Innovative Solutions for Your Application Needs

Innovative Solutions for Your Application Needs
Innovative Solutions for
Your Application Needs
Catalog & Corporate Profile
Table of Contents
About B&W Tek
What does B&W Tek do?
Who uses B&W Tek products & services?
What added benefit does B&W Tek provide?
What can I expect from B&W Tek?
What makes B&W Tek different from other providers?
How will B&W Tek make my ideas a reality?
What types of products does B&W Tek offer?
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Innovative Solutions for Modular Spectroscopy
Introduction to Modular Spectroscopy
Part 1: The Slit
Part 2: The Grating
Part 3: The Detector
Part 4: The Optical Bench
Part 5: Spectral Resolution
Part 6: Choosing a Fiber Optic
Part 7: Fiber Optic Bundles
Part 8: Fiber Optic Probes
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Applications of Spectroscopy
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Spectrometer Modules
Exemplar®
Exemplar® LS
Exemplar® Plus
Glacier® X
Sol™ 1.7
Sol™ 2.2
Sol™ 2.2A
Sol™ 2.6
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Spectrometer Accessories
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Spectrometer Software
BWSpec
Software Development Kit
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Innovative Solutions for Raman Spectroscopy
Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy
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Raman Accessories
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Raman Software
BWID™ & BWID™-Pharma
BWIQ™
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Innovative Solutions for
Laser Modules & Systems
Introduction to Laser Technology
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Laser Modules & Systems
BWN Series
BWB Series
BWR Series
Flex™
CleanLaze®
BWF 1
BWF 2
BWF-OEM
BWF 5
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Innovative Solutions for
Spectral Irradiance and Spectrophotometry
Spectal Irradiance Systems
SpectraRad®
SpectraRad® Xpress
Spectrophotometry Systems
i-Spec™ Series
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Theory of Raman Scattering
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Components of a Raman Spectrometer
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Applications of Raman Spectroscopy
Raman Systems
NanoRam®
MiniRam®
i-Raman®
i-Raman® Plus
PolymerIQ™
GemRam™
innoRam®
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Woldwide Distribution and Contact Information
B&W Tek Worldwide Distributors
B&W Tek Offices and Contact Information
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Back Cover
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7HO )D[ (0DLORVP#SRO\WHFGH ZZZSRO\WHFGH Copyright
2013 B&W Tek, Inc.
B&W Tek, Inc.
About B&W Tek
Who uses B&W Tek products & services?
B&W Tek is an advanced instrumentation company producing optical spectroscopy and laser
instrumentation, as well as laboratory, portable and handheld Raman systems. We provide
spectroscopy and laser solutions for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, physical, chemical, LED
lighting and research communities. Originally established as a producer of green lasers in 1997,
we’ve grown into an industry-leading, total solutions provider; coupling our core technologies
with custom design and manufacturing capabilities.
B&W Tek has always had a strong presence in the photonics industry, and now we are breaking into new
areas and applications like never before. Using our innovative engineering resources and fast-growing
technology, B&W Tek offers products and services that provide solutions for a variety of industries:
Since the company’s establishment, we’ve emphasized strong vertical integration for better
efficiency and faster growth. These values allow us to provide you with higher quality
products that still fit into your budget. B&W Tek uses core components that are designed and
manufactured in-house to create total solutions for a wide range of applications.
Our core technologies include:
Diffraction Limited, Spectrum Stabilized, and High Power Lasers
UV, Vis, NIR, & Raman Spectrometers
Sampling Accessories & Broadband Light Sources
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Medical & BioMedical OEM/OED
B&W Tek has a long history of providing
components and integrated OEM and OED
solutions for the medical & biomedical industry.
We have designed and manufactured medical
laser systems for applications ranging from
equine airway surgery to photodynamic therapy
and we continue to be on the cutting edge of
high power medical laser technology. B&W Tek’s
spectrometers and low power lasers are also
frequently integrated into biomedical systems
such as microplate readers and fluorescence
imaging systems.
Semiconductor/Solar
B&W Tek’s products are often used in the solar and
semiconductor industry for various metrology
applications. Our Raman systems are ideal for
measuring stresses and strains in silicon wafers,
as well as performing quantitative analysis of
crystallinity. Our broadband spectrophotometers
are ideal for thin-film thickness measurements,
and our modular spectrometers are ideal for
integration into plasma process monitoring
systems for end point detection.
Pharmaceuticals
Combining a number of our core technologies, we
have become the world leader in portable Raman
spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is a highly
selective and powerful tool for both qualitative
and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic
compounds. Our CFR 21 Part 11 compliant
products reduce production costs within
cGMP facilities while simultaneously escalating
productivity.
Academic / Government Labs
Our extensive line of lasers, spectrometers
and accessories are capable of generating and
detecting light for a wide variety of applications,
which makes them the ideal choice for
scientists looking for versatile equipment for
their laboratories. B&W Tek is partnering with
universities across the world to help foster the
next generation of breakthrough research in
areas such as cancer diagnostics, molecular level
archeological analysis, and green technology.
LED Lighting
As part of the booming LED industry, B&W
Tek continues to provide solutions for LED
manufacturers and end-users alike. Our high
speed modular spectrometers are key building
blocks in LED binning and sorting machines,
while our spectral irradiance meters are used for
spectral power and colorimetric analysis of solid
state lighting, which is rapidly becoming today’s
dominant light source.
Specialty Chemicals
Optical spectroscopy is one of the most
commonly used techniques in analytical
chemistry, and B&W Tek offers a full range of
spectroscopy solutions to suit the needs of this
industry. We offer modular spectrometers and
excitation sources, complete laboratory Raman
and spectrophotometric systems, as well as
handheld and field portable instrumentation.
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About B&W Tek
What does B&W Tek do?
B&W Tek, Inc.
About B&W Tek
At B&W Tek, not only do we design, manufacture and assemble all of our own products, we also
have the knowledge and expertise needed to guarantee that our products will fit the demands of
your application. We feel that providing instrumentation is just part of our commitment towards
providing your solution.
What can I expect from B&W Tek?
At B&W Tek, we guarantee superior performance, quality, and solid regulatory compliance standards
on each product that leaves our facility. We operate in ISO 13485 & ISO 9001 certified facilities
equipped with clean room environments and apply an extensive Overall Quality Control Test (OQCT)
to make sure our products and services pass or exceed domestic and international standards and
regulations. Our mock FDA Quality Systems Inspections Technique (QSIT) allows us to conduct
Installation Qualification (IQ), Operational Qualification (OQ), and Performance Qualification (PQ)
checks, as well as software verification and validation. We also apply Six Sigma methodologies to
ensure that each product passes all tests at each production process level.
About B&W Tek
What added benefit does B&W Tek provide?
ISO 9001 & ISO 13485 Certified
FDA & CDRH Registration and Compliance
CE Safety Standards
UL Safety Standards
Manufacturing FDA Class II and III Devices
Application of Six Sigma Methodologies
Our experienced staff is standing by to offer service, support and their extensive knowledge to help
you find the answers you’re looking for. Our research and development team consists of over 30
engineers in varying disciplines, each with an advanced degree in their field, and we’re eager to share
our information and experience with you. We even post our knowledge on our website – so you can
access the answers you need whenever and as often as you’d like!
As part of our mission to provide knowledge, as well as products, to our customers, we’ve established
the New Horizons Academic Partnership Program. For over fifteen years, B&W Tek has supported
researchers with advanced instrumentation for optical spectroscopy and laser systems.
Now, we are looking to extend our research partnerships to academic institutions
with special pricing and applications support. We are thrilled to be supporting
breakthrough research in every way we can.
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B&W Tek, Inc.
About B&W Tek
How will B&W Tek make my ideas a reality?
While there are many companies that can provide you with some of the components you need for your
application, we are a “one-stop-shop” that provides everything you need in one place. In many of the
industries we serve, we’re the only one of our kind. At B&W Tek, we pride ourselves on providing not
just the pieces of each project, but a total solution. Due to our resources and expertise, we’re able to do
this for our customers in a number of ways.
As part of our mission to provide a total solution,
we’ve developed the OEM Product Development
Cycle to ensure that we meet your goals at
each milestone. Our project management and
engineering team work closely with you to
understand not only the product requirements,
but your overall business goals. Our extremely
flexible and adaptable solutions are the perfect
answer for every OEM need.
With a variety of extensive product families, we’re able to take an assortment of ready-to-use, offthe-shelf products and put them together to form a complete setup. There are hundreds of possible
options by combining any variety of our lasers, spectrometers, accessories, and even software packages
- all of which are designed and built by our own staff.
About B&W Tek
What makes B&W Tek different from other providers?
Phase 1: Evaluation
From the very beginning, B&W Tek works closely with you to obtain a detailed view of your project’s
requirements. After studying and evaluating the technical feasibility, we then propose a solution that’s
unique to you.
Phase 2: Development and Prototype
Once you approve our proposal, we will demonstrate and deliver a collection of prototype products
for your feedback. In most cases, we provide these to you in less than 3 months!
Phase 3: Pilot Production
From here, B&W Tek works with you to resolve any manufacturing concerns, pursue any possibilities
for cost reduction, and scale up for full production. We will provide final qualification of the product
design and develop additional testing protocols to address the quality and reliability of your new
product.
We’re also able to provide total solutions with input from you! By offering various services in
industrial design, custom development, end-user training, and regulatory compliance testing
and certification, we work with you to make your ideas come to life. We design, engineer,
prototype and manufacture an extensive range of instrumentation for a variety of
applications, working with you from concept to completion. Though we may not
currently make the product that’s perfect for your application, we are always open to
the challenge of creating new technologies and breaking into new applications.
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Phase 4: Full Production
Next, we establish the final manufacturing process and bring your product into full volume
production. Our dedicated, high standard quality control team works hard to ensure that every single
one of your products meets performance and stability requirements.
Phase 5: Post Production Services
With facilities in the United States, Asia, and Europe, B&W Tek provides a full range of post-production
services to empower and support you. We offer customized configurations in order to deliver turn-key
solutions to your customers. We also provide customized warranty and service policies to eliminate
time consuming or costly repairs and give you the opportunity to access our technology upgrades and
product development news first hand.
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About B&W Tek
What types of products does B&W Tek offer?
Lasers
B&W Tek offers a complete line of high performance diode, DPSS and fiber laser modules and systems.
Our product lines cover a range of wavelengths from 375nm to 1850nm with power outputs up to 150W.
We offer a wide variety of high performance class IIIb & IV laser products in both end-user and OEM
configurations, as well as high power medical OEM lasers.
Applications:
Fluorescence
Laser Biomodulation
Laser Printing
Laser Surgery
Metrology
Particle Counting
Photodynamic Therapy
Plastic Welding
Precision Alignment
Raman Spectroscopy/ Microscopy
Spectrometers
Our line of spectrometers cover UV to NIR and everything in between. Fiber coupled and free space
miniature spectrometers are available with a wide selection of sampling accessories. Each spectrometer
comes with a USB interface and our own BWSpec™ software. We offer set standard configuration and
customizable OEM solutions.
Applications:
Absorption
Fluorescence
Material Identification
Metrology
Process Monitoring
Quality Control
Raman Spectroscopy/ Microscopy
Reflection
Spectral Irradiance
Wavelength Identification
Accessories
At B&W Tek, we believe in providing all of the elements for your solution; making the journey to find an
answer faster and easier. We offer a wide range of accessories for all of our products, including:
External Batteries
Fiber Optics
Integrating Spheres
Light Sources
Multiplexers
Sample Holders
Sampling Probes
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Raman Spectrometers
B&W Tek offers a complete line of high performance laboratory, portable, and handheld Raman
spectrometers. We are the worldwide leader in Raman systems manufacturing, with over 10,000
spectrometers shipped. We have recently introduced the NanoRam™, a new class of small, handheld
instruments for materials identification and verification within cGMP compliant facilities. The NanoRam is a
state-of-the-art compact Raman spectrometer and integrated computing system that can support a broad
range of applications in multiple industries. Based on our award winning i-Raman® spectrometer, B&W Tek
has also released solutions for gemology and polymer analysis. Designed for use by non-specialists, these
new capabilities represent our focus on solution-oriented products.
Applications:
Agriculture
Bioscience
Forensic Analysis
Gemology
Geology/Mineralogy
About B&W Tek
What types of products does B&W Tek offer?
Medical Diagnosis
Pharmaceuticals
Polymers/Chemical Processes
Raman Microscopy
Spectroscopy Software
B&W Tek offers comprehensive software packages that provide solutions for all sorts of application needs.
Powerful calculations, easy data management, and user friendly, easy-to-follow work flow are all available at
the tips of your fingers.
BWSpec™ is the foundation for all B&W Tek software platforms and
comes standard with every spectrometer that we sell. Built on the
proven BWSpec platform, BWID™ is optimized for identification
and verification of materials. For industrial Raman applications
that require federal compliance, BWID™-Pharma supports
all requirements of FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance. BWIQ™
chemometrics software is a multivariate analysis package that can
analyze spectral data and discover internal relationships between
spectra and response data or spectra and sample classes.
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Innovative Solutions for
Modular Spectroscopy
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Spectrometer
Over the past 20 years, miniature fiber optic spectrometers have
evolved from a novelty to the spectrometer of choice for many
modern spectroscopists. People are realizing the advanced utility
and flexibility provided by their small size and compatibility with a
plethora of sampling accessories.
The basic function of a spectrometer is to take in light, break it into its
spectral components, digitize the signal as a function of wavelength,
and read it out and display it through a computer. The first step in
this process is to direct light through a fiber optic cable into the spectrometer through a narrow aperture
known as an entrance slit. The slit vinyettes the light as it enters the spectrometer. In most spectrometers, the
divergent light is then collimated by a concave mirror and directed onto a grating. The grating then disperses
the spectral components of the light at slightly varying angles, which is then focused by a second concave
mirror and imaged onto the detector. Alternatively, a concave holographic grating can be used to perform all
three of these functions simultaneously. This alternative has various advantages and disadvantages, which
will be discussed in more detail later on.
Once the light is imaged onto the detector the photons are then converted into electrons which are digitized
and readout through a USB (or serial port) to a computer. The software then interpolates the signal based on
the number of pixels in the detector and the linear dispersion of the diffraction grating to create a calibration
that enables the data to be plotted as a function of wavelength over the given spectral range. This data can
then be used and manipulated for countless spectroscopic applications, some of which will be discussed here
later on.
In the following sections we will explain the inner-workings of a spectrometer and how all of the components
work together to achieve a desired outcome, so that no matter what your application is, you’ll know what to
look for. We’ll first discuss each component individually so that you have a full understanding of their function
in the workings of a spectrometer, then we’ll discuss the variety of configurations that are possible with those
components, and why each of them has a different function. We’ll even touch on some of the accessories used
to make your application as successful as they can possibly be.
Spectrometer
How Does a Spectrometer Work?
Part 1: The Slit
Overview
A spectrometer is an imaging system which maps a plurality
of monochromatic images of the entrance slit onto the
detector plane. This slit is critical to the spectrometer’s
performance and determines the amount of light (photon
flux) that enters the optical bench. It is a driving force when
determining the spectral resolution; other factors are grating
groove frequency and detector pixel size.
The optical resolution and throughput of a spectrometer
will ultimately be determined by the installed slit. Light
entering the optical bench of a spectrometer via a fiber or
lens is focused onto the pre-mounted and aligned slit. The slit
controls the angle of the light which enters the optical bench.
1
Slit widths come in a number of different sizes from 5µm to as large as 800µm with a 1mm (standard) to 2mm height.
Selecting the right slit for your application is very important since they are aligned and permanently mounted into
a spectrometer and should only be changed by a trained technician.
The most common slits used in spectrometers are 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 μm, etc. For systems where optical fibers are
used for input light coupling, a fiber bundle matched with the shape of the entrance slit (stacked fiber) may help
increase the coupling efficiency and system throughput.
Technical Details
The function of the entrance slit is to define a clear-cut object for the optical bench. The size (width (Ws) and height
(Hs)) of the entrance slit is one of the main factors that affect the throughput of the spectrograph. The image width
of the entrance slit is a key factor in determining the spectral resolution of the spectrometer when it is greater than
the pixel width of the detector array. Both the throughput and resolution of the system should be balanced by
selecting a proper entrance slit width.
The image width of the entrance slit (Wi) can be estimated as,
Wi = (M2 · Ws2+Wo2)1/2,
Equation 1-1
where M is the magnification of the optical bench set by the ratio of the focal length of the focusing mirror / lens
to the collimating mirror / lens, Ws is the width of the entrance slit, and Wo is the image broadening caused by the
optical bench. Under the condition that the resolution requirement is satisfied, the slit width should be as wide as
possible to improve the throughput of the spectrograph.
For a standard Czerzy-Turner optical bench, Wo is approximately a few tens of microns, so reducing the width of the
entrance slit below this value won’t significantly improve the resolution of the system. Axial transmissive optical
benches can significantly reduce Wo, thus achieving a finer spectral resolution. Another limit on spectral resolution is
set by the pixel width (Wp) of the array detector. Reducing Wi below Wp will not increase resolution of the spectrometer.
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Spectrometer
When the required wavelength coverage is broad, i.e. λmax > 2λmin, optical signals
in wavelengths from different diffraction orders may end up at the same spatial
position on the detector plane, which will become evident once we take a look
at the grating equation. In this case, a linear variable filter (LVF) is required to
eliminate any unwanted higher order contributions, or perform “order sorting”.
Overview
The diffraction grating of a spectrometer determines the
wavelength range and partially determines the optical
resolution that the spectrometer will achieve. Choosing the
correct grating is a key factor in optimizing your spectrometer
for the best spectral results in your application. Gratings will
influence your optical resolution and the maximum efficiency
for a specific wavelength range. The grating can be described
in two parts: the groove frequency and the blaze angle, which
are further explained in this section.
There are two types of diffraction gratings: ruled gratings and
holographic gratings. Ruled gratings are created by etching
a large number of parallel grooves onto the surface of a
substrate, then coating it with a highly reflective material.
Holographic gratings, on the other hand, are created by
interfering two UV beams to create a sinusoidal index of
refraction variation in a piece of optical glass. This process
results in a much more uniform spectral response, but a much
lower overall efficiency.
For fixed grating spectrometers, it can be shown that the angular dispersion from the grating is described by
Spectrometer
Part 2: The Grating
Equation 2-1
where β is the diffraction angle, d is the groove period (which is equal to the inverse of the groove density), m is the
diffraction order, and λ is the wavelength of light, as shown in Figure 2-1.
2
While ruled gratings are the simplest and least expensive gratings to manufacture, they exhibit much more stray
light. This is due to surface imperfections and other errors in the groove period. Thus, for spectroscopic applications
(such as UV spectroscopy) where the detector response is poorer and the optics are suffering more loss, holographic
gratings are generally selected to improve the stray light performance of the spectrometer. Another advantage
of holographic gratings is that they are easily formed on concave surfaces, allowing them to function as both the
dispersive element and focusing optic at the same time.
Figure 2-1 Geometric Representation of Diffraction from Both a Concave and a Flat Grating
By taking into account the focal length (F) of the focusing mirror and by assuming the small angle approximation,
equation 2-1 can be rewritten as
Equation 2-2
Groove Frequency
The amount of dispersion is determined by the amount of grooves per mm ruled into the grating. This is commonly
referred to as groove density, or groove frequency. The groove frequency of the grating determines the spectrometer’s
wavelength coverage and is also a major factor in the spectral resolution. The wavelength coverage of a spectrometer
is inversely proportional to the dispersion of the grating due to its fixed geometry. However, the greater the dispersion,
the greater the resolving power of the spectrometer. Inversely, decreasing the groove frequency decreases the
dispersion and increases wavelength coverage at the cost of spectral resolution.
For example, if you were to choose a Quest™ X spectrometer with a 900g/mm, it would give you a wavelength
range of 370 nm, with an optical resolution as low as 0.5nm. Comparably, if you were to choose a Quest™
X with a 600g/mm grating, it would instead give you up to 700nm of wavelength coverage with an
optical resolution as low as 1.0nm. As this example shows, you are able to increase your wavelength
coverage at the sacrifice of optical resolution.
which gives the linear dispersion in terms of nm/mm. From the linear dispersion, the maximum spectral range
(λmax - λmin) can be calculated based upon the detector length (LD), which can be calculated by multiplying the total
number of pixels on the detector (n) by the pixel width (Wp) resulting in the expression
Equation 2-3
Based on equation 2-3, it is clear that the maximum spectral range of a spectrometer is determined by the detector
length (LD), the groove density (1/d) and the focal length (F).
The minimum wavelength difference that can be resolved by the diffraction grating is given by
Equation 2-4
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Spectrometer
It should also be noted that the longest wavelength that will be diffracted by a grating is 2d, which places an upper
limit on the spectral range of the grating. For near-infrared (NIR) applications, this long wavelength limitation may
restrict the maximum groove density allowed for your spectrometer.
Blaze Angle
As a grating diffracts incident polychromatic light, it does not do so with uniform efficiency. The overall shape of
the diffraction curve is determined mainly by the groove facet angle, otherwise known as the blaze angle. Using
this property, it is possible to calculate which blaze angle will correspond to which peak efficiency; this is called
the blaze wavelength. This concept is illustrated in Figure 2-1, which compares three different 150g/mm gratings
blazed at 500nm, 1250nm & 2000nm.
Spectrometer
where N is the total number of grooves on the diffraction grating. This is consistent with transform limit theory
which states that the smallest resolvable unit of any transform is inversely proportional to the number of samples.
Generally, the resolving power of the grating is much higher than the overall resolving power of the spectrometer,
showing that the dispersion is only one of many factors in determining the overall spectral resolution.
Part 3: The Detector
Overview
We’ve discussed the importance that the entrance slit and
the diffraction grating have in forming a spectral image
of the incident light in the image plane. In traditional
spectrometer (monochrometer) designs, a second slit is
placed in the image plane, known as the exit slit. The exit
slit is typically the same size as the entrance slit since the
entrance slit width is one of the limiting factors on the
spectrometer’s resolution (as was shown in Part 1). In this
configuration a single element detector is placed behind
the exit slit and the grating is rotated to scan the spectral
image across the slit, and therefore measure the intensity
of the light as a function of wavelength.
3
In modern spectrometers, CCD and linear detector arrays have facilitated the development of “fixed grating”
spectrometers. As the incident light strikes the individual pixels across the CCD, each pixel represents a portion of the
spectrum that the electronics can then translate and display with a given intensity using software. This advancement
has allowed for spectrometers to be constructed without the need for moving parts, and therefore greatly reduce
the size and power consumption. The use of compact multi-element detectors has allowed for a new class of low
cost, compact spectrometers to be developed: commonly referred to as “miniature spectrometers.”
Detector Types
While photodetectors can be characterized in many different ways, the most important differentiator is the detector
material. The two most common semiconductor materials used in miniature spectrometers are Si and InGaAs. It is
critical to choose the proper detector material when designing a spectrometer because the bandgap energy (Egap) of
the semiconductor determines the upper wavelength limit (λmax) that can be detected by the following relationship
Figure 2-2 Comparison of Grating Efficiency As a Function of Blaze Wavelenth
Equation 3-1
Gratings can be blazed to provide high diffraction efficiency (>85%) at a specific wavelength, i.e. a blaze wavelength
(λB). As a rule of thumb, the grating efficiency will decrease by 50% at 0.6×λB and 1.8×λB. This sets a limit on the
spectral coverage of the spectrometer. Generally, the blaze wavelength of the diffraction grating is biased toward
the weak side of the spectral range to improve the overall signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the spectrometer.
where h is Plank’s constant and c is the speed of light. The product of Plank’s constant and the speed of light can be
expressed as 1240 eV•nm or 1.24 eV•µm to simplify the conversion from energy to wavelength. For example, the
bandgap energy of Si is 1.11eV which corresponds to a maximum wavelength of 1117.117nm.
InGaAs, on the other hand, is an alloy created by mixing InAs and GaAs, which have a bandgap of 0.36eV and 1.43eV
respectively. Therefore, depending on the ratio of In and Ga the bandgap energy can be tuned in between those
two values. However, due to a variety of factors, not all ratios of In and Ga are easily fabricated, therefore 1.7µm (or
0.73eV) has become the standard configuration for InGaAs detector arrays. It is also possible to use extended InGaAs
arrays which can detect out to 2.2µm or 2.6µm, but these detectors are much more expensive and are much nosier
than traditional InGaAs detectors.
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Spectrometer
Spectrometer
The lower detection limit of a material is slightly harder to quantify because it is determined by the absorbance
characteristics of the semiconductor material, and as a result can vary widely with the thickness of the detector.
Another common method of lowering the detection limit of the detector is to place a fluorescent coating on the
window of the detector, which will absorb the higher energy photons and reemit lower energy photons which
are then detectable by the sensor. Figure 3-1 below shows a comparison of the detectivity (D*) as a function of
wavelength for both Si (CCD) and InGaAs.
Figure 3-2 Typical Quantum Efficiency of Front-illuminated CCD and Back-thinned CCD
Figure 3-1 Approximate D* Values As a Function of Wavelength for Some Typical Detectors
CCDs, BT-CCDs, and PDAs
While currently InGaAs detector arrays are only available in one configuration, Si multi-element detectors are readily
available in three different subcategories: charge coupled devices (CCDs) back-thinned charge coupled devices
(BT-CCDs), and photodiode arrays (PDAs).
