Blockwise Frequency Domain Active Noise Controller Over

Blockwise Frequency Domain Active Noise Controller Over
applied
sciences
Article
Blockwise Frequency Domain Active Noise
Controller Over Distributed Networks
Christian Antoñanzas ∗ , Miguel Ferrer, Maria de Diego and Alberto Gonzalez
Institute of Telecommunication and Multimedia Applications, Universitat Politecnica
de Valencia,
`
`
Camino de Vera s/n; 46022 Valencia, Spain; mferrer@dcom.upv.es (M.F.); mdediego@dcom.upv.es (M.d.D.);
agonzal@dcom.upv.es (A.G.)
* Correspondence: chanma@iteam.upv.es; Tel.: +34-963-879-580
Academic Editor: Vesa Valimaki
Received: 2 March 2016; Accepted: 20 April 2016; Published: 28 April 2016
Abstract: This work presents a practical active noise control system composed of distributed and
collaborative acoustic nodes. To this end, experimental tests have been carried out in a listening
room with acoustic nodes equipped with loudspeakers and microphones. The communication
among the nodes is simulated by software. We have considered a distributed algorithm based
on the Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) method that introduces collaboration between nodes
following an incremental strategy. For improving the processing efficiency in practical scenarios
where data acquisition systems work by blocks of samples, the frequency-domain partitioned block
technique has been used. Implementation aspects such as computational complexity, processing
time of the network and convergence of the algorithm have been analyzed. Experimental results
show that, without constraints in the network communications, the proposed distributed algorithm
achieves the same performance as the centralized version. The performance of the proposed
algorithm over a network with a given communication delay is also included.
Keywords: active noise control; distributed networks; acoustic sensor networks; filtered-x least
mean square
1. Introduction
Active Noise Control (ANC) systems try to cancel, or at least minimize, some undesired noise by
generating some sound signals specifically designed to cancel the first [1]. The global noise reduction
is virtually impossible in an entire enclosure. Alternatively, we can attempt to control the noise field
within a certain area to create local zones of quiet [2]. In particular, the system is intended to reduce
the disturbance signal, called primary noise, at specific spatial points monitored by microphones,
called error sensors. Generally speaking, the use of a large number of microphones strategically
located produces larger zones of quiet. Similarly, multiple transducers are commonly used to improve
the system performance, resulting in a multichannel ANC system. Typically, multichannel ANC
systems use a single centralized processor managed by a control algorithm that has access to all
the signals involved in the system. However, distributed systems offer a good solution to satisfy
both high computational requirements and multiple signals capture, management and generation.
Distributed systems are characterized by their flexibility, versatility and scalability. Flexibility allows
the system to select the suitable strategy depending on the objective application. In addition, they
have the versatility to adapt quickly and easily to different situations. Moreover, these systems can
increase the number of controllers without redesigning the system. Therefore, a distributed system
can be understood as a set of centralized systems that distribute the computational burden as well
as the acquisition and signal generation to reach a common target. For example, a multichannel
centralized controller can be distributed into several single-channel controllers (see Figure 1). In both
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124; doi:10.3390/app6050124
www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
2 of 17
systems, the error signals ek (t) are the signals recorded at the N microphones, the anti-noise signals
y j (t) are the filter output signals reproduced by the N loudspeakers, the acoustic channels h j,k are
the impulse responses between the jth loudspeaker and the kth microphone, and the reference signal
x (t) is the noise signal recorded at the reference sensor used by the adaptive controller to design the
output signals y j (t) (where k = 1, 2, . . . , N and j = 1, 2, . . . , N).
Figure 1. Scheme of (a) centralized Active Noise Control (ANC) system with a multichannel controller
and (b) distributed ANC system with single-channel controllers.
While centralized systems work with all the signals generated by the loudspeakers and captured
by the microphones, distributed systems employ independent processors which control a subset of
loudspeakers from the signals picked up by a subset of microphones. The concept of distributed
ANC systems for sound control applications was first introduced in [3], which considers processors
that work independently and do not interchange local information. Thus, the computational
burden is distributed among the processors and, in the case that there was no acoustic interaction
among loudspeakers and microphones, it is possible to reach the centralized cancelation solution.
As Figure 1b shows and it is stated in [3], each error signal ek (t) is used only for its corresponding
controller, and the reference signal x (t) is common to all of them. Therefore, the use of a network that
allows communication among the controllers would be beneficial for the distributed ANC system
to achieve results equivalent to those of the centralized method. Recently, the miniaturization of
electronic components is enabling a low-cost implementation of many types of electronic devices
with a high performance as well. These devices are usually equipped with sensors and actuators,
and they also contain increasingly powerful and efficient processors with communication capability.
Moreover, despite their small size, they allow for a great autonomy as a result of the low power
requirements. In the last decade, the cooperation and communications among these kind of devices to
perform a specific task through the so-called Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has been addressed [4].
