit data to
computer while
handler is placing new
part.
3.Return to Test A.
Figure 9. Typical high speed I-V functional test
• Multi-channel
Source-Measure
capabilities
• Advanced calculations and
flow control
• Pass/Fail test
• Prober/Handler control
• Datalogging/Formatting
SMU Instument
Guard
+
2600A
Test Script
Guard Sense
I meter
V or I
Source
350µs
Contact
Check
(optional)
V meter
In/Out HI
Sense HI
Sense LO
DUT
Pass
In/Out LO
Fail
DUT
Pass
Figure 11. Series 2600A test script
Figure 12. Series 2400 contact check
The Contact Check function was designed for high throughput 4-wire and
6-wire test applications. In Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments, three reference value choices (2W, 15W, and 50W) are supplied. If the resistance of
good connections normally exceeds 50W, then the built-in contact check
function is not suitable for that application and alternative approaches
should be considered. Series 2600A instruments provide more flexibility
with programmable values.
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V meter
–
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
SMU Instrument
C O N F I D E N C E
7
Selector Guide
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
20–100W SYSTEM
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Selector guide: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
20–100W BENCH SMU INSTRUMENTS
MODEL
Page
POWER OUTPUT
CURRENT Capability
Min. (default)
Max
VOLTAGE Capability
Min. (default)
Max.
Ohms Range
Basic ACCURACY
I
V
W
FEATURE Summary
Pulse Mode
2410
2410-C
2420
2420-C
2425
2425-C
2440
2440-C
2601A
2602A
33
22 W
33
22 W
33
66 W
33
110W
33
55 W
10
40.4 W/channel
±10 pA
±10 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±1.05 A
±1.05 A
±3.15 A
±3.15 A
±5.25 A
±1 pA
±3.03 A DC and pulsed/10 A
pulsed per channel
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±21/±210 V 2
±1100 V
±63 V
±105 V
±42 V
±40.4 V/channel
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<2.0 W to >200 MW
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.07 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.02 %
0.015%
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Embedded Execution
Embedded Scripting
Contact Check
Selectable Front/Rear Inputs
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Connections
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal, adapters
for banana and/or triax
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
ICL
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488, RS-232
communication with embedded
Test Script Processor
(TSP) capability
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces (except
Model 2401).
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
14 digital I/O-trigger lines, 3
TSP-Link trigger lines
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
contact check capability contact
check capability. contact check capability. contact check capability. contact check capability.
(except Model 2401).
6½-digit measurement
resolution. Scalable to 64+
channels with TSP-Link®.
Built-in Web-based
characterization software.
Linear/Log/Custom Sweeps
Limit Inspection
Selectable Output-Off Impedance
State
Remote or 4W Voltage Sense
Source Readback
Command Language Protocol
Programming
Memory/Buffer
Trigger
Guard
Digital I/O
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2400, 2401
2400-C
2400-LV
Other
Compliance
1. In pulse mode.
2. Models 2401 and 2400-LV 21V max.
CE, UL
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CE
CE
A
G R E A T E R
CE
M E A S U R E
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
CE
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Cable
CE, UL
>200W POWER SMU INSTRUMENTS
20W LOW CURRENT SMU INSTRUMENTS
2611A
2612A
2430
2430-C
2651A
2635A
2636A
6430
237
10
30.3 W/channel
33
1100 W 1
26
2,000W pulsed/200W DC
10
30.3 W/channel
48
2W
53
11 W
±1 pA
±1.5 A DC and pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±100 pA
±1 pA
±50A (±100 A when two units are
connected in parallel)
±1 fA
±1.5 A DC and pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±10 aA
±100 fA
±10.5 A 1
±105 mA
±100 mA
±1 µV
±40 V (±80 V when two units are
connected in series)
±1 µV
±1 µV
±100 µV
±202 V
±210 V
±1100 V
±1 µV
±1 µV
±202 V
±105 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<2.0 W to >20 TW
0.02 %
0.015%
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
±0.02 %
±0.015%
0.02 %
0.015%
0.035%
0.012%
0.063%
0.05%
0.03%
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal, adapters
for banana and/or triax
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal,
adapters for banana
Yes
Yes
No
No
Rear and Preamp
Triax
Triax
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal, adapters
for banana and/or triax
Yes
Yes
Yes (linear/log/pulse,
fixed, stair, custom)
No
No
No
Rear only
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
ICL
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488,
RS-232 communication with
embedded
Test Script Processor (TSP)
capability
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
ICL
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488,
RS-232 communication with
embedded
Test Script Processor (TSP)
capability
Yes
Yes
ICL
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488,
RS-232 communication with
embedded
Test Script Processor (TSP)
capability
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
No
DDC
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
1000 pt.
Banana
IEEE-488, RS-232
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
14 digital I/O-trigger lines,
3 TSP-Link trigger lines
Trigger Link with 6 In/Out
14 digital I/O-trigger lines,
3 TSP-Link trigger lines
14 digital I/O-trigger lines,
3 TSP-Link trigger lines
Cable
Ohms (high current) and cable
Cable
Cable
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
1 In/4 Out with built-in component
handler interfaces (except
Model 2401).
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces
6½-digit measurement resolution.
Scalable to 64+ channels with
TSP-Link®.
Built-in Web-based
characterization software.
6½-digit measurement
resolution. Handler interface.
500µs pass/fail test. Optional
contact check capability.
6½-digit measurement resolution.
1% to 100% pulse duty cycle.
1µs per point measurements.
6½-digit measurement resolution.
Scalable to 64+ channels with
TSP-Link®.
Built-in Web-based
characterization software.
6½-digit measurement
resolution. Handler
interface. 500µs
pass/fail test.
CE, UL
CE
CE, UL
CE, UL
CE
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Selector guide: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
20–100W SYSTEM
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
In/Out
Cable
No
CE
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Selector Guide
C O N F I D E N C E
9
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
• Combines a power supply, true
current source, 6½-digit DMM,
arbitrary waveform generator,
V or I pulse generator with
measurement, electronic load,
and trigger controller – all in
one instrument
• Family of products offers wide
dynamic range: 1fA to 50A and
1μV to 200V
• 20,000 rdg/s provides faster
test times and ability to capture
transient device behavior
• Precision timing and channel
synchronization (<500ns)
• USB port for saving data and
test scripts
• LXI Class C compliance supports
high speed data transfer and
enables quick and easy remote
testing, monitoring, and
troubleshooting
• Software:
–– TSP® Express for quick and
easy I-V test (embedded)
–– ACS Basic Edition for
semiconductor component
characterization (optional)
CONNECT DUT
Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments are Keithley’s latest I-V source measurement unit
(SMU) instruments for use as either bench-top I-V characterization tools or as building block components of multi-channel I-V test systems. For bench-top use, Series 2600A instruments feature an
embedded TSP Express Software Tool that allows users to quickly and easily perform common I-V
tests without programming or installing software. For system level applications, the Series 2600A’s
Test Script Processor (TSP) architecture, along with other new capabilities such as parallel test execution and precision timing, provides the highest throughput in the industry, lowering the cost of test.
To simplify the testing, verification, and analysis of semiconductor components, the optional ACS
Basic Edition software is also available.
CONFIGURE Test
COLLECT Data
HI
SMU A
Step VG
Measure IG
SMU B
Sweep VD
Measure ID
LO
SMU INSTRUMENTS
LO
Performing nested sweeps to characterize a transistor with TSP Express is quick and easy. Data can be exported to a .csv file for use with
spreadsheet applications such as Excel.
Quick and Easy Lab and
Bench-Top Use
Each Series 2600A SourceMeter instrument
is a complete I-V measurement solution with
unmatched ease of use, capability, and flexibility.
They simplify the process of making high-performance measurements.
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The TSP Express Software Tool quickly sets up
and runs basic and advanced tests, including:
nested step/sweeps, pulse sweeps, and custom
sweeps for device characterization applications.
The resulting data can be viewed in graphical or
tabular format and exported to a .csv file for use
with spreadsheet applications.
A
G R E A T E R
TSP Express runs on a PC connected to the
SourceMeter instrument via an Ethernet cable
(provided with the instrument). The intuitive
user interface resides on the built-in LXI web
page, so no software installation is needed.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
See page 26 for Model 2651A Single-Channel
System SourceMeter Instrument (High Power)
System SourceMeter Instruments
Simplify Semiconductor Component
Test, Verification, and Analysis
The optional ACS Basic Edition software maximizes the
productivity of customers who perform packaged part characterization during development, quality verification, or failure
analysis, with:
• Rich set of easy-to-access test libraries
• Script editor for fast customization of existing tests
• Data tool for comparing results quickly
• Formulator tool that analyzes captured curves and provides
a wide range of math functions
For more information about the ACS Basic Edition software,
please refer to the ACS Basic Edition data sheet.
Unmatched Throughput and Flexibility
for High Performance I-V Test Systems
When you need to acquire data on a packaged part quickly, the wizard-based user
TSP technology provides remarkable capabilities when a Series interface of ACS Basic Edition makes it easy to find and run the test you want, like
this common FET curve trace test.
2600A is integrated as part of a multi-channel I-V test system.
For example, the embedded scripting capability allows test
PC instead of the instrument itself. Testing multiscripts to be run by the instrument. Test scripts are complete test programs based on an easy to use
ple devices at the same time means dramatically
but highly efficient and compact scripting language called Lua <www.lua.org>. Since test scripts
improved test throughput and reduced overall
can contain any sequence of routines that are executable by conventional programming languages
cost of test.
(including decision making algorithms), this feature allows entire tests to be managed by the instrument without sending readings back to a PC for decision making. This eliminates the delays caused
When all or some of your test requirements
by GPIB traffic congestion and greatly improves overall test times.
change, your Series 2600A system can be reconfigured via software without rewiring. The interAlso, TSP technology offers “mainframe-less channel expansion.” The TSP-Link channel expansion
nal software can match the different pin layouts
bus (which uses a 100 Base T Ethernet cable) allows multiple Series 2600A and other TSP instruof the devices-under-test to the appropriate SMU
ments to be connected in a master-slave configuration and behave as one integrated system. TSP-Link
technology supports up to 32 units or 64 SMU instrument channels per GPIB or IP address, making it instrument-per-pin configurations.
easy to scale a system to fit the particular requirements of an application.
Tight Timing and Synchronization
Parallel Test Capability
Today’s test engineers are challenged with
testing increasingly more complex and more
The Series 2600A takes system level performance to a new height with parallel testing capability. This
feature tests multiple devices in parallel to meet the high throughput requirements of production test sensitive devices that require precise timing
and ­synchronization. Whether you need to
and advanced semiconductor lab applications.
synchronize electrical and optical tests for an
This parallel testing capability enables each instrument in the system to run its own complete test
sequence, creating a fully multi-threaded test environment. Hence, the number of tests that can be
<500ns
running in parallel on a Series 2600A system can be as many as the number of instruments in the
­system. In contrast, most conventional test systems run a single thread test, usually on the ­controller
Test 1
running
Test 2
running
Test 3
running
SMU1
SMU2
SMU3
GPIB or Ethernet
TSP-Link
To
Device 1
To
Device 2
All channels in the system are synchronized
to under 500ns.
Parallel testing with the Series 2600A
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SMU4
To
Device 3
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
®
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Series 2600A
C O N F I D E N C E
11
Ordering Information
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
2601A
2602A
2611A
2612A
2635A
2636A
2651A
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(2000W, 50A Pulse)
Accessories Supplied
2600-ALG-2
Low Noise Triax Cable
with Alligator Clips,
2m (6.6 ft.) (two
supplied with 2636A,
one with 2635A)
2600-Kit Mating Screw
Terminal Connectors
with strain relief
and covers (2601A/
2602A/2611A/2612A)
CA-180-3A
TSP-Link/Ethernet
Cable (two per unit)
TSP Express Software Tool
(embedded)
Test Script Builder Software
(supplied on CD)
ACS Basic Edition Software
(optional)
®
optoelectronic component or ensure that the same stress times are applied to the different pins of
an advanced semiconductor device, providing precision timing and synchronization between SMU
instrument channels (and external instruments) has become a critical requirement.
A high performance trigger model that is hardware driven allows timing at each source-measure step
to be tightly controlled. It also synchronizes the operations between SMU instrument channels and/
or external instrumentation at hardware speeds of <500ns.
Third-generation SMU Instrument
Design Ensures Faster Test Times
Based on the proven architecture of earlier Series 2600 instruments, the Series 2600A’s new SMU instrument design enhances
test speed in several ways. For example, while earlier designs
used a parallel current ranging topology, the Series 2600A uses
a patented series ranging topology, which provides faster and
smoother range changes and outputs that settle more quickly.
The Series 2600A SMU instrument design supports two modes
of operation for use with a variety of loads. In normal mode,
the SMU instrument provides high bandwidth performance for
maximum throughput. In high capacitance (high-C) mode, the
SMU instrument uses a slower bandwidth to provide robust performance with higher capacitive loads.
Each Series 2600A SMU instrument channel offers a highly flexible, four-quadrant source coupled with precision voltage and
current meters. Each channel can be configured as a:
• Precision power supply
• True current source
• DMM (DCV, DCI, ohms, and power with 6½-digit resolution)
• Electronic load (with sink mode capability)
• V or I pulse generator (Pulse width: 100μs and longer)
• V or I waveform generator
Current arbitrary waveforms
maximum output update rates:
12,500 samples/second.
Voltage arbitrary waveforms
maximum output update rates:
20,000 samples/second.
All analog-to-digital (A/D) converters in Series 2600A instruments are both high speed and high
precision for maximum flexibility. The two A/D converters per channel (one for I, one for V) can run
simultaneously, providing precise source-readback without sacrificing test throughput. These A/D
converters offer the versatility of programmable integration rates, allowing you to optimize for either
high speed (>20,000 rdgs/s at 0.001 NPLC setting) or for high resolution (up to 24 bits at 10 NPLC setting) measurements.
In addition to the high speed or high resolution modes, the Model 2651A offers a digitizing measurement mode that enables 1µs per point sampling. See the Model 2651A on page 26 for more information.
Digital I/O Interface
A back panel port on every Series 2600A instrument provides 14 bits of universal digital I/O to link
the instrument to a variety of popular component handlers and/or probe stations. These digital I/O
lines are compatible with the triggering technology of Keithley’s earlier Trigger-Link instruments.
These lines simplify integrating Series 2600A instruments into systems that employ other electrical,
mechanical, optical, or RF equipment.
TSP-Link Trigger Lines
The TSP-Link bus supports dedicated trigger lines that provide synchronous operations between multiple Series 2600A instruments (and other TSP instruments, such as Series 3700 DMM/Switch Systems)
without the need for additional trigger connections.
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System SourceMeter Instruments
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Series 2600A
•
•
•
•
–– Analog ICs
–– Radio frequency
integrated circuits
(RFICs)
–– Application specific integrated
circuits (ASICs)
–– System on a chip (SOC) devices
Optoelectronic devices such as lightemitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes,
high brightness LEDs (HBLEDs),
vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers
(VCSELs), displays
Wafer level reliability
–– NBTI, TDDB, HCI, electromigration
Solar Cells
Batteries
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®
Built-in Contact Check Function
The Contact Check function makes it simple to verify good device-under-test connections quickly and
easily before an automated test sequence begins. This eliminates the measurement errors and false
product failures associated with contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, loose or broken connections, relay failures, etc.
Powerful Software Tools
In addition to the embedded TSP Express and optional ACS Basic Edition software, the free Test
Script Builder software tool is provided to help users create, modify, debug, and store TSP test
scripts. Table 1 describes key features of Series 2600A software tools.
Complete Automated System Solutions
While the ACS Basic Edition software only supports component characterization tests, wafer and cassette level testing can be performed
by Keithley’s ACS Integrated Test Systems. ACS systems are highly
configurable, instrument-based systems that generally include a
number of Series 2600A instruments. These systems are designed for
semiconductor device characterization, reliability/WLR, parametric,
and component functional testing.
The flexible software architecture of ACS Basic Edition allows configuring
systems with a wide range of controllers and test fixtures, as well as the
exact number of SourceMeter instruments the application requires.
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Typical Applications
I-V functional test and
characterization of a
wide range of devices,
including:
• Discrete and passive
components
–– Two-leaded –
Sensors, disk
drive heads, metal
oxide varistors
(MOVs), diodes,
zener diodes,
sensors, capacitors,
thermistors
–– Three-leaded –
Small signal bipolar
junction transistors
(BJTs), field-effect
transistors (FETs),
and more
• Simple ICs – Optos,
drivers, switches,
sensors
• Integrated devices –
small scale integrated
(SSI) and large scale
integrated (LSI)
System SourceMeter Instruments
Example ACS Integrated
Test System
Table 1. Series 2600A software tools
Feature/
Functionality
Description
Supported
hardware
Supported
buses
ACS Basic Edition
Semiconductor characterization
software for component test,
verification, and analysis
TSP Express
Test Script
Builder (TSB)
Quick Start Tool for fast and easy
Custom script
I-V testing, primarily for bench writing tool for TSP
and lab users
instruments
24xx, 26xxA, 4200-SCS, 237
26xxA
26xxA, 37xx
GPIB, Ethernet
Ethernet only
GPIB, RS-232,
Ethernet
Functionality
Intuitive, wizard-based GUI,
Rich set of test libraries
Data
management
Formulator tool with wide range
of math functions
Installation
Optional purchase
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Linear/Log Sweeps, Pulsing,
Custom sweeps, Single point
source-measures. Note: Uses
new 2600A’s new API’s for
precision timing and channel
synchronization
.csv export, basic curve
tracing (no math formula or
analysis support)
Not necessary.
Embedded in the instrument.
O F
Custom scripts with
total flexibility
N/A
Free Download or
CD Install on PC.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Series 2600A
C O N F I D E N C E
13
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Cables and Connectors
2600-BAN
Banana Test Leads/Adapter Cable. For a single
2601A/2602A/2611A/2612A SMU instrument channel
2600-KIT
Extra screw terminal connector, strain relief, and cover for a single SourceMeter
channel (one supplied with 2601A/2611A, two with 2602A/2612A)
2600-TRIAX
Triax Adapter. For a single 2601A/2602A/2611A/2612A SMU instrument channel
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable. For use with 2600-TRIAX Adapter
7078-TRX-*
7078-TRX-GND 3-Slot male triax to BNC adapter (guard removed)
High Performance Modular Probe Kit. For use with 2600A-BAN
8606
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable. Recommended for general-purpose
SC-200
use with Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments
Digital I/O, Trigger Link, and TSP-Link
2600-TLINK
Digital I/O to TLINK Adapter Cable, 1m
CA-126-1
Digital I/O and Trigger Cable, 1.5m
CA-180-3A
CAT5 Crossover Cable for TSP-Link and direct Ethernet connection (two supplied)
GPIB Interfaces and Cables
7007-1
Double Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
7007-2
Double Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KPCI-488LPA
KPXI-488
IEEE-488 Interface Board for the PXI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Switching
Series 3700
DMM/Switch Systems
707A
Semiconductor Switching Matrix Mainframe
Switch Control Mainframe
7001
Rack Mount Kits
4299-1
Single Rack Mount Kit with front and rear support
4299-2
Dual Rack Mount Kit with front and rear support
1U Vent Panel
4299-5
Software
ACS-BASIC
Component Characterization Software
Extended Warranties
2601A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2601A
2602A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2602A
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2611A
2611A-EW
2612A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2612A
2635A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2635A
2636A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2636A
Calibration and Verification
2600-STD-RES Calibration Standard 1GW Resistor for Models 2635A and 2636A
+10A
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
+5A
+3A
+1.5A
+1A
DC
0A
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–3A
–5A
–10A
–40V
–35V
–20V
–6V 0V +6V
+20V
+35V
+40V
Models 2601A and 2602A I-V capability
+10A
+1.5A
+1A
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
DC
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–10A
–200V –180V
–20V
–5V
0V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Models 2611A and 2612A I-V capability
*See page 27 for Model 2651A accessories.
+10A
+50A
+1.5A
+1A
+20A
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–10A
–200V –180V
DC and
Pulse
Pulse
only
–20A
–50A
–20V
–5V
0V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
–40V
Models 2635A and 2636A I-V capability
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+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
DC
–20V
–10V
0V
+10V
+20V
Model 2651A I-V capability
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
+40V
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE*
In the first and third quadrants, Series 2600A instruments operate as a
source, delivering power to a load. In the second and fourth quadrants,
they operate as a sink, dissipating power internally.
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
100mV, 1V Ranges: <50µs typical.
6V Range: <100µs typical.
40V Range 10: <150µs typical.
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout × R load = 1V
unless noted.
3A Range: <80µs typical (current less than 2.5A, R load >2W).
1A–10mA Ranges: <80µs typical (R load >6W).
1mA Range: <100µs typical.
100µA Range: <150µs typical.
10µA Range: <500µs typical.
1µA Range: <2.5ms typical.
100nA Range: <25ms typical.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC from chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 11:
Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
40V Range: Max. output voltage = 42V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum 1W
per source lead).
6V Range: Max. output voltage = 8V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum 1W per
source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into an 100kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
with source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling Time
for additional test conditions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2601A and
2602A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2601A and 2602A are tested. Upon leaving the factory, the 2601A and 2602A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2601A
and 2602A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2602A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity
2.After 2 hour warm-up
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC)
4. A/D auto-zero enabled
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local operation
6.Calibration period = 1 year
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
100.000mV
  5 µV
0.02% +250 µV
1.00000V
 50 µV
0.02% +400 µV
6.00000V
 50 µV
0.02% + 1.8 mV
40.0000V
500 µV
0.02% + 12 mV
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
 20 µV
 50 µV
100 µV
500 µV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 40.4W per channel maximum.
±40.4V @ ±1.0A, ±6.06V @ ±3.0A, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV peak-peak (typical), <3mV RMS (typical), 6V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 10nA. Accuracy same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) typical. Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load,
maximum ­current limit/compliance.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV typical. Current <10mA.
NOTES
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
6. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
8. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
9. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 100mV range add an additional 60mV of uncertainty.
10.Add 150μs when measuring on the 1A range.
11.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
Current Source Specifications
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + amps)
100.000nA
1 pA
0.06% + 100 pA
1.00000µA
10 pA
0.03% + 800 pA
10.0000 µA
100 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
100.000µA
1 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
1.00000mA
10 nA
0.03% + 300 nA
10.0000mA
100 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
100.000mA
1 µA
0.03% + 30 µA
1.00000A 5
10 µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
10 µA
0.06% + 4mA
3.00000A 5
5,
6
10.0000A
100 µA
0.5  % + 40mA (typical)
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70 µA
150 µA
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 7: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 8: 40.4W per channel maximum.
±1.01A @ ±40.0V , ±3.03A @ ±6.0V , four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 9: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 10mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load; see Current Source
Output Settling Time for additional test conditions).
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Series 2600A specifications
2601A
2602A
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
15
2601A
2602A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 16, 17
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Maximum
Pulse Width 12
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
100 ms
4 ms
1.8 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 13
100%
100%
25%
4%
1%
Range
100.000mV
1.00000V
6.00000V
40.0000V
3
Range
3
2
2
0A
1
DC
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
Pulse
2
2
3
–5A
4
–10A
–40V
–35V
–20V
–6V 0V +6V
+35V
+20V
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
10%
t
SMU INSTRUMENTS
on
off
13.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the reference manual for more information.
14.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
2W
2W
7W
27 W
27 W
2W
7W
2W
6V
20 V
35 V
40 V
1.5 A
3A
5A
10 A
0.2%
1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
0.5%
150µs
200µs
500µs
400µs
1.5ms
150µs
500µs
200µs
Bias Level
toff
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
4 (5) ms
36 (42) ms
5% + 1 W
5% + 0.3 W
1A–3A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1 %
18.Applies when in single channel display mode.
19.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable for 23°C ±5°C only.
20.Applies when in single channel display mode.
21.Four-wire remote sense only with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 100mV or 1V range only.
22.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
23.Compliance equal to 100mA.
24.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable for 23°C ±5°C only.
25.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
10%
ton
MEDIUM
SLOW
16.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
17.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting < 1 by increasing error term.
Add appropriate % of range term using table below.
100mV
1V–40V
100nA
1μA–100mA
NPLC Setting
Range
Ranges
Range
Ranges
0.1
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01
0.08%
0.07%
0.1%
0.05%
0.001
0.8 %
0.6 %
1%
0.5 %
Start toff
10%
FAST
NOTES
90%
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16
Pulse Level
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >10GW.
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
15.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Start ton
0.05% + 100 pA
0.025% + 500 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5 mA
0.05% + 3.5 mA
0.4% +
25 mA (typical)
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
10%
t
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Maximum Measurement
Time To Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
12.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Bias Level
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
Contact Check 25
+40V
NOTES
Start ton
Voltage
Burden 21
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 23: Time
required to reach within 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed
range. Values for Vout = 1V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 24: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Pulse
3
–3A
Default Display
Resolution 20
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A
3.00000A
10.0000A 22
4
+1.5A
+1A
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17
+10A
+3A
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +150 µV
0.015% +200 µV
0.015% + 1mV
0.015% + 8mV
Input
Resistance
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 19: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 14, 15: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 15: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 2µs (typical).
Quadrant Diagram:
+5A
Default Display
Resolution 18
  1 µV
  10 µV
  10 µV
100 µV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
Region
1
1
2
3
4
Maximum
Current Limit
1 A @40 V
3 A @ 6 V
1.5 A @40 V
5 A @35 V
10 A @20 V
2601A
2602A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 10GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (6V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot: <400mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz BW.
NOTES
26.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
27.100nA range is not available in High Capacitance Mode.
28.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
29.Part of KI Factory scripts. See reference manual for details.
GENERAL
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments to
trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
+5V Pin
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
5.1kW
100W
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Chassis
Ground
*
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when rack
mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2601A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2602A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
See pages 24 and 25 for measurement speeds and other specifications.
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Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Digital I/O Pin
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must be
externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the INTERLOCK
signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Series 2600A specifications
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
100mV
200 μs (typical)
1 V
200 μs (typical)
6 V
200 μs (typical)
40 V 7 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after voltage
source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 1V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
3 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 2W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 29: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 26, 27, 28
C O N F I D E N C E
17
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to within reach 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Range
Settling Time
200mV
<50 μs (typical)
2 V
<50 μs (typical)
20 V
<110 μs (typical)
200 V <700 μs (typical)
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout · R load = 2V unless noted.
Current Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<80 μs (typical)
1 mA
<100 μs (typical)
100μA
<150 μs (typical)
10μA
<500 μs (typical)
1μA
<2 ms (typical)
100 nA
<20 ms (typical)
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC from chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 11: Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
200V Range: Max. output voltage = 202.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
20V Range: Max. output voltage = 23.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
– With source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling
Time for additional test conditions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2611A and
2612A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2611A and 2612A are tested. Upon leaving the factory the 2611A and 2612A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2611A and
2612A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2612A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity.
2.After 2 hour warm-up.
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC).
4. A/D auto-zero enabled.
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local sense operation.
6.Calibration period = 1 year.
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
200.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 375 µV
  50 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
2.00000V
20.0000V
500 µV
0.02% + 5 mV
200.000V
  5 mV
0.02% + 50 mV
Typical Noise
(Peak-Peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
20 µV
50 µV
300 µV
2 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±20.2V @ ±1.5A, ±202V @ ±100mA, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV peak-peak (typical), <3mV RMS (typical), 20V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 10nA. Accuracy is the same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum ­current limit/compliance.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV (current <10mA).
NOTES
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Accuracy specifications do not include connector leakage. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 per °C when operating
between 18°–28°C. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 + (0.15·Vout/2E11) per °C when operating <18°C and >28°C.
6. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
7. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
8. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
9. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
10.For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 200mV range add an additional 120mV of uncertainty.
11.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
Current Source Specifications
SMU INSTRUMENTS
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY 5
Range
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A 6
1.50000A 6
10.0000A 6, 7
Programming
Resolution
2 pA
20 pA
200 pA
2 nA
20 nA
200 nA
2 µA
20 µA
50 µA
200 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.06% +100 pA
0.03% +800 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
0.03% +300 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
0.03% + 30 µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
0.06% + 4mA
0.5% + 40mA (typical)
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Region
1
1
2
3 14
4
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 8: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 9: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±1.515A @ ±20V , ±101mA @ ±200V , four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 10: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 20mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load; see Current
Source Output Settling Time for additional test conditions.
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18
Typical Noise
(Peak-Peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70 µA
150 µA
Maximum
Current Limit
100mA @200 V
1.5 A @ 20 V
1 A @180 V
1 A @200 V
10 A @ 5 V
Maximum
Pulse Width 12
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
8.5 ms
2.2 ms
1 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 13
100%
100%
1%
1%
2.2%
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 15, 16: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 16: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 2µs (typical).
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17, 18
Quadrant Diagram:
+10A
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
4
3
2
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
DC
Pulse
2
–1A
–1.5A
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 20: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
2
1
2
3
Pulse
3
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 18, 21
Pulse
4
Range
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A
1.50000A
10.0000A 24
–10A
–200V –180V
–20V
0V
–5V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
NOTES
12.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
Start ton
Bias Level
10%
toff
13.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C.
See power equations in the reference manual for more information.
14.Voltage source operation with 1.5 A current limit.
15.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
5V
20 V
180 V
200 V (1.5 A Limit)
100 mA
1A
1A
10 A
0.5 W
200 W
180 W
200 W
200 W
200 W
180 W
0.5 W
1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
1%
1%
0.2%
0.5%
300 μs
200 μs
5 ms
1.5 ms
200 μs
500 μs
5 ms
300 μs
Start toff
10%
ton
toff
FAST
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
MEDIUM
4 (5) ms
5% + 1 W
SLOW
36 (42) ms
5% + 0.3 W
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >10GW.
90%
10%
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
Pulse Level
Bias Level
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
16.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.06% + 100 pA
0.025% + 500 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5mA
0.05% + 3.5mA
0.4% +
25mA (typical)
Voltage
Burden 23
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Contact Check 27
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
Start ton
Default Display
Resolution 22
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 25: Time
required to reach 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Values for Vout = 2V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 26: ±(0.15 × accuracy specfication)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
10%
ton
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
Series 2600A specifications
3
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +225 µV
0.02% + 350 µV
0.015% + 5mV
0.015% + 50mV
Input
Resistance
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
+1.5A
+1A
Default Display
Resolution 19
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
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C O N F I D E N C E
19
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
METER SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments
to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
NOTES
17.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
18.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term. Add appropriate % of range term
using table below.
Series 2600A specifications
NPLC Setting
0.1
0.01
0.001
200mV
Range
0.01%
0.08%
0.8 %
2V–200V
Ranges
0.01%
0.07%
0.6 %
100nA
Range
0.01%
0.1%
1%
1μA–100mA
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
0.5 %
1A–1.5A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1 %
19.Applies when in single channel display mode.
20.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
21.Accuracy specifications do not include connector leakage. De-rate accuracy by Vout/2E11 per °C when operating
between 18°–28°C. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 + (0.15 * Vout/2E11) per °C when operating <18° and >28°C.
22.Applies when in single channel display mode.
23.Four-wire remote sense only and with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 200mV or
2V range only.
24.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
25.Compliance equal to 100mA.
26.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
27.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Digital I/O Pin
100W
+5VDC
5.1kW
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
200mV
600 μs (typical)
2 V
600 μs (typical)
20 V
1.5 ms (typical)
200 V 20 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
voltage source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 2V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load >6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 31: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 30GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (20V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot (for 20V range and below): <400mV + 0.1%
of larger range (typical). Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must
be externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down
to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the
INTERLOCK signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
Chassis
Ground
*
NOTES
20
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 28, 29, 30
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when
rack mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2611A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2612A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only. Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
28.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
29.100nA range is not available in High Capacitance Mode.
30.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
31.Part of KI Factory scripts, See reference manual for details.
See pages 24 and 25 for measurement speeds
and other specifications.
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+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
GENERAL
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Range
Settling Time
200mV
<50 μs (typical)
2 V
<50 μs (typical)
20 V
<110 μs (typical)
200 V <700 μs (typical)
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout · R load = 2V unless noted.
Current Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<80 μs (typical)
1 mA
<100 μs (typical)
100μA
<150 μs (typical)
10μA
<500 μs (typical)
1μA
<2 ms (typical)
100 nA
<20 ms (typical)
10 nA
<40 ms (typical)
1 nA
<150 ms (typical)
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 10:Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
200V Range: Max. output voltage = 202.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
20V Range: Max. output voltage = 23.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
– With source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling
Time for additional test condtions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2635A and
2636A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2635A and 2636A are tested. Upon leaving the factory the 2635A and 2636A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as u­ seful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2635A
and 2636A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2636A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity.
2.After 2 hour warm-up
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC)
4. A/D auto-zero enabled
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local sense operation
6.Calibration period = 1 year
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
200.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 375 µV
2.00000V
  50 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
20.0000V
500 µV
0.02% + 5 mV
  5 mV
0.02% + 50 mV
200.000V
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
20 µV
50 µV
300 µV
2 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±20.2V @ ±1.5A, ±202V @ ±100mA, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV pk-pk (typical), <3mV rms (typical), 20V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 100pA. Accuracy is the same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load,
maximum current limit/compliance).
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV (current <10mA).
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Region
1
1
2
3 13
4
Current Source Specifications
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + amps)
1.00000nA 20fA
0.15% + 2 pA
200fA
0.15% + 5 pA
10.0000nA 100.000nA 2pA
0.06% + 50 pA
1.00000µA 20pA
0.03% + 700 pA
10.0000µA 200 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
100.000µA 2 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
1.00000mA 20 nA
0.03% +300 nA
200 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
10.0000mA 100.000mA 2µA
0.03% + 30 µA
20µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
1.00000A 5 50µA
0.06% + 4mA
1.50000A 5 200µA
0.5  % + 40mA (typical)
10.0000A 5, 6 Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
800fA
2pA
5pA
25pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70µA
150µA
Maximum
Pulse Width 11
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
8.5 ms
2.2 ms
1 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 12
100%
100%
1%
1%
2.2%
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 14, 15: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for
settled source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 15: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 50µs (typical).
Quadrant Diagram:
+10A
4
+1.5A
+1A
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 7: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 8: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±1.515A @ ±20V, ±101mA @ ±200V, four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 9: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 20mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum ­
current limit/compliance; see Current Source Output Settling Time for additional
test ­conditions).
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Maximum
Current Limit
100mA @200 V
1.5 A @ 20 V
1 A @180 V
1 A @200 V
10 A @ 5 V
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
3
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
–1A
–1.5A
3
2
2
DC
1
Pulse
2
2
3
Pulse
3
4
–10A
–200V –180V
A
G R E A T E R
–20V
–5V
0V
M E A S U R E
+5V
O F
+20V
+180V +200V
Pulse
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2635A
2636A
C O N F I D E N C E
21
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
NOTES
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 16, 17
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation, refer
to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation, refer
to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
6. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
8. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power
derating information.
9. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 200mV range add an additional 120mV of uncertainty.
10.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
11.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
Range
100.00pA 22, 23
1.00000nA 22, 24
10.0000nA
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A
1.50000A
10.0000A 25
Start toff
10%
10%
ton
toff
12.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the Reference Manual for more information.
13.Voltage source operation with 1.5 A current limit.
14.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
0.5 W
200 W
180 W
200 W
200 W
200 W
180 W
0.5 W
5V
20 V
180 V
200 V (1.5 A Limit)
100 mA
1A
1A
10 A
1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
1%
1%
0.2%
0.5%
300 μs
200 μs
5 ms
1.5 ms
200 μs
500 μs
5 ms
300 μs
Pulse Level
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
90%
Start toff
10%
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.15% + 120 fA
0.15% + 240 fA
0.15% +
3 pA
0.06% + 40 pA
0.025% + 400 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5mA
0.05% + 3.5mA
0.4  % + 25mA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
FAST
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
MEDIUM
4 (5) ms
5% + 1 W
SLOW
36 (42) ms
5% + 0.3 W
10%
ton
toff
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1014W.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
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22
Voltage
Burden 21
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Contact Check 28
15.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Bias Level
Default Display
Resolution 20
1fA
10fA
100fA
1pA
10pA
100 pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
1µA
10µA
10µA
100µA
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 26: Time
required to reach within 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed
range. Values for Vout = 2V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 27: ±(0.15 × accuracy specfication)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
Start ton
>1014 W
>1014 W
>1014 W
>1014 W
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +225 µV
0.02% + 350 µV
0.015% + 5mV
0.015% + 50mV
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17
90%
Bias Level
Input
Resistance
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 19: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Pulse Level
Start ton
Default Display
Resolution 18
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
2635A
2636A
2635A
2636A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
METER SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments
to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
NOTES
16.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
17.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term. Add appropriate % of range term
using table below.
200mV
Range
0.01%
0.08%
0.8 %
2V–200V
Ranges
0.01%
0.07%
0.6 %
100nA
Range
0.01%
0.1%
1%
1μA–100mA
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
0.5 %
1A–1.5A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1 %
18.Applies when in single channel display mode.
19.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
20.Applies when in single channel display mode.
21.Four-wire remote sense only and with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 200mV or
2V range only.
22.10-NPLC, 11-Point Median Filter, <200V range, measurements made within 1 hour after zeroing. 23°C ± 1°C
23.Under default specification conditions: ±(0.15% + 750fA).
24.Under default specification conditions: ±(0.15% + 1pA).
25.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
26.Delay factor set to 1. Compliance equal to 100mA.
27.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
28.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
Digital I/O Pin
100W
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 29, 30, 31
5.1kW
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
200mV
600 μs (typical)
2 V
600 μs (typical)
20 V
1.5 ms (typical)
200 V 20 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
voltage source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 2V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load >6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 32: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 30GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (20V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot (for 20V range and below): <400mV + 0.1%
of larger range (typical). Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must
be externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down
to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the
INTERLOCK signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
Chassis
Ground
*
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when
rack mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2635A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2636A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only. Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
NOTES
29.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
30.100nA range and below are not available in high capacitance mode.
31.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
32.Part of KI Factory scripts. See reference manual for details.
See pages 24 and 25 for measurement speeds
and other specifications.
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+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
NPLC Setting
0.1
0.01
0.001
Series 2600A specifications
GENERAL
C O N F I D E N C E
23
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Applicable to Models 2601A, 2602A, 2611A, 2612A, 2635A, and 2636A.
See page 28 for Model 2651A specifications.
Measurement Speed Specifications 1, 2, 3
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
Trigger Origin
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
20000 (20000)
8100 (8100)
5000 (4000)
3650 (3200)
580 (490)
560 (470)
59 (49)
58 (48)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
7000 (7000)
5500 (5500)
3400 (3000)
3000 (2700)
550 (465)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
10500 (10500)
7100 (7100)
4000 (3500)
3400 (3000)
560 (475)
450 (460)
59 (49)
58 (49)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
6200 (6200)
5100 (5100)
3200 (2900)
2900 (2600)
550 (460)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
Sweep API
12000 (12000)
11200 (11200)
4200 (3700)
4150 (3650)
575 (480)
570 (480)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
Sweep API
5900 (5900)
5700 (5700)
3100 (2800)
3050 (2775)
545 (460)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Maximum SINGLE MEASUREMENT RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
Trigger Origin
Measure
To Gpib
Source Measure
To Gpib
Source Measure
Pass/Fail
To Gpib
Internal
Internal
Internal
Internal
1900 (1800)
1450 (1400)
450 (390)
58 (48)
1400 (1400)
1200 (1100)
425 (370)
57 (48)
1400 (1400)
1100 (1100)
425 (375)
57 (48)
Maximum Measurement RANGE CHANGE RATE: <150µs for ranges >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is <450µs, typical.
Maximum SOURCE Range CHANGE RATE: <2.5ms for ranges >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is <5.2ms, typical.
Maximum SOURCE FUNCTION CHANGE RATE: <1ms, typical.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change following the receipt of the smux.source.levelv or smux.source.leveli command. <1ms typical.
NOTES
1. Tests performed with a 2602A, 2612A, or 2636A on Channel A using the following equipment: PC Hardware (Pentium® 4 2.4GHz, 512MB RAM, National Instruments PCI-GPIB). Driver (NI-486.2 Version 2.2 PCI-GPIB). Software
(Microsoft® Windows® 2000, Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, VISA version 4.1).
2. Exclude current measurement ranges less than 1mA.
3. 2635A/2636A with default measurement delays and filters disabled.
TRIGGERING AND SYNCHRONIZATION
SPECIFICATIONS
Triggering:
Trigger in to trigger out: 0.5μs, typical.
Trigger in to source change:4 10 μs, typical.
Trigger Timer accuracy: ±2μs, typical.
Source change4 after LXI Trigger: 280μs, typical.
Synchronization:
Single-node synchronized source change:4 <0.5μs, typical.
Multi-node synchronized source change:4 <0.5μs, typical.
NOTES
SMU INSTRUMENTS
4. Fixed source range, with no polarity change.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
Maximum SWEEP OPERATION RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Applicable to Models 2601A, 2602A, 2611A, 2612A, 2635A, and 2636A.
See page 28 for Model 2651A specifications.
FRONT PANEL INTERFACE: Two-line vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) with keypad and rotary knob.
Display:
• Show error messages and user defined messages
• Display source and limit settings
• Show current and voltage measurements
• View measurements stored in dedicated reading buffers
Keypad Operations:
• Change host interface settings
• Save and restore instrument setups
• Load and run factory and user defined test scripts (i.e. sequences) that prompt for input
and send results to the display
• Store measurements into dedicated reading buffers
PROGRAMMING: Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP) accessible from any host interface. Responds
to individual instrument control commands. Responds to high speed test scripts comprised of
instrument control commands and Test Script Language (TSL) statements (e.g. branching, looping,
math, etc.). Able to execute high speed test scripts stored in memory without host intervention.
Minimum Memory Available: 16MB (approximately 250,000 lines of TSL code).
Test Script Builder: Integrated development environment for building, running, and managing
TSP scripts. Includes an instrument console for communicating with any TSP enabled instrument in an interactive manner. Requires:
• VISA (NI-VISA included on CD)
• Microsoft .NET Framework (included on CD)
• Keithley I/O Layer (included on CD)
• Pentium III 800MHz or faster personal computer
• Microsoft Windows 98, NT, 2000, or XP
Software Interface: TSP Express (embedded), Direct GPIB/VISA, READ/WRITE for VB, VC/C++,
LabVIEW, LabWindows/CVI, etc.
READING BUFFERS: Dedicated storage area(s) reserved for measurement data. Reading buffers
are arrays of measurement elements. Each element can hold the following items:
• Measurement
• Measurement status
• Timestamp
• Source setting (at the time the measurement was taken)
• Range information
Two reading buffers are reserved for each SourceMeter channel. Reading buffers can be filled
using the front panel STORE key and retrieved using the RECALL key or host interface.
Buffer Size, with timestamp and source setting: >60,000 samples.
Buffer Size, without timestamp and source setting: >140,000 samples.
Each SourceMeter instrument has two TSP-Link connectors to facilitate chaining instruments
together.
• Once SourceMeter instruments are interconnected via TSP-Link, a computer can access all
of the resources of each SourceMeter instrument via the host interface of any SourceMeter
instrument.
• A maximum of 32 TSP-Link nodes can be interconnected. Each SourceMeter instrument
consumes one TSP-Link node.
TIMER: Free running 47-bit counter with 1MHz clock input. Reset each time instrument powers
up. Rolls over every 4 years.
Timestamp: TIMER value automatically saved when each measurement is triggered.
Resolution: 1µs.
Accuracy: ±100ppm.
Model 2602A/2612A rear panel
(Single channels 2601A, 2611A, 2635A not shown)
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Model 2636A rear panel
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Series 2600A specifications
SYSTEM EXPANSION: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments to
­trigger and communicate with each other. See figure below:
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
25
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
• Source or sink:
–– 2,000W of pulsed power
(±40V, ±50A)
–– 200W of DC power
(±[email protected]±20A, ±[email protected]±10A,
±[email protected]±5A)
• Easily connect two units (in
series or parallel) to create
solutions up to ±100A or ±80V
• 1pA resolution enables precise
measurement of very low
leakage currents
• 1μs per point (1MHz),
18-bit sampling, accurately
characterizes transient behavior
• 1% to 100% pulse duty cycle for
pulse width modulated (PWM)
drive schemes and devicespecific drive stimulus
• Combines a precision power
supply, current source, DMM,
arbitrary waveform generator,
V or I pulse generator with
measurement, electronic load,
and trigger controller—all in one
instrument
• Includes TSP® Express I-V
characterization software,
LabVIEW® driver, and Keithley’s
Test Script Builder software
development environment
The high power Model 2651A is the newest addition to the Series 2600A family of System SourceMeter
instruments. Specifically designed to characterize and test high power electronics, these source measurement unit (SMU) instruments can help you improve productivity in applications across the R&D,
reliability, and production spectrums, including high brightness LEDs, power semiconductors, DC-DC
converters, batteries, and other high power materials, components, modules, and subassemblies.
The Model 2651A, like every Series 2600A SourceMeter instrument, offers a highly flexible, fourquadrant voltage and current source/load coupled with precision voltage and current meters. It can
be used as a:
• Semiconductor characterization instrument
• V or I waveform generator
• V or I pulse generator
• Precision power supply
• True current source
• Digital multimeter (DCV, DCI, ohms, and power with 6½-digit resolution)
• Precision electronic load
+50A
+20A
+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
APPLICATIONS
• Power semiconductor,
HBLED, and optical device
characterization and testing
SMU INSTRUMENTS
• Characterization of GaN, SiC, and
other compound materials and
devices
• Semiconductor junction
temperature characterization
• High speed, high precision
digitization
• Electromigration studies
• High current, high power device
testing
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26
DC and
Pulse
Pulse
only
–20A
–50A
–40V
–20V
–10V
0V
+10V
+20V
+40V
The Model 2651A can source or sink up to ±40V and ±50A.
Two Measurement Modes: Digitizing or Integrating
Precisely characterize transient and steady-state behavior, including rapidly changing thermal effects,
with the two measurement modes in the Model 2651A. Each mode is defined by its independent
analog-to-digital (A/D) converters.
The Digitizing Measurement mode enables 1µs per point measurements. Its 18-bit A/D converters allow you to precisely measure transient characteristics. For more accurate measurements,
use its Integrating Measurement mode, which is based on 22-bit A/D converters. The Integrating
Measurement mode is provided in all Series 2600A instruments.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
High power System SourceMeter instrument
High power System SourceMeter instrument
2651A
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Expansion Capabilities
Through TSP-Link® technology, multiple Model
2651As and other Series 2600A instruments can
be combined to form a larger integrated system
with up to 64 channels. Precision timing and
tight channel synchronization are guaranteed
with built-in 500ns trigger controllers. True
SMU instrument-per-pin testing is assured with
the fully isolated, independent channels of the
SourceMeter instruments.
High Power System
SourceMeter®
Instrument
2651A-KIT-1A: Low Impedance
Cable Assembly (1m)
CS-1592-2: High Current
Phoenix Connector (male)
CS-1626-2: High Current
Phoenix Connector (female)
CA-557-1: Sense Line
Cable Assembly (1m)
7709-308A: Digital I/O Connector
CA-180-3A: TSP-Link/Ethernet Cable
Documentation CD
Software Tools and Drivers CD
2651A
2651A
TSP-Link
Low Impedance CAble Assemble, 1m (3.3 ft)
Component Charaterization Software
Rack Mount Kit
Test Socket Kit
Keithley’s TSP and TSP-Link technology
enables true SMU-per-pin testing without
the power and/or channel limitations of a
mainframe-based system.
Two A/D converters are used with each
measurement mode (one for current and the
other for voltage), which run simultaneously
for accurate source readback that does not
sacrifice test throughput.
7
60
6
50
5
Current (A)
40
4
30
3
20
2
10
1
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
Also, when two Model 2651As are connected in
parallel with TSP-Link technology, the current
range is expanded from 50A to 100A. When two
units are connected in series, the voltage range
is expanded from 40V to 80V. Built-in intelligence simplifies testing by enabling the units
to be addressed as a single instrument, thus
creating an industry-best dynamic range (100A
to 1pA). This ­capability enables you to test a
much wider range of power semiconductors and
other devices.
0
200
60
Time (µs)
Volts
Up to
100A
26XXA
LXI or GPIB
to PC
Controller
Accessories Available
2600-KIT
ACS-BASIC
4299-6
8011
Voltage (V)
Current
50
The dual digitizing A/D converters sample at
up to 1μs/point, enabling full simultaneous
characterization of both current and
voltage waveforms.
High Speed Pulsing
The Model 2651A minimizes the unwanted
effects of self heating during tests by accurately
sourcing and measuring pulses as short as
100μs. Additional control flexibility enables you
to program the pulse width from 100μs to DC
and the duty cycle from 1% to 100%. A single
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40
Id (A)
High power System SourceMeter instrument
Accessories Supplied
Vgs = 2.01V
Vgs = 2.25V
Vgs = 2.50V
Vgs = 2.75V
Vgs = 3.00V
Vgs = 3.25V
Vgs = 3.51V
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
0.018
Id = 10A
Id = 20A
Id = 30A
Id = 40A
Id = 50A
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
Standard Capabilities of
Series 2600A Instruments
Each Model 2651A includes all the features and
capabilities provided in the other Series 2600A
instruments, such as:
• Ability to be used as either a bench-top
I-V characterization tool or as a building
block component of multiple-channel I-V
test systems
• TSP Express software to quickly and
easily perform common I-V tests without
programming or installing software
• ACS Basic Edition software for semiconductor
component characterization (optional).
ACS Basic now features a Trace mode for
generating a suite of characteristic curves.
• Keithley’s Test Script Processor (TSP®), which
enables creation of custom user test scripts to
further automate testing, and also supports
the creation of programming sequences
that allow the instrument to operate
asynchronously without direct PC control.
• Parallel test execution and precision timing
when multiple Series 2600A instruments are
connected together in a system
• LXI Class C compliance
• 14 digital I/O lines for direct interaction with
probe stations, component handlers, or other
automation tools
• USB port for extra data and test program
­storage via USB memory device
4.0
Precision measurements to 50A (100A with
two units) enable a more complete and
accurate characterization.
G R E A T E R
5.0
1μV measurement resolution and current
sourcing up to 50A (100A with two units)
enable low-level Rds measurements to
support next-generation devices.
Vds (V)
A
4.5
Vgs (V)
M E A S U R E
O F
High power System SourceMeter instrument
2651A
0.020
SMU INSTRUMENTS
unit can pulse up to 50A; combine two units
to pulse up to 100A.
Rds (ohms)
Ordering information
C O N F I D E N C E
27
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Specification Conditions
Source and measurement accuracies are specified at the Model 2651A terminals under
these conditions:
• 23° ±5°C, <70 percent relative humidity
• After two-hour warm-up
• Speed normal (1 NPLC)
• A/D autozero enabled
• Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local operation
• Calibration period: One year
VOLTAGE ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS 1, 2
SOURCE
Programming
Resolution
  5 μV
  50 μV
500 μV
500 μV
500 μV
Range
100.000 mV
1.00000 V
10.0000 V
20.0000 V
40.0000 V
Accuracy
±(% reading + volts)
0.02% + 500 μV
0.02% + 500 μV
0.02% +    5 mV
0.02% +    5 mV
0.02% +   12 mV
MEASURE
Noise (Vpp) (typical)
0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
100 μV
500 μV
  1 mV
  1 mV
  2 mV
Default
Display
Resolution
  1 μV
  10 μV
100 μV
100 μV
100 μV
Noise (Ipp) (typical)
0.1Hz to 10Hz
  50 pA
250 pA
500 pA
  5 nA
  10 nA
500 nA
  1 μA
300 μA
300 μA
500 μA
500 μA
N/A
Default
Display
Resolution
  1 pA
  10 pA
100 pA
  1 nA
  10 nA
100 nA
  1 μA
  10 μA
  10 μA
100 μA
100 μA
100 μA
Integrating ADC Accuracy 3
±(% reading + volts)
0.02% + 300 μV
0.02% + 300 μV
0.02% +    3 mV
0.02% +    5 mV
0.02% +   12 mV
High-Speed ADC Accuracy 4
±(% reading + volts)
0.05% + 600 μV
0.05% + 600 μV
0.05% +    8 mV
0.05% +    8 mV
0.05% +   15 mV
CURRENT ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS 5
SOURCE
Range
100.000 nA
1.00000μA
10.0000μA
100.000μA
1.00000 m A
10.0000 m A
100.000 m A
1.00000 A
5.00000 A
10.0000 A
20.0000 A
50.0000 A 6
Programming
Resolution
2pA
20pA
200pA
2nA
20nA
200nA
2μA
200μA
200μA
500μA
500μA
2 mA
Accuracy
±(% reading + amps)
0.1  % +500 pA
0.1  % + 2 nA
0.1  % + 10 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
0.03% +300 nA
0.03% + 8μA
0.03% + 30μA
0.08% +3.5 mA
0.08% +3.5 mA
0.15% + 6 mA
0.15% + 8 mA
0.15% + 80 mA
MEASURE
Integrating ADC Accuracy 3
±(% reading + amps)
0.08% + 500 pA
0.08% + 2 nA
0.08% + 8 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.05% + 3 mA
0.05% + 3 mA
0.12% + 6 mA
0.08% + 8 mA
0.05% + 50 mA 7
High-Speed ADC Accuracy 4
±(% reading + amps)
0.08% + 800 pA
0.08% + 4 nA
0.08% + 10 nA
0.05% + 60 nA
0.05% + 500 nA
0.05% + 10 µA
0.05% + 50 µA
0.05% + 5 mA
0.05% + 5 mA
0.12% + 12 mA
0.08% + 15 mA
0.05% + 90 mA 8
NOTES
SMU INSTRUMENTS
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. For temperatures 0° to 18°C and 28° to 50°C, accuracy is degraded by ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
High-capacitance mode accuracy is applicable at 23° ±5°C only.
3. Derate accuracy specification for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term.
Add appropriate typical percent of range term for resistive loads using the table below.
NPLC Setting
100mV Range
1V to 40V Ranges
100nA Range
1µA to 100mA Ranges
1A to 20A Ranges
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.01%
0.08%
0.8 %
0.01%
0.07%
0.6 %
0.01%
0.1 %
1   %
0.01%
0.05%
0.5 %
0.01%
0.1 %
1.8 %
4. 18-bit ADC. Average of 1000 samples taken at 1µs intervals.
5. At temperatures 0° to 18°C and 28° to 50°C; 100nA to 10µA accuracy is degraded by ±(0.35 × accuracy specification)/°C.
100µA to 50A accuracy is degraded by ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
High-capacitance mode accuracy is applicable at 23° ±5°C only.
6. 50A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. 50A range accuracy measurements are taken at 0.008 NPLC.
8. Average of 100 samples taken at 1µs intervals.
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C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2651A specifications
Model 2651A specifications
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Model 2651A
High Power System SourceMeter instrument. Specifications are the standards against which the
Model 2651A is tested. Upon leaving the factory, the Model 2651A meets these specifications.
Supplemental and typical values are non-warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided solely as
useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high-capacitance modes.
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
+50A
CAUTION: Carefully consider and configure the appropriate output-off state and source and
compliance levels before connecting the Model 2651A to a device that can deliver energy. Failure to
consider the output-off state and source and compliance levels may result in damage to the instrument or to the device under test.
+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
Pulse SPECIFICATIONS
Minimum programmable pulse width 3: 100μs. Note: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100μs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1μs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 3: ±5μs.
Pulse width jitter: 2μs (typical).
Pulse Rise Time (typical):
–20A
Current Range
50 A
50 A
50 A
20 A
50 A
20 A
10 A
 5A
R load
0.05 W
0.2  W
0.4  W
0.5  W
0.8  W
1   W
2   W
8.2  W
6
5
+30A
7
2
+20A
3
4
DC
1
Pulse
–30A
–50A
–40V
Rise Time (typical)
  26 μs
  57 μs
  85 μs
  95 μs
130 μs
180 μs
330 μs
400 μs
–20V
0V
–10V
Region
Maximums
  5 A at 40 V
10 A at 20 V
20 A at 10 V
30 A at 10 V
20 A at 20 V
10 A at 40 V
50 A at 10 V
50 A at 20 V
50 A at 40 V
Region
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
+10V
+40V
+20V
Maximum
Pulse Width 3
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
  1 ms
  1.5 ms
  1.5 ms
  1 ms
330 μs
300 μs
Maximum
Duty Cycle 4
100%
100%
100%
 50%
 40%
 40%
 35%
 10%
  1%
Model 2651A specifications
Maximum output power: 202W maximum.
Source/Sink Limits 1:
Voltage: ±10.1V at ±20.0A, ±20.2V at ±10.0A, ±40.4V at ±5.0A 2.
Four-quadrant source or sink operation.
Current: ±5.05A at ±40V 2, ±10.1A at ±20V, ±20.2A at ±10V
Four-quadrant source or sink operation.
NOTES
1. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C or power sink operation, refer to
“Operating Boundaries” in the Model 2651A Reference manual for additional power derating information.
2. Quadrants 2 and 4 power envelope is trimmed at 36V and 4.5A.
3. Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
Start ton
Bias Level
10%
10%
toff
ton
4. Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants 2 and 4) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the Model 2651A Reference Manual for more information.
The Model 2651A supports GPIB, LXI, Digital I/O, and Keithley’s TSP-Link for multi-channel synchronization.
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SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2651A specifications
DC POWER SPECIFICATIONS
C O N F I D E N C E
29
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2651A specifications
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Range
 1V
10 V
20 V
40 V
Contact Check 1
Speed
Fast
Medium
Slow
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
for 60Hz (50Hz)
1.1 ms (1.2 ms)
4.1 ms (5 ms)
36 ms (42 ms)
Accuracy (1 Year)
23° ±5°C
±(% reading + ohms)
5% + 15 W
5% +   5 W
5% +   3 W
NOTES
1. Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
Additional meter specifications
Maximum load impedance:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical), 3μH (typical).
High-Capacitance Mode: 50μF (typical), 3μH (typical).
Common mode voltage: 250V DC.
Common mode isolation: >1GW, <4500pF.
Measure input impedance: >10GW.
Sense high input impedance: >10GW.
Maximum sense lead resistance: 1kW for rated accuracy.
Overrange: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
Settling Time (typical)
<  70 μs
<160 μs
<190 μs
<175 μs
Current source output settling time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout × R load.
Current Range
R load
Settling time (typical)
<195 μs
20A
0.5W
10A
<540 μs
1.5W
5A
<560 μs
5
W
1A
<  80 μs
1
W
<  80 μs
100mA
10W
10mA
<210 μs
100 W
1mA
<300 μs
1kW
100μA
<500 μs
10kW
10μA
<  15 ms
100kW
1μA
<  35 ms
1MW
100nA
<110 ms
10MW
HIGH-CAPACITANCE mODE 1,2
Accuracy specifications 3: Accuracy specifications are applicable in both normal and highcapacitance modes.
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1 % of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. 4
Voltage Source
Range
 1V
10 V
20 V
40 V
Transient response time:
10V and 20V Ranges: <70μs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90% step
change in load.
40V Range: <110μs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90% step change in load.
Guard offset voltage: <4mV, current <10mA.
Remote sense operating range 2:
Maximum Voltage between HI and SENSE HI: 3V.
Maximum Voltage between LO and SENSE LO: 3V.
Maximum impedance per source lead:
Maximum impedance limited by 3V drop by remote sense operating range.
Maximum resistance = 3V/source current value (amperes) (maximum of 1W per source lead).
3V = L di/dt.
Voltage output headroom:
5A Range: Maximum output voltage = 48.5V – (Total voltage drop across source leads).
10A Range: Maximum output voltage = 24.5V – (Total voltage drop across source leads).
20A Range: Maximum output voltage = 15.9V – (Total voltage drop across source leads).
Overtemperature protection: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
Limit/compliance: Bipolar limit (compliance) set with single value.
Voltage 3: Minimum value is 10mV; accuracy is the same as voltage source.
Current 4: Minimum value is 10nA; accuracy is the same as current source.
Settling Time with
Cload = 4.7μF (typical)
  75 μs
170 μs
200 μs
180 μs
Mode change delay:
100 μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High-Capacitance Mode: 11ms.
Delay out of High-Capacitance Mode: 11ms.
1 μA and 10 μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High-Capacitance Mode: 250ms.
Delay out of High-Capacitance Mode: 11ms.
Measure input impedance: >10GW in parallel with 25nF.
Voltage source range change overshoot: <400mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz bandwidth.
NOTES
1. High-capacitance mode specifications are for DC measurements only and use locked ranges. Autorange is disabled.
2. 100nA range is not available in high-capacitance mode.
3. Add an additional 2nA to the source current accuracy and measure current accuracy offset for the 1µA range.
4. With measure and compliance set to the maximum current for the specified voltage range.
NOTES
1. With measure and compliance set to the maximum current for the specified voltage range.
2. Add 50 µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
3. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.6% of limit range to the corresponding voltage source
accuracy specifications. For 100mV range add an additional 60mV of uncertainty. Specifications apply with sink
mode enabled.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.6% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode enabled.
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Additional Measurement specifications
Noise (10Hz to 20MHz): <100mV peak-peak (typical), <30mV RMS (typical), 10V range with a
20A limit.
Overshoot:
Voltage: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum
current limit/compliance.
Current: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step Size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load. See
Current Source Output Settling Time specifications for additional test conditions.
Range change overshoot:
Voltage: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (for <20V ranges) (typical).
<400mV + 0.1% of larger range (for ≥20V ranges) (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz bandwidth.
Current: <5% of larger range + 360mV/R load (for >10μA ranges) (typical). Iout × R load = 1V.
Voltage source output settling time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. 1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2651A specifications
2651A
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Measurement Speed Specifications 1, 2
Trigger Origin
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
20000 (20000)
8100 (8100)
4900 (4000)
3500 (3100)
580 (480)
550 (460)
59 (49)
58 (48)
38500 (38500)
12500 (12500)
Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
9800 (9800)
7100 (7100)
3900 (3400)
3400 (3000)
560 (470)
550 (460)
59 (49)
58 (49)
18000 (18000)
11500 (11500)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
7000 (7000)
5500 (5500)
3400 (3000)
3000 (2700)
550 (465)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
10000 (10000)
7500 (7500)
Readings per
Second
Bursts per Second
 100
 500
1000
2500
5000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
400
 80
 40
 16
  8
Source Measure
To Memory Using
Sweep API
12000 (12000)
11200 (11200)
4200 (3700)
4150 (3650)
560 (470)
560 (470)
59 (49)
59 (49)
14300 (14300)
13200 (13200)
TRIGGERING AND SYNCHRONIZATION
SPECIFICATIONS
High Speed ADC Burst MEASUREMENT RATES 3
Burst Length
(readings)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
6200 (6200)
5100 (5100)
3200 (2900)
2900 (2600)
550 (460)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
9500 (9500)
7000 (7000)
Triggering:
Trigger In to Trigger Out: 0.5μs (typical).
Trigger In to Source Change 1: 10μs (typical).
Trigger Timer Accuracy: ±2μs (typical).
Source Change 1 After LXI Trigger: 280μs (typical).
Synchronization:
Single-Node Synchronized Source Change 1: <0.5μs (typical).
Multi-Node Synchronized Source Change 1: <0.5μs (typical).
Maximum SINGLE MEASUREMENT RATES (operations per
second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz)
A/D Converter
Speed
Trigger
Origin
Measure
To Gpib
Source
Measure
To Gpib
Source
Measure
Pass/Fail
To Gpib
0.001 NPLC
0.01  NPLC
0.1   NPLC
1.0   NPLC
Internal
Internal
Internal
Internal
1900 (1800)
1450 (1400)
450 (390)
58 (48)
1400 (1400)
1200 (1100)
425 (370)
57 (48)
1400 (1400)
1100 (1100)
425 (375)
57 (48)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
Sweep API
5900 (5900)
5700 (5700)
4000 (3500)
3800 (3400)
545 (460)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
6300 (6300)
6000 (6000)
Model 2651A specifications
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
HS ADC
HS ADC
NOTES
1. Fixed source range with no polarity change.
Maximum Measurement RANGE CHANGE RATE: >4000 per second for >10µA (typical).
Maximum SOURCE Range CHANGE RATE: >325 per second for >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is >250 per second, typical.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change following the receipt of the smua.source.levelv or smua.source.leveli command. <1ms typical.
NOTES
1. Tests performed with a Model 2651A on channel A using the following equipment: Computer hardware (Intel®
Pentium® 4 2.4GHz, 2GB RAM, National Instruments™ PCI-GPIB). Driver (NI-488.2 Version 2.2 PCI-GPIB).
Software (Microsoft® Windows® XP, Microsoft Visual Studio® 2010, VISA™ version 4.1).
2. Exclude current measurement ranges less than 1mA.
3. smua.measure.adc has to be enabled and the smua.measure.count set to the burst length.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2651A specifications
Maximum SWEEP OPERATION RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
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2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
GENERAL
Digital I/O Interface:
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850μA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570μA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of digital I/O bit): +960μA.
Maximum Sink Current At Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 250mA, solid-state fuse protected.
Output Enable Pin: Active high input pulled down internally to ground with a 10kW
resistor; when the output enable input function has been activated, the Model 2651A
channel will not turn on unless the output enable pin is driven to >2.1V (nominal
current = 2.1V/10kW = 210μA).
IEEE-488: IEEE Std 488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE Std 488.2 common commands and status
model topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the
active host interface, the Model 2651A can use the RS-232 interface to control other
instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, Auto MDIX.
LXI compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs minimum, 280μs (typical), (not specified)
maximum.
Receive Lan[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown.
Generate Lan[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown.
Expansion interface: The TSP-Link® expansion interface allows TSP-enabled instruments to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable. 3 meters maximum between each
TSP-enabled instrument.
USB: USB 2.0 host controller.
Power supply: 100V to 250V AC, 50Hz to 60Hz (autosensing), 550VA maximum.
Cooling: Forced air; side and top intake and rear exhaust.
Warranty: 1 year.
EMC: Conforms to European Union EMC Directive.
Safety: UL listed to UL61010-1:2004. Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Dimensions: 89mm high × 435mm wide × 549mm deep (3.5 in. × 17.1 in. × 21.6 in.).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 483mm wide × 620mm
deep (4.1 in. × 19 in. × 24.4 in.).
Weight: 9.98kg (22 lb).
Environment: For indoor use only.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0° to 50° C, 70 % relative humidity up to 35°C. Derate 3% relative humidity/°C,
35° to 50°C.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
Node 2
SMU INSTRUMENTS
100W
5.1kW
Node 1
32
Digital I/O Pin
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
To Host Computer
To Additional Nodes
Each Model 2651A has two TSP-Link connectors to make it easier to connect instruments
together in sequence.
• Once source-measure instruments are interconnected through the TSP-Link expansion
interface, a computer can access all of the resources of each source-measure instrument
through the host interface of any Model 2651A
• A maximum of 32 TSP-Link nodes can be interconnected. Each source-measure instrument
consumes one TSP-Link node.
TIMER: Free-running 47-bit counter with 1MHz clock input. Resets each time instrument power is
turned on. If the instrument is not turned off, the timer is reset to zero every 4 years.
Timestamp: TIMER value is automatically saved when each measurement is triggered.
Resolution: 1µs.
Timestamp Accuracy: ±100ppm.
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600mA
Solid State
Fuse
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Keypad Operations:
• Change host interface settings
• Save and restore instrument setups
• Load and run factory and user defined test scripts that prompt for input and send results to
the display
• Store measurements into dedicated reading buffers
PROGRAMMING: Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP®) scripting engine is accessible from any
host interface.
• Responds to individual instrument control commands.
• Responds to high speed test scripts comprised of instrument control commands and Test
Script Language (TSL) statements (for example, branching, looping, and math).
• Able to execute high speed test scripts stored in memory without host intervention.
Minimum User Memory Available: 16MB (approximately 250,000 lines of TSP code).
Test Script Builder: Integrated development environment for building, running, and
managing TSP scripts. Includes an instrument console for communicating with any TSP enabled
instrument in an interactive manner. Requires:
• VISA (NI-VISA included on CD)
• Microsoft® .NET Framework (included on CD)
• Keithley I/O Layer (included on CD)
• Intel® Pentium III 800MHz or faster personal computer
• Microsoft Windows® 2000, XP, Vista®, or 7
TSP Express (embedded): Tool that allows users to quickly and easily perform common I-V tests
without programming or installing software. To run TSP Express, you need:
• Java™ Platform, Standard Edition 6
• Microsoft Internet Explorer®, Mozilla® Firefox®, or another Java-compatible web browser
Software Interface: TSP Express (embedded), direct GPIB/VISA, read/write with Microsoft
Visual Basic®, Visual C/C++®, Visual C#®, LabVIEW™, CEC TestPoint™ Data Acquisition
Software Package, NI LabWindows™/CVI, etc.
READING BUFFERS: Nonvolatile memory uses dedicated storage areas reserved for measurement
data. Reading buffers are arrays of measurement elements. Each element can hold the
following items:
• Source setting (at the time the measurement was taken)
• Measurement
• Range information
• Measurement status
• Timestamp
Two reading buffers are reserved for each Model 2651A channel. Reading buffers can be filled
using the front panel STORE key and retrieved using the RECALL key or host interface.
Buffer Size, with timestamp and source setting: >60,000 samples.
Buffer Size, without timestamp and source setting: >140,000 samples.
SYSTEM EXPANSION: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP-enabled instruments to
­trigger and communicate with each other. See figure below.
+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2651A specifications
Model 2651A specifications
FRONT PANEL INTERFACE: Two-line vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) with keypad and
navigation wheel.
Display:
• Show error messages and user defined messages • Display source and limit settings
• Show current and voltage measurements
• View measurements stored in dedicated
(6½-digit to 4½-digit)
reading buffers
SourceMeter Line
Keithley’s SourceMeter family are source measurement unit
(SMU) instruments designed specifically for test applications
that demand tightly coupled sourcing and measurement. All
SourceMeter models provide precision voltage and current sourcing as well as measurement capabilities. Each SourceMeter instrument is both a highly stable DC power source and a true instrument-grade 6½-digit multimeter. The power source characteristics
include low noise, precision, and readback. The multimeter
capabilities include high repeatability and low noise. The result
is a compact, single-channel, DC parametric tester. In operation,
these instruments can act as a voltage source, a current source, a
voltage meter, a current meter, and an ohmmeter. Manufacturers
of components and modules for the communications, semiconductor, computer, automotive, and medical industries will find the
SourceMeter instruments invaluable for a wide range of characterization and production test applications.
• Five instruments in one
(IV Source, IVR Measure)
• Seven models: 20–100W DC,
1000W pulsed, 1100V to 1µV,
10A to 10pA
• Source and sink (4-quadrant)
operation
• 0.012% basic measure accuracy
with 6½-digit resolution
• 2-, 4-, and 6-wire remote
V-source and measure sensing
• 1700 readings/second at
4½ digits via GPIB
• Pass/Fail comparator for fast
sorting/binning
• Available high speed sense lead
contact check function
• Programmable DIO port for
automation/handler/prober
control (except Model 2401)
• Standard SCPI GPIB, RS-232 and
Keithley Trigger Link interfaces
• Keithley LabTracer 2.0 I-V curve
tracing application software
(download)
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Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit,
these instruments offer a variety of advantages over systems
configured with separate source and measurement instruments.
For example, they minimize the time required for test station
development, setup, and maintenance, while lowering the overall
cost of system ownership. They simplify the test process itself
by eliminating many of the complex synchronization and connection issues associated with using
multiple instruments. And, their compact half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test
rack or bench.
Power of Five Instruments in One (IV Source, IVR Measure)
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many advantages over solutions
configured from separate instruments, such as a precision power supply and a digital multimeter. For
example, it provides faster test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the remote programming
interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to accidental overloads, thermal
runaway, etc. Both the current and voltage source are programmable with readback to help maximize
device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit, then the
source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
TEST LEADS
1754
5804
5805
5808
5809
8607
CA-18-1
AND PROBES
2-Wire Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Spring-Loaded Probes
Low Cost Single-pin Kelvin Probe Set
Low Cost Kelvin Clip Lead Set
2-Wire, 1000V Banana Cables, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded Dual Banana Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
SWITCHING
7001
7002
7019-C
7053
HARDWARE
Two-Slot Switch System
Ten-Slot Switch System
6-Wire Ohms Switch Card
High-Current Switch Card
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7009-5
RS-232 Cable
8620
Shorting Plug
A
G R E A T E R
Communication Interface
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Triggering and Control
2499-DIGIO Digital I/O Expander Assembly
(not for Model 2401)
8501-1
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m (6.6 ft)
8502
Trigger Link to BNC Breakout Box
8503
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-Dual BNC, 1m (3.3 ft)
8505
Male to 2-Female Y-DIN Cable for Trigger Link
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-4
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-5
Shelf Type Side by Side Rack Mounting Kit
4288-9
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
Software
LabTracer 2.0 Curve Tracing Software (downloadable)
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
C O N F I D E N C E
33
Ordering Information
2400
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2400-C
2401
2410
2410-C
2420
2420-C
2425
2425-C
2430
2430-C
2440
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2440-C
200V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
200V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
20V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
1100V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
1100V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
60V, 3A, 60W
SourceMeter Instrument
60V, 3A, 60W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
100V, 3A, 100W
SourceMeter Instrument
100V, 3A, 100W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
100V, 10A, 1000W
Pulse Mode
SourceMeter Instrument
100V, 10A, 1000W
Pulse Mode
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
40V, 5A, 50W
SourceMeter Instrument
40V, 5A, 50W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
Accessories Supplied
Model 8605 Test Leads
LabVIEW Software Driver
­(downloadable)
LabTracer Software
­(downloadable)
®
I-V Characteristics
All SourceMeter instruments provide four-quadrant operation. In the first and third quadrants they
­operate as a source, delivering power to a load. In the second and fourth quadrants they operate as a
sink, d­ issipating power internally. Voltage, current, and resistance can be measured during source or
sink ­operation.
Imeter
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Imeter/Compliance
Isource
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Vmeter
Vsource
DUT
DUT
Feedback to
Adjust Vsource
Vmeter/Compliance
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source I, Measure V, I, or W configuration
Source V, Measure I, V, or W configuration
Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments
+1A
Model 2400
SourceMeter
Instrument
–200V
+100mA
–20V
+20V
2400
only
+1A
Model 2401
Low-Voltage
SourceMeter
Instrument
–200V
+200V
+100mA
–20V
+20V
2400
only
Duty cycle limited
Duty cycle limited
–1A
–1A
Model 2410
High-Voltage
SourceMeter
Instrument
Model 2420
3A SourceMeter
Instrument
+1A
+1A
+20V
+200V +1100V
–60V
–20V
+20V
–20mA
–3A
+10A
Model 2430
1kW Pulse Mode
SourceMeter
Instrument
–100V
–60 –20
+1A
–3A
5A
3A
1A
–100V –60 –20
100mA
+20 +60 +100V
–40V
–10V
+10V
+40V
–100mA
–100mA
–1A
–1A
–3A
Pulse mode only
A
G R E A T E R
–3A
Duty cycle limited
–10A
M E A S U R E
O F
+100V
–1A
Duty cycle
limited
Model 2440
5A SourceMeter
Instrument
+3A
+20 +60
–100mA
–1A
Duty cycle
limited
–1A
+100mA
+60V
–100mA
–100mA
+3A
+1A
+100mA
+20mA
–20V
Model 2425
100W SourceMeter
Instrument
+3A
+200mA
–1100V –200V
+200V
–100mA
–100mA
+100mA
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34
SourceMeter Line
–5A
C O N F I D E N C E
Duty cycle limited
Duty cycle
limited
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Standard and Custom Sweeps
Sweep solutions greatly accelerate testing with
automation hooks. Three basic sweep waveforms
are provided that can be programmed for singleevent or continuous operation. They are ideal for
I/V, I/R, V/I, and V/R characterization.
• Linear Staircase Sweep: Moves from the start
level to the stop level in equal linear steps
• Logarithmic Staircase Sweep: Done on a
log scale with a specified number of steps
per decade
• Custom Sweep: Allows construction of
special sweeps by specifying the number of
measurement points and the source level at
each point
• Up to 1700 readings/second at 4½ digits to
the GPIB bus
• 5000 readings can be stored in the nonvolatile buffer memory
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear staircase sweep
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Logarithmic staircase sweep
Stop
Start
User
defined
steps
Built-In Test Sequencer
Bias
Bias
(Source Memory List)
The Source Memory list provides faster and
Custom sweep
easier testing by allowing you to setup and
execute up to 100 different tests that run without
PC intervention.
• Stores up to 100 instrument configurations, each containing source settings, measurement
­settings, pass/fail criteria, etc.
• Pass/fail limit test as fast as 500µs per point
• Onboard comparator eliminates the delay caused when sending data to the computer for analysis
• Built-in, user definable math functions to calculate derived parameters
Typical Applications
Devices:
• Discrete semiconductor devices
• Passive devices
• Transient suppression devices
• ICs, RFICs, MMICs
• Laser diodes, laser diode
modules, LEDs, photodetectors
• Circuit protection devices: TVS,
MOV, Fuses, etc.
• Airbags
• Connectors, switches, relays
• High brightness LEDs
(DC and pulse)
Tests:
• Leakage
• Low voltage/resistances
• LIV
• IDDQ
• I-V characterization
• Isolation and trace resistance
• Temperature coefficient
• Forward voltage, reverse
breakdown, leakage current
• DC parametric test
• DC power source
• HIPOT
• Photovoltaic cell efficiency
(source and sink)
• Dielectric withstanding
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Automation for Speed
A SourceMeter instrument streamlines production testing. It sources voltage or current while making
measurements without needing to change connections. It is designed for reliable operation in nonstop production environments. To provide the throughput demanded by production applications,
the SourceMeter instrument offers many built-in features that allow it to run complex test sequences
without computer control or GPIB communications slowing things down.
Example Test Sequence
I
VF2
IR
VF1
Test 2
Test 1
Test 3
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V
Test
Pass/Fail Test
If Passes Test
Test 1
Check V F1 at
100mA against
pass/fail limits
Go to Test 2
Test 2
Check V F2 at 1A
against pass/fail
limits
Go to Test 3
Test 3
Check leakage
­current at –500V
and test against
pass/fail limits
1.Bin part to good bin
2.Transmit readings to
computer while handler
is placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
A
M E A S U R E
G R E A T E R
If Fails Test
O F
1.Bin part to bad bin
2.Transmit data to
computer while
handler is placing
new part
3.Return to Test 1
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
C O N F I D E N C E
35
SourceMeter Line
®
Digital I/O Interface
The digital I/O interface can link the SourceMeter instrument to many
popular component handlers, including Aetrium, Aeco, and Robotronics.
Other capabilities of the interface include:
• Tight systems integration for applications such as binning and sorting
• Built-in component handler interface
• Start of test and end of test signals
• 5V, 300mA power supply
• Optional expander accessory (Model 2499-DIGIO) adds 16 digital I/O lines
• Locks out parallel current paths when measuring resistor networks or
hybrid ­circuits to isolate the component under test
• Allows users to configure and plot data easily from Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments, making characterization of two, three, and
four terminal devices a snap
+
GUARD SENSE
Imeter
IN/OUT HI
DUT
R2
Isource
Vmeter
R1
R3
SENSE LO
IN/OUT LO
6-Wire Ohms Circuit. All test current flows through R1 because the
high current guard drives the voltage across R2 to 0V.
Pass
-
Vmeter
SENSE HI
GUARD
350µs
Contact Check
GUARD SENSE
IN/OUT HI
SENSE HI
V or I
Source
GUARD
-
Optional Contact Check Function
The Contact Check function makes it simple to verify good connections
quickly and easily before an automated test sequence begins. This eliminates measurement errors and false product failures associated with contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, loose or broken connection, relay
failures, etc. Some capabilities of this function are:
• 350µs verification and notification process time
• The output of the SourceMeter instrument is automatically shut off after
a fault and is not re-activated until good contact is verified, protecting
the device under test from damage and the operator from potential
safety ­hazards
• 3 pass/fail threshold values: 2W, 15W, and 50W
• No energy passes through the device under test during the operation
• Enabled either from the front panel or remotely over the GPIB
• 3 fault notification methods
+
SMU INSTRUMENTS
• Uses guard and guard sense leads in addition to the 4-wire sense and
source leads
Trigger Link Interface
All SourceMeter instruments include Keithley’s unique Trigger Link interface which provides high-speed, seamless communications with many of
Keithley’s other instruments. For example, use the Trigger Link interface
to connect a SourceMeter instrument with a Series 7000 Switching System
for a complete multi-point test solution. With Trigger Link, the 7000 Series
Switching Systems can be controlled by a SourceMeter instrument during a
high-speed test sequence independent of a computer and GPIB.
Imeter
Fail
(optional)
SENSE LO
Pass
IN/OUT LO
Contact check option for 4-wire or 6-wire applications
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36
Unique 6-Wire Ohms Technique
SourceMeter instruments can make standard 4-wire, split Kelvin, and
6-wire, guarded ohms measurements and can be configured for either the
constant current or constant voltage method. The 6-wire ohms technique:
Free LabTracer 2.0 device characterization software (downloadable)
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Voltage Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2410, 2410-C
2420, 2420-C
2425, 2425-C
2430, 2430-C
2440, 2440-C
Programming
Resolution
5µV
50µV
500µV
5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
50mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
1.5mV
5 µV
50µV
500µV
2.5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
2.5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
5mV
Measurement 2, 3, 4
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.015% + 10 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 50 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 3 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 750 µV
0.015% + 3 mV
Output Slew Rate
(±30%)
Source/Sink Limit
0.08 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
0.15 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.14 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±210 V @ ±105 mA*
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±1100 V @ ±21 mA
±21 V @ ±3.15 A
±63 V @ ±1.05 A
±21 V @ ±3.15 A
±105 V @ ±1.05 A
±105 V @ ±1.05 A
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
±105 V @ ±10.5 A
(pulse mode only)
±10.5 V @ ±5.25 A
±42 V @ ±1.05 A
*Not available on Model 2401.
Additional Pulse Mode Source Specifications
(2430 and 2430-C only)
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = none.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Overshoot: <0.1% typical (full scale step, resistive load, 10mA range).
Maximum Duty Cycle: 8%, hardware limited, 10A range only. All other ranges 100%.
Maximum Pulse Width: 5ms from 90% rising to 90% falling edge, 2.5ms 10A range.
Minimum Pulse Width: 150µs.
Minimum Pulse Resolution: 50µs typical, 70µs max., limited by system ­jitter.
Source Accuracy: Determined by settling time and source range specifications.
Output Settling Time 0.1%:
800µs typ., source I = 10A into 10W, limited by voltage slew rate.
500µs typ., source I = 10A into 1W, limited by voltage slew rate.
Output Slew Rate:
Voltage (10W load): 0.25V/µs ±30% on 100V range. 0.08V/µs ±30% on 20V range, 10A range.
Current (0W load): 0.25A/µs ±30% on 100V range. 0.08A/µs ±30% on 20V range, 10A range.
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (All Models)
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: 30µs minimum for the output to recover to its spec. following a
step change in load.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change
following the receipt of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent <nrf> command. Autorange On: 10ms.
Autorange Off: 7ms.
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after command is processed. 100µs typical. Resistive load. 10µA to 100mA range.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC (Model 2440 ±40VDC) from
chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE: Up to 1V drop per load lead.
COMPLIANCE ACCURACY: Add 0.3% of range and ±0.02% of reading to base specification.
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: Overshoot into a fully resistive 100kW load, 10Hz to 1MHz BW,
adjacent ranges: 100mV typical, except 20V/200V (20V/60V on Model 2420), 20V/100V on Model
2425 and 2430, range boundary, and Model 2440.
MINIMUM COMPLIANCE VALUE: 0.1% of range.
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NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add
0.5%.
3. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
4. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2400 condensed specifications
2400, 2400-C,
2401
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V*
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
1000.00V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
60.0000V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
100.0000 V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
100.0000 V
200.000mV
2.00000V
10.0000V
40.0000V
Default
Measurement
Resolution
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
10 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Model
Source1
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 24 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 100 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 7.2 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 12 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 12 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 1.2 mV
0.02% + 4.8 mV
C O N F I D E N C E
37
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Current Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2400, 2400-C,
2401
2410, 2410-C
2420, 2420-C
2425, 2425-C
2430, 2430-C
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2440, 2440-C
Range
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
20.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
3.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
3.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
3.00000 A 2
10.00000 A4
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
5.00000 A
Programming
Resolution
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
500 µA
500 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range (except Model 2440
5A range 0.05%) + 100pA.
Voltage LIMIT: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
OVERSHOOT: <0.1% typical (1mA step, RL = 10kW, 20V range for Model 2400, 2401, 2410, 2420,
2425, 2430), (10V range for Model 2440).
38
Source/Sink Limit
±1.05A @ ±21 V
±105 mA @ ±210 V 8
±1.05A @ ±21 V
±21 mA @ ±1100 V
±3.15A @ ±21 V
±1.05 A @ ±63 V
±3.15A @ ±21 V
±1.05 A @ ±105 V
±1.05A @ ±105 V
±10.5 A @ ±105 V
(pulse mode only)
±5.25A @ ±10.5 V
±1.05 A @ ±42 V
NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Full operation (1A) regardless of load to 30°C (50°C for Model 2420 and 2440). Above 30°C (50°C for Model
2420 and 2440) ambient, derate 35mA/°C and prorate 35mA/W load. 4-wire mode. For current sink operation
on 1A, 3A, or 5A ranges, maximum continuous power is limited to approximately 1/2 rated power or less,
depending on current, up to 30°C ambient. See power equations in the User’s Manual to calculate allowable
duty cycle for specific conditions.
3. For sink mode, 1µA to 100mA range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(0.15% + offset*4). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(0.5% + offset*3).
For 1A range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(1.5% + offset*8). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(1.5% + offset*3).
4. 10A range only in pulse mode. Limited to 2.5ms pulse width maximum. 10% duty cycle maximum.
5. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges,
add 0.5%.
6. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
7. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
8. Model 2400 and 2400-C only.
Contact Check Specifications (requires -C version)
(Not available for Model 2401)
Speed: 350µs for verification and notification.
Contact Check:
2 W15 W50 W
No contact check failure
<1.00 W<13.5 W<47.5 W
Always contact check failure
>3.00 W>16.5 W>52.5 W
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Default Measurement
Resolution
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
Measurement5, 6, 7
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 1.2 µA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.066% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.082% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.10 % + 3.42 mA
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Model
Source1, 3
Accuracy
(1 Year) 3
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 4 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.7 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.8 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.8 mA
0.089% + 5.9 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.10 % + 5.4 mA
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)1, 2, 5
Default
Resolution
<0.20000 W3
–
–
–
10µW
2400, 2401
2410
2420, 2425, 2430, 2440
2400, 2401
–
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
1A
Normal Accuracy (23°C ±5°C)
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
Source I ACC + Meas VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC 0.17% + 0.0003W
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
20.0000 W 100µW
100mA
100mA
0.10% + 0.003W
0.11% + 0.006W
0.10% + 0.003 W
0.07% + 0.001
W
200.000 W 1mW
10mA
10mA
0.08% + 0.03 W
0.09% + 0.1 W
0.08% + 0.03 W
0.05% + 0.01
W
2.00000kW 10mW
1mA
1mA
0.07% + 0.3 W
0.08% + 0.6 W
0.07% + 0.3
W
0.05% + 0.1
W
20.0000kW 100mW
100µA
100µA
0.06% + 3
W
0.07% + 6
W
0.06% + 3
W
0.04% + 1
W
200.000kW 1
W
10µA
10µA
0.07% + 30
W
0.07% + 60
W
0.07% + 30
W
0.05% + 10
W
W
2.00000MW6 10
1µA
1µA
0.11% +300
W
0.12% +600
W
0.11% +300
W
0.05% +100
W
20.0000MW7 100W
1µA
1µA
0.11% + 1
kW
0.12% + 2.4 kW
0.11% + 1
kW
0.05% +500
W
200.000MW3 >200.000 MW3
100nA
–
1kW
–
–
–
0.66% + 10 kW
0.66% + 24 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy
specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source accuracy + V measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
Source V Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = V source ­accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense. Max.
Guard Output Current: 50mA (except 1A range). Accuracy is load dependent.
Refer to White Paper no. 2033 for calculation ­formula.
Guard Output Impedance: <0.1W in ohms mode.
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
0.35% + 5
kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
NOTES
1. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.05%. For
0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.5%.
2. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
3. Manual ohms only – except 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440 for 2W range and 2400, 2401 or 2410 for 200MW range.
4. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Also available on 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, and 2440 with similar ­accuracy
enhancement.
5. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
6. Except 2440; default test current is 5µA.
7. Except 2440; default test current is 0.5µA.
Services Available
2400-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2400-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2401-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2410-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2410-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2420-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2420-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2425-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2425-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2430-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2430-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2440-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2440-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
C/2400-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2400, 2400-C, 2400-LV*
C/2401-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Model 2401*
C/2410-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2410, 2410-C*
C/2420-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2420, 2420-C*
C/2425-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2425, 2425-C*
C/2430-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2430, 2430-C*
C/2440-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2440, 2440-C*
TRN-2400-1-C Course: Unleashing the Power of Your SourceMeter Instrument
*Not available in all countries
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2400 condensed specifications
2.00000 W3 Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C) 4
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
Default Test
Current
2420, 2425,
2430, 2440
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Range
Default Test
Current
2400, 2401, 2410
C O N F I D E N C E
39
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
System Speeds
Measurement1
MAXIMUM RANGE CHANGE RATE: 75/second.
MAXIMUM MEASURE AUTORANGE TIME: 40ms (fixed source).2
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Speed
Fast
IEEE-488.1 Mode
Fast
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Medium
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Normal
IEEE-488.2 Mode
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.10 / internal
0.10 / external
1.00 / internal
1.00 / external
Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
2081 (2030) 1754
1239 (1200) 1254
2081 (2030) 1198 (1210)
1239 (1200) 1079 (1050)
510 (433)
509 (433)
438 (380)
438 (380)
59
(49)
59 (49)
57
(48)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
1551 (1515)
1369
1018 (990)
1035
1551 (1515)
1000 (900)
1018 (990)
916 (835)
470 (405)
470 (410)
409 (360)
409 (365)
58 (48)
58 (48)
57 (48)
57 (47)
Source-Measure5
Pass/Fail Test4, 5
To Mem.
To GPIB
902 (900)
981
830 (830)
886
902 (900)
809 (840)
830 (830)
756 (780)
389 (343)
388 (343)
374 (333)
374 (333)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
Source-Memory4
To Mem.
To GPIB
165 (162)
165
163 (160)
163
165 (162)
164 (162)
163 (160)
162 (160)
133 (126)
132 (126)
131 (125)
131 (125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
Single Reading Operation Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast (488.1)
Fast (488.2)
Medium (488.2)
Normal (488.2)
Measure
To GPIB
537
256 (256)
167 (166)
49
(42)
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
Source-Measure5
To GPIB
140
79 (83)
72 (70)
34 (31)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test4,5
To GPIB
135
79 (83)
69 (70)
35 (30)
Component for 60Hz (50Hz): 4, 6
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / external
0.10 / external
1.00 / external
Measure To GPIB
1.04 ms (1.08 ms)
2.55 ms (2.9 ms)
17.53 ms (20.9 ms)
Source Pass/Fail Test
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test5, 7
To GPIB
4.82 ms (5.3 ms)
6.27 ms (7.1 ms)
21.31 ms (25.0 ms)
NOTES
Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display off,
trigger delay = 0, and binary reading format.
Purely resistive lead. 1µA and 10µA ranges <65ms.
3 1000 point sweep was characterized with the source on a fixed range.
Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making m
­ easurement.
6 Time from falling edge of START OF TEST signal to falling edge of end of test signal.
7 Command processing time of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent:TRIGgered <nrf> command not included.
1
4
5
2
general
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Slow
SMU INSTRUMENTS
1
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
NMRR
—
—
60 dB
Except lowest 2 current ranges = 90dB.
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
Common mode voltage: 250V DC (40V DC for Model 2440).
Common Mode Isolation: >109W, <1000pF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V.
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 1MW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1010W.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <150µV, typical (300µV for Models 2430, 2440).
Source Output modes:
Pulse (Model 2430 only)
Fixed DC level
Memory List (mixed function)
Stair (linear and log)
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5 digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes selected measured
value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery ­backup (3 yr+ battery life).
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SOURCE MEMORY LIST: 100 points max.
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Digital Interface:
Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. [email protected] 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA, diode clamped).
Power Supply: 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up). Model
2400, 2401: 190VA. Model 2410: 210VA. Model 2420: 220VA. Model 2425, 2430: 250VA.
Model 2440: 240VA.
COOLING: Model 2401: Convection. Model 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: Forced air,
variable speed.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Safety: UL listed to UL 61010B-1:2003: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet):104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
WEIGHT: 3.21kg (7.08 lbs) (Model 2425, 2430, 2440: 4.1kg, 9.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
100 dB1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Sweep Operation3 Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
The economical Model 2401 is the latest member
of Keithley’s Series 2400 SourceMeter family,
designed specifically for low voltage test applications that demand tightly coupled sourcing and
measurement. Like all Series 2400 SourceMeter
models, the Model 2401 provides precision
voltage and current sourcing and measurement capabilities (1μV–20V and 10pA–1A). It
is both a highly stable DC power source and
a true instrument-grade 6½-digit multimeter.
The power source characteristics include low
noise, precision, and readback. The multimeter
capabilities include high repeatability and low
noise. The result is a compact, single-channel,
DC parametric tester. In operation, it can act as a
voltage source, a current source, a voltage meter,
a current meter, and an ohmmeter.
• 1μV–20V and 10pA–1A precision
voltage and current sourcing
and measurement capabilities
• Five instruments in one (IV
Source, IVR Measure)
• Source and sink (4-quadrant)
operation
• 0.012% basic measure accuracy
with 6½-digit resolution
• 2-, 4-, and 6-wire remote
V-source and measure sensing
• 1700 readings/second at 4½
digits via GPIB
• Standard SCPI GPIB, RS-232,
and Keithley Trigger Link
interfaces
• Keithley LabTracer 2.0 I-V curve
tracing application software
(download)
The Lowest Cost Precision Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instrument
on the Market
The Model 2401 is the lowest cost precision SMU instrument on the market, offering an economical
20W I-V source/measure alternative to configuring systems and test benches with separate programmable power supplies and digital multimeters. The Model 2401 also offers an economical alternative
for applications for which precision programmable power supplies cannot deliver sufficient accuracy,
signal range, source setting, or readback resolution.
The Model 2401 offers users all the same accuracy, speed, and measurement functions as the other
instruments in the Series 2400 family. It shares a common operating code base with the rest of the
family, so it can be operated and programmed within its range boundaries just like any other Series
2400 instrument. The only functional differences between the Model 2401 and the Model 2400 are
that the Model 2401 does not include 200V source and measure ranges or back panel Digital I/O port
capabilities. (However, the DB-9 connector is still provided to provide test fixture interlock ­signals.)
Model 2401 Applications
Manufacturers of components and modules for
the communications, semiconductor, computer,
automotive, and medical industries will find the
Model 2401 invaluable for a wide range of characterization and production test applications.
Its [email protected] output makes it ideal for characterizing the current-voltage (I-V) performance of
photovoltaic (solar) cells, high brightness LEDs
(HBLEDs), low voltage materials, CMOS circuits
and low-power semiconductor devices, as well as
resistance measurements on these devices.
The Model 2401 is well suited for use as a gate
bias in applications involving devices with
three or more terminals such as HBLEDs and
photovoltaic cells, reducing total system hardware costs. It also provides sufficient range for
characterizing low voltage materials and devices
(including graphene and other nano- and
MEMs-type structures), which are inherently
low ­voltage ­oriented.
Typical Applications
• High brightness LEDs
(DC and pulse)
• Photovoltaic cell efficiency
(source and sink)
• Precision DC power supply/
current measure
• Discrete semiconductor devices
• Passive devices
• Laser diodes, laser diode
modules, LEDs, photodetectors
• Connectors, switches, relays
• Low voltages/resistances
• LIV
• IDDQ
• I-V characterization
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Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
C O N F I D E N C E
41
Ordering Information
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
Low Voltage
SourceMeter®
Instrument
Accessories Supplied
Model 8605 Test Leads
LabVIEW Software Driver
(downloadable)
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
TEST LEADS
1754
5804
5805
5808
5809
8607
CA-18-1
AND PROBES
2-Wire Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Spring-Loaded Probes
Low Cost Single-pin Kelvin Probe Set
Low Cost Kelvin Clip Lead Set
2-Wire, 1000V Banana Cables, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded Dual Banana Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
SWITCHING
7001
7002
7019-C
7053
HARDWARE
Two-Slot Switch System
Ten-Slot Switch System
6-Wire Ohms Switch Card
High-Current Switch Card
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
®
Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit, the Model 2401 offers a variety of
advantages over systems configured with separate source and measurement instruments. For
­example, it minimizes the time required for test station development, setup, and maintenance, while
lowering the overall cost of system ownership. It simplifies the test process itself by eliminating many
of the complex synchronization and connection issues associated with using multiple instruments. Its
compact half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test rack or bench.
Much More than a Power Supply
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many advantages over solutions
configured from separate instruments such as a precision power supply and a digital multimeter.
For example, the Model 2401 provides faster test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the
remote programming interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to accidental
overloads, thermal runaway, etc. Both the Model 2401’s current and voltage source are programmable with readback to help maximize device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit, then the source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
Imeter
Triggering and Control
8501-1
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m (6.6 ft)
Trigger Link to BNC Breakout Box
8502
8503
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-Dual BNC, 1m (3.3 ft)
8505
Male to 2-Female Y-DIN Cable for Trigger Link
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-4
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-5
Shelf Type Side by Side Rack Mounting Kit
4288-9
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Services Available
C/2401-3Y-ISO
TRN-2400-1C
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within
3 years of purchase
Course: Unleashing the Power of Your
SourceMeter Instrument
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42
Remote
SENSE HI
DUT
Vmeter/Compliance
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source I, Measure V, I, or W configuration
Imeter/Compliance
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Vmeter
Vsource
DUT
Feedback to
Adjust Vsource
Software
LabTracer 2.0 Curve Tracing Software (downloadable)
2401-3Y-EW
IN/OUT HI
Isource
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
RS-232 Cable
7009-5
8620
Shorting Plug
Communication Interface
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Local
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source V, Measure I, V, or W configuration A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
I-V Characteristics
Like all Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments,
the Model 2401 provides four-quadrant operation. In the first and third quadrants, it operates
as a source, delivering power to a load. In the
second and fourth quadrants, it operates as a
sink, dissipating power internally. Voltage, current, and resistance can be measured during
source or sink operation.
Trigger Link Interface
All SourceMeter instruments include Keithley’s unique Trigger Link interface, which provides high
speed, seamless communications with many of Keithley’s other instruments. For example, use the
Trigger Link interface to connect a SourceMeter instrument with a Series 7000 Switching System for a
complete multipoint test solution. With Trigger Link, Series 7000 Switching Systems can be controlled
by a SourceMeter instrument during a high speed test sequence independent of a c­ omputer and
GPIB.
+1A
+100mA
–200V
–20V
+20V
+200V
–100mA
Duty cycle
limited
–1A
Model 2401 four-quadrant operation
Built-In Test Sequencer
(Source Memory List)
The Source Memory list provides faster and easier testing by allowing you to set up and execute
up to 100 different tests that run without PC
­intervention.
• Stores up to 100 instrument configurations,
each containing source settings, measurement
­settings, pass/fail criteria, etc.
• Pass/fail limit test as fast as 500µs per point
• Onboard comparator eliminates the delay
caused when sending data to the computer
for analysis
• Built-in, user-definable math functions to
calculate derived parameters
Automation for Speed
A SourceMeter instrument streamlines production testing. It sources voltage or current while making
measurements without needing to change connections. It is designed for reliable operation in nonstop production environments. To provide the throughput demanded by production applications,
the SourceMeter instrument offers many built-in features that allow it to run complex test sequences
without computer control or GPIB communications slowing things down.
Standard and Custom Sweeps
Sweep solutions greatly accelerate testing with
automation hooks. Three basic sweep waveforms
are provided that can be programmed for singleevent or continuous operation. They are ideal for
I/V, I/R, V/I, and V/R characterization.
• Linear Staircase Sweep: Moves from the start
level to the stop level in equal linear steps
• Logarithmic Staircase Sweep: Done on a
log scale with a specified number of steps
per decade
• Custom Sweep: Allows construction of
special sweeps by specifying the number of
measurement points and the source level at
each point
• Up to 1700 readings/second at 4½ digits to
the GPIB bus
• 5000 5½-digit readings can be stored in the
non-volatile buffer memory
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear staircase sweep
Stop
Start
Bias
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
Bias
Logarithmic staircase sweep
Stop
Start
User
defined
steps
Bias
Bias
Custom sweep
I
Example Test Sequence
Test
Pass/Fail Test
If Passes Test
If Fails Test
Test 1
Check V F1 at 100mA
against pass/fail limits
Go to Test 2
Test 2
Check V F2 at 1A against
pass/fail limits
Go to Test 3
Test 3
Check leakage ­current at
–500V and test against
pass/fail limits
1.Bin part to good bin
2.Transmit readings to computer
while handler is placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
1.Bin part to bad bin
2.Transmit data to computer while handler is
placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
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G R E A T E R
VF2
VF1 Test 2
Test 1
IR
Test 3
M E A S U R E
O F
V
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
C O N F I D E N C E
43
2401
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Unique 6-Wire Ohms Technique
The Model 2401 can make standard 4-wire, split Kelvin, and 6-wire, guarded ohms measurements and can be configured for either the constant current or constant voltage method. The 6-wire ohms technique:
Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit, these instruments offer a variety of advantages over systems configured with separate
source and measurement instruments. For example, they minimize the
time required for test station development, setup, and maintenance, while
lowering the overall cost of system ownership. They simplify the test process itself by eliminating many of the complex synchronization and connection issues associated with using multiple instruments. And, their compact
half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test rack or bench.
• Uses guard and guard sense leads in addition to the 4-wire sense and
source leads
• Locks out parallel current paths when measuring resistor networks or
hybrid circuits to isolate the component under test
Power of Five Instruments in One
(IV Source, IVR Measure)
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many
advantages over separate instruments. For example, it provides faster
test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the remote programming interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to
accidental overloads, thermal runaway, etc. Both the current and voltage
source are programmable with readback to help maximize device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit,
then the source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
• Allows users to configure and plot data easily from Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments, making characterization of 2-, 3-, and
4-terminal devices a snap
+
GUARD
GUARD SENSE
Imeter
IN/OUT HI
Unlike narrow-performance SMU platforms, including board-level products, which often deliver sub-optimal analog measurements due to significant loss in signal integrity, accuracy, power, and/or speed due to interconnect, thermal management, and other issues, all Series 2400 SourceMeter
instruments combine the industry’s widest dynamic range with uncompromising throughput and superior measurement integrity.
SENSE HI
DUT
R2
Isource
Vmeter
R1
R3
SENSE LO
IN/OUT LO
Other Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments
If your application requires a wider sourcing or measurement range than
the Model 2401 can provide, other Series 2400 instruments (page 33)
likely offer the range you need. Consult the range graphs shown here or
the instrument specifications for details. Series 2600A System SourceMeter
instruments (page 10) are also available to address applications
that require integrating multiple source and measure channels and/or
pulsing capabilities.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
6-Wire Ohms Circuit. All test current flows through R1 because the
high current guard drives the voltage across R2 to 0V.
Free LabTracer 2.0 device characterization software (downloadable).
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
Series 2400
Low Voltage SourceMeter Line
®
Voltage Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2400, 2400-C
Programming
Resolution
5µV
50µV
500µV
5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = none.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Overshoot: <0.1% typical (full scale step, resistive load, 10mA range).
