WLAN point to point Wireless Bridges

WLAN point to point Wireless Bridges
Master Thesis Supplement
Radio Communications Project
Electrical Engineering
June 2016
WLAN point to point Wireless Bridges
An Experimental Investigation
Avinash Goud Chekkilla
Faculty of Computing
Blekinge Institute of Technology
SE-371 79 Karlskrona Sweden
This project is submitted to the Faculty of Computing at Blekinge Institute of Technology in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical
Engineering with Emphasis on Radio Communications.
Contact Information:
Author(s):
Avinash Goud Chekkilla
Email: avch15@student.bth.se
University advisor:
Prof. Hans-Jürgen Zepernick
Department of Communication Systems
Faculty of Computing
Blekinge Institute of Technology
SE-371 79 Karlskrona, Sweden
Internet
Phone
Fax
: www.bth.se
: +46 455 38 50 00
: +46 455 38 50 57
i
Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 5
PROJECT OUTLINE.................................................................................................................. 5
QUICK INSTALL GUIDE BOOK CONFIGURATION ......................................................... 7
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 7
Safety Notices.................................................................................................................... 7
Credentials ........................................................................................................................ 7
WLAN Management .......................................................................................................... 7
Dime Manager .................................................................................................................. 7
INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................................... 8
BASIC CONFIGURATION ......................................................................................................... 9
Pre-Configured Data ....................................................................................................... 9
Software Update ............................................................................................................. 10
System Requirements ..................................................................................................... 10
Preparations ................................................................................................................... 10
IP Configuration ............................................................................................................ 12
Modify System Password ............................................................................................... 13
Setting up Wireless Network .......................................................................................... 13
Setting up Bridge Link ................................................................................................... 13
Software Update ............................................................................................................. 14
RESET .................................................................................................................................. 14
TECHNICAL DATA ................................................................................................................ 15
LEDs ............................................................................................................................... 15
Antenna Connectors ...................................................................................................... 16
LUCAS – NULLE LABSOFT ................................................................................................... 17
EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................................................... 17
FUNDAMENTALS .................................................................................................................. 17
HIGH PERFORMANCE WIRELESS (WLAN) BRIDGE ............................................................... 17
Dual Polarized Antenna ................................................................................................ 17
Surge Suppression ......................................................................................................... 18
Low Loss Antenna Cables ............................................................................................. 18
ETHERNET SWITCH WITH POE CAPABILITY .......................................................................... 18
DHCP .................................................................................................................................. 18
Configuration of DHCP server...................................................................................... 19
MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS ........................................................................................... 19
PROBLEMS ............................................................................................................................... 20
3
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 IP configuration of access point ............................................................................. 11
Table 2-2 Configuration of a wireless network ...................................................................... 11
Table 2-3 IP configuration of access client ............................................................................ 11
Table 2-4 Configuration of bridge link ................................................................................... 11
Table 2-5 LED status display ................................................................................................. 15
4
INTRODUCTION
Cabling is the most common method used for the networking of computers and
peripheral devices, but frequently it is not the cheapest or flexible option. This is
especially true if offices spread over several building. In this case, the operation
of wired networks is very time-consuming and therefore not reasonable from an
economic viewpoint.
WLAN technology permits the cost-effective and simple implementation of pointto-point connections. Using the well-known technology 802.11abg, a maximum
gross throughput of 54 Mbps can be achieved at the bridge links.
The new 802.11n technology makes the advantages of higher data transmission
rates or distances also available for bridge links. This is achieved by the
transmission of two separate data streams. Beside the n access point, a dual
polarization antenna enables to transmit two separate partial streams from one
location to another. Compared to the previously applied technology, the gross data
rates are nearly increased by a factor of 6, now achieving up to 300 Mbps.
The advantages supplied by the 802.11n technology are particularly relevant at
distances of up to 5 km. In a practical application, it was possible to achieve a net
throughput rate (TCP/IP) of 75 Mbps at a distance of 900 m. Bintec access points
permit the encryption of the transmitted data via IPSec. The accelerator chip is a
standard component of the device and permits data transmission rates of up to 90
Mbps.