CCD technology allows for small pixel size (~14µm) detectors to be constructed because it eliminates the need for
direct readout circuitry from each individual pixel. This is accomplished by transferring the charge from one pixel to
another, allowing for all of the information along the array to be read out from a single pixel. CCDs can be constructed
very inexpensively which makes them an ideal choice for most miniature spectrometers, but they do have two
drawbacks. First, the gate structure on the front of the CCD can cause the incident light to scatter and therefore not
be absorbed. Second, CCDs need to have a relatively large P-Si substrate to facilitate low cost production limiting
the efficiency of the detector (especially at shorter wavelengths) due to absorption through the P layer.
To mitigate both of these issues in spectroscopy applications where very high sensitivity is needed, BT-CCDs are
ideal. BT-CCDs are made by etching the P-Si substrate of the CCD to a thickness of approximately 10µm. This process
greatly reduces the amount of absorption and increases the overall efficiency of the detector. This process also allows
the detector to be illuminated from the back side (P-Si region) which eliminates the effects from the gate structure
on the surface of the detector. Figure 3-2 shows a typical comparison of the quantum efficiency between a
traditional front illuminated CCD and a back illuminated BT-CCD.
While there are distinct advantages to the use of BT-CCDs in spectroscopy, there are also two major drawbacks that
should be noted. First, this process greatly increases the cost of production, and second (since the detector is so
thin ) there can be an etaloning effect caused from reflections off the front and back surfaces of the detector. The
etaloning phenomena associated with BT-CCDs can be mitigated by a process known as deep depletion, but once
again this adds additional cost to the production process.
PDA detectors are more traditional linear detectors which consist of a set of individual photodiodes that are arranged
in a linear fashion using CMOS technology. These detectors, while not having the small pixel size and high sensitivity,
have several advantages over CCD and BT-CCD detectors. First, the lack of charge transfer eliminates the need for a
gate structure on the front surface of the detector and greatly increases the readout speed. The second advantage
of PDA detectors is that the well depth is much higher than the well depth of a CCD; a typical PDA detector well
depth is ~156,000,000e- as compared to ~65,000e- for a standard CCD. The larger well depth of PDA detectors causes
them to have a very large dynamic range (~50,000:1) as well as an extremely linear response. These properties make
PDAs ideal for applications where it is necessary to detect small changes in large signals, such as LED monitoring.
Detector Noise
The main noise sources found in an array detector include readout noise, shot noise, dark noise, and fixed pattern
noise.
Readout noise is caused by electronic noise in the detector output stage and related circuitry, which largely dictates
the detection limit of the spectrometer.
Shot noise is associated with the statistical variation in the number of photons incident on the detector, which
follows a Poisson distribution. Therefore, shot noise is proportional to the square root of the incident photon flux.
Dark noise is associated with the statistical changes in the number of electrons generated in a dark state. A photo
detector exhibits a small output even when no incident light is present. This is known as the dark current or dark
output. Dark current is caused by thermally generated electron movements and is strongly dependent on ambient
temperatures. Similar to shot noise, dark noise also follows a Poisson distribution; as a result, dark noise is proportional
to the square root of the dark current.
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The total noise of an array detector is the root square sum of these four noise sources.
TE Cooling
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is an effective way to reduce dark noise as well
as to enhance the dynamic range and detection limit. For Si detectors, dark current doubles when the temperature
increases by approximately 5 to 7 °C and halves when the temperature decreases by approximately 5 to 7°C. Figure
3-3 shows the dark noise for an un-cooled and cooled CCD detector at an integration time of 60 seconds. When
operating at room temperature, the dark noise nearly saturates the un-cooled CCD. When the CCD is cooled down
to only 10°C by the TEC, the dark current is reduced by about four times and the dark noise is reduced by about two
times. This makes the CCD capable of operating at a longer integration time to detect weak optical signals. When
a CCD based spectrometer is involved in non-demanding high light level applications such as LED measurement,
the dark noise reduction due to TE cooling is minimal because of the relatively short integration time used.
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The fixed pattern noise is the variation in photo-response between neighboring pixels. This variation results mainly
from variations in the quantum efficiency among pixels caused by non-uniformities in the aperture area and film
thickness that arise during fabrication.
Part 4: The Optical Bench
Overview
As stated in Part 1: The Slit, a spectrometer is an imaging
system which maps a plurality of monochromatic images
of the entrance slit onto the detector plane. In the past
3 sections, we discussed the three key configurable
components of the spectrometer: the slit, the grating,
and the detector. In this section, we will discuss how
these different components work together with different
optical components to form a complete system. This
system is typically referred to as the spectrograph, or
optical bench. While there are many different possible
optical bench configurations, the three most common
types are the crossed Czerny-Turner, unfolded CzernyTurner, and concave holographic spectrographs (shown
in Figures 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3 respectively).
4
Czerny-Turner
The crossed Czerny-Turner configuration
consists of two concave mirrors and one plano
diffraction grating, as illustrated in figure 4-1.
The focal length of mirror 1 is selected such
that it collimates the light emitted from the
entrance slit and directs the collimated beam
of light onto the diffraction grating. Once the
light has been diffracted and separated into its
chromatic components, mirror 2 is then used to
focus the dispersed light from the grating onto
the detector plane.
Figure 3-3 Dark Current for Cooled and Un-cooled CCD Detector (Integration Time = 60s)
As a rule of thumb, when the integration time of a CCD spectrometer is set to less than 200ms, the detector is operating
in a read noise limited state. Therefore, there is no significant noise reduction due to the TE cooling; however the
temperature regulation under these conditions will be beneficial for long term baseline stability.
Figure 4-1 Crossed Czerny-Turner Spectrograph
The crossed Czerny-Turner configuration offers a compact and flexible spectrograph design. For a diffraction grating
with a given angular dispersion value, the focal length of the two mirrors can be designed to provide various linear
dispersion values. This determines the spectral coverage for a given detector, sensing length and resolution of the
system. By optimizing the geometry of the configuration, the crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph may provide a
flattened spectral field and good coma correction. However, due to its off-axis geometry, the Czerny-Turner optical
bench exhibits a large image aberration, which may broaden the image width of the entrance slit by a few tens
of microns. Thus, the Czerny-Turner optical bench is mainly used for low to medium resolution spectrometers.
Although this design is not intended for two dimensional imaging, using aspheric mirrors (such as toroidal mirrors)
instead of spherical mirrors can provide a certain degree of correction to the spherical aberration and astigmatism.
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In comparison with a ruled grating, the holographic grating presents up to over a 10x reduction in stray light, which
helps to minimize the interferences due to unwanted light. A ruled diffraction grating is produced by a ruling engine
that cuts grooves into the coating layer on the grating substrate (typically glass coated with a thin reflective layer)
using a diamond tipped tool.
Spectrometer
To minimize image aberrations, the Czerny-Turner optical bench is generally designed with an f-number (f/#) of
>3, which in turn places a limit on its throughput. The f-number of an optical system expresses the diameter of the
entrance pupil in terms of its effective focal length. The f-number is defined as f/# = f/D, where f is the focal length of
the collection optic and D is the diameter of the element. The f-number is used to characterize the light gathering
power of the optical system. The relation of the f-number with another important optical concept, Numerical
Aperture (NA), is that: f/# = 1/(2•NA), where the numerical aperture of an optical system is a dimensionless number
that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.
A holographic diffraction grating is produced using a photolithographic technique that utilizes a holographic
interference pattern. Ruled diffraction gratings, by the nature of the manufacturing process, cannot be produced
without defects, which may include periodic errors, spacing errors and surface irregularities. All of these contribute
to increased stray light and ghosting (false spectral lines caused by periodic errors). The optical technique used to
manufacture holographic diffraction gratings does not produce periodic errors, spacing errors or surface irregularities.
This means that holographic gratings have significantly reduced stray light (typically 5-10x lower stray light compared
to ruled gratings) and removed ghosts completely.
The relatively large f/# of Czerny-Turner optical benches,
in comparison to a typical multimode fiber (NA ≈ 0.22),
can cause a fairly high level of stray light in the optical
bench. One simple and cost-effective way to mitigate
this issue is by unfolding the optical bench as shown in
Figure 4-2. This allows for the insertion of “beam blocks”
into the optical path, greatly reducing the stray light
and, as a result, the optical noise in the system. This issue
is not as damaging in the visible and NIR regions where
there is an abundance of signal and higher quantum
efficiencies, but it can be a problem for dealing with
medium to low light level UV applications. This makes
the unfolded Czerny-Turner spectrograph ideal for UV
applications that require a compact form factor.
Ruled gratings are generally selected when working with low groove density, e.g., less than 1200 g/mm. When high
groove density, low stray light, and/or concave gratings are required, holographic gratings are the better choice. It
is important to keep in mind that the maximum diffraction efficiency of concave holographic gratings is typically
~35% in comparison to plano ruled gratings, which can have peak efficiencies of ~80%.
Figure 4-2 Unfolded Czerny-Turner Spectrograph
Part 5: Spectral Resolution
Concave Holographic
The third most common optical bench is based on an aberration corrected concave holographic grating (CHG). Here,
the concave grating is used both as the dispersive and focusing element, which in turn means that the number of
optical elements is reduced. This increases throughput and efficiency of the spectrograph, thus making it higher
in throughput and more rugged. The holographic grating technology permits correction of all image aberrations
present in spherical, mirror based Czerny-Turner spectrometers at one wavelength, with good mitigation over a
wide wavelength range.
Figure 4-3 Concave-Holographic Spectrograph
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Introduction
One of the most important characteristics of a spectrometer
is the spectral (or optical) resolution. The spectral resolution
of a system determines the maximum number of spectral
peaks that the spectrometer can resolve. For example, if
a spectrometer with a wavelength range of 200nm had a
spectral resolution of 1nm, the system would be capable of
resolving a maximum of 200 individual wavelengths (peaks)
across a spectrum.
5
In dispersive array spectrometers, there are 3 main factors
that determine the spectral resolution of a spectrometer:
the slit, the diffraction grating, and the detector. The slit
determines the minimum image size that the optical bench
can form in the detector plane. The diffraction grating
determines the total wavelength range of the spectrometer.
The detector determines the maximum number and size of
discreet points in which the spectrum can be digitized.
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Part 6: Choosing a Fiber Optic
It is important to understand that the observed signal (So) is not solely dependent on the spectral resolution (R) of
the spectrometer but it is also dependent on the linewidth of the signal (Sr). As a result, the observed resolution is
the convolution of the two sources,
Overview
Equation 5-1
When the signal linewidth is significantly greater than the spectral resolution, the effect can be ignored and one
can assume that the measured resolution is the same as the signal resolution. Conversely, when the signal linewidth
is significantly narrower than the spectrometer resolution, the observed spectrum will be limited solely by the
spectrometer resolution.
For most applications it is safe to assume that you are working in one of these limiting cases, but for certain
applications such as high resolution Raman spectroscopy, this convolution cannot be ignored. For example, if a
spectrometer has a spectral resolution of ~3cm-1 and uses a laser with a linewidth of ~4cm-1, the observed signal will
have a linewidth of ~5cm-1 since the spectral resolutions are so close to each other (assuming a Gaussian distribution).
For this reason, when attempting to measure the spectral resolution of a spectrometer it is important to assure that
the measured signal is significantly narrow to assure that the measurement is resolution limited. This is typically
accomplished by using a low pressure emission lamp, such as an Hg vapor or Ar, since the linewidth of such sources
is typically much narrower than the spectral resolution of a dispersive array spectrometer. If narrower resolution is
required, a single mode laser can be used.
After the data is collected from the low pressure lamp, the spectral resolution is measured at the full width half
maximum (FWHM) of the peak of interest.
Calculating Spectral Resolution:
When calculating the spectral resolution (δλ) of a spectrometer, there are four values you will need to know: the
slit width (Ws), the spectral range of the spectrometer (Δλ), the pixel width (Wp), and the number of pixels in the
detector (n). It is also important to remember that spectral resolution is defined as the FWHM. One very common
mistake when calculating spectral resolution is to overlook the fact that in order to determine the FWHM of a peak, a
minimum of three pixels is required, therefore the spectral resolution (assuming the Ws = Wp) is equal to three times
the pixel resolution (Δλ/n). This relationship can be expanded on to create a value known as resolution factor (RF),
which is determined by the relationship between the slit width and the pixel width. As would be expected, when
Ws ≈ Wp the resolution factor is 3. When Ws ≈ 2Wp the resolution factor drops to 2.5, and continues to drop until Ws
> 4Wp when the resolution factor levels out to 1.5.
All of this information can be summarized by the following equation,
·
·
·
Equation 5-2
When configuring a spectrometer for a given experiment,
one of the commonly overlooked considerations is in
choosing the best fiber optic cable. Although there are many
different factors to consider for this choice, this section will
focus on the following two key factors: core diameter and
absorption.
First, we will briefly review what a fiber optic cable is and
how it is used to direct light into a spectrometer. Then, we
will discuss the two characteristics stated above and why
they are important for determining the throughput of the
fiber optic.
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6
Technical Details
A fiber optic can be thought of as a “light pipe”. If you consider how the pipes in a home direct water from one
location to another by guiding it through twists and turns to the desired location, you can recognize that fiber
optics guide light waves in a similar fashion. Instead of directing light to a bathroom or kitchen, though, we are
interested in guiding the light into a spectrometer or other optical detection system. This is achieved by a process
known as total internal reflection.
In order to understand how total internal reflection is achieved, we must first look at the optical property known
as refraction. Refraction arises because the speed of light varies based on the material it is traveling through. As
a result, when light transitions from one medium to another, the angle at which the light is traveling is retarded
relative to the interface.
The refracting power of a material is defined as
Equation 6-1
where n is the index of refraction, v is the speed of light in the medium of interest, and c is the speed of light in a
vacuum. For example, the index of refraction of air is 1.000293, which shows that the speed of light in air is almost
exactly the same as it is in a vacuum, whereas the index of refraction of water is 1.333, showing that light travels
25% slower in water than in a vacuum.
The relationship between the index of refraction and the angle at which light travels is defined by Snell’s law
For example, if a spectrometer uses a 25µm slit, a 14µm 2048 pixel detector and a wavelength
range from 350nm – 1050nm, the calculated resolution will be 1.53nm.
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Measuring Spectral Resolution
Equation 6-2
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Figure 6-1 Total Internal Reflection in a Fiber Optic
Figure 6-1 illustrates how a fiber optic is designed to facilitate
total internal reflection by using two different types of glass,
a lower index cladding, and a higher index core in order to
trap the light within the core of the fiber and guide it through
the fiber optic. This ability to collect light from one place and
direct it to another is the reason fiber optic cables are the ideal
solution for coupling light into a spectrometer.
Spectrometer
From this equation, we can see that the refracted angle (θ2) is dependent on the ratio of the indices of the two
materials (n1/n2) as well as the incident angle (θ1). As a result, by controlling the ratio of the indices, one can engineer
the refracted angle such that all of the light is reflected back from the interface. This is known as total internal
reflection and is the method that allows for light to be contained and guided inside of a fiber optic.
Absorption
Another important factor to consider is the absorption properties of the fiber optic. If the light is absorbed by the
fiber, it will never be detected by the spectrometer.
During the traditional manufacturing process for fiber-optics, OH- ions are inadvertently doped into the glass by
the plasma torches used to soften the bulb so that it can be drawn into fibers. The presence of these ions creates
very strong absorption bands (known as water peaks) in the NIR, which can greatly interfere with the ability to make
broad band measurements through this region. In order to avoid this when using fiber optics for NIR spectroscopy,
fiber optics need to be manufactured using special low OH- plasma torches.
Core Diameter
Since all of the light in a fiber optic is collected in the core, the diameter of the core directly correlates to the amount
of light that can be transmitted. Based on this principle, it would seem intuitive that a larger core diameter will
improve the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of a spectrometer. While this is true to a certain extent, there are
other limiting factors that need to be considered when selecting the right fiber optic.
The first thing to consider is the pixel height of the detector. As shown in previous sections, the optical bench of a
spectrometer is designed to form an image of the slit onto the detector plane. If the detector pixels are only 200µm
in height and you select a 400µm core fiber, 50% of the light incident on the detector is wasted. In this case, there
appears to be no advantage gained from having a larger core, but there is a way to get around this issue by adding
a cylindrical lens into the optical bench in front of the detector.
Figure 6-3 Comparison of Standard and Low OH- Fiber Optics in the NIR
Inversely, there are also severe absorption properties in the UV spectrum. This property arises from a photo-chemical
effect known as solarization, which worsens over time with extended UV exposure especially below 290nm.
For these reasons, it is extremely important to pay close attention when selecting a fiber for a specific application.
When operating in the NIR spectra, make sure to choose low OH- fiber optics (also commonly called NIR fiber optics).
When working in the visible and near UV spectral region, standard fiber optics commonly referred to as UV fiber
optics are acceptable. When working in the deep UV (<290nm), solarization resistant fibers generally referred to
as SRUV fibers are required.
Figure 6-2 Signal Intensity for Various Core Diameters with a Cylindrical Lens Installed
The cylindrical lens focuses the image of the slit in the axis that is orthogonal to the array without
distorting the image along the axis that is parallel to the array in the detector plane. This allows
for the light from the entire core to be directed onto the pixel, greatly increasing the sensitivity
of the overall setup. Figure 6-2 shows that this approach works quite well up to a 600µm
core fiber.
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Overview
A bifurcated fiber can also be used to couple the signal from multiple samples into the same spectrometer. When
using a bifurcated fiber in this fashion, only one sample can emit light at a time, or special care should be taken
to make sure the signals do not have spectral overlap.
For many spectroscopic applications, proper sampling
requires more than just a simple fiber optic patch cord.
In cases that require you to measure various samples
simultaneously or those that require improved signal
to noise ratio (as in the case of weak signals), the use
of fiber optic bundles are required. In this section, we
will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of some
common fiber optic bundle configurations.
Spectrometer
Part 7: Fiber Optic Bundles
The same basic principal and applications can be scaled up to trifurcated and quadfurcated fiber assemblies as
well. An example of a trifurcated fiber assembly is shown in Figure 7-3 below.
7
Fiber Optic Bundles
A fiber optic bundle is defined as any fiber optic assembly that contains more than one fiber optic in a single cable.
The most common example of a fiber optic bundle is known as a bifurcated fiber assembly. The goal of using a
bifurcated fiber assembly is either to split a signal or to combine signals. Figure 7-1 shows an example of a typical
bifurcated fiber assembly.
Figure 7-3 Trifurcated Fiber Assembly
Figure 7-1 Example of a Bifurcated Fiber Assembly
Some of the most common applications for bifurcated fiber
assemblies are those that require you to direct light from a
sample into two different spectrometers. This is generally used
to extend the spectral coverage of the measurement, either
to maintain higher resolution or to cover an extended range.
For example, if someone is looking to make a broadband
measurement from 350 – 1700nm, they need to use
both an InGaAs and a Si detector array. By using
a bifurcated fiber assembly with one UV fiber
and one NIR fiber to direct light into each
spectrometer, they can make a simultaneous
measurement. Figure 7-2 shows an example
spectrum of this type of measurement.
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Another common bundled fiber optic assembly is called a “round to slit” configuration. This configuration consists
of multiple small core fibers (typically 100µm) that are put into one fiber assembly with fibers bundled tightly
in a circular fashion on one end, and stacked linearly on top of each other on the other end. The end with fibers
stacked linearly on top of one another form a pattern to match the entrance slit of the spectrometer, as shown
in Figure 7-4 below.
Figure 7-4 “Round to Slit” Fiber Optic Bundle
Figure 7-2 Spectrum of a Tungsten Halogen Lamp
from 350 – 1700nm
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Figure 7-5 Comparison of Stacked Fiber to Single Large Core Fiber
When using a fiber optic assembly with a slit
configuration, it is important to remember two
important details. First, in order to get any benefit
from the fiber stacking, a cylindrical lens must be
used to prevent the vast majority of the light to be
imaged above and below the detector. Second, it
is important to properly align the fiber stack to the
entrance slit, which can be done by shining light
into the round end of the assembly and monitoring
the signal as the fiber is rotated in the SMA905
connection port. When peak signal is achieved,
the fiber can then be screwed down to lock the
position. One very common application using this
kind of fiber optic assembly is NIR transmission
spectroscopy, where there are very few photons
and photon energy is extremely low. An example
of a transmittance setup is shown in Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6 Example Transmittance Setup Utilizing
a “Round to Slit” Fiber Bundle
Spectrometer
This configuration allows for much higher throughput into the spectrometer, as opposed to simply using a
larger core fiber. As shown in Figure 7-5 below, when a large core fiber is placed in front of the entrance slit of a
spectrometer, the majority of the light is vinyetted and doesn’t make it into the spectrometer. By contrast, when
the smaller fibers are stacked along the entrance slit, significantly more light enters into the spectrometer, allowing
for much higher sensitivity and signal to noise. As a result, the slit can remain relatively narrow and maintain
resolution without sacrificing throughput.
Part 8: Fiber Optic Probes
Overview
Now that we understand the basics of fiber optic cables
and bundles and how they can be used to collect and direct
light, we will explore how fiber optics can be packaged and
combined with different opto-mechanical components to
construct fiber optic probes. Fiber optic probes are the
ideal solution for analyzing large or awkwardly shaped
samples, monitoring real-time kinetic reactions, sampling
in vivo, and any other application where it is difficult to
bring the sample to the spectrometer. The flexibility and
user-friendliness of fiber optic probes has made them one
of the most widespread tools in modern spectroscopy. In
this section, we will briefly discuss four of the most common
fiber optic probes: reflectance probes, dark-field reflection
probes, transflectance dip probes, and Raman probes.
8
Reflectance Probes
The most basic fiber optic probe is a reflectance probe, which in its simplest form consists of a bifurcated fiber where
the distal (bundled) end is placed in a metal sheath instead of a SMA connector, as shown in figure 8-1. This setup
allows for one of the bifurcated ends to be connected to a light source, such as a fiber coupled tungsten halogen
lamp, while the other is connected to a spectrometer. In this setup, the light from the lamp will travel through the
1st bifurcated end to the distal end of the probe and reflect off of the sample. The reflected light from the sample
will then travel from the distal end to the 2nd bifurcated end and into the spectrometer for analysis.
Figure 8-1 Fiber Optic Reflectance Probe
By combining various combinations of single, round, and stacked configurations with regular, bifurcated,
trifurcated, and quadfurcated fiber assemblies, there are countless options available to suit any
application. In the next section, we will discuss how to combine fiber bundles with other various
opto-mechanical components to create more specific applications.
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It is important to note that before reflection data can be collected by the spectrometer, the system must be calibrated
by taking a reference scan. This reference scan is taken by placing a white light reflectance standard, such as PTFE,
at the same geometry from the probe as will be used in the actual measurement. This will allow the spectrometer
to measure the ratio between a “perfect” white light reflector and the sample of interest in order to determine which
wavelengths of light are reflected and which are absorbed.
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A slightly more complex approach to the design of reflectance probes is to employ a round-to-slit fiber optic bundle.
As described in the previous section, this is one common approach to overcoming the issue of weak photon energy
in the NIR. In many reflection probes designed to work in the NIR, this method is applied by stacking 6 fibers on the
bifurcated end attached to the spectrometer and employing a 6-around-1 configuration on the distal end. The 6
outer fibers are going to the slit configuration on the spectrometer and the center fiber connects to the light source
in the other bifurcated end, as shown in figure 8-2 below.
Transflectance Dip Probes
While reflection probes can be used to measure liquids, they are primarily designed for the measurement of solids.
When measuring liquid samples, a dip probe is generally the probe of choice since it can be submerged into the
sample, allowing for kinetic data to be collected. The design of a fiber dip probe is very similar to that of a reflection
probe, though special effort is taken to guarantee that it is liquid tight and inert. The key functional difference is the
presence of a cavity which, when immersed, fills with the liquid sample. This cavity contains an optically transparent
window placed at the distal end of the fiber and a small mirror placed at the bottom of the cavity to reflect the
transmitted light back through the sample and into the collection fiber as shown below in figure 8-4. This setup is
commonly referred to as a transflectance, due to the fact that this method combines transmission and reflection,
doubling the optical path length.
Spectrometer
When measuring reflection, there are two standard geometries that are employed: 0o and 45o normal to the sample.
When measuring at 0o, the probe will pick up the specular (mirror like) component of the reflected light as well as
the diffuse component, but when measuring at 45o, the majority of the specular light is not collected by the probe.
This is an important consideration for applications such as colorimetry and NIR spectroscopy, where the specular
component can distort the spectrum and skew the results.
It is important to note that transflectance
measurements can also be made using a
dark-field reflectance probe configuration.
Figure 8-3 shows an adaptor which can be
placed over the dark-field probe to enable
transflectance measurements in liquids
and slurries.
Figure 8-4 Fiber Optic Transflectance Dip Probe
Figure 8-2 Fiber Optic Reflection Probe with Slit-to-Bundle Configuration
Reflectance probes can also be scaled up to trifurcated and quadfurcated designs in order to increase the spectral
range over which the reflection data is collected.
