nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
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nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
1.
Introduction
Much existing digital audio equipment features digital interfaces. The nRF24Z1
AudioStreamer features a digital audio link. There should be no need to do AD and DA
conversions where digital signals exist. This document addresses different cases where the
SPDIO pin of the nRF24Z1 is connected to existing digital equipment. The nRF24Z1 can also
connect via an I2S interface. This interface is not considered in this document. Please beware
that the nRF24Z1 has to be configured by an external microcontroller or EEPROM to use the
S/PDIF interface.
The nRF24Z1 uses the same physical pin for S/PDIF output and input. When the nRF24Z1 is
used as a wireless audio transmitter (ATX) it is near an audio source, and its S/PDIF pin is an
input. When it is used as a wireless audio receiver (ARX) it is near an audio destination, and
its S/PDIF pin is an output.
2.
Definition
S/PDIF stands for Sony Philips Digital Interface. It is a commonly used way to connect digital
audio equipment. It is defined in a standard named “iec958”.
S/PDIF merges the digital data and a clock reference on the same signal. Rise and fall times in
the cable and the transmitting and receiving electronics determine how well the initial clock
signal can be regenerated at the receiving end. Bad rise and fall times may cause signal
dependant jitter on the receiver. Because of this, keep your S/PDIF circuitry as simple as
possible.
3.
Typical use
There are a few places where you typically encounter S/PDIF signals.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Digital audio output from CD and DVD players (coax)
Digital audio input to HiFi amplifier (coax)
Digital audio output from PC (coax)
Digital audio output from CD and DVD players (optical)
Digital audio input to HiFi amplifier (optical)
Digital audio output from portable CD player (optical)
Internal connection to AC3 / DTS decoder chip
These different use cases will be explained below. Their effect on the nRF24Z1 will be
emphasized.
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nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
3.1.
Cases 1, 2, and 3
This is the most common way to connect S/PDIF devices. Many end customers have seen the
yellow coax plugs (RCA or “phono” plug) at the back of their DVD players and amplifiers.
The signal on this plug must not be confused with audio (red and white phono plugs) or
composite video (yellow phono plug). On these, the signal is referred to ground inside the
player or amplifier. The big difference between these signals and S/PDIF is that coax S/PDIF
is isolated from the internal ground by means of a transformer. Also, the voltage level on coax
S/PDIF is 0.5Vpp differential.
The cable itself has a characteristic impedance of 75Ω. Because the merged data and clock
signal carried by the S/PDIF cable contains high frequencies and sharp edges, proper
termination is required.
A floating, differential, 75Ω cable at 0.5Vpp doesn’t easily connect to a modern CMOS chip.
Therefore, a network consisting of termination, transformer, booster (usually a 7404 or
comparator) and resistors is needed to convert the signal. The network for receiving S/PDIF
from a coax cable is similar but not equal to the network needed for transmitting S/PDIF on a
coax cable.
The nRF24Z1 demo kit uses a conversion network that can be adapted to both reception and
transmission of S/PDIF. Please consult the demo kit documentation for schematic and bill of
materials.
Beware that the conversion network is only needed when you have to connect to a standard
S/PDIF cable. If you plan to connect to the S/PDIF output from a PC or CD/DVD player, use
a conversion network at the nRF24Z1 ATX (audio transmitter). If you plan to connect to the
S/PDIF input of an audio amplifier, use a conversion network on the nRF24Z1 ARX (audio
receiver).
3.2.
Cases 4, 5, and 6
Some digital audio sources use an optical output. The name of this signal is Toslink, where
“Tos” stands for Toshiba. The main difference between Toslink and coax S/PDIF is that
Toslink uses fiber optics and optical transfer of signals. That means there is a light transmitter
in the Toslink connector in the CD/DVD player and a light sensitive receiver in the Toslink
connector of the audio receiver.
If your product is going to interface to the optical digital output of a CD/DVD player, it will
need a Toslink receiver connector at the nRF24Z1 ATX. If it connects to the optical digital
input of an audio receiver, it will need a Toslink transmitter connector at the nRF24Z1 ARX.
The Toslink connectors must be chosen so that they are electrically and logically compatible
with the S/PDIF input and output voltages of the nRF24Z1.
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nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
3.3.
Case 7
The final case is when you want to use the nRF24Z1 to transmit compressed digital audio like
AC3 or DTS.
This is typically done where multi channel decoding is performed after the signal has been
transmitted wirelessly. The S/PDIF output pin from the nRF24Z1 is a CMOS signal. The
S/PDIF input pin on the surround decoder may also be CMOS compatible. Then there is no
need for transformers or optical devices in the signal path. The designer only has to take care
that the nRF24Z1 output voltage is compatible to the decoder input voltage. A small series
resistor should also be added close to the nRF24Z1 in the signal path to reduce the effects of
stray capacitance and inductance.
So far, only the ARX side of a multi channel decoding product has been addressed. The ATX
side (at the audio source) can be configured independently of the ARX. If the source is
S/PDIF, care must be taken to design the correct interface.
The nRF24Z1 supports several formats on the S/PDIF interface. (The quoted IEC numbers are
part of the S/PDIF definition which is commercially available from IEC.)
•
•
Consumer Linear PCM Audio described in IEC 60958-3.
Non-Linear PCM Audio described in IEC 61937-1 (General) and IEC 61937-2 (Burstinfo)
When it comes to Non-Linear PCM audio, the nRF24Z1 is transparent to the specific audio
compression algorithms used, so it should cover all the described formats in IEC 61937-3 to
61937-7 namely: AC-3, MPEG-1,-2 Audio, DTS, MPEG2-AAC, ATRAC and ATRAC2/3.
nRF24Z1 just transfers what comes in on the input side covered by IEC 61937-2 (Burst-info)
to the receiver side.
Nordic Semiconductor ASA
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Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway
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nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
LIABILITY DISCLAIMER
Nordic Semiconductor ASA reserves the right to make changes without further notice to the
product to improve reliability, function or design. Nordic Semiconductor does not assume any
liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuits described herein.
LIFE SUPPORT APPLICATIONS
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where
malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Nordic
Semiconductor ASA customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do
so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Nordic Semiconductor ASA for any damages
resulting from such improper use or sale.
White paper. Revision Date: 2005-05-04
All rights reserved ®. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written
permission of the copyright holder.
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nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
YOUR NOTES
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nRF24Z1 S/PDIF connections
Nordic Semiconductor - World Wide Distributor
For Your nearest dealer, please see http://www.nordicsemi.no
Main Office:
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Phone: +47 72 89 89 00, Fax: +47 72 89 89 89
Visit the Nordic Semiconductor ASA website at http://www.nordicsemi.no
Nordic Semiconductor ASA
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Click below to find more
Mipaper at www.lcis.com.tw
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