Such networks have many advantages and applications compared to the wired networks [5,6] such
as scalability and low computational cost. For the purpose of monitoring and transmission of
multimedia content, Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) [7] are available, which require
increased computational cost, synchronization, data transmission and energy consumption because
of certain characteristics of the multimedia signals [8]. A subclass of WMSN are the Wireless
Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) [9,10]. WASNs are a popular and efficient solution for different
applications in multiple acoustic areas, such as environmental audio monitoring, binaural hearing
aids, audio surveillance [11–13] as well as industrial monitoring and control [10]. WASNs offer many
possibilities for developing new applications and strategies for audio processing due to the expansion
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
3 of 17
of the area of interest and the low power, low cost and small size of the sensors [14]. These networks
are usually composed of wireless devices, called nodes, randomly distributed in the environment and
formed by a single microphone plus a processing unit with communication capability [15]. These
passive nodes are dedicated to estimate parameters or signals common to all of them [16] or to a
particular node [17]. However, for sound field control applications, such as ANC, elements or devices
capable of measuring and generating signals are necessary. Furthermore, the network should focus
on the estimate of the signals that will feed the loudspeakers in order to control and modify the
sound field. Therefore, it is necessary to redefine the concept of acoustic node in order to use it in
ANC applications. Thus, we define acoustic nodes as devices capable of obtaining information from
one or more microphones and capable of generating signals via one or more loudspeakers. Moreover,
every node has the ability to individually process signals as well as to interchange the necessary
information with the other nodes using a suitable communication network. Therefore, a distributed
network use a set of nodes, placed strategically to reach a common objective. An output signal at each
node is generated as a result of processing the signal captured by the node as well as the information
received from other nodes, when there exists communication among the nodes. Every node processes
signals independently and all the nodes are relevant for the proper performance of the global system.
It should be noted that the selection of the network topology will affect how data is processed by each
node. Some common topology architectures are mesh, star, tree and ring topologies [18]. The proper
election of the topology depends on the communication constraints dictated by the network such as
the amount and frequency of the transmitted data, transmission distance, battery life of the node, etc.
Note that, in real-time applications, some of these topologies introduce delays that could seriously
affect the system performance [10]. Therefore, the use of synchronization mechanisms among nodes
is necessary. Consequently, our target is to take advantage of the benefits of wireless acoustic sensor
networks to implement active noise control systems in real environments. This work deals with the
practical implementation of a distributed and collaborative active noise controller. To our knowledge,
no other system of this type has been already reported.
The paper is organized as follows: in Section 2, we present a distributed solution that minimizes
the power of the sum of the measured signals at the sensors’ locations over an Acoustic Sensor
Network (ASN) without communication constraints and justifies the requirement of the distributed
processing and the block-data processing in the frequency domain. In Section 3, the prototype
description is given. The experimental results to compare the performance of both the distributed
solution proposed and the centralized algorithm are shown in Section 4, including a discussion
considering communication constraints. Finally, Section 5 outlines the main conclusions of the
present work.
Notation: For the sake of clarity, the following notation has been used throughout this
work: boldface lower-case denote vectors and matrices that contain information of signals in the
time-domain (e.g., e) and boldface upper-case letters denote vectors and matrices that contain
information of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the previous signals (e.g., E).
2. Collaborative Distributed Algorithm for an N-Nodes ASN Based on an Incremental Strategy
Consider a network of N nodes that supports an ANC system composed by N sensors and N
actuators, as shown in Figure 2. For the sake of simplicity, we consider one disturbance noise and a
distributed network of single-channel acoustic nodes in a homogeneous network. This implies that all
the nodes have the same computation and communication capabilities, execute the same algorithm
and are composed of a single sensor and a single actuator. The signals recorded at the sensors are
called error signals and denoted by ek (t) (where k = 1, 2, . . . , N), the actuators emit the filter output
signals y j (t) (where j = 1, 2, . . . , N), the acoustic channel impulse response between actuator j and
sensor k is estimated as s jk , which is defined as the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter that models
the estimation of the real acoustic channel h jk . In feedforward systems, the reference signal x (t),
is captured by a reference sensor employed to detect the acoustic noise far away from the area of
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
4 of 17
interest. There exits only one noise source and all the nodes share the same reference signal x (t). We
aim at canceling the acoustic noise signal in the sensors location, dk (t), designing an adaptive filter
wk (t) at every node. Assuming that wk (t) varies slowly, it can be written:
e ( t ) = d ( t ) + w T ( t ) x f ( t ),
(1)
where the vectors e(t) = [e1 (t) e2 (t) · · · e N (t)] T and d(t) = [d1 (t) d2 (t) · · · d N (t)] T contain the
error signals and desired signals, respectively, of the N nodes of the network, vector w(t) =
[w1 (t) w2 (t) · · · w N (t)]T of size LN × 1, concatenates the N adaptive filters wk (t) that contain the
L filter coefficients of the kth node at the time instant t. Matrix x f (t) = [x f ,1 (t) x f ,2 (t) · · · x f ,N (t)]
is the concatenation of N vectors of size LN × 1 defined as x f ,k (t) = [ x f ,1k (t) x f ,2k (t) · · · x f ,Nk (t)] T
that contain the last L samples of the reference signal x (t) filtered through the acoustic channel h jk
that links the actuator at the jth node with the sensor at the kth node. The objective is to estimate
the coefficients vector w(t) that minimizes a cost function J (t) that depends on the error signals ek (t).