Dark Field Reflectance Probes
Specular reflection does not contain any useful information for NIR spectroscopy, but it can typically be removed
by measuring the sample at a 45o angle. However, if the sample cannot be measured at a 45o angle, such as when
working in a field or production setting, dark-field illumination (a method borrowed from microscopy) can be used.
The dark-field probe works by illuminating the sample with an annulus of 7 fibers. The diffusely reflected light is
then collected by a bundle of 7 fibers in the center of the probe which directs the light to the spectrometer in a slit
configuration, as shown in figure 8-3 below. The specular components of the light are further reduced by the use
of a lens at the distal end of the probe to redirect the light away from the center fiber bundle.
Raman Probes
The last probe that we will discuss in this section is called a Raman probe, which is used to measure the inelastic
scattering of light off of a sample. Raman scattering is a nonlinear effect resulting in the shift in wavelength from a
known monochromatic source. This shift is equal to the vibrational frequency of the molecular bonds in the material.
As a result, a Raman probe must be capable of directing and focusing the monochromatic excitation source (typically
a laser) to the sample, collecting the scattered light and then directing it to the spectrometer. Figure 8-5 shows a
typical design for a Raman probe.
Figure 8-5 Typical Design of a Raman Probe
Figure 8-3 Dark-field Fiber Optic Probe
Since a pure signal is extremely important to Raman spectroscopy, a narrow band-pass filter is placed in the optical
path of the excitation source before it reaches the sample. It is also important to note that since the Raman effect
is extremely weak, the signal must be collected at a 0o angle normal to the sample. As discussed earlier, this causes
interference from specular reflections, which in this case is referred to as Rayleigh scattering. Therefore, it is essential
to filter the collected signal through the use of a long pass filter before it is directed to the spectrometer.
The Raman probe is a perfect example of how fiber optics can be combined with other optical components to
enable simple and flexible measurement of even the most complicated spectroscopy.
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Fluorescence:
Reflectance:
•
Reflectance is determined by first measuring a white reflectance standard and
then measuring the surface of the material of interest in order to calculate the ratio
between the two. Reflectance is one of the fundamental spectral properties of a
material, and is one of the simplest measurements to make using a spectrometer.
•
There are two primary components in a reflected spectrum: specular and diffuse.
Each contains different information about the material. Depending on the
component of interest, reflectance can be measured using a variety of accessories.
Integrating spheres and fiber optic reflectance probes measure both diffuse and/
or specular components, whereas a simple collimating lense can be used if you are
only interested in the specular components.
•
Reflectance can be used to characterize color (both specular & diffuse), coated
& un-coated optical components, thin-film thickness, semiconductors, precious
metals, and countless other materials.
•
In fluorescence spectroscopy, a molecule is analyzed by exciting the species with a
high energy photon (traditionally in the UV). This causes the electrons to transition
from a ground state to a higher energy state. When the electron returns to the
ground state, it emits a photon with lower energy which is equal to the energy
level of which it was excited to. Therefore, by measuring the spectrum of the
emitted light, you can investigate the different electronic and vibrational states of
the molecule.
•
Fluorescence spectroscopy can also be used to identify non-fluorescent
compounds by tagging it with another molecule with known fluorescent
properties and an affinity for the compound of interest.
•
Typical fluorescence setups will employ a UV excitation source such as a pulsed
xenon lamp or a UV laser directed onto a sample with a dichroic mirror to redirect
the emitted light into a spectrometer. A right-angle (3-port) cuvette holder can
also be used for liquid or powder samples.
Transmission:
Raman:
•
Transmission, which is also one of the most fundamental spectral properties of a
material, has a very similar definition to reflectance. Transmission is defined as the
ratio of the spectrum of incident light normal to the surface of the material and
the spectrum of the light that is transmitted out of the other side of the material.
•
•
Transmission measurements can be taken on solid, liquid and gas phase materials.
Typically for solid materials, these measurements are made using two collimating
lenses. For more challenging samples like liquids and gases, fiber coupled cuvette
holders, flow cells, or immersion probes are used.
Raman spectroscopy, a molecular spectroscopy which is observed as inelastically
scattered light, allows for the interrogation and identification of vibrational
(phonon) states of molecules. As a result, Raman spectroscopy provides an
invaluable analytical tool for molecular finger printing as well as monitoring
changes in molecular bond structure (e.g. state changes and stresses & strains).
•
•
Transmittance data is typically used for the characterization of optical
components.
In comparison to other vibrational spectroscopy methods, such as FT-IR and
NIR, Raman has several major advantages. These advantages stem from the fact
that the Raman effect manifests itself in the light scattered off of a sample as
opposed to the light absorbed by a sample. Similar to FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy
is highly selective which allows Raman to identify and differentiate molecules and
chemical species that are very similar.
•
Since Raman spectroscopy is such a weak process, it is imperative that you use a
TE Cooled spectrometer and a high quality laser.
Absorption:
•
Absorption is the log of transmission, but is the preferred method for most
molecular spectroscopic analyses of materials. Absorption can be measured at
any wavelength but is typically employed in the UV (200 - 400nm) and NIR (900 2200nm) ranges.
•
Typical absorption set-ups are similar to transmission set-ups utilizing
cuvette holders, flow cells, and immersion probes.
•
B&W Tek, Inc.
Absorption allows for information to be gathered about the
fundamental structure of a molecule and can be used for both
qualitative and quantitative analyses.
Page 34
Spectrometer
Applications of Modular Spectroscopy
Emission:
•
Emission measurements are the simplest spectroscopic technique, and may be
the most commonly used in history. When measuring emission, any variety of
accessories can be utilized since in most cases you are not restricted by the size of the
sample. Most of the time, a standard fiber optic patch cable is perfectly acceptable
for the measurement.
•
Examples of these types of measurements include elemental emission spectroscopy,
spectral irradiance measurements, laser characterization, plasma endpoint detection,
and countless others.
Page 35
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrometer
Smart CCD Spectrometer
Specifications:
The Exemplar® is the next step in the evolution of miniature CCD
spectrometers. It is the first smart spectrometer featuring on board data
processing, USB 3.0 communication, and temperature compensation. The
Exemplar is also optimized for multi-channel operation featuring ultra-low
trigger delay and gate jitter. Additionally, the Exemplar features a 2048
element detector and built-in 16-bit digitizer with greater than 2.0 MHz
readout speed.
The Exemplar is ideal for most UV, Vis, and NIR applications with spectral
configurations from 200nm to 1050nm and resolution between 0.5nm
and 4.0nm. Custom configurations are available for OEM applications.
Applications:
•
UV, Vis, and NIR: Spectroscopy /
Spectroradiometry / Spectrophotometry
•
Absorbance / Reflectance / Transmittance
•
Kinetic Reaction Monitoring
•
Transient Spectral Analysis
•
Wavelength Identification
•
OEM Systems Integration
•
Multi-point Sampling
SMART:
On-board processing including averaging, smoothing,
and dark compensation
SPEED:
“SuperSpeed” USB 3.0 transferring up to 900 spectra per
second
SYNCHRONOUS:
Supports up to 32 devices with ultra-low trigger
delay (14ns) & gate jitter (+/- 1ns)
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO:
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 36
On-board Averaging 1
~295
On-board Averaging 10
~929
On-board Averaging 100
~2450
Additional Features:
Power Input
USB @ < 0.5 Amps
•
Temperature Compensation for Ultra-low Thermal Drift
Detector Type
Response Enhanced Linear CCD Array
•
1ms Minimum Integration Time
Wavelength Range
200nm - 1050nm
Detector Pixel Format
2048 x 1 Elements @ 14μm x 200μm Per Element
•
< 0.5nm Spectral Resolution
Spectrograph f/#
3.6
•
UV - NIR (200nm - 1050nm)
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
•
>2.0 MHz Readout Speed
Dynamic Range
1300:1 Single Acquisition
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Data Transfer Speed
> 930 Spectra per Second in Burst Mode
Trigger Delay
14ns +/- 1ns
Readout Speed
>2.0 MHz
Minimum Integration Time
1ms, Adjustable in 1µs Increments
Thermal Drift
29 Counts/oC (Max)
Aux Port
External Trigger, Digital IOs & Analog IOs
Operating Temperature
Operational Relative Humidity
Weight
~ 0.75 lbs (0.34 kg)
Dimensions
3.98in x 2.48in x 1.61in (101mm x 63mm x 41mm)
Computer Interface
USB 3.0 / 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7 (32-bit & 64-bit)
Spectrometer
Exemplar®
Entrance Slit
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approx. Resolution
350-1050nm
~1.0nm
10µm
10µm wide x 1mm high
25µm
25µm wide x 1mm high
~1.5nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~2.2nm
5°C - 35°C
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~4.0nm
85% Noncondensing
200µm
200µm wide x 1mm high
Call
Custom Slit Widths Available
Diffraction Grating
Software:
Best
Efficiency
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
Grating
UV / NIR
350 - 1050
600/400
900/500
Vis
380 - 750
Vis / NIR
550 - 1050
830/800
NIR
750 - 1050
1200/750
Custom Configurations Available
BWSpec is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
TM
Spectrograph
Page 37
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrometer
Specifications:
Low Straylight Smart CCD Spectrometer
The Exemplar® LS is a smart CCD spectrometer optimized for low straylight
by utilizing an unfolded Czerny-Turner spectrograph. It features on board
data processing, USB 3.0 communication, and temperature compensation.
The Exemplar LS is also optimized for multi-channel operation, featuring
ultra-low trigger delay and gate jitter. Additionally, the Exemplar LS features
a 2048 element detector and built-in 16-bit digitizer with greater than 2.0
MHz readout speed.
The Exemplar LS is available in two standard spectral configurations: 200nm
- 400nm and 200nm – 850nm with resolutions of less than 0.4nm. Custom
configurations are available for OEM applications.
Applications:
•
•
SMART:
UV, Vis, and NIR: Spectroscopy /
Spectroradiometry / Spectrophotometry
On-board processing including averaging, smoothing,
and dark compensation
Absorbance / Reflectance / Transmittance
•
Kinetic Reaction Monitoring
•
Transient Spectral Analysis
•
Wavelength Identification
•
OEM Systems Integration
•
Multi-point Sampling
Spectrometer
Exemplar® LS
SPEED:
“SuperSpeed” USB 3.0 transferring up to 900 spectra per
second
Power Input
USB @ < 0.5 Amps
Detector Type
Response Enhanced Linear CCD Array
Wavelength Range
200nm - 850nm
Detector Pixel Format
2048 x 1 Elements @ 14μm x 200μm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.6
10µm
10µm wide x 1mm high
Czerny-Turner
25µm
25µm wide x 1mm high
~0.6nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~1.0nm
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~1.6nm
200µm
200µm wide x 1mm high
~3.0nm
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Dynamic Range
1300:1 Single Acquisition
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
>2.0 MHz
Data Transfer Speed
Up to 900 Spectra per Second in Burst Mode
Trigger Delay
~14ns
Minimum Integration Time
1ms, Adjustable in 1µs Increments
Thermal Drift
~29 Counts/oC (Max)
Aux Port
External Trigger, Digital IOs & Analog IOs
Operating Temperature
5°C - 35°C
Operational Relative Humidity
85% Noncondensing
Weight
~ 0.8 lbs (0.37 kg)
Dimensions
4.9in x 3.6in x 1.4in (124mm x 91mm x 35mm)
Computer Interface
USB 3.0 / 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7 (32-bit & 64-bit)
Spectrograph
Supports up to 32 devices with ultra-low trigger
delay (14ns) & gate jitter (+/- 1ns)
•
Temperature Compensation for Ultra-low Thermal Drift
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO:
•
1ms Minimum Integration Time
On-board Averaging 1
~295
•
Low Straylight Spectrograph
On-board Averaging 10
~929
•
< 0.4nm Spectral Resolution
On-board Averaging 100
~2450
•
>2.0 MHz Readout Speed
•
UV - Vis (200nm - 850nm)
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approx. Resolution
200-400nm
~0.4nm
Custom Slit Widths Available
Diffraction Grating
Best
Efficiency
UV
UV - NIR
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
200 - 400
1800/250
200 - 850
600/250
Grating
Custom Configurations Available
Software:
SYNCHRONOUS:
Additional Features:
Entrance Slit
BWSpecTM is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
Accessories:
•
•
•
•
•
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 38
Inline Filter Holders
Fiber Optic Probes
Fiber Patch Cords
Cuvette Holders
Light Sources
Page 39
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrometer
Specifications:
High Performance Smart Spectrometer
Entrance Slit
Power Input
[email protected] (Maximum at Startup)
[email protected] (Typical at Normal Operation)
Detector Type
Back-thinned CCD Array
Wavelength Range
190nm - 1100nm
Pixel Number
2048 Effective Detector Elements
Effective Pixel Size
14μm x ~ 0.9mm
Spectrograph f/#
3.6
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Standard Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
50,000 (Typical)
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Integration Time
6ms, Adjustable in 1μs Increments
Aux Port
External Trigger, 4 Digital Outputs (2 with Shutter Control), 2
Digital Inputs, Analog Input, Analog Output and System Reset
Operating Temperature
5°C - 35°C
Operational Relative Humidity
85% Noncondensing
CCD Cooling
Default: 0 C at Ambient of 25 C.
Weight
3.6 lbs
SMART:
Dimensions
7.40in x 5.05in x 2.80in (188mm x 128mm x 71mm)
Computer Interface
USB 3.0 / 2.0 / 1.1
On-board processing including averaging, smoothing, and
dark compensation
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7 (32-bit & 64-bit)
The Exemplar® Plus is a high performance smart spectrometer utilizing a
low stray light unfolded Czerny-Turner spectrograph. It features a highly
sensitive TE Cooled back-thinned (BT) CCD detector which is linearly
summed for high dynamic range. Its long focal length, coupled with a
high quantum efficiency detector, provides superior data quality over
the entire 190-1100nm spectral range. The Exemplar Plus features a high
signal to noise ratio, making it ideal for low light level applications, and
also features a built-in shutter allowing for dark scan measurements, even
while illuminated. As a member of the Exemplar product line, it features
on board data processing and USB 3.0 communication. The Exemplar
product line is also optimized for multi-channel operation featuring
ultra-low trigger delay and gate jitter.
The Exemplar Plus has spectral configurations from 190nm to 1100nm
and resolutions between 0.1 nm and 10.0 nm. Custom configurations
are available for OEM applications.
SPEED:
“SuperSpeed” USB 3.0 communication
SYNCHRONOUS:
Supports up to 32 devices with ultra-low trigger delay
(14ns) & gate jitter (+/- 1ns)
Applications:
•
Low Light Level UV to NIR Spectroscopy
•
Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy
•
On-line Process Monitoring
•
LCD Display Measurement
•
BioMedical Spectroscopy
•
Gas and Water Analysis
•
LED Characterization
o
Slit
Option
Dimensions
Approx. Resolution
350 - 750nm
10µm
10µm wide x 1mm high
Call
25µm
25µm wide x 1mm high
~1.8nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~2.9nm
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~4.5nm
200µm
200µm wide x 1mm high
Call
Spectrometer
Exemplar® Plus
Custom Slit Widths Available
Diffraction Grating
o
Best
Efficiency
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
Grating
Vis / NIR
350-1050
400/550
1000/900
NIR
750-1050
UV- NIR
190-1100
300/280
UV
190-380
1500/250
Custom Configurations Available
Additional Features:
Accessories:
•
High UV, Vis, and NIR Response
•
Fiber Sampling Probes
•
2048 Detector Elements
•
Fiber Sample Holders
•
Over 60% QE at 200nm
•
Fiber Patch Cords
•
0° TE Cooling (Default)
•
Light Sources
•
Over 90% Peak QE
•
Built-in Shutter
Spectrograph
Software:
BWSpecTM is a spectral data acquisition software with a wide range
of tools that are designed to perform complex measurements
and calculations at the click of a button. It allows the user to
choose between multiple data formats and offers optimization
of scanning parameters, such as integration time. In addition to
powerful data acquisition and data processing, other features
include automatic dark removal, spectrum smoothing, and
manual/auto baseline correction.
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO:
On-board Averaging 1
~540
On-board Averaging 10
~1900
On-board Averaging 100
~4800
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 40
Page 41
B&W Tek, Inc.
•
UV, Vis, and NIR:
Spectroscopy / Spectroradiometry /
Spectrophotometry
•
Wavelength Identification
•
Absorbance
•
Reflectance
•
OEM Optical Instrumentation
•
•
<0.2nm Resolution
•
TE Cooled / Regulated
•
16-bit Digitizer
•
500 kHz Readout Speed
•
Plug-and-play USB 2.0
•
OEM Version Available
•
•
•
•
•
Fiber Patch Cords
Light Sources
Cuvette Holders
Inline Filter Holders
Fiber Optic Probes
Specifications:
DC Power Input
7
Determines Photon Flux and Spectral Resolution
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approximate
Resolution
350 - 1050nm
10µm
10µm wide x 1mm high
~1.1nm
25µm
25µm wide x 1mm high
~1.4nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~2.2nm
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~4.3nm
200µm
200µm wide x 1mm high
Call
Standard
Collimating Mirror
3
AC Adapter Input
100 - 240VAC 50/60 Hz, 0.5A @ 120VAC
Focusing Mirror
Collimates and Redirects Light Towards Grating
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with AlMg2,
which produces approximately 95% reflectance when working in the
UV-Vis spectrum. Aluminum (Al) provides reflectance and magnesium
(Mg2) protects the aluminum from oxidation.
Detector Type
Response Enhanced Linear CCD Array
Pixels
2048 x 1 Elements @ 14μm x 200μm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.2
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
300 (Typical)
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Data Transfer Speed
Up to 180 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
Integration Time
5 ~ 65,535ms x Multiplier
External Trigger
Aux Port
Operating Temperature
15°C - 35°C
Operational Relative Humidity
85% Noncondensing
TE Cooling
14°C
Weight
~ 1.32 lbs (0.60 kg)
Dimensions
5in x 1.5in x 3.6in (127.0mm x 39.0mm x 90.7mm)
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7
4
5
Refocuses Dispersed Light onto Detector
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with AlMg2, which
produces approximately 95% reflectance when working in the UV-Vis
spectrum. Aluminum (Al) provides reflectance and magnesium (Mg2)
protects the aluminum from oxidation.
Array Detector
6
Measures Entire Spectrum Simultaneously
The Glacier® X features a 2048 x 1 linear TE Cooled CCD array detector
with a 14µm pixel width and > 2000 active pixels. As the incident light
strikes the individual pixels across the CCD, each pixel represents a
portion of the spectrum that the electronics can then translate and
display with a given intensity using BWSpec™ software.
The quantum efficiency (QE) and noise level of the array detector
greatly influences the spectrometer’s sensitivity, dynamic range and
signal-to-noise ratio. The spectral acquisition speed of the spectrometer
is mainly determined by the detector response over a wavelength
region.
Specifications
Diffracts Light, Separating Spectral Components
Wavelength Range
The groove frequency of the grating determines two key aspects of the
spectrometer’s performance: the wavelength coverage and the spectral
resolution. When the groove frequency is increased, the instrument will
achieve higher resolution, but the wavelength coverage will decrease.
Inversely, decreasing the groove frequency increases wavelength coverage
at the cost of spectral resolution.
The blaze angle or blaze wavelength of the grating is also a key parameter
in optimizing the spectrometer’s performance. The blaze angle determines
the maximum efficiency that the grating will have in a specific wavelength
region.
Best Efficiency
UV / Vis
UV / NIR
UV / Vis
UV
UV / NIR
UV / NIR
Vis
Vis / NIR
Vis / NIR
Vis
Vis / NIR
Vis / NIR
Spectral Coverage (nm)
200-400
200-800
250-600
280-370
300-900
350-1050
380-750
400-800
450-1050
530-700
600-800
750-1050
Custom Configurations Available
Grating
1800/250
716/222
1200/250
3600/240
600/400
700/530
900/500
1200/500
830/800
1800/500
1714/650
1200/750
200nm - 1050nm
Pixels
2048
Pixel Size
14µm x 200µm
Well Depth
~90,000 e-
Digitization Rate
500 kHz
The extension of the QE curve
after the UV enhancement.
Thermoelectric Cooler
7
Reduces Dark Noise and Increases Detection Limits
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC)
is an effective way to reduce dark current and noise, as well as to
enhance the dynamic range and detection limit.
When the CCD detector array is cooled from a room temperature
o
o
of 25 C down to 14 C by the TEC, the dark current is reduced by a
factor of 4 and the dark noise is reduced by a factor of 2. This allows
the spectrometer to operate at longer exposure times and to detect
Dark Current: Uncooled vs. Cooled CCD Detectors at 30 Seconds
weaker optical signals.
Room Temperature
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 42
2
4
1
Light entering into a spectrometer’s optical bench is vinyetted by a
pre-mounted and aligned slit. This ultimately determines the spectral
resolution and throughput of the spectrometer after grating selection.
We offer a variety of slit widths to match your specific application needs:
from 10µm - 200µm wide, with custom slits available.
Diffraction Grating
5V DC @ < 1.5 Amps
Configurable
BWSpecTM is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
2
5
6
Entrance Slit
Custom Slit Widths Available
Software:
3
By coupling a fiber optic to the SMA 905 adaptor, light will be guided to the
slit and optically matched, ensuring reproducibility. For free space sampling,
a diffuser or lens assembly can be connected directly to the SMA 905 adaptor.
Accessories:
UV - NIR Ranges
Secures Fiber to Ensure Repeatable Results
Standard
Features:
1
Standard
Applications:
Fiber Coupler
Standard
The Glacier® X is ideal for most UV, Vis, and NIR applications with spectral
configurations from 200nm to 1050nm and resolutions between 0.2nm
and 4.5nm. Custom configurations and application support are available
for OEM applications.
Configurable
The Glacier® X is a TE Cooled linear CCD array spectrometer. It features
a 2048 element detector, built-in 16-bit digitizer, and USB 2.0 interface.
Compared to non-cooled CCD spectrometers, the Glacier® X offers higher
dynamic range, significantly reduced dark counts, and superior long-term
operation stability, making it ideal for low light level detection and longterm monitoring applications.
Standard
Spectrometer
Compact High Performance TE Cooled CCD Spectrometer
Spectrometer
Technical Details
Glacier® X
Page 43
Cooled to 14oC
B&W Tek, Inc.
Applications:
Features:
Accessories:
•
Process Monitoring
•
900nm - 1700nm Spectral Range
•
Light Sources
•
NIR Spectroscopy
•
Resolution as Fine as 0.35nm
•
Fiber Patch Cords
Built-in 16-bit Digitizer
•
Fiber Sampling Probes
•
Fiber Sample Holders
On-line Analyzer
•
Material Identification
•
•
o
-10 C TE Cooling
2
Specifications:
DC Power Input
5V DC @ 3.5 Amps
AC Power Input
100 - 240VAC 50/60 Hz, 0.5A @ 120VAC
Detector Type
Linear InGaAs Array
Pixels
512 x 1 @ 25μm x 500μm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.5
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
High Dynamic Mode: 13,000:1
High Sensitivity Mode: 6,250:1
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Data Transfer Speed
>200 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
Integration Time
200µs to >= 64 Seconds
External Trigger
Aux Port
Operating Temperature
0°C - 35°C
TE Cooling
Two-Stage: -5°C @ Relative Humidity = 90% (-10°C Option Available)
Weight
~ 3.1 lbs (1.4 kg)
Dimensions
7.8in x 4.3in x 2.7in (197mm x 109mm x 68mm)
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7
Page 44
6
7
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approximate
Resolution
900 -1700nm
25µm
25µm wide x 1mm high
~4.0nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~5.0nm
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~8.4nm
2
4
Determines Photon Flux and Spectral Resolution
Light entering into a spectrometer’s optical bench is vinyetted by a
pre-mounted and aligned slit. This ultimately determines the spectral
resolution and throughput of the spectrometer after grating selection.
We offer a variety of slit widths to match your specific application needs:
from 25µm - 100µm wide, with custom slits available.
5
1
Focusing Mirror
5
Refocuses Dispersed Light onto Detector
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a special
coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Custom Slit Widths Available
Software:
B&W Tek, Inc.
By coupling a fiber optic to the SMA 905 adaptor, light will be guided
to the slit and optically matched, ensuring reproducibility. For free
space sampling, a diffusor or lens assembly can be connected directly
to the SMA 905 adaptor.
Two Gain Modes for
Specific Application Needs
BWSpecTM is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
3
Secures Fiber to Ensure Repeatable Results
Standard
•
•
1
Collimating Mirror
3
Collimates and Redirects Light Towards Grating
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a special
coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Diffraction Grating
4
The groove frequency of the grating determines two key aspects of the
spectrometer’s performance: the wavelength coverage and the spectral
resolution. When the groove frequency is increased, the instrument will
achieve higher resolution, but the wavelength coverage will decrease.
Inversely, decreasing the groove frequency increases wavelength coverage
at the cost of spectral resolution.
The blaze angle or blaze wavelength of the grating is also a key parameter
in optimizing the spectrometer’s performance. The blaze angle determines
the maximum efficiency that the grating will have in a specific wavelength
region.