Measurement 2, 3, 4
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.015% + 10 mV
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
Output Slew Rate
(±30%)
Source/Sink Limit
0.08 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±210 V @ ±105 mA
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
0.08 V/µs
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (All Models)
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: 30µs minimum for the output to recover to its spec. following a
step change in load.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change
following the receipt of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent <nrf> command. Autorange On: 10ms.
Autorange Off: 7ms.
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after command is processed. 100µs typical. Resistive load. 10µA to 100mA range.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC (Model 2440 ±40VDC) from
chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE: Up to 1V drop per load lead.
COMPLIANCE ACCURACY: Add 0.3% of range and ±0.02% of reading to base specification.
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: Overshoot into a fully resistive 100kW load, 10Hz to 1MHz BW,
adjacent ranges: 100mV typical, except 20V/200V (20V/60V on Model 2420), 20V/100V on Model
2425 and 2430, range boundary, and Model 2440.
MINIMUM COMPLIANCE VALUE: 0.1% of range.
NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add
0.5%.
3. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
4. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
Current Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
Model
2400, 2400-C,
2401
Range
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A 2
Programming
Resolution
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
Source 1, 3
Accuracy
(1 Year) 3
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range (except Model 2440
5A range 0.05%) + 100pA.
Voltage LIMIT: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
OVERSHOOT: <0.1% typical (1mA step, RL = 10kW, 20V range for Model 2400, 2401, 2410, 2420,
2425, 2430), (10V range for Model 2440).
Source/Sink Limit
±1.05A @ ±21 V
NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Full operation (1A) regardless of load to 30°C (50°C for Model 2420 and 2440). Above 30°C (50°C for Model
2420 and 2440) ambient, derate 35mA/°C and prorate 35mA/W load. 4-wire mode. For current sink operation
on 1A, 3A, or 5A ranges, maximum continuous power is limited to approximately 1/2 rated power or less,
depending on current, up to 30°C ambient. See power equations in the User’s Manual to calculate allowable
duty cycle for specific conditions.
3. For sink mode, 1µA to 100mA range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(0.15% + offset*4). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(0.5% + offset*3).
For 1A range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(1.5% + offset*8). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(1.5% + offset*3).
4. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges,
add 0.5%.
5. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
6. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
Contact Check Specifications (requires -C version)
(Not available for Model 2401)
Speed: 350µs for verification and notification.
Contact Check:
2 W15 W50 W
No contact check failure
<1.00 W<13.5 W<47.5 W
Always contact check failure
>3.00 W>16.5 W>52.5 W
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Default Measurement
Resolution
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
Measurement 4, 5, 6
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2401 specifications
2401
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
Default
Measurement
Resolution
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
Model 2401 specifications
Model
Source1
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 24 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
C O N F I D E N C E
45
Series 2400
Low Voltage SourceMeter Line
®
Range
Default
Resolution
Default Test
Current
2400, 2401,
2410
<0.20000 W3
–
–
Normal Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C)
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
2400, 2401
2400, 2401
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C) 4
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
2.00000 W3 10µW
20.0000 W 100µW
100mA
0.10% +
0.003W
0.07% +
0.001W
200.000 W 1mW
10mA
0.08% +
0.03 W
0.05% +
0.01 W
2.00000kW 10mW
1mA
0.07% +
0.3 W
0.05% +
0.1 W
20.0000kW 100mW
100µA
0.06% +
3
W
0.04% +
1
200.000kW 1
W
10µA
0.07% + 30
W
0.05% + 10
W
W
2.00000MW6 10
1µA
0.11% + 300
W
0.05% + 100
W
20.0000MW7 100
W
1µA
kW
0.05% + 500
W
200.000MW3 >200.000 MW3
100nA
–
1kW
–
–
Source I ACC + Meas VACC
0.11% +
1
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
0.66% + 10 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C):
±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source
accuracy + V measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
Source V Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = V
source ­accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and
guard sense. Max. Guard Output Current: 50mA (except 1A
range). Accuracy is load dependent. Refer to White Paper no.
2033 for calculation ­formula.
Guard Output Impedance: <0.1W in ohms mode.
NOTES
1. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset
specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC,
add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.5%.
2. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
3. Manual ohms only – except 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440 for 2W range and
2400, 2401, or 2410 for 200MW range.
4. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Also available on
2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, and 2440 with similar ­accuracy enhancement.
5. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
6. Except 2440; default test current is 5µA.
7. Except 2440; default test current is 0.5µA.
W
0.35% + 5 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
System Speeds
Measurement1
MAXIMUM RANGE CHANGE RATE: 75/second.
MAXIMUM MEASURE AUTORANGE TIME: 40ms (fixed source).2
Sweep Operation3 Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast
IEEE-488.1 Mode
Fast
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Medium
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Normal
IEEE-488.2 Mode
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.10 / internal
0.10 / external
1.00 / internal
1.00 / external
Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
2081 (2030) 1754
1239 (1200) 1254
2081 (2030) 1198 (1210)
1239 (1200) 1079 (1050)
510 (433)
509 (433)
438 (380)
438 (380)
59
(49)
59 (49)
57
(48)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
1551 (1515)
1369
1018 (990)
1035
1551 (1515)
1000 (900)
1018 (990)
916 (835)
470 (405)
470 (410)
409 (360)
409 (365)
58 (48)
58 (48)
57 (48)
57 (47)
Source-Measure5
Pass/Fail Test4, 5
To Mem.
To GPIB
902 (900)
981
830 (830)
886
902 (900)
809 (840)
830 (830)
756 (780)
389 (343)
388 (343)
374 (333)
374 (333)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
Source-Memory4
To Mem.
To GPIB
165 (162)
165
163 (160)
163
165 (162)
164 (162)
163 (160)
162 (160)
133 (126)
132 (126)
131 (125)
131 (125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
Single Reading Operation Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast (488.1)
Fast (488.2)
Medium (488.2)
Normal (488.2)
Measure
To GPIB
537
256 (256)
167 (166)
49
(42)
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
Source-Measure5
To GPIB
140
79 (83)
72 (70)
34 (31)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test4,5
To GPIB
135
79 (83)
69 (70)
35 (30)
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Component for 60Hz (50Hz): 4, 6
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / external
0.10 / external
1.00 / external
Measure To GPIB
1.04 ms (1.08 ms)
2.55 ms (2.9 ms)
17.53 ms (20.9 ms)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test5, 7
To GPIB
4.82 ms (5.3 ms)
6.27 ms (7.1 ms)
21.31 ms (25.0 ms)
NOTES
Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display off,
trigger delay = 0, and binary reading format.
2 Purely resistive lead. 1µA and 10µA ranges <65ms.
3 1000 point sweep was characterized with the source on a fixed range.
1
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46
Source Pass/Fail Test
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making m
­ easurement.
Time from falling edge of START OF TEST signal to falling edge of end of test signal.
Command processing time of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent:TRIGgered <nrf> command not included.
4
5
6
7
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2401 specifications
Model 2401 specifications
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)1, 2, 5
Series 2400
Low Voltage SourceMeter Line
®
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Slow
NMRR
—
—
60 dB
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5 digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes selected measured
value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery ­backup (3 yr+ battery life).
SOURCE MEMORY LIST: 100 points max.
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Digital Interface: Interlock: Active low input. Note: DIO Post N/A.
Power Supply: 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up).
Model 2400, 2401: 190VA.
COOLING: Convection.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Safety: UL listed to UL 61010B-1:2003: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet):104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
WEIGHT: 3.21kg (7.08 lbs) (Model 2425, 2430, 2440: 4.1kg, 9.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
100 dB1
Except lowest 2 current ranges = 90dB.
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
Common mode voltage: 250V DC (40V DC for Model 2440).
Common Mode Isolation: >109W, <1000pF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V.
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 1MW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1010W.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <150µV, typical (300µV for Models 2430, 2440).
Source Output modes:
Fixed DC level
Memory List (mixed function)
Stair (linear and log)
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2401 specifications
1
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
Model 2401 specifications
general
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
47
®
The Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter combines the voltage and current
sourcing and measurement functions of
Keithley’s popular SourceMeter and source
measurement unit (SMU) instruments
with sensitivity, noise, and input resistance
specifications superior to electrometers. This
unique combination of broad functionality and
exceptional measurement integrity is made
possible by the Model 6430’s Remote PreAmp,
which offers a very sensitive bi-directional
amplifier with sensitive feedback elements for
measuring or sourcing currents at the device
being tested. The high level signals output by
the Remote PreAmp are sent to the controlling
mainframe via a two-meter cable. This allows the
user to make a direct or very short connection to
the signal, minimizing the effects of cable noise.
• 0.4fA p-p (4E–16A) noise
(typical)
• Remote PreAmp can be located
at the signal source to minimize
cable noise
• >1016W input resistance on
voltage measurements
• High speed — up to 2000
readings/second
• Up to 6½-digit resolution
• Fast characterization
of components with
programmable digital I/O and
interfaces
The Model 6430 makes voltage, current, and
resistance measurements at speeds no electrometer can match. It can read up to 2000 source/
measure readings per second into internal memory. Currents can be measured in as little as 5ms on
the 100nA range, decreasing to just a few hundred microseconds on the higher ranges.
The Model 6430’s distinguishing features include its excellent low current sensitivity and the Remote
PreAmp, which makes this sensitivity useful by eliminating long input cables. The Remote PreAmp
is an integral part of the Model 6430’s feedback measuring system that cannot be operated independently from the measurement mainframe, although it can be separated from the mainframe by up to
two meters of connection cable carrying high level signals.
Applications
The Model 6430’s capabilities make it equally
useful for research work and for evaluating
sophisticated components in test labs for lowcurrent, high-resistance, or sensitive semicon­ easurements. The low noise and drift
ductor m
performance of the Model 6430 also makes it
well suited for research studies in single electron
devices, highly resistive nanowires and nanotubes, polymers, highly resistive nanomaterials,
and electrochemical amperometry applications.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
High Speed Data Handling
The Model 6430 can read more than 2000 readings per second into its internal memory buffer.
The IEEE-488 bus output can transmit up to
75 source/measure readings per second to an
external computer controller, including pass/fail
­indication.
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48
Sub-femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
A
G R E A T E R
+100mA
+10mA
–200V
–20V
+20V
+200V
–10mA
–100mA
The Model 6430 provides four-quadrant
­sourcing of up to 2.2W, as well as measurement ­sensitivity down to sub-femtoamp and
microvolt levels. It can measure currents
from the 1pA range (with just 0.4fA p-p noise
typical) up to the 100mA range at up to 20V.
Voltage ranges from 200mV to 200V are
available. Current and voltage range settings
define the maximum source or sink voltage
or current.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
6430
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Typical applications:
A
D
Gate leakage or channel
D
I
leakage in FET-based comG
G
A
V
ponents can generate errors
+
in MOSFETs, JFETs, a­ nalog
V
switches, and many other
S
S
­circuits. By allowing researchModel 6430
Model 6430
ers to measure extremely
low-level ­currents and voltages, the Model 6430 can help
them understand the design
limitations of these components and investigate alternative device structures or materials.
G
Accessories Supplied
6430-322-1B
Low Noise Triax Cable,
3-slot triax to alligator
clips, 20cm (8 in)
8607
Safety High Voltage
Dual Test Leads
CA-176-1E
PreAmp Cable,
2m (6.6 ft)
CA-186-1B
Banana Lead to Screw
Terminal Adapter
CAP-31 3-lug Protective Cap (2)
Instruction Manual
Accessories Available
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 4m (13.1 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 0.5m (1.6 ft)
3-slot, Low Noise, 0.15m (0.5 ft) Guarded
Triax Cable
Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
Trigger Link Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
Trigger Link Adapter Box
Trigger Link DIN-to-BNC Trigger Cable
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
8501-1
8501-2
8502
8503
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
ID
Services Available
TRN-2400-1-C
Course: Unleashing the Power of Your
SourceMeter Instrument
6430-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/6430-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
+
DS
GS
SET research
The Model 6430’s superior low current measurement ability (0.4fA p-p noise typical) makes it
extremely useful for single electron transistor (SET) and quantum-dot research. Using a technique
similar to a lock-in, the 6430 can measure currents with 1aA sensitivity (10 –18A = 6 electrons/second).
The Measurement Industry’s Lowest Noise and Drift
This data illustrates the Model 6430’s impressive ­stability over a five-hour period, as well as its low
short-term noise performance. This signal trace was acquired using the instrument’s AUTOFILTER
with a 5-­second rise time on the 1pA range. The inset close-up is a snapshot of the filtered signal,
showing the Model 6430’s low noise during the first 100-second period. The data was taken in a
laboratory environment where temperature varied about 1°C, with the instrument’s IN/OUT HI and
SENSE leads capped.
2x10–15A
1 fA
1x10–15A
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
6430Sub-femtoamp
Remote SourceMeter
7007-1
7007-2
7007-4
7007-05
7078-TRX-6IN
Measuring FET Gate Leakage and Channel Currents
Semiconductor
measurements
0
–1x10–15A
–2x10–15A
0
1
2
3
4
5
Hours
1x10–15A
1 fA
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
Ordering Information
0
–1x10–15A
0
10
20
30
40
50
Seconds
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60
70
80
90
100
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
49
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Condensed Measure Specifications 1
Range
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
Max. Resolution
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
Input 2
Resistance
>1016W
>1016W
>1016W
>1016W
Current Measurement Accuracy (2- or 4-wire sense) 4
Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + volts)
0.012% +350 µV
0.012% +350 µV
0.015% + 1.5mV
0.015% + 10 mV
Range
Voltage
Burden5
10 aA
100 aA
1 fA
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Model 6430 specifications
Max.
Resolution
Additional Measure Specifications
Output SETTLING Time (typical to 10% of final value): <2s, 1pA and 10pA ranges; <50ms,
100pA through 10nA ranges; <5ms, 100nA through 100mA ranges.
Current Noise: When observed over 1 minute intervals, peak to peak noise will be within
400aA (typical) during 90% of the intervals using Autofilter (5s 10% to 90% rise time), with triax
connectors capped, Autozero OFF, Source Delay = 0, on the 1pA range for at least 3 minutes.
% + 7 fA
% + 7 fA
% + 30 fA
% + 200 fA
% + 2 pA
% + 20 pA
% + 300 pA
% + 2 nA
% + 6 nA
% + 60 nA
% + 600 nA
% + 6 µA
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense with remote preamp)
Normal Accuracy
Max.
Default
(23°C ± 5°C)
RangeResolution
Test Current
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
<2.00000
W 6
1µW
—
20.0000
W
100µW
100mA
200.000
W
1mW
10mA
2.00000kW
10mW
1mA
20.0000kW
100mW
100µA
200.000kW1
W
10µA
2.00000MW10
W
1µA
20.0000MW100
W
1 µA
200.000MW
1kW
100 nA
2.00000GW
10kW
10 nA
20.0000GW
100kW
1 nA
200.000GW
1MW
100 pA
2.00000TW
10MW
10 pA
20.0000TW
100MW
1 pA
6
>20.0000TW — —
SMU INSTRUMENTS
1.0
0.50
0.15
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.025
0.027
0.035
0.055
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±[(0.15 × accuracy specification) +
1fA]/°C.
Input Current: <3fA at 23°C, <40% RH; typically ±0.5fA/°C around 23°C, <40% RH.
Source I Mode, Auto Ohms
Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C) 7
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Source I ACC + Measure VACC
0.098% +0.003 W
0.077% + 0.03 W
0.066% + 0.3 W
0.063%+ 3 W
0.082%+ 30 W
0.082%+ 300 W
0.085% +
1kW
0.085% + 10kW
0.085% + 100kW
0.085% +
1MW
0.205% + 10MW
0.822% + 100MW
2.06% +
1GW
Source I ACC + Measure VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source ­accuracy + V measure accuracy
(4-wire sense).
Source V Mode: Total uncertainty = V source accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense (mainframe rear panel
only). Max. Guard Output Current: 50 mA. Accuracy is load dependent. Refer to manual for
calculation formula.
Mainframe Guard Output Resistance: 0.1W in ohms mode.
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Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year
±(%rdg + amps)
Measure I ACC + Measure VACC
0.068% + 0.001 W
0.048% + 0.01 W
0.040% +
0.1 W
0.038% +
1 W
0.064% +
10 W
0.064% + 100 W
0.067% + 500 W
0.068% +
5 kW
0.070% +
50 kW
0.070% + 500 kW
0.185% +
5 MW
0.619% +
50 MW
1.54% + 500 MW
Measure I ACC + Measure VACC
NOTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Speed = 10 PLC, Autofilter ON, properly zeroed and settled.
Source I mode, I = 0.
Voltage measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp.
Current measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp; however, the 1pA through 100nA ranges
are available only when using a preamp.
5. 4-wire mode.
6. Manual ohms mode only.
7. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Source delay must be pro­g rammed such that the source is
fully settled for each reading.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 6430 specifications
Voltage Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense) 3
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Condensed System Speeds
Measurement1
NOTES
Maximum Range Change Rate: 75/second.
Single Reading operation reading rates (rdg/second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
SourceMeasure 3
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
35 (31)
Source-Measure
Pass/Fail Test 2, 3
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
34 (30)
General
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Normal
Condensed Source Specifications4
Voltage Programming Accuracy (4-wire sense) 5
Programming
RangeResolution
200.000mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5mV
Accuracy (1 Year)Noise
23°C ±5°C
(peak-peak)
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4mV
0.02% + 24mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5mV
Current Programming Accuracy (with remote preamp)
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
50 aA
500 aA
5 fA
50 fA
500 fA
5 pA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
Accuracy (1 Year) 4Noise
23°C ±5°C
(peak-peak)
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
1.0 % + 10 fA
0.50 % + 30 fA
0.15 % + 40 fA
0.050% +200 f A
0.050% + 2 pA
0.050% + 20 pA
0.050% +300 pA
0.050% + 2 nA
0.031 % + 20 nA
0.034% +200 nA
0.045 % + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
5 fA
10 fA
20 fA
50 fA
500 fA
3 pA
20 pA
200 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Max. output power: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Source/Sink Limits: ±10.5mA @ ±210V, ±105mA @ ±21V .
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 1fA.
VOLTAGE Limit: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
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NMRR
—
—
60 dB
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
90 dB
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF on the 100mA through 100µA r­ anges, 470pF on the
10µA and 1µA ranges, and 100pF on the nA and pA ranges. Refer to the User’s Manual for
details on measuring large capacitive loads.
Common mode voltage: ±42VDC maximum.
Common Mode Isolation: >10 9W, <1000pF.
Overrange: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V. (To meet
specified accuracy with 4-wire sense, refer to the User’s Manual.)
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 10 W for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT ResistANCE: 1MW.
Mainframe Guard Offset Voltage: 300µV, typical.
Preamp Guard Offset Voltage: 1mV, typical.
Preamp Guard Output Resistance: 110kW.
Source Output modes: Fixed DC level, Memory List (mixed function), Stair (linear
and log).
Source Memory List: 100 points max.
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5½ digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes
selected measured value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery backup (3 yr+ battery life).
Digital Interface:
Safety Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. +5V @ 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA sink, diode
clamped).
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Power Supply: 100V–240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up),
100VA max.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC EN 55011, EN 50082-1, EN 610003-2 and 61000-3-3, FCC part 15 class B.
Safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC EN 61010-1.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F, Class 3.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 8 3⁄8 in × 14 9⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41 ⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
Amplifier: 20mm high × 57mm wide × 97mm deep (0.783 in × 2.225 in × 3.75 in).
WEIGHT: 5.9kg (13 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–40°C, 60% R.H. (non-condensing) up to 35°C. Derate 5%
R.H./°C, 35°–40°C. Storage: –25°C to 65°C. Non-condensing humidity.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Max. Output power: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Source/SINK Limits: ±21V @ ±105mA, ±210V @ ±10.5mA.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
NOISE 10Hz–1MHz (p-p): 10mV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = None.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Programming
RangeResolution
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Model 6430 specifications
Measure
To GPIB
256 (256)
181 (166)
49 (42)
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 6430 specifications
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/
Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
1. Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display
off, trigger delay = 0, source auto clear off, and ­binary reading format.
2. Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
­ easurement.
3. Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making m
4. For sink mode, 1pA to 100mA range, accuracy is ±(0.15% + offset*4).
5. Voltage source accuracies are not affected by the remote preamp.
C O N F I D E N C E
51
The easy-to-use Model 4200-SCS performs laboratory grade DC I-V, C-V, and pulse device characterization, real-time plotting, and analysis with
high precision and sub-femtoamp resolution. It
is the best tool available for interactive parametric analysis and device characterization. It offers
the most advanced capabilities available in a
fully integrated characterization system, including a complete, embedded PC with Windows
operating system and mass storage. Its self-­
documenting, point-and-click interface speeds
and simplifies the process of taking data, so
users can begin analyzing their results sooner.
• Characterize devices with up to 9
source-measure units
APPLICATIONS:
Semiconductor Devices
• Ultra-fast I-V module for pulse and
pulse I-V capabilities
• Wafer level reliability
• Ultra low frequency C-V
measurement capability
• Familiar, point-and-click Windows®
environment and intuitive GUI
• Easy to use for both interactive and
automated tests
• Real-time plotting and analysis
allow users to view results before
a test has completed and to take
preemptive action as needed
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Its Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE)
is so intuitive that even a novice can use the
­system with ease. This point-and-click software
offers a full range of functionality, from managing tests, organizing results, and generating
reports to creating user libraries. Sophisticated
and simple test sequencing and external instrument drivers make it simple to perform auto­
mated testing with combined DC I-V, pulse, and
C-V ­measurements.
• Sub-femtoamp resolution
measurements with optional
preamps
• C-V instrument makes C-V
measurements as easy as DC I-V
• Embedded PC provides the
additional benefits of a networked
instrument including mapping
network drives and making test
results available to the corporate
network
• On-wafer parametric test
• Packaged device characterization
• High κ gate charge trapping
• Isothermal testing of devices
and materials subject to selfheating effects
• Charge pumping to characterize
interface state densities in
MOSFET devices
• Resistive or capacitive MEMS
drive characterization
Optoelectronic Devices
• Semiconductor laser diode
DC/CW characterization
• DC/CW characterization of
transceiver modules
• Simultaneously acquires data,
analyzes plots, and prints reports
• PIN and APD characterization
• Ideal for device character­iza­tion,
device modeling, reliability testing,
and failure analysis
Technology Development
• Includes instrument and prober
drivers as well as interfaces to
popular modeling and circuit
simulation software
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52
Semiconductor Characterization System
• Carbon nanotube
characterization
• Materials research
• Electrochemistry
A
G R E A T E R
The modular design of the Model 4200-SCS
provides you with tremendous flexibility. It supports up to nine internal source measurement
unit (SMUs) instruments and optional Remote
Pre-Amps that extend the resolution of any
SMU from 100fA to 0.1fA. Its hardware options
also include four switch matrix configurations,
meters, pulse g­ enerators, and more.
Optional instruments can be integrated into the
Model 4200-SCS, such as dual-channel pulse
generators, a dual-channel digital ­oscillo­scope,
and a C-V instrument, which is a capacitancevoltage instrument that performs capacitance
measurements from fF to nF at frequencies from
1kHz to 10MHz.
The C-V option includes the new C-V Power
package, which supports high power C-V
measurements up to 400V and 300mA, up to
60V of differential DC bias, and quasistatic C-V
­measurements.
The exceptional low current performance of the
Model 4200-SCS makes it the perfect solution
for research studies of single electron transistors (SETs), molecular electronic devices, and
other nanoelectronic devices that require I-V
characterization. The 4200-SCS can also be used
to make four-probe van der Pauw resistivity and
Hall ­voltage measurements.
For more information on the Model 4200-SCS,
see page 56.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Lab grade DC device characterization
Lab grade DC device characterization
4200-SCS
• Four instruments in one (voltage
source, voltage measure, current
source, current measure)
• 10fA, 10µV measurement
sensitivity
• 1100V source and measure
• Standard and custom sweep
capability including pulse
• 1000 source/measurements
per second
• Four quadrant source operation
• Internal 1000-reading memory
Ordering Information
237
High Voltage
Source-Measure Unit
Accessories Supplied
7078-TRX-10 3-Slot Low Noise
Triax Cables, 3m (10 ft) (2)
236-ILC-3 Interlock Cable,
3m (10 ft)
237-ALG-2 Low Noise Triax
Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
237-TRX-NG
1938
1939
7010
7007-1
7007-2
7078-TRX-3
7078-TRX-20
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
3-Slot Triax to 3-Lug Female Triax Connector
Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Slide Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Shielded Extender
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable, 6m (20 ft)
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter for USB Port
(requires 7010 Adapter)
Services Available
237-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/237-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
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The Model 237 Source-Measure Unit is a fully programmable instrument, capable of sourc­­­­ing and
measuring voltage or current simultaneously. This system is really four i­nstruments in one: voltage
source, c­ urrent source, voltage measure, and c­ urrent measure.
Applications
This SMU instrument addresses a wide variety of applications, including the characteri­zation of semiconductor devices and the measurement of leakage currents or insulation resistance. It can be used
standalone on a bench, in a test rack with PC control, or integrated with our Model 4200-SCS for
high voltage semicconductor characterization.
Wide Dynamic Range
The Model 237 will source voltage from 100µV to 1100V, and current from 100fA to 100mA. It can
also measure voltage from 10µV to 110V and current from 10fA to 100mA. In the higher voltage
range, current source and measure is 10mA maximum.
Source and measure voltage and current simultaneously
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit
Selectable Sweeps of Voltage and Current
The Model 237 can be programmed to perform source-measurements as a function of a stepped
voltage or current. Voltage and current can be swept linearly, logarithmically, or pulsed. The START,
STOP, STEP method of setting sweep parameters allows operators to become proficient at using the
instru­ment very quickly. Sweep para­me­­ters may be appended (APPEND key) to obtain more complex
test sequences.
Creating custom sweeps of voltage or current is
facilitated by the use of three waveform oper­
a­tions: CREATE, APPEND, and MODIFY. These
allow the user to select waveform parameters,
com­­­­­­­­bine multiple waveforms, and select and
change any points in a waveform previously crea­­
t­­­ed or appended.
Fully-Guarded Four-Terminal
­Measurements
The Model 237 outputs and inputs are fully
guard­ed, and the units are configured to allow
four-terminal measurements. Two-terminal measurements are also available for more standard test
procedures. These outputs can be floated up to
±200V from ground.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Model 237 Source Capability
±110V,
±100mA
100mA
±1100V at
±10mA
10mA
1mA
–1000V –100V –10V
–1V
1V
10V
100V
1000V
–1mA
–10mA
–100mA
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Source and measure voltage and current simultaneously
237
C O N F I D E N C E
53
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit
VOLTAGE
Source V
Source
Value
Source-Delay-Measure Cycle
Default
Delay
Delay
Measure
Integration Time
Model 237 specifications
Default Delay: Fixed delay for instrument settling.
User Delay: Additional delay for device under test or system
capacitance.
MEASURE:
Integration Time
Fast
Medium
Line Cycle
416
4
16.67
20.00
µs
ms
ms (60 Hz)
ms (50 Hz)
4-digit resolution
5-digit resolution
5-digit resolution
EXECUTION SPEED
MINIMUM SOURCE-DELAY-MEASURE CYCLE TIME: 1ms.
RESPONSE TO IEEE-488 COMMAND (as a source): 25ms.
MEASUREMENT RATE: 1ms per point into internal buffer.
CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT SPEED (source DC value over
IEEE-488 bus): 110 readings per second.
TRIGGER LATENCY TIME: <2ms.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
GENERAL
LOAD CAPACITANCE: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
REMOTE SENSE: Corrects for up to 2V drop in each output lead. Maximum
1kW per sense lead for rated accuracy. Residual output resistance (as a voltage source) is 0.5W.
GUARD:Output Resistance: ≤12kW.
Maximum Output Current: ±2mA.
Offset Relative to Output HI: ±2mV max.
ISOLATION (Output LO to chassis): Typically >1010W in parallel with 500pF.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200V.
CONNECTORS: Outputs: 3-lug triax.
Trigger Input/Output: BNC.
Interlock: 3-pin miniature DIN.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.1 × applicable
accuracy specification)/°C.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% relative humidity up to 35°C. Linearly derate 3%
R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (meets
EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
WARM-UP: One hour to rated accuracy.
COOLING: Internal fan forced air cooling.
POWER: 105–125 or 210–250V AC (external switch selectable), 90–110V and
180–220V version available. 100VA max.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 89mm high × 435mm wide × 448mm deep (3½ in ×
171⁄8 in × 175⁄8 in). Net weight 9kg (19.75 lb).
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54
Range
(Max.
Value)
±1.1000 V
±11.000 V
±110.00 V
±1100.0 V
Measure V
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.033% +650 µV)
±(0.033% + 2.4mV)
±(0.033% + 24mV)
±(0.04  % +240mV)
Step Size
100µV
1mV
10mV
100mV
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.028% +300 µV)
±(0.025% + 1mV)
±(0.025% + 10mV)
±(0.035% +100mV)
Resolution
4-Digit 5-Digit
100µV 10µV
1mV 100µV
10mV 1mV
100mV 10mV
COMPLIANCE: Bipolar current limit set with single value.
Maximum: ±100mA (except ±10mA on 1100V range).
Minimum: ±1% of range, except 0.5% of 1.1V range.
Accuracy, Step Size: Same as current source.
NOISE (p-p):
Range
110 V – 1100 V
11 V
1.1 V
0.1–10Hz
< 3 ppm of range
< 3 ppm of range
<10 ppm of range
DC–20MHz
40 mV
15 mV
15 mV
WIDEBAND NOISE: 0.1 to 20MHz, 8mV p-p typical.
OVERSHOOT: <0.01% (110V step, 10mA range).
SETTLING TIME: <500µs to 0.01% (110V step, 10mA range).
NMRR: >60dB at 50 or 60Hz (LINE CYCLE integration time ­selected).
CMRR: >120dB at DC, 50 or 60Hz (LINE CYCLE integration time selected).
INPUT IMPEDANCE (as a voltmeter): >1014W paralleled by <20pF.
CURRENT
Source I
Range
(Max.
Value)
±1.0000 nA
±10.000 nA
±100.00 nA
±1.0000 µA
±10.000 µA
±100.00 µA
±1.0000 mA
±10.000 mA
±100.00 mA
Step
Size
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
Measure I
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.3 % + 450 fA)
±(0.3 % + 2 pA)
±(0.21% + 20 pA)
±(0.05% + 200 pA)
±(0.05% + 2 nA)
±(0.05% + 20 nA)
±(0.05% + 200 nA)
±(0.05% + 2 µA)
±(0.1 % + 20 µA)
Resolution
4-Digit
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
5-Digit
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.3 % + 100 fA)1
±(0.3 % + 1 pA)
±(0.21 % + 6 pA)
±(0.04 % + 60 pA)
±(0.035% + 700 pA)
±(0.035% + 6 nA)
±(0.035% + 60 nA)
±(0.038% + 600 nA)
±(0.1 % + 6 µA)
COMPLIANCE: Bipolar voltage limit set with single value.
Maximum: ±1100V (except on 100mA range).
Minimum: ±0.1% of selected current range.
Accuracy, Step Size: Same as voltage source.
NOISE (p-p of range): 0.1–10Hz: <3ppm (<20ppm on 1nA and 10nA ranges).
OVERSHOOT: <0.01% typical (10mA step, R L = 10kW).
SETTLING TIME: <500µs to 0.01% (10mA step, R L = 10kW).
OUTPUT R, C: >1014W paralleled by <20pF (on 1nA range).
NOTES
1. Offset specification applies for 23°C ±1°C with suppression. Temperature coefficient 50fA/°C.
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Model 237 specifications
SOURCE-DELAY-MEASURE CYCLE:
Semiconductor Test
4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System . . . . . . . . 56
4200-BTI-A Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Series S530 Parametric Test Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
S500 Integrated Test Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
ACS Automated Characterization Suite Software . . . . . . 78
ACS Basic Edition Semiconductor Parametric Test Software for
Component and Discrete Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
ACS-2600-RTM Wafer Level Reliability Option for ACS . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Related Products
Series 2600A System SourceMeter®
Multi-Channel I-V Test Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Series 2400 SourceMeter Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes . . . . . . . 194
SEMICONDUCTOR
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55
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
The easy-to-use Model 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System performs lab grade DC I-V,
C-V, and pulse device characterization, real-time plotting, and analysis with high precision and subfemtoamp resolution. The 4200-SCS offers the most advanced capabilities available in a fully integrated
characterization system, including a complete, embedded PC with Windows operating system and
mass storage. Its self-documenting, point-and-click interface speeds and simplifies the process of taking
data, so users can begin analyzing their results sooner. Additional features enable stress-measure capabilities suitable for a variety of reliability tests.
The powerful test library management tools included allow standardizing test methods and extractions to ensure consistent test results. The Model 4200-SCS offers tremendous flexibility with hardware options that include four different switch matrix configurations and a variety of LCR meters
and pulse generators. Customer support packages are also available, including applications support,
calibration, repair, and training.
• Intuitive, point-and-click
Windows®-based environment
• Unique Remote PreAmps extend
the resolution of SMUs to 0.1fA
• C-V instrument makes C-V
measurements as easy as DC I-V
• Ultra low frequency C-V
measurement capability
• Ultra-fast I-V module for
transient and Pulse I-V
capabilities
• Self-contained PC provides
fast test setup, powerful data
analysis, graphing and printing,
and on-board mass storage of
test results
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Unique browser-style Project
Navigator organizes tests by
device type, allows access to
multiple tests, and provides test
sequencing and looping control
• Built-in stress/measure,
looping, and data analysis
for point-and-click reliability
testing, including five JEDECcompliant sample tests
• Integrated support for a variety
of LCR meters, Keithley switch
matrix configurations, and
both Keithley Series 3400 and
Agilent 81110 pulse generators
• Includes software drivers for
leading analytical probers
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A Total System Solution
The Model 4200-SCS provides a total system solution for DC I-V, C-V, and pulse characterization and
reliability testing of semiconductor devices, test structures, and materials. This advanced parameter
analyzer provides intuitive and sophisticated capabilities for a wide variety of semiconductor tests.
The Model 4200-SCS combines unprecedented measurement speed and accuracy with an embedded
Windows-based PC and the Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE) to provide a powerful singlebox solution. KITE allows users to gain familiarity quickly with tasks such as managing tests and results
and generating reports. Sophisticated and simple test sequencing and external instrument drivers simplify performing automated device and wafer testing with combined I-V, C-V, and pulse measurements.
The exceptional low current performance of the Model 4200-SCS makes it the perfect solution for
research studies of single electron transistors (SETs), molecular electronic devices, and other nanoelectronic devices that require I-V characterization. The Model 4200-SCS can be used to make four-probe
van der Pauw resistivity and Hall voltage measurements, eliminating the need for a switch matrix and
user-written code. With remote preamps added, resistances well above 1012W can be measured.
The Model 4200-SCS is modular and configurable. The system supports up to nine source measurement
units (SMUs) in any combination of medium and high power SMUs. A high-power SMU provides 1A/20W
capability. Also available are the C-V option and the ultra-fast I-V modules. The C-V option includes the
C-V Power package, which supports high power C-V measurements up to 400V and 300mA, up to 60V of
differential DC bias, and quasistatic C-V measurements.
Extended Measurement Resolution
An optional Remote PreAmp, the Model 4200-PA, extends the system’s measurement resolution from
100fA to 0.1fA by effectively adding five current ranges to either SMU model. The PreAmp module
is fully integrated with the system; to the user, the SMU simply appears to have additional measurement resolution available. The Remote PreAmp is shipped installed on the back panel of the Model
4200-SCS for local operation. This installation allows for standard cabling to a prober, test fixture, or
switch matrix. Users can remove the PreAmp from the back panel and place it in a remote location
(such as in a light-tight enclosure or on the prober platen) to eliminate measurement problems due
to long cables. Platen mounts and triax panel mount accessories are available.
KTE Interactive Software Tools
KTE Interactive includes four software tools for operating and maintaining the Model 4200-SCS in
addition to the Windows operating system:
• The Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE) is the Model 4200-SCS Windows device characterization application. It provides advanced test definition, parameter analysis and graphing, and
automation capabilities required for modern semiconductor characterization. Built-in looping,
stress-measure capabilities, and data management enable many types of reliability testing.
• Keithley User Library Tool (KULT)—Allows test engineers to integrate custom algorithms into KITE
using Model 4200-SCS or external instruments. (Note: Requires optional Model 4200-Compiler.)
• Keithley Configuration Utility (KCON)—Allows test engineers to define the configuration of GPIB
instruments, switch matrices, and analytical probers connected to the Model 4200-SCS. It also
­provides ­system diagnostics functions.
• Keithley External Control Interface (KXCI)—The Model 4200-SCS application for controlling the
Model 4200-SCS from an external computer via the GPIB bus.
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Lab grade DC device characterization
Lab grade DC device characterization
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
The Keithley
Interactive Test
Environment (KITE) is
designed to let users
understand device
behavior quickly.
When running a test
sequence, users can
view results and plots
for completed tests
while the sequence
is still running. As
shown here, multiple
plots can be viewed at
the same time to get
a complete picture of
device performance.
Ordering Information
Accessories Supplied
Reference and User Manual
on CD-ROM
236-ILC-3 Interlock Cable, 3m
Note: All 4200-SCS systems and
instrument options are supplied
with required cables of 2m length.
Additional Instrumentation
4210-CVU Integrated C-V Instrument
4225-PMU Ultra-Fast I-V Module
4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch
4220-PGU High Voltage Pulse
Generator
4200-SMU Medium Power
Source-Measure Unit
4210-SMU High Power
Source-Measure Unit
4200-PA Remote PreAmp Option for
4200-SMU and 4210-SMU
4210-MMPC/X
Multi-measurement
Performance Cables
Related Products
707B
Semiconductor Switching
Matrix Mainframe
708B
Single Slot Switching
Matrix Mainframe
7072
8×12 Semiconductor
Matrix Card
7072-HV 8×12 High Voltage
Semiconductor Matrix Card
7174A 8×12 High Speed, Low
Current Matrix
KITE Projects
A project is a collection of related tests, organized in a hierarchy that parallels the physical layout
of the devices on a wafer. KITE operates on projects using an interface called the project navigator.
The project navigator simplifies organizing test files, test execution, and test sequencing. The project
navigator organizes tests into a logical hierarchy presented in a browser style format. This structure
allows users to define projects around wafer testing:
• The project level organizes subsites and controls wafer looping ­execution.
• The subsite level organizes devices and controls subsite test sequencing.
• The device level organizes test modules, manages test module libraries, and controls device
test sequencing.
• The test module level performs tests, analyzes data, and plots results.
Prober Control
Keithley provides integrated prober control for supported analytical probers when test sequencing is
executed on a user-programmable number of probe sites on a wafer. Contact the factory for a list of
supported analytical probers. A manual prober mode prompts the operator to perform prober operations during the test sequence.
Test Sequencing
KITE provides “point and click” test sequencing on a device, a group of devices (subsite, module, or
test element group), or a user-programmable number of probe sites on a wafer. One sequence can
include DC I-V, C-V, and pulse tests.
Keithley User Library Tool (KULT)
The Keithley User Library Tool is an open environment that provides you with the flexibility to create your own custom routines as well as use existing Keithley and third-party C-­language subroutine
libraries. User library ­modules are accessed in KITE through User Test Modules. Factory supplied
libraries provide up and running capability for supported instruments. Users can edit and compile
subroutines, then integrate libraries of sub­routines with KITE, allowing the Model 4200-SCS to
control an entire test rack from a single user interface. KULT is derived from the Keithley S600 and
Series S400 Parametric Test Systems. This simplifies migration of test libraries between the Model
4200-SCS and Keithley parametric test ­systems.
(Note: KULT requires the optional Model 4200-Compiler.)
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SEMICONDUCTOR
Lab grade DC device characterization
4200-SCS/F
Flat Panel Display
4200-SCS/C
Composite Front Bezel; requires
an external SVGA display
Lab grade DC device characterization
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
C O N F I D E N C E
57
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
Model 4200-SMU Medium Power
and 4210-SMU High Power SMUs
Precision DC I-V measurements are the cornerstone of device and materials electrical characterization. The SMUs in the 4200-SCS can source
either voltage or current, and can simultaneously
measure both the voltage and current. Typically,
the DC I-V measurements performed by these
SMUs are used for very precise (0.01%) or very
sensitive (1fA, 1µV) measurements in the time
frame of milliseconds to seconds. The SMUs can
also provide continuous power output, allowing
tests to run for hours, or even weeks, without
interruption.
electrically characterize their devices and materials. This has resulted in the largest library of
standard tests available. More than 400 different
libraries are supplied, demonstrating precision
DC I-V tests on:
• CMOS MOSFETS and devices
• Bipolar devices
• Diodes and pn junctions
• Solar cells
• Nanotech devices
• And nearly every other material and device
imaginable
The SMUs in the 4200-SCS are fully integrated in
the 4200-SCS chassis and incorporate the latest
measurement technologies including:
• 24-bit A/D converters on every SMU
• Full remote sense (Kelvin) capability
• Broadest dynamic range of current, from
<1fA to 1A
• Broadest dynamic range of voltage from <1µV
to 200V
• Up to 9 medium or high power SMUs can
source/measure ­simultaneously
Additional capabilities include:
• Data for most types of tests can be acquired
and plotted in real time with a resolution of
milli­seconds to seconds
• Wide variety of standard sweep types are
available, including linear and log sweeps,
voltage and current sweeps, and even arbitrary custom sweeps
• Up to nine SMUs can be installed in a single
chassis, and all nine can be used simultaneously or independently.
The 4200-SCS has been used by thousands of
engineers and researchers around the world to
Model 4210-CVU C-V Instrument
C-V measurements are as easy to perform as I-V
measurements with the integrated C-V instrument. This optional capacitance-voltage instrument performs capacitance measurements from
femtoFarads (fF) to microFarads (µF) at frequencies from 1kHz to 10MHz. Also available is the
4200-CVU-PWR option that supports:
• High power C-V measurements up to 400V
(200V per device terminal)—for testing
high power devices, such as MEMs, LDMOS
­devices, displays, etc.
• DC currents up to 300mA—for measuring
capacitance when a transistor is on.
The innovative design of the 4210-CVU has eight
patents pending and is complemented by the
broadest C-V test and analysis library available
in any commercial C-V measurement solution.
It also supplies diagnostic tools that ensure the
validity of your C-V test results.
With this system, you can configure linear or
custom C-V and C-f sweeps with up to 4096 data
points. In addition, through the open environment of the 4200-SCS, you can modify any of the
included tests, such as:
• C-V, C-t, and C-f measurements and
analysis of:
–– New! Complete solar cell libraries,
including DLCP
–– High and low k structures
–– MOSFETs
–– BJTs
–– Diodes
–– III-V compound devices
–– Carbon nanotube (CNT) devices
• Doping profiles, TOX, and carrier lifetime tests
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Junction, pin-to-pin, and interconnect capacitance measurements
The C-V instrument integrates directly into the
Model 4200-SCS chassis. It can be purchased as
an upgrade to existing systems or as an option
for new systems.
C-V curve from a MOSFET transistor measured with the 4210-CVU.
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C O N F I D E N C E
Lab grade DC device characterization
Lab grade DC device characterization
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
Each Model 4200-SCS chassis can accommodate up to six Model 4225-PMU modules
to provide up to twelve ultra-fast source and
measure channels.
• The optional Model 4220-PGU Pulse Generator Unit offers a voltage-sourcing-only alternative to
the 4225-PMU.
• The optional Model 4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch expands current ranges (10mA, 1mA,
100µA, 10µA, 1µA, 100nA), switches ­sourcing/measurement between the Model 4225-PMU, Model
4210-CVU, Model 4200-SMU, and 4210-SMU.
Lab grade DC device characterization
Three types of measurements are necessary to characterize a device, material, or process thoroughly.
The first two are precision DC I-V measurements (usually made with the Model 4200-SCS’s SMUs)
and AC impedance measurements (which can be made with the Model 4210-CVU C-V Instrument).
The Model 4225-PMU represents the last segment of this characterization triangle—ultra-fast I-V or
transient I-V measurements.
Some of the functionality provided by the Model 4225-PMU includes:
• Voltage outputs with programmable timing from 60ns to DC in 10ns steps
• Measuring I and V simultaneously, at acquisition rates of up to 200 megasamples/second (MS/s)
• Choosing from two voltage source ranges (±10V or ± 40V) and four current measurement ranges
(800mA, 200mA, 10mA, 100µA)
• Also, each module provides two channels of integrated simultaneous I-V sourcing and measurement; plug in up to six modules in a single chassis for twelve synchronized ­channels.
Two optional instruments offer addional f­unctionality:
Each plug-in 4225-PMU module provides two channels of integrated sourcing and measurement but
occupies only a single slot in the Model 4200-SCS’s nine-slot chassis. Unlike competitive solutions,
each channel of the 4225-PMU combines high speed voltage outputs (with
pulse widths ranging from 60 nanoseconds to DC) with simultaneous
­current and voltage.
Model 4225-PMU Applications
• Ultra-fast general-purpose I-V measurements
• Pulsed I-V and transient I-V measurements
• Flash, PCRAM, and other non-volatile memory tests
• Isothermal testing of medium-sized power devices
• Materials testing for scaled CMOS, such as high-k dielectrics
• NBTI/PBTI reliability tests
Cascade probe station with a Model 4225-RPM Remote
Amplifier/Switch
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Lab grade DC device characterization
Model 4225-PMU Ultra-Fast I-V Module
The Model 4225-PMU Ultra Fast I-V Module is the latest addition to the growing range of instrumentation options for the Model 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System. It integrates ultra-fast
voltage waveform generation and signal observation capabilities into the Model 4200-SCS’s already
powerful test environment to deliver unprecedented I-V testing performance, expanding the system’s
materials, device, and process characterization potential dramatically. Just as important, it makes
ultra-fast I-V sourcing and measurement as easy as making DC measurements with a traditional highresolution source measurement unit (SMU).
C O N F I D E N C E
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4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
Multi-Measurement Cables
Keithley offers the only prober cable kits that support I-V, C-V, and UltraFast I-V signals. These high performance cable kits simplify switching
between DC I-V, C-V, and Ultra-Fast I-V testing configurations by eliminating the need for re-cabling when you change from one type of measurement to another. Their patent-pending design also eliminates the need
to lift the probe needles for each cable change. The results of using these
triaxial cables are that you:
How to Use
When changing between I-V and C-V measurements:
• Save time by avoiding the laborious process of re-cabling the connections from the test instruments to the prober every time a new measurement type is required.
When performing Ultra-Fast I-V, one or more of the probes may need to be
attached to the shield/ground of the pulse source. The cables facilitate this
easily with supplied shorting caps.
• Prevent the cabling errors that often occur during difficult cable
changes, which in turn prevents the measurement errors produced from
faulty cabling.
Occasionally, two or more probes need to be connected in parallel. The
patented design of the 4210-MMPC cable sets support this functionality.
• DO NOT lift the probe needles
• DO NOT replace any cables
Simply reposition the cable at the bulkhead to access the appropriate
instrument.
For Even More Simplicity
You can eliminate the need to reposition cables at the bulkhead when
switching between I-V, C-V and Ultra-Fast I-V measurements with Keithley’s
Model 4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch. All instrument connections at
the bulkhead are fed into the switch, which automatically connects the
desired instrument to the positioner.
• Reduce wafer pad damage by making setup changes while the probe
needles remain in contact with the wafer. This also allows you to maintain the same contact impedance for each type of measurement.
Two versions of the cable kits are available: the Model 4210-MMPC-C
for Cascade Microtech probers and the Model 4210-MMPC-S for SUSS
Microtec probers. Contact factory for other supported probers.
4200-SCS Chassis
4200-SMU1
Force
Sense
4200-SMU2
Force
Sense
4225-RPM 1
SMU 1
CVU HI
PMU 1
HI Pot
HI Curr
LO Curr
LO Pot
4210-CVU
4225-PMU
Force
4225-RPM 2
SMU 2
CVU LO
Ch. 1
Ch. 2
Force
PMU 2
This closeup of two Model 4225-RPMs highlights the DC SMU, C-V, and
ultra-fast I-V cable connections.
SEMICONDUCTOR
The 4210-MMPC cable kits include a provision for connecting the
shields/grounds of all the probes together near the probe tips,
providing the best high frequency performance.
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O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Lab grade DC device characterization
Lab grade DC device characterization
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
PIV, Pulse, Scope, C-V, and Flash options
4200-FLASH-3Y-CAL 3 cals within 3 years of purchase of
the 4200-FLASH. Requires purchase of
4200-3Y-CAL
4200-FLASH-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty on the 4200-FLASH
extended to 3 years from date of shipment.
Includes calibration and return shipping.
Requires purchase of 4200-3Y-EW.
4200-PIV-A-3Y-CAL 3 cals within 3 years of purchase of the
4200-PIV-A Package. Requires purchase of
4200-3Y-CAL.
4200-PIV-A-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty on the 4200-PIV-A
Package extended to 3 years from date of
shipment. Includes calibration and return
shipping. Requires purchase
of 4200-3Y-EW.
4200-PIV-Q-3Y-CAL 3 cals within 3 years of purchase of
the 4200-PIV-Q. Requires purchase of
4200-3Y-CAL
4200-PIV-Q-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty on the 4200-PIV-Q
extended to 3 years from date of shipment.
Includes calibration and return shipping.
Requires purchase of 4200-3Y-EW.
4200-SCP2-3Y-CAL 3 cals within 3 years of purchase of the
4200-SCS Scope Card (Standard or HR version). Requires purchase of 4200-3Y-CAL.
4200-SCP2-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty on the 4200-SCS
Scope Card (Standard or HR version)
extended to 3 years from date of shipment.
Includes calibration and return shipping.
Requires purchase of 4200-3Y-EW.
1-year factory warranty on the 4205-PG2
4205-PG2-3Y-EW
Pulse Generator Card extended to 3 years
from date of shipment. Includes calibration
and return shipping. Requires purchase of
4200-3Y-EW.
4205-PG2-3Y-CAL 3 cals within 3 years of purchase of the
4205-PG2 Pulse Generator Card. Requires
purchase of 4200-3Y-CAL
4210-CVU-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty on the 4210-CVU
C-V Measurement Unit extended to 3 years
from date of shipment. Includes calibration
and return shipping. Requires purchase of
4200-3Y-EW.
4210-CVU-3Y-CAL 3 cals within 3 years of purchase of the
4210-CVU C-V Measurement Unit. Requires
purchase of 4200-3Y-CAL.
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4200-SCS Condensed Specifications
Ramp Rate QUAsistatic C-V
Note: see the 4200 Technical Data Sheet for complete
specifications.
4200-SCS Chassis core capabilities
Integrate Intel Core2Duo processor, 2Gb Ram, 500Gb HDD,
1024X768 LCD, 9 slots, USB, Ethernet, GPIB, external monitor,
over 200W of measurement power.
4200-SMU Medium Power SourceMeasure Unit (2.1 watts max.)
Maximum Number of units per chassis: 9.
Voltage Range: ±200V, 4 ranges from 200mV to 200V
full scale.
Basic Voltage Accuracy: 0.01% measure, 0.02% source.
Voltage resolution: 0.1µV to 100µV.
Current Range: ±100mA, 7 ranges from 100nA to 100mA
full scale.
Basic Current Accuracy: 0.03% measure, 0.04% source.
Current Resolution: 0.1pA to 100pA.
With optional 4200-PA: Adds 5 low current ranges with
resolution down to 0.1fA.
4210-SMU High Power SourceMeasure Unit (21 watts max.)
Maximum number of units per chassis: Requires two
SMUs per channel.
Measurement Parameters: Cp, DCV, timestamp.
Ranging: 1pF to 1nF.
Ramp Rates: 0.1V/s to 1V/s.
DCV: ±200V.
Typical Accuracy: 5% at 1V/s ramp rate.
Very Low Frequency C-V (VLF-CV)
Maximum Units per Chassis: Requires two SMUs (either
Model 4200-SMU or 4210-SMU) and two Model 4200-PA
Remote Preamplifiers. Any two SMUs/PAs can be used for a
VLF C-V measurement.
Measurement Parameters: CP-GP, Cp-D, Cs-Rs, Cs-D,
R-jX, Z-Theta, DCV, Timestamp.
Frequency Range: 10mHz to 10Hz.
Measurement Range: 1pF to 10nF.
Typical Resolution: 3.5 digits, minimum typical 10fF.
AC Signal: 10mV to 3V rms.
DC Bias: ±20V on the High terminal, 1µA maximum.
4225-PMU Ultra-Fast I-V Unit
Maximum Number of units per chassis: 9.
Voltage Range: ±200V, 4 ranges from 200mV to 200V
full scale.
Basic Voltage Accuracy: 0.01% measure, 0.02% source.
Voltage resolution: 0.1µV to 100µV.
Current Range: ±1A, 8 ranges from 100nA to 1A full scale.
Basic Current Accuracy: 0.03% measure, 0.04% source.
Current Resolution: 0.1pA to 100pA.
With optional 4200-PA: adds 5 low current ranges with
resolution down to 0.1fA.
4210-CVU Multi-Frequency
Capacitance-Voltage Unit
Maximum number of units per chassis: 1 (consult
factory for more).
Measurement Parameters: Cp, Cs, G, R, D, Z, theta.
Frequency Range: 1kHz to 10MHz variable.
Measurement Ranges: 100fF to 100µF typical full scale.
Typical Resolution: 1aF, 1nanoSiemens, 0.001 degree.
AC Signal: 10mV to 100mV programmable.
DC bias: ±30V on either High or Low outputs (±60V
differential), 10mA max current.
Optional 4200-CVU-PWR-PKG: Utilizes SMUs for ±200V
(400V differential) up to 300mA.
Model 4200-SCS specifications
Model 4200-SCS specifications
4200-3Y-CAL
1-year factory warranty on the base 4200-SCS
(including all SMUs and PAs) extended to 3 years
from date of shipment. Includes calibration
(reports compliant to ANSI Z540-1) and return
shipping.
3 cals within 3 years of purchase of the base
4200-SCS (including all SMUs and PAs). Before
and after data reports compliant with ANSI/NCSL
Z540-1. Does not cover Scope Cards or Pulse Gen
Cards.
Maximum Number of units per Chassis: 6.
Channels per unit: 2 independent or synchronized.
Voltage Range: ±40V, 2 ranges of 10V and 40V.
Basic Voltage Accuracy: 0.25%.
Voltage Resolution: 250µV, 750µV.
Current Range: ±800mA, 4 ranges from 100µA to 800mA.
Basic Current Accuracy: 0.25%.
Current Resolution: 14 bits, 10nA to 10mA.
With optional 4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch:
Adds 3 low current ranges 100nA, 1µA, 10µA.
Core A/D converter: Two per channel, 4 per unit, 5ns,
200MHz, 14 bits, 1GB memory.
Core Voltage Slew rate: 1V/ns.
Best Voltage Pulse Width: 20ns to 10V.
Typical Current Measure Pulse Width: 60ns.
SEMICONDUCTOR
Services Available
4200-3Y-EW
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4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System
DC I-V, C-V, and Pulse in One Test Environment
Accessories Supplied with each Model 4200-SMU
or 4210-SMU:
4200-MTRX-2 Two Ultra Low Noise SMU Triax Cables, 2m (6.6
ft). Not included with SMUs configured with a
4200-PA Remote PreAmp.
4200-TRX-2 Ultra Low Noise PreAmp Triax Cable, 2m (6.6 ft).
Two supplied for Ground Unit. Two supplied in
replacement of 4200-MTRX-2 cables for each SMU
configured with a 4200-PA.
4200-RPC-2 Remote PreAmp Cable, 2m (6.6 ft). One supplied
for each PreAmp.
Interlock Cable, 3m (10 ft)
236-ILC-3 NEMA 5-15P for 100-115VAC or CEE 7/7
Line Cord
(Continental European) for 240VAC
Accessories Supplied with EACH MODEL 4225-PMU
or 4220-PGU:
SMA to SMA 50W cables, 2m (4 ea.)
SMA to SSMC Y-Cable Assembly, 6 in (2 ea.)
Accessories Supplied with EACH MODEL 4225-RPM:
SMA to SMA 50W cable, 20 cm (1 ea.)
Triax to BNC Adapter (1 ea.)
BNC to SMA Adapter (1 ea.)
RPM Cable, 2.1 m (1 ea.)
OPTIONAL INSTRUMENTATION
4200-BTI-A Hardware and software ultra-fast package for
complete NBTI/PBTI reliability testing
4210-CVU Integrated C-V Instrument
4200-SMU Medium Power Source-Measure Unit for 4200-SCS.
100mA to 100fA, 200V to 1μV, 2 Watt
4210-SMU High Power Source-Measure Unit for 4200-SCS. 1A
to 100fA, 200V to 1μV, 20 Watt
4200-PA Remote PreAmp Option for 4200-SMU and 4210SMU, extends SMU to 0.1fA resolution
4220-PGU
High Voltage Pulse Generator
4225-PMU
Ultra-Fast I-V Module
4225-RPM
Remote Amplifier/Switch
SEMICONDUCTOR
OPTIONAL SWITCHING SYSTEMS AND CARDS
Systems
707B
6-slot Switching Matrix Mainframe
708B
Single-slot Switching Matrix Mainframe
Cards
7072
7072-HV
7173-50
7174A
8×12, Semiconductor Matrix Card
8×12, High Voltage, Semiconductor Matrix Card
4×12, Two-Pole, High Frequency, Matrix Card
8×12, High Speed, Low Leakage Current, Matrix Card
Cables and Cable Sets
NOTE: All 4200-SCS systems and instrument options are
supplied with required cables, 2m (6.5 ft.) length.
CA-19-2 BNC to BNC Cable, 1.5m
CA-404B SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 2m
CA-405B SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 15cm
CA-406B SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 33cm
CA-446A SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 3m
CA-447A SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 1.5m
CA-451A SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 10.8cm
CA-452A SMA to SMA Coaxial Cable, 20.4cm
236-ILC-3 Safety Interlock Cable, 3m
237-ALG-2 Low Noise Triax Input Cable terminated with 3
alligator clips, 2m
4210-MMPC-C Multi-Measurement (I-V, C-V, Pulse) Prober Cable
Kit for Cascade Microtech 12000 prober series
4210-MMPC-S Multi-Measurement (I-V, C-V, Pulse) Prober Cable
Kit for SUSS MicroTec PA200/300 prober series
4200-MTRX-* Ultra Low Noise SMU Triax Cable: 1m, 2m, and 3m
options
4200-PRB-C SMA to SSMC Y Cable with local ground
4200-RPC-* Remote PreAmp Cable: 0.3m, 2m, 3m, 6m options
4200-TRX-* Ultra Low Noise PreAmp Triax Cable: 0.3m, 2m,
3m options
Double-Shielded Premium GPIB Cable, 1m
7007-1
7007-2
Double-Shielded Premium GPIB Cable, 2m
OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES (continued)
Remote PreAmp Mounting Accessories
4200-MAG-BASE Magnetic Base for mounting 4200-PA on a
probe platen
Triaxial Mounting Bracket for mounting
4200-TMB
4200-PA on a triaxial mounting panel
4200-VAC-BASE Vacuum Base for mounting 4200-PA on a
prober platen
Computer Accessories
4200-MOUSE
Microsoft Ambidextrous 2 Button Mouse
(Note: A pointing device is integrated with the
4200-SCS keyboard.)
Software
ACS-BASIC
Component Characterization Software
Drivers
4200ICCAP-6.0 IC-CAP Driver and Source Code for 4200-SCS:
UNIX/Windows (shareware only)
Other Accessories
EM-50A
Modified Power Splitter
SMA Torque Wrench
TL-24 Roll-Around Cart for 4200-SCS
4200-CART
Transport Case for 4200-SCS
4200-CASE
Printed Manual Set
4200-MAN
Adapter, Cable, and Stabilizer Kits
4200-CVU-PWR CVU Power Package for ±200V C-V
4200-CVU-PROBER-KIT
Accessory Kit for connection to popular
analytical probers
4200-PMU-PROBER-KIT
General Purpose Cable/Connector Kit. For
connecting the 4225-PMU to most triax and
coax probe stations. One kit required per 4225PMU module.
4200-Q-STBL-KITAddresses oscillation when performing pulse
I-V tests on RF transistors
Fixtures
8101-4TRX 4-pin Transistor Fixture
8101-PIV Pulse I-V Demo Fixture
LR8028 Component Test Fixture
Cabinet Mounting Accessories
4200-RM Fixed Cabinet Mount Kit
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OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES
Connectors and Adapters
CS-565 Female BNC to Female BNC Adapter
CS-701 BNC Tee Adapter (female, male, female)
CS-719 3-lug Triax Jack Receptacle
CS-1247 SMA Female to BNC Male Adapter
CS-1249 SMA Female to SMB Plug Adapter
CS-1251 BNC Female to SMB Plug Adapter
CS-1252 SMA Male to BNC Female Adapter
CS-1281 SMA Female to SMA Female Adapter
CS-1382 Female MMBX Jack to Male SMA Plug Adapter
CS-1390 Male LEMO Triax to Female SMA Adapter
CS-1391 SMA Tee Adapter (female, male, female)
CS-1479 SMA Male to BNC Male Adapter
Triax Cable Center Conductor terminated in a
237-BAN-3A
safety banana plug
237-BNC-TRX Male BNC to 3-lug Female Triax Adapter
237-TRX-BAR 3-lug Triax Barrel Adapter (female to female)
3-slot Male to Dual 3-lug Female Triax Tee
237-TRX-T
Adapter
7078-TRX-BNC 3-Slot Male Triax to BNC Adapter
7078-TRX-GND 3-Slot Male Triax to Female BNC Connector
(guards removed)
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C O N F I D E N C E
Model 4200-SCS specifications
Model 4200-SCS optional instrumentation and accessories
Optional Instrumentation and Accessories
SUPPLIED ACCESSORIES
Accessories Supplied with each Model 4210-CVU:
CA-447A SMA Cables, male to male, 100W, 1.5m (5 ft.) (4)
CS-1247 Female SMA to Male BNC Adapters (4)
CS-701 BNC Tee Adapters (2)
TL-24 SMA Torque Wrench
• Best-in-class test speed allows
faster, more complete device
characterization
–– Begin measuring BTI
degradation as soon as 30ns
after stress is removed
–– Measure transistor V T in less
than 1µs using ID–VG sweep
method
• Model 4225-RPM Remote
Amplifier/Switch
–– Switches automatically
between low-level precision
DC I-V (via standard
SMUs) and ultra-fast I-V
measurements with no need
for re-cabling
–– Improves single-pulse
source and measurement
performance by minimizing
cable parasitic effects and
increasing low current
sensitivity
• Best high-speed, low-current
measurement sensitivity
available in a single-box
integrated solution
–– Supports sub-microsecond
pulse characterization of
drain current at reduced drain
voltage, minimizing drainto-source fields that could
otherwise skew test results
–– Ensures the source/measure
instrumentation won’t be the
limiting factor when making
low-level measurements
–– Detects degradation trends
sooner during the test,
reduces the time needed to
perform process reliability
monitoring
• Simple, predictable
interconnect scheme prevents
measurement problems due to
incorrect DUT connections
The Model 4200-BTI-A Ultra-Fast BTI Package
combines Keithley’s advanced DC I-V and ultrafast I-V measurement capabilities with automatic
test executive software to provide the most
advanced NBTI/PBTI test platform available in
the semiconductor test industry. The 4200-BTI-A
package, which builds on the Model 4200-SCS
semiconductor parameter analyzer’s powerful
test environment, includes all the instruments,
interconnects, and software needed to make
the most sophisticated NBTI and PBTI measurements on leading-edge silicon CMOS technology:
• One Model 4225-PMU Ultra-Fast I-V Module
• Two Model 4225-RPM Remote
Amplifier/Switches
Applications
• Single-Pulse Charge Trapping/
high-k dielectric characterization
• Silicon-On-Insulator testing
• LDMOS/GaAs isothermal
characterization
• Flash RTS ID
• Phase-change random access
memory (PCRAM) testing
• Ultra-fast NBTI characterization
• Charge pumping measurements
• Thermal impedance
characterization
• Automated Characterization Suite
(ACS) Software
• MEMs capacitor testing
• Ultra-Fast BTI Test Project Module
• Random telegraph signal (RTS)
CMOS
• Cabling
• Charge-based capacitance
measurement (CBCM)Materials
testing for scaled CMOS, such as
high-k dielectrics
• NBTI/PBTI reliability tests
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Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
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SEMICONDUCTOR
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
4200-BTI-A
C O N F I D E N C E
63
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
• Optional Multi-Measurement
Performance Cables (MMPC)
optimize measurement
performance of configurations
that combine DC I-V, C-V, and
ultra-fast I-V capabilities
Model 4225-PMU Ultra-Fast I-V Module
This module is the hardware core of the ultra-fast I-V measurement capability essential for characterizing NBTI and PBTI degradation in microseconds, allowing for more accurate lifetime measurements
for Designed-In Reliability (DIR) that support modeling for device and circuit design. It integrates a
sophisticated two-channel waveform generator with high-speed voltage and current measurement
capabilities, a deep measurement buffer, and a real-time test execution engine.
• ACS software supports building
complex test sequences
including up to 20 measurement
sequences and full prober
integration
Unlike traditional pulse generation solutions, the Model 4225-PMU can be programmed to output
the complex waveforms required in ultra-fast BTI testing. And, unlike traditional Arbitrary Waveform
Generators (AWGs), the waveforms’ duration and complexity aren’t limited by bitmap or memory
depth. Instead, the 4225-PMU employs a high-level waveform description language that uses the
concept of segments, segment libraries, and looping. In addition, the waveform description specifies exactly when measurements must be made during the waveform and the type of measurement
to be made.
–– DC I-V and ultra-fast I-V
measurements can be easily
integrated into a stressmeasure sequence
–– Degradation and recovery
behaviors can be
characterized using either AC
or DC stress
–– Combine spot measurements
with precision SMU sweeps in
pretesting and posttesting
Spot, step sweep, smooth sweep, and sample measurement types are supported and multiple measurement types can be linked to form a test sequence. The programmable sample period can be
set as fast as 5ns, so most measurements will include multiple samples. The system’s real-time test
execution engine automatically calculates the mathematical mean of the samples, which reduces
the volume of data that must be transferred and parsed during the course of the test. The resulting
measurements are streamed back to the high-level test module for near-real-time analysis and test
termination.
For additional information on this module’s capabilities and specifications, consult the Model
4225-PMU data sheet.
–– Incorporate single pulse
charge trapping (SPCT)
measurements into longer
stress-measure sequences
• Support for handling large
data sets required in device
reliability modeling and process
monitoring applications
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Support for hot chucks and fully
and semi automatic probers,
including wafer maps, waferand cassette-level sample plans
The Model 4225-PMU/4225-RPM’s combination of superior speed and sensitivity allow
characterizing voltage threshold (V T) directly with high-speed ID–VG sweeps. Measuring V T
directly makes it unnecessary to correlate the single-point ID measurement to actual V T levels.
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Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
4200-BTI-A
4200-BTI-A
Ultra-Fast BTI Package for the
Model 4200-SCS (includes
one Model 4225-PMU
Ultra-Fast I-V Module, two
Model 4225-RPM Remote
Amplifier/Switches, UltraFast BTI Test Project
Module, and one copy of the
Automated Characterization
Suite (ACS) software
Accessories Supplied
For the 4225-PMU:
SMA to SMA 50W cables, 2m (4 ea.)
SMA to SSMC Y-Cable Assembly,
6 in (2 ea.)
Accessories Available
4210-MMPC-C
Multi Measurement Performance Cables for
Cascade probe stations using SSMC probe
pin connections. One kit required per
manipulator.
4210-MMPC-S Multi Measurement Performance Cables
for Suss probe stations using SSMC probe
pin connections. One kit required per
manipulator.
4225-PMU
Extra Ultra-Fast I-V Module
4225-RPM
Extra Remote Amplifier/Switch. Up to two
of these units can be used with a single
4225-PMU module.
4200-PMU-PROBER-KIT
General Purpose Cable/Connector Kit. For
connecting the 4225-PMU to most triax and
coax probe stations. One kit required per
4225-PMU module.
Model 4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch
This module is designed to maximize the Model 4225-PMU’s current measurement sensitivity. The
4225-RPM’s independent force and sense connections to the DUT maximize its pulse, DC, and C-V
performance. Its built-in switching capabilities allow the Model 4200-SCS to switch automatically
between making ultra-fast I-V measurements with the 4225-PMU and DC I-V measurements with the
system’s 4200-SMU and 4210 source-measure units (SMUs).
Model 4225-RPM modules are required for ultra-fast BTI testing; if the 4225-PMU module is used
without them, it employs a recursive technique to compensate for cable influences such as load
line effects and is typically used for isothermal I-V testing. This recursive technique is inappropriate
for use in BTI reliability applications in which measurements must be both as short as possible and
highly temporally deterministic in order to minimize the relaxation effects.
By making it possible to locate the pulse source close to the device under test (DUT), the 4225-RPM
helps minimize the cable length and corresponding cable parasitic effects. The shorter cables result in
reduced cable capacitance, reduced load-line effects, and reduced source overshoot. Placing the pulse
source and high speed measurement circuits near the DUT allows the cable length to be reduced so
that the round-trip propagation delay is shorter than the rise or fall time of the desired pulse.
For additional details and specifications on the Model 4225-RPM, consult the Model 4225-PMU
data sheet.
Speed and Sensitivity
Bias temperature instability is a highly dynamic phenomenon that requires sensitive, high-speed
measurements for accurate characterization. Assuming all other factors are constant, measurement
physics largely defines the relationship between measurement speed and sensitivity. When making
sub-millisecond measurements, all sources of noise must be taken into account; for sub-microsecond
applications, quantum effects can’t be ignored. The 4200-BTI-A package provides the optimal combination of measurement speed and sensitivity for ultra-fast BTI testing because it’s engineered to
approach the limits of measurement physics while ensuring high ease of use. The package is optimized to provide accurate ultra-fast results without the use of RF structures and interconnects.
Reduce Unwanted Source-Drain Fields
To eliminate hot carrier injection effects or unwanted charge displacement during BTI testing,
minimizing drain-to-source fields is critical. All BTI characterization techniques involve measuring
drain current with a voltage applied to the drain. Given that the drain current is proportional to the
Define stress timing and stress conditions easily using familiar parameters like timing –
log, linear, custom list; measurements per decade; AC or DC stress; optional recovery test
sequence; and test sample rate (speed).
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Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
Ordering Information
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
SEMICONDUCTOR
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
4200-BTI-A
C O N F I D E N C E
65
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
Disadvantages of BTI systems developed in house
Until now, some researchers have been forced to configure their own ultra-fast BTI test systems.
These in-house-developed systems typically combine a pulse generator or arbitrary waveform generator with an oscilloscope equipped with current probes or some type of transimpedance amplifier to help measure low current. Although it is possible to build a BTI system that is suitable for a
very specific set of electrical conditions if the instruments and interconnect are carefully selected,
several major technical challenges remain:
• Waveform generation. Standard pulse generators and arbitrary waveform generators are
designed to generate a waveform on a fixed recurring interval, rather than the Log(time) scale
required for most reliability tests, including NBTI and PBTI testing.
• Measurement timing and data storage. Although oscilloscopes can be configured to trigger based on a waveform feature (such as a falling edge, for example), they are not designed
to store samples selectively for specific portions of the waveform. This makes it necessary
to store very large data sets for postprocessing. Only the most expensive oscilloscopes or
those with costly memory expansion options can store enough data to compensate for these
­shortcomings.
• Precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. Oscilloscopes, current probes, and transimpedance
amplifiers all have independently defined performance specifications and they are not necessarily optimized to work together. It is often very difficult to combine these components in a
way that provides optimal performance across a wide dynamic range in order to achieve precise and accurate current measurements at high speeds.
• Interconnect. Systems built in house typically use splitters and bias tees, which limit the performance of the test setup. For example, a bias tee might limit bandwidth from 100ns to 10µs.
Although this is suitable for high speed measurements, it prevents making any meaningful
prestress and poststress DC measurements as part of the stress–measure sequence. It also prevents making measurements in the intermediate range of 10µs to DC.
• Test control and data management. Traditional oscilloscopes don’t support data streaming,
so results transfer must wait until the test ends. Once the test is complete, massive amounts of
data must be transferred to the control computer for postprocessing, which requires parsing
complex waveforms into individual test results, followed by further reduction of the data into
actual measurements.
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Test termination. Given that the test results can’t be analyzed until the data is transferred
from the oscilloscope, the test duration must be determined prior to test initiation. This makes
it impossible to terminate the test based in parametric shifts or to detect catastrophic failures
in real time.
• Automation. Wafer- or cassette-level automation requires control of both the test instruments
and the wafer probe station, which systems built in house typically wouldn’t provide. Also,
incorporating sophisticated features like conditional test termination would add considerable
complexity to the custom software necessary to run a system of this type.
• Higher channel count. Even for an in-house-built system that works well, pressures to
increase the channel or test system count may arise. Typical test system maintenance issues
such as calibration, operation, and correlation related to these custom setups can easily consume a disproportionate amount of the available resources.
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d­ rain-to-source field, the more sensitive the
drain current measurement is, the lower the
required drain voltage must be. The 4200-BTI-A
package’s superior low current measurement
capability allows the use of lower drain voltages
to produce more accurate results.
Reduced Relaxation Time
The 4225-BTI-A package’s superior speed and
sensitivity allow making degradation measurements faster than any other commercial test
system available. Single-point ID spot measurements can be completed in less than 1µs and
ten-point ID-VG step sweeps can be made in less
than 10µs. A sub-microsecond smooth sweep
can be performed in less than 1µs.
Software
The Ultra-Fast BTI test software module brings
together the measurement capabilities of the
Model 4225-PMU and 4225-RPM through an
intuitive interface that doesn’t compromise
test flexibility. It makes it easy to define stress
timing, stress conditions, and a wide range
measurement sequences from spot ID, On-TheFly (OTF), or ID-VG sweeps. The test module
allows measuring recovery effects as well
as degradation. It also offers prestress and
poststress measurement options that incorporate
the Model 4200-SCS’s DC SMUs for highprecision low-level measurements.
Stress Settings
The Ultra-Fast BTI Test Module employs familiar
parameter setting for building stress–measure
timing sequences. The stress set-up screen
makes defining log or linear timing or building
a custom list of time intervals to trigger intrastress measurements both easy and quick.
Intuitive Test Sequence Development
The Ultra-Fast BTI Test Module makes creating
a powerful test sequence as uncomplicated as
selecting one or more measurement types, then
entering the appropriate values for voltage levels
and measurement parameters in the intuitive
interface. No coding or script writing is required.
Select from four measurement types and chain
up to 20 measurements together to form a readyto-run measurement sequence:
• Spot. The spot measurement is a single measurement made while the gate and drain are
pulsed. The measurement result is the mean
value of the samples taken after the drain
settles and before the pulse ends.
• Step Sweep. The step sweep is very similar
to a conventional DC SMU sweep, in which
M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
4200-BTI-A
each step in the sweep includes a settling period and an integration (or
averaging) period.
• Smooth Sweep. The smooth sweep does not include settling times, and
the signal is sampled continuously throughout the sweep.
• Sample. A sample measurement is much like the smooth sweep measurement, except that it is performed at a constant set of voltage conditions on the gate and drain.
Vgate
Vdrain
Vdrain
1µs
Vstress
Test Automation Speeds Data Sample Acquisition
The ability to acquire large, statistically significant samples of data quickly
is key to reliability modeling. Advances in ultra thin film transistors have
further increased the required sample size due to the increasingly random
nature of the defects in these devices. As a result, it’s critical to use a test
environment that supports wafer- and cassette-level automation. This environment must also be capable of handling the extremely large data sets
associated with reliability testing. The test environment provided with the
Automated Characterization Suite software supports full automation capabilities compatible with both semi and fully automatic probe stations.
V
I
Idrain
Measurement Types
Interconnect
The 4200-BTI-A package provides all the cabling and connectors required
to connect to standard coaxial probe manipulators. For enhanced measurement accuracy, many users add an optional multi-measurement performance cable kit that connects the Model 4200-SCS to a prober manipulator, simplifying switching between DC I-V, C-V, and ultra-fast I-V testing
configurations. This kit eliminates the need for re-cabling, as well as maximizing signal fidelity by eliminating the measurement errors that often
result from cabling errors. Versions engineered
for Cascade Microtech and SUSS MicroTec probers are available. There’s also a general-purpose
kit for connecting the 4225-PMU to other triaxial
and coaxial probe stations.
Spot
Smooth Sweep
Triangle
Step Sweep
The Ultra-Fast BTI test software module supports spot, step sweep,
smooth sweep, and sample measurement types. Each type’s timing
is defined by the test sample rate and the individual measurement
settings. The software module also provides control over the voltage
conditions between each element in the test sequence, for maximum flexibility and ease of use, even when defining complex test
­sequences.
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
Additional Applications
The Model 4225-PMU’s ultra-fast I-V capabilities
are not limited to low-­voltage pMOS and nMOS
reliability testing. It can drive up to 800mA or
40V with pulse widths from 30ns to several
seconds in length. This remarkable dynamic
range is suitable for a wide variety of other
­applications.
Keithley’s Model 4200-SCS replaces a variety of
electrical test tools with a single, tightly integrated characterization solution that’s ideal for a
wide variety of applications. To assure customers
of the ongoing viability of their systems, Keithley
has continually enhanced the system’s hardware
and software. This ongoing commitment ensures
a cost-effective system upgrade path to address
new testing needs as they arise. That means
Model 4200-SCS users will never have to buy a
new parametric analyzer because the old one
is obsolete. The Model 4200-SCS is engineered
to adapt readily to the industry’s changing test
needs—making our customers’ capital investments stretch further and improving ROI.
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ACS software provides wafer- and cassette-level automation capabilities compatible with semi
and fully automatic probe stations.
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Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
4200-BTI-A
C O N F I D E N C E
67
4200-BTI-A
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
Specifications
The 4225-RPM provides lower current measurement ranges to
the 4225-PMU.
• Low current measure ranges supports wide range of measurements, from nanotechnology to BTI (Bias Temperature
Instability) on leading-edge CMOS devices
• This is a single-channel accessory; order two Model 4225RPMs to support the two channels of the Model 4225-PMU.
• Supports switching to the Model 4200-SCS’s SMUs or 4210CVU, allowing for a wide range of tests without re-cabling.
• Built-in bypass mode allows access to the Model 4225-PMU’s
higher current measurement ranges.
PULSE/LEVEL 1
VOUT
Accuracy 2 into open load
Resolution
Output Connectors
Baseline Noise
Overshoot/Pre-shoot/Ringing 3
4225-PMU with
4225-RPM
–10 V to +10 V
±(0.5% ±10 mV)
< 0.5 mV
Triaxes, source and sense
±(0.39% + 1 mV) RMS typical
±2% of amplitude ±20 mV
4225-RPM REMOTE AMPLIFIER/SWITCH (must be used in conjunction with 4225-PMU)
Typical Minimum Timing Parameter for current measurement
Range
100 nA
Recommended Minimum
134 µs
Pulse Width 4, 5
Recommended Minimum
10 µs
Measure Window 5
±(0.5% + 1nA)
Accuracy (DC)
Recommended Minimum
1 µs
Transition Time 5, 6
200 pA
Noise 5, 7
100 µs
Settling Time 5, 8
1 µA
10 µA
100 µA
1 mA
10 mA
20.4 µs
8.36 µs
1.04 µs
370 ns
160 ns
1.64 µs
1 µs
130 ns
40 ns
20 ns
±(0.5% + 1nA) ±(0.5% + 30nA) ±(0.5% + 100nA) ±(0.5% + 1µA) ±(0.5% + 10µA)
360 ns
360 ns
40 ns
30 ns
20 ns
2 nA
15 µs
5 nA
6 µs
50 nA
750 ns
300 nA
250 ns
1.5 µA
100 ns
Voltage Measure
±10V
Recommended Minimum Pulse Width 4, 5: 160ns.
Recommended Minimum Measure Window 5: 20ns.
Accuracy (DC): 0.25% + 10mV.
Recommended Minimum Transition Time 5, 6: 20ns.
Noise 5, 7: 1mV.
Settling Time 5, 8: 100ns.
Notes
1. Performance at the triax output connectors of the 4225-RPM when using a 2m RPM interconnect cable between the 4225-PMU and 4225-RPM Remote
Pulse Measure unit.
2. 100mV to 10V.
3. Typical, with transistion time of 100ns (0-100%).
4. Recommended minimum pulse width = (Setting Time)/0.75
5. Typical values, into an open.
6. Recommended rise/fall time to minimize overshoot.
7. RMS noise measured over the Recommended Minimum Measure Window for the given voltage or current range, typical.
8. Time necessary for the signal to settle to the DC accuracy level. (Example: the 10mA measurement range’s settling time refers to the period required for
the signal to settle to within 0.35% of the final value. Calculated as Accuracy = 0.25% + 10µA = 0.25% + (10µA/10mA) = 0.25% + 0.1% = 0.35%).
SEMICONDUCTOR
All specifications apply at 23° ±5°C, within one year of calibration, RH between 5% and 60%, after 30 minutes of warmup.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 4200-BTI-A specifications
Model 4200-BTI-A specifications
4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch
Optional Accessory for the 4225-PMU
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
Ultra-Fast NBTI/PBTI Package
for the Model 4200-SCS
This top-down view of a Cascade Microtech analytical probe station illustrates best practices
for interconnecting the Model 4225-RPM Remote Amplifier/Switch to the prober using the blue
Multi-Measurement Performance cables.
SEMICONDUCTOR
Hardware and software package optimized for NBTI/PBTI characterization
4200-BTI-A
This closeup of two Model 4225-RPMs highlights the DC SMU, C-V, and ultra-fast I-V cable
connections.
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
69
S530
Parametric Test Systems
• Semiconductor industry’s most
cost-effective fully automatic
parametric testers
• Optimized for use in
environments with a broad
mix of products, where high
flexibility and system speed are
critical
–– Low current configuration
supports measurement of low
current characteristics such as
sub-threshold leakage, gate
leakage, etc.
–– High voltage configuration
is optimized for monitoring
processes used for GaN, SiC,
and Si LDMOS power devices
• Compatible with popular fully
automatic probe stations
• All systems configured with
high power 20W SMUs:
[email protected], [email protected],
[email protected] (1000V range
available only on high voltage
S530 systems)
• Cabled-out tester configuration
maximizes prober interface
flexibility and expands voltage
range
–– Compatible with Keithley’s
Model 9139A Probe Card
Adapter
–– Supports reuse of existing
five-inch probe card libraries
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Proven instrumentation
technology ensures high
measurement accuracy and
repeatability in both the lab
and the fab
Keithley’s S530 Parametric Test Systems can address all the DC and C-V measurements required in
process control monitoring, process reliability monitoring, and device characterization because they
are built on proven sourcing and measurement technology.
Optimized for High-Mix Test Environments
S530 Parametric Test Systems are designed for production and lab environments that must handle a
broad range of devices and technologies, offering industry-leading test plan flexibility, automation,
probe station integration, and test data management capabilities. Keithley has brought more than 30
years of expertise in delivering a wide range of standard and custom parametric testers to customers
around the world to the design of these test solutions.
Simple Software Migration and High Hardware Reuse
S530 systems are designed with capabilities that speed and simplify system startups and maximize
reuse of your existing test resources. For example, the software that controls these systems is compatible with many new and legacy automatic probe stations, so you may be able to eliminate the cost of a
new one. In addition, the S530’s cabled-out configuration typically allows continued use of your existing probe card library. Several optional applications services can help you keep getting the full value
of your existing prober and probe card investments. Keithley can also provide assistance to speed the
development, conversion, or repurposing of your existing test recipes for use with S530 systems.
Semiconductor Industry’s Most Powerful Standard Parametric Test System
Two different system configurations are available to address different parametric test application
environments. The S530 Low Current System, which is configurable from two to eight source measurement unit (SMU) channels, provides sub-picoamp measurement resolution and low current guarding all the way to the probe card, which makes it ideal for characterizing sub-micron silicon MOS
technologies. The S530 High Voltage System, configurable from three to seven SMU channels, can
source up to 1000V for use in the difficult breakdown and leakage tests that automotive electronics
and power management devices demand.
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Parametric test systems
Parametric test systems
• Choice of low current or high
voltage system configurations
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
S530
Table 1. S530 System Selector Guide
20V
200V
Key Range and Offset Performance
1A
1E+0
100mA
1E-3
1E-6
1E-9
1E-12
1E-3
1E-2
1E-1
1E0
1E+1
1E+2
1E+3
1000V
Optimized for
• Source up to 1000V
power electronics
or 1A
and display
• Measure current with
technologies that
atto-amp resolution
require testing at
with pico-amp offset1
high voltages
• Measure voltage with
microvolt resolution
and millivolt offset
20V
S530
High
Voltage
System
200V
Voltage Source (V)
1A
1E+0
100mA
20mA
1E-3
1E-9
1E-12
1E-3
1E-2
1E-1
1E0
1E+1
1E+2
1E+3
Voltage Source (V)
1. Using 200V SMU. The 1000V SMU provides 10pA resolution with nanoamp-level offset.
All Series S530 systems are equipped with Keithley’s proven high power SMUs, which provide up to
20W source or sink capability on both the 200V and 20V ranges. This level of power is essential for
complete characterization of the high power devices and circuits prevalent in today’s mobile devices.
Whether the application is testing LDMOS Si or GaN BJTs, this higher power capability provides greater visibility into device performance. That means S530 systems can handle high power device testing
without compromising the low current sub-picoamp sensitivity needed to monitor mainstream device
processes. In contrast, competitive parametric test systems are limited to medium power 2W SMUs,
so they cannot match the S530 systems’ range of applications.
Full Kelvin Standard Configurations
All too often, currents higher than a few milliamps lead to measurement errors as a result of voltage
drops across the interface cables and pathways. To prevent this drop in measurement integrity, both
the low current and high voltage S530 systems provide full Kelvin measurements (also known as
remote voltage sense) at the probe card. Full Kelvin measurements are particularly critical to ensuring measurement accuracy given the 20W capability of the high power SMUs used in S530 systems.
For test environments in which minimizing system cost is of higher importance than absolute accuracy, S530 testers can be configured as non-Kelvin systems.
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System Architecture
Each S530 system configuration is made up of
five layers:
• Instruments layer – This layer includes the
SMUs, the capacitance-voltage instrumentation (CVU), and any auxiliary instruments
configured into the system.
High Voltage SMU
1E-6
Industry’s Most Powerful High
Voltage Parametric Test System
The S530 High Voltage Semiconductor
Parametric Test System is the only parametric
tester available that’s capable of full Kelvin high
voltage performance on up to 24 pins, a capability that’s invaluable for characterizing today’s
higher power devices. The system incorporates
a high voltage SMU that sources up to 1000V at
20mA (20W max.). Two high voltage pathways
allow making either direct high-side current
measurements (in which a single SMU is used
to both source and measure the high side of the
DUT) or higher sensitivity low-side low current
measurements (in which one SMU is used to
source high voltage to the high side of the DUT
and a different SMU is used to force 0V and
measure the current of the low side).
G R E A T E R
• Pathways layer – S530 systems provide high
fidelity signal pathways that can be dynamically reconfigured to allow any instrument
to be connected to any pin or set of pins
­during test.
• Cable interface layer – All system interconnects are constructed of fully shielded and
guarded triaxial low leakage, high voltage cables to ensure higher measurement
­integrity.
• Probe card adapter (PCA) layer – This layer
extends the shield and guard to the probe
card to ensure measurement integrity.
Also, the PCA provides auxiliary inputs for
instruments that require direct access to the
probe card and must bypass the signal path
switch matrix.
• Probe card layer – This layer includes
the custom cards supplied by your probe
card ­­vendors.
M E A S U R E
O F
SEMICONDUCTOR
Current Measure (A)
Description
Ideal for both
mature and
emerging
technologies
that demand
pico-amp current
measurement
capability
Current Measure (A)
Parametric test systems
S530
Low
Current
System
Typical Use
Cases/Settings
• Source up to 200V
or 1A
• Measure current with
atto-amp resolution
with pico-amp offset
• Measure voltage with
microvolt resolution
and millivolt offset
Parametric test systems
Parametric Test Systems
C O N F I D E N C E
71
S530
Parametric Test Systems
Parametric test systems
Table 2. S530 Pathway Performance
Key
Maximum Maximum
Characteristics Voltage
Current Comments
Limited to 200V max. Provides best low-level signal
Ultra low
200V
1A
Low Current I‑V 1
performance and excellent C-V performance.
leakage
Supports low-level measurements but not quite as low as
2
1300V
1300V
1A
High Voltage I‑V
the Low Current pathway.
Suitable for the majority of parametric tests, except for
2
200V
1A
General-Purpose I‑V
very low current and/or high voltage tests.
Excellent C-V performance but not suitable for DC
200V
1A
C‑V 2
I‑V measurements.
1. Available only on low current system.
2. Available only on high voltage system.
Pathway Type
down. Each SMU also measures both voltage
and current while sourcing, which ensures that
parameter calculations reflect actual conditions
rather than simply the programmed conditions.
Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) Unit
All S530 systems can be equipped with an
optional high speed capacitance-voltage measurement unit for C-V measurements up to 1MHz
to any pin. This C-V unit can measure a 10pF
capacitor at 1MHz with 1% accuracy.
Ground Unit (GNDU)
All source measurement units are referenced
to the ground unit or GNDU. During a test, the
GNDU provides both a common reference and
a return path for current sourced by the SMUs.
The GNDU signal is formed by combining all the
Source LO and Sense LO signals and referencing
them to system ground. The system can easily
be configured for a range of ground system
configurations to accommodate various probe
station ground schemas.
Table 3. System Capabilities Comparison
Pin Count
SMU Channels
Vmax
Imax
Vmin Resolution
S530
Low Current
Up to 60*
2 to 8
200V
1A
1µV
Imin Resolution
1fA
CVU
GNDU
SMU 6
SMU 4
SMU 5
SMU 1
SMU 2
Instruments
SMU 3
System Cabinet
Sense Card
(Kelvin configs.)
Force Card
Pin Card
Pin Card
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Switch
Matrix
“Paths”
CVU
1kHz to 1MHz
*Maximum of 24 pins with full-Kelvin option.
Instrument Card
Cable
Probe Card
Adapter
PIN 46
PIN 47
PIN 48
PIN 44
PIN 45
PIN 41
PIN 42
PIN 43
PIN 40
PIN 37
PIN 39
PIN 38
PIN 11
PIN 12
PIN 9
PIN 8
PIN 10
PIN 6
PIN 7
PIN 4
PIN 3
PIN 5
PIN 1
Probe Card
PIN 2
System Spec
“Plane”
SEMICONDUCTOR
Probe Station
Standard 9139A Probe Card Adapter
The standard probe card adapter (PCA) for
the S530 parametric test systems is the proven
Model 9139A. Several key features and performance advantages have made it the industry’s
leading choice of PCA for more than 20 years:
• Low offset currents that maximize low
current performance.
Every S530 system is made up of five layers: instruments, pathways, cable interface, probe
card adapter, and probe card.
• Low noise performance that helps ensure the
integrity of low-level voltage measurements.
Proven SMU Technology
All source measurement units (SMUs) built into S530 Parametric Test Systems are based on Keithley’s
production-qualified instrument technology to ensure high measurement accuracy and repeatability
and extended hardware life. The SMUs are four-quadrant sources, so they can source or sink current
or voltage. In addition to precision sourcing circuits, they include programmable limits (compliance)
across all ranges, which helps protect both devices and probe tips from damage due to device break-
• Minimally invasive, low profile design that
allows easy camera integration.
• 64 inputs – Configurable to support both
standard cable connections from the tester
and auxiliary inputs for instruments that
bypass the pathway matrix.
• 500V pin-to-pin isolation (1000V when
connecting only to every other pin).
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S530
High Voltage
Up to 60*
3 to 7
1000V
1A
1µV
1fA
(100pA at 1000V)
1kHz to 1MHz
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Parametric test systems
Signal Pathways
The core of each S530 test system is a set of high fidelity signal pathways that direct signals between
instruments and test pins. The performance of these pathways directly influences the performance
of the test system as a whole by setting upper current and voltage ranges, and limiting low-level
measurements due to current offsets. The S530 has eight high fidelity pathways that can be used to
route instruments to pins dynamically. For example, up to eight SMUs can be routed to any pin (or
number of pins) at one time. The S530 Low Current System delivers uniform performance across all
eight pathways; the S530 High Voltage System provides two high voltage/low leakage pathways, four
general-purpose pathways, and two C-V pathways. Both system options support C-V measurements
up to 1MHz.
S530
Parametric Test Systems
Parametric test systems
PIN 64
PIN 62
PIN 63
PIN 60
PIN 61
...
PIN 58
PIN 17
PIN 16
PIN 15
PIN 13
PIN 14
PIN 11
PIN 12
PIN 9
PIN 10
PIN 8
PIN 6
PIN 7
PIN 4
PIN 5
PIN 3
PIN 1
PIN 2
Probe Card
PIN 59
...
Probe Card
Adapter
Probe Station
The Model 9139A PCA can be configured for auxiliary I/O connections, allowing instruments
to be connected to it directly, bypassing the switch matrix signal paths. This provides for
maximum bandwidth to the test structure with a minimum number of variables.
High flexibility cabled-out configuration
S530 systems are “cabled-out” configurations to provide the broad interconnect flexibility that highmix fab and lab environments demand. These systems can be interfaced to a variety of probing solutions, including high performance circular probe cards, cost-effective rectangular edge-connector
probe cards, and even special high performance cards for applications that involve extreme temperatures or demand high durability.
Table 4. S530 System Cabling Options
Cabling Options
Probe Card Type
Standard Keithley
Circular ceramic
9139A PCA (S400-type)
Custom Cabled to
Existing PCA Type
Unterminated Cables
No Cables
Features
Extends driven guard to
probe pin
Benefits
Superior low current measurements.
Supports up to 64 pins; easily configured for
auxiliary inputs for additional instrument
options
Typically for five-inch rectangu- Compatible with existing Reduces migration cost by reusing existing
lar probe cards using edge card probe card library
probe cards
connectors
Cables connected to pathway
Ready to cable to existing Provides recommended cable to optimize
output with unterminated
interface or fixture
system performance
cable ends
Custom probe card
No need to purchase a
Use cable system provided by custom probe
cable solution
card vendor
Alternative Probe Card
Adapters (PCAs)
Optional probe card adapters are available
for all S530 configurations. In the simplest
form, the edge connector used to interface to
a rectangular probe card (typically referred to
as five-inch probe cards) is a PCA. This type of
PCA provides the most cost-effective solution for
applications involving mid-range signal levels. If
desired, the Model 9139A PCA can be configured
into any S530 system as an option. This PCA is
designed for interfacing the system to circular
probe cards (from Keithley-approved vendors)
The Model 9139A Probe Card Adapter has been trusted by the industry for more than 10 years.
Its combination of low current performance and high voltage capability makes it the ideal
companion to the S530 Parametric Test Systems.
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G R E A T E R
Probe Cards
Unlike testhead-based systems, S530 systems
are easily adaptable for use with a wide range
of probe card types, so you likely won’t need to
replace your existing (and expensive) probe card
library. Although Keithley recommends the use
of the Model 9193A PCA and approved probe
card vendors, we recognize you have made a
major investment in your current cards. If probe
card reuse is critical to your capital equipment
strategy, consult an applications team member to
learn about connection options that can protect
your probe card investment.
System Software
Keithley’s S530 system software maximizes the
efficiency and flexibility of our system hardware,
bringing together all the key elements for automated parametric testing in a single integrated
package. Measurement routines and test plans
can be easily written, converted, or re-used,
helping you get up and running faster. That
simplifies using your S530 system effectively
in conjunction with existing test systems. S530
software includes all the key system software
operations:
• Wafer description
• Test macro development
• Test plan development
• Limits setting
• Wafer or cassette level testing with automatic
prober control
• Test data management
Engineer and Operator User Modes
S530 system software gives engineers full
system capability and software flexibility for
creating test plans. The tools provided help
engineers develop, validate, and debug core
measurement routines, test macros, and
comprehensive test plans. System software
administration and log-in capabilities make
specified tools and capabilities accessible only
to the engineers you designate. A separate user
interface is supplied exclusively for system
operators for test execution, blocking access
to core system set-up files. Alternatively, the
S530 system software provides a command
line interface so you can customize your own
operator interface.
M E A S U R E
O F
SEMICONDUCTOR
Auxiliary Connections
Cable
Parametric test systems
via pogo pin connections. Probe-station-specific
adapter plates can be specified during ordering
to ensure the Model 9139A’s compatibility with a
variety of popular probe stations.
To S530 Cabinet
C O N F I D E N C E
73
Parametric Test Systems
SEMICONDUCTOR
Parametric test systems
System Diagnostics and Reliability Tools
Diagnostics can be performed routinely to ensure the system is performing
as expected and won’t generate false failures or false passes. The S530
systems’ diagnostics capability verifies system functionality quickly
and easily. Key steps in the diagnostics process include configuration
verification, communications pathway tests, signal pathway testing, and
SMU source-measure tests. Even the cable interface and PCA are included
in the diagnostics process to ensure complete system functionality. This
diagnostics process is designed to detect and localize a wide range of
system problems, speed troubleshooting, and maximize uptime.
1. While most components of the system are calibrated on site, certain components are calibrated
at one of Keithley’s worldwide network of service facilities.
2.A2LA accredited calibration services are available in the United States and Germany.
High Voltage Instrument Protection Modules
Some S530 instrumentation can produce high voltages that other system
instruments are not designed to withstand. If a test sequence or a failed
DUT presents too much voltage at the inputs to a low voltage instrument,
serious instrument damage is possible. To minimize the potential for these
problems, Keithley engineers have developed protection modules that
prevent damaging voltages from harming sensitive instruments without
compromising their low-level measurement capabilities. In addition to the
system’s SMUs, these modules protect the system’s optional capacitancevoltage instrumentation against high voltage damage.
Documentation
A comprehensive manual set is pre-installed on the system; it is also
provided on CD:
• S530 Administrative Guide – Information on site preparation,
installation, etc.
• Users Reference Manual – A detailed reference and instruction manual
on the operation of the ACS software.
• Programmers Guide – Provides a detailed reference to developing
test scripts, using standard libraries, building and maintaining custom
libraries, etc.
• Prober Manual – Assists in automatic probe station setup and
programming. It includes driver details and usage instructions.
Industrial PC with RAID Mirror Drive
Even the highest quality disk drives are subject to routine failures, so regular system backups are critical. S530 systems incorporate a high reliability
industrial controller including the RAID (Redundant Array of Independent
Disks) option, designed to maintain a mirror of the master drive at all
times. In the event of a drive failure, the mirror drive becomes the master
and the user is notified that a drive replacement should be scheduled
immediately. With a RAID mirror drive, a failed drive represents a scheduled repair rather than a downed system.
System Performance Specifications
All system specifications are to the system reference plane, which is located
between the pogo pins of the Model 9139A PCA and the probe card.
Customization in Layers
The S530 provides a number of hardware and software customization
layers for adapting the system to a wide range of test needs:
• Instrumentation – Standard Options
• Custom instrumentation
• Auxiliary instrument connections on PCA
• Customizable load board in PCA
• User Access Points (to customize test sequence framework)
Support Services and Contracts
Keithley’s worldwide network of service and applications professionals
provides expert support services ranging from initial installation and
calibration to repairs and test plan migration services. These services
maximize system utilization and uptime while reducing your overall cost
of ownership.
• Installation and Probe Station Integration Services – Includes the setup
and verification of the system, as well as probe station integration. This
includes setting up probe station communications and installing the
probe card adapter.
• Calibration Services – All S530 Parametric Test Systems are calibrated
onsite by a certified Keithley field service engineer.1 Keithley provides
a range of internationally recognized accredited calibration services,
including A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation)
accredited calibration.2
• Repair Services – Repair services ranging from on-site service contracts
to self-service module-swaps are available.
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• Test Plan Migration Services – Keithley’s experienced applications
engineers are skilled at converting your existing test plans to the S530
system software environment. This includes conversion of data objects
like user test libraries, wafer description files, cassette plans, etc.
• Correlation Studies – Keithley applications engineers can perform
correlation studies, comparing your existing parametric test system’s
capability to the S530’s and analyzing the underlying performance
differences.
User Access Points (UAPs) for Added Flexibility
User Access Points or UAPs can be used to modify the operational flow of
the test sequence at key events like “load wafer,” “start test,” “end cassette,”
etc. They are useful for adding system capabilities like reading wafer
cassette RFID tags or reading wafer IDs using an OCR system. During test
operation, an enabled UAP triggers the execution of one or more custom
operations defined in a script or executable program.
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Parametric test systems
S530
S530
Parametric Test Systems
Specification Conditions
General I/V Source Specifications
23°C ±5°C, 1 year.
RH between 5% and 60% after 1 hour warm-up.
All specs assume 4-wire (Kelvin) option.
V/A errors can be eliminated when used as a 4-wire system.
All specs are based on 1 year calibration cycle for individual instruments.
Measurement Specifications @ 1 PLC (Power Line Cycle) unless otherwise noted.
Capacitance Specifications are typical @ quiet mode.
Maximum Output Power per SMU: 20W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Compliance: Compliance resolution and accuracy are determined by the corresponding range used.
Current
Range
1A
100mA
10mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
  1µA
100nA
10nA
1nA
100pA
Max.
Voltage
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
Resolution
10µA
1µA
100µA
10nA
1nA
100nA
10pA
1pA
100fA
10fA
1fA
Voltage
Range
200V
20V
2V
200mV
Max.
Current
100 mA
  1 A
  1 A
  1 A
Resolution
1mV
100µV
10µV
1µV
MEASURE
Current
Max.
Range
Voltage Resolution
1A 1
  200 V 10µA
  200 V 1µA
100mA 1
1100 V 100µA
20mA 1
  200 V 100µA
10mA 1
1100 V 10nA
1mA 1
1
1100 V 1nA
100µA
1
1100 V 100nA
10µA
1
1100 V 10pA
1µA
  200 V 1pA
100nA 2
  200 V 100fA
10nA 2
  200 V 10fA
1nA 2
  200 V 1fA
100pA 2
1 Using general purpose signal paths.
2 Using high performance signal paths.
Max.