To do this, we use a gradient-descent method to estimate the coefficients in an iterative manner,
w(t) = w(t − 1) − µ∇w E{ J (t)},
(2)
where µ is the step-size parameter, E{.} is the expectation operator and ∇w = [∇w0 ∇w1 · · · ∇w N ]
being ∇wk the gradient operator defined as the partial derivatives with respect to the coefficients
vector w(t). The cost function is approximated by its instantaneous value by using the Least Mean
Square (LMS) method [19], (∇w E{ J (t)} ≈ ∇w ( J (t))). Moreover and as stated in [20], we consider
the sum of the power of the N instantaneous error signals as cost function,
N
J (t) =
∑
e2k (t) = e(t)e T (t).
k =1
Figure 2. Acoustic Sensor Network (ASN) of N nodes for an ANC system.
(3)
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
5 of 17
From Equation (3) and applying the gradient operator in Equation (1), we obtain
w(t) = w(t − 1) − µx f (t)e(t),
that can be rewritten as
(4)
N
w ( t ) = w ( t − 1) − µ
∑
x f ,k (t) ek (t).
(5)
k =1
Note that the computation of x f ,k (t) involves the real acoustic path h jk which, in practical
environments, can be estimated as s jk . Thus, the vector of size LN × 1 that contains the last L samples
of reference signal x (t) filtered through s jk is named as vk (t) and substituting in Equation (5) leads to
N
w ( t ) = w ( t − 1) − µ
∑
v k ( t ) e k ( t ).
(6)
k =1
It can be seen in Equation (6) that all the error signals are necessary to calculate the coefficients of
each filter, so that a central unit that receives and transmits all the information through the network
is required (see Figure 3a). The problem is that, if the number of nodes increases or if multichannel
nodes are used, it is not straightforward to transmit information between the central unit and each
node due to an increase in the bandwidth required for communication. Moreover, any failure in
the central unit will cause no information to be processed. Therefore, a distributed network (see
Figure 3b) with the computational burden shared among the nodes becomes necessary to solve these
problems. Since the number of signals processed at every node is low, this type of processing provides
a more efficient computational performance. In addition, depending on the strategy used to exchange
information among the nodes, the bandwidth in data transmission can be reduced. It should be noted
that a distributed ASN in the context of this paper means that, not only are the nodes physically
distributed in the area of interest, but also the processing (or computation) is divided among the
nodes. Previous works [16,21] showed that the implementation of the LMS algorithm over distributed
networks using collaborative strategies achieves good results. However, those works do not consider
acoustic nodes that acoustically interact with the environment both controlling and modifying it,
as it was introduced in [20]. A distributed ANC system based on the Multiple Error Filtered-x
Least Mean Square (MEFxLMS) algorithm [20] and using incremental communication strategies with
sample-by-sample data acquisition was presented in [22].
Figure 3. A centralized ASN (a) and distributed ASN (b). CU is the central unit in the centralized case.
In the case of a ring network based on an incremental strategy, the coefficients of the
adaptive filters are calculated by distributing the calculation among different nodes by transmitting
information to an adjacent node in a consecutive order. Thus, every node can calculate a portion of
the sum of the filter updating equation and supply to the next node the partial result to update the
coefficients with its respective information. If this step is performed with an incremental strategy, the
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
6 of 17
last node will have the complete updated coefficients. Finally, these coefficients are disseminated to
the rest of the nodes to allow the system to generate the appropriate cancelation signals before the
next iteration begins. This means 2( N − 1) interchanges of the filter coefficients among the nodes (see
Figure 4). Every kth node can share information with its adjacent k + 1th node. Each node should
calculate the adaptive filters of all the nodes of the network so, in a network of N nodes, the network
state would be defined by N adaptive filters one of each node. If we define the global state of the
network w(t) as the adaptive filter coefficients of each node of the network at the time instant t and
considering wk (t) a local version of w(t) at the kth node, Equation (6) may be written as:
wk (t) = wk−1 (t) − µvk (t) ek (t).
(7)
Figure 4. Ring network with incremental communication.
Equation (7) is the updating rule of the state of the kth node by using an iterative algorithm that
minimizes Equation (3). Moreover, note that w0 (t) = w N (t − 1) = w(t − 1).
However, in real-time applications, the obtained equations have to be considered using block
processing in the frequency domain in order to ensure a more efficient computational performance.
The reason is because most common audio cards work with block data buffers. Moreover,
hardware platforms that work with blocks of samples such as Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), use libraries of frequency-domain operations for a more efficient
processing [23]. Furthermore, if the adaptive filters and the estimated secondary paths are longer
than the sample block, they have to be split up into partitions [24]. For all these reasons, we consider
the Frequency-domain Partitioned Block technique for the adaptive filtering operation [25,26] based
on the conventional filtered-x scheme (FPBFxLMS). Notation in Table 1 will be used to describe the
following equations. Samples are processed by blocks of size B. L is the length of the adaptive
filters, and M is the length of the FIR filters that model the estimated secondary path. F and P are
the number of partitions of both the adaptive filters and the estimated secondary paths, respectively.