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
Grating
Approximate
Resolution
25µm Slit
1500-1600
1260-1355
1450-1650
1200-1400
900-1300
1200-1600
900-1700
1000/1310
1000/1310
600/1200
600/1200
300/1200
300/1200
150/1250
0.35nm
0.4nm
0.8nm
0.7nm
1.5nm
1.5nm
4.0nm
6
Measures Entire Spectrum Simultaneously
The Sol™ 1.7 features a 512 x 1 TE Cooled linear InGaAs photo diode array
detector with pixel dimensions of 25µm x 500µm and 512 active pixels.
Using BWSpec™, the detector mode can be switched between High
Sensitivity and High Dynamic Range modes, allowing for greater control
over the detector’s sensitivity.
Wavelength Range
900nm - 1700nm
Pixels
256, 512 (standard), 1024
Pixel Size
Well Depth
Digitization Rate
25µm x 500µm
High Dynamic Mode: ~100 MeHigh Sensitivity Mode: ~40 Me500 kHz
Thermoelectric Cooler
7
Reduces Dark Noise and Improves Detection Limits
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is
an effective way to reduce dark current and noise, as well as to enhance
the dynamic range and detection limit.
When the InGaAs array detector is cooled from a room temperature of
o
o
25 C down to -10 C by the TEC, the dark current is reduced by 12.25
times and the dark noise is reduced by 3.5 times. This allows the
spectrometer to operate at longer exposure times and to detect weaker
optical signals.
Custom Configurations Available
Array Detector
Specifications
Diffracts Light, Separating Spectral Components
Standard
Quality Control
Entrance Slit
Standard
•
Fiber Coupler
Standard
Each spectrometer features an SMA 905 fiber optic input, a built-in 16bit digitizer, and is USB 2.0 plug-and-play compatible. With our spectral
acquisition software, you can select between High Sensitivity and High
Dynamic Range mode within your pre-configured spectral range.
Customized spectral resolution and application support are available.
Standard
The Sol™ 1.7 is a high performance linear InGaAs array spectrometer,
featuring 256, 512 (standard), and 1024 pixels with TE Cooling down to
-10oC, all while providing high throughput and large dynamic range.
Configurable
900 - 1700nm NIR TE Cooled InGaAs Array Spectrometer
Configurable
Spectrometer
Technical Details
Spectrometer
Sol™ 1.7
Page 45
B&W Tek, Inc.
Technical Details
900 - 2200nm NIR TE Cooled InGaAs Array Spectrometer
Applications:
Features:
Accessories:
•
Process Monitoring
•
900nm - 2200nm Spectral Range
•
Light Sources
•
NIR Spectroscopy
•
Resolution as Fine as 2.5nm
•
Fiber Patch Cords
•
Quality Control
•
Built-in 16-bit Digitizer
•
Fiber Sampling Probes
•
On-line Analyzer
•
-15oC TE Cooling
•
Fiber Sample Holders
•
Material Identification
•
1
3
Secures Fiber to Ensure Repeatable Results
By coupling a fiber optic to the SMA 905 adaptor, light will be guided
to the slit and optically matched, ensuring reproducibility. For free
space sampling, a diffuser or lens assembly can be connected directly
to the SMA 905 adaptor.
7
Entrance Slit
2
Two Gain Modes for
Specific Application Needs
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approximate
Resolution
1100 - 2200nm
25µm
25µm wide x 1mm high
~5.5nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~9.0nm
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~14.0nm
2
4
1
Determines Photon Flux and Spectral Resolution
Light entering into a spectrometer’s optical bench is vinyetted by a
pre-mounted and aligned slit. This ultimately determines the spectral
resolution and throughput of the spectrometer after grating selection.
We offer a variety of slit widths to match your specific application needs:
from 25µm - 100µm wide, with custom slits available.
5
6
Focusing Mirror
Standard
Each spectrometer features an SMA 905 fiber optic input, a built-in
16-bit digitizer, and is USB 2.0 plug-and-play compatible. Using the
included software, you can choose between High Sensitivity and High
Dynamic Range mode. Flexible custom configurations and application
support are available for OEM applications.
Fiber Coupler
Standard
The Sol™ 2.2 is a high performance linear InGaAs array spectrometer,
featuring 512 (standard) and 1024 pixels with TE Cooling down to -15oC,
all while providing high throughput and large dynamic range.
Configurable
Spectrometer
Spectrometer
Sol™ 2.2
5
Refocuses Dispersed Light onto Detector
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a special
coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Standard
Collimating Mirror
B&W Tek, Inc.
Specifications:
DC Power Input
5V DC @ 3.5 Amps
AC Power Input
100 - 240VAC 50/60 Hz, 0.5A @ 120VAC
Detector Type
Linear InGaAs Array
Pixels
512 x 1 @ 25µm x 250µm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.5
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
High Dynamic Mode: 13,000:1
High Sensitivity Mode: 6,250:1
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Data Transfer Speed
>200 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
Integration Time
200µs to >= 64 Seconds
External Trigger
Aux Port
Operating Temperature
0°C - 35°C
TE Cooling
Three-Stage: -15°C @ Relative Humidity = 90%
Weight
~ 3.1 lbs (1.4 kg)
Dimensions
7.8in x 4.3in x 2.7in (197mm x 109mm x 68mm)
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7
Page 46
Collimates and Redirects Light Towards Grating
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a
special coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Diffracts Light, Separating Spectral Components
The groove frequency of the grating determines two key aspects of the
spectrometer’s performance: the wavelength coverage and the spectral
resolution. When the groove frequency is increased, the instrument will
achieve higher resolution, but the wavelength coverage will decrease.
Inversely, decreasing the groove frequency increases wavelength coverage
at the cost of spectral resolution.
The blaze angle or blaze wavelength of the grating is also a key parameter
in optimizing the spectrometer’s performance. The blaze angle determines
the maximum efficiency that the grating will have in a specific wavelength
region.
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
Grating
Approximate
Resolution
25µm Slit
1100-2200
100/1600
5.5nm
900-2200
85/1350
7.0nm
1600-2030
300/2000
Measures Entire Spectrum Simultaneously
The Sol™ 2.2 features a 512 x 1 TE Cooled linear InGaAs photo diode
array detector with pixel dimensions of 25µm x 500µm and 512 active
pixels. Using BWSpec™, the detector mode can be switched between
High Sensitivity and High Dynamic Range modes, allowing for a
greater control over the detector’s sensitivity.
3.5nm
900nm - 2200nm
Pixels
512 (standard), 1024
Pixel Size
25µm x 250µm
Well Depth
High Dynamic Mode : ~130 MeHigh Sensitivity Mode: ~5 Me-
Digitization Rate
500 kHz
Thermoelectric Cooler
7
Reduces Dark Noise and Improves Detection Limits
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC)
is an effective way to reduce dark current and noise, as well as to
enhance the dynamic range and detection limit.
When the InGaAs array detector is cooled from a room temperature
o
o
of 25 C down to -15 C by the TEC, the dark current is reduced by
12.25 times and the dark noise is reduced by 3.5 times. This allows
the spectrometer to operate at longer exposure times and to detect
weaker optical signals.
Custom Configurations Available
6
Specifications
Diffraction Grating
4
Array Detector
Wavelength Range
Standard
BWSpec is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
3
Configurable
Software:
TM
Standard
Custom Slit Widths Available
Page 47
B&W Tek, Inc.
•
Process Monitoring
•
900nm - 2200nm Spectral Range
•
Light Sources
•
NIR Spectroscopy
•
Resolution as Fine as 9.0nm
•
Fiber Patch Cords
•
Fiber Sampling Probes
•
Fiber Sample Holders
Quality Control
•
-15oC TE Cooling
•
On-line Analyzer
•
Built-in Autozero (Noise Level Reduction)
•
Material Identification
•
Four Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Modes for
Specific Application Needs
Software:
BWSpecTM is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
Specifications:
DC Power Input
5V DC @ 5 Amps
AC Adapter Input
100 - 240VAC 50/60 Hz, 1.0A @ 120VAC
Detector Type
Linear InGaAs Array
Pixels
256 x 1 @ 50µm x 250µm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.5
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
B&W Tek, Inc.
Maximum Dynamic Mode: 20,000:1
High Dynamic Mode: 10,000:1
High Sensitivity Mode: 2,500:1
Maximum Sensitivity Mode: 250:1
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Data Transfer Speed
>300 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
Integration Time
250µs to >= 64 Seconds
External Trigger
Aux Port
Operating Temperature
0°C - 35°C
TE Cooling
Three-Stage: -15°C @ Relative Humidity = 90%
Weight
~ 3.1 lbs (1.4 kg)
Dimensions
7.5in x 4.3in x 2.7in (192mm x 109mm x 68mm)
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7
Page 48
3
Secures Fiber to Ensure Repeatable Results
By coupling a fiber optic to the SMA 905 adaptor, light will be guided to
the slit and optically matched, ensuring reproducibility. For free space
sampling, a diffuser or lens assembly can be connected directly to the
SMA 905 adaptor.
7
Entrance Slit
2
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approximate
Resolution
1100 - 2200nm
50µm
50µm wide x 1mm high
~9.0nm
100µm
100µm wide x 1mm high
~18.0nm
2
4
1
Determines Photon Flux and Spectral Resolution
Light entering into a spectrometer’s optical bench is vinyetted by a
pre-mounted and aligned slit. This ultimately determines the spectral
resolution and throughput of the spectrometer after grating selection.
We offer a variety of slit widths to match your specific application needs:
from 50µm - 100µm wide, with custom slits available.
5
6
Focusing Mirror
Standard
Accessories:
1
5
Refocuses Dispersed Light onto Detector
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a special
coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Custom Slit Widths Available
Standard
Features:
Fiber Coupler
Collimating Mirror
3
Collimates and Redirects Light Towards Grating
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a
special coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Array Detector
6
Measures Entire Spectrum Simultaneously
The Sol™ 2.2A features a 256 x 1 TE Cooled linear InGaAs photo diode
array detector with pixel dimensions of 50µm x 250µm and 256 active
pixels. Using BWSpec™, the detector mode can be switched between
two sensitivity and two dynamic modes, allowing for greater control
over the detector’s sensitivity.
Specifications
Diffraction Grating
4
Wavelength Range
256
Pixel Size
50µm x 250µm
Well Depth
Maximum Dynamic Mode: ~250 MeHigh Dynamic Mode: ~125 MeHigh Sensitivity Mode: ~12.5 MeMaximum Sensitivity Mode: 1.25 Me-
Digitization Rate
500 kHz
Diffracts Light, Separating Spectral Components
The groove frequency of the grating determines two key aspects of the
spectrometer’s performance: the wavelength coverage and the spectral
resolution. When the groove frequency is increased, the instrument will
achieve higher resolution, but the wavelength coverage will decrease.
Inversely, decreasing the groove frequency increases wavelength coverage
at the cost of spectral resolution.
The blaze angle or blaze wavelength of the grating is also a key parameter
in optimizing the spectrometer’s performance. The blaze angle determines
the maximum efficiency that the grating will have in a specific wavelength
region.
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
Grating
Approximate
Resolution
50µm Slit
1100-2200
900-2200
100/1600
85/1350
9.0nm
15.0nm
Thermoelectric Cooler
7
Reduces Dark Noise and Improves Detection Limits
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC)
is an effective way to reduce dark current and noise, as well as to
enhance the dynamic range and detection limit.
When the InGaAs array detector is cooled from a room temperature
o
o
of 25 C down to -15 C by the TEC, the dark current is reduced by
~32 times and the dark noise is reduced by ~5.7 times. This allows
the spectrometer to operate at longer exposure times and to detect
weaker optical signals.
Custom Configurations Available
1100nm - 2200nm
Pixels
Standard
Applications:
Configurable
Software control allows the user to choose from four types of operation modes:
Maximum Dynamic, High Dynamic, High Sensitivity, and Maximum Sensitivity.
Customized spectral resolution and application support are also available.
Standard
The Sol™ 2.2A is a high performance linear InGaAs array spectrometer featuring
256 pixels and providing high throughput and large dynamic range with TE
Cooling down to -15oC via a built-in 3-stage cooler.
Standard
900 - 2200nm NIR TE Cooled InGaAs Array Spectrometer
Configurable
Spectrometer
Technical Details
Each spectrometer features an SMA 905 fiber optic input, built-in 16-bit
digitizer, and is USB 2.0 plug-and-play compatible. The built-in autozero
function automatically reduces dark current and dark non-uniformity, resulting
in an increased signal-to-noise ratio.
•
Spectrometer
Sol™ 2.2A
Page 49
B&W Tek, Inc.
Technical Details
Accessories:
•
Process Monitoring
•
1550nm - 2550nm* Spectral Range
•
Light Sources
•
NIR Spectroscopy
•
Built-in Autozero (Noise Level Reduction)
•
Fiber Patch Cords
•
Quality Control
•
Built-in 16-bit Digitizer
•
Fiber Sampling Probes
•
Fiber Sample Holders
•
On-line Analyzer
•
Low Dark Noise and High Sensitivity
•
Biological Applications
•
Four Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Modes for
Specific Application Needs
Software:
Specifications:
BWSpecTM is a spectral data acquisition software with a
wide range of tools that are designed to perform complex
measurements and calculations at the click of a button. It
allows the user to choose between multiple data formats
and offers optimization of scanning parameters, such as
integration time. In addition to powerful data acquisition
and data processing, other features include automatic dark
removal, spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline
correction.
DC Power Input
5V DC @ 5 Amps
AC Adapter Input
100 - 240VAC 50/60 Hz, 1.0A @ 120VAC
Detector Type
Linear InGaAs Array
Pixels
256 x 1 @ 50µm x 250µm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.5
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
Maximum Dynamic Mode: 20,000:1
High Dynamic Mode: 10,000:1
High Sensitivity Mode: 2,500:1
Maximum Sensitivity Mode: 250:1
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Data Transfer Speed
>300 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
Integration Time
250µs to >= 64 Seconds
External Trigger
Aux Port
Operating Temperature
0°C - 35°C
TE Cooling
Three-Stage: -15°C @ Relative Humidity = 90%
Weight
~ 3.1 lbs (1.4 kg)
Dimensions
7.8in x 4.3in x 2.7in (197mm x 109mm x 68mm)
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Operating Systems
Windows: XP, Vista, 7
6
By coupling a fiber optic to the SMA 905 adaptor, light will be guided to
the slit and optically matched, ensuring reproducibility. For free space
sampling, a diffuser or lens assembly can be connected directly to the
SMA 905 adaptor.
7
1
Determines Photon Flux and Spectral Resolution
Light entering into a spectrometer’s optical bench is vinyetted by a
pre-mounted and aligned slit. This ultimately determines the spectral
resolution and throughput of the spectrometer after grating selection.
The Sol™ 2.6 has a slit width of 75µm with custom slits available.
Slit Option
Dimensions
Approximate
Resolution
1550 -2550nm
75mm
75mm wide x 1mm high
~15.0nm
Focusing Mirror
Custom Slit Widths Available
Collimating Mirror
3
2
4
Entrance Slit
2
5
Secures Fiber to Ensure Repeatable Results
Standard
Features:
1
3
Standard
Applications:
Fiber Coupler
Collimates and Redirects Light Towards Grating
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a
special coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
5
Refocuses Dispersed Light onto Detector
Both mirrors are f/# matched focusing mirrors coated with a special
coating, which enhances the NIR signal.
Array Detector
6
Measures Entire Spectrum Simultaneously
The Sol™ 2.6 features a 256 x 1 TE Cooled linear InGaAs photo diode
array detector with pixel dimensions of 50µm x 250µm and 256 active
pixels. Using BWSpec™, the detector mode can be switched between
two sensitivity and two dynamic modes, allowing for greater control
over the detector’s sensitivity.
Specifications
Wavelength Range
256
Pixel Size
50µm x 250µm
Well Depth
Maximum Dynamic Mode: ~250 MeHigh Dynamic Mode: ~125 MeHigh Sensitivity Mode: ~12.5 MeMaximum Sensitivity Mode: 1.25 Me-
Digitization Rate
500 kHz
Diffraction Grating
4
Diffracts Light, Separating Spectral Components
The groove frequency of the grating determines two key aspects of the
spectrometer’s performance: the wavelength coverage and the spectral
resolution. When the groove frequency is increased, the instrument will
achieve higher resolution, but the wavelength coverage will decrease.
Inversely, decreasing the groove frequency increases wavelength coverage
at the cost of spectral resolution.
The blaze angle or blaze wavelength of the grating is also a key parameter
in optimizing the spectrometer’s performance. The blaze angle determines
the maximum efficiency that the grating will have in a specific wavelength
region.
Spectral
Coverage (nm)
1550-2550
Grating
Approximate
Resolution
75µm Slit
100/2500
15.0nm
1550nm - 2550nm*
Pixels
*Custom Ranges Available
Standard
Software control allows the user to choose from four types of operation modes:
Maximum Dynamic, High Dynamic, High Sensitivity, and Maximum Sensitivity.
Customized spectral resolution and application support are also available.
Configurable
Each spectrometer features an SMA 905 fiber optic input, built-in 16-bit digitizer,
and is USB 2.0 plug-and-play compatible. The built-in autozero function
automatically reduces dark current and dark non-uniformity, resulting in an
increased signal-to-noise ratio.
Standard
The Sol™ 2.6 is a high performance linear InGaAs array spectrometer featuring
256 pixels and providing high throughput and large dynamic range with TE
Cooling down to -15oC via a built-in 3-stage cooler.
Standard
1550nm - 2550nm* NIR TE Cooled InGaAs Array Spectrometer
Configurable
Spectrometer
Spectrometer
Sol™ 2.6
Thermoelectric Cooler
7
Reduces Dark Noise and Improves Detection Limits
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC)
is an effective way to reduce dark current and noise, as well as to
enhance the dynamic range and detection limit.
When the InGaAs array detector is cooled from a room temperature
o
o
of 25 C down to -15 C by the TEC, the dark current is reduced by
~32 times and the dark noise is reduced by ~5.7 times. This allows
the spectrometer to operate at longer exposure times and to detect
weaker optical signals.
Custom Configurations Available
*Custom Ranges Available
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 50
Page 51
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrometer
Accessories
BDS100 Deuterium/Tungsten Light Source
BPS2.0 Tungsten Halogen Light Source
The BDS100 is a DC powered turnkey SMA 905 fiber coupled UV/Vis/NIR light source with
spectral output from 200 to > 1100nm. The 3W UV lamp is an electrode-less, RF induced
deuterium lamp which shares a single optical path with the 3W tungsten halogen lamp.
Features include a safety shutter and individual On/Off controls for both the deuterium
and tungsten sources.
BDS130 Deuterium/Tungsten Light Source
The BDS130 is an AC powered turnkey SMA 905 fiber coupled UV/Vis/NIR light source
with a spectral output of 190 to > 2500nm. The 30W deuterium lamp and 5W tungsten
halogen lamp share a single optical path. Features include a safety shutter and individual
On/Off controls for both the deuterium and tungsten lamps.
BPS101 Tungsten Halogen Light Source
The BPS101 is a DC powered high performance SMA 905 fiber coupled constant current
tungsten halogen light source with a spectral output of 350 to > 2600nm. A user
replaceable 5W input power bulb has a ~10,000 hour lifetime with a color temperature
of 2800K. Constant current provides precision current control for stable performance.
A remote control port provides On/Off modulation, operating current monitoring, and
external operating current control.
BPS120 Tungsten Halogen Light Source
The BPS120 is a DC powered high performance SMA 905 fiber coupled constant current
tungsten halogen light source with a spectral output of 350 to > 2600nm. A replaceable
20W input power bulb has a ~5,000 hour lifetime with a color temperature of
2900K. Constant current provides precision current control for stable
performance. A remote control port provides On/Off modulation,
operating current monitoring, and external operating current control.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 52
The BPS2.0 is a DC powered, high performance, SMA 905 fiber coupled, constant current
tungsten halogen light source with a spectral output of 350 to > 2600nm. A user replaceable
20W bulb has a ~2,000 hour lifetime with a color temperature of 2900K. Constant current
provides precision current control for stable performance. The BPS2.0 incorporates a fan
for thermal stability for low drift. A remote control port provides On/Off modulation,
operating current monitoring, and external operating current control.
Spectrometer
Accessories
BPX100 Pulsed Xenon Light Source
The BPX100 is an AC powered compact SMA 905 fiber coupled 5W Xenon flash lamp module
with a spectral output of 185 - 2000nm. By passing an electrical current through a Xenon
gas, the BPX100 produces both continuous and line spectra. Low pulse-to-pulse variations
and long operating life characteristics makes the BPX100 ideal as an excitation light source
for fluorescence spectroscopy and UV rich sources for reflectance and transmittance
spectrophotometry.
ICL Irradiance Lamps
The ICL series calibrated lamp standards are tungsten coiled-coil filaments enclosed in
quartz envelopes. Calibrated Lamps provide reliable spectral irradiance calibration data.
Calibrated 100W lamps can cover 350-1050nm and 350-1700nm. Calibrated 1000W
lamps can cover 350-1700nm, 350-2200nm, and 250-1100nm. Lamps are seasoned and
calibration is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) scale
of spectral irradiance. The lamps are provided with calibration data and respective lamp
holders for easy installation and adjustment.
SCL100 Spectral Calibration
The SCL100 is a series of DC powered compact SMA 905 fiber coupled spectral calibration
light sources. The SCL100 can be used for wavelength calibration of monochromators,
spectrometers, and spectroradiometers. By exciting these various gases, they will produce
narrow intense lines of the corresponding element(s). There are 6 lamp models to select
from: Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Mercury (Hg), Mercury/Argon (Hg/Ar), Neon (Ne), and Xenon
(Xe).
Page 53
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrometer
Accessories
BCH100A & BCH103A Cuvette Holders
The BCH100A & BCH103A cuvette sample holders are designed for fiber optic illumination/
detection. A standard 12.5 x 12.5mm (OD) (1 cm path length) cuvette can be used for liquid
sample transmittance and absorbance. Two SMA 905 fiber couplers with collimated optics
come with the BCH100A and three come with the BCH103. Both can be used with any
B&W Tek, Inc. fiber, array spectrometer and BPS or BDS light sources. The BCH100A comes
with two “straight through” SMA 905 ports. The BCH103A can be used for fluorescence
when set up for right angle measurements with respect to illumination.
Fiber Patch Cords
The Fiber Patch Cords (FPC) are fiber optic cables terminated with SMA905 connectors
on both ends (FC connectors available upon request). These are available in UV, NIR,
and MIR grade fused silica optical fibers with various core diameters. Fiber core sizes
range from 50mm to 1000mm with a standard length of 1.5 meters with custom lengths
available upon request.
Spectrometer
Accessories
BFA & BRS Bifurcated Fibers
BFH105 Inline Filter Holder
The BFH105 inline filter holder is designed to hold up to three standard Ø 1 in x 5 mm
filters (sold separately). The BFH105 has two SMA 905 fiber connections with collimated
optics and can be used with any B&W Tek, Inc. array spectrometer and light source.
The Bifurcated Fiber Assembly (BFA) series combines optical fibers at a common end with
the fiber bundle bifurcated into two separate channels. These channels can connect
to a light source and a spectrometer or split an incoming signal into two separate
spectrometer channels. When a collimating lens is attached to the common end of the
assembly and positioned correctly, the specular reflectance for 0° angle of incidence can
also be measured.
BIP2.0 Integrating Sphere
Fiber Dip Probe
The BIP2.0 is a compact, fiber coupled integrating sphere with an integrated 20W tungsten
halogen lamp which emits over the UV-NIR Spectrum. The two inch diameter integrating
sphere is machined from PTFE. PTFE is reflective and highly Lambertian over the broad
spectral range of 250-2500nm and 99% from 400-800nm. The BIP2.0 incorporates a fan
for thermal stability for low drift and operates on 12 V DC. It is designed for measuring
diffused reflectance using any B&W Tek, Inc. array spectrometer.
The fiber dip probe (FDP) series can be used for measuring the transmittance and
absorbance of liquid solutions. The fiber dip probe can be inserted into liquids for in
situ transflectance measurements. Typical applications include observing changes in
solutions for kinetic reaction studies or dissolution testing.
Fiber Reflectance Probe
BIS1.5 Integrating Sphere
The BIS1.5 is a compact, integrating sphere designed as a sampling accessory for
measuring diffused transmittance using any B&W Tek, Inc. array spectrometer.
The 1.5 inch diameter integrating sphere is machined from PTFE. PTFE is
reflective and highly Lambertian over the broad spectral range of 2502500nm and 99% from 400-800nm.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 54
The Fiber Reflectance Probe (FRP) series combines 7 optical fibers at the sample end
into a bifurcated fiber. This bifurcated fiber splits into one fiber and 6 stacked fibers with
the single fiber connecting to a light source and the 6 stacked fibers connecting to a
spectrometer. These stacked fibers align to the spectrometer’s slit for increased signal
input. When properly setup, the FRP can measure diffuse or specular reflectance from
surfaces.
Page 55
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrometer
Spectrometer
BWSpec™
BWSpec™ is a spectral data acquisition software developed
by B&W Tek, Inc. and is the foundation for all B&W Tek, Inc.
software platforms. It is included with the purchase of all B&W
Tek products that use it to operate, which include spectrometers,
systems, and accessories. BWSpec™ is ideal for broad range
applications since it delivers a wide range of features designed
to perform complex measurements and calculations at the click
of a button. It features multiple data formats and the capability
to optimize scanning parameters, such as integration time and
laser output power control. In addition to data acquisition and
data processing, other features include automatic dark removal,
spectrum smoothing, and manual/auto baseline correction.