Current
  20 mA
100 mA
  1 A
  1 A
  1 A
SOURCE
Resolution
20µA
2µA
200nA
20nA
2nA
200pA
20pA
2pA
200fA
20fA
Accuracy
0.05% + 1.8 mA + 1.3 pA/V
0.03% + 30.0 μA + 1.3 pA/V
0.03% + 6.0 μA + 1.3 pA/V
0.03% +300.0 nA + 1.3 pA/V
0.03% + 60.0 nA + 1.3 pA/V
0.03% + 5.0 nA + 1.3 pA/V
0.03% +800.6 pA + 1.3 pA/V
0.06% +100.6 pA + 1.3 pA/V
0.15% + 5.6 pA + 1.3 pA/V
0.15% + 2.6 pA + 1.3 pA/V
MEASURE
Accuracy
0.02%+ 50 mV
0.02%+ 5 mV
0.02%+ 480 µV
0.02%+ 355 µV
High Voltage System
Voltage
Range
1000 V
200V
20V
2V
200mV
0.03%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.03%
0.03%
0.06%
0.15%
0.15%
0.15%
Accuracy
+  1.5mA+ 1.3pA/V
+ 20.0 µA+ 1.3pA/V
+ 2.5 µA+ 1.3pA/V
+200.0 nA+ 1.3pA/V
+ 25.0 nA+ 1.3pA/V
+ 1.5 nA+ 1.3pA/V
+500.6 pA+ 1.3pA/V
+100.6 pA+ 1.3pA/V
+ 3.6 pA+ 1.3pA/V
+880.0 fA+ 1.3pA/V
+760.0 fA+ 1.3pA/V
Accuracy
0.04%+126mV
0.04%+125mV
0.04%+ 13mV
0.05%+935 µV
0.04%+810 µV
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10kHz
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
1.00%
100kHz
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
1.00%
1MHz
1.00%
1.00%
4.00%
5.00%
5.00%
Capacitance
10pF
100pF
1nF
10nF
100nF
10kHz
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
1.00%
100kHz
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
0.50%
1.00%
1MHz
3.00%
2.00%
7.00%
5.00%
5.00%
Accuracy
0.02%+ 50 mV
0.02%+ 5 mV
0.02%+ 730 µV
0.02%+ 505 µV
SOURCE
Resolution
20µA
2µA
500nA
200nA
50nA
5nA
500pA
50pA
2pA
200fA
20fA
Accuracy
0.13% + 4.5mA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.08% + 75.0µA+ 2.4pA/V
0.11% + 10.0µA+ 2.4pA/V
0.08% + 15.0µA+ 2.4pA/V
0.09% +750.1 nA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.08% +150.0 nA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.08% + 12.5 nA+ 2.4pA/V
0.09% + 2.0 nA+ 2.4pA/V
0.15% +260.4 pA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.38% + 22.9 pA+ 2.4pA/V
0.38% + 15.4 pA+ 2.4pA/V
MEASURE
Resolution
10mV
1mV
100µV
10µV
1µV
Capacitance
10pF
100pF
1nF
10nF
100nF
SOURCE
Resolution
5 mV
500µV
50µV
5µV
MEASURE
Accuracy
0.08% + 3.8mA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.05% + 50.0µA+ 2.4pA/V
0.09% + 3.0µA+ 2.4pA/V
0.05% + 6.3µA+ 2.4pA/V
0.07% +500.0 nA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.06% + 63.0 nA+ 2.4pA/V
0.07% + 3.8 nA+ 2.4pA/V
0.07% + 1.3 nA+ 2.4pA/V
0.15% +260.0 pA+ 2.4 pA/V
0.38% + 17.9 pA+ 2.4pA/V
0.38% + 11.0 pA+ 2.4pA/V
0.38% + 10.7 pA+ 2.4pA/V
S530 specifications
Low Current System
SOURCE
Resolution
50mV
5mV
500µV
50µV
5µV
A
SEMICONDUCTOR
S530 specifications
Condensed Specifications
Accuracy
0.05% + 251 mV
0.05% + 125 mV
0.05% +12.7 mV
0.05% + 1.7 mV
0.05% + 1.7 mV
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
75
• Highly configurable, instrumentbased system
Parametric test systems
• Ideal for SMU-per-pin Wafer
Level Reliability (WLR)
testing, high speed parallel
test, die sorting and binning,
NBTI, Process Control
Monitoring (PCM)
• Intuitive test setup, data
gathering and analysis with
ACS software
• Keithley’s TSP-Link® backplane
provides high speed
measurement throughput
• Flexible solution to meet
emerging and mature
testing needs
• Full control of automated and
semi-automated probers
• Develop and execute tests at
the device, site, wafer, and
cassette level
Integrated Test System
Versatile Systems with the
Instrument Advantage
S500 Integrated Test Systems are highly configurable, instrument-based systems for semiconductor characterization at the device, wafer, or cassette level. Built on our proven instrumentation,
S500 Integrated Test Systems provide innovative
measurement features and system flexibility,
scalable to your needs. The unique measurement capability, combined with the powerful
and flexible Automated Characterization Suite
(ACS) software, provides a comprehensive range
of applications and features not offered on other
comparable systems on the market. Specific
capabilities and system configurations include:
Parametric test systems
S500
• Full-range source measurement unit (SMU)
instrument specifications, including subfemtoamp measurement, ensure a wide range
of measurements on almost any device.
• Pulse generation and ultra-fast I-V for memory
characterization, charge pumping, singlepulse PIV (charge trap analysis), and PIV
sweeps (self-heating avoidance).
• Low or high channel-count sytems, including
parallel test, with Keithley’s system-enabling and scalable SMUs.
• High voltage, current, and power source-measure instrumentation for testing devices such as
power MOSFETs and display drivers.
• Switching, probe cards, and cabling take the system all the way to your DUT.
Flexibility Combined with Applications Experience
S500 Integrated Test Systems are designed around three standard Keithley principles: configuration,
integration, and customization. What this means to you is that you will receive a comprehensive test
system for semiconductor characterization with both industry-leading Keithley hardware and highly
configurable ACS software applications that include device characterization, reliability/WLR, parametric, and component functional test. With Keithley’s proven instrumentation and user-friendly ACS
software, the S500 is configured, integrated, and customized with the applications experience that
only Keithley can provide.
Value-Focused Systems and Service
• Assessment of individual application needs for customization
• Proposal of integrated system configuration
• Installation and system user support
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Management of system-out cabling and probe card adaptation
• Implement training, test code development, and applications services
• Assurance of turnkey solutions for future applications
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Key System Components
• Series 2600A family of SMUs
offering a wide dynamic range
of 1fA to 10A and 1µV to 200V,
combines into a high channelcount system via the Keithley
TSP-Link interface
• Model 707B high speed switch
matrix integrates seamlessly
with Series 2600A SMUs via
the Keithley TSP-Link interface
for a complete multipoint
test solution
• Model 2410 High Voltage 20W
SourceMeter Unit sources up to
1100V, 1A
• Model 2651A High Power
SourceMeter Unit offers 2000W
pulsed power, 200W DC power,
and up to 50A @ 40V with pA
and µV resolution
• ACS software provides intuitive
test setup, data gathering
and analysis for parametric
characterization from single die
to full cassette
• Full control of automated and
semi-automated probers, as
well as other test instruments,
further simplifies device test
and characterization
Flexible and User-Friendly
Software Environment
Each comprehensive S500 test system includes
advanced components and productivity features
to make workflow smooth and easy. The ACS
application software is designed to perform
complex functions, such as:
• Wafer description
• Test setup
• Prober control
• Test execution
• Real-time and post-test analysis
The integrated test plan and wafer description
function allows the user to set up single or multiple test plans on one wafer and selectively execute them later, either manually or automatically.
Additionally, the user has maximum flexibility
for performing applications—easily switching
between lab use (manual) and production (fully
automated) using the same test plan.
High Throughput WLR
SMU-per-pin configuration is especially beneficial in scaled CMOS reliability testing.
• Ideal for DC “on-the-fly” NBTI testing
• High speed measurements produce lifetime
predictions from two to five times faster than
conventional WLR solutions
Parametric Die Sort
Uniquely suited for multi-site parallel testing for
die sort and other high throughput applications.
• Multi-group testing allows groups of SMUs to
execute in parallel on different devices, structures, or dies
• True parallel test is enabled through distributed processing with embedded Test Script
Processor (TSP®) technology in each SMU.
• High voltage and high current capabilities
provide capabilities across a wide range of
technologies
• Large library of ready-to-use tests and parameter extractions
• Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP®) technology and deep measurement buffers ensure
deterministic timing on all pins
• Up to 200V stress and picoamp measurements
provide a wide range of capabilities and
­technologies
• Real-time plotting provides visibility into tests
as they occur
Automated Device Characterization
Exceptional balance of high precision testing and
automated data gathering.
• Flexible configurations to meet current and
emerging test needs
SEMICONDUCTOR
Parametric test systems
• 4200-SCS lab-grade parameter
analyzer characterizes devices
using unique instrumentation
modules such as sub-femtoamp
SMUs, capacitance-voltage
units, pulse generators, and
ultra-fast I-V units
Integrated Test System
Parametric test systems
S500
• Powerful analysis, presentation, and reporting tools
• Control full and semi-automatic probers with
intuitive setup and operation
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
77
Maximize the value of your Keithley hardware investment
• Supports a wide array of
instruments and probers
• Intuitive GUI simplifies I-V
tests, analysis and results from
bench-top to fully automated
parametric testers
• Develop and execute tests
at the device, site, wafer and
cassette level
• Intuitive GUI for test plan
development and interactive
operation
• Interactive and real-time data
plotting
• Highly portable test
projects with minimal or no
modifications
• Supports multiple SMUs for
parallel testing
• Flexible, modular software
accomodates evolving and
mature test requirements
APPLICATIONS
Compatible with emerging and
mature testing needs for:
Automated Characterization Suite Software
One Powerful Software Solution—A Wide Range of Hardware Configurations
Keithley’s Automated
Characterization Suite (ACS)
is a flexible, interactive
software test environment
designed for device characterization, parametric test, reliability test and even simple
functional tests. ACS supports
a wide array of Keithley
instrumentation and systems,
hardware configurations,
and test settings, from a few
bench-top instruments for
use in a QA lab to fully integrated and automated rackbased parametric testers.
ACS offers exceptional testing
and analysis flexibility, plus its intuitive GUI helps novice users be productive almost immediately,
regardless of their level of programming experience. The GUI simplifies configuring test instrumentation, making I‑V measurements, getting results, and analyzing them quickly because no coding is
required. Even if you’re an infrequent user, you can go from creating a new test setup to characterizing new devices in a fraction of the time older test development approaches require. Just as important, ACS provides all the tools you need to set up tests, analyze data, and export your results—without ever leaving the ACS environment.
ACS – From Lab to Fab
• Component test
• Component characterization
• Device characterization
• Parametric test
• Reliability test
• Die sort
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Model
4200-SCS
SEMICONDUCTOR
Model 707B
Ordering Information
ACSComponent
Characterization
Suite Software
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Series 2600A
Series
2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Multiple
Series 2600As
A
G R E A T E R
4200-SCS,
707B
M E A S U R E
O F
S500
C O N F I D E N C E
S530
Maximize the value of your Keithley hardware investment
ACS
Automated Characterization Suite Software
Choose ACS for What It Gives You that Others Don’t
There are many alternatives on the market for creating characterization
applications, but ACS offers major advantages that competitive solutions
can’t match, such as a choice of three powerful project development
options. With ACS, you can create the tests you need in the way that
best suits your application’s requirements and your own programming
preferences.
• Need more test development flexibility? Our interactive test development GUI lets you select bias and sweep conditions, acquire raw data,
then use the built-in Formulator tool to extract meaningful results—all
without ­writing code.
• You say you’re a researcher and you just need to make a quick test of
common parameters and properties on a single device? We’ve packaged
the same tests that our semiconductor customers use to verify their
• For the ultimate test development flexibility, modify one of the existing
test scripts in our applications libraries using the embedded script
editing and debugging tools.
Automate Your Data Gathering Processes
Need the throughput advantages of a semi-automatic or fully automatic
wafer probe station to get lots of data fast? The wafer prober automation
option for ACS makes it easy to interface a variety of popular probe stations into your test setup. This option includes a wafer description utility
(for creating a virtual wafer to use in creating wafer-level sampling plans),
real-time wafer maps with binning capabilities (for designating a device’s
disposition before it’s packaged, in die sorting, etc.), a cassette sample
plan utility (for designating which wafers are to be tested), and a post-test
cassette and wafer review utility (for exploring and comparing test results
from multiple wafers interactively).
Many of the tools and capabilities built into ACS enhance automated device
characterization:
• Wafer- and cassette-level automation
• Limits file generation tool
Maximize the value of your Keithley hardware investment
products into easy-to-use applications libraries. These libraries help
you get the data you need to validate your work quickly so you can get
back to your research sooner.
• Test results binning, including interactive binning plot
• Test map—map device and tests to sites and subsites
Interactive probe station control speeds and simplifies test
development and debugging by combining interactive testing with
manual probe station control.
• Interactive probe station control mode
• Real-time plotting
• Single or per-wafer Keithley data file
• SQLite™ database and binning file output options
• Lot summary report generator
• Integrated support for Keithley Series 2600A and 2400 SourceMeter
families
• Integrated scripting editor and GUI builder
• Integrated support for C (with 4200-SCS only), Python, and Lua (for
Series 2600A) programming languages
Share Test Projects and Results
ACS offers a common set of key elements that work across a wide range
of hardware configurations, which saves time and increases productivity. Systems perform consistently from one hardware implementation to
another, so, for example, it’s easy to transfer your knowledge of an ACSbased system used in single-device component characterization to another
designed for wafer level testing.
ACS lets you map devices and tests to sites and subsites, so there’s
no need to duplicate each test for each subsite, reducing your test
development time significantly.
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Similarly, test projects and sequences you create for one Keithley ACS
hardware configuration will run on compatible setups in other test settings
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SEMICONDUCTOR
Maximize the value of your Keithley hardware investment
ACS
C O N F I D E N C E
79
Automated Characterization Suite Software
with little or no modification. This portability
across a range of configurations reduces the
effort involved in transferring a new device from
one lab or department to another and simplifies
comparing results obtained in various test settings. This is possible because ACS employs common open-standard file interfaces for projects,
wafer maps, output files, etc. as well as common
test libraries and instrument drivers, which also
means you can be confident of high results correlation whether your tests are run on a system
with a single Series 2600A instrument or a fully
automated custom die sort tool with dozens of
these instruments.
Add More Hardware to Adapt
to Changing Needs
High scalability and a flexible architecture simplify configuring an ACS system to match your
specific testing requirements or to upgrade an
existing system to handle new test needs as they
evolve. Our wide range of source-measure and
switching capabilities provides a solid foundation
for configuring customized applications because
ACS software can control virtually any instrument or peripheral with a standard hardware
interface. For example, third-party LCR meters
can be easily integrated into any ACS system and
drivers are available for popular instruments.
Also, ACS’s integrated scripting environment can
control any GPIB instrument the application may
require, such as a hot chuck controller.
Maximize the Productivity of
Your Keithley Hardware
The tools in ACS simplify test development and
maximize the speed of each Keithley instrument linked into the system. For example, ACS
builds on the throughput advantages inherent
in Keithley’s newest family of high performance
source measurement units, the Series 2600A
System SourceMeter instruments. These advantages include:
• The on-board Test Script Processor (TSP®) in
each instrument that allows each 2600A to
operate independently of the ACS system’s
controller
• The TSP-Link® high speed communications
bus used to network multiple 2600A
instruments together
• True parallel test execution
• Precision timing
Together, ACS and Keithley TSP-based hardware
offer the highest throughput in the industry to
lower the cost of test without requiring you to
spend time learning new programming concepts
or languages before getting the data needed to
accomplish your goals.
Many ACS systems are configured using one
or more of Keithley’s innovative Series 2600A
System SourceMeter instruments, which are optimized for precision sourcing and measurement
synchronization to capture high speed events.
These systems offer unmatched testing speed
and accuracy because they provide an SMU-perpin architecture. ACS system configurations can
support any number from two to more than 40
SMUs in a single rack for true parallel characterization applications.
Broad Range of Applications
ACS-based Integrated Test Systems are complete
solutions for applications such as parametric
die sort and wafer level reliability testing. When
paired with appropriate semi-automatic and
fully automatic probe stations, their hardware
configurations and test project development can
be easily optimized for specific tasks. ACS leverages the on-board test script processors in Series
2600A System SourceMeter instruments into a
multi-processor environment that’s ideal for true
parallel test in both single- and multi-site configurations. This multi-processor environment
provides high parallel throughput while speeding and simplifying test project development.
Multi-site testing capabilities are embedded
throughout ACS from the wafer description utility to the test results output file or binning file,
for example:
• Multi-site parallel testing brings the highest
possible throughput for both parametric die
sort and WLR applications
• Configurable for special applications like
MEMS testing
• Easily customize test flows with User Access
Points (UAPs) that execute scripts or call
custom utilities
ACS also makes it easy to integrate other types
of Keithley hardware into your system, such as
instruments to meet specialized test requirements, such as:
• High channel count switching—Model 707B
Six-slot Switch Mainframe
• Combination of switching and measurement—
Series 3700A Switch/Multimeters
• High voltage sourcing—Model 237 High
Voltage Source-Measure Unit
• Higher resolution, lower current, or other
capabilities such as C-V or pulse testing—
Model 4200-SCS
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Wider dynamic range—Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments
Wafer and binning map tools allow you to
browse through the test results on either a
wafer-by-wafer or site-by-site basis. You can
also overlay traces from multiple sites to
make quick comparisons.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Maximize the value of your Keithley hardware investment
Maximize the value of your Keithley hardware investment
ACS
Optimized for parametric testing of component
and discrete (packaged) semiconductor devices,
ACS Basic Edition maximizes the productivity
of technicians and engineers in research and
development. The versatile architecture of this
software allows it to meet the wide ranging and
ever changing requirements of semiconductor
device testing. It supports all of Keithley’s source
and measure instrument products, including
Series 2600A, Series 2400, and Model 2651A
SourceMeter instruments and the Model
237 SMU.
This powerful, yet cost effective solution
includes Keithley’s rich set of proven parametric
libraries. Simply choose the desired test and
begin running it to immediately start gathering
data and analyzing it. Users also have the option
of customizing any test with the embedded
script editor.
• Designed for packaged devices
(MOSFETs, BJTs, IGBTs, diodes,
resistors, etc.)
The built-in data analysis tools allow users to quickly analyze the parametric data. For example, place
device curves developed from newly collected data over “golden” curves for fast comparisons. To perform specialized calculations on raw data, use the mathematical formulator tool to create customized
parameter calculations. Data can be easily saved in graphical and/or tabular formats.
• Rich set of test libraries for
fast and easy test setup and
execution without programming
ACS Basic offers three modes of operation:
• Built-in data analysis tools for
quick analysis of parametric
data
• Multi Test Mode—for multiple test operations on a single device
• Supports Keithley’s Series
2600A, Series 2400, and
Model 2651A SourceMeter®
instruments and Model
237 Source-Measure Unit (SMU)
• FREE optional off-line version
for developing test setups on a
different PC
• Single Test Mode—for single device, single test operations
• Trace Mode—for mapping out the operating range and characteristics of a semiconductor device
while minimizing the risk of damage to it. This mode offers an interactive method of controlling
the voltage level of a sweep with a slide bar or the arrow keys on the PC ­keyboard.
ACS systems optimized for component characterization applications
Semiconductor Parametric Test Software
for Component and Discrete Devices
Related Products For applications requiring wafer level testing, use ACS Integrated Test Systems or ACS Wafer Level
Reliability Systems. These systems supply a wafer map, prober automation capabilities, and analysis
options for yield monitoring as well as related statistical calculations for maximizing productivity in
wafer level test environments.
• Windows® 7 and XP compatible
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Ordering Information
ACS-BASIC Component
Characterization Software
ACS-BASIC-UPGRADE (available
for existing ACS Basic customers)
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2600-FIX-TRX
8101-4TRX
ACS-COMP
KUSB-488A
LR:8028
Grounded Phoenix-to-Triax Cable Adapter
Leaded Component Test Fixture
PC for Installed and Bench-top ACS Systems
IEEE-488.2 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter for
USB Port
DIP Component Test Fixture
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Key Applications • Materials and device
development
• Quality assurance
• Device inspection
O F
SEMICONDUCTOR
ACS systems optimized for component characterization applications
ACS Basic
Edition
C O N F I D E N C E
81
ACS Basic
Edition
Semiconductor Parametric Test Software
for Component and Discrete Devices
Summary of Typical Tests
Bipolar
Junction
Transistor
Multi Test Mode allows multiple tests to be performed on a device.
Leakage
IEBO,
IECO,
IEVEB,
ICVCB
Breakdown
Gain On-State
BVCBO, BVCEI,
BVCEO, BVCEV,
BVEBO, BVECO
MOSFET
IDL,
BVDSS, BVDSV,
IDS_ISD, BVGDO, BVGDS,
IGL, ISL
BVGSO
GM
IDVD_BiasVG,
IDVD_StepVG,
IDVG_BiasVD,
IDVG_StepVD,
IDVG_StepVSUB,
IGVG, VTCI, VTEXT,
VTEXT_IISQ
Diode
IRDVRD
VBRIRD
NA
DYNAMICZ, IFDVFD,
VFDIFD, VRDIRD
Resistor
NA
NA
NA
IV
Capacitor
IV
NA
Formulator Function Summary
Type
Math
ABS, AVG, DELTA, DIFF, EXP, LN, LOG, LOG10, SQRT
Parametric
Extractions
GMMAX, RES, RES_4WIRE, RES_AVG, SS, SSVTCI, TTF_
DID_LGT,TTF_LGDID_T, TTF_DID_T, TTF_LGDID_LGT,
VTCI, VTLINGM, VTSATGM
Fitting
EXPFIT, EXPFITA, EXPFITB, LINFIT, LINFITSLP,
LINFITXINT, LINFITYINT, REGFIT, REGFITSLP,
REGFITXINT, REGFITYINT, REGFIT_LGX_LGY, REGFIT_
LGX_Y, REGFIT_X_LGY, TANFIT, TANFITSLP,TANFITXINT,
TANFITYINT
Manipulation
AT, FINDD, FINDLIN, FINDU, FIRSTPOS, JOIN, LASTPOS,
MAX, MAXPOS, MIN, MINPOX, POW, SMOOTH
SEMICONDUCTOR
Trace Mode supports interactive testing of a device.
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HFE
IBCO, IBEO, IBICVBE,
IBVBE, ICBO, ICEV,
ICVCE_BiasIB,
ICVCE_BiasVB,
ICVCE_StepIB,
ICVCE_StepVB,
VBCO, VCE
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
ACS systems optimized for component characterization applications
ACS systems optimized for component characterization applications
Device
Keithley has taken the power of its Automated
Characterization Suite (ACS) software and
focused it on wafer level reliability (WLR) testing. ACS-2600-RTM is an option to ACS that
leverages the measurement speed and system
integration capabilities of Keithley’s Series
2600A System SourceMeter instruments. The
result—you can produce lifetime predictions
from two to five times faster than you can with
conventional WLR test solutions, allowing you to
accelerate your technology development, process
integration, and process monitoring for faster
time to market.
Wafer level reliability option to ACS
• System configurations from 2 to
44 channels
• Comprehensive JEDEC-compliant
test suite
• Optimized for both emerging
and mature technologies
• Supports both sequential and
parallel testing
• Fully automatic single-site and
multi-site capability
• Compatible with all popular
wafer probe stations
• Real-time plotting and wafer
mapping
APPLICATIONS
• Device reliability
–– HCI, NBTI, PBTI
• Gate oxide integrity
–– TDDB, V RAMP, JRAMP
• Metal interconnect
–– Isothermal electromigration
–– Poly heater
–– Constant current
–– ILD TDDB
Ordering Information
ACS-2600-RTM
Wafer Level Reliability
OPtion to ACS
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With the ACS-2600-RTM option, ACS offers
comprehensive single- and parallel-device WLR
testing capability. Integrated with our innovative 2600A SourceMeter instruments, your WLR
system will provide unmatched testing speed
and accuracy via an SMU-per-pin architecture. A
single 2600A dual-channel source measurement
unit (SMU) is suitable for single-device reliability
testing. Or take advantage of the TSP-Link® bus
on the 2600A instruments for systems with as
many as 44 SMU channels (2 for each 2600A) for
testing large numbers of devices in parallel and
increasing overall system productivity. In addition to precise low-level measurements, the 2600A instruments can supply high voltage (200V) and
high current (1.5A) sourcing and measurement to every test structure pad. This maximizes system
flexibility, so you don’t need one solution for gate oxide integrity and a different system for metal
interconnect reliability. Looking for a complete system solution? Keithley offers ACS with its highly
configurable S500 Integrated Test Systems and application development services.
Extensive Software Capabilities
No coding is required to take
full advantage of the sourcemeasure capability of the
2600As or the tools included in
the ACS software environment.
The ACS-2600-RTM option provides a powerful stress/measure
sequencing tool with an interactive interface for testing device
reliability, gate oxide integrity,
and metal interconnects (EM).
Its flexible test sequencing capabilities support pre- and posttesting, as well as intra-stress
testing and stress monitoring.
During testing, you can log raw
reliability data into the database
and/or plot it in real time. This
real-time plotting provides a “sneak peek” at a test’s outcome to let you know whether time-consuming tests are on track to deliver meaningful results. After testing, use the easy point-and-click analysis
offered by the integrated Formulator, which is populated with standard parametric extraction calculations. In addition, a variety of modeling, line fitting, and standard math functions allow custom data
manipulation without programming.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SEMICONDUCTOR
• Leverages unique strengths
of Keithley Series 2600A
SourceMeter® instruments –
including system scalability and
measurement speed
Wafer level reliability option to ACS
ACS-2600-RTM Wafer Level Reliability Option to ACS
C O N F I D E N C E
83
SEMICONDUCTOR
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84
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Low Level Measurements and Sourcing
Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurements
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Selector Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6220
DC Current Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6221
AC and DC Current Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter and Plug-In Cards . . . . 102
Low Current/High Resistance Measurements
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Selector Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6485Picoammeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6487
Picoammeter/Voltage Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2502
Dual-Channel Picoammeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
428-PROG
Programmable Current Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6514
Programmable Electrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6517B
Electrometer/High Resistance Meter . . . . . . . . . . . 123
6521
Low Current, 10-channel Scanner Card
(for Model 6517x Electrometer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6522
Low Current, High Impedance Voltage,
High Resistance, 10-channel Scanner
Card (for Model 6517x Electrometer) . . . . . . . . . . 127
6220/6514/2000/7001
High Impedance Semiconductor Resistivity
and Hall Effect Test Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Arbitrary Waveform/Function Generator
3390
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50MHz Arbitrary Waveform/Function Generator . . 129
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Side Text
2182ANanovoltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
C O N F I D E N C E
85
Technical information: Low voltage/low
Side Text
resistance measurement products
Technical
Information
How to Select a Voltmeter
Many kinds of instruments can measure voltage,
including digital multimeters (DMMs), electrometers,
and nanovoltmeters. Making voltage measurements
successfully requires a voltmeter with significantly
higher input impedance than the internal impedance
(source impedance) of the device under test (DUT).
Without it, the voltmeter will measure less potential
difference than existed before the voltmeter was
connected. Electrometers have very high input impedance (typically in the order of 100TW [1014W]), so
they’re the instrument of choice for high impedance
voltage measurements. DMMs and nanovoltmeters
can typically be used for measuring voltages from
10MW sources or lower. Nanovoltmeters are appropriate for measuring low voltages (microvolts or less)
from low impedance sources.
Low Voltage Measurements
Significant errors may be introduced into low
voltage measurements by offset voltage and
noise sources that can normally be ignored when
measuring higher signal levels. Steady offsets can
generally be nulled out by shorting the ends of the
test leads together, then enabling the instrument’s
zero (relative) feature. The following paragraphs
discuss non-steady types of error sources that can
affect low voltage measurement accuracy and how to
minimize their impact on the measurements.
Thermoelectric EMFs
The most common sources of error in low voltage
measurements are thermoelectric voltages (thermoelectric EMFs) generated by temperature differences
between junctions of conductors (Figure 1).
A
T1
B
T2
A
HI
VAB
LO
Nanovoltmeter
The thermoelectric voltage developed by dissimilar
metals A and B in a circuit is:
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
VAB = QAB ( T1 – T2 )
86
Temperatures of the two
junctions in °C
Seebeck coefficient of
material A with respect
to B, µV/°C
Figure 1. Thermoelectric EMFs
Constructing circuits using the same material for all
conductors minimizes thermoelectric EMF generation. For example, connections made by crimping
copper sleeves or lugs on copper wires results in
cold-welded copper-to-copper junctions, which
generate minimal thermoelectric EMFs. Also, connections must be kept clean and free of oxides.
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Low Voltage/Low Resistance
Measurements
HI
Experiment
(source)
VS
Nanovoltmeter
VIN
R
LO
I
Ground 1
Ground 2
Ground bus
VG
Input voltage to the nanovoltmeter is:
VIN = VS + I R
Resistance of input LO connection
(typically around 100mW)
Current passing through input LO
connection due to ground
voltages (VG) in the ground bus
(magnitude may be amperes).
Source voltage (desired signal)
I R may exceed VS by orders of magnitude.
Figure 2a. Multiple grounds (ground loops)
HI
Experiment
(source)
VS
VIN
R
Nanovoltmeter
LO
I
ZCM
Single
System
Ground
Ground bus
VG
Input voltage to the nanovoltmeter is:
VIN = VS + I R
Current passing through ZCM (MΩ or
GΩ) due to VG and currents in the
source (magnitude is typically nA’s).
VIN ≈ VS, since I R is now insignificant compared to VS.
Figure 2b. Single system ground
Minimizing temperature gradients within the
circuit also reduces thermoelectric EMFs. A way to
minimize such gradients is to place all junctions in
close proximity and provide good thermal coupling
to a common, massive heat sink. If this is impractical, thermally c­ ouple each pair of corresponding
junctions of dissimilar materials to minimize their
temperature differentials which will also help
minimize the thermoelectric EMFs.
Johnson Noise
The ultimate limit to how well the voltmeter can
resolve a voltage is defined by Johnson (thermal)
noise. This noise is the voltage associated with the
motion of electrons due to their thermal energy.
All sources of voltage will have internal resistance
and thus produce Johnson noise. The noise voltage
developed by any resistance can be calculated from
t­he following equation:
From this equation, it can be observed that
Johnson noise may be reduced by lowering the
temperature and by decreasing the bandwidth of
the measurement. Decreasing the bandwidth of
the measurement is equivalent to increasing the
response time of the instrument; thus, in addition
to increasing filtering, the bandwidth can be reduced
by increasing instrument integration (typic­ally in
multiples of power line cycles).
Ground Loops
When both the signal source and the measurement
instrument are connected to a common ground bus,
a ground loop is created (Figure 2a). This is the case
when, for instance, a number of instruments are
plugged into power strips on different instrument
racks. Frequently, there is a difference in potential
between the ground points. This potential difference—even though it may be small—can cause large
currents to circulate and create unexpected voltage
drops. The cure for ground loops is to ground the
entire measurement circuit at only one point. The
­easiest way to accomplish this is to isolate the DUT
(source) and find a single, good earth-ground point
for the measuring system, as shown in Figure 2b.
Avoid grounding sensitive measurement circuits to
the same ground system used by other instruments,
machinery, or other high power e­ quipment.
Magnetic Fields
Magnetic fields generate spurious voltages in two
circumstances: 1) if the field is changing with time,
and 2) if there is relative motion between the circuit
and the field (Figure 3a). Changing magnetic fields
can be generated from the motion of a conductor
in a magnetic field, from local AC currents caused
by components in the test system, or from the
deliberate ramping of the magnetic field, such as for
magnetoresistance measurements.
a.
Area A (enclosed)
DUT
Voltmeter
B
The voltage developed due to a field passing
through a circuit enclosing a prescribed area is:
VB =
dφ
d (BA)
dA
dB
=
= B
+ A
dt
dt
dt
dt
b.
DUT
Voltmeter
V = 4kTBR
Figure 3. Minimizing interference from
­magnetic fields with twisted leads
k = Boltzmann’s constant (1.38 × 10 –23 J/K)
T = absolute temperature of the source in Kelvin
B = noise bandwidth in Hz
R = resistance of the source in ohms
To minimize induced magnetic voltages, leads must
be run close together and should be tied down to
minimize movement. Twisted pair cabling reduces
the effects of magnetic fields in two ways: first, it
reduces the loop area through which the magnetic
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Low Voltage/Low Resistance
Measurements
field is interfering; second, a magnetic field will
create voltages of opposite polarities for neighboring
loops of the twisted pair that will cancel each other.
(Figure 3b)
and the voltage drop across the leads. Typical lead
resistances lie in the range of 1mW to 100mW.
Therefore, the four-wire (Kelvin) connection method
shown in Figure 4b is preferred for low resistance
measurements. In this configuration, the test current
is forced through the DUT through one set of test
leads while the voltage is measured using a second
set of leads called the sense leads. There is very little
current running through the sense leads, so the
sense lead resistance has effectively been eliminated.
Lead Resistance and Four-Wire Method
Resistance measurements in the normal range
(>10W) are generally made using the two-wire
method shown in Figure 4a. The main problem with
the two-wire method for low resistance measurements (<10W) is the error caused by lead resistance.
The voltage measured by the meter will be the sum
of the voltage directly across the test resistance
DMM
Lead
VM Resistances VR
VM
I
Test Current (I)
RLEAD
HI
RS
Resistance
Under Test
RLEAD
LO
Measured = VM
Resistance
I
= RS + (2 × RLEAD)
= RS
Figure 4a. Two-wire resistance measurement:
Lead resistance error
DMM or Micro-ohmmeter
RLEAD
Sense HI
I
VM
Test Current (I)
RLEAD
Sense Current
(pA)
Lead
VM Resistances
Sense LO
RLEAD
Source LO
RLEAD
VR
RS
Resistance
Under Test
Because sense current is negligible, VM = VR
and measured resistance =
On
Source
Current
Off
Thermal offset measurement
b. Voltage measurement
with source current on
Thermoelectric EMFs
Thermoelectric voltages can seriously affect low
resistance measurement accuracy. Given that resistance measurements involve controlling the current
through the DUT, there are ways to overcome these
unwanted offsets in addition to those mentioned in
the low ­voltage measurement section, namely, the
offset-­compensated ohms method and the currentreversal method.
• Offset Compensation Technique (Figure 5a)
applies a source current to the resistance being
measured only for part of the measurement cycle.
When the source current is on, the total voltage
measured by the instrument is the sum of the
voltage due to the test current and any thermoelectric EMFs present in the circuit. During the
second half of the measurement cycle, the source
current is turned off and the only voltage measured is that due to the thermoelectric EMF. This
unwanted offset voltage can now be subtracted
from the voltage measurement made during the
first half of the delta mode cycle.
VM
V
= R = RS
I
I
Figure 4b. Four-wire resistance measurement
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• Current Reversal Technique/Two-Step Delta
Technique (Figure 5b)
Thermoelectric EMFs can also be cancelled
by taking two voltages with test currents of
opposite polarity. The voltage due to the test
current can now be calculated using the formula
shown in Figure 5b. This method provides 2×
better signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, better
accuracy than the offset compensation technique.
(This is the method employed by the Model
2182A Nanovoltmeter/Model 622x Current Source
­combination.)
For these methods to be effective, the consecutive
measurements need to be made rapidly when
compared with the thermal time constant of the
circuit under test. If the instruments’ response
speed is too low, changes in the circuit temperature
during the measurement cycle will cause changes
in the thermoelectric EMFs, with the result that the
thermoelectric EMFs are no longer fully cancelled.
A
G R E A T E R
c. Voltage measurement
with source current off
VEMF
VEMF
VM1
IS
VM2
RS
RS
VM1 = VEMF + IS RS
VM2 = VEMF
VM = (VM1– VM2) = IS RS
Figure 5a. Subtracting thermoelectric EMFs
with Offset Compensation
a. Measurement with Positive Polarity
VEMF
IS
VM+
RS
With the Offset Compensation technique, the
source current is decided by the instrument.
To characterize at a specific current or a variety
of currents, the Current Reversal technique/
Two-step Delta technique (described below) will
provide more flexibility.
VM = Voltage measured by meter
VR = Voltage across resistor
Source HI
One
measurement
cycle
VM+ = VEMF + IS RS
b. Measurement with Negative Polarity
VEMF
IS
VM–
RS
VM– = VEMF – IS RS
VM =
VM+ – VM–
2
= IS RS
Figure 5b. Canceling thermoelectric EMFs
with Current Reversal
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Low Resistance Measurements
Low resistances (<10W) are typically best measured
by sourcing current and measuring voltage. For
very low resistances (micro-ohms or less) or where
there are power limitations involved, this method
will require measuring very low voltages, often
using a nanovoltmeter. Therefore, all the low voltage
techniques and error sources described previously
also apply here. Low resistance measurements are
subject to additional error sources. The next sections
describe methods to minimize some of these.
a. Offset compensation
measurement cycle
Technical information: Low voltage/low
Side Text
resistance measurement products
Technical
Information
C O N F I D E N C E
87
Technical information: Low resistance
Side Text
measurements on the nanoscale
Technical
Information
Resistance Measurements
on the Nanoscale
Three-Step Delta Technique
The three-step delta technique eliminates
errors due to changing thermo­electric voltages
(offsets and drifts) and significantly reduces
white noise. This results in more accurate low
resistance measurements (or more accurate
resistance measurements of any type when it
is necessary to apply very low power to DUTs
that have limited power handling capability).
This technique offers three advantages
over the two-step delta technique.
A delta reading is a pair of voltage measurements
made at a positive test current and a negative test
current. Both the two-step and three-step delta
techniques can cancel constant thermoelectric
voltage by alternating the test current. The
three-step technique can also cancel changing
thermoelectric voltages by alternating the
current source three times to make two delta
measurements: one at a negative-going step and
one at a positive going step. This eliminates errors
caused by changing thermoelectric EMFs 10×
better than the two-step technique (Figure 6).
The three-step technique provides accurate voltage readings of the intended signal unimpeded
by thermoelectric offsets and drifts only if the
current source alternates quickly and the volt­
meter makes accurate voltage measurements
within a short time interval. The Model 622x
Current Source paired with the Model 2182A
Nano­volt­meter is optimized for this application. These products implement the three-step
technique in a way that offers better white noise
immunity than the two-step technique by spending over 90% of its time performing measurements. In addition, the three-step technique is
faster, providing 47 readings/second to support
a wider variety of applications. Interestingly,
the formula used for the three-step technique
is identical to that used for ­differential conductance (Figure 10).
Pulsed, Low Voltage Measurements
Short test pulses are becoming increasingly
important as modern electronics continue to
shrink in size. Short pulses mean less power put
into the DUT. In very small devices, sometimes
even a small amount of power is enough to
destroy them. In other devices, a small amount
of power could raise the temperature significantly, causing the measurements to be invalid.
With superconducting devices, a small amount
of heat introduced while making measurements
can raise the device temperature and alter the
results. When sourcing current and measuring
voltage, the sourced current dissipates heat (I2R)
into the device and leads. With the lowest resistance devices (<10µW), the power dissipated during the measurement may be primarily at contact
points, etc., rather than in the device itself. It is
important to complete the measurement before
this heat can be conducted to the device itself,
so fast pulsed measurements are critical even at
these lowest resistances.
With higher resistance devices, significant power
is dissipated within the device. Therefore, with
these devices, it is even more important to
reduce the measurement power by reducing the
source current or the source pulse width. Many
tests measure device properties across a range of
currents, so reducing the current is not usually
an option. Shorter pulses are the only solution.
The Model 6221 Current Source was designed
with microsecond rise times on all ranges
to enable short pulses. The Model 2182A
Nanovoltmeter offers a low latency trigger, so
that a measurement can begin as little as 10µs
after the Model 6221 pulse has been applied.
The entire pulse, including a complete nanovolt
measurement, can be as short as 50µs. In addition, all pulsed measurements of the 6221/2182A
are line synchronized. This line synchronization, combined with the three-step delta technique, causes all 50/60Hz noise to be rejected
(Figure 7).
Dry Circuit Testing
Applications that involve measuring contact
resistance may require that existing oxide layers
remain unbroken during the measurement. This
can be done by limiting the test current to less
than 100mA and the voltage drop across the
sample to no more than 20mV. Most low resistance meters have this “dry circuit” measurement
technique built in.
160.00
2pt Delta Resistance
3pt Delta Resistance
1ms
0.6µA
Sourced
I
140.00
88
Resistance (W)
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
120.00
100.00
Time
80.00
60Hz (50Hz) line
frequency noise
(e.g. 0.4mV rms)
Measured
V
60.00
40.00
20.00
DCV offset level
(e.g. 0.5mV)
0.00
Time
Figure 6. 1000 delta resistance readings using 100W resistor and 10nA
source current.
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Figure 7. Operating at low voltage levels, measurements are susceptible to line frequency interference. Using line synchronization eliminates line frequency noise.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical
Information
In the macroscopic world, conductors may
have obeyed Ohm’s Law (Figure 8a), but in the
nanoscale, Ohm’s definition of resistance is no
longer relevant (Figure 8b). Because the slope
of the I-V curve is no longer a fundamental constant of the material, a detailed measurement of
the slope of that I-V curve at every point is needed to study nanodevices. This plot of differential
conductance (dG = dI/dV) is the most important
measurement made on small scale devices, but
presents a unique set of challenges.
I
I
V
Figure 8a.
Macroscopic scale
(Classical)
V
Figure 8b. Nanoscale
(Quantum)
Differential conductance measurements are performed in many areas of research, though sometimes under different names, such as: electron
energy spectroscopy, tunneling spectroscopy,
and density of states. The fundamental reason
that differential conductance is interesting is that
the conductance reaches a maximum at voltages (or more precisely, at electron energies in
eV) at which the electrons are most active. This
explains why dI/dV is directly proportional to
the density of states and is the most direct way
to measure it.
2
300
1
200
I (µA) 0
dI/dV 100
(µs)
–1
0
–2
–0.01
–0.005
0
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–100
–0.01
0.01
–0.005
V
0
0.005
0.01
V
Figure 9a. I-V curve
Figure 9b. Differentiated I-V curve. True
dI/dV curve obscured by noise.
The AC Technique:
Four-Wire, Source Current –
Measure Voltage Technique
Now there is another approach to differential
con­ductance. This technique is performed by
adding an alternating current to a linear staircase sweep. The amplitude of the alternating
portion of the current is the differential current, dI (Figure 10). The differential current is
constant throughout the test. After the voltage is
measured at each current step, the delta voltage
between consecutive steps is calculated. Each
delta voltage is averaged with the previous delta
voltage to calculate the differential voltage, dV.
The differential conductance, dG, can now be
derived using dI/dV. This technique requires
only one measurement sweep when using the
Model 2182A Nano­volt­meter and a Model 622x
Current Source, so it is faster, quieter, and
­simpler than any previous method.
The AC technique superimposes a low amplitude AC sine wave on a stepped DC bias to the
sample. It then uses lock-in amplifiers to obtain
the AC voltage across and AC current through
the DUT. The problem with this method is that
while it provides a small improvement in noise
over the I-V curve technique, it imposes a large
penalty in system complexity, which includes
precise coordination and computer control of
six to eight instruments. Other reasons for the
complexity of the system include the challenges
of mixing the AC signal and DC bias, of ground
loops, and of common mode current noise.
Keithley has developed a new technique that
is both simple and low noise: the four-wire,
Source Current–Measure Voltage ­technique.
Existing Methods of Performing
Differential Conductance
The I-V Technique:
The I-V technique performs a current-voltage
sweep (I-V curve) and takes the mathematical
derivative. This technique is simple, but noisy.
It only requires one source and one measurement instrument, which makes it relatively easy
to coordinate and control. The fundamental
problem is that even a small amount of noise
becomes a large noise when the measurements
are differentiated (Figure 9). To reduce this
noise, the I-V curve and its derivative must be
measured repeatedly. Noise will be reduced by
√N, where N is the number of times the curve
is measured.
0.005
2182A
V-Meas
Meas
V1
Meas
V2
Meas
V3
Meas
V4
Meas
V5 Meas
V6
Each A/D conversion
integrates (averages)
voltage over a fixed time.
Delay
dI
dI
4th Cycle
3rd Cycle
2nd Cycle
1st Cycle
1st Reading ∆V = [(V1–V2) + (V3–V2)]/4
622X
I-Source
Figure 10. Detail of applied current and measured device voltage
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Nanovolt Level
Resistance Measurements
Technical information: Low resistance
Side Text
measurements on the nanoscale
Resistance Measurements
on the Nanoscale
C O N F I D E N C E
89
Selector Guide
Selector guide: Low voltage
Side
and
Text
low resistance instruments
Model
Page
Voltage Range (Full Scale)
10 mV
From
100 V
To
1.2 nV rms
Input Voltage Noise
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
6220/6221
97
3706A
102
2750
248
2010
237
2002
231
N/A
N/A
N/A
100 mV
300 V
100 nV rms
100 mV
1000 V
<1.5 µV rms
100 mV
1000 V
100 nV rms
200 mV
1000 V
150 nV rms
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.9 mW
0.4 mW
0.9 mW
1.2 mW
100 MW
100 MW
100 MW
1 GW
–150°C
1820°C
–200°C
1820°C
–200°C
1372°C
–200°C
1820°C
•
•
•
Banana jacks (4)
•
•
•
Banana jacks (4)
•
•
•
Banana jacks (4)
Dry circuit.
Offset
compensation.
DMM. IEEE-488.
RS-232. Digital I/O.
Plug-in modules.
Dry circuit.
Offset
compensation.
DMM. IEEE-488.
RS-232. Plug-in
scanner cards.
8½ digits. DMM.
Plug-in scanner
cards.
CURRENT Range
From
N/A
To
N/A
100 fA DC
(also 2 pA peak
AC, 6221 only)
±105 mA DC
(also 100 mA
peak AC, 6221
only)
Resistance Range
From1
To2
10 nW 3
100 MW 3
Thermocouple Temperature
–200°C
From
1820°C
To
FEATURES
IEEE-488
RS-232
CE
Input Connection
Special Features
90
2182A
91
Low Voltage/Low Resistance Meters
10 nW (when
used with 2182A)
100 MW (when
used with 2182A)
N/A
N/A
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Special low thermoelectric
Trigger Link, Rear panel 15 pin
w/copper pins. Optional
Digital I/O,
D-SUB. Optional
2187-4 Modular Probe Kit
Ethernet
accessories:
adds banana plugs, spring
3706-BAN,
clips, needle probes, and
3706-BKPL,
alligator clips.
3706-TLK
Delta mode and differential
Controls
Dry circuit. Offset
conductance with Model
Model 2182A
compensation.
6220 or 6221. Pulsed I-V with
for low-power
Plug-in switch/
Model 6221. Analog output. resistance and I-V relay modules.
IEEE-488. RS-232.
measurements.
USB. LXI Class
B/Ethernet with
IEEE-1588 protocol.
Digital I/O.
Notes
1. Lowest resistance measurable with better than 10% accuracy.
2.Highest resistance measurable with better than 1% accuracy.
3. Delta mode, offset voltage compensation with external current source. 10nW if used with 5A test current with Model 2440.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
The two-channel Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter
is optimized for making stable, low noise
voltage measurements and for characterizing
low resistance materials and devices reliably
and repeatably. It provides higher measurement
speed and significantly better noise performance
than alternative low voltage measurement
solutions.
The Model 2182A represents the next step
forward in Keithley nanovoltmeter technology,
replacing the original Model 2182 and offering
enhanced capabilities including pulse capability,
lower measurement noise, faster current reversals, and a simplified delta mode for making
resistance measurements in combination with a
reversing current source, such as the Model 6220
or 6221.
• Make low noise measurements at
high speeds, typically just 15nV
p-p noise at 1s response time,
40–50nV p-p noise at 60ms
• Delta mode coordinates
measurements with a reversing
current source at up to 24Hz
with 30nV p-p noise (typical) for
one reading. Averages multiple
readings for greater noise
reduction
Flexible, Effective Speed/Noise Trade-offs
The Model 2182A makes it easy to choose the best speed/filter combination for a particular application’s response time and noise level requirements. The ability to select from a wide range of response
times allows optimizing speed/noise trade-offs. Low noise levels are assured over a wide range of
useful response times, e.g., 15nV p-p noise at 1s and 40-50nV p-p noise at 60ms are typical. Figure 1
illustrates the Model 2182A’s noise performance.
150
• Synchronization to line provides
110dB NMRR and minimizes
the effect of AC common-mode
currents
• Dual channels support measuring
voltage, temperature, or the ratio
of an unknown resistance to a
reference resistor
• Built-in thermocouple
linearization and cold junction
compensation
100
50
Keithley 2182A
nV
nV/µΩ Meter
0
-50
-100
0
100
Number of Readings
Figure 1. Compare the Model 2182A’s DC noise performance with a nanovolt/micro-ohmmeter’s. All the data shown was taken at 10 readings per second with a low thermal short
applied to the input.
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Low noise measurements for research, metrology,
Side Textand other low voltage testing applications
Nanovoltmeter
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LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
2182A
C O N F I D E N C E
91
Low noise measurements for research, metrology,
Side Textand other low voltage testing applications
2182A
Ordering Information
2182ANanovoltmeter
Accessories Supplied
2107-4 Low Thermal Input Cable
with spade lugs, 1.2m (4 ft).
User manual, service
manual, contact cleaner,
line cord, ­alligator clips.
Accessories Available
2107-30
2182-KIT
2187-4
2188
4288-1
4288-2
7007-1
7007-2
7009-5
8501-1
8501-2
8502
8503
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
Low Thermal Input Cable with spade lugs,
9.1m (30 ft)
Low Thermal Connector with strain relief
Low Thermal Test Lead Kit
Low Thermal Calibration Shorting Plug
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.2 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.5 ft)
Shielded RS-232 Cable, 1.5m (5 ft)
Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.2 ft)
Trigger Link Cable, 2m (6.5 ft)
Trigger Link Adapter to 6 female BNC ­connectors
Trigger Link Cable to 2 male BNC connectors
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Nanovoltmeter
Reliable Results
Power line noise can compromise measurement accuracy significantly at the nanovolt level. The
Model 2182A reduces this interference by synchronizing its measurement cycle to line, which
minimizes variations due to readings that begin at different phases of the line cycle. The result is
exceptionally high immunity to line interference with little or no shielding and filtering required.
Optimized for Use with Model 6220/6221 Current Sources
Device test and characterization for today’s very small and power-efficient electronics requires sourcing low current levels, which demands the use of a precision, low current source. Lower stimulus
currents produce lower—and harder to measure—voltages across the devices. Linking the Model
2182A Nanovoltmeter with a Model 6220 or 6221 Current Source makes it possible to address both of
these challenges in one easy-to-use configuration.
When connected, the Model 2182A and Model 6220 or 6221 can be operated like a single instrument.
Their simple connections eliminate the isolation and noise current problems that plague other solutions. The Model 2182A/622X combination allows making delta mode and differential conductance
measurements faster and with less noise than the original Model 2182 design allowed. The Model
2182A will also work together with the Model 6221 to make pulse-mode measurements.
The 2182A/622X combination is ideal for a variety of applications, including resistance measurements, pulsed I-V measurements, and differential conductance measurements, providing significant
advantages over earlier solutions like lock-in amplifiers or AC resistance bridges. The 2182A/622X
combination is also well suited for many nanotechnology applications because it can measure
resistance without dissipating much power into the device under test (DUT), which would otherwise
invalidate results or even destroy the DUT.
An Easy-to-Use Delta Mode
Keithley originally created the delta mode method for measuring voltage and resistance for the Model
2182 and a triggerable external current source, such as the Model 2400 SourceMeter instrument.
Basically, the delta mode automatically triggers the current source to alternate the signal polarity, and
then triggers a nanovoltmeter reading at each polarity. This current reversal technique cancels out
Services Available
2182A-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2182A-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
TRN-LLM-1-C
Course: Making Accurate Low-Level
Measurements
* Not available in all countries
5nV
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Applications
92
Research
• Determining the transition
temperature of superconductive
materials
• I-V characterization of a material
at a specific temperature
• Calorimetry
• Differential thermometry
• Superconductivity
• Nanomaterials
Metrology
• Intercomparisons of standard cells
• Null meter for resistance bridge
measurements
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4µV
DC
Measurement
Delta Mode
Measurement
Figure 2. Results from a Model 2182A/6220 using the delta mode to measure a 10mW resistor
with a 20µA test current. The free Model 6220/6221 instrument control example start-up
software used here can be downloaded from www.keithley.com.
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any constant thermoelectric offsets, so the results reflect the true value of
the voltage being measured. The improved delta mode for the Model 2182A
and the Model 622X current sources uses the same basic technique, but the
way in which it’s implemented has been simplified dramatically. The new
technique can cancel thermoelectric offsets that drift over time (not just
static offsets), produces results in half the time of the original technique,
and allows the current source to control and configure the Model 2182A.
Two key presses are all that’s required to set up the measurement. The
improved cancellation and higher reading rates reduce measurement noise
to as little as 1nV.
Model 2182A
2182A NANOVOLTMETER
6220 DC AND AC CURRENT SOURCE
Figure 3. It’s simple to connect the Model 2182A to the Model
6220 or 6221 to make a variety of measurements. The instrument
control example start-up software available for the Model 622X
current sources includes a step-by-step guide to setting up the
instrumentation and making proper connections.
Competition
100µs
Trigger Link
GPIB or
Ethernet
DUT
Differential Conductance Measurements
Characterizing non-linear tunneling devices and low temperature devices
often requires measuring differential conductance (the derivative of a
device’s I-V curve). When used with a Model 622X current source, the
Model 2182A is the industry’s fastest, most complete solution for differential conductance measurements, providing 10X the speed and significantly
lower noise than other instrumentation options. There’s no need to
average the results of multiple sweeps, because data can be obtained in a
single measurement pass, reducing test time and minimizing the potential
for measurement error.
Pulsed Testing with the Model 6221
When measuring small devices, introducing
even tiny amounts of heat to the DUT can raise
its temperature, skewing test results or even
destroying the device. When used with the
Model 2182A, the Model 6221’s pulse capability
minimizes the amount of power dissipated into
a DUT. The Model 2182A/6221 combination
synchronizes the pulse and measurement. A
measurement can begin as soon as 16µs after
the Model 6221 applies the pulse. The entire
pulse, including a complete nanovolt measurement, can be as short as 50µs.
Model 622X
RS-232
2182A
2182A in delta mode
0.5µA
Figure 4. The Model 2182A produces the lowest transient currents of any nanovoltmeter available.
In the delta, differential conductance, and pulse
modes, The Model 2182A produces virtually no transient currents, so it’s
ideal for characterizing devices that can be easily disrupted by current spikes
(see Figure 4).
Research Applications
The Model 2182A’s 1nV sensitivity, thermoelectric EMF cancellation, direct
display of “true” voltage, ability to perform calculations, and high measurement speed makes it ideal for determining the characteristics of materials
such as metals, low resistance filled plastics, and high and low temperature
superconductors.
Metrology Applications
The Model 2182A combines the accuracy of a digital multimeter with
low noise at high speeds for high-precision metrology applications. Its
low noise, high signal observation time, fast measurement rates, and
2ppm accuracy provide the most cost-effective meter available today for
applications such as intercomparison of voltage standards and direct
measurements of resistance standards.
Nanotechnology Applications
The Model 2182A combined with the Model 622X current source or Series
2400 SourceMeter® instrument is a highly accurate and repeatable solution
for measuring resistances on carbon nanotube based materials and silicon
nanowires.
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Low noise measurements for research, metrology,
Side Textand other low voltage testing applications
Nanovoltmeter
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
2182A
C O N F I D E N C E
93
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Low noise measurements for research, metrology,
Side Textand other low voltage testing applications
2182A
94
Nanovoltmeter
Three Ways to Measure Nanovolts
220
DC nanovoltmeters. DC nanovoltmeters
and sensitive DMMs both provide low noise
DC voltage measurements by using long
integration times and highly filtered readings
to minimize the bandwidth near DC.
Unfortunately, this approach has limitations,
particularly the fact that thermal voltages
develop in the sample and connections vary,
so long integration times don’t improve
measurement precision. With a noise
specification of just 6nV p-p, the Model 2182A
is the lowest noise digital nanovolt­meter
available.
215
AC technique. The limitations of the long
integration and filtered readings technique
have led many people to use an AC technique
for measuring low resistances and voltages.
In this method, an AC excitation is applied
to the sample and the voltage is detected
syn­chronously at the same frequency and
an optimum phase. While this technique
removes the varying DC component, in many
experiments at high frequencies, users can
experience problems related to phase shifts
caused by spurious capacitance or the L/R
time constant. At low frequencies, as the
AC frequency is reduced to minimize phase
shifts, amplifier noise increases.
The current reversal method. The Model
2182A is optimized for the current reversal
method, which combines the advantages of
both earlier approaches. In this technique,
the DC test current is reversed, then the
difference in voltage due to the difference
in current is determined. Typically, this
measure­ment is performed at a few hertz (a
frequency just high enough for the current
to be reversed before the thermal voltages
can change). The Model 2182A’s low noise
performance at measurement times of a
few hundred milliseconds to a few seconds
means that the reversal period can be set
quite small in comparison with the thermal
time constant of the sample and the con­
nections, effectively reducing the impact of
thermal voltages.
30
Temperature
(°C)
25
210
20
205
15
200
10
Voltage
(nV)
195
5
190
0
185
–5
180
0
8
17
–10
25 33 42 50 58 67 75 83 92 100 108 117 125
Minutes
Figure 5. The Model 2182A’s delta mode provides extremely stable results, even in the presence of large ambient temperature changes. In this challenging example, the 200nV signal
results from a 20µA current sourced by a Model 6221 through a 10mW test resistor.
Optional Accessory: Model 2187-4 Low Thermal
Test Lead Kit
The standard cabling provided with the Model
2182A Nano­volt­meter and Model 622X Current
Sources provides everything normally needed
to connect the instruments to each other and to
the DUT. The Model 2187-4 Low Thermal Test
Lead Kit is required when the cabling provided
may not be sufficient for specific applications,
such as when the DUT has special connection
requirements. The kit includes an input cable
with banana terminations, banana extensions,
sprung-hook clips, alligator clips, needle probes,
and spade lugs to accommodate virtually any
DUT. The Model 2187-4 is also helpful when the
DUT has roughly 1GW impedance or higher.
In this case, measuring with the Model 2182A
Figure 6. Model 2187-4 Test Lead Kit
directly across the DUT will lead to loading
errors. The Model 2187-4 Low Thermal Test Lead Kit provides a banana cable and banana jack
extender to allow the Model 2182A to connect easily to the Model 622X’s low impedance guard
output, so the Model 2182A can measure the DUT voltage indirectly. This same configuration also
removes the Model 2182A’s input capacitance from the DUT, so it improves device response time,
which may be critical for pulsed measurements.
Figure 7. Model 2182A rear panel
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2182A
Nanovoltmeter
Volts Specifications (20% over range)
Conditions: 1PLC with 10 reading digital filter or 5PLC with 2 reading digital filter.
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
(ppm = parts per million) (e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%)Temperature
Channel 1
Input
24 Hour 1
90 Day
1 Year
2 Year
Coefficient
Range
Resolution
Resistance
TCAL ±1°C
TCAL ±5°C
TCAL ±5°C
TCAL ±5°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
10.000000mV 2, 3, 4
1 nV
>10GW
20 + 4
40 + 4
50 + 4
60 + 4
(1 + 0.5)/°C
100.00000 mV
10 nV
>10GW
10 + 3
25 + 3
30 + 4
40 + 5
(1 + 0.2)/°C
1.0000000 V
100 nV
>10 GW
7 + 2
18 + 2
25 + 2
32 + 3
(1 + 0.1)/°C
10.000000 V
1 µV
>10GW
2 + 1 5
18 + 2
25 + 2
32 + 3
(1 + 0.1)/°C
100.00000V 4
10 µV
10 MW ±1%
10 + 3
25 + 3
35 + 4
52 + 5
(1 + 0.5)/°C
>10GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
10 + 6
7 + 2
2 + 1 5
25 + 6
18 + 2
18 + 2
30 + 7
25 + 2
25 + 2
40 + 7
32 + 3
32 + 3
(1 + 1 )/°C
(1 + 0.5)/°C
(1 + 0.5)/°C
CHANNEL 1/CHANNEL 2 RATIO: For input signals ≥1% of the range, Ratio Accuracy =
±{[Channel 1 ppm of Reading + Channel 1 ppm of Range * (Channel 1 Range/Channel 1 Input)] + [Channel 2 ppm of Reading + Channel 2 ppm of Range * (Channel 2 Range/Channel 2 Input)]}.
DELTA (hardware-triggered coordination with Series 24XX, Series 26XXA, or Series 622X current sources for low noise R measurement):
Accuracy = accuracy of selected Channel 1 range plus accuracy of I source range.
DELTA measurement noise with 6220 or 6221: Typical 3nVrms / Hz (10mV range)21. 1Hz achieved with 1PLC, delay = 1ms, RPT filter = 23 (20 if 50Hz).
PULSE-MODE (with 6221): Line synchronized voltage measurements within current pulses from 50µs to 12ms, pulse repetition rate up to 12Hz.
Pulse measurement noise (typical rms noise, R DUT<10W): ±(0.009ppm of range*) / meas_time / pulse_avg_count + 3nV** / (2 · meas_time · pulse_avg_count) for 10mV range.
* 0.0028ppm for the 100mV range, 0.0016ppm for ranges 1V and above.
**8nV/ Hz for ranges above 10mV. meas_time (seconds) = pulsewidth – pulse_meas_delay in 33µs incr.
DC Noise Performance 7 (DC noise expressed in volts peak-to-peak)
Response time = time required for reading to be settled within noise levels from a stepped input, 60Hz operation.
Channel 1
Response
Range
Time
NPLC, Filter
10 mV
100 mV
1 V
10 V
25.0 s
5, 75
6 nV
20 nV
75 nV
750 nV
4.0 s
5, 10
15 nV
50 nV
150 nV
1.5 µV
1.0 s
1, 18
25 nV
175 nV
600 nV
2.5 µV
667 ms
1, 10 or 5, 2
35 nV
250 nV
650 nV
3.3 µV
60 ms
1, Off
70 nV
300 nV
700 nV
6.6 µV
Channel 2 6, 10
25.0 s
4.0 s
1.0 s
85 ms
5, 75
5, 10
1, 10 or 5, 2
1, Off
—
—
—
—
150 nV
150 nV
175 nV
425 nV
200 nV
200 nV
400 nV
1 µV
750 nV
1.5 µV
2.5 µV
9.5 µV
—
—
—
—
110 dB
100 dB
90 dB
60 dB
140 dB
140 dB
140 dB
140 dB
60Hz (50Hz) Operation
AnalogDigital
Filter
Filter
Off
100
Off
100
Off
100
Off
100
On
100
On
100
Function
Digits
DCV Channel 1,
7.5
Channel 2,7.5 17, 19
Thermocouple6.5 18, 19
6.5 18, 19, 20
5.5 17, 19
4.5 16, 17, 19
Channel 1/Channel 2 (Ratio),
7.5
Delta with 24XX, Scan7.5 17, 19
6.5 18
6.5 18, 20
5.5 17
4.5 17
Delta with 622X
6.5
Temperature (Thermocouples) 12
Accuracy
90 Day/1 Year
(Displayed in °C, °F, or K. Accuracy based on
ITS-90, exclusive of thermocouple errors.)
23° ±5°C
Relative to Simulated
Type
Range
ResolutionReference Junction
J
–200 to +760°C
0.001 °C
±0.2 °C
K
–200 to +1372°C
0.001 °C
±0.2 °C
N
–200 to+1300°C
0.001 °C
±0.2 °C
T
–200 to +400°C
0.001 °C
±0.2 °C
E
–200 to+1000°C
0.001 °C
±0.2 °C
R
0 to +1768°C
0.1 °C
±0.2 °C
S
0 to +1768°C
0.1 °C
±0.2 °C
B
+350 to +1820°C
0.1 °C
±0.2 °C
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NMRR 8CMRR 9
110 dB
140 dB
100 dB
140 dB
95 dB
140 dB
90 dB
140 dB
60 dB
140 dB
Operating Characteristics 13, 14
Voltage Noise vs. Source Resistance 11
(DC noise expressed in volts peak-to-peak)
Source
Resistance Noise
0
W
6 nV
100
W
8 nV
1kW
15 nV
10kW
35 nV
100kW
100 nV
1MW
350 nV
100 V
75 µV
75 µV
100 µV
150 µV
300 µV
Model 2182A
Side specifications
Text
10 nV
100 nV
1 µV
Readings/s
PLCs
3(2)
5
6(4)
5
18(15)
1
45(36)
1
80(72)
0.1
115(105)
0.01
1.5(1.3)
5
2.3(2.1)
5
8.5(7.5)
1
20 (16)
1
30 (29)
0.1
41(40)
0.01
47(40.0) 221
System Speeds 13, 15
Range Change Time: 14
<40 ms (<50 ms).
Function Change Time: 14
<45 ms (<55 ms).
Autorange Time: 14
<60 ms (<70 ms).
ASCII Reading to RS-232 (19.2K Baud):40/s (40/s).
Max. Internal Trigger Rate: 16
120/s(120/s).
Max. External Trigger Rate: 16
120/s(120/s).
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Channel 2 6, 10
100.00000 mV
1.0000000 V
10.000000 V
C O N F I D E N C E
95
2182A
Nanovoltmeter
Model
Model
2182A
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
Measurement Characteristics
General
Power Supply: 100V/120V/220V/240V.
Line Frequency: 50Hz, 60Hz, and 400Hz, automatically sensed at power-up.
Power Consumption: 22VA.
Magnetic Field Density: 10mV range 4.0s response noise tested to 500 gauss.
Operating Environment: Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 80% RH at 35°C.
Storage Environment: –40° to 70°C.
EMC: Complies with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC (CE marking requirement), FCC
part 15 class B, CISPR 11, IEC 801-2, IEC-801-3, IEC 801-4.
Safety: Complies with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (low voltage directive); meets
EN61010-1 safety standard. Installation category I.
Vibration: MIL-T-28800E Type III, Class 5.
Warm-Up: 2.5 hours to rated accuracy.
Dimensions: Rack Mounting: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3.5 in × 8.375
in × 14.563 in). Bench Configuration (with handles and feet): 104mm high × 238mm
wide × 370mm deep (4.125 in × 9.375 in ×14.563 in).
Shipping Weight: 5kg (11 lbs).
A/D Linearity: ±(0.8ppm of reading + 0.5ppm of range).
Front Autozero Off Error
10mV–10V:
Add ±(8ppm of range + 500µV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C.
NOTE: Offset voltage error does not apply for Delta Mode.
Autozero Off Error
10mV:
Add ±(8ppm of range + 100nV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C.
100mV–100V: Add ±(8ppm of range + 10µV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C.
NOTE: Offset voltage error does not apply for Delta Mode.
Input Impedance
10mV–10V:>10GW, in parallel with <1.5nF (Front Filter ON).
10mV–10V:>10GW, in parallel with <0.5nF (Front Filter OFF).
100V:10MW ±1%.
DC Input Bias Current: <60pA DC at 23°C, –10V to 5V. <120pA @ 23°C, 5V to 10V.
Common Mode Current: <50nA p-p at 50Hz or 60Hz.
Input Protection: 150V peak to any terminal. 70V peak Channel 1 LO to Channel 2 LO.
Channel Isolation: >10GW.
Earth Isolation: 350V peak, >10GW and <150pF any terminal to earth. Add 35pF/ft with
Model 2107 Low Thermal Input Cable.
Notes
1. Relative to calibration accuracy.
2. With Analog Filter on, add 20ppm of reading to listed specification.
3. When properly zeroed using REL function. If REL is not used, add 100nV to the range accuracy.
4. Specifications include the use of ACAL function. If ACAL is not used, add 9ppm of reading/°C
from Tcal to the listed specification. Tcal is the internal temperature stored during ACAL.
5. For 5PLC with 2-reading Digital Filter. Use ±(4ppm of reading + 2ppm of range) for 1PLC with
10-reading Digital Filter.
6. Channel 2 must be referenced to Channel 1. Channel 2 HI must not exceed 125% (referenced
to Channel 1 LO) of Channel 2 range selected.
7. Noise behavior using 2188 Low Thermal Short after 2.5 hour warm-up. ±1°C. Analog Filter off.
Observation time = 10× response time or 2 minutes, whichever is less.
8. For Lsync On, line frequency ±0.1%. If Lsync Off, use 60dB.
9. For 1kW unbalance in LO lead. AC CMRR is 70dB.
10. For Low Q mode On, add the following to DC noise and range accuracy at stated response
time: 200nV p-p @ 25s, 500nV p-p @ 4.0s, 1.2µV p-p @ 1s, and 5µV p-p @ 85ms.
11.After 2.5 hour warm-up, ±1°C, 5PLC, 2 minute observation time, Channel 1 10mV range only.
12.For Channel 1 or Channel 2, add 0.3°C for external reference junction. Add 2°C for internal
reference junction.
13.Speeds are for 60Hz (50Hz) operation using factory defaults operating conditions (*RST).
Autorange Off, Display Off, Trigger Delay = 0, Analog Output off.
14.Speeds include measurements and binary data transfer out the GPIB. Analog Filter On, 4
readings/s max.
15.Auto Zero Off, NPLC = 0.01.
16. 10mV range, 80 readings/s max.
17. Sample count = 1024, Auto Zero Off.
18.For Lsync On, reduce reading rate by 15%.
19. For Channel 2 Low Q mode Off, reduce reading rate by 30%.
20.Front Auto Zero off, Auto Zero off.
21. Applies to measurements of room temperature resistances <10W, Isource range ≤20µA.
22.Display off, delay 1ms.
Analog Output
Maximum Output: ±1.2V.
Accuracy: ±(0.1% of output + 1mV).
Output Resistance: 1kW ±5%.
Gain: Adjustable from 10 –9 to 106. With gain set to 1, a full range input will produce a 1V output.
Output REL: Selects the value of input that represents 0V at output. The reference value can be
either programmed value or the value of the previous input.
Triggering and Memory
Window Filter Sensitivity: 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, or full scale of range (none).
Reading Hold Sensitivity: 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, or 10% of reading.
Trigger Delay: 0 to 99 hours (1ms step size).
External Trigger Delay: 2ms + <1ms jitter with auto zero off, trigger delay = 0.
Memory Size: 1024 readings.
Math Functions
Rel, Min/Max/Average/Std Dev/Peak-to-Peak (of stored reading), Limit Test, %, and mX+b with userdefined units displayed.
Remote Interface
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Keithley 182 emulation.
GPIB (IEEE-488.2) and RS-232C.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments).
96
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6220
6221
DC Current Source
AC and DC Current Source
6220 and 6221
• Source and sink (programmable
load) 100fA to 100mA
• Built-in RS-232, GPIB, Trigger
Link, and digital I/O interfaces
• Reconfigurable triax output
simplifies matching the
application’s guarding
requirements
• Model 220 emulation mode
eliminates need to reprogram
existing applications
6221 Only
• Source AC currents from 4pA
to 210mA peak to peak for AC
charac­ter­iza­tion of components
and materials. The 6221’s
10MHz output update rate
generates smooth sine waves
up to 100kHz
• Built-in standard and arbitrary
waveform generators with
1mHz to 100kHz frequency
range. Applications include use
as a complex programmable
load or sensor signal and for
noise emulation
• Programmable pulse widths
as short as 5µs, limiting power
dissipation in delicate com­
ponents. Supports pulsed I-V
measurements down to 50µs
when used with Model 2182A
Nanovoltmeter
• Built-in Ethernet interface for
easy remote control without a
GPIB controller card
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The Model 6220 DC Current Source and Model 6221 AC and DC Current Source combine ease of use
with exceptionally low current noise. Low current sourcing is critical to applications in test environments ranging from R&D to production, especially in the semiconductor, nanotechnology, and superconductor industries. High sourcing accuracy and built-in control functions make the Models 6220
and 6221 ideal for applications like Hall measurements, resistance measurements using delta mode,
pulsed measurements, and differential conductance measurements.
The need for precision, low current sourcing. Device testing and characterization for today’s very
small and power-efficient electronics requires sourcing low current levels, which demands the use of
a precision, low current source. Lower stimulus currents produce lower—and harder to measure—
voltages across the device. Combining the Model 6220 or 6221 with a Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter
makes it possible to address both of these challenges.
AC current source and current source waveform generator. The Model 6221 is the only low
current AC source on the market. Before its introduction, researchers and engineers were forced to
build their own AC current sources. This cost-effective source provides better accuracy, consistency,
reliability, and robustness than “home-made” solutions. The Model 6221 is also the only commercially
available current source waveform generator, which greatly simplifies creating and outputting complex waveforms.
Simple programming. Both current sources are fully programmable via the front panel controls or
from an external controller via RS-232 or GPIB interfaces; the Model 6221 also features an Ethernet
interface for remote control from anywhere there’s an Ethernet connection. Both instruments can
source DC currents from 100fA to 105mA; the Model 6221 can also source AC currents from 4pA to
210mA peak to peak. The output voltage compliance of either source can be set from 0.1V to 105V in
10mV steps. Voltage compliance (which limits
the amount of voltage applied when sourcing
APPLICATIONS
a current) is critical for applications in which
• Nanotechnology
overvoltages could damage the device under
- Differential conductance
test (DUT).
Drop-in replacement for the Model 220
­current source. These instruments build upon
Keithley’s popular Model 220 Programmable
Current Source; a Model 220 emulation mode
makes it easy to replace a Model 220 with a
Model 6220/6221 in an existing application without rewriting the control code.
Define and execute current ramps easily.
Both the Models 6220 and 6221 offer tools for
defining current ramps and stepping through
predefined sequences of up to 65,536 output
values using a trigger or a timer. Both sources
support linear, logarithmic, and custom sweeps.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
- Pulsed sourcing and resistance
• Optoelectronics
- Pulsed I-V
• Replacement for AC resistance
bridges (when used with Model
2182A)
- Measuring resistance with
low power
• Replacement for lock-in ampli­
fi­ers (when used with Model
2182A)
- Measuring resistance with
low noise
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• 65000-point source memory
allows executing comprehensive
test current sweeps directly
from the current source
Precision low
Sidecurrent
Text sourcing
• 1014W output impedance
ensures stable current sourcing
into variable loads
C O N F I D E N C E
97
6220
6221
Precision low
Sidecurrent
Text sourcing
Ordering Information
6220 DC Precision Current Source
6221 AC and DC Current Source
6220/2182A
Complete Delta Mode
System, w/DC Current
Source, Nanovoltmeter,
and all necessary cables
(GPIB cables not ­included)
6221/2182A
Complete Delta Mode
System, w/AC and DC
Current Source, Nano­volt­
meter, and all necessary
cables (GPIB cables
not included)
Accessories Supplied
237-ALG-2 6.6 ft (2m), Low Noise,
Input Cable with Triaxto-Alligator Clips
8501-2
6.6 ft (2m) Trigger Link
Cable to connect 622x
to 2182A
CA-180-3A Ethernet Crossover
Cable (6221 only)
CA-351
Communication Cable
between 2182A and 622x
CS-1195-2 Safety Interlock
Connector
DC Current Source
AC and DC Current Source
The Model 6221’s combination of high source resolution and megahertz update rates makes it capable
of emulating high fidelity current signals that are indistinguishable from analog current ramps.
Free Instrument Control Example Start-up Software
The instrument control example software available for the sources simplifies both performing basic
sourcing tasks and coordinating complex measurement functions with the Keithley Model 2182A. The
software, developed in the LabVIEW® programming environment, includes a step-by-step measurement guide that helps users set up their instruments and make proper connections, as well as program basic sourcing functions. The advanced tools in the package support delta mode, differential
conductance, and pulse mode measurements. From this package, users can print out the instrument
commands for any of the pre-programmed functions, which provides a starting point for incorporating these functions into customized applications.
Differential Conductance
Differential conductance measurements are among the most important and critical measurements
made on non-linear tunneling devices and on low temperature devices. Mathematically, differential
conductance is the derivative of a device’s I-V curve. The Model 6220 or 6221, combined with the
Model 2182A Nano­voltmeter, is the industry’s most complete solution for differential conductance
measurements. Together, these instruments are also the fastest solution available, providing 10× the
speed and significantly lower noise than other options. Data can be obtained in a single measurement pass, rather than by averaging the result of multiple sweeps, which is both time-consuming and
prone to error. The Model 622X and Model 2182A are also easy to use because the combination can
be treated as a single instrument. Their simple connections eliminate the isolation and noise current
problems that plague other solutions.
Instruction manual on CD
Getting Started manual (hardcopy)
Software (downloadable)
Accessories Available
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
7006-*
7007-1
7007-2
7078-TRX-5
98
GPIB Cable with Straight-On Connector
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
5 ft (1.5m), Low Noise, Triax-to-Triax Cable
(Male on Both Ends)
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Services Available
6220-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
6221-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
C/6220-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
C/6221-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
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Figure 1. Perform, analyze, and display differential conductance measurements.
Delta Mode
Keithley originally developed the delta mode method for making low noise measurements of voltages
and resistances for use with the Model 2182 Nanovoltmeter and a triggerable external current source.
Essentially, the delta mode automatically triggers the current source to alternate the signal polarity,
then triggers a nanovoltmeter reading at each polarity. This current reversal technique cancels out
any constant thermoelectric offsets, ensuring the results reflect the true value of the voltage.
This same basic technique has been incorporated into the Model 622X and Model 2182A delta
mode, but its implementation has been dramatically enhanced and simplified. The technique can
now ­cancel thermoelectric offsets that drift over time, produce results in half the time of the previous technique, and allow the source to control and configure the nanovoltmeter, so setting up the
­measurement takes just two key presses. The improved cancellation and higher reading rate reduces
measurement noise to as ­little as 1nV.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
6220
6221
4µV
DC
Measurement
Delta Mode
Measurement
Figure 2. Delta mode offers 1000-to-1 noise reduction.
The delta mode enables measuring low voltages and resistances accurately. Once the Model 622X and
the Model 2182A are connected properly, the user simply presses the current source’s Delta button,
followed by the Trigger button, which starts the test. The Model 622X and the Model 2182A work
together seamlessly and can be controlled via the GPIB interface (GPIB or Ethernet with the Model
6221). The free example control software available for the Model 622X includes a tutorial that “walks”
users through the delta mode setup process.
Pulsed Tests
Even small amounts of heat introduced by the measurement process itself can raise the DUT’s temperature, skewing test results or even destroying the device. The Model 6221’s pulse measurement
capability minimizes the amount of power dissipated into a DUT by offering maximum flexibility
when making pulsed measurements, allowing users to program the optimal pulse current amplitude,
pulse interval, pulse width, and other pulse parameters.
The Model 6221 makes short pulses (and reductions in heat dissipation) possible with microsecond
rise times on all ranges. The Model 6221/2182A combination synchronizes the pulse and measurement—a measurement can begin as soon as 16µs after the Model 6221 applies the pulse. The entire
pulse, including a complete nanovolt measurement, can be as short as 50µs. Line synchronization
between the Model 6221 and Model 2182A eliminates power line related noise.
Standard and Arbitrary Waveform Generator
The Model 6221 is the only low current AC source on the market. It can be programmed to generate both basic waveforms (sine, square, triangle, and ramp) and customizable waveforms with
an arbitrary waveform generator (ARB) that supports defining waveforms point by point. It can
generate waveforms at frequencies ranging from 1mHz to 100kHz at an output update rate of
10 megasamples/­second.
Performance Superior to AC Resistance Bridges and Lock-In Amplifiers
The Model 622X/2182A combination provides many advantages over AC resistance bridges and lock-in
amplifiers, including lower noise, lower current sourcing, lower voltage measurements, less power
dissipation into DUTs, and lower cost. It also eliminates the need for a current p­ re-amplifier.
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
5nV
Models 6220 and 6221 vs.
Homemade Current Sources
Many researchers and engineers who need a
current source attempt to get by with a voltage source and series resistor instead. This is
often the case when an AC current is needed.
This is because, until the introduction of the
Model 6220/6221, no AC current sources were
available on the market. However, homemade
current sources have several disadvantages vs.
true current sources:
• Homemade Current Sources Don’t Have
Voltage Compliance. You may want to be
sure the voltage at the terminals of your
homemade “current source” never exceeds
a certain limit (for example, 1–2V in the
case of many optoelectronic devices). The
most straightforward way to accomplish
this is to reduce the voltage source to that
level. This requires the series resistor to
be reduced to attain the desired current. If
you want to program a different current,
you must change the resistor while the voltage is held constant! Another possibility is
to place a protection circuit in parallel with
the DUT. These do not have precise voltage
control and always act as a parallel device,
stealing some of the programmed current
intended for the DUT.
• Homemade Current Sources Can’t Have
Predictable Output. With a homemade
“current source” made of a voltage source
and series resistor, the impedance of the
DUT forms a voltage divider. If the DUT
resistance is entirely predictable, the
current can be known, but if the DUT
resistance is unknown or changes, as most
devices do, then the current isn’t a simple
function of the voltage applied. The best
way to make the source predictable is to
use a very high value series resistor (and
accordingly high voltage source), which
is in direct contradiction with the need
for compliance.
While it’s possible to know (if not control)
the actual current coming from such an
unpredictable source, this also comes at a
cost. This can be done with a supplemental
measurement of the current, such as using
a voltmeter to measure the voltage drop
across the series resistor. This measurement can be used as feedback to alter the
voltage source or simply recorded. Either
way, it requires additional equipment,
which adds complexity or error. To make
matters worse, if the homemade current
source is made to be moderately predictable by using a large series resistor, this
readback would require using an electrometer to ensure accuracy.
Precision low
Sidecurrent
Text sourcing
DC Current Source
AC and DC Current Source
C O N F I D E N C E
99
6220
6221
DC Current Source
AC and DC Current Source
Precision low
Sidecurrent
Text sourcing
The Model 6221 can also expand the capabilities
of lock-in amplifiers in applications that already
employ them. For example, its clean signals and
its output synchronization signal make it an
ideal output source for lock-in applications such
as measuring second and third harmonic device
response.
Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter
The Model 2182A expands upon the capabilities
of Keithley’s original Model 2182 Nano­volt­
meter. Although the Model 6220 and 6221 are
compatible with the Model 2182, delta mode and
differential conductance measurements require
approximately twice as long to complete with
the Model 2182 as with the Model 2182A. Unlike
the Model 2182A, the Model 2182 does not support pulse mode measurements.
Figure 4. The Model 6221 and the free
example start-up control software make it
easy to create complex waveforms by adding,
multiplying, stringing together, or applying
filters to standard wave shapes.
• Low noise alternative to AC
resistance bridges and lock-in
amplifiers for measuring resistances.
Voltage measurement noise at line frequency
Measurement integration period
Measured response voltage
Measuring difference voltage eliminates
line frequency noise, DC offsets
1/60 second (1/50 when operating off 50Hz power)
Pulsed measurement without line sync
• Easy instrument coordination and
intuitive example software simplifies
setup and operation in many
applications.
• Measure resistances from 10nW to
100MW. One measurement system
for wide ranging devices.
Programmable: 50µs to 12ms
Source Current
Applications of 622X/2182A
combination:
Line synchronized pulse measurements
• Coordinates pulsing and
measurement with pulse widths as
short as 50µs (6221 only).
• Measures differential conduc­
tance up to 10× faster and with
lower noise than earlier solutions
allow. Differential conductance is
an important parameter in semi­
con­ductor research for describing
density of states in bulk material.
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• Delta mode reduces noise in low
resistance measurements by a factor
of 1000.
100
• For low impedance Hall measure­
ments, the delta mode operation of
the Model 622X/2182A combination
provides industry-leading noise
performance and rejection of contact
potentials. For higher impedance
Hall measurements (greater than
100MW), the Model 4200-SCS can
replace the current source, switching,
and multiple high impedance
voltage measurement channels. This
provides a complete solution with
pre-programmed test projects.
Figure 3. Measurements are line synchronized to minimize 50/60Hz interference.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
6220
6221
DC Current Source
AC and DC Current Source
Source Specifications
Output
Response
Fast (Typical3)
(6221 Only)
90 µs
6220, 6221
with Output
Response
Slow (Max.)
100 µs
fA
pA
pA
pA
nA
nA
nA
4 /0.8
20 / 4
200 / 40
2 /0.4
20 / 4
200 / 40
2 /0.4
pA
pA
pA
nA
nA
nA
µA
250 / 50
2.5 /0.5
25 /5.0
500 /100
1.0 /0.2
5.0 / 1
20 /4.0
pA
nA
nA
nA
µA
µA
µA
10kHz
100kHz
1MHz
1MHz
1MHz
1MHz
1MHz
90 µs
30 µs
4 µs
2 µs
2 µs
2 µs
2 µs
100 µs
100 µs
100 µs
100 µs
100 µs
100 µs
100 µs
0.01 % + 2 µA
10 / 2
µA
100 / 20
µA
3 µs
100 µs
Range
(+5% over
range)
2nA
Temperature
Coefficient/°C
0°–18°C &
28°–50°C
0.02 % +200 fA
20nA
200 nA
2µA
20µA
200 µA
2mA
20mA
1pA
10pA
100pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
1µA
100mA
0.1 %+ 50 µA
0.3 %+ 10
0.3 %+ 100
0.1 %+ 1
0.05%+ 10
0.05%+100
0.05%+ 1
0.05%+ 10
pA
pA
nA
nA
nA
µA
µA
10µA
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
OUTPUT RESISTANCE: >1014W (2nA/20nA range).
OUTPUT CAPACITANCE: <10pF, <100pF Filter ON
(2nA/20nA range).
LOAD IMPEDANCE: Stable into 10µH typical, 100µH for 6220,
or for 6221 with Output Response SLOW.
VOLTAGE LIMIT (Compliance): Bipolar voltage limit set with
single value. 0.1V to 105V in 0.01V programmable steps.
MAX. OUTPUT POWER: 11W, four quadrant source or
sink operation.
GUARD OUTPUT Accuracy: ±1mV for output currents <2mA
(excluding output lead voltage drop).
PROGRAM MEMORY: Number of Locations: 64K. Offers
point-by-point control and triggering, e.g. sweeps.
Max. Trigger Rate: 1000/s.
RMS Noise 10Hz–20MHz (2nA–20mA Range): Less than
1mVrms, 5mVp-p (into 50W load).
Source Notes
1. Settling times are specified into a resistive load, with a maximum
resistance equal to 2V/ I full scale of range. See manual for other
load conditions.
2. Settling times to 0.1% of final value are typically <2× of 1%
settling times.
3. Typical values are non warranted, apply at 23°C, represent the 50th
percentile, and are provided solely as useful information.
2182A Measurement Functions
DUT RESISTANCE: Up to 1GW (1ns) (100MW limit for
pulse mode).
DELTA MODE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS and
DIFFERENTIAL CONDUCTANCE: Controls Keithley Model
2182A Nanovoltmeter at up to 24Hz reversal rate (2182 at up
to 12Hz).
PULSE MEASUREMENTS (6221 only):
Pulse Widths: 50µs to 12ms, 1pA to 100mA.
Repetition Interval: 83.3ms to 5s.
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0.02 % +200
0.02 % + 2
0.01 % + 20
0.005% +200
0.005% + 2
0.005% + 20
0.005% +200
Arbitrary function generator
(6221 only)
WAVEFORMS: Sine, Square, Ramp, and 4 user defined arbitrary
waveforms.
Frequency Range: 1mHz to 100kHz.5
FREQUENCY ACCURACY4: ±100ppm (1 year).
Sample Rate: 10 MSPS.
AMPLITUDE: 4pA to 210mA peak-peak into loads up to 1012W.
Amplitude Resolution: 16 bits (including sign).
AMPLITUDE ACCURACY (<10kHz): 5
Magnitude: ±(1% rdg + 0.2% range).
Offset: ±(0.2% rdg + 0.2% range).
SINE WAVE CHARACTERISTICS:
Amplitude Flatness: Less than 1dB up to 100kHz.6
SQUARE WAVE CHARACTERISTICS:
Overshoot: 2.5% max.6
Variable Duty Cycle: 4 Settable to 1µs min. pulse duration,
0.01% programming resolution.
Jitter (RMS): 100ns + 0.1% of period.6
RAMP WAVE CHARACTERISTICS:
Linearity: <0.1% of peak output up to 10kHz.6
ARBITRARY WAVE CHARACTERISTICS:
Waveform Length: 2 to 64K points.
Jitter (RMS): 100ns + 0.1% of period.6
Waveform Notes
4. Minimum realizable duty cycle is limited by current range
response and load impedance.
5. Amplitude accuracy is applicable into a maximum resistive
load of 2V/ I full scale of range. Amplitude attenuation will occur
at higher frequencies dependent upon current range and load
impedance.
6.These specifications are only valid for the 20mA range and a
50W load.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
1MHz
GENERAL
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250V rms, DC to 60Hz.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >109W, <2nF.
SOURCE OUTPUT MODES: Fixed DC level, Memory List.
REMOTE INTERFACE:
IEEE-488 and RS-232C.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable
Instruments).
DDC (command language compatible with Keithley
Model 220).
PASSWORD PROTECTION: 11 characters.
DIGITAL INTERFACE:
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category
bits, [email protected] supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs
([email protected], diode clamped).
OUTPUT CONNECTIONS:
Teflon insulated 3-lug triax connector for output.
Banana safety jack for GUARD, OUTPUT LO.
Screw terminal for CHASSIS.
DB-9 connector for EXTERNAL TRIGGER INPUT,
OUTPUT, and DIGITAL I/O.
Two position screw terminal for INTERLOCK.
INTERLOCK: Maximum 10W external circuit impedance.
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz.
POWER CONSUMPTION: 120VA.
ENVIRONMENT:
For Indoor Use Only: Maximum 2000m above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70%R.H. up to 35°C. Derate
3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C, guaranteed by design.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC,
EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive
73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
VIBRATION: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3, Random.
WARMUP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
Passive Cooling: No fan.
DIMENSIONS:
Rack Mounting: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm
deep (3.5 in. × 8.375 in. × 14.563 in.).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm
high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (4.125 in. × 9.375
in. × 14.563 in.).
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Typical Noise
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)/RMS 3 (peak-peak)/RMS 3
0.1Hz–10Hz
10Hz–(Bw)
400 / 80
fA
250 / 50 pA
Output
Response
Bandwidth
(BW) Into
Short
10kHz
Accuracy
(1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
Programming
±(% rdg. + amps)
Resolution
0.4 %+ 2 pA 100fA
Model 6220
Modeland
Side
specifications
6221
Text specifications
Settling Time 1, 2
(1% of Final Value)
6221 Only
C O N F I D E N C E
101
System switch with high
Side performance
Text
multimeter
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
A Series 3700A system combines the functionality of an
instrument grade relay switching system with a high performance multimeter. Integrating the multimeter within the
mainframe ensures you of a high quality signal path from
each channel to the multimeter. This tightly integrated
switch and measurement system can meet the demanding
application requirements of a functional test system or
provide the flexibility needed in stand-alone data acquisition and measurement applications. It is ideal for multiple
pin count applications where relay switching can be used
to connect multiple devices to source and measurement
instruments.
The high performance multimeter in the Series 3700A
offers low noise, high stability 3½- to 7½-digit readings
for leading-edge measurement performance. This flexible resolution sup­plies a DC reading rate from >14,000
readings/second at 3½ digits to 60 readings/second at 7½
digits, offering customers maximum reading throughput
and accuracy. The multimeter also provides an expanded
low ohms (1W) range, low current (10µA) range, and dry
circuit (1W to 1kW) range, extending utility beyond typical
DMM applications.
• Combines the functions of
a system switch and a high
performance multimeter
• LXI Class B compliance with
IEEE 1588 time synchronization
• 3½- to 7½-digit measurement
resolution
• Embedded Test Script Processor
(TSP®) offers unparalleled
system automation, throughput,
and flexibility
The multimeter supports 13 built-in measure­ment functions, including: DCV, ACV, DCI, ACI, frequency, period, two-wire ohms, four-wire ohms, three-wire RTD temperature, four-wire RTD temperature,
thermocouple temperature, thermistor temperature, and continuity. In-rack calibration is sup­ported,
which reduces both maintenance and calibration time. Onboard memory can store up to 650,000
readings, and the USB device port provides easy transfer of data to memory sticks.
Single-Channel Reading Rates
Resolution
7½ Digits (1 NPLC)
6½ Digits (0.2 NPLC)
5½ Digits (0.06 NPLC)
4½ Digits (0.006 NPLC)
3½ Digits (0.0005 NPLC)
• Extended low ohms (1W) range
with 100nW resolution
• Extended low current (10µA)
range with 1pA resolution
102
• Low noise, <0.1ppm rms noise
on 10VDC range
• Expanded dry circuit range
(2kW)
• Four-wire open lead detection
(source and sense lines)
For more information about Series 3700A
systems, see page 136.
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• Power supply burn-in testing
(PC, network, telecom)
• Plant/environment monitoring
and control
2.0
1.0
• Automotive and aerospace
systems
0.0
–1.0
• Consumer product certification/
testing laboratories
–2.0
–3.0
–4.0
• System- and rack-level signal
referencing
• Temperature profiling
Leading Competitor
Keithley 3706A
3.0
Applications
• Low ohms testing (contacts,
connectors, relays)
Low Noise Performance
Model 3706A vs. Leading Competitor
4.0
10VDC Noise (ppm of range)
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• >14,000 readings/second
DCV/
2-Wire Ohms 4-Wire Ohms
60
29
295
120
935
285
6,200
580
14,000
650
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
1000 Readings at 1PLC
Compare the Model 3706A’s 10V DC noise
and speed performance with that of the
leading competitor. All the data was taken at
1PLC with a low thermal short applied to the
input, which resulted in 10× lower noise and
7× faster measurements for the Model 3706A.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Low Current/High Resistance
Measurements
An ammeter is an instrument for measuring electric
current flow, calibrated in amperes. There are two
main types of ammeter architectures: shunt ammeters and feedback ammeters.
of the DUT. A shunt ammeter’s voltage burden is typically on the order of hundreds of m
­ illivolts.
Shunt Ammeters: DMMs
Shunt ammeters are the most common ammeter
type and are found in almost all digital multimeters
(DMMs). These meters measure current by developing a voltage at the input terminal that is proportional to the current being measured (Figure 1).
DMM (shunt) ammeter
+
–
I
VBURDEN
= 200mV at
full scale
A/D
RSHUNT
Figure 1
The main drawback associated with shunt ammeters
is their fundamentally high input impedance
design. This drawback becomes more significant
with decreasing current, because a larger shunt
resistor must be used in order to develop a
measurable voltage. However, as long as the shunt
resistor is significantly smaller than the resistance
of the DUT and the currents to be measured are
not very small (not much lower than microamp
level [10 –6A]), shunt ammeters work fine.
Sources of Generated Current Error
–
A/D
+
I
VOFFSET
Total voltage
burden<0.2mV
CAL VOFFSET
Figure 2
Feedback Ammeter
Feedback ammeters are closer to “ideal” than shunt
ammeters, and should be used for current measurements of microamps or less (10 –6A) or where it is
especially critical to have an ammeter with low input
impedance. Instead of developing a voltage across the
terminals of the ammeter, a feedback ammeter develops a voltage across the feedback path of a high gain
operational amplifier (Figure 2). This voltage is also
proportional to the current to be measured; however,
it is no longer observed at the input of the instrument, but only through the output voltage of the opamp. The input voltage is equal to the output voltage
divided by the op-amp gain (typically 100,000), so
the voltage burden has now typically been reduced
to microvolts. The feedback ammeter architecture
results in low voltage burden, so it produces less
error when measuring small currents and when
measuring currents generated by low impedance
devices. Keithley electrometers and picoammeters
employ feedback ammeter technology.
300mV – VBURDEN
Voltage Burden
The terminal voltage of an ammeter is called the voltage burden. This voltage burden developed across
the meter could result in significantly lower current
through the load than before the meter was inserted,
therefore, the ammeter can’t read the current it was
intended to measure.
Figure 3
An ideal ammeter would not alter the current flowing
in the circuit path, so it would have zero resistance
and zero voltage burden. A real ammeter will always
introduce a non-zero voltage burden. In general, the
error term caused by an ammeter is stated as the
ammeter’s voltage burden divided by the resistance
Figure 3 illustrates the problems caused by high voltage burden when measuring the emitter current of
a transistor. Even though the basic current measurement could be well within the measuring capability
of the DMM, the DMM’s voltage burden significantly
reduces the voltage applied to the DUT, resulting in
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1V
0.7V
I
A
VBURDEN
G R E A T E R
Low current measurements are subject to a number
of error sources that can have a serious impact on
measurement accuracy. All ammeters will generate
some small current that flows even when the input is
open. These offset currents can be partially nulled by
enabling the instrument current suppress. External
leakage currents are additional sources of error;
therefore, making properly guarded and/or shielded
connections is important. The source impedance of
the DUT will also affect the noise performance of
the ammeter. In addition, there are other extraneous
generated currents in the test system that could add
to the desired current, causing errors. The following paragraphs discuss various types of generated
currents and how to minimize their impact on the
measuremen­ts.
I
+
Frictional motion
at boundary due
to cable motion
–
Insulation
+
I
–
Coaxial
Cable
Outer
Jacket
Inner
Conductor
Outer
Shield
Conductive
lubricant in
low noise
cable
Figure 4
Triboelectric effects are created by charge imbalance due to frictional effects between a conductor
and an insulator, as shown in Figure 4. Keithley’s
low noise cables greatly reduce this effect by introducing an inner insulator of polyethylene coated with
graphite underneath the outer shield. The graphite
provides lubrication and a conducting equipotential
cylinder to equalize charges and minimize the charge
generated.
Piezoelectric currents are generated when mechanical stress is applied to certain crystalline materials
when used for insulated terminals and interconnecting hardware. In some plastics, pockets of stored
charge cause the material to behave in a manner
similar to piezoelectric materials. An example of a
terminal with a piezoelectric insulator is shown in
Figure 5. To minimize the current due to this effect,
remove mechanical stresses from the insulator and
use insulating materials with minimal piezoelectric
and stored charge effects.
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Shunt vs. Feedback Ammeters
Shunt ammeters are the most common type and
work in many applications; feedback ammeters are
more appropriate when measuring small currents;
their use is growing because the typical magnitude of
the test currents used today is decreasing. However,
choosing the proper ammeter depends not only on
the magnitude of the current, but also on characteristics (most typically, the impedance) of the device
under test (DUT).
Picoammeter/Electrometer
lower measured emitter current than intended. If a
picoammeter or electrometer were used instead, the
voltage burden would cause a negligible change in
emitter current.
Technical information: Low current/high
Side Text resistance measurements
Technical
Information
C O N F I D E N C E
103
Technical
Information
I
Epoxy Printed
Circuit Board
Flux or
other chemical
“track” and
moisture
+
–
I
Figure 6
Contamination and humidity can produce error
currents, which arise from electrochemical effects
that occur when contaminants (in the form of ionic
chemicals) create weak “batteries” between two conductors on a circuit board. For example, commonly
used epoxy printed circuit boards, if not thoroughly
cleaned of etching solution, flux, oils, salts (e.g.,
fingerprints) or other contaminants, can generate
currents of a few nanoamps between conductors (see
Figure 6). To avoid the effects of contamination and
humidity, select insulators that resist water absorp-
Leakage currents are typical
sources of error in high
resistance measurements. They
are generated by unwanted
high resistance paths (leakage
resistance) between the
measurement circuit and nearby
voltage sources; they can be
reduced by employing proper
guarding techniques, using
clean, quality insulators, and
minimizing humidity.
Typical resistance values of
various insulating materials are
shown in Figure 8. Absorbed
moisture may also change the
PROPERTY
Volume
Resistivity
(Ohm-cm)
1018 Ω
10–12
10–13
Dirty
surface
1015 Ω
10–14
Resistance
1011 Ω
Ceramics
1010 Ω
1012Ω
Triboelectric
Effects
109 Ω
Piezoelectric
Effects
Electrochemical Resistor
Effects
Noise
in 1Hz
Bandwidth
Current-Generating Phenomena
PVC
108 Ω
Insulating Material
Figure 7
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G-10
1012 Ω
109Ω
10–15
1014 Ω
1013 Ω
Clean
surface
Teflon
+
–
+
0
0
0
0
0
0
+
1016 Ω
Epoxy
board
Low
Noise
Cable
+
+
0
0
+
–
–
–
+
–
Figure 8
A
0
–
0
–
–
+
–
–
0
+
Table 1
1017 Ω
10–10
Typical
Current
–11
Generated 10
Sapphire
Teflon®
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Kel-F®
Ceramic
Nylon
Glass Epoxy
PVC
Phenolic
KEY: + Material very good in regard to the property.
0 Material moderately good in regard to the property.
– Material weak in regard to the property.
10–8
Standard
Cable
Material
1016 – 1018Ω
1017 – 1018Ω
1014 – 1018Ω
1012 – 1018Ω
1017 – 1018Ω
1012 – 1014Ω
1012 – 1014Ω
1010 – 1017Ω
1010 – 1015Ω
105 – 1012Ω
10–7 A
10–9
Resistance
Minimal
Minimal
to Water
Piezoelectric Triboelectric
Absorption
Effects
Effects
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Printed
Wiring
Sapphire
Figure 5
The Alternating Polarity Method can virtually
eliminate the effects of background currents in the
sample. In this method, a bias voltage of positive
polarity is applied, then the current is measured after
a predetermined delay. Next, the polarity is reversed
and the current is measured again, using the same
delay. The polarity reversal process can be repeated
any number of times. The resistance is calculated
based on a weighted average of the most recent current measurements.
Ceramics
Nylon
Conductive
Plate
Piezoelectric
Insulator
High Resistance Measurements
For high resistance measurements (>1GW), a
constant voltage is most often applied across the
unknown resistance. The resulting current is measured from an ammeter placed in series, and the
resistance can be found using Ohm’s law (R= V/I).
This method of applying a voltage and measuring
the current (as opposed to applying a current and
measuring the voltage), is preferred for high resistance measurements, because high resistances often
change as a function of applied voltage. Therefore,
it’s important to measure the resistance at a relevant
and controllable voltage. This method most often
requires measuring low currents using an electrometer or picoammeter. All the low current techniques
and error sources described in previous paragraphs
also apply here.
Teflon
–
Alternating Polarity Method
When measuring materials with very high resistivity,
background currents may cause significant measurement errors. They may be due to charge stored in the
material (dielectric absorption), static or triboelectric
charge, or piezoelectric effects.
Paper
+
Figure 7 summarizes approximate magnitudes of the
various currents.
Phenolic
I
Epoxy
board
Technical information: Low current/high
Side Text resistance measurements
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
I
+
–
resistance of certain insulators by orders of magnitude. Table 1 shows a qualitative description of water
absorption and other effects.
tion and keep humidity to moderate levels. Also, keep
all insulators clean and free of contamination.
Metal
Terminal
Applied
Force
104
Low Current/High Resistance
Measurements
Selector Guide
Selector Guide: Picoammeters, Electrometers, Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
(Measurement)
Current
Amplifier
Picoammeters
MODEL
428-PROG
117
Page
CURRENT MEASURE
1.2 fA
From1
10 mA
To
VOLTAGE MEASURE
From2
To
RESISTANCE MEASURE4
From5
To6
CHARGE MEASURE
From2
To
FEATURES
Input Connection
IEEE-488
RS-232
Guard
CE
Other
Electrometers
Source
Measurement
Unit (SMU)
Instruments
6485
107
6487
110
2502
114
6514
119
6517B
123
6430
48
20 fA
20 mA
20 fA
20 mA
15 fA
20 mA
<1 fA
20 mA
<1 fA
20 mA
400 aA
100 mA
10 µV
200 V
10 µV
200 V
10 µV
200 V
10 W
200 GW
100 W
10 PW3
100 µW
10 PW3
10 fC
20 µC
10 fC
2 µC
3 Slot
Triax
•
•
•
•
3 Slot
Triax
•
•
•
•
3 Slot
Triax
•
•
•
•
5½ digits. Replaces
Models 6512,
617-HIQ.
5½ digits. Builtin ±1kV source.
Temperature,
RH measurements.
Alternating ­polarity
method for HI-R.
Plug-in switch
cards ­available.
Replaces 6517A.
SourceMeter with
Remote PreAmp to
minimize
cable noise.
10 W
1 PW
BNC
BNC
•
•
•
3 Slot
Triax
•
•
3 Slot
Triax
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 µs rise time.
1011V/A gain.
5½ digits.
Autoranging.
1000 rdg/s.
5½ digits. Builtin 500V source.
Alternating voltage
method for
HI-R sweeps.
5½ digits.
Dual channel. Builtin 100V source per
channel.
Selector guide: Picoammeters, electrometers,
Side Textsource-measure units (measurement)
Low Current/High Resistance
Measurements
Notes
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
1. Includes noise.
2. Digital resolution limit. Noise may have to be added.
3.PW (Petaohms) = 1015W.