Furthermore, the index n between brackets denotes block iteration and the super-indexes f and p
denotes the number of the partition.
The vector x B [n] = [ x ( Bn) x ( Bn − 1) · · · x ( Bn − B + 1)] T contains the last B samples of x (t) at
discrete time instant t= Bn, and the error vector ek,B [n] contains the last block of size B of the error
signal ek (t) in the node k at discrete time instant t= Bn, ek,B [n] = [ek ( Bn) ek ( Bn − 1) · · · ek ( Bn − B + 1)] T .
The vector X[n] contain the FFT of size 2B of the vector x B [n] in the actual block iteration and the
same vector in the previous block iteration, X[n] = FFT[x B [n − 1] x B [n]] and the vector Ek [n] is the
FFT of size 2B of the error vector ek,B [n] preceded by a vector of zeros of size B, 0 B . Note that we only
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
7 of 17
consider the last B samples of the 2B-Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) operation, IFFT{Y[n]},
as the valid samples of the adaptive filter output y B [n] since the first B samples suffer the effects of
circular convolution due both to data management and the FFT sizes. Now, we define
W[n] =
h
W1 [ n ], W2 [ n ], . . . , W N [ n ],
i
(8)
h
i
f
being Wk [n] =
W1k [n], W2k [n], . . . , WkF [n] a matrix of size [2B × F ] where Wk [n] contains the
2B-FFT of the f th partition of the adaptive filter of the kth node. The N nodes collaborate with each
other by updating their part of W[n] and transferring W[n] to the next node. Therefore, every node
will use a local version of the global state of the network (denoted by Ŵk [n]) at the kth node at the nth
block iteration. Notice that only the F partitions of 2B coefficients of their adaptive filter are needed
to generate the kth node output signal:
Wk [n − 1] = Ŵ N [n − 1](:,1+ F(k−1):Fk) .
(9)
Table 1. Notation of the description of the FPBFxLMS algorithm.
B
L
M
F
P
n
f, p
s jk
p
S jk
Block size
Length of the adaptive filters
Length of the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters that model the estimated secondary paths
L/B, number of partitions of the adaptive filters
M/B, Number of partitions of the estimated secondary paths
index that denotes block iteration
super-indexes that denote partition number.
M-length estimation of the acoustic path that links the actuator at the jth node with the sensor at the kth node.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of size 2B of the pth partition of the acoustic path s jk .
Moreover, we define
i
(10)
V1k [n], V2k [n], . . . V Nk [n],
i
h
f
being V jk [n] = V1jk [n], V2jk [n], . . . , V Fjk [n] a matrix of size [2B × F ] where vector V jk [n] contains
the 2B-FFT of the reference signal filtered with the f th partition of the estimated acoustic channel
s jk . Each node estimates the coefficients of the rest of the nodes to achieve a global solution using
the information of the previous node and the adaptation matrix calculated using the signals that
each node own. Derived from the FPBFxLMS algorithm in [26], we can rewrite Equation (7) in
the frequency domain with blocks of B samples. Thus, the update equation of the adaptive filter
coefficients of the kth node at the nth block iteration is given by
Vk [n] =
h
Ŵk [n] = Ŵk−1 [n] − µ FFT{[ [ IFFT{Ek [n] ◦ Vk [n]∗ } ][1:B,:]
0[ B× FN ] ]},
(11)
where Ek [n] is the multiplication of vector Ek [n] by 1[1× FN ] , a row vector of ones of size FN. Constant
µ is the step-size parameter and the operators FFT and IFFT perform the direct and inverse fast
Fourier transform of size 2B of each column of the matrixes involved. ◦ denotes the element-wise
product of two matrices, ∗ denotes complex conjugation and 0[ B× FN ] is a matrix of zeros of size
[ B × FN ]. Note that we only consider the first B samples of the 2B-IFFT operation. Once all the nodes
have finished the filter coefficient updates, the global vector Ŵ N [n] is disseminated to the rest of the
nodes for the (n+1)th iteration. Note that in (11), Ŵ0 [n] = Ŵ N [n − 1], as we stated in Equation (7).
Algorithm 1 illustrates the summary of the algorithm instructions, which are executed per block
iteration at each node.