The Equipment is provided with a Quick Installation Manual and DVD necessary
to install and run the experiment. The most important features that needs to be
studied with regards to installation and configuring the experiment are detailed.
Project Outline
The project has been documented in two chapters. Chapter 2 deals with the
basic installation and configuration from guide book. Chapter 3 deals with
advanced software configurations using Interactive Lab Assistant DVD for
formation of a WLAN bridge.
5
The Project hardware needs to be setup to run the experiment according to the
instruction manual for setting up the stands till fixing the access points on top of
it which are attached to the dual polarized antennas.
6
QUICK INSTALL GUIDE BOOK CONFIGURATION
Introduction
This section details briefly about the safety instructions, login credentials,
softwares used for monitoring and locating the access points.
Safety Notices
The safety precautions brochure tells the necessary things to consider while
using access point.
Credentials
In order to login to the access points after configuring the hardware setup and
installing the needed software, use the predefined login credentials defined
by funkwerk which are as follows:
Username: Admin
Password: funkwerk
The credentials need to be changed as soon as possible to prevent
unauthorized access as all devices have same credentials.
WLAN Management
WiLMA Wireless LAN Management is a software applications in a
client/server architecture that allows to centrally monitor, control and
maintain funkwerk access points in medium and large wireless LAN’s.
Dime Manager
Dime Manager is a .Net based application that is supported by funkwerk
devices, and offers easy to use functions and an overview of the devices in
the network, their parameters and files. SNMP multicast is used to locate the
devices in the network irrespective of the IP address assigned by the DHCP
server. A new configuration can be initiated over HTTP or TELNET.
The Dime Manager tool allows you to do the following operations:
9 Locate Funkwerk Devices
9 Assign new IP Addresses
9 Logs into devices on behalf of user while using HTTP
7
Installation
The device can be fitted with various antenna systems. External, screw-on
standard antennas can be used. The access points of the bintec WI series can
be mounted on a mast (indoor and outdoor environments) or DIN rail (indoor
environment). When setting up and connecting, carry out the steps in the
following sequence:
9 Antennas
External standard antennas must be positioned and screwed up on the
connections provided. If two antennas are connected there must be atleast
6cm or 12cm apart.
9 Installation
The access points needs to be fitted to the wall using brackets on the housing
or can be used as a table-top device.
In our experiment the Antennas are attached to the access points which are
placed on stands on both the transmitter and receiver in LOS. They are
mounted based on the instruction manual which is included in the equipment
manual.
9 LAN
The device can be configured via Ethernet ports. If the LAN wire is connected
to port ETH1 or ETH2, the device automatically detects the port it is
connected to and a LED is set on the device for that port respectively. If one
port is used for connection the other port can be used for cascading purpose
to create a bigger network.
9 Power Connection
Connect the devices to the mains socket using the main adaptor supplied. Plug
the device into a 100-240V socket and when connected the LEDs signal the
power connection status on the device. When the device is connected to LAN
8
via ETH1 or ETH0, device automatically detects the LAN/Switch and is
shown on the LED status.
9 Configuring via Console
The serial interface of the gateway (console) can be connected to the serial
interface of your PC (COM1 or COM2) as an alternative option for
configuring the device.
Basic Configuration
The device basic configuration can be done with the usage of Dime Manager
(IP Address assignment) and the Funkwerk Configuration Interface.
Basic configurations required based on the availability of DHCP server are
shown below. In the experiment done, the college has a DHCP server and
assigns an IP address when it is connected to an access point via a switch.
Note: The netgear switch used in the experiment doesn’t have a DHCP server.
Funkwerk switches that were needed for the experiment had inbuilt
DHCP server in the switch.
Pre-Configured Data
There are three ways of accessing the device in the network to perform
configuration tasks which are described as follows:
✓ Dynamic IP
If DHCP Server is available then the device by default is set to DHCP
Client Mode, i.e. the device is automatically assigned an address by the
DHCP server which is used to access the device.
✓ Fallback IP
If there is no DHCP server, connect the device to the configuration PC
directly and then it can be reached by using the predefined fallback IP
configuration:
IP Address: 192.168.0.252
Net Mask: 255.255.255.0
✓ Assigning Fixed IP (Using Dime Manager)
Dime Manager enables to assign new IP Address to the device.