4. Resistance is measured with the Model 237 using Source V/Measure I or Source I/Measure V, but not directly displayed.
5. Lowest resistance measurable with better than 1% accuracy.
6. Highest resistance measurable with better than 10% accuracy.
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
105
Selector Guide
Low Current/High Resistance
Measurements
Selector Guide: Sources and Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments (Sourcing)
Selector guide: Sources and
Side
source-measure
Text
units (sourcing)
Current Sources
Voltage Source
MODEL
Page
Current Source
Voltage Source
Sink
CURRENT OUTPUT
6220
97
•
6221
97
•
•
•
Accuracy1
2 pA
2 pA DC
4 pA AC
100 fA
(DC & AC)
±105 mA
Resolution2
100 fA
Maximum
VOLTAGE OUTPUT
From
To
±105 mA
POWER OUTPUT
11 W
248
315
•
•
11 W
CURRENT LIMIT
VOLTAGE LIMIT
105 V
105 V
ACCURACY (±Setting)
I
V
0.05%
0.05%
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
237
6430
53
48
•
•
•
•
•
•
450 fA
10 fA
100 fA
50 aA
±100 mA
±105 mA
±1.5 V
±5000 V
±100 µV
±1100 V
±5 µV
±210 V
25 W
11 W
2.2 W
5.25 mA
1 pA to 100 mA
1 fA to 105 mA
0 to 5000 V
1 mV to 1100 V
0.2 mV to 210 V
0.01%
0.05%
0.03%
0.03%
0.02%
SHV High
Voltage Coax
Two 3 Slot Triax
3 Slot Triax
•
•
1000 pt.
•
•
•
Source/measure
capability. Pulse
mode. High
speed. Built-in
waveforms.
FEATURES
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Output Connector
106
Ethernet
RS-232
IEEE-488
Memory
Remote Sense
Current Source Guard
CE
Other
3 Slot Triax
3 Slot Triax
•
•
65,000 pt.
•
•
•
65,000 pt.
•
•
•
•
AC and DC ­current
Controls 2182A for
low-power resistance source. ARB waveforms
and I-V measurements. up to 100kHz. Controls
2182A like 6220, adds
pulsed I-V.
•
Voltage ­monitor
­output.
Programmable
­voltage limit.
•
•
2500 pt.
•
•
•
1. Best absolute accuracy of source.
2. Resolution for lowest range, smallest change in current that source can provide.
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
The 5½-digit Model 6485 Picoammeter combines
Keithley’s expertise in sensitive current measurement instrumentation with enhanced speed and
a robust design. With eight current measurement
ranges and high speed autoranging, this costeffective instrument can measure currents from 20fA
to 20mA, taking measurements at speeds up to 1000
readings per second.
The Model 6485’s 10fA resolution and superior
sensitivity make it well suited for characterizing low
current phenomena, while its 20mA range lets it
measure currents high enough for applications such
as measuring 4-20mA sensor loops.
• Cost-effective low current
measurement solution
• 10fA resolution
• 5½-digit resolution
• <200µV burden voltage
• Up to 1000 readings/second
• Built-in Model 485 emulation
mode
• IEEE-488 and RS-232 interfaces
• Analog output
Although it employs the latest current measurement
technology, it is significantly less expensive than
other instruments that perform similar functions,
such as optical power meters, competitive pico­
ammeters, or user-designed solutions. With a price that’s comparable to a general purpose DMM,
the Model 6485 makes picoamp-level measurements affordable for virtually any laboratory or
­production floor.
Low Voltage Burden and Higher Accuracy
While DMMs typically employ shunt ammeter circuitry to measure current, the Model 6485 is a feedback picoammeter. This design reduces voltage burden by several orders of magnitude, resulting in a
voltage burden of less than 200µV on the lower measurement ranges. The low voltage burden makes
the Model 6485 function much more like an ideal ammeter than a DMM, so it can make current
measurements with high accuracy, even in circuits with
Model 485
Model 6485
very low source voltages.
Current Ranges
2nA–2mA
2nA–20mA
200µV (1mV on
Voltage Burden
200µV
Successor to the Model 485
20mA range)
Reading Rate
3/s
1000/s
The Model 6485 builds on the strengths of one of
Digits
4½
5½
Keithley’s most popular picoammeters, the Model 485,
Output
Yes
Yes
offering an additional 20mA measurement range, as well Analog
Battery Option
Yes
No
as much higher measurement speeds. With a top speed
Storage Buffer
100 points
2500 points
of up to 1000 readings per second, the Model 6485 is
the fastest picoammeter Keithley has ever made. It offers ten times greater resolution than the Model
485 on every range. A time-stamped 2500-reading data buffer provides minimum, maximum, and
standard deviation statistics. A built-in emulation mode simplifies upgrading existing applications
originally configured with a Model 485. This emulation mode makes it possible to control the Model
6485 with any custom code written to control the Model 485. Refer to the comparison table for
additional information.
When do you need a picoammeter?
Measuring low DC currents often demands a lot more than a digital
multimeter (DMM) can deliver. Generally, DMMs lack the sensitivity required
to measure currents less than 100nA. Even at higher currents, a DMM’s
input voltage drop (voltage burden) of hundreds of millivolts can make
accurate current measurements impossible. Electrometers can measure
low currents very accurately, but the circuitry needed to measure extremely
low currents, combined with functions like voltage, resistance, and charge
measurement, can increase an electrometer’s cost signifi­cantly. The Model
6485 Picoammeter combines the economy and ease of use of a DMM with
low current sensitivity near that of an electrometer.
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Measures low currents quickly,
Side Text
accurately, and economically
Picoammeter
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
6485
C O N F I D E N C E
107
6485
Ordering Information
Measures low currents quickly,
Side Text
accurately, and economically
6485Picoammeter
Accessories Supplied
CAP-18 Protective Shield/
Cap (2-lug)
4801
Low Noise BNC Input
Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
• 220V overload protection. This high overload protection and a robust design let the Model 6485
withstand abusive overflows.
• One-touch front panel design. Functions can be configured easily with the push of a button,
without complicated function menus.
• Built-in Trigger Link interface. The Trigger Link interface simplifies synchronizing the Model
6485 with other instruments and voltage sources. This interface combines six independent selectable trigger lines on a single connector for simple, direct control over all instruments in a system.
• Display on/off switch. For research on light-sensitive components, such as measuring the dark
currents of photodiodes, the front panel display can be switched off to avoid introducing light that
could significantly reduce the accuracy of the results.
• REL and LOG functions. The Model 6485 can make relative readings with respect to a baseline
value or display the logarithm of the absolute value of the measured current.
• Resistance calculations. The Model 6485 can calculate resistance by dividing an externally
sourced voltage value by the measured current.
• Rear panel BNC inputs. Inexpensive, easy-to-use BNC cables can be employed, rather than more
expensive triax cables.
APPLICATIONS
• Beam monitoring and radiation
monitoring
• SEM beam current
measurements
• Galvanic coupling
measurements
• Optoelectronic device testing
and characterization
• Optical fiber alignment
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Features that Expand Test and Measurement Flexibility
• Scaled voltage analog output. This output allows the Model 6485 to transmit measurement
results to devices like DMMs, data acquisition boards, oscilloscopes, or strip chart recorders.
• RS-232 and IEEE-488 interfaces. These interfaces make it easy to integrate the Model 6485 into
automated test and measurement systems.
• Leakage current testing in
insulators, switches, relays, and
other components
108
Picoammeter
• Circuit test and analysis in
DCLF circuits
• Sensor characterization
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Cables
4802-10 Low Noise BNC Input Cable, 3m (10 ft)
4803
Low Noise Cable Kit
7007-1 Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2 Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7007-4 Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 4m (13.1 ft)
7009-5 RS-232 Cable
7754-3 BNC to Alligator Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
8607
Banana Cable set for Analog Output
8501-1 Trigger Link Cable with Male Micro-DIN Connectors at
each End, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2 Trigger Link Cable with Male Micro-DIN Connectors at
each End, 2m (6.6 ft)
8502
Micro-DIN to 6 BNCs Adapter Box. Includes one 8501-1
8503
DIN-to-BNC Trigger Cable
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
C/6485-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
TRN-LLM-1-C Course: Making Accurate Low-Level Measurements
*Not available in all countries
Adapters
CS-565
BNC Barrel
7078-TRX-BNCFemale BNC to 3-Slot Male Triax for connecting
BNC cable into triax fixture
• I-V measurements of
semiconductors and other
devices
Rack Mount Kits
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
• Nanoelectronic device
characterization
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
• Capacitor leakage
Services Available
6485-3Y-EW
• Teaching labs
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
6485
Picoammeter
Accuracy (1 Year) 1 Analog
5½ Digit
Default
±(% rdg. + offset)
Typical
Rise Time 3
Range Resolution 18°–28°C, 0–70% RH RMS Noise 2 (10% to 90%)
2 nA
10 fA
0.4 % + 400 fA
20 fA
8ms
20 nA
100 fA
0.4 % +
1 pA
100 fA
8ms
200 nA
1 pA
0.2 % + 10 pA
1pA
500 µs
2 µA
10pA
0.15% + 100 pA
10pA
500 µs
20 µA
100pA
0.1 % +
1 nA
100pA
500 µs
200 µA
1nA
0.1 % + 10 nA
1nA
500 µs
2 mA
10nA
0.1 % + 100 nA
10nA
500 µs
20 mA
100 n A
0.1 % + 1 µA
100nA
500 µs
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0°–18°C & 28°–50°C. For each °C, add 0.1 × (% rdg + offset) to
accuracy spec.
Input Voltage Burden: <200µV on all ranges except <1mV on 20mA range.
Maximum Input Capacitance: Stable to 10nF on all nA ranges and 2µA range; 1µF on 20µA
and 200µA ranges, and on mA ranges.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 42V.
MAXIMUM Continuous Input VOLTAGE: 220 VDC.
ISOLATION (Meter COMMON to chassis): Typically >5×1011W in parallel with <1nF.
NMRR1 (50 or 60Hz): 60dB.
ANALOG OUTPUT: Scaled voltage output (inverting 2V full scale on all ranges) 3% ±2mV, 1kW
impedance.
Notes
1. At 1 PLC – limited to 60 rdgs/second under this condition.
2. At 6 PLC, 1 standard deviation, 100 readings, filter off, capped input – limited to 10 rdgs/sec under this condition.
3. Measured at analog output with resistive load >100kW.
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION
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LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
MULTILINE COMMANDS: DCL, LLO, SDC, GET, GTL, UNT, UNL, SPE, SPD.
IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2, SCPI-1996.0); DDC (IEEE-488.1).
UNILINE COMMANDS: IFC, REN, EOI, SRQ, ATN.
INTERFACE FUNCTIONS: SH1, AH1, T5, TE0, L4, LE0, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1, C0, E1.
PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Range, Zero Check, Zero Correct, EOI (DDC mode only),
Trigger, Terminator (DDC mode only), Calibration (SCPI mode only), Display Format, SRQ,
REL, Output Format, V-offset Cal.
ADDRESS MODES: TALK ONLY and ADDRESSABLE.
LANGUAGE EMULATION: Keithley Model 485 emulation via DDC mode.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION:
Supports: SCPI 1996.0.
Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2k, 38.4k, 57.6k.
Protocols: Xon/Xoff, 7 or 8 bit ASCII, parity-odd/even/none.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
Model
Model
6485
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
GENERAL
INPUT CONNECTOR: BNC on rear panel.
DISPLAY: 12 character vacuum fluorescent.
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
OVERRANGE INDICATION: Display reads “OVRFLOW.”
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01 PLC to 60 PLC (50 PLC under 50Hz operation).
(Adjustable from 200µs to 1s)
READING RATE:
To internal buffer: 1000 readings/second1
To IEEE-488 bus: 900 readings/second1, 2
Notes:
1. 0.01 PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, auto zero off.
2. Binary transfer mode. IEEE-488.1.
BUFFER: Stores up to 2500 readings.
PROGRAMS: Provide front panel access to IEEE address, choice of engineering units or
scientific notation, and digital calibration.
emc: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN61326-1.
safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging (selectable from 2 to 100 readings).
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% non-condensing, up to 35°C. Above 35°C,
derate humidity by 3% for each °C.
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended procedure).
POWER: 100–120V or 220–240V, 50–60Hz, 30VA.
PHYSICAL:
Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm deep (3½ in. × 83 ⁄8 in. × 149 ⁄16 in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear including power cord and IEEE-488 connector: 394mm (15.5 in).
Net Weight: <2.8 kg (<6.1 lbs).
Shipping Weight: <5 kg (<11 lbs).
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C O N F I D E N C E
109
Measures low currents and high resistances
Side Textquickly, accurately, and economically
6487
The 5½-digit Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage
Source improves on the measurement capability
of the award-winning Model 6485, and adds a
high resolution 500V source. It provides higher
accuracy and faster rise times than the 6485, as
well as a damping function for use with capacitive devices. With eight current measurement
ranges and high speed autoranging, this costeffective instrument can measure currents from
20fA to 20mA, take measure­ments at speeds up
to 1000 readings per s­ econd, and source voltage
from 200µV to 505V.
• 10fA resolution
• 5½-digit resolution
• <200µV burden voltage
• Alternating Voltage method
ohms measurements
• Automated voltage sweeps for
I-V characterization
• Floating measurements up to
500V
• Up to 1000 readings/second
• Built-in Model 486 and 487
emulation mode
• IEEE-488 and RS-232 interfaces
• Analog output
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• Digital I/O
110
Picoammeter/ Voltage Source
The Model 6487’s 10fA resolution, superior sensitivity, voltage sweeping, and Alternating Voltage
resistance measurements make it well suited for
characterizing low current devices. Using the
latest current measurement technology, it is significantly less expensive than other instruments
that ­perform similar functions, such as optical
power meters, tera-ohmmeters, competitive
picoammeters, or user-designed solutions. With
a price that’s comparable to a high-end DMM, the Model 6487 makes picoamp-level measurements
affordable for virtually any laboratory or production floor.
Low Voltage Burden and Higher Accuracy
While DMMs typically employ shunt ammeter circuitry to measure current, the Model 6487 is a feedback picoammeter. This design reduces voltage burden by several orders of magnitude, resulting in a
voltage burden of less than 200µV on the lower measurement ranges. The low voltage burden makes
the Model 6487 function much more like an ideal ammeter than a DMM, so it can make current
measurements with high accuracy, even in circuits with very low source voltages.
Successor to the Model 487
The Model 6487 builds on the strengths of
one of Keithley’s most popular picoammeters,
the Model 487, offering an additional 20mA
measurement range, as well as much higher
measurement speeds, up to 1000 readings per
second. It simplifies device characterization
with built-in voltage sweeping capability and the
Alternating Voltage method for high resistances.
A time-stamped 3000-reading data buffer provides minimum, maximum, and standard deviation statistics. A built-in emulation mode makes
it possible to control the Model 6487 with any
custom code written to control the Model 487.
Current Ranges
Model 487
2 nA–2 mA
Voltage Burden
200 µV
Reading Rate
Voltage Sweeps
Alternating Voltage
Ohms
Analog Output
Storage Buffer
Best V Source
Resolution
Up to 180/s
No
Model 6487
2 nA–20 mA
200 µV (1 mV on
20 mA range)
Up to 1000/s
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
(non-inverting)
512 points
Yes
(inverting)
3000 points
1 mV
0.2 mV
Features that Expand Test and Measurement Flexibility
• Direct resistance measurements. Optimized for resistances from 50W to 5×1014W using the
Source Voltage/Measure Current method.
• Alternating Voltage method resistance measurements. This method improves resistance
measurements on devices with high background current or high noise. It extends the measurable
resistance range up to 1016W.
• 500V overload protection. This high overload protection and a robust design let the Model
6487 t­olerate abusive overflows, including accidentally shorting the voltage source directly into
the ammeter.
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Ordering Information
6487Picoammeter/
Voltage Source
Accessories Supplied
CA-186-1B
Ground Connection
Cable, Banana
to Screw-Lug
CAP-31 Protective Shield/
Cap (3-lug)
CS-459 Safety Interlock Plug
7078-TRX-3
Low Noise Triax Input
Cable, 1m (3 ft)
8607
High Voltage Banana
Cable Set for Voltage
Source Output
Picoammeter/ Voltage Source
• Rear panel triax input. This allows the picoammeter to be used in floating operation, up to
500V. When not floating, the addition of a triax to BNC adapter allows inexpensive, easy-to-use
BNC cables to be employed, rather than more expensive triaxial cables.
• RS-232 and IEEE-488 interfaces. These interfaces make it easy to integrate the Model 6487 into
automated test and measurement systems.
• Scaled voltage analog output. This output allows the Model 6487 to transmit measurement
results to devices like DMMs, data acquisition cards, oscilloscopes, or strip chart recorders.
• Built-in Trigger Link interface. The Trigger Link interface simplifies synchronizing the Model
6487 with other instruments and voltage sources. This interface combines six independent selectable trigger lines on a single connector for simple, direct control over all instruments in a system.
• Display on/off switch. For research on light-sensitive components, such as measuring the dark
currents of photodiodes or I-V measurements on unpackaged semiconductors, the front panel
display can be switched off to avoid introducing light that could significantly reduce the accuracy
of the results.
• One-touch front panel design. Functions can be configured easily with the push of a button,
without complicated function menus.
A Broad Range of Low Current Applications
Wafer-Level Photodiode Testing
The Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source can be paired with a calibrated light source and a
probing fixture to create a cost-effective photodiode test system. Multiple Model 6487s can be connected to the DUT’s probe pads to provide photocurrent readings or, with the addition of a switch
matrix, one pico­ammeter can take current measurements from multiple pads. In the first step of the
measurement ­process, performed in total darkness, the Model 6487 produces a voltage sweep and
then measures the resulting dark current. In the second step, a voltage bias is applied and the resulting photocurrent is meas­ured while the light level is increased in calibrated steps. The same basic
test configuration can be used for testing positive intrinsic negative (PIN) and avalanche photodiodes
(APDs). The 6487’s high resolution on the 10V source range provides superior sweeping and biasing
when small biases are required. The 500V source capability is necessary to bias APDs.
APPLICATIONS
• Resistance/resistivity
measurements
Calibrated Light Source
Photo Diode
• Beam monitoring and radiation
monitoring
Pads
• Leakage current testing in
insulators, switches, relays, and
other components
Probe Needles
Probe
Needles
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• Galvanic coupling
measurements
Wafer
• I-V characterization
on semiconductor and
optoelectronic devices
• Fiber alignment
• Circuit test and analysis in DCLF
circuits
• Sensor characterization
Vsource
Ammeter
6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source
• Capacitor leakage
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Measures low currents and high resistances
Side Textquickly, accurately, and economically
6487
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C O N F I D E N C E
111
Measures low currents and high resistances
Side Textquickly, accurately, and economically
6487
Picoammeter/ Voltage Source
Monitoring and Control of Focused Ion Beam Currents
In semiconductor fabrication, focused ion beam systems are often used for nanometer-scale imaging,
micromachining, and mapping. Careful monitoring of the magnitude of the beam current with an
ion detector is critical. The ion detector generates a secondary current that’s proportional to the
current of the primary ion beam. When this secondary current is measured, it can be used to control
the intensity of the primary beam. However, this secondary current is very low, often just a few
picoamps, so the instrumentation measuring it must provide high measurement accuracy and repeatability, as well as sub-picoamp resolution. The Model 6487’s wide measurement range and 5½-digit
resolution make it ideal for this application. Signal connections to the Model 6487 are made through
the instrument’s triax connector. Often, a detector may require high voltage to attract ions, making
the 6487’s 500V source a necessity.
When do you need a
picoammeter?
Measuring low DC currents often
demands a lot more than a digital
multimeter can deliver. Generally,
DMMs lack the sensitivity required
to measure currents less than
100nA. Even at higher currents,
a DMM’s input voltage drop
(voltage burden) of hun­dreds
of millivolts can make accurate
current measurements impossible.
Electrometers can measure low
currents very accu­rately, but the
circuitry needed to measure
extremely low currents, combined
with functions like voltage,
resistance, and charge measure­
ment, can increase an electrom­
eter’s cost significantly. The Model
6487 Picoammeter/Voltage
Source combines the economy
and ease of use of a DMM with
low current sensitivity near that of
an electrometer.
6487
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
Ion
Detector
Ion Beam
IM
High Resistance Measurements
The Model 6487 Picoammeter can be used to
measure high resistances (>1GW) in applications
such as insulation resistance testing. A c­ onstant
voltage is placed in series with the unknown
resistance and the picoammeter. The voltage
drop across the picoammeter is negligible, so
all the voltage appears across the unknown
resistance. The resulting current is measured by
the picoammeter and the resistance is calculated
using Ohm’s Law (R = V/I). To prevent generated
current due to electrostatic interference, the
unknown resistance is housed in a shielded test
fixture. A small series resistor may be added to
reduce noise if the un­known resistor has high
stray capacitance across it.
Metal Shield
6487 Picoammeter/
Voltage Source
R
HI
Ammeter
LO
HI
Vsource
LO
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Accessories Available
112
CABLES
6517-ILC-3 Interlock Cable for 8009 Resistivity Test Fixture
7007-1
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7007-4
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 4m (13.1 ft)
7078-TRX-10 Low Noise Triax Cable, 3.0m (10 ft)
7078-TRX-20Low Noise Triax Cable, 6.0m (20 ft)
8501-*
Trigger Link Cable with male Micro-DIN connectors
at each end, 1m or 2m (3.3 ft or 6.6 ft)
Services Available
6487-3Y-EW
TEST FIXTURES
8009 Resistivity Test Fixture
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-* Single or Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/6487-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
TRN-LLM-1-C
Course: Making Accurate Low-Level
Measurements
*Not available in all countries
ADAPTERS
237-TRX-BAR Triax Barrel
7078-TRX-BNCTriax-to-BNC Adapter
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6487
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0°–18°C & 28°–50°C. For each °C, add 0.1 × (% rdg + ­offset) to accuracy spec.
Input Voltage Burden: <200µV on all ranges except <1mV on 20mA range.
Maximum Input Capacitance: Stable to 10nF on all nA ranges and 2µA range; 1µF on 20µA and 200µA ranges, and on
mA ranges.
maximum continuous input voltage: 505 VDC.
NMRR1: (50 or 60Hz): 60dB.
ISOLATION (Ammeter Common or Voltage Source to chassis): Typically >1×1011W in ­parallel with <1nF.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (between chassis and voltage source or ­ammeter): 505 VDC.
ANALOG OUTPUT: Scaled voltage output (inverting 2V full scale on all ranges): 2.5% ±2mV.
ANALOG OUTPUT IMPEDANCE3: <100W, DC–2kHz.
VOLTAGE SOURCE:
Accuracy 5
Noise
Typical Typical
Range Step Size ±(% prog. + offset)
(p-p)
Temperature
Rise Time 6, 8 Fall Time 7, 8
(Max.) (typical) 18°–28°C, 0–70% R.H. 0.1–10 Hz
Coefficient
(10%–90%) (90%–10%)
±10.100
200 µV
0.1 % + 1 mV
<50 µV (0.005% + 20 µV)/°C
250 µs
150 µs
±50.500
1 mV
0.1 % + 4 mV
<150 µV (0.005% + 200 µV)/°C
250 µs
300 µs
±505.00
10 mV
0.15% + 40 mV
<1.5 mV (0.008% + 2 mV)/°C
4.5 ms
1 ms
SELECTABLE CURRENT LIMIT: 2.5mA, 250µA, 25µA for 50V and 500V ranges, 25mA additional limit for 10V range. All current limits are –20%/+35% of nominal.
WIDEBAND NOISE 9: <30mVp-p 0.1Hz–20MHz.
TYPICAL TIME STABILITY: ±(0.003% + 1mV) over 24 hours at constant temperature (within 1°C, between 18°–28°C, after 5 minute
­settling).
OUTPUT RESISTANCE: <2.5W.
VOLTAGE SWEEPS: Supports linear voltage sweeps on fixed source range, one current or resistance measurement per step.
Maximum sweep rate: 200 steps per second. Maximum step count 3000. Optional delay between step and measure.
Resistance Measurement (V/I): Used with voltage source; resistance calculated from voltage setting and measured current.
Accuracy is based on voltage source accuracy plus ammeter accuracy. Typical accuracy better than 0.6% for readings between 1kW
and 1TW.
ALTERNATING VOLTAGE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT: Offers alternating voltage resistance measurements for resistances from
109W to 1015W. Alternates between 0V and user-selectable voltage up to ±505V.
NOTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
At 1 PLC – limited to 60 rdgs/s under this condition.
At 6 PLC, 1 standard deviation, 100 readings, filter off, capped input – limited to 10 rdgs/sec under this condition.
Measured at analog output with resistive load >2kW.
Maximum rise time can be up to 25% greater.
Accuracy does not include output resistance/load regulation.
Rise Time is from 0V to ± full-scale voltage (increasing magnitude).
Fall Time is from ± full-scale voltage to 0V (decreasing magnitude).
For capacitive loads, add C·∆V/ILimit to rise time, and C·∆V/1mA to fall time.
Measured with LO connected to chassis ground.
REMOTE OPERATION
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2,
SCPI-1996.0); DDC (IEEE-488.1).
LANGUAGE EMULATION: Keithley Model 486/487
­emulation via DDC mode.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION:
Supports: SCPI 1996.0.
Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2k,
38.4k, 57.6k.
Protocols: Xon/Xoff, 7 or 8 bit ASCII, parity-odd/even/
none.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
GENERAL
AMMETER INPUT CONNECTOR: Three lug triaxial on
rear panel.
ANALOG OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana jacks on
rear panel.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana
jacks on rear panel.
INTERLOCK CONNECTOR: 4 pin DIN.
TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
DISPLAY: 12 character vacuum fluorescent.
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging (selectable from
2 to 100 readings).
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
AUTORANGING TIME3: <250ms (analog filter off, 1PLC).
OVERRANGE INDICATION: Display reads “OVRFLOW.”
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01PLC to 60PLC (50PLC
under 50Hz operation). (Adjustable from 200µs to 1s)
READING RATE:
To internal buffer 1000 readings/second1
To IEEE-488 bus 900 readings/second1, 2
BUFFER: Stores up to 3000 readings.
PROGRAMS: Provide front panel access to IEEE address,
choice of engineering units or scientific notation, and
digital calibration.
emc: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/
EEC, EN61326-1.
safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC, EN61010-1, CAT I.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% noncondensing, up to 35°C. Above 35°C, derate humidity
by 3% for each °C.
Storage: –10°C to +65°C.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended procedure).
POWER: 100–120V or 220–240V, 50–60Hz, (50VA).
PHYSICAL:
Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide ×
369mm deep (3½ in. × 83⁄8 in. × 149⁄16 in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear
including power cord and IEEE-488 connector:
394mm (15.5 inches).
NET WEIGHT: <4.7 kg (<10.3 lbs).
Notes
1. 0.01PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, auto zero off.
2. Binary transfer mode. IEEE-488.1.
3. Measured from trigger in to meter complete.
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Model
Model
6487
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
Typical Analog
Accuracy (1 Year) 1
Rise Time (10% to 90%) 3
±(% rdg. + offset)
Typical
Damping4
18°–28°C, 0–70% RH
RMS Noise 2 OffOn
0.3 % + 400 fA
20 fA
4 ms
80 ms
0.2 % + 1 pA
20 fA
4 ms
80 ms
0.15% + 10 pA
1 pA
300 µs
1 ms
0.15% + 100 pA
1 pA
300 µs
1 ms
0.1 % + 1 nA
100 pA
110 µs
110 µs
0.1 % + 10 nA
100 pA
110 µs
110 µs
0.1 % +100 nA
10 nA
110 µs
110 µs
0.1 % + 1 µA
10 nA
110 µs
110 µs
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
5½ Digit
Default
Range
Resolution
2 nA
10 fA
20 nA
100 fA
200 nA
1 pA
2 µA
10pA
20 µA
100pA
200 µA
1nA
2 mA
10nA
20 mA
100 n A
Picoammeter/ Voltage Source
C O N F I D E N C E
113
Measures low currents and high resistances
Side Textquickly, accurately, and economically
2502
• Dual-channel instrument for optical
power measurements, beam
measurements, and nanoscale
materials and device research
• ±100V source for bias requirements
• Measure photodetector current from
1fA to 20mA
• 1fA current measurement resolution
• Measure optical power directly when
used with Model 2500INT Integrating
Sphere
• 0–10V analog output for high
resolution optical power feedback
• Provides a high accuracy, high speed
fiber alignment solution
• Supports assembly process,
final testing, parts binning, and
specification
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• Allows faster alignment of the fiber
with the laser diode’s optimum light
emitting region
114
• Combines fiber alignment and device
characterization processes
• User-programmable photodetector
calibration coefficients
• 3000-point buffer memory on each
channel allows data transfer after
test completion
• Digital I/O and Trigger Link for
binning and sweep test operations
• IEEE-488 and RS-232 interfaces
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Dual-Channel Picoammeter
The Model 2502 Dual-Channel Picoammeter
provides two independent picoammeter-voltage
source channels for a wide range of low level
measurement applications including laser diode
testing. The Model 2502 is also designed to
increase the throughput of Keithley’s LIV (lightcurrent-voltage) test system for production testing of laser diode modules (LDMs). Developed
in close cooperation with leading manufacturers
of LDMs for fiberoptic telecommunication
networks, this dual-channel instrument has
features that make it easy to synchronize with
other system elements for tight control over
optical power measurements. The Model 2502
features a high speed analog output that allows
using the LIV test system at the fiber alignment
stage of the LDM manufacturing process.
Through the use of buffer memory and a Trigger
Link interface that’s unique to Keithley instruments, the Model 2502 can offer the fastest throughput
available today for LIV testing of laser diode modules. These instruments are ruggedly engineered to
meet the reliability and repeatability demands of continuous operation in round-the-clock production
environments.
Low-Level, High Speed Measurements
The Model 2502 combines Keithley’s expertise in low-level current measurements with high speed
current measurement capabilities. Each channel of this instrument consists of a voltage source paired
with a high speed picoammeter. Each of the two channels has an independent picoammeter and voltage source with measurements made simultaneously across both channels.
Part of a High Speed LIV Test System
In a laser diode module DC/CW test stand, the Model 2502 provides the voltage bias to both the back
facet monitor diode and a Model 2500INT Integrating Sphere or to a fiber-coupled photodetector. At
the same time it applies the voltage biases, it measures the current outputs of the two photodetectors
and converts these outputs to measurements of optical power. The conversion is performed with the
user-programmed calibration coefficient for the wavelength of the laser diode module. Fast, accurate
measurements of optical power are critical for analyzing the coupling efficiency and optical power
characteristics of the laser diode being tested. When testing modules with multiple detectors, the
Model 2502 packs more testing capabilities into less test rack space.
Fiber Alignment
The Model 2502’s built-in high speed analog output makes it suitable for precision fiber alignment
tasks. This instrument combines the ability to align the optical fiber quickly and accurately with a
laser diode’s optimum light emitting region and the capability to make precision LIV measurements,
all in the same test fixture. The Model 2502’s wide dynamic range allows early beam skirt detection,
reducing the time required for fiber alignment. An LIV sweep can be performed during the alignment
process to optimize fiber location for an entire operating range. High speed feedback minimizes
delays in the alignment process, so it’s unnecessary to sacrifice alignment speed to ensure
accurate device characterization.
Wide Dynamic Measurement Range
The Model 2502 offers low current measurement
ranges from 2nA to 20mA in decade steps.
This provides for all photodetector current
measurement ranges for testing laser diodes and
LEDs in applications such as LIV testing, LED
total radiance measurements, measurements of
cross-talk and insertion loss on optical switches,
A
G R E A T E R
Model 2502 rear panel
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2502
2502Dual-Channel
Picoammeter
Accessories Supplied
User’s Manual
Accessories Available
7007-1
7007-2
7009-5
7078-TRX-3
8501-1
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Shielded RS-232 Cable
Low Noise Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Services Available
2502-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2502-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
High Accuracy Dark Current Measurements
The Model 2502’s 2nA current measurement range is ideal
for measuring dark currents and other low currents with
1fA resolution. Once the level of dark current has been
determined, the instrument’s REL function automatically
subtracts the dark current as an offset so the measured
values are more accurate for optical power measurements.
Voltage Bias Capability
The Model 2502 provides a choice of voltage bias ranges:
±10V or ±100V. This choice gives the system integrator the
ability to match the bias range more closely to the type of photodetector being tested, typically ±10V
for large area photodetectors and ±100V for avalanche-type photodetectors. This ability to match the
bias to the photodetector ensures improved measurement linearity and accuracy. Also, the 100V range
provides a source voltage for an SEM target bias supply.
High Testing Throughput
The Model 2502 is capable of taking 900 readings/second per channel at 4½-digit ­resolution. This
speed is comparable with the measurement speed of the Model 2400 SourceMeter ­instrument, which
is often used in conjunction with the Model 2502 to perform opto­electronic device test and characterization. Both instruments support Trigger Link (a proprietary “hardware handshaking” ­triggering
system that’s unique to Keithley products) and buffer memory. When programmed to execute a
sweep, Trigger Link ensures measurement integrity by keeping the source and measurement functions working in lock step while the buffer memories record the measurements. Together, source
memory, buffer memory, and Trigger Link eliminate GPIB traffic during a test sweep, improving test
throughput ­dramatically.
Trigger Link
2510
Thermistor
Peltier
2400/
2420
2502
Fiber
Computer
GPIB
2500INT Integrating Sphere
The Model 2502 is designed for tight integration with other
Keithley instruments that are often used in LIV test systems for
laser diode ­modules. These other instruments include the Model
2400 SourceMeter® and Model 2510 TEC SourceMeter instruments.
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Applications
• Scanning electron
microscope (SEM) beam
measurements
Production testing of:
• Laser diode modules
• Chip on submount laser
diodes
• LEDs
• Passive optical
components
• Laser diode bars
• Fiber alignment
Ratio and Delta Measurements
The Model 2502 can provide ratio or delta measurements between the two
completely isolated channels, such as the ratio of the back facet monitor
detector to the fiber-coupled photodetector at varying levels of input current.
These functions can be accessed via the front panel or the GPIB interface. For
test setups with multiple detectors, this capability allows for targeted control
capabilities for the laser diode module.
Programmable Limits and Filters
As with most Keithley instruments, the Model 2502’s current and voltage
limits can be programmed to ensure device protection during critical points
such as start of test, etc. These instruments also provide Average and Median
filters, which can be applied to the data stored in the buffer memory.
Adaptable to Evolving DUT Requirements
Unlike optical power meters with integrated detectors, the Model 2502 allows
the user to choose from a wide range of measurement capabilities simply
by selecting an appropriate photodetector and programming the calibration
­coefficient of this detector at the wavelength of choice.
Interface Options
To speed and simplify system integration and control, the Model 2502
includes the Trigger Link feature and digital I/O lines, as well as standard
IEEE-488 and RS-232 interfaces. The Trigger Link feature combines six
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
and many ­others. The Model 2502 meets industry testing
requirements for the transmitter as well as pump laser
modules. The extensive current measurement range provides excellent sensitivity and resolution for beam current
and radiation monitoring measurements.
Ordering Information
Measures low currents and high resistances
Side Textquickly, accurately, and economically
Dual-Channel Picoammeter
C O N F I D E N C E
115
2502
Dual-Channel Picoammeter
independent software selectable trigger lines on a single connector for simple, direct
control over all instruments in a system. This feature is ­especially useful for reducing
total test time if the test involves a sweep. The Model 2502 can sweep through a series
of measurements based on triggers received from other instruments. The digital I/O
lines simplify external handler control and binning operations.
General
Typical Noise Floor Measurement Specification6
Range
2.000000 nA
20.00000 nA
200.0000 nA
2.000000 µA
20.00000 µA
200.0000 µA
2.000000 mA
20.00000 mA
The Model 2502 Dual-Channel Picoammeter can measure and display either photo­
diode current or optical power for two photodiodes with appropriate user-­supplied
optical power gain/wavelength ­calibration factors.
Model 2502
Sidespecifications
Text
The Model 2502 includes an analog output jack on the rear panel for each channel.
Measurement Specifications
SOURCE CAPACITANCE: Stable to 10.0nF typical.
INPUT Bias Current7: 50fA max. @ 23°C.
INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN8: 4.0mV max.
Voltage Source Slew Rate: 3.0ms/V typical.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: Typically 109W in parallel with 150nF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of measurement range.
MEMORY BUFFER: 6000 readings (two 3000 point buffers). Includes selected
measured value(s) and time stamp.
PROGRAMMABILITY: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, five user-­definable
power-up states plus factory default and *RST.
DIGITAL INTERFACE:
Enable: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. +5V @ 300mA
supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA,
diode clamped).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V/120V/220V/240V ±10%.
LINE FREQUENCY: 50, 60Hz.
POWER DISSIPATION: 60VA.
EMC: Complies with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
VIBRATION: MIL-T-28800F Random Class 3.
SAFETY: Complies with European Directive 73/23/EEC.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in ×
149⁄16 in). Bench configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high ×
238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in × 93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
WEIGHT: 23.1kg (10.5 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C non-condensing. Derate 3%
R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25° to 65°C, non-condensing.
Temperature
Coefficient
Dc Input
Accuracy1, 2 Maximum
23°C ±5°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C Impedance3
Range
Resolution ±(% rdg. + offset)±(%rdg. + offset)/°C (Maximum)
2.000000 nA
1 fA
1.00% + 2 pA
0.01 + 200 fA
20kW
20.00000 nA
10 fA
0.40% + 2 pA
0.01 + 200 fA
20kW
200.0000 nA
100 fA
0.30% +200 pA
0.02 + 20 pA
200 W
2.000000µA
1pA
0.20% +200 pA
0.02 + 20 pA
200 W
20.00000 µA
10pA
0.10% + 20 nA
0.01 + 2 nA
2.0 W
200.0000 µA
100pA
0.10% + 20 nA
0.01 + 2 nA
2.0 W
2.000000mA
1nA
0.10% + 2 µA
0.02 + 200 nA
0.2 W
20.00000mA
10nA
0.10% + 2 µA
0.02 + 200 nA
0.2 W
MAXIMUM INPUT: ±20.0mA.
Typical Speed and Noise Rejection4
Digits
4½
5½
6½
Readings/s
GPIB (SCPI) GPIB (488.1)
700
900
460
475
58
58
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
NMRR
—
—
60 dB
Photodiode Voltage Bias Specifications2
Range
Resolution
0 to ±10 V
<400 µV
0 to ±100 V
<4 mV
Accuracy
Maximum Load Temperature
23°C ±5°C
Current
Regulation5Coefficient
±(0.15% of setting 20 mA
< 0.30%, 150 ppm/°C
+ 5 mV)
0 to 20 mA
±(0.3% of setting 20 mA
< 0.30%, 300 ppm/°C
+ 50 mV)
0 to 20 mA
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Analog Output Specifications
116
Output voltage range9: Output is inverting:–10V out for positive full scale input.
+10V out for negative full scale input.
ouput impedance: 1kW typical.
Range
2.000000 nA
20.00000 nA
200.0000 nA
2.000000 µA
20.00000 µA
200.0000 µA
2.000000 mA
20.00000 mA
Accuracy
23°C ±5°C
±(%output + offset)
6.0% + 90 mV
3.0% +   9 mV
6.0% + 90 mV
3.0% +   9 mV
6.0% + 90 mV
2.5% +   9 mV
6.0% + 90 mV
2.5% +   9 mV
Temperature Coefficient
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
±(%output + offset)/°C
0.30% +    7 mV
0.11% + 700 µV
0.30% +    4 mV
0.11% + 400 µV
0.30% +    4 mV
0.11% + 400 µV
0.30% +    4 mV
0.11% + 400 µV
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Typical Noise Floor
RMS (1 STDEV), 100 Samples
0.01 NPLC 0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
10 NPLC
2 pA
1 pA
40 fA
15 fA
2 pA
1 pA
40 fA
15 fA
200 pA
100 pA
2 pA
500 fA
200 pA
100 pA
2 pA
500 fA
20 nA
10 nA
200 pA
50 pA
20 nA
10 nA
200 pA
50 pA
2 µA
1 µA
25 nA
5 nA
2 µA
1 µA
25 nA
5 nA
Notes
Rise Time
Typical
(10% to 90%)
6.1 ms
6.1 ms
395 µs
395 µs
135 µs
135 µs
21 µs
21 µs
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
G R E A T E R
Speed = Normal (1.0 NPLC), Filter On.
1 year.
Measured as ∆Vin/∆Iin at full scale (and zero) input currents.
Dual channel, internal trigger, measure only, display off, Autorange off, Auto Zero off, source
delay = 0, filters off, limits off, CALC5 and CALC6 off, 60Hz.
Measured as ∆Vin/∆Iin at full scale (20mA) and zero load currents.
Noise floor measured as rms (1 standard deviation), 100 samples, Filter off, open (capped)
input.
Specification by design.
Measured (at input triax) as ∆Vin at full scale (20mA) vs. zero input currents.
The analog output voltage for each channel is referenced to that channel’s floating ground.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
The Model 428-PROG Programmable Current
Amplifier converts fast, small currents to a voltage, which can be easily digitized or displayed
by an oscilloscope, waveform analyzer, or data
acquisition­­system. It uses a sophisticated “feedback current” circuit to achieve both fast rise
times and sub-picoamp noise. The gain of the
Model 428-PROG is adjustable in decade increments from 103V/A to 1011V/A, with selectable rise
times from 2µs to 300ms.
The Model 428-PROG offers fast response at
low current levels, which is unmatched by
either electrometers or picoammeters. The nine
current amplification ranges allow the greatest flexibility in making speed/noise tradeoffs.
The Model 428-PROG can be used with any of
Keithley’s data acquisition boards to implement
a very cost-effective, low curreent measurement
system with wide bandwidth and fast response.
• 2µs rise time
• 1.2fA rms noise
• Up to 1011 V/A gain
• IEEE-488 interface
Ordering Information
428-PROG
Programmable
Current Amplifier with
IEEE-488 Interface
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
CABLES
4801
7007-1
7007-2
Low Noise BNC Input Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
ADAPTERS
7078-TRX-BNC 3-Slot Male Triax to Female BNC Adapter
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
(requires 7010 Adapter)
RACK MOUNTS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Services Available
428-PROG-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
Applications
The Model 428-PROG satisfies
a broad range of ­applications in
research and device labs due to its
cost-effective ability to amplify fast,
low ­currents. A few of these appli­
cations include:
Biochemistry Measurements:
• Ion channel currents through cell
walls and membranes
Beam Position Monitoring:
• Used on electron storage rings and
­s ynchrotrons
Surface Science Studies:
• Scanning Tunneling Electron
Microscope ­s ystem amplifier
• Observation of secondary electron
emission, as in X-ray and beam
line currents
Laser and Light Measurements:
• Fast, sensitive amplifier for use
with PMTs and photodiodes
• Analysis of fast photoconductive
materials
• IR detector amplifier
Transient Phenomena:
• Current DLTS studies
• Breakdown in devices and
dielectric ­materials
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G R E A T E R
The Model 428-PROG incorporates a secondorder Bessel-function filter that mini­mizes noise
without increasing rise time on high-gain ranges.
This can be de­feated in situations where 6dB/­
oc­­tave roll-off is de­sired, as in control loops of
scan­­­ning tunneling electron microscopes.
Converts small, Side
fast currents
Text
to a voltage
Programmable Current Amplifier
Input and output connections to the Model
428-PROG are made with BNC connectors.
INPUT HI is connected to a program­mable ±5V
supply, which permits suitable bias voltages to
be applied to devices-under-test or current collectors. This eliminates the need for a separate
bias supply.
For applications where voltage offset errors exist,
the ZERO CHECK and OFFSET functions can be
used, thereby maintaining maximum instrument
accuracy. Current suppression is also available
up to 5mA, useful for suppressing background
currents, such as dark currents.
The Model 428-PROG also incorporates an
exterior design with simple front panel operation, improved display, and convenient system
integration. Pushbutton controls have an LED to
indicate if that function is activated. The display
features three selectable intensities (bright, dim,
and off) for use in light-sensitive environments.
All setup values can be displayed from the front
panel. An IEEE-488 interface is included.
The Model 428-PROG as
Preamplifier to an Oscilloscope
The Model 428-PROG can be connected to an
oscilloscope or waveform digitizer to display
very low currents in real time.
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
428-PROG
C O N F I D E N C E
117
Model 428-PROG
Side Text
specifications
428-PROG
Programmable Current Amplifier
Accuracy1
Temperature
Gain Setting
18°–28°C
Coefficient
V/A
±(% input + offset)
±(% input + offset)/°C
103
0.45 + 1.2 µA
0.01 + 40 nA
0.31 + 120 nA
0.01 + 4 nA
104
5
0.31 + 12 nA
0.01 + 400 pA
10 6
0.34 + 1.2 nA
0.01 + 40 pA
10 0.5 + 122 pA
0.015 + 4.3 pA
107
8
1.4 + 14 pA
0.015 + 700 fA
10 2.5 + 3 pA
0.025 + 300 fA
109
10
2.5 + 1.6 pA
0.025 + 250 fA
10 11
5
2.7 + 1.6 pA
0.028 + 250 fA
10 Low Noise2
Rise Time3
(10%–90%)
Noise
ms
rms
0.1
90 nA
0.1
9 nA
0.1
900 pA
0.1
90 pA
0.1
9 pA
1 0.5 pA
10 50 fA
100 4 fA
300 1.2 fA
Maximum Speed
Rise Time3
(10%–90%)
Noise
DC Input
rms4Resistance
µs4
2
100 nA
< 0.6W
2
15 nA
< 0.7W
5
2 nA
< 1.6W
10
500 pA
< 10W
15
200 pA
< 100W
40
30 pA
< 1k W
100
10 pA
< 10k W
250
2 pA
< 100k W
250
2 pA
< 100k W
Notes
1. When properly zeroed using zero correct.
2. Selectable filtering will improve noise specifications; see operator’s manual for details (typical value shown).
3. Bandwidth = 0.35/rise time.
4. With up to 100pF shunt capacitance; autofilter on; low pass filter off.
5.1011 setting is 1010 setting with GAIN ×10 enabled; other entries are for GAIN ×10 disabled.
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL
INPUT:
Voltage Burden: <200µV (18°–28°C) for inputs <100µA; <10mV for inputs ≥
100µA; 20µV/°C temperature coefficient.
Maximum Overload: 100V on 104 to 1011V/A ranges; 10V on 103V/A range. Higher
voltage sources must be current limited at 10mA.
OUTPUT:
Range: ±10V, 1mA; bias voltage off.
Impedance: <100W DC–175kHz.
LOW PASS FILTER:
Ranges: 10µs to 300ms (±25%) in 1, 3, 10 sequence or OFF.
Attenuation: 12dB/octave.
GAIN ×10: Rise time, noise, and input resistance are unchanged when selecting
GAIN ×10; gain accuracy and temperature coefficient are degraded by 0.2% and
0.003%/°C respectively.
CURRENT SUPPRESSION
Range
±5 nA
±50 nA
±500 nA
±5 µA
±50 µA
±500 µA
±5 mA
Resolution
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
Accuracy
±(%setting + offset)
3.0 + 10 pA
1.6 +100 pA
0.8 + 1 nA
0.7 + 10 nA
0.6 +100 nA
0.6 + 1 µA
0.6 + 10 µA
DISPLAY: Ten character alphanumeric LED display with normal/dim/off intensity control.
REAR PANEL CONNECTORS:
Input BNC: Common connected to chassis through 1kW.
Output BNC: Common connected to chassis.
IEEE-488 Connector
5-Way Binding Post: Connected to chassis.
EMI/RFI: Complies with the RF interference limits of FCC Part 15 Class B and VDE 0871 Class B.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C, <70% R.H. up to 35°C; linearly derate R.H. 3%/°C up to 50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
POWER: 105–125VAC or 210–250VAC, switch selected. (90–110/180–220VAC available.) 50Hz or 60Hz. 45VA
maximum.
DIMENSIONS: 90mm high × 213mm wide × 397mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 155⁄8 in).
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION
PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: All parameters and controls programmable except for IEEE-488 bus address.
EXECUTION SPEED: (measured from DAV true to RFD true on bus).
Zero Correct & Auto Suppression commands: <3s.
Save/Recall Configuration commands: <500ms.
All other commands: <40ms.
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
BIAS VOLTAGE:
Range: ±5V.
Resolution: 2.5mV.
Accuracy: ±(1.1%rdg + 25mV).
118
Model 428-PROG rear panel
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C O N F I D E N C E
Programmable Electrometer
The Model 6514 Electrometer combines flexible
interfacing capabilities with current sensitivity,
charge measure­ment capabilities, resolution, and
speed that are equal or superior to our earlier
electrometers. The Model 6514’s built-in IEEE-488,
RS-232, and digital I/O interfaces make it simple to
­configure fully automated, high speed systems for
low-level testing.
The 5½-digit Model 6514 is designed for applications that demand fast, yet precise measurements of
low currents, voltages from high resistance sources,
charges, or high resistances.
The Model 6514’s exceptional measurement performance comes at an affordable price. While its cost is
comparable with that of many high end DMMs, the
Model 6514 offers far greater current sensitivity and
sig­nificantly lower voltage burden (as low as 20µV)
than other instruments can provide.
• High speed—up to 1200
readings/second
R&D on a Budget
The Model 6514 offers the flexibility and sensitivity needed for a wide array of experiments, providing better data far faster than older electrometer designs. Applications include measuring currents
from light detectors and other sensors, beam experiments, and measuring resistances using a current
source. In addition to use by researchers in areas such as physics, optics, and materials science, the
Model 6514’s affordable price makes it an attractive alternative to high end DMMs for low current
measurement applications, such as testing resistance and leakage current in switches, relays, and
other components. For more information on how the Model 6514 does this, refer to the section titled
“Low Voltage Burden.”
• Interfaces readily with switches,
computers, and component
handlers
The Model 6514 builds on the features and capabilities of the Keithley electrometers that preceded
it. For example, like those instruments, a built-in constant current source simplifies measuring
­resistance.
• Cancels voltage and current
offsets easily
Two analog outputs—a 2V output and a preamp output—are available for recording data with stripchart recorders.
• <1fA noise
• >200TW input impedance on
voltage measurements
• Charge measurements from 10fC
to 20µC
Fast, precise current, charge, voltage,
Side Textand resistance measurements
6514
Ordering Information
6514Programmable
Electrometer
Accessories Supplied
237-ALG-2 Low Noise
Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax to
Alligator Clips, 2m (6.6 ft)
Services Available
6514-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/6514-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
TRN-LLM-1-C
Course: Making Accurate Low-Level
Measurements
*Not available in all countries
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7007-1
7007-2
7009-5
7078-TRX-3 7078-TRX-10
7078-TRX-20
8501-1
8501-2
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax to Alligator
Clips
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
RS-232 Cable
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax Connectors,
0.9m (3 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax Connectors,
3m (10 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax Connectors,
6m (20 ft)
Trigger-Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Trigger-Link Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
ADAPTERS
7078-TRX-BNC 3-Lug Triax to BNC Adapter
237-TRX-NG Triax Male-Female Adapter with Guard
Disconnected
237-TRX-T
3-Slot Male Triax to Dual 3-Lug Female Triax Tee
Adapter
237-TRX-TBC 3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector
(1.1kV rated)
7078-TRX-TBC 3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector
with Cap
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
CABLES
237-ALG-2
C O N F I D E N C E
119
Fast, precise current, charge, voltage,
Side Textand resistance measurements
6514
Programmable Electrometer
Economical Component Testing
Once, electrometers were simply considered too slow to keep up with the
high throughput that production test applications demand. The Model 6514
is designed for fast, sensitive measurements, providing speeds up to 1200
readings per second with fast integration or 17 measurements per second
with 60Hz line-cycle integration. It offers 10fA resolution on 2nA signals,
settling to within 10% of the final value in just 15ms. A normal-mode rejection ratio (NMRR) of 60dB allows making accurate low current measurements, even in the ­presence of line frequency induced currents, which is a
common concern in production floor environments. The instrument’s sensitivity makes it easy to determine the leakage resistance on capacitances
up to 10nF or even on h­ igher capacitances when a series resistor is used.
to ­program all instrument functions over the bus through a computer
controller. The instrument’s interfaces also simplify integrating external
hardware, such as sources, switching systems, or other instruments, into
the test system. A digital I/O interface can be used to link the Model 6514
to many popular component handlers for tight systems integration in binning, sorting, and similar applications.
These features make the Model 6514 a powerful, low cost tool for systems
designed to test optical devices and leakage resistance on low-value capacitors, switches, and other devices, particularly when the test system already
includes a voltage source or when the source current/measure voltage
technique is used to determine ­resistance.
Low Voltage Burden
The Model 6514’s feedback ammeter design minimizes voltage offsets in
the input circuitry, which can affect current measurement accuracy. The
instrument also allows active cancellation of its input voltage and current
offsets, either manually via the front panel controls or over the bus with
IEEE-488 commands.
While the Model 6514 can be easily operated manually using the front
panel controls, it can also be externally controlled for automated test
applications. Built-in IEEE-488 and RS‑232 interfaces make it possible
Electrometer
Leakage
Resistance
RL
IL
Photodiode
(no incident
light)
ID
–
+
Dark Current Measurements
When measuring dark currents (Figure 1) from a device such as a
photodiode, the ammeter reads the sum of two different currents. The first
current is the dark current (I D) generated by the detector with no light
falling upon the device (in other words, the signal of interest); the second
one is the leakage current (I L) generated by the voltage burden (V BURDEN)
appearing at the terminals of the ammeter. In a feedback ammeter, the
primary “voltage burden” is the amplifier offset voltage. This leakage
current represents an error current. Without the use of cancellation
techniques, I L = V BURDEN/R L. Figure 2 illustrates how the Model 6514’s
CAL VOFFSET is adjusted to cancel V BURDEN to within the voltage noise level
of a few microvolts, so the measured current is only the true dark current
(ID) of the photodiode. In a similar manner, offset currents can also be
cancelled. Earlier electrometers used an internal numerical correction
technique in which the voltage burden was still present, so the measured
dark current included the error term I L = V BURDEN/R L.
A/D
VBURDEN
(error current
due to
VBURDEN)
Figure 1.Dark Current Measurement with Burden Voltage Uncorrected
6514 Electrometer
RL
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
IL = 0
120
Photodiode
(no incident
light)
ID
–
+
VBURDEN
CAL VOFFSET
Voltage Burden and Measurement Error
Electrometers provide current measurement with lower ­terminal voltage
than is possible when making DMM meas­urements. As shown in Figure
3, DMMs measure current using a shunt resistance that develops a voltage
(typically 200mV full-range) in the input circuit. This creates a terminal
voltage (V BURDEN) of about 200mV, thereby lowering the measured current.
Electrometers reduce this terminal ­voltage by using the feedback ammeter
configuration i­llustrated in Figure 1. The Model 6514 lowers this terminal
voltage still further—to the level of the voltage noise—by canceling out the
small offset voltage that remains, as shown in Figure 2. Any error signals that
remain are n­ egligible in comparison to those that can occur when ­measuring
current with a DMM.
A/D
Total offset
voltage = 0
Figure 2.Dark Current Measurement with Burden Voltage Corrected
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M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
6514
Programmable Electrometer
VOLTS AccuracyTemperature
(1 Year)1Coefficient
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
5½-Digit
Range
Resolution
±(%rdg+counts)
±(%rdg+counts)/°C
2 V
10 µV
0.025 + 4
0.003 + 2
20 V
100 µV
0.025 + 3
0.002 + 1
200 V
1mV
0.06 + 3
0.002 + 1
DMM
R
+
–
A/D
VBURDEN
= 200mV at
full range
VSOURCE
Desired Current Reading:
Notes
1.When properly zeroed, 5½-digit. Rate: Slow (100ms integration time).
I=
DMM’s Actual Current Reading: I =
NMRR: 60dB on 2V, 20V, >55dB on 200V, at 50Hz or 60Hz ±0.1%.
CMRR: >120dB at DC, 50Hz or 60Hz.
INPUT IMPEDANCE: >200TW in parallel with 20pF, <2pF guarded (10MW with zero check on).
SMALL SIGNAL BANDWIDTH AT PREAMP OUTPUT: Typically 100kHz (–3dB).
VSOURCE
R
VSOURCE – VBURDEN
AMPS
AccuracyTemperature
(1 Year)1Coefficient
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
5½-Digit
Range
Resolution
±(%rdg+counts)
±(%rdg+counts)/°C
20 pA
100aA 2
1 +30
0.1 + 5
1 + 5
0.1 + 1
200 pA
1 fA 2
2 nA
10 fA
0.2+30
0.1 + 2
20 nA
100 fA
0.2+ 5
0.03 + 1
200 nA
1pA
0.2+ 5
0.03 + 1
2 µA
10pA
0.1 +10
0.005 + 2
20 µA
100pA
0.1 + 5
0.005 + 1
200 µA
1nA
0.1 + 5
0.005 + 1
2 mA
10nA
0.1 +10
0.008 + 2
20 mA
100nA
0.1 + 5
0.008 + 1
R
Figure 3. Errors Due to Burden Voltage when Measuring with a DMM
The example below compares a DMM’s voltage burden errors with
the 6514’s.
If:
VSOURCE = 1V, R = 50kΩ
1V
The desired current reading is: I =
= 20µA
50kΩ
Actual Reading
(20µA range
on DMM):
VBURDEN = 200mV
I=
Refer to Figure 3.
Notes
1V – 200mV
800mV
=
= 16µA = 20% Burden error
50kΩ
50kΩ
with a DMM
1.When properly zeroed, 5½-digit. Rate: Slow (100ms integration time).
2.aA =10 –18A, fA=10 –15A.
INPUT BIAS CURRENT: <3fA at Tcal (user adjustable). Temperature coefficient = 0.5fA/°C.
INPUT BIAS CURRENT NOISE: <750aA p-p (capped input), 0.1Hz to 10Hz bandwidth, damping
on. Digital filter = 40 readings.
INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN at Tcal ±1°C (user adjustable):
<20µV on 20pA, 2nA, 20nA, 2µA, 20µA ranges.
<100µV on 200pA, 200nA, 200µA ranges.
<2mV on 2mA range.
<4mV on 20mA range.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN: <10µV/°C on pA, nA, µA ranges.
PREAMP SETTLING TIME (to 10% of final value): 2.5s typical on pA ranges, damping off, 3s typical on pA ranges damping on, 15ms on nA ranges, 5ms on µA and mA ranges.
NMRR: >95dB on pA, 60dB on nA, µA, and mA ranges at 50Hz or 60Hz ±0.1%. Digital Filter = 40.
6514 Actual Reading: VBURDEN = 10µV
Refer to Figure 2.
I=
Model 6514 specifications
I
0.999990V
= 19.9998µA = 0.001% Burden error
50kΩ
with the 6514
DMM Offset Currents
Typically, offset currents in DMMs are tens or hundreds of picoamps,
which severely limits their low current measuring capabilities compared to
the Model 6514 with 3fA input bias current.
Ac­cu­ra­c y
Temperature
Coefficient
Test
(1 Year)1
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
Current
5½-Digit
Range
Resolution ±(% rdg+counts)±(% rdg+counts)/°C (nominal) 2kW
10mW
0.20+ 10
0.01 + 2
0.9mA
20kW
100mW
0.15+ 3
0.01 + 1
0.9mA
200kW
1 W
0.25+ 3
0.01 + 1
0.9mA
2MW10
W
0.25+ 4
0.02 + 2
0.9 µA
20MW
100 W
0.25+ 3
0.02 + 1
0.9 µA
200MW
1 kW
0.30+ 3
0.02 + 1
0.9 µA
2GW
10kW
1.5 + 4
0.04 + 2
0.9 nA
20GW
100 kW
1.5 + 3
0.04 + 1
0.9 nA
200GW
1MW
1.5 + 3
0.04 + 1
0.9 nA
APPLICATIONS
• High resistivity measurements
• Leakage currents
• Ion selective electrode
measurements
• pH measurements
• Conductivity cells
• Potentiometry
Notes
1. When properly zeroed, 5½-digit. Rate: Slow (100ms integration time).
maximum open circuit voltage: 250V DC.
preamp settling time (To 10% of final reading with <100pF input capacitance): 2kW
through 200kW: 2ms; 20MW through 200MW: 90ms. 2GW through 200GW: 1s.
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LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
OHMS
C O N F I D E N C E
121
6514
Programmable Electrometer
GENERAL
COULOMBS
Accuracy
Temperature
(1 Year)1, 2Coefficient
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
6½-Digit
Range
Resolution
±(%rdg+counts)
±(%rdg+counts)/°C
20 nC 10 fC
0.4 + 50
0.04 + 10
200 nC
100 fC
0.4 + 50
0.04 + 10
2 µC
1pC
1 + 50
0.05 + 10
20 µC
10pC
1 + 50
0.05 + 10
OVERRANGE INDICATION: Display reads “OVRFLOW.”
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01PLC to 10PLC.
PROGRAMS: Provide front panel access to IEEE address, choice of engineering units or
­scientific notation, and digital calibration.
MAXIMUM INPUT: 250V peak, DC to 60Hz sine wave; 10s per minute maximum on mA ranges.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (DC to 60Hz sine wave): Electrometer, 500V peak.
ISOLATION (Meter COMMON to chassis): Typically 1010W in parallel with 500pF.
INPUT CONNECTOR: Three lug triaxial on rear panel.
2V ANALOG OUTPUT: 2V for full range input. Inverting in Amps and Coulombs mode.
Output impedance 10kW.
PREAMP OUTPUT: Provides a guard output for Volts mea­sure­ments. Can be used as an
inverting output or with external feedback in Amps and Coulombs modes.
digital interface:
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits.
Digital I/O: 1 Trigger input, 4 outputs with 500mA sink capability.
Connector: 9 pin D subminiature, male pins.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC EN55011, EN50082-1,
EN61000-3-2, EN61000-3-3, FCC part 15 class B.
SAFETY: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC EN61010-1.
GUARD: Switchable voltage and ohm guard available.
TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
READING STORAGE: 2500 readings.
READING RATE:
To internal buffer 1200 readings/second1
To IEEE-488 bus
500 readings/second1, 3
To front panel
17 readings/second at 60Hz;2
15 readings/second at 50Hz.2
Notes:
1 0.01PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, auto zero off.
2 1.00PLC, digital filters off.
3 Binary transfer mode.
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging (selectable from 2 to 100 readings).
Damping: User selectable on Amps function.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% non-condensing, up to 35°C.
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended procedure).
POWER: 90–125V or 210–250V, 50–60Hz, 60VA.
PHYSICAL:
Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm deep (3½ in. × 83 ⁄8 in. × 149 ⁄16 in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear including power cord and IEEE-488 connector: 15.5 inches.
Net Weight: <4.6kg (<10.1 lbs).
Shipping Weight: <9.5kg (<21 lbs).
Notes:
1.Charge acquisition time must be <1000s, derate 2% for each additional 10,000s.
2.When properly zeroed, 6½-digit. Rate: Slow (100ms integration time).
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Model 6514
Sidespecifications
Text
INPUT BIAS CURRENT: <4fA at Tcal. Temperature coefficient = 0.5fA/°C.
122
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION
MULTILINE COMMANDS: DCL, LLO, SDC, GET, GTL, UNT, UNL, SPE, SPD.
IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2, SCPI-1996.0); DDC (IEEE-488.1).
UNILINE COMMANDS: IFC, REN, EOI, SRQ, ATN.
INTERFACE FUNCTIONS: SH1, AH1, T5, TE0, L4, LE0, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1, C0, E1.
PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Function, Range, Zero Check, Zero Correct, EOI (DDC mode
only), Trigger, Terminator (DDC mode only), Data Storage 2500 Storage, Calibration (SCPI
mode only), Display Format, SRQ, REL, Output Format, Guard, V-offset Cal, I-offset Cal.
ADDRESS MODES: TALK ONLY and ADDRESSABLE.
LANGUAGE EMULATION: 6512, 617, 617-HIQ emulation via DDC mode.
TRIGGER TO READING DONE: 150ms typical, with external trigger.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION:
Supports: SCPI 1996.0.
Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2k, 38.4k, 57.6k.
Protocols: Xon/Xoff, 7 or 8 bit ASCII, parity-odd/even/none.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
Model 6514 rear panel
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M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
Keithley’s 5½‑digit Model 6517B Electrometer/High
Resistance Meter offers accuracy and sensitivity specifications unmatched by any other meter of this type. It
also offers a variety of features that simplify measur­ing
high resistances and the resistivity of insulating materials. With reading rates of up to 425 read­ings/second, the
Model 6517B is also significantly faster than competitive
electrometers, so it offers a quick, easy way to measure
low-level currents.
• Measures resistances up
to 1016W
• 1fA–20mA current measurement
range
• <20µV burden voltage on
lowest current ranges
• 200TW input impedance
• <3fA bias current
• Up to 425 rdgs/s
• 0.75fA p-p noise
• Built-in ±1kV voltage source
• Unique voltage reversal
method for high resistance
measurements
• Optional plug-in scanner cards
Exceptional Performance Specifications
The half-rack-sized Model 6517B has a special low current
input amplifier with an input bias current of <3fA with
just 0.75fA p-p (peak-to-peak) noise and <20µV burden
voltage on the lowest range. The input impedance for
voltage and resistance measurements is 200TW for nearideal circuit loading. These speci­fi­­ca­tions ensure the accuracy and sensitivity needed for accurate
low current and high imped­ance volt­age, resistance, and charge measure­ments in areas of re­search
such as physics, optics, nanotechnology, and materials science. A built-in ±1kV voltage source with
sweep capability simplifies performing leak­age, break­down, and resis­tance testing, as well as volume
(W-cm) and surface resistivity (W/square) mea­sure­ments on insulating materials.
Wide Measurement Ranges
The Model 6517B offers full autoranging over the full span of ranges on current, resistance, voltage,
and charge mea­­sure­ments:
• Current measurements from 1fA to 20mA
• Voltage measurements from 10µV to 200V
• Resistance measurements from 50W to 1016W
• Charge measurements from 10fC to 2µC
Improved High Resistivity Measurements
Many test applications require measuring high levels of resistivity (surface or volume) of materials.
The conventional method of making these measurements is to apply a sufficiently large voltage to
a sample, measure the current that flows through the sample, then calculate the resistance using
Ohm’s Law (R=V/I). While high resistance materials and devices produce very small currents that are
difficult to measure accurately, Keithley’s electrometers and picoammeters are used successfully for
such measurements.
Even with high quality instrumentation, inherent background currents in the material
can make these measurements difficult to perform accurately. Insulating materials,
polymers, and plastics typically exhibit background currents due to piezoelectric effects,
capacitive elements charged by static electricity, and polarization effects. These background currents are often equal to or greater than the current stimulated by the applied
voltage. In these cases, the result is often unstable, providing inaccurate resistance or
resistivity readings or even erroneous negative values. Keithley’s Model 6517B is designed
to solve these problems and provides consistent, repeatable, and accurate measurements
for a wide variety of materials and components, especially when used in combination
with the Model 8009 Resistivity Test Fixture.
Alternating Polarity Method
The Model 6517B uses the Alternating Polarity method, which virtually eliminates the
effect of any background currents in the sample. First and second order drifts of the
background currents are also canceled out. The Alternating Polarity method applies a
voltage of positive polarity, then the current is measured after a specified delay (Measure
Time). Next, the polarity is reversed and the current measured again, using the same
delay. This process is repeated continuously, and the resistance is calculated based on a
weighted average of the four most recent current measurements. This method typically
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Simplifies measuring high resistances
Sideand
Textthe resistivity of insulating materials
Electrometer/High Resistance Meter
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
6517B
C O N F I D E N C E
123
Simplifies measuring high resistances and the resistivity of insulating materials
6517B
Ordering Information
6517BElectrometer/High
Resistance Meter
Accessories Supplied
237-ALG-2 Low Noise
Triax Cable, 3-slot Triax to
Alligator Clips, 2m (6.6 ft)
8607 Safety High Voltage
Dual Test Leads
6517-TP Thermocouple Bead Probe
CS-1305 Interlock Connector
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
CABLES
6517B-ILC-3
7007-1
7007-2
7009-5
7078-TRX-3
8501-1
8501-2
8503
8607
Interlock Cable
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.2 ft)
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.5 ft)
RS-232 Cable
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax Connectors,
0.9m (3 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax Connectors,
3m (10 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-Slot Triax Connectors,
6m (20 ft)
Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Trigger Link Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Trigger Link Cable to 2 male BNCs, 1m (3.3 ft)
1kV Source Banana Cables
PROBES
6517-RH
6517-TP
Humidity Probe with Extension Cable
Temperature Bead Probe (included with 6517B)
7078-TRX-10
7078-TRX-20
TEST FIXTURE
8009
Resistivity Test Fixture
Other
CS-1305
Interlock Connector
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
ADAPTERS
237-BNC-TRX
237-TRX-NG
124
Male BNC to 3-Lug Female Triax Adapter
Triax Male-Female Adapter with Guard
Disconnected
237-TRX-T
3-Slot Male Triax to Dual 3-Lug Female Triax
Tee Adapter
237-TRX-TBC
3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector
(1.1kV rated)
7078-TRX-BNC 3-Slot Male Triax to BNC Adapter
7078-TRX-GND 3-Slot Male Triax to BNC Adapter with guard
removed
7078-TRX-TBC 3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector
with Cap
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
Scanner Cards
6521
Low Current Scanner Card
6522
Voltage/Low Current Scanner Card
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
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Electrometer/High Resistance Meter
produces a highly repeatable, accurate measurement of resistance (or resistivity) by the seventh
reversal on most materials (i.e., by discarding the
first three readings). For example, a 1mm-thick
sample of 1014W-cm material can be measured
with 0.3% repeatability in the Model 8009 test
fixture, provided the background current changes less than 200fA over a 15-second period.
Simple DMM-like Operation
The Model 6517B is designed for easy, DMM-like
operation via the front panel, with single-button
control of im­por­tant functions such as resistance measurement. It can also be controlled
via a built-in IEEE-488 inter­face, which makes it
possible to program all func­tions over the bus
through a computer ­controller.
High Accuracy High Resistance
Measurements
The Model 6517B offers a number of features
and capabili­ties that help ensure the accuracy of
high resistance mea­sure­ment applications. For
example, the built-in volt­age source simplifies
determining the relation­ship between an insulator’s resistivity and the level of source voltage
used. It is well suit­ed for capacitor leakage and
insulation resistance mea­­­­sure­ments, tests of the
surface insula­tion resis­tance of printed circuit
boards, voltage coefficient test­ing of resistors,
and diode leakage characteriza­­tion.
Temperature and Humidity Stamping
Humidity and temperature can influence the
resist­ivity values of materials significantly. To
help you make ac­curate comparisons of readings
acquired un­der varying conditions, the Model
6517B offers a built-in type K thermo­couple and
an optional Model 6517-RH Relative Humidity
Probe. A built-in data storage bu­f­­fer allows
recording and recalling read­ings stamped with
the time, tempera­ture, and relative humidity at
which they were acquired.
Accessories Extend
Measurement Capabilities
A variety of optional accessories can be used
to extend the Model 6517B’s applications and
enhance its performance.
Scanner Cards. Two scan­ner cards are available to simplify scan­ning multiple signals. Either
card can be easily inserted in the option slot of
the instru­ment’s back panel. The Model 6521
Scan­ner Card offers ten channels of low-level
cur­rent scanning. The Model 6522 Scanner Card
A
G R E A T E R
­provides ten channels of high impedance vol­t­­age
switching or low current switching.
Test Fixture. The Model 8009 Resistivity
Chamber is a guard­ed test fixture for measuring
vol­ume and sur­face resistivities of sam­ple mat­
er­ials. It has stain­less-steel elec­trodes built
to ASTM stan­­­dards. The fixture’s elec­trode
dimensions are pre-­programmed into the Model
6517B, so there’s no need to calculate those
values then enter them man­ually. This accessory
is designed to protect you from contact with
potentially hazardous voltages —opening the lid
of the cham­ber automatically turns off the Model
6517B’s volt­age source.
Applications
The Model 6517B is well suited for low current
and high impedance voltage, resistance, and
charge meas­ure­ments in areas of re­search such
as physics, optics, and mater­ials science. Its
extremely low voltage bur­den makes it particularly appropriate for use in solar cell applica­
tions, and its built-in voltage source and low
current sensitivity make it an excellent solution
for high resistance measurements of nanomaterials such as polymer based nanowires. Its high
speed and ease of use also make it an ex­cellent
choice for quality control, product engineering,
and production test appli­­ca­­tions involving leakage, breakdown, and resistance testing. Volume
and sur­face resistivity measurements on nonconduc­tive mater­ials are particularly enhanced
by the Model 6517B’s voltage reversal method.
The Model 6517B is also well suited for electrochemistry applications such as ion selective electrode and pH measurements, conductivity cells,
and ­potentiometry.
Model 6517B Enhancements
The Model 6517B is an updated version, replacing the earlier Model 6517A, which was introduced in 1996. Software applications created
for the Model 6517A using SCPI commands can
run without modifications on the Model 6517B.
However, the Model 6517B does offer some
useful enhancements to the earlier design. Its
internal battery-backed memory buffer can now
store up to 50,000 readings, allowing users to log
test results for longer periods and to store more
data associated with those readings. The new
model also provides faster reading rates to the
internal buffer (up to 425 readings/­second) and
to external memory via the IEEE bus (up to 400
readings/­second). Several connector modifications have been incorporated to address modern
connectivity and safety requirements.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Electrometer/High Resistance Meter
NMRR: 2V and 20V ranges >60dB, 200V range >55dB. 50Hz or 60Hz2.
CMRR: >120dB at DC, 50Hz or 60Hz.
INPUT IMPEDANCE: >200TW in parallel with 20pF, <2pF guarded (1MW with
zero check on).
SMALL SIGNAL BANDWIDTH AT PREAMP OUTPUT: Typically 100kHz (–3dB).
Notes
1. When properly zeroed, 5½-digit, 1 PLC (power line cycle), median filter on, digital filter
= 10 readings.
2. Line sync on.
AMPS
AccuracyTemperature
Coefficient
(1 Year)1
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
5½-Digit
RangeResolution ±(%rdg+counts)±(%rdg+counts)/°C
20 pA
100 aA 2
1 +30
0.1 + 5
1 + 5
0.1 + 1
200 pA
1 fA 2
2 nA
10 fA
0.2 +30
0.1 + 2
20 nA
100 fA
0.2 + 5
0.03 + 1
200 nA
1 pA
0.2 + 5
0.03 + 1
2 µA
10 pA
0.1 +10
0.005 + 2
20 µA
100 pA
0.1 + 5
0.005 + 1
200 µA
1 nA
0.1 + 5
0.005 + 1
2 mA
10 nA
0.1 +10
0.008 + 2
20 mA
100 nA
0.1 + 5
0.008 + 1
INPUT BIAS CURRENT: <3fA at Tcal. Temperature coefficient = 0.5fA/°C,
20pA range.
INPUT BIAS CURRENT NOISE: <750aA p-p (capped input), 0.1Hz to 10Hz bandwidth, damping on. Digital filter = 40 readings, 20pA range.
INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN at Tcal ±1°C:
<20µV on 20pA, 2nA, 20nA, 2µA, and 20µA ranges.
<100µV on 200pA, 200nA, and 200µA ranges.
<2mV on 2mA range. <5mV on 20mA range.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN: <10µV/°C on pA,
nA, and µA ranges.
PREAMP SETTLING TIME (to 10% of final value) Typical: 0.5sec (damping off)
2.0 sec (damping on) on pA ranges. 15msec on nA ranges damping off, 1msec on
µA ranges damping off. 500µsec on mA ranges damping off.
NMRR: >60dB on all ranges at 50Hz or 60Hz3.
Notes
1. When properly zeroed, 5½-digit, 1PLC (power line cycle), median filter on,
digital filter = 10 readings.
2. aA = 10 –18A, fA = 10 –15A.
3. Line sync on.
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OHMS (Normal Method)
Temperature
Coefficient
Accuracy1
(10–100% Range) (10–100% Range)
5½-Digit 18°–28°C (1 Year) 0°–18°C & 28°–50°C AutoAmps
RangeResolution ±(% rdg+counts) ±(% rdg+counts) V Source
Range
2MW10
W
0.125 + 1
0.01 + 1
40 V
200 µA
20MW
100 W
0.125 + 1
0.01 + 1
40 V
20 µA
200MW
1 kW
0.15 + 1
0.015 + 1
40 V
2 µA
2GW
10kW
0.225 + 1
0.035 + 1
40 V
200 nA
20GW
100 kW
0.225 + 1
0.035 + 1
40 V
20 nA
200GW
1 MW
0.35 + 1
0.110 + 1
40 V
2 nA
2TW
10MW
0.35 + 1
0.110 + 1
400 V
2 nA
20TW
100 MW
1.025 + 1
0.105 + 1
400 V
200 pA
200TW
1 GW
1.15 + 1
0.125 + 1
400 V
20 pA
Notes
1. Specifications are for auto V-source ohms, when properly zeroed, 5½-digit, 1PLC, median filter on, digital filter = 10 readings. If
user selectable voltage is required, use manual mode. Manual mode displays resistance (up to 1018W) calculated from measured
current. Accuracy is equal to accuracy of V-source plus accuracy of selected Amps range.
PREAMP SETTLING TIME: Add voltage source settling time to preamp settling time in Amps specification.
Ranges over 20GW require additional settling based on the characteristics of the load.
OHMS (Alternating Polarity Method)
The alternating polarity sequence compensates for the background (offset) currents of the material or device
under test. Maximum tolerable offset up to full scale of the current range used.
Using Keithley 8009 fixture
repeatability: DIBG × R/VALT + 0.1% (1σ) (instrument temperature constant ±1°C).
ACCURACY: (VSRCErr + I MEASErr × R)/VALT
where: DIBG is a measured, typical background current noise from the sample and fixture.
VALT is the alternating polarity voltage used.
VSRCErr is the accuracy (in volts) of the voltage source using VALT as the setting.
I MEASErr is the accuracy (in amps) of the ammeter using VALT /R as the reading.
VOLTAGE SOURCE
5½-Digit
RangeResolution
100 V
5 mV
1000 V
50 mV
Temperature
Accuracy (1 Year)
Coefficient
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
±(% setting + offset)
±(% setting+offset)/°C
0.15 + 10 mV
0.005 + 1 mV
0.15 + 100 mV
0.005 + 10 mV
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT:
100V Range: ±10mA, hardware short circuit protection at <14mA.
1000V Range: ±1mA, hardware short circuit protection at <1.4mA.
SETTLING TIME:
100V Range: <8ms to rated accuracy.
1000V Range: <50ms to rated accuracy.
NOISE (typical):
100V Range: <2.6mV rms.
1000V Range: <2.9mV rms.
A
G R E A T E R
Model 6517B
Sidespecifications
Text
VOLTS AccuracyTemperature
Coefficient
(1 Year)1
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
5½-Digit
RangeResolution ±(%rdg+counts)±(%rdg+counts)/°C
2 V
10 µV
0.025 + 4
0.003 + 2
20 V
100 µV
0.025 + 3
0.002 + 1
200 V
1 mV
0.06 + 3
0.002 + 1
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
6517B
C O N F I D E N C E
125
6517B
Electrometer/High Resistance Meter
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION
COULOMBS
AccuracyTemperature Coefficient
(1 Year)1, 2
18°–28°C
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
5½-Digit
RangeResolution ±(%rdg+counts)±(%rdg+counts)/°C
2 nC
10 fC
0.4 + 5
0.04 + 3
20 nC
100 fC
0.4 + 5
0.04 + 1
200 nC
1 pC
0.4 + 5
0.04 + 1
2 µC
10 pC
0.4 + 5
0.04 + 1
IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2, SCPI-1999.0).
TRIGGER TO READING DONE: 150ms typical, with external trigger.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION: Supports: SCPI 1991.0. Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400,
4800, 9600, 19.2k, 38.4k, 57.6k, and 115.2k.
Flow Control: None, Xon/Xoff.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
GENERAL
Model
Model
6517B
Side
Side
specifications
Text
specifications
Text
Notes
1. Specifications apply immediately after charge acquisition. Add
|QAV|
(4fA +_____ ) TA
RC
where TA = period of time in seconds between the coulombs zero and meas­urement and
Q AV = average charge measured over TA, and RC = 300,000 typical.
Overrange Indication: Display reads “OVERFLOW” for readings >105% of range. The
display reads “OUT OF LIMIT” for excesive overrange conditions.
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01PLC to 10PLC.
2. When properly zeroed, 5½-digit, 1PLC (power line cycle), median filter on, digital filter = 10 readings.
MAXIMUM INPUT: 250V peak, DC to 60Hz sine wave; 10sec per minute maximum on
mA ranges.
INPUT BIAS CURRENT: <4fA at Tcal. Temperature coefficient = 0.5fA/°C, 2nC range.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (DC to 60Hz sine wave): Electrometer, 500V peak;
V Source, 750V peak.
TEMPERATURE (Thermocouple)
ISOLATION (Meter COMMON to chassis): >1010W, <500pF.
Accuracy (1 Year)1
INPUT CONNECTOR: Three lug triaxial on rear panel.
Thermocouple
18°–28°C
2V ANALOG OUTPUT: 2V for full range input. Non-inverting in Volts mode, inverting when
Type Range
±(% rdg + °C)
measuring Amps, Ohms, or Coulombs. Output impedance 10kW.
K
–25°C to 150°C
±(0.3% + 1.5°C)
PREAMP OUTPUT: Provides a guard output for Volts measurements. Can be used as an
inverting output or with external feedback in Amps and Coulombs modes.
Notes
1. Excluding probe errors, Tcal ± 5°C, 1 PLC integration time.
EXTERNAL TRIGGER: TTL compatible External Trigger and Electro­meter Complete.
GUARD: Switchable voltage guard available.
HUMIDITY
DIGITAL I/O AND TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
Accuracy (1 Year)1
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Range
18°–28°C, ±(% rdg + % RH)
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1.
0–100%
±(0.3% +0.5)
READING STORAGE: 50,000.
Notes
READING RATEs:
1. Humidity probe accuracy must be added. This is ±3% RH for Model 6517-RH, up to 65°C probe environment,
To Internal Buffer: 425 readings/second1.
not to exceed 85°C.
To IEEE-488 Bus: 400 readings/second1, 2.
Bus Transfer: 3300 readings/second2.
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
1. 0.01PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, temperature + RH off, Line Sync off.
2. Binary transfer mode.
126
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% non-condensing, up to 35°C.
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level per EN 61010-1.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended procedure).
POWER: User selectable 100, 120, 220, 240VAC ±10%; 50/60Hz, 100VA max.
PHYSICAL: Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm deep (3½ in. × 8½ in.
× 14½ in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear including power cord and IEEE-488 connector: 15.5 inches.
Net Weight: 5.4kg (11.8 lbs.).
Shipping Weight: 6.9kg (15.11 lbs.).
Model 6517B rear panel
Services Available
6517B-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
C/6517B-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase*
TRN-LLM-1-C
Course: Making Accurate Low-Level Measurements
*Not available in all countries
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
6521
6522
Low Current, 10-channel
Scanner Cards for 6517B
• Choose from low current
scanning or high impedance
voltage switching with low
current switching
• <200µV contact potential
• <1pA offset current
• Compatible with Keithley’s
Model 6517 and 6517A
Electrometers
Two optional 10-channel plug-in scanner cards are available to extend the measurement performance
of the Model 6517B Electrometer/High Resistance Meter. The cards install directly into the option slot
in the back panel of the Model 6517B. The cards are also compatible with the Models 6517A and 6517.
The Model 6521 Low Current Scanner Card is a 10-channel multiplexer, designed for switching low
currents in multipoint testing applications or when the test configuration must be changed. Offset
current on each channel is <1pA and high isolation is maintained between each channel (>1015W).
The Model 6521 main­tains the current path even when the channel is deselected, making it a true
current switch. BNC input con­nectors help provide shielding for sensitive measurements and make
the card compatible with low noise co­a xial cables. The Model 6521 is well suited for automating
reverse leakage tests on semiconductor junc­­tions or gate leakage tests on FETs.
The Model 6522 Voltage/Low Current Scanner Card can provide up to ten channels of low-level
c­ urrent, high ­­impedance voltage, high resistance, or charge switching. Although it is similar to the
Model 6521 in many ways, the Model 6522’s input connectors are 3-lug triax. The card can be software configured for high im­­pe­dance voltage switching of up to 200V. Triaxial connectors make it
possible to float the card 500V above ground and drive guard to 200V.
Ordering Information
6521
6522
Low Current,
10-channel
Scanner Card
Low Current, High
Impedance Voltage,
High Resistance,
10-channel
Scanner Card
Model 6521 Specifications
Model 6522 Specifications
CHANNELS PER CARD: 10.
FUNCTIONS: Amps.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: Single pole, “break-beforemake” for signal HI input. Signal LO is common for all 10
channels and output. When a channel is off, sig­­nal HI is
connected to signal LO.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Inputs BNC, Outputs Triaxial.
SIGNAL LEVEL: 30V, 500mA, 10VA (resistive load).
CONTACT LIFE: >106 closures at maximum signal level;
>107 closures at low signal levels.
CONTACT RESISTANCE: <1W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <200µV.
OFFSET CURRENT: <1pA (<30fA typical at 23°C, <60%
RH).
ACTUATION TIME: 2ms.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: <30V peak.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C up to 35°C at 70%
R.H. Storage: –25° to 65°C.
CHANNELS PER CARD: 10.
FUNCTIONS: Volts, Amps.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: Single pole, “break-beforemake” for signal HI input. Signal LO is common for all 10
channels and output. When a channel is off, signal HI is
connected to signal LO. 6517B can also configure channels as voltage switches.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Inputs: Triaxial. Outputs: Triaxial.
SIGNAL LEVEL: 200V, 500mA, 10VA (resistive load).
CONTACT LIFE: >106 closures at maximum signal level;
>107 closures at low signal levels.
CONTACT RESISTANCE: <1W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <200µV.
OFFSET CURRENT: <1pA (<30fA typical at 23°C, <60% RH).
CHANNEL ISOLATION: >1013W, <0.3pF.
INPUT ISOLATION: >1010W, <125pF (Input HI to Input LO).
ACTUATION TIME: 2ms.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: <300V peak.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C up to 35°C at 70%
R.H. Storage: –25° to 65°C.
Services Available
6521-3Y-EW
H
L
H
IN 1
OUT L
IN 2...9
OUT L
H
H
IN 2...9
6522-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
L
G
G
H
H
L
IN 10
L
G
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IN 1
G
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
IN 10
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
• Install directly in 6517B’s
option slot
Convenient plug-in scanner cards for the Model 6517B/6517A
• 10 channels of multiplex
switching
C O N F I D E N C E
127
Hall Effect systems for high resistivity applications
6220/6514/
2000/7001
The Model 6220 Current Source offers
material researchers ±0.1pA/step to ±105mA
DC output, combined with 1014W output
resistance.
The Model 6514 Electrometer provides
>200TW input impedance and <3fA input
bias current.
The Model 2000 6½-Digit Multimeter
provides 0.1µV of sensitivity.
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
The Model 7001 Switch/Control Mainframe
controls the 7152 4×5 Low Current Matrix
Card, which provides contacts with <1pA
offset current.
128
Ordering Information
6220
DC Current Source
6514Programmable
Electrometer
2000
Digital Multimeter
Options
7001
7152
Switch System
4×5 Low Current
Matrix Card
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High Impedance Semiconductor Resistivity
and Hall Effect Test Configurations
Alternative eco­nom­i­cal
ap­proach­es to Hall coefficient
and resistivity ­measurements
Occasionally, when working with
samples with very high resistivity, semiinsulating GaAs, and similar materials
with resistivities above 108W, alternative
system configurations may be able to
produce more reliable data than standard, pre-configured Hall Effect systems.
Such systems demand careful shielding
and guard­ing, and typically include a
current source, two electrometer buffers,
and an isolated voltmeter. The schematics show two suggested con­fig­u­ra­tions
for these high resistivity applications:
one that requires manual switching and
one with automated switching.
The range of the systems shown here
is very wide. The high resistance end
is limited by the minimum output of
the current source. A current of 100pA
can be supplied with an accuracy of
about 2%. If the resistance of each leg
of the sample is no more than 1TW,
the maximum voltage developed will
be 100V, within the range of the Model
6220 current source and the Model 6514
electrometer. This system will provide
good results with samples as low as 1W
per leg, if a test current level of 100mA
is acceptable. Even at 100mW per leg,
accuracy is approximately 2%.
HI
2
HI
HI
R
6220
R
V
R
R
LO
4
LO
3
R = 1TΩ
HI
2000
DMM
Preamp Out
6514
V2
LO
The equipment configuration with manual switching
(above) was developed for very high resistance
van der Pauw or Hall Effect measurements. This
measurement system includes a Model 6220 current
source, two Model 6514 electrometers (used as
unity-gain buffers), and a Model 2000 digital
multimeter (DMM). The current source has a builtin guard, which minimizes the time constant of the
current source and cable. The insulation resistance
of the leads and supporting fixtures for the sample
should be at least 100 times the DUT resistance (R).
The entire sample holder must be shielded to avoid
electrostatic pickup. If the sample is in a dewar, this
should be part of the shield.
2
1
3
4
Preamp
Out
6514
HI
2000
6514
Preamp
Out
1
HI
2
3
4
5
1
LO
LO
Call Keithley for additional guidance in
selecting equipment for specific high
resistivity applications.
HI
2
LO
HI
3
6220
LO
4
7152 Low Current Matrix Card
in 7001 Mainframe
One Model 7152 Matrix Card, housed in a
Model 7001 mainframe, is used to connect the
electrometers and the current source to the sample.
Two Model 6514 electrometers are used as unity gain
buffers, and their output difference is measured with
a Model 2000 DMM. To ensure faster measurement
time, guarded measurements are made by turning
the Guard switch ON for both of the Model 6514s,
and by guarding the Model 6220 output. Call
Keithley’s Applications Department for cabling
information.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
7007-1
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7078-TRX-10 Triax Cable, 3m (10 ft)
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
G R E A T E R
V1
LO
DUT
Leakage currents are the most important
sources of error, especially at very high
resistances. One important advantage
of this circuit is that a guard voltage is
avail­able for three of the sample terminals, which virtually eliminates both
leakage currents and line capacitance.
The fourth terminal is at circuit LO or
ground potential and does not need
guarding.
A
Preamp Out
6514
DUT
1
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
3390
50MHz Arbitrary Waveform/
Function Generator
From its fully featured Arbitrary Waveform
Generator (ARB) to its high speed and ease-ofuse, the Model 3390 is a complete signal generation solution for all your waveform application
needs up to 50MHz.
• 50MHz sine wave frequency
• 25MHz square wave frequency
• Arbitrary waveform generator
with 256k-point, 14-bit
resolution
• Built-in function generator
capability includes: sine,
square, triangle, noise, DC, etc.
• Precision pulses and square
waves with fast (5ns) rise/fall
times
• Built-in 10MHz external
time base for multiple unit
synchronization
• Built-in AM, FM, PM, FSK, PWM
modulation
• Frequency sweep and burst
capability
• Waveform creation software,
KiWAVE, included
• LXI Class C compliance
The exceptional signal quality of the Model 3390 is a result of its high resolution, fast rise and fall
times, and deep memory. This combined with its low price makes it the ideal solution for applications
that use the 50MHz bandwidth and below. Lower speed instruments cannot provide the signal accuracy of the Model 3390, even at bandwidths they were specifically designed for.
Arbitrary Waveform Generation (ARB)
With the Model 3390, you can precisely replicate real world signals. This 14-bit ARB provides the
ability to define waveforms with up to 256,000 data points and generate them at a sampling rate
of 125MSamples/second. For ease of use, up to four user-defined waveforms can be stored in the
onboard non-volatile memory.
Function Generation
Standard output waveforms can be created by pressing one button on the front panel. Ten standard
waveforms are provided, including the basic sine, square, ramp, and triangle shapes. The Model 3390
offers the highest repetition rates of any instrument in its class, allowing you to better emulate the
signals you need to test.
Pulse Generation
Pulse capabilities have become critically important as devices being tested have become smaller, more
sensitive, and more complex. To accurately duplicate the signals these tiny devices receive, very clean
pulses with crisp edges are mandatory, which is why the Model 3390 offers the fastest rise time (5ns)
and cleanest pulse shapes for this class of instrument.
Modulating Waveforms
The ability of the Model 3390 to modulate at
high internal frequencies allows you to accurately simulate real-world conditions. Modulate
any of your signals with the built-in AM, FM, PM,
PWM, or FSK source, or use your own external
modulation source.
Noise Generation
Inject noise into your device under test with
the press of a button. The adjustable amplitude
and offset parameters control how much or how
little noise is produced. The fast rise times and
high speed capability provides the precise noise
simulation your applications require.
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G R E A T E R
The faster rise time results in cleaner pulses.
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
BEST IN CLASS PERFORMANCE
Versatile Waveform
Creation Capabilities
The Model 3390 generates highly stable and
accurate waveforms that allow you to create
almost any desired shape. It uses direct digital
synthesis (DDS) techniques to achieve this level of performance and functionality.
50MHz arbitrary waveform/function generator
Keithley has paired the best-in-class performance
of the Model 3390 Arbitrary Waveform/Function
Generator with the best price in the industry to
provide your applications with superior waveform generation functionality and flexibility at
an unparalleled price.
C O N F I D E N C E
129
3390
50MHz Arbitrary Waveform/
Function Generator
3390s together, and synchronize multiple signals
of any shape.
Ordering Information
50MHz arbitrary waveform/function
Side Text
generator
3390
50MHz Arbitrary
Waveform/Function
Generator
Accessories Supplied
Arbitrary Waveform Generator
with power cord
One universal serial bus
(USB) cable (USB-B-1)
One pattern generator
cable (005-003-00003)
One Ethernet crossover
cable (CA-180-3A)
CD-ROM containing user’s manual
Accessories Available
4299-3
Single Rack Mount Kit
4299-4
Dual Rack Mount Kit
775550W Feed Through Terminator
7051-2
General Purpose BNC to BNC Cable (2ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m
7007-1
USB-B-3
USB cable, Type A to Type B, 3m (10ft)
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Services Available
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/3390-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
3390-3Y-EW
130
The 20MHz noise bandwidth of the Model
3390 is 2× better than the competition’s.
Pattern Generation
The Model 3390 is the only instrument in its
class with a Digital Pattern mode. It provides the
ability to transmit arbitrary 16-bit patterns via a
multi-pin connector located on the rear panel
of the instrument. This feature can be used for
applications such as testing clock and data signals directly, sending simple protocols to devices
under test, and simulating simple control functions. With Keithley’s KiWAVE software package,
you can easily create complex and long patterns,
which the Model 3390 can generate at varying
speeds and amplitudes.
10MHz External Reference
Expands Flexibility
The built-in 10MHz external time base is included at no extra cost. This external time base
makes it simple to control multiple instruments
from the same source, connect multiple Model
Ease of Use
This instrument is easy to use. In most cases,
pressing one button on the front panel or performing one or two mouse clicks on your PC
is all that is necessary to generate or modify a
waveform. The KiWAVE software package helps
you define and manage waveforms, apply filters
to waveforms, and display waveforms on a PC. In
addition, the GPIB, USB, LAN, and LXI interfaces
can connect the Model 3390 to most devices
under test, instruments, and test fixtures.
KiWAVE Waveform Editing Utility
LXI Class C Compliance
The Model 3390 supports the physical, programmable, LAN, and Web portions of the emerging
LAN eXtensions for Instrumentation (LXI) standard. The instrument can be monitored and controlled from any location on the LAN network
via its LXI Web page.
Model 3390 rear panel
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
3390
50MHz Arbitrary Waveform/
Function Generator
Waveform Characteristics
Sine
Frequency: 1µHz to 50MHz.
Amplitude Flatness 1, 2 0.1dB (<100kHz)
(Relative to 1kHz):
0.15dB (<5MHz)
0.3dB (<20MHz)
0.5dB (<50MHz).
Harmonic distortion 2, 3 (Unit: dBc):
DC to 20kHz:
–65(<1Vpp) –65(≥1Vpp)
20kHz to 100kHz: –65(<1Vpp) –60(≥1Vpp)
100kHz to 1MHz: –50(<1Vpp) –45(≥1Vpp)
1MHz to 20MHz: –40(<1Vpp) –35(≥1Vpp)
20MHz to 50MHz: –30(<1Vpp) –30(≥1Vpp).
Total harmonic distortion 2, 3:
DC to 20kHz, V ≥ 0.5Vpp THD ≤ 0.06% (typical).
Spurious 2, 4 (non–harmonic): DC to 1MHz: –70dBc.
1MHz to 50MHz: –70dBc + 6dB/octave.
Phase Noise (10K Offset): –115 dBC/Hz, typical when
f ≥ 1MHz, V ≥ 0.1Vpp.
Square
Frequency: 1µHz to 25MHz.
Rise/Fall time: <10ns.
Overshoot: <2%.
Variable Duty Cycle: 20% to 80% (to 10MHz), 40% to 60%
(to 25MHz).
Asymmetry: 1% of period + 5ns (@ 50% duty).
Jitter (RMS): 1ns + 100ppm of period.
Ramp, Triangle
Frequency: 1µHz to 200kHz.
Linearity: <0.1% of peak output.
Symmetry: 0.0% ~ 100.0%.
Pulse
Frequency: 500µHz to 10MHz.
Pulse width: 20ns minimum, 10ns res. (period ≤10s).
Variable Edge Time: <10ns to 100ns.
Overshoot: <2%.
Jitter (RMS): 300ps + 0.1ppm of period.
Arbitrary
Modulation
Frequency: 1µHz to 10MHz.
Length: 2 to 256K.
Resolution: 14 bits (including sign).
Sample Rate: 125Msamples/s.
Min Rise/Fall Time: 30ns typical.
Linearity: <0.1% of peak output.
Settling Time: <250ns to 0.5% of final value.
Jitter(RMS): 6ns + 30ppm.
Non-volatile Memory: 4 waveforms * 256K points.
Modulation Type: AM, FM, PM, FSK, PWM, Sweep,
and Burst.
Common Characteristic
Frequency Resolution: 1µHz.
Amplitude Range:10mVpp to 10Vpp in 50W
20mVpp to 20Vpp in Hi-Z.
Amplitude Accuracy 1, 2 (at 1kHz): ±1% of setting ±1mVpp.
Amplitude Units: Vpp, Vrms, dBm.
Amplitude Resolution: 4 digits.
DC Offset Range (Peak AC + DC):
±5V in 50W, ±10V in Hi-Z.
DC Offset Accuracy 1, 2
±2% of offset setting, ±0.5% of amplitude setting.
DC Offset Resolution: 4 digits.
Main Output Impedance: 50W typical.
Main Output Isolation: 42Vpk maximum to earth.
Main Output Protection: Short-circuit protected; overload automatically disables main output.
Internal Frequency reference Accuracy 5:
±10ppm in 90 days, ±20ppm in 1 year.
External Frequency reference Standard/Option:
Standard.
External Frequency Input:
Lock Range: 10MHz ±500Hz.
Level: 100mVpp ~ 5Vpp.
Impedance: 1kW typical, AC coupled.
Lock Time: <2 seconds.
External Lock Range: 10MHz.
Frequency Output:
Level: 632mVpp (0dBm), typical.
Impedance: 50W typical, AC coupled.
Phase Offset:
Range: –360° to +360°.
Resolution: 0.001°.
Accuracy: 8ns.
FM
Carrier: Sine, Square, Ramp, ARB.
Source: Internal/External.
Internal Modulation: Sine, Square, Ramp, Triangle,
Noise, ARB.
Frequency (Internal): 2mHz to 20kHz.
Deviation: DC ~ 25MHz.
PM
Carrier: Sine, Square, Ramp, ARB.
Source: Internal/External.
Internal Modulation: Sine, Square, Ramp, Triangle,
Noise, ARB.
Frequency (Internal): 2mHz to 20kHz.
Deviation: 0.0° to 360°.
PWM
Carrier: Pulse.
Source: Internal/External.
Internal Modulation: Sine, Square, Ramp, Triangle,
Noise, ARB.
Frequency (Internal): 2mHz to 20kHz.
Deviation: 0% ~ 100% of pulse width.
FSK
Carrier: Sine, Square, Ramp, ARB.
Source: Internal/External.
Internal Modulation: 50% duty cycle Square.
Frequency (Internal): 2mHz to 100kHz.
External Modulation Input6
Voltage Range: ±5V full scale.
Input Resistance: 8.7kW typical.
Bandwidth: DC to 20kHz.
SWEEP
Waveforms: Sine, Square, Ramp, ARB.
Type: Linear or logarithmic.
Direction: Up or down.
Sweep Time: 1ms ~ 500s.
Trigger: Internal, External, or Manual.
Marker: Falling edge of sync signal (programmable
frequency).
Noise
Bandwidth: 20MHz typical.
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AM
Carrier: Sine, Square, Ramp, ARB.
Source: Internal/External.
Internal Modulation: Sine, Square, Ramp, Triangle,
Noise, ARB.
Frequency (Internal): 2mHz to 20kHz.
Depth: 0.0% ~ 120.0%.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
DISPLAY: Graph mode for visual verification of signal settings.
CAPABILITY:
Standard Waveforms: Sine, Square, Ramp, Triangle, Pulse,
Noise, DC.
Built-in Arbitrary Waveforms: Exponential Rise and Fall,
Negative ramp, Sin(x)/x, Cardiac.
Model 3390
Sidespecifications
Text
Specifications
C O N F I D E N C E
131
3390
LOW LEVEL MEASURE & SOURCE
Model 3390
Sidespecifications
Text
BURST 7
Waveforms: Sine, Square, Ramp, Triangle, Noise, ARB.
Type: Internal/External.
Start/Stop Phase: –360° to +360°.
Internal Period: 1µs ~ 500s.
Gated Source: External trigger.
Trigger Source: Internal, External, or Manual.
132
Trigger Input
Level: TTL compatible.
Slope: Rising or falling (selectable).
Pulse width: >100ns.
Impedance: >10kW, DC coupled.
Latency: <500ns.
Trigger Output
Level: TTL compatible into ≥1kW.
Pulse width: >400ns.
Output Impedance: 50W typical.
Maximum rate: 1MHz.
Fan-out: ≤4 Keithley 3390s.
50MHz Arbitrary Waveform/
Function Generator
General
Notes
Power Supply: CAT II 110–240VAC ±10%.
Power Cord Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz.
Power Consumption: 50VA max.
Operating Environment: 0° to 50°C.
Storage Temperature: –30° to 70°C.
Interface: USB, LAN, LXI-C, GPIB.
Language: SCPI-1993, IEEE-488.2.
Dimensions: 107mm high × 224mm wide × 380mm
deep (4.2 in. × 8.8 in. × 15 in.).
Weight: 4.08kg.
Safety: Conforms with European Union Directive
73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive
89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Warm-up: 1 hour.
1. Add 10%/°C of spec for offset and amplitude for operation outside the
range of 18° to 28°C.
2. Autorange enabled.
3. DC offset set to 0V.
4. Spurious output at low amplitude is –75dBm typical.
5. Add 1ppm/°C average for operation outside the range of 18° to 28°C.
6. FSK uses trigger input (1MHz maximum).
7. Sine and square waveforms above 10MHz are allowed only with an
“infinite” burst count.
Pattern Mode
Clock Maximum Rate: 50MHz.
Output:Level: TTL compatible into ≥2kW.
Output Impedance: 110W typical.
Pattern Length: 2 to 256K.