Software Development Kit
B&W Tek’s SDK (Software Development Kit) provides
you with the detailed function calls to our .DLL files.
This package is designed for customers who wish to
create their own custom software interface allowing
complete control over your spectrometer or system.
Every spectrometer / system we sell can be run using
the SDK, including RS232 and USB units, from noncooled spectrometers to complete Raman systems
with laser power control.
Features:
•
Included with B&W Tek Spectrometers, Systems, and Accessories (if applicable)
•
Performs Emission, Absorbance, Percent Transmission / Reflection, and Raman Measurements
•
Capable of Continuous and Single Scan Acquisition
•
Subtracts Dark Noise
•
Offers Spectral File Formats: txt & spc
•
Exports Spectral Files to Excel®
•
Features Manual and Automatic Baseline Correction
•
Includes Peak Smoothing Algorithms: FFT, Savitzky-Golay, & Boxcar
•
Includes Derivative Algorithms: Point Diff, Savitzky-Golay, & Differentiate
•
Performs Area Calculations
•
Offers Peak Analysis Options: Center Wavelength, Integrated Power Density, FWHM Calculations, and More
•
Contains Basic Spectral Math: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division
•
Also Features: Tristimulus, Chromaticity, and Color Calculations
Features:
Applications:
• Transmission
• Absorption
• Reflectance
• Fluorescence
The SDK Package comes complete with
simple programming examples done
with our various spectrometer models to
get you started.
Program Examples:
Specification
Interface
C# SDK
USB Spectrometers
VB.Net SDK
USB Spectrometers
C++ Builder 6 SDK
USB Spectrometers
Visual C++ 6.0 SDK
USB Spectrometers
Visual Basic 6.0 SDK
USB Spectrometers / Lasers
SDK Supports:
VBA SDK
USB Spectrometers
Labview 8.2 SDK
USB Spectrometers
•
•
•
•
•
•
RS232 Interface SDK
RS232 Spectrometers
•
•
•
•
C#
C++ Builder 6
Visual C++ 6.0
Visual Basic 6.0
•
•
•
Raman Systems
Reflectance Systems
Transmittance Systems
USB Cleanlaze® Lasers
RS232 Spectrometers
USB Spectrometers
VBA
Labview
VB.NET
• Raman
• Color / Irradiance
B&W Tek, Inc.
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Innovative Solutions for
Raman Spectroscopy
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Raman
Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy, a molecular spectroscopy which is observed
as inelastically scattered light, allows for the interrogation and
identification of vibrational (phonon) states of molecules. As a
result, Raman spectroscopy provides an invaluable analytical tool for
molecular finger printing as well as monitoring changes in molecular
bond structure (e.g. state changes and stresses & strains).
In comparison to other vibrational spectroscopy methods, such
as FT-IR and NIR, Raman has several major advantages. These
advantages stem from the fact that the Raman effect manifests
itself in the light scattered off of a sample as opposed to the
light absorbed by a sample. As a result, Raman spectroscopy
requires little to no sample preparation and is insensitive to
aqueous absorption bands. This property of Raman facilitates
the measurement of solids, liquids, and gases not only directly,
but also through transparent containers such as glass, quartz,
and plastic.
Similar to FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy is highly selective, which
allows it to identify and differentiate molecules and chemical
species that are very similar. Figure R-1 shows an example of
five similar molecules – Acetone, Ethanol, Dimethyl Sulfoxide,
Ethyl Acetate, and Tolune. Although each chemical has a
similar molecular structure, their Raman spectra are clearly
differentiable, even to the untrained eye. Using Raman spectral
libraries, it is easy to see how easily Raman spectra can be used
for material identification and verification.
When considering the quantum particle interpretation, light is thought of as a photon which strikes the molecule
and then inelasticaly scatters. In this interpretation the number of scattered photons is proportional to the size of
the bond. For example, molecules with large Pi bonds such as benzene tend to scatter lots of photons, while water
with small single bonds tends to be a very weak Raman scatterer. Figure R-2 shows a visual comparison of the two
methods.
When deriving the Raman effect, it is generally easiest to
start with the classical interpretation by considering a simple
diatomic molecule as a mass on a spring (as shown in figure
R-3) where m represents the atomic mass, x represents the
displacement, and K represents the bond strength.
Figure R-3 Diatomic Molecule as a Mass on a Spring
When using this approximation, the displacement of the molecule can be expressed by using Hooke’s law as,
Equation R-1
Figure R-1 Example Raman Spectra of Various Molecules
By replacing the reduced mass (m1m2/[m1+m2]) with µ and the total displacement (x1+x2) with q, the equation can
be simplified to,
Theory of Raman Scattering:
When considering Raman scattering, we can think about the physics in one of two ways: the classical wave
interpretation or the quantum particle interpretation. In the classical wave interpretation, light is considered as
electromagnetic radiation, which contains an oscillating electric field that interacts with a molecule through its
polarizability. Polarizability is determined by the electron cloud’s ability to interact with an electric field. For example,
soft molecules such as benzene tend to be strong Raman scatterers while harder molecules like water tend to be
fairly weak Raman scatterers.
Equation R-2
By solving this equation for q we get,
Equation R-3
where νm is the molecular vibration and is defined as,
Equation R-4
Figure R-2 Comparison of Raman Scattering Interpretations
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Raman
From equations R-3 and R-4, it is apparent that the molecule vibrates in a cosine pattern with a frequency proportional
to the bond strength and inversely proportional to the reduced mass. From this we can see that each molecule
will have its own unique vibrational signatures which are determined not only by the atoms in the molecule, but
also the characteristics of the individual bonds. Through the Raman effect, these vibrational frequencies can be
measured due to the fact that the polorizability of a molecule, α, is a function of displacement, q. When incident
light interacts with a molecule, it induces a dipole moment, P, equal to that of the product of the polorizability of
the molecule and the electric field of the incident light source. This can be expressed as,
Equation R-5
Now that we have derived the Raman effect using
the classical wave interpretation, we can now use the
quantum particle interpretation to better visualize
the process and determine additional information. As
discussed earlier in the quantum interpretation, the
Raman effect is described as inelastic scattering of a
photon off of an molecular bond. From the Jablonski
diagram shown in figure R-4, we can see that this results
from the incident photon exciting the molecule into a
virtual energy state.
where Eo is the intensity and νo is the frequency of the electric field. Using the small amplitude approximation, the
polorizability can be described as a linear function of displacement,
Equation R-6
which when combined with equations R-3 and R-5 results in,
Equation R-7
In Equation R-7 we see that there are two resultant effects from the interaction of the molecule and the incident light.
The first term is called Rayleigh scattering, which is the dominate effect and results in no change in the frequency
of the incident light. The second term is the Raman scattered component and when expanded to,
Figure R-4 Jablonski Diagram Representing Quantum
Energy Transitions for Rayleigh and Raman Scattering
When this occurs, there are three different potential outcomes. First, the molecule can relax back down to the
ground state and emit a photon of equal energy to that of the incident photon; this is an elastic process and is again
referred to as Rayleigh scattering. Second, the molecule can relax to a real phonon state and emit a photon with
less energy than the incident photon; this is called Stokes shifted Raman scattering. The third potential outcome
is that the molecule is already in an excited phonon state, is excited to a higher virtual state, and then relaxes back
down to the ground state emitting a photon with more energy than the incident photon; this is called Anti-Stokes
Raman scattering. Due to the fact that most molecules will be found in the ground state at room temperature, there
is a much lower probability that a photon will be Anti-Stokes scattered. As a result, most Raman measurements
are performed considering only the Stokes shifted light.
By further investigating the quantum interpretation of the Raman effect, it can be shown that the power of the
scattered light, Ps, is equal to the product of the intensity of the incident photons, Io, and a value known as the
Raman cross-section, σR. It can be shown that,
Equation R-9
Equation R-8
can be shown to shift the frequency of the incident light by plus or minus the frequency of the molecular vibration.
The increase in frequency is known as an Anti-Stokes shift and the decrease in frequency is known as a Stokes
shift. By measuring the change in frequency from the incident light (typically only the Stokes shift is used for this
measurement) the Raman effect now gives spectroscopists a means of directly measuring the vibrational
frequency of a molecular bond.
where l equals the wavelength of the incident photon. Therefore,
Equation R-10
From equation R-10 it is clear that there is a linear relationship between the power of the scattered light and the
intensity of the incident light as well as a relationship between the power of the scattered light and the inverse of
the wavelength to the fourth power. Therefore, it would appear that it is always desirable to use a short excitation
wavelength and a high power excitation source based on these relationships. However, as we will see in the next
section, this is not always the case.
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Raman
Components of a Raman Spectrometer:
There are three primary components to any Raman spectrometer: an excitation source, a sampling apparatus, and a
detector. While these three components have come in varying forms over the years, modern Raman instrumentation
has developed around using a laser as an excitation source, a spectrometer for the detector, and either a microscope
or a fiber optic probe for the sampling apparatus.
Since Raman spectroscopy is predicated on the ability to measure a shift in wavelength (or frequency) it is imperative
that a monochromatic excitation source be employed. While a laser is typically the best excitation source, not all lasers
are suitable for Raman spectroscopy, so it is imperative that the laser frequency is extremely stable and does not mode
hop, since this will cause errors in the Raman shift. It is also essential to utilize a clean, narrow bandwidth laser because
the quality of the Raman peaks are directly affected by the sharpness and stability of the excitation light source.
The final consideration when deciding which laser to use for a Raman spectrometer is the wavelength. From the previous
section, it is clear that the shorter the wavelength the more powerful the Raman signal. However, as was already stated,
this is not the only consideration especially when dealing with organic molecules. Most organic molecules will tend
to fluoresce when excited by high energy (short wavelength) photons. Although fluorescence is typically considered
to be a low light level process, it can still overwhelm the signal in the Raman spectrum as shown in Figure R-5. This
is because the Raman effect is comprised of a very small fraction (about 1 in 107) of the incident photons. As a result,
visible lasers are typically only used for inorganic materials such as carbon nanotubes.
As previously discussed, Raman scattering is very weak and therefore tends to require long integration times in order to
collect enough photons to measure a discernible signal. This makes the use of a TE cooled spectrometer a requirement
in order to reduce the dark noise. For very low concentrations or weak Raman scatters, it may be necessary to use a
back-thinned CCD to further increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. By etching the detector to only a few microns
thick the probability of an electron being reabsorbed as it travels through the detector based on Beer’s law is greatly
reduced. This increases the sensitivity of the detector from a maximum quantum efficiency of 35% to greater than 90%.
Due to the highly selective nature of Raman spectra, they may contain peaks which are fairly close together. Depending
on the application, it may be necessary to resolve these closely spaced peaks, which requires the use of a high resolution
spectrometer. Typically standard spectrometer configurations are for 532nm and 785nm laser excitation wavelengths,
with custom excitation wavelengths also available. These spectrometers can be offer a variety of spectrometer
configurations specially designed for wide spectral range and high resolution. Typical spectral ranges are available
from as low as 65cm-1 (filter dependent) to as high as 4000cm-1, with a spectral resolution as fine as 3.0cm-1.
When measuring the sample, there is no more effective method of directing the laser light to the sample, collecting
the Raman scatter, and directing it to a spectrometer than a fiber optic probe.
A Raman probe must be capable of directing and focusing the monochromatic excitation source (typically a laser) to
the sample, collecting the scattered light and then directing it to the spectrometer. Figure R-6 shows a typical design
for a Raman probe.
Figure R-6 Typical Design of a Raman Probe
Figure R-5 Comparison of Raman Spectrum at Varying Excitation
Wavelengths Demonstrating Fluorescence Interference
For organic molecules it is important to shift the laser wavelength into the near infrared to minimize fluorescence
while not exceeding CCD spectral detection limits. Due to their availability and the fact that they allow
for the maximum fluorescence reduction without the sacrifice of spectral range or resolution, 785nm
diode lasers have become the industry standard. For increased sensitivity with inorganic molecules,
a 532nm laser is the best choice because fluorescence is no longer an issue.
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Since a pure signal is extremely important to Raman spectroscopy, a narrow band-pass filter is placed in the optical
path of the excitation source before it reaches the sample. It is also important to note that since the Raman effect
is extremely weak, the signal must be collected at a 0o angle normal to the sample. This causes interference from
Rayleigh scattering and therefore it is essential to filter the collected signal through the use of a long pass filter before
it is directed to the spectrometer.
The flexibility afforded by fiber optics not only allows for the probe to be taken to a solid sample, but also allows it to
be immersed in liquids or slurries in both laboratory and process environments (for real time kinetic measurements).
It can also be connected to microscopes, cuvette holders, as well as a plethora of sampling accessories.
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Raman
Applications of Raman Spectroscopy
Bioscience and Medical Diagnosis:
•
Detection of subtle changes within biomolecules, such as drug interactions, tissue
healing, cosmetics, and disease diagnosis
•
Intercellular SERS localization and interaction, identification of drug binding to cells for
Drug-DNA and cellular interaction analysis
•
Investigation of microorganisms in single cells; yeast cell classifications, single bacterium
•
Molecular level cancer detection (cervical, lung, etc.)
•
Cardiovascular disease diagnosis (atherosclerosis)
Forensic Analysis:
•
Nondestructive drug and narcotic drug identification
•
Explosives: exact chemical compositions of materials, PETN, RDX and binding agents
within explosive materials
•
Identification and analysis of toxic solvents and bio-warfare agents
•
Forensic evidence analysis and tracing, including fibers, fabrics, pigments, inks, etc., by
Raman microscopy
Pharmaceutical Industry:
Gemology:
•
Analysis of tablets, liquids, and gel caps
•
Non-invasive gemstone identification and examination
•
High throughput screening techniques
•
Identification of unknown gemstone by unique Raman signal
•
Crystallization, end point detection
•
Identification of isomorph or subspecies of gemstone
•
Process Analytical Technology (PAT) on-line, at-line monitoring and control: real-time
monitoring of drying, coating, and blending
•
Analysis of gemstone origin through Raman microscopy
•
Anti-counterfeiting, such as identification of diamond from zircon
•
Identification and analysis of API, additives, and excipients
•
Drug identification control: purity and quality
•
Raw material inspection: 100% incoming material identification and verification
Raman Microscopy:
•
Pharmaceutical drug analysis: micro-Raman and localized molecular species analysis in
complex drug mixtures, such as beta-carotene in multivitamins
•
Material science thin film analysis, such as diamond film quality characterization
•
Trace forensic evidence analysis, including fibers, fabrics, pigments, inks, etc.
Polymers and Chemical Processes:
•
Quality Control: incoming/outgoing
•
Identification of contaminants during manufacturing
•
Real time monitoring of polymerization
•
Predicting the morphological properties of polymers
•
Multivariate analysis/chemometrics to predict physical properties: glass transition
temperature, crystallization temperature, etc.
•
Chemical composition analysis
•
Identification of geological materials
•
Examination of inclusions in minerals
•
Analysis of cement clinker by Raman microscopy
•
Ancient fossil analysis
Food & Agriculture Industry:
•
Measurement of unsaturated fatty acid in food oils
•
Detection of bacteria and/or contaminants in food products
•
Identification of additive drugs: nutraceuticals in fruit drinks
•
Analysis of components in grain kernel
Semiconductor & Solar Industry:
Environmental Science:
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Geology and Mineralogy:
•
Water pollution detection using SERS technology
•
Identification of contaminants in water
•
Petrochemical analysis
•
Identification and analysis of sediments in water
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•
Characterization of silicon crystallinity: monitoring of the Raman band shift as silicon
crystallinity changes from amorphous to a polycrystalline structure
•
Analysis of micron sized particles in situ to provide information on potential
contamination
•
Mechanical stress monitoring for semiconductor process
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Additionally, the NanoRam provides Wi-Fi
synchronization capabilities with network
terminals in order to optimize time and
resources. Nanoram OS is also capable of real
time data and report transfers to ERP/QMS
systems in order to centralize information
(such as libraries, method development and
final reports) in general servers. Unlike any
other handheld instrument, the NanoRam
is capable of transferring libraries from one unit to another utilizing
proprietary algorithms to assure compatibility.
B&W Tek offers a wide variety of services designed to suit your needs, including extended warranty plans, annual recertification
services, assistance with method and/or new library development and other services such as support with IQ/OQ/PQ validation.
•
Advanced Statistical Algorithms for Identification & Verification
•
Wi-Fi & USB Communication for Data Sync & Management
•
Intuitive Software for Technical & Non-technical Users
•
Sampling Accessories for Almost Any Environment
•
Easy Library & Data Transfer Capabilities
Incoming Material Identification & Verification
At-line Sampling and Final Inspection
Counterfeit Drug Detection
Verification
Why Choose Raman?
•
High Selectivity With No Sample Preparation Required
•
Measure Through Plastic, Glass, & Quartz Packaging
•
Samples Can Be Solid or Liquid, Transparent or Opaque
•
Compliant With USP, EP, JP, IP, and FDA Guidelines
Excitation Wavelength
785nm ± 0.5nm, Stability <0.5cm-1, Linewidth <2.0cm-1
Laser Output Power
300mW Max Adjustable in 10% Increments
Spectral Range
176cm-1 to 2900cm-1 (Option to Extend Range to 3200cm-1)
Spectral Resolution
~ 9cm
Detector Type
TE Cooled Linear CCD Array
Display
High Visibility OLED
Bar Code Reader
Supports Linear Standards
Software
NanoRam® OS (Embedded), Nanoram® ID (PC)
& iSpec TM Mobile (iPad®)
Data Formats
.txt, .csv, .spc
Connectivity
USB 2.0, WiFi
Battery
Rechargeable Li-ion, >5 hrs Operation
AC Adapter
Output: DC 12V, 2A Minimum
Weight
<2.2 lb (1.0 kg)
Size
8.8in x 3.9in x 2.0in (22cm x 10cm x 5cm)
Operating Temperature
-20°C to +40°C
Storage Temperature
-30°C to +60°C
-1
Easy Sampling
Specifications:
Identification
Page 68
Interface
State-of-the-Art Touch Screen
The NanoRam offers unprecedented calculation power for handheld
devices, employing a fast processor optimized to operate under B&W Tek’s
proprietary Nanoram OS. Within seconds, it is able to process data, manage
libraries of any size, and accurately identify the materials analyzed with a
new level of quality from portable devices. It is designed with the capability
to run almost any calculation required in day- to-day operations, without the
need to download data for post-processing.
Sampling Accessories
Spectrometer
Optimized for Raman Spectroscopy
The standard configuration for the spectrometer in the NanoRam
is for a 785nm laser excitation wavelength.
The Crossed
Czerny-Turner optical design achieves a spectral resolution of
9cm-1, while simultaneously keeping the footprint of our NanoRam small.
This brings an enormous advantage for field Raman applications.
Detector
Cooled Detector for Low-Light Level Detection
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is an
effective way to reduce dark current and noise to enhance the dynamic
range and detection limit. The graphs below show the dark current and
noise for an uncooled versus cooled CCD detector at an integration time
of 30 seconds. Operating at room temperature, the dark current nearly
saturates the uncooled CCD. When the CCD is cooled to 18oC, the dark
current is reduced by two times. This allows the spectrometer to operate
at long integration times and detect weak optical signals.
Dark Current: Uncooled vs. Cooled CCD Detectors at 30 Seconds
Easy Transition Between Sample Types
These sampling accessories allow for measurement of various materials in
the form of liquids, gels, powders, or solids under both lab and demanding
environmental conditions. The point and shoot attachment is ideal
for in-field sampling of materials and is capable of measuring through
plastic and glass containers. The vial holder attachment allows for in situ
measurements of liquids and powders, in either an 8mm or 15mm vial.
The right angle attachment is ideal for measuring larger containers which
are only accessible from the top. Additional application specific adaptors
as well as detailed descriptions of each of these sampling accessories can
be found on our website.
Point & Shoot
Vial Holder
Bottle Adapter
B&W Tek, Inc.
Integrated Computer
Low-Light Level
For customers that require a more detailed personalization of the user
interface or method development, B&W Tek offers an optional software
development kit (SDK) for software customization.
Applications:
Features:
State of the Art Identification Software
The NanoRam comes standard with B&W Tek’s proprietary
Nanoram OS installed within the unit, which allows
for identification and verification, library and method
development, and data storage/ transfer. The Nanoram
ID is designed for use on PCs and the iSpec Mobile is for
tablet computers (such as the iPad) for data and methods
management, allowing customers to export data and
generate reports. The Nanoram ID and the Nanoram OS
software packages are 21CFR part 11 compliant with
available IQ/OQ validation documentation for pharmaceutical customers.
Sharp Resolution
The NanoRam is the only handheld Raman device that features a temperature controlled detector, providing
superior data quality and unprecedented system stability. Coupling this proprietary thermoelectric
cooling with our patented CleanLaze® laser stabilization technology and high speed micro-processor, it
provides laboratory performance in the palm of your hand. The first rate signal reduces the need for
further testing, therefore decreasing production costs and escalating productivity, all at the same time.
Software
Right Angle
Room Temperature
Excitation Wavelength
The NanoRam® is a state-of-the-art compact Raman handheld spectrometer and integrated computing
system for material identification and verification within cGMP compliant facilities. Designed for use by
non-specialists, the NanoRam is easy to use and operates single-handedly, weighing less than 2.2lbs. It
allows rapid development of standardized and validated methods to facilitate inspection for purity and
quality, making it the ideal choice for pharmaceutical, chemical, and material identification, whether in
the lab, the warehouse, the loading dock or the field.
Convenient
Raman
Handheld Raman Spectrometer
Raman
NanoRam®
Polystyrene Standard
Page 69
Cooled to 18oC
Laser
Creating Raman Scatter
In Raman spectroscopy, it is essential to utilize a clean, narrow bandwidth
laser due to the fact that the quality of the Raman peaks are directly
affected by the sharpness and stability of the delivered light source. The
NanoRam series spectrometer systems feature a patented CleanLaze
technology with a linewidth < 0.3nm when equipped with our 785nm
laser. This technology results in the correct center wavelength and avoids
the phenomenon of “mode hopping.” In addition, the laser output power
can be adjusted in the software from 10 - 100%, allowing you to maximize
the signal-to-noise ratio and minimize measurement time.
Laser lifetime of 10,000 hours ensures quality data for years to come!
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
Portability with Optimum Performance
Creating Raman Scatter
Features:
The MiniRam® is an ideal instrument for
conducting feasibility studies and teaching
Raman methods of materials analysis.
By combining CleanLaze® technology
with our TE Cooled spectrometers, the
MiniRam® provides the best accuracy and
repeatability in its class. It is available with
a choice of a 532nm or 785nm excitation
laser. Its small footprint and light weight
design allow easy portability.
•
Spectral Resolution of 10cm-1
•
175cm of the Rayleigh Line
(‌65cm-1 Option Available)
•
Small Footprint and Lightweight
•
Patented CleanLaze® Technology
for Laser Stabilization
•
TE Cooled 2048 Pixel CCD Detector
•
Fiber Optic Interface for
Convenient Sampling
-1
In Raman spectroscopy, it is essential to utilize a clean, narrow bandwidth
laser due to the fact that the quality of the Raman peaks are directly
affected by the sharpness and stability of the delivered light source. The
MiniRam® series spectrometer systems feature a patented CleanLaze®
technology with a linewidth < 0.3nm when equipped with our 785nm
laser.
This technology
CleanLaze®
results in the correct
0
∆l = 0.02nm
center wavelength and
-10
avoids the phenomenon
-20
of “mode hopping.” In
-30
addition, the laser output
power can be adjusted
-40
in the software from 0
-50
- 100%, allowing you to
-60
maximize the signal-to-70
noise ratio and minimize
-80
integration time.
775
780
785
790
795
Normalized Power (dB)
Raman
Raman
MiniRam®
Spectrometer
Optimized for Raman Spectroscopy
The standard configurations for the spectrometer in the MiniRam®
are for 532nm and 785nm
Cyclohexane
laser excitation wavelengths.
The Crossed Czerny-Turner
optical
design
achieves
a spectral resolution of
10cm-1, while simultaneously
keeping the footprint of our
MiniRam® small. This brings an
enormous advantage for field
Raman applications.
l (nm)
Specifications:
Why Choose Raman?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Laser lifetime of 10,000 hours ensures quality data for years to come!