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
8 of 17
Algorithm 1 Distributed FPBP x LMS Algorithm for N-nodes ASN
1: for all node 1 ≤ k ≤ N do
2: Wk [n − 1] = Ŵk [n − 1](:,1+ F(k−1):Fk)
F
3: Yk [n] =
∑ W k [ n − 1] ◦ X [ n − f + 1]
f =1
4: for all 1 ≤ j ≤ N do
P
5:
V jk [n] =
∑ S jk ◦ X[n − p + 1]
p
p =1
6: end for
7: Vk [n] = [ V1k [n], V2k [n], . . . V Nk [n] ]
9: Ek [n] = FFT{[ 0 B
e B [n] ]}
10: Ek [n] = Ek [n] · 1[1× FN ]
11: Ŵk [n] = Ŵk−1 [n] − µ FFT{[ [ IFFT{Ek [n] ◦ Vk [n]∗ } ][1:B,:]
0[ B× FN ] ]}
12: end for
13: for all node 0 ≤ k ≤ N do
14: Ŵk [n] = Ŵ N [n]
15: end for
3. Prototype Description
The distributed ANC prototype is depicted in Figure 5. The addition of the recent DSP System
R
Toolbox [27] in the computing environment MATLAB
provides multichannel real-time audio
recording, processing and reproduction at low latency. Audio objects based on Object Oriented
Programming (OOP) have been optimized for iterative computations that process large streams of
audio data. Moreover, Audio Stream Input/Output (ASIO) drivers [28] have been incorporated to
R
and audio
this software providing a low-latency and high fidelity interface between MATLAB
card. The hardware implementation is composed by a CPU (Intel Core i7 3.07 GHz) and an audio
card (MOTU 24 I/O). The communication between both components is performed by ASIO drivers
R
and it is controlled by using the MATLAB
System objects provided by the DSP System Toolbox of
R
MATLAB software. The audio card stores the input data from the sensor of each node in buffers
R
of size B and send them to the CPU through the ASIO drivers. The CPU, with MATLAB
support,
executes the audio processing, saves the output data in buffers and sends them back to the audio card
through the ASIO drivers, to be reproduced by the loudspeaker of each node.
The selection of the block size B in the audio card is critical to determine the latency of the
algorithm. The latency is the sum of the time spent on storing data in the input buffers, on processing
these data and on sending them to the output buffers as well. A real-time application must satisfy
that the time spent to fill up the input buffers (buffering time) was higher than the time spent in
data processing (processing time). The buffering time is defined as B/ f s, f s being the sampling rate.
In a centralized ANC system, the processing time is the time that the algorithm takes to process
data. However, in a distributed ANC system, it also includes the time in updating its own global
state of the network (Ŵ) and in delivering this information among the nodes. As we consider an
incremental network composed of N nodes, every node must transfer 2L × N coefficients (size of Ŵ)
to the following node 2( N − 1) times in each block iteration (see Figure 4). Therefore, the processing
time of the whole network at each block iteration (algorithm processing time + N times the updating
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
9 of 17
time of Ŵ + 2( N − 1) times the transmission time of Ŵ) has to be less than the buffering time (see
Figure 6). As an example, a transfer rate at least of 16.5 megabytes per second (MBps) would be
necessary with an incremental network composed of four nodes, a general filter length of 4096 taps
and single-precision floating-point data format. Therefore, using a standard Ethernet network of
1 Gbps (≈ 125 MBps), we would have enough rate capacity to perform the required data transfer
among the nodes. It should be noted that, if the processing time of the network increases due to
the addition of more nodes, the buffering time must be increased in order to satisfy the real-time
condition. Hence, if we assume a fixed sampling rate, the block size B must be increased.
Another important aspect that should be guaranteed is the causality of the system. The algorithm
has to satisfy that the sum of the buffering delay and the maximum delay of the acoustic paths that
join the actuators with the error sensors should be less than or equal to the minimum delay of the
acoustic paths that join the noise source with the error sensors [29]. Causality constraint can be
relaxed when a harmonic excitation is considered, but it is important in broadband noise control.
As we perform an ANC system in a acoustic enclosure, where the wavelength is relatively low
in comparison with the physical dimensions of the system, the causality condition is fulfilled by
carefully choosing the distances between the noise source, actuators and error sensors. However,
if this condition is not met, a decrease in buffering time is required. When these requirements are
fulfilled and assuming a network of synchronized nodes, the proposed distributed algorithm can
achieve the same performance as the centralized version.
The sampling rate of the audio card was fixed at 44.1 kHz, the lowest possible rate, because of
audio signals are typically sampled at that value (CD quality). The audio card offers different values
of B between 16 and 2048 samples. Due to the real-time condition explained previously, we have
selected B = 2048 as a tradeoff between the processing time of the network and the buffering time.
Figure 5. Scheme of the ANC prototype. The incremental communication strategy is represented by
dashed lines.
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
10 of 17
Figure 6. Timing diagram of the processes carried out by each node of the network at each
block iteration.
It should be noted that the algorithms execute their processing in real time but, for simplicity,
the communication network and the network distributed processing are emulated. All the nodes
share the same central processing unit (CPU) but the implemented code allows a distributed and
independent processing, simulating the processing carried out in a real distributed ASNs. Therefore,
a basic networking hardware dedicated to the information exchange (a physical layer of the network)
is not considered. The communication among the nodes is virtual, thanks to the code designed in
R
software.