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M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
Switching and Control
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Series 3700A
Selector Guide
7001
7002
Selector Guide
Selector Guide
707B
708B
Selector Guide
System Switch/Multimeter and Plug-In Cards . . . . 136
Plug-In Cards and Accessories for Series 3700A . . 146
Plug-In Cards for Series 3700A . . . . . . . . . . . . 148–169
80-channel Switch/Control Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . 172
400-channel Switch/Control Mainframe . . . . . . . . . 174
Switch Cards for 7001, 7002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176–177
Switch Card Accessories for 7001, 7002 . . . . . . . . . 177
Switch Cards for 7001, 7002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178–193
Six-slot Semiconductor
Switching Matrix Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Single-slot Semiconductor
Switching Matrix Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
System 41
RF/Microwave Signal Routing Systems . . . . . . . . . . 208
System 46
32-channel, Unterminated, RF/Microwave
Switch System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
System 46T
32-channel, Terminated, RF/Microwave
Switch System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
7116-MWS
Pre-Configured 1×16, Unterminated,
RF/Microwave Switch System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
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SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Switch Cards and Accessories for 707B, 708B . . . . 200
Switch Cards for 707B, 708B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201–207
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133
Switching and Control
Achieving required system accuracies and p­ recision
requires selection of appropriate instruments,
creativity in designing test methods, and careful
attention to specifications and error terms. Most
test system designs are complex enough that it is in
the designer’s best interest to minimize the ­number
of uncontrolled variables. To accomplish this,
the system switch performance should be tightly
­specified.
• Environment—Temperature, humidity, etc.
Special consideration should be given to tests that
approach the specified limits of accuracy, resolution, or sensitivity of the measurement or sourcing
instruments. These generally represent the “most
critical test requirements,” and switching should be
selected to support these tests. A system designed
to perform against the “most critical test requirements” will usually satisfy other test requirements
as well.
How Do I Specify a Switch System
for My Application?
Whether you are designing your own switching
system or preparing to contact Keithley’s applications department for assistance, you need to define
certain parameters for your test system and understand how you want everything interconnected.
First, define your parameters. This includes:
• Measurements—List all the required
­ easurement types and accuracies.
m
• Sources—List all the sources required.
• Quantity—List the number of terminals on the
DUT and how many devices are involved.
• Signal characteristics—List signal types, levels
and frequency, and impedance requirements.
• Speed—What are the speed requirements?
• Communication interface—GPIB, RS-232,
Ethernet, USB
Next, sketch the system. Given the number of
terminals on the device and the number of instruments (source and measure), develop a picture
of what type of switch and configuration will be
needed. This is likely to be an iterative process as
you identify what types of switching equipment are
actually available.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
134
Electrometer
Power
Supplies
Counter/
Timer
Function/
Pulse
Generator
DMM
SYSTEM SWITCHING
Instrument
Controller
Figure 1. General Purpose Test System
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DUT
Once you have done the groundwork, you are
ready to configure the switching for your test
­system:
V-Source
I-Source
DMM
• Determine the appropriate switch and switch
card ­configurations
Electrometer
Column 1
Row 1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
• Select the appropriate switch system
Crosspoint
• Select source and measure equipment
• Select cables and/or other accessories
• Identify need for fuses, limit resistors, diodes, etc.
HI
LO
Guard
• Determine the uncertainties and compare them
with the required accuracies
Switching Configurations
The variety and size of switching configurations
available determine the efficiency of the final
switching design, including the amount and complexity of cabling and interconnect at the time of
system integration. These are the basic building
blocks of any switching system.
RS
Voltage Source
Form A
Low output impedance
• Power supplies
• Function generators
• Pattern generators
• Amplifiers
DUT or
Meter
VS
Device Under Test
Voltage/
Current
Source
(often called a switching mainframe) with a matrix
switch. With a matrix switch, any input can be
connected to any output, singly or in combination.
This helps minimize the need for complex wiring
and interconnect systems and can simplify the DUT
interface. Although a matrix switch will work in virtually any switching application, it should not necessarily be your first choice of switch configuration.
Current Source
Form C
High output impedance
RS
DUT or
Meter
Figure 3. Matrix Switch
Consider an example where you need to connect
four different instruments to ten different test
points on a device-under-test. If you need to be
able to connect any combination of instruments
to any combination of test points at any time, then
you do need a matrix switch. But, if you only need
to connect one instrument to one test point at any
time, then you can combine a four-to-one multiplexer with a one-to-ten multiplexer to make your
connections. The multiplexer approach only uses
14 relays, while the full matrix uses 40. If you simply choose a matrix switch for the second example,
you will end up paying for 26 relay channels you
don’t need. Careful planning can result in a more
compact and economical switch system.
DUT
#1
Figure 2. Example Switching Configurations
A switching configuration can be described by the
electrical property being switched, its mechanical construction, or its function in the test system
(Figure 2). These descriptions of the signal paths
or electrical interconnects are necessary for laying
out and wiring the test system.
A matrix switch (Figure 3) is the most versatile
type of system switching. But first, a word on terminology here — Do not confuse a switch matrix
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G R E A T E R
Measuring
Device
DUT
#2
DUT
#3
Figure 4. Multiplex Switch
M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
Technical information: Switching and control
Technical information: Switching and control
Technical
Information
A multiplex switch (Figure 4) connects one instrument to multiple devices under test or multiple
instruments to one device under test. The multiplex switch is useful in combination with matrix or
other configurations to expand switching capacity
by sharing electrical paths, to provide additional
isolation and reduce crosstalk between channels,
or to build special configurations.
DUT
#1
Measuring
Device
DUT
#2
DUT
#3
Figure 5. Scanner Switch
A scanner (Figure 5) is a special case of multiplex
switching in which switch closures are sequential
or serial, sometimes with the capability to skip
channels.
The isolated switch configuration consists of individual uncommitted relays, often with multiple
poles. Isolated switches are not connected to any
other circuit, and are therefore free for building
very flexible and unique combinations of input/
output configurations with the addition of some
external wiring. This type of switch can be useful
for creating additional isolation between circuits,
providing safety interlock, actuating other relays
or circuits, or building special topologies such as
binary ladders and tree structures.
Electrical Specifications
Electrical specifications of the switching cards
contribute significantly to the overall performance
and signal integrity in the test system. When trying
to achieve high accuracy, resolution, and sensitivity
or to route high frequency signals, high currents,
and high voltages with minimum degradation in the
test signal, the electrical performance of the switch
card must be known. Match the system’s critical test
requirements against the specified performance of
the switch. If the requirement is to measure a onevolt reference to one microvolt, be certain that the
contact potential of the switch is not hundreds of
microvolts. If switching of power supply voltage is
required, be certain that the switch has sufficient
current carrying capacity. When measuring resistances of less than one kW, be certain the switch
will support four-wire measurements.
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Characteristics
Necessary for:
Contact potential
(limits low voltage signal switching)
Current offset
(limits low current signal switching)
Characteristic impedance
Thermocouple cold junction reference
Four-wire (automatic pairing of channels to
facilitate switching of source and sense leads)
Maximum current
Maximum voltage
Maximum power
Precision measurement of voltage signals of less than 1V, as in
reference testing, drift testing, and temperature coefficient testing.
Measurement of signals of less than 1mA, as in semiconductor
characterization and insulation resistance tests.
Signal integrity in RF switching.
Accurate measurements of thermocouple sensor devices.
Precision measurement of resistance less than 1kW and switching of
remote sensing voltage supplies.
Switching of power supplies and high power circuits.
Isolation and safety in high voltage systems.
Determining maximum current and/or maximum voltage that a
relay can switch to prevent damaging the printed circuit board
and relays.
Determining maximum switch activations that can be expected
under hot or cold switching.
Switch life
Figure 6.Switching Performance Characteristics
The switching card specifications represent the
performance of a single card. If additional cards
are connected together, actual performance parameters such as offset current and insertion loss will
be a function of the entire system, not just a single
card. Each extra card and connecting cable adds
some degradation. It may be necessary to characterize the entire system (including switching) in
some applications.
Figure 6 describes a few performance characteristics and where they apply to improve system
performance. There are many other characteristics to consider, depending on the type and
level of signal being switched and the expected
­performance from the test system. The switching
selector guides group switching cards according to
key performance ­features. Many switches actually
fit into multiple categories and you should look
carefully at all of the switch card specifications
before making a final selection. Refer to Keithley’s
Switching Handbook for a more in-depth discussion of switching specifications and their effect on
measurement ­performance.
Mainframe Capabilities
A switching mainframe provides a convenient
mechanical and programming environment for
Keithley switching cards and can be selected to
suit the size of the system. The Model 3706A offers
six slots in a full rack 2U high enclosure and is
compatible with a growing family of high density
and high speed switching cards. For more diverse
signal ranges the Models 7001 (two-slot) and 7002
(ten-slot) switch systems are compatible with the
full range of more than 30 cards.
For low level semiconductor applications, the
Model 707B (six slots) and 708B (one slot) main-
A
G R E A T E R
frames are compatible with six specialized high
density configurations including high speed, low
leakage matrix configurations.
Switching Density
The high channel capacity Keithley mainframes
provide reduces the complexity of a switch application by minimizing the number of mainframes
and cards required. The Model 3706A is our
highest density switching mainframe offering up
to 576 two-wire multiplexer channels in a single
2U high, full rack mainframe. The half-rack 7001
has a capacity of up to 80 two-pole channels, and
the ten-slot 7002 can accommodate 400 two-pole
channels. The 707B can handle up to 576 channels
or matrix crosspoints, while the 708B can accommodate up to 96 channels or crosspoints. The high
density cards for each of these mainframes are
designed for easy interconnect and wiring.
Technical information: Switching and control
Switching and Control
Channel Status
The Series 3700A with its LXI class B compliance
offers an elaborate embedded web browser interface for intuitive point and click control and monitoring of all switch positions. The Series 7000 and
700 switch mainframes provide a visual display of
each switch position on the front panel.
Expansion
The mainframe Models 3706A, 7001, 7002, and
707B each provide an analog backplane that can
be used to make connections between cards when
building large matrix or multiplexer configurations
that require several cards. The backplane eliminates intercard wiring and increases configuration­
­f lexibility.
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Technical information: Switching and control
Technical
Information
C O N F I D E N C E
135
The Series 3700A offers scalable, instrument grade switching
and multi-channel measurement solutions that are optimized for
automated testing of electronic products and components. The
Series 3700A includes four versions of the Model 3706A system
switch mainframe along with a growing family of plug-in switch
and control cards. When the Model 3706A mainframe is ordered
with the high performance multimeter, you receive a tightly
integrated switch and measurement system that can meet the
demanding application requirements in a functional test system
or provide the flexibility needed in stand-alone data acquisition
and measurement applications.
• Six-slot system switch mainframe
with optional high performance
multimeter
• Multi-processor architecture
optimized for high throughput
scanning and pattern switching
applications
• Remote PC control via Ethernet,
USB, and GPIB interfaces
• Up to 576 two-wire or 720 onewire multiplexer channels in one
mainframe
• Up to 2,688 one-pole matrix
crosspoints in one mainframe
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• Embedded Test Script Processor
(TSP®) offering unparalleled
system automation, throughput,
and flexibility
136
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
• TSP-Link® master/slave
connection provides easy
system expansion and seamless
connection to Series 2600 and
2600A SourceMeter® instruments
• Capable of over 14,000 readings
per second to memory with
optional high performance
multimeter
• LXI Class B Version 2 with
embedded Web browser
interface for test setup,
maintenance, and basic
application control
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Maximizes System Control and Flexibility
To provide users with greater versatility when designing test
systems, the Series 3700A mainframes are equipped with many
standard features. For example, easy connectivity is supported
with three remote interfaces: LXI/Ethernet, General Purpose
Interface Bus (GPIB), and Universal Serial Bus (USB). Fourteen
digital I/O lines are also included, which are programmable
and can be used to control external devices such as component handlers or other instruments.
Additionally, system control can be greatly enhanced by using our Test Script Processor (TSP) technology. This technology provides “smart” instruments with the ability to perform distributed processing and control at the instrument level versus a central PC.
High Quality Switching at a Value Price
The Series 3700A builds upon Keithley’s tradition of producing innovative, high quality, precise signal
switching. This series offers a growing family of high density and general purpose plug-in cards that
accommodates a broad range of signals at very competitive pricing. The Series 3700A supports applica­
tions as diverse as design validation, accelerated stress testing, data acquisition, and functional ­testing.
Model 3706A Mainframe
The Series 3700A includes the base Model 3706A system switch/multimeter mainframe with three
options for added flexibility. This mainframe contains six slots for plug-in cards in a compact 2U high
(3.5 inches/89mm) enclosure that easily accommodates the needs of medium to high channel count
applications. When fully loaded, a mainframe can support up to 576 two-wire multiplexer channels
or 2,688 one-pole matrix crosspoints for unrivaled density and economical per channel costs.
High Performance, 7½-digit Multimeter (DMM)
The high performance multimeter option provides up to 7½-digit measurements, offering 26-bit
resolution to support your ever-increasing test accuracy requirements. This flexible resolution supplies a DC reading rate from >14,000 readings/second at 3½ digits to 60 readings/second at 7½ digits
to accommodate a greater span of applications.
Single Channel Reading Rates
The multimeter does not use a card slot, so
DCV/
4 Wire
you maintain all six slots in your mainframe.
NPLC
2 Wire Ohms
Ohms
In addition, the multimeter is wired to the
60
29
1.0
mainframe’s analog backplane, ensuring a high
295
120
0.2
quality signal path from each card channel to
935
285
0.06
the multimeter.
6,200
0.006
580
The multimeter supports 13 built-in measure14,100
650
0.0005
ment functions, including: DCV, ACV, DCI,
ACI, frequency, period, two-wire ohms, four-wire ohms, three-wire RTD temperature, four-wire RTD
temperature, thermocouple temperature, thermistor temperature, and continuity. In addition, the
multimeter offers extended low ohms (1W) and low current (10µA) ranges. In-rack calibration is
s­ upported, which reduces both maintenance and calibration time.
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M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
System switch with high performance multimeter
System switch with high performance multimeter
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
Mainframes
3706A
Six-slot system
switch with high
performance DMM
3706A-NFP
Six-slot system
switch with high
performance DMM,
without front panel
display and keypad
3706A-S Six-slot system switch
3706A-SNFP
Six-slot system switch,
without front panel
display and keypad
Plug-in Cards
3720
Dual 1×30 multiplexer
card (auto CJC when
used with 3720-ST)
3721
Dual 1×20 multiplexer
card (auto CJC when
used with 3721-ST)
3722
Dual 1×48, high density,
multiplexer card
3723
Dual 1×30, high
speed, reed relay
multiplexer card
3724
Dual 1×30 FET
multiplexer card
3730
6×16, high density,
matrix card
3731
6×16 high speed, reed
relay matrix card
3732
Quad 4×28, ultrahigh density, reed
relay matrix card
3740
32 channel isolated
switch card
3750Multifunction
control card
Measurement Capability
1p
1µ
1n
1m
1
1k
DC Voltage
AC Voltage
DC Current
AC Current
Frequency
1G
500kHz
Period
Resistance (2-Wire)
Resistance (4-Wire)
2µs
330ms
Dry Circuit Resistance
Logarithmic scale
Temperature–RTD
Temperature–TC
Temperature–Thermistor
Linear scale
Measurement capabilities of the high performance multimeter
Accessories Available
GPIB Interfaces and Cables
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.5ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6ft)
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Digital I/O, Trigger Link, and TSP-Link
2600-TLINK
Trigger I/O to Trigger Link Interface Cable,
1m (3.3 ft)
CA-126-1
Digital I/O and Trigger Cable, 1.5m (4.9 ft)
CA-180-3A
CAT5 Crossover Cable for TSP-Link
Multimeter Connectors
3706-BAN
DMM Adapter Cable, 15-pin D-sub to banana
jacks, 1.4m (4.6 ft)
3706-BKPL
Analog Backplane Extender Board, 15-pin
D-sub to terminal block
3706-TLK
Test Lead Kit, includes 3706-BAN and plug-in
test lead accessories
8620
Shorting Plug
Services Available
Mainframe Models 3706A and 3706A-NFP
3706A-3Y-EW
1 Year Factory Warranty Extended to 3 Years
3706A-5Y-EW
1 Year Factory Warranty Extended to 5 Years
C/3706A-3Y-STD Calibration Contract, 3 Years, Standard
Calibration*
C/3706A-3Y-DATA Calibration Contract, 3 Years, Z540
Compliant Calibration with Data*
C/3706A-3Y-ISO Calibration Contract, 3 Years, ISO 17025
Accredited Calibration*
C/3706A-5Y-STD Calibration Contract, 5 Years, Standard
Calibration*
C/3706A-5Y-DATA Calibration Contract, 5 Years, Z540
Compliant Calibration with Data*
C/3706A-5Y-ISO Calibration Contract, 5 Years, ISO 17025
Accredited Calibration*
Mainframe Models 3706A-S and 3706A-SNFP
3706A-S-3Y-EW
1 Year Factory Warranty Extended to 3 Years
3706A-S-5Y-EW
1 Year Factory Warranty Extended to 5 Years
Rack Mount Kit
Software Services
System Development or Implementation
Other service contracts are available; please contact us for details.
4288-10
*Not available in all countries.
Fixed Rear Rack Mount Kit
Accessories Supplied
Test Script Builder
Software Suite CD
Ethernet Crossover
Cable (CA-180-3A)
Series 3700A Product CD
(includes LabVIEW®, IVI C,
and IVI.COM drivers)
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System switch with high performance multimeter
System switch with high performance multimeter
Ordering Information
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Series 3700A
C O N F I D E N C E
137
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
TSP Distributed Control Increases Test
Speed and Lowers Test Cost
TSP technology enhances instrument control by allowing users the choice
of using standard PC control or of creating embedded test scripts that
are executed on microprocessors within the instrument. By using TSP
test scripts instead of a PC for instrument control, you avoid communication delays between the PC controller and instrument, which results in
improved test throughput. Test scripts can contain math and decisionmaking rules that further reduce the interaction between a host PC
and the instrument.
Test Script Builder Software Suite
Test Script Builder is a software tool that is provided with all Series 3700A
instruments to help users easily create, modify, debug, and store TSP test
scripts. It supplies a project/file manager window to store and organize test
scripts, a text-sensitive program editor to create and modify test TSP code,
and an immediate instrument control window to send Ethernet, GPIB, and
USB commands and to receive data from the instrument. The immediate
window also allows users to see the output of a given test script and simplifies ­debugging.
This form of distributed control supports the autonomous operation of
individual instruments or groups of instruments and can possibly remove
the need for a high level PC controller, which lowers test and ownership
costs. This is the same proven TSP technology found in our innovative
Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments.
TSP-Link Technology for Easy and Seamless
System Coordination and Expansion
If your channel density requirements grow or if you need to process more
signal types, use TSP-Link technology to expand your system. The TSPLink master/slave connection offers easy system expansion between Series
3700A mainframes. You can also use TSP-Link technology to connect to
other TSP-Link enabled instruments such as Series 2600A SourceMeter
instruments. Everything connected with TSP-Link can be controlled by the
master unit, just as if they were all housed in the same chassis.
Create and modify
test TSP code in the
context sensitive
editor window.
Store and
organize test
scripts in the
file manager
window.
This high speed system expansion interface lets users avoid the complex
and time consuming task of expanding their remote interfaces to another
mainframe. There is no need to add external triggers and remote communication cables to individual instruments, since all TSP-Link connected
devices can be controlled from a single master unit.
The immediate window ­displays test
script output and assists in debugging.
Test Script Builder Software Suite
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Class B Version 2
Series 3700A mainframes are LXI Class B Version 2 compliant instruments.
The features include a 10/100M Base-T Ethernet connection, graphical
Web server, LAN based instrument triggering, and IEEE 1588 precision
time protocol (PTP) synchronization. PTP time synchronization provides
a standard method to synchronize devices on an Ethernet network with
microsecond precision for time/event based programming.
138
Transportable Memory, USB 2.0 Device Port
All Model 3706A mainframes contain a USB device port for easy transfer
of readings, configurations, and test scripts to memory sticks. This port,
which is located on the front panel, provides you with easy access to and
portability of measurement results. Simply plug in a memory stick and,
with a few simple keystrokes, gain access to virtually unlimited memory
storage. Additional capabilities include: saving and recalling system configurations and storage for TSP scripts.
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System switch with high performance multimeter
System switch with high performance multimeter
Series 3700A
Embedded Web Server
The built-in Web interface offers a quick and easy method to control and
analyze measurement results. Interactive schematics of each card in the
mainframe support point-and-click control for opening and closing switches. A scan list builder is provided to guide users through the requirements
of a scan list (such as trigger and looping definitions) for more advanced
applications. When the mainframe is ordered with the multimeter, additional Web pages are included for measurement configuration and viewing,
including a graphing toolkit.
Built-in Web Server Interface
3. Analyze your data. View your results in real-time or historical mode with
point-and-click simplicity. Data can be exported directly to your PC in either
numerical or graphical formats for presentation or other applications.
1. Configure your switch channels and measurement functions.
Configure the DMM to make your measurements at the desired speed,
resolution, etc. and assign them to the desired channels.
System switch with high performance multimeter
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
Model 3706A front panel
Model 3706A-S front panel
2. Build and run your automated scan list. The toolkit makes it easy to
build and execute an automated sequence of channel-open and channel-close
commands and triggered multimeter measurements.
Model 3706A-NFP and Model 3706A-SNFP front panel
Model 3706A rear panel
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System switch with high performance multimeter
Series 3700A
C O N F I D E N C E
139
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
High Performance Multimeter Specifications (Rev. A)
DC Specifications
Series 3700A specifications
Function
Voltage4
Resistance 4, 5, 6, 7
Dry Circuit
Resistance 6, 8
Continuity (2W)
Current 9
Range
100.00000 mV 19
1.0000000 V 19
10.000000 V
100.00000 V
300.00000 V
1.0000000 W
10.000000 W
100.00000 W
1.0000000kW
10.000000kW
100.00000kW
1.0000000MW
10.000000MW
100.00000MW
1.0000000 W
10.000000 W
100.00000 W
1.0000000kW
2.0000000 kW
1.000kW
10.000000µA
100.00000µA
1.0000000mA
10.000000mA
100.00000mA
1.0000000A
3.0000000 A
1
Resolution
0.01 µV
0.1 µV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
0.1µW
1µW
10µW
100 µW
1mW
10mW
100 mW
1W
10 W
1µW
10µW
100 µW
1mW
10mW
100 mW
1pA
10 pA
100 pA
1nA
10 nA
100 nA
1µA
Test Current or
Burden Voltage
10mA
10mA
1mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
10µA
0.64µA//10 MW
0.64µA//10 MW
10mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
5µA
1mA
<61 mV
<105 mV
<130 mV
<150 mV
<0.4 V
<0.6 V
<1.8 V
Input Resistance
or Open Circuit
Voltage2
>10 GW or 10 MW ±1%
>10 GW or 10 MW ±1%
>10 GW or 10 MW ±1%
10MW ±1%
10MW ±1%
8.2 V
8.2 V
13.9 V
13.9 V
9.1 V
14.7 V
14.7 V
6.4 V
6.4 V
27 mV
20 mV
20 mV
20 mV
20 mV
13.9 V
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
(ppm = parts per million) (e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%)
24 Hour3
23°C ± 1°C
10 + 9
7+2
7+2
15 + 6
20 + 6
15 + 80
15 + 9
15 + 9
20 + 4
15 + 4
20 + 4
25 + 4
150 + 6
800 + 30
25 + 80
25 + 80
25 + 80
25 + 80
25 + 80
40 + 100
40 + 50
50 + 9
50 + 9
50 + 9
50 + 9
200 + 60
1000 + 75
90 Day
23°C ± 5°C
25 + 9
25 + 2
20 + 2
35 + 6
35 + 6
40 + 80
40 + 9
45 + 9
45 + 4
40 + 4
45 + 5
50 + 5
200 + 10
2000 + 30
50 + 80
50 + 80
90 + 80
180 + 80
320 + 80
100 + 100
300 + 50
300 + 30
300 + 30
300 + 30
300 + 30
500 + 60
1200 + 75
1 Year
23°C ± 5°C
30 + 9
30 + 2
25 + 2
40 + 6
40 + 6
60 + 80
60 + 9
65 + 9
65 + 4
60 + 4
65 + 5
70 + 5
400 + 10
2000 + 30
70 + 80
70 + 80
140 + 80
400 + 80
800 + 80
100 + 100
500 + 50
500 + 30
500 + 30
500 + 30
500 + 30
800 + 60
1200 + 75
Temperature
Coefficient
0°–18°C and 28°–50°C
(1 + 5)/°C
(1 + 1)/°C
(1 + 1)/°C
(5 + 1)/°C
(5 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(70 + 1)/°C
(385 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(8 + 1)/°C
(35 + 9)/°C
(50 + 5)/°C
(50 + 5)/°C
(50 + 5)/°C
(50 + 5)/°C
(50 + 10)/°C
(50 + 10)/°C
Temperature
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
(Displayed in °C, °F, or K. Exclusive of probes errors.)
Thermocouples (Accuracy based on ITS-90):
140
Type
J
K
N
T
E
R
S
B
Range
–150 to +  760°C
–150 to +1372°C
–100 to +1300°C
–100 to +400°C
–150 to +1000°C
+400 to +1768°C
+400 to +1768°C
+1100 to +1820°C
Resolution
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.1°C
0.1°C
0.1°C
90 Day/1 Year,
23°C ± 5°C
Simulated
reference junction
0.2°C
0.2°C
0.2°C
0.2°C
0.2°C
0.6°C
0.6°C
0.6°C
90 Day/1 Year,
23°C ± 5°C
Using 3720, 3721,
or 3724 Cards
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.8°C
1.8°C
1.8°C
90 Day/1 Year,
23°C ± 5°C
Using 3720, 3721,
or 3724 Cards
1.5°C
1.5°C
1.5°C
1.5°C
1.5°C
2.3°C
2.3°C
2.8°C
Range
–200 to   –150°C
–200 to   –150°C
–200 to   –100°C
–200 to   –100°C
–200 to   –150°C
0 to   +400°C
0 to   +400°C
+350 to +1100°C
Temperature
Coefficient
0°–18°C and 28°–50°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
0.03°C/°C
4-Wire RTD or 3-Wire RTD (100W platinum [PT100], D100, F100, PT385, PT3916, or user 0W to 10kW) (Selectable Offset compensation On or Off):
For 3-wire RTD, dmm.connect=dmm.CONNECT_FOUR_WIRE, ≤0.1W lead resistance mismatching in Input HI and LO. Add 0.25°C/0.1W of lead resistance mismatch.
4-Wire RTD
3-Wire RTD
–200 to +630°C
–200 to +630°C
0.01°C
0.01°C
0.06°C
0.75°C
0.003°C/°C
0.003°C/°C
Thermistor: 2.2kW, 5kW, and 10kW. Not recommended with Model 3724 card. See Model 3724 manual for “Measurement Considerations.”
–80 to +150°C
0.01°C
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
w w w.keithley.com
0.08°C
0.002°C/°C
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 3700A specifications
Conditions: 1 PLC or 5 PLC.
For <1PLC, add appropriate “ppm of range” adder from “RMS Noise” table.
Includes rear panel Analog Backplane connector and transducer conversion. Refer to DC Notes for additional card uncertainties.
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
Single Channel, 60Hz (50Hz) Operation.
1PLC and 5PLC RMS noise are included in
DC specifications.
Function
Series 3700A specifications
DCV
2Ww
(≤10kw)
DCI
4Ww
4Ww
OCOMP
Dry-Cktw
OCOMP
NPLC Aperture (ms) Digits
5 14
83.3 (100)
7½
16.7 (20)
7½
1 14
3.33 (4.0)
6½
0.2 12, 14
0.2 14
3.33 (4.0)
6½
0.06 15
1.0 (1.2)
5½
15
0.100 (0.120)
4½
0.006
15
0.0083 (0.001)
3½
0.0005
100mV
1.0
0.9
2.5
3.5
12
55
325
1V
0.07
0.12
0.32
1.7
3.0
15
95
1kw
0.5
0.8
1.7
4.5
6
15
190
10V
0.05
0.1
0.3
0.7
1.5
7.0
95
Measurements
into Buffer
(rdgs/s)13
100V
0.7
0.8
2.5
3.5
8.0
70
900
300V
0.2
0.35
1.0
1.5
3.5
35
410
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Azero On
Azero Off
9.5 (8)
12 (10)
42 (33)
59.8 (49.5)
50 (40)
60 (50)
120 (100)
295 (235)
205 (165)
935 (750)
218 (215) 6,200 (5,500)
270 (270) 14,600 (14,250)
Ethernet
86.3 (104)
19.4 (22.7)
19.4 (22.7)
7.6 (8.3)
1.40 (1.80)
0.55 (0.57)
0.50 (0.5)
GPIB
86.1 (102.8)
19.5 (22.8)
19.5 (22.8)
6.2 (6.8)
1.50 (1.80)
0.65 (0.67)
0.60 (0.60)
USB
86.3 (103.1)
19.9 (23.2)
19.9 (23.2)
6.4 (7.0)
1.60 (2.30)
0.75 (0.77)
0.70 (0.70)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
9.5 (8)
12 (10)
42 (33)
59.8 (49.5)
50 (40)
60 (50)
120 (100)
295 (235)
205 (165)
935 (750)
218 (215) 6,200 (5,500)
270 (270) 14,100 (13,700)
87.0 (105)
21.0 (24.3)
21.0 (24.3)
7.6 (8.3)
1.40 (1.80)
0.55 (0.57)
0.50 (0.5)
86.1 (103)
19.5 (22.8)
19.5 (22.8)
6.2 (6.8)
1.50 (1.80)
0.65 (0.67)
0.60 (0.60)
86.5 (104)
19.9 (23.2)
19.9 (23.2)
6.4 (7.0)
1.60 (2.30)
0.75 (0.77)
0.70 (0.70)
3A
2.0
1.8
8.0
8.0
20
100
750
9.5 (8)
12 (10)
42 (33)
59.8 (49.5)
50 (40)
60 (50)
120 (100)
295 (235)
205 (165)
935 (750)
218 (215) 6,200 (5,500)
270 (270) 14,100 (13,700)
88 (103)
21.0 (22.7)
19.4 (22.7)
7.6 (8.3)
1.40 (1.80)
0.55 (0.57)
0.50 (0.5)
86.1 (102.8)
19.5 (22.8)
19.5 (22.8)
6.2 (6.8)
1.50 (1.80)
0.65 (0.67)
0.60 (0.60)
86.3 (103.1)
19.8 (23.1)
19.8 (23.1)
6.4 (7.0)
1.60 (2.30)
0.75 (0.77)
0.70 (0.70)
5 14
1 14
0.2 12, 14
0.2 14
0.06 15
0.006 15
0.0005 15
83.3 (100)
16.7 (20)
3.33 (4.0)
3.33 (4.0)
1.0 (1.2)
0.100 (0.120)
0.0083 (0.001)
7½
7½
6½
6½
5½
4½
3½
10–100w
2.0
3.5
6.5
8.0
15
60
190
5 14
1 14
0.2 12, 14
0.2 14
0.06 15
0.006 15
0.0005 15
83.3 (100)
16.7 (20)
3.33 (4.0)
3.33 (4.0)
1.0 (1.2)
0.100 (0.120)
0.0083 (0.001)
7½
6½
5½
4½
4½
4½
3½
10µA
3.5
3.5
50
100
350
400
2500
100µA 1mA–100mA 1A
1.6
1.6
2.9
1.1
1.1
2.2
5.0
3.0
4.0
35
12
4.0
35
20
8.0
200
40
50
450
250
325
5 14
1 14
0.2 12, 14
0.2 14
0.06 15
0.006 15
0.0005 15
83.3 (100)
16.7 (20)
3.33 (4.0)
3.33 (4.0)
1.0 (1.2)
0.100 (0.120)
0.0083 (0.001)
7½
7½
5½
5½
4½
4½
3½
1w
5.5
15
100
300
500
750
3500
10–100w
0.8
1.4
30
50
50
75
450
1kw
0.5
0.5
10
10
15
30
250
10kw
0.5
0.7
50
63
70
100
250
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
5 (4)
23.5 (18.5)
26.5 (21)
80 (60)
140 (110)
200 (195)
210 (205)
5.9 (4.7)
29 (23)
30 (24)
120 (95)
285 (225)
580 (565)
650 (645)
173 (206)
39 (46)
39 (46)
12.3 (14.5)
6.2 (7.2)
4.2 (4.4)
4.2 (4.4)
173 (206)
39 (46)
39 (46)
11.3 (13.3)
6.3 (7.3)
4.3 (4.5)
4.3 (4.5)
173 (206)
39 (46)
39 (46)
11.7 (13.7)
6.5 (7.6)
4.6 (4.8)
4.6 (4.8)
5 14
1 14
0.2 12, 14
0.2 14
0.0005 15
83.3 (100)
16.7 (20)
3.33 (4.0)
3.33 (4.0)
0.0083 (0.001)
7½
7½
6½
5½
3½
1w
5.5
16
45
500
4500
10–100w
0.8
1.5
4.5
50
650
1kw
0.5
0.7
2.1
13
400
10kw
0.5
1.5
3.5
30
400
—
—
—
—
—
2.5 (2.0)
12.7 (10)
14 (11.2)
46.5 (37)
129 (125)
2.9 (2.3)
14 (11.2)
15 (12)
56 (44)
215 (210)
343 (427)
77 (95)
70 (86.5)
22.7 (25)
6.7 (6.7)
341 (425)
74 (92)
70 (86.5)
20.5 (23)
6.8 (6.8)
342 (426)
75 (93)
70 (86.5)
21.1 (24)
7 (7)
5 14
1 14
0.2 12, 14
0.2 14
0.0005 15
83.3 (100)
16.7 (20)
3.33 (4.0)
3.33 (4.0)
0.0083 (0.001)
6½
5½
4½
3½
2½
1–10w
8.0
17
50
500
8500
100w
10
22
50
1000
8500
1kw
10
25
50
1000
8500
2kw
8.0
28
50
1500
8500
—
—
—
—
—
2.5 (2.0)
12 (9.5)
14 (11.2)
35 (30)
84 (84)
2.9 (2.3)
13 (10)
15 (12)
45 (36)
115 (110)
347 (430)
80 (99)
70 (86.5)
27 (33)
10.7 (10.7)
345 (428)
77 (95)
70 (86.5)
25 (31)
10.7 (10.7)
346 (429)
78 (97)
70 (86.5)
26 (32)
11 (11)
RTD Speeds vs. Noise
10kw
0.4
0.6
1.5
5.5
6.5
15
190
Measurement to PC (ms/rdg)
Azero Off 13
1 PLC and 5 PLC Noise are included in RTD Specifications.
Single Channel, 60Hz (50Hz) Operation
Function
NPLC
Aperture (ms)
Digits
83.3 (100)
7½
5 14
16.7 (20)
7½
114
12,
14
3.33 (4.0)
5½
0.2
3.33 (4.0)
5½
0.214
OCOMP OFF
1.0 (1.2)
4½
0.0615
0.100 (0.120)
4½
0.00615
0.0083 (0.001)
3½
0.000515
5 14
83.3 (100)
7½
16.7 (20)
7½
114
3.33 (4.0)
6½
0.212, 14
OCOMP ON
3.33 (4.0)
5½
0.214
0.0083 (0.001)
3½
0.000515
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
w w w.keithley.com
Add °C to Reading 16
4-Wire
3-Wire
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.01
0.18
0.18
0.24
0.24
0.37
0.37
3.10
3.10
0
0
0
0
0.02
0.02
0.38
0.38
4.67
4.67
A
Measurements into Buffer 13
(rdg/s)
Azero On
Azero Off
5 (4)
5.9 (4.7)
23.5 (18.5)
29 (23)
26.5 (21)
30 (24)
80 (60)
120 (95)
140 (110)
285 (225)
200 (195)
580 (565)
209 (205)
650 (645)
2.5 (2.0)
2.9 (2.3)
12.7 (10)
14 (11.2)
14 (11.2)
15 (12)
46.0 (37)
56 (44)
128 (125)
215 (210)
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Measurement to PC 13 (ms/rdg)
Azero Off
Ethernet
GPIB
USB
173 (206)
173 (206)
173 (206)
39 (46)
39 (46)
39 (46)
39 (46)
39 (46)
39 (46)
12.3 (14.5)
11.3 (13.3)
11.7 (13.7)
6.2 (7.2)
6.3 (7.3)
6.5 (7.6)
4.2 (4.4)
4.3 (4.5)
4.6 (4.8)
4.2 (4.4)
4.3 (4.5)
4.6 (4.8)
343 (427)
341 (425)
342 (426)
77 (95)
74 (92)
75 (93)
70 (86.5)
70 (86.5)
70 (86.5)
22.7 (25)
20.5 (23)
21.1 (24)
6.7 (6.7)
6.8 (6.8)
7 (7)
Series 3700A specifications
RMS Noise16, PPM of Range
RMS Noise Calculator:
Add 2.5 × “RMS Noise” to “ppm of range”
(e.g., 10V @ 0.006 PLC)
“ppm of range” = 2.5 × 7.0 ppm + 2 ppm
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
DC Speeds vs. RMS Noise
C O N F I D E N C E
141
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
System Performance 13, 14
DC Measurement Characteristics (continued)
3½-Digit Mode, Azero off, nPLC = 0.0005. Time includes function change from either DCV or 2Ww
to listed function.
Buffer Transfer Speed
Average for 1000 readings
Average for 1000 readings with timestamp
Range
Change (ms)
10
20
10
10
85
Ethernet
2450/s
2300/s
DC Current
Autozero OFF Error: For ±1°C and ≤10 minutes, add ±(8ppm of reading + range error).
Refer to table below.
Auto-range
(ms)
10
20
10
—
300
GPIB
2000/s
1800/s
Range
USB
1800/s
1600/s
3740
Command
channel.close (ch_list) or
channel.open (ch_list)
channel.close (ch_list) or
channel.open (ch_list)
channel.close (ch_list 1-28) or
channel.open (ch_list 1-28)
channel.close (ch_list 29-32) or
channel.open (ch_list 29-32)
Ethernet
GPIB
USB
5.7
5.8
6.1
2.3
2.4
2.7
10.7
10.8
11.1
22.7
22.8
23.1
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
10 mA
1 mA
100 μA
10 μA
DC Notes
1. 20% overrange on DC functions except 1% on 300V range and 3.33% on 3A range.
2. ±5% (measured with 10MW input resistance DMM, >10GW DMM on 10MW and 100MW ranges). Refer to
table for other 2W/4W configurations. For Dry Circuit, +20%, <1mV with dmm.offsetcompensation=ON for
100W–2kW ranges.
Range
1, 10W
100, 1kW
10kW
100k, 1MW
10M, 100MW
DC Volts
A-D LINEARITY: 1.0ppm of reading + 2.0 ppm of range.
INPUT IMPEDANCE:100mV–10V Ranges: Selectable >10GW // <400pF or 10MW ±1%.
100V–300V Ranges: 10MW ±1%.
Input Bias Current: <50pA at 23°C with dmm.autozero=dmm.OFF or
dmm.inputdivider=dmm.ON.
Common Mode Current: <500nA p-p for ≤1MHz.
Autozero OFF Error: For DCV ±1°C and ≤10 minutes, add ±(8ppm of reading + 5μV).
Input Protection: 300V all ranges.
Common Mode Voltage: 300V DC or 300Vrms (425V peak for AC waveforms) between any
terminal and chassis.
142
100 mA
Thermocouples
CONversion: ITS-90.
REFERENCE JUNCTION: Internal, External, or Simulated (Fixed).
OPEN LEAD DETECTOR: Selectable per channel. Open >1.15kW ±50W. Default on.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: 300V DC or 300Vrms (425V peak for AC waveforms), >10GW and
<350pF any terminal to chassis.
DC Measurement Characteristics
2W
8.2 V
13.9 V
9.1 V
12.7 V
6.4 V
4W
8.2 V
14.1 V
9.1 V
14.7 V
6.4 V
4W–Kelvin
8.2 V
13.9 V
9.1 V
12.7 V
6.4 V
3. Relative to calibration accuracy.
4. Add the following additional uncertainty with -ST accessory:
±(ppm of range)
Card
3720, 3721, 3722, and 3730
3723
3724
3731
3732 (Quad 4×28)
100 mV
 45
  60
 45
800
200
1 V
4.5
6.0
4.5
80
20
10 V
–
–
–
8
2
Ocomp 4W
12.1 V
15.0 V
0.0 V
—
—
Ocomp 4W–Kelvin
12.1 V
12.7 V
0.0 V
—
—
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
100 kW
8+5
8+6
8+5
8 + 80
8 + 20
1 MW
  8 + 0.5
  8 + 0.5
80 + 0.5
40 + 8
40 + 2
10 MW
—
—
250 + 1
0 + 25
0+7
100 MW
—
—
5000 + 1
0 + 15
0+4
5. Specifications are for 4-wire W, 1W–1kW with offset compensation on. For Series 3700A plug-in cards, L SYNC
and offset compensation on. 1W range is 4-wire only. Model 3724 card: 1kW–100MW ranges only. Model 3731
card: 100W–100MW ranges only.
For 2-wire W specifications, add the following to “ppm of range” uncertainty:
Rear Panel Connector
DMM Connect Relays
Rel Enable
or 3700 Card
3724 Card 3731 Card
CONNECT_ALL
ON
100mW
500mW
900mW
CONNECT_ALL
OFF
1.5
W
64 W
2.3W
CONNECT_TWO_WIRE
ON
1.5
W
700mW
1.2W
CONNECT_TWO_WIRE
OFF
1.5
W
64 W
2.3W
Resistance
MAX. 4WW LEAD RESISTANCE: 5W per lead for 1W range; 10% of range per lead for 10W–1kW
ranges; 1kW per lead for all other ranges.
MAX. 4WW LEAD RESISTANCE (Dry Ckt): 0.5W per lead for 1W range; 10% of range per lead
for 10W–100W ranges; 50W per lead for 1kW–2kW ranges.
INPUT IMPEDANCE:1W–10W Ranges: 99kW ±1% // <1µF.
100W–2kW Ranges: 10MW ±1% // <0.015µF.
OFFSET COMPENSATION: Selectable on 4WW 1W–10kW ranges.
OPEN LEAD DETECTOR: Selectable per channel. 1.5µA, ±20% sink current per DMM SHI and
SLO lead. Default on.
CONTINUITY THREShOLD: Adjustable 1 to 1000W.
Autozero OFF Error: For 2WW ±1°C and ≤10 minutes, add ±(8ppm of reading + 0.5mW) for
10W and 5mW for all other ranges.
INPUT PROTECTION: 300V all ranges.
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1A
INPUT PROTECTION: 3A, 250V fuse.
Single Command
Excecution Time (ms)
Card
3720, 3721,
3722, 3730
3723, 3724
3731, 3732 18
3A
Shunt Resistance
1W
10 W
100 W
1 kW
6 kW
guaranteed by design 0.05 W 0.05 W
Burden Voltage
<1.75 V <0.55 V <0.4 V <150 mV <130 mV <105 mV <61 mV
Burden Voltage with <2.35 V <1.15 V <0.4 V <150 mV <130 mV <105 mV <61 mV
3721 card
Autozero OFF
100 μA 100 μA
5 μA
0.5 μA
50 nA
5 nA
0.85 nA
“of range” Error
For each additional amp after ±1.5A input, add the following to ppm of range:
—
120
60
60
60
60
95
6. Test current with dmm.offsetcompensation=OFF, ±5%.
7. Add the following to “ppm of reading” uncertainty when using Series 3700A Plug-in Cards in Operating
Environment ≥50%RH.
Card
10 kW
100 kW
1 MW
10 MW 100 MW
3720, 3721, 3724, 3730, 3731, 3732 (Quad 4×28)
  1 ppm   10 ppm
0.01%
0.1%
 1%
with MTC D-Shell connector
3720, 3721, 3724, 3730, 3731, 3732 (Quad 4×28)
10 ppm 100 ppm
 0.1%
  1%
10%
with -ST screw terminal module
10 ppm 100 ppm
 0.1%
  1%
10%
3722 and 3723
Series 3700A Plug-in Cards Operating Environment: Specified for 0° to 50°C, ≤70%RH at 35°C.
8. Dry-Ckt W is 4-wire only. Specifications with offset compensation and L SYNC on.
Card
Ranges
3720, 3721, and 3730
1 W – 2 kW
3722, 3723, and 3732
10 W – 2 kW
3724
1 kW – 2 kW
3731
100 W – 2 kW
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 3700A specifications
Series 3700A specifications
Function
DCV or 2Ww (<10kw)
4Ww (<10kw)
DCI
Frequency or Period 17
ACV or ACI 17
Function
Change (ms)
 10
  20
 10
110
  20
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
DC Notes (continued)
Dry-Ckt W with Offset Comp OFF 2kW, 60 rdg/s max. Dry-Ckt W with Offset Comp ON 2kW, 29.5 rdg/s max.
For temperature reading rates use DCV for T/C and 2WW for Thermistor. Speeds are typical and include measurements and data transfer out the Ethernet, GPIB, or USB.
9. Includes Analog Backplane 15-pin rear panel connector. For 3721, refer to DC Current table for additional
uncertainties.
10.For LSYNC On, line frequency ±0.1%.
nPLC
NMRR
NMRR
5
110 dB
60 dB, ±2 dB
1
90 dB
60 dB, ±2 dB
<0.2
45 dB
—
14.DMM configured for single reading, dmm.measurecount=1, and print(dmm.measure()). May require additional
settling delays for full accuracy, depending on measurement configuration.
<0.01
—
—
15.DMM configured for multisample readings and single buffer transfer, dmm.measurecount=1000,
buf=dmm.makebuffer(1000), dmm.measure(buf), and printbuffer(1,1000,buf).
11.For 1kW unbalance in LO lead. AC CMRR is 70dB.
5
140 dB
1
140 dB
0.2 12
120 dB
16.dmm.autozero=dmm.ON. RMS noise using low thermal short for DCV, 2WW, 4WW, and Dry-Ckt W. For DCI,
dmm.connect=dmm.CONNECT_NONE or 0. For RTD, noise using low thermal 190W precision resistor.
Includes Model 3721 card accuracies. RMS noise values are typical.
≤0.2
80 dB
17. For DCV or 2WW to Frequency or Period, dmm.nplc=0.2 and dmm.aperture=0.01 sec. For ACI or ACV,
dmm.detectorbandwidth=300. For ACI or ACV with dmm.autodelay=dmm.ON, best speed is 65ms.
12.For L SYNC On.
13.Reading rates are for 60Hz (50Hz) operation using factory defaults operating conditions dmm.reset(“all”),
Autorange off, dmm.autodelay=dmm.OFF, dmm.opendetector=dmm.OFF, format.data.=format.SREAL. Ranges
as follows: DCV = 10V, 2WW/4WW = 1kW, DCI = 1mA, Dry-Ckt W = 10W, ACI = 1mA, and ACV = 1V. For
18.Speeds are within same multiplexer bank. Add an additional 8ms when changing banks or slots.
19.When properly zeroed using REL function.
AC Specifications
Function
Voltage2
Current2
Range1
100.0000 mV
1.000000 V
10.00000 V
100.0000 V
300.0000 V
300.0000 V
1.000000mA7
10.00000mA
100.0000mA
1.000000A
3.000000 A
Resolution
0.1μV
1 μV
10 μV
100 μV
1 mV
1 mV
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 μA
10 μA
Accuracy: ±(% of reading + % of range) 23°C ± 5°C
Calibration
Cycle
90 Day
(100mV–100V)
1 Year
(100mV–100V)
90 Day
1 Year
Temp. Coeff. /°C3
(all ranges)
90 Day/1 Year
Temp. Coeff. /°C3
(all ranges)
3 Hz–5 Hz
5 Hz–10 Hz
10 Hz –20 kHz
1.0 + 0.03
0.30 + 0.03
0.05 + 0.03
20 kHz–50 kHz 50 kHz–100 kHz 100 kHz–300 kHz
0.11 + 0.05
0.6 + 0.08
1.0 + 0.03
0.30 + 0.03
0.06 + 0.03
0.12 + 0.05
0.6 + 0.08
4.0 + 0.5
1.0 + 0.05
1.0 + 0.05
0.30 + 0.05
0.30 + 0.05
0.05 + 0.05
0.06 + 0.05
0.11 + 0.08
0.12 + 0.08
0.6 + 0.11
0.6 + 0.11
4.0 + 0.8
4.0 + 0.8
0.010 + 0.003
0.030 + 0.003
0.005 + 0.003
0.006 + 0.005
0.01 + 0.006
0.03 + 0.01
3 Hz–5 Hz
1.0 + 0.04
1.0 + 0.04
1.0 + 0.04
1.0 + 0.04
1.0 + 0.05
5 Hz–10 Hz
0.30 + 0.04
0.30 + 0.04
0.30 + 0.04
0.30 + 0.04
0.30 + 0.05
10Hz –2 kHz
0.08 + 0.03
0.08 + 0.03
0.08 + 0.03
0.20 + 0.04
0.20 + 0.05
2 kHz –5 kHz
0.09 + 0.03
0.09 + 0.03
0.09 + 0.03
0. 88 + 0.04
0. 88 + 0.05
5 kHz –10 kHz
0.09 + 0.03
0.09 + 0.03
0.09 + 0.03
2.0 + 0.04
2.0 + 0.05
0.10 + 0.004
0.030 + 0.004
0.005 + 0.003
0.006 + 0.005
0.006 + 0.005
4.0 + 0.5
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + offset ppm)
Frequency4
and Period
100.0000 mV
to
300.0000 V
0.333 ppm
  3.33 ppm
  33.3 ppm
90 Day/1 Year
(all ranges)
3 Hz–500 kHz
80 + 0.333 80 + 3.33 80 + 33.3 3 Hz–500 kHz
80 + 0.333 80 + 3.33 80 + 33.3 333 ms–2 μs
(0.25 s gate)
(100 ms gate)
(10 ms gate)
Additional Uncertainty ±(% of reading)
Low Frequency
Uncertainty
20 Hz–30 Hz
30 Hz–50 Hz
50 Hz–100 Hz
100 Hz–200 Hz
200 Hz–300 Hz
300 Hz–500 Hz
>500 Hz
Detector Bandwidth
3 (3 Hz–300 kHz)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30 (30 Hz–300 kHz)
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
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300 (300 Hz–300 kHz)
–
–
4.0
0.72
0.18
0.07
0
A
Additional
Uncertainty
±(% of reading)
5 Hz–10 Hz
10 Hz–30 Hz
30 Hz–100 Hz
>100 Hz
300 Hz–500 Hz
≥500 Hz
G R E A T E R
Detector
Bandwidth
3
3
3 or 30
3 or 30
300 only
300 only
M E A S U R E
O F
Crest Factor5
Maximum Crest Factor: 5 at full-scale
1–2
2–3
3–4
4–5
0.50
1.20
1.30
1.40
0.20
0.30
0.60
0.90
0.20
0.30
0.60
0.90
0.05
0.15
0.30
0.40
0.50
1.20
1.30
1.40
0.05
0.15
0.30
0.40
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Series 3700A specifications
nPLC
CMRR
Series 3700A specifications
LSYNC On
LSYNC Off
C O N F I D E N C E
143
Series 3700A
Single Channel, 60Hz (50Hz) Operation
Function
ACI / ACV
Series 3700A specifications
Frequency/Period
Measurements into Buffer 9 (rdg/s)
Detector
Bandwidth
3
30
300
300
300
300
300
NPLC
N/A
N/A
1.0 10
0.2 10
0.06 11
0.006 11
0.0005 11
Aperture (ms)
N/A
N/A
16.67 (20)
3.33 (4.0)
1.0 (1.2)
0.100 (0.120)
0.0083 (0.001)
Digits
6½
6½
6½
6½
5½
4½
3½
N/A
N/A
10–273
N/A
Azero On
0.45 (0.45)
2.5 (2.5)
42 (33)
120 (100)
170 (165)
218 (215)
218 (215)
2× input period
+ gate time
AC Measurement Characteristics
N/A
Measurement to PC 9 (ms/rdg)
Ethernet
2150 (2150)
400 (400)
19.4 (22.7)
7.6 (8.3)
1.40 (1.80)
0.55 (0.57)
0.50 (0.5)
2× input period +
gate time + 2.7ms
GPIB
2150 (2150)
400 (400)
19.5 (22.8)
6.2 (6.8)
1.50 (1.80)
0.65 (0.67)
0.60 (0.60)
2× input period +
gate time + 2.8ms
1. 20% overrange on AC functions except 1% on 300V and 3.33% on 3A. Default resolution is 5½ digits, maximum
useable resolution is 6½ with 7½ digits programmable.
2. Specification are for Detector Bandwidth 3 and sinewave inputs >5% of range. Detector Bandwidth 3 and 30
are multi-sample A/D conversions. Detector bandwidth 300 is a single A/D conversion, programmable from
0.0005PLC to 15PLC. Default condition set to 1PLC.
3. Applies to 0°–18°C and 28°–50°C.
4. Specified for square wave inputs. Input signal must be >10% of ACV range. If input is <20mV on the 100mV
range then the frequency must be >10Hz. For sinewave inputs, frequency must be >100Hz.
5. Applies to non-sinewave inputs 5Hz–>10kHz, and DC content ≤3% of range.
6. For 1kW unbalance in LO lead.
7. For Model 3721, 1mA ACI, add 0.05% to “of reading” uncertainty from 250Hz → 10kHz.
8. Shunt resistance guaranteed by design.
9. Reading rates are for 60Hz (50Hz) operation using factory defaults operating conditions dmm.reset(“all”),
Autorange off, dmm.autodelay=dmm.OFF, dmm.opendetector=dmm.OFF, format.data.=format.SREAL. Ranges
as follows: DCV = 10V, 2WW/4WW = 1kW, DCI = 1mA, Dry-Ckt W = 10W, ACI = 1mA, and ACV = 1V. For DryCkt W with Offset Comp OFF 2kW, 60 rdg/s max. Dry-Ckt W with Offset Comp ON 2kW, 29.5 rdg/s max. For
temperature reading rates use DCV for T/C and 2WW for Thermistor. Speeds are typical and include measurements and data transfer out the Ethernet, GPIB, or USB.
10.DMM configured for single reading, dmm.measurecount=1, and print(dmm.measure()). May require additional
settling delays for full accuracy, depending on measurement configuration.
11.DMM configured for multisample readings and single buffer transfer, dmm.measurecount=1000,
buf=dmm.makebuffer(1000), dmm.measure(buf), and printbuffer(1,1000,buf).
AC Current
Measurement Method: AC-coupled, True RMS.
1A
100 mA
10 mA
1 mA
0.05 W
1.0 W
10 W
100 W
<0.55 V rms
<0.4 V rms
<150 mV rms <125 mV rms
<1.0 V rms
<0.6 V rms
<200 mV rms <130 mV rms
Input Protection: 3A, 250V fuse.
Frequency and Period
Measurement Method: Reciprocal Counting technique.
Gate Time: dmm.aperture=0.273→0.01. Default 0.01s.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
AC General
AC CMRR6: 70dB.
Volt·Hertz Product: ≤8×107 Volt·Hz (guaranteed by design), ≤2.1×107 Volt·Hz verified. Input
frequency verified for ≤3×105 Hz.
144
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USB
2150 (2150)
400 (400)
19.8 (23.1)
6.4 (7.0)
1.60 (2.30)
0.75 (0.77)
0.70 (0.70)
2× input period +
gate time + 3.1ms
AC Notes
AC Volts
Measurement Method: AC-coupled, True RMS.
Input Impedance: 1MW ±2% // by <150pF.
Input Protection: 300VDC or 300Vrms rear inputs or 37xx cards.
Range
3A
Shunt Resistance
0.05
W
guaranteed by design
Burden Voltage
<1.75 V rms
Rear Panel
Burden Voltage
<2.4 V rms
3721 Card
Azero Off
N/A
N/A
59.5 (50)
295 (235)
935 (750)
6,200 (5,500)
14,600 (14,250)
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 3700A specifications
AC Speeds
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
Series 3700A
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
ISINK , max.
Absolute V IN
V IH min
V IL max
VOL max at 5mA Isink
VOL max at Isink max
VOH min, 0.4mA source
Min V IN pulse
Min VO pulse
I/O 1–9
5 mA
5.25 V to –0.25 V
2.2 V
0.7 V
0.7 V
—
2.7 V
2 µs
1 µs
I/O 10–14
250 mA
5.25 V to –0.25 V
2.2 V
0.7 V
0.7 V
2.3 V
2.4 V
10 µs
50 µs
TRIGGERING AND MEMORY:
Window Filter Sensitivity: 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, or full-scale of range (none).
Trigger Delay: 0 to 99 hrs. (10µs step size).
External Trigger Delay: <10µs.
Memory: Up to 650,000 time-stamped readings with Web page disabled. Additional memory
available with external “thumb drive.”
Non-volatile Memory: Single user save setup, with up to 75 DMM configurations and ≥600
channel patterns (dependent on name length, DMM function and configuration, and
pattern image size). Additional memory available with external “thumb drive.”
MATH FUNCTIONS: Rel, dB, Limit Test, %, 1/x, and mX+b with user defined displayed.
REMOTE INTERFACE:
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class B Version 2, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
GPIB: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
USB Device (rear panel, type B): Full speed, USBTMC compliant.
USB Host (front panel, type A): USB 2.0, support for thumb drives.
LXI COMPLIANCE: LXI Class B Version 2 with IEEE 1588 precision time protocol.
LXI TIMING (applies to scanning) and SPECIFICATION:
Receive LAN[0–7] Event Delay: n/s (not specified) min., 800µs typ., n/s max.
Alarm to Trigger Delay: 25µs min., 50µs typ., n/s max.
Generate LAN[0–7] Event: n/s min., 800µs typ., n/s max. (minimums are probabilistic and
represent a 95% confidence factor).
Clock Accuracy: 25ppm.
Synchronization Accuracy: <150ns (probabilistic and represents a 95% confidence factor).
Timestamp Accuracy: 100µs.
Timestamp Resolution: 20ns.
LANGUAGE: Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP) accessible from any host interface.
Responds to individual Instrument Control Library (ICL) commands. Responds to high-speed
test scripts comprised of ICL commands and Test Script Language (TSL) statements (e.g.,
branching, looping, math, etc.). Able to execute high-speed test scripts stored in memory
without host intervention.
IP CONFIGURATION: Static or DHCP.
PASSWORD PROTECTION: 11 characters
MINIMUM PC HARDWARE: Intel Pentium 3, 800MHz, 512Mbyte RAM, 210Mbyte disk space
or better.
OPERATING SYSTEMS/SOFTWARE: Windows® 2000 and XP compatible, supports Web
browsers with Java plug-in (requires Java plug-in 1.6 or higher). Web pages served by 3706A.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C, ≤80%RH at 35°C, altitude up to
2000 meters.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –40° to 70°C.
DIMENSIONS:
Rack Mounted: 89mm high × 483mm wide × 457mm deep (3.5 in. × 19 in. × 18 in.).
Bench Configuration (includes handle and feet): 104mm high × 483mm wide × 457mm
deep (4.125 in. × 19 in. × 18 in.)
SHIPPING WEIGHT: 13kg (28 lbs).
Vext
—
5 V to 33 V
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
I/O 1–9
+5V
5kΩ
100Ω
Read
IN/OUT
Write
GND
I/O 10–14
+5V
5kΩ
Read
100Ω
Vext
IN/OUT
Write
GND
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Series 3700A specifications
EXPANSION SLOTS: 6.
POWER LINE: Universal, 100V to 240V.
LINE FREQUENCY: 50Hz and 60Hz, automatically sensed at power-up.
POWER CONSUMPTION: 28VA with DMM and display, up to 140VA with six 37xx cards.
REAL TIME CLOCK: Battery backed, 10 years typical life.
EMC: Conforms to European Union EMC Directive.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
VIBRATION: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3, Random.
WARM-UP: 2 hours to rated accuracy.
DIGITAL I/O: 25-pin female D-shell.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Series 3700A specifications
GENERAL
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
145
Series 3700A
Plug-in Cards for Series 3700A Mainframes
• Multiplexer, matrix, and
I/O cards
Specifications for Plug-In Cards
Plug-in cards for Series 3700A mainframes
• Relay closures automatically
counted and stored in each
card’s onboard memory
Additional Series 3700A cards are currently in development. For a current list of cards and specifications,
visit www.keithley.com.
• Unlimited contact life with
solid-state relay (Model 3724)
Page
• Automatic CJC for temperature
measurements when used
with screw terminal accessory
(Models 3720, 3721, 3724)
No. of Channels
Card Config.
Type of Relay
Ordering Information
Contact Configuration
3720 Dual 1×30
Multiplexer Card . . . . . . 148
Max. Voltage
3721 Dual 1×20
Multiplexer Card . . . . . . 150
Max. Current Switched
3722 Dual 1×48, High Density,
Multiplexer Card . . . . . . 152
Comments
3723 Dual 1×30, High
Speed, Reed Relay,
Multiplexer Card . . . . . . 154
3720
3721
3722
148
150
152
60 (Dual 1×30)
40 (dual 1×20)
96 (dual 1×48)
Multiplexer
Latching
electromechanical
2 Form A
Multiplexer
Latching
electromechanical
2 Form A
300 V (ch 1–40),
300 V
60 V (ch 41–42)
2 A (ch 1–40),
1A
3 A (ch 41–42)
2 independent 1×20
2 independent 1×30
multiplexers. Automatic multiplexers. Automatic
temperature reference temperature reference
when used with screw when used with screw
terminal accessory
terminal accessory
(Model 3721-ST)
(Model 3720-ST)
Multiplexer
Latching
electromechanical
2 Form A
300 V
1A
2 independent 1×48
multiplexers
3724 Dual 1×30 FET
Multiplexer Card . . . . . . 156
3730 6×16, High Density,
Matrix Card . . . . . . . . . . . 159
3731 6×16, High Speed, Reed
Relay, Matrix Card . . . . . 161
3732 Quad 4×28, Ultra-High
Density, Reed Relay,
Matrix Card . . . . . . . . . . . 163
3740 General Purpose Card
with 32 Independent
Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
3750Multifunction
Control Card . . . . . . . . . . 169
146
Plug-in Card Accessories
Cables
Screw Terminal Block
Connector Kits
3721
3722
3720-MTC-1.5,
3720-MTC-3
3721-MTC-1.5,
3721-MTC-3
3722-MTC-1.5,
3722-MTC-1.5/MM, 3722-MTC-3,
3722-MTC-3/MM
3720-ST
3721-ST
3791-KIT78-R
3790-KIT50-R
3791-CIT
Tools
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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3720
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
3792-KIT104-R,
3792-KIT104-R/F
3791-CIT
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
3723
3724
3730
3731
3732
3740
3750
154
156
159
161
163
167
60 (dual 1×30) or
120 single pole
(dual 1×60)
60 (dual 1×30)
6×16
6×16
448 crosspoints
(Quad 4×28)
32
Multiplexer
Multiplexer
Matrix
Matrix
Dry reed
FET solid-state
Dry reed
Dry reed
1 Form A
2 Form A
Matrix
Latching
electromechanical
2 Form A
169
40 digital I/O, 4
counter/totalizers,
and 2 isolated analog
outputs
Independent
2 Form A
1 Form A
200 V
200 V
300 V
200 V
200 V
1A
0.1 A
1A
1A
0.75 A
2 independent 1×30
multiplexers
2 independent
1×30 multiplexers.
Automatic
temperature
reference when used
with screw terminal
accessory (Model
3724-ST)
Columns can be
expanded through
the backplane or
isolated by relays
3723
3724
3730
3731
3732
3740
3750
3720-MTC-1.5,
3720-MTC-3
3720-MTC-1.5,
3720-MTC-3
3721-MTC-1.5,
3721-MTC-3
3721-MTC-1.5,
3721-MTC-3
3732-MTC-1.5,
3732-MTC-3
3721-MTC-1.5,
3721-MTC-3
3721-MTC-1.5,
3721-MTC-3
3723-ST, 3723-ST-1
3724-ST
3730-ST
3731-ST
3732-ST-C, 3732-ST-R
3740-ST
3750-ST
3791-KIT78-R
3791-KIT78-R
3790-KIT50-R
3790-KIT50-R
3791-KIT78-R
3790-KIT50-R
3790-KIT50-R
3791-CIT
3791-CIT
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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Banks can be
Relay actuation time
connected
of 0.5ms. Columns
together via bank
can be expanded
configuration relays
through the
backplane or isolated to create a single
4×112 or dual 4×56
by relays
matrix. Analog
backplane relays also
included for card
to card expansion.
Row expansion with
3732-ST-R accessory
to create a dual 8×28
or single 16×28
matrix.
Independent
Latching
electromechanical
28 Form C, 4 Form A
300 VDC/250 VAC
(Form A)
2 A (Form C), 7 A
(Form A)
32 general purpose
independent
channels.
3791-CIT
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
All-in-one card
design. 40
bidirectional
I/O. Four 32-bit
counter/totalizers.
2 programmable
analog (V or I)
outputs.
Plug-in cards for Series 3700A mainframes
Plug-in Cards for Series 3700A Mainframes
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Series 3700A
C O N F I D E N C E
147
3720
Dual 1×30 Multiplexer Card
60 differential channels, automatic CJC w/3720-ST accessory
• 60 two-pole channels or 30
four-pole channels for general
purpose switching
• Automatic CJC for temperature
measurements when used with
3720-ST accessory
• 300V, 1A switched or 2A carry
signal capacity; 60W, 125VA
• Screw terminal connections
provided with removable
3720-ST accessory
• Relay closures stored in
onboard memory
• Latching electromechanical
relays
The Model 3720 offers two independent banks of 1×30 two-pole multiplexers. It is ideal for general
purpose switching, including temperature measurements. The two banks can automatically be connected to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane and optional DMM through the analog backplane
connection relays. This connection allows the mainframe to reconfigure the card to a single 1×60
two-pole multiplexer or to enable card-to-card expansion for even larger configurations.
Other features of the Model 3720 include its ability to be reconfigured to coordinated four-pole operation for additional measurement flexibility. Furthermore, the Model 3720 supports thermo­coupletype temperature measurements when used with the Model 3720-ST (screw terminal) ­accessory
providing automatic cold junction compensation (CJC).
The Model 3720 uses two 78-pin male D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal
or automatic CJC, use the detachable Model 3720-ST accessory.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3720
Dual 1×30
Multiplexer Card
3720-MTC-1.5
3720-MTC-3
3720-ST
3791-CIT
3791-KIT78-R
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
7401
148
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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78 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
78 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Screw Terminal Block (required for auto CJC
thermocouple measurements)
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool
78 Pin Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 156 solder-cup
contacts)
Type K Thermocouple Wire (100 ft.)
A
G R E A T E R
Services Available
3720-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3720-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3720-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Dual 1×30 multiplexer card
Dual 1×30 multiplexer card
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy bank and
card interconnections
3720
Dual 1×30 Multiplexer Card
60 differential channels, automatic CJC w/3720-ST accessory
HI Analog
Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog
Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
Channel 1
HI
LO
HI Analog
LO Backplane 3
HI Analog
LO Backplane 4
Channels 2–29
Channel 30
HI Analog
LO Backplane 5
HI
LO
HI Analog
LO Backplane 6
Multiplexer Bank 2
Output 2
Channel 31
HI
LO
HI Analog
Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog
Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
HI
LO
HI Analog
LO Backplane 3
Maximum Carrying Current for Pulses
Maximum Carrying Current (A)
20
100% duty
50% duty
25% duty
10% duty
5% duty
1 shot
1
0.1
1
10
100
Pulse Width (ms)
1000
<–60 dB
<–50 dB
<–25 dB
30 MHz
<–55 dB
<–50 dB
<–20 dB
10 MHz
GENERAL
HI Analog
LO Backplane 6
10
Single 1×60 2, 3
<1.5 W
<± 3 μV
<±250 pA
109 W , 450 pF
—
109 W , 75 pF
109 W , 400 pF
ACTUATION TIME: 4ms.
TEMPERATURE ACCURACY using Automatic CJC with 3720-ST accessory: 1°C for J, K, T
and E types (see mainframe specification for details).
RELAY TYPE: Latching electromechanical.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Matrix.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when interlock connection is removed.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 2.5 lbs.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
HI Analog
LO Backplane 5
HI
LO
Dual 1×30 3
<1.0 W
<±1 μV
<±250 pA
109 W , 250 pF
1010 W , 75 pF
109 W , 75 pF
109 W , 200 pF
Typical Scanning Speeds:
Switch Only 4: Sequential scanning, single channel, immediate trigger advance: >120 ch/s.
With Measurements Into Memory 5:
DCV (10V range) or 2W Ohms (1k W range): >110 ch/s.
Thermocouple: >110 ch/s.
3- or 4-Wire RTD: >100 ch/s.
4-Wire Ohms (1k W range): >100 ch/s.
ACV (10V range): >110 ch/s.
HI Analog
LO Backplane 4
Channels 32–59
Channel 60
Channel Resistance (end of contact life)
Contact Potential (differential)
Offset Current
Isolation
Differential
Bank-Bank
Channel-channel
Common Mode
Crosstalk Channel-channel
300kHz
1MHz
20MHz:
Bandwidth
Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
10000
Open detector enabled during thermocouple measurements. Minimum signal level 10mV, 10µA.
3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected. Maximum two card backplane relays closed.
Connections made using 3720-ST accessory.
Scanning script local to 3706A mainframe, within same bank, and break before make switching.
3706A mainframe with autorange off, limits off, dmm.autozero=0, dmm.autodelay=0, 4½ digits (NPLC=0.006),
for ACV dmm.detectorbandwidth=300, for OHMs dmm.offsetcompensation=off, dmm.opendetector=off.
Scanning script local to mainframe, sequential scan within same bank (2 pole) or card (4 pole), and break
before make switching.
1. Model 3706A ambient temperature <28°C.
2. One shot repetition rate > 10 seconds.
3. Signal path routed only through one card (not through backplane).
4. Only one channel closed at a time.
5. Contact life specification unaffected if pulse width and carry current are not exceeded.
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
HI
LO
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
Model 3720 specifications
Output 1
Model 3720 specifications
MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATION: Two independent 1×30 2-pole multiplexers. Banks can be
isolated from the backplane by relays. Card can be configured for 2 and 4 wire.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2 pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 78 pin male D-shells.
Model 3720-ST screw terminal option: #22 AWG typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D.
124 conductors maximum. #16 AWG maximum wire size with 0.092 inch O.D. 36 conductors
per card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: Channels 1–60: 300V DC or RMS, 1A switched (2A carry), 60W, 125VA.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V DC or RMS between any terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE: >105 operations at maximum signal level. >108 operations no load.1
Multiplexer Bank 1
C O N F I D E N C E
149
3721
Dual 1×20 Multiplexer Card
40 differential channels, automatic CJC w/3721-ST accessory
• 40 two-pole or 20 four-pole
channels for general purpose
switching
• 2 dedicated channels for
current measurements, 3A
capacity
• 4-wire common side ohms input
supports 40 channels of 4-wire
ohms measurements
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy bank and
card interconnections
• 300V, 2A switched or 3A carry
signal capacity; 60W, 125VA
• Latching electromechanical
relays
The Model 3721 offers two independent banks of 1×20 two-pole multiplexers that are ideal for
general purpose switching, including temperature measurements. The two banks can automatically
be connected to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane and optional DMM through the analog backplane connection relays. This connection allows the mainframe to reconfigure the Model 3721 as a
single 1×40 two-pole multiplexer or to enable card-to-card expansion for even larger configurations.
The Model 3721 provides a number of other features. In addition to the 40 channels, two fused channels are supplied for current measurements. Also, the Model 3721 includes dedicated inputs that
enable 40 channels of four-wire common side ohms measurements. For thermocouple type measurements, automatic cold junction compensation (CJC) is supported when used with the Model 3721-ST
(screw terminal) accessory.
The Model 3721 uses two 50-pin male D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal or
automatic CJC, use the detachable Model 3721-ST accessory.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3721
Dual 1×20
Multiplexer Card
3721-MTC-1.5
3721-MTC-3
3721-ST
3790-KIT50-R
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
7401
150
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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50 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
50 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Screw Terminal Block (required for auto CJC
thermocouple measurements)
50 Pin Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 100 solder-cup
contacts)
Type K Thermocouple Wire (100 ft.)
A
G R E A T E R
Services Available
3721-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3721-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3721-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Dual 1×20 multiplexer card
Dual 1×20 multiplexer card
• Automatic CJC for temperature
measurements when used with
3721-ST accessory
3721
Dual 1×20 Multiplexer Card
40 differential channels, automatic CJC w/3721-ST accessory
Channel 1
HI
LO
HI Analog
LO Backplane 3
HI
LO
HI Analog
LO Backplane 6
Multiplexer Bank 2
Output 2
Channel 21
HI Analog
Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog
Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI Analog
LO Backplane 3
HI Analog
LO Backplane 4
Channels 22–39
Channel 40
HI Analog
LO Backplane 5
HI
LO
HI
HI Analog
LO Backplane 6
Notes
3A
Analog
Backplane 1
(DMM Input LO)
LO
HI
1. Open detector enabled during thermocouple measurements. Minimum
signal level 10mV, 10µA.
2. 3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected.
Maximum two card backplane relays closed.
3. Connections made using 3721-ST accessory.
4. Scanning script local to 3706A mainframe, within same bank, and
break before make switching.
5. 3706A mainframe with autorange off, limits off, dmm.autozero=0,
dmm.autodelay=0, 4½ digits (NPLC=0.006), for ACV dmm.detectorbandwidth=300, for OHMs dmm.offsetcompensation=off, dmm.
opendetector=off. Scanning script local to mainframe, sequential scan
within same bank (2 pole) or card (4 pole), and break before make
switching.
Amps
Channel 41
3A
Channel 42
LO
Two pole mode
4 Wire
Common Side
Ohms
HI
DMM
HI Sense
Multiplexer Bank 1
Channel 1
HI
LO
LO
DMM
LO Sense
Channels 2–19
Channel 20
HI
LO
Multiplexer Bank 2
Channel 21
HI
LO
LO
DMM
LO Sense
Channels 22–39
Channel 40
HI
LO
<1.0 W
<1.5 W
<±1 μV
<±250 pA
109 W , 280 pF
1011 W , 60 pF
109 W , 50 pF
109 W , 180 pF
<–60 dB
<–50 dB
<–25 dB
28 MHz
<–60 dB
<–50 dB
<–15 dB
9 MHz
GENERAL
ACTUATION TIME: 4ms.
TEMPERATURE ACCURACY using Automatic CJC with
3721-ST accessory: 1°C for J, K, T, and E types (see
mainframe specification for details).
RELAY TYPE: Latching electromechanical.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Direct.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when interlock
connection is removed.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C.
Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 2.25 lbs.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive
73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive
2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
100% duty
50% duty
25% duty
10% duty
5% duty
1 shot
10
1
0.1
1
10
100
Pulse Width (ms)
1000
10000
1. Model 3706A ambient temperature <28°C.
2. One shot repetition rate > 10 seconds.
3. Signal path routed only through one card (not through backplane).
4. Only one channel closed at a time.
5. Contact life specification unaffected if pulse width and carry current are not exceeded.
Four-wire common side ohm mode
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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<±3 μV
<±250 pA
109 W , 530 pF
—
109 W , 50 pF
109 W , 480 pF
Maximum Carrying Current for Pulses
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
HI
Common
HI Sense
Single
1×40 2, 3
20
Maximum Carrying Current (A)
Model 3721 specifications
Channel 20
HI Analog
LO Backplane 5
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
HI Analog
LO Backplane 4
Channels 2–19
Channel Resistance
(end of contact life)
Contact Potential
(differential)
Offset Current
Isolation
Differential
Bank-Bank
Channel-channel
Common Mode
Crosstalk Channel-channel
300kHz
1MHz
20MHz:
Bandwidth
Dual
1×20 3
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Output 1
HI Analog
Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog
Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
HI
LO
MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATION: Two independent 1×20
2-pole multiplexers. Banks can be connected together via
relay creating a single 1×40 multiplexer. Banks can be isolated from the backplane by relays. Card can be configured
for common side Ohms measurement via backplane relays.
Channel 41–42: Multiplex one of two 2-pole current signals
into DMM.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2 pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 50 pin male D-shells. Removable
screw terminal option.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: Channels 1–40: 300V DC or RMS,
2A switched (3A carry), 60W, 125VA maximum. Channels
41–42: 60V DC or 30V RMS, 3A switched, 60W, 125VA maximum. Fused 3A, 250V RMS.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: Channels 1–40: 300V DC or RMS
between any terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE: >105 operations at maximum signal level. >108
operations no load.1
Typical Scanning Speeds:
Switch Only 4: Sequential scanning, single channel, immediate trigger advance: >120 ch/s.
With Measurements Into Memory 5:
DCV (10V range) or 2W Ohms (1k W range): >110 ch/s
Thermocouple: >110 ch/s.
3- or 4-Wire RTD: >100 ch/s.
4-Wire Ohms (1k W range): >100 ch/s.
ACV (10V, 400Hz range) or ACI (1A, 400Hz range): >110 ch/s.
Model 3721 specifications
Multiplexer Bank 1
C O N F I D E N C E
151
3722
Dual 1×48, High Density, Multiplexer Card
96 differential channels, 300 Volts/1 Amp
• 96 two-pole or 48 four-pole
channels for general purpose
measurements
• 300V, 1A switched or 2A carry
signal capacity; 60W, 125VA
• 1µV and 100pA offsets
• 25MHz bandwidth
• Relay closures stored in
onboard memory
• Latching electromechanical
relays
• Scan and measure over 110
channels/second
The Model 3722 offers two independent banks of 1×48 two-pole multiplexers, which is ideal for
applications that require a high channel count. The two banks can automatically be connected to
the Series 3700A mainframe backplane and optional DMM through the analog backplane connection
relays. This connection allows the mainframe to reconfigure the card as a single 1×96 two-pole multiplexer or to enable card-to-card expansion for even larger configurations. Another feature of this
card is the latching electromechanical relays. They can accommodate 300V, 1A switched signal levels.
The Model 3722 uses two 104-pin D-sub connectors for signal connections. A solder style connector kit (Model 3792-KIT104-R) and pre-assembled cables (Model 3722-MTC-1.5 and 3722-MTC-3) are
available for card connections.
Ordering Information
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
3722
152
Dual 1×48, High
Density, Multiplexer
Card
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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Accessories Available
Services Available
3722-MTC-1.5
104-pin D-sub Male to Female Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
3722-MTC-1.5/MM 104-pin D-sub Male to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
3722-MTC-3
104-pin D-sub Male to Female Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
3722-MTC-3/MM 104-pin D-sub Male to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool
3791-CIT
3792-KIT104-R 104-pin Male D-sub Connector kit (contains 2
male D-sub connectors with housings and 208
solder-cup contacts)
3792-KIT104-R/F 104-pin Female D-sub Connector kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors with housings and
208 solder-cup contacts)
3722-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3722-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3722-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
High density dual 1×48 multiplexer card
High density dual 1×48 multiplexer card
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy bank and
card interconnections
3722
Dual 1×48, High Density, Multiplexer Card
96 differential channels, 300 Volts/1 Amp
Dual 1×48 2
<1.5 W
<±1 μV
<100 pA
5×109 W , 200 pF
109 W , 50 pF
109 W , 50 pF
1010 W , 200 pF
<–65 dB
<–55 dB
<–30 dB
25 MHz
Single 1×96
<2.5 W
<± 2 μV
<100 pA
5×109 W , 400 pF
—
109 W , 50 pF
1010 W , 400 pF
<–65 dB
<–55 dB
<–30 dB
15 MHz
Typical Scanning Speeds:
Switch Only 3: Sequential scanning, single channel, immediate trigger advance: >120 ch/s.
With Measurements Into Memory 4:
DCV (10V range) or 2W Ohms (1k W range): >110 ch/s.
3- or 4-Wire RTD: >100 ch/s.
4-Wire Ohms (1k W range): >100 ch/s.
ACV (10V, 400Hz range): >110 ch/s.
Model 3722 specifications
Channel Resistance (end of contact life)
Contact Potential (differential)
Offset Current
Isolation
Differential
Bank-Bank
Channel-channel
Common Mode
Crosstalk Channel-channel
300kHz
1MHz
20MHz
Bandwidth
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
Model 3722 specifications
MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATION: Two independent 1×48 2-pole multiplexers. Banks can be
connected together via relays creating a single 1×96 multiplexer. Banks can be isolated from the
backplane by relays. Card can be configured for 2- and 4-wire mode.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2 pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 104 pin female D-shells.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 300V DC or RMS, 1A switched (2A carry), 60W, 125VA.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V DC or RMS between any terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE: >105 operations at maximum signal level. >108 operations no load.1
GENERAL
ACTUATION TIME: 4ms.
RELAY TYPE: Latching electromechanical.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Matrix.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 2.5 lbs.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
Notes
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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Minimum signal level 10mV, 10µA.
3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected. Maximum two card backplane relays closed.
Scanning script local to 3706A mainframe, within same bank, and break before make switching.
3706A mainframe with autorange off, limits off, dmm.autozero=0, dmm.autodelay=0, 4½ digits (NPLC=.006),
for ACV dmm.detectorbandwidth=300, for OHMs dmm.offsetcompensation=off. Scanning script local to mainframe, sequential scan within same bank (2 pole) or card (4 pole), and break before make switching.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
1.
2.
3.
4.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
153
3723
Dual 1×30, High Speed, Multiplexer Card
60 differential channels, long life reed relays
• 60 two-pole or 30 four-pole
channels for high speed
scanning
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy bank and
card interconnections
• 200V, 1A switched or 1.25A
carry signal capacity; 15W
• Relay actuation time <0.5ms
• 20MHz bandwidth
• Ideal for multi-channel I-V
testing with Series 2600A
SourceMeter® instruments
• Long life dry reed relays
(>109 operations)
The Model 3723 offers two independent banks of high speed 1×30 two-pole multiplexers that are
ideal for high speed scanning applications. The two banks can automatically be connected to the
Series 3700A mainframe backplane and optional DMM through the analog backplane connection
relays. This connection allows the mainframe to reconfigure the Model 3723 as a single 1×60 twopole multiplexer or as a single 1×120 single-pole multiplexer. It also enables card-to-card expansion
for even larger configurations.
By using high speed reed relays with actuation times of less than 0.5ms, this card can meet demanding throughput applications. Another feature of the Model 3723 is its single-ended, one-pole mode,
which supports up to 120 channels of single-wire measurements.
The Model 3723 uses two 78-pin D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal connections, use the Model 3723-ST for two- and four-pole configurations or the Model 3723-ST-1 for
single-wire applications.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
3723
154
Dual 1×30, High
Speed, Reed Relay,
Multiplexer Card
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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3720-MTC-1.5
3720-MTC-3
3723-ST
3723-ST-1
3791-CIT
3791-KIT78-R
78 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
78 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Screw Terminal Block
Screw Terminal Block for single-pole
applications
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool
78 Pin Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 156 solder-cup
contacts)
A
G R E A T E R
Services Available
3723-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3723-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3723-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
High speed, dual 1×30 multiplexer card
High speed, dual 1×30 multiplexer card
• 120 channel single-pole mode
for one-wire (common side)
measurements
3723
Dual 1×30, High Speed, Multiplexer Card
MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATION: Two independent 1×30 2-pole multiplexers. Banks can be
connected together via relay creating a single 1×60 multiplexer. Banks can be isolated from the
backplane by relays. Card can be configured for 1-, 2-, and 4-wire.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2 pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 78-pin male D-shells.
Model 3723-ST screw terminal option: #22 AWG typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D.
124 conductors maximum. #16 AWG maximum wire size with 0.092 inch O.D. 36 conductor per
card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 200V DC or RMS, 1A switched (1.25A carry), 15W.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V DC or RMS between any terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE:Reed: >109 operations, no load. 107 operations @100V, 10mA.
EMR: >108 operations @ 5V, 10mA. 105 operations @ maximuum signal level.
Multiplexer Bank 1
HI Analog Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI
LO
HI Analog Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
Channel 1
HI
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 3
LO
Model 3723 specifications
Channel 30
HI
Analog Backplane 5
LO
HI
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 6
LO
Multiplexer Bank 2
Output 2
HI
LO
HI Analog Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
Channel 31
HI
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 3
LO
Channel Resistance (end of contact life)
Contact Potential:Differential
Single-Ended
Offset Current
Isolation
Differential
Bank-Bank
Channel-channel
Common Mode
Crosstalk Channel-channel
300kHz
1MHz
20MHz
Bandwidth
HI
Analog Backplane 4
LO
Channels 32–59
Channel 60
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
HI
Analog Backplane 4
LO
Channels 2–29
HI
Analog Backplane 5
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO Analog Backplane 6
Two-pole mode
HI
LO
Channel 1
HI
Channels 2–29
LO
Channel 30
HI
Single Pole
Configuration Relay
(internal control only)
LO
HI
LO
HI
Channels 62–89
LO
Channel 90
HI
LO
HI
Multiplexer Bank 2
Output 2
LO
Analog Backplane 1
(DMM Input)
Analog Backplane 4
Analog Backplane 6
HI
LO
Channel 31
HI
Channels 32–59
LO
Channel 60
HI
Single Pole
Configuration Relay
(internal control only)
Channel 91
Channels 92–119
Channel 120
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
Analog Backplane 1
(DMM Input)
Analog Backplane 2
(DMM Sense)
<–55 dB
<–45 dB
<–20 dB
10 MHz
ACTUATION TIME: <0.5ms.
RELAY TYPE: Dry reed.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Direct.
RELAY DRIVE Current: 10mA.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when interlock connection is removed.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 3.0 lbs.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
Analog Backplane 3
Analog Backplane 5
<–55 dB
<–50 dB
<–20 dB
20 MHz
GENERAL
Analog Backplane 2
(DMM Sense)
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
Channel 61
Single 1×60 1, 2
<2.0 W
<±6 μV
<±12 μV
<250 pA
1010 W , 500 pF
—
1010 W , 75 pF
109 W , 625 pF
Typical Scanning Speeds:
Switch Only 3: Sequential scanning, single channel, immediate trigger advance: >1000 ch/s.
With Measurements Into Memory 4:
DCV (10V range) or 2W Ohms (1k W range): >800 ch/s.
3- or 4-Wire RTD: >450 ch/s.
4-Wire Ohms (1k W range): >450 ch/s.
ACV (10V, 400Hz range): >800 ch/s.
Multiplexer Bank 1
Output 1
Dual 1×30 1
<1.5 W
<±6 μV
<±12 μV
<250 pA
1010 W , 260 pF
1010 W , 75 pF
1010 W , 75 pF
1010 W , 280 pF
Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
Analog Backplane 3
Connections made using 3723-ST accessory.
3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected. Maximum two card backplane relays closed.
Scanning script local to 3706A mainframe, within same bank, and break before make switching.
3706A mainframe with autorange off, limits off, dmm.autozero=0, dmm.autodelay=0, 4½ digits (NPLC=0.006),
for ACV dmm.detectorbandwidth=300, for OHMs dmm.offsetcompensation=off. Scanning script local to mainframe, sequential scan within same bank (2 pole) or card (4 pole), and break before make switching.
Analog Backplane 4
Analog Backplane 5
Analog Backplane 6
Single-pole mode
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Output 1
Model 3723 specifications
60 differential channels, long life reed relays
C O N F I D E N C E
155
3724
Dual 1×30 FET Multiplexer Card
60 differential channels, automatic CJC with 3724-ST accessory
• 60 two-pole or 30 four-pole
solid-state channels
• Scanning speeds greater
than 1250 channels/second
(switch only)
• 200V, 0.1A switch/carry signal
capacity; 800mW
• Automatic CJC for temperature
measurements when used with
3724-ST accessory
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy bank and
card interconnections
• Screw terminal connections
provided with removable
3724-ST accessory
• Ideal for maintenance-free,
long-life thermocouple
temperature measurements
The Model 3724 provides two independent banks of solid-state relays arranged as 1×30 two-pole
multiplexers that are ideal for high reliability, high speed multipoint measurement applications
including temperature. The two banks can automatically be connected to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane and optional DMM through the analog backplane connection relays. This connection allows the mainframe to reconfigure the card to a single 1×60 two-pole multiplexer or to enable
card-to-card expansion for even larger configurations.
The solid-state FET relay technology supports fast switching times with scanning rates of greater
than 1250 channels/second and provides unlimited contact life. In addition, the Model 3724 ­supports
thermo­couple temperature measurements when used with the Model 3724-ST (screw terminal) accessory ­providing automatic cold junction compensation (CJC).
The Model 3724 uses two 78-pin male D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal
or automatic CJC, use the detachable Model 3724-ST accessory.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3720-MTC-1.5
3724
3720-MTC-3
Dual 1×30 FET
Multiplexer Card
3724-ST SWITCHING AND CONTROL
3791-CIT
3791-KIT78-R
156
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78-pin female-to-male D-sub Cable Assembly,
1.5m (4.9 ft)
78-pin female-to-male D-sub Cable Assembly,
3m (9.8 ft)
Screw Terminal Block (required for auto CJC
thermocouple measurements)
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool
78-pin female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 156 solder-cup
contacts)
A
G R E A T E R
Services Available
3724-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3724-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3724-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Dual 1×30 FET multiplexer card
Dual 1×30 FET multiplexer card
• Optically isolated, solid-state
FET relays provide unlimited
contact life
3724
Dual 1×30 FET Multiplexer Card
60 differential channels, automatic CJC with 3724-ST accessory
Output 1
HI
LO
MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATION: Two independent 1×30, 2-pole multiplexers. Banks can be
connected together via relay creating a single 1×60 multiplexer. Banks can be isolated from the
backplane by relays. Card can be configured for 2- and 4-wire.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 78-pin male D-shells.
MODEL 3724-ST SCREW TERMINAL OPTION: #22AWG typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D.
124 conductors maximum. 16 AWG maximum wire size with 0.092 inch O.D. 36 conductor per
card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 200V DC or 141V RMS between any terminal, 0.1A switched (0.1A
carry), 800mW.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V DC or RMS between any terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 107.
CONTACT LIFE:
Solid State: > unlimited.
EMR (Backplane):>1×108 operations @ 5V, 10mA.
1×105 operations @ max. signal level.
HI Analog Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
Channels 2–29
Channel 30
HI
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 3
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 4
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 5
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 6
LO
Multiplexer Bank 2
Output 2
HI
LO
HI Analog Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
Channel 31
HI
LO
Channels 32–59
HI
Channel 60
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 3
LO
Channel Resistance
Contact Potential (differential)
Offset Current
Single 1×601, 2
<64W (58W @ 23ºC)
<±2.5 μV
<10 nA
(<±100 pA @
23ºC/60% R.H.)
109W, 500 pF
109W, 100 pF
109W, 125 pF
109W, 150 pF
109W, 1100 pF
—
109W, 125 pF
9
10 W, 700 pF
–40 dB
–30 dB
2 MHz
–40 dB
–30 dB
1 MHz
Isolation
Differential
Bank-Bank
CH–CH
Common Mode
Crosstalk CH-CH
300 kHz
1 MHz
Bandwidth
HI
Analog Backplane 4
LO
HI
Analog Backplane 5
LO
Notes
1. Connections made using 3724-ST.
2. 3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected. Maximum two card backplane relays closed.
HI
LO Analog Backplane 6
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Dual 1×301
<62W (54W @ 23ºC)
<±2 μV
<10 nA
(<±100 pA @
23ºC/60% R.H.)
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
HI
LO
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
Model 3724 specifications
Channel 1
Model 3724 specifications
Model 3724 Specifications
Multiplexer Bank 1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
157
3724
Dual 1×30 FET Multiplexer Card
60 differential channels, automatic CJC with 3724-ST accessory
3724 Card/3706A Multimeter
Condensed Specifications
Temperature
Displayed in °C, °F, or K. Exclusive of probe errors.
Displayed in °C, °F, or K. Exclusive of probe errors.
Model 3724 specifications
Thermocouples (accuracy based on ITS-90)
Type
Range
J
–150 to +760°C
K
–150 to +1372°C
N
–100 to +1300°C
T
–100 to +400°C
E
–150 to +1000°C
R
+400 to +1768°C
S
+400 to +1768°C
B
+1100 to +1820°C
Resolution
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.1°C
0.1°C
0.1°C
90 Day/1 Year
23°C ± 5°
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.0°C
1.8°C
1.8°C
1.8°C
DC Specifications
3724 Card/3706A Multimeter Uncertainty Specifications:
Function
Voltage
Resistance
Resistance
Resistance
Resistance
Resistance 2-wire
Resistance 4-wire
and Dry Circuit
Range
All
100 kW
1 MW
10 MW
100 MW
Notes
Add 4.5 µV to PPM “of range”
Add 8 PPM to “of reading”
Add 80 PPM to “of reading”
Add 250 PPM to “of reading”
Add 5000 PPM to “of reading”
Add 1.2 W (with REL) to PPM “of range” Add 64W
1 kW through 100 MW
(without REL) to PPM “of range”
Ranges Not Available (maximum lead resistance
1 W, 10 W, and 100 W exceeded, see manual for measurement
considerations)
Notes
1. Scanning script local to mainframe, within same bank, break before make.
2. 3706A mainframe with autorange off, limits off, dmm.autodelay=0, dmm.autozero=0, 4½ digits (NPLC=.006),
for ACV dmm.detectorbandwidth=300, for OHMs dmm.offsetcompensation=off, dmm.opendetector=off.
Scanning script local to mainframe, sequential scan within same bank (2 pole) or card (4 pole), and break
before make switching.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Conditions: 1 PLC or 5 PLC.
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range) (ppm = parts per million; e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%).
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Model 3724 specifications
GENERAL
ACTUATION TIME: <0.2ms.
TEMPERATURE ACCURACY USING Automatic CJC with 3724-ST accessory: 1ºC for
J, K, T, and E type (see mainframe specification for details).
RELAY TYPE: Optically isolated FET.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Direct.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when interlock connection removed.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 4mA.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0ºC to 50ºC. Specified to 70% R.H. at 35ºC.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25ºC to 65ºC.
WEIGHT: 1.13 kg (2.5 lbs.).
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
TYPICAL SCANNING SPEEDS, SWITCH ONLY1:
Sequential scanning, single channel, immediate trigger advance: >1250 ch/s.
TYPICAL SCANNING SPEEDS, WITH MEASUREMENTS INTO MEMORY2:
DCV (10V range) or 2WW (1kW range): >1000 ch/s.
Thermocouple: >1000 ch/s.
3- or 4-Wire RTD: >450 ch/s.
4-Wire W (1kW range): >450 ch/s.
ACV (10V, 400Hz range): >1000 ch/s.
Power Budget Information:
Quiescent Power (mW): 1150.
Channel Relay Power (mW) Each: 20.
Backplane Relay Power Consumption (mW) Each: 100.
See Chapter 8 of the Series 3700A user’s manual for more detailed information.
3730
6×16, High Density, Matrix Card
96 two-pole crosspoints with column expansion relays
• 6 row by 16 column matrix
(2-pole)
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy column
expansion
• 2µV and 100pA offsets
• Relay closures stored in
onboard memory
• Latching electromechanical
relays
The Model 3730 is a two-pole, 6 row by 16 column matrix card. It can connect up to six differential
instrument channels to any combination of 16 DUTs (devices under test). Any row can be connected
to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane by using the analog backplane connection relays. This
allows for easy matrix column expansion. A matrix of up to 6 rows by 96 columns can be supported
within a single Model 3706A mainframe (with six Model 3730 cards).
High density 6×16 matrix card
• Screw terminal connections
provided on removable 3730-ST
accessory
The Model 3730 uses two 50-pin male D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal
connections, use the detachable Model 3730-ST accessory.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3730
6×16, High Density,
Matrix Card
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3721-MTC-1.5
3721-MTC-3
3730-ST
3790-KIT50-R
50 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
50 Pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Screw Terminal Block
50 Pin Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 100 solder-cup
contacts)
Services Available
3730-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3730-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3730-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
High density 6×16 matrix card
• 300V, 1A switched or 2A carry
signal capacity; 60W, 125VA
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
159
3730
6×16, High Density, Matrix Card
1
2
3
4
5
6
Columns
8
9
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
HI Analog Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
2
HI Analog Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
3
HI Analog Backplane 3
LO
Model 3730 specifications
Rows
4
HI Analog Backplane 4
LO
5
HI Analog Backplane 5
LO
6
HI Analog Backplane 6
LO
HI
LO
Channel Resistance (end of contact life)
Contact Potential (differential)
Offset Current
Isolation
Differential
Channel-channel
Common Mode
Crosstalk Channel-channel
300kHz
1MHz
20MHz
Bandwidth
HI
LO
Matrix Crosspoint
Relay Detail
Maximum Carrying Current for Pulses
Maximum Carrying Current (A)
20
100% duty
50% duty
25% duty
10% duty
5% duty
1 shot
10
1
0.1
1
10
100
Pulse Width (ms)
1000
Matrix CONFIGURATION: 6 row by 16 column matrix.
Columns can be expanded using the backplane or isolated
by relays.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2 pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 50 pin male D-shells.
Model 3730-ST screw terminal option: #22 AWG
typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D. 88 conductors
maximum. #16 AWG maximum wire size with 0.092 inch
O.D. 44 conductor per card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 300V DC or RMS, 1A switched (2A
carry), 60W, 125VA.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V DC or RMS between any
terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE: >105 operations @ maximuum signal level.
>108 operations no load.1
6×16 2, 3
<1.0 W
<±2 μV
<±100 pA
1010 W , 250 pF
1010 W , 75 pF
1010 W , 150 pF
<–65 dB
<–55 dB
<–30 dB
27 MHz
GENERAL
ACTUATION TIME: 4ms.
RELAY TYPE: Latching electromechanical.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Hybrid Matrix.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when terminal
assembly is removed.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C.
Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 2.5 lbs.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/
EC, EN61326-1.
10000
1. Model 3706A ambient temperature <28°C.
2. One shot repetition rate > 10 seconds.
3. Signal path routed only through one card (not through backplane).
4. Only one channel closed at a time.
5. Contact life specification unaffected if pulse width and carry current are not exceeded.
Notes
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
1. Minimum signal level 10mV, 10µA.
2. Connections made using 3730-ST accessory.
3. 3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected.
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Model 3730 specifications
96 two-pole crosspoints with column expansion relays
3731
6×16 High Speed, Reed Relay, Matrix Card
96 two-pole crosspoints with column expansion relays
• 6 row by 16 column matrix
(2-pole) using high speed, long
life reed relays
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy column
expansion
• Relay actuation time of 0.5ms
• Ideal for multi-channel I-V
testing with Series 2600A
System SourceMeter®
Instruments
• Long life dry reed relays
(>109 operations)
The Model 3731 is a two-pole, 6 row by 16 column reed relay matrix card. By using high speed reed
relays with actuation times of 0.5ms, this card meets the requirements of demanding throughput
applications while offering users the additional benefit of long life, exceeding one billion operations.
The card can connect up to six differential instrument channels to any combination of 16 DUTs
(devices under test). Any row can be connected to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane by using
the analog backplane connection relays. This allows for easy matrix column expansion. A matrix
of up to 6 rows by 96 columns can be supported within a single 3706A mainframe (with six Model
3731 cards).
High speed 6×16 reed matrix card
• Screw terminal connections
provided on removable 3731-ST
accessory
The Model 3731 uses two 50-pin male D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal
connections, use the detachable Model 3731-ST accessory.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3731
6×16 High Speed, Reed
Relay, Matrix Card
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3721-MTC-1.5
3721-MTC-3
3731-ST
3790-KIT50-R
50-pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
50-pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Screw Terminal Block
50-pin Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 100 solder-cup
contacts)
Services Available
3731-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3731-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3731-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
High speed 6×16 reed matrix card
• 200V, 1A switched or 2A carry
signal capacity; 10W, 10VA
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
161
3731
6×16 High Speed, Reed Relay, Matrix Card
96 two-pole crosspoints with column expansion relays
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
1
2
3
Rows
4
Model 3731 specifications
5
6
HI
Analog Backplane 1
(DMM Input)
Analog Backplane 2
(DMM Sense)
Analog Backplane 3
Analog Backplane 4
Analog Backplane 5
Analog Backplane 6
LO
HI
LO
Matrix Crosspoint
Relay Detail
MATrix CONFIGURATION: 6 row by 16 column matrix.
Columns can be expanded using the backplane or isolated
by relays.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 50-pin male D-shells.
Model 3731-ST screw terminal option:
Typical wire size: #22 AWG with .062 inch O.D.;
88 conductors maximum
Maximum wire size: #16 AWG with .092 inch O.D.;
44 conductors per card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 200V DC or peak AC, 1A switched
(2A carry), 10W, 10VA.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200V DC or peak AC between any
signal path to a signal path or ground.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE:
Reed: >109 operations no load. >8×106 operations @ 100V,
10mA.
EMR (Backplane): >108 operations @ 5V, 10mA and 105
operations @ maximum signal level.
Channel Resistance (end of contact life)
Contact Potential (differential)
Offset Current
Isolation
Differential
Channel-channel
Common Mode
Crosstalk Channel-channel
300kHz
1MHz
15MHz
Bandwidth
6×16 1, 2
<1.5 W
<±80 μV
<±500 pA
3×109 W , 300 pF
9
3×10 W , 100 pF
3×109 W , 150 pF
<–60 dB
<–50 dB
<–20 dB
19 MHz
GENERAL
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
ACTUATION TIME: 0.5ms.
RELAY TYPE: Reed.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Direct drive.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when terminal
assembly is removed.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C.
Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 2.2 lbs.
SAFETY: Compliant with European Union Low Voltage
Directive
EMC: Compliant with European Union EMC Directive
2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
162
Notes
1. Connections made using 3731-ST.
2. 3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected.
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C O N F I D E N C E
Model 3731 specifications
96 Two-Pole Crosspoints with
Column Expansion Relays
Columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
3732
Quad 4×28, Ultra-High Density,
Reed Relay Matrix Card
448 one-pole crosspoints with bank configuration and backplane connection relays
• Four independent banks of
4×28 single pole matrices
–– Dual 4×56 (1 wire)
–– Single 4×112 (1 wire)
–– Single 4×56 (2 wire)
• Optional accessory, Model
3732-ST-R, enables screw
terminal access and additional
matrix sizes including:
–– Dual 8×28 (1 wire)
–– Single 16×28 (1 wire)
–– Single 8×28 (2 wire)
• Analog backplane connection
relays provide easy card-to-card
column expansion
• Long life dry reed relays
(>109 operations)
• Ideal for high channel count
I-V testing with Series
2600A System SourceMeter®
Instruments
The ultra-high density Model 3732 matrix card is comprised of four banks, each with 4 rows by 28
columns of reed relays. This provides 448 single-pole crosspoints for maximum connection versatility in high channel count applications. For even greater flexibility, bank configuration relays are
mounted on the card. They offer an automated method of connecting banks to enable two additional
matrix configurations: single 4×112 and dual 4×56. This feature allows the matrix size to be easily
adapted to existing or future applications. For differential (2-wire) measurements, a two-pole mode
can be selected that enables automatic pairing of crosspoints to create a dual 4×28 or single 4×56
configuration. For larger matrix sizes, analog backplane relays are provided that enable rows to connect to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane. This allows, for example, a matrix of up to 4 rows by
672 columns within a single 3706A mainframe using six Model 3732 cards.
Quad 4×28, ultra-high density, reed relay matrix card
• Bank configuration relays
enable alternative matrix sizes,
including:
The card uses optimized reed relays that offer both low contact potential and low current offset to
minimize the switching errors that often accompany this relay technology. Additionally, these relays
provide greater signal voltage (200V) and current (1.2A carry) dynamic range while supporting the
long life and fast actuation times necessary in many automated test applications.
The Model 3732 uses two 78-pin male D-sub connectors for signal and configuration connections.
For screw terminal connections, two accessories are offered. Use the 3732-ST-R for the 16×28 or
dual 8×28 matrix configurations. Use the 3732-ST-C for the 4×112, dual 4×56, or base quad 4×28
matrix configurations.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3732
Quad 4×28, UltraHigh Density, Reed
Relay Matrix Card
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3732-ST-C
3732-ST-R
3732-MTC-1.5
3732-MTC-3
3791-CIT
3791-KIT78-R
Screw Terminal Block for matrix configurations:
Quad 4×28 (1 wire)
Dual 4×28 (2 wire)
Single 4×56 (2 wire)
Dual 4×56 (1 wire)
Single 4×112 (1 wire)
Screw Terminal Block for matrix configurations:
Dual 8×28 (1 wire)
Single 8×28 (2 wire)
Single 16×28 (1 wire)
78-pin, D-sub Female-to-Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
78-pin, D-sub Female-to-Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tool
78-pin, Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 156 solder-cup
contacts)
A
G R E A T E R
Services Available
3732-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3732-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3732-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Quad 4×28, ultra-high density, reed relay matrix card
• 200V, 1.2A carry or 0.75A
switched signal capacity;
15W, 15VA
C O N F I D E N C E
163
3732
Quad 4×28, Ultra-High Density,
Reed Relay Matrix Card
448 one-pole crosspoints with bank configuration and backplane connection relays
Quad 4×28 (1-wire) or Dual 4×28 (2-wire) Matrix Configuration
Matrix Crosspoint
Relay Detail
Matrix Bank 2
1
2
3
4
Columns
1 2
27 28
To Analog
Backplane
Relays
of Card
Rows
Rows
Model 3732 specifications
Columns
1 2
27 28
Matrix Crosspoint
Relay Detail
Matrix Bank 3
1
2
3
4
Rows
Rows
Columns
1 2
27 28
To Analog
Backplane
Relays
of Card
3
4
Matrix Crosspoint
Relay Detail
Matrix Bank 4
Columns
1 2
27 28
1
2
To Analog
Backplane
Relays
of Card
1
2
To Analog
Backplane
Relays
of Card
3
4
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Analog Backplane Connection Relays
164
Matrix
Rows
Bank 1
Analog
Backplane
Analog
Backplane
1
3
To Series 3700A
Mainframe
Analog
Backplane
2
Matrix
Rows
Bank 3
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Matrix
Rows
Bank 2
4
5
Matrix
Rows
Bank 4
6
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 3732 specifications
Matrix Bank 1
Matrix Crosspoint
Relay Detail
3732
Quad 4×28, Ultra-High Density,
Reed Relay Matrix Card
448 one-pole crosspoints with bank configuration and backplane connection relays
Additional Matrix Configurations Using Bank Configuration Relays
1
Columns
2
27 28
Columns
29 30
55 56
1
Columns
2
27 28
Columns
29 30
55 56
1
Rows
2
Matrix
Bank 1
3
Matrix
Bank 2
Matrix
Bank 3
Matrix
Bank 4
Model 3732 specifications
Bank Configuration Relays
Dual 4×56 (1-wire) or single 4×56 (2-wire) matrix configuration using bank configuration relays
1
Columns
2
27 28
Columns
29 30
55 56
Columns
57 58
83 84
Columns
85 86
111 112
Matrix
Bank 2
Matrix
Bank 3
Matrix
Bank 4
1
Rows
2
3
Matrix
Bank 1
4
Bank Configuration Relays
Single 4×112 (1-wire) matrix configuration using bank configuration relays
Additional Matrix Configurations Using the Model 3732-ST-R Screw Terminal Block
1
Rows
Columns
27 28
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
Matrix Bank 1
Rows
1
Columns
2
27 28
1
Rows
2
3
Matrix Bank 1
4
Matrix Bank 3
5
4
Rows
6
7
Matrix Bank 2
8
3732-ST-R
Screw Terminal
Block*
9
Rows
5
5
6
6
7
Matrix Bank 2
8
Rows
7
Rows
11
Matrix Bank 3
12
Matrix Bank 4
13
8
Rows
*Automatically connects columns
14
15
Matrix Bank 4
16
Dual 8×28 (1-wire) or single 8×28 (2-wire) matrix configuration using one Model 3732-ST-R
screw terminal block
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10
3732-ST-R Screw Terminal Block*
4
3
Columns
27 28
2
A
G R E A T E R
*Automatically connects columns
Single 16×28 (1-wire) matrix configuration
using one Model 3732-ST-R screw terminal
block
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Model 3732 specifications
4
C O N F I D E N C E
165
3732
Quad 4×28, Ultra-High Density,
Reed Relay Matrix Card
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
166
MATRIX CONFIGURATION: Four banks, each with 4 rows by
28 columns of reed relays. Bank configuration and analog
backplane relays are included for additional matrix configurations. Banks can be connected together via relays creating
dual 4×56 matrices or a single 4×112 matrix. Row expansion
is available using optional screw terminal accessories.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: Single-pole form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 78-pin male D-shells.
MODEL 3732-ST-R SCREW TERMINAL OPTION: Provides terminal block access and column jumper blocks for extended
row configurations including Dual 8×28 (1W), Single 8×28
(2W), and Single 16×28 (1W).
Typical Wire Size: #22 AWG with 0.062 inch O.D.; 88 conductors per card maximum.
Maximum Wire Size: #16 AWG with 0.092 inch O.D.; 44
conductors per card maximum.
MODEL 3732-ST-C SCREW TERMINAL OPTION: Provides
terminal block access for Quad 4×28 (1W), Dual 4×28 (2W),
Dual 4×56 (1W), Single 4×56 (2W), and Single 4×112 (1W)
matrix configurations.
Typical Wire Size: #22 AWG with 0.062 inch O.D.; 88 conductors per card maximum.
Maximum Wire Size: #16 AWG with 0.092 inch O.D.; 44
conductors per card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 200VDC or peak AC, 0.75A
switched (1.2A carry), 15W/15VA max. switch power.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200VDC or peak AC between any
signal path to a signal path or ground.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE: Reed: >109 operations no load, >8×106 operations @ 100V, 10mA.
EMR (Backplane): >108 operations @ 5V, 10mA and 105 operations at maximum signal level.
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MODEL 3732 PARAMETERS
Parameter
Channel Resistance
(end of life)
Contact Potential
(differential)
Contact Potential
(single ended)
Offset Current
Isolation
CH-CH
Common mode
Crosstalk Ch-Ch
300 kHz
1 MHz
15 MHz
Bandwidth
Quad 4×28 1, 2
Dual 4×56 1, 2
Single 4×112 1, 2
Dual 8×28 2, 3
Single 16×28 2, 3
<1.5 W
<2.0 W
<2.5 W
<1.6 W
<2.0 W
<±10 μV
<±20 μV
N/A
<±15 μV
N/A
<±20 μV
<±40 μV
<±65 μV
<± 20 μV
<±20 μV
<±0.5 nA
<±1.0 nA
<±2.0 nA
<±1.0 nA
<±2.0 nA
3×109 W/150 pF
1.5×109 W/300 pF
1.5×109 W/300 pF
1.5×109 W/300 pF
7.5×108 W/600 pF
7.5×108 W/600 pF
2×109 W/200 pF
2×109 W/200 pF
1.5×109 W/300 pF
1.5×109 W/300 pF
<–37 dB
<–26 dB
<  –7 dB
15 MHz
<–37 dB
<–26 dB
<  –7 dB
15 MHz
<–37 dB
<–26 dB
<  –7 dB
10 MHz
<–37 dB
<–26 dB
<  –7 dB
15 MHz
<–37 dB
<–26 dB
<  –7 dB
15 MHz
1. Connections made using Model 3732-ST-C.
2. Model 3706A mainframe with all DMM backplane relays disconnected.
3. Connections made using Model 3732-ST-R.
GENERAL
Power Budget Information:
Quiescent Power Usage:
Mode
Quiescent Power
Quad 4×28
Dual 4×56
Single 4×112
Dual 8×28
Single 16×28
780 mW
916 mW
984 mW
780 mW
780 mW
Channel Relay Power Consumption (each): 17mW.
Backplane Relay Power Consumption (each): 100mW.
For additional power-budgeting information, refer to the
Series 3700A Module Schematics and Connections section
in the Series 3700A User’s Manual (part no. 3700S-900-01).
ACTUATION TIME: 0.6ms.
A
G R E A T E R
RELAY TYPE: Reed (signal relays); EMR (backplane relays)
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Direct drive.
RELAY DRIVE Current: 3.2mA.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when terminal
assembly interlock signal removed. When asserted allows
system to read and save ID configuration bits.
EMC: Compliant with European Union EMC Directive.
SAFETY: Compliant with European Union Law Voltage
Directive.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C.
Specified to 70% relative humidity at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 3.40 lbs (1.54kg).
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 3732 specifications
Model 3732 specifications
448 one-pole crosspoints with bank configuration and backplane connection relays
3740
32-channel Isolated Switch Card
28 Form C relays and 4 high power Form A relays
• 28 general purpose
Form C relays rated for 300V,
2A switched or 3A carry signal
capacity; 60W, 125VA
• Screw terminal connections
provided on removable 3740-ST
accessory
• Relay closures stored in
onboard memory
• Latching electromechanical
relays
The Model 3740 offers 28 general-purpose form C channels that are ideal for routing power or other
control devices. For higher power applications of up to 7A, four additional high current form A channels are provided.
32 channel isolated switch card
• Analog backplane connection
relays provided for user
interconnections
If any general purpose signal requires routing to the Series 3700A mainframe backplane, terminal
blocks are located on the card, which are enabled with jumpers. Custom configurations can be
­created with the user accessible terminal blocks. For additional protection, an onboard temperature
sensor will notify the mainframe when the card’s operating temperature exceeds 70°C, compromising
system specifications.
The Model 3740 uses two 50-pin male D-sub connectors for signal connections. For screw terminal
connections, use the detachable Model 3740-ST accessory.
Accessories Available
Ordering Information
3740
General Purpose Card
with 32 Independent
Channels
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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3721-MTC-1.5
3721-MTC-3
3740-ST
3790-KIT50-R
50-pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 1.5m (5 ft.)
50-pin D-sub Female to Male Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
Screw Terminal Block
50-pin Female D-sub Connector Kit (contains
2 female D-sub connectors and 100 solder cup
contacts)
Services Available
3740-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3740-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3740-3Y-STD 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
32 channel isolated switch card
• 4 high current Form A relays
rated for 250VAC, 7A or 30VDC,
7A switched capacity; 210W
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
167
3740
32-channel Isolated Switch Card
HI Analog Backplane 1
LO (DMM Input)
HI Analog Backplane 2
LO (DMM Sense)
HI Analog Backplane 3
LO
Channels 2–11
HI Analog Backplane 4
LO
Model 3740 specifications
HI Analog Backplane 5
LO
Channel 12
NC
NO
COM
Channel 13
NC
NO
COM
HI Analog Backplane 6
LO
RELAY SWITCH CONFIGURATION: 32 general purpose independent channels. 28 channels of
Form C switching at 2A and 4 channels of Form A switching at 7A. Relays can be connected to
each other and backplane via removable terminal blocks.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: General Purpose: 1 pole Form C. High Current: 1 pole Form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 50 pin male D-shells.
Model 3740-ST screw terminal option: #22 AWG typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D.
84 conductors maximum. #16 AWG maximum wire size with 0.092 inch O.D. 44 conductors per
card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: Form C: 300V DC or RMS, 2A switched (3A carry), 60W, 125VA.
Form A: 250VAC 7A, 30VDC 7A, 210W.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V DC or RMS between any terminal and chassis.
VOLT-HERTZ LIMIT: 8×107.
CONTACT LIFE:Form C: >105 operations at maximum signal level. >108 operations no load.1
Form A: >105 operations at maximum signal level, >5×107 operations no load.1
Channel Resistance (end of contact life): <0.5W.
Contact Potential: <±3μV typical per contact.
Isolation: Channel-channel: 109W , <200pF. Common Mode: >1010W , <150pF.
Crosstalk (Channel-channel, 50 W load–50 W source): 100kHz: <–50dB. 1MHz: <–35dB.
10MHz: <–15dB.
Bandwidth: 30MHz.
To Series 3700A Mainframe Analog Backplane
Channel 1
NC
NO
COM
Terminal
Blocks
Channels 14–27
GENERAL
NC
Channel 28 NO
COM
OVER-TEMPERATURE: Temperature sensor indicates over temperature.
ACTUATION TIME: Form C: 4ms. Form A: 10ms.
RELAY TYPE: Form C: Latching electromechanical. Form A: Nonlatching electromechanical.
RELAY DRIVE SCHEME: Direct.
INTERLOCK: Backplane relays disabled when interlock connection is removed.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 70% R.H. at 35°C.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 65°C.
WEIGHT: 2.5 lbs.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
Channel 29
Channels 30–31
Channel 32
Notes
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
1. Minimum signal level 10mV, 10µA.
168
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 3740 specifications
28 Form C relays and 4 high power Form A relays
3750
Multifunction Control Card
40 digital I/O bits, 2 analog output channels, and 4 counters
• 40 bidirectional digital
input/output bits
• High current driver outputs for
sinking (300mA)
• 4 gated 32-bit counters with
1MHz input rate
• Screw terminal connections
provided with removable
3750-ST accessory
• External supply voltage
supported on digital I/O
Use the Model 3750 to monitor and control your automated test system. The flexibility and speed
provided by the 40 digital I/O bits, four counters, and two analog outputs make it well-suited for
a wide variety of system control applications.
Multifunction control card
• 2 isolated analog output
channels, programmable to
±12V, 0–20mA, or 4–20mA
Digital I/O
The Model 3750 offers 40 digital I/O bits arranged in five banks. Each bank is comprised of eight
bits each, and each bank can be programmed as either input or output. Digital I/O is often used to
control processes and monitor the status of switches, contacts, and other control points. Additional
features include scanning capabilities, such as writing a unique output pattern or reading banks
of inputs at rates up to 1000 rdgs/second. Also, pattern matching is available, making it ideal for
c­ omplex event algorithms.
Further versatility is provided by supporting external voltage levels of up to 30V and output current
sink levels of 300mA for control of external devices like RF/microwave relays.
Ordering Information
3750Multifunction
Control Card
Accessories Available
3721-MTC-1.5 3721-MTC-3 3750-ST 3790-KIT50-R 50-pin female-to-male D-sub Cable Assembly,
1.5m (4.9 ft)
50-pin female-to-male D-sub Cable Assembly,
3m (9.8 ft)
Screw Terminal Block
50-pin female D-sub Connector Kit (contains 2
D-sub connectors and 100 solder cup contacts)
Services Available
3750-3Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3750-5Y-EW-STD 1-year factory warranty extended to 5 years
from date of shipment
C/3750-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
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Analog Outputs
The two analog outputs of the Model 3750 are designed for general purpose applications such as
setpoint control or as bias supplies to your device under test. For maximum utility, these outputs are
programmable as voltage (±12V) or current (0–20mA or 4–20mA). A number of protection features
are provided, including monitoring for current and/or voltage compliance and the ability to disconnect
automatically during fault conditions. Output relays are supplied for each channel, ensuring mechanical
isolation between your control device and the analog output.
Counters
Four 32-bit counters are provided with a maximum input rate of 1MHz. Each counter has a gate input
that offers precise control of event counting and totalizing for a broad range of system components,
such as: fixtures, limit switches, pass/fail indicators, revolutions, or time-related quantities. The
counters, like the digital I/O, can be used in scanning operations and pattern matching as well as
s­upporting reading rates of up to 1000 rdgs/second.
Self-calibration
When your Model 3706A mainframe is equipped with the high performance multimeter option,
hardware and software is provided for self-calibration of analog outputs (voltage and current) and
­counter thresholds.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Multifunction control card
• Internal 5V, 50mA logic supply
for powering external logic
circuits
C O N F I D E N C E
169
3750
Multifunction Control Card
40 digital I/O bits, 2 analog output channels, and 4 counters
Counter 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Digital
Inputs
8 Bits
or
Digital
Outputs
Channels
1–5
32 Bit
Count
Counter
16 Bits
Channels
6–9
TTL
or
AC
Total of 5 banks
8 bits per bank
Model 3750 specifications
Analog Output 1
Gate +
Gate –
Input +
Input –
VOUT
IOUT
VCOM
IOUT
Total of 4 counters
±12V
Channels
10–11
(0–20mA)
ICOM (4–20mA)
Channels 1–5: Bidirectional, high current digital I/O (40 bits)
Channels 6–9: 32-bit counters (4 counters)
Channels 10–11: Isolated voltage or current analog outputs (2 each)
Figure 1. Block diagram
Specifications
Simplified Digital I/O Schematic
Logic Supply
(50mA max.)
Optional Jumper
System 5V
+
–
DIGITAL I/O1
Configuration: 40 bidirectional digital I/O bits arranged in 5 banks of 8 bits each.
Each bank can be configured for either input or output capability. 1 bank of I/O is equivalent
to 1 system channel.
V EXTERNAL
(VEXT1, VEXT2)
(30V max.)
Digital Input Specifications
An internal weak pull-up resistor of approximately 68kW is provided on the card for each I/O.
This pull-up resistor can be removed via onboard jumper on a channel (8 bit) basis. The pull-up
voltage can either connect to the internally supplied 5V or an externally supplied voltage of up
to 30V via onboard jumper. An internal 5V supply connection is separately available to run
external logic circuits.
Digital Input Logic Low Voltage: 0.8V max.
Digital Input Logic High Voltage: 2V min.
Digital Input Logic Low Current: –600µA max @ 0V.
Digital Input Logic High Current: 50µA max @ 5V.
Logic: Positive true.
System Input Minimum Read Speed2: 1000 readings/second.
Maximum Externally Supplied Pull-Up Voltage: 30V.
Maximum Externally Supplied Voltage to Any Digital I/O Line: Pull-up voltage
(5V internal or up to 30V external).
Pull-up Voltage
(8 DIO)
Pull-up
Resistor
~68kΩ
Input
10mA max.
Sourcing Only
Output
DIO n
300mA max.
Sinking Only
Digital Output Specifications
Each output has an internal fly-back diode for driving inductive loads. Each output is protected
against continuous short circuits and over temperature. An internal 5V supply connection is
separately available to run external logic circuits.
Digital Output Logic High Voltage: 2.4V minimum @ Iout = 10mA, sourcing only.
Digital Output Logic Low Voltage: 0.5V maximum @ Iout = -300mA, sinking only.
Maximum Output Sink Current: 300mA per output, 3.0A total per card.
Logic: Positive true.
System Output Minimum Write Speed3: 1000 readings/second.
Maximum Externally Supplied Voltage to Any Digital I/O Line: Pull-up voltage
(5V internal or up to 30V external).
Alarm: Trigger generation is supported for a maskable pattern match or state change on any of
channels 1 through 5.
Protection: Optional disconnect (set to inputs) during output fault conditions.
Internal 5V Logic Supply: The internal logic supply is designed for powering external logic
circuits of up to 50mA maximum. The logic supply is internally protected with a self-resetting
fuse. Fuse reset time < 1 hour.
Figure 2. Simplified I/O schematic
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
VOUT
Total of 2 analog outputs
(isolated from earth)
Self
Resetting
170
DAC
Notes
1. All channels power up configured as inputs.
2. All channels configured as inputs.
3. All channels configured as outputs.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 3750 specifications
Bank 1
3750
Multifunction Control Card
40 digital I/O bits, 2 analog output channels, and 4 counters
Maximum Count: 2 – 1.
Maximum Input Rate: 1MHz, rising or falling edge, programmable.
Minimum Input Pulse Width: 500ns.
Input Signal Level: 200mV p-p (minimum), 42V peak (maximum).
Threshold: AC (0V) or TTL logic level.
Gate Input: TTL–HI (Gate+), TTL–LO (Gate–) or NONE.
Minimum Gate Input Setup Time: 1µs.
Count Reset: Manual or Read + Reset.
System Input Minimum Read Speed: 1000 readings/second.
Alarm: Trigger generation is supported for a count match or counter overflow
on any of channels 6 though 9.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Two 50-pin male D-shells.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: Specified for 0ºC to 50ºC. Specified to 70% R.H. at 35ºC.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25ºC to 65ºC.
WEIGHT: 1.27kg (2.80 lbs.).
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EC, EN61326-1.
Power Budget Information:
Quiescent Power: 3300mW.
Digital Outputs Each Channel (1 through 5): 325mW.
Analog Channel Each (10 and 11): 820mW.
Totalizer Channel All (6 through 9): 730mW.
Analog channels and counter channels may optionally be turned off to conserve
system power.
See Chapter 8 of the Series 3700A user’s manual for more detailed information.
ANALOG VOLTAGE OUTPUT
The isolated analog voltage output is designed for general purpose, low power applications.
Output Amplitude1: ±12V up to 10mA.
Overload Current: 21mA minimum.
Resolution: 1mV.
Full Scale Settling Time2: 1ms to 0.1% of output.
DC Accuracy3 ±(% of output + mV):
1 Year 23° ±5°C: 0.15% + 16mV.
90 Day 23° ±5°C: 0.1% + 16mV.
24 Hour 23° ±5°C: 0.04% + 16mV.
Temperature Coefficient: ±(0.02% + 1.2mV)/°C.
10mV Maximum Update Rate: 350µs to 1% accuracy. System limited.
Output Fault Detection: System fault detection is available for short circuit
output/current compliance.
Isolation: 300V peak channel to channel or channel to chassis.
Protection: Optional disconnect during output fault conditions.
Minimum Guaranteed Stable Capacitive Load: 10nF.
Test Circuit for Voltage Output
Channels 10 and 11
DAC
VOUT
+
–
<100pF
1.2kΩ
VCOM
VCOM
Test Circuit for Current Output
Channels 10 and 11
Notes
1. Programming up to 1% over full scale range is supported.
2. Measured with standard load shown in Figure 3.
3. Measured with >10MW input DMM (DCV, filter, 1 PLC rate).
Warm-up time is 1 hour @ 10mA load with 3750-ST.
DAC
IOUT
<100pF
500Ω
ANALOG CURRENT OUTPUT
ICOM
The isolated analog current output is designed for 0–20mA or 4–20mA
unipolar modes of operation.
Output Amplitude: 0 to 20mA or 4 to 20mA.
Compliance Voltage: 11V minimum.
Maximum Open Circuit Voltage: 16V.
Resolution: 1µA.
Full Scale Settling Time1: 1ms to 0.1% of output.
DC Accuracy2 ±(% of output + µA):
1 Year 23° ±5°C: 0.15% + 18µA.
90 Day 23° ±5°C: 0.1% + 18µA.
24 Hour 23° ±5°C: 0.04% + 18µA.
Temperature Coefficient: ±(0.02% + 1.6µA)/°C.
Output Fault Detection: System fault detection is available for open
circuit output/voltage compliance.
Isolation: 300V peak channel to channel or channel to chassis.
Protection: Optional disconnect during output fault conditions.
Figure 3. Standard load test circuits
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Model 3750 specifications
32
Model 3750 specifications
General
COUNTER/TOTALIZER INPUT
Notes
1. Measured with standard load shown in Figure 3.
2. Measured with <2W shunt DMM (DCI, filter, 1 PLC rate). Warm-up time is 1 hour with 3750-ST.
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171
7001
Switch/Control Mainframe
80-channel
Built-in scan control eliminates the need for the computer to control ev­ery
step of the test pro­ce­dure. Simply program the 7001 to control channel
spacing, scan spacing, and the number of scans. A built-in non-volatile
memory stores up to 100 complete switch patterns. You can include these
memory lo­ca­tions as part of the scan list.
Up to 80 channels of 2-pole switching. Each slot of the 7001 can
­accommodate up to 40 chan­nels. This means fewer switch cards are
required, reducing the amount of switching hard­ware needed. Higher den­si­t y also pro­vides extra
capacity and flex­i­bil­i­t y.
• DC, RF, and optical switch
capability
Analog backplane. The 7001’s analog backplane is used by the high density switch cards. The backplane eliminates intercard wiring and in­creas­es configuration flex­i­bil­i­ty. Two cards can be con­nect­ed
through the backplane to create a 1×80 mul­ti­plex­er, a 4×20 ma­trix, or a multiplexer/matrix com­bi­na­
tion that pro­vides matrix row ex­pan­sion.
• Supports industry’s broadest
range of signals
• Integrates easily with DMM and
SourceMeter® instruments
Channel status display. See the status of every channel si­mul­ta­neous­ly. The vacuum fluorescent
display of the 7001 shows the open/close status of each chan­nel in the main­frame si­mul­ta­neous­ly. The
graphical display pat­tern makes it much easier to configure a test system, make modifications, or debug
an ex­ist­ing program. The status of the cards in both slots is dis­played side by side on the same screen.
• Full channel status display
• 2 card slots
• Supports more than 30 switch/
control cards
Easy to set up and use. The 7001 has a number of built-in features that make it easy to set up, run,
change, or modify. It con­forms to IEEE-488.2 and SCPI (Standard Com­mands for Pro­gram­ma­ble Instru­
ments). All aspects of the in­stru­ment can be programmed from the front panel and over the IEEE bus.
Trigger Link. Trigger Link is a high speed trigger bus that provides simple trigger coordination
between the Model 7001 and other instruments. This bus eliminates GPIB communication delays
during scanning to increase overall system throughput dramatically.
Ordering Information
7001
80-channel Switch/
Control Mainframe
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Matrix cards are dis­
played in row-column
for­mat. Only the available
rows and columns of the
card are displayed. Rows
are horizontal and columns are vertical.
172
Matrix crosspoints are
entered in row-column
f­ ormat. The first num­
ber selects the card, the
­second is the row, and
the third number is the
­column.
Multiplexer card dis­
play. The first row across
represents channels 1
to 10. The second row is
channels 11 to 20. Only
the available channels are
displayed.
More than 30 cards available. The 7001 switch cards accommodate a broad range of signals, maintain very high accuracy, and will not degrade ­signal quality. By minimizing signal errors, these cards
will prevent degradation due to offset voltage, isolation resistance, and leakage current.
With its broad range of available cards, the 7001 provides multi-pole switching. Cards such as the
7011 can be used in either 2- or 4-pole con­fig­u­ra­tion. If a card does not have the pole capacity
required, the 7001 can still accommodate the application—just select the
CARD PAIR function. It allows the channel closures in both slots to be
synch­ronized for up to 8-pole switching.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Communication Interfaces
and Cables
7007-1
Double Shielded, Premium
GPIB Cable, 1m
7007-2
Double Shielded, Premium
GPIB Cable, 2m
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller
for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB
Interface Adapter
Open channel Closed channel
Scan in any order. A
scan does not have
to be a con­tig­u­ous
set of channels. Scan
forward, backward, or
skip ­channels.
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Display indicates scan­
ning. As a scan sequence
is ­executed, the ­display
updates to show the
­scanning action.
Rack Mount Kits
4288-1 Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2 Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Triggering
8501-1 Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m
8501-2 Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m
8502 Trigger Link to BNC Break-out Box
8503 Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-dual BNC,
1m
8505 Male to 2-Female Y-DIN Cable for
Trigger Link
Services Available
7001-3Y-EW
A
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1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Two-slot high density switch mainframe
Two-slot high density switch mainframe
The Model 7001 is a half-rack, high density, two-slot mainframe that supports the widest range of signals in the test and measurement industry.
DC switching capabilities from nanovolts to 1100V and femtoamps to 5A,
as well as RF and optical switch support, make the Model 7001 a versatile
production test tool for a wide array of applications.
7001
Switch/Control Mainframe
System
Analog Backplane
CAPACITY: 2 plug-in cards per mainframe.
MEMORY: Battery backed-up storage for 100 switch patterns.
SWITCH SETTLING TIME: Automatically selected by the mainframe for each card. Additional time from 0 to 99999.999
seconds can be added in 1ms increments.
TRIGGER SOURCES:
External Trigger (TTL-compatible, programmable edge,
600ns minimum pulse, rear panel BNC).
IEEE-488 bus (GET, *TRG)
Trigger Link
Manual (front panel)
Internal Timer, programmable from 1ms to 99999.999
seconds in 1ms increments.
STATUS OUTPUT: Channel Ready (TTL-compatible signal,
rear panel BNC). Low going pulse (10µs typical) issued
after relay settling time. For two different switch cards,
7001 will be set to the slowest relay settling time.
SWITCHING SEQUENCE: Automatic break-before-make.
MAINFRAME DIGITAL I/O: 4 open-collector outputs
(30V maximum pull-up voltage, 100mA maximum sink
current, 10W output impedance), 1 TTL compatible input,
1 common.
RELAY DRIVE: 700mA maximum for both card slots.
CARD SIZE: 32mm high × 114mm wide × 272mm long (11⁄4 in
× 4½ in × 103 ⁄4 in).
CARD COMPATIBILITY: Fully compatible with all
7XXX cards.
SIGNALS: Four 3-pole rows (Hi, Lo, Guard). These signals provide matrix and multiplexer expansion between cards within
one mainframe.
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE: 250V DC, 250V rms, 350V AC peak, signal path to signal path or signal path to chassis.
MAXIMUM CURRENT: 1A peak.
PATH ISOLATION:
>1010W, <50pF path to path (any Hi, Lo, Guard to
another Hi, Lo, Guard).
>1010W, <50pF differential (Hi to Lo or Hi, Lo to Guard).
>10 9W, <75pF path to chassis.
CHANNEL CROSSTALK: <–65dB @ 1MHz (50W load).
BANDWIDTH: <3dB loss at 100MHz (50W load).
IEEE-488 BUS Implementation
STANDARDS CONFORMANCE: Conforms to SCPI-1990,
IEEE-488.2, and IEEE-488.1.
MULTILINE COMMANDS: DCL, LLO, SDC, GET, GTL,
UNT, UNL, SPE, SPD.
UNILINE COMMANDS: IFC, REN, EOI, SRQ, ATN.
INTERFACE FUNCTIONS: SH1, AH1,T5, TE0, L4, LE0,
SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1, C0, E1.
DISPLAY: Dual-line vacuum fluorescent.
1st line:20-character alphanumeric.
2nd line:32-character alphanumeric.
REAR PANEL CONNECTORS:
IEEE-488
8-pin micro-DIN connector for digital I/O
8-pin micro-DIN for Trigger Link
8-pin micro-DIN for Trigger Link expansion
BNC for External Trigger
BNC for Channel Ready
POWER: 100V to 240Vrms, 50/60Hz, 50VA maximum.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC,
EN61326-1.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC, EN61010-1.
EMI/RFI: Meets VDE 0871B and FCC Class B.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C, <80% relative humidity (0°–35°C).
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 89mm high × 216mm wide ×
375mm deep (3½ in × 8½ in × 143 ⁄4 in). Net weight
3.4kg (7½ lbs).
Model 7001 specifications
GENERAL
Throughput
EXECUTION SPEED OF SCAN LIST1:
7011 Card
130/second
125/second
Individual Channels:
Memory Setups:
7015 Card
500/second
450/second
TRIGGER EXECUTION TIME (maximum time from
activation of Trigger Source to start of switch open
or close2):
Source
  GET3
*TRG3
  Trigger Link
  External
Latency
200 µs
5.0ms
200 µs
200 µs
Jitter
<50 µs
<13 µs
<13 µs
Notes
1. Rates include switch settling time of cards: 3ms for 7011 and 500µs for
7015 cards.
2. Excluding switch settling time.
3. Assuming no IEEE-488 commands are pending execution.
IEEE-488 Command
Execution Time
Command
OPEN (@1!1)
CLOS (@1!1)
MEM:REC M1
Model 7001 rear panel
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Model 7001 specifications
80-channel
Execution Time1
Display Off
Display On
7.5 ms
8.5 ms
7.5 ms
8.5 ms
5.0 ms
6.0 ms
Notes
1. Measured from the time at which the command terminator is taken
from the bus to the time at which the relay begins to open or close.
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173
7002
Switch/Control Mainframe
400-channel
Reduce the Size and Cost
of Your Switching Application.
Up to 400 channels of 2-pole switching. A single Model 7002 mainframe
can accommodate up to ten 40-channel cards. That’s 400 channels in a
single full-rack package that is only 178mm high (7 in). This level of density provides some important advantages. First, it reduces the amount of switching hardware required for a given ap­pli­ca­tion.
Second, it provides high flexibility. The high density cards can be used with the special signal cards
to cover all your signal needs for a large application with one ­mainframe.
• DC, RF, and optical switch
capability
• Interactive channel status
display
• Optional light pen for front
panel programming
• Integrates easily with DMM and
SourceMeter® instruments
• Full channel status display
• 10 card slots
• Supports more than 30 switch/
control cards
Ordering Information
7002
400-channel Switch/
Control Mainframe
Switch a wide range of signals. The 7002 is fully compatible with all 7001 switch cards. From this
broad selection of more than 30 cards, you can assemble a switch configuration that will ensure signal integrity and minimize errors. These cards allow the 7002 to switch DC signals from femtoamps
to amps, nanovolts to kilovolts, as well as RF and optical signals.
Analog backplane. The analog backplane used by the high density cards adds con­fig­u­ra­tion flex­i­bil­
i­t y and eliminates intercard wiring. For ex­am­ple, the outputs of a mul­ti­plex­er card can be connected
to the row inputs of a matrix card. Or, the outputs of ten mul­ti­plex­er cards can be con­nect­ed to form
one large 1×400 mul­ti­plex­er. Intercard wiring is eliminated by using the an­a­log backplane to form
these ­configurations.
Faster Test Development
Unique channel status display. The interactive front panel display helps shorten the time required
to configure the 7002 and develop test software. The display indicates the open/close status of each
channel in the main­frame. This information is very useful when programming the 7002 and developing ap­pli­ca­tion software. Knowing the channel status also helps to verify proper operation during the
debug phase.
Light pen programming. An optional light pen provides point and click pro­gram­ming from the
front panel. By selecting the desired channels or range of channels, the scan list can be built, matrix
patterns created, channels opened or closed, and patterns stored in memory. The 7002’s non-volatile
memory stores up to 500 com­plete switch patterns.
Automatic card configuration. When the high density cards are installed,
the 7002 au­to­mat­i­cal­ly configures each slot independently for the proper
card. The channel status display on the front panel adjusts to show each
card’s capacity and con­fig­u­ra­tion.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
174
Communication Interfaces
and Cables
7007-1
Double Shielded, Premium
GPIB Cable, 1m
7007-2
Double Shielded, Premium
GPIB Cable, 2m 7078-PEN
Programming Light Pen
(includes holder)
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller
for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB
Interface Adapter
Rack Mount Kits
7002-RMK-1
Fixed Rack Mount Kit
7002-RMK-2
Slide Rack Mount Kit Front panel Info key. At the touch of a button, the operator receives context-sensitive, on-line information to help configure the system. This information is displayed on a 52-character alphanumeric display for clear and
readable messages. There is no need to refer constantly to the operator’s
manual. All information messages, operating instructions, and prompts are
available in English, German, and French. Just select the desired language
in the con­fig­u­ra­tion menu.
Triggering
8501-1 Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m
8501-2 Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m
8502 Trigger Link to BNC Break-out Box
8503 Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-dual BNC,
1m
8505 Male to 2 Female Y-DIN Cable for
Trigger Link
Programmable channel closure restrictions. The 7002 allows specific
channels to be locked out from closure. This restriction can be conditional
based on the open/close state of other channels or crosspoints. This capability is useful to prevent certain signals from being accidentally connected
to high power circuits, for example.
Services Available
7002-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
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Ten-slot high density switch mainframe
Ten-slot high density switch mainframe
The Model 7002 Switch System is a 10-slot main­frame that supports up to
400 2-pole mul­ti­plex­er channels or 400 matrix crosspoints. The front panel
includes a unique in­ter­ac­tive display of chan­nel status for quick pro­gram­
ming. Scanning speeds of up to 300 channels per second are possible with
the high density switch cards. The wide selection of more than 30 ­different
switch cards makes the 7002 one of the most flexible switch­ing main­
frames avail­able.
7002
Switch/Control Mainframe
System Throughput
300 channel per second scanning. The
7002 can scan through up to 300 channels per second. This scan process can be
controlled by the internal time base of the
7002 or through external triggers. The scan
sequence is con­trolled by what appears in the
scan list. The scan list can include channels,
ranges of channels, and memory locations.
This ap­proach gives max­i­mum flexibility while
obtaining maximum through­put.
Built-in Scan Control and Trigger Link. The
built-in scan control eliminates the need for the
computer to control every step of the test procedure. Simply program the 7002 to control the
channel spacing, scan spacing, and number of
scans. Trigger Link gives you access to six inde­
pen­dent hardware trigger lines on a single cable.
Closed channel
Open channel
“Light Pen Keys” provide functional pro­gram­ming with point and
click.
Matrix cards are displayed in RowColumn format. Only the available
rows and columns of the card are
displayed. Rows are horizontal and
columns are vertical.
Multiplexer card display. The first
row across rep­re­sents channels 1
to 10. The second row is channels
11 to 20. Only the available channels are dis­played.
SYSTEM
THROUGHPUT
CAPACITY: 10 plug-in cards per mainframe.
MEMORY: Battery backed-up storage for 500 switch pat­terns.
SWITCH SETTLING TIME: Automatically selected by the mainframe. For different switchcards, 7002 will be set to the slowest relay settling time. Additional time from 0 to 99999.999
­seconds can be added in 1ms increments.
TRIGGER SOURCES:
External Trigger (TTL-compatible, programmable edge,
600ns min­i­mum pulse, rear panel BNC).
IEEE-488 bus (GET, *TRG)
Trigger Link
Manual (front panel)
Internal Timer, programmable from 1.0ms to 99999.999
seconds in 1.0ms increments.
STATUS OUTPUT: Channel Ready (TTL-compatible signal, rear
panel BNC). Low going pulse (10µs typical) issued after relay
settling time.
SWITCHING SEQUENCE: Break-before-make (pro­g ram­ma­ble).
MAINFRAME DIGITAL I/O: Four open collector outputs (30V
maximum, 100mA maximum sink current, 10W output impedance), one TTL compatible input, one com­mon, one +5V.
RELAY DRIVE: 3.5A maximum for all 10 card slots.
CARD SIZE: 32mm high × 114mm wide × 272mm long (11⁄4 in ×
4½ in × 103 ⁄4 in).
CARD COMPATIBILITY: Fully compatible with all 7001 cards.
EXECUTION SPEED OF SCAN LIST (channels or memory ­locations
per ­second):
ANALOG BACKPLANE
SIGNALS: Four 3-pole rows (Hi, Lo, Guard). These signals provide matrix and mul­ti­plex­er ex­pan­sion between cards within
one mainframe.
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE: 250V DC, 250V rms, 350V AC peak, signal
path to signal path or signal path to chassis.
MAXIMUM CURRENT: 1A peak.
PATH ISOLATION:
>1010W, <50pF path to path (any Hi, Lo, Guard to another
Hi, Lo, Guard)
>1010W, <50pF differential (Hi to Lo or Hi, Lo to Guard).
>109W, <75pF path to chassis.
CHANNEL CROSSTALK: <–65dB @ 1MHz (50W load).
BANDWIDTH: <3dB loss at 100MHz (50W load).
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Channels
OFF 300
ON 270
Break-Before-Make
Memories
243
189
TRIGGER EXECUTION TIME (maximum time from ac­ti­va­tion
of Trig­ger Source to start of switch open or close2):
Source
  GET1
*TRG2, 3
  Trigger Link
  External
 Timer
Latency
200 µs
3.0ms
200 µs
200 µs
Jitter
<15 µs
<10 µs
<10 µs
<25 µs
Notes
1. Excluding switch settling time.
2. Assuming no IEEE-488 commands are pending execution.
3. Display off.
All aspects of 7002 op­er­a­tion are available from the front panel
or over the IEEE-bus interface. The 7002 conforms to IEEE488.2 and the SCPI (Standard Com­mands for Programmable
Instru­ments) command language protocol.
• Scan List
• Scan Spacing
• Channel Spacing
• Number of Scans
• Number of Channels
• Trigger Source
• Single Channel Mode
• Channel Restrictions
• Save Mainframe Con­f ig­u­ra­tion Setups
• Digital I/O
• Card Pair
• Channel Delay
• Number of Poles
• Channel Pattern Memory
IEEE-488 COMMAND EXECUTION TIME
Command
CLOS (@1!1)
OPEN (@1!1)
MEM:REC M1
Execution Time1
<8 ms + Relay Settle Time
<8 ms + Relay Settle Time
<9 ms + 2× Relay Settle Time (BBM ON)
<9 ms + Relay Settle Time (BBM OFF)
Notes
1. Measured from the time at which the command terminator is taken
from the bus to relay energize. With display OFF.
IEEE-488 BUS Implementation
STANDARDS CONFORMANCE: Conforms to SCPI-1990,
IEEE-488.2, and IEEE-488.1.
MULTILINE COMMANDS: DCL, LLO, SDC, GET, GTL,
UNT, UNL, SPE, SPD.
UNILINE COMMANDS: IFC, REN, EOI, SRQ, ATN.
INTERFACE FUNCTIONS: SH1, AH1, T5, TE0, L4, LE0,
SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1, C0, E1.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Model 7002 specifications
Point and click the light pen on the
desired channel or cross­point.
GENERAL
DISPLAY: Dual-line vacuum fluorescent. 1st line: 20-char­
ac­ter alphanumeric. 2nd line: 32-character alphanumeric. Chan­nel status LED grid.
LIGHT PEN OPTION: Provides interactive programming
of channels, cross points, scan lists, and memory.
REAR PANEL CONNECTORS: IEEE-488; 9-pin DB9
Female; 8-pin micro DIN for Trigger Link; 8-pin micro
DIN for Trigger Link expansion; BNC for External
Trigger; BNC for Channel Ready
POWER: 100V to 240Vrms, 50/60Hz, 110VA max­i­mum.
EMC: Complies with European Union Directive 89/336/
EEC, EN61326-1.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC, EN61010-1).
EMI/RFI: Meets VDE 0871B and FCC Class B.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°C to 50°C, <80% RH (0°C
to 35°C). Storage: –25°C to +65°C.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 178mm high × 438mm wide
× 448mm deep (7 in × 171⁄4 in × 175⁄8 in). Net weight
9.1kg (20 lb).
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Model 7002 specifications
400-channel
C O N F I D E N C E
175
Selector Guide
No. of
Channels
Switch Cards for 7001, 7002
Contact
Max.
Card Config. Config. Voltage
Max.
Current
Max.
Power
Contact
Potential
Max.
Off­set
Cur­rent
Recomm.
Frequency
Connection
Type
CE
1A
60VA
<1µV
<100pA
2MHz
Connector
Yes
Comments
40
Multiplexer
7011-S
40
Multiplexer
2 form A
110V
1A
60VA
<500nV
<100pA
2MHz
Screw term.
Yes
7012-C
7012-S
7013-C
7013-S
7015-C
7015-S
7018-C
7018-S
7035
4×10
4×10
20
20
40
40
28
28
36
Matrix
Matrix
Isolated Switch
Isolated Switch
Multiplexer
Multiplexer
Multiplexer
Multiplexer
Multiplexer
2 form A
2 form A
2 form A
2 form A
2 form A
2 form A
3 form A
3 form A
2 form A
110V
110V
110V
110V
175V
175V
110V
110V
60V
1A
1A
1A
1A
34mA
34mA
1A
1A
1A
60VA
60VA
60VA
60VA
0.3VA
0.3VA
60VA
60VA
30VA
<1µV
<500nV
<1µV
<500nV
<5µV
<5µV
<5µV
<5µV
<1µV
<100pA
<100pA
<100pA
<100pA
<1nA
<1nA
<100pA
<100pA
<100pA
2MHz
2MHz
10MHz
10MHz
500kHz
500kHz
2MHz
2MHz
10MHz
Connector
Screw term.
Connector
Screw term.
Connector
Screw term.
Connector
Screw term.
Connector
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
7036
40
Isolated Switch
1 form A
60V
1A
30VA
<4µV
<100pA
10MHz
Connector
Yes
7111-S
40
Multiplexer
1 form C
110V
1A
60VA
<500nV
<100pA
2MHz
Screw term.
Yes
Dual 3×6
Matrix
1 form A
200V
1A
10VA
<25µV
<100pA
2MHz
Connector
Yes
80
Digital I/O
Connector
Yes
Selector guide: Switch cards for 7001, 7002
7011-C
2 form A
110V
Four independent 1×10 multiplexers,
connection to backplane
Four independent 1×10 multiplexers,
connection to backplane
Rows connect to analog backplane
Rows connect to analog backplane
Solid state switch for high reliability
Solid state switch for high reliability
3 pole switching
3 pole switching
9 independent 1×4 multiplexers
40 independent channels of 1-pole
switching
Four independent 1×10 multiplexers,
connection to backplane
Control
7019-C
7020
7020-D*
6-wire resistance measurements
40 inputs/40 outputs
Dual multiplexers. Up to 30 channels,
10 digital inputs, 10 digital outputs.
30 independent channels of
1-pole switching, 10 digital inputs,
10 digital outputs
Hall Effect measurement buffer card
7021
30/20
Mux/Digital I/O
2 form A
110V
1A
30VA
<3µV
<100pA
10MHz
Connector
Yes
7037-D*
30/20
Isolated/
Digital I/O
1 form A
110V
1A
30VA
<4µV
<100pA
10MHz
Connector
Yes
2GHz
SMA
Yes
Optional 50W termination
800MHz
SMA
Yes
108 closures contact life.
2GHz
75W SMB
Yes
75W unterminated receptacle
See page 189 for details.
7065
RF
2 isolated
1 pole,
30V
500mA
10VA
<6µV
4 throw
switches
2 isolated
1 pole,
30V
1A
10VA
<25µV
7017
Double 1×4
4 throw
switches
1 pole,
10W @
Three 1×4
12
24V
10mA
<15µV
7038
1 of 4 tree
1.2GHz
multiplexers
7016A
Double 1×4
OPTICAL
7090-8-4
7090-16-6
No. of Channels
Fiber Type
Wavelength (nm)
Connector
Fiber Length
1×8
1×16
Multimode fiber 62.5/125
Single mode fiber (SMF-28) 9/125
780–1350
1290–1650
FC/SPC
FC/SPC
1m
1m
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
* Cards with a -D suffix feature D-sub connectors.
176
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Selector guide: Switch cards for 7001, 7002
HIGH DENSITY
Selector Guide
No. of
Channels
Switch Cards for 7001, 7002
Card
Config.
Contact
Config.
Max.
Voltage
Max.
Current
Max.
Power
Contact
Potential
Multiplexer
2 form A
300V
5A
100VA
Multiplexer
2 form A
1100V
500mA
Matrix
Matrix
Multiplexer
2 form A
2 form A
1 form C
200V
1300V
30V
Multiplexer
Multiplexer
4 form A
2 form A
Multiplexer
2 form A
Max.
Off­set
Cur­rent
Recomm.
Frequency
Connection
Type
<1mV
1MHz
Screw term.
10VA
<35µV
1MHz
Screw term.
Yes
500mA
500mA
100mA
10VA
10VA
<20µV
<50µV
<200µV
60MHz
60MHz
1MHz
Connector
Connector
BNC
Yes
Yes
Yes
150V
10V
350mA
50mA
10VA
<1µV
<30nV
1MHz
1kHz
Screw term.
Screw term.
Yes
Yes
4 wire resistance measurements
110V
1A
60VA
<1µV
2MHz
Screw term.
Yes
Built-in cold junction ref.
CE
Comments
HIGH CURRENT
7053
10
10
7152
7153
7158
4×5
4×5
10
<1pA
<1pA
<1pA
LOW VOLTAGE
7067
7168
10
8
THERMOCOUPLE
7014
39
Selector Guide
<100pA
Switch Card Accessories
7001, 7002, 705, 706 Switch Card Accessories
Cables
7011-C
7011-MTC-1
Connectors
7011-MTC-2
7011-S
7111-S
7012-C
7011-MTC-1
7011-MTC-2
7011-KIT-R
7011-MTC-1
7011-MTC-2
7011-KIT-R
7012-ST
7013-ST
7013-S
7014
7015-C
7401
7014-ST
7011-MTC-1
7011-MTC-2
7011-KIT-R
7011-MTC-1
7011-MTC-2
7011-KIT-R
7019-C-MTCI-2
7019-C-MTCI-2
7015-ST
7015-S
7018-C
7018-ST
7018-S
7019-C
7020
Tools
7011-ST
7012-S
7013-C
Adapters
7011-KIT-R
7019-MTC-1
7011-KIT-R
7011-KIT-R (incl.)
7020-MTC-2
7020-DT
7020-D
7021
7011-MTC-1
7035
7035-MTC-2
7011-MTC-2
7011-KIT-R (incl.)
7036
7036-MTC-2
7011-KIT-R (incl.)
7037-D
7037-DT
7152
7152-MTC-2, -10
7152-KIT
7152-MTR
7153
7153-TRX
7152-TRX-10
7011-KIT-R (incl.)
7152-HCT
7074-HCT
4801
4802-10
4803
7158
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7074-CIT
4804
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Selector guide: Switch cards for 7001, 7002
7154
LOW CURRENT
Selector guide: Switch cards for 7001, 7002
HIGH VOLTAGE
C O N F I D E N C E
177
7011-C, 7011-S, 40-channel Multiplexer Cards
7111-S
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer Configuration
Each of the four multiplexer outputs on this card connects to the 7001/7002
analog back­plane through removable jumpers for even greater flexibility. Two
7011 cards can be used to make a single 1×80 multiplexer with all intercard
connections through the backplane. The 7011 mul­ti­plex­er outputs can also be
connected to the rows of the 7012 via the backplane for row expansion.
The Model 7111-S is a form C version of the 7011-S. The 7111-S is a low-­voltage,
quad 1×10, single-pole form C multiplexer card. The 7111-S assembly consists
of a screw terminal connector card and a relay card. External test circuits are
wired directly to the screw terminals of the connector card.
• Quad 1×10 multiplexer for
2-, 4-, or 8-pole operation
• Connects to 7001/7002
backplane for easy
expandability
• 500nV, 100pA offsets
Ordering Information
7011-C
7011-S
7111-S
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer
with 96-pin
Mass Terminated
Connector Board
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer
with Screw Terminal
Connector Board
Quad 1×10 Form
C Multiplexer with
Screw Terminal
Connector Board
Accessories Available
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
For 7011-C:
7011-KIT-R
7011-MTC-1
178
7011-MTC-2
96-pin Female Connector Kit
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 1m
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 2m
For 7011-S and 7111-S:
7011-ST
Extra Screw Terminal Connection Board
Services Available
7011-C-3Y-EW
7011-S-3Y-EW
7111-S-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
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These cards automatically configure the 7001 or 7002 mainframe. Two con­­nec­
tion options are available, screw terminal for maximum flex­i­­bil­i­t y or a single
96-pin quick disconnect con­nector.
MULTIPLEX CONFIGURATION: Four in­de­pen­dent 1×10 2-pole multiplex banks or two ­in­de­pen­dent 1×10 4-pole multiplex banks.
Ad­ja­cent banks can be connected together. Jump­ers can be removed to isolate any bank from the backplane.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Hi, Lo) (1-pole form C for 7111-S).
CONNECTOR TYPE:
7011-C: 96-pin male DIN connector.
7011-S and 7111-S: Screw terminal, #16AWG maximum wire size, with 0.092 inch O.D. 28 conductors per card maximum.
#22AWG typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D. 88 conductors per card maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL:
DC Signals: 110V DC between any two pins, 1A switched. 30VA (re­sis­tive load).
AC Signals: 125V rms and 175V AC peak, between any two pins, 1A switched, 60VA (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 175V peak, any pin to chassis.
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 10 8 closures. At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL:7011-C: <1µV per channel contact pair 7011-S, 7111-S: <2µV per contact pair
<3µV typical per single contact. <5µV typical per single contact.
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
ACTUATION TIME: 3ms.
ISOLATION:
7011-C
HI
Channel 1
Bank: >109W, <25pF.
LO
Channel to Channel: >109W, <50pF.
Bank A
Channels 2-9
J
Differential: Configured as 1×10:
HI
HI
HI
>109W, <100pF. Configured as 1×40:
J
Channel 10
Output
Backplane
>109W, <200pF.
LO
LO
LO
Common Mode: Configured as 1×10:
>109W, <200pF. Configured as 1×40:
J
J
>109W, <600pF.
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W Load): Bank:
Banks B – C
<–40dB. Channel: <–40dB.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 50W
J
J
Load): <0.1dB below 1MHz, <3dB
below 2MHz.
HI
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT (per relay):
Channel 1
7011-C, -S: 16mA
LO
7111-S: 28mA
Channels 2-9
Bank D
HI
Channel 10
LO
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
HI
Output
LO
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
J
J
HI
Backplane
LO
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
The Model 7011 40-channel multiplexer has four independent banks of 1×10
switching. Each channel is 2-pole. These four banks can be combined for a
wide variety of switching configurations—for example, dual 1×20, or 1×10 and
1×30, or one large 1×40. The 7001 main­frame can au­to­mat­i­cal­ly configure
the 7011 to switch 4-pole signals by combining channel pairs. This gives you a
dual 1×10 4-­­pole mul­ti­­plex­er or a single 1×20 4-pole multiplexer.
7012-C
7012-S
4×10 Matrix Cards
• 4×10 2-pole matrix
• Available with screw terminal or
mass terminated connections
• Rows connect to 7001/7002
backplane for easy matrix
expandability
• 500nV, 100pA offsets
Ordering Information
7012-C
7012-S
4×10, 2-Pole
Matrix with 96-pin
Mass Terminated
Connector Board
4×10, 2-Pole Matrix
with Screw Terminal
Connector Board
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
MATRIX CON­FIG­U­RA­TION: 4 rows by 10 columns. Jumpers can be removed to isolate any row
from the backplane.
CONTACT CON­FIG­U­RA­TION: 2-pole Form A (Hi, Lo).
CONNECTOR TYPE:
7012-C: 96-pin male DIN connector.
7012-S: Screw terminal, #16AWG maximum wire size, with .092 inch O.D. 28 conductors
per card maximum. #22AWG typical wire size with .062 inch O.D. 88 conductors per card
­maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL:
DC Signals: 110V DC between any two pins, 1A switched. 30VA (re­sis­tive load).
AC Signals: 125V rms and 175V AC peak, between any two pins, 1A switched, 60VA (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 175V peak, any pin to chassis.
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 108 closures. At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL:
7012-C: <1µV per channel contact pair7012-S:<500nV per channel contact pair
<3µV typical per single contact.
<1.5µV typical per single contact.
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
ACTUATION TIME: 3ms.
ISOLATION: Path: >109W, <50pF. Differential: >109W, <200pF. Common Mode: >109W, <400pF.
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W Load): <–40dB.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 50 Load): <0.1dB below 1MHz, <3dB below 2MHz.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT (per relay): 16mA.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C <80% RH. Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
10
J
A
Backplane
J
B
Backplane
J
Accessories Available
For 7012-C
7011-KIT-R
7011-MTC-1
7011-MTC-2
For 7012-S
7012-ST
C
Backplane
J
D
Backplane
96-pin Female Connector Kit
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 1m
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 2m
HI
Extra Screw Terminal Connection Board
Matrix Crosspoint
Services Available
7012-C-3Y-EW
7012-S-3Y-EW
LO
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
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SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
The 7012 provides 4 rows by 10 columns of 2-pole matrix switching. The
four rows of this card can be connected to the analog backplane within
the 7001 or 7002 to make a larger matrix (4×20) or use it with the 7011
multiplexer card for greater flexibility through row expansion. Each row is
connected to the backplane with its own jumpers that can be removed to
isolate an individual row from the backplane.
C O N F I D E N C E
179
20-channel Isolated Switch Cards
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
This isolated switch card contains 20 in­de­pen­
dent channels that can be connected in a wide
variety of configurations. Each channel is 2-pole.
The isolated switch configuration provides the
greatest flexibility because the switches can be
connected as needed. Both sides of each 2-pole
relay are available for ­connection.
• 20 independent 2-pole switches
• 500nV, 100pA offsets
Ordering Information
7013-C
7013-S
20-channel, 2-pole
Indepen­dent Switch with
96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board
20-channel, 2-pole Inde­
pendent Switch with Screw
Terminal Connector Board
7014
RELAY SWITCH CONFIGURATION: 20 independent channels
of 2-pole switching.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Hi, Lo).
CONNECTOR TYPE: 7013-C: 96-pin male DIN connector. ­
7013-S: Screw terminal, #16AWG maximum wire size, with
0.092 inch O.D. 28 conductors per card maximum. #22AWG
typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D. 88 conductors per card
maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: DC Signals: 110V DC between any
two pins, 1A switched. 30VA (resistive load).
AC Signals: 125V rms and 175V AC peak, between any two
pins, 1A switched, 60VA (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 175V peak, any pin to chassis.
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 10 8 closures.
At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1W.
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: 7013-C: <2µV per channel contact pair
(HI, LO); <5µV per single contact. 7013-S: <2µV per contact
pair (HI, LO); <5µV per single contact.
ACTUATION TIME: 3ms.
ISOLATION: Channel to Channel: >1010W, <25pF.
Differential: >1010W, <50pF. Common Mode: >1010W,
<100pF.
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W Load): <–50dB.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.1dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 10MHz.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT (per relay): 16mA.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C <80% RH.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
Accessories Available
For 7013-C
7011-KIT-R 96-pin Female Connector Kit
7011-MTC-1 96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to Female, 1m
7011-MTC-2 96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to Female, 2m
For 7013-S
7013-ST
Extra Screw Terminal Connection Board
Services Available
7013-C-3Y-EW
7013-S-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
Thermocouple Multiplexer
39 Channels of T/C or General Purpose Switching
• Built-in temperature reference
for thermocouple cold junction
compensation
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• 39-channel, 2-pole multiplexer
180
• For thermocouple and general
purpose signal switching
Ordering Information
7014
39-channel Thermo­
couple Scanner
with Screw Terminal
Connector Board
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The 7014 can multiplex up to 39 cold junction
compensated ther­mo­cou­ple channels. The
built-in ­reference junction can be measured to
determine the temperature of the isothermal
connection board for accurate temperature mea­
sure­ments. The reference junction sensing device
outputs a cali­brat­ed reference voltage that is linearly related to the temperature of the isothermal
connection board.
The 7014 card with the 7001 or 7002 main­frame
is designed to be used with the Keithley Model
2000, 2001, and 2010 DMMs. The 2001 uses the
ref­er­ence junction output from the 7014 to display properly compensated and linearized tem­
per­a­ture readings from the thermocouples.
MULTIPLEX CONFIGURATION: Four independent 1×10 2-pole
multiplex banks. Adjacent banks can be connected together.
Jumpers can be removed to isolate any bank from the backplane. Channel one in the bank A multiplexer is used for the
cold junction sensor.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Hi, Lo).
CONNECTOR TYPE: Screw terminal, #16AWG maximum wire
size, with 0.092 inch O.D. 28 conductors per card maximum.
#22AWG typical wire size per conductor, with 0.062 inch
O.D. 86 conductors per card maximum.
REFERENCE OUTPUT: +200µV/°C (+54.63mV at 0°C).
TOTAL REFERENCE JUNCTION MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
(1 Year): ±0.45°C (18°–28°C); ±0.7 (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C).
WARMUP: 2 hours to rated accuracy in mainframe.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 175V peak, any pin to chassis.
A
G R E A T E R
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: DC Signals: 110V DC between any
two pins, 1A switched. 30VA (resistive load).
AC Signals: 125V rms and 175V AC peak, between any two
pins, 1A switched, 60VA (resistive load).
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <1µV per channel contact pair; <2µV
typical per single contact.
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
ACTUATION TIME: 3ms.
ISOLATION: Bank: >109W, <25pF.
Channel to Channel: >109W, <50pF.
Differential: Configured as 1×10: >109W, <100pF.
Configured as 1×40: >109W, <200pF.
Common Mode: Configured as 1×10: >109W, <300pF
Configured as 1×40: >109W, <900pF.
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W Load): Bank: <–40dB.
Channel: <–40dB.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.1dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 2MHz.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT (per relay): 20mA.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C <80% RH.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
Accessories Available
7014-ST
Extra Screw Terminal Connection Board
Services Available
7014-3Y-EW
M E A S U R E
O F
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C O N F I D E N C E
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
7013-C
7013-S
• 30,000 hours MTBF
• Scan/measure over 300 ch/s
Ordering Information
7015-C
7015-S
40-channel, 2-pole
Independent Switch with
96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board
40-channel, 2-pole
Independent Switch
with Screw Terminal
Connector Board
7016A
Quad 1×10 Configuration
The Model 7015 40-channel solid state multi­
plexer is designed for multipoint meas­urement
applications that require high reliability and
increased scanning speeds. With an MTBF of
more than 30,000 hours, the 7015 can handle
applications that require con­tin­u­ous use over
longer periods of time. The solid state switch
technology also provides fast switching times for
scanning rates of over 300 channels/mea­sure­
ments per second when used with the 7002/2001
or 7001/2001 ­combination.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: 7015-C: <5µV per channel contact pair.
7015-S: <4µV per channel contact pair.
OFFSET CURRENT: <1nA.
ACTUATION TIME: <500µs.
ISOLATION: Bank: >109W, <25 pF.
Channel to Channel: >109W, <50 pF.
Differential: Configured as 1×10: >109W, <100pF.
Configured as 1×40: >109W, <200pF.
Common Mode: Configured as 1×10: >109W, <375pF.
Configured as 1×40: >109W, <1100pF.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 1MW Load): <0.1dB below
250kHz, <3dB below 500kHz.
Accessories Available
MULTIPLEX CON­FIG­U­RA­TION: 4 in­de­pen­dent 1×10 2-pole
multiplex banks or 2 independent 1×10 4-pole multi­plex
banks. Adjacent banks can be connected together. Jumpers
can be removed to isolate any bank from the backplane.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Hi, Lo).
CONNECTOR TYPE:
7015-C: 96-pin male DIN connector.
7015-S: Screw terminal, #16AWG maximum wire size, with
0.092 inch O.D. 28 conductors per card maximum. #22AWG
typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D. 88 conductors per card
maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 175V peak between any two pins,
34mA resistive load, 0.3VA max., 1×106V·Hz max.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 175V peak, any pin to chassis.
CONTACT TYPE: Solid state switch.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <210W.
For 7015-C
7011-KIT-R 96-pin Female Connector Kit
7011-MTC-1 96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to Female, 1m
7011-MTC-2 96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to Female, 2m
For 7015-S
7015-ST
Extra screw terminal connection board
Services Available
7015-C-3Y-EW
7015-S-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2GHz RF Switch Card
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
• Quad 1×10 (40-channel)
solid-state multiplexer
40-channel Solid State Multiplexer Cards
Dual 1×4 Configuration, 50W
The Model 7016A has two independent bi-­
directional 1×4 multiplexers for the Models 7001
and 7002 Switch Mainframes. The characteristic
impedance of the card is 50W. Signal c­ onnections
are made to the card with SMA connectors. Off
channels can be resistively ­terminated. SMB jack
connectors, provided on the card, are designed
to be used with user-­supplied terminators to
­minimize signal ­reflection.
• DC to 2GHz, 50W, signal
switching
• Off channels can be resistively
terminated
Ordering Information
7016A
Dual 1×4, 2GHz, 50W
Multiplexer with
Optional Termination
Multiplexers PER CARD: Two 1×4s (with isolated ground).
Characteristic Impedance: 50W nominal.
CHANNELS PER Multiplexer: 4.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 1 pole Form A common shield.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 120mA.
CONNECTOR TYPE: SMA.
Recommended Cable: RG-223/U.
AC PERFORMANCE:
For ZL = ZS = 50W
Insertion Loss (dB):
Crosstalk (dB):1
Channel-channel
Switch-Switch
VSWR
1
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TERMINATION: User supplied 50W SMB termination (on
unselected inputs).
ACTUATION TIME: 8ms.
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE: Any terminal (center or shield) to any
other center or chassis: 30V.
MAXIMUM CARRY CURRENT: 0.5A.
MAXIMUM CARRY POWER: 10VA up to 900MHz, 3VA @ 2GHz.
ISOLATION: Multiplexer to Multiplexer: >1GW. Center to
Shield: >1GW, <50pF. Channel to Channel: >100MW.
RISE TIME: <200ps.
SIGNAL DELAY: <3ns; channels matched to 50ps.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <6µV.
CONTACT RESISTANCE: 0.5W.
CONTACT LIFE: 3×105 @ 30V @ 10mA. 3×105 @ 900MHz,
1W. 1×106 @ cold switching.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C; up to 35°C at 80% RH.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC
(meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
≤10
≤100
≤500
≤1
≤2
MHz MHz MHz GHzGHz
<0.3
<0.6
<1.0
<1.3
<3.0
<–90
<–90
<1.06
<–80
<–80
<1.1
<–65
<–70
<1.2
<–55
<–65
<1.6
<–45
<–45
≤1.9
Services Available
7016A-3Y-EW
Specification assumes 50W termination.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
1-year factory warranty
extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
7015-C
7015-S
C O N F I D E N C E
181
7017
800MHz RF Switch Card
• DC to 800MHz, 50W, signal
switching
• <10mW contact resistance
variation
Ordering Information
7017
Dual 1×4, 800MHz,
50W Multiplexer with
SMA Connectors
7018-C
7018-S
• Dual 1×14 (28-channel)
multiplexer for 3- or 6-pole
operation
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• Connects to 7001/7002
backplane for easy
expandability
182
Ordering Information
7018-C
7018-S
Quad 1×10 Multiplexer
with 96-pin
Mass Terminated
Connector Board
Dual 1×14 Multiplexer
with Screw Terminal
Connector Board
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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The Model 7017 800MHz Multiplexer Card combines the stability, durability, and band­width
that high-volume production testing applications demand. Its reed relay design ensures
extremely repeatable contact re­sis­tance, even
when operating at high speeds con­tin­u­ous­ly.
With an 800MHz bandwidth, the 7017 is suitable
for switching a wide range of signals, making it
a good choice for testing a variety of electronic
components and as­sem­blies, from diodes and
capacitors to disk drive heads and other electronic sub­as­sem­blies.
Multiplexers per Card: 2 (with isolated ground).
Characteristic Impedance: 50W nom­i­nal.
Channels per Multiplexer: 4.
Contact Configuration: 1 pole Form A, common shield.
Relay Drive Current: 26mA per chan­nel.
Connector Type: SMA.
Recommended Cable: RG-223/U.
Actuation Time: 1ms.
Maximum Voltage: Any terminal (center or shield) to any
other terminal or chassis: 42V peak.
Maximum Current: 1A carry/0.5A switched.
Maximum Power: 10VA.
Isolation: Multiplexer to Multiplexer: >109W. Center to
Shield: >109W, <60pF. Channel to Channel: >109W.
Contact Potential: <25µV.
Contact Resistance: <0.5W initial, 1W at end of contact life.
Contact Life: 1V, 10mA: 108 closures. 20V, 0.5A: 5×104 closures.
AC Performance:
For ZL = ZS = 50W
Insertion Loss (dB):
Crosstalk (dB)1
Channel-channel
Mux. to Mux.
VSWR: <1.2 @ 100MHz.
≤10 ≤100 ≤500 ≤800
MHz MHzMHz MHz
<0.35 <1.0
<2.0
<3.0
<–60
<–80
<–40
<–60
<–35
<–60
<–30
<–55
Specification assumes 50W termination.
1
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
Environment: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at <80%
R.H. Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
Services Available
7017-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
28-channel 3-Pole Multiplexer
The Model 7018 28-channel multiplexer has
two independent banks of 1×14 switching.
Each channel is 3-pole. The two banks can be
combined for a variety of different switching
configurations. Used separately, they provide
a dual 1×14 3-pole configuration. Onboard
jumpers can connect the outputs together for
a single 1×28 3-pole arrangement. Both the
7001 and 7002 switch systems can use the two
banks in parallel for 6-pole operation in a 1×14
­configuration.
MULTIPLEX CONFIGURATION: 2 independent 1×14 3-pole
multiplex banks or one 1×14 6-pole multiplexer. Jumpers can
be removed to isolate any bank from the backplane.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 3-pole Form A.
CONNECTOR TYPE: 7018-C: 96-pin male DIN connector. ­
7018-S: Screw terminal, #16AWG maximum wire size, with
0.092 inch O.D. 28 conductors per card maximum. #22AWG
typical wire size with 0.062 inch O.D. 90 conductors per card
maximum.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: DC Signals: 110V DC between any
two pins, 1A switched, 30VA (resistive load).
AC Signals: 125V rms or 175V AC peak, between any two pins,
1A switched, 60VA (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 175V peak, any pin to chassis.
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1.5W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <5µV per single contact.
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
ACTUATION TIME: 3ms.
A
G R E A T E R
CROSS TALK (1MHz, 50W Load): Bank: <–40dB.
Channel: <–40dB.
ISOLATION: Bank: >109W, <25pF.
Channel to Channel: >109W, <50pF.
Differential: Configured as 1×14 >109W, <100pF.
Configured as 1×28 >109W, <200pF.
Common Mode: Configured as 1×14 >109W, <400pF
Configured as 1×28 >109W, <650pF.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.2dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 2MHz.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT (per channel): 59mA. (Maximum of 11
channels on at same time.)
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°C to 50°C, up to 35°C at 80% RH.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
For 7018-C
7011-KIT-R
7011-MTC-1
7011-MTC-2
For 7018-S
7018-ST
96-pin Female Connector Kit
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 1m
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 2m
Extra Screw Terminal Connection Board
Services Available
7018-C-3Y-EW
7018-S-3Y-EW
M E A S U R E
O F
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C O N F I D E N C E
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Dual 1×4 Configuration, 50W
7019-C
6-Wire Ohms Matrix Card
For use with Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments
®
More Information
For more information on 6-wire ohms measurements and using the Model 7019-C
in testing resistor networks, refer to the section on SourceMeter instruments and
to Application Note #1818 at www.keithley.com.
• For high speed production test
of resistor networks
• Supports Series 2400’s 6-wire W
measurements
• Dual 3×6 matrix configuration
• 100,000,000 closure life
• <0.5W contact resistance
• 200V, 1A rated
Ordering Information
7019-C
Dual 3×6 Matrix with
96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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Matrix Configuration: Dual 3 rows by 6 columns, plus
two utility pathways with two 2-channel multiplexer rows.
Jump­ers can be removed to isolate any row from the backplane.
Contact Configuration: 1 pole Form A.
Connector Type: 96-pin male DIN connector.
Maximum Voltage: Any input to any other input or chassis:
200V peak.
Maximum Current: 1A carry/0.5A switched.
Maximum Power: 10VA.
Contact Life: 1V, 10mA: 108 closures.
20V, 0.5A: 5×104 closures.
Channel Resistance: <0.5W initial, 1W at end of contact life.
Contact Potential: <25µV per single contact or pair.
Actuation Time: 500µs.
Isolation: Path: >109W, <50pF. Differential: >109W,
<400pF. Common Mode: >109W, <400pF.
Offset Current: <100pA.
Insertion Loss (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.35dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 2MHz.
Crosstalk (1MHz, 50W Load): –40dB.
Relay Drive Current: 15mA per channel.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
7011-KIT-R
7019C-MTC-1
7019C-MTCI-2
96-pin Female Connector Kit
6-pin Extender Cable, 2m
6-pin Extender and Instrument Cable, 2m
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Flexible Matrix Configuration
The Model 7019-C is configured as two independent 3×6 matrices. One is
de­signed for switching the Series 2400 instrument’s Force+, Force–, and Guard
signals, while the other ­switches its Sense+, Sense–, and Guard Sense terminals.
This configuration makes it pos­­­sible to connect any of the Source­Meter instrument’s force, sense, or guard outputs to any pin of the DUT for wide testing
flexibility. Each of the card’s 36 crosspoints is a single-pole switch. Closing the
appro­priate crosspoint switch allows any of the three rows in one matrix to be
connected to any of the six columns in the same matrix. In addition to these
matrices, two utility rows are available to handle other switching tasks, such as
temperature monitoring.
Services Available
7019-C-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
The Model 7019-C 6-Wire Ohms Matrix Card is specifically designed for automated
pro­duc­tion testing of resistor network devices in con­junc­tion with the six-wire
ohms function of Kei­thley’s Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments and Model
7001 or 7002 Switch Mainframes. When these instruments are combined with the
7019-C in a production test system, the “per element” test time is typically less
than 10ms, with maximum speeds typically less than 4ms.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
183
Digital I/O Cards
40 Inputs, 40 Outputs
The Model 7020 and 7020-D Digital I/O Interface Cards provide high-density digital input/output capabilities in an easy-to-control form. The 7020
and 7020-D both have 40 independent inputs and 40 independent outputs,
so they’re well-suited for monitoring and controlling large automated test
­applications compactly and cost-effectively. The 7020 provides a 96-pin
mass terminated connector. The 7020-D has two heavy duty 50-pin D-sub
connectors at the ends of short cables. The D-sub c­ onnector version is
designed for industrial/production applications where repeated connects/
disconnects with external cables are required.
• 80-bit control – 40 in/40 out
• Input and output protection
Output Channel
5.3V
VEXTERNAL
• Use internal 5.3V power supply
or external power supply
10kW
18W
Output
GND
Ordering Information
7020
7020-D
Digital I/O Card with
96-pin Mass Terminated
Connector Board
Digital I/O Card with
D-sub Connectors
Input Channel
5V
10kW
100kW
Input
Accessories Supplied
With 7020: 7011-KIT-R
96-pin Female Connector Kit
GND
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
184
For 7020
7011-KIT-R
7020-MTC-2
96-pin Female Connector Kit
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 2m
For 7020-D
7020-DT
CONNECTOR:
7020: 96-pin male DIN connector.
7020-D: Cables with 50-pin male and female D-sub
­connectors.
7020-DT:Mass terminated card with D-sub connectors.
DIGITAL I/O CAPABILITY: 40 independent inputs. 40 independent outputs.
OUTPUT Specifications:
Configuration: 40 open-collector drivers with factory
installed 10kW pull-up resistors. Pull-up resistors can be
removed when driving external pull-up devices. Each driver
has an internal flyback diode.
Pull up Voltage: 5.3V internally supplied, external connection
provided for user supplied voltage 25V max. Removal of internal jumper allows use of two different pull-up voltages.
Maximum Sink Current: Per Channel: 65mA. Per Bank (8
bits): 500mA. Per Card: 1A.
Current Limit: Positive Temperature Coefficient circuit
protector in series with each output. Output protection
resistance <18W.
Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage: <0.75V @
1mA. <1V @ 65mA.
INPUT Specifications:
Configuration: 40 inputs with internal 10kW pull-up
­resistors.
Characteristics:
Input logic low voltage:
0.8 V max.
Input logic high voltage:
2 V min.
–600 µA max. @ 0V
Input logic low current:
Input logic high current:
50 µA max. @ 5V
Maximum Voltage Level: 42V peak.
Extra Connector Board
Services Available
7020-3Y-EW
7020-D-3Y-EW
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Parametric test systems
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
7020
7020-D
7021
Multiplexer-Digital I/O Card
Analog Multiplexer
Specifications
Multplexer Configuration: Independent 1×12 and 1×18
multiplex banks. Adjacent banks can be connected together.
Jumpers can be removed to isolate any bank from the backplane.
Contact Configuration: 2-pole Form A (HI, LO).
Maximum Signal: 110V DC, 110V rms, 155V peak between
any two inputs or chassis, 1A switched, 30VA (resistive load).
Contact Life:Cold Switching: 108 closures.
Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
Channel Resistance (per conductor): <1.25W.
Contact Potential: <3µV per channel contact pair. <9µV
per single contact.
Offset Current: <100pA.
Actuation Time: <3ms.
Isolation:1
Bank: >109W, <25pF.
Channel to Channel: >109W, <50pF.
Differential:
Configured as 1×12: >109W, <100pF.
Configured as 1×18: >109W, <150pF.
Configured as 1×30: >109W, <200pF.
Common Mode: Configured as 1×12: >109W, <200pF.
Configured as 1×18: >109W, <250pF.
Configured as 1×30: >109W, <350pF.
Crosstalk1 (1MHz, 50W Load): <–40dB.
Insertion Loss1 (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.25dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 10MHz.
Relay Drive Current (per relay): 16mA.
• 30-channel, 2-pole multiplexer
• 20 control bits – 10 in/10 out
• Multiplexer connects to 7001/
7002 backplane for easy
expandability
• 250mA digital output sink
capacity
• Digital input and output
protection built in
Ordering Information
7021
Digital I/O Specifications
30-channel Multiplexer
with Digital I/O
Accessories Supplied
7011-KIT-R
96-pin Female
Connector Kit
Digital I/O Capability: 10 independent inputs.10 independent outputs.
Output:
Configuration: 10 open-collector drivers with factory
installed 10kW pull-up resistors. Each driver has an internal flyback diode.
Pull-Up Voltage: 5V internally supplied, external connection
provided for user supplied voltage up to 42V max. Outputs
short circuit protected up to 25V.
Maximum Sink Current:Per Channel: 250mA. Per Card: 1A.
Logic: Hardware user configurable for negative or positive
true logic levels.
Input:
Configuration: 10 inputs with internal 10kW pull-up resistors provided. Input resistors can be set for pull-up or
pull-down configuration.
Maximum Voltage Level: 42V peak.
Logic: Positive true.
Notes
1. Specifications apply with no more than one channel closed.
Multiplexer Configuration
General
Connector Type: 96-pin male DIN connector (7011KIT-R mating connector included).
Environment:
Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C <80% RH.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
Digital I/O Configuration
Bank A
VEXT
5V
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
The Model 7021 Multiplexer-Digital I/O Card combines high-density signal switching with digital control on a single card. This space-saving design is well-suited for configuring compact automated production test appli­­­cations. The Model 7021 card contains two independent 2-pole multiplexers—one
1×12 bank and one 1×18 bank. For larger applications, these multiplexers can be combined to form
a 1×30 two-pole multiplexer. In addition to the Model 7021’s signal routing capabilities, it can also
sense the state of 10 digital inputs and generate
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
10 digital output states. Each input channel can
be set up for either pull-up or pull-down opera7011-KIT-R
96-pin Female Connector Kit
tion through the card’s 10kW onboard resistors.
Services Available
This allows microswitches and ­similar devices
7021-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
to be monitored directly, without the need for
from date of shipment
level-shifting interface ­circuitry.
HI
5V
LO
12 Channels
10K
10K
HI
HI
Output
LO
Output
10K
J
J
HI
Backplane
LO
LO
Input
J
J
Bank B
HI
GND
GND
LO
18 Channels
HI
HI
Output Channel 1 of 10
Output
Input Channel 1 of 10
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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LO
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
LO
O F
J
J
HI
Backplane
LO
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
with 1×12 Plus 1×18 Multiplexer, 10 Digital Inputs & 10 Digital Outputs
C O N F I D E N C E
185
7035
10MHz 1×4 Multiplexer Card
The Model 7035 9-Bank Multiplexer Card has
nine 1×4 multiplexers. The switch contact
configuration for each channel is 2-pole form
A. The card’s nine banks can be combined for a
wide variety of switching configurations using
external connections. This flexibility makes the
Model 7035 well-suited for production testing of
a variety of telecommunications products and
systems and low power portable devices.
• Great fit for low frequency
telecom test
Ordering Information
7035
9 Bank 1×4 Multiplexer
Switching Card
MULTIPLEX CONFIGURATION: 9 independent 1×4 2-pole
­multiplex banks.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Hi, Lo).
CONNECTOR TYPE: 96-pin male DIN connector
(7011-KIT-R ­mating connector included).
Maximum Signal Level: 60V DC, 30V rms, 42V peak
between any two inputs or chassis, 1A switched. 30VA
(resistive load).
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <2µV per channel contact pair.
<5µV typical per single contact.
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
ACTUATION TIME: 3ms.
ISOLATION:Bank:
>109W, <25 pF.
Channel to Channel: >109W, <50 pF.
Differential:
>109W, <100pF.
Common Mode:
>109W, <200pF.
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W Load): Bank: <–40dB.
Channel: <–40dB.
INSERTION LOSS (50W Source, 50 Load): <0.25dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 10MHz.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT (per relay): 16mA.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
7011-KIT-R
7035-MTC-2
96-pin Female Connector Kit
96-pin Mass Terminated Cable, Female to
Female, 2m
Services Available
7035-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
Accessories Supplied
7011-KIT-R 96-pin Female
Connector Kit
7038
2GHz RF Switch Card
3 Isolated 1×4 Multiplexers, 75W
The Model 7038 75W 2.0GHz Multiplexer Card
is designed to speed testing and evaluation of a
broad-range of telecommunications hardware,
including coaxial cable-based equipment, cable
television equipment, and high-speed Internet
access products. The card simplifies auto­mated
switching of high-­frequency RF signals, even
those with bandwidths of up to 2GHz.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• DC to 2GHz, 75W, signal
switching
186
• High channel to channel
isolation
• Miniature SMB connectors
Ordering Information
7038
Three 1×4, 2GHz,
75W Multiplexer
Characteristic Impedance: 75W nominal.
MULTIPLEXers per card: 3 (with isolated ground).
Channels per Multiplexer: 4.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 1-pole, 1 of 4 tree. Channels 1, 5,
and 9 normally closed.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 154mA per channel.
CONNECTOR TYPE: 75W miniature SMB receptacle.
ACTUATION TIME: 6ms.
Maximum Voltage: Any terminal (center or shield) to any
other terminal or chassis: 24V.
Maximum Current: 10mA DC.
Maximum Power: 10W @ 1.2GHz.
ISOLATION: Multiplexer to Multiplexer: >1GW. Center to
Shield: >1GW, 60pF. Channel to Channel: >100MW.
Signal Delay: <1ns.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: 15µV.
CONTACT LIFE: 3×105 closures @ 24VDC, 10mA DC; 1×105
closures @ 10W, 1.2GHz signal; 5×106 closures @ cold
switching.
Contact RESISTANCE: <1W.
AC Performance:
≤10 ≤100 ≤500≤900 ≤2
For ZL = ZS = 75W
MHz MHz MHz MHz GHz
Insertion Loss (dB)
<0.25 <0.5 <1.0 <1.5 <3.0
Crosstalk (dB)
Channel-to-channel <–90 <–80 <–65 <–55 <–40
Mux. to Mux.
<–90 <–80 <–70 <–60 <–55
VSWR
<1.2 <1.25 <1.5 <1.5 <2.2
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at <80%
RH. Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
Services Available
7038-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
One of three 1×4 multiplexers
IN 1
IN 2
OUT A
IN 3
IN 4
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
9 Independent 1×4 2-Pole Multiplexers
The Model 7036 and 7037-D single-pole relay switching cards are well-suited for
configuring automated test systems for portable devices. The Model 7036 offers 40
independent channels of 1-pole Form A switching, while the Model 7037-D provides 30
channels, plus ten independent digital inputs and ten independent digital outputs for
control applications. The 7036 provides a 96-pin mass terminated connector. The 7037-D
has two heavy duty 50-pin D-sub connectors at the ends of short cables. The D-sub connector
version is designed for industrial/production applications where repeated connects/
disconnects with external cables are required. The 7037-DT is an extra connector board
for the 7037-D card that can be used to upgrade a standard 7037-D to a mass terminated
connector.
• Mass terminated connection
• 1A switch rating
• <100pA offset current
• <4µV contact potential
Ordering Information
7036
7037-D
Single-Pole Relay Card
Single-Pole Relay
Digital I/O Card with
D-Sub Connectors
Relay switch configuration for Models
7036 and 7037-D
Model 7036 Specifications
Model 7037-D Specifications
Relay Switch Specifications
Relay Switch Configuration: 40 independent channels
of 1-pole switching.
Contact Configuration: 1 pole Form A.
Connector Type: 96-pin male DIN card connector.
Maximum Signal Level: 60V DC, 30V rms, 42V peak betwen
any two inputs or chassis, 1A switched. 30VA (resistive load).
Contact Life: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
Channel Resistance (per conductor): <1W.
Contact Potential: <4µV per contact.
Offset Current: <100pA.
Actuation Time: 3ms.
Isolation: Channel to Channel: >109W, <25pF.
Common Mode: >109W, <100pF.
Crosstalk (1MHz, 50W Load) <–40dB.
Insertion Loss (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.3dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 10MHz.
Relay Drive Current (per relay): 16mA.
Relay Switch Specifications
Relay Switch Configuration: 30 independent channels
of 1-pole switching.
Contact Configuration: 1 pole Form A.
Connector Type: Cables with 50-pin male and female D-sub
connectors.
Maximum Signal: 110V DC, 110V rms, 155V peak between
any two inputs or chassis, 1A switched, 30VA (resistive load).
Contact Life: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Levels: 105 closures.
Channel Resistance (per conductor): <1.25W.
Contact Potential: <4µV per contact.
Offset Current: <100pA.
Actuation Time: 3ms.
Isolation: Channel to Channel: >109W, <25pF.
Common Mode: >109W, <100pF.
Crosstalk (1MHz, 50W Load): <–40dB.
Insertion Loss (50W Source, 50W Load): <0.25dB below
1MHz, <3dB below 10MHz.
Relay Drive Current (per relay): 16mA.
7036/7037-D General
Digital I/O Specifications
Digital I/O Capability: 10 independent inputs. 10 independent ­outputs.
Output:
Configuration: 10 open-collector drivers with factory
installed 10kW pull-up resistors. Each driver has an internal flyback diode.
Pull-Up Voltage: 5V internally supplied, external connection
provided for user-supplied voltage up to 42V max. Outputs
short circuit protected up to 25V.
Maximum Sink Current:
Per Channel: 250mA. Per Card: 1A.
Logic: Hardware user configurable for negative or positive
true logic levels.
Input:
Configuration: 10 inputs with internal 10kW pull-up resistors provided. Input resistors can be set for pull-up or
pull-down configuration.
Maximum Voltage Level: 42V peak.
Logic: Positive true.
Each Channel
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive
89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive
73/23/EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
Environment: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C
<80% RH. Storage: –25° to 65°C.
IN
OUT
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Digital I/O configuration for Model 7037-D
7011-KIT-R
VEXT
5V
5V
10K
10K
Output
10K
Input
96-pin Female Connector Kit
(included)
7036-MTC-2 Mass Ter­mi­nat­ed Cable
Assembly
7037-DT
Extra Connector Board for the
7037-D Card
Services Available
7036-3Y-EW
GND
GND
7037-D-3Y-EW
Output Channel 1 of 10
Input Channel 1 of 10
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A
1-year factory warranty
extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
1-year factory warranty
extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
40-channel Isolated Switch Card
30-channel Digital I/O Card
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
7036
7037-D
C O N F I D E N C E
187
7053
High Current Scanner Card
• 5A switching
• 10-channel scanner
• 2-pole Form A
• Maintains current path for
unselected channel
Ordering Information
7053
10-channel High
Current Scanner
with Screw Terminal
Connections
7067
The Model 7053 has ten channels and features
5A contacts. The switch­ing is designed to main­
tain current paths for signals not con­nect­ed
to the output or, when internal jumpers are
removed, to provide high input resistance for
making voltage meas­ure­ments. Semiconductor
testing, materials research, power sup­ply testing, solar cell meas­ure­ments, elec­tro­chem­i­cal
ap­pli­ca­tions, and IC testing are among the applications sim­pli­fied with the Model 7053 High
Current Scan­ner Card.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 300V peak.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% RH.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25°C to 65°C.
Services Available
7053-3Y-EW
CHANNELS PER CARD: 10.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A with common
guard.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Screw terminal, #18AWG maximum wire size.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 80mA per relay typical.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 300V, 5A, 100VA (resistive load only).
CONTACT LIFE: >107 closures cold switching; >105 closures at
maximum signal levels.
CONTACT RESISTANCE: <0.15W to rated life.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <1mV.
ACTUATION TIME: <15ms, exclusive of mainframe.
CHANNEL ISOLATION: >109W, <50pF.
INPUT ISOLATION: >107W, <150pF.
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
HI
Channel 1
LO
J
HI
Channel 2
LO
J
Channels 3–9
HI
Channel 10
LO
J
HI
LO
J = Removable Jumper
4-Wire Scanner Card
10-channel
• <1µV contact potential
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• 4-pole Form A relays
188
• Quick disconnect screw
terminal connections
Ordering Information
7067
4-Wire Scanner Card
with Screw Terminal
Connections
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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Four-wire or Kelvin connections are generally
made to minimize errors created by I-R drops in
the cabling and interconnects of a test system.
Each channel of the Model 7067 has two generalpurpose source contacts that switch currents up
to 350mA, as well as two high quality contacts
(<1µV contact potential) for dry switching of
voltage to the sensing circuit. The Model 7067
is well-suited to precision resistance meas­­ure­
ments as required in temperature coefficient
testing. Other ap­pli­ca­tions include remote
sensing of voltage source outputs and bridge
­measurements.
CONTACT LIFE: >108 closures at dry circuit; >106 closures at
maximum signal levels.
WARM-UP: 1 hour for thermal stability.
ACTUATION TIME: <2ms, exclusive of mainframe.
CHANNEL ISOLATION: >109W, <10pF.
INPUT ISOLATION, DIFFERENTIAL: >109W, <50pF.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: <150V peak.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25°C to 65°C.
APPLICATIONS: 4-wire resistance (resistors, relays, con­nec­tors,
switches, RTDs). External sensing on voltage sources. DUT in/out
switching (potentiometers, isolation amplifiers, strain gages).
Services Available
7067-3Y-EW
CHANNELS PER CARD: 10.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 4-pole Form A, common shield
connection.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 35mA per channel typical.
SENSE LINES:
Maximum Signal Level: 150V, 100mA, 2VA (resistive loads only).
Contact Resistance: <0.5W initial, 2W to rated life.
Contact Potential: <1µV per contact pair with copper leads
(<5 minutes after actuation).
SOURCE LINES:
Maximum Signal Level: 150V, 350mA, 10VA (resistive loads only).
Contact Resistance: <0.2W initial, 2W to rated life.
Contact Potential: <100µV per contact pair.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Quick disconnect screw terminal,
#18AWG maximum wire size.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
HI
Source
Source
HI
Sense
DUT
Sense
LO
Sense
LO
Source
To other
channels
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
10-channel, 2-Pole
7065
Hall Effect Card
Buffers
2
1
+
–
2
+
–
3
Columns
4
5
The Model 7065 is a signal conditioning card designed
to buffer test signals from the Hall sample to the
measurement instrumentation and to switch current
from a source to the Hall sample. When used with
Keithley’s Model 7001 scanner mainframe, the Model
7065 provides the switch­ing capability to measure Hall
voltages as low as 50nV and sample resistances in excess
of 1012W.
Rows
LO R
+
–
3
HI R
+
–
4
HI
Optional I
6485
pA
Meter
6220
Current
Source
2
3
Sample
Ordering Information
7065
7001
Hall Effect Card
Switch System
ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED
4801
Low Noise Input Cable
7078-TRX-10
3-slot Triax Cable (10 ft.)
6172
2-slot Male to 3-Lug Female Triax Adapter
7025-10
Triaxial Input Cable (10 ft.) (4 supplied)
4851
BNC Shorting Plug
Wire Kit Including:
SC-72-0
Single Conductor Insulated Wire, black (4 ft.) (2 supplied)
SC-72-9
Single Conductor Insulated Wire, white (4 ft.)
BG-5
Single Banana Plug, black (2 supplied)
BG-10-1
Single Banana Plug, white
BG-7
Double Banana Plug, black
SC-8
2-conductor Cable w/shield (10 ft.)
7007-2
Double Shielded Premium Cable (6 ft.)
Services Available
7065-3Y-EW
Used for bar
type samples
V
1
4
LO
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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2000
DMM
All the accessories needed to connect the sam­ple holder,
scanner, instruments, and controller are included,
simplifying con­nec­tions. The Model 7065 is connected
directly to the sample, and all in­stru­ments are connected via the IEEE-488 bus to the controller. Examples of
resistivity and Hall voltage measurement pro­grams are
included in the Model 7065 Instruction Manual.
The Model 7065 can be operated in either a low resistivity or a high resistivity mode. In the high
resistivity mode, input impedance is greater than 100TW, input bias current is less than 150fA, and
output resistance is less than 60W. Input voltage ranges in both operating modes is +8V to –8V.
If higher voltage is desired, Keithley recommends using a 6220/6514 system. Cabling and sample
connections must be carefully de­signed to make full use of the Model 7065’s ca­pa­bil­i­ties. Refer to
Keithley’s Low Level Measurements handbook for guidance in designing these connections.
LOW RESISTIVITY MODE
GENERAL
Input Voltage Operating Range: +8 to –8V.
Input Impedance: >10GW in parallel with <420pF.
Input Bias Current: <100pA.
Input Voltage Noise: <50nV p-p, 0.1 to 10Hz bandwidth.
Input to Output Resistance: <30W.
HIGH RESISTIVITY MODE
Input Voltage Operating Range: +8 to –8V.
Input Impedance: >100TW in parallel with <3pF.
Input Bias Current: <150fA at 23°C. Doubles approximately every 10°C rise in ambient room temperature.
Input Voltage Noise: <10µV p-p, 0.1 to 10Hz bandwidth.
Output Resistance: <60W.
CONFIGURATION
Input characteristics and output matrix configuration for van
der Pauw or Hall bar measurements. Input char­ac­ter­is­tics selectable for either low resistivity or high re­sis­tiv­i­t y samples.
A
G R E A T E R
The foundation of a Hall Effect system
The foundation of a Hall Effect system
1
M E A S U R E
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (analog ground
to earth ground): 30V peak, DC to 60Hz sine wave.
ISOLATION: Analog ground to earth ground: >109W in
parallel with 150pF.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated specifications.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–35°C, up to 70% R.H.
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
CONNECTORS:
Current Source Input: Two-lug female triaxial. Input
HI to LO clamped at ±12V. Maximum Input: 100mA.
Sample Inputs: Four two-lug female triaxial. Outer
shell is analog ground. Inner shield is driven guard.
Maximum Input Overload (HI to analog ground
or GUARD to analog ground): ±12V.
Current Monitor Output: Insulated female BNC.
Measurement Outputs: Spring-loaded terminals.
Accepts AWG #18 to #24 wire. Maximum
Load: 1mA.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 32mm high × 114mm wide ×
272mm long (1 in × 4 in × 10 in). Net weight: 434kg
(15½ oz).
All specifications are 1 year, 0°–35°C, installed in
scanner mainframe.
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Model 7065 Hall Effect Card
Building blocks for an eco­nom­i­cal
mea­sure­ment system
The Model 7065 Hall Effect Card is intended for those
who want to assemble their own economical Hall
test systems. It also can form the foundation of a Hall
Effect system. The sensitivity and capabilities of this
card are unmatched by any other system or Hall Effect
e­ lectronics package.
C O N F I D E N C E
189
Optical Switch Cards
The Model 7090 Optical Switch Cards are designed for the Model 7001 and
7002 Switch Main­frames. These cards simplify making accurate connections from one input fiber channel to either eight or sixteen output fiber
channels. When combined with existing Series 7001/7002 switch cards,
these optical switches allow for hybrid switching combinations of optical,
RF, and DC switching within a single switch mainframe, extending the
automated testing environment.
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Use with 7001 and 7002
scanner mainframes.
Combine Optical, DC, and RF Switching in One Instrument
The Model 7090 cards are compatible with all other Series 7001/7002
switch cards, so they can be used in conjunction with DC switch cards to
control an L‑I‑V test system as well as for RF switching needs. All of the
switches can be used in one mainframe with a single GPIB address.
• Perform multiple tests on a
single device without changing
test setup
• Test multiple devices with a
single instrument
• 1×8 and 1×16 optical switching
cards
• Single-mode or multimode fiber
• Very low insertion loss,
0.6dB typ.
• 0.03dB repeatability
• FC/SPC connectors
• Bulkhead options available
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Ordering Information
190
7090-8-4 1×8 Multimode with
FC/SPC Fiber Pigtail
7090-16-61×16 Single-mode with
FC/SPC Fiber Pigtail
Meets a Range of Test Requirements
Model 7090 cards offer a number of options to ensure the compatibility of
the switch with the test setup. Each switch card has one input fiber aligned
to one of eight or sixteen output fibers. Depending on the card chosen,
the fiber is either a 9µm ­single-mode fiber or 62.5µm multimode fiber. The
input and output fiber channels are available with several connection options, including FC/SPC and
a one-meter fiber pigtail with a connector. For a complete list of available features, see the Physical
Properties Guide below.
Faster Test Development
Several built-in features of the Model 7001
and 7002 mainframes simplify system setup,
operation, and modifications. All aspects of the
instrument can be programmed from either the
mainframe’s front panel or over the IEEE bus.
Both mainframes offer Trigger Link interfaces
to ensure tight control over the test system and
eliminate IEEE bus command overhead.
Applications
Production testing of:
• Laser diode modules
• Chip on submount laser diodes
• Laser diode bars
• LEDs and OLEDs
• Passive optical components
Services Available
7090-8-4-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
7090-16-6-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
• VCSEL arrays
• Optical add/drop multiplexer
(OADM)
Physical Properties
Configuration: Single channel, 1×N non-blocking switch.
Model
Number
No. of Channels
7090-8-4
1×8
7090-16-6
1×16
Fiber Type
Multimode fiber
62.5/125 each ch.
Single-mode fiber (SMF-28)
9/125 each ch.
Wavelength (nm)
Connector
Fiber
Length
780-1350
FC/SPC
1m
1290-1650
FC/SPC
1m
Accessories Supplied
User’s Manual
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
7090
• Easy interconnect and
expansion
• Maximum signal 200V and 1A
• Standard mass t­ erminated
cable accessories
Ordering Information
71524×5 Low Current
Matrix Card
Accessories Supplied
Connector caps
7153
The Model 7152 is an ideal solution for small to
mod­er­ate-size matrix systems that require superior
per­for­mance in DC isolation for meas­ure­ments of
semiconductor parameters and insulating prop­
er­ties of materials. Offset current is <1pA with
path iso­la­tion >1013W. Each matrix cros­s­point is a
two-pole relay with the ability to switch both signal
and guard.
Interconnect, expansion of the matrix, and con­nec­
tion to instruments and devices are easily ac­com­
plished using two stan­dard in­ter­con­nect cable
as­sem­blies. The 7152-MTC cables are ter­mi­nat­ed
at both ends with M-series con­nec­tor blocks for
quick ex­pan­sion be­tween cards and con­nec­tion to
7152-MTR bulk­head re­cep­ta­cles. 7152-TRX ca­bles
are ter­mi­nat­ed at one end with M-se­ries con­nec­tors
and at the oth­er end with 3-lug tri­a x­i­al con­nec­
tor shells for direct con­nec­tion to elec­trom­e­ters
and SMUs.
MATRIX CONFIGURATION: 4 rows by 5 columns.
CROSSPOINT CON­FIGU­RA­TION: 2-pole Form A (Signal and
Guard).
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 20mA (per cros­s­point).
PEAK CONTACT RATING: 200V, 1A carry/0.5A switched. 10VA
(resistive load).
PEAK VOLTAGE: Common Mode: 200V (Signal or Guard to Chas­
sis). Path–Path: 200V (Signal or Guard to Signal or Guard).
CONTACT LIFE: 108 closures (cold switching), 105 closures (at
maximum signal level).
ACTUATION TIME: <2ms exclusive of main­frame.
ISOLATION: Path: >1013W and <1pF. Differential: >1011W and
<100pF. Common Mode: >109W and <300pF.
CROSSTALK: <–50dB at 1MHz, 50W load.
INSERTION LOSS: 0.1dB typical (1MHz, 50W source,
50W load).
3dB BAND­WIDTH: 60MHz typical (50W load).
OFFSET CUR ­R ENT: <1pA (10fA typical).
CONTACT POTENTIAL: 20µV per contact typical.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Pre-Built Cables
7152-MTC-2
Low Noise M-Series to M-Series Cable, 2 ft.
7152-MTC-10
Low Noise M-Series to M-Series Cable, 10 ft.
7152-TRX-10
Low Noise M-Series to Triax Cable, 10 ft.
M-Series Bulkhead Connectors
7152-KIT
M-Series Plug for custom wiring
7152-MTR
M-Series Receptacle for 7152-MTC-* Cables and
7152-KIT Plug
Required Tools for Bulkhead Connectors
7074-CIT
Extraction Tool for 7152-KIT and 7152-MTR
shield contacts
7074-HCT
Hand Crimp Tool for 7152-KIT and 7152-MTR
shield contacts
7152-HCT
Hand Crimp Tool for 7152-KIT and 7152-MTR
coaxial contacts
Services Available
7152-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
4×5 Low Current Matrix Card
High Voltage
• 2-pole switching
• Mass termination connectors
Ordering Information
71534×5 High Voltage Low
Current Matrix Card
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
7153-TRX
Services Available
7153-3Y-EW
MATRIX CONFIGURATION: 4 rows by 5 columns.
CROSSPOINT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Signal and
Guard).
CONNECTOR TYPE: Miniature coax, M-series plug.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 40mA (per cros­s­point).
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 1300V between any 2 signal pins or
chassis; 200V between Signal and Guard. 1A carry/0.5A switched.
10VA peak (re­sis­tive load).
CONTACT LIFE: 108 closures (cold switching). 105 closures (at
maximum signal level).
PATH RESISTANCE: <1W per contact to rated life.
ACTUATION TIME: <2ms exclusive of mainframe.
ISOLATION: Path: >1013W and <1pF. Differential: >1011W and
<100pF. Common Mode: >109W and <300pF.
A
G R E A T E R
Low Noise M-Series to Triax Cable, 5 ft.
M E A S U R E
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5
Row 1
Signal
Guard
Row 2
Signal
Guard
Row 3
Signal
Guard
Row 4
Signal
Guard
Chassis
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• Sub-pA offset current
CROSSTALK: <–50dB at 1MHz, 50W load.
INSERTION LOSS: 0.1dB typical (1MHz, 50W source, 50W load).
3dB BANDWIDTH: 60MHz typical (50W load).
OFFSET CURRENT: <1pA (10fA typical).
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <50µV typical.
Sig
na
Gu l
ard
Sig
na
Gu l
ard
Sig
na
Gu l
ard
Sig
na
Gu l
ard
• 1300V switching
The Model 7153 is designed to switch low level,
high voltage, and high impedance signals for
ap­pli­ca­tions such as parametric tests on semi­
con­duc­tor devices. The 7153 allows signal levels
up to 1300V while maintaining offset cur­rent of
<1pA (typ­i­cal­ly 10fA) and path isolation >1013W.
Each cros­s­point is a 2-pole relay to switch both
signal and guard. Interconnect between the
matrix and in­stru­ments such as the Model 237
SMU is done with the 7153-TRX cable. This cable
has an M-se­ries con­nec­tor for the ma­trix and five
3-slot male triax con­nec­tors at the op­po­site end.
The cable will mate with the row or column con­
nec­tors of the Model 7153.
Sig
na
Gu l
ard
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
• Sub-pA offset current
4×5 Low Current Matrix Card
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
7152
C O N F I D E N C E
191
7154
High Voltage Scanner Card
• 1100 volts peak
• 2-pole switching
• High and low fused
Ordering Information
7154
High Voltage
Scanner Card
7158
The Model 7154 switches voltages to 1100V peak
or cur­rents to 0.5A. The current carry ca­pac­i­t y of
each relay contact is 1A. Two-pole relays switch
both ­circuit High and Low for full floating mea­
sure­ments and each input line is fuse pro­tect­ed
against current overload. A Guard input com­mon
to all channels is provided for shielding or as a
Guard driven from a single in­stru­ment. Guards
may be isolated by re­mov­ing jump­ers installed at
each input. Multiple switched guard circuits can
be achieved by re­mov­ing the jumper and con­
nect­ing circuit Guard to the Low input ter­mi­nal.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <35µV per contact pair with copper leads.
ACTUATION TIME: <2ms exclusive of mainframe.
CHANNEL ISOLATION: 1010W, <10pF.
INPUT ISOLATION: Differential: >109W, <10pF.
Common Mode: >109W, <150pF.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 1100V peak.
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50° up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
Storage: –5° to +65°C.
Services Available
7154-3Y-EW
CHANNELS PER CARD: 10.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A with userselectable shield or driven Guard. Each pole is fused using
#38AWG magnet wire.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Screw terminals, #16AWG maximum
wire size.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 57mA per relay typical.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 1100V peak, 0.5A DC or rms
switched, 1A DC or rms carry, 10W.