Lasers
No Sample Preparation Required
Measure Through Glass, Quartz, Plastic (Non-contact)
Samples Can Be Solid, Liquid or Gas, Transparent or Opaque
Small Sample Size to Reduce Cost
Wide Spectral Coverage For Diversity of Applications
Cleaner and More Precise Spectra than FTIR or NIR
532nm Excitation
> 50mW*
785nm Excitation
> 300mW*
Laser Linewidth (FWHM)
< 0.3nm
Laser Power Control
532nm, 785nm
Spectrometer
Spectral Range (532nm)
175cm-1 - 4000cm-1
Spectral Resolution (532nm)
15cm-1 @ 614nm**
Spectral Range (785nm)
175cm-1 - 3150cm-1
Spectral Resolution (785nm)
10cm-1 @ 912nm**
Detector
Accessories:
Raman Probes
Cuvette Holder
Probe Holder
Video Microscope
Microscope Adaptor
Raman Flow Cells
Laser Safety Goggles
Applications:
Detector Type
TE Cooled Linear Array
Pixel Number
2048
Pixel Size
Bioscience and Medical Diagnosis
Dynamic Range
Pharmaceutical Industry
Digitization Resolution
Polymers and Chemical Processes
16-bit or 65,535:1
500 kHz
Integration Time
5ms - 2 minutes
Electronics
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Forensic Analysis
Power Consumption
15W
Power Options
Gemology
DC (Standard)
Geology and Mineralogy
Battery
Optional
Food & Agriculture Industry
AC (100 - 240V AC, 50 - 60Hz)
Optional
5V DC
Physical
Dimensions
Weight
Operating Temperature
The center wavelength of the laser line is precisely maintained even when
the peak power is increased by utilizing a series of high end filters. A
laser line filter is used to clean up any side bands and ensure a narrow
excitation is delivered to the sample by removing all secondary excitation
lines before exciting the sample. The light collected from the sample is
then filtered via a notch filter. Finally, an ultra steep long pass filter further
removes lingering laser lines to allow accurate measurement of Raman
peaks as close as 175cm-1 from the Rayleigh line. An E-grade filter upgrade
is available, allowing the measurement of Raman peaks as close as 65cm-1
from the Rayleigh line.
Detector
Cooled Detector for Low-Light Level Detection
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is an
effective way to reduce dark current and noise to enhance the dynamic
range and detection limit. The graphs below show the dark current and
noise for an uncooled versus cooled CCD detector at an integration time
of 30 seconds. Operating at room temperature, the dark current nearly
o
saturates the uncooled CCD. When the CCD is cooled to 10 C, the dark
current is reduced by four times. This allows the spectrometer to operate
at long integration times and detect weak optical signals.
Dark Current: Uncooled vs. Cooled CCD Detectors at 30 Seconds
8.9 x 6.4 x 3.3in (22.6 x 16.3 x 8.4cm)
~4.3 lbs (~1.95 kg)
o
o
o
o
10 C - 35 C
Storage Temperature
-10 C - 60 C
Humidity
10% - 85%
The probe allows for measurement of various materials in the form of
liquids, gels, powders, or solids under both lab conditions (lab grade) or
demanding environmental conditions (industrial grade). Constructed
with state-of-the-art telecom packaging techniques, the probe has a
flexible fiber coupling encased in a durable protective jacketing material
which delivers Rayleigh scatter rejection as high as 10 photons per billion.
Wavelength excitation probes come in 532nm or 785nm.
Custom wavelength excitation probes available.
Software
State of the Art Chemometric Software
300:1 (Typical)
Environmental Science
Semiconductor & Solar Industry
Collects Data within 175cm of the Rayleigh Line
-1
10oC
Readout Speed
Raman Microscopy
Easy Transition Between Sample Types
Filter
14µm x 200µm
TE Cooling Temperature
Probe
Room Temperature
B&W Tek offers comprehensive
software packages that provide
solutions for all application
needs. Powerful calculations,
easy data management, and
user friendly easy-to-follow
work flow are all at the tips of
your fingers.
BWSpec™ is the foundation for all B&W Tek software platforms and comes
standard with every spectrometer. Built on the proven BWSpec™ platform,
BWID™ is optimized for identification and verification of materials. For
industrial Raman applications that require federal compliance: BWID™Pharma supports all requirements for FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance.
The most recent addition to B&W Tek’s software portfolio is BWIQ™
chemometrics software. BWIQ™ is a multivariate analysis software
package which can analyze spectral data and discover internal
relationships between spectra and response data or spectra and sample
classes. By coupling new and transitional chemometric methods with
cutting edge computer science technology such as sparse linear algebra
algorithms, BWIQ™ represents the next generation in speed, accuracy, and
performance.
Cooled to 10oC
*Power at excitation port, not including probe coupling loss **Typical resolution measured using pen lamp emission
B&W Tek, Inc.
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B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
Sensitive, Versatile, Simple
Features:
The i-Raman® is unique for its high resolution
combined with field-por tability, with
performance comparable to large bench-top
Raman systems and weighing less than 7
lbs. The system’s small footprint, lightweight
design, and low power consumption provides
research grade Raman capabilities anywhere!
•
Spectral Resolution of 3cm-1
•
175cm-1 of the Rayleigh Line
‌‌65cm-1 Option Available
•
Wide Raman Shift Coverage
•
Patented CleanLaze® Technology
for Laser Stabilization
•
TE Cooled 2048 Pixel Array
•
Fiber Optic Interface for
Convenient Sampling
Specifications:
> 50mW
Why Choose Raman?
785nm Excitation
> 300mW
830nm Excitation
> 300mW
•
•
•
•
•
•
Laser Linewidth (FWHM)
< 0.3nm
Spectrometer
Range
i-Raman-532S
175cm-1 - 4000cm-1
Resolution*
~ 4.0cm-1 @ 614nm
i-Raman-532H
175cm - 3300cm
~ 3.0cm-1 @ 614nm
i-Raman-785S
-1
175cm - 3200cm
~ 4.5cm-1 @ 912nm
i-Raman-785H
175cm-1 - 2700cm-1
~ 3.5cm-1 @ 912nm
i-Raman-830
200cm-1- 2300cm-1
~ 4.0cm-1 @ 912nm
-1
-1
-1
Detector
Detector Type
Accessories:
Applications:
Raman Probes
Cuvette Holder
Probe Holder
Video Microscope
Microscope Adaptor
Raman Flow Cells
Laser Safety Goggles
Bioscience and Medical Diagnosis
TE Cooling Temperature
Pharmaceutical Industry
Dynamic Range
TE Cooled Linear Array
300:1 (Typical)
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Integration Time
5ms - 65,535ms
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Trigger Mode
Gemology
5V TTL
Power Options
Geology and Mineralogy
Food & Agriculture Industry
The probe allows for measurement of various materials in the form of
liquids, gels, powders, or solids under both lab conditions (lab grade) or
demanding environmental conditions (industrial grade). Constructed
with state-of-the-art telecom packaging techniques, the probe has a
flexible fiber coupling encased in a durable protective jacketing material
which delivers Rayleigh scatter rejection as high as 10 photons per billion.
Wavelength excitation probes come in 532nm, 785nm, or 830nm.
Custom wavelength excitation probes available.
Software
State of the Art Chemometric Software
16-bit or 65,535:1
Computer Interface
Forensic Analysis
The center wavelength of the laser line is precisely maintained even when
the peak power is increased by utilizing a series of high end filters. A
laser line filter is used to clean up any side bands and ensure a narrow
excitation is delivered to the sample by removing all secondary excitation
lines before exciting the sample. The light collected from the sample is
then filtered via a notch filter. Finally, an ultra steep long pass filter further
removes lingering laser lines to allow accurate measurement of Raman
peaks as close as 175cm-1 from the Rayleigh line. An E-grade filter upgrade
is available, allowing the measurement of Raman peaks as close as 65cm-1
from the Rayleigh line.
10oC
Electronics
Environmental Science
Collects Data within 175cm of the Rayleigh Line
14µm x 200µm
Digitization Resolution
Polymers and Chemical Processes
Easy Transition Between Sample Types
-1
2048
Pixel Size
Raman Microscopy
The spectrometer design in the i-Raman® is dedicated for Raman
applications. You can customize your spectrometer by choosing from
a variety of excitation wavelengths. In addition, each configuration can
be further customized for your individual detection needs. Choose from
wider spectral range or high resolution optimized systems. Research
grade spectral resolution of 3cm-1 can be achieved with our double pass
transmission optics. Most
Cyclohexane
Raman applications do not
require such tight resolution,
so a wider spectral range
would be the better choice
in that case. The highthroughput optical layout of
all i-Raman® configurations
are ideal for those low-light
level Raman applications.
Probe
Filter
532nm†, 785nm, 830nm
Laser Power Control
Optimized for Raman Spectroscopy
Laser lifetime of 10,000 hours ensures quality data for years to come!
532nm Excitation
Pixel Number
In Raman spectroscopy, it is essential to utilize a clean, narrow bandwidth
laser due to the fact that the quality of the Raman peaks are directly
affected by the sharpness and stability of the delivered light source. The
i-Raman® spectrometer system features a patented CleanLaze® technology
with a linewidth < 0.3nm when equipped with our 785nm and 830nm
laser.
This technology
CleanLaze®
results in the correct
0
∆l = 0.02nm
center wavelength and
-10
avoids the phenomenon
-20
of “mode hopping.” In
-30
addition, the laser output
power can be adjusted
-40
in the software from 0
-50
- 100%, allowing you to
-60
maximize the signal-to-70
noise ratio and minimize
-80
integration time.
775
780
785
790
795
l (nm)
Laser
No Sample Preparation Required
Measure Through Glass, Quartz, Plastic (Non-contact)
Samples Can Be Solid, Liquid or Gas, Transparent or Opaque
Small Sample Size to Reduce Cost
Wide Spectral Coverage For Diversity of Applications
Cleaner and More Precise Spectra than FTIR or NIR
Spectrometer
Creating Raman Scatter
Normalized Power (dB)
Raman
Raman
i-Raman®
DC (Standard)
5V DC @ 8 Amps
AC (Optional)
100 - 240V AC, 50 - 60Hz
Battery
Semiconductor & Solar Industry
Optional w/ DC only
Detector
Cooled Detector for Low-Light Level Detection
Cooling an array detector with a built-in thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is an
effective way to reduce dark current and noise to enhance the dynamic
range and detection limit. The graphs below show the dark current and
noise for an uncooled versus a cooled CCD detector at an integration time
of 30 seconds. Operating at room temperature, the dark current nearly
saturates the uncooled CCD. When the CCD is cooled to 10oC, the dark
current is reduced by four times. This allows the spectrometer to operate
at long integration times and detect weak optical signals.
Dark Current: Uncooled vs. Cooled CCD Detectors at 30 Seconds
Physical
Dimensions
Weight
Operating Temperature
~6.6 lbs (~3 kg)
o
o
o
10 C - 35 C
Storage Temperature
-10 C - 60 C
Humidity
10% - 85%
Room Temperature
BWSpec™ is the foundation for all B&W Tek software platforms and comes
standard with every spectrometer. Built on the proven BWSpec™ platform,
BWID™ is optimized for identification and verification of materials. For
industrial Raman applications that require federal compliance: BWID™Pharma supports all requirements for FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance.
The most recent addition to B&W Tek’s software portfolio is BWIQ™
chemometrics software for use with the i-Raman® and other high resolution
Raman products. BWIQ™ is a multivariate analysis software package which
can analyze spectral data and discover internal relationships between
spectra and response data or spectra and sample classes. By coupling
new and transitional chemometric methods with cutting edge computer
science technology such as sparse linear algebra algorithms, BWIQ™
represents the next generation in speed, accuracy, and performance.
6.7 x 13.4 x 9.2in (17 x 34 x 23.4cm)
o
B&W Tek offers comprehensive
software packages that provide
solutions for all application
needs. Powerful calculations,
easy data management, and
user friendly easy-to-follow
work flow are all at the tips of
your fingers.
Cooled to 10oC
*Typical Resolution Measured Using Pen Lamp Emission †Center wavelength and linewidth not guaranteed
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 72
Page 73
B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Highly Sensitive, High Resolution Fiber Optic Raman System
The i-Raman® Plus is an enhanced version of our award winning i-Raman portable
Raman spectrometer, now powered by our innovative smart spectrometer
technology. Using a high efficiency back-thinned CCD detector with deeper
cooling and high dynamic range, this portable Raman spectrometer delivers
an improved signal to noise ratio for up to 30 minutes of integration time,
making it possible to measure weak Raman signals. The i-Raman Plus features
the unique combination of wide spectral coverage and high resolution with
configurations measuring out to 4000cm-1, enabling you to measure stretching
bands around 3100cm-1. The system’s small footprint, lightweight design, and
low power consumption provide research grade Raman capabilities anywhere.
The i-Raman Plus comes standard with a fiber optic probe, probe holder with
XYZ positioning stage, cuvette adaptor for measuring liquid samples, and our
proprietary BWIQ multi-variant analysis software. With the i-Raman Plus, a
high precision qualitative and quantitative Raman solution is at your fingertips.
Specifications:
Software:
Laser
532nm Excitation
< 50mW
785nm Excitation
< 300mW
830nm Excitation
< 300mW
532nm†, 785nm, 830nm
Laser Power Control
Spectrometer
Range
Resolution*
i-Raman-532S
175cm-1 - 4000cm-1
~ 4.0cm-1 @ 614nm
i-Raman-532H
175cm-1 - 3300cm-1
~ 3.0cm-1 @ 614nm
i-Raman-785S
175cm - 3200cm
~ 4.5cm-1 @ 912nm
i-Raman-785H
-1
175cm - 2700cm
~ 3.5cm-1 @ 912nm
i-Raman-830
200cm-1- 2300cm-1
~ 4.0cm-1 @ 912nm
-1
-1
-1
Detector
Detector Type
Back-thinned CCD Array
Pixel Number
2048 Effective Detector Elements
Effective Pixel Size
14μm x ~ 0.9 mm
-2oC
CCD Cooling Temperature
SMART:
Applications:
On-board processing including averaging,
smoothing, and dark compensation
Geology, Mineralogy, and Gemology
Bioscience and Medical Diagnostics
Semiconductor & Solar Inspection
Pharmaceutical Material Analysis
Polymer and Chemical Analysis
Environmental Science
Dynamic Range
50,000:1 (Typical)
Digitization Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Integration Time
6ms - 30 mins
Electronics
Computer Interface
USB 3.0 / 2.0 / 1.1
Trigger Mode
B&W Tek offers comprehensive software packages that provide
solutions for Raman application needs. Powerful calculations, easy
data management, and user friendly, easy-to-follow work flow are
all at the tips of your fingers.
BWRamTM is the foundation for all B&W Tek software platforms and
comes standard with every Raman spectrometer. Built on the proven
BWSpecTM platform, BWIDTM (optional) is optimized for identification
and verification of materials. For industrial Raman applications that
require federal compliance: BWIDTM- Pharma (optional) supports all
requirements for FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance.
The most recent addition to B&W Tek’s software portfolio is BWIQTM
chemometrics software for use with the i-Raman® Plus and other
high resolution Raman products. BWIQTM is a multivariate analysis
software package which can analyze spectral data and discover
internal relationships between spectra and response data or spectra
and sample classes. By coupling new and transitional chemometric
methods with cutting edge computer science technology such
as sparse linear algebra algorithms, BWIQTM represents the next
generation in speed, accuracy, and performance.
5V TTL
Power Options
DC (Standard)
5V DC @ 5.5 Amps
AC (Optional)
100 - 240V AC, 50 - 60Hz
Battery
COMPREHENSIVE:
Physical
Our comprehensive package of sampling accessories for
measuring solid and liquid samples provide you the utmost
utility right out of the box.
Weight
Optional w/ DC only
Dimensions
6.7x13.4x9.2inc (17x34x23.4cm)
~6.6lbs (~3kg)
o
o
0 C - 35 C
Operating Temperature
o
o
Storage Temperature
-10 C - 60 C
Humidity
10% - 85%
Raman Microscopy
Accessories (Included):
*Typical resolution measured using pen lamp emission
†Center wavelength and linewidth not guaranteed
Forensic Analysis
QUANTITATIVE:
Our state of the art BWIQ quantitative Raman analysis software package
provides an intuitive user interface, intelligent algorithms, and efficient
matrix calculation power, making it easy to use by both expert and
novice users.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 74
Raman
i-Raman® Plus
Additional Features:
•
Patented CleanLaze® Technology for Laser Stabilization
•
175cm-1 of the Rayleigh Line (65cm-1 Option Available)
•
Fiber Optic Coupling for Convenient Sampling
•
Up to 4000cm-1 Raman Shift Coverage
•
Spectral Resolution as fine as 3cm-1
Fiber Optic Raman Probes
Laser Safety Goggles
Cuvette Holders
Probe Holders
Accessories (Optional):
Immersive Raman Probe Shaft
Microscope Adaptor
Video Microscope
Raman Flow Cells
Page 75
B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Raman
GemRam™
PolymerIQ™
Raman Gemstone Identification System
Raman Polymer Identification and Qualification
PolymerIQ™ chemometric software is a revolutionary solution
for accurate, real-time, non-destructive identification and
quantification of polymers. By combining B&W Tek’s award
winning, high resolution portable Raman spectrometer, the
i-Raman® with Gnosys’ expert chemometric software, users
can now perform multivariate statistical analyses to relate all
available spectral information to the chemistry, properties,
and metrics of interest.
The GemRam™ is a lightweight, portable Raman
spectrometer dedicated to both the verification of known
gemstones as well as the identification of unknown
gemstones. It comes equipped with B&W Tek’s GemID™
identification software, powered by GemExpert’s spectral
library of nearly 300 different gemstones, as well as
unlimited space for user defined spectra that can be added
at any time.
With the click of a button, PolymerIQ delivers fast and
accurate measurement of polymers and additives. This
rapid analysis approach reduces the need for more laborious
analytical methods and enables a more intelligent approach
to the re-use of material test data. When utilized with the
i-Raman, PolymerIQ’s real-time, non-destructive polymer
analysis is ideal for introducing greater speed and cost efficiency into the routine inspection of masterbatches
and compounds during production. Purchase of PolymerIQ™ includes the iRaman, an X-Y-Z positioning
stage for accurate and repeatable measurements, a fiber optic probe, and a netbook computer preloaded with
PolymerIQ software, all in a convenient and durable carrying case.
Software GUI:
The GemRam utilizes a spectrum stabilized 785nm diode
laser and high resolution TE cooled spectrometer to
provide unrivaled performance and repeatability. It comes
complete with a fiber optic probe, X-Y-Z positioning stage,
and netbook computer with pre-loaded software, all in a
convenient carrying case.
About GemExpert:
Professor H.A. Hänni and Professor Johannes Hunziker are
world class authorities on gemology. Hänni and Hunziker
are founders of GemExpert GmbH.
Specifications:
Applications:
Laser Power
Spectrometer Range
Spectrometer Resolution
Computer Interface
Power
Identification and Measurement of Polymers and Additives
785nm, < 300mW
175cm-1 - 2700cm-1
~ 3.5cm-1 @ 912nm
USB 2.0 / 1.1
5V DC @ 8 Amps
Battery Optional
Polymer Additive Quantification as Low as 0.1% by Weight
Dimensions
Weight
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Humidity
6.7 x 13.4 x 9.2in
(17 x 34 x 23.4cm)
~6.6 lbs (~3 kg)
10 C - 35 C
Inspection of Masterbatches and Compounds During Production
Specifications:
Predictive Measurement of Properties
o
o
o
o
-10 C - 60 C
10% - 85%
GemID Software GUI:
Spectral Performance
Features:
785 Excitation
> 300 mW
Laser Linewidth (FWHM)
Build your own model to predict quantitative and qualitative
properties, discriminate between materials and reveal
correlations between spectra and properties.
< 0.3nm
175cm-1 - 3200cm-1
Range
Resolution (FWHM)
4.5cm-1 @ 912nm
Electronics
Computer Interface
Spectral matching is used to identify material by comparing
new spectra to an existing library of materials.
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Integration Time
5ms - 65,535ms
Power Options
AC (Optional)
Prediction is a simple and easy-to-use software that
analyzes materials using pre-built models, with
interfaces for both the advanced user and the
day to day operator.
DC (Standard)
5V DC @ 8 Amps
Battery
Optional w/ DC only
Physical and Environmental
Dimensions
Weight
Powered By:
B&W Tek, Inc.
100 -240V AC, 50-60Hz
Operating Temperature
Page 76
6.7 x 13.4 x 9.2in (17 x 34 x 23.4cm)
~6.6 lbs (~3 kg)
o
o
o
o
10 C - 35 C
Storage Temperature
-10 C - 60 C
Humidity
10% - 85%
Powered By:
Page 77
B&W Tek, Inc.
The innoRam® is ideal for laboratory settings
where research grade performance is
necessary. Standard systems come with
a choice of a 532nm or 785nm excitation
laser, with custom wavelengths available.
The innoRam® features an integrated touch
screen computer combining portability and
versatility, allowing for applications both in
the lab and in a mobile environment.
•
Creating Raman Scatter
-1
Spectral Resolution of 3.5cm *
-1
•
65cm to the Rayleigh Line
•
Patented CleanLaze Technology
for Laser Stabilization
•
TE Cooled, Low Etaloning,
Back-Thinned CCD
•
High Throughput Optics
•
Integrated Touch Screen Computer
•
Network and Video Output Capabilities
®
Specifications:
Lasers
> 50mW*
785nm Excitation
> 300mW*
•
•
•
•
•
•
No Sample Preparation Required
Measure Through Glass, Quartz, Plastic (Non-contact)
Samples Can Be Solid, Liquid or Gas, Transparent or Opaque
Small Sample Size to Reduce Cost
Wide Spectral Coverage For Diversity of Applications
Cleaner and More Precise Spectra than FTIR or NIR
Accessories:
Raman Probes
Cuvette Holder
Probe Holder
Video Microscope
Microscope Adaptor
Raman Flow Cells
Laser Safety Goggles
532nm, 785nm
Range
Resolution**
innoRam-532S
65cm-1 - 3750cm-1
~ 5.0cm-1 @609nm
innoRam-532H
65cm-1 - 3000cm-1
~ 3.5cm-1 @609nm
innoRam-785S
65cm-1 - 3000cm-1
~ 4.0cm-1 @912nm
innoRam-785H
65cm-1 - 2500cm-1
~ 3.5cm-1 @912nm
Detector
Detector Type
TE Cooled, Back-thinned, 2D Binning CCD
Pixel Number
2048
Pixel Size
TE Cooling Temperature
~ -20oC
Max Quantum Efficiency
90%
Dynamic Range
Bioscience and Medical Diagnosis
Pharmaceutical Industry
200,000 Electrons
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
250 kHz
Integration Time
27ms - 16 minutes
System Operation
Polymers and Chemical Processes
Environmental Science
USB
2 External Ports (2.0)
Trigger Mode
5V TTL
Ethernet
Forensic Analysis
Geology and Mineralogy
DC (Standard)
12V DC @ 10.8 Amps
AC (Optional)
100 - 240V AC, 50 - 60Hz
Battery
Food & Agriculture Industry
Semiconductor & Solar Industry
Optional w/ DC only
Form Factor
Collects Data within 65cm-1 of the Rayleigh Line
The center wavelength of the laser line is precisely maintained even when
the peak power is increased by utilizing a series of high end filters. A
laser line filter is used to clean up any side bands and ensure a narrow
excitation is delivered to the sample by removing all secondary excitation
lines before exciting the sample. The light collected from the sample is
then filtered via a notch filter. Finally, an ultra steep long pass filter further
removes lingering laser lines to allow accurate measurement of Raman
peaks as close as 65cm-1 from the Rayleigh line.
Weight
Page 78
The probe allows for measurement of various materials in the form of
liquids, gels, powders, or solids under both lab conditions (lab grade) or
demanding environmental conditions (industrial grade). Constructed
with state-of-the-art telecom packaging techniques, the probe has a
flexible fiber coupling encased in a durable protective jacketing material
which delivers Rayleigh scatter rejection as high as 10 photons per
billion. An E-grade Filter upgrade is available allowing the measurement
of Raman peaks as close as 65cm-1 from the Rayleigh line. Wavelength
excitation probes come in 532nm or 785nm.
Software
State-of-the-Art Touch Screen
The innoRam is battery operated and incorporates an integrated
computer, making it ideal for applications that require portability. This
computer features an embedded version of Windows XP and a 5” LVDS
touch screen with LED backlighting, making it easy to use. With its
ATOM Z500 1.6GHz CPU, 8 GB compact flash hard drive, 1 GB RAM, USB
port, ethernet port, and video output capabilities, this system provides a
total solution for Raman spectroscopy applications.
®
Digitization of Photons
The innoRam® features a two dimensional back-thinned CCD that detects
the dispersed Raman signal in
applications that require a sensitive
detector. The detector is TE Cooled
o
to -20 C to maximize dynamic range
by reducing dark current. A backthinned CCD obtains a 90% QE by
collecting incoming photons that do
not pass through a front illuminated
CCD. This achieves maximum photon
collection for low-light applications.
16.1 x 8.7 x 11.9in (41 x 22 x 30.3cm)
~22 lbs (~9.98 kg)
o
o
o
o
Operating Temperature
10 C - 35 C
Storage Temperature
-10 C - 60 C
Humidity
10% - 85%
Front Illuminated
*Power at excitation port, not including probe coupling loss **Typical resolution measured using pen lamp emission
B&W Tek, Inc.
Probe
Custom wavelength excitation probes available.
Back-thinned
Dimensions
The standard configurations for the spectrometer in the innoRam® are
for 532nm and 785nm laser excitation wavelengths. Our double pass
-1
transmission optics provide research grade spectral resolution of 3.5cm
while the f/2 spectrograph
Cyclohexane
allows you to more efficiently
collect the Raman signal. For
weakly scattering materials,
the high-throughput optical
layout of the innoRam® is ideal.
The innoRam® is also available
with a wider spectral range,
while still providing resolution
finer than most portable
Raman systems.
Easy Transition Between Sample Types
Detector
1 Port
Power Options
Gemology
Optimized for Raman Spectroscopy
Integrated Computer
30,000:1 (Minimum)
Digitization Resolution
Raman Microscopy
Filter
12µm x 12µm
Well Depth
Applications:
Laser lifetime of 10,000 hours ensures quality data for years to come!
< 0.3nm
Laser Power Control
Spectrometer
Spectrometer
l (nm)
532nm Excitation
Laser Linewidth (FWHM)
Why Choose Raman?
In Raman spectroscopy, it is essential to utilize a clean, narrow bandwidth
laser due to the fact that the quality of the Raman peaks are directly
affected by the sharpness and stability of the delivered light source.
The innoRam® spectrometer system features a patented CleanLaze®
technology with a linewidth < 0.3nm when equipped with our 785nm
laser. This technology results in the correct center wavelength and avoids
the phenomenon of “mode
CleanLaze®
hopping.” In addition, the
0
∆l = 0.02nm
laser output power can be
-10
adjusted in the software
-20
from 0 - 100%, allowing
-30
you to maximize the signal-40
to-noise ratio and minimize
integration time.
Our
-50
standard automatic shutter
-60
will reduce photobleaching
-70
for a variety of different
-80
775
780
785
790
795
sample types.
Normalized Power (dB)
Raman
Laser
Features:
Research Grade Performance
Raman
innoRam®
State of the Art Chemometric Software
B&W Tek offers comprehensive
software packages that provide
solutions for all application
needs. Powerful calculations,
easy data management, and
user friendly easy-to-follow
work flow are all at the tips of
your fingers.
BWSpec™ is the foundation for all B&W Tek software platforms and comes
standard with every spectrometer. Built on the proven BWSpec™ platform,
BWID™ is optimized for identification and verification of materials. For
industrial Raman applications that require federal compliance: BWID™Pharma supports all requirements for FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance.
The most recent addition to B&W Tek’s software portfolio is BWIQ™
chemometrics software for use with the innoRam® and other high resolution
Raman products. BWIQ™ is a multivariate analysis software package which
can analyze spectral data and discover internal relationships between
spectra and response data or spectra and sample classes. By coupling
new and transitional chemometric methods with cutting edge computer
science technology such as sparse linear algebra algorithms, BWIQ™
represents the next generation in speed, accuracy, and performance.
Page 79
B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Accessories
BAC100 / BAC102 Lab Grade Raman Probes
BAC101 Industrial Grade Raman Probe
Our fiber optic lab grade Raman probes are compatible with 532nm or 785nm
excitation wavelengths; custom wavelengths are also available. The Raman probe
is suitable for laboratory, field, and select process applications/conditions and can
sample materials such as liquids, powders, slurries, and solids. The BAC102 hand
trigger is located on the probe head for convenient “point and click” acquisition that
connects to a compatible Raman system. Standard data collection falls within 175cm-1
to the Rayleigh Line, though all of our fiber optic probes can be upgraded with an
E-grade filter, enabling measurement of Raman peaks as close as 65cm-1 to the Rayleigh
line. The innovative design uses state-of-the-art telecom packaging techniques and
optimized optical lenses. Fiber ends feature FC/PC for excitation and SMA for collection.
Our fiber optic industrial grade Raman probe is compatible with 532nm or 785nm
excitation wavelengths; custom wavelengths are also available. This highly durable
Raman probe is suitable for demanding laboratory, field, and select process applications/
conditions and can sample materials such as liquids, powders, slurries, and solids.
Standard data collection falls within 175cm-1 to the Rayleigh Line with an optional
E-grade filter available for collection within 65cm-1 to the Rayleigh Line. The innovative
design uses state-of-the-art telecom packaging techniques and optimized optical
lenses. Fiber ends feature FC/PC for excitation and SMA for collection.
Raman
Accessories
BAC160 Liquid Sample Flow Cell
BCR100A Cuvette Holder
The BRC100A provides Raman signal up to 3 times clearer than standard cuvette holders.
Using an internal mirror with a three point precision locking mechanism, it achives
unmatched reproducibility. The BCR100A can be used with any standard 12.5mm x
12.5mm size cuvette for liquid or powder sampling. High stability, repeatability, and
enhanced Raman signal can be expected with the BCR100A.
This sampling device is designed for Raman on-line process monitoring and provides a
sampling platform with high throughput and stability when used with a B&W Tek, Inc. lab
grade or industrial grade Raman probe. Our flow cells are constructed using a choice of
three different cell materials: 316 SS, titanium, or teflon. Window options include quartz
or sapphire. A Kalrez® O-ring is used to create a chemically resistant sampling device.
Custom cell materials and window construction are also available.
BAC150 Raman Probe Holder
BAC151A Video Microscope Sampling System
The BAC150 Raman probe holder is compatible with any B&W Tek, Inc. Raman probe
and delivers precision X, Y, and Z axis control with coarse and fine adjustment options.
Adjustment of the Z-axis focuses the laser on the desired plane to maximize the Raman
signal.
The BAC151A Video Microscope Sampling System is compatible with all B&W Tek Inc.
Raman probes and is designed with the highest level of flexibility. One port can be used
with two different input laser wavelengths due to the optional dual laser wavelength
configuration. The integrated camera facilitates precision Raman sampling through
BWSpec™, which allows for laser beam tracking and image capturing.
Software
B&W Tek offers comprehensive software packages that provide solutions for all
application needs. Powerful calculations, easy data management, and user friendly
easy-to-follow work flow are all at the tips of your fingers. Built on the proven
BWSpec™ platform, BWID™ is optimized for identification and verification of materials.
For industrial Raman applications that require federal compliance: BWID™Pharma supports all requirements for FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance.
The most recent addition to B&W Tek’s software portfolio is BWIQ™
chemometrics software for use with the i-Raman® and other high
resolution Raman products. BWIQ™ is a multivariate analysis
software package which can analyze spectral data and discover
internal relationships between spectra and response data or
spectra and sample classes.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 80
Safety & Security
B&W Tek, Inc. recommends the use of laser safety goggles for Raman spectrometer
systems due to their Class IIIb lasers. Class IIIb lasers produce radiation that can cause
damage to the eyes when viewed directly or indirectly.
For transporting your Raman system, rolling black suitcases with protective foam inserts
are available.
Also, ask about our Extended Warranty Program for our Raman systems.
Page 81
B&W Tek, Inc.
Raman
Raman
BWIQ®
BWID® & BWID®-Pharma
The Next Generation in Speed, Accuracy, and Performance
BWID® has been specifically designed for material identification using
Raman spectroscopy. It will rapidly identify and verify materials stored
in your own personal easy-to-create library or one of B&W Tek’s easyto-load libraries. The combination of BWID® and any of B&W Tek’s
Raman spectrometer systems create a powerful and effective solution
for identification and verification of materials. The reporting capability
enables a user to save, view, and print any analysis report.
BWID®-PHARMA is designed for pharmaceutical manufacturing
facilities that are facing the increasing need for 100% inspection of
incoming raw materials. In addition to all the features provided in
BWID™, BWID®-PHARMA provides enhanced system access security
and an audit trail of data activities that support compliance with the
FDA 21 CFR Part 11 regulation for Electronic Records and Electronic
Signatures, benefitting pharmaceutical system validations including
Installation Qualification (IQ) and Operational Qualification (OQ)
procedures.
BWIQ® chemometrics software package is intended for use with the i-Raman® and other
high resolution Raman products. It is a multivariate analysis software package that analyzes
spectral data and discover internal relationships between spectra and response data or
spectra and sample classes. BWIQ® combines traditional chemometric methods such as Partial
Least Squares Regression (PLS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), with new methods
such as B&W Tek’s proprietary adaptive iteratively reweighted Penalized Least Squares (airPLS)
algorithm for automatic baseline correction and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms for
non-linear datasets.
Features:
•
Progressive Structure and Easy-to-follow Work Flow
•
Wide Variety of Regression and Classification Routines
•
Three Different Automatic Sample Partition Algorithms
Multivariable Classification Analysis
•
High Performance and Accuracy with the Help of BLAS and LAPACK
Exploratory Analysis
•
High Speed and Less Memory with Sparse Linear Algebra Algorithms
Features of BWID:
•
Chemometric Modeling Markup Language (CMML) for Easy Model
Storage and Sharing
•
Fast Identification of Unknown Materials with “MATCH” or “NO MATCH” Results
•
•
Fast Verification of Known Materials with “PASS” or “FAIL” Results
Innovative Algorithms: airPLS for Baseline Correction and Whittaker
Penalized Least Squared Algorithm for Spectra Smoothing
•
User-definable Method for Automated Sequences of Testing
•
Facilitates Inspection of Incoming Raw Materials
•
Build User-defined Spectral Libraries
•
Automatic Sample Partition Algorithms for Sampling Process
•
Supports Third-party Libraries
•
•
Seven Search Algorithms
•
Capable of Automatic Performance Test
Various Spectra Preprocess Algorithms, Including Automatic Baseline Correction airPLS (adaptive iteratively
reweighted Penalized Least Squares); Smoothing Algorithms and Spectra Differential; As Well As Mean Centering and
Auto Scaling
•
Simplified Menu Driven GUI
•
Intuitive Variable Selection Based on Spectra As Well As Correlative Coefficient.
•
Save, View and Print Analysis Reports
•
Exploratory Data Analysis Through Principle Component Analysis (PCA)
•
Regression Analysis Through Various Algorithms Including MLR, PCR, PLS1, PLS2
•
Support Vector Machine Regression for Non-linear Datasets
•
Classification with Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis with Algorithms including SIMCA, PCA-MD, PLS-DA, SVC
Features of BWID-Pharma:
•
FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Regulation Compliance:
Electronic ID Signatures for Records Analysis: Review, Reject, Approve
•
Three User Levels: Administrator, Developer, Operator
•
Pharmaceutical System Validations - IQ and OQ Procedures
•
System Access Security
•
Audit Trails
Applications:
Multivariable Quantitative Analysis
Main Functions:
Example Software Work Flow
Advantage of airPLS compared to
common baseline correction routines
Sample Partition
Baseline Correction using airPLS
Spectra Smoothing
Predict Unknown Samples
Build Chemometric Model using PLS Regression
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 82
Page 83
B&W Tek, Inc.
Innovative Solutions for
Laser Modules & Systems
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 84
Page 85
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
BWN Series
OEM Diode and DPSS Lasers
Since the invention of the laser 50 years ago, laser technology has truly evolved into
an extremely diverse discipline with applications in countless fields. A wide variety of
laser types have enabled countless technologies that affect the way we live our daily
lives, with examples ranging from simple CD players and barcode scanners to complex
instrumentation such as DNA sequencers and 3D imagers.
Features:
Lasers are typically categorized by two parameters: first by the type of gain material
employed (i.e. solid, liquid, or gas) and secondly by the pump source (i.e. optical or
electrical). In the following section, we will provide a brief introduction of laser technology
with specific examples from the two most popular laser types.
The word laser is an acronym that stands for light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation. A laser consists of three basic components: (1) a gain
material, (2) a resonant cavity, and (3) a pump source. In order for a material
to qualify as a gain material, it must possess a unique property known as
metastability. A material is in a metastable state when an outside source (pump)
excites its electrons to a higher energy level, causing them to temporarily
remain in an excited state. This excited state allows population inversion, which
occurs when more electrons are in an excited state than in the ground state.
When population inversion occurs, the material becomes a gain material (amplifier) because a photon with the proper energy
is able to pass through the material, causing an electron to lose its energy in the form of a photon with equal energy. This
process, known as stimulated emission, causes a net photon gain.
•
Green (532 nm), Yellow (594 nm), Red (635 nm,
660 nm), and NIR (780 nm, 830 nm)
•
TEM00 Beam Quality
•
> 10,000 Hours Expected Lifetime
•
Low Noise and Excellent Power Stability
•
Integratable into Larger OEM Systems
Applications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Under the conditions of population inversion, lasing cannot occur until the
material is placed in a resonant cavity (oscillator), typically consisting of a set
of mirrors. One mirror, known as the high reflector, will redirect most of the
incident photons back into the gain material, while the other mirror, known
as the output coupler, will only direct a selected amount of incident photons
back into the gain material. The redirection of photons back into the gain
material allows amplification of the photons until the system reaches lasing
threshold. When the loss from the output coupler is equal to the gain from
the pumped material the lasing threshold has been met. Only then is a true
laser beam emitted.
Optical Trapping
Metrology
Wafer Inspection
Laser Printing
Particle Counting
Photoluminescence
Illumination
Pointing
Bio Instrumentation
Spectroscopy
Signal Transmission
5, 10, 20,
50, 100
M2
< 1.1
Beam Diameter at 1/e2 (mm) (Typical)
< 1.0
< 2.0
< 1.5
< 2.0
< 1.0
< 1.5:1
< 1.2:1
<+/-3%
< +/- 5%
< +/- 10%
< 5%
20 Hz to 10 MHz
< 0.5%
-
< 1.0%
10 MHz to 500 MHz
< 0.5%
-
< 1.0%
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
> 20
On/Off only
> 20
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 20
-
<4
Fall time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 20
-
Digital Modulation/External Trigger*
<4
Modulation Depth (Extinction Ratio)
> 100:1
Analog Modulation*
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
>1
Set Power
-
>1
Only
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
-
< 10
Fall time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
-
< 10
-
> 100:1
> 100:1
> 100:1
Warm-Up Time (Minutes)
<5
Beam Position (mm)
0.9
3.5
4
4.5
20 +/- 1
<5
30.8 +/- 1
20 +/- 1
< +/- 5
Pointing Stability (µrad/°C)
5
Weeks
< 10
Beam Angle (mrad)
0.85
3
< 1.1
RMS Noise
0.95
2.5
5, 10
CW / Modulated
Modulation Depth (Extinction Ratio)
2
830 +/- 10
5, 10, 20,
40, 60
< 1.5
Polarization Ratio
1.5
780 +/- 5
5, 10, 20,
40, 60
<1
< 1.2:1
Long-Term Power Stability (pk-pk)
1
1
660 +/- 5
5, 10, 20
< 1.2
Mode of Operation
1.1
0.5
635 +/- 10
-
Beam Asymmetry
= 0.0014
σ =σ 0.0014
0
50
Beam Divergence (mrad) (Typical)
1.05
0.8
5, 10,
20
TEM00
FWHM Linewidth (nm)
Laser Power Stability (532nm)
1.15
594 +/- 1
300
Spatial Mode
Laser Power Stability (532nm)
Normalized Power
Normalized Power
532 +/- 1
Output Power (mW)
1
Ambient Temperature (°C)
< 10
10 - 35
15 - 35
10 - 35
*Optional
Note: OEM Laser Components Are Not CDRH Compliant
0.85
0.8
The BWN laser series is a line of solid-state electrically pumped
diode lasers and diode pumped, solid-state lasers. Compact
and self-contained, the BWN series emits a pure TEM00 beam
2
with diffraction limited performance and a typical M of 1.05.
Available in green (532 nm), yellow (594 nm), red (635 nm and
660 nm), and NIR (780 nm and 830 nm) with variable power
options, these modules are ideal for demanding applications
such as metrology, photoluminescence, printing, illumination,
scanning, inspection, particle counting, and a variety of
biomedical applications. These OEM laser modules maintain
outstanding optical performance over a broad temperature
range, guaranteeing minimal power fluctuations and virtually
eliminating high frequency noise. They have the world’s smallest
OEM controller with power consumption < 5 Watts. They have
been qualified for use in some of the most demanding high-end
instruments, with deployments in the tens of thousands.
Wavelength (nm)
The BWN includes an external laser
driver, thermoelectric cooling, and
optical fiber coupling with an expected
lifetime > 10,000 hours. The BWN has
been proven reliable up to a 5% peakto-peak long term power stability
rating.
DPSS lasers have many advantages over standard diode lasers, especially when it comes to linewidth0.95
and beam quality. However, through the use of distributed gratings etched into the diode or
external gratings, diode lasers can be enhanced to drastically narrow the laser linewidth as well. 0.9
Page 86
Specifications:
Excellent Power Stability
Diode lasers achieve population inversion by applying a voltage across the p-n junction. If a strong enough voltage is applied,
the Fermi level of the diode will break into two quasi-Fermi levels. When the difference between those two levels is greater
1.15
than the band gap of the material, population inversion has been achieved. Alternatively, diode pumped solidstate (DPSS) lasers use a diode laser to pump a different crystal such as Nd:YAG or Nd:YVO4. Diode pumping is 1.1
a very efficient method of pumping dielectric materials because the diode pump wavelength can be tuned1.05
to maximize the photon absorption into the gain material.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
Introduction to Laser Technology
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Page 87
3.5
4
4.5
5
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
BWR Series
OEM Diode and DPSS Lasers
Features:
•
UV (405 nm) and Blue (440 nm, 475 nm)
•
TEM00 Beam Quality
•
> 10,000 Hours Expected Lifetime
•
Low Noise and Excellent Power Stability
•
Integratable into Larger OEM Systems
The BWB laser series is a line of solid-state diode lasers and diode pumped
solid-state lasers. Compact and self-contained, the BWB series emits a
2
pure TEM00 beam with diffraction limited performance and a typical M
of 1.4. Available in UV (405 nm) and blue (440 nm, 475 nm) with variable
power options, these modules are ideal for demanding applications
such as metrology, photoluminescence, printing, illumination, scanning,
inspection, particle counting, and a variety of biomedical applications.
These OEM laser modules maintain outstanding optical performance over
a broad temperature range, guaranteeing minimal power fluctuations and
virtually eliminating high frequency noise. They have the world’s smallest
OEM controller with power consumption < 5 Watts. They have been
qualified for use in some of the most demanding high-end instruments,
with deployments in the tens of thousands. The 375 nm, 405 nm, and 440
nm systems replace bulky, expensive gas ion lasers for biomedical and
fluorescence applications without sacrificing beam quality.
Specifications:
Wavelength (nm)
Output Power (mW)
405 +/- 10
440 +/- 10
20, 40, 80, 100
4, 10
Optical Trapping
Material Processing
Metrology
Wafer Inspection
Printing
Medicine
Particle Counting
Beam Diameter at 1/e2 (mm) (Typical)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Photoluminescence
Illumination
Pointing
Bio Instrumentation
Spectroscopy
Signal Transmission
< 1.5:1
< +/- 5%
< 5%
<0.5%
-
<0.5%
-
Low Noise
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
> 20
On/Off Only
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
<4
-
The BWB can be operated in a wide temperature range
o
o
(10 C - 35 C) with a stable, quiet laser output power at
most wavelengths. The BWB has a proven history of RMS
noise stability < 1.0%. The combination of excellent beam
characteristics (such as mode quality, low divergence, and
brightness) makes the BWB laser series suitable for beam
focusing as well as long distance beam positioning.
Fall Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
<4
-
> 100:1
> 100:1
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
>1
Set Power Only
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 10
-
Fall Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 10
-
> 100:1
-
Digital Modulation/External Trigger**
Analog Modulation**
Beam Angle (mrad)
•
Excellent Power Stability
•
Integratable into Larger OEM Systems
Output Power (mW)
10 MHz to 500 MHz
Beam Position (mm)
> 10,000 Hours Expected Lifetime
Wavelength (nm)
20 Hz to 10 MHz
Warm-Up Time (Minutes)
•
< 2.0
CW / Modulated
> 50:1
TEM00 Beam Quality
< 1.2
RMS Noise
Polarization Ratio
•
< 1.0
< 3:1
Modulation Depth (Extinction Ratio)
NIR (1064 nm)
< 1.4
Mode of Operation
Modulation Depth (Extinction Ratio)
•
-
< 1.5
Long-Term Power Stability (pk-pk)
Features:
< 1.4 x 3.0
Beam Divergence (mrad) (Typical)
Beam Asymmetry
The BWR laser series is a line of solid-state, optically pumped
lasers known as diode pumped solid-state lasers (DPSS).
Compact and self-contained, the BWR series emits a pure
TEM00 beam with diffraction limited performance and a typical
2
M of 1.4. Available in NIR (1064 nm) and with variable power
options, these modules are ideal for demanding applications
such as metrology, photoluminescence, printing, illumination,
scanning, inspection, particle counting, and a variety of biomedical applications. These OEM laser modules maintain
outstanding optical performance over a broad temperature
range, guaranteeing minimal power fluctuations and virtually
eliminating high frequency noise. They utilize the world’s
smallest OEM controller with power consumption < 20
Watts. They have been qualified for use in some of the most
demanding high-end instruments, with deployments in the
tens of thousands.
150
TEM00*
M2
Applications:
475 +/- 2
OEM Diode Pumped Solid-State (DPSS) Lasers
4, 10,
20
Spatial Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Laser
BWB Series
> 100:1
> 50:1
> 100:1
<5
20 +/- 1
<5
20 +/- 1
< +/- 5
30.8 +/- 1
Specifications:
Applications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Optical Trapping
Material Processing
Metrology
Wafer Inspection
Printing
Medicine
Particle Counting
Spatial Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
Photoluminescence
Illumination
Pointing
Bio Instrumentation
Spectroscopy
Signal Transmission
Page 88
< 1.4
Beam Diameter at 1/e2 (mm) (Typical)
Beam Divergence (mrad) (Typical)
< 10
< 10
10 - 35
< 1.2
< 1.5
< 2.0
< 2.0
< 1.5
< 2.0
< 1.5:1
Mode of Operation
CW / Modulated
Long-Term Power Stability (pk-pk)
< +/- 5%
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
>5
>1
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
< 100
Fall time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
Modulation Depth (Extinction Ratio)
Spatial Mode Profile
< 100
> 100:1
Analog Modulation*
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
By internally coupling the laser output into a singlemode fiber optic that acts as a mode filter, the BWR
laser series delivers a single-mode (TEM00) spatial
beam profile with circularity < 1.5:1 and a typical M2
of 1.4 for lasers above 600 nm.
>1
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
< 100
Fall time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
< 100
Modulation Depth (Extinction Ratio)
> 100:1
Polarization Ratio
> 100:1
Warm-Up Time (minutes)
Beam Angle (mrad)
10 - 35
600, 1200
Beam Asymmetry
< +/- 5
Ambient Temperature (°C)
450
TEM00
Digital Modulation/External Trigger*
<5
Ambient Temperature (°C)
30.8 +/- 1
15 +/- 1
< +/- 5
Pointing Stability (µrad/°C)
* > 60% Energy for TEM00 Mode for 405nm Option
**Optional
Note: OEM Laser Components Are Not CDRH Compliant
B&W Tek, Inc.
M2
Beam Position (mm)
Pointing Stability (µrad/°C)
1064 +/- 2
20, 50, 100
< 10
10 - 35
15 - 35
*Optional
Note: OEM Laser Components Are Not CDRH Compliant
Page 89
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
Laser
Specifications: High Permormance Laser Diode Systems
Flex™
General Specifications
Compact Low Noise Class IIIb Lasers
The FlexTM high performance continuous wave (CW) laser system provides a
fully integrated end-user laser system based on our proven BWN, BWR, and
BWB OEM laser engines in one compact class IIIb certified laser system. All
models come standard with both RS232 and USB 2.0 plug-and-play interfaces
and our easy to use software package. The Flex software allows full control
over output power, base plate temperature, and TTL triggering control setup.
An hour meter to monitor laser usage is also included. These turnkey lasers
maintain outstanding optical performance over a broad temperature range,
guaranteeing minimal fluctuations in power and virtually eliminating high frequency noise.
The Flex is available in nine different wavelength options spanning the ultraviolet to the near-infrared with output powers up to 450mW. All wavelengths
are available with external laser heads for easy alignment. Additionally, wavelengths between 600nm and 900nm are also available with single mode fiber
coupling. Each Flex provides a pure TEM00 beam with M2 values as low as 1.05.
Internal TE Coolers increase reliability over a temperature range of 10o to 35o C. The Flex is powered by a single AC 100 –
240VAC input which runs the internal low consumption (<40W) power supply, providing a regulated universal DC output.