9
Note: If Fallback address is assigned, it is overridden and a new IP address
can be assigned. If DHCP address is assigned, it cannot be overridden.
Software Update
The software needed for operation can be updated in software and
configuration settings as the device contains the software available at
production time. Open Funkwerk Configuration Interface using the
Maintenance ->Software and Configuration menu.
System Requirements
System Requirements for running the software are as follows.
9 Microsoft Windows operating system Windows 2000 or higher
9 Internet Explorer 6 or 7, Mozilla Firefox Version 1.2 or higher
9 Installed network card (Ethernet)
9 CD ROM drive
9 Installed TCP/IP log
9 High colour display (more than 256 colours) for correct representation of
the graphics
Preparations
The necessary steps for configuration involve:
9 Obtaining the data required for the basic configuration
9 Checking the system requirements of the configuration PC
Gathering Data
The data required for the basic configuration can be gathered and is needed for the
following purposes:
9 IP configuration (mandatory)
9 Optional: Configuration of a wireless network connection in Access Point mode
9 Optional: Configuration of client links in Client Links mode
9 Optional: Configuration of bridge links in Bridge mode
Basic Configuration
It involves the IP Configuration of Access Point that includes
9 IP Address of the access point and Net Mask of the access point
In order to configure a new network you can use the following values:
10
Access data
Table 2-1 IP configuration of access point
Example value
IP address of access point
192.168.0.252
Netmask of access point
255.255.255.0
2.3.4.1 Optional Configuration
a)
Access Point Mode
If the device is run in Access Point mode use the following configuration:
Access data
Table 2-2 Configuration of a wireless network
Example value
Network Name (SSID)
Funkwerk-ec
Netmask of access point
WPA-PSK
Preshared Key
supersecret
b) Access Client Mode
If the device is run in Access Client mode, required client links can be set up using
the following configuration:
Access data
c)
Table 2-3 IP configuration of access client
Example value
Network Name (SSID)
Funkwerk-ec
Netmask of access point
WPA-PSK
Preshared Key
supersecret
Bridge Link Mode (Configuring Bridge Link)
The bridges in Bridge mode can be configured in two ways either manually or by
using bridge link autoconfiguration function. The manual configuration of a
bridge link uses the following data:
Access data
Table 2-4 Configuration of bridge link
Example value
Preshared key
bridgesecret
MAC address of remote bridge
00:a0:f9:5a:42:53
The autoconfiguration function can be selected by selecting the Bridge Link Auto
Configuration workshop -> Wireless LAN -> WLANx ->Bridge Links -> Add
11
2.3.4.2 Configuring PC
The necessary configuration of the PC which is required to reach the device
via network are detailed below:
9 Make Sure that PC and the device are in the same LAN
9 Make sure that the TCP/IP protocol is installed on the PC.
Go to Control panel->Network and Internet Connections. Select
LAN, then right click properties and look for Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) entry in the list.
9 Select the suitable IP configuration for your configuration PC.
If the TCP/IP protocol is not installed, you can install it by clicking
Properties, Install in the status window of the LAN Connection.
Select the Protocol entry, Add -> Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click
OK. Follow the on-screen instruction and restart the PC to finish.
9 If connected to a DHCP server, select obtain IP address automatically
and obtain DNS server automatically.
IP Configuration
9 When connected to a DHCP server (switch), the device is running a
DHCP Client mode and the device acquires the IP address
automatically. If not, the device is connected to PC and configured
using fallback IP address 192.168.0.252
9 Alternatively, Dime Manager can be used to assign required IP
address.
2.3.5.1 Dime Manager
The Dime Manager is used to configure the IP manually.
✓ Detects device automatically, if it is in the same LAN up to a certain
range.
✓ Open Dime Manager, select the device needed to be configured
✓ Successively, select Device and Configure to change device
configuration.
2.3.5.2 Funkwerk Configuration Interface
Log on to the device using device IP in the browser.
12
9 If DHCP Sever, enter the IP address that is automatically assigned.
9 No DHCP Server, Connect to the PC directly and use the fallback IP
192.168.0.252.