CONTACT LIFE: >10 8 closures (cold switching); >5×106 closures (at maximum signal level).
CONTACT RESISTANCE: <200mW initial, 2W to rated life.
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
H
Ch. 1
L
G
Ch. 2 - 9
J1
H
Ch. 10
L
H
G
G
L
J10
Low Current Scanner Card
10-channel
The Model 7158 provides quality low-current
switching at an affordable price. The offset
current error generated is specified <1pA, with
typical performance at <30fA. When used with a
voltage source and electrometer or picoammeter,
this card can easily au­to­mate insulation resistance
tests, reverse leakage tests on semiconductor
junctions, or gate leak­age tests on FETs.
• Sub-picoamp offset current
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• Maintains current path for
unselected channel
192
• BNC connectors
Ordering Information
7158
Low Current
Scanner Card
Accessories Supplied
4801
Low Noise Male to
Male BNC Input Cable
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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The Model 7158 is designed to maintain the
current
­­
path even when the channel is deselected.
Input connectors are BNC for shielding of the
sensitive measurements and for com­pat­i­bil­i­t y with
low noise coaxial cables such as Keithley accessory
cables Models 4801 and 4803. Two out­puts are
provided to allow for chaining several scanner
cards to one measurement in­stru­ment, and an
isolation relay in the out­put HI minimizes in­ter­ac­
tion between cards.
CONTACT LIFE: >106 closures at maximum signal levels;
>107 closures at low signal levels.
CONTACT RESISTANCE: <1W.
CON­TACT POTENTIAL: <200µV.
OFF­SET CUR ­R ENT: <1pA (<30fA typ­i­cal).
3dB BAND­WIDTH: 1MHz typ­i­cal.
AC­TU­A­TION TIME: <1ms, exclusive of mainframe.
CHANNEL ISOLATION: >1014W.
INPUT ISOLATION: Differential: >109W, <50pF.
Common Mode: >109W, <150pF.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: <30V maxi­mum.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
4801
4802-10
4803
Services Available
7158-3Y-EW
CHANNELS PER CARD: 10.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: Single pole, simultaneous break
and make for signal HI input. Signal LO is common for all 10
channels and output. When a channel is off, signal HI is connected to signal LO.
CONNECTOR TYPE: BNC.
RELAY DRIVE CURRENT: 100mA per card typical (regardless
of channel closures selected).
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 30V, 100mA peak (re­sis­tive load).
A
G R E A T E R
Low Noise Male to Male BNC Input Cable
Low Noise BNC to Unterminated Cable, 10 ft.
Low Noise BNC Cable Kit for 7158
M E A S U R E
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
Output
1
Ch. 1
Ch. 2 – 9
Ch. 10
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Output
2
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
10-channel
7168
Nanovolt Scanner Card
HI
Ch. 1
LO
• <30nV contact potential
• Bare copper terminal
connections
HI
Ch. 2
LO
Ordering Information
HI
Ch. 8
LO
7168
Ch. 3 – 7
HI
Output
LO
8-channel Nanovolt
Scanner Card
CHANNELS PER CARD: 8.
CONFIGURATION: Two poles per channel, input HI and LO.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Screw terminal to bare copper printed
circuit pad.
MAX. SIGNAL LEVEL: 10V, 50mA peak (resistive load only).
CONTACT RESISTANCE: <12W.
CONTACT POTENTIAL (HI to LO) BE­TWEEN CHANNELS:
<30nV when properly zeroed with supplied leads (see manual
for rec­om­mend­ed procedure). Typically <60nV without
ze­roing.
CONTACT TYPE: Solid state JFET switch.
ACTUATION TIME: <3ms, exclusive of mainframe.
INPUT LEAKAGE: <50pA per channel at 23°C.
INPUT ISOLATION: >109W, <40pF between any input ter­mi­nals
or between any input terminal and earth.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 30V peak.
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE BETWEEN ANY TWO TERMINALS: 10V.
WARM-UP: 2 hours in mainframe for thermal stability.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: 0°–40°C; up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT: –25° to 60°C.
ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED
2107-4 7168-316
Low Thermal Input Cable for 2182A (1 supplied)
Low Thermal Input Cables for 7166 (8 supplied)
Services Available
7168-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
The Model 7168 is an 8-channel, 2-pole card
with <30nV of thermal offset. It will switch any
one of eight signals to one output in less than
3ms. Channel offset leakage current is <50pA
at 23°C. When the 7168 is used with the Mod­el
2182A, the noise and drift per­for­mance of the
2182A is not de­grad­ed.
Use with 7001 and 7002 switch mainframes
8-channel, 2-pole
A
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M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
193
707B
708B
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes
Six-slot and Single-slot Versions
• Significantly faster commandto-connect speeds than earlier
Series 700 mainframes
• 708B mainframe controls a single
8×12 matrix card
• Compatible with the popular
plug-in cards designed for the
707A/708A mainframes
Semiconductor switch systems
Semiconductor switch systems
• 707B mainframe controls up to
six 8×12 matrix cards
• Support for both remote (via
LXI, USB, and GPIB interfaces)
and manual (via front panel)
programming
• Integrates seamlessly with
the Model 4200-SCS for
semiconductor I-V and
C-V characterization via
GPIB interface
• Stores hundreds of switching
configurations and channel
patterns in non-volatile memory
for reuse
• LXI Class C interface supports
remote programming and control
• Embedded TSP® processor and
TSP-Link® interface make it easy
to integrate Series 2600A System
SourceMeter® instruments into a
high speed, self-contained tester
• 14 bits of digital I/O
Model 707B Six-slot Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframe
The six-slot Model 707B and single-slot Model 708B Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes extend
Keithley’s decades-long commitment to innovation in switch systems optimized for semiconductor
test applications. These mainframes build upon the strengths of their popular predecessors, the
Models 707/707A and 708/708A, adding new features and capabilities designed to speed and simplify
system integration and test development. New control options and interfaces offer system builders
even greater flexibility when configuring high performance switching systems for use in both lab and
production environments. Just as important, both new mainframes are compatible with the popular
switch cards developed for the Models 707A and 708A, simplifying and minimizing the cost of switch
system migration.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Faster Command-to-Connect
High performance Model 707B and 708B semiconductor switch matrix mainframes slash the time
from command to connection, offering significantly faster test sequences and overall system throughput than Keithley’s earlier 707A and 708A mainframes.
194
APPLICATIONS
• Support for semiconductor
device characterization and
process control monitoring
• Fully automated testing of
a wide range of electronic
components in both lab and
production environments
Model 708B Single-slot Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframe
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Six-slot semiconductor
switch mainframe
708BSingle-slot
semiconductor
switch mainframe
Semiconductor switch systems
707B
Extended warranty, service, and
calibration contracts are available.
Accessories Supplied
Product Information CD-ROM:
Product Information CD
Quick Start Guide
Switching and Control
Product Information CD
Test Script Builder User Suite CD
CA-180-4A: CAT 5 Ethernet
Crossover Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
CA-179-2A: CAT 5 Ethernet
Cable, 3m (10 ft)
CO-7: Line Cord
Rear Fixed Rack Mount
Hardware (707B only)
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
CA-126-7A
2600-TLINK
4299-6 7007-1
7007-2
7072
7072-HV
7072-TRT
7079
7173-50
7174A
25-pin Female Digital I/O to 25-pin Male Cable,
3m (10 ft)
Digital I/O to Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Universal Full Rack Mount Kit (for Model 708B)
Double-shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Double-shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Semiconductor Matrix Card
High Voltage Semiconductor Matrix Card
Triax Fastening Tool
Rear Slide Rack Mount Kit (for Model 707B)
High Frequency, 2-pole, 4×12 Matrix Card
Low Current Matrix Card
Software
IVI-COM and IVI-C Driver for C#, VB.NET, Visual C++, VB6, and
LabWindows/CVI
LabVIEW® Driver
Example TSP® Scripts
Test Script Builder
Services AVAILABLE
707B-3Y-EW
707B-5Y-EW
708B-3Y-EW
708B-5Y-EW
1-year Factory Warranty Extended to 3 Years
from date of shipment
1-year Factory Warranty Extended to 5 Years
from date of shipment
1-year Factory Warranty Extended to 3 Years
from date of shipment
1-year Factory Warranty Extended to 5 Years
from date of shipment
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Six-slot and Single-slot Versions
Optimized for Easy Integration with Existing Test Systems
To minimize migration issues for current users of Model 707A and 708A mainframes, the Model 707B
and 708B are designed for command emulation with Models 707A and 708A. The 707B and 708B also
support the popular switch matrix cards developed for the Model 707A and 708A, so there’s no need
to purchase new cards to take advantage of the new mainframes:
• Model 7174A Low Current Matrix Card: This 8×12
card is designed for semiconductor research, development, and production applications that demand high
quality switching of I-V and C-V signals. Its low leakage and minimal dielectric absorption ensure that
key device measurements can be performed many
times faster than with earlier switching technologies.
Its superior low current performance makes it ideal
for use with both Models 2635A and 2636A System
SourceMeter Instruments for adding high speed I-V
source and measurement capabilities and for accessing
the I-V and C-V measurement capabilities of the Model
4200-SCS parametric analyzer.
Semiconductor switch systems
Ordering Information
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes
• Model 7072 Semiconductor Matrix Card: This 8×12
switch supports the low level and high impedance
measurements encountered in semiconductor parametric tests on wafers and devices. It provides two low
current paths with just 1pA maximum offset current for
sensitive sub-picoamp measurements, and two other
paths optimized for measuring C-V characteristics from
DC to 1MHz. Four more high quality signal paths with
<20pA offset current provide for general-purpose signal switching up to 100nA or 200V.
• Model 7072-HV High Voltage Semiconductor Matrix
Card: Like the Model 7072, the 7072-HV is designed
to handle low level, high voltage, and high impedance
signals. It provides two signal paths capable of switching 1300V with less than 1pA of offset current, so it’s
ideal for switching the high voltage signals encountered
in breakdown measurements or oxide integrity testing.
Two paths are optimized for C-V measurements from
DC to 1MHz or for switching low currents with a common ground. Four additional high quality signal paths
with less than 20pA offset current provide for signal
switching to 200V.
• Model 7173-50 High Frequency, 2-pole, 4×12
Matrix Card: The Model 7173-50 provides 200MHz
bandwidth and a rise time of <2ns. Offset voltage is
<15μV per crosspoint, and offset current is <200pA.
Its combined AC and DC capabilities make it ideal
for mixed-signal applications, such as testing ADCs
or DACs, which involve measuring both digital and
analog signals.
For additional details and specifications on these
cards, refer to their individual data sheets, available on
www.keithley.com. A Keithley applications engineer or
representative can help you choose the most appropriate card or cards for a specific application.
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M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
707B
708B
C O N F I D E N C E
195
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes
Six-slot and Single-slot Versions
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Semiconductor switch systems
In addition, the Models 707B and 708B offer a number of features to ensure their compatibility with
Keithley instrumentation already at work in labs and on test floors around the world. For example,
these semiconductor switch matrix mainframes are compatible with the Model 4200-SCS semiconductor parametric analyzer’s existing matrix driver and GPIB interface, which allows them to become
drop-in switch matrix replacements for many applications. The new mainframes also provide electrical performance that correlates closely with that of the Model 707A and Model 7174A switch card, the
previous industry-standard switching solution.
196
Suited for Both Lab and Fab
Like their predecessors, the Models 707B/708B are specifically designed for the requirements of
both semiconductor lab and production test environments, delivering ultra low current switching
performance using standard triax connectors and cables. For automating smaller test systems with a
limited number of pins and instruments, the Model 708B supports a single switch card with up to 8
rows and 12 columns (8×12). For applications requiring higher switch counts, the Model 707B can
accommodate up to six 8×12 cards, which can be connected via an internal backplane or jumpers to
form larger matrices. Both mainframes also support mixed signal switching for both DC and RF (up
to 200MHz) signals.
Choice of Manual Operation or Remote Programming
Both mainframes offer a variety of manual operation and remote programming functions via either
the front panel controls or a choice of interfaces. For example, for manual operation, such as when
Advantages of TSP® Technology
for Switch Throughput
The test script processor (TSP) technology embedded in these upgraded
mainframes allows for distributed
processing and control rather than
relying exclusively on a central PC
to direct their operation, increasing test speed and lowering overall
test cost. The TSP is a full-featured
test sequence engine that allows
unprecedented control of the test
sequence. In addition to responding
to individual ICL commands, it can
store a user-defined test script or
sequence in memory and execute
it on command, which limits the
set-up and configuration time for
each step in the test sequence and
increases throughput by decreasing
communication time.
Test scripts are complete test
programs based on Lua, an easy-touse but highly efficient and compact
scripting language. Because test
scripts can contain any sequence
of routines that are executable
by conventional programming
languages (including decisionmaking algorithms and control of
the digital I/O), the mainframe can
manage the operation of entire
tests without sending readings
back to a PC for use in decision
making. The TSP can even access the
mainframe’s 14-bit digital I/O on the
fly, increasing throughput by allowing
instrument and binning equip­ment
such as handlers to run without PC
interference. This eliminates delays
due to GPIB traffic congestion and
greatly improves overall test times.
The 707B or 708B can be easily used as a drop-in replacement for the 707A or 708A in a test
system based on the Model 4200-SCS semiconductor parameter analyzer.
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TSP control allows individual
switches and instruments or groups
of them to operate autonomously,
often eliminating the need for a
high-level PC system controller
altogether. This same proven TSP
technology has already been successfully incorporated into Keithley’s
innovative Series 2600A System
SourceMeter instruments and Series
3700A Multimeter/Switch System.
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Semiconductor switch systems
707B
708B
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes
Six-slot and Single-slot Versions
Semiconductor switch systems
experimenting with a new switching configuration, the updated front panel interface allows
labeling switch card rows (instruments) and
columns (pins) alphanumerically, which simplifies keeping track of what’s connected to each
crosspoint. An LED crosspoint display makes
it easy to identify whether a specific channel is
open or closed, as well as to determine which
slots are occupied and which cards are currently in use. A two-line display shows both
error messages and user-defined messages,
and displays control menus and open/closed
channel messages.
An intuitive navigation/control knob allows
scrolling through and opening/closing channels. Key pad controls support scrolling through
menus, changing host interface settings, saving
and restoring instrument setups, and loading and running factory and user-defined test
scripts, etc.
Test system integrators can choose from several
instrument communication interfaces and tools
for remote programming and control of the
Model 707B or 708B:
• TSP-Link® is a high speed system expansion
The Models 707B and 708B include a built-in Web interface that offers a quick and easy methand coordination interface that simplifies
od to control the instrument remotely. Interactive schematics of each card in the mainframe
linking instruments and switches for faster
support point-and-click control for opening and closing switches.
inter-unit communication and control. It provides a high speed, low latency interface to
other TSP (Test Script Processor)-based hardware, enabling simple multi-box and multi-instrument
software control, as well as simplified test system scaling as new requirements evolve.
With TSP-Link, there’s no need to add external triggers and remote communication cables to individual units because all TSP-Link connected devices can be controlled from a single master unit.
Up to 16 Model 707B/708B chassis can be linked together to form a larger switching matrix using
TSP-Link. Each mainframe has two TSP-Link connectors to facilitate chaining instruments together.
They can also be used to connect Model 707B/708B semiconductor switch matrix mainframes to
other TSP-Link enabled instruments, such as Keithley’s Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments. Every piece of instrumentation connected via TSP-Link can be controlled by a single master
unit, just as though they were all housed in the same chassis.
• Like all instruments compliant with the LXI (LAN eXtensions for Instrumentation) standard, the
Models 707B and 708B have a built-in switch control Web page that is accessible via any standard
Web browser. In conjunction with a 10/100M Base-T Ethernet connection and LAN-based triggering, this Web interface offers a quick and easy method to program switching patterns. Interactive
schematics of each card in the mainframe support point-and-click control for opening and closing
switches. A scan list builder is provided to guide users through the requirements of a scan list
(such as trigger and looping definitions) for more advanced applications. The Web page’s pointand-click design provides easy switch system control, as well as basic switch system troubleshooting and diagnostics capabilities.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Semiconductor switch systems
707B
708B
TSB (Test Script Builder) Embedded is an application with a reduced feature set that resides in the
mainframe and can be accessed through its web page. Like the full Test Script Builder programming tool, it offers script-building functions and can be used to run example scripts provided
with the mainframe. It also includes a command line interface that can be used to issue single-line
ICL commands.
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197
707B
708B
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes
Six-slot and Single-slot Versions
• For those replacing Keithley’s earlier 707A/708A mainframes and who prefer to minimize the
levels of changes to their test systems, the Models 707B and 708B offer a GPIB interface and
707A/708A DDC command emulation capabilities to simplify the migration process. These users
can incorporate the “B” models into their test systems without making any changes to their legacy
code or hardware interface. However, these users will not be able to take full advantage of many
of the throughput gains that TSP control provides, such as the new GPIB interface that allows you
to control additional GPIB-compatible instruments and systems.
Semiconductor switch systems
Optimized for Easy Integration with Series 2600A-Based Systems
The Models 707B and 708B are ideal companion products for systems that incorporate Series 2600A
instrumentation, such as Keithley’s ACS and S530 integrated test systems. These mainframes share
the same TSP, Lua scripting language, and TSP-Link interface as the Series 2600A and support an
ultra low current switch matrix (the Model 7174A) that complements the Model 2636A’s low current
sensitivity. The Models 707B/708B offer test ­system builders a switch matrix that is fast, scriptable,
and works seamlessly with all Series 2600A models.
In common with Series 2600A instruments, the Models 707B/708B provide system builders with the
advantages of the Keithley Test Script Builder (TSB) Integrated Development Environment (IDE). TSB
IDE is a programming tool provided on the CD that accompanies each mainframe. It can be used
to create, modify, debug, and store TSP scripts. It provides a project/file manager window to store
and organize test scripts, a text-sensitive program editor (like Visual Basic) to create and modify test
TSP code, and an immediate instrument control window to send GPIB commands and receive data
from the instrument. The immediate window allows viewing the output of a given test script and
simplifies debugging.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Model 708B rear panel
198
Model 707B rear panel
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Semiconductor switch systems
• A rear panel Universal Serial Bus (USB) port allows a host computer to communicate with and
control the 707B/708B over a USB interface.
707B
708B
Semiconductor Switch Matrix Mainframes
Six-slot and Single-slot Versions
Supported Cards
8×12 Semiconductor Matrix 200V, 1A
8×12 HV Semiconductor Matrix 1300V, 0.1A
4×12, 2-pole, High-Frequency Matrix Card
8×12 Low-Current, High-Speed Matrix Card, with 3-lug
Triax Row and Column connects
Execution Speed
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 1
Single Command Execution Time (ms)
Card
7072
7072-HV
7173-50
7174A
Ethernet
15.9
15.9
  7.9
 1.9
GPIB
15.9
15.9
  7.9
 1.9
TSP-Link
20.5
20.5
11.5
 5.5
USB
15.9
15.9
  7.9
 1.9
1. Time between the start of a single digio.writebit (1, 1), channel.close
(‘ch_list’) or channel.open (‘ch_list’) {which includes relay settle
time}, and digio.writebit (1, 0) command.
TRIGGER RESPONSE TIME
Maximum Trigger Rate (setups per second)1:
7072:
≥65.
7072-HV: ≥65.
7173-50: ≥160.
7174A: ≥815.
Trigger in to start of Matrix Ready Pulse
(DDC Mode): ≤85μs.
Trigger in to trigger out: ≤0.5μs.
Trigger Timer accuracy: ≤0.5μs.
Notes
1. Includes scan.scancount = 100, scan.stepcount ≥3, channel.
connectrule = channel.OFF or 0, and relay settle time.
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SWITCHING AND CONTROL
707B/708B specifications
Command: channel.close (‘ch_list’) or channel.open (‘ch_list’)
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, 10/100BaseT, Auto-MDIX.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C, Version 1.2.
Power Supply:
707B: 100V to 240VAC, 50Hz–60Hz, 210VA max.
708B: 100V to 240VAC, 50Hz–60Hz, 110VA max.
Relay Drive:
707B: 30W (6V at 5.0A) max. per slot, 162W (6V at 27A)
max. for all slots.
708B: 30W (6V at 5.0A) max.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Dimensions:
707B: 356mm high × 432mm wide × 574mm deep (14.0 in
× 17.0 in × 22.6 in).
708B: 90mm high × 432mm wide × 574mm deep (3.5 in ×
17.0 in × 22.6 in).
Dimensions with Card Installed:
707B: 356mm high × 432mm wide × 612mm deep (14.0 in
× 17.0 in × 24.1 in).
708B: 90mm high × 432mm wide × 612mm deep (3.5 in ×
17.0 in × 24.1 in).
Weight: 707B: 14.5kg (32 lbs). 708B: 7.3kg (16 lbs).
Shipping Weight: 707B: 27.2kg (60 lbs). 708B: 16.4 kg
(36 lbs).
Environment: For indoor use only.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°– 50°C, 80% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate to 3%
R.H./°C, 35°– 50°C.
Storage: – 25°C to 65°C.
707B/708B specifications
7072
7072-HV
7173-50
7174A
GENERAL
Emulation: 707A/708A Device Dependent Commands
(DDC). Since the architecture of the Model 707B/708B
differs from the Model 707A/708A, some commands are
different. Refer to notes in the 707B-901 Reference manual
for additional details.
Break Before Make: channel.connectrule= channel.
BREAK_BEFORE_MAKE or 1.
Make Before Break: channel.connectrule= channel.
MAKE_BEFORE_BREAK or 2.
None: channel.connectrule= channel.OFF or 0, the system
will close relays as it is able to without adhering to a rule.
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model topology.
USB 2.0 Device (rear panel type B): Full and high speed,
USBTMC compliant.
Digital I/O Interface
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Maximum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O
bit): 960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low
Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital
I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse
protected.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
199
New Models 707B and 708B replace Models 707A and 708A
Keithley Instruments recently introduced two
new semiconductor switch matrix mainframes:
the Model 707B six-slot mainframe and the
Model 708B one-slot mainframe. The two
new mainframes replace the Models 707A and
New
707/8B
Legacy
707/8A
GPIB/DDC
4
4
GPIB/ICL
4
Ethernet (LXI)
4
TSP/TSP-Link
4
Webpage (LXI)
4
older models. The table shows the important
differences between the new and old models.
The 707A and 708A models will be available for
a limited time.
4
Compatible with 7174A,
7072, 7072-HV, 7173-50
switch cards
4
4
Compatible with 7071,
7071-4, 7075 switch cards
NEW
Model 708B
Replaces
Model 708A
4
LOW CURRENT
Page
Number of Channels
Card Configuration
Contact Configuration
Max. Voltage
Max. Current
Max. Power
Contact Potential
Recommended Frequency
Connection Type
CE
HIGH
FREQUENCY
GENERAL PURPOSE
7072
7072-HV
7174A
7071
7071-4
7075
203
204
207
201
202
205
206
8×12
Matrix
2 form A
200 V
1A
10 VA
<20 µV
<1 pA
15 MHz
3-lug triax
Yes
8×12
Matrix
2 form A
1300 V
1A
10 VA
<20 µV
<1 pA
4 MHz
3-lug triax
8×12
Matrix
2 form A
200 V
2A
8×12
Matrix
3 form A
200 V
500 mA
10 VA
<5 µV
<100 pA
3 MHz
Connector
Yes
Also provides
screw terminal
connection.
No
Yes
Dual 4×12
Matrix
3 form A
200 V
500 mA
10 VA
<5 µV
<100 pA
3 MHz
Connector
Yes
Screw terminals
available on row
connections.
No
Yes
Eight 1×12
Multiplexer
2 form A
110 V
1A
30 VA
<5 µV
<100 pA
30 MHz
Connector
Yes
4×12
Matrix
2 form C
30 V
0.5 A
10 VA
<15 µV
<200 pA
200 MHz
BNC
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
<100 fA
30 MHz
3-lug triax
Yes
Comments
Optimized for semiconductor applications.
707B-708B Compatible
Yes
Yes
707A-708A Compatible
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
708A that were introduced more than 20 years
ago. The new models provide important new
capabilities and are compatible with the four
most popular switch cards; however, there
are a few capabilities that are exclusive to the
NEW
Model 707B
Replaces
Model 707A
Light Pen
Max. Off­set ­Current
200
Switch Cards and Accessories
for 707B, 708B, 707A, 708A
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
7173-50
707B, 708B, 707A, 708A Switch Card Accessories
Cables
Connectors
Adapters
Tools
7071, 7071-4
7078-MTC-5
7078-MTC-20
7072
7078-TRX-3
7078-TRX-10
237-TRX-T
7078-TRX-BNC
7174A
7078-TRX-3
7078-TRX-10
237-TRX-T
7078-TRX-BNC
7078-TRX-3
7078-TRX-10
7078-TRX-BNC
7078-TRX-GND
237-TRX-T
237-TRX-TBC
7075-MTC
7076-CMTC
7072-HV
7075
7173-50
7078-KIT
7078-MTR
7078-CIT
7076-RMTC
7173-50-CSEP
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7078-HCT
Selector guides: Switch cards and accessories for 707A, 708A
Selector guides: Switch cards and accessories for Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A
Selector Guide
7071
General Purpose Matrix Card
• 96 three-pole, Form A relay
crosspoints
• High, Low, and Guard switched
• <5µV contact potential per
crosspoint
• Signals to 200V and 1A
• Compatible with Models 707A
and 708A
Ordering Information
8×12 General Purpose
Matrix Card
The matrix card will handle voltages up to
200V and currents up to 0.5A switched or 1A
unswitched. A 5µV contact potential assures that
the switch does not adversely affect low voltage
sensitivity. The 3dB signal bandwidth is 5MHz.
Guard inputs improve isolation between signals
and assure <100pA offset currents into any electrical path.
ACCESSORIES AVAIL­ABLE
7078-CIT
7078-HCT
7078-KIT
7078-MTC-5
7078-MTC-20
7078-MTR
Con­tact Insertion and ­Extraction Tools
Hand Crimping Tool
Con­nec­tor Kit
Mass Terminated Cable Assembly, 1.5m (5 ft)
Mass Terminated Cable ­A ssem­bly, 6m (20 ft)
Bulkhead Mount Receptacle with Contacts
Services Available
7071-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
RD
7071
MATRIX CON­FIGU­RA­TION: 8 rows by 12 columns.
CROSSPOINT CON­FIGU­RA­TION: 3-pole Form A (HI, LO,
GUARD).
CONNECTOR TYPE: Quick disconnect using 38-pin connectors
or screw terminals.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 200V, 1A carry/0.5A switched, 10VA
peak (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200V maxi­mum between any 2
pins or chassis.
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Level: 105 closures.
PATH RESISTANCE (per conductor): <0.6W initial, <1.5W at
end of contact life.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <5µV per crosspoint (HI to LO <1
minute after actuation).
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
ISOLATION: Path: >1010W, <10pF. Differential: 109W, 45pF
nominal. Common Mode: 109W, 165pF nominal.
CROSSTALK: <–50dB at 1MHz, 50W load.
INSERTION LOSS (1MHz, 50W source, 50W load): 0.1dB
­t ypical.
3dB BANDWIDTH (50W load): 5MHz t­ ypical.
RELAY SETTLING TIME: <3ms.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
Storage: –25 to +65°C.
Use with Models 707A and 708A switching matrix mainframes
The Model 7071 General Purpose Matrix Card is
an 8×12 configuration that switches High, Low,
and Guard at each of the 96 relay cross­points.
The eight rows are connected auto­mati­cally to
the general purpose analog backplane when the
matrix card is installed into the 707A and 708A
main­frame. This allows for easy ex­pan­sion in 12
column increments and eliminates the re­quire­
ment for wiring between cards.
HI
LO
GU
A
A
HI
LO
GUARD
3
B
3
C
3
D
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Rows
E
3
F
3
G
3
H
3
3
3
3
3
1
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3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
A
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
G R E A T E R
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
6
7
Columns
M E A S U R E
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
8
O F
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
9
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
10
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
11
3
3
3
3
3
Backplane
Connections
3
3
3
12
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with Models 707A and 708A switching matrix mainframes
8×12
C O N F I D E N C E
201
7071-4
General Purpose Matrix Card
• Two independent 4×12 matrix
switches
• 3-pole switching (HI, LO,
GUARD)
• Connect to general purpose
analog back­plane
• Configuration easily adapted
with jumpers
• 4×24 or dual 4×12 configuration
• Compatible with Models 707A
and 708A
The Model 7071-4 Dual 4×12 General Purpose Matrix Card pro­vides the capability to expand the
number of columns that the Model 707A will sup­port to a maximum of 720 in five 707A mainframes.
This matrix card has two banks of four signal paths that connect through jumpers to the gen­er­al
purpose an­a­log back­plane in the 707A main­frame for au­to­mat­ic in­ter­con­nect be­tween cards. Jump­
ers may be re­moved to isolate any 4×12 matrix segment or re­po­si­tioned to cascade seg­ments into a
4×24 con­fig­u­ra­tion.
Accessories Available
Column connections to the matrix are through
7078-CIT
Contact Insertion and Extraction Tools
two 38-pin mass terminated connectors.
7078-HCT
Hand Crimping Tool
The corresponding cable accessory, Model
7078-KIT
Mass Terminated Plug with Con­tacts
7078-MTC-5
Mass Ter­mi­nated Cable Assembly, 1.5m (5 ft)
7078-MTC, is constructed with 12 sets of shielded twisted pair circuits for excellent noise im­mu­ 7078-MTC-20 Mass Terminated Cable Assembly, 6m (20 ft)
Mass Terminated Receptacle with Contacts
nity and electrical separation. Custom cables and 7078-MTR
harnesses can be assembled using the 7078-KIT
Services Available
Connector Kit. The mating bulkhead connector,
7071-4-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
Model 7078-MTR, is also available.
from date of shipment
Matrix Con­figu­ra­tion: Dual 4 rows by 12 columns.
Also configurable as 8 rows by 12 columns or 4 rows by 24
columns.
Crosspoint Con­figu­ra­tion: 3 pole Form A (HI, LO,
GUARD).
Connector Type: Quick disconnect using 38-pin connectors.
In addition, screw terminals are available on rows.
Maximum Signal Level: 200V, 1A carry/0.5A switched, 10VA
peak (resistive load).
Common Mode Volt­age: 200V maximum be­t ween any 2
pins or chassis.
Contact Life:
Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Level: 105 closures.
Path Resistance (per conductor): <0.6W initial, <1.5W at
end of contact life.
Contact Potential: <5µV per cross­point (HI to LO, <1
minute after actuation).
Ordering Information
7071-4
Dual 4×12 General
Purpose Matrix Card
Accessories Supplied
Screw terminal adapter for 4×24
con­figu­ra­tion
1
2
3
4
Offset Cur­rent: <100pA (HI to LO).
Isolation:
Path: > 1010W, <10pF.
Differential: 109W, 45pF nomi­nal.
Common Mode: 109W, 300pF nominal.
CROSSTALK: <–45dB at 1MHz, 50W load.
Insertion Loss (1MHz, 50W source, 50W load): 0.1dB
typical.
3dB Band­width (50W load): 5MHz typical.
RELAY Set­tling Time: <3msec.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
Environment:
Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
COLUMNS (to rear panel connectors)
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
A
B
C
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
D
202
Column Jumpers
(User installable;
to configure as
8 x 12)
ROWS
E
F
G
H
1
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2
3
A
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
COLUMNS (to rear panel connectors)
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
11
12
C O N F I D E N C E
Backplane
Jumpers
(factory
installed)
Use with Models 707A and 708A switching matrix mainframes
Use with Models 707A and 708A switching matrix mainframes
Dual 4×12
7072
Semiconductor Matrix Card
Connections are 3-lug triax with the outer shell connected to chassis for
safety and noise shield­ing. The center conductor is fully surrounded by the
inner conducting shield, so that fully guarded measurements can be made to
achieve higher isolation and to improve measurement speed and ­accuracy.
Isolation relays on the low-current and C-V paths automatically disconnect
unused circuits to achieve minimum interference and peak per­form­ance.
The 707A or 708A mainframe allows each row (signal path) to be pro­
grammed for Break-Before-Make or Make-Before-Break operation.
For applications
requiring connections
to a large number of devices or test points, the
7072 matrix can be expanded with additional
cards. The low-current and C-V rows can be
extended to other cards with coaxial jumpers.
The other four high-quality signal paths connect
directly to the 707A backplane for expansion.
• Two sub-picoamp current paths
• Two DC to 1MHz C-V paths
• Four high isolation signal paths
• 3-lug triaxial connection
• Compatible with Models 707A,
707B, 708A, and 708B
Ordering Information
Accessories Supplied
Instruction manual and four SMB
expansion cables (CA-54-1)
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
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2
1
1
1
1
HG C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
User
connections
and backplane
expansion
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
H
G
C
H
G
C
Low I
Paths
General
Purpose
Paths
Services Available
7072-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
Low-Current
(Rows A - B)
General-Purpose
(Rows C - F)
C-V
(Rows G - H)
2-pole Form A
<1 pA
>1013 W
0.4 pF
2-pole Form A
<20 pA
>1012 W
1 pF
1-pole Form A, Common Guard
<20 pA
>1012 W
0.6 pF
<–50 dB
<–40 dB
<–50 dB
15 MHz
8 MHz
5 MHz
CROSSPOINT CONFIGURATION:
OFFSET CURRENT:
PATH ISOLATION: Resistance:
Capacitance (nominal):
CROSSTALK
1 MHz, 50W load (typical):
3dB BANDWIDTH (typical),
50W Load:
70728×12 Semiconductor
Matrix Card
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
237-TRX-T
3-Lug Triax Tee Adapter
7078-TRX-BNC3-Lug Triax to BNC Adapter
7078-TRX-3 3-Lug Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
7078-TRX-10 3-Lug Triax Cable, 3m (10 ft)
7078-TRX-TBC 3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector with Cap
MATRIX CON­FIGU­RA­TION: 8 rows by 12 columns.
CONNECTOR TYPE: 3-lug triaxial (Signal, Guard, ­Chassis).
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 200V, 1A carry/0.5A switched, 10VA peak (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLT­AGE: 200V maximum be­t ween any 2 pins or chassis.
CONTACT LIFE:
Cold Switching: 107 closures.
At Maximum Signal Level: 105 ­closures.
PATH RE­SIS­TANCE (per conductor): <1W initial, <3.5W at end of contact life.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <40µV per cross­point (Signal to Guard).
RELAY SET­TLING TIME: <15ms.
INSERTION LOSS (1MHz, 50W source, 50W load): 0.1dB­ ­t ypical.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Direc­tive 73/23/EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT:
OFFSET CUR­RENT and PATH ISOLATION Spec­i­fi­ca­tions: 23°C, <60% R.H.
Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
C-V
Paths
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
The Model 7072 Semiconductor Matrix Card is designed specifically to
handle low-level and high-impedance measurements encountered in
semiconductor parametric tests on wafers and devices. This unique design
provides two low-current circuits with specified 1pA maxi­mum offset current for sensitive sub-picoamp meas­ure­ment resolution and two C-V paths
for meas­ure­ment of Capacitance Voltage char­ac­ter­is­tics from DC to 1MHz.
Four additional high-quality signal paths with <20pA offset current provide
for general-purpose signal switching up to 100nA or 200V.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
8×12
C O N F I D E N C E
203
7072-HV
High Voltage Semiconductor Matrix Card
The Model 7072-HV is designed to switch lowACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
level, high-voltage, and high-impedance signals
237-TRX-T
3-Lug Triax Tee Adapter
for semiconductor parametric tests on wafers
237-TRX-TBC 3-Lug High Voltage Female Triax Bulkhead
and devices. This unique design provides two
Connector
signal paths capable of switching 1300V with less 7078-TRX-3 3-Lug Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
than 1pA of offset current. The two C-V paths
7078-TRX-10 3-Lug Triax Cable, 3m (10 ft)
may be used for measurement of capacitance
7078-TRX-BNC3-Lug Triax to BNC Adapter
voltage ­characteristics from DC to 1MHz or for
For use at 200V or less
switching low currents with a common ground.
7078-TBC
3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector with Cap
Four additional high quality signal paths with
Services Available
less than 20pA offset current provide for signal
s­ witching to 200V.
7072-HV-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
Connections are 3-lug triax with the outer shell
connected to chassis for safety and noise shielding. The center conductor is fully surrounded by the inner conducting shield to provide fully guarded
mea­s­ure­­ments with higher isolation and improved meas­ure­ment speed and accuracy.
• Two 1300V, sub-picoamp
current paths
• Six 200V, 20pA paths
7072-HV Applications
The Model 7072-HV, in con­junc­tion with the Model 237 SMU, 2410 SourceMeter® instrument, Model
6487 ­Picoammeter/Voltage Source, or Model 6517B Electrometer/High Resistance Meter, can address
a wide variety of semiconductor device and material char­ac­teri­za­tion needs.
The high voltage signals en­coun­tered in break­down mea­sure­ments or oxide integrity testing can be
easily switched with this matrix card. Signals connected to the High V, Low I paths are automatically
isolated from the rest of the card.
For applications requiring connections to a large number of devices or test points, the 7072-HV
matrix can be expanded with ad­di­tional cards. The high voltage and C-V rows can be extended to
other cards with coaxial jumpers. The other four high-quality signal paths connect directly to the
707A or 708A backplane for expansion.
• For use with Model 2410 and
Model 237 SMU
• 3-lug triaxial connections
• Compatible with Models 707A,
707B, 708A, and 708B
Ordering Information
7072-HV 8×12 High Voltage
Semiconductor
Matrix Card
MATRIX CONFIGURATION: 8 rows by 12 columns.
CONNECTOR TYPE: Three-lug triaxial (Signal, Guard, Chas­sis).
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 107 closures.
At Maximum Signal Level: 105 closures.
PATH RESISTANCE (per conductor): <1W initial, <3.5W at
end of contact life.
RELAY SETTLING TIME: <15ms.
INSERTION LOSS (1MHz, 50W source, 50W load): 0.1dB
­t ypical.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Direc­tive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT:
OFFSET CURRENT and PATH ISOLATION Spec­i­fi­ca­tions:
23°C, <60% R.H.
Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H. Storage: –25°
to +65°C.
COLUMNS
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
HG C
Row Connections
and Backplane
Expansion
2
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
2
204
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
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2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
H
G
C
H
G
C
High V
Low I
Paths
To
Jumpers
General
Purpose
Paths
To
Backplane
CROSSPOINT CONFIGURATION
OFFSET CURRENT
PATH ISOLATION:
Resistance
Capacitance (nominal)
CROSSTALK:
1 MHz, 50W load (typical)
3dB BANDWIDTH (typical),
50W Load
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL
Maximum between
any 2 pins or chassis:
Maximum between signal & guard:
1A carry/0.5A switched,
10VA peak (resistive load)
CONTACT POTENTIAL
(Signal to Guard):
Low
General
Current
Purpose
C-V
(Rows A—B) (Rows C—F) (Rows G—H)
2-pole
1-pole Form A,
2-pole Form A Common
Form A
Guard
<1 pA
<20 pA
<20 pA
>1013 W
0.4 pF
>1012 W
1 pF
>1012 W
0.6 pF
<–60 dB
<–40 dB
<–50 dB
4 MHz
8 MHz
5 MHz
1300 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
200 V
<50 µV
<20 µV
<40 µV
C-V
Paths
To
Jumpers
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
8×12
7075
Two-pole Multiplexer Card
• Low cost
• <5µV voltage offset
• <100pA offset ­current
• 110V, 1A signal levels
• Uses standard 25-pin
D connectors
• Compatible with Models 707A
and 708A
Ordering Information
7075
Eight 1×12 Two-pole
Multiplexer Card
MULTIPLEX CONFIGURATION: Eight 1×12 banks. Adjacent
banks can be connected together. Jumpers can be removed to
isolate any bank from the backplane.
CONTACT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (HI, GUARD).
CONNECTOR TYPE: 25-pin subminiature D connector, eight
for bank connection, one for row connection.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL:
DC Signals: 110V DC pin-to-pin, 1A switched, 30VA (resistive
load).
AC Signals: 175V AC peak pin-to-pin, 1A switched, 60VA (resistive load).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 110V DC, 175V AC peak pin-to-pin
or pin-to-chassis.
CONTACT LIFE:
Cold Switching: 108 closures.
At Maximum Signal Level: 105 closures.
CHANNEL RESISTANCE (per conductor): <0.50W initial,
<1.5W at end of contact life.
Accessories Supplied
Jumpers for multiplexer ­expansion
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <5µV per contact pair (HI to GUARD).
OFFSET CURRENT: <100pA.
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W load): Bank: <–60dB.
Channel: <–60dB.
INSERTION LOSS (1MHz, 50W source, 50W load): 0.1dB
­typical.
ISOLATION:
Bank: >1010W, <3pF.
Channel: >1010W, <5pF.
Differential: Configured as 1×12: >109W, <100pF nominal.
Configured as 1×96: >108W, <600pF nominal.
Common Mode: Configured as 1×12: >109W, <165pF nom­i­nal.
Configured as 1×96: >108W, <700pF nominal.
3dB BANDWIDTH (50W load):
Configured as 1×12: 30MHz typical.
Configured as 1×96: 2.5MHz typical.
RELAY SETTLING TIME: <3ms.
Use with Models 707A and 708A switching matrix mainframes
The Model 7075 is a general pur­pose multiplex switching card that con­
sists of eight banks of independent 112 mul­ti­plex­er switching. Each bank
has two switched circuits (HI and GUARD). The row is connected through
jumpers on the card to the general purpose analog backplane in the
Model 707A or 708A switching main­frame. This provides the inter­con­nect
between cards for multiplexer expansion (124, 136, etc.). Jumpers may
be removed to isolate any bank. A single card can be ex­pand­ed to 196 by
re­con­fig­ur­ing the supplied bank-to-bank ­jumpers. Eight 25-pin D con­nec­
tors are provided for bank con­nec­tions and one for row connection.
BANKS—Eight 1 x 12 (To rear panel connectors)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
A
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
7076-RMTC
7076-CMTC
7075-MTC
High Isolation Row Cable Assembly, 3m (10 ft)
High Isolation Column/Bank Cable Assembly,
3m (10 ft)
Row/Column/Bank Standard Cable Assembly,
3m (10 ft)
Services Available
7075-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
Bank-toBank
Jumpers
(user
installable)
B
C
ROWS
(To rear
panel
D
connectors)
E
F
G
H
Backplane Jumpers (factory installed)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with Models 707A and 708A switching matrix mainframes
Eight 1×12
C O N F I D E N C E
205
7173-50
High Frequency Matrix Card
The Model 7173-50 combines high fre­quen­cy per­for­mance with ex­cel­lent DC switching char­ac­ter­is­
tics. It provides 200MHz band­width in a 4×12 configuration. Offset voltage is <15µV per cross­point,
and offset current is <200pA. The com­bined AC and DC ca­pa­bil­i­ties make it ideal for mixed signal
a­ ppli­ca­tions where both high fre­quen­cy and low level DC signals must be switched—for example,
t­ esting ADCs or DACs, which involves mea­sur­ing both digital and analog signals.
The Model 7153-50 has a rise time of <2ns. It also fea­tures 2-pole switching at each cross­point–HI
and Shield–useful in 4-wire ca­pac­i­tance meas­urements where it is important to tie the shields of each
connection together at the capac­itance meter. BNC card con­nec­tions are com­pat­i­ble with a wide variety of test equip­ment.
The Model 7173-50-CSEP expansion cables are four 25-inch cables and can expand a switching con­
fig­u­ra­tion to include more than one Model 7173-50. One cable is required to expand each row or
column con­nec­tion be­tween adjacent cards. For example, connect the rows of two 7173-50 cards to
cre­ate a 4×24 ma­trix or connect the columns to create an 8×12 matrix.
• 200MHz bandwidth
• <2ns rise time
• 50W impedance
• <15µV offset
• <200pA offset current
• 2-pole switching
• Compatible with Models 707A,
707B, 708A, and 708B
Ordering Information
7173-50 4×12, High Frequency
Two-pole Matrix Card
Services Available
7173-50-3Y-EW1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
MATRIX CONFIGURATION: 4 rows by 12 columns.
CROSSPOINT CON­FIG­U­RA­TION: 2-pole Form C with Row
Isolator (HI, LO).
CHARACTERISTIC IM­PED­ANCE: 50W nom­i­nal.
CONNECTOR TYPE: BNC.
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL: 30V, 0.5A switched, 10VA.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 42V peak (LO to Chassis).
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 5×106 closures.
At Maximum Signal Level: 3×105 closures.
PATH RESISTANCE:
HI: <2.0W initial, <4.0W at end of contact life.
LO: <0.10W initial, <0.15W at end of contact life.
CONTACT POTENTIAL: <15µV per crosspoint (HI to LO).
RELAY SETTLING TIME: <6ms.
OFFSET CURRENT: <200pA (HI to LO).
AC PERFORMANCE (50W load and 50W source):
1MHz 10MHz 100MHz 200MHz
Crosstalk:1
<–85dB <–50dB <–35dB
Insertion Loss:
<0.2dB <0.4dB <1.5dB <3.0dB
VSWR (typical):
1.4 1.7 1Closed crosspoint to closed crosspoint
ISOLATION: Path: >1010W, <0.040pF. Differential: >109W,
150pF nominal. Common Mode: >109W, 9400pF nominal.
RISE TIME (50W load and 50W source): <2ns.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
Specifications apply for one 7173-50 with all row isolators in
automatic mode.
50Ω Crosstalk (typical, dB)
–40
tion
–60
6
–80 4x3
ra
figu
(3
ds)
car
–100
A
–120
100kHz
1MHz
10MHz
100MHz
50Ω Insertion Loss (typical, dB)
0
4x12 configuration
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
B
Rows
(Rear
Panel C
BNCs)
D
–1 4x36 configuration (3 cards)
206
Columns Expand (On-Card SMBs)
ion
urat
nfig
2 co
4x1
con
HI
HI
LO
LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
HI
LO
LO
HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO
–2
1
–3
100kHz
1MHz
10MHz
2
3
HI
1.90
1.60
1.30
10MHz
ard
3c
2.20
4
HI
t
ura
fig
on
6c
x3
(
ion
n
tio
ra
figu
HI Switching
Contact
on
2c
4x1
LO
LO
s)
5
6
7
LO Switching
Contact
Isolator
Contact
HI
LO
8
9
10
11
Columns (Rear Panel BNCs)
To other rows
100MHz
50Ω VSWR (typical)
4
To other
columns
Crosspoint
(shown open)
ROW ISOLATOR BNCs
Automatic Mode: Isolator contact
opens when crosspoint (HI and LO
contact) is closed.
Manual Mode: Isolator contact is
controlled independently of
crosspoint (HI and LO contacts).
100MHz
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12
Rows
Expand
(On-Card
SMBs)
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
4×12, Two-pole
7174A
High Speed, Low Leakage Current Matrix
The Model 7174A provides an optimum so­lu­tion to switching the lower level signals common to today’s semiconductor char­ac­ter­iza­tion tests. The card’s low leakage and minimal
dielectric ab­sorp­tion ensure that key device mea­sure­ments can be performed many times
faster than with current switch­ing technologies. Connections are 3-lug triax with the outer
shell connected to chassis for safety and noise shielding. The center con­duc­tor is fully
surrounded by the inner conducting shield allowing fully guard­ed mea­sure­ments to be made with
higher iso­la­tion and improved speed and accuracy.
• Fast time to measurement
• Low leakage (<100fA offset on all
signal paths)
• 2-pole switching, signal, and guard
• 200V, 2A signal levels
• Designed for use with Keithley
Model 4200-SCS, SMUs, 2635A and
2636A SourceMeter® Instruments,
and Agilent B1500
For applications that require making con­nec­tions to a large number of devices or test points, the
Model 7174A matrix can be ex­pand­ed with ad­di­tion­al cards. On-card connectors are provided to
connect the rows (column ex­pan­sion) between other 7174A cards in adjacent slots of the Model 707B
switching mainframe. Eight female-to-female cables are provided with each 7174A to simplify ex­pan­
sion. Up to six 7174A cards can be connected in a single 707A switch­ing main­frame to form an 8×72
or 12×60 matrix.
• Compatible with Models 707A,
707B, 708A, and 708B
MATRIX CONFIGURATION: Single 8 rows×12 columns.
Expanding the columns can be done internally by connecting
the rows of multiple 7174A cards together with coax jumpers.
CROSSPOINT CONFIGURATION: 2-pole Form A (Signal Guard).
CONNECTOR TYPE: 3-lug triax (Signal, Guard, Chassis).
MAXIMUM SIGNAL LEVEL:
Pin-to-pin or Pin-to-Chassis: 200V. 2A carry current.
CONTACT LIFE: Cold Switching: 108 closures.
OFFSET CURRENT: 100fA max., 10fA typical (with 0V applied
to inputs and outputs).
ISOLATION: Path (Signal to Signal): >2×1014W, 1pF.
Common (Signal to Chassis): >1014W, <10pF.
Ordering Information
7174A8×12 High Speed,
Low Current Matrix
Accessories Supplied
Eight row interconnect cables for
card to card matrix expansion
Columns
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
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H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
H G C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
User
connections
and expansion
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
2
H
G
C
A
Settling Time: <2.5s to 400fA (all pathways) after 10V applied
(typical).
CROSSTALK (1MHz, 50W Load): <–70dB.
INSERTION LOSS (1MHz, 50W Load): <–0.2dB typical.
3dB BANDWIDTH: (50W Load, 50W Source): 30MHz typical.
(1MW Load, 50W Source): 40MHz typical.
RELAY SETTLING TIME: <1ms.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
ENVIRONMENT:
Offset Current and Path Isolation Specifications: 23°C,
<60% R.H.
Operating: 0° to 50°C, up to 35°C at 70% R.H.
Storage: –25° to +65°C.
MAXIMUM LEAKAGE:
Pin to Ground: 0.01pA/V. Pin to Pin: 0.005pA/V.
INSULATION RESISTANCE: 6.7×1013W minimum.
CAPACITANCE: (Guard Driven): Path to Ground: <10pF.
Path to Path: 1pF typical.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Rows
G R E A T E R
237-TRX-T
3-Lug Triax Tee Adapter
7078-TRX-TBC 3-Lug Triax to BNC Adapter
7078-TRX-3 3-Lug Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft.)
7078-TRX-10 3-Lug Triax Cable, 3m (10 ft.)
7078-TBC
3-Lug Female Triax Bulkhead Connector with Cap
Services Available
7174A-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
M E A S U R E
O F
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
The Model 7174A Low Current Matrix Card is designed for semiconductor research, de­vel­
op­ment, and production applications requiring high quality, high performance switching
of I-V and C-V signals. The Model 7174A is ideal for use with Keithley Models 2635A and
2636A SourceMeter Instruments, Model 4200-SCS, and the Agilent B1500. The card’s
configuration is 8 rows × 12 columns, with signal and guard switched at each crosspoint.
Offset cur­rent has been reduced dra­mat­i­cal­ly to <100fA on all pathways. Significant reductions in the level of parasitic ca­pac­i­tanc­es in the Model 7174A help speed the process of
making low level mea­sure­ments.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Use with Models 707B, 708B, 707A, and 708A switching matrix mainframes
8×12
C O N F I D E N C E
207
Mainframe Optimized
for Controlling RF/
Microwave Switches
The System 41 is optimized solely for microwave signal routing applications. We’ve
integrated the ability to control up to 240 RF/
microwave channels within the chassis that
houses the switches to provide an optimum
­combination of price and performance in
just seven inches of rack space. The System
41 can be configured with one of the three
standard switch ­modules.
• Integrated solution, including
both controller and microwave
components in 4U (7˝) package
• Three standard microwave
switch modules
–– 10×10 unterminated matrix
–– 6×6 unterminated matrix
–– 1×72/dual 1×36 unterminated
multiplexer
• Unique front panel enables
interactive control as well as
real-time status display
• DC to 18GHz frequency range
• Pre-programmed, turnkey
solutions
• Phase matching
Ordering Information
Contact a Keithley
representative for pricing.
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Accessories Supplied
Programming light pen
208
RF/Microwave Signal Routing Systems
Fully Integrated, Turnkey Solutions
Keithley can provide a standard turnkey signal routing system, complete with an optimized Keithley controller, system power supply, all power
and control cables, rack mount assembly, and low-loss microwave cables in one integrated chassis.
Superior RF/Microwave Performance
The System 41 integrates relays from the leading suppliers in the industry, enabling us to offer the
lowest insertion loss, VSWR, and crosstalk performance specifications available. All internal connections between the components are implemented using semi-flex or semi-rigid RF cables for high
­signal integrity.
Standard Microwave Switching Modules
Keithley provides three standard microwave switching modules: an 18GHz 1010 non-blocking matrix,
an 18GHz 66 non-blocking matrix, and an 18GHz 172 multiplexer that can be configured as two
independent 136 multiplexers.
Get Up and Running Quickly
To begin using the System 41, simply install it in a rack and connect the input and output lines. All
RF input/output connections are ­easily accessible, making system setup and maintenance fast and
u­ ncomplicated.
The control unit’s front panel display provides continuous, real-time information on the status of all
­controlled components. This makes it possible to operate the system manually, not just automatically,
speeding and simplifying test verification and trouble­shooting. Both start-up time and downtime are
minimized, which helps maximize production time.
Phase Matching Option
The System 41 offers a phase match option
for the 172 multiplexer. This solution provides
equal length, phase matched paths of both the
RF cabling and the switching topology. Only
high ­performance switches are used to ensure
contact resistance reliability over time.
Light Pen Programming
A light pen provides point-and-click programming from the front panel. By selecting the
desired channels or range of channels, the
scan list can be built, matrix patterns created,
channels opened or closed, and patterns stored
in memory.
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Applications
• Cellular and cordless phones
• Specialized mobile radios
• Base stations
• Specialized antenna systems
• RF components, including RFICs
• Wireless peripherals, including
Bluetooth devices
• Broadband wireless transceivers
• High speed digital communi­
cations, including SONET speeds
3Gbps and 10Gbps
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Dedicated solution for RF/microwave signal routing
Dedicated solution for RF/microwave signal routing
System 41
System 41
RF/Microwave Signal Routing Systems
S41/RF 6×6 System Specifications
Frequency
Insertion Loss
VSWR
Isolation
DC–8 GHz
2.5 dB max.
1.5:1
70 dB min.
8–18 GHz
4.0 dB max.
2.0:1
60 dB min.
S41/RF 10×10 System Specifications
Frequency
Insertion Loss
VSWR
Isolation
DC–8 GHz
3.5 dB max.
1.5:1
70 dB min.
8–18 GHz
5.5 dB max.
2.0:1
60 dB min.
DC–8 GHz
1.0 dB max.
1.5:1
70 dB min.
8–18 GHz
2.5 dB max.
2.0:1
60 dB min.
System 41 specifications
Frequency
Insertion Loss
VSWR
Isolation
NOTE: This system is also configurable as two individual 1×36
m
­ ultiplexers.
S41/RF 10×10 Non-Blocking Matrix
Accessories Available
7007-1
7007-2
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
S41-RMK-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
S41/RF 1×72 Multiplexer
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SWITCHING AND CONTROL
System 41 specifications
S41/RF 1×72 System Specifications
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
209
System 46
RF/Microwave Switch System
Flexible Solutions
in a Compact Package
The S46 Microwave Switch System is designed
to simplify the automated switching needed to
test a wide range of telecommunications products and devices. The S46 can control 32 relay
contacts in a package as small as a 2U high (3.5
in) full-rack enclosure. Standard configurations
make it simple to select a system that meets the
specifications of the testing application without
the expense of unnecessary switches or other
features. This “just what you need and no more”
design philosophy allows S46 systems to provide
outstanding price/performance value.
• Compact RF/microwave
switching system only 2U high
• Built-in contact closure counter
to monitor switch cycles
• Standard configuration allows
up to 32 channels of switching
• Simple control with built-in
GPIB/IEEE-488 interface bus
• Channel characterization data
storage
• Frequency ranges up to 40GHz
• Cellular and cordless phones
• Specialized mobile radios
• Base stations
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Frequency Range
To accommodate the rapidly evolving test requirements in RF/microwave applications, the S46 has
ordering provisions for frequency ranges up to 40GHz. Configuration options include DC to 18GHz,
DC to 26.5GHz, and DC to 40GHz.
Simple Operation
The S46 switch system’s 32 control channels can be operated via the IEEE-488 interface bus with a
minimal set of instructions. This small instruction set ensures the system can be set up and running
quickly. Front panel LEDs indicate the status of all relay contacts continuously to allow the user to
monitor system operation easily.
Excellent Microwave Switching Performance
Keithley’s experience and partnerships with leading manufacturers in the microwave relay industry
allow Keithley to offer the lowest insertion loss, VSWR, and crosstalk performance specifications
available. Low-loss, semi-flexible RF cables are available as accessories to maximize signal integrity.
APPLICATIONS
210
The enclosures used in standard S46 configurations can accommodate eight SPDT unterminated
coaxial micro­wave relays and four multi-pole, unterminated, coaxial microwave relays. Any of these
multi-pole unterminated relays can be one of the following relay types: SP4T or SP6T. S46 switching
systems can be used as multiplexers, matrices, independent relays, or a combination of configurations. To order a standard system, simply select the number of relays and their location on the front
panel. As test requirements change, relays can be easily added to the system to create a new switch
­configuration.
• Specialized antenna systems
• RF components, including RFICs
• Wireless peripherals, including
Bluetooth devices
Maximum System Up-Time and Enhanced System Performance
The S46 controller automatically counts relay contact closures to allow equipment maintenance
personnel to assess when the relays are nearing the end of their mechanical life. In this way,
preventive maintenance can be performed in a timely way during scheduled shutdowns, avoiding
unplanned shutdowns and the resulting loss of production time.
In addition to counting contact closures, the S46 has a portion of its memory available to store
S-parameters or calibration constants for each relay contact or each pathway. If a specific perfor­
mance parameter is critical, such as Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) or insertion loss, the
parameter can be stored in memory for use in trend analysis between scheduled maintenance
shutdowns. Stored parameters can also be used for compensation to enhance accuracy during
RF measurements.
• Broadband wireless transceivers
• High speed digital communica­
tions, including SONET speeds
3Gbps and 10Gbps
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C O N F I D E N C E
Designed for test applications that require high quality RF/microwave signal routing
Designed for test applications that require high quality RF/microwave signal routing
32-channel, Unterminated
System 46
RF/Microwave Switch System
32-channel, Unterminated
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Cabling
S46-SMA-0.5
S46-SMA-1
S46-SMA-1.7
S46-SMA26-0.5
S46-SMA26-1
S46-SMA26-1.7
TL-24
Typical VSWR
Path includes: SPDT relay – 12 in (30.48cm) cable – SP6T relay
2.00
1.90
1.80
1.70
1.60
VSWR
1.50
Switch Kits
S46-SPDT-KIT Standard Performance 18GHz Unterminated SPDT Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP4T-KIT
Standard Performance 18GHz Unterminated SP4T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP6T-KIT
Standard Performance 18GHz Unterminated SP6T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SPDT-KIT-R High Performance 18GHz Unterminated SPDT Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP4T-KIT-R High Performance 18GHz Unterminated SP4T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP6T-KIT-R High Performance 18GHz Unterminated SP6T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SPDT-KIT-26 High Performance 26.5GHz Unterminated SPDT Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP4T-KIT-26 High Performance 26.5GHz Unterminated SP4T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP6T-KIT-26 High Performance 26.5GHz Unterminated SP6T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SPDT-KIT-40 High Performance 40GHz Unterminated SPDT Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP4T-KIT-40 High Performance 40GHz Unterminated SP4T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46-SP6T-KIT-40 High Performance 40GHz Unterminated SP6T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0
Frequency GHz
Typical Insertion Loss
Path includes: SPDT relay – 12 in (30.48cm) cable – SP6T relay
0.00
–0.20
–0.40
–0.60
Insertion
Loss
dB –0.80
–1.00
–1.20
–1.40
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0
Frequency GHz
Examples of Standard System Switch Configurations
Matrices
2×2 Non-Blocking
Multiplexers
1×18
2×6 Non-Blocking
1×12
1×8
2×4 Non-Blocking
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
System 46 specifications
1.40
1.00
DC–18GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable Assembly, 0.152m (6 in.)
DC–18GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable Assembly, 0.305m (12 in.)
DC–18GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable Assembly, 0.518m (20.4 in.)
DC–26.5GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable Assembly, 0.152m (6 in.)
DC–26.5GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable Assembly, 0.305m (12 in.)
DC–26.5GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable Assembly, 0.518m (20.4 in.)
SMA Cable Torque Wrench
System 46 specifications
Standard Performance Data of an 18GHz, 1×12 Multiplexer
Maximum Configuration: (8) – Unterminated SPDT relays. (4) – Unterminated multi-pole relays (SP4T, SP6T).
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211
System 46
RF/Microwave Switch System
32-channel, Unterminated
System 46 specifications
Ordering Information
Specifying Standard
S46 Model Numbers
2
3
4
SP4T or SP6T
Relay Locations
S46-
A
B
C
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
SPDT
Relay Locations
D
1
All four positions
must be listed.
Enter:
0 = None
4 = SP4T
6 = SP6T
Accessories Supplied
Power cord, instruction
manual, and rack mount kit
5
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Enter:
Only positions used
must be listed.
Enter:
1–8 Position Number
Frequency
Range
Blank = DC–18GHz,
Standard Performance
A = DC–18GHz,
High Performance
B = DC–26.5GHz
C = DC–40GHz
Multipole relay locations A–D: Enter a “4” for an SP4T relay or a “6” for a SP6T relay in the required
location. Enter a “0” in unused multi-pole locations. There must be digits in all four positions.
SPDT relay locations 1–8: Indicate the position number of all locations where an SPDT switch is
required. Only locations used are required.
Example 1: Model Number S46-0604356
Includes: SP6T in position B, SP4T in position D, SPDTs in positions 3, 5, and 6. Frequency range
“Blank,” standard performance DC–18GHz.
Example 2: Model Number S46-0440123B
Includes: SP4T in positions B and C, SPDTs in positions 1, 2, and 3. Frequency range “B,” high
­performance DC–26.5GHz.
Unterminated Relay Specifications
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
General
212
Contact Closure Counters: 1 counter per channel,
up to 10 million counts each, maintained in non-volatile
memory.
Non-Volatile Storage: 32 separate locations; each
location up to 68 bytes long, for user-definable channel
and system parameters.
Number of Relay Control Lines: 32, each open collector driver capable of 300mA sink current (max.).
Interface: GPIB (IEEE-488.2) and SCPI.
Indicators: Power, relay position status, and error LED.
Power: 100–240VAC, 50/60Hz.
Maximum common mode: 42V peak, any terminal
to earth.
Environment: Operating: 0° to 40°C, up to 35°C <
80% RH. Storage: –25° to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/
EEC.
Dimensions: 89mm high × 485mm wide × 370mm. deep
(3.5˝ × 19˝ × 14.563˝).
Shipping Weight: 13kg (28 lbs).
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Option
Frequency Range
Connector Type
SPDT
SP4T, SP6T
Impedance
Contact Life
SPDT
SP4T, SP6T
VSWR (max.)
None
A
Std. Performance
DC–18 GHz
DC–18 GHz
SMA
SMA
SMA
SMA
50W
50W
1 × 107
2 × 106
2 × 106
5 × 106
DC–3 GHz: 1.20
DC–6 GHz: 1.25
6–12 GHz: 1.40
3–8 GHz: 1.30
12–18 GHz: 1.50
8–12.4 GHz: 1.40
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
Insertion Loss (max.) dB
DC–6 GHz: 0.2
6–12 GHz: 0.4
12–18 GHz: 0.5
DC–3 GHz: 0.2
3–8 GHz: 0.3
8–12.4 GHz: 0.4
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
Isolation (min.) dB
DC–6 GHz: 70
6–12 GHz: 60
12–18 GHz: 60
DC–3 GHz: 80
3–8 GHz: 70
8–12.4 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
Actuation Time (max.) ms
SPDT
SP4T, SP6T
A
20
15
G R E A T E R
10
15
M E A S U R E
O F
B
C
High Performance
DC–26.5 GHz
DC–40 GHz
SMA
SMA 2.9
SMA 2.9
SMA 2.9
50W
50W
1 × 107
1 × 107
2 × 106
2 × 106
DC–6 GHz: 1.30
DC–6 GHz: 1.30
6–12.4 GHz: 1.40
6–12.4 GHz: 1.40
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
18–26.5 GHz: 1.70
18–26.5 GHz: 1.70
26.5–40 GHz: 2.20
DC–6 GHz: 0.2
DC–6 GHz: 0.2
6–12.4 GHz: 0.4
6–12.4 GHz: 0.4
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
18–26.5 GHz: 0.7
18–26.5 GHz: 0.7
26.5–40 GHz: 1.1
DC–6 GHz: 70
DC–6 GHz: 70
6–12.4 GHz: 60
6–12.4 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
18–26.5 GHz: 55
18–26.5 GHz: 55
26.5–40 GHz: 50
10
15
C O N F I D E N C E
10
15
System 46 specifications
1
System 46T
RF/Microwave Switch System
• Compact RF/microwave
switching system only 2U high
• Built-in contact closure counter
to monitor switch cycles
• Standard configuration allows
up to 32 channels of switching
• Simple control with built-in
GPIB/IEEE-488 interface bus
• Channel characterization data
storage
• Terminated switching
configurations
• Frequency ranges up to 26.5GHz
Maximum Flexibility
In addition to the terminated configurations, the System
46T also has provisions to accommodate up to four
transfer switches (DPDT) as well as frequency ranges up to 26.5GHz. Other options include adding
unterminated multi-throw and SPDT switches. Please review the Ordering Information section for
allowable configurations.
Simple Operation
The S46T switch system’s 32 control channels can be operated via the IEEE-488 interface bus with a
minimal set of instructions. This small instruction set ensures the system can be set up and running
quickly. Front panel LEDs indicate the status of all relay contacts continuously to allow the user to
monitor system operation easily.
Excellent Microwave Switching Performance
Keithley’s experience and partnerships with leading manufacturers in the microwave relay industry
allow Keithley to offer the lowest insertion loss, VSWR, and crosstalk performance specifications
available. Low-loss, semi-flexible RF cables are available as accessories to maximize signal integrity.
Maximum System Up-Time and Enhanced System Performance
The S46T controller automatically counts relay contact closures to allow equipment maintenance personnel to assess when the relays are nearing the end of their mechanical life. In this way, ­preventive
maintenance can be performed in a timely way during scheduled shutdowns, avoiding unplanned
shutdowns and the resulting loss of production time.
In addition to counting contact closures, the S46T has a portion of its memory available to store
S-parameters or calibration constants for each relay contact or each pathway. If a specific performance parameter is critical, such as Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) or insertion loss, the parameter can be stored in memory for use in trend analysis between scheduled maintenance shutdowns.
Stored parameters can also be used for compensation to enhance accuracy during RF measurements.
Designed for test applications that require high quality RF/microwave signal routing
Terminated Switching Solutions
If your application requires a terminated configuration,
the System 46T will meet your needs. This compact
switching system leverages the same design technology
of our standard unterminated System 46. This terminated
version can accommodate up to eight terminated SPDT
coaxial microwave relays and four terminated multi-pole
coaxial microwave relays.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Cables, Adapters, Tools
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
7712-SMA-1 SMA Cable, male to male, 1m (3.3 ft.)
SMA Cable, male to male, RG188 cable, 2m (6.5 ft).
CA-404-B
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
S46-SMA-0.5 DC-18GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable
Assembly, 0.152m (6 in.)
S46-SMA-1
DC-18GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable
Assembly, 0.305m (12 in.)
S46-SMA-1.7 DC-18GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable
Assembly, 0.518m (20.4 in.)
S46-SMA26-0.5 DC-26.5GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable
Assembly, 0.152m (6 in.)
S46-SMA26-1 DC-26.5GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable
Assembly, 0.305m (12 in.)
S46-SMA26-1.7 DC-26.5GHz, Low Loss, Semi-Flex SMA-SMA Cable
Assembly, 0.518m (20.4 in.)
TL-24
SMA Cable Torque Wrench
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Switch Kits
S46T-MSPDT-KIT
Quantity 2, 18GHz Unterminated SPDT
Relays, Mounting Plate, and Control Cable
Assembly (Note: Kit applicable only for relay
A-D mounting locations)
S46T-SPDT-KIT
18GHz Unterminated SPDT Relay, Spacer
Block, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SPDT-KIT-T 18 GHz Terminated SPDT Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46T-SP4T-KIT
18GHz Unterminated SP4T Relay, Mounting
Plate, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SP4T-KIT-T 18GHz Terminated SP4T Relay, Mounting
Plate, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SP6T-KIT
18GHz Unterminated SP6T Relay, Mounting
Plate, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SP6T-KIT-T 18 GHz Terminated SP6T Relay, Mounting
Plate, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-XFR-KIT 18GHz Transfer Switch, Mounting Plate, and
Control Cable Assembly
A
G R E A T E R
S46T-SPDT-KIT-26 26.5GHz Unterminated SPDT Relay, Spacer
Block, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SPDT-KIT-26T 26.5GHz Terminated SPDT Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46T-MSPDT-KIT-26 Quantity 2, 26.5GHz Unterminated SPDT
Relays, Mounting Plate, and Control Cable
Assembly (Note: Kit applicable only for relay
A-D mounting locations)
S46T-SP4T-KIT-26 26.5GHz Unterminated SP4T Relay, Mounting
Plate, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SP4T-KIT-26T 26.5GHz Terminated SP4T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46T-SP6T-KIT-26 26.5GHz Unterminated SP6T Relay, Mounting
Plate, and Control Cable Assembly
S46T-SP6T-KIT-26T 26.5GHz Terminated SP6T Relay and Control
Cable Assembly
S46T-XFR-KIT-26 26.5GHz Transfer Switch, Mounting Plate, and
Control Cable Assembly
M E A S U R E
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Designed for test applications that require high quality RF/microwave signal routing
32-channel, Terminated
C O N F I D E N C E
213
System 46T
RF/Microwave Switch System
32-channel, Terminated
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
8
Frequency
Range
Ordering Information
Accessories Supplied
Power cord, instruction
manual, and rack mount kit
SP4T or SP6T
Relay Locations
S46T-
A
B
C
SPDT
Relay Locations
D
1
All four positions
must be listed.
Enter:
0 = None
A = Terminated, SP4T
B = Terminated, SP6T
C = Unterminated, SPDT (2)
4 = Unterminated, SP4T
6 = Unterminated, SP6T
X = Transfer Switch, DPDT
2
3
4
5
6
7
All eight positions
must be listed.
Enter:
0 = None
T = Terminated, SPDT
U = Unterminated, SPDT
Must be specified.
Enter:
A = DC–18GHz
B = DC–26.5GHz
Example 1: Model Number S46T-0A0X00TT0000A
Includes: Terminated SP4T in position B, transfer switch in position D, terminated SPDTs in positions
3 and 4. DC–18GHz frequency range.
Example 2: Model Number S46T-ABC4UU00TTTTB
Includes: Terminated SP4T in position A, terminated SP6T in position B, two unterminated SPDTs in
position C, and unterminated SP4T in position D. Unterminated SPDTs in positions 1 and 2, terminated SPDTs in positions 5, 6, 7, and 8. DC–26.5GHz frequency range.
APPLICATIONS
• Cellular and cordless phones
• Specialized mobile radios
• Base stations
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
• Specialized antenna systems
214
• RF components, including RFICs
• Wireless peripherals, including
Bluetooth devices
• Broadband wireless
transceivers
• High speed digital communica­
tions, including SONET speeds
3Gbps and 10Gbps
Terminated Relay Specifications
Transfer Switch Specifications
Frequency Range
DC–18 GHz
SMA
Connector Type
Impedance
50W
Contact Life: SPDT
2 × 106
SP4T, SP6T
2 × 106
DC–3 GHz: 1.20
VSWR (max.)
3–8 GHz: 1.30
8–12.4 GHz: 1.40
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
Frequency Range
Connector Type
Impedance
Contact Life
VSWR (max.)
DC–18 GHz
SMA
50W
2.5 × 106
DC–3 GHz: 1.20
3–8 GHz: 1.30
8–12.4 GHz: 1.40
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
Insertion
Loss (max.) dB
DC–3 GHz: 0.2
3–8 GHz: 0.3
8–12.4 GHz: 0.4
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
Insertion Loss
(max.) dB
DC–3 GHz: 0.2
3–8 GHz: 0.3
8–12.4 GHz: 0.4
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
Isolation (min.) dB DC–3 GHz: 80
3–8 GHz: 70
8–12.4 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
Actuation Time
(max.) ms
SPDT
SP4T, SP6T
DC–26.5 GHz
SMA
50W
2 × 106
2 × 106
DC–3 GHz: 1.20
3–8 GHz: 1.30
8–12.4 GHz: 1.40
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
18–26.5 GHz: 1.80
DC–3 GHz: 0.2
3–8 GHz: 0.3
8–12.4 GHz: 0.4
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
18–26.5 GHz: 0.7
DC–3 GHz: 80
3–8 GHz: 70
8–12.4 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
18–26.5 GHz: 50
10
15
Isolation (min.) dB DC–3 GHz: 80
3–8 GHz: 70
8–12.4 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
Actuation Time
(max.) ms
10
15
See page 212 for unterminated relay specifications.
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
15
DC–26.5 GHz
SMA 2.9
50W
2.5 × 106
DC–3 GHz: 1.20
3–8 GHz: 1.30
8–12.4 GHz: 1.40
12.4–18 GHz: 1.50
18–26.5 GHz: 1.70
DC–3 GHz: 0.2
3–8 GHz: 0.3
8–12.4 GHz: 0.4
12.4–18 GHz: 0.5
18–26.5 GHz: 0.7
DC–3 GHz: 80
3–8 GHz: 70
8–12.4 GHz: 60
12.4–18 GHz: 60
18–26.5 GHz: 50
15
System 46T specifications
System 46T specifications
Specifying Standard
S46T Model Numbers
7116-MWS
RF/Microwave Switch System
• Compact RF/microwave
switching system only 3U high
• Configurable as one 1x16 or five
independent 1x4 multiplexers
• 18GHz bandwidth relays
• Real-time status display of all
switches
• Local and remote control
Ordering Information
7116-MWS 16-channel Microwave
Switch System
Extended warranty, service, and
calibration contracts are available.
Accessories Supplied
Instruction manual and
power line cord
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The Model 7116-MWS is a fully assembled 16-channel RF/Microwave Switch System designed to simplify controlling high frequency switching. It employs the IEEE-488-compatible Model 7001 Switch
Mainframe as a switch controller as well as electromechanical coaxial relays with a bandwidth from
DC to 18GHz. Applications include production and laboratory testing of a variety of communications
devices and systems.
Simple Setup and Control
All input and output connections are easily accessible from the front panel, so system maintenance
and reconfiguration is fast and easy. In addition, the non-volatile memory in the Model 7001 is
pre-­programmed in a 1×16 multiplexer switching pattern, allowing users to begin operating it
­immediately.
Pre-configured RF/microwave switch system
• Integrated solution, including
controller and RF/microwave
switches
High Signal Integrity
All RF/microwave relay interconnections are implemented using low-loss, semi-rigid RF cabling to
ensure high signal integrity. Signal paths are of equal length to ensure similar transmission line
characteristics and performance in every channel. The relays used provide high isolation to minimize channel crosstalk. The Model 7116-MWS’s combination of low insertion loss and high isolation
ensures high quality measurement pathways for signal routing and meas­urement.
Expandable
The Model 7001 mainframe has a spare card
slot available that allows control of up to 40
additional switch channels. More than 30 cards
are available to expand the Model 7116-MWS’s
switching capabilities to include low frequency,
general purpose, optical, or additional RF
switching.
Industry-Leading IEEE-488 Controller
The Keithley Model 7001 Switch Mainframe
included in the Model 7116-MWS has a distinctive front panel vacuum fluorescent display that
provides continuous, real-time information on
the status of all switches. Intuitive front panel
controls allow the system to be manually operated, speeding and simplifying test verification
and troubleshooting. Up to 100 complete switch
patterns can be programmed in the Model
7001’s non-volatile ­memory.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
APPLICATIONS
• Cellular and cordless phones
• Specialized mobile radios
• Base stations
• Specialized antenna systems
• RF components, including RFICs
• Wireless peripherals, including
Bluetooth devices
• Broadband wireless
transceivers
• High speed digital
communications, including
SONET speeds 3Gbps and
10Gbps
O F
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
Pre-configured RF/microwave switch system
1×16 Multiplexer, Unterminated
C O N F I D E N C E
215
7116-MWS
RF/Microwave Switch System
1×16 Multiplexer
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
Operating
Frequency
DC–3 GHz
Insertion Loss
0.5 (0.2)
dB, maximum
Isolation dB,
80
minimum
RF Power
30 (34)
W, maximum
1.35 (1.2)
VSWR
Ch. 1
Ch. 3
Ch. 4
Model 7116-MWS specifications
Ch. 5
6–12 GHz
12–18 GHz
0.75 (0.3)
1 (0.4)
1.3 (0.5)
70
60
60
20 (34)
15 (34)
10 (34)
1.5 (1.3)
1.7 (1.4)
1.9 (1.5)
Values in parentheses are for individual SP4T switches.
Ch. 6
Switch Configuration: 16 input coaxial multiplexer. Five independent unterminated
SP4T switches when jumpers removed.
Connector: SMA.
Actuating Current: 140mA per switch contact.
Impedance: 50W.
ActUation Time: 15ms.
RF Contacts: Break-before-make, normally open.
Operating Life: Cold Switching: 1,000,000 operations.
Configuration:
Control: 7001 mainframe and 7020-MWS.
Power Supply: 29V DC, 1.6A switching power supply.
RF Interconnects: RG-402 (0.141 in. semi-rigid cable terminated with male SMA connectors).
Switch: Normally open, DC–18GHz unterminated SP4T switch.
System Enclosure: 51⁄4 in. full system rack kit.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (meets EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
Power: 90–260V AC, 47–63Hz, 80VA maximum.
Environment:
Operating: 0°–50°C, up to 35°C at 80% R.H.
Storage: –25°C to +65°C.
Dimensions, Weight: 133mm high × 482mm wide × 457mm deep (51⁄4 in × 19 in × 18 in).
Net weight 8.1kg (18 lbs).
Ch. 7
In
3–6 GHz
Ch. 8
Ch. 9
Ch. 10
Ch. 11
Ch. 12
Ch. 13
Ch. 14
Ch. 15
Ch. 16
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
SWITCHING AND CONTROL
7007-1
7007-2
7116-COVER
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
216
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Top Protective Cover
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 7116-MWS specifications
Semi-rigid cable
can be removed
to leave five
independent 1x4
multiplexers
Ch. 2
Digital Multimeters and Systems
Selector Guide
2100
2000
2001
2002
2010
2015
2015-P
2016
2016-P
Series 3700A
2700
2701
2750
Selector Guide
Free Software
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital Multimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6½-Digit USB Digital Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6½-Digit Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Performance 7½-Digit Multimeter . . . . . . . . .
High Performance 8½-Digit Multimeter . . . . . . . . .
Low Noise 7½-Digit Autoranging Multimeter . . . . .
6½-Digit THD Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . .
6½-Digit THD Multimeter w/9V Source Output . . .
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeter
w/9V Source Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Switch/Multimeter and Plug-In Cards . . . . .
Multimeter/Data Acquisition System . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet DMM/Data Acquisition System . . . . . . . . .
Multimeter/Switch System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
218
220
222
226
231
231
237
239
239
239
239
247
248
248
248
Plug-In Modules for Integra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Plug-In Modules and Accessories
for Integra Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257–269
Free Bundled Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
ExceLINX -1A Excel Add-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
TM
2790SourceMeter® Airbag Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
7751
High Voltage Source/Switch Module . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
7752
Low Voltage, Current-Source-Only
Source/Switch Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
77531MW High Voltage Source/Switch Module . . . . . . . 277
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
217
Analog to Digital Conversion
The A/D converts the analog input signal to a
digital output and is primarily responsible for
key instrument characteristics of reading speed,
linearity, resolution, normal mode rejection,
and precision. The digital output is shown or
obtained in several ways. One way is visually, via
the front panel with a display of digits and other
information. Another way is electronically, with
results sent via a port (GPIB, RS-232, USB, or
Ethernet) to a computer for further processing.
Resolution
Resolution is defined as the smallest detectable
change on any range referenced to full scale. For
example, if an instrument displays a maximum
of 19,999 on any range, and the smallest detectable change in the input signal is ±1 least significant digit (LSD), then the resolution is 1/19999
or 0.005%.
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Resolution is commonly expressed as a whole
number plus a fraction, e.g., 5½ digits. The
whole number represents the number of digits
that can display the numbers from 0 to 9. The
fraction indicates that the most significant digit
has one or more non-zero states, that is, it can
display 0, 1, or 2.
218
Sensitivity
Sensitivity is similar to resolution in that it deals
with the smallest change of the input signal the
instrument can detect. However, sensitivity is
not referenced to full scale, so it is expressed in
absolute terms and applies to the lowest range
on any function. The sensitivity of a 7½-digit
DMM is 10nV if its lowest measurement range is
200mV.
Accuracy
Accuracy is specified as a two-term specification:
±(% of reading + % of range) or as (ppm of
reading + ppm of range). The closer to zero on
the range that the percent of range term of the
specification is, the greater the weight it has in
the accuracy calculation. The closer to full scale
on the range the percent of reading term of the
specification is, the greater the weight it has in
the accuracy calculation. The best accuracy is
obtained near full scale.
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AC
Attenuator
AC
DC
HI
Amps
Digital
Display
AC
Converter
AC
DC
DC
Attenuator
Ohms
A/D
Converter
Ohms
INPUT
Precision
Reference
Ohms
Converter
Precision
Shunts
Digital
Output
Ports
(IEEE-488,
USB,
RS-232,
Ethernet)
LO
Figure 1: DMM Block Diagram
0.0075
0.0060
5 1⁄ 2
0.0045
0.0030
61⁄2
0.0015
Input as % of Full Scale
50%
100%
Accuracy ±(0.1% + 1 count)
Figure 2: Expected Reading Uncertainty: 5½- vs. 6½-Digit DMMs
Accuracy is also generally stated under several
conditions, including ±1°C, ±5°C operating temperature, and 24-hour, 90-day, and one-year calibration intervals. The expected accuracy can be
improved by controlling temperature variations
in the environment and by electing more frequent calibration intervals. Figure 2 illustrates
the effect on accuracy at various levels of input
signal within the measurement range. Accuracy
for both meters is specified at ±(0.1% + 1 count).
Loading and Input Impedance
Loading is the disturbance to the circuit being
measured caused by the finite input impedance
of the DMM. Input impedance is the equivalent
resistance and capacitance of the input terminals
of the DMM.
Loading error (Figure 3) is the difference
between the voltage measured by the meter (V m )
and the voltage of an ideal source (Vs ).
A
G R E A T E R
Voltage burden error (Figure 4) is the difference between the expected current through the
load (R l ) and the measured current (Im) caused
by the finite voltage drop of the measuring
­instrument.
Two-Wire vs. Four-Wire Ohms
Two-terminal DMMs source test current through
the measuring test leads, terminating at the
HI-LO inputs of the DMM. This two-wire ohms
system works fine for most resistance measurement applications. However, the I-R drop in
the test leads (R l ) can cause inaccuracies that
become apparent in lower resistance measurements (Figure 5).
Four-wire ohms or Kelvin measurements bypass
the voltage drop across R l by bringing two
high impedance voltage sense leads out to
the unknown R x. There is very little current
in the sense circuit because of the high input
impedance, so there's effectively no I-R drop
in the leads, and the voltage seen by the sense
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical information: Digital multimeters
Technical information: Digital multimeters
Digital multimeters convert analog signals to
digital information. In general, DMMs have a
minimum of five typical functions. They are DC
voltage, AC voltage, DC current, AC current, and
resistance. While specifications vary, most DMMs
can be described with block diagrams similar to
Figure 1.
Digital Multimeters
± % Uncertainty
Technical
Information
Technical
Information
RS
RM
VS
Source
XM
VM
Technical information: Digital multimeters
–
Loading Error = –
RL
+
VS
Function
Increase
Effect on
Loading Error
ACV or DCV
ACV or DCV
ACV
ACV
RS
RM
ZM
Frequency
Increase
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Figure 3: Loading Error
terminals is the same as the voltage developed
across R x.
Speed and Settling Time
Every meter has a settling time associated with
its input circuit. The reading rates or measurement speeds of instruments are independent of
the settling times. For high resolution meters, it
may be necessary to allow time for input settling
to achieve full rated accuracy.
Several parameters affect measurement speed,
including integration rate (NPLC), filter setting,
ranging, AutoZero, trigger delays, and display
settings. For maximum measurement speed, set
these parameters:
Integration rate = 0.01
Filter = disabled
Range = fixed (no auto range)
AutoZero = disabled
Trigger Delay = 0.0
Display = disabled
Note that maximum speed settings do not produce the greatest accuracy.
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1. IS =
IM
VM
–
VS
RL
for VM = 0
Voltage Burden Error =
VM ∝
RM
+
–
RMXM
RS
RS + ZM and ZM = RM + XM
Meter
IM
IFS
VB
2. IM =
IM – IS
IS
V S – VM
RL
=–
VM
VS
where VB is the maximum
burden voltage and IFS is
the full scale current.
Figure 4: Voltage Burden Error
Normal and Common Mode Rejection
Normal mode interference is the interference
mixed in with the incoming signal. Most normal
mode interference is at line frequency and its
harmonics. NMRR (Normal Mode Rejection
Ratio) is specified in dB at line frequencies of
50Hz and 60Hz. Normal mode interference is
detected as a peak noise or deviation in a DC
signal.
(peak measurement deviation)
NMRR = 20 log____________________________
(peak normal mode interference)
CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio) specifies
the ability of a meter to reject signals common
to both input HI and LO. This term is generally
measured with a 1kW imbalance in one of the
leads. A larger imbalance will cause CMRR to be
worse. CMRR is specified at DC, 50Hz, or 60Hz,
and (like NMRR) is expressed in dB. CMRR
applies to both DC and AC measurements and
appears as an offset error to the desired signal.
Overload Protection
This is a measure of electrical ruggedness and
should be sufficient to protect the meter from
commonly encountered line voltages. Typically,
the ranges most susceptible to high voltage are
the lowest voltage range (e.g., 100mV) and the
A
G R E A T E R
Error I–R Drop
in Test Leads
DMM
HI
True
Voltage
Drop
RL
Technical information: Digital multimeters
+
Meter
Test Current
RX
LO
2-Wire Ohms
RL
Test Current
DMM
Source HI
Sense HI
Sense LO
Source LO
pA
RX
4-Wire Ohms
Figure 5: 2-Wire vs. 4-Wire Ohms
ohms ranges. Similar to overload protection is
the maximum common mode voltage at which
the meter can be used. This is the maximum
voltage from earth ground that the input LO or
COMMON terminal can withstand safely. The
input terminal should always be at the lowest
impedance.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Source
Digital Multimeters
219
Selector Guide Digital Multimeters
Model
Page
Digits
Expansion Channels
2100
2000
2010
2001
2002
222
6½
N/A
226
6½
10
237
7½
10
231
7½
10
231
8½
10
0.1 µV
1000 V
0.0038%
•
100 nV
1000 V
0.002%
10 nV
1000 V
0.0018%
•
10 nV
1100 V
0.0018%
Option
•
1 nV
1100 V
0.0006%
Option
•
0.1 µV
750 V
0.08%
3 Hz–300 kHz
•
•
RMS
AC
100 nV
750 V
0.05%
3 Hz–300 kHz
•
•
100 nV
750 V
0.05%
3 Hz–300 kHz
•
•
100 nV
775 V (1100 V pk)
0.03%
1 Hz–2 MHz
•
•
•
•
100 nV
775 V (1100 V pk) 0.02%
1 Hz–2 MHz
•
•
•
•
100 µW
100 MW
0.015%
•
•
100 µW
120 MW
0.008%
•
•
1 µW
1 GW
0.0032%
100 nW
1 GW
0.0007%
•
•
•
•
•
Selector guide: Digital multimeters
Sensitivity
Maximum Reading
Basic Accuracy
Ratio
DC Peak Spikes
AC Volts (TRMS)
Sensitivity
Maximum Reading
Basic Accuracy
Bandwidth
dB, dBm
Frequency, Period
Peak/Avg/RMS
AC, AC + DC
Ohms (2/4 Wire)
Sensitivity
Maximum Reading
Basic Accuracy
Continuity Test
Diode Test
Offset Compensation
Dry Circuit
Constant Current
Open Source Detect
•
•
1 µW
120 MW
0.0032%
•
•
•
•
•
10 nA
10 mA–3 A
0.055%
10 nA
10 mA–3 A
0.03%
10 nA
10 mA–3 A
0.03%
10 pA
200 µA–2 A
0.03%
•
10 pA
200 µA–2 A
0.027%
•
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.15%
3 Hz–5 kHz
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.1%
3 Hz–5 kHz
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.1%
3 Hz–5 kHz
100 pA
200 µA–2 A
0.1%
20 Hz–100 kHz
100 pA
200 µA–2 A
0.1%
20 Hz–100 kHz
USB
•
•
2000 rdg.
2000 rdg/s
RTD
34401A
GPIB, RS-232
•
GPIB, RS-232
•
GPIB
GPIB
1024 rdg.
2000 rdg/s
T/C
8840/42, 196/199
1024 rdg.
2000 rdg/s
T/C, RTD
196/199
•
Opt to 30,000
2000 rdg/s
T/C, RTD
•
Opt to 30,000
2000 rdg/s
T/C, RTD
HP 3458
DC Amps
Sensitivity
Range Span
Basic Accuracy
In Circuit Current
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
AC Amps (TRMS)
220
Sensitivity
Range Span
Basic Accuracy
Bandwidth
General Features
Interface
Reading Hold
Digital I/O
Reading Memory
Maximum Speed
Temperature Meas.
Language Emulation
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Selector guide: Digital multimeters
DC Volts
Selector Guide
Digital Multimeters
Model
3706A
2015, 2016
2700
2701
2750
Page
Digits
Expansion Channels
247, 136
7½
576
239
6½
248
6½
80
248
6½
80
248
6½
200
10 nV
300 V
0.002%
100 nV
1000 V
0.002%
100 nV
1000 V
0.002%
w/MUX card
100 nV
1000 V
0.002%
w/MUX card
100 nV
1000 V
0.002%
w/MUX card
100 nV
300 V
0.05%
3 Hz–300 kHz
•
•
100 nV
750 V
0.05%
3 Hz–300 kHz
•
•
20 Hz–20 kHz
-P versions
4V/9V (10 Hz–20 kHz)
100 nV
750 V
0.06%
3 Hz–300 kHz
100 nV
750 V
0.06%
3 Hz–300 kHz
100 nV
750 V
0.06%
3 Hz–300 kHz
•
•
•
100 nW
100 MW
0.004%
•
100 µW
120 MW
0.008%
100 µW
120 MW
0.008%
•
100 µW
120 MW
0.008%
•
1 µW
120 MW
0.008%
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 pA
10 µA–3 A
0.03%
10 nA
10 mA–3 A
0.03%
10 nA
20 mA–3 A
0.03%
10 nA
20 mA–3 A
0.03%
10 nA
20 mA–3 A
0.03%
1 nA
1 mA–3 A
0.08%
3 Hz–10 kHz
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.1%
3 Hz–5 kHz
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.15%
3 Hz–5 kHz
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.16%
3 Hz–5 kHz
1 µA
1 A–3 A
0.15%
3 Hz–5 kHz
Interface
GPIB, LXI/Ethernet,
USB
GPIB, RS-232
GPIB, RS-232
Ethernet, RS-232
GPIB, RS-232
Reading Hold
Digital I/O
Reading Memory
Maximum Speed
Temperature Meas.
•
2 in/5 out (TTL)
1024 rdg.
2000 rdg/s
T/C
•
2 in/5 out (TTL)
55,000 rdg.
2000 rdg/s
T/C, RTD, Thermistor
•
14
650,000 rdg.
>14,000 rdg/s
T/C, RTD, Thermistor
AC Volts (TRMS)
Sensitivity
Maximum Reading
Basic Accuracy
Bandwidth
dB, dBm
Frequency, Period
THD, Harmonics
Spectrum Peaks
Sine Source
Ohms (2/4 Wire)
Sensitivity
Maximum Reading
Basic Accuracy
Continuity Test
Diode Test
Offset Compensation
Dry Circuit
Constant Current
•
•
•
Single-slot, large format switch system
Sensitivity
Maximum Reading
Basic Accuracy
Ratio
DC Peak Spikes
DC Amps
Sensitivity
Range Span
Basic Accuracy
AC Amps (TRMS)
Sensitivity
Range Span
Basic Accuracy
Bandwidth
General Features
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A
G R E A T E R
450,000 rdg.
3500 rdg/s
T/C, RTD, Thermistor
M E A S U R E
O F
110,000 rdg.
2500 rdg/s
T/C, RTD, Thermistor
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Selector guide: Digital multimeters
DC Volts
221
The Model 2100 USB Digital Multimeter is the
newest member of Keithley’s family of high
performance DMMs. Its high accuracy (38ppm),
6½-digit resolution is ideal for critical measurements. The Model 2100 features 11 measurement
functions and 8 math functions to easily accommodate the most commonly measured parameters. All accessories, such as USB cable, probes,
and software, are included with the Model 2100.
With its unique combination of high precision
and low total cost of ownership, the Model 2100
is an unbeatable value for R&D engineers, test
engineers, scientists, and students making basic
precision measurements on the bench and in
system applications.
• High precision 6½-digit DMM
for critical measurements at a
5½-digit price
• 11 measurement functions
cover most commonly measured
parameters
• Fully specified accuracies on
all functions for ISO-compliant
results
• Included PC software utilities
for graphing and data sharing in
both Microsoft® Word and Excel
• Rugged construction for
durability in bench/portable
applications
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
• Selectable front/rear inputs
facilitate bench or rack use
222
6½-Digit USB Digital Multimeter
• Includes all accessories, such
as startup software, USB cable,
power cable, and safety test
lead, for lowest total cost
• CE compliant and UL listed
• TMC compliant USB 2.0
interface for use with SCPI
test programs
High Precision, Low Cost
The Model 2100 provides stability, accuracy, and
speed at a very low cost. It has 0.0038% 1-year
basic DC voltage accuracy on the 10V range and 0.013% 1-year basic resistance accuracy on the 10kW
range. At 6½ digits, the Model 2100 delivers 50 triggered rdgs/s via the USB remote interface. At the
fast 4½ digit setting, it reads over 2000 rdgs/s into its 2000 reading internal buffer.
The Model 2100 provides a wide number of measurement ranges and functions:
• DC voltage: 0.1V, 1V, 10V, 100V, and 1000V
• AC voltage: 0.1V, 1V, 10V, 100V, and 750V
• DC current: 10mA, 100mA, 1A, and 3A
• AC current: 1A and 3A
• Two- and four-wire resistance: 100W, 1kW, 10kW, 100kW, 1MW, 10MW, and 100MW
• Frequency: From 3Hz to 300kHz
• Period measurement
• Diode measurement
• Programmable A-D converter and filter settings for signal to noise optimization
Additionally, eight mathematical operations can be performed on measurement readings: RATIO, %,
Min/Max, NULL, Limits, mX+b, dB, and dBm testing. Microsoft Office, Word, and Excel add-in tools
allow remote storage and recall of the measured values from these applications. A graphing utility
enables charting of measurements versus time for trending and noise observations.
The TMC compliant USB remote interface enables control from a PC for consistent test/calibration
procedure execution and easy re-use of existing SCPI programs, including Agilent Model 34401A
command emulation.
Simple to Use
The Model 2100 can be setup quickly and is very easy to use. It has a high contrast front panel and
keypad that are intuitive and user-friendly. An easy to read 5×7 dot matrix, vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) offers three-color annunciators so users can easily distinguish each function symbol by
its color.
Strength and Versatility
With its rugged construction and rubber bumpers, the Model 2100 has the durability to withstand
bench, portable, or stacking applications. A sturdy carrying handle facilitates transportability.
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Low cost 6½-digit DMM for portable, bench, and USB-based system applications
Low cost 6½-digit DMM for portable, bench, and USB-based system applications
2100
2100/100 6½-digit USB Digital
Multimeter (100V)
2100/120 6½-digit USB Digital
Multimeter (120V)
2100/220 6½-digit USB Digital
Multimeter (220V)
2100/230-240
6½-digit USB Digital
Multimeter (230-240V)
Applications
The Model 2100 USB Digital Multimeter is ideal for applications in: electronic device, circuit, module,
and product testing; low cost production testing of electrical and electronic components, sub-assemblies, and end products; and student lab assignments. Typical applications include:
• Test Engineers: Manual and semi-automatic electrical functional test
• Development Engineers: Electrical/electronic circuit and product validation
• Service/Calibration Technicians: Electronic product repair and calibration
• Research Scientists: Electrical and physics experiments testing
• Engineering Students: Electronic device and circuits experiment testing
Accessories Supplied
Instruction manual on CD,
Specifications, LabVIEW®
Driver, Keithley I/O Layer,
USB Cable, Power Cable,
Safety Test Leads, KI-Tool, and
KI-Link Add-in (Both Microsoft
Word and Excel versions)
Accessories Available
Rack Mount Kits
4299-3
Single Rack Mount Kit
4299-4
Dual Rack Mount Kit
8605
High Performance Modular Test Leads
8606
High Performance Modular Probe Kit
Services Available
2100/120-3Y-EW 1 Year Factory Warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2100/120-3Y-DATA
3 (Z540-1 compliant) Calibrations within 3
years of purchase for Model 2100/120*
C/2100/120-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) Calibrations within 3
years of purchase for Model 2100/120*
*Not available in all countries
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Startup Software, PC Utilities Included
The KI-Tool application provides charting and graphing capabilities without
programming to simplify setup, checkout, and basic measurement applications requiring graphical data representation. Scale, offset, and level can be
adjusted to fine tune images for visual evaluation of signal and noise elements over time. It also includes tabular data and SCPI command prompt
windows for maximum flexibility. Data sets can also be saved to disk files.
The Microsoft Excel Add-In utility is also included and provides quick data
import into a standard Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, including selectable
graphing, instrument settings, and number of data points collected. Data
can then be analyzed through standard or optional Microsoft Excel functions, including graphical, statistical, and trend charting. A version supporting Microsoft Word is also included for direct data import into reports.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Low cost 6½-digit DMM for portable, bench, and USB-based system applications
Ordering Information
6½-Digit USB Digital Multimeter
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Low cost 6½-digit DMM for portable, bench, and USB-based system applications
2100
223
2100
6½-Digit USB Digital Multimeter
Specifications
Function
DC Voltage
Range
100.0000mV
1.000000V
10.00000V
100.0000V
1000.000V
Resolution
0.1µV
1.0µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
Input Resistance
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
10 MW
10 MW
1 Year, 23°C ±5°C
0.0055 + 0.0040
0.0045 + 0.0008
0.0038 + 0.0006
0.0050 + 0.0007
0.0055 + 0.0010
Range
10.00000mA
100.0000mA
1.000000A
3.00000A
Resolution
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
Shunt Resistance
5.1 W
5.1 W
0.1 W
0.1 W
1 Year, 23°C ±5°C
0.055 + 0.025
0.055 + 0.006
0.120 + 0.015
0.150 + 0.025
Model 2100 specifications
Function
DCI (DC Current)
Function
Resistance2
Diode Test
Continuity
Range
100.0000
W
1.000000k W
10.00000k W
100.0000k W
1.000000MW
10.00000MW
100.0000MW
1.0000V
W
1000.00
Resolution
100µW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1
W
10
W
100
W
10µV
10mW
Test Current
1mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
5µA
500nA
500 nA||10 MW
1mA
1mA
1 Year, 23°C ±5°C
0.015 + 0.005
0.015 + 0.002
0.013 + 0.002
0.015 + 0.002
0.017 + 0.002
0.045 + 0.002
1.00  + 0.020
0.040 + 0.020
0.024 + 0.030
DC Notes
1. Specifications valid after two hour warm-up.
a. ADC set for continuous trigger operation.
b. Input bias current <30pA at 25°C.
c. Input protection 1000V all ranges (2W input).
d. Measurement rate set to 1 PLC.
2. Specifications for 4W ohms mode. For 2W ohms, use zero null or subtract lead resistance from displayed reading.
a. Maximum lead resistance 10% of range per lead for 100 W and 1k W ranges; add 1k W per lead for all other ranges.
Measurement noise rejection
DC (60Hz/50Hz)
Rate
10PLC
1PLC
Digits
6½
5½
CMRR
140 dB
140 dB
1
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
1. For 1k W unbalance in LO lead.
2. For line frequency ±0.1%.
224
NMRR
60 dB
60 dB
Temperature (RTD)
2
4-Wire Accuracy1,
Range
Resolution
1 Year
–100°C to +100°C
0.001°C
±0.1°C
–200°C to +630°C
0.001°C
±0.2°C
RTD TYPE: 100 W platinum (PT100), D100, F100, PT385, or
PT3916.
MAXIMUM LEAD RESISTANCE (each lead): 12W (to achieve
rated accuracy).
SENSOR CURRENT: 1mA (pulsed).
1. Excluding probe errors. 23°C ±5°C.
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Model 2100 specifications
DC Characteristics: Accuracy1 ±(% of reading + % of range)
6½-Digit USB Digital Multimeter
General
Function
Range
Frequency
and Period
100 mV to 750 V2
Function
Range
Resolution
100.0000 mV
0.1 µV
1.000000 V
to
750.000 V2
1.0 µV
to
1 mV
1.000000 A
1 µA
3.000000 A
10 µA
ACV
(AC TRMS
Voltage)
ACI
(AC TRMS
Current)
Frequency
(Hz)
3–5
5–40
40–300k
1 Year
(% of reading)
23°C ±5°C
0.10
0.05
0.01
Frequency
(Hz)
3–5
5 – 10
10 – 20k
20k – 50k
50k – 100k
100k – 300k
3–5
5 – 10
10 – 20k
20k – 50k
50k – 100k
100k – 300k
3–5
5 – 10
10 – 5k
3–5
5 – 10
10 – 5k
1 Year
(23°C ±5°C)
1.15 + 0.05
0.45 + 0.05
0.08 + 0.05
0.15 + 0.06
0.70 + 0.09
4.25 + 0.60
1.10 + 0.04
0.4  + 0.04
0.08 + 0.04
0.14 + 0.06
0.70 + 0.08
4.35 + 0.50
1.10 + 0.05
0.40 + 0.05
0.15 + 0.05
1.25 + 0.07
0.45 + 0.07
0.20 + 0.07
AC CMRR: 70dB (for 1k W unbalance LO lead).
Power Supply: 120V/220V/240V.
Power Line Frequency: 50/60Hz auto detected.
Power Consumption: 25VA max.
Digital I/O interface: USB-compatible Type B connection.
Environment: For indoor use only.
Operating Temperature: 5° to 40°C.
Operating Humidity: Maximum relative humidity 80% for temperature up to 31°C,
decreasing linearly to 50% relative humidity at 40°C.
Storage Temperature: –25° to 65°C.
Operating Altitude: Up to 2000m above sea level.
Bench Dimensions (with handles and feet): 112mm high × 256mm wide × 375mm deep
(4.4 in. × 10.1 in. × 14.75 in.).
Weight: 4.1kg (9 lbs.).
Safety:Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/ECC, EN61010-1, UL61010-1:2004.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN61326-1.
Warranty: One year.
AC Notes
1. Specifications valid for two hour warm-up at 6½ digits.
a. Slow AC filter (3Hz bandwidth).
b. Pure sine wave input greater than 5% of range.
2. 750VAC range is limited to 100kHz.
Model 2100 rear panel
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Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Model 2100 specifications
AC Characteristics:
Accuracy1 ±(% of reading + % of range)
Model 2100 specifications
2100
225
The Model 2000 6½-Digit Multimeter is part of
Keithley’s family of high performance DMMs.
Based on the same high speed, low noise A/D
converter technology as the Model 2001 and
2002, the 2000 is a fast, accurate, and highly
stable instrument that’s as easy to operate as it is
to afford. It combines broad measurement ranges with superior accuracy specifications — DC
voltage from 100nV to 1kV (with 0.002% 90-day
basic accuracy) and DC resistance from 100µW
to 100MW (with 0.008% 90-day basic accuracy).
Optional switch cards enable multiplexing up to
20 different input signals for multipoint measurement applications.
• 13 built-in measurement
functions
• 2000 readings/second at
4½ digits
• Optional scanner cards for
multipoint measurements
• GPIB and RS-232 interfaces
• Fluke 8840/42 command set
Ordering Information
2000
6½-Digit DMM
2000/2000-SCAN
6½-Digit DMM/
Scanner Combination
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Accessories Supplied
Instruction Manual and Model
1751 Safety Test Leads
226
6½-Digit Multimeter
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ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
2000-SCAN
2001-SCAN
2001-TCSCAN
10-channel, General-Purpose Scanner Card
10-channel Scanner Card with two high-speed
­channels
9-channel, Thermocouple Scanner Card with
built-in cold junction
Cables/Adapters
7007-1
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7009-5
RS-232 Cable
Rack Mount Kits
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
High Throughput
The 2000 offers exceptional measurement
speed at any reso­lution. At 6½ digits, it delivers
50 triggered rdgs/s over the IEEE-488 bus. At
4½ digits, it can read up to 2000 rdgs/s into its
internal 1024 reading buf­fer, making it an excellent choice for applications where throughput is
­critical.
For benchtop or stand-alone applications, the
2000 has a front panel design that’s simple
to understand and easy to use. The 2000 has
13 built-in measurement functions, including
DCV, ACV, DCI, ACI, 2WW, 4WW, temper­ature,
frequency, period, dB, dBm, continuity mea­sure­
ment, and diode testing. A built-in RS-232 inter­
face con­­nects to a notebook or full-sized PC’s
serial port to take, store, process, and dis­­play
meas­­ure­­­ments auto­matically.
Services Available
2000-SCAN-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
2000-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
2001-TCSCAN-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from
date of shipment
C/2000-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase for Models 2000, 2000-SCAN*
C/2001-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase for Model 2001-TCSCAN*
*Not available in all countries
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C O N F I D E N C E
General-purpose instrument that’s as easy to operate as it is to afford
General-purpose instrument that’s as easy to operate as it is to afford
2000
6½-Digit Multimeter
Optional Multiplexer Cards
Creating a self-contained multipoint measurement solution is as simple as plugging a scanner
card into the option slot on the 2000’s back
panel. This ap­proach eliminates the complexities
of triggering, timing, and processing issues and
helps reduce test time significantly. For applications involving more than 10 measurement
points, the 2000 is com­patible with Keithley’s
Series 7000 switch matrices and cards.
Model 2000-SCAN Scanner Card
• Ten analog input channels (2-pole)
• Configurable as 4-pole, 5-channel
Model 2001-SCAN Scanner Card
• Ten analog input channels
GENERAL: 10 channels of 2-pole relay input. All channels configurable to 4-pole.
CAPABILITIES: Multiplex one of ten 2-pole or one of five 4-pole
signals into DMM.
INPUTS
Maximum Signal Level:
DC Signals: 110V DC, 1A switched, 30VA maximum (resistive load).
AC Signals: 125V AC rms or 175V AC peak, 100kHz maximum, 1A switched, 62.5VA maximum (resistive load).
Contact Life: >105 operations at maximum signal level; >108
operations cold switch­ing.
Contact Resistance: <1W at end of contact life.
Actuation Time: 2.5ms maximum on/off.
Contact Potential: <±500nV typical per contact, 1µV max.
<±500nV typical per contact pair, 1µV max.
Connector Type: Screw terminal, #22 AWG wire size.
Isolation Between Any Two Terminals: >109W, <75pF.
Isolation Between Any Terminal and Earth: >109W, <150pF.
Common Mode Voltage: 350V peak between any terminal
and earth.
Maximum Voltage Between Any Two Terminals: 200V
peak.
Maximum Voltage Between Any Terminal and Model
2001 Input LO: 200V peak.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Meets all Model 2000 environmental
specifications.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 21mm high × 72mm wide × 221mm
deep (0.83 in. × 2.83 in. × 8.7 in.). Adds 0.4kg (10 oz.).
Ch. 1
HI
LO
Ch. 2–4
Ch. 5
HI
*
HI
LO
LO
HI
LO
4-pole
Ch. 6
Out B
2-pole
HI
LO
Ch. 7–9
Ch. 10
Out A
HI
*
LO
* Solid-state relays in the 2001-SCAN only.
Scanner Configuration for Models 2000-SCAN
and 2001-SCAN
• Two channels of 2-pole, high-speed, solidstate switching
Model 2001-TCSCAN
Thermocouple Scanner Card
• Nine analog input channels
• Built-in temperature reference for thermo­
couple cold-junction compensation
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Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
General-purpose instrument that’s as easy to operate as it is to afford
SCANNER OPTION 2000-SCAN
General-purpose instrument that’s as easy to operate as it is to afford
2000
227
2000
6½-Digit Multimeter
DC Characteristics
MED (1 PLC)1 or SLOW (10 PLC)
or MED (1 PLC) with filter of 10
Function
Model 2000 specifications
Voltage
Resistance 15
Current
Continuity 2W
Diode Test
Range
100.0000
1.000000
10.00000
100.0000
1000.000
100.0000
1.000000
10.00000
100.0000
1.000000
10.00000
100.0000
10.00000
100.0000
1.000000
3.00000
1
3.00000
10.00000
10.00000
mV
V
V
V
V9
W
kW
kW
kW
MW16
MW11, 16
MW11, 16
mA
mA
A
A
kW
V
V
V
Resolution
0.1 µV
1.0 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
100 µW
1 mW
10 mW
100 mW
1 W
10 W
100 W
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
100 mW
10 µV
10 µV
10 µV
Test Current
or Burden Voltage
(±5%)
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
(ppm = parts per million)
(e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%)
Input
Resistance
> 10 GW
> 10 GW
> 10 GW
10 MW ±1%
10 MW ±1%
1 mA
1 mA
100 µA
10 µA
10 µA
700 nA // 10MW
700 nA // 10MW
< 0.15 V
< 0.03 V
< 0.3 V
<1 V
1 mA
1 mA
100 µA
10 µA
DC Operating Characteristics 2
Function
DCV (all ranges),
DCI (all ranges), and
Ohms (<10M range)
Digits
6½ 3, 4
6½ 3, 7
6½ 3, 5
5½ 3, 5
5½ 5
5½ 5
4½ 5
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
228
90 Day
23°C ± 5°
1 Year
23°C ± 5°
30 + 30
15 + 6
15 + 4
15 + 6
20 + 6
30 + 30
20 + 6
20 + 6
20 + 6
20 + 6
150 + 6
800 + 30
60 + 30
100 + 300
200 + 30
1000 + 15
40 + 100
20 + 6
20 + 6
20 + 6
40 + 35
25 + 7
20 + 5
30 + 6
35 + 6
80 + 40
80 + 10
80 + 10
80 + 10
80 + 10
200 + 10
1500 + 30
300 + 80
300 + 800
500 + 80
1200 + 40
100 + 100
30 + 7
30 + 7
30 + 7
50 + 35
30 + 7
30 + 5
45 + 6
45 + 6
100 + 40
100 + 10
100 + 10
100 + 10
100 + 10
400 + 10
1500 + 30
500 + 80
500 + 800
800 + 80
1200 + 40
120 + 100
40 + 7
40 + 7
40 + 7
Temperature
Coefficient
0°–18°C and 28°–50°C
2+6
2+1
2+1
5+1
5+1
8+6
8+1
8+1
8+1
8+1
95 + 1
900 + 1
50 + 5
50 + 50
50 + 5
50 + 5
8+1
8+1
8+1
8+1
Speed and Noise Rejection
Readings/s
5
30
50
270
500
1000
2000
PLCs 8
10
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.04
0.01
Rate
10 PLC
1 PLC
0.1 PLC
0.01 PLC
Readings/s
5
50
500
2000
Digits
6½
6½
5½
4½
RMS Noise 10V
Range
< 1.5 µV
< 4 µV
< 22 µV
< 150 µV
NMRR 12
60 dB
60 dB
—
—
CMRR 13
140 dB
140 dB
80 dB
80 dB
DC Notes
1. Add the following to “ppm of range” uncertainty:1V and 100V, 2ppm; 100mV, 15ppm; 100W, 15ppm; 1kW–
<1MW, 2ppm; 10mA and 1A, 10ppm; 100mA, 40ppm.
2. Speeds are for 60Hz operation using factory default operating conditions (*RST). Autorange off, Display off,
Trigger delay = 0.
3. Speeds include measurement and binary data transfer out the GPIB.
4. Auto zero off.
5. Sample count = 1024, auto zero off.
6. Auto zero off, NPLC = 0.01.
7. Ohms = 24 readings/second.
8. 1 PLC = 16.67ms @ 60Hz, 20ms @ 50Hz/400Hz. The frequency is automatically determined at power up.
9. For signal levels >500V, add 0.02ppm/V uncertainty for the portion exceeding 500V.
10. Add 120ms for ohms.
11. Must have 10% matching of lead resistance in Input HI and LO.
12. For line frequency ±0.1%.
13. For 1kW unbalance in LO lead.
14. Relative to calibration accuracy.
15. Specifications are for 4-wire ohms. For 2-wire ohms, add 1W additional uncertainty.
16. For rear inputs, add the following to temperature coefficient “ppm of reading” uncertainty 10MW 95ppm,
100MW 900ppm. Operating environment specified for 0º to 50ºC and 50% RH at 35ºC.
DC System Speeds 2, 6
Range Change 3: 50/s.
Function Change 3: 45/s.
Autorange Time 3, 10: <30ms.
ASCII readings to RS-232 (19.2k baud): 55/s.
Max. internal trigger rate: 2000/s.
Max. external trigger rate: 400/s.
DC General
Linearity of 10VDC Range: ±(1ppm of reading + 2ppm of range).
DCV, W, Temperature, Continuity, Diode Test Input Protection: 1000V, all ranges.
Maximum 4WW Lead Resistance: 10% of range per lead for 100W and 1kW ranges; 1kW per
lead for all other ranges.
DC Current Input Protection: 3A, 250V fuse.
Shunt Resistor: 0.1W for 3A, 1A, and 100mA ranges. 10W for 10mA range.
Continuity Threshold: Adjustable 1W to 1000W.
Autozero Off Error: Add ±(2ppm of range error + 5µV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C change.
Overrange: 120% of range except on 1000V, 3A, and diode.
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24 Hour 14
23°C ± 1°
Model 2000 specifications
Conditions:
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2000
6½-Digit Multimeter
True RMS AC Voltage and Current Characteristics
Accuracy 1: ±(% of reading + % of range), 23°C ±5 °C
Resolution
1 µA
10 µA
Calibration Cycle
3 Hz–10 Hz 10
10 Hz–20 kHz
20 kHz–50 kHz
50 kHz–100 kHz
90 Days
0.35 + 0.03
0.05 + 0.03
0.11 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
4 + 0.5
1 Year
0.35 + 0.03
0.06 + 0.03
0.12 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
4 + 0.5
Temperature
Coefficient/°C 8
0.035 + 0.003
0.005 + 0.003
0.006 + 0.005
0.01 + 0.006
Calibration Cycle
90 Day/1 Year
90 Day/1 Year
3 Hz–10 Hz
0.30 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.06
10 Hz–3 kHz
0.10 + 0.04
0.15 + 0.06
3 kHz–5 kHz
0.14 + 0.04
0.18 + 0.06
Temperature
Coefficient/°C 8
0.035 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
High Crest Factor Additional Error ±(% of reading) 7
AC System Speeds 2, 5
Crest Factor:
1–2 2–33–44–5
Additional Error:0.05 0.15 0.30 0.40
Function/Range Change 6: 4/s.
Autorange Time: <3s.
ASCII readings to RS-232 (19.2k baud) 4: 50/s.
Max. internal trigger rate 4: 300/s.
Max. external trigger rate 4: 300/s.
AC Operating Characteristics 2
Function
ACV (all ranges), and
ACI (all ranges)
Digits
6½ 3
6½ 3
6½ 4
6½ 3
6½ 4
Readings/s
2s/reading
1.4
4.8
2.2
35
Rate
SLOW
MED
MED
FAST
FAST
Bandwidth
3 Hz–300 kHz
30 Hz–300 kHz
30 Hz–300 kHz
300 Hz–300 kHz
300 Hz–300 kHz
30 Hz
50 Hz
100 Hz
200 Hz
300 Hz
> 300 Hz
Slow
0
0
0
0
0
0
Med
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
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0.03 + 0.01
AC General
Input Impedance: 1MW ±2% paralleled by <100pF.
ACV Input Protection: 1000Vp.
Maximum DCV: 400V on any ACV range.
ACI Input Protection: 3A, 250V fuse.
Burden Voltage: 1A Range: <0.3V rms. 3A Range: <1V rms.
Shunt Resistor: 0.1W on all ACI ranges.
AC CMRR: >70dB with 1kW in LO lead.
Maximum Crest Factor: 5 at full scale.
Volt Hertz Product: ≤8 × 107 V·Hz.
Overrange: 120% of range except on 750V and 3A ranges.
Additional Low Frequency Errors ±(% of reading)
20 Hz –
30 Hz –
50 Hz –
100 Hz –
200 Hz –
100 kHz–300 kHz
Model 2000 specifications
Current
Range
1.000000 A
3.00000 A 9
Resolution
0.1 µV
1.0 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
Fast
—
—
1.0
0.18
0.10
0
AC Notes
1. Specifications are for SLOW rate and sinewave inputs >5% of range.
2. Speeds are for 60Hz operation using factory default operating conditions (*RST). Auto zero off, Auto range off,
Display off, includes measurement and binary data transfer out the GPIB.
3. 0.01% of step settling error. Trigger delay = 400ms.
4. Trigger delay = 0.
5. DETector:BANDwidth 300, NPLC = 0.01.
6. Maximum useful limit with trigger delay = 175ms.
7. Applies to non-sinewaves >5Hz and <500Hz (guaranteed by design for crest factors >4.3).
8. Applies to 0°–18°C and 28°–50°C.
9. For signal levels >2,2A, add additional 0.4% to “of reading” uncertainty.
10.Typical uncertainties. Typical represents two sigma or 95% of manufactured units measure <0.35% of reading
and three sigma or 99.7% measure <1.06% of reading.
A
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Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Model 2000 specifications
Voltage
Range
100.0000 mV
1.000000 V
10.00000 V
100.0000 V
750.000 V
229
2000
6½-Digit Multimeter
Triggering and Memory
Temperature Characteristics
Thermocouple 2, 3, 4
Reading HOLD Sensitivity: 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, or 10% of reading.
Trigger Delay: 0 to 99 hrs (1ms step size).
External Trigger Latency: 200µs + <300µs jitter with autozero off, trigger delay = 0.
Memory: 1024 readings.
Type
J
K
T
Resolution
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
For temperatures <–100°C, add ±0.1°C and >900°C add ±0.3°C.
Temperature can be displayed in °C, K or °F.
Accuracy based on ITS-90.
Exclusive of thermocouple error.
Specifications apply to channels 2–6. Add 0.06°C/channel from channel 6.
Standard Programming Languages
General
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)
Keithley 196/199
Fluke 8840A, Fluke 8842A
Power Supply: 100V / 120V / 220V / 240V.
Line Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz and 400Hz, automatically sensed at power-up.
Power Consumption: 22VA.
Volt Hertz Product: ≤8 × 107 V·Hz.
Operating Environment: Specified for 0°C to 50°C. Specified to 80% R.H. at 35°C
and at an altitude of up to 2000m.
Storage Environment: –40°C to 70°C.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
EMC: Conforms to European Union EMC Directive.
Warmup: 1 hour to rated accuracy.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-2800F Class 3 Random.
Dimensions:
Rack Mounting: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3.5 in × 8.38 in × 14.56 in).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm
deep (4.13 in × 9.38 in × 14.56 in).
Net Weight: 2.9kg (6.3 lbs).
Shipping Weight: 5kg (11 lbs).
Remote Interface
GPIB (IEEE-488.1, IEEE-488.2) and RS-232C.
Frequency and Period Characteristics 1, 2
Frequency
Range
3 Hz to
500 kHz
Period
Range
333 ms to
2 µs
Gate Time
Resolution
±(ppm of
reading)
Accuracy
90 Day/1 Year
±(% of reading)
1 s (SLOW)
0.3
0.01
Frequency Notes
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
1. Specifications are for square wave inputs only. Input signal must be >10% of ACV range. If input is <20mV on
the 100mV range, then frequency must be >10Hz.
2. 20% overrange on all ranges except 750V range.
230
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Using
2001-TCSCAN 5
±0.65°C
±0.70°C
±0.68°C
Temperature Notes
Rel, Min/Max/Average/StdDev (of stored reading), dB, dBm, Limit Test, %, and mX+b with user
defined units displayed.
dBm Reference Resistances: 1 to 9999W in 1W increments.
ACV
Range
100 mV
to 750 V
Relative to
Reference Junction
±0.5°C
±0.5°C
±0.5°C
A
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C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2000 specifications
Model 2000 specifications
Math Functions
Range
–200 to + 760°C
–200 to +1372°C
–200 to + 400°C
Accuracy 1
90 Day/1 Year (23°C ± 5°C)
2001
2002
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
• True 7½- (Model 2001)
or 8½-digit (Model 2002)
resolution
• Exceptional measurement
integrity with high speed
• High speed function and range
changing
• Broad range of built-in
measurement functions
• Multiple measurement display
• Built-in 10 channel scanner
option
• GPIB interface
• HP3458A emulation mode
(Model 2002)
Built-In Scanner (Multiplexer) Options
With the addition of a plug-in scanner card, the 2001 or 2002 becomes a
complete scan and measure system for applications involving up to ten
measurement points. The additional
resolution and measurement ranges provided by the 2002 make it an excellent
choice for production test, design verification, and metrology applications where high accuracy is ­critical.
High Accuracy ACV Measurements
A patented circuit design makes the 2001 and 2002’s AC measurements several times more accurate
than competitive DMMs. In this circuit, the signal bypasses the prime error-contributing section of
conventional rms converters. This increases the accuracy at almost any voltage level, and also increases sensitivity down to a guaranteed 1% of the selected range, compared to 5–10% for most other
DMMs. The result is highly accurate measurements over a broad range of inputs.
Applications involving vibration, servo, guidance, shock, and control systems often require accurate low frequency ACV measurements. The 2001 and 2002 maintain very good accuracy (better
than 0.1%) down to 1Hz. The wide bandwidth of these DMMs allows for accurate measurements of
high frequency AC signals without the need for a special AC meter. Both the 2001 and 2002 feature
TRMS AC, average AC, peak AC, AC+DC, and crest factor measurement capability for a wide variety
of ­applications.
High Speed for High Throughput
In applications where high throughput is critical, both the 2001 and 2002 provide more than 2000
readings per second at 4½-digit resolution. At 7½ digits, the 2002 maintains full rated accuracy at
reading rates up to 44/second on DCV and ohms.
High Speed, High Precision Resistance Measurements
The Model 2002 uses a unique single-phase method for 4-wire ohms measurements. This makes it
twice as fast for a given power line cycle rate. This also eliminates errors due to changing lead resistances that can result from fast test handlers. A built-in open-lead detection circuit also eliminates
many production test problems.
Fast, Flexible Triggering
Trigger latency—the delay between trigger and measurement—is often a barrier to higher throughput.
Also, variability in latency can complicate predicting measurement timing. The 2001 and 2002 trigger
is less than 2µs±1µs, which is much faster than typical system DMMs.
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High resolution, high accuracy DMMs
True 7½- (or 8½-) Digit Resolution
While other DMMs may claim 7½- or 8½-digit resolution, they must average multiple readings to extend their resolution. The resolution specifications of the 2001 and 2002 are based on a 28-bit A/D converter that
provides the resolution needed to discern smaller changes. This higher
resolution also provides greater dynamic range, making it possible to measure from 1µV to 20V on a single range, thus avoiding range-shift errors
and delays.
A
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C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
High resolution, high accuracy DMMs
DMM users whose applications demand exceptional resolution, accuracy,
and sensitivity combined with high throughput now have two attractive
alternatives to high priced, high end DMMs. Keithley’s 7½-digit Model 2001
and 8½-digit Model 2002 High Performance Digital Multimeters not only
deliver performance specifications usually associated with instruments that
cost thousands more, but they also offer a broad range of functions not
typically available from DMMs. The 2002 is based on the same superior
measurement technology as the 2001, and the front panels of both instruments have the same look, feel, and response.
231
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
High resolution, high accuracy DMMs
Ordering Information
2001High Performance 7½-Digit
DMM with 8K Memory
2002High Performance 8½-Digit
DMM with 8K Memory
2000-SCAN
10-channel Scanner Card
2001-SCAN
10-channel Scanner
Card with two highspeed ­channels
2001-TCSCAN
9-channel Thermocouple
Scanner Card
2001/MEM1
High Performance 7½-Digit
DMM with 32K Memory
2001/MEM2
High Performance 7½-Digit
DMM with 128K Memory
2002/MEM1
High Performance 8½-Digit
DMM with 32K Memory
2002/MEM2
High Performance 8½-Digit
DMM with 128K Memory
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Accessories Supplied
Model 8605 High Performance
Modular Test Leads, user’s
manual, option slot cover,
and full calibration data.
232
Model 2002
1p
10–12
Model 2001
1n
10–9
DC Voltage
1µ
10–6
1m
10–3
1
100
1k
103
1nV
10nV
AC Voltage
1M
106
1100V
1100V
100nV
775Vrms
AC Voltage Bandwidth
1Hz
DC Current 10pA
2MHz
2.1A
DC In-Circuit Current
100µA
AC Current
12A
100pA
2.1A
Frequency
1Hz
Frequency Sensitivity
15MHz
60mV
Period
1G
109
775Vrms
67ns
1s
Crest Factor
20Hz
Peak Spikes–Repetitive
500ns
Peak Spikes–Single
1MHz
16s
2µs
Resistance 2-Wire
100nΩ
1µΩ
Resistance 4-Wire
100nΩ
1µΩ
16s
1GΩ
1GΩ
2.1MΩ
210kΩ
Logarithmic scale
—500
Temperature–RTD
–200°
Temperature–TC
–200°
0
500
1000
1500
2000
630°C
1820°C
Linear scale
Both the 2001 and 2002 provide exceptional measurement range. In addition, the 2002 offers
extended DCV and resistance measurement capabilities.
The unique Trigger-Link feature included in the Model 2001 and 2002 and most Keithley test and
measurement products can be used to coordinate the operation of two or more instruments.
Trigger-Link combines six independent software selectable trigger lines on a single connector for
simple, direct control over all instruments in a system.
Spot Trends with the Bar-Graph Display
The ability to track reading trends around a target value easily can be just as important as the absolute readings. A unique bar-graph display function in the 2001 and 2002 indicates data as a percentage of the selected range from ±0.01% to ±100%. Whether adjusting about zero or any other desired
value, this display can replace a nulling differential voltmeter.
Capture Spikes Down to 1µs
Both the 2001 and 2002 have internal peak detectors that can catch 1µs spikes such as power supply
spikes and transients, AC line power surges, and short-duration dropouts on components. These peak
detectors operate up to 1MHz for repetitive signals or down to 1µs for single spikes, so there is no
need for a separate scope. The DMMs can automatically display and store the highest value or display
the maximum and minimum values of spikes.
For more information, request
the Model 2001 and 2002
Technical Specifications books.
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Built-in Features and Capabilities
The 2001 and 2002 offer many built-in measurements that are typically unavailable in instruments
of this type, including in-circuit current, temperature with thermocouples or RTDs, and peak spikes.
Four separate outputs linked to limits simplify configuring the DMMs for use in binning operations.
A
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O F
C O N F I D E N C E
High resolution, high accuracy DMMs
2001
2002
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
The built-in AC crest factor measurement helps
ensure the accuracy of AC measurements. Other
DMMs typically perform AC measurements for
signals without excessive crest factor—the ratio
of peak value to rms values. However, when
crest factor rises, measurements may not meet
specs. With a 2001 or 2002, there is no need for
an oscilloscope to determine if the crest factor is
acceptable—the DMM measures it directly.
and 2002 have a fully adjustable trigger level for
good measurements of noisy signals.
When measuring AC or digital signals, frequency
is critical. The 2001 and 2002 accurately measure frequency up to 15MHz. Accurate triggering
on the signal is critical to measure frequency
reliably. The frequency counters in the 2001
Option Slot Extends
DMM Performance
An option slot in the back of the 2001 and 2002
opens the door to a wide range of measurement
capabilities. Choose a 10-channel general-purpose scanner card or a 9-channel thermocouple
scanner card to make measurements on multiple
test points or devices. This can eliminate the
need for a separate scanner and significantly
reduce programming and setup time.
Cables/Adapters
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
8501-1
Trigger-Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2 Trigger Link Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
8502
Trigger Link Adapter Box
8610
Low Thermal Shorting Plug
8620
4-Wire DMM Shorting Plug
Rack Mount Kits
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-4
Side-by-Side Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPAIEEE-488 Interface Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
High resolution, high accuracy DMMs
While some DMMs calculate average AC from the
rms value, these calculations apply only to sine
wave inputs. The 2001 and 2002 measure peak
value, average and true rms directly to obtain
a complete characterization of the signal. This
capability makes these DMMs ideal for AC circuit
design or test applications and for verifying test
voltages specified only in averages.
Multiple Measurement Display
The 2001 and 2002 can display DC and AC volts
and the AC frequency from a single measurement connection simultaneously. Several other
multiple-measurement displays are available,
including crest factor and bar graph. By measuring sequentially and displaying simultaneously,
the 2001/2002 operates as if three different
meters are working together.
Accessories Available
Test Leads and Probes
5805
Kelvin Probes, 0.9m (3ft)
5805-12
Kelvin Probes, 3.6m (12ft)
Low Cost, Single Pin, Kelvin Probes
5808
Low Cost, Kelvin Clip Lead Set
5809
Micro-DIN to 6 BNCs Adapter Box with 8501-1 Cable
8502
Centronics Adapter
8530
8605
High Performance 2-Wire Modular Test Leads
High Performance Modular Probe Kit
8606
Low Thermal Shorting Plug
8610
RTD Probe Adapter
8680
Low Cost RTD
8681
Services Available
2000-SCAN-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2001/MEM1-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2001/MEM2-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2001-SCAN-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2001-TCSCAN-3Y-EW1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2001-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2002/MEM1-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2002/MEM2-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2002-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2000-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within
3 years of purchase for Model 2000-SCAN*
C/2001-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations
within 3 years of purchase for Models 2001,
2001/MEM1, 2001/MEM2, 2001-SCAN,
2001-TCSCAN*
C/2002-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations
within 3 years of purchase for Models 2002,
2002/MEM1, 2002/MEM2*
*Not available in all countries
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
High resolution, high accuracy DMMs
2001
2002
233
2001
2002
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
2001 Condensed Specifications
DC VOLTS
Model 2001 and 2002 specifications
Range
200mV 3
2V
20V
200 V
1000 V
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Resolution
10nV
100nV
1μV
10μV
100μV
Default
Resolution
100nV
1μV
10μV
100μV
1mV
Input
Resistance
>10GW
>10GW
>10GW
10MW ±1%
10MW ±1%
1. For TCAL ±1°C, following 55-minute warm-up. TCAL is ambient temperature at calibration, which is 23°C from factory.
2. For TCAL ±5°C, following 55-minute warm-up. Specifications include
factory traceability to US NIST.
3. When properly zeroed using REL function.
4. DCV Transfer Stability typical applications are standard cell comparisons and relative accuracy measurements. Specs apply for 10 power
line cycles, 20-reading digital filter, autozero on with type synchronous, fixed range following 2-hour warm-up at full scale to 10% of
full scale, at T REF ±1°C (T REF is the initial ambient temperature).
Specifications on the 1000V range are for measurements within 5% of
the initial measurement value and following measurement settling.
AC VOLTS
Normal Mode RMS1
90 Days, ±2°C from last AC self-cal for 1% to 100% of range2
±(% of reading + % of range)
Range
200mV
2V
20V
200V 3
750V 3
20–50Hz
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
50–100Hz
0.07 + 0.015
0.07 + 0.015
0.07 + 0.015
0.07 + 0.015
0.1  + 0.015
0.1–2kHz
0.03 + 0.015
0.03 + 0.015
0.04 + 0.015
0.04 + 0.015
0.08 + 0.015
2–10kHz
0.03 + 0.015
0.03 + 0.015
0.06 + 0.015
0.06 + 0.015
0.09 + 0.015
10–30kHz
0.035 + 0.015
0.035 + 0.015
0.08  + 0.015
0.08  + 0.015
0.12  + 0.015
30–50kHz
0.05 + 0.015
0.05 + 0.015
0.1  + 0.015 
0.1  + 0.015 
0.15 + 0.015 4
50–100kHz 100–200kHz
0.3 + 0.015
0.75 + 0.025
0.3 + 0.015
0.75 + 0.025
0.3 + 0.015
0.75 + 0.025
0.3 + 0.015
0.75 + 0.025 4
0.5 + 0.015 4
0.2–1MHz
2 + 0.1
2 + 0.1
4 + 0.2 
4 + 0.2 4
1–2MHz
5 + 0.2
5 + 0.2
7 + 0.2 4
AC VOLTS NOTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Specifications apply for sinewave input, AC + DC coupling, 1 power line cycle, digital filter off, following 55 minute warm-up.
For 1% to 5% of range below 750V range, and for 1% to 7% of 750V range, add 0.01% to range uncertainty. For inputs from 200kHz to 2MHz, specifications apply above 10% of range.
Add 0.001% of reading × (V IN/100V)2 additional uncertainty above 100V rms.
Typical values.
OHMS
OHMS NOTES
TWO-WIRE AND FOUR-WIRE OHMS (2W and 4W Ohms Functions) 6
1. Current source is typically ±9% absolute accuracy.
2. For 2-wire mode.
3. Specifications are for 1 power line cycle, 10 reading digital filter,
Auto Zero on, 4-wire mode, offset compensation on (for 20W to
20kW ranges).
4. For TCAL ±1°C, following 55 minute warm-up. TCAL is ambient temperature at calibration (23°C at the factory).
5. For TCAL ±5°C, following 55-minute warm-up. Specifications include
traceability to US NIST.
6. When measuring resistance of inductive loads, the inductance of that
load must be 10mH or less.
Range
20W
200 W
2kW
20kW
200kW
2MW 2
20MW 2
200MW 2
1GW 2
234
Full Scale
±210.00000mV
±2.1000000V
±21.000000V
±210.00000V
±1100.0000V
Accuracy
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
5
24
90
1
2
Minutes4 Hours1 Days2 Year 2 Years2
3+3
10 + 6
25 + 6 37 + 6 50 + 6
2 + 1.5
7+2
18 + 2 25 + 2 32 + 2
2 + 1.5
7+4
18 + 4 24 + 4 32 + 4
27 + 3 38 + 3 52 + 3
2 + 1.5
13 + 3
10 + 1.5
17 + 6
31 + 6 41 + 6 55 + 6
Full Scale
21.000000 W
210.00000 W
2100.0000kW
21.000000kW
210.00000kW
2.1000000MW
21.000000MW
210.00000MW
1.0500000GW
Resolution
1μW
10μW
100μW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1
W
10W
100W
Default
Resolution
10μW
100μW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1
W
10W
100W
1kW
Resistance Accuracy 3
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
Current
1 Year 5
2 Years 5
Source 1 24 Hours 4 90 Days 5
9.2mA
29 + 7
52 + 7
72 + 7
110 + 7
0.98mA
24 + 7
36 + 7
56 + 7
90 + 7
0.98mA
22 + 4
33 + 4
50 + 4
80 + 4.5
89μA
19 + 4
32 + 4
50 + 4
80 + 4.5
7μA
20 + 4.5
72 + 4.5
90 + 4.5
130 + 5
770 nA
50 + 4.5
110 + 4.5 160 + 4.5
230 + 5
70 nA
160 + 4.5
560 + 4.5 900 + 4.5
1100 + 5
4.4nA 3000 + 100 10000 +100 20000 + 100 30000 + 100
4.4nA 9000 + 100 20000 +100 40000 + 100 60000 + 100
DC AMPS
DC AMPS NOTES
DCI INPUT CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCURACY4
1. Specifications are for 1 power line cycle, Auto Zero on, 10 reading
digital filter.
2. For TCAL ±1°C, following 55 minute warm-up.
3. For TCAL ±5°C, following 55 minute warm-up. Specifications include
traceability to US NIST.
4. Add 50 ppm of range for current above 0.5A for self heating.
6. Actual maximum voltage burden = (maximum voltage burden) ×
(I MEASURED/I FULL SCALE).
Range
200μA
2mA
20mA
200 mA
2A
Full Scale
210.00000μA
2.1000000mA
21.000000mA
210.00000mA
2.1000000A
Default
Resolution Resolution
10pA
100pA
100pA
1nA
1nA
10nA
10nA
100nA
100nA
1μA
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Maximum
Burden
Voltage6
0.25 V
0.31 V
0.4  V
0.5  V
1.5  V
Accuracy1
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
24 Hours2
63  + 25
64  + 20
65  + 20
96  + 20
500 + 20
90 Days3
300 + 25
300 + 20
300 + 20
300 + 20
600 + 20
A
1 Year3
500 + 25
400 + 20
400 + 20
500 + 20
900 + 20
G R E A T E R
2 Years3
1350 + 25
  750 + 20
  750 + 20
  750 + 20
1350 + 20
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2001 and 2002 specifications
DC VOLTS NOTES
DCV INPUT CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCURACY
2001
2002
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
2001 Condensed Specifications (continued)
AC AMPS
AC AMPS NOTES
20Hz–
50Hz
0.35 + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
0.35 + 0.015
200Hz–
1kHz
0.4  + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
50Hz–
200Hz
0.2  + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.2  + 0.015
1kHz–
10kHz
0.5  + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.45 + 0.015
10kHz–
30kHz3
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.5  + 0.015
1.5  + 0.015
30kHz–
50kHz3
50kHz–
100kHz3
0.3 + 0.015
0.3 + 0.015
1  + 0.015
4  + 0.015
0.5 + 0.015
0.5 + 0.015
3  + 0.015
FREQUENCY COUNTER
GENERAL
AC Voltage Input: 1Hz–15MHz.
ACCURACY: ±(0.03% of reading).
POWER: Voltage: 90–134V and 180–250V, universal self-selecting. Frequency: 50Hz, 60Hz,
or 400Hz self-identifying. Consumption: <55VA.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Operating Temperature: 0° to 50°C. Storage Temperature: –40° to
70°C. Humidity: 80% R.H., 0° to 35°C, per MIL-T-28800E1 Para 4.5.5.1.2.
PHYSICAL: Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm deep (3½ in. × 8½ in.
× 14½ in.). Net Weight: <4.2kg (<9.2 lbs.). Shipping Weight: <9.1kg (<20 lbs.).
STANDARDS
EMI/RFI: Conforms to VDE 0871B (per Vfg 1046/1984), IEC 801-2. Meets FCC part 15 Class
B, CISPR-22 (EN55022).
Safety: Conforms to IEC348, CAN/CSA-C22.2. No. 231, MIL-T-28800E1. Designed to
UL1244.
Note 1: For MIL-T-28800E, applies to Type III, Class 5, Style E.
DC IN-CIRCUIT CURRENT
TYPICAL RANGES: Current: 100μA to 12A. Trace Resistance: 1mW to 10W typical.
Accuracy: ±(5% + 2 counts). For 1 power line cycle, Auto Zero on, 10 reading digital filter,
TCAL ±5°C, after being properly zeroed. 90 days, 1 year or 2 years.
TEMPERATURE
Built-in linearization for J, K, N, T, E, R, S, B thermocouple types to ITS-90 and 100W platinum
RTDs DIN 43 760 or IPTS-68.
Model 2001 and 2002 specifications
RANGE
200μA
2mA
20mA
200mA
2A
1. Specifications apply for sinewave input, AC+DC coupling, 1 power line
cycle, digital filter off, following 55 minute warm-up.
2. Add 0.005% of range uncertainty for current above 0.5A rms for selfheating.
3. Typical values.
For complete specifications, refer to the 2001 Technical Data book.
2002 Condensed Specifications
DC Volts
DC Volts Notes
DCV Input Characteristics and Accuracy
Enhanced Accuracy – 10PLC, DFILT 10
Relative Accuracy ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
1
Range
200mV 4
2V 4
20V
200 V
1000 V 6
Input
Full Scale
Resolution Resistance Transfer 5 24 Hours 2 90 Days 3
±210.000000mV 1nV >100 GW
15 + 8
0.4 + 1.5
3.5 + 3
0.2 + 0.15
1.2 + 0.3
±2.10000000V 10nV >100 GW
6 + 0.8
±21.0000000V 100nV >100 GW
0.1 + 0.05
1.2 + 0.1
6 + 0.15
±210.000000V 1μV 10MW ±1% 0.5 + 0.08
5 + 0.4
14 + 2
±1100.00000V 10μV 10MW ±1%
5 + 0.08
14 + 0.4
1 + 0.05
Full Scale
±210.00000mV
±2.1000000V
±21.000000V
±210.00000V
±1100.0000V
Resolution
10nV
100nV
1μV
10μV
100μV
2 Years 3
23 + 10
14 + 1
14 + 0.15
30 + 2
30 + 0.4
Relative Accuracy
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
Normal Accuracy 7 – 1PLC, DFILT off
Range
200mV 4
2V 4
20V
200 V
1000 V 6
1 Year 3
19 + 9
10 + 0.9
10 + 0.15
22 + 2
22 + 0.4
Input
Resistance 24 Hours2
3.5 + 6
>100 GW
1.2 + 0.6
>100 GW
3.2 + 0.35
>100 GW
5 + 1.2
10MW ±1%
5 + 0.4
10MW ±1%
AC Volts Normal Mode rms1
90 Days3
15 + 11
6 + 1.1
8 + 0.4
14 + 2.8
14 + 0.7
1 Year3
19 + 12
10 + 1.2
12 + 0.4
22 + 2.8
22 + 0.7
1. Specifications are for 10 power line cycles, synchronous autozero,
10-reading repeat digital filter, autorange off, except as noted.
2. For TCAL ±1°C, following 4-hour warm-up. TCAL is ambient temperature
at calibration (23°C at the factory). Add 0.5ppm of reading uncertainty
if the unit is power cycled during this interval.
3. For TCAL ±5°C, following 4-hour warm-up.
4. Care must be taken to minimize thermal offsets due to operator cables.
5. Specifications apply for 20-reading repeat digital filter, T REF ±0.5°C
(T REF is the initial ambient temperature), and for measurements within
10% of the initial measurement value and within 10 minutes of the
initial measurement time.
6. Add 20ppm × (V IN/1000V)2 additional uncertainty for inputs above
200V, except in transfer accuracy specifications.
7. Specifications are for 1 power line cycle, normal autozero, digital filter
off, autorange off.
2 Years3
23 + 13
14 + 1.3
16 + 0.4
30 + 2.8
30 + 0.7
AC Volts Notes
1. Specifications apply for sinewave input, AC +
DC coupling, 1 power line cycle, autozero on,
digital filter off, following 55-minute warm-up.
10–30kHz 30–50kHz 50–100kHz 100–200kHz 0.2–1MHz 1–2MHz 2. For 1% to 5% of range below 750V range,
and for 1% to 7% of 750V range, add 0.01% of
0.025 + 0.02 0.05 + 0.01
0.3 + 0.015 0.75 + 0.025
2 + 0.1
5 + 0.2
range uncertainty. For inputs from 200kHz
0.025 + 0.02 0.05 + 0.01
0.3 + 0.015 0.75 + 0.025
2 + 0.1
5 + 0.2
to 2MHz, specifications apply above 10% of
4
range.
0.05  + 0.015 0.07 + 0.015 0.3 + 0.015 0.75 + 0.025
4 + 0.2
7 + 0.2
4
4
3. Add 0.001% of reading × (V IN/100V)2 addi0.05  + 0.015 0.07 + 0.015 0.3 + 0.015 0.75 + 0.025
4 + 0.2
tional uncertainty for inputs above 100V rms.
4
4
0.08  + 0.015 0.1  + 0.015 0.5 + 0.015
4. Typical values.
90 Days, 1 Year or 2 Years, ±2°C from last AC self-cal, for 1% to 100% of range 2
±(% of reading + % of range)
Range
200mV
2V
20 V
200 V 3
750 V 3
20–50Hz
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
50–100Hz
0.07 + 0.015
0.07 + 0.015
0.07 + 0.015
0.07 + 0.015
0.1 + 0.015
0.1–2kHz
0.02 + 0.02
0.02 + 0.02
0.03 + 0.015
0.03 + 0.015
0.05 + 0.015
2–10kHz
0.02 + 0.02
0.02 + 0.02
0.04 + 0.015
0.04 + 0.015
0.06 + 0.015
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Model 2001 and 2002 specifications
ACI ACCURACY1, 2
90 Days, 1 Year or 2 Years, TCAL ±5°C, for 5% to 100% of range, ±(% of reading + % of range)
235
2001
2002
7½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
8½-Digit High Performance Multimeter
2002 Condensed Specifications (continued)
Ohms
Model 2001 and 2002 specifications
Range
20 W
200 W
2kW
20 kW
200 kW
2MW
20MW 2
200 MW 2
1GW 2
Full Scale
21.000000 W
210.00000 W
2100.0000kW
21.000000kW
210.00000kW
2.1000000MW
21.000000MW
210.00000MW
1.0500000GW
Resolution
100nW
1μW
10μW
100μW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1
W
10W
Current
Source 1
7.2 mA
960 μA
960 μA
96 μA
9.6 μA
1.9 μA
1.4 μA 6
1.4 μA 6
1.4 μA 6
Relative Accuracy 3
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
Transfer 7
2.5 + 3
2.5 + 2
1.3 + 0.2
1.3 + 0.2
2.5 + 0.4
5 + 0.2
15 + 0.1
50 + 0.5
250 + 2.5
24 Hours 4
5 + 4.5
5+3
2.5 + 0.3
2.5 + 0.3
5.5 + 0.5
12 + 0.3
50 + 0.2
150 + 1
750 + 5
90 Days 5
15 + 6
15 + 4
7 + 0.4
7 + 0.4
29 + 0.8
53 + 0.5
175 + 0.6
500 + 3
2000 + 15
1 Year 5
17 + 6
17 + 4
9 + 0.4
9 + 0.4
35 + 0.9
65 + 0.5
250 + 0.6
550 + 3
2050 + 15
2 Years 5
20 + 6
20 + 4
11 + 0.4
11 + 0.4
40 + 1
75 + 0.5
300 + 0.6
600 + 3
2100 + 15
DC Amps
DC Amps Notes
DCI INPUT CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCURACY
Range
200μA
2mA
20mA
200mA
2A
Full Scale
210.00000μA
2.1000000mA
21.000000mA
210.00000mA
2.1000000A
Resolution
10pA
100pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
Maximum
Burden Voltage 3
0.25 V
0.3  V
0.35 V
0.35 V
1.1  V
Relative Accuracy
±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
24 Hours 1
50  + 6
50  + 5
50  + 5
75  + 5
350 + 5
90 Days 2
275 + 25
275 + 20
275 + 20
300 + 20
600 + 20
1 Year 2
350 + 25
350 + 20
350 + 20
375 + 20
750 + 20
2 Years 2
  500 + 25
  500 + 20
  500 + 20
  525 + 20
1000 + 20
AC Amps
1. For TCAL ±1°C, following 55-minute warm-up. TCAL is ambient temperature at calibration (23°C at the factory).
2. For TCAL ±5°C, following 55-minute warm-up.
3. Actual maximum burden voltage = (maximum burden voltage) ×
(I MEASURED/I FULL SCALE).
AC Amps Notes
ACI Accuracy 1, 2
90 Days, 1 Year or 2 Years, TCAL ±5°C, for 5% to 100% of range, ±(% of reading + % of range)
Range
200μA
2mA
20mA
200mA
2A
1. Current source has an absolute accuracy of ±5%.
2. For 2-wire mode.
3. Specifications are for 10 power line cycles, 10-reading repeat digital
filter, synchronous autozero, autorange off, 4-wire mode, offset compensation on (for 20W to 20kW ranges), except as noted.
4. For TCAL ±1°C, following 4-hour warm-up. TCAL is ambient temperature
at calibration (23°C at the factory).
5. For TCAL ±5°C, following 4-hour warm-up.
6. Current source is paralleled with a 10MW resistance.
7. Specifications apply for 20-reading repeat digital filter, T REF ±0.5°C
(T REF is the initial ambient temperature), and for measurements within
10% of the initial measurement value and within 10 minutes of the
initial measurement time.
20Hz–
50Hz
0.35 + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
0.35 + 0.015
50Hz–
200Hz
0.2  + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.2  + 0.015
200Hz–
1kHz
0.4  + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.3  + 0.015
1kHz–
10kHz
0.5  + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.12 + 0.015
0.15 + 0.015
0.45 + 0.015
10kHz–
30kHz3
0.25 + 0.015
0.25 + 0.015
0.5  + 0.015
1.5  + 0.015
30kHz–
50kHz3
50kHz–
100kHz3
0.3 + 0.015
0.3 + 0.015
1  + 0.015
4  + 0.015
0.5 + 0.015
0.5 + 0.015
3  + 0.015
1 Specifications apply for sinewave input, AC+DC coupling, 1 power line
cycle, autozero on, digital filter off, following 55-minute warm-up.
2 Add 0.005% of range uncertainty for current above 0.5A rms for
self-heating.
3. Typical values.
General
FREQUENCY COUNTER
AC Voltage Input: 1Hz–15 MHz.
ACCURACY: ±(0.03% of reading).
POWER: Voltage: 90–134V and 180–250V, universal self-selecting. Frequency: 50Hz, 60Hz,
or 400Hz self-identifying at power-up. Consumption: <55VA.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Operating Temperature: 0° to 50°C. Storage Temperature: –40° to
70°C. Humidity: 80% R.H., 0° to 35°C.
PHYSICAL: Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm deep (3½ in. × 8½ in.
× 14½ in.). Net Weight: <4.2kg (<9.2 lbs.). Shipping Weight: <9.1kg (<20 lbs.).
STANDARDS
EMI/RFI: Conforms to European Union EMC directive.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage directive.
Note 1: For MIL-T-28800E, applies to Type III, Class 5, Style E.
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
DC IN-CIRCUIT CURRENT
236
TYPICAL RANGES: Current: 100μA to 12A. Trace Resistance: 1mW to 10W.
Accuracy: ±(5% + 500μA). For 1 power line cycle, autozero on, 10-reading digital filter,
TCAL ±5°C, 90 days, 1 year or 2 years.
TEMPERATURE
Built-in linearization for J, K, N, T, E, R, S, B thermocouple types to ITS-90 and 100W platinum
RTDs DIN 43760, IPTS-68, and ITS-90.
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M E A S U R E
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C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2001 and 2002 specifications
Ohms Notes
TWO-WIRE AND FOUR-WIRE OHMS
The 7½-digit Model 2010 Low Noise Multi­meter ­combines high
resolution with the high speed and accuracy needed for production applications such as testing precision sensors, transducers,
A/D and D/A con­verters, regulators, references, connectors,
switches, and relays. It is based on the same high speed, low
noise A/D converter technology as the Models 2000, 2001,
and 2002.
High Measurement Flexibility
The 2010 has 15 built-in measurement functions, including DCV,
ACV, DCI, ACI, 2WW, 4WW, dry circuit resistance, temperature
(with either thermocouples or RTDs), frequency, period, ratio,
continuity meas­­ure­ment, and diode testing. This multi-functional
design minimizes added equip­ment costs.
• 7½-digit resolution
• 100nV rms noise floor
• 7ppm DCV repeatability
• Built-in 10-channel scanner
mainframe
• Dry circuit and low power
measurement mode
• 15 measurement functions
including support for RTD and
thermocouple temperature
measurements
• Built-in ratio measurement
function
• GPIB and RS-232 interfaces
Ordering Information
2010Autoranging DMM
Accessories Supplied
Model 1751 Safety Test Leads,
User Manual, Service Manual
Services Available
2000-SCAN-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2001-TCSCAN-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2010-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2000-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within
3 years of purchase for Model 2000-SCAN*
C/2001-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations
within 3 years of purchase for Model
2001-TCSCAN*
C/2010-3Y-ISO
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within
3 years of purchase for Model 2010*
*Not available in all countries
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Creating a self-contained multipoint measurement solution is as
simple as plugging a 2000-SCAN or 2001-TCSCAN scanner card into the option slot in the 2010’s back
panel. This “plug-in” approach ­eliminates the need for a separate scanner and significantly reduces
programming and setup time in a­ pplications involving a limited number of test points. For larger
applications, the 2010 is compatible with Keithley’s Series 7000 switch matrices and cards.
Unique Resistance Measurement Functions
Characterizing the resistance, linearity, or isolation of contacts, connectors, switches, or relays
complete­ly and efficiently demands an uncommon combination of ohms measurement capa­bilities.
The 2010 offers:
• Low-power ohms measurement mode. Low-level resistance measurements can be made with
source current as low as 100µA, an order of magnitude lower than is possible with other DMMs,
so device self-heating is minimized. Among other benefits, this low-power measurement capability
makes the 2010 suitable for end-of-life contact testing per ASTM B539-90.
• Dry circuit test function. When measuring contact and connector resistances, it is important to
control the test voltage carefully in order to avoid puncturing any oxides or films that may have
formed. A built-in clamp limits the open circuit test voltage to 20mV to ensure dry circuit conditions.
• Offset compensated ohms function. This function eliminates thermal effects that can create
errors in low-level resistance measurements in system environments.
• Extended ohms measurement capability. The 2010 provides a 10W range for more precise
measurements of low resistances.
Optional Multiplexer Cards
Creating a self-contained multipoint measurement solution is as simple as plugging a scanner
card into the option slot on the 2010’s back
panel. This ap­proach eliminates the complexities
of triggering, timing, and processing issues and
helps reduce test time significantly. For applications involving more than 10 measurement
points, the 2010 is com­patible with Keithley’s
Series 7000 switch matrices and cards.
Model 2000-SCAN Scanner Card
• Ten analog input channels (2-pole)
• Configurable as 4-pole, 5-channel
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
Test Leads
5804/5
4-Wire/Kelvin Test Lead Sets
Switch/Scanner Cards
2000-SCAN
10-channel Scanner
2001-TCSCAN 9-channel Thermocouple Scanner
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7009-5
RS-232 Cable
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
A
G R E A T E R
DMM optimized for resistance measurement applications
Low Noise 7½-Digit
Autoranging Multimeter
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
DMM optimized for resistance measurement applications
2010
237
2010
Low Noise 7½-Digit
Autoranging Multimeter
Range
100.00000mV
1.0000000 V
10.000000 V
100.00000 V
1000.0000 V
Resolution
10nV
100nV
1µV
10µV
100µV
Resolution
1µW
10µW
100µW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1
W
10
W
Accuracy 23°C ± 5°C
±(ppm of rdg. + ppm of range)
90 Day
1 Year
40 + 9
60 + 9
36 + 9
52 + 9
33 + 2
50 + 2
32 + 2
50 + 2
40 + 4
70 + 4
50 + 4
70 + 4
200 + 4
400 + 4
1500 + 4
1500 + 4
Test Current
  10 mA
  1 mA
  1 mA
100 µA
  10 µA
  10 µA
640 nA//10 MW
640 nA//10 MW
Resolution
1nA
10nA
100nA
1µA
Accuracy 23°C ± 5°C
±(ppm of rdg. + ppm of range)
90 Day
1 Year
300 + 80
500 + 80
300 + 800
500 + 800
500 + 80
800 + 80
1200 + 40
1200 + 40
Burden
Voltage
< 0.15 V
< 0.18 V
< 0.35 V
<1V
Accuracy 23°C ± 5°C
±(ppm of rdg. + ppm of range)
90 Day
1 Year
100 + 100
120 + 100
Test Current
1 mA
Model 2010 specifications
Resistance
Range
10.000000 W
100.00000 W
1.0000000 kW
10.000000 kW
100.00000 kW
1.0000000 MW
10.000000 MW
100.00000 MW
DC Current
Range
10.000000mA
100.00000mA
1.0000000 A
3.000000A
Continuity 2W
Range
1 kW
True RMS AC Voltage and Current Characteristics
Accuracy 23°C ± 5°C
±(ppm of rdg. + ppm of range)
90 Day
1 Year
25 + 9
37 + 9
18 + 2
25 + 2
18 + 4
24 + 4
25 + 5
35 + 5
31 + 6
41 + 6
Resolution
100 mW
Diode Test
Range
10.000000 V
4.400000 V
10.000000 V
Resolution
1 µV
1 µV
1 µV
Accuracy 23°C ± 5°C
±(ppm of rdg. + ppm of range)
90 Day
1 Year
30 + 7
40 + 7
30 + 7
40 + 7
30 + 7
40 + 7
Input
Resistance
> 10 GW
> 10 GW
> 10 GW
10 MW ±1%
10 MW ±1%
Voltage Range
Resolution
100 mV to 750 V
0.1 µV to 1 mV
AC Operating Characteristics
Function
ACV (all ranges), and
ACI (all ranges)
Digits
6½
6½
6½
6½
6½
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
238
Digits
7½
6½
6½
5½
5½
5½
4½
ACV
Range
100 mV to
750 V
Frequency
Range
3 Hz to
500 kHz
DCV (all ranges),
DCI (all ranges), and
Ohms (<10M range)
Period
Range
333 ms to
2 µs
Thermocouple
Type
J
K
N
T
Rate
5 PLC
1 PLC
0.1 PLC
0.01 PLC
Digits
7½
6½
5½
4½
RMS Noise
10V Range
(2 min.)
1.2 µV
1.4 µV
11.5 µV
139 µV
Test Current
1mA
100µA
10µA
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Gate
Time
Resolution
±(ppm of
reading)
Accuracy
90 Day/1 Year
±(% of reading)
1s
0.3
0.01
Range
–200 to +   760°C
–200 to + 1372°C
–200 to + 1300°C
–200 to +   400°C
Resolution
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
Resolution
0.001°C
0.001°C
Accuracy 3
90 Day/1 Year
(23°C ± 5°C)
±0.08°C
±0.14°C
Accuracy 3
2 Years
(23°C ± 5°C)
±0.12°C
±0.18°C
Temperature Notes
1. For temperatures <–100°C, add ±0.1°C and >900°C add ±0.3°C.
2. Specifications apply to channels 2–6. Add 0.06°C/channel from channel 6.
3. Excluding probe errors.
General
PLCs
5
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.04
0.01
NMRR
60 dB
60 dB
—
—
Bandwidth
3 Hz–300 kHz
30 Hz–300 kHz
30 Hz–300 kHz
300 Hz–300 kHz
300 Hz–300 kHz
Accuracy 1
90 Day/1 Year (23°C ± 5°C)
Relative to
USING
2001-TCSCAN2
Reference Junction
±0.5°C
±0.65°C
±0.5°C
±0.70°C
±0.5°C
±0.70°C
±0.5°C
±0.68°C
4-WIRE RTD
Power Supply: 100V / 120V / 220V / 240V.
Line Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz and 440Hz, automatically sensed at power-up.
Power Consumption: 22VA.
Volt Hertz Product: ≤8 × 107 V·Hz.
Operating Environment: Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 80% R.H. at 35°C.
Storage Environment: –40° to 70°C.
Altitude: Up to 2000 meters.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC EN 61010-1, Cat II.
EMC: Complies with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
Warmup: 2 hours to rated accuracy.
Dimensions:
Rack Mounting: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm
deep (41⁄8 in × 93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
Shipping Weight: 5kg (11 lbs).
DC Noise Performance
RMS Noise
100mV Range
(2 min.)
110 nV
125 nV
1.9 µV
2.9 µV
Rate
SLOW
MED
MED
FAST
FAST
Temperature Characteristics
Range
–100° to +100°C
–200° to +630°C
Readings/s
4
(3)
30
(27)
50
(44)
260 (220)
490 (440)
1000 (1000)
2000 (1800)
Readings/s
0.5 (0.4)
1.4 (1.5)
4.0 (4.3)
2.2 (2.3)
35 (30)
Frequency and Period Characteristics
DC Operating Characteristics
Function
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% of reading + % of range)
0.35 + 0.03
0.06 + 0.03
0.12 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
4 + 0.5
Frequency
Range
3 Hz–10 Hz
10 Hz–20 kHz
20 kHz–50 kHz
50 kHz–100 kHz
100 kHz–300 kHz
CMRR
140 dB
140 dB
80 dB
80 dB
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2010 specifications
DC Voltage
The Models 2015-P and 2016-P Audio Analyzing
Digital Multimeters and the Models 2015 and 2016
Total Harmonic Distortion Multimeters combine
audio band quality measurements and analysis
with a full-function 6½-digit DMM. Test engineers
can make a broad range of voltage, resistance,
current, frequency, and distortion measurements,
all with the same compact, half-rack measurement instrument. The Model 2016 and 2016-P
have twice the sine wave generator output of the
Model 2015 for applications that require test signals
greater than 8Vrms. The Model 2015-P and 2016-P
offer additional processing capacity for frequency
spectrum analysis.
• THD, THD+Noise, and SINAD
measurements
• 20Hz–20kHz sine wave
generator
• Fast frequency sweeps
• 2015-P, 2016-P: Identifies peak
spectral components
• 2015, 2015-P: 4Vrms singleended or 8Vrms differential
output
Frequency Domain Distortion Analysis
For applications such as assessing non-linear distortion in components, devices, and systems, DSPbased processing allows the Models 2015-P, 2015,
2016, and 2016-P to provide frequency domain analysis in conventional time domain instru­ments. They
can measure Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) over the complete 20Hz to 20kHz audio band. They
also measure over a wide input range (up to 750Vrms) and have low residual distortion (–87dB). The
THD reading can be expressed either in decibels or as a percentage.
In addition to THD, the Models 2015, 2015-P, 2016, and 2016-P can com­pute THD+Noise and Signalto-Noise plus Distortion (SINAD). For analyses in which the individual harmonics are the criteria of
greatest interest, the instruments can report any of the (up to 64) harmonic magnitudes that can be
included in the distortion measurements. The user can program the actual number of harmonics to
be included in a computation, so accuracy, speed, and complexity can be optimized for a specific
application. (See Figure 1.)
Figure 1. Frequency Spectrum of 1kHz Square Wave
0.35
• 2016, 2016-P: 9.5Vrms singleended or 19Vrms differential
output
0.3
• Individual harmonic magnitude
measurements
• 5 standard audio shaping filters
• 13 DMM functions (6½ digits)
• GPIB and RS-232 interfaces
Applications
• Wireless communication device
audio quality testing
0.25
Ratio to
Fundamental
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
• Component linearity testing
• Lighting and ballast THD limit
conformance testing
• Telephone and automotive
speaker testing
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Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
10
11 12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Harmonic
Figure 1 shows a plot of a square wave’s harmonics (frequency components) computed and
transmitted to a personal computer by the Model 2015 or 2016. A square wave’s spectral
content consists of only odd harmonics whose magnitudes are (1/harmonic number × the
magni­tude of the fundamental). For example, the magnitude of the third harmonic is 1⁄3 the
magnitude of the fundamental.
A
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O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
239
Ordering Information
Figure 3. THD and 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Harmonics as a Function of Frequency
0
2015
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
Total Harmonic
Distortion 6½-Digit
Multimeter
2015-PAudio Analyzing DMM
2016
Total Harmonic
Distortion 6½-Digit
DMM w/9V
Source Output
2016-PAudio Analyzing DMM
w/9V Source Output
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
THD:
–10
Levels relative to fundamental:
2nd harmonic
3rd harmonic
4th harmonic
–20
–30
Relative
Output
Level
(dB)
–40
–50
–60
–70
Accessories Supplied
Model 1751 Safety Test Leads,
User Manual, Service Manual.
–80
–90
–100
100
1000
10000
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 2. Total Harmonic Distortion
Analysis and Frequency
Response of a Portable
Wireless Telecommunication
Device Device Under Test
Figure 4. Frequency Response
10
5
0
Output
Transducer
Input
Transducer
Relative
Output
(dB)
–5
–10
Source
Output
Signal
Input
2015 MULTIMETER
–15
–20
100
1000
10000
Frequency (Hz)
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, or 2016-P
240
Figures 2, 3, and 4 demonstrate how the
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, or 2016-P can
provide both time domain and frequency
domain measurements in a single test
protocol. Figure 2 shows a ­sample test
system schematic with a telecommunication
device in a loop back mode test. The Audio
Analyzing DMM’s source provides a stimulus
­frequency sweep, and the Audio Analyzing
DMM measures the response from the
microphone circuit. Figure 3 shows the
resulting frequency domain analysis of
the THD and the first three harmonics as a
function of frequency. Figure 4 shows the
time domain analysis of micro­phone circuit
output voltage as a function of frequency.
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Optimized for Production Testing
The Models 2015, 2015-P, 2016, and 2016-P can perform fast frequency sweeps for characterizing
audio-band circuitry in production test systems. For example, the instruments can execute a single
sweep of 30 frequencies and transmit both rms voltage readings and THD readings to a computer in
only 1.1 seconds. With that data, a complete frequency response analysis and a harmonic distortion
vs. frequency analysis can be performed in a very short time. Thus high speed testing of the audio
performance of a high volume device such as a cellular telephone can be performed without reducing
the number of tests or reducing the measurements in each test. With these instruments, which are
optimized for production testing, test engineers can lower test times, in comparison to test speeds
achievable with general purpose audio analyzers, without sacrificing production test quality.
Dual Output Source
The Models 2015, 2015-P, 2016, and 2016-P include an internal audio band sine wave source for generating stimulus signals. A second output, the inverse of the first output, is also available, simplifying
the testing of differential input circuits for common mode or noise cancellation performance.
A
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M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
Figure 5d.
10
10
0
0
—10
—10
Gain (dB)
CCITT Weighting Filter
—20
Gain (dB)
—20
—30
—30
—40
—40
—50
—50
—60
—60
—70
10
100
1000
10000
10
100
Figure 5b.
Gain (dB)
Figure 5e.
A Weighting Filter
20
20
10
10000
10
CCIR/ARM
0
0
—10
—10
Gain (dB)
—20
—20
—30
—30
—40
—40
—50
—50
—60
10
—60
100
1000
10000
100000
10
100
1000
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 5c.
10
Wide Selection of Audio Filters
Five industry-standard bandpass filters are provided for shaping the input
signal for audio and tele­com­mu­nica­tion applications. Available filters
include the CCITT weighting filter, CCIR filter, C-message filter, CCIR/ARM
filter, and “A” weighting filter (see Figures 5a–5e). The Models 2015,
2015-P, 2016, and 2016-P provide programmable, high cutoff (low pass) and
low cutoff (high pass) filters. Furthermore, the two filters can be implemented
together to form a bandpass filter. The programmable filters can be used to
­filter out noise generated by electromechanical machinery on the production
floor or to simulate other types of system transmission charac­teristics.
0
—10
—20
—30
—40
—50
—60
100
1000
100000
The Models 2015 and 2015-P have a 4Vrms single-ended output and 8Vrms
differential source output. For tests that require a higher stimulus signal,
the Model 2016 and 2016-P provide a 9.5Vrms single-ended output and a
19Vrms differential output.
CCIR Weighting Filter
10
10000
Frequency (Hz)
20
Gain (dB)
1000
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
C—Message Weighting Filter
20
10000
100000
Frequency (Hz)
Broad Measurement Flexibility
In addition to their THD, THD+Noise, SINAD, and individual har­monic
measure­ment capabilities, the instruments provide a compre­hen­sive set of
DMM functions, including DCV, ACV, DCI, ACI, 2WW, 4WW, temperature,
frequency, period, dB, dBm, and continuity measure­ments, as well as
diode testing. This multi-functional design minimizes added equipment
costs when config­uring test setups.
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O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
Figure 5a.
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
241
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
242
Spectrum Analysis
The Model 2015-P and 2016-P have internal
computational capabilities that allow them
to characterize an acquired signal spectrum.
These instruments can identify and report the
frequency and amplitude of the highest value
in a complete spectrum or within a specified
frequency band. It can also identify additional
peaks in descending order of magnitude (see
Figure 6). The Model 2015-P’s and 2016-P’s
on-board capabilities make it simple to obtain a
thorough analysis of a frequency spectrum more
quickly and with little or no need for external
analysis software.
Frequency Spectrum
Between 1.0kHz and 1.4kHz
–20
Maximum
2nd peak
3rd peak
Maximum left of 4th peak
4th peak
Maximum right of 4th peak
–40
–60
–80
–100
–120
1.0kHz
1.1kHz
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2015-P-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2016-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2016-P-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2015-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase for Models 2015, 2015-P*
C/2016-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase for Models 2016, 2016-P*
*Not available in all countries
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1.3kHz
1.4kHz
Frequency
Figure 6. The Model 2015-P and 2016-P directly identify peak values of the ­frequency
spectrum.
Figure 7. Rear panel of all models
Services Available
2015-3Y-EW
1.2kHz
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1 Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2 Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
8501-1, 8501-2 Trigger-Link Cables, 1m (3.3 ft), 2m (6.6 ft)
8502 Trigger Link Adapter Box
8503 Trigger Link Cable to 2 male BNCs, 1m (3.3 ft)
7009-5 RS-232 Cable
A
G R E A T E R
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Interfaces
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
Wide Band or Narrow Band
Noise Measurements
The Models 2015, 2015-P, 2016, and 2016-P are
capable of measuring both wide band noise
and narrow band noise. Alternatively, these
instruments’ DSP (digital signal processing)
capabilities allow users to make frequency
domain measurements of RMS voltage noise
over the 20Hz–20kHz frequency audio band or a
narrow portion of the band. Furthermore, noise
measurements can be extracted in the presence
of a stimulus signal for fast signal-to-noise
­computations.
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
Magnitude (dBV)
Audio analyzing and total harmonic distortion DMMs
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
Generator Characteristics
Source Output:
Waveform: Sinewave.
Amplitude Range:
2015, 2015-P: 2V rms (50W and 600W) or 4V rms (HI Z).
2016, 2016-P: 4.75V rms (50W and 600W) or 9.5V rms (HI Z).
Amplitude Resolution:2015, 2015-P: 0.5mV rms (50W and 600W) or 1mV rms (HI Z).
2016, 2016-P: 1.25mV rms (50W and 600W) or 2.5mV rms (HI Z).
Amplitude Accuracy: 2015, 2015-P: ±(0.3% of setting + 2mV)1, 4.
2016, 2016-P: ±(0.3% of setting + 5mV)1, 4.
Amplitude Temperature Coefficient: Typically 0.015%/°C.
Amplitude Flatness: ±0.1dB1, 4, 5.
Output Impedance: 50W ± 1W or 600W ± 10W, user selectable.
THD: –64dB6.
Noise:2015, 2015-P: 100µV rms2.
2016, 2016-P: 250µV rms2.
DC Offset Voltage: 2015, 2015-P: ±1.2mV1. 2016, 2016-P: ±3mV1.
MeasurementAccuracyResidual
Mode
(1 Year, 23°C ±5°C)
Distortion1
THD and individual
harmonic magnitudes
±0.8 dB,
20 Hz to 20 kHz2
0.004% or –87 dB
20 Hz to 20 kHz
THD + n
±1.5 dB,
100 Hz to 20 kHz2
0.056% or –65 dB
20 Hz to 20 kHz
SINAD
±1.5 dB
100 Hz to 20 kHz2
+65 dB
20 Hz to 20 kHz
AC Level
V rms
±(0.13% of reading +
0.009% of range)
20 Hz to 20 kHz
Inv/Pulse Output (Sinewave Mode):
Distortion Measurement Audio Filters
Frequency: Same as source output.
Amplitude Range:
2015, 2015-P: 2V rms (50W and 600W) or 4V rms (HI Z).
2016, 2016-P: 4.75V rms (50W and 600W) or 9.5V rms (HI Z).
Amplitude Resolution:2015, 2015-P: 0.5mV (50W and 600W) or 1mV rms (HI Z).
2016, 2016-P: 1.25mV rms (50W and 600W) or 2.5mV rms (HI Z).
Amplitude Accuracy: 2015, 2015-P: ±(2.0% of setting + 2mV)1, 4.
2016, 2016-P: ±(2.0% of setting + 5mV)1, 4.
Amplitude Flatness: ±0.1dB1, 4, 5.
Output Impedance: Same as Source Output setting.
THD: –64dB6.
Noise:
2015, 2015-P: 100µV rms2.
2016, 2016-P: 250µV rms2.
DC Offset Voltage:
2015, 2015-P: ±1.1mV typ., ±13mV max.1
2016, 2016-P: ±3mV typ., ±13mV max.1
NoneC-Message
CCITT Weighting
CCIR/ARM
CCIR
“A” Weighting
Number of Harmonics Included in THD Calculation: 2 to 64 (user selectable).
HI and LO Cutoff Filters (bus settable): 20Hz–50kHz. Can be combined to form
brickwall bandpass filter.
Distortion Measurement Reading Rate3
Fundamental
Minimum
Frequency
FundamentalReadings
Acquisition
Frequency
Per
ModeRange
Second
Single acquisition
or stored value
20 Hz to 100 Hz
100 Hz to 1kHz
1kHz to 20kHz
14
24
28
Automatic
20 Hz to 30 Hz
30 Hz to 400 Hz
400 Hz to 20kHz
5.5
6
6.6
Inv/Pulse Output (Pulse Mode):
Frequency: Same as source output.
Duty Cycle: 45% ±3%.
Output Impedance: Same output impedance as the source output.
Amplitude: 0.0V ±0.07V to 4.9V ±0.12V pulse open circuit1, 3.
0.0V ±0.05V to 3.3V ±0.08V pulse 100W load1, 3.
Overshoot: 1.0V maximum pulse open circuit3.
0.2V maximum with 100W load pulse open circuit3.
Undershoot: 1.1V maximum pulse open circuit3.
0.45V maximum with 100W load pulse open circuit3.
Frequency Sweep Reading Rate
Number of Frequencies
5
30
100
200
Time (seconds) 4
0.2
1.1
3.5
6.9
Notes
1. 1 year, 23°C ±5°C.
2. Measured at VOUT = 0V with gain 100 amplifier and 2-pole 50kHz low pass filter, Inv/Pulse in sinewave
mode, HI Z output impedance, and no load.
3. With HI Z output impedance and 1m 50W coaxial cable.
4. HI Z output impedance, no load.
5. 4V output.
6. THD measurement includes harmonics 2 through 5, 1V rms output, HI Z, no load.
Notes
1. Input signal at full scale.
2.V IN ≥20% of range and harmonics > –65dB.
3. Speeds are for default operating conditions (*RST), and display off, auto range off, binary data transfer,
trig delay = 0.
4. Typical times: frequencies in 400–4kHz range, binary data transfer, TRIG DELAY = 0, Display OFF, Auto
Range OFF. Data returned is THD measurement plus AC voltage.
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Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
Frequency Range: 10–20kHz.
Frequency Resolution: 0.007Hz.
Frequency Accuracy: ±(0.015% of reading + 0.007Hz)1.
Frequency Temperature Coefficient: <100ppm over operating temperature range.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
Distortion Characteristics
Voltage Range: 100mV, 1V, 10V, 100V, 750V (user selectable).
Input Impedance: 1MW paralleled by <100pF.
Display Range: 0–100% or 0–100.00dB.
Resolution: 0.0001% or 0.00001dB.
Fundamental Frequency Range: 20Hz–20kHz.
Harmonic Frequency Range: 40Hz–50kHz.
Frequency Resolution: 0.008Hz.
Frequency Accuracy: ±0.01% of reading.
Frequency Temperature Coefficient: ≤100ppm over operating temperature range.
243
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
(ppm = parts per million) (e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%)
Conditions: MED (1 PLC)1 or SLOW (10 PLC) or MED (1 PLC) with filter of 10.
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
Function
Voltage
Range
100.0000 mV
1.000000 V
10.00000 V
100.0000 V
1000.000 V 9
100.0000 W
Resistance 15
1.000000k W
10.00000k W
100.0000k W
1.000000MW 16
10.00000MW 11, 16
100.0000MW 11, 16
10.00000mA
Current
100.0000mA
1.000000 A
3.00000 A
1k W
Continuity 2W 3.00000 V
Diode Test
10.00000 V
10.00000 V
Test Current or
Burden Voltage
(±5%)
Resolution
0.1 µV
1.0µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
100µW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1W
10W
100 W
10nA
100nA
1µA
10µA
100mW
10µV
10µV
10µV
Input
Resistance
> 10 GW
> 10 GW
> 10 GW
10 MW ±1%
10 MW ±1%
24 Hour 14
23°C ± 1°
30 + 30
15 + 6
15 + 4
15 + 6
20 + 6
30 + 30
20 + 6
20 + 6
20 + 6
20 + 6
300 + 6
1600 + 30
60 + 30
100 + 300
200 + 30
1000 + 15
40 + 100
20 + 6
20 + 6
20 + 6
1mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
10µA
700 nA // 10MW
700 nA // 10MW
< 0.15 V
< 0.03 V
< 0.3 V
< 1 V
1mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
DC Operating Characteristics 2
Function
DCV (all ranges),
DCI (all ranges),
2W Ohms (<10M ranges)
Digits
6½ 3, 4
6½ 3, 7
6½ 3, 5
5½ 3, 5
5½ 5
5½ 5
4½ 5
PLCs 8
10
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.04
0.01
Rate
10 PLC
1 PLC
0.1 PLC
0.01 PLC
Temperature
Coefficient
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
2+6
2+1
2+1
5+1
5+1
8+6
8+1
8+1
8+1
8+1
95 + 1
900 + 1
50 + 5
50 + 50
50 + 5
50 + 5
8+1
8+1
8+1
8+1
Digits
6½
6½
5½
4½
RMS Noise
10V Range
< 1.5 µV
< 4 µV
< 22 µV
< 150 µV
NMRR 12
60 dB
60 dB
—
—
CMRR 13
140 dB
140 dB
80 dB
80 dB
1. Add the following to ppm of range accuracy specification based on range:1V and 100V, 2ppm; 100mV, 15ppm;
100 W, 15ppm; 1k W –1MW, 2ppm; 10mA and 1A, 10ppm; 100mA, 40ppm.
2. Speeds are for 60Hz operation using factory default operating conditions (*RST). Autorange off, Display off,
Trigger delay = 0.
3. Speeds include measurement and binary data transfer out the GPIB.
4. Auto zero off.
5. Sample count = 1024, auto zero off.
6. Auto zero off, NPLC = 0.01.
7. Ohms = 24 readings/second.
8. 1 PLC = 16.67ms @ 60Hz, 20ms @ 50Hz/400Hz. The frequency is automatically determined at power up.
9. For signal levels >500V, add 0.02ppm/V uncertainty for the portion exceeding 500V.
10.Add 120ms for ohms.
11.Must have 10% matching of lead resistance in Input HI and LO.
12.For line frequency ±0.1%.
13.For 1k W unbalance in LO lead.
14.Relative to calibration accuracy.
15.Specifications are for 4-wire ohms. For 2-wire ohms, add 1W additional uncertainty.
16.For rear inputs. Add the following to Temperature Coefficient "ppm of reading" uncertainty: 10MW 70ppm,
100MW 385ppm. Operating environment specified for 0° to 50°C, 50% RH at 35°C.
Range Change : 50/s.
Function Change 3: 45/s.
Autorange Time 3, 10: <30ms.
ASCII readings to RS-232 (19.2k baud): 55/s.
Max. internal trigger rate: 2000/s.
Max. external trigger rate: 400/s.
DC General
Linearity of 10VDC Range: ±(1ppm of reading + 2ppm of range).
DCV, W , Temperature, Continuity, Diode Test Input Protection: 1000V, all ranges.
Maximum 4WW Lead Resistance: 10% of range per lead for 100 W and 1k W ranges; 1k W per
lead for all other ranges.
DC Current Input Protection: 3A, 250V fuse.
Shunt Resistor: 0.1W for 3A, 1A, and 100mA ranges. 10 W for 10mA range.
Continuity Threshold: Adjustable 1W to 1000 W.
Autozero Off Error: Add ±(2ppm of range error + 5µV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C change.
Overrange: 120% of range except on 1000V, 3A, and Diode.
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Readings/s
5
50
500
2000
DC Notes
3
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
1 Year
23°C ± 5°
50 + 35
30 + 7
30 + 5
45 + 6
45 + 6
100 + 40
100 + 10
100 + 10
100 + 10
100 + 10
600 + 10
2200 + 30
500 + 80
500 + 800
800 + 80
1200 + 40
120 + 100
40 + 7
40 + 7
40 + 7
Speed and Noise Rejection
Readings/s
5
30
50
270
500
1000
2000
DC System Speeds 2, 6
244
90 Day
23°C ± 5°
40 + 35
25 + 7
20 + 5
30 + 6
35 + 6
80 + 40
80 + 10
80 + 10
80 + 10
80 + 10
450 + 10
2000 + 30
300 + 80
300 + 800
500 + 80
1200 + 40
100 + 100
30 + 7
30 + 7
30 + 7
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
DC Characteristics
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
True RMS AC Voltage and Current Characteristics
Voltage Range
100.0000mV
1.000000V
10.00000V
100.0000V
750.000V
Current Range
1.000000 A
3.00000  A 9
Calibration Cycle
Resolution
0.1µV
1.0µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
Resolution
1 µA
10 µA
3 Hz– 10 Hz­
10 Hz– 20 kHz
20 kHz– 50 kHz
50 kHz– 100 kHz
90 Days
1 Year
0.35 + 0.03
0.35 + 0.03
0.05 + 0.03
0.06 + 0.03
0.11 + 0.05
0.12 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
0.60 + 0.08
Temperature
Coefficient/°C 8
0.035 + 0.003
0.005 + 0.003
0.006 + 0.005
0.01 + 0.006
10 Hz–3 kHz
0.10 + 0.04
0.15 + 0.06
3 kHz–5 kHz
0.14 + 0.04
0.18 + 0.06
0.015 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
Calibration Cycle
90 Day/1 Year
90 Day/1 Year
Temperature
Coefficient/°C 8
3 Hz–10 Hz
0.30 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.06
0.035 + 0.006
High Crest Factor Additional Error ±(% of reading) 7
AC System Speeds 2, 5
Crest Factor:
1–22–33–44–5
Additional Error: 0.050.150.300.40
Function/Range Change 6: 4/s.
Autorange Time: <3s.
ASCII readings to RS-232 (19.2k baud) 4: 50/s.
Max. internal trigger rate 4: 300/s.
Max. external trigger rate 4: 260/s.
AC Operating Characteristics 2
Function
ACV (all ranges),
and ACI (all ranges)
Digits
6½ 3
6½ 3
6½ 4
6½ 3
6½ 4
Readings/s
2s/reading
1.4
4.8
2.2
35
Rate
SLOW
MED
MED
FAST
FAST
Bandwidth
   3 Hz–300 kHz
  30 Hz–300 kHz
  30 Hz–300 kHz
300 Hz–300 kHz
300 Hz–300 kHz
Slow
0
0
0
0
0
0
Med
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
4 + 0.5
4 + 0.5
0.03 + 0.01
AC General
Input Impedance: 1MW ±2% paralleled by <100pF.
ACV Input Protection: 1000Vp.
Maximum DCV: 400V on any ACV range.
ACI Input Protection: 3A, 250V fuse.
Burden Voltage: 1A Range: <0.3V rms. 3A Range: <1V rms.
Shunt Resistor: 0.1W on all ACI ranges.
AC CMRR: >70dB with 1k W in LO lead.
Maximum Crest Factor: 5 at full scale.
Volt Hertz Product: ≤8 × 107 V·Hz.
Overrange: 120% of range except on 750V and 3A ranges.
Additional Low Frequency Errors ±(% of reading)
20 Hz –   30 Hz
30 Hz –   50 Hz
50 Hz – 100 Hz
100 Hz – 200 Hz
200 Hz – 300 Hz
> 300 Hz
100 kHz– 300 kHz
Fast
—
—
1.0
0.18
0.10
0
AC Notes
1. Specifications are for SLOW rate and sinewave inputs >5% of range.
2. Speeds are for 60Hz operation using factory default operating conditions (*RST). Auto zero off, Auto range off,
Display off, includes measurement and binary data transfer out the GPIB.
3. 0.01% of step settling error. Trigger delay = 400ms.
4. Trigger delay = 0.
5. DETector:BANDwidth 300, NPLC = 0.01.
6. Maximum useful limit with trigger delay = 175ms.
7. Applies to non-sinewaves >5Hz and <500Hz. (Guaranteed by design for crest factors >4.3.)
8. Applies to 0°–18°C and 28°–50°C.
9. For signal levels >2.2A, add additional 0.4% to "of reading" uncertainty.
10.Typical uncertainties. Typical represents two sigma or 95% of manufactured units measure <0.35% of reading
and three sigma or 99.7% <1.06% of reading.
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Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
Accuracy 1: ±(% of reading + % of range), 23°C ±5 °C
10
245
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
246
6½-Digit THD Multimeters
6½-Digit Audio Analyzing Multimeters
Triggering and Memory
Temperature Characteristics
Reading HOLD Sensitivity: 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, or 10% of reading.
Trigger Delay: 0 to 99 hrs (1ms step size).
External Trigger Latency: 200µs + <300µs jitter with autozero off, trigger delay = 0.
Memory: 1024 readings.
Thermocouple 2, 3, 4
Type
J
K
T
Math Functions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Standard Programming Languages
Power Supply: 100V/120V/220V/240V.
Line Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz and 400Hz, automatically sensed at power-up.
Power Consumption: 40VA.
Volt Hertz Product: ≤8 × 107 V·Hz.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
EMC: Conforms to European Union EMC Directive.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
Operating Environment: Specified for 0°C to 50°C. Specified to 80% R.H. at 35°C and at
an altitude of up to 2,000 meters.
Storage Environment: –40°C to 70°C.
Warmup: 1 hour to rated accuracy.
Dimensions:
Rack Mounting: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3.5 in × 8.38 in × 14.56 in).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep
(4.13 in × 9.38 in × 14.56 in).
Net Weight: 4.2kg (8.8 lbs).
Shipping Weight: 5kg (11 lbs).
Frequency and Period Characteristics 1, 2
Period
Range
100 mV to
750 V
3 Hz to
500 kHz
333 ms
to 2 µs
Gate Time
1 s (SLOW)
0.1 s (MED)
10 ms (FAST)
Resolution
±(ppm of
reading)
0.333
3.33
33.3
Accuracy
90 Day/1 Year
±(% of reading)
0.01
0.01
0.01
Frequency Notes
1. Specifications are for square wave inputs only. Input signal must be >10% of ACV range. If input
is <20mV on the 100mV range, then the frequency must be >10Hz.
2.20% overrange on all ranges except 750V range.
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For temperatures <–100°C, add ±0.1°C and >900°C add ±0.3°C.
Temperature can be displayed in °C, K, or °F.
Accuracy based on ITS-90.
Exclusive of thermocouple error.
General
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments).
Frequency
Range
Resolution
0.001°C
0.001°C
0.001°C
Temperature Notes
Rel, Min/Max/Average/StdDev (of stored reading), dB, dBm, Limit Test, %, and mX+b with user
defined units displayed.
dBm Reference Resistances: 1 to 9999W in 1W increments.
ACV
Range
Range
–200 to +   760°C
–200 to + 1372°C
–200 to +   400°C
Accuracy 1
90 Day/1 Year (23°C ±5°C)
Relative to Reference Junction
±0.5°C
±0.5°C
±0.5°C
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
Model 2015, 2015-P, 2016, 2016-P specifications
2015, 2015-P,
2016, 2016-P
A Series 3700A system combines the functionality of an
instrument grade relay switching system with a high performance multimeter. Integrating the multimeter within the
mainframe ensures you of a high quality signal path from
each channel to the multimeter. This tightly integrated
switch and measurement system can meet the demanding
application requirements of a functional test system or
provide the flexibility needed in stand-alone data acquisition and measurement applications. It is ideal for multiple
pin count applications where relay switching can be used
to connect multiple devices to source and measurement
instruments.
The high performance multimeter in the Series 3700A
offers low noise, high stability 3½- to 7½-digit readings
for leading-edge measurement performance. This flexible resolution sup­plies a DC reading rate from >14,000
readings/second at 3½ digits to 60 readings/second at 7½
digits, offering customers maximum reading throughput
and accuracy. The multimeter also provides an expanded
low ohms (1W) range, low current (10µA) range, and dry
circuit (1W to 1kW) range, extending utility beyond typical
DMM applications.
• LXI Class B compliance with
IEEE 1588 time synchronization
• 3½- to 7½-digit measurement
resolution
• Embedded Test Script Processor
(TSP®) offers unparalleled
system automation, throughput,
and flexibility
The multimeter supports 13 built-in measure­ment functions, including: DCV, ACV, DCI, ACI, frequency, period, two-wire ohms, four-wire ohms, three-wire RTD temperature, four-wire RTD temperature,
thermocouple temperature, thermistor temperature, and continuity. In-rack calibration is sup­ported,
which reduces both maintenance and calibration time. Onboard memory can store up to 650,000
readings, and the USB device port provides easy transfer of data to memory sticks.
Single Channel Reading Rates
Resolution
7½ Digits (1 NPLC)
6½ Digits (0.2 NPLC)
5½ Digits (0.06 NPLC)
4½ Digits (0.006 NPLC)
3½ Digits (0.0005 NPLC)
• Extended low ohms (1W) range
with 100nW resolution
• Extended low current (10µA)
range with 1pA resolution
• >14,000 readings/second
• Low noise, <0.1ppm rms noise
on 10VDC range
• Expanded dry circuit range
(2kW)
• Four-wire open lead detection
(source and sense lines)
For more information about Series
3700A systems, see page 136.
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DCV/
2-Wire Ohms 4-Wire Ohms
60
29
295
120
935
285
6,300
580
14,000
650
• Plant/environment monitoring
and control
2.0
1.0
• Automotive and aerospace
systems
0.0
–1.0
• Consumer product certification/
testing laboratories
–2.0
–3.0
–4.0
• Power supply burn-in testing
(PC, network, telecom)
• Temperature profiling
Leading Competitor
Keithley 3706A
3.0
• System- and rack-level signal
referencing
• Low ohms testing (contacts,
connectors, relays)
Low Noise Performance
Model 3706A vs. Leading Competitor
4.0
Applications
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
1000 Readings at 1PLC
Compare the Model 3706A's 10V DC noise and
speed performance with that of the leading
competitor. All the data was taken at 1PLC
with a low thermal short applied to the input,
which resulted in 10× lower noise and 7×
faster measurements for the Model 3706A.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
• Combines the functions of
a system switch and a high
performance multimeter
System switch with high performance multimeter
System Switch/Multimeter
and Plug-In Cards
10VDC Noise (ppm of range)
System switch with high performance multimeter
Series 3700A
247
Integra Series systems (2700, 2701, 2750) combine precision measurement, switching, and
­control in a single, tightly integrated enclosure
for either rack-mounted or benchtop applications. These cost-effective, high performance
test platforms offer affordable alternatives to
separate DMMs and switch systems, dataloggers/
recorders, plug-in card data acquisition equipment, and VXI/PXI systems. The Integra Series
plug-in switching and control modules offer
unmatched flexibility and testing efficiency for
a wide range of industries and applications.
System builders can create test solutions with a
combination of channel count, cost per ­channel,
and system performance unmatched by any
other single-box measurement system. The
input modules provide the flexibility to vary the
channel count from 20 to 200 (2-pole), apply a
stimulus to the device under test, route signals,
control system components, and make precision
measurements with up to 14 functions. Robust
­digital I/O capabilities can be used for triggering,
handshaking with other automation equipment,
and alarm limit outputs. Scan rates of up to 500
channels/second (up to 3500 readings/second on
a single channel) will increase test ­productivity.
• Combines functions of DMM,
switch system, and datalogger
• True 6½-digit (22-bit) resolution
• Choice of 12 switch/control
plug-in modules
• Up to 200 differential input
channels (with 300V isolation)
for measurement and control
• Convenient front panel inputs
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
• Free LabVIEW®, LabWindows/
CVI, Visual Basic, and C/C++
drivers (IVI style)
248
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems
• Ethernet, GPIB, RS-232
communications capabilities
• Free ExceLINX ™-1A datalogging
software
Fast Setup and Operation
The Integra systems are fully integrated, off-the-shelf measurement and control systems. Their DMMlike interfaces make it easy for users to collect data and/or perform troubleshooting within minutes
of installation and startup. Once sensor or DUT leads are hooked to the instrument’s input, use the
front panel controls to select the measurement function, range, filtering, scaling, trigger source, scanning sequence, alarms, and more. The free ExceLINX-1A software makes it easy to configure and use
the system in a graphical “point-and-click” environment. This gives developers the basic tools needed
to create a simple application without writing program code.
The Advantage of Integrated Design
The Integra systems offer a variety of advantages over existing solutions for ATE and data acquisition
applications. For example, their flexible modular architecture and integrated measurement, switching, and control capabilities save rack space by reducing the number of separate instruments needed.
This design also simplifies expanding the system as the number of channels grows or re-purposing
it as new test requirements evolve. Integrated signal conditioning, scaling, stimulus, filtering and
I/O capabilities eliminate the need for external
circuitry when designing and building data
acquisition systems. The Integra systems offer
Built-in measurement functions
accuracy and repeatability superior to plug-in
include:
data acquisition boards, while providing faster
• DCV • ACV • DCI • ACI
test times than typical DMM/switch systems. This
•
Resistance (2- or 4-wire, offset
makes it possible to combine higher test yields
­compensation selectable)
with higher test throughput.
Ethernet
The Model 2701 offers a 10/100 BaseT Ethernet
connection for high speed and long distance
communication between a computer and a virtually infinite number of instruments. Any PC with
an Ethernet port can connect to a single Model
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
• Dry circuit ohms (20mV clamp)
2750 only
• Temperature (with thermo­
couples, RTDs, or thermistors)
• Frequency/Period
• Continuity
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
2700, 2701,
2750
2700
2701
2750
DMM, Data Acquisition,
Datalogging System
w/2 Slots
DMM, Data Acquisition,
Datalogging System
w/2 Slots and
Ethernet Support
DMM, Data Acquisition,
Switching, Datalogging
System w/5 Slots
Accessories Supplied
LabVIEW, LabWindows/ CVI, Visual
Basic, and C/C++ drivers; manual;
and Model 1751 Safety Test Leads.
2701 in a point-to-point configuration, to multiple Model 2701s through a hub, or to multiple Model
2701s distributed on a network.
The Model 2701 Ethernet port uses the industry-standard TCP/IP socket interface. This provides data
rates up 100Mbits/sec. and allows the instrument to be located up to 100 meters from the nearest
­computer or network hub in hardwired systems and miles in wireless Ethernet systems. The maximum distances between a control PC and the instruments are limited only by the size of the network.
The instrument also provides a built-in diagnostic Web page for easy remote access to the Model
2701. Entering the instrument’s IP address in the URL line of Microsoft Internet Explorer will allow
communication with and control of the Model 2701. This Web page allows users to read and set network parameters, such as IP address, subnet mask, gateway, MAC address, and calibration dates, and
to send commands to and query data from the Model 2701.
Temperature Capabilities
Integra Series mainframes support three major types of temperature sensors with built-in signal
conditioning and 300V isolation: thermocouples, RTDs, and thermistors. To begin using a sensor,
simply hook it up and the instrument does the rest. If a thermocouple is broken or disconnected,
the instrument will alert the operator. The mainframes also support three methods for cold-junction
compensation (CJC): automatic (built-in), external (built-in), and simulated.
Accessories Available
2750-321A
7007-1
Extra slot cover
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
(Models 2700, 2750 only)
7007-2
Shielded IEEE-488 Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
(Models 2700, 2750 only)
50-Pin D-Shell Connector Kit (2 each)(for Models
7788
7703, 7705 Modules w/D-sub Connectors)
7789
50-Pin/25-Pin D-Shell Kit (1 each)
7790
50-Pin Male, 50-Pin Female, and 25-Pin Male IDC
D-Shell Connector Kit (1 each) (Ribbon Cable
not Included)
7797
Calibration Extender Board (for Model 2750)
7705-MTC-2 50-Pin Male to Female D-Sub Cable, 2m
7707-MTC-2 25-Pin Male to Female D-Sub Cable, 2m
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
(Models 2700, 2750 only)
KUSB-488B IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter (Models
2700, 2750 only)
Services Available
2700-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2701-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
2750-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/2700-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
C/2701-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
C/2750-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
Install up to five input modules in the 2750 mainframe (or up to two in the 2700 and 2701
mainframes). All switch/control modules are fully enclosed in impact-resistant plastic for
exceptional ruggedness. Three connector alternatives simplify connecting the modules to DUTs.
Rugged D-sub connectors allow quick, secure connections and are especially convenient when
performing routine maintenance or when the system is installed in a rack. IDC ribbon cable
adapters are supplied with the Model 7701, 7707, and 7709 modules for fast, uncomplicated
hookups in production test and process monitoring applications. Oversize screw-terminal
connectors simplify setup in applications that require the greatest connection flexibility.
Additional D-sub and IDC ribbon cable connector kits and pre-wired cable assemblies are
sold ­separately.
Typical Applications
• Production test of electronic
products and devices
• Accelerated stress testing (AST)
• Process monitor and control
• Device characterization/R&D
• Low ohms, multichannel
measurements
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Ordering Information
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
2700, 2701,
2750
249
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
250
Immediate alarm notification
independent of the PC
provided by built-in open-­
collector digital I/O lines for
control, external triggering,
and HI/LO alarm/limit
outputs.
Fast and convenient
10/100BaseTX Ethernet
with TCP/IP protocol
(Model 2701).
A variety of measurement
and control modules makes
it simple to mix, match, and
change input signals or control
lines as needed. Get up to
80 differential channels and
scanning rates of up to 500
channels per second.
Web-Enabled Data Acquisition and
Control via Standard Ethernet
A built-in 10/100BaseTX Ethernet interface makes
the Model 2701 the best choice for distributed
data acquisition applications that demand stable,
high precision measurements. Just connect it
directly to an Ethernet port—there’s no need for
additional interface cards, proprietary cables, or
software. The Model 2701 is a cost-effective solution for industrial monitoring and control applications. It combines remote communications
with high measurement precision for research
and development tasks, such as remote equipment diagnostics and economical monitoring of
lab ­environments.
Built-in relay cycle
counters on each
module for ease of
maintenance.
Free built-In Web
diagnostic tool (2701 only)
• Read and set network
parameters
• Send command strings
and receive data
• Debug
To start communicating with the
Integra Series instrument, ­simply
connect the 2701 to a PC Ethernet
port using the supplied RJ-45 crossover cable, start Microsoft® Internet
Explorer version 5.0 or later, and
type the instrument’s IP address
into the URL line. The built-in web
diagnostic interface allows for easy
communication and debugging,
without the need to install external
software. This interface makes
it easy to read and set network
parameters such as IP address, subnet mask, gateway, MAC address,
calibration dates, and other data
stored in the Integra Series instrument. It also takes readings from
the instrument and allows the
user to send command strings and
receive data.
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems
2700, 2701,
2750
Ordering Information
7700 20-channel Differential
Multiplexer Module with
up to 50MHz Bandwidth,
Automatic CJC, and
Screw Terminals
7701 32-channel Differential
Multiplexer Module with a
25- and 50-Pin Female
D-Sub Connector. Supplied
with Male IDC Ribbon
Cable Connectors
7702 40-channel Differential
Multiplexer Module w/
Screw Terminals
7703 32-channel, High Speed,
Differential Multiplexer
Module with 2 50-Pin Female
D-Sub Connectors. Includes
2 Mating Connectors
7705 40-channel, Single-pole Control
Module with 2 50-Pin Female
D-Sub Connectors. Includes
2 Mating Connectors
7706All-in-One I/O Module:
20-channel Differential
Multiplexer w/Automatic CJC,
16 Digital Outputs, 2 Analog
Outputs, a Counter/Totalizer,
and Screw Terminals
7707 32-channel Digital I/O
w/10-channel Differential
Multiplexer Module with a 25-Pin
Female and 50-Pin Male D-Sub
Connectors. Supplied with Mating
IDC Ribbon Cable Connectors
7708 40-channel Differential
Multiplexer Module w/Automatic
CJC and Screw Terminals
77096×8 Matrix Module with
25- and 50-Pin Female D-Sub
Connectors. Supplied with Male
IDC Ribbon Cable Connectors
7710 20-channel Solid-state/
Long Life Differential
Multiplexer w/Automatic
CJC and Screw Terminals
Rugged 50-pin D-sub connectors ensure
dependability and quick setup/teardown in
­production test racks.
Screw terminals use oversize connectors
for easier, mistake-free wiring. Easy-to-use
removable terminals are available on some
models.
Software Solutions
Whether the task calls for a simple start-up package to acquire several channels of data or the tools
to create a fully custom acquisition and analysis solution, Keithley has the software needed to get the
most performance from a Model 2700, 2701, or 2750 Multimeter/Switch System. Our broad range of
software solutions makes it easy to get applications “Up & Running” quickly and economically.
Measurement Ranges for the Integra Series Systems
Measurement Ranges
1n
1
1m
1
1k
100nV
100nV
DC Voltage
AC Voltage
DC Current
3A
1µA
3A
3Hz
2µs
Period
Resistance (2-Wire)
Resistance (4-Wire)
500kHz
333ms
10µΩ
1µΩ
120MΩ
120MΩ
Logarithmic scale
—500
0
—200°C
Temperature—RTD
—200°C
Temperature—TC
—80°C
Temperature—Thermistor
Linear scale
500
1000
1500
1820°C
150°C
Model 2750 only
7712 3.5GHz 50W RF Module with
Dual 1×4 Configuration
and SMA Connections
A
G R E A T E R
2000
630°C
7711 2GHz 50W RF Module with
Dual 1×4 Configuration
and SMA Connections
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1G
1000V
750V
10nA
AC Current
Frequency
1M
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
2700, 2701,
2750
251
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Digital Multimeters & SYSTEMS
252
Important Features and Benefits
• Relay counting—Provides preventive maintenance of the system
and switches.
• Full per-channel configurability—Each channel can be
independently configured for making measurements. The
parameters that can be chosen for each channel include speed,
range, resolution, number of power line cycles (NPLC), filtering
type, offset compensation, math functions to be displayed,
CJC type, RTD type, frequency gate time, “m” and “b” values in
mX + b format, HI/LO limits, low W (Model 2750 only), ratio
calculation, and thermistor type.
• Memory buffer—The mainframe’s non-volatile wrap-around
reading memory allows continuous, unattended datalogging
over long periods. Data in the buffer can be transferred to a PC
controller automatically as new data is acquired. The real-time
clock can be used to time- and date-stamp readings for later
review and interpretation.
• Channel monitor feature—Monitor any specific input channel on
the front panel display during a scan. This feature can also serve
as an analog trigger to initiate a scan sequence based on some
external factor, such as a temperature rising above a pre-set
limit. Only the data of interest is acquired, so there’s no need to
spend hours searching through reams of normal readings to find
anomalous data.
• 5 “per-channel” HI/LO alarm limit TTL outputs—Trigger
external alarms or perform other control functions without a PC
controller.
• 2 TTL-level digital inputs—Use to implement external triggers to
initiate a scan sequence.
• Dry circuit ohms (20mV clamp)—Protects sensitive devices from
damage and prevents self-heating errors during testing (Model
2750 only).
• Front/rear switch—Switching between the front and rear panel
measurement inputs is as easy as pressing a button. Users can
select the front panel inputs for tasks such as system setup and
verification, manual probing, troubleshooting, and calibration,
while the rear panel inputs through the modules allow fast,
automated multiplexing and control.
• Virtual channel—Stores the results of channel-to channel ratio
and average math operations.
• Onboard statistical analysis—Mathematical functions available
at the push of a button are channel average, mX+b scaling,
minimum, maximum, average, and standard ­deviation.
• Battery-backed setup memory—Up to four different setup
configurations can be stored in onboard memory. If the line
power fails during a scan, the system will resume scanning
where it stopped once power is restored.
• GPIB and RS-232 interfaces (Models 2700 and 2750)
• Ethernet and RS-232 interface (Model 2701 only)
Which Integra Mainframe is the Best Choice for the Application?
Use this selector guide to decide which Integra Series mainframe offers the combination of features
and capacity that’s right for a specific application. If testing requirements change in the future,
switch/control modules and test code can be easily re-used.
No. of differential input channels
Matrix crosspoints
Ohms resolution
Dry circuit ohms (20mV clamp)
No. of slots
Memory buffer
Size (2U height)
Communications
Scan-Rate (memory)
Scan-Rate (bus)
Max. Internal Trigger Rate
Max. External Trigger Rate
2700
80
96
100 µW
No
2
55,000 rdgs
Half-rack width
GPIB, RS-232
180/s
145/s
2000/s
375/s
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2701
80
96
100 µW
No
2
450,000 rdgs
Half-rack width
Ethernet, RS-232
500/s
440/s
2800/s
2000/s
A
2750
200
240
1 µW
Yes
5
110,000 rdgs
Full-rack width (19˝)
GPIB, RS-232
230/s
210/s
2000/s
375/s
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Integra Series integrated switching, measurement, and datalogging solutions
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems
2700, 2701,
2750
Multimeter/Data Acquisition/
Switch Systems
2700, 2701,
2750
DC Characteristics1
Integra Series condensed specifications
Voltage 11
Resistance 6, 8
Dry Circuit
Resistance 21, 24
Continuity (2W)
Current
Range
100.0000 mV
1.000000 V
10.00000 V
100.0000 V
1000.000 V5
1.000000W24
10.00000W24
100.0000W
1.000000k W
10.00000k W
100.0000k W
1.000000MW23
10.00000MW7, 23
100.0000MW7, 23
1.000000W
10.00000W
100.0000W
1.000000k W
1.000k W
20.00000 mA
100.0000 mA
1.000000 A
3.000000 A
Resolution
0.1µV
1.0µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
1µW
10µW
100µW
1mW
10mW
100mW
1.0
W
10
W
100W
1µW
10µW
100µW
1mW
100mW
10nA
100nA
1.0µA
10µA
Channel (Ratio) 10
Channel (Average) 10
Input Resistance or
Open Circuit Voltage3
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range) (ppm
= parts per million) (e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%)
90 Day
24 Hour 4
2700/2701
2750
23°C ±1°
23°C ±5°
15 + 30
25 + 35
>10GW
>10GW
15 + 6
25 + 7
>10GW
>10GW
10 + 4
20 + 5
>10GW
>10GW
15 + 6
35 + 9
10MW ±1% 10MW ±1%
20 + 6
35 + 9
10MW ±1% 10MW ±1%
10 mA
5.9 V
80 + 40
80 + 40
10 mA
5.9 V
20 + 20
80 + 20
1mA
6.9V
12.2 V
20 + 20
80 + 20
1mA
6.9V
12.2 V
20 + 6
80 + 6
100 µA
6.9V
6.8 V
20 + 6
80 + 6
10 µA
12.8 V
12.8 V
20 + 6
80 + 10
10 µA
12.8 V
12.8 V
20 + 6
80 + 10
7.0 V
150 + 6
200 + 10
0.7 µA//10 MW 7.0V
7.0 V
800 + 30
2000 + 30
0.7