Beam Circularity:
<1.2:1 (<3:1 for 405nm)
Spatial Mode**:
TEM00, M2 <1.1
Polarization:
Random (>100:1 Linear for 405nm)
RMS Noise:
<1% (<0.5% for 405nm)
Power Stability:
±3%
Warm-Up Time:
<5 Minutes
Analog Modulation:
>1kHz
Digital Modulation:
>20kHz
Operating Temp.:
10°C to 35°C
Input Voltage:
100-240V AC, 50/60Hz
Dimensions
Main Unit:
Laser Head:
7.75in x 12.5in x 3.25in
106.8 x 50.8 x 35.5mm
** >60% energy in TEM00 for 405nm
High Performace Laser Diode Systems
Wavelength
405nm ± 10nm
Output Power:
Beam Diameter (1/e2):
Beam Divergence (Typical):
Pointing Stability:
635nm ± 10nm
660nm ± 5nm
780nm ± 5nm
830nm ± 10nm
100mW
20mW
60mW
60mW
10mW
<1.4mm x 3.0mm
<1.0mm
<1.0mm
<1.0mm
<1.0mm
<1.5mrad
<1.5mrad
<1.5mrad
<1.5mrad
<1.5mrad
<10µrad/°C
<10µrad/°C
<10µrad/°C
<10µrad/°C
<10µrad/°C
Fiber Coupled Laser Diode Systems
Applications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Features:
Fluorescence
Bio Instrumentation
DNA Sequencing
Photoluminescence
Metrology
Flow Cytometry
Optical Trapping
Laser Pumping
Photo Lithography
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Confocal Microscopy
DNA Sequencing
Particle Counting
Biomedical Research
Precision Alignment
Optical Signal Transmission
Microscopy
Laser Projection
635nm ± 10nm
660nm ± 5nm
780nm ± 5nm
830nm ± 10nm
Output Power:
20mW
60mW
60mW
10mW
Wavelengths from 405nm to 1064nm
Fiber Coupling:
Single Mode FC/PC Port
Single Mode FC/PC Port
Single Mode FC/PC Port
Single Mode FC/PC Port
•
Close to Diffraction Limited Beam Quality
Fiber Core Diameter:
4.5µm
4.5µm
5µm
5µm
•
Low Noise and Excellent Power Stability
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.14
•
User-friendly Graphical User Interface
•
Wavelength
Fiber Numerical Aperture:
Specifications: Diode Pumped Solid-State Lasers
Diode Pumped Solid-State Lasers
Wavelength
Beam Circularity:
Output Powers
Beam Diameter (1/e2, Typical):
Beam Divergence (Typical):
Pointing Stability (μrad/°C):
Spatial Mode:
RMS Noise:
Software Interface
The Flex™ laser series comes equipped with
USB and RS232 connections and our easy-to-use
software interface for laser power control and
real time monitoring of internal laser conditions.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 90
475nm ±2nm
532nm ±1nm
594nm ±1nm
1064nm ±2nm
< 1.5:1
< 1.2:1
< 1.5:1
< 1.5:1
20, 50, 100, 450
4, 10, 20, 150mW
5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 300mW
5, 10, 20, 50mW
< 1.0mm (< 2.0 for 100mW)
< 1.0mm (< 2.0 for 300mW)
< 1.0mm (< 2.0 for 50mW)
< 2.0mm
< 1.5mrad
< 1.5mrad
< 1.5mrad
< 2.0mrad
<10
< 10
< 10
< 10
TEM00, M2<1.2
TEM00, M2<1.1
TEM00, M2<1.2
TEM00, M2<1.4
-
< 0.5%
-
-
Power Stability:
±5%
±3% (±5% for 300mW)
±5%
±5%
Warm-Up Time:
< 5 Minutes
< 5 Minutes
< 5 Minutes
< 5 Minutes
Analog Modulation:
Set Power Only
>1KHz (300mW: Set Power Only)
-
>1KHz (450mW: Set Power Only)
Digital Modulation:
On/Off Only
>20KHz (300mW: On/Off Only)
On/Off Only
>5KHz (450mW: On/Off Only)
Baseplate Temperature:
10°C to 35°C
10°C to 35°C
10°C to 35°C
10°C to 35°C
Power Supply:
100-240VAC, 50/60Hz
100-240VAC, 50/60Hz
100-240VAC, 50/60Hz
100-240VAC, 50/60Hz
Dimensions: (L x W x H):
7.75in x 12.5in x 3.25in
7.75in x 12.5in x 3.25in
7.75in x 12.5in x 3.25in
7.75in x 12.5in x 3.25in
Laser Head (L x W x H):
106.8 x 50.8 x 35.5 mm
(120 x 90 x 60 mm for 150mW)
106.8 x 50.8 x 35.5 mm
(120 x 90 x 60 mm for 300mW)
120 x 90 x 60 mm
71.4 x 30 x 30 mm
(120 x 90 x 60 mm for 450mW)
Page 91
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
Laser
CleanLaze®
BWF 1
Spectrum Stabilized Lasers
High Brightness Fiber Coupled Laser System
The CleanLaze® spectrum stabilized laser system is a narrow, spectral linewidth laser
available in both OEM and end-user configurations. Specifically suited for Raman
spectroscopy, it offers a hermetically sealed laser component integrated with a laser and a
driver. The compact, rugged package makes it suitable for various industrial applications.
This laser combines a high brightness fiber coupling with a thermoelectric cooler and
TEC controller. Expected lifetime is > 10,000 hours.
BWF 1 systems provide up to 450mW of continuous power, combining
a high brightness, fiber coupled to a laser diode with a thermoelectric
cooler, heatsink, fan, power supply, and component electronics all in
one package. Their unique design includes an external TTL modulation
port (BNC connector) and an LCD that displays output as current
values (mA). The fiber uses a non-epoxy high power connector with
an industry standard termination for high power lasers. An optional
collimating lens can be threaded directly onto the SMA connector of
the emitting fiber.
The CleanLaze laser series is capable of maintaining a linewidth of less than 0.03nm
(15GHz) in single transverse mode operation at 785nm. The CleanLaze novel cavity
design is capable of maintaining a stable, clean, narrow linewidth source over a wide
range of temperatures and drive currents. The temperature sensitivity of the central
o
o
wavelength is as low as 0.01nm/oC with a -35 C to 50 C operating temperature range.
U.S. patent number 7,245,369
Applications:
•
Raman Spectroscopy
•
Metrology, Microscopy, and Holography
•
Injection Seeding and Pumping
Features:
Specifications:
Wavelength (nm)
532 +/- 1
Minimum Output Power (mW)
15, 40,
80
Spatial Mode
MultMode
•
Power Output from 50mW to 1W
•
Excellent Spectral and Power Stability
•
USB Software Interface Available
75, 100
50
808 +/- 1
300,
450
550,
1000
830 +/-1
300, 450
Single-Mode
FWHM Linewidth (nm)
M2
-
1064 +/- 1
450
450
Features:
•
Fluorescence
•
High-brightness Fiber Coupled Laser
•
Laser Pumping
•
Stand-alone Self-contained System
•
Selective Soldering/De-soldering
•
Compact Thermoelectric Cooling
•
Heat Treating
•
600-1600 nm Wavelengths Available
•
Quick Curing of Epoxy
•
Transformation Hardening
•
Plastic Welding
< 0.3
< 1.1
<2
< 1.1
-
1.0
-
-
< 1.5
2.5
Fiber Core Diameter (µm)
105
-
-
5
105
Fiber Numerical Aperture
0.22
-
-
0.13
0.22
< 1.1:1
< 1.2:1
< 2:1
Beam Circularity
976 +/-1
Multi-Mode
< 0.03
Beam Diameter at 1/e2 (mm) (typical)
Beam Divergence (mrad) (typical)
Narrow Linewidth (< 0.03nm)
785 +/- 0.5
20, 50,
100
Applications:
•
-
Specifications:
< 1.1:1
Mode of Operation*
CW / Modulated
Long-Term Power Stability (pk-pk)
Optical
<+/-3%
20Hz to 10MHz
< 0.5%
10MHz to 500MHz
< 0.5%
Beam Divergence
< 2.0%
Bandwidth (FWHM)
Digital Modulation/External Trigger*
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
> 20
on/off only
> 100
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 20
-
<1
Fall time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 20
-
Modulation Depth (extinction ratio)
Output
Fiber Size
<1
Input Voltage
> 100:1
Modulation
Maximum Bandwidth (kHz)
>1
-
>1
Rise Time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
-
<5
Fall time (10% to 90%) (µsec)
< 50
-
<5
> 100:1
-
> 100:1
Modulation Depth (extinction ratio)
-
> 100:1
0 - 100mW
0.22 NA Nominal
650 +/-5nm
0 - 150mW
1-3 nm @ <1000 nm and 10-15 nm @ 1000-1850 nm
670 +/-5nm
0 - 300mW
0.5 Meter Fiber with SMA905 Termination
690 +/-5nm
0 - 300mW
105µm core (Multimode)
730 +/-5nm
0 - 300mW
750 +/-5nm
0 - 300mW
100-240V AC, 50/60Hz
785 +/-5nm
0 - 450mW
DC - 20KHz, TTL
808 +/-5nm
0 - 450mW
830 +/-5nm
0 - 450mW
860 +/-5nm
0 - 450mW
915 +/-5nm
0 - 450mW
940 +/- 5nm
0 - 450mW
Mechanical
Dimensions
Cooling
-
Warm-Up Time (minutes)
-
Off-axis Angle (mrad)
-
Pointing Stability (µrad/°C)
-
20 +/- 1
38 +/-1
< 10
IIIb
Ambient Temperature (°C)
Ambient Temperature
< 30
Humidity
IV
Thermoelectric Cooler with Forced Air
2.5 lbs
975 +/-5nm
0 - 450mW
10 to 35 C
1064 +/-10nm
0 - 450mW
5-95%, Non-condensing
1320 +/- 20nm
0 - 250mW
1450 +/- 20nm
0 - 250mW
1550 +/- 20nm
0 - 250mW
1850 +/- 30nm
0 - 250mW
Environmental
-
< +/-5
6in x 3in x 10in
Weight
<5
Beam Position (mm)
CDRH Laser Classification
Output Power
635 +/-5nm
Electronic
Analog Modulation*
Polarization Ratio
Wavelength Available
IIIb, CW Output
Class
RMS Noise
o
IIIb
10 - 35
* Optional
For More Details on OEM Configurations, Contact An Applications Specialist
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 92
Page 93
B&W Tek, Inc.
Laser
Laser
BWF 2
BWF-OEM
High Power Fiber Coupled Laser System
Compact Fiber Coupled Laser Module
The BWF2 series is a compact turnkey fiber-coupled laser system providing
up to 30 Watts of continuous power. Combined with a high brightness
fiber-coupled laser diode, thermoelectric cooler, power supply and control
electronics, the BWF2 comes in one complete package. The system operates
from standard wall plug line power. The unique design of BWF2 includes
features such as a red aiming beam, multifunctional relay controller for
versatile laser operations, and a remote port for external modulation and
control purposes. Optional features include lens assemblies that can be
attached to the end of a fiber with an SMA 905 connector. By using a lens
projection assembly, spots as small as 0.3mm in diameter can be achieved,
providing the user with an intense, non-contact heat source. In addition,
optional control interfaces via TTL or analog ports are available for laser
and aiming power.
The BWF-OEM fiber coupled, high-power laser diode OEM module is a compact
integrated package containing a laser driver, thermoelectric cooler, TEC
controller and a high-brightness fiber pigtailed laser diode. It is available at
various wavelengths and a power output of up to 2 Watts. All components are
sealed in an airtight, extrusion aluminum housing. The module is powered
by 5 VDC, making it convenient for OEM applications. It also provides a TTL
modulation port, which can operate at up to 100 KHz.
Features:
Applications:
•
630–2000 nm Wavelength
•
High Power Industrial Instrumentation
Power Delivered by High-brightness Fiber
•
Power up to 2 Watts
Narrow Spectral Width (< 3 nm)
•
Sensors and Medical Instrumentation
Stand-alone Self-contained System
•
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Compact Thermoelectric Cooling
Compact, Rugged Package
•
•
•
•
635-2000 nm Wavelengths Available
•
Convenient 5VDC Input
•
Nd/Yb/Er Laser Pumping
•
Conversion into OEM System for Qualified OEM Customer
•
Available TTL and Analog
Features:
•
•
Note: OEM Laser Components Are Not CDRH Compliant
Specifications:
Applications:
Industrial
• Selective Soldering/De-soldering
• Heat Treating
• Quick Curing of Epoxy
• Transformation Hardening
• Plastic Welding
Wavelength
635 - 1850 nm
Output Power
Up to 30W
Spatial Mode
Multi-Mode
FWHM Linewidth
Fiber Core Diameter
Fiber Numerical Aperture
Beam Circularity
Mode of Operation*
Output Port
Medical Research
• Contact Cutting, Ablation
• Coagulation Necrosis
• Tissue Welding/Fusion
• Laser Hyperthermia
Photodynamic Studies
Medical OEM/OED High Power Diode Laser
1-3 nm @ <1000 nm and 10-15 nm @ 1000-1850 nm
BWF-5™ is a portable high power diode laser designed for applications
requiring easy operation and fiber delivered, high output power at specified
wavelengths. With a microcontroller and LCD color touch screen, this system
provides intelligent safety features, ease of operation, and programmable
operation settings. The innovative fiber calibration port design allowes use
of a variety of fibers and provides well regulated, optimum output power.
The calibration mechanism also alerts operators about degraded or defective
fibers.
105 - 1000 μm Core
0.22 - 0.4 NA Nominal
< 1.1:1
CW/Modulated
SMA905
Input Voltage
Dimensions
100-240V AC, 50/60Hz
250mm x 120mm x 320mm
Weight
5-8 lbs
CDRH Laser Classification
Ambient Temperature
Aiming Beam (Optional)
Control
Features:
IV
10 - 35°C
• Intuitive User Interface
650+/-10nm @ >1mW
Front Panel Current Control and Display 0-max
TTL or Analog Ports for Laser Output and Aiming Beam (Optional)
Cooling
5-95%, Non-condensing
Accessory (Optional)
Collimator Readily Threaded onto SMA 905 Connector (Beam Diameter 6.2mm @
1/e2, f=11.0mm @ NA=0.25)
Page 94
• Stand-Alone, Self-Contained Laser System
Applications:
Thermoelectric Cooler with Internal Fan
Humidity
B&W Tek, Inc.
BWF-5
Industrial
• Selective Soldering/
De-Soldering
• Heat Treating
• Quick Curing of Epoxy
• Transformation
Hardening
• Plastic Welding
Medical
• Dental Surgery
• Brain Tumor Surgery
• Aesthetic Medicine
• Endovenous
• Laser Therapy
• Cardiac Surgery
• Incontinence
• BPH
• Custom Form Factors Available
• Medical Grade Standards
Biomedical Research
• Contact Cutting, Ablation
• Coagulation Necrosis
• Tissue Welding/Fusion
• Laser Hyperthermia
Photodynamic Studies
Page 95
Veterinary Medicine
• Epiglottic Entrapment
• Ventriculocordectomy
• Soft Palate Scarification
B&W Tek, Inc.
Innovative Solutions for
Spectral Irradiance &
Spectrophotometry
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 96
Page 97
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectral Irradiance
SpectraRad® Xpress
TE Cooled Miniature Spectral Irradiance Meter
The SpectraRad® is a miniature TE Cooled spectral irradiance
meter designed for industrial applications and lab use with a
USB 2.0 interface. The SpectraRad® is equipped with a fiber
coupled right angle transmissive cosine corrector, which is
irradiance calibrated against a NIST traceable tungsten light
source. BWSpec™ software is provided for characterization
and measurement of many application lighting devices
and systems. The SpectraRad® is ideal for lamp and LED
characterization, color analysis, photostability testing,
photobiology and photochemistry. Standard software
features include timeline recording, data smoothing,
illuminance (lux), chromaticity, color temperature, and other
data-handling functions.
The SpectraRad® Xpress is a miniature spectral irradiance meter designed
for field, industrial, and lab applications with a plug-and-play USB 2.0
interface. A transmissive cosine corrector is coupled to a spectrometer
which then is irradiance calibrated against a NIST traceable Tungsten
light source. Optimized software is provided for characterization and
measurement of many application lighting devices and systems. Standard
software features include timeline recording, data smoothing, illuminance
(lux), chromaticity, color temperature, external triggered pulsed light
capturing, and other data handling functions. The SpectraRad® Xpress
is ideal for lamp and LED characterization (requires input optic option),
color analysis, solar studies, photostability testing, photobiology and
photochemistry.
Specifications:
Applications:
UV Curing System QC
Spectral Range
380nm - 750nm, 350nm - 1050nm
LED Characterization
Spectral Resolution
~1.5nm, ~2.0nm
Irradiance Range
25 nW/cm2/nm - 4 mW/cm2/nm
Visible Spectroscopy / Spectroradiometry
Electrical
WL Identification
Color Absorbance & Reflectance
Advantages of Spectral vs. Filter Based Instruments:
Although filter based instruments are desired for certain
properties such as cost, speed and portability, they are not
always the best choice for analytical measurements. Filter
based instruments only acquire three data points across the
entire spectrum of light to yield colorimetric values. This is
accomplished by the use of filters corresponding to the normal
human eye response. These filters can only be manufactured
to a certain degree of accuracy. Due to these facts, filter based
meters are susceptible to errors because of the deviation of the
filter response from the ideal human eye response and the lack
of resolution needed to accurately describe narrow bandwidth
light sources.
Detector Type
Response Enhanced 2048 Element Linear
Silicon CCD Array
TE Cooling
14oC
External Trigger
Aux Port
Computer Interface
USB 2.0 / 1.1
Data Transfer Speed
DC Power Input
Operating Systems
Illumination and Color Rendering from Lighting
•
Spectral Range: 380-750nm, 350-1050nm
Solar Irradiance Monitoring (Outdoors)
•
Input Optics: Transmissive Cosine Corrector (Default)
Solar Simulator Validation (Indoors)
•
CIE 127 Compliant Adaptor (ADP-CIE127 Option)
UV Curing System QC
•
NIST Traceable Calibration
LED Characterization
•
Wavelength Accuracy: Better Than 0.3nm
Color Software:
BWSpec™ features a wide range of tools designed to
perform complex measurements and calculations at the
click of a button. It allows the user to choose between
multiple data formats and offers automatic optimization
of integration time. BWSpec™ color software graphically
displays positioning in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Chart and
in Lab* space. BWSpec™ also provides tristimulus values
(X, Y, Z), Correlated Color Temperature (CCT), Dominant
Wavelength, Ev (lux), x, y, u’, v’, and many more radiometric
and color metrics in an easy-to-follow display window.
USB at < 350mA
Detector Type
Response Enhanced 2048 Element Linear Silicon CCD Array
Detector Pixel Format
2048 x 1 Elements @ 14μm x 200μm Per Element
Spectrograph f/#
3.0
Spectrograph Optical Layout
Crossed Czerny-Turner
Dynamic Range
275 (Typical)
Digitizer Resolution
16-bit or 65,535:1
Readout Speed
500 kHz
Data Transfer Speed
Up to 180 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
Effective Integration Time
1 to >=20,000 ms
External Trigger
Aux Port
15°C - 35°C
Operating Temperature
15°C - 35°C
85% Non-condensing
Relative Humidity
0 - 85% RH Non Condensing
Weight
~ 0.5 lbs (0.23 kg)
Computer Interface
USB 2.0/1.1
Operating Systems
Windows XP, Vista (32 bit), & 7 (32 bit)
Up to 180 Spectra Per Second Via USB 2.0
5V DC < 1.5 Amps
5 - 120,000ms
Windows: XP, Vista (32-bit), 7 (32-bit)
Environmental
Operating Temperature
Operational Relative Humidity
The SpectraRad™ avoids these problems at a comparable cost, higher speed
and small footprint because it acquires hundreds of data points across the
visible spectrum. In addition, the 2048 pixel linear CCD array provides
the precision required to accurately measure narrow bandwidth light
sources or LEDs. Having multiple sensors also enables the unit to
report spectral data and display spectral graphs, making it the
ideal instrument for evaluating LEDs, which are today’s dominant
light source.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 98
Specifications:
Power Input
Software
Effective Integration Time
Applications:
Features:
Optical
Illumination and Color Characterization
Spectral Irradiance
SpectraRad®
Model
BSR112E-VIS
BSR112E-VIS/NIR
Range
380-750nm
350-1050
Slit
100µm
100µm
Resolution
~3.0nm
~4.0nm
20nW/cm2/nm - 400µW/cm2/nm
30nW/cm2/nm - 600µW/cm2/nm
Irradiance Range
Page 99
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectrophotometry
Broadband Transmission / Reflection / Absorption Spectrophotometers
Common Specifications (Typical):
System
i-Spec™ series products are broadband transmission / reflection /
absorption spectrophotometers with various accessory options for
bench-top, as well as portable uses. Systems can employ TE Cooled
CCD array, Photodiode Array, TE Cooled InGaAs array, and/or TE
Cooled Extended InGaAs array detectors for optimal sensitivity and
dynamic range in the UV, Vis, and NIR. The i-Spec™ products feature a
standard external triggering port with flexible fiber optic coupling of
sampling accessories. i-Spec™ series products use high intensity and
long lifetime tungsten halogen 5 Watt or 20 Watt sources and high
speed detection systems, enabling fast spectral capturing of 20 to
>100 spectra per second, making them ideal for spectrophotometric
studies where high-speed spectrum capture rates are essential.
Transmittance, Reflectance, Absorbance
Measurements
Fiber Optic Probes and Sampling Accessories Required (Sold Separately)
Connections
Illumination and Collection SMA905 Ports For Fiber Optic Coupling
Triggering
Front Panel Connection For Use With Sampling Probes With Triggering Feature
Computer Interface
Spectrophotometry
i-Spec™ Series
USB 2.0/1.1
Software
iSpec™
Software Developer's Kit (SDK)
Software Options
Sample Code: C#, C++, Visual C++, Visual Basic, VBA, Labview, VB.NET
Instrument Dimensions
9.5 (H) x 6.7 (W) x 13.7 (D) in (242 (H) x 170 (W) x 347 (D) mm)
Weight (model dependant)
7.9 - 10.8lbs (3.6 - 4.9kg)
Power
12V DC @ 10.8 Amps, Battery Option Available
Operating Temperature
0°C to 45°C
Spectrometer
Applications:
Agricultural, Pharmaceutical, and Petrochemical
Material Diffuse Property Characterization
Opaque Chemical Solution Analysis
Bench-top and In-field Spectrophotometric Measurements
Sampling Accessories:
Optical Design
•
•
•
•
Digitization Resolution
Fiber Reflectance Probes
Dark Field Reflectance Probes
Fiber Dip Probes
Assembly Options:
Trifurcated, Bifurcated, & Round-to-slit
Crossed Czerny-Turner Spectrograph
16-bit or 65,535 to 1
Integration Time
250ms - 5ms (Min. Spectrometer Dependant), 63,535ms x Multiplier (Max.)
Light Source
Tungsten Halogen 5W
Tungsten Halogen 20W
350 to > 2600nm
350 to > 2600nm
2800 K
2900 K
Warm Up Time
~40 Minutes
~40 Minutes
Rated Life
10,000 Hours
2,000 Hours
Spectral Output Range
Color Temperature
Features:
•
•
•
•
•
Broadband Transmission, Reflection, Absorption Measurements
Portable, Rugged Turnkey Design
USB 2.0 Plug-and-play Interface
Flexible Fiber Coupling of Sampling Accessories
Battery Option Available
Available Configurations:
Model Number
BWS005A-05
BWS015-05
5W Tungsten Halogen
20W Tungsten Halogen
Application
BWS035-05
System Performance is Optimized For Reflectance Measurements
BWS035-20
Page 100
400 - 2200
~5.8 (400-1150nm) Photodiode Linear Array
~13 (1100-2200nm) TE Cooled Extended InGaAs Array
350 - 1700
BWS015-20
Best For Transmittance Measurements
Can Support Transflectance and Some Reflectance Measurements
Call
B&W Tek, Inc.
Spectral Resolution (nm FWHM)
& Detector Array
BWS005A-20
Light Source Options:
Light Source
Wavelength
Range (nm)
~1.2 (350-1050nm) TE Cooled Silicon CCD Array
~4.0 (900-1700nm) TE Cooled InGaAs Linear Array
900 - 1700
~ 4.0 (900-1700nm) TE Cooled InGaAs Array
400 - 2550
Contact B&W Tek, Inc. For More Information
Page 101
Tungsten Halogen
Light Source (W)
5
20
5
20
5
20
5
20
B&W Tek, Inc.
About B&W Tek
With offices and distributors in over 18 countries, B&W Tek’s global
presence makes it easy to get in touch with us, no matter where you are.
Key Distributors:
France:
Opton Laser International
Phone: +33 (0) 1-69-41-04-05
Web: www.optonlaser.com
About B&W Tek
Where can I find a B&W Tek location or distributor near me?
Germany:
Polytec GmbH
Phone: +49 (0) 7243-604-0
Web: www.polytec.de
Italy
Madatec srl
Phone: +39-02-36542401
Web: www.madatec.com
Japan:
Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc
Phone: +81 03-3349-5321
Web: www.konicaminolta.jp/instruments
Spain:
Microbeam, S.A.
Phone: +34-93-450-08-75
Web: www.microbeam.es
United States:
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas
Phone: +1-888-473-2656
Web: www.konicaminolta.com/sensingusa
Global:
Edmund Optics Worldwide
Tel.: +1-800-363-1992
Web: www.edmundoptics.com
United States – Our headquarters is located in
Newark, DE, where much of the engineering,
design, and manufacturing for B&W Tek takes
place. This location, along with a second
facility in Delaware and our R&D facility in
Princeton, New Jersey make up half of
our total employees and 40% of our
engineering capabilities.
Europe – In Lübeck, Germany (near Hamburg)
B&W Tek has a dedicated sales and marketing
office to provide additional support, training,
and materials to all of our current European
customers, as well as to cultivate new sales
channels and customers in Europe.
China – B&W Tek has two state-of-the-art
facilities located in Shanghai, both with ISO13484 and ISO-9001 certifications. Our 30,000
square feet of laboratory space is used for
research, development, customization and
testing.
Japan – In Saitama, Japan (near Tokyo) B&W
Tek has an office with sales and marketing
capabilities, as well as engineering and QA/QC
support. This office also manages several major
OEM accounts in addition to multiple channel
partners, including Konica Minolta.
Visit our website to view contact information for our worldwide distributors.
B&W Tek, Inc.
Page 102
Page 103
B&W Tek, Inc.
Copyright 2013 B&W Tek, Inc.
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