9 Enter the login credentials User: admin and Password: funkwerk
Modify System Password
As all devices are provided with the same password, it is essential to change
the password for security purposes which can be configured as follows:
9 Go to System Management -> Global Settings-> Passwords
9 Enter a new password under System Admin Password
9 Enter the new password again under Confirm Admin Password
9 Click OK and save the configuration
Setting up Wireless Network
A wireless network needs to be setup if the device is run in an Access Point
mode which is detailed as follows:
9 Go to Wireless LAN -> WLANx -> Radio Settings -> Screw symbol
9 In Operating Mode, select Access Point
9 Keep the default settings and OK
9 Go to Wireless LAN -> WLANx -> Virtual Service Sets -> Screw symbol
9 In Network name (SSID) enter, for example, Funkwerk-ec
9 In Preshared Key enter, for example, supersecret
9 Keep the default setting and click OK
Setting up Bridge Link
When the device is run in Bridge mode, a bridge link is needed to be
established.
Bridge Link Auto configuration can be done by the following:
9 Go to Wireless LAN -> WLANx -> Radio Settings -> Screw symbol
9 Select Bridge in Operation mode
9 Keep the default settings and select OK
9 Go to Wireless LAN -> WLANx -> Bridge Links -> New
9 In Preshared Key enter, for example, bridgesecret
9 Keep the default settings and click OK
9 Configure a bridge link in the same way
13
9 In the PC selected the option in the list in Wireless LAN -> WLANx
->Bridge Links
9 Click Scan under Actions which will result a list.
9 Click on select for the desired entry.
In order to use the bridge link autoconfiguration function, proceed as
described in the Automatic Configuration of a Bridge Link workshop and
read the Wireless LAN chapter of the user's guide under WLAN1 -> Bridge
Links -> Add.
Manual configuration can be done by the following procedure:
9 Go to Wireless LAN -> WLANx -> Wireless Module Settings -> Edit.
9 In Operation Mode, select Bridge
9 Keep the default settings and click OK
9 Go to Wireless LAN -> WLANx -> Bridge Links -> screw symbol
9 In Preshared Key enter, for example, bridgesecret
9 For Remote MAC address, enter the MAC address of the bridge to which
your bridge is to set up a connection, e.g. 00:a0:f9:5a:42:53
9 Keep the default settings and click OK
9 Configure the bridge link in the remote device in the same way
Software Update
The software needed for operation can be updated in software and
configuration settings as the device contains the software available at
production time. Open Funkwerk Configuration Interface using the
Maintenance ->Software and Configuration menu.
Reset
The device can be configured to its default settings by pressing the RESET
button which is located at the bottom of the device by proceeding as follows:
9 Switch off the device and press the Reset Button
9 Keep the Reset button on your device pressed down and switch the device
back on
9 Look at the LEDs:
9 The Power and Status LEDs come on first.
14
9 The LEDs Eth 1 Eth 2 and SFP then flash if these exist for the ports that
are connected.
9 The device runs through the boot sequence.
9 After the Status LED has flashed five times, release the Reset button.
9 On devices of the WI series, the red Failure LED comes on first. Hold in
the Reset button until the red LED goes out and the green Status LED
starts to flash.
Technical Data
Technical Specifications of various components are described. Most
importantly are LED’s and Antenna connectors which needs to be studied
before progressing with the project.
LEDs
The device is provided with a LED indicator which is use to depict radio
status, radio activity Ethernet activity and LED states of the device:
LED
State
Table 2-5 LED status display
State
off
The
Information
power
supply
is
not
connected. If other LEDs are on,
also Error.
WLAN (1/2)
on (static)
Error
on (flashing)
Ready
on (flashing slowly)
Free
on (static)
At least one client is registered.
on (flickering)
At least one client is registered
and there is data traffic.
on (flashing fast)
BLD (Broken Link Detection)
active
ETH 1/2
on (flashing fast)
5 GHz scan active
off
No cable or no Ethernet link
15
Antenna Connectors
There are three antennas attached to the device. – Ant1, Ant2 and Ant3.