MATLAB
4. Experimental Results
In this section, we show the experiments carried out to validate the performance of the
distributed algorithm for unconstrained and constrained networks. For this purpose, in the first
stage, we have evaluated and compared the convergence behavior, the noise reduction and the
computational complexity of both distributed and centralized ANC systems in a ideal network. In the
second stage, a performance analysis of the distributed algorithm over non-ideal networks has been
carried out. The experiments have used the prototype described in Section 3 inside a listened room of
9.36 meters long, 4.78 meters wide and 2.63 meters high, located at the Audio Processing Laboratory
of the Polytechnic University of Valencia [30]. This room has an array of 96 loudspeakers mounted in
an orthogonal structure. A photograph of the listening room and the different settings can be seen in
Figure 7. For all the designed ASNs, the real acoustic responses between all the loudspeakers and all
microphones are identified off-line using adaptive methods and modeled as FIR filters of M = 4096
coefficients at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. We have considered a zero-mean Gaussian white noise
with unit variance as disturbance noise, which is emitted by a loudspeaker located in front of the
loudspeakers and microphones that compose the ASN, as it is shown in Figure 7. Since practical
ANC systems are suitable to cancel low-frequency noise signals, we have considered a broadband
white noise limited to 200 Hz. Furthermore, we have considered a block size of B = 2048 and an
adaptive filter length of L = 4096 coefficients. A constant step size parameter of µ = 8 × 10−5 , as the
highest value that ensures the stability of the algorithms, has been used.
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
11 of 17
Figure 7. Photograph of the ANC prototype in the listening room at the Audio Processing Laboratory
of the Polytechnic University of Valencia.
The configuration of the ASN is depicted in Figure 5. Four nodes composed by one loudspeaker
and one microphone each of them were considered. The loudspeakers were selected from the array
with an equal separation of 20 cm between adjacent loudspeakers. The microphones were placed
opposite to the loudspeakers and separated 40 cm away from them. The separation between the
microphones was 20 cm. Future applications closely related to the tested distribution would be
related to the creation of local quiet zones in enclosures using moderate size networks of sound
nodes with likely acoustic interaction between at least a few of them—for example, a cabin of a public
transport (train, plane, bus, etc.) where the separation between actuators and sensors would be similar
than the detailed above. For the experimental tests, two different scenarios have been evaluated:
•
•
ANC system over a four-node ideal network controlled by the FPBFxLMS distributed algorithm
and its centralized version.
ANC system over a four-node non-ideal network controlled by the FPBFxLMS distributed
algorithm, comparing the results with the same algorithm but introducing constant delays in the
data exchanges through the network. Now we assume that the nodes interchange information
every Np block iterations, being p a constant positive integer and N the number of single-channel
nodes. During the remainder Np-1 block iterations, we assume two cases. In case 1, the nodes
just wait for the arrival of new network information trying to simulate a network with limited
power, which saves as much energy as possible. In case 2, the nodes will use its local information
to update their filter coefficients. Moreover, we assume that the diffusion of the global state of
the network Ŵ N [n] from the last node N to the rest of the nodes (see Figure 4) is not considered
in this scenario.
In order to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms, we define the instantaneous
Noise Reduction at node k, NRk (t), as the ratio in dB between the estimated error power with and
without the application of the active noise controller:
e2k (t)
(12)
NRk (t) = 10 × log10 d2 (t) ,
k
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
12 of 17
where d2k (t) is the signal power picked up at the kth microphone when the ANC system is inactive
and e2k (t) is the error signal power measured at the kth microphone when the ANC system works.
Moreover, these signals powers have been estimated using an exponential windowing from the
instantaneous signals.
In the first scenario, we have evaluated the performance of both the distributed and the
centralized FPBFxLMS algorithm in a network composed of four single-channel nodes with no
communications constraints. Figure 8 shows the NRk (t) by using Equation (12) for both algorithms.
As expected, the distributed implementation exhibits the same performance than the centralized
implementation for the four nodes. Both algorithms show a robust and stable performance providing
an attenuation up to 11 dB for the worst node and almost 20 dB for the best node.
-5
Centralized microphone 1
and Distributed node 1
Centralized microphone 2
and Distributed node 2
Centralized microphone 3
and Distributed node 3
Centralized microphone 4
and Distributed node 4
Noise reduction (dB)
0
5
10
15
20
25
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Time (s)
Figure 8. Noise reduction obtained by both the four-node distributed system and the centralized
system with a 1:4:4 configuration.
Table 2 compares the computational complexity in terms of multiplications, additions, and FFTs
per iteration of the FPBFxLMS algorithm, implemented for a centralized and a distributed ANC
systems. For the centralized implementation, we consider a multichannel ANC system with one
disturbance noise and the same number of microphones and loudspeakers (1:N:N configuration).
For the distributed implementation, we consider a network of N single-channel nodes. It is important
to note that the complexity of the network as a whole is at least as high as the centralized algorithm.