✓
Ant1 and Ant2 have transceiver capability which can be used for
transmission and reception.
✓ Ant3 is only a receiver antenna.
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LUCAS – NULLE LABSOFT
WLAN Bridgelink Radio Trainer is the software that has details concerning
equipment details, fundamentals, planning, installation of network
components, configuring of WLAN routers, use of standard tools and
measuring instruments for installation.
Equipment
The equipment necessary for the experimentation process are detailed as below:
✓
2 Dual Polarized Antenna
✓ 4 x Connecting leads
✓ 2 * 802.11n access points
✓ 2 * Stands
✓ 2 * Switches with POE (Power over Ethernet)
Fundamentals
Need for WLAN has been discussed along with the technology and
specifications of various WLAN Technologies. Fundamentals about the
following have been discussed in brief:
✓ IEEE 802.11 Protocols
✓ EIRP (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power)
✓ Fresnel Zones
High Performance wireless (WLAN) bridge
The experiment uses Dual-polarized antenna. While Surge suppression and
Low-loss antenna cables are used when the equipment is installed outdoors.
A brief description about them is detailed below:
Dual Polarized Antenna
✓
5GHz, suitable for Directional Links.
✓ IEEE 802.1n equipment compatibility.
✓ 20dBi Gain.
✓ Output has beam width of 10 degree.
17
✓
Gross Data Rate is 300 Mbits/s for a distance of 800m and 150 Mbits/s
for distance of 2km.
Surge Suppression
A surge protector (or surge suppressor or surge diverter) is an appliance or
device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes. A surge
protector attempts to limit the voltage supplied to an electric device by either
blocking or shorting to ground any unwanted voltages above a safe threshold.
Surge suppresors are used to suppress peak voltages from external sources
like lightening.
✓
Preferable to install surge suppressors at a point when cable enters the
building.
Low Loss Antenna Cables
Low Loss Antennas cables have more performance and are used for operating
installations in outdoor environment.
Ethernet switch with PoE capability
The supplied Fast Ethernet PoE switch is a multi-port switch, which can be
used to set up high-performance, switched workgroup networks. The switch
allows for store-and-forward switching and short latency times for high-speed
networks. The equipment detects which devices are connected to which port
thereby enabling fast data transmission and preventing duplicate data
transmission.
9 If the device is connected to a POE port on the switch, then there is no
need of external power connection.
DHCP
9 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a client/server protocol
that automatically provides an Internet Protocol (IP) host with its IP
address and other related configuration information such as the subnet
mask and default gateway.
18
9 The intelligent Ethernet switch supplied has its own integrated DHCP
server, which is disabled by default.
9 In the experiment done, the college network has a DHCP server located
and once connected to the internet, the devices are automatically assigned
IP addresses.
Configuration of DHCP server
Steps to configure the switch’s integrated DHCP server are described:
✓ Connect switch to PC
✓ Check LED status on device to check for proper connection
3.5.1.1 Configuration of Switch via web page
✓
Connect one port from switch to the internet and two port to each of the
access point. This creates a LAN between the access points and the PC
via switch.
✓
There is a console located at the bottom of the access point which is used to
login to it.
✓
Once we login to the device i.e. access point console, we can configure it to
the necessary settings. Repeat on the other access point.
Measurement and Analysis
✓
Calculate the distance between the radio links by using the tool computed
using excel.
✓
Once the network is established, there are signals that can be transmitted over
the established radio link.
✓
The detection software installed on the PC detects the amount of radiation
received on the receiver to the transmitted signals.
✓
The software does a comparative analysis of the received signal to those
transmitted in terms of various parameters and displays the output as a graph.
✓
Further analysis can be computed based on the results obtained.
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PROBLEMS
Problems encountered during the course of the project are detailed below:
✓
Missing Hardware – Cables, Switches
✓
The experiment needs to switches which is used to create a two networks and
then transmission from one to another. Due to non-availability of equipment,
everything was set into a single network.
✓
Lack of availability of cable to login to device console.
✓
Project meetings scheduled with the availability of both mine and professor
availability.
✓
Internet connectivity and help from IT help desk was not as quick as it was
needed for project progress because of Christmas time.
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