However, note that each node processes the algorithm simultaneously except the last addition of the
global network state of the previous node (see line 11 in Algorithm 1). Therefore, in Table 2, we
have only computed the operations of one single-channel node. Since we use a value of M = L, and
B = L/2 (two partitions) the computational complexity only depends on L and N. First, the third
column of Table 2 shows the computational complexity of both algorithms related to values of L and
N. Then, this computational complexity is particularized for N = 1, N = 4 and N = 8. As expected,
when N = 1, both implementations need the same number of operations. This is because both the
centralized and the distributed ANC systems become a single-channel system. Moreover, for N = 4,
we compare the operations of a centralized ANC system with a 1:4:4 configuration (16 channels)
with the operations of a single-channel node of a network of four nodes. Finally, the same is done
for N = 8. Results show that in a centralized ANC system, the computational complexity increases
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
13 of 17
significatively with the number of channels. This fact represents a bottleneck in massive multichannel
ANC systems. Otherwise, the increase of computational complexity in a distributed ANC system is
not so significant.
Table 2. Total number of multiplications (MUX), additions (ADD) and Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs)
per blockwise iteration of the FPBFxLMS algorithm in both: (1) centralized and (2) distributed ANC
systems. L: length of the adaptive filters; N: number of nodes.
Operations
Generic
N=1
N=4
N=8
LN 2
(1)
MUX
ADD
FFTs
4 LN + 4
LN + 3 LN 2
2+6N
8L
4L
8
80 L
52 L
26
288 L
200 L
50
(2)
MUX
ADD
FFTs
2 L + 6 LN
L + 3 LN
4+4N
8L
4L
8
26 L
13 L
20
50 L
25 L
36
In the second scenario, the influence of a constant delay between information exchanges within
a four-node network on the behavior of the distributed FPBFxLMS algorithm has been evaluated.
The NRk (t) curves of the best node in the network with different delay values of p are presented in
Figure 9a for case 1 and Figure 9c for case 2. In both cases, as p increases, the performance of the
algorithm gets worse. However, when the nodes performs their local updating while waiting for the
network information (case 2), the influence of the increased delay is lower than in case 1, obtaining
an NRk (t) in all cases only 5 dB lower than the case of an ideal network. Similar results are obtained
for the node with the worst performance. Figure 9 shows the NRk (t) curves of the worst node in the
network with different values of p, (b) for the case 1 and (d) for the case 2. Therefore, for networks
with communication constraints, the behavior of the system can be improved if the nodes are allowed
to update their filter coefficients while waiting for the network information. It is important to take into
account that the final behavior of both cases depends on the degree of acoustic interaction between
nodes, and, therefore, it should be studied in future works.
-5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=20)
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=10)
0
Noise reduction (dB)
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=5)
5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=1)
10
15
Distributed FPBFxLMS
20
25
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
(a)
Figure 9. Cont.
12
14
16
18
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
14 of 17
-5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=20)
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=10)
Noise reduction (dB)
0
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=1)
5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=5)
10
Distributed FPBFxLMS
15
20
25
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Time (s)
(b)
-5
Noise reduction (dB)
0
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=20)
5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=10)
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=5)
10
15
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=1)
Distributed FPBFxLMS
20
25
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
(c)
Figure 9. Cont.
12
14
16
18
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
15 of 17
-5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=20)
0
Noise reduction (dB)
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=10)
5
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=1)
Distributed FPBFxLMS (p=5)
10
Distributed FPBFxLMS
15
20
25
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Time (s)
(d)
Figure 9. Noise reduction obtained for the distributed FPBPxLMS algorithm using a four-node ASN
for different latency values at the node with the best performance (a) (case 1) (c) (case 2) and with the
worst performance (b) (case 1) (d) (case 2).
Finally, note that all the results accomplished in this work depend on particular settings, but
their behavior can be easily extrapolated to other configurations.
5. Conclusions
In this paper, an experimental validation of an ANC system has developed over a network of
distributed acoustic nodes using a collaborative incremental strategy. For this purpose, a distributed
version of the FPBFxLMS algorithm has been introduced. In order to evaluate the performance of
the proposed algorithms in a practical environment, we have implemented the adaptive control in a
R
real-time audio toolbox provided by MATLAB
. Results show that the distributed implementation
of the algorithm exhibits the same performance as its centralized version when there are no
communication constraints in the network.
Moreover, the computational complexity of the distributed algorithm has been studied and
compared with the centralized version. Since each node of the distributed algorithm can perform
almost all the operations simultaneously, the computational complexity is split among the nodes
and the processing time of the algorithm is significantly reduced. However, when we consider the
use of physical nodes in a real network, we will have to analyze some aspects with regards to the
communication capabilities among the nodes in the network. In this sense, we can conclude that the
distributed ANC system performs well if the network has enough bandwidth to transfer the network
information without violating the real-time condition.
The performance of the proposed distributed FPBFxLMS algorithm in an ideal ASN and an
ASN with a constant delay in the communications has been also shown. The behavior of the system
worsens when delay increases, but, in this experiment, it shows an acceptable and stable performance
despite data loss in the information exchange when the node uses its local information while waiting
for network information. However, the influence of the degree of acoustic interaction between nodes
on the network communication strategies must be considered in future works.
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
16 of 17
Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by the European Union (European Regional Development
Fund) together with Spanish Government through TEC2015-67387-C4-1-R project, the grant BES-2013-063783
and Generalitat Valenciana through the PROMETEOII/2014/003 project.
Author Contributions: All authors discussed the results and implications and commented on the manuscript at
all stages. Alberto Gonzalez, Maria de Diego and Miguel Ferrer conceived the study, supervised and edited
the work. All authors contributed to the formulation development. Christian Antoñanzas performed the
experimental work, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Elliott, S. Signal Processing for Active Control; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2000.
Pawełczyk, M. Active noise control-a review of control-related problems. Arch. Acoust. 2008, 33, 509–520.
Elliott, S.; Boucher, C. Interaction between multiple feedforward active control systems. IEEE Trans. Speech
Audio Process. 1994, 2, 521–530.
Akyildiz, I.; Su, W.; Sankarasubramaniam, Y.; Cayirci, E. A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Mag.
2002, 40, 102–114.
Yick, J.; Mukherjee, B.; Ghosal, D. Wireless sensor network survey. Comput. Netw. 2008, 52, 2292–2330.
Puccinelli, D.; Haenggi, M. Wireless sensor networks: Applications and challenges of ubiquitous sensing.
IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag. 2005, 5, 19–31.
Harjito, B.; Han, S. Wireless multimedia sensor networks applications and security challenges.
In Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication
and Applications, Fukuoka, Japan, 4–6 November 2010; Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
(IEEE): Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2010.
Akyildiz, I.; Melodia, T.; Chowdury, K. Wireless multimedia sensor networks:
A survey.
IEEE Wirel. Commun. 2007, 14, 32–39.
Bertrand, A. Applications and trends in wireless acoustic sensor networks: A signal processing perspective.
In Proceedings of the 2011 18th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the
Benelux (SCVT), Ghent, Belgium, 22–23 November 2011; Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
(IEEE): Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2011.
Flammini, A.; Ferrari, P.; Marioli, D.; Sisinni, E.; Taroni, A. Wired and wireless sensor networks for industrial
applications. Microelectron. J. 2009, 40, 1322–1336.
Bertrand, A.; Moonen, M. Robust distributed noise reduction in hearing aids with external acoustic sensor
nodes. EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2009, 2009, 530435.
Guo, Y.; Hazas, M. Acoustic source localization of everyday sounds using wireless sensor networks. In
Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference Adjunct Papers on Ubiquitous Computing–Adjunct,
Copenhagen, Denmark, 26–29 September 2010; Association for Computing Machinery (ACM): New York,
NY, USA, 2010.
Wang, H. Wireless Sensor Networks for Acoustic Monitoring. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California,
Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2006.
Bertrand, A. Signal Processing Algorithms for Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks. Ph.D. Thesis, University
of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2011.
Kwon, H.; Berisha, V.; Spanias, A. Real-time sensing and acoustic scene characterization for security
applications. In Proceedings of the 2008 3rd International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing,
Santorini, Greece, 7–9 May 2008; Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE): Piscataway, NJ,
USA, 2008.
Lopes, C.; Sayed, A. Incremental adaptive strategies over distributed networks. IEEE Trans. Signal Process.
2007, 55, 4064–4077.
Bertrand, A.; Moonen, M. Distributed adaptive node-specific signal estimation in fully connected sensor
networks—Part I: Sequential node updating. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 2010, 58, 5277–5291.
Andrew, S.; Tanenbaum, D.J.W. Computer Networks; Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2012.
Widrow, B.; Stearns, S.D. Adaptive Signal Processing; Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1985;
Volume 1.
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 124
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
17 of 17
Elliott, S.; Stothers, I.; Nelson, P. A multiple error LMS algorithm and its application to the active control of
sound and vibration. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 1987, 35, 1423–1434.
Lopes, C.G.; Sayed, A.H. Diffusion least-mean squares over adaptive networks: Formulation and
performance analysis. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 2008, 56, 3122–3136.
Ferrer, M.; de Diego, M.; Piñero, G.; Gonzalez, A. Active noise control over adaptive distributed networks.
Signal Process. 2015, 107, 82–95.
Lorente, J.; Ferrer, M.; de Diego, M.; Gonzalez, A. GPU implementation of multichannel adaptive algorithms
for local active noise control. IEEE/ACM Trans. Audio Speech Language Process. 2014, 22, 1624–1635.
Borrallo, J.P.; Otero, M.G. On the implementation of a partitioned block frequency domain adaptive filter
(PBFDAF) for long acoustic echo cancellation. Signal Process. 1992, 27, 301–315.
Farhang-Boroujeny, B. Adaptive Filters: Theory and Applications; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2013.
Shynk, J. Frequency-domain and multirate adaptive filtering. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 1992, 9, 14–37.
Mathworks. DSP System Toolbox. Available online: http://mathworks.com/help/dsp/ (accessed on 11
November 2015).
Steinberg, ASIO.
Available online: http://www.steinberg.net/nc/en/company/developers/sdkdownload-portal.html (accessed on 27 July 2015).
Burdisso, R.A. Causality analysis of feedforward-controlled systems with broadband inputs. J. Acoust.
Soc. Am. 1993, 94, 234–242.
Audio and communications signal processing group (GTAC). Available online: http://www.gtac.upv.es
(accessed on 31 March 2016).
c 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising