naval air training command nas corpus christi, texas

naval air training command nas corpus christi, texas
NAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND
NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS
CNATRA P-764 (08-14) PAT
FLIGHT TRAINING
INSTRUCTION
PRIMARY CONTACT
T–6B
2014
FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION
FOR
PRIMARY CONTACT
T-6B
P-764
iii
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original...0...17 Dec 09 (this will be the date issued)
Revision…1…12 Jan 11
Change Transmittal…1…26 Mar 12
Change Transmittal…2…18 Nov 13
Revision…2…08 Aug 14
Change Transmittal…1…23 Apr 15
Change Transmittal…2…10 Dec 15
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INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY
The following Changes have been previously incorporated in this manual:
CHANGE
NUMBER
REMARKS/PURPOSE
The following interim Changes have been incorporated in this Change/Revision:
INTERIM
CHANGE
NUMBER
1
2
REMARKS/PURPOSE
Changes made per transmittal letter 23 Apr 15
Changes made per transmittal letter 10 Dec 15
v
ENTERED
BY
CAS
CAS
DATE
INTRODUCTION
COURSE OBJECTIVE:
Upon completion of this course, the Student Naval Aviator will be able to safely pilot a T-6B
including takeoff, aerobatics, and landing phases.
STANDARDS:
Conditions and standards are defined in CNATRAINST 1542.166 series.
INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES:
1.
This is a flight training course and will be conducted in the aircraft and the UTD/OFT
flight simulators.
2.
The student will demonstrate a functional knowledge of the material presented through
successful completion of the flight maneuvers.
INSTRUCTIONAL REFERENCES:
1.
T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual.
2.
Local Standard Operating Procedures Instruction.
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES .................................................................................................. iv
INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY ...............................................................................................v
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................ vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... vii
TABLE OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................ xii
CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION TO T-6B CONTACT ............................................... 1-1
100.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1-1
101.
HISTORY OF CONTACT TRAINING .................................................................... 1-1
102.
SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION ..................................................................................... 1-2
103.
CURRICULUM RESOURCES ................................................................................. 1-2
104.
ACADEMIC/FLIGHT SUPPORT TRAINING ........................................................ 1-4
105.
STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE ....................................................................... 1-4
106.
THE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR .................................................................................. 1-5
107.
THE STUDENT NAVAL AVIATOR....................................................................... 1-6
108.
TRAINING TIME OUT ............................................................................................ 1-7
109.
CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................... 1-8
110.
PHYSICAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS........................................................... 1-9
111.
FLIGHT SIMULATORS ......................................................................................... 1-10
112.
THE AIRCRAFT ..................................................................................................... 1-11
CHAPTER TWO - T-6B AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS ....................... 2-1
200.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2-1
201.
THEORIES OF FLIGHT ........................................................................................... 2-1
202.
STABILITY AND CONTROL ................................................................................. 2-7
203.
STALLS ................................................................................................................... 2-10
204.
PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS .......................................................................... 2-12
205.
SECONDARY FLIGHT CONTROLS - TRIM DEVICES .................................... 2-16
206.
TRIM REQUIREMENTS - RUDDER/ELEVATOR.............................................. 2-18
207.
PERFORMANCE .................................................................................................... 2-19
208.
POWER CONTROL LEVER .................................................................................. 2-19
CHAPTER THREE - FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS ......................................... 3-1
300.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 3-1
301.
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT MANEUVERS ............................................................ 3-1
302.
INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION ............................................................... 3-1
303.
ATTITUDE FLYING ................................................................................................ 3-2
304.
"SEE AND AVOID" DOCTRINE ............................................................................ 3-3
305.
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS ........................................................................................ 3-5
306.
SCAN PATTERN ...................................................................................................... 3-6
307.
BALANCED FLIGHT............................................................................................... 3-9
308.
TURNS .................................................................................................................... 3-10
309.
THE ONE-THIRD RULE........................................................................................ 3-13
310.
SKID ........................................................................................................................ 3-13
vii
311.
312.
313.
314.
315.
316.
317.
SLIP ......................................................................................................................... 3-14
WIND EFFECTS AND CRAB CORRECTIONS ................................................... 3-16
CLIMBING FLIGHT............................................................................................... 3-17
CLIMBING TURNS ................................................................................................ 3-18
DESCENDING FLIGHT ......................................................................................... 3-19
THE P.A.T. PRINCIPLE ......................................................................................... 3-19
ASSUMING CONTROL OF THE AIRCRAFT ..................................................... 3-20
CHAPTER FOUR - GROUND PROCEDURES .................................................................... 4-1
400.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 4-1
401.
NAVAL AVIATION LOGISTICS COMMAND MAINTENANCE INFORMATION
SYSTEM .................................................................................................................... 4-2
402.
CHECKLISTS ........................................................................................................... 4-2
403.
BASIC 1001 ............................................................................................................... 4-3
404.
PREFLIGHT PLANNING/BRIEFING ..................................................................... 4-3
405.
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION ...................................................................................... 4-5
406.
STRAPPING IN TO THE SEAT .............................................................................. 4-6
407.
INTERIOR INSPECTION......................................................................................... 4-8
408.
STARTING PROCEDURE ....................................................................................... 4-8
409.
TAXIING ................................................................................................................... 4-9
410.
OVERSPEED GOVERNOR CHECKLIST ............................................................ 4-11
411.
BEFORE TAKEOFF CHECKLIST ........................................................................ 4-11
412.
AFTER LANDING CHECKLIST ........................................................................... 4-11
413.
ENGINE SHUTDOWN CHECKLIST .................................................................... 4-12
414.
POSTFLIGHT CHECKS ......................................................................................... 4-12
415.
ALDIS LAMP SIGNALS ........................................................................................ 4-13
CHAPTER FIVE - FLIGHT PROCEDURES ........................................................................ 5-1
500.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 5-1
501.
CONTACT FLIGHT TERMINOLOGY ................................................................... 5-1
502.
OPERATIONS CHECKS .......................................................................................... 5-2
503.
ASSUMING CONTROL OF THE AIRCRAFT ....................................................... 5-2
504.
COMMUNICATIONS .............................................................................................. 5-3
505.
TAKEOFF.................................................................................................................. 5-3
506.
CROSSWIND TAKEOFF ......................................................................................... 5-7
507.
DEPARTURE ............................................................................................................ 5-8
508.
STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT ......................................................................... 5-8
509.
BASIC TRANSITIONS........................................................................................... 5-12
510.
PROCEDURES........................................................................................................ 5-12
511.
CONSTANT ANGLE OF BANK TURNS ............................................................. 5-15
512.
TURN PATTERN .................................................................................................... 5-16
513.
LEVEL SPEED CHANGE ...................................................................................... 5-18
514.
STALLS ................................................................................................................... 5-20
515.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT ................................................................................... 5-21
516.
SLOW FLIGHT (SCATSAFE) MANEUVER ........................................................ 5-22
517.
POWER-ON-STALLS ............................................................................................ 5-24
viii
518.
519.
520.
521.
POWER-OFF STALL (ELP STALL) ..................................................................... 5-25
LANDING PATTERN (APPROACH TURN) STALLS ........................................ 5-26
SLIP ......................................................................................................................... 5-28
SPIN ......................................................................................................................... 5-30
CHAPTER SIX - LANDING PROCEDURES........................................................................ 6-1
600.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 6-1
601.
LANDING PATTERN .............................................................................................. 6-1
602.
LANDING PATTERN TERMINOLOGY ................................................................ 6-1
603.
OUTLYING FIELD ENTRY .................................................................................... 6-3
604.
THE BREAK ............................................................................................................. 6-4
605.
LANDING PATTERN .............................................................................................. 6-6
606.
APPROACH .............................................................................................................. 6-6
607.
LANDINGS ............................................................................................................. 6-15
608.
CROSSWIND APPROACH.................................................................................... 6-20
609.
CROSSWIND LANDING ....................................................................................... 6-23
610.
WAVEOFF (GO-AROUND) .................................................................................. 6-26
611.
LANDING ERRORS ............................................................................................... 6-27
612.
OUTLYING FIELD DEPARTURE ........................................................................ 6-31
613.
VFR STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH ......................................................................... 6-32
CHAPTER SEVEN - EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ......................................................... 7-1
700.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 7-1
701.
ABORTED TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION .......................................................... 7-3
702.
EMERGENCY LANDING PATTERN (ELP) .......................................................... 7-3
703.
PRECAUTIONARY EMERGENCY LANDING (PEL) ........................................ 7-11
704.
PRECAUTIONARY EMERGENCY LANDING FROM THE PATTERN .......... 7-14
705.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT (POWER LOSS) .................................... 7-16
706.
EMERGENCY VOICE REPORTS ......................................................................... 7-19
CHAPTER EIGHT - SOLO FLIGHT ..................................................................................... 8-1
800.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 8-1
801.
THE SOLO FLIGHT ................................................................................................. 8-1
CHAPTER NINE - AEROBATICS ......................................................................................... 9-1
900.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 9-1
901.
RULES AND PRECAUTIONS FOR AEROBATIC FLIGHT ................................. 9-1
902.
SECTION LINES AND GROUND REFERENCE POINTS .................................... 9-2
903.
CLEARING TURNS ................................................................................................. 9-2
904.
G-INDUCED LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS ........................................................... 9-3
905.
CONTACT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES...................................................................... 9-5
906.
LOOP ......................................................................................................................... 9-9
907.
WINGOVER ............................................................................................................ 9-11
908.
BARREL ROLL ...................................................................................................... 9-14
909.
AILERON ROLL..................................................................................................... 9-16
910.
SPLIT-S ................................................................................................................... 9-17
ix
911.
912.
913.
914.
915.
CUBAN EIGHT....................................................................................................... 9-19
IMMELMANN ........................................................................................................ 9-21
CLOVERLEAF........................................................................................................ 9-23
COMBINATION MANEUVER ............................................................................. 9-25
INVERTED FLIGHT .............................................................................................. 9-25
CHAPTER TEN - ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES ................................................ 10-1
1000. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 10-1
1001. ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES.................................................................. 10-1
CHAPTER ELEVEN - NIGHT CONTACT ......................................................................... 11-1
1100. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 11-1
1101. NIGHT FLYING PHYSIOLOGY ........................................................................... 11-1
1102. PERSONAL PREPARATION ................................................................................ 11-2
1103. NIGHT GROUND PROCEDURES ........................................................................ 11-2
1104. PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES ................................................................................. 11-2
1105. LIGHT SIGNALS .................................................................................................... 11-2
1106. START ..................................................................................................................... 11-3
1107. TAXI ........................................................................................................................ 11-3
1108. NIGHT FIELD LIGHTING ..................................................................................... 11-3
1109. OVERSPEED GOVERNOR CHECKLIST ............................................................ 11-4
1110. INBOUND TAXI PROCEDURES.......................................................................... 11-4
1111. ENGINE SHUTDOWN ........................................................................................... 11-4
1112. POSTFLIGHT INSPECTION ................................................................................. 11-4
1113. NIGHT CONTACT FLIGHT PROCEDURES ....................................................... 11-4
1114. TAKEOFF PROCEDURES .................................................................................... 11-5
1115. HOMEFIELD DEPARTURE .................................................................................. 11-5
1116. LANDING PATTERN ............................................................................................ 11-5
1117. WAVEOFF .............................................................................................................. 11-6
1118. HOMEFIELD ARRIVALS ..................................................................................... 11-6
1119. HOMEFIELD BREAK ............................................................................................ 11-6
1120. LANDING ............................................................................................................... 11-6
1121. NIGHT EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ................................................................ 11-7
1122. VISUAL AIRCRAFT-TO-AIRCRAFT SIGNALS ................................................ 11-7
APPENDIX A - GLOSSARY OF TERMS ............................................................................. A-1
A100. GLOSSARY - N/A ................................................................................................... A-1
APPENDIX B - COMMUNICATIONS ...................................................................................B-1
B100. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................B-1
B101. COMMUNICATION .................................................................................................B-1
B102. CALL SIGNS.............................................................................................................B-2
B103. VERBALIZATION ...................................................................................................B-3
x
APPENDIX C - THE PRE-FLIGHT BRIEF ......................................................................... C-1
C100. AN OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................C-1
C101. THE BRIEFING ........................................................................................................C-2
xi
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1
Figure 2-2
Figure 2-3
Figure 2-4
Figure 2-5
Figure 2-6
Figure 2-7
Figure 2-8
Figure 2-9
Figure 2-10
Figure 2-11
Figure 2-12
Figure 2-13
Angle of Attack .................................................................................................. 2-2
Torque Effect ..................................................................................................... 2-4
Gyroscopic Effects ............................................................................................ 2-5
Slipstream Effect ............................................................................................... 2-6
P-Factor ............................................................................................................. 2-7
Aircraft Axes ..................................................................................................... 2-8
Static Stability ................................................................................................... 2-9
Cases of Stability ............................................................................................... 2-9
Aircraft Axes ................................................................................................... 2-13
Aileron Control ............................................................................................... 2-14
Adverse Yaw .................................................................................................... 2-14
Control Stick .................................................................................................... 2-17
PCL ................................................................................................................... 2-20
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 3-6
Figure 3-7
Outside Scan ...................................................................................................... 3-5
Side-to-Side Scanning Method ......................................................................... 3-8
Front-to-Side Scanning Method ...................................................................... 3-9
Coordinated vs. Uncoordinated Turns ......................................................... 3-11
Skidded vs. Coordinated Turn ...................................................................... 3-14
Coordinated vs. Slip Turn .............................................................................. 3-15
"Crabbing" Flight Path ................................................................................. 3-17
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
T-6B Taxiing ...................................................................................................... 4-1
Strapping into the Seat ..................................................................................... 4-7
Canopy Lock Indicator ..................................................................................... 4-8
Nose Wheel Steering Button .......................................................................... 4-10
Aldis Lamp Signals ......................................................................................... 4-13
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 5-6
Figure 5-7
Contact Flight Terminology ............................................................................. 5-1
The Takeoff Roll, Rotation, and Initial Climb ............................................... 5-3
Climb Rate ......................................................................................................... 5-4
Skipping on Takeoff .......................................................................................... 5-8
Straight and Level Flight .................................................................................. 5-9
Climb Attitude ~8º Nose High ........................................................................ 5-13
Turn Pattern .................................................................................................... 5-17
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4
Figure 6-5
Figure 6-6
Figure 6-7
Figure 6-8
Landing Pattern ................................................................................................ 6-5
90° Position ........................................................................................................ 6-9
The "Groove" .................................................................................................. 6-10
Aimpoint .......................................................................................................... 6-11
Glideslope Corrections ................................................................................... 6-13
Landing Pattern From Downwind Leg to Landing ..................................... 6-15
Overshooting Crosswind ................................................................................ 6-20
Undershooting Crosswind .............................................................................. 6-21
xii
Figure 6-9
Figure 6-10
Figure 6-11
Crabbing .......................................................................................................... 6-21
Desired Path .................................................................................................... 6-22
The "Box Pattern" .......................................................................................... 6-33
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
Emergency Landing Pattern (ELP) Checkpoints .......................................... 7-8
Emergency Landing Pattern ............................................................................ 7-8
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
Figure 9-4
Figure 9-5
Figure 9-6
Figure 9-7
Figure 9-8
Figure 9-9
Figure 9-10
Figure 9-11
Aerobatic Maneuver Parameters .................................................................... 9-1
Nose-High Recovery .......................................................................................... 9-6
Nose-Low Recovery .......................................................................................... 9-8
Loop .................................................................................................................... 9-9
Wingover .......................................................................................................... 9-11
Barrel Roll ....................................................................................................... 9-14
Aileron Roll ...................................................................................................... 9-16
Split-S ............................................................................................................... 9-18
Cuban Eight ..................................................................................................... 9-20
Immelmann ...................................................................................................... 9-22
Cloverleaf ......................................................................................................... 9-23
Figure B-1
Figure B-2
Range Reception Chart ....................................................................................B-2
Phonetic Alphabet .............................................................................................B-6
xiii
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
xiv
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO T-6B CONTACT
100. INTRODUCTION
This Flight Training Instruction (FTI) is a Naval Air Training Command directive published by
Chief of Naval Air Training (CNATRA). The information and instructions are relative to all
instructors and Student Naval Aviators (SNA) operating T-6B aircraft in the Primary Phase of
training in the Naval Air Training Command. It is very important that the factual material
contained herein be thoroughly studied and retained.
The process by which a student is transformed into a skilled naval aviator is both complex and
demanding. It can be accomplished only by intensive instruction in the air as well as in the
classroom. Success, for the most part, depends upon the student’s attitude, cooperation, and
attention to detail. The degree of skill attained by students depends largely upon their ability to
understand new material and to work hard. Those students who cannot measure up to the high
standards required throughout the various phases of training, because of either their lack of
motivation or ability, must and will be attrited.
This FTI does not contain all the information necessary for a student pilot to become a
professional aviator. Rather, this instruction provides a focal point and reference manual for all
other sources of technical information, outlining and amplifying the flight procedures where
necessary. This manual is designed as a training tool and is not meant to establish policy
concerning fleet operations. Every effort has been made to remain in accordance with current
fleet procedures. It is important to note that the emergency procedures shown are to aid in the
topic discussion. For all emergencies, the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual is the final authority.
Through this cross-referencing and organization of information, the student pilot should be able
to develop a thorough understanding of the manual and flight procedures that form the backbone
of an aviation career.
Congratulations on your commencement of primary flight training. Your hard work and
determination has earned you the unique opportunity to become part of the most elite team of
aviation warriors in the world today. The United States Naval Aviator is a highly trained
professional. The tremendous level of skill demanded by the naval air community can only be
obtained through total dedication and sustained maximum effort. It is imperative that every
Student Naval Aviator apply himself or herself completely. Anything less than your best effort
is unacceptable. Best of luck in your endeavor to earn your "Wings of Gold."
101. HISTORY OF CONTACT TRAINING
Naval aviation training has come a long way since 1910 when Lieutenant T. G. Ellyson was
ordered to flight instruction to become the first Naval Aviator. Soon thereafter, the U.S. Navy
purchased its first airplane, the Curtis Triad, at a cost of $5,500. Since that time, naval aviation
technology has progressed at a rapid rate. The fleet aircraft of today’s Navy are tremendously
complex and demanding machines, capable of astonishing performance. Advancements in
aviation technology are only part of a much bigger picture. Even the most modern aircraft will
INTRODUCTION TO T-6B CONTACT
1-1
CHAPTER ONE
PRIMARY CONTACT
fail to accomplish its mission if piloted by a poorly trained or incompetent aviator. Therefore, a
thorough and comprehensive training program is essential for mission accomplishment.
Early aviation pioneers suffered through many "accidents," which became unwanted yet
commonplace occurrences. A "good" landing was any one that you could walk away from!
Today, the safety record of naval aviation is the best it has ever been. Accidents or "mishaps"
are rare, yet do occur. Anything greater than a zero mishap rate is undesirable. Mishap-free
operation is the ultimate goal, and SAFETY is a primary concern during all aspects of training.
There is NO acceptable loss and NO toleration for anything less than total professionalism. This
is a goal we can achieve. Your instructors will set an example that you should strive to mirror.
102. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
So far as is practical, all information and instructions governing T-6B aircraft procedures and the
execution of curriculum maneuvers will be published for inclusion in this manual. Procedures
peculiar to Whiting Field (TW-5) and Corpus Christi (TW-4) may be found in the TW-5 Fixed
Wing Operating Procedures (FWOP) Manual or TW-4 Standardization Notes/NAS Corpus
Christi Course Rules.
Terms that would be included ordinarily in a glossary for T-6B Contact training are defined as
they are used throughout the text.
1.
Learning Objectives. The course objective is broken down into Stage (Terminal)
Learning Objectives. Terminals are further broken down into Enabling Learning Objectives.
These are designed to be smaller, bite-size chunks of the overall objective. The Terminal
Objectives are listed in the CNATRA governing instruction.
2.
Enabling Objectives, Maneuvers and Exercises. Each event in this stage is comprised of
various tasks the student will have to perform. This could be performing a spin on a contact
flight, or reciting an emergency procedure during a lecture, or answering a test question correctly
in an end-of-course exam. The Joint Primary Pilot Training (JPPT) Curriculum, Flight Training
Instruction, and Academic Training Instruction break down each of these tasks in detail.
The maneuvers or other items that you will perform on the events may be graded or nongraded.
This means that this particular item may or may not be used to compare you to course training
standards. This does not mean that the instructor may not evaluate a nongraded item. The
student is just as responsible, for example, for a demo (nongraded) item as for a graded item. If
the instructor determines a blatant lack of preparation for either, an unsatisfactory grade is
warranted.
103. CURRICULUM RESOURCES
1.
T-6B Joint Primary Pilot Training (JPPT) Master Curriculum Guide (MCG)
1-2
INTRODUCTION TO T-6B CONTACT
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER ONE
CNATRAINST 1542.166. This pocket guide is the curriculum outline. It describes what each
Student Naval Aviator (SNA) will do in the Primary phase of training. The maneuvers and
exercises in the syllabus are described, as well as the standards of performance to be achieved.
Each event lists all of the maneuvers to be performed. When there is no task listing in the
description of an event, then another publication describes the conduct of that event. For
example, although the Joint Primary Pilot Training System (JPPT) Curriculum simply lists
Aerodynamics as the event, the Aerodynamics Academic Training Instruction (ATI) lists the
material to be covered.
2.
Flight and Academic Training Instructions. These are called "peculiar to aviation
training" (PAT) pubs and are produced by CNATRA specifically for each of its curricula. These
PAT pubs describe the various maneuvers and exercises the SNA will be required to perform,
and list any additional pubs or study material that the student may need to reference for an event.
The SNA is responsible for all material listed in these training instructions. Each stage of
training has an associated FTI containing the information necessary for a student to complete the
curriculum satisfactorily. It is every pilot’s responsibility to be thoroughly familiar with the
contents of this manual. Strict adherence to the manner of execution of maneuvers, patterns,
procedures and instructions herein promulgated is mandatory for all instructors and Student
Naval Aviators operating the T-6B aircraft.
3.
1500.4 (TA Manual) and the Aviation Training Jacket. CNATRAINST 1500.4 is
commonly referred to as the Training Administration (TA) manual. The TA manual is Student
Control’s guide to handling its students. Normally, those areas of the TA manual for which the
SNA is responsible will be outlined to the student upon check in. Such student responsibilities
always include obtaining jacket reviews, ensuring Aviation Training Forms (ATF) make their
way to the Aviation Training Jacket (ATJ), and updating the calendar card. These
responsibilities should not be taken lightly. The responsibility (or lack thereof) that a student
displays with these administrative details can be a direct indication of how seriously a student is
applying himself/herself to an aviation training program.
4.
Aviation Training Forms. These are records of the training events that take place for a
student. They also record the instructor’s evaluation of student performance. These are
permanent, official documents that remain in the SNA’s jacket forever. They are never removed
or altered by anyone except under very special circumstances listed in the TA manual. Any
student who alters or removes an ATF from his or her jacket will be subject to attrition under the
provisions of the TA manual.
5.
NATOPS Program. Every Student Naval Aviator becomes familiar with Naval Air
Training and Operating Procedures Standardization (NATOPS) early in his or her career. You
will be issued a T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual before you start ground school, and a General
NATOPS (OPNAVINST 3710.7) should be available to you. The NATOPS program is the
responsibility of all who use it. NATOPS only works if everyone is involved. Even as a Student
Naval Aviator, it is your responsibility to originate changes if you find errors or ambiguities in
the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual. See the squadron NATOPS officer regarding the correct
procedure to submit a change recommendation to the NATOPS Flight Manual.
INTRODUCTION TO T-6B CONTACT
1-3
CHAPTER ONE
PRIMARY CONTACT
6.
T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and Pocket Checklist. The T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual is the definitive instruction on the operation of the aircraft. The Pocket Checklist (PCL)
is a convenient pocket sized listing of those items in the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual that
would be of particular concern while airborne or at a remote location. No student or flight
instructor has the authority to deviate from the Flight Manual without specific written authority
except in specific situations. The T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual also lists the crew requirements
for flying the aircraft. There is a bank of questions in the back of the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual that every aviator should be familiar with. Both the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and
the PCL list emergency procedures. Some of these procedures are listed in Boldface or with
asterisks next to them. These items are memory items, and the SNA shall be able to recall and
apply any of these procedures correctly to the appropriate aircraft malfunction. In addition to the
emergency procedures, a pilot should be able to recall the Landing Checklist from memory.
Other than these, every checklist should be performed with the aid of the PCL or appropriate
guide. Familiarity with the PCL should be acquired in an attempt to ensure efficient use under
potentially arduous situations while airborne.
In Primary Training, there is no room for libraries of publications. T-6B aircrews must be
thoroughly familiar with their aircraft. They must study the NATOPS Flight Manual in-depth
and have a thorough knowledge of it because no opportunity exists to do so while airborne. The
T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual requires the use of checklists. Although a student may become
familiar with a checklist, pocket checklists are to be used to ensure no items are missed.
104. ACADEMIC/FLIGHT SUPPORT TRAINING
The terminal objective of flight support training and academics is to provide the SNA with the
basic knowledge and skills directly applicable to satisfactory progression in the T-6B aircraft
flight training. Upon completion of the academic and flight support activities, the student will be
capable of relating these acquired cognitive skills and applying them through simulation and
actual flights, thus developing the motor skills and headwork necessary to meet CNATRA
standards to complete primary flight training.
105. STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
1.
Standardization. Flight instruction must be highly standardized. The syllabi that are
currently being used are the result of constant evolution, and the procedures taught are lessons
learned over the course of many years. The FTI and T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual set forth the
one standardized way of doing any specific maneuver. Adherence to these standards will be a
part of any instructor’s evaluation of a student’s performance during an event. Occasionally, a
student may question a particular instructor’s technique, or he may think that an instructor is
incorrect. There is no time for protracted discussion or debate in the air. If an instructor’s
request is unclear to the student, the student must request clarification. If, however, the student
feels that the instructor’s methods contradict the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual or the FTI, he
should consult his class advisor on the appropriate way to address the issue. In any event, when
the student feels that flight safety is in jeopardy, he is bound to request a Training Time Out to
obtain clarification. Training Time Out is defined in section 108 of this publication.
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The standard flight procedures employed in the training syllabus are universal to all Navy
aircraft, except when slight deviations have been adapted in the interest of flight safety.
Maximum utilization of instructor/aircraft time demands a thorough knowledge of the flight
training instructions and referenced publications by both the flight student and instructor. The
time designated for the pre-flight briefing is equally limited and demands that both student and
instructor have a complete knowledge of the material to be covered in preparation for the flight.
Briefing time should be applied to review of previous difficulties, clarification of
misunderstandings, and immediate flight planning. It is essential that the instructor and the
student have a common understanding of the maneuvers to be flown and employ the same
nomenclature in order to take full advantage of the time afforded.
2.
Grades. The adage is that if you worry about learning, the grades take care of themselves.
The truth is that one should be trying to perform to the best of his or her ability at all times.
Grades are designed to do two things: compare performance to a set standard or criterion; and
contrast performance of individuals within the same curriculum.
There is little to be gained by sweating over grades. The nature of flight training is such that if
one misses a step, it is very difficult to catch up. The syllabus is designed to give the average
student sufficient time and opportunity to complete the objectives. When it becomes apparent to
an instructor that objectives are not being met, or the student is having difficulty, the student’s
grades will reflect this. The student should not take grades as a personal affront. The instructor
should make every effort not only to critique the student, but also to give the student the
information required to perform the exercise or maneuver in an acceptable manner. The best
instructors are not those who give the best grades, but those who best prepare the students for
their next flight. Students should concentrate on correctly performing the maneuvers of the next
hop, and meeting the stage and phase objectives. Students who are able to do this are successful
in the Naval Air Training Command.
3.
Check Flights. The student should place no special significance on designated check
flights and should not anticipate failure if a superlative performance is not demonstrated. The
designated check flight is merely a validation by another instructor of the evaluations previous
instructors have given to the student. If a student fails to meet the accepted standards of
progress, the instructor will grade the student’s performance unsatisfactory rather than allow
him/her to continue in the syllabus. The check pilot is obligated to judge the student fairly in
comparison with accepted standards.
106. THE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR
The flight instructor is an experienced aviator, trained to provide the student with a sound
foundation in the operation of the aircraft. He/She has undergone a training course similar to the
student’s syllabus, which familiarizes him/her with the curriculum maneuvers and teaches an
effective means of presenting them. This training comes under the heading of standardization.
The intent of standardization is to provide the instructor with a logical, effective, and consistent
foundation upon which to present any maneuver. This in turn ensures that all students can be
judged on the same basis, each having been exposed to the same material and afforded an equal
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opportunity to demonstrate his/her abilities. No two instructors will be identical in their
techniques and each may vary his/her presentation to fit the needs of the individual student.
In order to teach you to fly the T-6B properly, the instructor must criticize! His/her comments
on your performance of the various maneuvers are intended to improve your understanding. All
criticism by the instructor is meant to be constructive in character. The instructor’s sole intent is
to instill confidence and develop you into a qualified Naval Aviator.
Your flight instructor is a vital part of your training. Nonetheless, you must do your part as well.
The one word that you will hear most from your instructor is "PROCEDURES!" In order that
your time in the aircraft can be devoted to the improvement of maneuver performance, it is
imperative that you learn, memorize, and understand the procedural steps required in performing
each of the various maneuvers. Then and only then can your instructor’s time with you be
profitably utilized. The instructor is well trained and qualified to teach his/her student, but
his/her success requires the fullest cooperation of the student himself/herself. If you have
questions about procedures or concepts, ask them. Knowing procedures, both for normal and
emergency operations, cannot be overemphasized! They must be over-learned so that they can
be recalled in flight, especially during periods of high cockpit workload and stressful situations.
Contract Instructors. Simulator instructors are generally civilians, contracted to the Navy to
provide simulator flight instruction and teach academics. These instructors are all experienced
military aviators. They are bound by the same instruction as their military counterparts. The
simulator event should be treated just as a flight event. Both events require the same dedicated
preparation and forethought. The contract instructor (CI) is also responsible for standardization.
If you notice a nonstandard maneuver or technique, bring it to the attention of the standardization
officer at the squadron.
107. THE STUDENT NAVAL AVIATOR
The qualifications to become a SNA are high. The SNA has been selected for flight training by a
screening process that determines his/her superiority over the average American youth with
respect to physical condition, intelligence, ability to grasp and retain new ideas, and apparent
emotional stability. Superior reasoning ability will enable him/her to combine these talents into
experience that will produce a qualified naval aviator. One critical factor of success, which
cannot be accurately evaluated by the normal selection process, is mental attitude. Mental
attitude, as much as any other factor, determines the ease or difficulty with which the student
progresses through the training syllabus. Under the heading of positive mental attitude come
such elements as willingness to conform to military discipline, acceptance of curtailed personal
freedom and leisure, and the ability to encounter occasional reverses and still maintain
enthusiasm and self-confidence.
Motivation and mental attitude are closely related. The student’s motivation greatly affects his
or her mental attitude and consequently his or her progress throughout training. The majority of
students have had little or no previous aviation experience. Flight training is arduous and places
great demands on the student’s time and energy. Therefore, motivation plays an important part
in difficult periods. The student who discovers that he or she does not enjoy flying but remains
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because of prestige or monetary compensation will find that his or her chances of successfully
completing the program are poor. The desire to earn those coveted wings of gold and the love of
flying provide the highest motivation and the greatest likelihood of success.
With these basic qualities as a foundation, the experience you gain as you progress through each
stage of your training will develop the many facets of your skill and judgment. This will allow
you to cope with the many and varied problems that may confront you in the handling of your
aircraft under all conditions. Although your instructor and other personnel are at your disposal to
help solve various problems, your own intelligent analysis, based on acquired knowledge, will
generally permit you to arrive at correct and logical conclusions.
Flying is a highly physical attribute and, like many other acts of a physical nature, is mostly a
matter of coordination of hands, feet and eyes. As far as controlling the attitude and performance
of the aircraft is concerned, the elementary methods of flying are not at all difficult to master.
But, because it is performed in an environment to which you will not be accustomed, you may
experience some difficulty adapting to the airborne classroom. With your instructor’s patience
and your own hard work and alertness, the readjustment required will occur naturally and you
will find that the T-6B is one of the most enjoyable classrooms in the world. Every student
should remember these guidelines when managing his/her training program.

Your flight instructor wants you to learn to be a professional aviator. If in doubt, ask
questions and use your flight instructor to help you through problem areas.

Preparation is the key to professionalism. Do not be satisfied with only knowing enough to
complete the hop. What is being taught in the primary phase has a direct transference to all
future training.
Remember one important thing for as long as you fly an aircraft: You must be your own most
aggressive critic. This does not mean that you become a mental case in the cockpit, but it does
mean that as an aviator beginning the flight training syllabus, you must demonstrate one of the
most critical qualities of a professional aviator: self-discipline. This means that you prepare for
every hop as if your professional reputation is at stake. Your flights are not contests where
someone is keeping score and counting your mistakes. Your flight grades should not be as
important as your own honest assessment of your flight performance. You are expected to come
well prepared, but you must expect to make mistakes. Most of these mistakes are forgiven as
long as you deal with them professionally, on the spot and learn from them. That is why they
call this flight training.
108. TRAINING TIME OUT
CNATRAINST 1500.4 (series) defines the conditions under which a Training Time Out (TTO)
may be requested. A TTO may be called in any training situation whenever a student or
instructor expresses concern for personal safety or a need for clarification of procedures or
requirements exists.
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The intent of TTO is to give students and instructors the means to stop a flight if they are not
"communicating" or if either party feels they are in an unsafe position. It will not be used to
terminate a flight just because you are having a bad day or do not know your procedures.
Nevertheless, do not be hesitant to use TTO if you feel the flight conditions warrant it.
109. CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The “Human Error” factor or inadequate Crew Resource Management (CRM) is the single
leading causal factor for Class A mishaps in modern naval aviation. As defined in OPNAVINST
3710.7, CRM describes the use of “specifically defined behavioral skills as an integral part of
every flight to improve mission effectiveness by minimizing crew preventable errors,
maximizing crew coordination, and optimizing risk management.” It includes all crew members,
equipment, and external factors involving the flight from before the flight brief to after the flight
debrief. See T-6B Flight Manual Section 8 Ch. 2.
During primary, you will be provided with both ground and flight CRM training. Since research
and development began in 1991, the CRM program and its seven skills have become fully
integrated into all aspects of naval aviation and are governed by CNAFINST 1542.7 (series).
With the instructor/student relationship required by the nature of primary flight training, it is
imperative that both instructors and students actively practice good CRM to ensure that safety is
maintained at all times. This should not preclude the instructors from ensuring students are able
to perform as single-pilots, but should provide guidance to maintain safety in the cockpit.
1.
Sandbag Syndrome. The sandbag syndrome is based on a comforting premise that one or
more other crew members have the situation under control and are looking out for your best
interest. It is a direct breakdown of CRM skills such as: leadership, assertiveness, and
situational awareness. The sandbag syndrome is mainly experienced at certain times when the
instructor pilot has assumed flying duties, such as breaks in training, approaches, enroute
transits, etc. This effectively results in the SNA being "along for the ride." It is important to
remember that no pilot is above the momentary lapse of judgment or situational awareness that
could result in a flight violation or mishap. Do not let this happen to you! As a copilot, your
primary responsibility is to support and back up the pilot at the controls.
Stay alert and be assertive when necessary. The instructor/student relationship often fosters
reluctance on the part of the SNA to confront the Instructor Pilot (IP). But remember; do not let
misplaced professional courtesies stand in the way of maintaining safe and efficient flying
practices.
2.
"I’m Safe" Checklist. As a rule, good aircrew coordination begins with the individual
crew member. Our situational awareness resources might be lacking before we even set foot in
the cockpit. Unfortunately, we do not have external readouts telling ourselves when they are
diminished; therefore, it is important that every pilot conduct a daily personal preflight prior to
each flight. "I’M SAFE" is a simple checklist to determine if we are ready and fit to fly. Do not
show up for a brief without first conducting a personal preflight.
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I
– Illness (Do you feel well?)
M
– Medication (Are you feeling any effects of medications taken?)
S
– Stress (Are there any adverse stresses in your life to distract you?)
A
– Alcohol (Are you free of all effects of alcohol consumed?)
F
– Fatigue (Are you well rested?)
E
– Eating (Did you eat properly before flying?)
110. PHYSICAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
To help you understand something of the physical and psychological factors affecting your
training, the remainder of this chapter will be devoted to paraphrasing our flight surgeon’s
thoughts on the matter.
Physical ease and relaxation while flying makes the difference between the pilot flying the plane
and the plane flying the pilot. A proper sense of "feel" of the aircraft is essential. Just as a good
horseman must be sensitive to the movements of his mount, so must the aviator be sensitive to
the movements of the airplane. This innate sense cannot be achieved in any other way than by
the proper relaxation of all the body muscles and light touch on the aircraft’s controls. The art of
being relaxed in an airplane involves an awareness of what your body and mind are doing. A
natural reaction to the strange environment or unusual situation is the age-old aviator tendency to
"pucker" in a tight situation. Be alert for involuntary tensing of the muscles and you will find
you quickly develop that sought-after "feel" and avoid the hard-to-break habit of mechanical
flying. An important aspect of developing this sense of "feel" is knowing what you are going to
do at all times and be prepared for the next evolution in your flight training. This is nothing
more than knowing your PROCEDURES. Remember the panic in your school days when you
were handed a test and it suddenly dawned on you that you had not studied, or what you had
studied was not on the test?
Mental attitude is a very essential element to your relaxation in an aircraft. It affects your
nervous system and, if allowed to continue in an unhealthy trend, can result in actual physical
incapacitation. Therefore, its significance should be fully appreciated. As with physical
handicaps, any mental distraction will also detract from the full use of your required senses. A
poor mental attitude will interfere with your ability to concentrate, learn, and apply your
knowledge. In turn, a good or positive mental attitude will increase your learning capacity and
will make your flight training a pleasure rather than an unpleasant job.
If for any reason you find yourself "flying more, and enjoying it less," whether from some
known cause or not, discuss it with your flight instructor or unit leader. Another aid to acquiring
a positive mental attitude, after you have satisfied yourself that it is not an outside problem
affecting you mentally, is to find some healthy diversion that will get your mind away from the
subject of flying for a time. The base as well as the local area offers much in the way of
recreational opportunities and diversions.
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Mental alertness on the pilot’s part has a direct bearing upon safety of flight as well as
contributing significantly to the learning process. Remember that the training areas utilized are
not very large and are used by many aircraft. Being constantly on the alert while flying may
save your life and that of one of your squadron mates. Mental laziness is the constant enemy of
every aviator. So, as you progress through flight training, plan ahead and try to anticipate all
possible contingencies that could affect the operation of your aircraft. Proper planning not only
refers to the environment around you but also the aircraft in which you are sitting. Check your
engine instruments from time to time to ensure that all is well up front. In other words, train
yourself to be alert to all facets of your flight rather than concentrating on the problem of the
moment. You will find yourself surprised at the amount of information your eyes will transmit
to your brain during a quick SCAN of your surroundings. Planning ahead will also equip you to
take immediate and appropriate action should an emergency occur.
Confidence in your aircraft, your instructor, and most importantly yourself, is another essential
element of flying. The basic ingredient to acquiring the confidence necessary to professionally
pilot an aircraft is knowledge and efficient analytical application of that knowledge. The aircraft
you are flying has been engineered to provide you with every safety feature known to the
industry. The risks beyond the control of the pilot are minimal. Fire is an extremely rare
occurrence. Engines are inherently reliable. In-flight collisions are rarities that are completely
avoidable if you stay alert. With the above points in mind, it is readily apparent that the chance
of an aviation accident caused by anything other than incompetence, disobedience or poor
judgment is remote. Remember that 70% of all fatal accidents are due to 100% pilot error. With
all this going for you, do not let human frailty or overconfidence develop, particularly while your
experience is limited. The instant that a pilot begins to lose that feeling of respect due an
aircraft, he has reached a stage when anything can happen and usually does. Good pilots are
never caught unprepared in an emergency situation. They know and understand emergency
procedures COLD! Humble confidence and perseverance will go a long way in striving for
those Wings of Gold.
Occasionally, physiological problems arise during the course of a flight. Airsickness, fatigue,
hypoxia, food poisoning and dehydration can overcome a pilot and result in reduced situational
awareness and even complete incapacitation. Pilots must not only recognize these symptoms in
themselves but also in other crew members. At any time, the non-affected crew member should
be ready to take the controls, and if necessary, fly to a safer environment (i.e., higher altitude,
away from other aircraft and clouds) to include termination of the flight. Airsickness is common
during early Contact flights and, even though it is not usually incapacitating, it affects judgment
and reduces situational awareness. If this occurs, inform your instructor.
111. FLIGHT SIMULATORS
You won’t always have a formal training device at your disposal to prepare for your simulators
and flights. “Chair flying” or “hangar flying” is an excellent way to prepare at home, preferably
with a classmate. Strap your checklist on your knee, put on your gloves, grab a simulated control
stick and mentally accomplish each segment of your imaginary flight. Visualize each procedural
step of your planned maneuvers and verbalize your radio calls. “Chair flying” is a skill in itself
and can reap major rewards in all phases of your training and throughout your career.
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Simulators have proven to be valuable assets in helping students learn the physical attributes
necessary to become a good pilot. Before you climb into the T-6B aircraft for the first time, you
will have practiced the use of checklists, basic flight, and emergency procedures several times.
There are 3 types of simulators available for your use: A static trainer, a Unit Training Device
(UTD), and an Operational Flight Trainer (OFT). In addition to the syllabus training that you
receive in the UTD or OFT, you should utilize the static trainers at every opportunity. Practice
will pay off with better grades, increased self-confidence, and more professional performance.
UTD/OFT Flight Simulator. The UTD is a training device with no visual system designed to
support procedural and instrument flight requiring no outside visual references. The OFT is a
training device with a wide field of view visual system to support instrument and visual flight
training. These simulators do not have full motion. The instruments and flight controls behave
exactly as those in the aircraft. If there is a discrepancy in the device, it is the responsibility of
the aircrew (you) to provide maintenance data. Normally, this consists of telling the simulator
instructor about the problem. Do not be complacent about discrepancies on a flight simulator.
112. THE AIRCRAFT
The first aircraft you will fly in this program is the Hawker-Beechcraft T-6B “Texan II.” It is a
pressurized two-place, tandem cockpit, low wing, high-performance, single engine monoplane
equipped with dual controls. Power is provided by a turbo-prop engine manufactured by Pratt &
Whitney Aircraft of Canada, Model PT6A-68, with inverted flight capabilities, providing a flight
envelope with altitudes to 31,000 feet. Reference your T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual for
detailed aircraft information and operating procedures.
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CHAPTER TWO
T-6B AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS
200. INTRODUCTION
Prior to your first flight in the T-6B, there are several fundamental topics that you should review
and understand if you are to obtain maximum benefit from your primary training. These topics
include not only basic aerodynamics, but also certain principles pertaining to safety of flight.
While more complex theories were covered in the classroom during Aviation Indoctrination, the
basics are considered to be of sufficient importance to repeat in broad terms at this time. The
discussions in this chapter provide Student Naval Aviators with the basic factors of flight before
actually beginning to fly.
In addition, this chapter discusses the controls with which you will operate the aircraft about the
three axes of motion, and how to use them effectively.
201. THEORIES OF FLIGHT
1.
Lift and Thrust. Our discussion will include several basic laws of physics that help to
explain how an airplane flies. Sir Isaac Newton is credited with having observed in 1687,". . .
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction . . ." This principle applies whenever two
objects act upon each other, such as the air and the propeller, or the air and the wing of the
airplane. In short, the statement about "action and reaction" tells us how lift and propulsion of
airplanes are produced.
The predominant method by which air exerts force on a solid body, such as an airplane’s wing, is
through pressure. For our purposes, friction can be ignored. In the 1700’s, Daniel Bernoulli (a
Swiss mathematician) discovered the Venturi Principle. He found that if the velocity of a fluid
(air) is increased at a particular point, the static pressure of the fluid (air) at that point is
decreased. The airplane’s wing is designed to increase the velocity of the air flowing over the
top of the wing as it moves through the air. To do this, the top of the wing is curved, while the
bottom is relatively flat. The air flowing over the top travels a little farther (since it is curving)
than the air flowing along the flat bottom. This means the air on top must go faster. Hence, the
static pressure decreases, resulting in a lower static pressure (as Bernoulli stated) on top of the
wing and a relatively higher static pressure below. The pressure differential then pushes the
wing up towards the lower pressure area, i.e., LIFT. To increase the lift, the wing is tilted
upward in relation to the oncoming air (relative wind) to increase the deflection of air. Relative
wind during flight is the direction of the airflow in relation to the wing as it moves through the
air. The angle at which the wing meets the relative wind is called the angle of attack.
(Figure 2-1)
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Figure 2-1 Angle of Attack
If the airplane’s speed is too slow, the angle of attack required will be so large that the air can no
longer follow the upper curvature of the wing. This results in a swirling, turbulent flow of air
over the wing and "spoils" the lift. Consequently, the wing stalls. On most types of airplanes,
this critical angle of attack is about 15-20 units.
When the propeller rotates, it provides the force to pull the airplane forward. This forward
motion causes the airplane to act on the air to produce lift. The propeller blades, just like a wing,
are curved on one side and straight on the other side. Hence, as the engine rotates the propeller,
forces similar to those of the wing create "lift" in a forward direction. This is called thrust.
Up to this point, the discussion has related only to the "lifting" force. Before an understanding of
how an airplane flies is complete, other forces must be discussed.
2.
Gravity. While the airplane is propelled through the air and sufficient lift is developed to
sustain it in flight, there are certain other forces acting at the same time. Every particle of matter,
including airplanes, is attracted downward towards the center of the earth by gravitational force.
The amount of this force on the airplane is measured in terms of weight. If the airplane is to
keep flying, lift must overcome its weight or gravitational force.
3.
Drag. Another force that constantly acts on the airplane is drag. Drag is the resistance
created by air particles striking and flowing around the airplane when it is moving through the
air. Aircraft designers constantly try to streamline wings, fuselages and other components to
reduce the rearward force of drag as much as possible. The portion of drag caused by form
resistance and skin friction is termed parasite drag, since it is not the result of the production of
lift.
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CHAPTER TWO
A second part of the total drag force is caused by the wing’s lift. As the wing deflects air to
produce lift, the total lift force is not exactly vertical, but is tilted slightly rearward. This means
that it causes some rearward drag force. This drag is called induced drag, and is the price paid to
produce lift. The larger the angle of attack, the more the lift force on the wing tilts towards the
rear and the larger the induced drag becomes. To give the airplane forward motion, thrust must
overcome drag.
In a steady flight condition (no change in speed or flight path), forces that oppose each other are
also equal to each other and are always present. That is, lift equals weight, and thrust equals
drag.
4.
Centrifugal Force. Still yet another force that frequently acts on the airplane is centrifugal
force. However, this force occurs only when the airplane is turning or changing the direction
(horizontally or vertically) of the flight path. Another of Newton’s laws of energy states that "a
body at rest tends to remain at rest, and a body in motion tends to remain moving at the same
speed and in the same direction . . . " Thus, to make an airplane turn from straight flight, a
sideward inward force must act upon it. The tendency of the airplane to keep moving in a
straight line and outward from a turn is the result of inertia and it produces centrifugal force.
Therefore, some impeding force is needed to overcome centrifugal force so that the airplane
moves in the desired direction. The lift of the wings provides this counteracting force when the
airplane’s wings are banked in the desired direction. Refer to the section on Turns in chapter
three.
Since the airplane is in a banked attitude during a properly executed turn, the pilot will feel the
centrifugal force by increased seat pressure, rather than the feeling of being forced to the side as
is experienced in a rapidly turning automobile. The amount of force (G force) felt by seat
pressure depends on the angle of bank. The pilot will, however, be forced to the side of the
airplane (as in an automobile) if a turn is improperly made and the airplane is made to slip or
skid.
5.
Yaw Forces. One other force which affects the aircraft during certain conditions of flight
and which will be frequently referred to in the discussions on various flight maneuvers is torque
effect or "left turning tendency." It is probably one of the least understood forces that affect an
aircraft in flight. Torque effect is the force which causes the airplane to have a tendency to
swerve (yaw) to the left, and is created by the clockwise rotation of the engine and the propeller.
There are four factors that contribute to this yawing tendency:
a.
Torque reaction to the engine and propeller.
b.
The propeller’s gyroscopic effect.
c.
The corkscrewing effect of the propeller slipstream.
d.
The asymmetrical loading of the propeller (P-factor).
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It is important that pilots understand why these factors contribute to torque effect.
a.
Torque reaction. (Figure 2-2) Torque reaction in a propeller-driven aircraft acts
opposite the direction of propeller rotation. In the case of the T-6B, the aircraft tends
to roll to the left as a result of torque when power is increased, and the aircraft tends
to roll right when power is reduced. Rudder and the TAD are the primary means for
compensating for engine torque.
Figure 2-2 Torque Effect
b.
2-4
Gyroscopic Effects. (Figure 2-3) Gyroscopic reactions are called gyroscopic
precession. This occurs when a force is applied to displace a spinning mass such as
the propeller or, in the case of a spin, the aircraft as a whole. Gyroscopic precession
causes an applied force to act in a plane 90° from that in which it was applied (it is
applied in the same direction as the rotation). The effect of gyroscopic precession
depends on the rate of movement about the pitch or yaw axis. Increased rotation rates
tend to increase the effect. This explains why a pilot, who abruptly corrects aircraft
deviations (pitch, bank, and yaw), ends up frustrated with the adverse effects of
precession. The relatively large propeller on the T-6B and high revolutions per
minute (rpm) result in more precession effect than an aircraft with a lighter, smaller
propeller turning at slower rpm. Typical reactions from a clockwise-turning propeller
(as viewed from the pilot’s seat) include:
i.
If the nose is yawed to the left, the nose tends to pitch up.
ii.
If the nose is yawed to the right, the nose tends to pitch down.
iii.
If the nose is pitched down, a left yaw tends to develop.
iv.
If the nose is pitched up, a right yaw tends to develop.
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Figure 2-3 Gyroscopic Effects
c.
Slipstream Effect (Figure 2-4). The thrust generated by the rotation of the propeller
induces a phenomenon called corkscrew slipstream effect. Specifically, the rotating
prop produces a helical (or corkscrew) shaped air stream about the longitudinal axis.
This slipstream strikes the wing root, fuselage, and tail surfaces with a constant highenergy force proportional to power setting and airspeed. The addition of power
increases airflow over the tail surfaces and makes them more effective at slow speeds.
In the T-6B, the corkscrew slipstream induces a slightly higher angle of attack (AOA)
on the left wing root and left tail surfaces, and slightly lowers AOA on the right wing
root and right tail surfaces. This causes the aircraft to yaw to the left when power is
increased, and requires right rudder input to counter the yaw and maintain
coordinated flight. As the power is increased by moving the power control lever
(PCL) forward with the left hand, the right foot must move forward to counter the
yaw that is induced to the left. The amount of rudder movement is proportional to the
amount and rate of PCL movement. The amount and rate of rudder movement can be
determined by looking out the front of the aircraft and using the rudder to keep the
nose from swinging either left (too little rudder application) or right (too much rudder
application). A power reduction has the opposite effect, requiring left rudder to
maintain coordinated flight.
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Figure 2-4 Slipstream Effect
d.
2-6
P-Factor (Figure 2-5). P-factor is another effect of the propeller. It is caused by
AOA being higher on the downward moving propeller blade than on the upward
moving propeller blade. This occurs when the aircraft’s thrust line is above the free
air stream relative wind or at low speeds and high angles of attack with power-on.
This moves the aerodynamic center of the propeller to the right of the shaft on a
clockwise-rotating propeller, causing the aircraft to yaw left as AOA or power is
increased. This is why increasing right rudder is required to maintain coordinated
flight as angle of attack is increased on the aircraft, such as in a pull-up for an overthe-top aerobatic maneuver. As the airspeed decreases and the AOA increases, the
aerodynamic center of the propeller shifts to the right and right rudder is required to
keep the aircraft in coordinated flight. The opposite is true when the thrust line is
below the free air stream relative wind. The upward-moving propeller blade then has
a higher angle of attack than the downward-moving blade. This moves the
aerodynamic center of the propeller to the left of the shaft on a clockwise-rotating
propeller, causing the aircraft to yaw to the right and requires left rudder to maintain
coordinated flight. A right yawing situation seldom occurs since pushing over to the
point of shifting the thrust line below the free air stream relative wind is rarely
warranted.
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Figure 2-5 P-Factor
202. STABILITY AND CONTROL
Most types of naval aircraft have been designed with satisfactory handling qualities in addition to
adequate performance. In particular, the T-6B is stable enough to maintain uniform flight
conditions, recover from disturbances (such as turbulence), and minimize pilot workload. It has
sufficient controllability to achieve the desired performance. However, there are certain
conditions of flight which produce the most critical requirements of stability and control. These
conditions must be understood and respected to accomplish safe and efficient operation of the
aircraft.
1.
Static Stability. Besides being supported in flight by lift and propelled through the air by
thrust, an airplane is free to revolve or move around three axes. These axes may be thought of as
axes around which the airplane revolves much like a wheel does. Each axis is perpendicular to
the other two and all three intersect at the airplane’s center of gravity (CG). The point around
which the airplane’s weight is evenly distributed or balanced is considered the CG of the
airplane. Figure 2-6 depicts the axes about which the aircraft rotates.
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Figure 2-6 Aircraft Axes
An aircraft trimmed for steady flight is in a state of equilibrium. In other words, the sum of all
the forces and moments is zero. Displacement from this position by some outside force, such as
a gust of turbulence, creates an unbalance and causes the aircraft to demonstrate an initial
tendency. This tendency will be to (a) return, (b) be displaced further, or (c) remain in the new
attitude or position. This initial tendency is known as static stability. If the aircraft tends to
move back in the direction of its trimmed attitude, it is said to be statically stable or to have
positive static stability. If the aircraft continues to move away from trimmed equilibrium, it is
statically unstable or it has negative stability. An aircraft that stays in its displaced attitude,
neither moving positively nor negatively, is said to be neutrally stable or neutrally statically
stable (Figure 2-7).
2-8
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Figure 2-7 Static Stability
2.
Dynamic Stability. Dynamic stability is the movement of an aircraft with respect to time.
If an aircraft has been disturbed from its equilibrium position and the maximum displacement
decreases with time, it is said to have positive dynamic stability. If the maximum displacement
increases with time, it is said to have negative dynamic stability. If the displacement remains
constant with time, it is said to have neutral dynamic stability. Both static and dynamic stability
are usually desired in an airplane.
Static stability does not guarantee that an airplane will also be dynamically stable; however, the
airplane must first be statically stable before it will oscillate at all and, thus, exhibit any kind of
dynamic stability. Possible cases of stability can be summarized in Figure 2-8.
Figure 2-8 Cases of Stability
In addition to positive static stability, the T-6B has positive dynamic stability. Over a period of
time, it will tend to return to most conditions for which it was trimmed.
Let us again consider the ball in the saucer shown in Figure 2-7. If you move the ball to the
displaced (dotted) position and then let go, it will not go directly to the equilibrium point and
stop. Rather, its inertia will carry it well past the bottom and up the other side. As gravity
overcomes its inertial acceleration, it rolls back the other way towards the original displacement
point until it succumbs again to gravity. This motion could go on indefinitely if there were no
friction present between the ball and the dish. Eventually, friction will reduce the momentum of
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the ball sufficiently so that it finally settles down once again to the bottom of the dish. A
pendulum that is pushed to one side and released displays the same action. The resulting motion
is an oscillation (movement from one side of the equilibrium point to the other) until friction
damps out the motion.
Your instructor will demonstrate the stability characteristics of the T-6B aircraft by trimming for
straight and level balanced flight. He will then place the aircraft in various attitudes and permit
the aircraft to return to straight and level balanced flight, demonstrating the necessity and ease of
proper use of trim. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the T-6B is capable of equilibrium flight
in all airspeeds and configurations that you will encounter. That is, for all changes in power,
airspeed, and configurations, the aircraft is able to maintain a "hands-off" straight and level
balanced flight condition, but will require a CHANGE IN TRIM SETTING for those changes.
Further discussion on the use of trim will occur later in this chapter.
An aircraft is said to be trimmed if all moments in pitch, roll, and yaw are equal to zero. The
establishment of equilibrium at various conditions of flight is the function of the controls and
will be accomplished by pilot effort and trim tabs. Pilot effort is necessary to establish
equilibrium conditions and trim tabs will be used to hold the desired conditions (i.e., reduce
control pressure). During training, trim will be of extreme importance and trimming rapidly and
properly will become a habit. The necessity to trim the T-6B cannot be overemphasized. When
all of the pilot’s energy is consumed fighting the controls, little is left over for flying the aircraft
and maintaining situational awareness.
3.
Control. Control is concerned with the maneuverability of the aircraft. Although the T-6B
aircraft is "inherently stable" due to its positive and static and dynamic stability, it is not so stable
as to inhibit aircraft maneuverability. Since the T-6B is a primary trainer, it was designed to
have controls capable of aerobatic flight, yet not so sensitive as to make the aircraft difficult to
control or allow aircraft limits to be easily exceeded. Generally speaking, control forces are
highest in the directional axis (ailerons). The magnitude of these forces varies depending on the
airspeed, trim setting and the amount of deflection. At higher speeds, controls become difficult
to deflect due to higher dynamic pressure impinging on the control surfaces. Although the
higher dynamic pressure makes the controls more effective, resulting in a greater aircraft reaction
for a given control deflection, the forces required to obtain that control deflection are higher.
Trim setting affects control forces in that the further the aircraft is flown from its trimmed
airspeed, the greater the forces required (in all axes) to maintain balanced flight conditions.
These forces serve as physical cues to the pilot that the aircraft has deviated from its trimmed
airspeed.
203. STALLS
In earlier discussions it was shown that an airplane would fly as long as the wing is creating
sufficient lift to counteract the load imposed on it. When the lift is completely lost the airplane
stalls. Remember that the direct cause of every stall is an excessive angle of attack. There are a
number of flight maneuvers which may produce an increase in the angle of attack, but the stall
does not occur until the angle of attack becomes excessive.
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It must be emphasized that the stalling speed of a particular airplane is not a fixed value for all
flight situations. However, a given airplane will always stall at the same angle of attack
regardless of airspeed, weight, load factor, or density altitude. Each airplane has a particular
angle of attack where the airflow separates from the upper surface of the wing and the stall
occurs. Each airplane has only one specific angle of attack where the stall occurs. The airplane
can be stalled in straight and level flight by flying too slowly. As the airspeed is being
decreased, the angle of attack must be increased to retain the lift required for maintaining
altitude. The slower the airspeed becomes, the more the angle of attack must be increased.
Eventually an angle of attack is reached which will result in the wing not producing enough lift
to support the airplane and it will start settling. If the airspeed is reduced further, the airplane
will stall since the angle of attack has exceeded the critical angle and the airflow over the wing is
disrupted.
In naval aviation, there is great importance assigned to precise control of an aircraft at high angle
of attack conditions. Safe operation in carrier aviation demands the ultimate in precision flying
at low airspeed. The aerodynamic lift characteristics of an airplane must be fully understood by
the Student Naval Aviator as well as the seasoned "fleet pilot" for obvious safety reasons.
Additionally, mission requirements and their execution may depend on the pilot’s own
capabilities and grasp of these basic concepts.
During flight (maneuvers, landing approach, takeoff, etc.), the airplane will stall IF THE
CRITICAL ANGLE OF ATTACK IS EXCEEDED. The airspeed at which stall occurs will be
determined by weight, load factor, altitude, and configuration, but the stall angle of attack
remains unaffected. At any particular altitude, the indicated stall speed is a function of weight
and load factor. An increase in altitude will produce a decrease in density and an increase in true
airspeed. Also, an increase in altitude will alter compressibility and airflow viscosity, which will
cause the indicated stall speed to increase.
Modern airplanes are characterized by having a large percentage of their maximum gross weight
as fuel. Most Navy inventory aircraft carry 25-40% of their total gross weight in this manner.
Hence, the gross weight and stall speed of the airplane can vary considerably throughout the
flight. A general "rule of thumb" is that a 2% change in weight will cause a 1% change in stall
speed.
Load Factor/Centrifugal Force. Turning flight and maneuvers produce an effect on stall
speed, which is similar to the effect of weight. The stalling speed of an airplane is higher in a
level turn than in straight and level flight. This is because centrifugal force is added to the
airplane’s weight, and the wing must produce sufficient additional lift to counterbalance the load
imposed by the combination of centrifugal force and weight. In a turn, the necessary additional
lift is acquired by applying back pressure to the elevator control. This increases the wing’s angle
of attack, and results in increased lift. As stated earlier, the angle of attack must increase as the
bank angle increases to counteract the increasing load caused by centrifugal force. If at any time
during a turn the angle of attack becomes excessive, the airplane will stall. Thus, the aircraft in a
steady turn still develops lift greater than weight, but experiences increased stall speeds due to
load factor increases. This fact emphasizes the need to avoid steep turns at low airspeeds - a
flight condition common to stall/spin accidents. (Refer to NATOPS Vn Diagram.)
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It must be reemphasized here that low speed is not necessary to produce a stall. The wing can be
brought into an excessive angle of attack at any speed. For example, take the case of an airplane
which is in a dive with an airspeed of 200 KIAS, when suddenly the pilot pulls back sharply on
the elevator control. Because of gravity and centrifugal force, the airplane could not
immediately alter its flight path, but would merely change its angle of attack abruptly from quite
low to very high. Since the flight path of the airplane, in relation to the oncoming air, determines
the direction of the relative wind, the angle of attack is suddenly increased, and the airplane will
quickly reach the stalling angle at a speed much greater than normal stall speed.
The primary purpose of high lift devices (i.e., flaps, slats, and slots) is to increase the coefficient
of lift and reduce the stall speed for an airplane. Therefore, flap extension increases the total lift
available and reduces the angle of attack for any given lift coefficient.
At this point we should examine the action of the airplane during a stall. In our earlier
discussion of pitching (longitudinal) stability, we learned that to balance the airplane
aerodynamically, the center of lift is normally located aft of the center of gravity. It should be
noted that although this airplane is inherently "nose heavy," downwash on the horizontal
stabilizer counteracts this condition. It can be seen then, that at the point of stall when the
upward force of the wing’s lift and the downward tail force cease, an unbalanced condition
exists. This allows the airplane to pitch down abruptly, rotating about its center of gravity.
During this nose down attitude, the angle of attack decreases and the airspeed again increases;
hence, the smooth flow of air over the wing begins again, lift returns, and the airplane is again
flying. However, considerable altitude may be lost before this cycle is complete.
The associated loss of altitude and control response in the stalled configuration has meant the
lives of both students and seasoned naval aviators. A stall never checks anyone’s logbook or
qualifications before it decides to happen. Therefore, it is important to remember that the stall is
not merely a precision maneuver, but an actual situation into which you may inadvertently fly
while concentrating on some other aspect of your flying.
204. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS
To maneuver an aircraft, you will learn to control its movement about its lateral, longitudinal,
and vertical axes (Figure 2-9). This is accomplished by the use of the flight controls (elevators,
ailerons, and rudder), which can be deflected from their neutral position into the flow of air as
the aircraft moves forward. In flight, the controls have a natural “feel” due to the force of the
airflow around them. With this in mind, the student should think of exerting force against this
pressure or resistance, not of moving the flight controls.
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Figure 2-9 Aircraft Axes
1.
Elevators. The elevators control the aircraft’s movement about its lateral axis. They form
the rear part of the horizontal stabilizer, are free to be moved up and down by the pilot, and are
connected to a control stick in the cockpit by means of cables and pulleys. Applying forward
pressure on the stick causes the elevator surfaces to move downward. The flow of air striking
the deflected elevator surfaces exerts an upward force, pushing the aircraft’s tail upward and the
nose downward. Conversely, exerting back pressure on the control causes the elevator surfaces
to move up, exerting a downward force to push the tail downward and the nose upward. In
effect, the elevators are the angle-of-attack (AOA) control. When back pressure is applied on the
control, the tail lowers and the nose rises, thus increasing the wing’s AOA and lift.
2.
Ailerons. The ailerons control the aircraft’s movement about its longitudinal axis
(Figure 2-10). There are two ailerons, one at the trailing edge of each wing, near the wingtips.
They are movable surfaces hinged to the wing’s rear spar and are linked together by cables so
that when one aileron is deflected down, the opposite aileron moves up. The ailerons are
statically mass balanced with weights installed on the leading edges of each aileron.
The two wings produce differences in the lift that actually turn the aircraft. To obtain the
horizontal component of lift required to pull the aircraft in the desired direction of turn, apply
lateral control stick force in that direction. When the pilot applies pressure to the left on the
control stick, the right aileron surface deflects downward and the left aileron deflects upward.
The force exerted by the airflow on the deflected surfaces raises the right wing and lowers the
left wing. This happens because the downward deflection of the right aileron changes the wing
camber and increases the AOA and lift on that wing. Simultaneously, the left aileron moves
upward and changes the effective camber, resulting in a decreased AOA and less lift. Thus,
decreased lift on the left wing and increased lift on the right causes the aircraft to bank to the left.
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Figure 2-10 Aileron Control
3.
Adverse Yaw. (Figure 2-11): Since the downward deflected aileron produces more lift, it
also produces more drag, while the opposite aileron has less lift and less drag. This added drag
attempts to pull or veer the airplane’s nose in the direction of the raised wing; that is, it tries to
turn the airplane in the direction opposite to that desired. This undesired veering is referred to as
adverse yaw.
Figure 2-11 Adverse Yaw
To demonstrate this in flight, an attempt can be made to turn to the right without using the rudder
pedals. As right aileron pressure is applied, the airplane rolls into a right bank and tries to turn to
the right. But the adverse yaw, or the drag on the downward deflected left aileron, pulls the
airplane’s nose to the left. The airplane banks, but it turns hesitantly and sideslips. This is
undesirable and corrective action should be taken by applying right rudder pressure.
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When right rudder pressure is applied simultaneously with right aileron pressure, it keeps the
airplane from yawing opposite to the desired direction of turn. In fact, the rudder must be used
because the ailerons were used. Coordinated use of the rudder with the ailerons in a turn will
counteract the effects of adverse yaw.
Adverse yaw is an undesirable effect, and is most apparent at low speeds and extreme controlsurface deflections. At faster airspeeds, adverse yaw becomes less apparent and may be
unnoticeable. When accomplishing slow flight, watch closely for the effects of adverse yaw in
the turn. Your instructor can share methods on how to appropriately use the rudder while
initiating a turn to counter adverse yaw effects.
4.
Rudder. The rudder controls the aircraft’s movement about its vertical axis. This motion
is called yaw. Like the other primary control surfaces, the rudder is a movable surface hinged to
a fixed surface; in this case to the vertical stabilizer. Left and right rudder pedals control rudder
movement. Its action is much like that of the elevators, except the motion is side to side instead
of up and down. When the rudder is deflected to one side, it protrudes into the airflow, causing a
horizontal force to be exerted in the opposite direction. This pushes the tail of the aircraft in that
direction and yaws the nose in the desired direction. For example: when the rudder is deflected
to the left, it protrudes into the airflow on the left side of the tail, causing a horizontal force to be
exerted on the tail to the right. This pushes the tail of the aircraft to the right and yaws the nose
to the left.
The primary purpose of the rudder in flight is to counteract the effect of adverse yaw and to help
provide directional control of the airplane. In flight, the rudder does not turn the airplane;
instead, the force of the horizontal component of wing lift turns the airplane when the wings are
banked. As in the demonstration of turning by use of ailerons alone, this can be verified by
flying straight and level, and then, after taking the hands off the control stick, trying to turn to the
right by applying right rudder pressure only. At first it may seem to work pretty well. The
airplane will turn to the right, but it will also skid to the left (a skid in a turn is an unbalanced
flight condition caused by insufficient angle of bank for a given radius of turn). Since the
airplane possesses inherent stability, it will tend to stop the skid by banking itself to the right.
If the pilot were now to neutralize the rudder, only a shallow banking turn would result.
However, inasmuch as the purpose of this demonstration is to make a turn using only the rudder,
continue to hold right rudder pressure. Since the airplane is slightly banked to the right, the
rudder will force the nose of the airplane downward to the right. The reason for this is that
yawing is the only movement the rudder can produce. As a result, the nose yaws downward, the
airspeed increases, and the airplane starts losing altitude. At the same time, the airplane, being
stable, attempts to stop the increased skidding by banking more steeply. The more steeply it
banks, the more the nose is yawed downward by the right rudder action. The net result of
holding rudder alone is a descending spiral unless back elevator pressure is applied. Thus, it can
be seen that rudder alone cannot produce a balanced turn. Coordinated application of aileron,
rudder, and elevator pressure will produce a balanced flight condition.
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On the ground, the T-6B rudder pedals manipulate the nose wheel steering (if engaged), which is
used to directionally control the aircraft while taxiing. Taxiing will be discussed in greater detail
in Chapter Four, Ground Procedures.
5.
Primary Control Application. The following will always be true in controlled flight,
regardless of the airplane’s attitude in relation to the earth:
a.
When backpressure is applied to the elevator control, the airplane’s nose rises in
relation to the pilot.
b.
When forward pressure is applied to the elevator control, the airplane’s nose lowers in
relation to the pilot.
c.
When right pressure is applied to the aileron control, the airplane’s right wing lowers
in relation to the pilot.
d.
When left pressure is applied to the aileron control, the airplane’s left wing lowers in
relation to the pilot.
e.
When pressure is applied to the right rudder pedal, the airplane’s nose moves to the
right in relation to the pilot.
f.
When pressure is applied to the left rudder pedal, the airplane’s nose moves to the left
in relation to the pilot.
205. SECONDARY FLIGHT CONTROLS - TRIM DEVICES
The secondary flight controls include electrically actuated pitch/roll/yaw trim systems and a
rudder trim aid device (TAD). The secondary flight controls are used for trimming and
balancing the aircraft in flight and to reduce the force required to actuate the primary flight
control surfaces.
Trimming the aircraft is an essential skill for you to master and its importance is often
overlooked by fledging aviators. When an aircraft’s flight conditions (attitude, power, airspeed,
loading and configuration) are changed, the control pressures required to maintain the desired
conditions are affected by the resulting changes in aerodynamic forces. The T-6B is equipped
with systems that allow you to trim the aircraft for balanced flight in all axes.
1.
Trim System and Switches. The elevator and aileron trim are utilized by a thumbactuated switch (Figure 2-12) at the top of the control stick (fore/aft for elevator trim and
laterally for aileron trim). The rudder trim switch is located on the forward side of the power
control lever (PCL). To trim, deflect the trim switch in the opposite direction as the applied
flight control force until that force is relieved. When perfectly “trimmed,” you can release flight
control pressures (momentarily) and the aircraft will remain in its current balanced state. The
Trim Interrupt button on the control stick will remove electrical power from the trim devices and
is used during certain trim malfunctions. The general sequence for trimming the aircraft is:
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Rudder, Elevator and then Aileron. The rudder trim is usually first because a correction for yaw
precipitates a change in the trim setting for pitch and roll. Consequently, not trimming the
rudder first will generally cause you to go back and re-trim the elevator and aileron after
trimming the rudder.
Figure 2-12 Control Stick
2.
Rudder Trim: an electromechanical actuator located in the vertical stabilizer, which
drives an anti-servo trim tab on the trailing edge of the rudder provides rudder trim. Reference
the balance ball of the turn and slip indicator to help determine the proper direction of rudder and
rudder trim pressure. For example, if the ball is out to the right, the nose is actually out to the
left and you are in unbalanced flight. Smoothly apply right rudder pressure (“Step On The Ball”)
to regain balanced flight. Then smoothly apply right rudder trim until you relieve the rudder
pressure you are holding. If you have trimmed properly, the ball should stay in the center and
you should feel as if you are flying straight and level.
3.
TAD: the rudder TAD of the T-6B assists in trimming about the yaw axis of the aircraft.
The inputs to the TAD include engine torque, altitude, airspeed, and pitch rate. Based on these
inputs, the TAD sends a signal to the rudder trim actuator physically moving the trim tab surface
to a computed position. Although the TAD is effective at approximating a valid rudder trim
position, it by no means replaces the need to appropriately trim the rudder, especially during
rapid accelerations and large power changes.
Remember, any pilot-actuated electric rudder trim inputs are additive to the trim input the TAD
commands. Thus, a good method during minor trim changes is to allow the TAD to complete its
trim cycle, then make fine adjustments as necessary. Loss of the TAD in flight does not affect
the overall controllability of the aircraft and its loss would minimally impact most training
missions.
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4.
Elevator Trim: elevator trim is provided by an electromechanical actuator which drives a
tab surface on the right side of the elevator. To trim the aircraft nose attitude, first move the
stick to position the nose for the attitude you desire in relationship to the horizon. As the fore/aft
stick force increases, maintain the desired nose attitude and apply elevator trim in the opposite
direction as the control pressure until it is relieved. Always use a light grip on the stick so as to
“feel” the pressure. “Finger-tip control” is the key to smooth flying.
5.
Aileron Trim: the aileron trim is utilized much like the elevator trim but about the
longitudinal, or roll, axis of the aircraft. Interestingly, unlike the other two trim systems that
utilize trim tab surfaces on their trailing edges (rudder and elevator), aileron trim in the T-6B is
accomplished by physical movement of the ailerons. Ground adjustable trim tabs are installed
on the trailing edge of each aileron to allow maintenance personnel to adjust the “neutral”
setting. Aileron trim is only necessary if, after the rudder is trimmed, the aircraft tends to roll to
one side.
206. TRIM REQUIREMENTS - RUDDER/ELEVATOR
Acceleration
LEFT/DOWN
Deceleration
RIGHT/UP
Power Addition
RIGHT/DOWN
Power Reduction
LEFT/UP
When airspeed is increased (with power unchanged), the nose will have a tendency to rise and
the aircraft will yaw slightly to the right; consequently, we need to add left (rudder) and down
(nose down) trim. If power is unchanged and airspeed is reduced, we see from the box above
that right rudder trim and up elevator trim is needed. If airspeed is constant and power is
increased, then right rudder trim and down elevator trim is needed. If power is reduced with
airspeed constant, then left rudder trim and up elevator trim are necessary.
Aside from these four basic scenarios, many flight maneuvers combine two of the “rules”
simultaneously. For example, when initiating a 180 knot climb from normal cruise (200 knots,
level), you add power, raise the nose, and decelerate. In this case, right rudder trim is required
for both the power addition and deceleration. However, the requirement conflicts on what to do
with the elevator (power addition = nose down/deceleration = nose up). In this example, trim
“nose up” because, generally speaking, in opposing situations such as this one, airspeed will
have a greater and more lasting effect on the elevator and rudder trim. Therefore, as a common
trim rule, “Airspeed trumps Power.”
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207. PERFORMANCE
Remember this simple formula: POWER + ATTITUDE = PERFORMANCE
Most early basic air work problems result from the inability to properly see and control the
aircraft’s attitude, in correlation to the power applied by the engine. Only after you master
proper attitude control will you begin to develop solid basic flying skills.
Coordinated use of all controls is very important in any turn. Applying aileron pressure places
the aircraft in the desired angle of bank (AOB), while simultaneous application of rudder
pressure is required to counteract the resultant adverse yaw. During a turn, the AOA must be
increased by adding back-stick pressure (increasing elevator deflection) to compensate for the
loss of lift due to bank. Thus, the steeper the turn, the more back elevator pressure is needed to
maintain level flight, accompanied by a corresponding increase in G load. Varying greatly
among different flight regimes, deflection of the control surfaces will allow you to reach the
desired result.
When using the rudder pedals, pressure should be applied smoothly and evenly by pressing with
the ball of one foot just as when using the brakes of an automobile. The rudder pedals are
interconnected and act in opposite directions; when pressure is applied to one pedal, pressure on
the other must be relaxed proportionally. For positioning, comfortably rest the balls of your feet
against the lower portion of the rudder pedals while supporting the weight of your feet on the
cockpit floor. The pedals should be adjusted so that full throw is available with a slight flex in
the knee.
208. POWER CONTROL LEVER
The PCL controls the power output of the engine (Figure 2-13). This power, transmitted through
the propeller, produces thrust. As discussed in the previous chapter, this thrust will propel the
aircraft through the air, developing lift. When sufficient power is combined with the appropriate
angle of attack, the desired performance is obtained.
Moving the PCL forward increases power; moving it aft decreases power. If a constant airspeed
is maintained with adjustments in the attitude relative to the horizon, a variation in power will
control the gain or loss of altitude. This concept of control establishes a basic fundamental of the
mechanics of any powered flight.
The PCL should be operated firmly but smoothly. You will learn to set the desired power with
your peripheral vision and then go back and fine-tune the power as required for a particular
maneuver. Occasionally, check to see that the desired power setting is still in fact set.
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Figure 2-13 PCL
2-20 T-6B AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS
CHAPTER THREE
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS
300. INTRODUCTION
This section discusses and explains the fundamental flight maneuvers upon which all flying tasks
and procedures are based. In learning to fly, as in any learning process, fundamentals must be
mastered before the more advanced phases can be learned.
301. FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT MANEUVERS
Maneuvering of the airplane is generally divided into four flight fundamentals:

Straight and level flight

Turns

Climbs

Descents
All controlled flight consists of any one or a combination of these basic maneuvers. Proper
control of an airplane’s attitude is the result of the pilot knowing when and how much to change
it, and then smoothly making the required correction. When flying by reference to objects
outside the airplane, the effects of the pilot’s control application on the airplane’s flight attitude
can be seen by observing the relationship of the position of some portion of the airplane to the
outside references.
At first, control of the airplane is a matter of consciously fixing the relationship of a specific
reference point on the airplane to the horizon. As basic flight skills are developed through
experience and training, the pilot will acquire a continuous awareness of these relationships
without conscious effort. The reference points will be used almost subconsciously in varying
degrees to determine the attitude of the airplane during all maneuvers.
In establishing the reference points, the airplane should be placed approximately in the desired
attitude, and then a specific point should be selected. No two pilots see this relationship exactly
the same. The apparent position of reference points will depend on each pilot’s seat height and
lateral position, and/or the pilot’s eye level and line of sight. It is imperative that the student
utilize the same seat position on each flight so that the reference points remain the same.
302. INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION
In introducing the basic flight maneuvers, the "integrated flight instruction" method will be used.
This means that each flight maneuver will be performed by using both outside visual references
and the flight instruments.
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When pilots use this method, they achieve a more precise and competent overall piloting ability.
It results in less difficulty in holding desired altitudes, controlling airspeed during takeoffs,
climbs, descents, and landing approaches, and in maintaining headings in the traffic pattern, as
well as on cross-country flights.
The use of integrated flight instruction does not, and is not intended to, prepare pilots for flight in
instrument weather conditions. It does, however, provide an excellent foundation for flight
during the Instrument Navigation stage of training, and will result in the pilot becoming a more
accurate, competent, and safe pilot.
A sharp lookout for other aircraft must be maintained at all times, particularly when using
instrument references, to avoid the possibility of a collision. Frequently, other aircraft are
unnoticed until they suddenly appear within the limited area of the pilot’s vision. Consequently,
it is imperative that the pilot not only divide attention between controlling the airplane by outside
visual references and flight instruments, but also be observant of other aircraft. For visual flight,
the pilot’s scan should be directed outside the cockpit at least 80 - 90% of the time!
303. ATTITUDE FLYING
Airplane control is composed of four components:
1.
Pitch control: Pitch control is the control of the airplane (longitudinal axis) about its
lateral axis by applying elevator pressure to raise or lower the nose, usually in relation to the
horizon.
2.
Bank control: Bank control is the control of the airplane (lateral axis) about its
longitudinal axis by use of the ailerons to attain the desired angle of bank in relation to the
horizon.
3.
Yaw control: Yaw control is the control of the aircraft (longitudinal axis) about its vertical
axis by use of the rudder.
4.
Power control: Power control is the control of power or thrust by use of the PCL to
establish or maintain desired airspeeds in coordination with the attitude changes.
The Primary Flight Display (PFD) displays both the pitch and bank attitude of the aircraft and
shows the aircraft’s direction of flight.

The attitude indicator shows directly both the pitch and bank attitude of the airplane.

The heading indicator shows directly the airplane’s direction of flight.

The altimeter indicates the airplane’s altitude and, indirectly, the need for a pitch change.

The vertical speed indicator shows the rate of climb or descent.
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
CHAPTER THREE
The airspeed indicator shows the results of power and/or pitch changes in the airplane’s
speed.
The outside visual references used in controlling the airplane include the airplane’s nose and
wingtips to show both the airplane’s pitch attitude and flight direction, with the wings and frame
of the windscreen showing the angle of bank.
304. "SEE AND AVOID" DOCTRINE
Simply stated, the "See and Avoid" Doctrine is a pilot’s best defense against a midair collision.
The "Big Sky, Little Airplane" theory is the key ingredient in the recipe for a midair collision.
The causal factor most often noted in aircraft accident reports involving midair collisions is,
"failure of the pilot to see and avoid the other aircraft." In most cases, at least one of the pilots
involved could have seen the other in time to avoid contact if he had been using his eyes
properly.
Studies show that nearly all midair collisions occur during daylight hours, in VMC weather.
Most midairs occur within five miles of an airport, in the areas of greatest traffic concentration,
and usually on warm, weekend days. Most midairs also involve maneuvers that are classified as
crossing or overtaking. Very rarely are head-on collisions reported.
It is also noteworthy to find that the closing speed (rate at which two aircraft approach each
other) in a crossing or overtaking maneuver is often relatively slow, usually much slower than
the airspeed of either aircraft involved. Again, that is because the majority of midair collisions
are the result of a faster aircraft overtaking and striking a slower one.
Studies also reveal some interesting information regarding the vulnerabilities of the human eye
and how its limitations contribute to midair collisions.
The eye, and consequently vision, is vulnerable to just about everything: dust, fatigue, emotion,
germs, fallen eyelashes, age, optical illusions and alcoholic content. In flight, our vision is
affected by atmospheric conditions, windscreen distortion, too much or too little oxygen,
acceleration, glare, heat, lighting and aircraft design. Most importantly, the eye is vulnerable to
the vagaries of the mind. We "see" and identify only what the mind lets us see. For example, a
daydreaming pilot staring into space sees no approaching traffic and is a candidate for a midair
collision.
A constant problem source to the pilot (though he is probably never aware of it) is the time
required for "accommodation." Our eyes automatically accommodate for (or focus on) near and
far objects. But the change from something up close, like a dark panel two feet away, to a welllighted landmark or an aircraft target a mile or so away, takes one to two seconds or longer for
eye accommodation. That can be a long time when you consider that you need 10 seconds to
avoid a midair collision.
Another focusing problem occurs on drab, colorless days above a haze or cloud layer when no
distinct horizon is visible. If there is little or nothing to focus on, we do not focus at all. We
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experience something known as "empty-field myopia;" we stare but see nothing, not even
opposing traffic.
The effects of "binocular vision" have been studied by the National Transportation Safety Board
(NTSB) during investigations of midair collisions. The board concluded that this is also a causal
factor. To actually accept what we see, we need to receive cues from both eyes. If an object is
visible to one eye, but hidden from the other by a windscreen post or other obstruction, the total
image is blurred and not always accepted by the mind.
Another inherent eye problem is that of narrow field of vision. Although our eyes accept light
rays from an arc of nearly 200º, they are limited to a relatively narrow area (approximately
10-15º) in which they can actually focus on and classify an object. Though we can perceive
movement in the periphery, we cannot identify what is there. We tend not to believe what we
see out of the corner of our eyes. This often leads to "tunnel vision."
That limitation is compounded by the fact that at a distance, an aircraft on a collision course will
appear to be motionless. It will remain in a seemingly stationary position, without appearing
either to move or to grow in size for a relatively long time, and then suddenly bloom into a huge
mass filling the canopy. This is known as "blossom effect." We need motion or contrast to
attract our eyes’ attention. A large bug smear or dirty spot on the windscreen can hide a
converging plane until it is too close to be avoided.
In addition to built-in problems, the eye is also severely limited by environment. Optical
properties of the atmosphere alter the appearance of traffic, particularly on hazy days. "Limited
visibility" actually means "limited vision." You may be legally Visual Flight Rules (VFR) when
you have three miles visibility, but at that distance, on a hazy day, opposing traffic is not easy to
detect. At a range closer than three miles, even though detectable, opposing traffic may not be
avoidable.
Lighting also affects our vision. Glare, usually worse on a sunny day over a cloud deck or
during flight directly into the sun, makes objects hard to see and scanning uncomfortable. Also,
a well-lighted object will have a high degree of contrast and be easy to detect, while one with
low contrast at the same distance may be impossible to see. For instance, when the sun is behind
you, an opposing aircraft will stand out clearly, but when you are looking into the sun, and your
traffic is "back-lighted," it is much more difficult to see.
A contrast problem exists when trying to see an airplane against a cluttered background. If an
aircraft is between you and terrain that is varied in color or heavily dotted with buildings, it will
blend into the background until it becomes quite close.
So what can we do to overcome the vulnerabilities of the eye? The most important thing is to
develop a scan that is both comfortable and workable for your own airplane. In normal flight,
the threat of a midair collision is greatly diminished by scanning an area 60º either side of center
and 10º up and down. Refer to Figure 3-1. This does not mean that the rest of the area should be
ignored.
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Figure 3-1 Outside Scan
Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) can enhance a pilot’s visual scan by detecting
several aircraft simultaneously. Depending upon the mode selected, a series of traffic advisory
symbols (see T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual) may appear, enabling earlier visual detection of
possible conflicting traffic. In this way the TCAS effectively complements but does not replace
the VFR scan, which remains the pilot’s primary means to see and avoid conflicting traffic.
Many times the threat of an impending midair collision is evident early enough for the aircrew to
discuss the threat and coordinate a decision regarding deviation from the flight path to avoid it.
However, this will not always be the case. The other aircraft may be sighted at a point which
will prevent discussion with, or even notification of, the other crewmember. This would require
immediate action! In such a situation, students are expected to take the controls and/or initiate a
deviation in either bank, pitch or power (or combination of these) to displace the aircraft from its
current flight path in order to avoid the collision. This concept holds true even if the deviation
involves either high positive or negative "G" loads. Avoiding the collision takes priority over
preventing an overstress! This situation should be addressed during the preflight briefing. If a
TCAS advisory is encountered outside the landing pattern, cease dynamic maneuvering and
attempt to gain visual contact with traffic. Do not make a traffic avoidance maneuver solely
based on TCAS until you have acquired the traffic visually.
305. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Of the basic skills required for flight, instrument interpretation requires the most thorough study
and analysis. It begins with your understanding of each instrument’s construction and operating
principles. Then you must apply this knowledge to the performance of the aircraft you are
flying, the particular maneuvers to be executed, the scan and control methods, and the flight
conditions in which you are operating. For each maneuver, you will learn what performance to
expect and the combination of items that you must interpret in order to control aircraft attitude
during the maneuver.
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For flight that is not restricted to cockpit references for setting aircraft attitudes, the following
flight instruments (located on the PFD) will comprise the group to be used as "crosscheck" or
performance instruments in succeeding chapters:

Attitude Indicator

Altimeter

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

Airspeed Indicator

Heading Indicator

Turn and Bank Indicator (Turn needle and ball)
NOTE
For a complete discussion of these instruments, refer to the T-6B
NATOPS Flight Manual Chapter I.
306. SCAN PATTERN
The tool that all pilots must employ to guard against midair collisions is an efficient scan pattern.
Division of attention, or scanning, is the "awareness" that a pilot must possess in order to fly
his/her aircraft effectively. It is quite obvious that you must:

Look outside the airplane to see where you are going.

Look at the aircraft with respect to the horizon to check and maintain a desired attitude.

Look inside the aircraft to check for proper power settings, flight instrument readings and
any signs of malfunctions.
Combined with the diversified attention involved in the fundamental control of the aircraft is the
concern that must be devoted to flight safety: avoiding other aircraft. Behind the proper
division-of-attention methods, which you learn in training, lies the foundation for the mandatory
alertness of the military pilot.
It might seem that the task of having to be aware of so many events and circumstances at the
same time is impossible. However, the ability to do so is an integral part of your flight training
and can be developed naturally. Of course, as in any endeavor, its development is expedited by a
conscientious effort to learn.
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In order to divide your attention, your development of an efficient scan pattern will offer the
most efficient means by which you can readily ascertain required information and not dwell on
any one item with subsequent failure to notice other equally important details.
A scan pattern is a means, or procedure, by which you can observe everything you need to see by
starting at one point, moving visually about the aircraft, checking all applicable items
systematically and thoroughly, and completing the pattern at the starting point. A scan pattern
may be started anywhere, but it must be complete and continuous.
What we refer to as the integrated scan involves combining contact flying and flight instruments
through a systematic pattern. The task of scanning in contact flying (VMC) involves division of
attention between the external and internal environment, setting attitudes with the nose and
wings in relation to the horizon, and cross-checking them against the instruments in the cockpit.
The following scan pattern is a workable example:
1.
2.
3.
Outside the cockpit:
a.
Attitude and area - Nose in proper relation to horizon and geographical references for
heading and position.
b.
Area - Airspace between nose and left wing clear of hazards.
c.
Attitude - Left wing in proper relation to horizon.
Inside the cockpit:
a.
Attitude - Check wings level with PFD and correct nose position with the altimeter
and VSI.
b.
Performance - Check airspeed indicator and power setting.
Outside the cockpit:
a.
Attitude and area - Nose in proper relation to horizon and geographical references for
heading and position.
b.
Area - Airspace between nose and right wing clear of hazards.
c.
Attitude - Right wing in proper relation to horizon.
As a beginner, you may crosscheck rapidly by "looking" without knowing exactly what you are
looking for, but with increasing familiarity with the maneuvers and experience with the support
instruments, you will learn:
What to look for,
When to look for it, and
What response is required.
As proficiency increases, you will scan primarily from habit by adjusting your scanning rate and
sequence to the demands of the situation. The scan requirements will vary from maneuver to
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maneuver, so initially the scanning process will seem new and somewhat unnatural. It cannot be
overemphasized, however, that your level of success in flight training will vary proportionately
with your ability to force yourself to develop and maintain a correct and expeditious scan pattern.
The entire pattern should take very little time and no one item should fix your attention at the
exclusion of another. Meanwhile, corrections should be initiated for any errors detected and the
next scan over the pattern will enable you to further correct or perfect your condition of flight.
There are other methods of scanning, some of which may be more effective for you than the
preceding type. Figures 3-2 and 3-3 illustrate other frequently utilized outside scan patterns.
Figure 3-2 Side-to-Side Scanning Method
Start at the far left of your visual area and make a methodical sweep to the right, pausing in each
block of viewing area to focus your eyes. At the end of the scan, return to the panel.
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Figure 3-3 Front-to-Side Scanning Method
An equally effective scan pattern is the front-to-side method illustrated in Figure 3-3. In this
pattern, start in the center block of your visual field (center of front windscreen), move to left
focusing in each block, then, after reaching the last block on the left, swing quickly back to the
center block and repeat the performance to the right. At the end of the scan, return to the panel.
There are no real advantages or disadvantages of one method over the other. Use the method
that works best for you.
In order to establish an efficient and useful scan in flight, one also has to establish a good
internal (instrument) scan and learn to give each instrument its proper share of time. The amount
of time spent scanning outside the cockpit in relationship to inside depends on cockpit workload
and traffic density.
Remember, while you are looking at the instruments, the nose attitude and wing position may
become erratic, and while you look at the nose position and correct it, the instrument readings
may vary. You cannot afford to gaze at any one item for any length of time or the pattern will be
broken (this is referred to as "fixating"). Instead, scan each position, initiate corrections, and
then check those corrections when you return to that position in the scan pattern. Be alert! Look
around! Remember that under you is a blind spot. Never assume that others see you!
307. BALANCED FLIGHT
Balanced flight exists when the aircraft is neither in a slip nor a skid as it progresses along a
flight path. With respect to balanced flight, there are two principles of control application:
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
Any control deflection will result in an attitude change until the control is returned to
neutral.

There is a definite aerodynamic interrelationship between the rudder and aileron to
maintain balanced flight.
For an aircraft to be in a balanced flight condition, the controls must be applied so that the
longitudinal axis lies in the plane of forward motion. The utilization of either the rudder or the
ailerons, independent of one another, will result in a condition of unbalanced flight. The "turn
and bank" indicator indicates an unbalanced condition by moving away from the center position
in the direction of the slip or skid. The pilot can also recognize this condition by an awareness of
a sensation of side motion. The side motion causes a tendency to lean in the direction of the slip
or skid. This unbalanced condition can be corrected by the proper application of the rudder,
ailerons, or both.
308. TURNS
The turn is the most complex of all the basic flight maneuvers. During the turn, coordinated use
of all three flight controls is required. Although there are other important considerations, the
first requirement for the turn is that balanced flight be maintained.
You will recall that when an airplane is flying straight and level, the total lift is acting
perpendicular to the wings and to the earth. As the airplane is banked into a turn, the lift then
becomes the resultant of two components. One, the vertical component, continues to act
perpendicular to the earth and opposes gravity. The other, the horizontal component, acts
parallel to the earth’s surface and opposes centrifugal force caused by the turn. These two lift
components act at right angles to each other, causing the resultant lifting force to act
perpendicular to the banked wings of the airplane. It is this lifting force that actually turns the
airplane, not the rudder.
When applying aileron to bank the airplane, the depressed or lowered aileron (on the rising wing)
produces a greater drag than the raised aileron (on the lowering wing). This increased aileron
drag, which is called adverse yaw, tends to yaw the airplane towards the rising wing, or opposite
to the desired direction of turn, while the banking action is taking effect. To counteract the
yawing tendency, rudder pressure must be applied simultaneously in the desired direction of
turn. This produces a coordinated turn.
After the bank has been established in a theoretically perfect turn in smooth air, all pressure on
the aileron control may be relaxed. The airplane will remain at the bank selected with no further
tendency to yaw since there is no longer a deflection of the ailerons. As a result, pressure may
also be relaxed on the rudder pedals, and the rudder allowed to streamline itself with the
direction of the air passing it. If pressure is maintained on the rudder after the turn is established,
the airplane will tend to skid to the outside of the turn. If a definite effort is made to center the
rudder rather than let it streamline itself to the turn, it is probable that some opposite rudder
pressure will be exerted inadvertently. This would tend to force the airplane to yaw opposite its
original turning path. As a result, the airplane would tend to slip to the inside of the turn. The
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ball in the turn indicator will be displaced off-center whenever the airplane is skidding or
slipping (Figure 3-4).
Figure 3-4 Coordinated vs. Uncoordinated Turns
In all turns in which a constant altitude is to be maintained, it is necessary to increase the angle
of attack by applying back elevator pressure. This is required because the lift produced to equal
the weight of the airplane and the centrifugal force caused by the turn must be obtained from the
wing to maintain altitude. The force of lift must be further increased as the turn becomes steeper
and the centrifugal force builds up, but must be slowly decreased as the airplane is being rolled
back to level flight when completing the turn.
To stop the turn, the wings must be returned to laterally level flight by the use of the ailerons,
and the resulting adverse yaw (now acting in the same direction as the turn), must be overcome
by the coordinated application of rudder. The yaw effect will often be more apparent when
rolling out of a turn than rolling into a turn, due to the higher angle of attack and wing loading
which exists when the rollout is started.
To understand the relationship between airspeed, bank, and radius of turn, it must be recalled that
the rate of turn at any given airspeed depends on the amount of sideward force causing the turn;
that is, the horizontal component. The horizontal lift component varies in proportion to the
amount of bank. Thus, the rate of turn at a given airspeed increases as the angle of bank is
increased. On the other hand, when a turn is made at a higher airspeed for a given bank angle,
the centrifugal force created by the turn becomes greater, causing the turning rate to become
slower with an increase in radius of turn. It can be seen, then, that at a given angle of bank, a
higher airspeed will make the radius of the turn larger because the airplane will be turning at a
slower rate.
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The inherent positive stability of the T-6B wing has an effect on the manner in which it turns.
Turns in the T-6B may be divided into three types: shallow, moderate, and steep. Briefly, if a
shallow angle of bank turn is established and the controls released, the aircraft tends to return to
level flight. This may not always occur, because friction in the control surface rigging may
cause a very slight control deflection. In a moderately banked turn, if the aileron and rudder
pressures are released, the aircraft will tend to stay at the established angle of bank. In a steep
angle of bank turn, the aircraft will tend to increase its bank. The actual amount of angle of bank
for each type is undefined and varies with changes in airspeed and configuration.
The pilot’s posture while seated in the airplane is very important in all maneuvers, particularly
during turns as it affects the alignment of outside visual references. At the beginning, the student
may lean to the side when rolling into the turn in an attempt to remain upright in relation to the
ground rather than “ride” with the airplane. This tendency must be corrected at the outset if the
student is to learn to properly use visual references.
As in all maneuvering, the pilot should form the habit of ensuring that the area towards which a
turn is to be made is clear of other aircraft. If nearby aircraft are not detected before lowering the
wing, it may be too late to avoid a collision.
As soon as the airplane rolls from the wings-level attitude, the nose should also start to move
along the horizon, increasing its rate of travel proportionately as the bank is increased. Any
variation from this will be indicative of the particular control that is being misused. The
following variations provide excellent guides:

If the nose starts to move before the bank starts, rudder is being applied too soon.

If the bank starts before the nose starts turning, or the nose moves in the opposite direction,
the rudder is being used too late.

If the nose moves up or down when entering a bank, excessive or insufficient back elevator
pressure is being applied.
During all turns, the ailerons and rudder are used to correct minor variations just as they are in
straight-and-level flight. However, during very steep turns, considerably more back elevator
pressure and trim is required to maintain altitude than in shallow and moderate turns, and
additional power may be needed to maintain a safe airspeed. Frequently, there is a tendency for
the airplane’s nose to lower, resulting in a loss of altitude.
To recover from an unintentional nose-low attitude during a steep turn, the pilot should first
reduce the angle of bank with coordinated aileron and rudder pressure. Then back elevator
pressure should be used to raise the airplane’s nose to the desired pitch attitude. After
accomplishing this, the desired angle of bank can be reestablished. Attempting to raise the nose
first by increasing back elevator pressure will usually cause a tight descending spiral, and could
lead to overstressing the airplane or stall.
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309. THE ONE-THIRD RULE
Since the airplane will continue turning as long as there is any bank, the rollout must be started
before reaching the desired heading. The amount required to lead the heading will depend on the
rate of turn and the rate at which the rollout will be made; however, a good rule of thumb is to
start the rollout one-third the number of degrees of angle of bank in use. Example: If a 30º angle
of bank turn was being used, the rollout would be started 10º prior to the desired heading. As the
wings become level, the control pressures should be gradually and smoothly released so that the
controls are neutralized as the airplane assumes straight-and-level flight. As the rollout is being
completed, attention should be given to outside visual references as well as the PFD to determine
that the wings are being leveled precisely and the turn stopped.
310. SKID
A skid occurs when the aircraft slides sideways away from the center of a turn. It is caused by
too much rudder pressure in relation to the angle of bank used. In other words, if you try to force
the aircraft to turn faster without increasing its degree of bank, the aircraft will skid sideways
away from its radius of turn. In a turn, the rudder must follow the flight path of the aircraft. If
excessive pressure is maintained on the rudder after the turn is established, a skid will result.
Figure 3-5 shows a coordinated turn and a skid.
A skid may also occur when you are flying in a level flight attitude if the nose of the aircraft is
permitted to move sideways along the horizon when the wings are level. This condition would
occur when excessive rudder pressures are applied or when the aircraft is improperly trimmed.
A skidded turn can develop into a dangerous situation when in close proximity to the ground.
Essentially, what occurs is the wing on the inside of a turn is moving slower than the outside
wing. Since the slower wing develops less lift during a skid, this compounds the reduction in
lift, eventually developing into a stall of one wing. The result: unintentional inverted flight!
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Figure 3-5 Skidded vs. Coordinated Turn
311. SLIP
A slip occurs when the aircraft slides sideways towards the center of the turn. It is caused by an
insufficient amount of rudder in relation to the amount of aileron and the angle of bank used. If
you roll into a turn without using coordinated rudder and aileron, or if you hold rudder against
the turn after it has been established, the aircraft will slide sideways towards its center of turn. A
slip may also occur in straight and level flight if one wing is allowed to drag; that is, flying with
one wing low, while holding the nose of the aircraft straight by the use of the rudder pressure. In
this case, the aircraft slips downward towards the earth’s surface and loses altitude. An
intentional slip is not a dangerous maneuver. The slip is an acceptable method to safely dissipate
excess altitude under certain conditions discussed later in this manual. Any inadvertent tendency
to fly in out-of-balanced flight (either a slip or skid) is NOT an acceptable practice.
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Figure 3-6 Coordinated vs. Slip Turn
The flight paths for a coordinated turn and a slipping turn are depicted in Figure 3-6. During a
turn, balanced flight is maintained by causing the aircraft to move in a curve at a rate which is in
direct proportion to the degree of bank. The angle of bank is established by the coordinated
application of ailerons and rudder. The amount of rudder required to establish a turn is
dependent upon the rate at which the angle of bank is established. In other words, rolling into a
turn rapidly requires more rudder than rolling into the same turn slowly. This interrelationship is
absolute and should be thoroughly understood.
The overlapping function of the controls provides a safety factor in the control of the aircraft. It
is quite possible to fly the plane without the use of one or more controls. For example, suppose
that the elevators failed to operate properly. It is possible to control the position of the nose by
the use of power. As the power is increased, the nose will rise; as the power is decreased, the
nose will drop.
It is also possible to bank the airplane and to turn it without the use of the ailerons. Using only
the rudder, the plane can be turned in any desired direction. This use of the rudder will cause the
aircraft to yaw or skid in the direction in which the rudder is applied. During the yawing motion,
the outside wing moves faster through the air than the inside wing. This increases the lift of the
outside wing, causing it to rise, thus producing a bank in the direction in which the rudder is
applied. A turn can also be accomplished by using only the ailerons. In this instance, the aircraft
will have a tendency to slip before it begins to turn.
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The foregoing discussion was given to show the advantage of the overlapping functions of the
controls. It must be emphasized, however, that smooth and balanced flight can only be achieved
through the proper coordination of all controls. You can also make it easy on yourself by
trimming the aircraft.
312. WIND EFFECTS AND CRAB CORRECTIONS
Inasmuch as an aircraft flies in an air mass, any movement of this air mass affects the course of
the aircraft. In other words, the path of the aircraft over the ground will be determined not only
by the direction in which it is headed, but also by the direction and velocity of the air mass
movement. In perfectly still air, for example, the nose of the aircraft points exactly in the same
direction as its path over the ground or, to put it another way, the path of the aircraft through the
air and its path over the ground coincide. However, you will notice the aircraft does not always
follow a course over the ground in the same direction the nose is pointed.
You have been or will be, at one time or another, flying parallel to a road or section line. The
longitudinal axis of the aircraft is aligned perfectly with this road or section line and you are
flying a straight and level course. Suddenly, you realize that the aircraft is getting closer to the
road or has actually crossed it, without any turn having been made. This would indicate to you
that the air in which you are flying is moving in a direction which has caused the aircraft to cross
the road at some angle.
Suppose you were flying along straight and level and the wind was blowing 30 knots from a
direction 90º to your left. At the end of one hour, the body of air in which you were flying would
have moved 30 miles to your right. Since the aircraft was in the body of air, and moving with it,
you and the aircraft would also have drifted 30 miles to your right in one hour. Of course, in
relation to the air mass itself, you would have moved forward only, but in relation to the ground,
you would have moved forward and 30 miles sideways. This effect of the movement of the air
on the track of the aircraft is known as drift. The difference between the actual heading of the
aircraft and its track over the ground is called the angle of drift. Drift must be compensated for,
in order to cause the aircraft to maintain a desired track over the ground. The proper way to
correct the drift when you are flying in straight and level flight and wish to follow a desired
ground track, is to make a shallow balanced turn into the wind. When you seem to have the
drifting effect neutralized or stopped, return to straight and level flight. The aircraft is now
pointed into the wind slightly. This causes the aircraft to fly into the wind at the rate that the
wind is trying to move it sideways. Since the effect of drift has now been neutralized, the
aircraft will fly a straight and selected ground track. The nose of the aircraft, however, is not
pointed in the direction of the ground track. This is known as drift correction, and is usually
referred to as "crabbing" because the aircraft is moving sideways in relation to the ground
(Figure 3-7).
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Figure 3-7 "Crabbing" Flight Path
313. CLIMBING FLIGHT
For an automobile to go uphill at the same speed as that being maintained on a level road, the
driver must "step on the gas"; that is, power must be increased. This is because it takes more
work to pull the car’s weight up the hill and to maintain the same speed at which the car was
moving along the level road. If the driver did not increase the power, the automobile might still
climb up the incline, but it would gradually slow down to a speed slower than that at which it
was moving on the level road.
Similarly, an airplane can climb at the cruise power setting with a sacrifice of speed, or it can,
within certain limits, climb with added power and no sacrifice in speed. Thus, there is a definite
relationship between power, attitude, and airspeed.
When transitioning from level flight to a climb, the forces acting on the airplane go through
definite changes. After the addition of power, an increase in lift occurs when back pressure is
applied to the elevator control. This initial change is a result of the increase in the angle of
attack, which occurs when the airplane’s pitch attitude is being raised. This results in a climbing
attitude. When the inclined flight path and the climb speed are established, the angle of attack
and the corresponding lift again stabilize.
As the airspeed decreases to the climb speed, the downward force of the air striking the
horizontal stabilizer becomes less, creating a longitudinally unbalanced condition that produces a
tendency for the airplane to nose down. To overcome this tendency and maintain a constant
climb attitude, additional back pressure must be applied to the elevator control.
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The primary factor which affects an airplane’s ability to climb is the amount of excess power
available; that is, the power available above that which is required for straight-and-level flight.
During the climb, lift will increase with the flight path, so that it is not directly opposing gravity
to support the airplane’s weight. With the flight path inclined, the lift is partially acting
rearward.
This adverse or retarding lift is termed induced drag. This adds to the total drag. Since weight is
always acting perpendicular to the earth’s surface and drag is acting in a direction opposite to the
airplane’s flight path during a climb, it is necessary for thrust to offset both drag and gravity.
As the aircraft continues to climb at a constant angle of attack, torque will drop off as air density
decreases. The volume of air entering the induction system gradually decreases, resulting in a
pressure reduction within the combustion chamber. Consequently, power decreases. The PCL
must be continually advanced to maintain constant power.
314. CLIMBING TURNS
In developing skills to perform climbing turns, the following factors should be considered:

With a constant power setting, the same pitch attitude and airspeed cannot be maintained in
a bank as in a straight climb, due to the decrease in effective lift during a turn.

The degree of bank should be neither too steep nor too shallow. Too steep a bank
intensifies the effect mentioned above. If too shallow, the angle of bank may be difficult to
maintain because of the inherent stability of the airplane.

A constant airspeed, a constant rate of turn, and a constant angle of bank must be stressed.
The coordination of all controls is likewise a primary factor to be stressed and developed.

The airplane will have a greater tendency towards nose-heaviness than in normal straight
climb, due to the decrease in effective lift that is the case in all turns.

As in all maneuvers, attention should be diverted from the airplane’s nose and divided
among all references equally.
All of the factors that affect the airplane during level (constant altitude) turns will affect it during
climbing turns or any other turning maneuver. It will be noted that because of the low airspeed,
aileron drag (adverse yaw) will have a more prominent effect than it did in straight-and-level
flight and more rudder pressure will have to be blended with aileron pressure to keep the airplane
in coordinated flight during changes in bank angle. Additional elevator deflection and trim will
also have to be used to compensate for centrifugal force and loss of vertical lift, and to keep the
pitch attitude constant.
During climbing turns, the loss of vertical lift becomes greater as the angle of bank is increased,
so shallow turns must be used to maintain a sufficient rate of climb. If a medium or steep banked
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turn is used, the airplane will not climb sufficiently.
315. DESCENDING FLIGHT
When the power is reduced during straight and level flight, the thrust needed to balance the
airplane’s drag is no longer adequate. Due to the unbalanced condition, the drag causes a
momentary reduction in airspeed. This decrease in speed, in turn, results in a corresponding
decrease in the wing’s lift. The weight of the airplane now exceeds the force of lift so the
resulting flight path is downward, with the force of gravity providing a portion of the forward
thrust. In effect, the airplane is actually going "downhill."
As in entering a climb, the forces acting on an airplane again go through definite changes when
transitioning from level cruising flight to a descent. When forward pressure is applied to the
elevator control or the airplane’s pitch attitude is allowed to lower, the wing’s angle of attack is
decreased, the lift is reduced, and the flight path starts downward. The initial reduction of the
lift, which starts the airplane downward, is momentary. When the flight path stabilizes, the angle
of attack and lift stabilize.
316. THE P.A.T. PRINCIPLE
For corrections and to execute many maneuvers you must:

Set/reset power

Adjust the nose attitude

Trim for the new attitude
The mechanics of the transitions will be performed in a specific sequence:

Power

Attitude

Trim
Although power and attitude change are almost simultaneous, lead with PCL movement. For
example, consider the transition to an enroute descent. Reduce power from normal cruise to the
descent power setting, scanning the nose attitude. As the power is retarded, lower the nose
towards a descending attitude. Finally, trim the aircraft.
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NOTE
The power may not be exactly the descent power setting, since it
was initially reduced using peripheral vision. Power is then reset
to exactly the descent power setting after completing P.A.T.
Remember - Power, Attitude, Trim; reset Power, reset Attitude,
reset Trim.
317. ASSUMING CONTROL OF THE AIRCRAFT
A most important flying safety requirement is a clear, positive understanding at all times of who
has control of the aircraft. You must understand the procedures involved in transferring control
of an aircraft.
The instructor will tell you over the intercommunications system (ICS), “I have the controls.”
When your instructor says, “I have the controls,” you acknowledge by stating over the ICS, “You
have the controls.” You then take your hands and feet off the controls. Your instructor will then
confirm control by saying, “I have the controls.” Conversely, but in the same manner, when
your instructor wants you to fly, he/she will say, “You have the controls,” whereupon you will
take control and acknowledge over the ICS, “I have the controls.” The instructor will then
complete the exchange with another, “You have the controls.” Keep flying the aircraft until you
are told to do otherwise. Understand that unless you and the instructor complete the 3-way
exchange of controls, no exchange of control was made. For example, your instructor may coach
or aid your flare during a landing. You may feel a presence on the control stick, but you are still
flying and should continue to do so. Never be in doubt as to who is flying; if you are not
absolutely sure, safety dictates you speak up and ask!
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GROUND PROCEDURES
400. INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses the basic procedures essential to the safe operation of the airplane on the
ground prior to and after a flight. This includes the major points of ensuring that the airplane is
in an airworthy condition, starting and stopping the engine and taxiing the airplane to and from
the line area and the runway.
Figure 4-1 T-6B Taxiing
In the line area, there is usually considerable activity - aircraft may be operating at high power
settings, taxiing in and out of the area, taking off and landing on nearby runways; fuel trucks and
people may be moving about the aircraft. Therefore, constant vigilance must be exercised while
performing ground operations.
The propeller is the most dangerous part of the airplane, since under certain light conditions it is
difficult to see a revolving propeller. This may give the illusion that it is not there. As a result,
the files of Aviation Safety Offices contain many cases that read, "Victim walked into a rotating
propeller."
While approaching the airplane, the pilot should note the presence of obstructions and articles
such as fire extinguishers, fueling or maintenance equipment, or chocks that could be a hazard
when taxiing the airplane.
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401. NAVAL AVIATION LOGISTICS COMMAND MAINTENANCE INFORMATION
SYSTEM
The Naval Aviation Logistics Command Maintenance Information System (NALCOMIS) is the
standard fleet-wide maintenance system for aviation and used for T-6B maintenance. It is a fully
integrated, computerized system allowing input, tracking, and monitoring in real time. This data
is integrated for the pilot in the Aircraft Discrepancy Book (ADB), which is a designated
maintenance binder for each T-6B aircraft on the line and is available at aircraft issue. The ADB
is primarily used for pre-flight operations by aircrew to check the aircraft’s maintenance status
and maintenance actions over its last ten flights. Aircrews use an electronic Maintenance Action
Form (MAF) to document aircraft discrepancies. The electronic MAF is used to ensure an
accurate record is kept of all maintenance performed on an aircraft. Your instructor will show
you how to access this information.
All discrepancies are assigned either an UP or DOWN status. A discrepancy assigned an UP
status does not impair the safety-of-flight or mission capability of the aircraft. An airplane may
be flown with outstanding (not yet corrected) UP write-ups or gripes, with no danger to the crew.
An example of an UP gripe would be “paint peeling off leading edge of starboard wing just
forward of the pitot tube.” Notice the specific details used in this example. Detailed discrepancy
reports foster a closer working relationship between aircrew and maintenance and save both time
and money.
A discrepancy assigned a DOWN status immediately “downs” the aircraft until it is fixed. You
must be able to interpret an outstanding MAF and determine whether the aircraft is safe for
flight. Besides any uncorrected write-ups, discrepancies recorded over the past ten flights should
be reviewed as a minimum.
402. CHECKLISTS
It is mandatory to use checklists to inspect, start, and ensure aircraft systems are operating
properly. There is no excuse for lack of checklist discipline. Checklists ensure the
standardization of all operating procedures pertaining to the aircraft and provide a logical, safe,
and precise sequence to follow.
The accomplishment of a safe, productive flight begins with a thorough T-6B Exterior Inspection
Preflight Check before the crew enters the aircraft. The varied ground checklists ensure the
aircraft is properly prepared and ready for flight. Always with safety in mind, remain vigilant
and disciplined when executing the ground checklists. The majority of your initial checklist
training will take place in the simulators prior to your first flight. By your first Contact flight,
you are expected to conduct all the checklists as per the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and Inflight Guide (and/or wing checklist guide equivalent).
The checklists will be conducted in the challenge-action-response format. This means you
report the challenge, accomplish the required action, and state the appropriate response. As you
check each item, place your hand on the item to ensure the desired position is selected. Most
checklists are not performed from memory; however, the following checklists performed during
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critical phases of flight should be performed from memory. (Lineup Check, After Takeoff, Ops
Check, Before Landing) All checklists must flow efficiently and precisely.
403. BASIC 1001
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. Prior to your first flight, there are several fundamental topics that you, as a
student aviator, must be aware of and understand if you are to obtain maximum benefit from
your primary training. Make your initial appearance, and each succeeding appearance before
your instructor, a good one. Bear in mind that military courtesy and discipline are important
factors in your training and will continue to be so as long as you are a member of the military
service.
3.
Procedures. Discuss with the instructor all of the preflight/post-flight items listed under
Contact in the T-6B JPPT Curriculum.
4.
Common Errors. Failure to know Preflight/Post-flight procedures.
404. PREFLIGHT PLANNING/BRIEFING
Prior to each flight, you will be scheduled for a brief (discussion) for that flight with your
instructor. The Instructor Pilot (Pilot in Command) is responsible to perform and/or delegate
preflight planning for the flight (i.e., weight and balance, fuel planning, obtaining weather brief,
and filing flight plan as necessary). You will assist as directed, reporting results and noting any
discrepancies. In later stages of training, you will be tasked with increasing responsibilities with
preflight planning.
During the brief, the instructor will expect you to know the procedures for the maneuvers to be
flown, along with any "discuss" items listed in the T-6B JPPT Curriculum. With respect to
contact flight maneuvers, to “know” is to “memorize” (step by step, though not necessarily
verbatim) each action of the procedure.
For emergency procedures, only asterisk items are required to be committed to memory,
although you must have a thorough understanding of the remaining non- asterisk steps and the
systems involved. You cannot prepare for your contact flights solely with this FTI. You must
reference the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and other publications for emergency procedures
(EP), systems, voice communications, and general information. You are highly encouraged to
ask questions during the brief.
Your instructor will also brief the conduct of the flight in accordance with the briefing guide
found on the back of the Pocket Checklist. Again, you are encouraged to ask questions. Do not
go flying with an unanswered question on your mind.
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Emergency Procedures/Discussed Items
The Master Curriculum Guide (MCG) lists all maneuvers and items to be discussed for each
flight. You should be prepared to answer in depth questions about any item listed under
discussion. Ensure that you refer to any and all available resources when you are studying a
particular item. For example, the FTI, T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual, Aeronautical Information
Manual (AIM) and many ground school texts all contain information germane to your studies.
Your instructor may quiz you on each discussion/demonstration and introduction item for that
flight. Additionally, he/she may ask you about any maneuver previously introduced or any
subject general in nature to the T-6B (systems, limitations, etc.). The T-6B JPPT Curriculum
also has a listing of all emergency procedures to be discussed for each flight. The T-6B
NATOPS Flight Manual lists these procedures.
2.
Headwork, Procedures, and Basic Airwork
a.
Headwork - The ability to understand and grasp the meaning of instructions,
demonstrations, and explanations; the facility of remembering instructions from day
to day, the ability to plan a series or sequence of maneuvers or actions, the ability to
foresee and avoid possible difficulties and the ability to remain alert and spatially
oriented.
Headwork is the instructor’s evaluation of the student’s situational awareness (SA),
and his or her ability to effectively manage the aircrew responsibilities. An example
of a measure of headwork is whether the student remembers to "aviate, navigate,
communicate" in the correct order. Another measure of headwork is whether the
student is able to effectively communicate his or her SA. Headwork is purely a
subjective item, and the student should never question the instructor’s assessment of
his or her headwork.
b.
Procedures - The demonstrated knowledge of the sequential steps required to perform
the curriculum maneuvers and actions. Procedures are simply an instructor’s
evaluation of the SNA’s ability to recall and/or apply the correct procedures to any
situation. This may include emergency procedures, or such things as in-flight checks.
It may also include compliance to course rules or squadron SOP. Procedures is a
fairly straightforward item.
c.
Basic Airwork - Demonstrated mastery of the PCL and flight controls to obtain the
desired attitude, heading, airspeed and altitude consistently through a range of
maneuvers.
3.
Fuel Considerations - The T-6B is usually not fuel limited on most training sorties;
however, regular checks are still required and are an important part of each mission. Bingo fuel
and at least one joker fuel is briefed on every mission.
a.
4-4
Joker fuel is set at pre-planned transition points in the sortie. For example, a Joker
fuel of 750 lbs might be used to depart the working area to ensure enough fuel to
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accomplish pattern operations. A mission may require several joker fuels.
b.
Bingo fuel is the fuel at which recovery should be initiated to arrive at the intended
destination with the required fuel. On most T-6 syllabus training sorties, recovery is
often initiated prior to reaching bingo fuel due to sortie duration limitations. Mission
priorities and flight conditions may change while airborne (area assignment, weather
conditions, alternate airfield requirements, etc.) The aircraft commander may adjust
joker and/bingo fuels during flight to accommodate mission conditions.
405. PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. The pilot who accepts an airplane for flight is in effect the commanding officer
of that plane and is responsible for the efficient operation and safety of the aircraft, its equipment
and its crew. Prior to every flight, a thorough preflight inspection must be performed.
A poor preflight may easily result in an embarrassing, if not dangerous, situation. Any pilot who
thinks that there is a possibility that a discrepancy exists which would make the aircraft unsafe
for flight should "down" the plane, inform maintenance of the trouble, and write a thorough and
comprehensive description of the trouble on the Maintenance Action Form (MAF). Each pilot,
in signing the aircraft acceptance form ("A-Sheet") prior to the flight, acknowledges acceptance
of the aircraft in a satisfactory, safe-for-flight condition. He should always keep in mind that
mistakes are sometimes made even by the most competent mechanics. The pilot must, therefore,
make his inspection accordingly. Under no circumstances is a pilot required to accept an
airplane unless it is satisfactory for flight operations in all respects.
Regardless of the number of items you check on a preflight, you will forget something unless
you follow a systematic pattern each time. For this reason, the Preflight procedure published in
the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual shall be used by all pilots.
3.
Procedures. As you approach your aircraft, notice its position and the position of adjacent
aircraft in relation to the yellow parking spots. An aircraft parked too far off the spots may have
insufficient taxi clearance. Also note the position of fire bottles and other obstructions in relation
to the path of your aircraft as you leave the chocks. Although a signalman will direct you out,
you have the final responsibility to see that the aircraft clears all obstructions.
EJECTION SEAT SAFETY - “Respect the Seat.” Think of this motto every time you get in
and out of a T-6B or any other ejection seat airplane. Ejection seat and canopy fracturing system
(CFS) safety is paramount during ground operations. If unintentionally or improperly fired,
results could be fatal. Take extra care to ensure you and those around you never compromise
ejection seat safety.
Upon initially opening the canopy, ensure all safety pins (ejection seat and CFS) are installed,
per the checklist, and verbally confirm with your instructor. Never enter or exit the airplane
without the ejection seat safety pins installed. With the pin(s) removed, always be conscious of
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the ejection handle. Do not rest your hands on the ejection handle and never allow any
equipment, such as kneeboards, checklists, and approach plates to interfere with it. Remember,
“Respect the Seat.”
You are now ready to commence the Preflight Check (which includes the Before Exterior
Inspection and the Exterior Inspection Checks) in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual. You will be expected to know nomenclature for all visible aircraft and engine
components. Notify the other crew member of any problem areas discovered during the preflight
inspection and if any corrective action has been taken/initiated, if necessary.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Taking too much time. Do not rush, but by the same token, move expeditiously.
b.
Pushing/pulling on the trim tabs, static wicks. Check, using only a slight amount of
pressure.
406. STRAPPING IN TO THE SEAT
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. Upon completion of the preflight inspection, your instructor will show you how
to enter the cockpit, taking care not to step on the canopy rail. Respect the ejection seat. The T6B is not a particularly simple aircraft to strap into and it is easy to forget one or more buckles or
straps. Be patient, but precise; there is no fast way to do it. Reference Figure 4-2.
3.
Procedures. Ensure all of the harness buckles are fastened and G-suit zippers are secure
before entering. A good method is to start at your feet and work up. First plug in your G-suit,
then fasten your leg garters and Lower Koch fittings. Attach the main oxygen hose and
emergency O2 hose to your CRU-60/P (before putting on the helmet) and then reach back, grab,
and fasten the parachute risers to the harness Upper Koch fittings. You should now be ready to
don the helmet and lower the visor. Attach the oxygen mask hose to the CRU-60 and plug into
one of the two available ICS cords. Consult the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual for Notes,
Cautions, and Warnings during pilot hookup.
Each time you fly, your seat position should be the same. The electric seat adjustment switch is
located on the left console behind the PCL. When seated in a relaxed posture the horizon should
intersect a blue/purple line that is formed by the overlap of the HUD combiners. If turned on, the
Waterline Pitch Reference should be level with the top of the line. Before exiting the aircraft,
seat height should be noted to expedite future preflight set-up. When sitting upright in the
simulator seat, line up the front edge of the instrument glare shield with the upper part of the
instrument panel so that the top of the PFD is just visible. Adjust rudder pedals so you can get
full forward throw of either pedal with the corresponding brake fully depressed without locking
your knee.
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NOTE
Take extra care to ensure no straps or buckles are entangled with
any of the side panel switches or components before actuating the
electronic seat adjustment to prevent inadvertent (and potentially
very costly) damage to the ejection seat and/or cockpit side
consoles.
Figure 4-2 Strapping into the Seat
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Forgetting to zip up G-suit.
b.
Forgetting to connect the chin strap.
c.
Forgetting to lower the visor.
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407. INTERIOR INSPECTION
1.
Description. Cockpit (All Flights) Checklist.
2.
General. The checklist will be conducted in the challenge-action-response format. This
means that you state the challenge, take the required action, and then make the appropriate
response.
3.
Procedures. The checklist will be conducted in accordance with the pocket checklist.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Missing items on checklist.
b.
Taking too much time/rushing checklist.
408. STARTING PROCEDURE
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. After completion of the Interior Inspection Cockpit Checklist, ensure the prop
area is clear, a fire extinguisher is available, and the plane captain is ready for start. With the
canopy closed and latched, check the green mechanical canopy lock indicator is visible (Figure
4-3) and the red CANOPY annunciator is extinguished. Complete the Engine Start (Auto)
Checklist, conscious of any hazard indications from the plane captain.
Figure 4-3 Canopy Lock Indicator
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3.
Procedures. Monitor the engine start sequence. If the power management unit (PMU)
detects a malfunction, such as a hot or hung start, it will automatically terminate the start
sequence. You should always be prepared to manually abort a start if the PMU fails to do its job
and an abort is warranted. Complete the Engine Start and Before Taxi Checklists in accordance
with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual.
During the Before Taxi Checklist, you will perform a brake check prior to releasing the lineman.
Upon receiving the “release brakes” signal from the plane captain, clear left and right, and
smoothly release brake pressure allowing the aircraft to move forward. When signaled, apply the
brakes to bring the aircraft to a stop. Then pass control of the aircraft to the instructor who will
complete his brake check. The instructor will then pass control of the aircraft back to you.
Return the lineman’s salute, releasing them for other duties.
NOTE
Watch the lineman while the chocks are being removed or any
time one approaches your aircraft. Keep both of your hands above
the rails if ground crews are under the aircraft or near the flight
controls surfaces.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Advancing the PCL past Start Ready.
b.
Failure to give thumbs-up to plane captain after good start.
c.
Fixating on one instrument (i.e., oil pressure) thereby failing to monitor all aspects of
the start sequence.
d.
Failure to ensure positive change of controls during brake checks.
e.
Failure to adhere to lineman’s signals.
f.
Adding excess power for the brake check.
409. TAXIING
1.
Description. Taxiing is the controlled movement of the aircraft on the ground under its
own power.
2.
General. Once the aircraft is running and all applicable checks are complete, we must
safely taxi the aircraft from its starting point on the ramp to an active runway for takeoff. You
should build the habit of always taxiing with the airfield diagram at your disposal (on your
kneeboard, etc.). Have a taxi plan and know exactly where you are going before leaving the
chocks. This becomes even more important later in the program as you begin to conduct training
off-station (other than home field). Build good habits now.
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Taxiways have a narrow yellow line painted down the middle. Taxi with the nose wheel on this
line. This ensures a safe taxi clearance from fixed objects, such as parked airplanes and
buildings. However, the aircrew is solely responsible for obstruction clearance. A general rule
of thumb is to taxi no faster than a person can walk when within the line area and no faster than a
trot when outside the line area.
3.
Procedures. Taxiing in the T-6B uses power generated by the propeller, although not
more than idle is normally needed. Speed is controlled with the brakes; power above idle may be
required when initiating the taxi motion, traveling uphill, during sharp turns, etc. Directional
control during taxi is accomplished by using the rudder pedals to manipulate the aircraft nose
wheel steering (NWS) system, or by use of the rudder and/or differential braking. Keep your left
hand on the PCL; keep your right hand on the control stick, facilitating ready access to the NWS
button. Keep the ailerons deflected into the wind during taxi.
The Nose Wheel Steering (NWS) is the normal method to directionally control the T-6B. NWS
is actuated by a button on the control stick (Figure 4-4) and verified by a green “NWS” advisory
on the EICAS. With NWS on, the rudder pedals control the castoring of the nose wheel up to
12° either side of center. For turns requiring greater than 12° of nose-wheel castor, NWS must
be disengaged and rudder and differential braking used to turn the aircraft.
Figure 4-4 Nose Wheel Steering Button
Clearing is essential to safe taxiing. People, support equipment, fuel trucks and fire bottles are
among some of the most common hazards. When ready to taxi out of the line area, clear the
taxiway, left and right, for other aircraft, fuel trucks, ground personnel, etc. Continually scan the
4-10 GROUND PROCEDURES
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CHAPTER FOUR
entire forward area from wingtip to wingtip. At any time, if there is doubt about obstruction
clearance, STOP! Most taxi accidents are easily prevented if someone makes the right decision
to stop and re-evaluate the situation.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Not clearing area prior to starting to taxi.
b.
Taxiing too fast.
410. OVERSPEED GOVERNOR CHECKLIST
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. Engine checks are performed prior to each flight to determine the relative
condition of the engine. These checks do not guarantee proper operation. They merely check for
some of the more frequent causes of engine malfunction.
3.
Procedures. The checklist will be conducted in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Omitting items from the checklist.
b.
"Looking but not seeing" - calling an item checked/set when in fact it is not.
411. BEFORE TAKEOFF CHECKLIST
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. Check and report each item on the Before Takeoff Checklist to your instructor.
The importance of the Before Takeoff Checklist as a safety factor cannot be overemphasized.
You will occasionally hear of pilots who take off with improper trim tab settings or other
circumstances that contribute to accidents. This is invariably due to carelessness and haste in
completing the checklist.
3.
Procedures. The checklist will be conducted in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual.
4.
Common Errors. Omitting items from checklist.
412. AFTER LANDING CHECKLIST
1.
Description. N/A
GROUND PROCEDURES
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2.
General. Once clear of the duty runway, switch to Ground Control in accordance with
local course rules and complete the After Landing Checklist. It is important not to get anxious
during the landing rollout. Do not start the checklist until clear of the duty runway.
3.
Procedures. After clearing the runway, switch to Ground Control and complete the
checklist in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Switching to Ground Control or Starting Checklist prior to clearing duty runway.
b.
Omitting items on checklist.
c.
Forgetting to note the land time.
413. ENGINE SHUTDOWN CHECKLIST
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. Once clear of the duty runway, taxi in accordance with course rules to the
appropriate spot. Once the aircraft is stopped, focus your attention to the side of the aircraft that
the lineman is on. This will allow you to detect movement of the aircraft, especially at night.
Perform the Engine Shutdown Checklist in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual.
The engine will be shutdown prior to the plane captain installing chocks.
3.
Procedures. The checklist will be conducted in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Starting checklist prior to acknowledging plane captain.
b.
Securing strobe lights/battery prior to prop stopping.
414. POSTFLIGHT CHECKS
1.
Description. Checks conducted upon leaving the aircraft.
2.
General. This inspection is designed to discover airborne damage or any discrepancies
so that the necessary maintenance work may be performed promptly, with little or no delay of
the aircraft going out on the next flight.
3.
Procedures. The checklist will be conducted in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual.
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4.
CHAPTER FOUR
Common Errors.
a.
Failing to perform walk-around inspection.
b.
Omitting items from the checklist.
c.
Leaving personal items (FOD), in the aircraft.
415. ALDIS LAMP SIGNALS
Aircraft with radio failure should observe the tower for light signals to obtain clearance to taxi,
takeoff, land, etc. Acknowledge signals in the daytime by movement of ailerons or rudder on the
ground and by rocking wings in the air. Acknowledge signals at night by flashing aircraft lights.
Aldis lamp signals (Figure 4-5) from an airport traffic control light gun have meanings as
indicated:
COLOR AND TYPE ON THE GROUND
OF SIGNAL
STEADY GREEN
CLEARED TO TAKEOFF
IN FLIGHT
FLASHING GREEN
CLEARED TO TAXI
RETURN FOR LANDING (followed
by steady green at the proper time)
STEADY RED
STOP
GIVE WAY TO OTHER
AIRCRAFT AND CONTINUE
CIRCLING
FLASHING RED
TAXI CLEAR OF
RUNWAY
DO NOT LAND
FLASHING WHITE
RETURN TO STARTING
POINT ON AIRPORT
NOT USED INFLIGHT
ALTERNATING
RED AND GREEN
GENERAL WARNING
SIGNAL. EXERCISE
EXTREME CAUTION
GENERAL WARNING SIGNAL.
EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION
RED
PYROTECHNIC
NOT USED ON THE
GROUND
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY
PREVIOUS INSTRUCTIONS, DO
NOT LAND. WAVE OFF
IMMEDIATELY!
CLEARED TO LAND
Figure 4-5 Aldis Lamp Signals
GROUND PROCEDURES
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4-14 GROUND PROCEDURES
CHAPTER FIVE
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
500. INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses the basic procedures that you will practice at the beginning of your
contact training. These basics will form the foundation of your ability to fly the aircraft and to
later perform advanced maneuvers. You will learn to takeoff, fly straight and level, turn, climb
and descend. You will even learn to stall and spin the aircraft. While some of these maneuvers,
such as Straight-and-Level Flight, may seem simple, they all require strict adherence to the
procedures contained in this chapter. In order to successfully learn to accomplish these
maneuvers in the small amount of time that you will be airborne, it is essential that you commit
these procedures to memory prior to strapping into the aircraft. If you do not know the
procedures on the ground, you will not be able to perform them in the air. Some procedures,
such as the spin, require extra care and preparation due to the dynamic and possibly disorienting
nature of the maneuver.
501. CONTACT FLIGHT TERMINOLOGY
FAST CRUISE
NORMAL CRUISE
SLOW CRUISE
NORMAL CLIMB
TERMINAL ROUTE DESCENT
NO-FLAP CONFIGURATION
TAKEOFF FLAP CONFIGURATION
LANDING FLAP CONFIGURATION
240 KIAS / Clean
Power as required (~80%) / 1° Nose Down
200 KIAS / Clean
Power as required (~54%) / 0° Nose Up
150 KIAS / Clean
Power as required (~33%) / 3.5° Nose Up
180 KIAS / Clean
MAX Power, 100% / 8° Nose Up
200 KIAS / Clean
Power 20% / 5° Nose Down
120 KIAS / Gear Down, Flaps Up
Power as required (~31%) / 4° Nose Up
120 KIAS / Gear Down, Flaps TO
Power as required (~42%) / 3° Nose Up
120 KIAS / Gear Down, Flaps LDG
Power as required (~52%) / 1° Nose Up
Figure 5-1 Contact Flight Terminology
NOTE
Power settings are approximate and will vary with aircraft weight,
altitude, etc. Make corrections as needed. Throughout this
manual, when mandated by procedure to establish a specific power
setting, a power setting within ±3% is acceptable. The only
exception is for procedures that mandate a 4-6 % power setting to
simulate the feathered condition.
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502. OPERATIONS CHECKS
Accomplish the operations check to ensure various aircraft systems are operating properly. For
safety considerations, complete an operations check at least once every 20 minutes in flight, with
the first check being accomplished during the initial departure climb.
503. ASSUMING CONTROL OF THE AIRCRAFT
It is critical to flight safety that a pilot be at the controls of the aircraft at all times. A
misunderstanding between two pilots as to who is actively controlling the aircraft could become
a causal factor in a mishap. Therefore, you must be knowledgeable of the procedures involved in
transferring controls. Throughout your flying career, you will fly with many pilots of various
experience levels and backgrounds. To avoid miscommunication, all pilots transfer the controls
the same way, regardless of platform.
Either pilot may initiate a change in control of the aircraft. It shall be accomplished by means of
a positive three-way exchange using the word "controls."
NOTE
Do not use the words "it," "aircraft," or "command" to refer to the
controls.
For example, the instructor may initiate by telling you over the ICS, "I have the controls." You
will then acknowledge by saying over the ICS, "You have the controls." You will then take your
hands and feet off the controls and your instructor will confirm he has control by saying, "I have
the controls."
When your instructor wants you to take control, he will say, "You have the controls," whereupon
you will take control and acknowledge by saying over the ICS, "I have the controls." Your
instructor will complete the three-way exchange with, "You have the controls."
Stay on the controls and keep flying the aircraft until you are told to do otherwise. Never be in
doubt as to who is doing the flying. Always fly as if you are flying solo unless you know that the
instructor has control. The important thing is that a "demand and reply" series of responses is
used so that there is no question as to who is flying.
NOTE
In the event of ICS failure, the pilot requesting control will shake
the control stick, and the pilot relinquishing control will raise both
hands. The pilot at controls will shake the control stick again to
confirm he/she has controls.
5-2
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504. COMMUNICATIONS
Proper radio communication procedures are extremely important to safety when operating in
controlled airspace or the vicinity of other aircraft. You should read and learn the basic
communication terminology/procedures explained in Appendix B. These procedures will be
used throughout your aviation career.
505. TAKEOFF
1.
Description. Takeoff is the movement of the aircraft from its starting point on the runway
until it leaves the ground in controlled flight.
2.
General. The takeoff requires a smooth transition from ground roll to controlled flight.
Although a relatively simple maneuver, the takeoff presents numerous potential hazards. The
dynamics of high engine thrust, possible directional control problems, the potential for runway
incursions, high-speed aborts, low-altitude engine failures, to name a few, make the takeoff
regime of flight unique in its safety challenges. Thorough and disciplined ground operations
help lead to a safe, uneventful takeoff.
Takeoffs should always be made as nearly into the wind as practical. The aircraft’s ground
speed in a headwind is slower at liftoff than in a tailwind, thus reducing wear and stress on the
landing gear. Secondly, a shorter distance is required to develop the minimum lift necessary for
takeoff and climb. Aircraft depend on airspeed to fly. A headwind provides some airspeed
before the aircraft even begins its takeoff ground roll as the wind flows over the wings.
Although the takeoff and climb process is one continuous maneuver, it is divided into three
separate steps for purposes of explanation: takeoff roll, rotation, and initial climb (Figure 5-2).
Figure 5-2 The Takeoff Roll, Rotation, and Initial Climb
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The takeoff roll is the portion of the takeoff procedure during which the aircraft is accelerated
from a standstill to an airspeed providing sufficient lift for it to become airborne.
The rotation is the act of raising the nose of the aircraft to a set pitch attitude, increasing AOA
and allowing the aircraft to become airborne in controlled flight.
The initial climb is the period just after the aircraft has left the runway and is normally
considered complete when the aircraft has reached a safe maneuvering altitude.
During the takeoff, an abrupt application of power will cause the aircraft to yaw sharply left
because of the torque effects of the propeller. Steady the yawing tendency with right rudder as
the engine spools up and the aircraft begins rolling down the runway. Remember, the TAD will
not begin making rudder trim adjustments until 80 KIAS and weight off wheels. As speed
increases, more and more pressure will be felt on the flight controls, particularly the elevator and
rudder. Since the tail surfaces receive the full effect of the propeller slipstream, they become
effective first.
To rotate, apply back stick pressure at 85 KIAS to gradually raise the nose wheel off the runway
and establish the takeoff attitude (8º nose high, spinner on or slightly below the horizon). This is
referred to as “rotating.” Allow the aircraft to fly itself off the ground. Do not force the aircraft
into the air with excessive back-stick pressure as this will only result in an excessively high pitch
attitude, possible stall or tail strike. Coordinate right rudder as necessary with TAD adjustments
during rotation. Compensate for the left yaw tendency as the aircraft leaves the runway with
rudder, not aileron.
As you move to the initial climb phase of the takeoff, check pitch attitude at approximately 8°
nose high and begin accelerating. The aircraft will pick up speed rapidly after becoming
airborne. Once a positive climb is verified and a safe landing cannot be made on the remaining
runway in front of you, raise the gear and flaps (as per After Takeoff Checklist and the
procedures below). Accelerate to 140-180 KIAS and climb.
Figure 5-3 Climb Rate
5-4
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CHANGE 2 CHAPTER FIVE
NOTE
More efficient climbs may be required for obstacle clearance or
other requirements such as noise abatement or cloud avoidance.
The T-6B best rate of climb speed is 140 KIAS and 15º nose high
(Figure 5-3).
Since power during the initial climb is fixed at maximum, airspeed must be controlled with slight
pitch adjustments. However, do not stare at the airspeed indicator when making these slight
pitch changes; crosscheck airspeed to confirm the correct pitch picture in relation to the horizon
is set.
For takeoff in crosswind conditions, the aircraft will tend to weather-vane into the wind and the
upwind wing will begin to rise even in light-to-moderate crosswinds. This tendency can be
controlled with rudder and aileron. Maintain positive aileron deflection into the wind once in
position for takeoff, and maintain this crosswind control throughout the maneuver. Use up to
full aileron deflection into the wind at the beginning of the takeoff roll, and relax aileron input as
speed increases to the amount required to keep wings level at liftoff. Use rudder as necessary to
maintain centerline. Realize that a left crosswind will add to the aircraft’s left yawing tendency
due to engine torque effect, requiring even more right rudder to maintain directional control.
Once the aircraft has safely left the runway in controlled flight, level the wings, allow the aircraft
to crab into the wind, and check balance ball centered.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Approaching the hold short line (approximately 200 feet prior) switch to Tower
frequency.
b.
When appropriate, and in accordance with the SOP, call the tower for takeoff
clearance. Prior to making this call, listen carefully to avoid cutting out other
transmissions. Instructions to "Lineup and wait" or "Hold short" must be read back.
Clearance for takeoff will be acknowledged with, "Call sign, cleared for takeoff."
Upon receiving takeoff clearance, taxi into the takeoff position in accordance with
local course rules.
c.
After acknowledging tower’s “Cleared for takeoff” or “Lineup and wait” call,
visually clear final, then begin taxi to the takeoff position and initiate the Lineup
Checklist. Verbally note right to left or left to right crosswinds as called out by
tower. Verify with windsock, if available.
d.
Align the aircraft on runway centerline and come to a stop using the brakes. With the
nose wheel centered, disengage the nose wheel steering and complete the Lineup
checklist. Once cleared for takeoff, increase torque to ~30% and check engine
instruments. Report over the ICS, “Instruments checked.” Confirm instruments
checked in the rear cockpit as well.
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CHAPTER FIVE CHANGE 2
e.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Select a reference point. Position the elevator neutral to slightly aft of neutral. For
crosswinds, position aileron as required into the prevailing winds. To compensate for
torque effect in zero crosswind conditions, add slight right aileron at MAX power.
Release brakes, dropping your heels to the deck (toes off the brakes).
NOTE
Select a reference point on centerline and towards the end of the
runway and beyond. Keep the nose pointed toward this reference
throughout ground roll and rotation to aid directional control.
f.
Release the brakes and allow the plane to roll forward momentarily to ensure the nose
wheel is centered. Smoothly advance the PCL to MAX in 2 to 3 seconds. Anticipate
the need for right rudder as the engine spools up. Maintain directional control.
g.
At 60 KIAS, check torque is at or above minimum power calculated on the Before
Takeoff Checklist. If not, abort the takeoff. Verbalize over the ICS “60 knots,
XXX%.”
h.
At 85 KIAS, smoothly apply back-stick pressure and position the nose to takeoff
attitude (spinner on or slightly below the horizon). Allow the aircraft to fly itself off
the deck.
NOTE
If gusty winds are present, increase rotation speed by 1/2 the gust
factor (up to 10 KIAS). For example, if winds are reported at 10
gust 22 (i.e., 12-knot gust factor), rotate at 91 KIAS (85 + 1/2
(12)= 91). This is independent of wind direction.
i.
When a safe landing can no longer be made, check for two positive rates of climb
(ALT and VSI) and airspeed below 150 KIAS. Report over ICS, “Two positive rates,
Gear,” then raise the gear. When airspeed is above 110 KIAS, Report over ICS,
“Airspeed above 110 KIAS, Flaps.” then raise the flaps (as per After Takeoff
Checklist). Report over the ICS, “Gear up, flaps up at
knots."
NOTE
Retraction of flaps from the TO to the UP position is not
recommended below 110 KIAS to preclude the aircraft from
settling back to the runway. However, there is no minimum to
raise the flaps from the LDG to TO position once safely airborne.
j.
5-6
Check nose attitude at 8° nose high and continue acceleration, trimming as necessary.
Approaching 180 KIAS, set the 180 knot climbing attitude and climb out in
accordance with local course rules or departure procedures.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
4.
CHAPTER FIVE
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to maintain directional control on takeoff roll through improper use of rudder.
b.
Not assuming the takeoff attitude at approximately 85 knots (or as calculated for wind
gusts).
c.
Not relaxing back-stick pressure as necessary to maintain takeoff attitude, hence overrotating.
d.
Pulling aircraft off the deck prematurely or over-controlling.
e.
Swerving or skipping on takeoff roll due to improper use of crosswind correction.
f.
Applying insufficient right rudder on liftoff and attempting to correct with right wing
low.
g.
Failure to trim left rudder, nose down after gear are retracted and airspeed increases.
h.
Failure to report “Gear up, flaps up at ___knots.”
506. CROSSWIND TAKEOFF
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. The procedures for a takeoff with a crosswind are the same as for a no wind
takeoff, except aileron is held into the wind to keep the wings level. Aileron deflection is
necessary because the upwind wing develops more lift, causing it to fly (begin rising) before the
downwind wing. If the upwind wing rises, skipping may result (Figure 5-4). Skipping is a series
of very small bounces caused when the aircraft attempts to fly on one wing and settles back onto
the runway. During these bounces, the aircraft moves sideways and stress on the landing gear is
increased. Anticipate aileron requirement due to the crosswind and either pre-position aileron
into the wind or apply aileron into wind as required during takeoff roll. Use rudder to keep the
aircraft from weather-vaning (for example, crabbing or turning into the wind). The flight
controls become more effective as airspeed increases, so progressively smaller control inputs are
required to maintain aircraft control.
As the airplane is taxied into takeoff position, mentally note the winds as called by tower (also
check the windsock and other indicators) so that the presence of a crosswind may be recognized
and anticipated. Aileron should be held into the wind as the takeoff roll is started. As the
airspeed increases and the ailerons become more effective, adjust the aileron inputs to maintain
the wings level.
Firmly rotate the aircraft off the runway when flying speed is reached to avoid side-slipping and
damage to the tires. Once the aircraft has become airborne, initial drift correction is made by
turning into the wind with a shallow bank, then rolling wings level to maintain runway centerline
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(crabbing).
Figure 5-4 Skipping on Takeoff
507. DEPARTURE
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. See local Standard Operating Procedures or Course Rules.
3.
Procedures. See local Standard Operating Procedures or Course Rules.
508. STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT
1.
Description. Maintain a constant altitude, airspeed and heading using the horizon as the
primary reference.
2.
General. Straight-and-level flight requires familiarity with flight instruments and visual
cues. To fly in level flight, consciously fix reference points on the aircraft in relation to the
horizon, and compare or crosscheck this relationship with the flight instruments. In addition to
outside references, refer to the PFD to crosscheck the altimeter, and vertical speed indicator.
In straight-and-level unaccelerated flight at 200 KIAS, the level flight visual pitch picture is
approximately half-ground/half-sky with the wings equidistant from the horizon, (Figure 5-5).
At higher airspeeds, hold the nose at a lower attitude to maintain level flight; at lower airspeeds,
hold the nose at a higher attitude. Straight and level flight is a balanced flight condition while
maintaining a constant heading and altitude.
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CHAPTER FIVE
Figure 5-5 Straight and Level Flight
Familiarity with the design, location and purpose of flight instrumentation speeds up the
composite cross check and aids in detecting small deviations (while they are still small). Good
aircraft control is a continuous succession of minor, almost imperceptible corrections to keep the
aircraft on the desired flight path.
When straight and level, trim the aircraft in all three axes. A trim change is necessary when
continuous control stick or rudder pressure is required to maintain the desired attitude. Straightand-level flight requires almost no pressure on the controls if the aircraft is properly trimmed and
the air is smooth; however, when flying through turbulence, the flight attitude may change
abruptly.
A properly trimmed aircraft is trimmed for a specific airspeed. It flies at the trimmed airspeed
hands-off; that is, with little or no force applied to the control stick or rudders. Changes to
airspeed require additional trim input potentially in all three axes, but predominantly in elevator
and rudder (pitch and yaw) trim. For example, if the PCL is retarded to slow from 200 to 120
KIAS in level flight, the nose of the aircraft drops to seek 200 KIAS. Back-stick pressure is
required to maintain level flight until nose up trim relieves the back-stick pressure. A trimmed
aircraft reduces pilot fatigue and allows the pilot to devote more attention to task management
and development of situational awareness on events occurring outside the cockpit. Large
changes in airspeed in a short amount of time will require large changes in elevator trim and will
require running the trim or holding the trim button forward or aft. After heavy forces are
trimmed off, a method to fine tune the trim is to loosen the grip on the control stick and note the
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direction that the nose or wings travel. Apply trim in the opposite direction to nose or wing
movement (for example, if the nose drops apply aft elevator trim, if the aircraft rolls left apply
right aileron trim).
A common error in straight-and-level flight is to apply force to the control stick inadvertently
due to the weight of the pilot’s arm. Minimize this by resting the forearm on the thigh.
a.
To achieve straight flight (constant heading)
i.
VISUAL: The pilot selects two or more outside visual reference points directly
ahead of the airplane (such as fields, towns, lakes, or distant clouds, to form
points along an imaginary line) and keeps the airplane’s nose headed along that
line. Roads and section lines on the ground also offer excellent references.
Straight flight can be maintained by flying parallel or perpendicular to them.
Straight flight (constant wings level attitude) may also be accomplished by
visually checking the relationship of the airplane’s wingtips with the horizon.
Both wingtips should be equidistant below the horizon, and any necessary
adjustments should be made with the ailerons, noting the relationship of control
pressure and the airplane’s attitude.
ii.
INSTRUMENT: An occasional check of the heading indicator should be made
to determine that the airplane is actually maintaining flight in a constant
direction.
iii.
CORRECTIONS: Whenever an error in heading is noted, first stop the error
and stabilize, then correct back to proper heading. As a rule of thumb, the angle
of bank used for heading corrections should not exceed the number of degrees
you want to turn. Lead the rollout on heading by the "one-third rule" (by the
number of degrees equal to one-third the angle of bank). This lead in rollout
will preclude turning beyond the desired heading.
Continually observing the wingtips has advantages other than being a positive
check for leveling the wings. It also helps divert the pilot’s attention from the
airplane’s nose, prevents a fixed stare, and automatically expands the radius of
visual scanning. In straight-and-level flight, the wingtips can be used for both
estimating the airplane’s angle of bank, and to a lesser degree, its pitch attitude.
In balanced flight, any time the wings are banked, the airplane will turn. Thus,
close attention should be given to the wing position and attitude indicator to
detect small indications of bank, and to the heading indicator to note any change
of direction.
When the wings are approximately level, straight flight can be maintained by
simply exerting the necessary forces on the rudder in the desired direction.
However, the practice of using rudder alone is not a "normal" method of aircraft
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CHAPTER FIVE
control and may make precise control of the airplane difficult.
Straight-and-level flight requires almost no application of control pressure if the
airplane is properly trimmed and the air is smooth. For that reason, the pilot
must not form the habit of moving the controls unnecessarily.
When practicing this fundamental flight maneuver, the pilot should trim the
airplane so it will fly straight and level without assistance. By using the trim
tabs to relieve all control pressures, the pilot will find that it is much easier to
hold a given altitude and heading. The airplane should be trimmed by first
applying control pressure to establish the desired attitude, and then adjusting the
trim so that the airplane will maintain that attitude without control pressure.
b.
Corrections in Straight-And-Level Flight
There are several methods for correcting a deviation from desired altitude/airspeed
when maintaining level flight. These consist of a power correction, or a power and
attitude correction with a continual need for re-trimming.
3.
i.
Off airspeed/on altitude. If you note that the altitude is being maintained, but
the airspeed is slow or fast, a power adjustment is necessary, since power
controls airspeed in level flight. Remember each torque setting given in this
manual is a suggested starting point. Once the appropriate power setting has
been changed, a change in the pitch may be required to maintain the attitude for
level flight and, as always, re-trim.
ii.
Off airspeed/off altitude. If you have a high airspeed and a loss of altitude or a
low airspeed and a gain in altitude, it is the result of not maintaining the proper
nose attitude. Stop the loss or gain by resetting the level flight attitude, then
correct by trading the excess altitude or airspeed to return to the desired altitude
and airspeed. Re-trim.
iii.
On airspeed/off altitude. If you note that you are 100 feet high, yet the
airspeed is correct, correct to altitude by reducing the power slightly and allow
the nose attitude to lower just slightly so the aircraft will descend back to the
desired altitude. Once returned to altitude, reset normal cruise power setting
and re-trim.
Procedures.
a.
Maintain balanced flight. Trim.
b.
Set the nose position for straight and level by visually bisecting the windscreen with
the horizon. Crosscheck the altimeter and VSI. Trim.
c.
Set the wing position for straight and level flight by setting the wingtips equidistant
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below the horizon. Crosscheck the heading. Trim.
4.
d.
Continue a working scan and if an error is recognized, make proper corrections.
e.
If an error in altitude is noted on the altimeter, stop the error by adjusting the nose
attitude. Then, using coordinated power and stick pressure, adjust back to desired
altitude. Re-trim.
f.
If an error is noted in heading, stop the drift by leveling the wings. Turn back
towards the desired heading, never using a greater angle of bank than the number of
degrees off heading. Re-trim.
Common Errors.
a.
Over-controlling: Making control movements too great for the amount of correction
necessary.
b.
Not recognizing a wing low or nose attitude too high or too low.
c.
Fixating. Not maintaining a good scan.
d.
Not re-trimming.
509. BASIC TRANSITIONS
1.
Description. Basic transitions are used to initiate and/or level off from a climb or descent.
The following are the four basic transitions: climb-to-cruise, cruise-to-climb, cruise-to-descent,
and descent-to-cruise.
2.
General. Use the P.A.T. principle to make all transitions. Because trim is so vital to this
section, now would be a good time to review the Trim Requirements discussion in Chapter two.
When not in radar contact, during climbs and descents greater than 1000 feet a constant
integrated scan outside and reference to TCAS shall be used to clear traffic around you.
S-turns may be used during descent to clear below the flight path if required.
Your cockpit references will vary by the type of transition. During climbs and descents, the
airspeed indicator becomes the nose attitude crosscheck instrument. The heading indicator
remains the crosscheck for wings level (constant heading). When leveling off from a climb or
descent, the altimeter and vertical speed indicator become the nose attitude crosscheck
instruments.
510. PROCEDURES
1.
Cruise-to-Climb Transition:
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CHAPTER FIVE
a.
Power - smoothly advance power to MAX.
b.
Attitude - raise the nose to 12-15º nose high (nose attitude slightly above the 180-knot
climbing attitude shown in Figure 5-6).
c.
Trim as required and commence clearing turns as appropriate.
d.
As airspeed decreases to 180 KIAS, lower nose slightly to the normal climbing
attitude, 8º nose high (Figure 5-6).
e.
Re-trim as necessary to remove all pressures from the flight controls and check
balance ball centered.
Figure 5-6 Climb Attitude ~8º Nose High
NOTE
As described in the following procedures, climbs greater than 1000
feet are accomplished at the normal 180 KIAS, accompanied by
clearing turns. Climbs of 1000 feet or less will be done at MAX
power and cruise airspeed (200 or 240 KIAS) without clearing
turns. In order to maintain airspeed, cruise airspeed climbs
necessitate milder pitch changes than described in the procedures
below.
2.
Climb-to-Cruise Transition:
a.
200 feet prior to level-off altitude, begin lowering nose toward the level flight
attitude.
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CHAPTER FIVE
b.
Trim for acceleration.
c.
Five knots prior to desired cruise airspeed:
PRIMARY CONTACT
Power – smoothly reduce to normal cruise, 54% (fast cruise, 80%).
Attitude – set level flight picture.
Trim as necessary to remove all pressures from the flight controls and check the
balance ball centered (coordinated flight).
3.
4.
Cruise-to-Descent Transition:
a.
Power – smoothly reduce to 20%.
b.
Attitude – lower nose to the en route descent nose attitude (~5º Nose Low).
c.
Trim for power reduction and commence clearing turns as appropriate.
d.
Re-trim as necessary to remove all pressures from the flight controls and check the
balance ball centered.
Descent-to-Cruise Transition:
a.
Passing 100 feet prior to level-off altitude, simultaneously:
Power – advance to normal cruise ~54% (fast cruise, 80%).
Attitude – raise the nose to level flight picture.
Trim for power addition.
b.
5.
Re-trim as necessary to remove all pressures from the flight controls and check the
balance ball centered.
Common Errors.
a.
Cruise-to-Climb Transition:
i.
Not concentrating on horizon and remaining scan. Use your peripheral vision.
ii.
Not trimming as airspeed slows.
iii
Overcorrecting nose attitude for airspeed error. If the aircraft is off airspeed,
check torque at MAX allowable, readjust the nose and re-trim.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
iv.
b.
c.
d.
CHAPTER FIVE
Not performing clearing turns (when required).
Climb-to-Cruise Transition:
i.
Lowering the nose to the level flight attitude immediately instead of
TOWARDS the level flight attitude. Remember, the airspeed is still slow.
ii.
Not trimming during the transition.
Cruise-to-Descent Transition:
i.
Rushing the maneuver.
ii.
Not trimming properly.
iii.
Not performing clearing turns (when required).
iv.
Not setting/holding sufficient nose down, thereby getting slow.
Descent-to-Cruise Transition:
i.
Moving nose first. Remember P.A.T.
ii.
Under-trimming the nose and continuing in a descent.
511. CONSTANT ANGLE OF BANK TURNS
1.
Description. Turn the aircraft using a constant angle of bank to an assigned heading while
maintaining altitude and airspeed.
2.
General. When you perform constant angle of bank turns (CABT), your instructor will
state the desired angle of bank and rollout heading. Before commencing any turn, look in the
direction of the turn to ascertain that the area is clear of clouds and other aircraft. If clear,
commence the turn. Throughout this maneuver, a rapid and consistent scan pattern is a
necessity.
During the turn, continue to check the area clear, check the aircraft attitude with the horizon,
then crosscheck the PFD for nose attitude with the altimeter and VSI, and the angle of bank with
the attitude indicator. Correct the visual attitude as necessary, while periodically cross-checking
the heading indicator for turn progress and the airspeed for power required.
To prevent turning beyond the desired heading, it is necessary to anticipate or lead this new
heading by using the one-third rule. This rule will be used during all turns to specified headings.
3.
Procedures.
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5-15
CHAPTER FIVE
4.
PRIMARY CONTACT
a.
Clear the area.
b.
Roll into an estimated angle of bank on the horizon; add slight rudder in direction of
turn to maintain a centered ball, then crosscheck that angle of bank on the attitude
gyro throughout the turn.
c.
Adjust power and nose attitude as necessary and re-trim for the correct altitude and
airspeed, (P.A.T.).
d.
Roll out of the turn on the desired heading by leading the turn with the one-third rule.
e.
Reset straight and level and re-trim.
Common Errors.
a.
Inattention to performance, (i.e., maintaining altitude but not adding any power to
maintain airspeed). Power + Attitude = Performance
b.
Not maintaining a constant angle of bank.
c.
Losing altitude in steep turns.
d.
Lack of trim.
e.
Not clearing the area prior to and during the turn.
512. TURN PATTERN
1.
Description. The turn pattern (TP) is a series of constant angle of bank turns while
maintaining altitude and airspeed.
2.
General. The TP is started in normal or slow cruise on any numbered heading. The TP
consists of two 30º angle of bank turns in opposite directions for 90º of heading change, two 45º
angle of bank turns in opposite directions for 180º of heading change, and two 60º angle of bank
turns in opposite directions for 360º of heading change. A smooth reversal is made going from
one turn into another, eliminating a straight and level leg (Figure 5-8). Your IP may adjust the
TP as needed to remain within the working airspace.
During the turns, continue to check the area clear. Check the aircraft attitude with the horizon,
then crosscheck the PFD for nose attitude with the altimeter and VSI, and the angle of bank with
the attitude indicator. Correct the visual attitude as necessary, while periodically cross-checking
the heading indicator for turn progress and the airspeed for power required.
The 30º angle of bank turns will require little back-stick pressure or additional power. For the
45º and 60º angle of bank turns, it will be necessary to raise the nose slightly to increase the
angle of attack in order to compensate for the loss of vertical lift as the bank steepens.
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CHAPTER FIVE
Additional power will be required to maintain airspeed. To avoid overshooting the rollout
headings, lead the rollout heading by a number of degrees equal to one-third the angle of bank
(for a 30º angle of bank turn, lead the rollout by 10º). Strive for smooth reversals between turns.
Trim the aircraft as necessary throughout the pattern. Remember, as the reversal or rollout
occurs, the nose must be lowered back to the level attitude, and since it has been trimmed "up"
during the turn, the nose will require forward stick pressure to lower it. Remember to use the
P.A.T. principle.
Figure 5-7 Turn Pattern
3.
Procedures.
a.
Establish the aircraft straight and level on any numbered heading, base altitude and
normal or slow cruise.
b.
Clear the area. Turn either direction for 90º of heading change using a 30º angle of
bank. Clear the area (in the other direction), then reverse the turn, leading by the onethird rule for 90º of heading change using a 30º angle of bank.
c.
Clear the area. Reverse the turn leading by the one-third rule and turn for 180º of
heading change using a 45º angle of bank. Maintain altitude and airspeed with power
and nose attitude; trim. Clear the area (other direction), then reverse the turn using
the one-third rule for 180º of heading change using a 45º angle of bank. Remember
to adjust nose attitude as necessary to maintain airspeed and altitude while rolling
through wings level.
d.
Clear the area. Reverse the turn leading by the one-third rule and turn for 360º of
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PRIMARY CONTACT
heading change using a 60º angle of bank. Adjust power and nose attitude to
maintain altitude and airspeed; trim. Clear the area (other direction), then reverse the
turn leading by the one-third rule. Hold slight forward stick pressure to prevent
ballooning as you roll through the wings level. Reestablish the attitude to maintain
altitude; turn for 360º of heading change using a 60º angle of bank.
4.
e.
Roll out on the original heading using the one-third rule and holding slight forward
stick pressure to prevent ballooning.
f.
Reset power to the normal cruise power setting (as required), reset attitude and retrim for straight and level flight.
Common Errors.
a.
Applying the control pressures too rapidly and abruptly, or using too much back-stick
pressure before it is actually needed. Remember the aircraft is flown through a
medium-banked turn before it reaches a steeper turn.
b.
Not holding the nose attitude steady. In order to determine the appropriate
corrections, you must first establish a steady attitude and allow the instruments to
stabilize.
c.
Staring at the nose and consequently applying control corrections too late. Divide
your attention. Scan your instruments, never fixating on any one instrument.
Anticipate the need for additional power and nose up. Do not wait until you are low
or slow.
d.
Gaining altitude in reversals. Not lowering nose as the wings pass the level flight
attitude, usually due to fixating on the PFD instead of scanning the horizon.
e.
Not clearing the area before and during all turns.
f.
Not flying in balanced flight.
513. LEVEL SPEED CHANGE
1.
Description. Level speed changes (LSC) are taught to familiarize you with the various
trim adjustments required with changes in airspeed, power setting, and aircraft configuration.
2.
General. The LSC maneuver will be commenced on any assigned heading. The sequence
is flown from normal cruise (200 KIAS) to the downwind configuration (120 KIAS), to the
landing flap approach configuration (110 KIAS), and then to normal cruise (200 KIAS).
Because of the numerous tasks associated with these transitions, a good outside visual scan
pattern cannot be overemphasized. You will experience changes in aircraft attitudes and control
pressures during each transition. Your instructor will require you to fly the aircraft at various
angles of bank in the downwind and landing approach configurations to experience the way in
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CHAPTER FIVE
which the aircraft handles at these slower airspeeds. During these turns, additional power must
be applied to maintain airspeed, with attitude adjustment to maintain altitude.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Establish the aircraft in the normal cruise configuration (200 KIAS) on any numbered
heading.
b.
Reduce power to idle. Trim for deceleration. When airspeed is below 150 KIAS,
lower the landing gear.
c.
As the airspeed approaches 120 KIAS, adjust power to ~31% to maintain 120 KIAS.
d.
Stabilize aircraft in the downwind configuration. Trim off control pressures.
NOTE
Your instructor may want you to practice a few shallow turns in
this configuration prior to continuing. Remember, you will see this
nose attitude on the downwind leg when you begin practicing the
landing pattern.
4.
e.
Lower Landing flaps. As airspeed approaches 110 KIAS, advance power to ~ 50%
and stabilize in the landing flap approach configuration. Trim.
f.
Complete the Before Landing Checklist over the ICS.
g.
Advance power to maximum, check airspeed below 150 KIAS, and raise the gear and
flaps. Report over the ICS, “Gear up, flaps up at ___knots.” Trim for acceleration.
h.
Accelerate to normal cruise. As airspeed approaches 200 KIAS, reduce power to
~54%.
i.
Re-trim as necessary to remove all pressures from the flight controls and check the
balance ball centered.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to properly trim rudder pressures, resulting in poor heading control.
b.
Commencing the Before Landing Checklist in the middle of a transition, resulting in
poor basic airwork.
c.
Failure to maintain proper nose attitudes associated with configuration.
d.
Failure to properly trim elevator pressure, resulting in poor altitude control.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
514. STALLS
1.
Description. Stalls are taught to develop your ability to recognize a complete stall or an
approaching stall and to recover correctly with a minimum loss of altitude.
2.
General. You will learn to recognize the approaching stall or complete stall through a
combination of the senses of sight, sound and feel.
a.
Vision is useful in detecting a stall condition by noting the attitude of the airplane.
This sense can be fully relied on only when the stall is the result of an unusual
attitude of the airplane. However, since the airplane can also be stalled from a normal
attitude, vision in this instance would be of little help in detecting the approaching
stall.
b.
Hearing is also helpful in sensing a stall condition, since the tone level and intensity
of sounds incident to flight decrease as the airspeed decreases. The reduction of the
noise made by the air flowing along the canopy as airspeed decreases is also quite
noticeable, and when the stall is almost complete, vibration and its incident noises
often increase greatly.
c.
Kinesthesia, or the sensing of change in direction or speed of motion, is probably the
most important and the best indicator to the trained and experienced pilot. If this
sensitivity is properly developed, it will warn of a decrease in speed or the beginning
of a settling or "mushing" of the airplane.
d.
The feeling of control pressures is also very important. As speed is reduced, the
resistance to pressures on the controls becomes progressively less. Aircraft response
to control movements also decreases until a complete stall, when all controls can be
moved with almost no resistance, and with little immediate effect on the airplane.
The Stick shaker will normally occur 5-10 knots prior to the stall, with airframe
buffet occurring almost immediately thereafter. The stick shaker may sometimes
mask airframe buffet making it difficult to feel. In some circumstances, aircraft
buffet may occur before the stick shaker activates.
Accomplish and/or review the THREE Cs before performing stall maneuvers. The THREE Cs
may be accomplished in any order and are not required between individual maneuvers if flown in
a series.
CONFIGURATION: Put the aircraft in the appropriate configuration.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as required.
A clearing turn (approximately 180°) utilizing 30-60° angle of bank; 45° angle of bank
maximum in the landing configuration. Normally, turning stalls should be performed in the
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CHAPTER FIVE
same direction of the last clearing turn but can be adjusted as needed to remain within the
working area boundaries. Recovery from all stall maneuvers must be accomplished above
6000 feet AGL.
Stalls will be preceded by the stick shaker or airframe buffet (whichever occurs first), at which
point, recovery will be initiated. However, during some training maneuvers you will practice
full stalls (nose pitches down) before initiating recovery. This is done, not to foster a complacent
attitude towards stalls, but to build skill and confidence in the recovery procedures. Obviously,
if a stall warning (i.e., stick shaker) is encountered at any time other than during stall practice,
you will initiate recovery immediately.
3.
Procedures. Refer to procedures in this chapter.
4.
Common Errors.
Not recovering at the first indication of stall.
515. ENERGY MANAGEMENT
1.
Description. Planning a sortie profile that allows maneuvers to be accomplished in an
order that optimizes time and energy.
2.
General. Energy level is defined by airspeed (kinetic energy) and altitude (potential
energy) and is manipulated with power, drag, and G-loading. Plan maneuvers in an order that
minimize the requirement for deliberate energy changes, and make use of the inherent energy
gaining or losing properties of individual maneuvers.
a.
Altitude And Airspeed Exchange. Potential energy (altitude) and kinetic energy
(airspeed) can be traded. For example, 1,000 feet of altitude equals approximately 50
knots of airspeed with the canopy bow on the horizon and maximum power.
b.
Optimum Energy Level. In a typical MOA, optimum energy level for aerobatic
maneuvering is 180 to 200 KIAS at an altitude midway between the top and bottom
area limits. Energy is sufficient for any aerobatic maneuver after an airspeed or
altitude exchange to meet briefed entry parameters.
c.
Losing Energy. Energy may be decreased with low power settings, increased drag
(speed brake), or increased AOA (G-loading). A simple way to lose energy is to
perform a constant airspeed descent until the desired energy level is reached.
d.
Gaining Energy. Energy gain is enhanced with low AOA (avoid flight near zero-G)
and high power. The best method to gain energy is a climb at 140 to 160 KIAS with
MAX power.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
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e.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Energy Planning. Constant awareness of total energy state aides in correct maneuver
selection and effective profile management, which allows a smooth flow between
maneuvers with minimum delay.
516. SLOW FLIGHT (SCATSAFE) MANEUVER
1.
Description. The slow flight maneuver is designed to develop your ability to fly the
aircraft in a near-stalled condition.
2.
General. This maneuver will be demonstrated by the instructor and then flown by the
student. Every takeoff and landing you make requires you to operate the aircraft at low airspeed.
During training, students are taught "flight at minimum controllable airspeed" so they may learn
the effect that airspeed has on aircraft performance and controllability.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: At a safe altitude (complete maneuver above 6,000 feet
AGL), slow the aircraft below 150 KIAS and configure with the landing gear down.
b.
CHECKLIST: Perform the Before Landing Checklist and the Pre-Stalling,
Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist over the ICS.
c.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
d.
Lower landing (LDG) flaps. Continue reducing airspeed to approximately 80 KIAS
(15 units AOA), while setting approximately 45% torque.
NOTE
The stick shaker may be on throughout the demo.
Demonstrate the following aircraft flight characteristics:
S - Straight and Level. During operation on the back side of the power curve, increased AOA
results in increased drag and a stall if not carefully flown. Note the pitch attitude, torque, and
rudder deflection required to maintain straight-and-level flight. This is the sight picture a pilot
should see at rotation during takeoff or just prior to touchdown during landing.
C - Coordination Exercise. Conduct a series of left and right turns, using 15-20° angle of bank.
Keep the ball centered using coordinated rudder. Approximately two inches of right rudder is
required to maintain straight-and-level, coordinated flight. Right turns require approximately
twice the rudder deflection to maintain coordination. Left turns require approximately one-half
inch of right rudder to maintain coordination.
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CHAPTER FIVE
A - Adverse Yaw. Lack of coordinated rudder during a turn results in weaving or “S-ing” on
final. Select two points, one directly in front of the aircraft and one approximately 20° to the
right of the nose. Without applying rudder, initiate a rapid right turn with 20° bank. Note the
initial tendency of the nose to yaw left. After approximately 20° of turn, roll out rapidly without
using rudder. The nose continues past the selected roll out point then comes back. Next, initiate
a right turn, using coordinated rudder. Notice that the nose immediately tracks in a coordinated
manner. After 20° of turn, roll out using properly coordinated rudder and note that the nose
stops on the selected rollout point.
T - Torque and Turns. The T-6B initially tends to pitch up, yaw, and roll left if positive control
is not maintained during full power takeoffs and landings. To demonstrate this, quickly increase
power to MAX from straight-and-level, coordinated slow-flight and release the controls. The
nose tracks up, yaws, and rolls left, and approaches a stall. Recover from the buffet, prior to
stall. Reestablish slow-flight and increase power to MAX again. This time, hold proper takeoff
pitch and apply coordinated rudder to maintain a proper nose track. Positive control of the
aircraft ensures safe takeoffs, touch-and-go landings, and go-arounds.
S - Steep Turns. High angles of bank at slow airspeeds increase stall speed and cause rapid turn
rates. Slowly increase bank towards 60° while adding power and back pressure to maintain level
flight. Look at a point on the ground and watch the wingtip appear to pivot around the selected
point. The AOA quickly increases, progressing into a stall. Roll out of the bank to recover from
the impending stall.
A - Abrupt Control Movement. Fixation on the aim point during landing can cause an abrupt
flare. Late recognition of the rapidly approaching runway causes the pilot to abruptly raise the
nose of the aircraft, causing an approach-to-stall condition, a hard landing, or both. The stick
shaker activates, but there is no decrease in sink rate. To demonstrate this, abruptly apply backstick pressure to 20° nose-high to simulate snatching the control stick in the flare. The AOA
rapidly increases and the aircraft progresses towards a full stall. Release backpressure to
recover. To avoid this condition on landing, view the total landing environment and apply
controls in a smooth, positive manner.
F - Flap Retraction. Flap retraction prior to the recommended airspeeds causes the aircraft to
lose lift and develop a sink rate. From straight-and-level coordinated slow-flight, raise the flaps
from LDG to UP without pausing at the TO position. While retracting the flaps, increase the
pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Initially airspeed increases (due to reduced drag as flaps begin
to retract), but as flaps retract towards UP, the AOA increases and a stall results. Recover from
the stall by selecting LDG flaps.
E - Effectiveness of Controls. Rapid control inputs, especially in the flare, often do not give the
aircraft sufficient time to respond. Move the ailerons with small, rapid movements. Notice that
even with aileron movement, there is little effect on heading or bank during slow-flight. In slowflight, smooth, positive inputs are required to effectively control the aircraft as there is less
airflow over the control surfaces at slow airspeeds.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
5-23
CHAPTER FIVE
4.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Common Errors.
a.
Abrupt control movements.
b.
Failure to clear area during maneuver.
c.
Failure to maintain altitude.
d.
Failure to use adequate trim.
517. POWER-ON-STALLS
1.
Description. Stall the aircraft in a power-on condition to demonstrate the proper recovery
when power is available.
2.
General. Proper recognition and recovery of an aerodynamic stall with minimum loss of
altitude. Aircraft pitch and bank angle will be held constant until control effectiveness is lost,
indicated by uncommanded nose drop or unplanned rolling motion. To recover, RELAX backstick pressure to break the stall, and select MAX power. Simultaneously LEVEL the wings and
center the BALL. The maneuver is complete when the aircraft has established a positive rate of
climb. An entry speed of 150 KIAS results in about 1500-2000 feet altitude gain.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Establish the aircraft in the clean configuration. Complete
maneuver above 6,000 feet AGL.
b.
CHECKLIST: Perform the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checks.
c.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and
clearing turns as required.
d.
Straight-Ahead Stall. Adjust the PCL to 30-60% torque. Raise the nose to a pitch
attitude between 15-40°.
e.
Maintain attitude using increasing back pressure. Keep the wings level with
coordinated rudder and aileron. Initiate recovery when control effectiveness is lost.
An uncommanded nose drop despite increased backpressure or an uncommanded
rolling motion indicates loss of control effectiveness. Do not attempt to maintain
pitch attitude or bank angle after control effectiveness is lost. Full back-stick may not
occur before recovery is required. Emphasize observation of aircraft handling
characteristics during recovery from the stall and not the exact point where the full
stall is reached.
5-24 FLIGHT PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
4.
CHAPTER FIVE
f.
Recovery. Simultaneously RELAX back-stick forces as necessary to break the stall,
advance the PCL to MAX, use coordinated rudder and aileron to LEVEL the wings,
and center the BALL. Avoid excessive or abrupt rudder movements during recovery
phase. As AOA decreases and stall is broken, positive pressure is felt in the controls.
At lower pitch attitudes (between 15 and 30°), the aircraft stalls at a higher airspeed
and regains flying airspeed faster. At higher pitch attitudes (between 30 and 40°), the
stall speed is slower and a greater pitch reduction is necessary to regain flying
airspeed.
g.
Use maximum AOA to minimize altitude loss (14-17.9 units AOA). Avoid a
secondary stall (indicated by upward nose track stopping despite increasing back
pressure on the control stick). A secondary stall is an accelerated stall that occurs
after a partial recovery from a preceding stall. It is caused by attempting to hasten a
stall recovery when the aircraft has not regained sufficient flying speed. Recovery is
complete when the aircraft is wings level with a positive rate of climb.
h.
Turning Stall. Setup is the same as the straight-ahead stall, except 20-30° of bank in
either direction is added. Hold the bank angle with rudder and aileron pressure until
control effectiveness is lost. Recovery is the same as for the straight-ahead stall. A
precision entry is not as important as proper recognition and recovery from the stall.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to maintain a constant pitch or bank attitude prior to loss of control
effectiveness.
b.
Failure to recognize loss of control effectiveness (early/late initiation of recovery).
c.
Failure to recognize when the stall has been broken (early/late initiation of recovery
to level flight).
d.
Failure to minimize altitude loss during recovery. Recovering with less than 14-17.9
units AOA.
e.
Entering a secondary stall during the recovery.
518. POWER-OFF STALL (ELP STALL)
1.
Description. Stall the aircraft in a power-off condition to demonstrate the proper recovery
when no power is available.
2.
General. Power–off stalls are flown to practice recovery from potentially dangerous low
airspeed conditions prior to high key and during the ELP. Power off stalls could occur, for
example, during a dead engine glide to high key when the pilot gets distracted and fails to
maintain proper flying speed. Speed may decrease for various reasons, including inattention,
task saturation, and attempts to stretch the glide to regain profile.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
Before starting this maneuver, ensure you have plenty of airspace below you, as you will lose at
least 1500 feet during the recovery, and will probably lose another 1000-2000 while setting up
your dead engine glide. Best glide speed in the clean configuration is approximately 125 KIAS
with a sink rate of 1350 to 1500 feet per minute. Pay close attention to the nose attitude and
flight characteristics of the airplane when flying the power-off, best glide speed. After the
recovery, you will return to this attitude and airspeed to complete the maneuver.
3.
4.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Establish the aircraft in the slow cruise configuration (150
KIAS).
b.
CHECKLIST: Perform the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checks.
c.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required..
d.
Roll wings level, reduce power to 4-6% torque and begin decelerating towards best
glide speed, 125 KIAS.
e.
As airspeed approaches 125 KIAS, lower nose to the 125-knot glide attitude (horizon
bisecting windscreen). Crosscheck VSI for 1350 – 1500 feet per minute sink rate.
Re-trim and stabilize.
f.
Simulate High Key and lower landing gear; Re-trim for 120-knot glide and
commence 15-20o AOB turn to low key; Re-trim. Complete the Before Landing
Checklist, then raise the pitch attitude slightly (approximately level-flight turn picture)
and allow airspeed to decay until the first indication of impending stall (airframe stall
buffet or stick shaker).
g.
Maintain the turn or profile ground track and recover by lowering the pitch attitude
to put the prop arc on the horizon (~ 8o nose low) until 120 KIAS is regained.
Altitude loss is approximately 800 feet.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to recognize an approach to stall indication.
b.
Lowering the nose too far, resulting in excessive loss of altitude.
519. LANDING PATTERN (APPROACH TURN) STALL
1.
Description. Proper recognition of and recovery from approach to stall conditions in the
landing pattern. Training emphasis is on recognition of approach-to-stall indications and
appropriate recovery procedures. However, much like power-on stalls, the smoother the entry,
the cleaner the stall.
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CHAPTER FIVE
2.
General. In the landing pattern, unrecoverable stall or sink rate situations can occur before
indications become obvious. If a stall indication occurs in the landing pattern, disregard ground
track, and recover as described below. If in the pattern, do not hesitate to eject if recovery
appears unlikely. Landing pattern (Approach Turn) stalls may be practiced in either direction
and in any flap configuration.
3.
Procedures.
Landing Pattern (Approach Turn) Stall
a.
CONFIGURATION: Establish the aircraft in the appropriate downwind
configuration (120 KIAS gear down, flaps as required).
b.
CHECKLIST: Perform the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist and the
Before Landing Checklist.
c.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
d.
Simulate the transition near the abeam position IAW Contact FTI landing pattern
procedures. Power should be approximately 14/15/18% torque respectively, airspeed
120/115/110 KIAS, trimmed in a descending 30o AOB turn to simulate the approach
turn to final.
e.
Once stabilized on airspeed 120/115/110 KIAS in the simulated approach turn, raise
the nose to 5-10 degrees nose high, and then reduce power to idle. Adjust ailerons to
maintain AOB between 20-45 degrees, and increase back stick pressure to hold the
pitch attitude.
f.
At first indication of stall, stick shaker or airframe buffet, recover with minimal
altitude loss.
Landing Attitude Stall
a.
CONFIGURATION: Establish a simulated final approach at 5 to 10 knots above
final approach airspeed commensurate with flap setting.
b.
CHECKLIST: Perform the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist and the
Before Landing Checklist.
c.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
5-27
CHAPTER FIVE
d.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Retard the PCL to idle and execute a simulated landing transition. Hold the landing
attitude constant until an approach to stall indication occurs. Recover on approach to
stall indication, which is activation of the stick shaker or aircraft buffet, whichever
occurs first. Recovery is similar to the Landing Pattern (Approach Turn) Stall.
Recovery
For all Landing Pattern (Approach Turn) stalls, recover at approach to stall indication; either
activation of the stick shaker or aircraft buffet, whichever occurs first. Do not enter a full stall!
Use RELAX, MAX, LEVEL, BALL to recover.
a.
RELAX. Relax back-stick pressure slightly to decrease AOA and break the stall (do
not dump the nose).
b.
MAX. Power to MAX.
c.
LEVEL. Level the wings to the horizon, and then establish a positive climbing
attitude. Use 14-17.9 units AOA for maximum performance.
d.
BALL. Apply right rudder as necessary to center the balance ball.
Recovery is complete when the aircraft is wings level and safely climbing.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to maintain angle of bank during the entry. The aircraft will have a tendency
to continue rolling past 30º to 45 angle of bank. In addition, with increasing angle of
bank, the nose will have a tendency to drop.
b.
Releasing instead of relaxing back-stick pressure, or applying forward stick pressure
on recovery, thus resulting in a nose low attitude and excessive altitude loss.
c.
Not relaxing back-stick pressure enough, causing the aircraft to remain stalled.
d.
Cycling rudders in an attempt to keep the ball centered before flying speed is attained.
e.
Delay in raising the nose to the recovery attitude to stop the altitude loss.
f.
Failure to add sufficient power on recovery.
520. SLIP
1.
Description. A slip is an out-of-balance flight condition used to increase the sink rate and
lose excess altitude while maintaining a constant airspeed and a specific track over the ground.
5-28 FLIGHT PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER FIVE
2.
General. A slip occurs when the aircraft slides sideways towards the center of the turn. It
is caused by an insufficient amount of rudder in relation to the amount of aileron and the angle of
bank used. If you roll into a turn without using coordinated rudder and aileron, or if you hold
rudder against the turn after it has been established, the aircraft will slide sideways towards the
center of the turn. A slip may also occur in straight-and-level flight if one wing is allowed to
drag; that is, flying with one wing low, and holding the nose of the aircraft straight by the use of
rudder pressure. In this case, the aircraft slips downward towards the earth’s surface and loses
altitude. In a full slip, the rate of descent may be in excess of 2000 feet per minute.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Although the slip can be flown at any airspeed or configuration, it will normally be
demonstrated and introduced at altitude simulating the slip to high key at 125 KIAS,
clean configuration. Slips may also be demonstrated at 120 KIAS with gear
down/flaps as required.
NOTE
Caution must be exercised, since stall speed is increased in this
out-of-balance flight condition.
b.
To initiate a slip from wings level, lower one wing while applying opposite (top)
rudder pressure. Select a reference point on the horizon and adjust rudder pressure
and/or angle of bank to maintain the desired ground track. Full rudder deflection is
not required during a slip. If full rudder deflection is used, remain below 150 KIAS.
Use caution if electing to slip with gear down, especially low to the ground.
c.
To initiate a slip while in a turn, lower the inboard wing while increasing opposite
(top) rudder pressure. It will be necessary to vary the angle of bank and rudder
pressure to maintain the desired track over the ground.
d.
Monitor airspeed closely, adjust nose attitude as necessary to maintain 125 KIAS.
Monitor the VSI and note increased rate of descent.
NOTE
The low-fuel warning light for the low-wing tank may illuminate
regardless of fuel state.
e.
To recover from the slip, smoothly roll the wings towards level while reducing rudder
pressure. Remember, the slip must be taken out with enough altitude remaining to
slow the rate of descent and ensure positive control of the aircraft during the final
moments of any maneuver in which it is used.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
5-29
CHAPTER FIVE
4.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Common Errors.
a.
Improper application of rudder, resulting in a skid.
b.
Poor airspeed control. Remember, nose attitude still controls airspeed.
c.
Not varying angle of bank or rudder pressure to maintain desired track over ground.
d.
Rough entry and recovery control applications.
521. SPIN
1.
Description. Two primary factors must be present for an aircraft to spin; stalled AOA and
yaw (rotation about the vertical axis).
2.
General. Spins are taught to increase your situational awareness and confidence in
extreme unusual attitudes and out-of-control flight (OCF) conditions. Practice spins to the
left and right. The spin entry is straightforward and procedural; the spin entry is not a finesse
maneuver. It requires full back stick (ailerons neutral), fully deflected rudder, and idle power.
We practice spins for the same reason we practice stalls. Stalls and spins are not normal flight
maneuvers, but they can occur during flight, and only through practice can they be recognized
rapidly and recovered from instinctively and reflexively by making the mechanical flight control
inputs necessary.
Spins are generally performed only for air shows and training, but in WWI spins were used to
descend through a cloud layer safely. With no flight instruments, early aviators who tried to fly
through the clouds could easily get vertigo and enter a spiral with rapidly increasing airspeed that
(when exceeding Vne) resulted in destruction of the plane and the aviator. A solution was to
enter a spin, descend down through the clouds, and hope you had enough altitude and visibility
after breaking out to recover safely. With technology and instrumentation, this maneuver is no
longer needed to descend through a cloud layer.
An airplane’s design is a compromise between stability and maneuverability. Modern civilian
general aviation and transport planes are designed with stability in mind, and although not spinproof, are usually difficult to spin. Very few modern trainers are certified for spins. Military
fighter and attack aircraft, however, are designed for maneuverability and performance. These
high performance planes have poor stall characteristics and can depart from controlled flight
readily and violently during high G and high AOA maneuvering. A departure usually begins
with a stall and can then involve a pitch-up, nose slice, pitch-roll coupling, pitch-yaw coupling or
some other type of post-stall gyration, resulting in a spin/out-of-control situation. To
successfully recover, the pilot has to immediately assess what is going on and put in the proper
control inputs to affect recovery. If the aircraft will not recover, the pilot needs to recognize it in
ample time to eject safely.
5-30 FLIGHT PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER FIVE
For these reasons, spin training is started early in a Student Naval Aviator’s primary flight
training. Spins are confidence builders for a student. They build confidence in his or her own
ability to maintain orientation and reflexively apply proper recovery controls. They also build
his or her confidence in the ability of the airplane to respond to specific flight control inputs and
regain normal flight. Even in our relatively stable training plane, an incipient spin can develop
with improper or heavy-handed flight control inputs during stall training or aerobatic maneuvers.
A snap roll, such as you see in air shows, is simply a spin while flying horizontally (performed
by abruptly pulling back-stick to stall the wing and kicking rudder in the direction of the desired
roll). Instructors Under Training perform fully developed spins and progressive spins to more
fully investigate the spin characteristics of the T-6B, because they will be doing a lot of
intentional spins (and perhaps some unintentional ones!) during their tour in the training
command.
A spin progresses through three phases: post-stall gyrations, incipient spin, and steady state
spin. The aircraft progresses from one phase to the next as long as pro-spin controls are
applied. Failure to promptly apply proper recovery procedures during the first stages
eventually results in a steady state spin. It is important to understand the recovery method
required in each phase.
NOTE
Spins shall be practiced in the clean configuration. In the event
of an unintentional spin with gear and flaps down, they shall be
retracted immediately to prevent possible damage by exceeding
their speed limitations.
a.
Post-stall Gyrations: A post-stall gyration can usually be identified by
uncommanded (and often rapid) aircraft motions about any axis, a feeling that the
controls are no longer effective nor acting in the normal sense, stalled or nearstalled angle of attack, transient or erratic airspeed indications, and random turn
needle deflection. In order to recover from post-stall gyrations, execute the
INADVERTENT DEPARTURE FROM CONTROLLED FLIGHT Procedure.
b.
Incipient Spin: Incipient spins are the spin-like motion that occurs between a poststall gyration and a fully developed spin. An incipient spin can be identified by an
oscillatory spin-like motion, a fully deflected turn needle, a stalled angle of attack,
and airspeed that is accelerating or decelerating toward the steady-state value. The
incipient spin phase lasts approximately 2 turns. After completing the initial turn,
the nose will pitch to approximately 60o below the horizon, with pitch attitude
becoming oscillatory. In order to recover from the incipient spin, execute the
INADVERTENT DEPARTURE FROM CONTROLLED FLIGHT Procedure.
c.
Steady State Spin: After completing approximately 3 turns, the spin will have
entered a near steady-state condition. Spin rotation rates will stabilize to
approximately 2 to 3 seconds per turn with altitude loss of 400 to 500 feet per turn.
The angle of attack will be 18+ and airspeed will stabilize at 120 to 135 KIAS. The
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
5-31
CHAPTER FIVE
PRIMARY CONTACT
turn needle will be fully deflected in the direction of the spin. When performing
spins to the left, the pilot may notice some differences in pitch attitude and
magnitude of pitch, roll, and yaw oscillations. Spins in either direction may exhibit
roll and yaw oscillations after 3 turns with neutral ailerons. Recover from a steady
state spin by using NATOPS erect spin recovery procedures.
NOTE
All spin maneuvers shall be done with a clearly defined horizon,
clear of clouds. Spin maneuvers may be performed over an
undercast cloud layer that does not exceed 4,500 ft. AGL.
NOTE
Ailerons have pronounced effect on spin characteristics. With
ailerons held in the direction of spin rotation, roll and yaw become
noticeably oscillatory. With ailerons held full opposite to direction
of spin rotation, roll and yaw oscillations are damped out and the
spin appears to reach steady-state in all axes. You will keep
ailerons neutral for all spin training in the T-6B.
3.
Procedures
a.
Intentional Spin Entry
i.
CONFIGURATION: Establish and trim the aircraft in slow cruise
configuration (150 KIAS). Trim will remain constant throughout the
maneuver. Start the maneuver at an altitude so that the spin itself is entered
below 22,000 feet MSL, and recovered before 10,000 feet MSL. Minimum
entry altitude is 13,500 feet MSL.
ii.
CHECKLIST: Perform the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist.
iii.
CLEAR AREA: Sufficiently clear the working area. Since considerable
altitude will be lost in the spin, be sure that the area below is clear of other
aircraft or clouds. TCAS “Below” mode may be used to aid clearing area
below.
iv.
Roll out of the clearing turn, reducing the power setting to idle.
v.
Check the wings level and smoothly raise the nose (on the PFD) to 30º above
the horizon. When the gear warning horn activates, SNA shall acknowledge the
warning horn, however the IP shall silence the horn prior to spin entry.
vi.
At the stick shaker, lead the stall with a slight amount of rudder in the
desired direction of spin. Spins will be conducted in same direction as the
last half of the clearing turn.
5-32 FLIGHT PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER FIVE
vii. When the aircraft stalls (recognized by the nose pitching down), smoothly
apply full rudder in the direction of spin and full back-stick. Do not use
aileron in the entry or during the spin. Call out altitude, AOA, airspeed, turn
needle deflection/direction.
b.
Incipient Spin Recovery
Upon recognition of an incipient spin by stalled AOA, airspeed that is accelerating
or decelerating toward the steady-state value, and turn needle fully deflected in
direction of spin, initiate the INADVERTENT DEPARTURE FROM
CONTROLLED FLIGHT Procedure, in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual. The incipient spin phase lasts approximately 2 turns.
PCL – IDLE
CONTROLS – NEUTRAL
ALTITUDE – CHECK
RECOVER FROM UNUSUAL ATTITUDE
NOTE
When positioning the controls to neutral, it is not uncommon to
mistakenly position the elevator slightly aft of neutral. If the
aircraft is not recovering as expected, slowly feed in forward stick
until the neutral elevator position is reached and the aircraft
recovers.
NOTE
If spin develops into steady state spin, then the IP should give
consideration to altitude loss and working area restrictions and
recover by using NATOPS erect spin recovery procedures.
c.
Steady-State Spin Recovery
i.
At spin entry, scan inside the cockpit to verify sufficient altitude for
recovery, stalled AOA, airspeed stabilized 120 to 135 KIAS and turn needle
fully deflected in direction of spin, respectively.
ii.
After verifying stabilized spin indications, initiate the recovery from the spin
by first applying full rudder opposite to the direction of rotation. Follow
immediately with smooth, positive forward stick to a position forward of
neutral. Do not use ailerons! A common error is unintentionally placing the
stick in the neutral or slightly aft of neutral position.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
5-33
CHAPTER FIVE
iii.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Hold the controls in position until the rotation stops, and then recover with a
minimum of loss of altitude.
(a). Neutralize the controls
(b). Level the wings by referencing the horizon.
(c). Commence a smooth pullout. Use sufficient G during pullout to
maintain lower working area boundaries. Avoid secondary stalls and do
not exceed G limitations.
4.
iv.
Continue the pullout until the nose is positioned to the level flight attitude.
Recover with a minimum loss of altitude. Emphasis is on smooth control inputs.
v.
Check and report oil pressure (minimum of 90 psi).
vi.
Add power as required.
Common Errors.
a.
Not reducing power to idle after rolling wings level from the clearing turn.
b.
Becoming disoriented by looking outside and delaying initiation of recovery.
c.
Not neutralizing the controls as the rotation stops.
d.
Commencing the pullout too rapidly and/or too early, resulting in a secondary stall.
e.
Insufficient G pull on recovery, resulting in inadvertently exiting lower working
area boundaries.
f.
Not checking the oil pressure, late in adding power when level, and not reporting
oil pressure to the instructor.
g.
Inadvertently placing the stick aft of neutral, delaying or preventing recovery.
.
5-34 FLIGHT PROCEDURES
CHAPTER SIX
LANDING PROCEDURES
600. INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses the procedures and operations required for the T-6B to enter, land, and
depart the landing pattern.
601. LANDING PATTERN
The landing pattern is a geometric racetrack-shaped course flown so that an approach and
landing may be executed in a systematic sequence. The landing line, the upwind leg, and the
parallel downwind leg form the sides of the racetrack pattern. These lines are joined together by
the crosswind turn and by the approach turn at the downwind end of the pattern. For purposes of
clarity in this instruction, the landing pattern will be subdivided into three parts: the pattern,
approach, and landing.
602. LANDING PATTERN TERMINOLOGY
1.
Visual Wing References
a.
Wingtip distance:
Wingtip bisecting the intended point.
b.
¾ Wingtip distance:
Where the orange meets the white on the wing leading
edge.
c.
⅔ Wingtip distance:
Fuel cap.
d.
¼ Wingtip distance:
Where the canopy rail visually bisects the wing.
2.
Initial Point. A point over the ground at the appropriate distance from the runway as
specified by the local SOP. At this point the aircraft shall be at the altitude and airspeed specified
by the local SOP.
3.
Break. An overhead transition from cruise to the downwind configuration. The break is
basically a LSC conducted while in a turn.
4.
Break Altitude. Consult local SOP or Course Rules.
5.
Pattern Interval. Determine the number of aircraft and visually acquire each aircraft to
determine the proper interval. You have "interval" when any of the following conditions occur:
a.
The aircraft ahead of you is abeam or behind your wingtip AND has completed at
least 90º of turn.
b.
The aircraft ahead has departed in accordance with local SOP or course rules.
LANDING PROCEDURES
6-1
CHAPTER SIX
PRIMARY CONTACT
c.
At a tower-controlled field, the above conditions are met, AND you are cleared by the
controller.
d.
If the preceding aircraft is a full stop or you are a break aircraft, the proper interval for
breaking behind another T-6 is 45º behind your wingtip. Other break intervals are
specified by local SOP.
NOTE
If following an aircraft conducting AOA approaches, your
instructor will judge the proper interval for the crosswind turn.
6.
Upwind. The extended runway centerline past the departure end.
7.
Downwind. That portion of the racetrack pattern offset from the runway in the opposite
direction of landing.
8.
Crosswind Turn. The turn between upwind and downwind.
9.
Abeam. The position in the racetrack pattern opposite the intended point of landing at
pattern altitude.
10.
180º Position. The position in the racetrack pattern opposite the intended rollout point.
11. 90º Position. The bisector between the 180 and intended rollout point. The aircraft should
be 450 feet AGL (or ½ the pattern altitude in feet AGL) and perpendicular to the runway.
Airspeed is dependent on the type of approach. (Civilian equivalent: Base Leg)
12. Final. The extended centerline of the runway with 1200-1500 feet of straightaway from
the rollout point to the runway threshold at an altitude between 100-150 feet AGL. Airspeed is
dependent on the type of approach.
13. Intended Point of Landing. This is the point on the runway where you intend for the
aircraft to touch down and allows you to stop the aircraft within the remaining length of the
runway. Intended Point of Landing is normally 500 feet past the runway threshold, or as defined
by local SOP. The Intended Point of landing may be changed as needed to account for unusual
runway conditions such as a raised barrier or a displaced threshold.
14. Touchdown Zone. This is an area from the intended point of landing extending to 500
feet beyond that point. Strive to make all landings in the Touchdown Zone. Safe landings may
be made outside the touchdown zone, either prior to the Intended Point of Landing or past the
Touchdown Zone. If unable to execute a safe landing (within the first 1/3 of the runway or as
determined by local SOP), WAVE OFF.
15. Aimpoint. The aimpoint is a reference point at the approach end of the runway (usually
the runway threshold) used to fly the aircraft down final approach. It is the point at the end of
6-2
LANDING PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER SIX
the aircraft’s glidepath where the transition to landing should commence. It is not the intended
point of landing. The aimpoint should remain fixed in the windscreen on final approach when
the aircraft is on speed and altitude. Stable airspeed, proper glide path, and a fixed aimpoint
provide the consistency required for successful landing.
16. The Extended Runway Centerline. The extended runway centerline is the line over
which the aircraft should track while on the final approach to landing.
17. Departure Interval. You are number one for departure when past the departure end of
the runway (or as defined by local SOP), flaps up, and the aircraft upwind has either initiated
the crosswind turn or raised the landing gear to depart.
NOTE
In order to depart, you do not have to be number one with
interval, but you must be number one upwind. There is a
difference!
603. OUTLYING FIELD ENTRY
1.
Description. The outlying field entry (OFE) is a series of uniform procedures by which
aircraft enter the landing pattern.
2.
General. Since numerous (5-10) aircraft may be using the same outlying field (OLF)
simultaneously, it is absolutely necessary that each aircraft conform to the same systematic
pattern and standard operating procedures for safety and efficiency.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Determine the duty runway.
b.
Fly to establish the aircraft at the appropriate initial point. At this point the aircraft
shall be:
i.
on extended runway centerline and on runway heading.
ii.
wings level.
iii.
at break altitude (see local SOP).
iv.
airspeed in accordance with local SOP.
c.
When at the initial point, make the appropriate radio call.
d.
Fly from the initial point towards the runway maintaining altitude and airspeed,
visually locate pattern traffic, and obtain wind information
LANDING PROCEDURES
6-3
CHAPTER SIX CHANGE 1
4.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Common Errors.
a.
Not selecting the appropriate outlying field channel.
b.
Not positioning the aircraft for the correct runway.
c.
Incorrect voice report.
d.
Not properly established at initial point.
e.
Not establishing the proper break interval.
f.
Continuing inbound for the break without two-way communications with the RDO.
604. THE BREAK
1.
Description. The break is a procedure to transition the aircraft from normal cruise
configuration to the landing configuration and position the aircraft on the downwind leg
(Figure 6-1).
2.
General. The following procedures will prepare the aircraft for landing at a field.
3.
Procedures.
6-4
a.
Establish the proper interval in accordance with local course rules.
b.
With interval, execute the break in accordance with local SOP.
c.
Clear in the direction of turn, then roll into a 45º-60o AOB turn, reduce power (idle to
~10% torque), extend speed brake as required and maintain altitude. AOB and
back-stick pressure will vary with wind conditions. Trim for deceleration.
d.
Verbally confirm airspeed below 150 KIAS on the ICS. Lower the landing gear after
the IP has acknowledged the airspeed call. “Below 150, Gear,” is the challenge, and
“Clear” is the response.
e.
Halfway through the break turn, adjust the angle of bank to establish a ¾ - 1 wingtip
distance on downwind.
f.
Slow to 120 KIAS, maintaining break altitude, trimming right rudder and up elevator
for deceleration.
g.
Approaching 130 KIAS, retract the speed brake if extended, lower the nose and
descend at 120 KIAS to pattern altitude (as directed by local SOP). No sooner than
wings level on downwind, lower the flaps to the desired setting.
LANDING PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHANGE 1 CHAPTER SIX
Figure 6-1 Landing Pattern
h.
Level off at pattern altitude using the P.A.T. principle:
Power. Approximately 31/42/52% torque for NF/TF/LF setting.
Attitude. Stop the descent by initially setting a slightly nose-up attitude immediately
followed by the 120 KIAS level flight attitude.
Trim. Re-trim.
i.
4.
Once established on downwind with the flaps at the desired setting, conduct the
Before Landing Checklist.
Common Errors.
a.
Not establishing proper interval.
LANDING PROCEDURES
6-5
CHAPTER SIX CHANGE 1
PRIMARY CONTACT
b.
Poor attitude/altitude control in turn.
c.
Not trimming right/up for deceleration.
d.
Not maintaining break altitude until reaching 120 KIAS.
e.
Descending below pattern altitude once established on downwind.
605. LANDING PATTERN
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. The pattern is the portion that commences with the break, the takeoff
following a touch-and-go or wave-off, and ends at the commencement of the approach
turn (Figure 6–1). The following will be observed in the pattern:
a.
30º AOB is desired with 45º AOB as the maximum. If a turn of greater than 45o AOB
is required; wave-off.
b.
120 KIAS with gear down and flaps up during upwind and crosswind. Configure and
complete the Before Landing Checklist once established on downwind. Trim.
c.
Crosswind should not normally be initiated until past the departure end of the
runway with interval. Comply with local SOP.
606. APPROACH
1.
Description. Make a descending 180º balanced turn to final in the No-flap, TO-flap, or
LDG-flap configuration.
2.
General. The approach is the portion that commences at the 180º position and ends with
a full stop landing, touch-and-go, or wave-off. This type of approach develops the student’s
judgment and ability to control airspeed with nose attitude and rate of descent with power,
while tracking a prescribed pattern over the ground under varying wind conditions. It develops
consistency in landing the aircraft on or near the intended point of landing.
NOTE
Pattern interval will be established in the break or crosswind turn
and will not be corrected by variance of the approach from the 180
to final. If proper interval cannot be maintained: Wave off.
a.
6-6
Downwind. The downwind leg is flown at pattern altitude, at ¾ - 1 wingtip
distance (WTD) as required from the runway centerline at 120 KIAS. WTD
utilized on downwind should allow for a ~30o AOB turn to final, accounting for
winds and flap setting. Once established on downwind, lower the flaps as
LANDING PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHANGE 1 CHAPTER SIX
required and execute the Before Landing Checklist. Add power as required to
maintain 120 KIAS: No Flap ~ 31%, TO-flap ~ 42%, LDG- flap ~52%. Torque
settings utilized will vary based on aircraft weight. As power is added, right rudder
trim is required.
NOTE
In perfectly calm wind conditions, the downwind heading
(reciprocal of runway heading) will maintain the proper spacing
once a ¾ - 1 WTD has been established. However, this is not
true when a crosswind exists. If there is a crosswind, the
aircraft will have to be angled (crabbed) sufficiently into the
wind to prevent drifting into or away from the runway. It is not
uncommon to have to alter the downwind heading as much as
15º to maintain proper spacing abeam the runway.
b.
Transition. The actual position where the transition is initiated and torque settings
utilized will vary based on conditions such as winds, weight and aircraft
configuration in order to maintain airspeed. Initiate the transition no sooner than
when abeam the intended point of landing, but early enough to arrive at the 180
position with the proper approach speed and the aircraft in a trimmed condition.
Under calm wind conditions, the transition occurs approximately 4-7 seconds past
the intended point of landing. Begin the transition by reducing power smoothly
towards the desired power setting, setting the appropriate attitude, and trim left
rudder and up elevator. Torque settings are approximately 14/15/18% for Noflap/TO-flap/LDG- flap (NF/TF/LF) landings respectively. A no-flap landing will
not require a transition (power reduction) until the 180.
c.
The 180. This is the position on the downwind leg from which the approach turn
is commenced, and is the point opposite the intended rollout point. Upon reaching
the 180, commence the approach TURN by simultaneously lowering the nose to
the 120/115/110 KIAS (NF/TF/LF) approach attitude and smoothly turning toward
the 90º position. Due to the transition power reduction, lowering the nose is
necessary to capture the desired airspeed.
NOTE
At no time during the approach turn should you slow below
onspeed AOA (amber donut AOA indication). If at any time you
slow below onspeed AOA (green chevron AOA indication), trim
nose down and add power to increase airspeed. It is not uncommon
to require greater than 120 KIAS in the approach turn in the NF
configuration in order to prevent slowing below onspeed AOA.
The pitch attitude of the aircraft in a LDG-flap approach is lower than in a no-flap
approach. Initially a good sight-picture is 2/3 ground, 1/3 sky for a LDG-flap and
1/2 sky, 1/2 ground for a no-flap landing. The no-flap approach will typically
LANDING PROCEDURES
6-7
CHAPTER SIX
PRIMARY CONTACT
require a slightly steeper angle of bank and further power reduction to achieve the
proper racetrack pattern checkpoints. Maintain balanced flight. Re-trim as
necessary. Do not skid or slip the aircraft through the turn. One of the most
important concepts to understand is that every approach must be started from the
same relative position.
The runway is a landmark. Pilots are encouraged to look at it frequently. Also,
objects on the ground should be used as pattern checkpoints so as to fly the same
consistent path over the ground regardless of wind. When ground checkpoints
around the pattern are available, they can be used in getting to the final checkpoint,
the runway. The more experience you have, the more you will look out the canopy
to compensate for abnormal conditions.
After starting the approach turn:
i.
TALK, give appropriate 180 call in accordance with SOP.
ii.
Commence a comprehensive scan of instruments and external references.
Instruments:
Airspeed - Adjust attitude and trim to obtain proper airspeed.
VSI - Adjust power to ensure approximately 800 fpm descent.
AOB - Approximately 30 degrees (do not exceed 45 degrees).
Altimeter - Ensure aircraft will arrive at the 90 at 450’ AGL.
External:
Visualize an oval track over the ground that arrives on extended centerline
1,200-1,500 feet from the runway threshold, and fly that track. When available,
utilize landmarks for the 90.
When external cues are limited (at night, over water or low visibility), you will need
to increase the instrument scan.
d.
The 90. The 90º position is a fixed position at the midpoint of the approach turn at
which the aircraft’s heading is 90º from the runway heading. The aircraft should
pass through this position at 120/115/110 KIAS (NF/TF/LF) and 450 feet AGL or ½
the pattern altitude in feet AGL. (Figure 6-2).
Continue to fly the aircraft from the 90º position and anticipate a rate of turn which
will enable you to intercept the extended runway centerline with 1200-1500 feet of
straightaway from the threshold, 100-150 feet AGL, and wings level.
After the 90 position, begin to decelerate to the final approach speed of 110/105/100
KIAS (NF/TF/LF). If on profile at the 90º position, a slight power reduction will be
required in order to initiate deceleration once wings level on final. Trim left rudder
and nose up. Check and report on the ICS IAW local SOP.
6-8
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CHAPTER SIX
The need for corrections in the approach must be recognized as soon as possible and
the actual corrections must be small to avoid over correction. Although power
controls the rate of descent and the nose attitude controls the airspeed, it must be
remembered that the combination of attitude (nose and wing) and power work
together to produce aircraft performance. Any change in attitude (nose or wing) to
maintain the proper glidepath will require a corresponding change in power. No
written outline can effectively state all possible errors in a landing approach. The
procedures that are utilized to correct for deviations from the desired
altitude/airspeed are those learned on your first flight. Remember, the combination
of attitude and power work together to produce aircraft performance.
Figure 6-2 90° Position
e.
The "final" (or “groove”) is that final portion of the landing approach, beginning
at a point 1200-1500 feet from the runway threshold at an altitude of 100-150 feet
AGL where the aircraft is first aligned, wings-level and ends with the landing
transition. The length of the straightaway should provide 8-10 seconds prior to
landing (Figure 6-3).
The entire pattern to this point is designed to position the aircraft to intercept the
glideslope in the “groove.” The power and/or attitude must be adjusted and
readjusted in order to achieve and maintain a constant rate of descent, and also to
stabilize the glideslope “picture.” Power required will vary with wind conditions.
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Figure 6-3 The "Groove"
In order to fly a good approach, it is important to solve lineup problems early.
After rolling out on straightaway, if the centerline is not between your legs, correct
immediately and positively. Implement any required crosswind corrections to
maintain centerline using the wing-low, top rudder method described in the
crosswind section of this chapter. Following this correction, continue to scan
lineup, making small corrections as necessary. Do not ease yourself to centerline,
or a counter-correction will have to be made close to the touchdown point of the
runway.
Rolling wings level while aligning the airplane with the runway centerline, the nose
attitude should be maintained and a reduction in power (approximately 2-5% torque
depending on configuration and wind conditions) will be necessary to compensate for
the increase in lift. Slight adjustments in pitch, changes of nose attitude, and power
may be necessary to maintain the descent attitude while gradually decelerating.
When the nose attitude and airspeed have been stabilized, the airplane should be retrimmed to relieve the pressures on the controls. Do not slow below 110/105/100
KIAS or on speed AOA until commencing the landing transition. Crosscheck
airspeed with AOA. At higher aircraft weights, higher airspeeds may be required to
maintain no slower than on speed (amber donut) AOA indication.
To maintain a constant glideslope, it is necessary to maintain a fairly constant
airspeed and rate of descent. Given that the aircraft has a constant attitude for each
airspeed, power, and configuration combination, we will be able to reference the
nose position to glideslope and aimpoint. Mentally superimpose our symbolic
aircraft on the glideslope and you should see that by maintaining airspeed
(meticulously) and a constant sight picture of the aimpoint, you will maintain a
constant rate of descent to land in a predictable area of the runway.
If your airspeed is "locked on" and your aimpoint appears to be rising in the HUD/
windscreen, your aircraft is falling below the desired glideslope. Add power, raise
the nose to maintain airspeed and fly back up to the glideslope. Anticipate a slight
power reduction when back on glideslope and lower the nose to the approach
attitude to reestablish the rate of descent.
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Conversely, if your aimpoint disappears beneath the nose and airspeed is "locked
on," you have flown above the glideslope and need to reduce power. Lower the
nose, thereby increasing the rate of descent while maintaining airspeed. Anticipate a
slight power addition once reestablished on glideslope and readjust the nose attitude
to "set" the desired rate of descent (Figure 6-4).
Figure 6-4 Aimpoint
Balanced flight must be maintained throughout the approach. An unbalanced flight
condition increases the stalling speed, gives an erroneous impression of the flight
path of the aircraft, and may cause difficulty during the subsequent landing
transition, touchdown, and/or landing rollout. Fly the aircraft smoothly; avoid
sudden or erratic control movements. Remember, good basic airwork and proper
trim are mandatory in the approach. The proper amount of rudder and up elevator
trim will enable the aircraft to "fly itself" with very little control pressure. The key
to a good landing is a good approach.
f.
There are five general areas to consider in flying a good approach.
i.
SCAN. A rapid integrated scan pattern is a necessity. The scan includes the
landing environment, as well as scan of aircraft instruments for an accurate
appraisal of the pilot’s present situation. Anticipation of trends and early
corrections can then be made.
ii.
FUNNEL EFFECT. Because of the cone shape of the straightaway/groove,
large corrections may be made while far out, and small corrections in close.
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iii.
COUNTER-CORRECTION. For every correction that is made, there will
be a counter-correction necessary to achieve stability. The overall goal is to
achieve stability of attitude and rate of descent, and cross the runway at a
precise altitude on the centerline of the landing area. Stability of the above
factors must not be construed to mean that power and controls are necessarily
stable. Smoothness comes from recognizing errors early through a rapid
scan, and being able to make a small correction before the aircraft deviates
outside of the cone.
iv.
AIRSPEED AND AOA. Cross check airspeed with AOA. At higher aircraft
weights, higher airspeed may be required to prevent slowing below on-speed
AOA (amber donut) indication. Above 700 to 800 pounds of fuel,
approximately 3-5 knots above the 120/115/110 approach turn airspeeds may
be required. Be alert and halt excessive sink rates with coordinated power and
trim inputs. Heavy aircraft are less responsive to pitch and power changes,
and develop sink rates quicker than light aircraft.
v.
Gusty Wind Conditions. Increase the final approach airspeed by one-half
the gust factor, up to a 10 knot increase. Gusty winds do not affect final turn
airspeeds. Realize that the aircraft may float farther than normal in the flare
prior to touchdown due to the extra airspeed.
The glideslope (altitude) is controlled primarily with power, and the attitude/
airspeed primarily with the stick, but it cannot be overemphasized that there
must be a coordinated use of both in any correction. In analyzing a situation,
there are two basic elements to be considered: speed (either fast or slow) and
altitude (either high or low). There are many possible combinations of these
elements, which will compound the error analysis and correction. The
following is a list of the most common deviations and corrections to ensure the
"perfect approach," Figure 6-5.
(a). HIGH - To correct a high situation, reduce power slightly and lower
the nose to maintain airspeed with nose attitude. Power should be
reduced, because it is probably why the aircraft got high in the first
place. Do not reduce power excessively. DO NOT attempt to correct
for being high once over the runway. Attempting to do so will result in
a hard landing, which could cause structural damage to the aircraft.
(b). LOW - To correct a low situation, add power and raise the nose to
maintain airspeed. The nose attitude correction is vital. Attitude must
be adjusted if the correction is to be timely. Adding power alone will
merely accelerate the aircraft.
(c). FAST - To correct, reduce power slightly while simultaneously
applying slight backpressure on the stick. Readjust power when the
aircraft decelerates to the proper airspeed.
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CHANGE 1 CHAPTER SIX
(d). SLOW - Most importantly NEVER accept being Slow. To correct,
add power and apply forward pressure to the stick to increase airspeed.
Reduce power and readjust nose attitude when the aircraft reaches the
proper airspeed.
Figure 6-5 Glideslope Corrections
3.
Procedures.
a.
Downwind leg
i.
Once established on downwind, lower the flaps as required and perform the
Before Landing Checklist. Report the Before Landing Checklist complete over
the ICS.
ii.
Maintain proper downwind, parallel to the runway at ¾ - 1 wingtip distance,
pattern altitude, and 120 KIAS, using approximately 31% torque for NF, ~42%
T/O Flap, ~52% LDG Flap. TRIM.
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b.
PRIMARY CONTACT
No sooner than the abeam position, TRANSITION.
Reduce power as required – approximately 15/18% (TF/LF) respectively.
TRIM left rudder for the power reduction and nose up for deceleration.
c.
180º Position
i.
Opposite the intended rollout position, (if executing NF landing reduce power to
approximately 14%) simultaneously lower the nose approximately 2-3 degrees
to the NF/TF/LF approach attitude and capture 120/115/110 KIAS respectively.
ii.
TURN towards the 90º position using approximately 30o AOB.
iii.
TALK: Make appropriate radio transmission.
iv.
Make necessary corrections throughout the approach using power to control
rate of descent and nose attitude to control airspeed and AOA.
v.
Re-trim the aircraft throughout the approach.
vi.
Vary AOB and power as necessary to arrive at a proper 90º
position;120/115/110 KIAS, 450 feet AGL or ½ the pattern altitude in feet
AGL, perpendicular to the runway.
vii. Intercept the extended centerline with 110/105/100 KIAS, 1200-1500 feet of
straight away from the threshold, and 100-150 feet AGL, wings level.
d.
Final
i.
Maintain pitch attitude while making a slight power reduction. Aimpoint should
be about 1/2 way up the windscreen.
ii.
Maintain aimpoint (control stick) and glidepath (power).
iii.
Gradually decelerate using a very slight power reduction. Trim nose up slightly.
iv.
Maintain runway extended centerline using wing low and top rudder.
v.
Scan windsock to determine wind direction and velocity.
vi.
Visually check and verbally confirm gear down IAW local SOP.
vii. Do not slow below final airspeed until commencing the landing transition.
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Figure 6-6 Landing Pattern From Downwind Leg to Landing
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Not flying all checkpoints.
b.
Not maintaining the appropriate airspeed and altitude profile at the 90º and on final.
c.
Spotting the deck.
d.
Not checking RDO waveoff lights.
607. LANDINGS
1.
Description. Land smoothly on the main-mounts at the intended point of landing on
runway centerline.
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2.
General. Landing is divided into three phases: 1) Landing Transition, 2) Flare and
Touchdown, and 3) Landing Roll. Each of these phases serves as a transition from the previous
phase to the next. The landing transition serves as the transition from final to the flare; the
descent rate on final is drastically reduced as the flight path becomes near horizontal in the flare.
The flare is used to reduce energy in the transition from final to landing airspeed. The landing
roll serves as the transition from landing to taxi. Airspeed is reduced straight-ahead on the
runway until at safe taxi speed.
Landing Transition. Start power reduction and reduce descent rate. Power reduction reduces
energy and helps prevent level-off as aimpoint is shifted. On final the aimpoint was held in a
constant position on the windscreen. Approaching the threshold, (for a 150’ wide runway when
the width of the runway fills the windscreen, or approximately 10-20 feet AGL) descent rate is
reduced by shifting the aim point progressively further down the runway. Using smooth aft
elevator, shift the nose of the aircraft, and thus the aimpoint, toward the middle of the runway
and then towards the far end of the runway. Shift your eyes at the same time, preventing you
from spotting the deck (making a hard landing) and this will also help you see minor
deviations in lineup and drift. A common error is not shifting the aimpoint resulting in an
abrupt flare, flat landing or worse, touching down with a nose-low attitude. As descent rate and
airspeed decrease, power is slowly reduced (towards idle in the flare).
Flare and Touchdown. In the flare, back-stick pressure is slowly increased until the proper
landing attitude is reached as power is reduced and airspeed decreases. Your eyes should
remain at the far end of the runway, using your peripheral cues and judging the descent rate of
the plane as you modulate the power and elevator control inputs. The landing attitude is the
same as the take-off and slow-flight attitude. As descent rate and airspeed decrease, the aircraft
gently settles onto the runway. Ensure PCL is idle at touchdown. The aircraft may yaw to the
right with power reduction, utilize left rudder to maintain alignment with the runway.
The aircraft will be in a slight descent or level flight depending on altitude, airspeed, power
setting, and rate of deceleration. Use caution to avoid excess back-stick which could lead to a
climb in the flare. As the nose rises, forward visibility is reduced and peripheral vision
becomes the key factor in height and drift assessment. Touchdown is simply an end to the flare
and should occur as landing speed is attained. (Roughly 7 KIAS below airspeed on final).
Flare at a rate proportional to the rate of descent. For example, higher descent rates require
faster application of back-stick to attain normal descent rate prior to touchdown and prevent
a firm landing. Similarly, a lower than normal descent rate requires slower control stick
movement to prevent a high flare.
Maintain crosswind controls (wing-low) throughout the flare. As the airspeed decreases
towards landing speed, use additional aileron and rudder deflection to maintain runway
alignment. Crosswind controls increase drag, rate of deceleration, and stall speed.
In the flare, power can compensate for errors in judgment. Faster or slower power reductions
can compensate for errors made in the landing transition and early flare. Apply power and goaround any time the controls feel mushy, the aircraft experiences an approach-to-stall
indication, or if an excessively long touchdown will occur.
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Crosswind controls must be held through touchdown and landing roll to prevent the upwind
wing from rising and the aircraft from skipping. With significant crosswinds, expect the
upwind main gear to touch down before the downwind main gear.
If power is used during the flare, retard the PCL to idle at touchdown.
After touchdown on a full-stop landing, slightly relax back-stick pressure and allow the
nose gear to settle onto the runway. Avoid banging the nose gear.
Ensure your feet are not on the brakes when the aircraft touches down.
Landing Roll. With the nose gear on the runway and below 80 KIAS, smoothly apply
brakes and increase back-stick pressure. This increases weight on the main gear and helps
prevent the nose gear from digging in, however, do not allow the nose gear to lift off the
runway. Continually increase back-stick and brake pressure as the aircraft decelerates.
Always brake in a straight line; do not turn and brake. Maintain directional control with
rudder and/or brakes. Use caution to avoid over-controlling when applying brakes.
Maintain crosswind controls throughout the landing roll. As the airspeed decreases,
crosswind control deflection must increase to achieve the same effect. Proper use of aileron
prevents a crosswind from lifting the upwind wing. When rudder effectiveness is lost, full
aileron deflection may be necessary.
Confirm N1 reduction from 67-60% shortly after main gear touchdown (approximately
4 seconds).
Do not select NWS until the aircraft is at normal taxi speed. Center rudder pedals before
selecting NWS. At higher speeds, NWS is extremely sensitive. Before reaching taxi speed,
use NWS only if directional control cannot be maintained with rudder and brakes.
If you encounter nose wheel shimmy during the landing roll, apply back-stick pressure to
relieve weight on the nose wheel, and then gently release pressure to reestablish nose wheel
contact with the runway. If condition persists, reapply back-stick pressure. Strong crosswinds,
a low strut, or a low runway condition reading (RCR); for example, wet or icy runway, all
influence controllability after landing.
The physical limitations of the tire and brake system make it extremely difficult to consistently
achieve optimum braking action, particularly at high speeds as lift reduces the weight
component. A single, smooth application, with increasing pressure as airspeed decreases,
offers the best braking potential. At speeds below 80 KIAS, the chances of approaching
optimum braking action are greatly increased. Use caution when braking at speeds above 80
KIAS. Do not allow the wheels to lock during braking. Once a wheel is locked, it may be
necessary to completely release brake pressure to allow wheel rotation.
At taxi speed, engage the NWS prior to initiating turns. Do not complete any After Landing
Checklist items until clear of the runway.
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Touch-and-Go Landing. When making touch-and-go landings, utilize the P.A.T. principle by
smoothly applying the power to MAX without delay, hold the landing attitude, and trim nose down
to reduce stick forces as the aircraft accelerates. Relaxing too much forward stick pressure on the
go could cause nose wheel shimmy, and should be avoided on all Landings. Anticipate the need
for right rudder pressure as the engine spools up. As power becomes available following engine
spool-up, and with 85 KIAS minimum, raise the nose to the takeoff attitude and allow the aircraft
to smoothly take off. Once a positive rate of climb is confirmed, retract the flaps (leave gear
down).
Re-trim and climb out at 120 KIAS. When number one upwind with interval, make a crosswind
call on the radio (as required) and commence a turn to the downwind leg using 30-45° AOB.
Fifty feet prior to pattern altitude, begin the transition to level off at pattern altitude by reducing
power to approximately 31% torque, then lowering the nose to maintain 120 KIAS and trim.
NOTE
Retraction of flaps from the TO to the UP position is not
recommended below 110 KIAS to preclude the aircraft from
settling back to the runway. However, there is no minimum to
raise the flaps from the LDG to the TO position.
3.
Procedures.
a.
b.
c.
Landing Transition to Touchdown
i.
Approaching touchdown (5-10’ AGL) smoothly reduce PCL towards idle.
ii.
Coordinate gradual back-stick pressure to land smoothly on the main mounts in
a nose-high attitude. No higher than T/O attitude (~8 o nose high) to preclude a
tail strike.
Roll-out
i.
Maintain flared back-stick pressure. As speed decreases you will feel a
corresponding loss of lift. As the nose begins to settle, slightly reduce
back-stick pressure and allow the nose to smoothly touch down.
ii.
Maintain directional control using rudders only.
Full-Stop Landing
i.
Smoothly move the PCL to idle. Smoothly lower the nose gear to the runway
once airspeed is below 80 kts.
ii.
With the nose gear on the runway and below 80 kts, smoothly apply brakes
and increase back-stick pressure. This increases weight on the main gear and
6-18 LANDING PROCEDURES
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CHAPTER SIX
helps prevent the nose gear from digging in, however, do not allow the nose
gear to lift off the runway. When executing a normal full stop landing, check
airspeed and verbalize “Airspeed below 80 kts” before initiating smooth
braking. Use the double the board method to determine approximate
appropriate airspeed control during a normal full stop landing roll. Speed
should be between 60-70 kts with three thousand feet remaining (3 board),
40-50 kts with 2000 feet remaining (2 board) and 20-30 kts with 1000 feet
remaining (1 board). If these speeds cannot be met, execute a touch and go
with sufficient runway remaining based on the TOLD. Maintain aircraft
control while expediting rollout to the end of the runway. Turn off the
runway once the aircraft is safely under control at taxi speed.
d.
iii.
Continually increase back-stick and brake pressure as the aircraft decelerates.
Always brake in a straight line; do not turn and brake. Maintain directional
control with rudder and/or brakes. Use caution to avoid over-controlling when
applying brakes. Confirm N1 reduction from 67-60% shortly after main gear
touchdown (approximately 4 seconds).
iv.
Do not select NWS until the aircraft is at normal taxi speed. Center rudder
pedals before selecting NWS. At higher speeds, NWS is extremely sensitive.
Before reaching taxi speed, use NWS only if directional control cannot be
maintained with rudder and brakes.
Touch-and-Go Landing
i.
Move PCL to full forward without delay. As power becomes available
following engine spool-up, apply right rudder, and with a minimum of
85 KIAS raise the nose to the takeoff attitude.
ii.
Execute a normal takeoff. Once a positive rate of climb is confirmed,
raise flaps from LDG to TO (if applicable), and once airspeed is 110
KIAS minimum, retract the flaps (leave gear down). Trim.
iii.
As airspeed approaches 120 KIAS, reduce power to 60-70% and climb
straight ahead.
iv.
Once trimmed at 120 KIAS and with proper interval, make the crosswind
radio call and begin the crosswind turn using approximately 35 degrees AOB.
v.
Rollout on downwind with ¾ - 1 WTD spacing from the runway.
vi.
50 feet prior to pattern altitude, transition to level flight by reducing power
to ~31%.
vii.
Once established on downwind, complete the Before Landing Checklist.
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CHAPTER SIX
4.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Common Errors.
a.
Uncoordinated transition with power reduction and nose attitude, resulting in a
rapid or late flare.
b.
Landing too short or too long.
c.
Floating, ballooning, bouncing and full-stall landings.
d.
Excessive sink rate due to excessive power reduction.
e.
Not executing a wave-off for any unsafe condition.
608. CROSSWIND APPROACH
1.
Description. Compensate for crosswinds in the landing pattern to maintain the normal
ground track.
2.
General. All pilots should be able to assess crosswinds and understand how they affect
pattern operations. The proper application of crosswind controls is essential to executing
landings. Consider using TO Flaps if crosswinds are greater than 10 knots or during gusty
wind conditions. Consider using no flaps if crosswinds are greater than 20 knots and landing
distance is not a factor.
Overshooting. Overshooting crosswinds will cause the aircraft to fly a track outside the
normal final ground track. Ground speed in the final turn will be higher than normal. As a
result, slightly lower than normal power settings and slightly more angle of bank will be
required around the final turn to compensate for a higher required rate of descent.
Figure 6-7 Overshooting Crosswind
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Undershooting. Undershooting crosswind will cause the aircraft to fly a track inside the
normal final ground track. Ground speed in the final turn will be lower than normal. As a
result, slightly higher than normal power settings and slightly less angle of bank will be
required around the final turn to compensate for a lower required rate of descent.
Figure 6-8 Undershooting Crosswind
In order to maintain a particular track or desired path over the ground, it will be necessary to
“crab” or turn into the wind slightly. Therefore, when climbing out upwind or flying downwind,
to maintain the desired path over the ground, you must crab into the wind slightly (Figures 6-9
and 6-10).
Figure 6-9 Crabbing
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Figure 6-10 Desired Path
Final Turn. The normal Angle of Bank used at the start of the final turn should be
approximately 30°. For overshooting winds, increased bank may be required to avoid
overshooting final. While 45° of bank is acceptable if required, caution must be exercised as stall
speed increases with increasing bank angle. Do not exceed 45° bank during the final turn.
If bank required to complete the final turn is greater than 45°, initiate a waveoff.
For undershooting winds, you may be required to use less bank to avoid angling on final and
rolling out too close to the runway. Vary the angle of bank, power setting, or both in order to
arrive at the extended runway centerline 1200-1500 feet from the runway threshold, and 100-150
feet of altitude at the proper airspeed.
NOTE
It is imperative to roll out at a proper distance from the runway to
ensure enough time to assess the crosswinds and apply proper
crosswind controls.
During gusty wind conditions, increase final approach airspeed by
½ the gust factor up to a 10 knot increase. For example, with
8 knots of gust, increase final approach airspeed by 4 KIAS.
Final. After rolling out on final, utilize aileron inputs to maintain the aircraft on extended
runway centerline, and rudder to maintain aircraft alignment with the runway. Additional power
will likely be required for the increased drag caused by aileron and rudder inputs.
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Wing-low. After rolling out on final, transition to the wing-low method by
applying:
3.
4.
a.
Aileron into the wind as necessary to keep the aircraft from drifting left or right of the
runway centerline.
b.
Rudder deflection to align the longitudinal axis of the aircraft with the runway.
c.
Additional power, as required, to counteract increased drag due to cross controls.
d.
Maintain wing-low control inputs throughout flare and landing roll out or
touch-and-go.
Procedures
a.
Crab into wind on the downwind to establish proper WTD from runway centerline.
b.
Adjust power and bank angle to fly a normal ground track in the final turn.
c.
Execute a waveoff if unable to avoid overshooting final without using more than
45° angle of bank.
d.
Upon intercepting the extended runway centerline after rolling out on final, observe
the magnitude of drift and establish the proper correction.
Common Errors
a.
Not recognizing when a crosswind exists.
b.
Utilizing improper crosswind control inputs.
c.
Not executing a waveoff when appropriate.
609. CROSSWIND LANDING
1.
Description. Compensate for crosswinds and land smoothly at the intended point of
landing on runway centerline.
2.
General. Throughout the final, flare and touchdown, the aircraft should track in a straight
line down the runway. The application of crosswind correction must be continued as necessary
during the landing transition and flare to prevent drift. Since airspeed decreases as the flare
progresses, the flight controls gradually become less effective; as a result, the crosswind
correction being held will become inadequate. When using the wing-low method, it is necessary
to gradually increase deflection of aileron into the wind as the aircraft decelerates. As torque
decreases, the nose of the aircraft will yaw right. This yaw must also be accounted for on final.
LANDING PROCEDURES
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Do not level the wings; keep the upwind wing down throughout the flare. Think of flaring over
one wheel. As the forward momentum decreases, the weight of the aircraft will cause the other
main wheel to settle onto the runway. If the wings are leveled prior to touchdown, the airplane
will begin drifting and the touchdown will occur while drifting.
During gusty or high wind conditions, extreme caution should be used to make certain that the
aircraft is not drifting or crabbing. A crab is a condition that occurs when a touchdown is
executed while the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is not aligned with the runway. Since the
aircraft is actually traveling sideways in relation to the runway, it will impart a tipping moment in
the direction that the aircraft is traveling. Touchdown in a crab or drift will also cause the aircraft
to turn away from the intended landing path. This turn is called a swerve. Any time a
swerve develops, centrifugal force will be created commensurate to the speed of the swerve. It is
dangerous to land in a crab or drift and could potentially cause the aircraft to depart the runway.
If unable to apply proper crosswind controls before touchdown, or an uncontrollable drift
occurs during the flare, WAVEOFF!
Full Stop. During the landing roll, special attention must be given to maintaining directional
control with rudders while maintaining crosswind aileron inputs. While the airplane is
decelerating during the landing roll, more and more aileron must be applied to keep the upwind
wing from rising. Since the airplane is slowing down, there is less airflow over the ailerons and
they become less effective. At the same time, the relative wind is becoming more of a crosswind
and exerting a greater lifting force on the upwind wing. Consequently, when the airplane is
coming to a stop, the aileron control must be held fully towards the winds. Maintain directional
control with rudder and/or differential braking while applying aileron deflection into the wind. If
landing occurred off runway centerline, do not attempt to aggressively correct back toward
the center of the runway! If the aircraft becomes uncontrollable after initial touchdown,
WAVEOFF.
Touch-and-Go. Hold crosswind inputs on the deck and apply upwind aileron to maintain a
wings level attitude. Initiate positive (firm) rotation when flying speed is reached to avoid sideslipping. Initial drift correction is made by turning into the wind with a shallow bank to
counteract drift, then rolling wings-level. On the climbout, it will be necessary to “crab” the
aircraft into the wind to maintain runway heading.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Maintain crosswind correction through the landing transition using slight
adjustments of rudder and aileron as necessary.
b.
Apply rudder as required to align the aircraft with the runway. Increase
aileron pressure as necessary to land the aircraft with zero side motion.
c.
Add power as required to maintain proper aimpoint and airspeed due to the increased
drag.
d.
Landing will be made on the upwind main mount first.
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e.
Maintain crosswind corrections to minimize weathervaning and lower the nose to
the runway.
f.
For full stop landings:
g.
h.
4.
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i.
Increase aileron into the wind as the airplane decelerates.
ii.
Use rudder as required to continue straight down the runway.
iii.
Smoothly apply brakes below 80 KIAS. Maintain directional control
with rudder and/or brakes while applying aileron deflection into the
wind.
For touch-and-go landings:
i.
Hold in crosswind controls throughout ground roll.
ii.
Advance PCL to MAX.
iii.
Rotate the aircraft to the takeoff attitude at 85 KIAS
(minimum).
If unable to apply proper crosswind controls before touchdown, or an
uncontrollable drift occurs during the flare, WAVEOFF!
Common Errors.
a.
Landing with any side motion.
b.
Landing in a crab.
c.
Not holding in corrections while on the runway.
d.
Not executing a waveoff when necessary.
e.
Overcorrecting back towards runway centerline.
f.
Not increasing aileron deflection into the wind during a full stop.
g.
Not crabbing upwind after a touch-and-go, causing a drift from runway centerline.
h.
Not checking airspeed before applying brakes.
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610. WAVEOFF (GO-AROUND)
1.
Description. The waveoff is a set of standard procedures used to effect the safe
discontinuation of an approach.
2.
General. Occasionally, during your landing practice, you will have to discontinue an
approach and execute a waveoff. A waveoff may be initiated by the pilot, or may be directed by
an external source (RDO, wheels watch, waveoff lights, IP, tower, another aircraft, etc.). The
reason for an externally directed waveoff may not be apparent to the pilot, but the waveoff is
mandatory unless a greater emergency exists. Do not confuse a waveoff with a stall recovery. If
a stall indication occurs in the landing pattern, disregard ground track and execute the stall
recovery procedures. After safely climbing away from the ground, reestablish the proper ground
track and execute a waveoff.
Although a landing approach may be aborted at any point in the pattern, a waveoff will usually
be executed during the approach turn, in the straightaway, or during the landing transition. Of
course, the sooner a poor landing condition is recognized and the waveoff executed, the safer it
will be. Do not delay the decision to waveoff and do not try to salvage a bad approach. If at any
time your approach does not feel comfortable or you are too close to the aircraft in front of you,
"take it around." You should not wait until the last second to make a decision. Keep in mind
that a waveoff is not an emergency procedure unless it is executed too late. A pilot who
recognizes a poor approach situation and executes a proper waveoff well before getting into a
dangerous situation is demonstrating maturity and good judgment. Be alert for a waveoff given
by wheels watch (radio call or waveoff lights). Once you have initiated a waveoff, do not change
your mind and attempt to land.
Examples of an unsafe approach are unsafe altitude, unsafe airspeed, overshooting approach,
drifting or crabbing prior to touchdown, and high transitions that will lead to a bounced landing.
The sooner a poor landing condition is recognized and the waveoff executed, the safer it will be.
Conflicts in the traffic pattern and insufficient separation during the landing approach are usually
solved by establishing proper interval in the break or upwind prior to the crosswind turn;
however, the following guidelines should be followed.
If you roll out in the straightaway before the aircraft has landed, an immediate waveoff shall be
initiated. Do not delay your waveoff in hopes that the situation will correct itself. During
operations at outlying fields where Practice Precautionary Emergency Landing (PPEL), PPEL in
the pattern, and touch-and-go are in progress simultaneously, pilots must be constantly alert for
traffic conflicts. ELP traffic has the right-of-way over normal touch-and-go traffic.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Advance PCL; MAX power may not always be required. Aircraft deconfliction,
maneuvering requirements, and traffic pattern may warrant the use of something
other than MAX power.
b.
Simultaneously level the wings (if conditions permit), and center the ball.
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c.
CHAPTER SIX
Raise the nose to climbing attitude and climb at 120 KIAS. Re-trim.
NOTE
When the aircraft is under control, make a radio transmission that
you are waving off.
d.
If flaps were lowered, when safely airborne at or above 110 KIAS and a positive rate
of climb, raise the flaps and then accelerate to 120 KIAS. Reduce power to 60-70%,
re-trim.
e.
Adjust your flight path, moving to either side of the runway if necessary, to avoid
conflicting traffic and to keep aircraft on the runway in sight. Comply with any
instructions given to you from the tower/RDO. If the wave-off was performed on
final or during the landing transition with no other aircraft on the runway, the waveoff may be performed directly over the runway (unless prohibited by SOP).
NOTE
Wave-off shall continue to follow ground track to avoid traffic and
comply with local course rules.
f.
4.
With interval, call crosswind to re-enter downwind or depart the pattern.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to initiate waveoff early enough.
b.
Failure to advance PCL as required.
c.
Failure to establish aircraft in a positive rate of climb.
d.
Failure to maintain 120 KIAS.
e.
Forgetting to raise the flaps.
f.
Forgetting to transmit waveoff call.
g.
Failure to maintain solid lookout doctrine and keep other aircraft in sight.
611. LANDING ERRORS
1.
Description. A deviation from a normal landing which could cause a dangerous situation
to quickly develop.
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2.
General. Airspeed in the flare is only slightly above stall airspeed. Even at slow
airspeeds, the elevator is still very effective. An abrupt change in pitch could result in a balloon,
a bounce, or even a stall. When any of these conditions are encountered, apply MAX power,
adjust the pitch attitude and WAVEOFF if it is unsafe to continue the landing. If power is
applied and the aircraft continues to settle, do not try to hold it off by raising the nose above the
landing attitude. Hold the landing attitude and let the aircraft touch down. MAX power
cushions the touch down. In case of a hard landing, do not raise the gear. The following are
examples of landing errors.
a.
High Flare:
Cause. Flare begun or performed too early or with excessive pitch up.
Effects.
Inability to flare normally due to excess altitude.
Possible premature touchdown of nose gear caused by abrupt pitch down
to compensate for high flare.
Stall if flare continued with excess altitude.
Hard landing due to high sink rates as airspeed decreases at higher than
normal altitude.
Recovery. With adequate airspeed and runway remaining, release a small amount
of backpressure to increase descent rate. As aircraft approaches normal altitude,
increase backpressure to reestablish normal flare.
If too high on final, causing an excessively steep glideslope, do not attempt
landing, WAVEOFF. Remember, as landing attitude is attained, the aircraft is
rapidly approaching a stall and there is insufficient margin-of-error for radical pitch
changes in the flare.
b.
Late or Rapid Flare:
Cause. Higher than expected descent rate or misjudged altitude.
Effects.
Firm touchdown due to higher than normal descent rates or insufficient time to
complete flare.
Abrupt flare to prevent premature or firm touchdown may lead to an accelerated stall.
This is a dangerous situation that may cause an extremely hard landing and damage to
the main gear. This may or may not be a controllable situation, depending on
airspeed.
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CHAPTER SIX
Recovery. Hold landing attitude and add power. Immediate use of power increases
thrust, lift, and controllability while simultaneously decreasing AOA and enables a
recovery and waveoff. The main gear may contact the ground a second time, but if
recovered properly, the second contact is usually moderate.
c.
Porpoising:
Cause. Incorrect (flat) landing attitude and airspeed. At touchdown, the nose gear
contacts the runway before the main gear.
Effects.
The aircraft bounces back and forth between the nose gear and main gear. Without
immediate corrective action, the porpoise progresses to a violent, unstable pitch
oscillation. Repeated heavy impacts on the runway ultimately cause structural
damage to the landing gear and airframe.
Recovery. Immediately position the controls to the takeoff attitude (spinner
approximately on the horizon) to prevent the nose wheel from contacting the
runway and simultaneously advance the PCL to MAX and WAVEOFF.
Do not attempt to counteract each bounce with opposite control stick movement.
The combined reaction time of pilot and aircraft is such that this control movement
aggravates the porpoise. Hold the controls in the recovery position to dampen the
oscillations. Power increases control effectiveness by increasing airspeed.
d.
Floating:
Cause. Late power reduction, excessive airspeed, or improper flap setting.
Effects. Long landing. Possible balloon or bounce.
Recovery. Dependent on magnitude of float and runway remaining.
For a slight float, gradually increase pitch attitude as airspeed decreases and landing
speed is approached.
Avoid prolonged floating, especially in strong crosswinds. If a long landing (outside
safe landing zone) is inevitable, WAVEOFF.
e.
Ballooning:
Cause. Rapid flare. Rapidly raising the nose to the landing attitude with excessive
airspeed.
Effects. Altitude gain (dependent on airspeed and pitch rate).
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Recovery. Landing may be completed from a slight balloon. Hold landing attitude
as the aircraft settles to runway. Maintain wing-low crosswind controls through the
balloon and landing. WAVEOFF from a pronounced balloon. Do not attempt to
salvage the landing.
f.
Bounce:
Causes.
Overly firm or hard touchdown causes aircraft to bounce off runway.
Contact with ground before landing attitude is attained. Landing with excessive rate
of descent/energy.
Late recognition that aircraft is settling too fast, combined with excessive back-stick
pressure.
Effects. Height reached depends on the force with which the aircraft strikes the
runway, the amount of back-stick pressure held, and the speed at touchdown.
Recovery. Same as a balloon, depending on severity of bounce.
Slight Bounce. Continue the landing. Maintain direction with wing-low crosswind
controls and smoothly adjust pitch to the landing attitude just before touchdown.
Severe Bounce (aircraft rising rapidly). Do not attempt a landing, WAVEOFF
immediately.
Simultaneously apply MAX power, maintain direction, and set a safe pitch attitude.
Continue waveoff even if another bounce occurs.
Bouncing in Crosswinds. Use extreme caution. When one wheel strikes the
runway, the other wheel touches down immediately after. The crosswind correction
is lost and the aircraft drifts. Reestablish crosswind controls to stop the drift and
either continue the landing or waveoff, depending on the situation.
g.
Landing in a Drift or Crab:
Cause. Failure to apply sufficient wing-low crosswind corrections.
Effects. Excessive side loads on landing gear and potential gear damage.
Recovery. WAVEOFF if unable to apply proper crosswind controls before
touchdown.
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h.
CHAPTER SIX
Wing Rising After Touchdown:
Cause. Lift differential combined with rolling moment. During crosswind landing,
airflow is greater on the upwind wing because the fuselage reduces airflow over the
downwind wing. This causes a lift differential. The wind also strikes the fuselage on
the upwind side and this causes a rolling moment about the longitudinal axis, which
may further assist in raising the upwind wing. When effects of these two factors are
great enough, one wing may rise even though directional control is maintained.
Effect. Depending on the amount of crosswind and degree of corrective action,
directional control could be lost. If no correction is applied, one wing can raise
enough to cause the other wing to strike the ground.
Recovery. Use ailerons to keep the wings level. Use rudder to maintain directional
control. As the wing rises, the effect increases as more wing area is exposed to the
crosswind.
612. OUTLYING FIELD DEPARTURE
1.
Description. The outlying field departure (OFD) is a series of uniform procedures by
which aircraft depart the pattern.
2.
General. Departure from outlying fields shall be conducted in accordance with local
course rules. You are number one for departure when past the departure end of the runway (or as
defined by local SOP), flaps up, and the aircraft upwind has either initiated the crosswind turn or
raised the landing gear to depart.
NOTE
In order to depart, you do not have to be number one with interval,
but you must be number one upwind. There is a difference.
3.
Procedures.
a.
Ensure you are number one upwind.
b.
Aircraft shall be safely airborne and past the departure end of the runway (or as
defined by local SOP) and 120 KIAS minimum.
c.
Check airspeed below 150 KIAS.
d.
Raise landing gear handle and ensure flaps are up. Report over ICS, “Gear up, flaps
up at ____ knots.”
e.
Add power to MAX.
f.
Transmit departure call (see local SOP).
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g.
4.
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Comply with SOP/Course Rules for departure.
Common Errors.
a.
Not ensuring you are number one.
b.
Forgetting departure call.
c.
Not raising gear.
d.
Accelerating above 150 KIAS before raising gear.
e.
Not re-trimming.
f.
Deviating from course rules.
613. VFR STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH
1. Description. A VFR straight-in approach may be used at either military or civil
airfields when use of the "break" (or "overhead" at civil fields) would be precluded or
impractical due to weather, traffic, or local procedures. These type approaches may
also be used in conjunction with certain emergencies (e.g., in-flight damage).
2. General. Every straight-in approach will be different, depending on altitude and aircraft
position relative to the runway. These factors may be influenced by weather, traffic, approach
and/or tower controllers, etc. The pilot must use his/her judgment and experience to adjust the
aircraft’s flight path and/or configuration to safely and efficiently execute the approach and
landing.
Miscellaneous. It is necessary to become familiar with and understand certain terms used in
aviation not common to Naval Aviation. Since the racetrack landing pattern is peculiar to Naval
Aviation, a pilot may encounter the more common "box" pattern at a non-Navy field or any time
a non-break entry is made to any field (i.e., visual approach, instrument approach, etc.).
Figure 6-11 illustrates the typical box pattern and its terminology. Base leg should always be
referred to as "left base" or "right base," depending on the direction on the turn to final (i.e., a
left base would mean a left turn to final).
3.
Procedures.
a.
Establish contact with ATC to communicate your request and/or intentions. If at a
tower-controlled field, contact tower when instructed to by Approach Control or prior
to entering the Airport Traffic Area.
b.
Fly the aircraft in an appropriate altitude and airspeed to a position approximately
2-3 miles from the runway on an extended runway centerline or extended base leg.
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CHAPTER SIX
c.
Transition to the landing approach configuration by slowing below 150 KIAS,
lowering the landing gear and completing the Before Landing Checklist. This
should be done no later than base leg (if used) or a two - three mile final.
d.
If required, make the appropriate radio call to the tower or RDO. If at a
tower-controlled field, obtain landing clearance prior to landing and report landing
gear down and locked. Check the winds!
e.
Fly to intercept a stabilized glideslope (400-600 feet per NM) at 110/105/100 KIAS,
1200-1500 feet of straightaway from the threshold, and 100-150 feet AGL, wings
level.
f.
Continue the approach and landing as in paragraphs 606 and 607.
Figure 6-11 The "Box Pattern"
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Not establishing radio contact with ATC soon enough.
b.
Transitioning to the landing configuration too late.
c.
Not making requested report to the tower.
d.
Landing without a clearance.
e.
Descending too early, resulting in a low, power-on approach.
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CHAPTER SEVEN
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
700. INTRODUCTION
This chapter forms the basis of your T-6B Emergency Procedures Training. A complete and
thorough knowledge of the procedures in this chapter is essential for students who wish to
progress to their solo flight. The memorization and proficient execution of these procedures will
prove to be one of the greatest challenges to you during Primary Training. Remember the single
most important factor in the execution of any emergency procedure is to first maintain control of
the aircraft. After the aircraft is under control, you must then determine the precise nature of the
problem. It is only at this point that you can execute the applicable emergency procedure and
determine the appropriate landing criteria. No matter how well you know your procedures, if
you lose control of the aircraft or misdiagnose the nature of the malfunction, you will not be
successful in handling the emergency. Make sure that you are in control of the aircraft and
understand what the problem is before you attempt to apply a solution.
1.
Description. N/A
2.
General. It is conceivable that during any flight evolution, an engine or system
malfunction may occur either while on the ground or in flight. These malfunctions can range
from system failures to a partial or complete power loss. The T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual,
Section III, will be your governing publication for all EPs and the primary focus of your study
and preparation. This chapter of the FTI merely expands and amplifies certain procedures
from the NATOPS. If discrepancies exist between the FTI and the NATOPS manual, the
NATOPS takes precedence.
3.
Procedures. An emergency may occur at any altitude, airspeed and configuration. When
presented with an emergency (actual or simulated), follow the three basic rules for
handling an airborne emergency.
a.
Maintain aircraft control: Establishing the aircraft in safe controlled flight should
always be your first priority in any emergency, even if it means consciously
continuing in straight and level flight. Conversely, if performing aerobatic
maneuvers, for example, and the master caution light illuminates, accomplish the
appropriate VMC recovery and take care of flying the airplane before delving into the
specifics of the caution.
b.
Analyze the situation and take proper action: Analyze the indications you have
to determine the nature of the emergency. You should verify what you see in your
cockpit with the other crewmember. Once the problem is diagnosed, apply
boldfaced/asterisk items, then open your Pocket Checklist and with good aircrew
coordination, continue with the emergency procedure. Consideration should be given
to using RDO, FDO/ODO, or another aircraft for assistance as conditions persist.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
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i.
During airborne simulated emergency training, students will VERBALIZE the
engine indications which may include Torque, ITT, N1, Np, Oil and Hydraulic
pressure. Your instructor will verify indications and then give simulated engine
indications and any EICAS messages that may apply.
ii.
The student will then determine the cause of the emergency and take appropriate
action by simulating applying the appropriate checklist procedures.
iii.
Critical action items are to be conducted from memory without delay. Time
permitting, break out the Pilot’s Abbreviated Flight Crew Checklist (PCL) and
conduct the appropriate checklist remaining items.
NOTE
During your airborne emergency procedure training, DO NOT
actually manipulate switches or position the PCL to OFF in flight.
When conducting simulated emergencies in flight, VERBALIZE
emergency procedures that actually move switches or the PCL
with the word “simulated.” For example, use “PMU Switch” –
“Simulated Off.” In response to “PCL”-“Simulated Off,” the
instructor will set the power to 4-6% Torque to simulate a
feathered propeller condition, when appropriate.
c.
Land as soon as conditions permit: The severity of the problem will dictate the
course of action to take to safely recover the aircraft. Execution of emergency
procedures will direct you to one of the following situations: Precautionary
Emergency Landing (PEL), Forced Landing, Ejection, Land as soon as possible, or
Land as soon as practical.
Land As Soon As Possible: An emergency shall be declared and a landing
accomplished at the nearest suitable landing area considering the severity of the
emergency, weather conditions, field facilities, ambient lighting, and command
guidance.
Land As Soon As Practical: Emergency conditions are less urgent and, although the
mission is to be terminated, the degree of the emergency is such that an immediate
landing may not be necessary.
4.
7-2
Common Errors.
a.
Not maintaining aircraft control.
b.
Improper analysis of aircraft malfunction
c.
Not remembering to Aviate, Navigate, Communicate in that order.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
d.
Executing incorrect emergency procedure.
e.
Not using appropriate CRM.
f.
Verbalizing procedures, but not executing.
CHAPTER SEVEN
701. ABORTED TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION
1.
Description. This maneuver demonstrates the characteristics and length of runway
required for an aborted takeoff.
2.
General. An aborted takeoff may be required during any takeoff. Examples of reasons for
aborting a takeoff include blown tire(s), streaming fuel, fire light, chip light, fluctuating oil
pressure, rapidly rising ITT or bird strike. Any situation which appears abnormal or unsafe
during takeoff shall necessitate an abort.
3.
4.
Procedures.
a.
Call tower for takeoff, stating intentions.
b.
Position aircraft on runway for a normal takeoff.
c.
When properly aligned on the runway (and cleared for aborted takeoff), add power to
30% and check instruments.
d.
Release brakes, advance PCL to MAX, and commence normal takeoff roll.
e.
Before 1500 feet of takeoff roll and prior to 60 KIAS, initiate the Aborting Takeoff
procedure as described in the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual. Use caution when
applying brakes, smooth application of brake pressure will prevent overheating and
blown tires.
f.
Maneuver is complete when the aircraft has achieved a safe taxi speed. Taxi clear of
runway.
Common Errors.
a.
Delaying the abort procedure beyond 1500 feet or 60 KIAS.
b.
Excessive brake pressure or pumping the brakes resulting in blown tires.
702. EMERGENCY LANDING PATTERN (ELP)
1.
Description. The ELP is a 360° pattern designed to position the aircraft for landing at a
prepared surface during a complete power loss (Forced Landing) or when an impending engine
failure exists in which sufficient power for continued flight is available (Precautionary
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
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Emergency Landing [PEL]). The ELP is used for both actual/simulated PEL and
actual/simulated Forced Landings. If altitude permits, intercept the ELP at 3000 feet AGL (2500
feet AGL minimum per the T-6B Flight Manual).
2.
General. If an engine failure or malfunction in flight requires a Forced Landing or a PEL,
a thorough understanding of T-6 flight performance, emergency procedures, ELP, and ejection
system capabilities is critical in the decision to eject or attempt completing the ELP to
touchdown. If there is any doubt about engine performance, or there is benefit to remaining in
the ejection envelope longer, consider recovering using the ELP. The time available to decide
whether to recover via ELP or eject depends on the phase of flight. Time available can range
from a few seconds to over 20 minutes for a high-altitude engine malfunction. ELPs are only
flown to suitable landing areas (hard surface runway, taxiway, under run, or overrun) of
sufficient length. Landing on an unprepared surface should only be attempted if ejection is not
possible.
In an actual engine failure scenario, the methodology to descend below the minimum controlled
ejection altitude employs a series of critical decisions. With an actual failed engine, T-6B
aircrews will not descend below 2000 feet AGL unless they are on profile for a suitable landing
area, with the runway in sight and in a position to safely maneuver to land. Do not delay the
decision to eject in an unlikely attempt to land on an off duty runway if engine failure occurs
while configured in the normal landing pattern.
Distractions resulting from excessive troubleshooting or time-consuming attempts to regain
power during the execution of the ELP may cause substantial deviation from the standard
pattern, precluding a safe landing at the selected site.
ELP Types. The depicted profile (Figure 7-1) is used for both Forced Landings and a PEL. The
difference between a Forced Landing and a PEL is power available. The Forced Landing is
flown with the engine inoperative (no power), or when power is insufficient for continued flight.
The PEL is flown with power available, although engine failure may be imminent or power
available may be less than normal.
If flown correctly, the Forced Landing and PEL look the same. However, methods to correct for
low energy states differ. For a Forced Landing, correct for low energy by delaying landing gear
or flap extension, intercepting the ELP at some point other than high key (low key, base key,
final), and/or adjusting pattern ground track. For a PEL, immediately use power available to
correct for a low energy state as soon as it is recognized and do not delay configuration.
3.
ELP Descent to High Key. Turn immediately to the nearest suitable field based on
aircraft condition, weather, airfield conditions, altitude, and gliding distance available.
Glide Performance. Best glide speed with the aircraft in a clean configuration is ~125 KIAS
with a sink rate (VSI) of ~1350 to1500 fpm. A clean glide at 125 KIAS approximates best glide
range. For no-wind planning, a clean aircraft (prop feathered or 4-6% torque set) at 125 KIAS
should be capable of a glide ratio of ~2 nautical miles for every 1,000 feet of altitude lost.
7-4
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
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CHAPTER SEVEN
Landing gear down with flaps and speed brake retracted, your best glide speed is ~105 KIAS
with a sink rate of 1500 fpm and a glide ratio of ~1.6 nautical miles for every 1,000 feet of
altitude lost.
a.
In an actual PEL situation, check the descent rate after setting 4-6% torque (clean
configuration). If VSI is greater than 1,500 fpm, increase torque to achieve a 1,350
fpm descent. If power is insufficient to achieve a descent rate less than 1,500 fpm,
consider shutting down the engine to improve glide performance.
b.
If time permits, use DME or FMS to confirm the actual glide ratio. Consider winds
and required turns. Adjust the plan if actual glide distance varies from expected.
c.
If unable to climb or zoom, the aircraft travels approximately 0.1 to 0.2 nautical miles
of horizontal distance for every 10 knots of excess airspeed above 125 KIAS in a
level deceleration. For example, at 200 KIAS the aircraft glides approximately 1.2
NM straight and level before slowing to 125 KIAS.
d.
Ten knots of extra airspeed can be traded for approximately 100 feet of increased
altitude. For example, 175 KIAS and 6,000 feet is approximately the same energy
level as 125 KIAS and 6,500 feet. Once on ELP profile, reduce power to 4-6% torque
and maintain altitude as the airspeed bleeds off to 125 KIAS.
In the event of engine malfunction or failure, there may be more than one airfield within glide
distance. Select the most suitable airfield based on the following factors:
a.
Distance to airfield.
b.
Terrain around airfield.
c.
Runway length, width, direction, and condition.
d.
Weather.
e.
Fire or rescue support.
f.
Emergency oxygen and electrical power supply. Time required for glide from high
altitude with engine inoperative may exceed emergency oxygen supply.
g.
Threat to the public if aircraft must be abandoned/ejected.
Choosing the Most Suitable Field. Choose the closest suitable hard-surface field with a
minimum of a 3000’ runway to set up for the ELP. If multiple fields meet this criteria, other
considerations such as crash crew support or medical assistance may be factored in.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
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Distance Calculations. A VFR chart, conventional NAVAIDS, and FMS NAV or TSD
displays can be used when judging distance to the selected recovery airfield. The NRST
function on the NAV and TSD FMS pages is extremely helpful in providing accurate distance
information. Two primary methods used to determine energy state relative to emergency fields
are:
a.
b.
DME Method. Compare energy state relative to a specific field. A memory aid
for this method is “1/2 DME + KEY+ Field Elevation.”
i.
Determine distance to field using available resources. Distance to the airport
displayed by the FMS is to the center point of the airfield and not to a specific
runway.
ii.
Distance divided by 2, add Field Elevation; this equals minimum AGL altitude
required to reach field.
iii.
Is current altitude (AGL) sufficient to reach the field?
iv.
Add 3,000 feet (high key) or 1,500 feet (low key) to AGL altitude required.
v.
Is energy sufficient to reach high or low key?
Altitude Method. Compare energy state relative to more than one field.
i.
Subtract 3000 foot (high key) or 1500 foot (low key) from AGL altitude;
multiply by 2 to determine maximum glide distance to high or low key.
ii.
Identify fields within glide distance to high or low key.
iii.
Determine most suitable field.
Energy Management: Normally the ELP will be entered at high key, but the ELP can be
intercepted at any point on the ELP profile between high key and final. Carefully manage
energy to arrive at high key on altitude and airspeed. Attempt to dissipate excess energy
prior to high key to minimize disorientation and allow the profile to be flown normally. If
excess altitude exists during the glide to high key, lose energy by executing: 360° turns,
bow ties, S-turns, slips, lower the gear early, extending the speed brake or use a
combination of these methods. In a PEL situation, expeditiously maneuver towards high
key while simultaneously dissipating energy as needed. All of these methods may be used
for both PEL and Forced Landings at the pilot’s discretion.
7-6
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
a.
CHAPTER SEVEN
360° turns prior to high key (PEL or Forced Landing). This is generally
accomplished very near or directly over the intended landing destination.
Approximate altitude loss for 360° turns:
125 KIAS, Idle power:
30° bank - 3000-3500 feet.
125 KIAS, 4-6% torque or prop feathered:
30° bank - 2,000 feet.
45° bank - 1,500 feet.
60° bank - 1,000 feet.
b.
Bow Ties. Bow Ties are essentially a continuous set of mild turns in the shape of a
bow tie flown approximately ½ wing tip distance (WTD) away and on the downwind
side of the landing area. With each bow tie, you should attempt to keep the landing
runway in sight. Bow ties are not precise maneuvers and different techniques exist on
how to fly them. Your instructor will provide guidance; however, plan to depart the
bow ties for high key with sufficient altitude remaining to glide to high key altitude.
c.
Slips. A slip is an out-of-balance flight condition used to increase the sink rate and
lose excess altitude while maintaining a constant airspeed and a specific track over
the ground. Use caution slipping when configured and close to the ground. The slip
must be taken out carefully with enough altitude remaining (200-300 feet) to slow the
rate of descent and ensure positive control of the aircraft during the final moments of
the maneuver. Refer to Chapter 5 for slip procedures.
d.
S-turns. S-turns are used to affect a milder altitude loss and may be specifically used
to make controlled corrections while proceeding direct to high key. Designed to
increase the actual track over the ground, S-turns are simply lazy turns back and forth
deviating from a straight-line ground track in order to provide more time to descend.
e.
Lower the gear early or extending the speed brake. In order to expedite entry into
the ELP profile, lowering the gear early or extending the speed brake is a viable
method to increase drag/descent rate during a high energy state while maneuvering to
enter the ELP profile. Remember, your maximum glide distance changes if the
engine fails with the gear down. Glide speed is ~105 KIAS with a sink rate of 1500
fpm and a glide ratio of ~1.6 nautical miles for every 1,000 feet of altitude lost.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-7
CHAPTER SEVEN
POSITION
HIGH KEY
PRIMARY CONTACT
ALTITUDE
AIRSPEED
2500-3000 feet AGL
CONFIG
POSITION
Gear Down
Flaps UP
1/3 down the runway
Offset up to 1/4 WTD
Gear Down
Flaps TO
On runway heading
2/3 WTD (fuel cap on
runway)
120 KIAS
LOW KEY
1500 feet AGL
BASE KEY
600-800 feet AGL
FINAL
Descending to land
120 KIAS
Slowing to
110
KIAS(min)
Gear Down
Flaps LDG
(as required)
110 KIAS
Perpendicular to landing
line; halfway between
low key and the runway
Runway centerline
Figure 7-1 Emergency Landing Pattern (ELP) Checkpoints
4. Emergency Landing Pattern Profile. The ELP profile is designed to position the aircraft
for landing from a Forced Landing, PEL, or PEL from the pattern [PEL(P)] situation. See
Figure 7-1 and Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2 Emergency Landing Pattern
7-8
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER SEVEN
a.
Planning. The primary reference during an ELP is the runway. Crosscheck energy
level (altitude + airspeed) with position. Look outside to maintain proper ground
track. Predict energy level (altitude +airspeed) as early as possible at known
reference points (high key, low key and base key) and anticipate required corrections.
Position deviations can occur due to poor planning, imprecise aircraft control, or
improper wind analysis. Trim throughout the ELP to minimize airspeed deviations.
Make all corrections smooth and expeditious to avoid stall.
b.
High Key. Position the aircraft at high key, 2500-3000 feet AGL, 120 KIAS, gear
down, wings level, aligned with the landing direction and approximately one-quarter
WTD from the runway away from the intended ELP turn direction. Turn, using angle
of bank as necessary (~ 15-20° in calm wind), towards the low key position.
Maintain 120 KIAS and make appropriate voice call.
c.
Low Key. Located approximately two-thirds WTD (fuel cap on runway), abeam the
intended point of landing (no wind), altitude approximately 1,500 feet AGL and 120
KIAS minimum.
i.
Approaching low key, crosscheck the runway to evaluate spacing. Check winds
on PFD and crosscheck with windsock. Plan final approach accordingly.
ii.
At low key, level the wings momentarily and check for proper spacing and
altitude. If energy is assessed to be adequate to make the runway, lower TO
flaps (lower flaps no sooner than low key). If high energy state, lowering flaps
to land will facilitate dissipating additional altitude or airspeed.
d.
Base Key. Maintain 120 KIAS minimum. The descent is normally greater than for a
normal pattern. Fly the aircraft perpendicular to the runway (base key) at 600-800
feet AGL. Altitude is not the only indication of proper energy management; the
distance from the runway must also be assessed and the effect of winds taken into
account. When landing is assured, flaps may be lowered to LDG.
e.
Final. Aircraft may be slowed to 110 KIAS (minimum) on final. Maintain 110
KIAS (minimum) on final until transition to landing. The transition to landing may
begin well prior to the intended point of touch down. Plan to land within the first
one-third of the runway.
NOTE
Use caution with low power settings on final, especially with LDG
flaps. High descent rate with idle power setting, coupled with
pitch change to intercept a normal glide path, could result in rapid
decrease in airspeed. A high sink rate can develop, which may
result in a stall or hard landing.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-9
CHAPTER SEVEN
f.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Landing. Adjust the nose attitude in the flare to transition to a normal landing.
Touch down on the main gear and then gently lower the nose wheel as in a normal
landing. Apply braking as needed based on runway remaining.
i.
PEL. If runway remaining after touchdown is insufficient to stop, waveoff. If
sufficient power is available to obtain low key, attempt a PEL(P). If power is
insufficient or engine failure occurs, consider ejection.
NOTE
If the aircraft is below profile between high key and low key, add
power to regain altitude (if available). MAX power may not
always be appropriate depending on the amount of correction
required. After base key, use normal power corrections to ensure a
safe and controlled landing.
ii.
Forced Landing. Anticipate a longer flare and touch down due to reduced drag.
Use caution when applying brakes to prevent blown tires. If the aircraft cannot
be stopped before the end of the runway, execute the Emergency Engine
Shutdown on Ground Procedure or Eject.
NOTE
Do not delay the decision to Eject (actual engine failure) or
waveoff (simulated engine failure) after determining a safe landing
is unlikely.
5.
ELP Wind Analysis. Winds can cause ELPs to differ significantly from standard. An
uncorrected/unanticipated strong wind component can result in an unsuccessful ELP, even if it
was otherwise flown flawlessly.
a.
Determining Winds. Surface winds, winds at 1,000 to 3,000 feet, winds at 5,000
feet and winds aloft should be obtained from weather forecasts and serve as a good
starting point for building situational awareness about actual wind conditions. The
winds at 1,000 to 3,000 feet can vary significantly from surface winds and
significantly alter required ELP ground track. At tower controlled runways, actual
surface winds are known. Other methods to determine the winds include:
i.
Radio calls to other aircraft, a fixed base operator (FBO) on the field, ASOS,
etc.
ii.
Without access to actual observations, use winds briefed by weather forecaster
in the preflight briefing as a starting assumption.
7-10 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER SEVEN
iii.
If performing an ELP at a non-towered airfield (NTA) without weather
observation capability, assume that in the local area, surface winds will be
similar to those at the home field.
iv.
Observation of surface conditions; smoke, waves on lakes, wind tetrahedron,
windsock, etc.
v.
Double the surface wind velocity to estimate winds at high key as wind is
typically stronger at altitude than at the surface.
vi.
Use PFD indications of wind speed and direction.
703. PRECAUTIONARY EMERGENCY LANDING (PEL)
1.
Description. Use the PEL procedure to ensure that a safe landing at a paved field can be
made if indications of an impending engine failure should occur.
2.
General. Indications of an impending engine failure could be excessive vibration, smoke
or fumes, chip detector annunciator light, fuel or propeller malfunction or any other condition
listed in the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual requiring that you land as soon as possible via PEL.
In most PEL situations (chip light, low oil pressure, etc.), time is the most critical element. The
longer the engine runs, the greater the chance for complete failure. For this reason, every effort
should be made utilizing energy management methods to safely expedite getting to high key with
power. Don’t turn a PEL into engine failure due to slow procedures or excessive
troubleshooting!
The PEL checklist in the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual offers an organized approach to recovery
with an impending engine malfunction. A good memory aid for these steps (PEL checklist);
“Turn, Climb, Clean, Check, BIP.”
3.
Procedures. The first three steps, “Turn, Climb, Clean,” must be executed nearly
simultaneously and without delay.
a.
TURN. Turn in the general direction toward the nearest suitable field. Locate the
field visually, use conventional NAVAIDS, FMS NAV/TSD displays, or FMS NRST
to aid in determining nearest field. A good pilot should always know where the
nearest field is located.
b.
CLIMB or ACCELERATE. If a climb is needed, climb at 140 KIAS using an
appropriate power setting to achieve Dead Engine Glide Distance. If unable to climb
due to clouds, icing, etc., increase energy by accelerating to a higher airspeed.
Remain clear of clouds until in position to descend and/or decelerate to enter the ELP.
If at high altitude, a descent will be required to enter the ELP.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-11
CHAPTER SEVEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
c.
CLEAN. Ensure aircraft is in a clean configuration by raising landing gear, flaps,
and speed brake (as appropriate for the emergency) as soon as possible. Retraction
may not be possible if the engine fails. Remember that excess drag inhibits the climb
and greatly reduces gliding range.
d.
CHECK. Conduct a systematic check of the aircraft and instruments for additional
signs of impending engine failure.
e.
Boost Pump Switch – as required.
f.
Ignition Switch – as required.
NOTE
Turn boost pump and ignition switches ON unless an Airstart
would not be warranted should the engine fail (oil system
malfunction, chip light, fire light or FOD).
g.
Plan: To intercept the ELP in the appropriate configuration and a minimum speed of
120 KIAS. The above considerations and energy state should lead to one of three
decisions:
i.
Intercept the ELP profile at or above high key.
ii.
Intercept the ELP profile at a point other than high key with the appropriate
configuration and airspeed.
iii.
Eject if it becomes clear that the aircraft cannot be safely recovered.
h.
Determine the duty runway at your landing site before intercepting the ELP profile.
i.
Deliver a simulated emergency voice report using ISPI format over ICS to the
instructor. For an actual emergency, notify ATC/Tower/RDO over the radio of your
situation/intentions.
j.
Reduce power to 4-6% torque once DEGA is reached.
k.
Lower the landing gear no later than high key.
l.
Report on ICS the Before Landing Checklist and re-trim for 120 KIAS.
m.
At high key, turn toward the low key position using angle of bank as required to
maintain ground track and make the appropriate radio call in accordance with local
SOP. Maintain 120 KIAS.
7-12 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
4.
CHAPTER SEVEN
n.
Approaching low key, vary the angle of bank as necessary so as to arrive at a 2/3
wingtip distance abeam the intended point of landing. Level the wings
momentarily to accurately check your position abeam.
o.
At low key, set TO flaps and perform the low key voice report IAW local SOP.
Lower flaps no sooner than low key. Use power as required to maintain energy
state inside of the low key position.
p.
Continue the turn towards the base key position. Vary angle of bank as necessary
to arrive at a proper base key position (600-800 feet AGL, 120 KIAS).
q.
Check and report, “Gear down, flaps TO (or LDG as required), speed brake
retracted, Before Landing Checklist complete.”
r.
When landing is assured, flaps may be lowered to LDG.
s.
Use normal power corrections as required to make a safe and controlled landing.
t.
Decelerate toward 110 KIAS (minimum) after rolling out on final. Maintain 110
KIAS (minimum) on final until commencing the landing transition. Make an ICS
call IAW local SOP.
Common Errors.
a.
Delaying turn toward the nearest suitable field during initial climb.
b.
Excessive climb. Delayed arrival at high key, increased risk of engine failure during
PEL.
c.
Poor power control on PEL. Failure to set and maintain 4-6% torque once on ELP
profile.
d.
Poor airspeed control due to improper trim for 125 KIAS glide.
e.
Improper position at high key (aircraft not aligned).
f.
Excessive or insufficient bank angle at high key resulting in improper low key
spacing.
g.
Delaying configuration (gear/flaps) instead of correcting with power.
h.
Failure to compare actual and desired position and energy.
i.
Failure to anticipate or correct for wind.
j.
Failure to refer to Pilot’s Abbreviated Flight Crew Checklist (Pocket Checklist) with
time permitting.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-13
CHAPTER SEVEN
k.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Failure to reduce power to idle during landing phase of PEL.
704. PRECAUTIONARY EMERGENCY LANDING FROM THE PATTERN
1.
Description. Use PEL procedures if indications of an impending engine failure occur
while in the landing pattern.
2.
General. The same indications of an impending engine failure as discussed in the PEL
may occur in the landing pattern. This maneuver affords the opportunity for the student to
practice intercepting the ELP at low key while already established in the landing pattern.
The PEL in the pattern will be initiated at or above 400 feet AGL by the instructor informing the
student that he or she has a simulated malfunction requiring that a PEL in the pattern be
performed.
NOTE
This simulated PEL in the pattern should not be initiated until
proper interval with both PEL and touch-and-go traffic is obtained.
3.
Procedures.
a.
TURN towards the nearest suitable runway. Consider the use of an off-duty runway.
If the pattern is extended and/or the winds are calm, the nearest suitable runway may
be the reciprocal of the runway the aircraft just departed. The instructor will then
direct which runway will be used. Practice PELs in the pattern must conform with
local course rules. The instructor will make the appropriate call to the
Tower/RDO/crash crew.
b.
CLIMB at 125 KIAS, utilizing power setting as appropriate for the simulated
emergency.
NOTE
Anticipate immediate forward stick to maintain 125 KIAS should
total engine power be lost.
c.
CLEAN up the aircraft, gear, flaps, and Speed brake – UP. Report
"aircraft clean" to your instructor.
d.
CHECK Aircraft and engine instruments. Conduct a systematic check of the
aircraft for secondary indications.
e.
Boost Pump Switch – As required.
f.
Ignition Switch – As required.
7-14 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER SEVEN
NOTE
Turn boost pump and ignition switches ON unless an Airstart would
not be warranted should the engine fail (oil system malfunction,
chip light, fire light or FOD)
g.
Plan – to intercept ELP at or above low key position.
h.
Determine or verify the intended runway with the instructor.
i.
Deliver the appropriate simulated emergency voice report using the ISPI format
over ICS to your instructor. For an actual emergency, notify the tower/RDO of
your situation/intentions on the radio.
j.
Reduce power to 4-6% torque once within dead engine gliding distance of a low
key position. (Lower the nose to the 125 KIAS glide attitude and re- trim.)
k.
Lower the landing gear.
l.
Report over ICS the Before Landing Checklist and re-trim for 120 KIAS.
m.
Arrive at pattern low key with proper configuration (lower flaps no sooner than low
key), altitude, and ⅔ wingtip distance.
n.
Make the appropriate radio call at pattern low key IAW local SOP.
o.
Complete the maneuver as in the last half of the PEL.
NOTE
Any time the aircraft is below profile, add power as required to
regain proper altitude/airspeed. After the base key position, use
momentary power as required to regain profile.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Not maintaining 125 KIAS in the climb.
b.
Failure to use power when low throughout the pattern.
c.
Over climbing to low key, resulting in excessive altitude precluding a safe
descent profile to landing.
d.
Failure to complete the Before Landing Checklist prior to low key.
e.
Failure to anticipate or correct for wind.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-15
CHAPTER SEVEN
f.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Failure to reduce power to idle during landing phase of PEL.
705. ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT (POWER LOSS)
1.
Description. A complete engine failure or insufficient power available to execute a PEL
may occur at any airspeed, altitude or configuration. Fly (glide) to intercept the ELP profile
while simultaneously executing the appropriate procedures. Identify the nearest suitable
airfield and safely maneuver the aircraft to intercept the ELP. Arrive at high key aligned with
the landing runway. If high key cannot be reached, intercept profile at some point on the ELP
(low key, base key, final). Below 2000 feet AGL, make a timely decision to continue or eject.
2.
General. The below guidance is geared towards an engine failure, airstart attempt not
warranted and will guide you to a forced landing or ejection situation. If an airstart is
warranted, and is successful, the end result of your procedures will direct you to execute a
PEL. Refer to PEL procedures contained within section 704 of this chapter.
Carefully manage your energy state to arrive at high key on or slightly above altitude. Do not
unnecessarily dissipate energy quickly with a failed engine. Use the extra time to formulate a
plan that will maximize the possibility for success.
The Engine Failure During Flight procedures in the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual offers an
organized approach to recovery with an engine failure in flight. If the engine can’t be restored
to normal operations, you will need to decide whether to use the ELP and recover via a Forced
Landing, or Eject if no suitable landing site is within reach using DEGA.
3.
Procedures. After properly analyzing the malfunction as an engine failure, take
proper action by executing the first four memory critical action items without delay.
a.
ZOOM/GLIDE - 125 KIAS (MINIMUM). Above 150 KIAS, zoom to capture
125 KIAS minimum. Below 150 KIAS, slow to 125 KIAS minimum as required. At
high altitudes, smoothly decelerate to the 125 KIAS descent attitude to trade excess
airspeed for glide distance. Raise landing gear, flaps and speed brake as soon as
possible as retraction may not be possible as the engine spools down. Get to your
best glide speed in a trimmed flight condition.
NOTE
Crosscheck N1 against other instruments to assess condition of
engine and determine if an airstart is warranted. VERBALIZE the
engine indications which may include Torque, ITT, N1, Np, Oil and
Hydraulic pressure. Your instructor will verify indications and then
give simulated engine indications and any EICAS messages that
may apply. At 125 KIAS, an engine which has flamed out will
rotate below 8% N1 and indicated 0% N1. The engine oil pressure
indicator may display oil pressures up to 4 psi with an N1 of 0%
7-16 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER SEVEN
b.
PCL - OFF (IP will simulate PCL off by setting 4-6% torque).
c.
INTERCEPT ELP. As you are accomplishing steps one and two, begin turning
towards the nearest field.
d.
Airstart. Attempt if warranted. You do not attempt an airstart if engine failure was
due to fire or mechanical failure. Airstart procedure is not recommended below 2000
feet AGL, as primary attention should be to eject or safely recover the aircraft.
If conditions do not warrant an airstart.
e.
FIREWALL SHUTOFF handle – Pull.
f.
Execute Forced Landing or Eject.
The decision to execute Forced Landing procedures or Eject will depend upon
having enough aircraft energy (at or above DEGA) to glide to a suitable landing area
using the appropriate energy management methods mentioned within section 702 of
this chapter.
If aircraft energy state is at or above DEGA to a suitable landing area, execute the
Forced Landing procedures in accordance with the NATOPS Flight Manual.
With an actual failed engine, T-6B aircrews will not descend below 2000 feet AGL
unless they are on profile for a suitable landing area, with the runway in sight and in a
position to safely maneuver to land.
g.
Determine the duty runway at your landing site before intercepting the ELP profile.
h.
Deliver a simulated emergency voice report using ISPI format over the ICS to the
instructor. For an actual emergency, notify ATC/Tower/RDO/Guard over the radio of
your situation/intentions.
i.
Approaching high key, assess the winds and plan accordingly.
j.
Intercept the ELP profile at or above high key.
k.
If unable to intercept high key, intercept the ELP profile at another point with the
appropriate configuration and airspeed.
l.
Lower the landing gear as required for energy state and accomplish the Before
Landing Checklist.
m.
At high key, turn toward the low key position using angle of bank as required and
make the appropriate radio call (refer to local procedures). Maintain 120 KIAS.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-17
CHAPTER SEVEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
n.
Approaching low key, vary the angle of bank as necessary so as to arrive at a 2/3
wingtip distance abeam the intended point of landing. Level the wings momentarily
to check your position abeam.
o.
At low key, set TO flaps (if on profile) and perform the low key voice report (IAW
local SOP). Lower flaps no sooner than low key. If flaps are delayed because of low
energy state, use caution in the final turn because of increased stall speed. Do not
slow below 120 KIAS.
p.
Assess energy state approaching the base key position and determine if a safe landing
can be made. If a safe landing is unlikely, EJECT (actual engine failure) or
WAVEOFF (simulated engine failure).
q.
Continue the turn towards the base key position. Vary angle of bank as necessary to
arrive at a proper base key position (600-800 feet AGL, 120 KIAS).
r.
Check and report, “Gear down, flaps TO (or LDG as required), speed brake retracted,
Before Landing Checklist complete.”
s.
Decelerate toward 110 KIAS minimum after rolling out on final. Maintain 110 KIAS
minimum on final until commencing the landing transition. Make an ICS call IAW
local procedures.
t.
Unless directed by the IP, power will remain at 4-6% throughout the flare to simulate
a feathered prop. Anticipate longer flare and touchdown due to decreased drag.
During simulated engine failure training, if touchdown will occur past the first 1/3
of the runway, WAVEOFF.
4. Common Errors.
a.
Not getting the aircraft into a trimmed 125 KIAS glide speed.
b.
Failure to compare actual and desired position and energy.
c.
Improper position at high key (aircraft not aligned).
d.
Excessive or insufficient bank angle at high key resulting in improper low key
spacing.
e.
Premature configuration. For example, TO flaps lowered at low key with
insufficient energy on profile.
f.
Not trimming throughout the ELP profile.
g.
Failure to anticipate or correct for wind.
7-18 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER SEVEN
706. EMERGENCY VOICE REPORTS
Emergency voice reports will be made in the IDENTIFICATION, SITUATION, POSITION,
AND INTENTION (ISPI) format.
In a non-radar environment (VFR, squawking 1200, and not in communications with RDO),
emergency reports of an immediate or serious nature are preceded by the word "MAYDAY."
Repeating MAYDAY three times is the widely accepted method of clearing the frequency for an
emergency voice report. An example of an emergency voice report in a non-radar environment
is as follows:
"MAYDAY! MAYDAY! MAYDAY! [Call sign], engine failure, approximately 8 miles
southeast of Evergreen at 2,500 feet, executing a controlled ejection between Castleberry and five
lakes area."
In a radar environment (Radar Contact), or positive radio contact with a tower/RDO, standard
procedure for a distressed or urgent situation is to declare an emergency. An example of an
emergency voice report in a radar environment or positive radio contact with a tower/RDO is as
follows:
"[Call sign] is declaring an emergency. Chip light, 5 miles east of Brewton at 4,500 feet.
Executing a Precautionary Emergency Landing at Brewton."
Time permitting, expect to inform ATC/Tower/RDO of fuel remaining in hours and minutes (i.e.,
1+00) and the number of people on board after delivery of ISPI information.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
7-19
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PRIMARY CONTACT
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7-20 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CHAPTER EIGHT
SOLO FLIGHT
800. INTRODUCTION
For most students, the First Safe for Solo Checkride will be the most demanding task undertaken
to date in their aviation career. While the safe-for-solo check is certainly challenging, successful
completion is a rewarding, confidence-building experience.
801. THE SOLO FLIGHT
1.
Preflight Preparation
a.
Physical preparation. Make sure your body is well rested. The average sleep
requirement is eight hours during each 24-hour period. However, needs will vary
with each individual. Lack of sleep means a lack of awareness. You should have
learned your procedures throughout your training so do not try to "cram" the night
before your flight. Get a good night’s rest. If you have received your training
properly, all that is necessary to prepare for the check flight is a review. Make sure
that your body is well nourished. If you eat a well-balanced diet regularly, you will
have a sufficient energy supply. Do not depend on a coffee and donut breakfast, or a
coke and candy bar lunch. As always, avoid self-medication, and if you are sick, do
not hesitate to see the flight surgeon. If you are ill, you do not belong in a cockpit.
b.
Mental Preparation. You must know your Standard Operating and Emergency
Procedures before the flight. Since you have passed your check flight, you have
demonstrated that you can safely operate the aircraft without assistance. However,
you must be even more prepared for the solo, as there will not be an instructor to bail
you out of critical situations. Study those procedures, especially those requiring
immediate action. Prior to the solo, plan your flight in order to make efficient use of
the limited time available. Review the course rules for the area in which you plan to
operate. Pay particular attention to location of airfields that may be used in the event
of an emergency. You should also ensure that you have the proper flight equipment
and checklists in your possession. Prior to leaving the Flight Duty Officer’s
(FDO)/Operations Duty Officer’s (ODO) desk, you should find out which OLF’s are
available for solo operations, their status and operating hours. Ask the FDO/ODO if
he has any information that may pertain to your flight. And if you have any final
questions, do not hesitate to ask.
c.
Ground Procedures. You will be assigned an aircraft for which you are solely
responsible after signing the "A" sheet. Inspect all the gripes on the aircraft carefully.
Once again, if you have any questions, do not be afraid to ask. Take note of any
repeat gripes of a serious nature. Do not accept the aircraft for flight if there are any
outstanding gripes which must be corrected.
SOLO FLIGHT
8-1
CHAPTER EIGHT
PRIMARY CONTACT
d.
Preflight. Conduct a thorough and complete preflight. If you note any discrepancies,
call a troubleshooter. Do not just ask a lineman. He is not qualified to make any
judgments as to airworthiness. If any doubt exists, check with a flight instructor.
e.
Securing the rear cockpit. Ensure the rear cockpit is secured for solo flight in
accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual. Again, if you have any
questions, ask an instructor or call for a qualified maintenance person to assist.
f.
Start, taxi, and checks. It is recommended that you read the checklists out loud as if
your instructor were with you. This will reduce your chances of omitting an item on
the checklist. While taxiing, keep your head "on a swivel." You are solely
responsible for the safety of the aircraft and a good "See-and-Avoid" doctrine is
imperative, both on the ground and in the air. You also need to pay attention to radio
transmissions, especially those that begin with your call sign. If problems should
arise, do not hesitate to ask the FDO/ODO for assistance.
2.
Takeoff and Flight. Prior to taking the active runway, ensure you have clearance to do so.
Read back the appropriate response as required. Even before this, you should have already
thought out the Takeoff and Departure procedures to ensure a smooth evolution.
a.
Restrictions. You may not make a full-stop landing at an OLF unless directed by the
RDO, or if weather or an emergency makes it necessary. If you must make a full-stop
landing at an OLF, remember that you are responsible for the aircraft until either you
return it to home field, or you are relieved of responsibility by a maintenance or
instructor pilot. Perform Before Leaving the Aircraft checklist. Once you have
properly taken care of your aircraft, call the FDO/ODO and advise him of your
situation.
Solos may not practice spins, stalls, simulated engine failures, PPELs, or any
maneuver which has not been previously introduced. Solo launch time is no earlier
than sunrise with an RDO on station. Solo recovery is no later than 30 minutes prior
to official sunset.
8-2
b.
High work. Conform to local course rules and remain oriented. Check between
maneuvers to see where you are in the working area and continue to do OPS checks.
You should be monitoring the area common frequency, as well as the guard
frequency in the event of a solo recall. Take time to practice maneuvers which you
need to perfect. Keep your scan moving outside for other aircraft in the same
operating area.
c.
Operations at Outlying Fields. Ensure that you know the radio frequency and
pattern altitude of the OLF you are about to enter. Utilize the proper entry and
communications procedures for the OLF. Know the proper pattern direction and use
extra care in establishing interval. You should also keep track of your flight time and
number of landings accomplished at the OLF. When it is time to depart, follow
applicable course rules and check your gear and flaps are in the “up” position.
SOLO FLIGHT
PRIMARY CONTACT
d.
CHAPTER EIGHT
Emergencies. In all emergencies, the first consideration is to fly the aircraft. Then,
determine the situation and your course of action in accordance with the T-6B
NATOPS Flight Manual. When time permits, communicate and let others know your
situation.
i.
Lost aircraft. If you get lost, admit it and try to communicate using all
available channels and navigation aids including the nearest function on the
Flight Management System (FMS). Land at a suitable airfield before you run
out of gas. The best policy is to remain oriented and do not get lost. If you
actually get lost, it will be necessary for you to use your own initiative and good
judgment. Every situation will be different; therefore, it is impossible to
establish a criterion that will apply to every set of circumstances. However, the
following items, known as the five "Cs" will generally apply: CONFESS,
CLIMB, COMMUNICATE, CONSERVE, AND COMPLY.
(a). CONFESS - Admit that your are lost and need some form of assistance.
(b). CLIMB - Ceiling and visibility permitting, climb to improve radio
reception and forward visibility.
(c). COMMUNICATE - Request assistance on the area working frequency
from an instructor pilot or advice from your FDO/ODO. If unable, try
calling Approach Control and request vectors to home field. If you get no
reply, switch to GUARD and try again.
If ATC replies, they will ask you to squawk a certain code on your
transponder. They may also ask you to provide other information in order
to give you a vector (heading) to home field. If it appears that clouds will
be on your vectored flight path, advise Approach and circle while
maintaining VFR.
(d). CONSERVE - Operate the aircraft (when straight and level) at
maximum endurance AOA of 8.8 units. (150 KIAS)
(e). COMPLY - With instructions received from another dual aircraft, ATC,
or your base. Many prominent landmarks are available in and around your
working areas, they may give clues as to your general whereabouts. If you
find yourself lost, the important thing to remember is this: Do not fly
about aimlessly. Be calm and develop a plan using your good judgment
and established procedures. If you still cannot identify your position after
having gone through the five "Cs," look for any established landing field.
Before landing at a strange field, circle it at a safe altitude and locate all
obstacles and hazards. Determine the wind direction and duty runway and
try to get a rough estimation of runway length and width. If there is a
tower at the field, try to contact Approach or Tower on GUARD prior to
landing. Once you are ready to land, make a normal traffic pattern.
SOLO FLIGHT
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Remember that the field elevation may be considerably different from that
of your home field. Use your best estimation and adjust accordingly.
Once on deck, notify your base of the situation.
ii.
Lost communications. Should you experience lost communications, you may
just have one bad channel. Try calling tower, ground, approach, or area
common. Also, try setting in the manual frequencies. Attempt communication
on the UHF, VHF and Back-up VHF. If this fails, use the lost communication
procedures as described in the SOP. Remember, YOU are responsible for safe
separation, so watch for other aircraft and remain VFR. Be sure to make all
voice reports in the blind and rock your wings approaching the break. On final,
double-check the Before Landing Checklist complete and for a green light from
the tower. Know what all of the light signals mean as they can and will be
given to you. Make a full-stop landing and clear the duty runway when safe.
iii.
PEL. Should a PEL be necessary, execute one without hesitation at the nearest
suitable field.
iv.
Emergency orbit pattern (Delta pattern). Be familiar with the procedures for
the emergency orbit pattern in accordance with local course rules. Once
established in the pattern, you may contact the FDO/ODO and ask for assistance
if needed. Follow the T-6B NATOPS Flight manual procedures as required.
v.
Unintentional Instrument Flight. Instrument conditions are to be avoided at
all times in Contact. If actual instrument flight is encountered, immediately
level your wings on the attitude gyro and time for 30 seconds. If not VFR at the
end of 30 seconds, attempt to regain visual flight conditions by making a
shallow turn for 180º. If still not VMC, squawk 7700 and contact ATC for
assistance (using 243.0 guard if necessary).
3.
Conclusion. Lastly, enjoy your solo. This is your hop and it is designed to give you
confidence in yourself and your abilities. Know and use the standard operating procedures that
you have been taught. This hop will be a valuable and enjoyable step towards your becoming a
competent Naval Aviator.
8-4
SOLO FLIGHT
CHAPTER NINE
AEROBATICS
900. INTRODUCTION
Aerobatics is any intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in aircraft’s attitude,
intentionally performed spins, or other maneuvers requiring pitch/dive angles greater than 45°,
bank angles greater than 60°, or accelerations greater than two Gs.
You will be receiving training on the Anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM) and the physiological
effects of increased G loads. Review the aircraft G limits.
Refer to Figure 9-1 for aerobatic maneuver configuration parameters.
Aerobatic
Maneuver
Loop
Wingover
Barrel Roll
Aileron Roll
Split S
Entry
Airspeed
230 – 250
200 – 220
200 – 220
180 – 220
120 – 140
Cuban Eight 230 – 250
Immelmann 230 – 250
Cloverleaf
200 – 220
Gs
Required
High
Low
Mod
Low
High
Altitude
Change
NC
NC
NC
NC
- 3000 feet
Exit
Airspeed
230 – 250
200 – 220
N/A
N/A
< 250
Energy
Classification
Neutral
Neutral
Neutral
Loser
Neutral
High
High
High
NC
+ 3000 feet
NC
230 – 250
Flying A/S
200 - 220
Neutral
Gainer
Neutral
Power
MAX
~70%
~80%
~80%
Idle80%
MAX
MAX
MAX
Figure 9-1 Aerobatic Maneuver Parameters
Prior to performing aerobatic maneuvers, complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic
Checks per the NATOPS PCL and accomplish clearing turns. For the clearing turns, use a
minimum of 45º AOB and turn for a minimum of 180º. Throughout the turn, thoroughly check
the area for other aircraft.
Start your aerobatic maneuvers from an altitude which will permit a complete maneuver and a
return to straight and level flight at or above 6000 feet AGL. You must not exceed the maximum
altitude permitted for your operating area. The maneuvers performed require approximately
3000 feet vertically.
901. RULES AND PRECAUTIONS FOR AEROBATIC FLIGHT
Due to their unique nature, there are certain rules and precautions you must observe prior to
performing any aerobatic maneuver. Flight Rules and Regulations (FRR) and local SOP will
prescribe restrictions governing the airspace within which you may perform aerobatic
maneuvers. Ensure that you are thoroughly familiar with these regulations. Strict compliance is
mandatory.
AEROBATICS
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PRIMARY CONTACT
902. SECTION LINES AND GROUND REFERENCE POINTS
The maneuver descriptions and procedures of the various aerobatic maneuvers often refer to
section lines and ground reference points. Understanding how to select and use these
geographical references will greatly enhance your ability to remain oriented during the various
aerobatic maneuvers.
Much of the area you will fly over is rural farm land or beachline/waterways. The lines which
separate one "section" of land from another is called a "section line." These lines commonly run
north/south or east/west in long, straight lines and are easily identified from the air. During the
various maneuvers, these section lines are utilized as a reference to maintain directional control.
Since some maneuvers involve a reversal in the direction of flight, it becomes necessary to select
a line which extends both in front of and behind you. Highways, utility cuts or even beachlines
may also be utilized, provided they are linear and of sufficient length.
Maneuvers such as the Barrel Roll or Wingover require the use of a ground reference point
which is 90º from your initial heading. Ensure that the points which you select are prominent
and easily seen, remembering that you will have to relocate them rapidly as you are passing
through unusual attitudes. The rate at which you must scan while performing the maneuvers
does not allow the time to search for a hard-to-see reference point. It is permissible to perform
aerobatics “on top” of a cloud layer without the use of ground references. Use compass headings
and altitudes for alignment. Care must be taken to stay within a designated working area.
903. CLEARING TURNS
During aerobatic flight, attitude, altitude and direction of flight change rapidly. You must
therefore exercise extreme caution by ensuring the immediate area is clear of other aircraft and
that no danger of midair collision exists. A clearing turn, as the name implies, allows you to
clear the area in which you are operating. Use a minimum of 45º angle of bank and turn for a
minimum of 180º of heading change. Two 90º turns in opposite directions will suffice. The
direction of the last clearing turn shall be in the direction in which the maneuver will be
performed. Throughout the turn, check the area thoroughly for other aircraft. Continue the turn
until you have the desired airspeed and sufficient ground references to maintain orientation
during the maneuver. Remember 180º of turn is a minimum, not an absolute. One clearing turn
and Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist may suffice for a series of aerobatic
maneuvers.
If the number of section lines or ground references is limited, then a teardrop maneuver is an
effective means of performing the clearing turn while positioning the aircraft for the next
maneuver. This may be performed by turning to place the nose approximately 45º from the
section line, timing for 7-10 seconds, and then turning back to the reciprocal of the original
heading.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER NINE
Common Errors
a.
Failure to plan or execute the clearing turn(s) so that the chosen ground references are
properly positioned to allow for adequate orientation during the subsequent
maneuver.
b.
Not "clearing" the area sufficiently during the turn.
c.
Poor basic airwork during the clearing turn(s), resulting in the aircraft not being at the
correct altitude and/or airspeed to commence the planned maneuver in a timely
fashion.
d.
Failure to execute the maneuver within the cleared airspace.
904. G-INDUCED LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is a fainting episode caused by gravity-induced
physiological stresses on the human body. The most commonly experienced G-forces are
encountered by pilots during positive acceleration maneuvers (such as pulling out of a dive or
turning at high angles of bank). This type of positive G-force (+Gs) is directed from head to
foot, and therefore imparts a feeling of being pressed into the seat.
The ultimate effect of these forces on the human body is a tendency for blood to pool both in the
lower abdomen and the extremities. This pooling effect dramatically reduces the volume of
blood available to the eyes and brain, thereby critically reducing the oxygen available to sustain
vision and conscious brain function. The typical G-LOC sequence of progression is as follows:
a.
Grayout — peripheral vision is progressively impaired.
b.
Blackout — vision is lost completely.
c.
Loss of consciousness.
Once G-LOC occurs, it typically lasts from 15-30 seconds. Once consciousness is regained, the
individual usually exhibits a period of uncontrolled muscle spasms followed by disorientation or
a "dream-like" state which can last from a few seconds to several minutes. Some pilots have
described post G-LOC feelings of detachment, apathy and temporal distortion. Amnesia of the
entire episode is a common occurrence. Impairment of piloting skills may last for as long as 30
minutes.
Navy and Air Force investigators have identified G-LOC as a probable causal factor in numerous
Class A mishaps. The Air Force estimates that at least 12% of all Strike pilots have experienced
actual G-LOC at least once. G-loading capability in the T-6B is comparable to most tactical jets,
and therefore can easily cause G-LOC among the inexperienced or unprepared pilot.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
Most T-6B G-LOC episodes occur during rapid G-loading of 3 to 5 G’s over 2 to 5 second
intervals. Pilots can prepare themselves for the physical stress of rapid accelerations and
therefore prevent G-LOC by taking certain precautions:
1.
Learn and use the proper Anti-G Straining Maneuver (AGSM), more commonly called the
"HICK Maneuver." There are two components to the recommended AGSM:
a.
The first component is a continuous and maximum contraction (if necessary) of all
skeletal muscles including the arms, legs, chest, and abdominal muscles. This tensing
of the skeletal muscles restricts blood flow in the G-dependent areas of the body and
thereby assists in the retention of blood in the thoracic region (including the heart)
and the brain.
b.
The second component of the AGSM involves repeated closing of the respiratory
tract at 2.5 to 3.0-second intervals. Its purpose is to counter the downward G force by
expanding the lungs and increasing the chest pressure, thereby forcing blood to flow
from the heart to the brain.
The respiratory tract is an open breathing system which starts at the nose and mouth and ends
deep in the lungs. It can be completely closed off at several different points, the most effective
of which is the glottis. Closing the glottis (which is located behind the "Adam’s Apple") yields
the highest increase of chest pressure. The glottis can be closed off by saying the word "HICK"
and catching it about ¾ of the way through the word ("Hiii-"). This should be done after a deep
inspiration, followed by forcefully closing the glottis as you say "HICK." Bear down for 2.5 to
3.0 seconds, then rapidly exhale by finishing the word HICK ("-ka"). This is immediately
followed by the next deep inhalation, repeating the cycle until the G-loading is discontinued.
The exhalation and inhalation phase should last for no more than 0.5 to 1.0 second. Since the
blood pressure falls dramatically during this phase, its duration must be kept to a minimum.
WARNING
Do not hold your respiratory straining too long (more than five
seconds) since this will prevent the blood from returning to the
heart properly and may result in loss of consciousness.
Anticipate the onset of high G forces whenever possible. Skeletal muscles should be tensed prior
to the onset, coupled with the "HICK" respiratory cycle as the G-loading increases. Initiating the
AGSM too early can inhibit the body’s natural cardiovascular reflex responses, while beginning
too late creates a deficit situation which may be difficult to overcome.
NOTE
If properly performed, the AGSM should provide adequate
protection against G-LOC while performing the various aerobatic
maneuvers. If you experience difficulty, or are in doubt as to
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AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER NINE
whether or not you are executing the maneuver correctly, see your
squadron flight surgeon or wing Aeromedical Safety Officer.
2.
Inter-cockpit communication between aircrew is imperative. Both individuals must rely on
the other not to apply high G forces without first giving prior warning. Historically poor crew
communication has been a major causal factor in G-LOC episodes. During high G maneuvers,
G-suit inflation can inadvertently key the radio transmit switch on the PCL. Take care to
position your leg to prevent this from occurring and blocking communications with your IP.
3.
Be prepared physically.
a.
Avoid flying if ill or extremely fatigued.
b.
Maintain an adequate fluid intake and do not skip meals.
c.
Stay in shape. The optimum fitness program for increasing G-tolerance is a
combination of moderate weight training and cardiovascular aerobic exercise
(running, walking, swimming, etc.) 2-3 times weekly. Avoid excessive long distance
running (more than 25 miles per week) or overly intense weight training. These will
typically result in lower blood pressure and heart rate which may decrease Gtolerance.
4.
G awareness Exercise/G warm-up maneuver: Accomplish a G-awareness exercise on
sorties that include maneuvers that require or may result in 3 or more Gs. This may be
accomplished by performing the following procedures:
a.
Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning, and Aerobatic Checklist. Notify the other
crewmember that you are going to commence the G-awareness Exercise.
b.
Begin wings level at 200-220 KIAS. Advance power to MAX, smoothly roll to
70-80 degrees AOB, allowing the nose to drop slightly below the horizon (no more
than 10 degrees), pause momentarily to stop roll and smoothly pull.
c.
The G-onset rate should be slow and smooth, allowing sufficient time to evaluate the
effectiveness of the AGSM and determine G-tolerance. Increase Gs to approximately
4 Gs for approximately 4 to 5 breathing cycles in order to allow full cardiovascular
response.
d.
For advanced aerobatic and formation training, the G-awareness exercise should be
flown to G-loads of 4 - 5 Gs.
905. CONTACT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
1.
Description. Recovery may be required due to an improperly flown maneuver,
disorientation, area boundaries (lateral or vertical), an aircraft malfunction, or traffic conflicts.
AEROBATICS 9-5
CHAPTER NINE
PRIMARY CONTACT
2.
General. The diverse and demanding missions performed by military aircraft often require
maneuvers which involve unusual attitudes. An effective military pilot must therefore be trained
to quickly recognize and then safely recover from unusual attitudes. This must often be
accomplished while relying almost exclusively upon the interpretation of visual cues from
outside the cockpit. In this stage of training you will perform the procedures for recovery from
various unusual attitudes utilizing what is primarily a scan of visual references located outside
the cockpit.
a.
The IP will configure the aircraft commensurate with entering an aerobatic maneuver
of choice. Refer to Figure 9-1.
b.
The instructor will then smoothly maneuver the aircraft so as to place it in an unusual
attitude.
c.
Once directed by the instructor, assume the controls and recover the aircraft in
accordance with the following procedures. Recovery shall be accomplished by 6000
feet AGL.
Nose-High Recovery
A nose-high attitude can be encountered with insufficient airspeed to continue the maneuver.
Immediate and proper recovery procedures prevent aggravated stall and spin. Expeditious return
to level flight from a nose-high attitude, without departing controlled flight or exceeding aircraft
limits.
Figure 9-2 Nose-High Recovery
9-6
AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
3.
CHAPTER NINE
Procedures.
a.
Set power to MAX (as required in low airspeed situations) and initiate a coordinated
roll with backpressure to bring the nose of the aircraft down to the nearest horizon.
Depending on initial airspeed and aircraft attitude, a wings-level, inverted attitude
may be reached. As the nose approaches the horizon, roll to an upright attitude
(Figure 9-2).
NOTE
Do not push the stick forward and go zero or negative G in an
effort to get the nose back to the horizon, use coordinated roll and
positive G’s.
4.
b.
If the airspeed is low, the rollout may be delayed until the nose is definitely below the
horizon. In some cases, the nose has to be flown well below the horizon to regain
enough airspeed to feel positive pressure on the controls. When airspeed is sufficient,
roll wings level, raise the nose, check for normal oil pressure, and use power as
required to recover to level flight.
c.
Do not be too aggressive when pulling to the horizon or pulling up from a nose-low
attitude. The stick shaker and airframe buffet indicate a potential for stall. Decrease
back-stick pressure before the stall.
d.
In all cases, observe system limitations when operating near zero-G.
e.
During some nose-high, low airspeed situations, when the aircraft responds to inputs
slowly due to low airspeed or torque effect, a reduction in power may be required
(usually below 60% torque) and all available control authority may be required to
smoothly return the aircraft to level flight. If the aircraft does not respond normally,
or if situational awareness is lost, an OCF recovery shall be accomplished.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to set power to MAX (as required in low airspeed situations).
b.
Pushing the nose over (resulting in 0 or (-) G's)."
Nose-Low Recovery.
Aerobatics require nose-low attitudes. Immediate and proper recovery procedures prevent a
high-speed dive or excessive G-forces. Expeditious recovery to level flight from a nose-low
attitude with minimum altitude loss and without exceeding aircraft limits.
AEROBATICS 9-7
CHAPTER NINE
PRIMARY CONTACT
Figure 9-3 Nose-Low Recovery
5.
Procedures.
Roll the aircraft to the nearest horizon. Once wings level, smoothly apply back pressure to
bring the aircraft to level flight. Use power and speed brake as required (Figure 9-3). Do not
exceed maximum allowable airspeed (316 KIAS). Airspeed may continue to increase as the
nose is raised, and maximum airspeed can occur just before level flight is attained. G-loading
increases during recovery. Accomplish a proper AGSM. Approaching 200 KIAS or greater,
set PCL to idle and speed brake as required. With the nose on or slightly above the horizon,
check oil pressure is normal then set power as required.
6.
Common Errors.
Not reducing power and extending speed brake to prevent excessive airspeed.
Inverted Recovery.
Immediate and proper recovery procedures prevent a high-speed dive or excessive G-forces.
Expeditious recovery to level flight from an inverted attitude with minimum altitude loss and
without exceeding aircraft limits.
7.
9-8
Procedures.
a.
When slightly nose-high, nose-low, or near an inverted position, recover by rolling in
the shortest direction to set the aircraft in an upright position adding power as
required. With the nose on or slightly above the horizon, check oil pressure is normal
then power as required.
b.
For purely inverted recoveries, execute a coordinated roll to the nearest horizon.
AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
8.
CHAPTER NINE
Common Errors.
Not rolling in shortest direction to horizon.
906. LOOP
1.
Description. The loop is a 360° turn in the vertical plane with constant heading and nose
track. Because it is executed in a single plane, the elevator is the principle control surface.
Ailerons and rudder are used to maintain directional control and coordinated flight. The
maneuver is complete when wings are level at the horizon on the same heading as at entry.
Figure 9-4 Loop
2.
General. The Loop is one of the most rudimentary aerobatic maneuvers, yet one which
requires skill and practice to consistently perform well. The nose pitch rate should be constant,
but the aft stick force required to obtain this will vary with airspeed and "G" loading. Directional
control is maintained by adjusting rudder input as the airspeed varies, thereby maintaining
balanced flight. Aileron is used only in making corrections to maintain the wings parallel with
the horizon throughout the entire maneuver.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 230-250 KIAS, power at MAX.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
AEROBATICS 9-9
CHAPTER NINE
4.
PRIMARY CONTACT
b.
Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you. Just prior to entry, check
and report the entry altitude over the ICS. Commence the AGSM and immediately
start a smooth straight pull up accelerating to 4 Gs within two to three seconds. Do
not use the aileron.
c.
Recheck the wings level as the nose passes through the horizon. Adjust stick pressure
as necessary to keep the nose moving at a constant rate. Increase right rudder
pressure as airspeed decreases.
d.
Shortly after passing the vertical position, tilt your head back and visually locate the
opposite horizon. Correct with aileron as necessary to maintain the wings parallel to
the horizon. Check the nose in relation to the section line and correct directional
deviations as necessary by adjusting the rudder input.
e.
Airspeed will reach its slowest point at the top of the Loop (100-120 KIAS). The
greatest amount of right rudder input will therefore be required at this point in order
to maintain balanced flight. The amount of aft stick force required to maintain a
constant nose pitch rate will have decreased significantly from the initial pull-up.
Maintain positive "G" loading and wings parallel to the horizon.
f.
Allow the nose to fall through the opposite horizon, adjusting the amount of aft stick
pressure to maintain a constant pitch rate. Fly the aircraft’s nose along the section
line, relaxing right rudder pressure as airspeed is quickly regained.
g.
Continue to relax right rudder pressure as the airspeed increases in the dive and
smoothly increase aft stick pressure as necessary to maintain a constant pitch rate.
The recovery will again require approximately 4 Gs, so remember to resume the
AGSM.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to check and report the altitude prior to entry. It is hard to recover on the
altitude you began the maneuver when you do not know what it is.
b.
Poor directional control caused by failure to maintain balanced flight with the proper
amount of right rudder as airspeed is lost and then regained. Poor rudder control is
easily detected by checking the alignment of the nose and the section line.
Remember that the required rudder input varies as airspeed varies. Almost constant
rudder adjustment will be required during the maneuver.
c.
Poor directional control caused by failure to keep the wings parallel to the horizon
throughout the maneuver. The most common tendency by far is to pull the stick
slightly to the right when pulling the nose up during the 4 G entry. Keep the stick
centered longitudinally as the entry input is made. Check and correct the wing
attitude often.
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CHAPTER NINE
d.
Poor execution of the initial pull-up with respect to G-loading and/or timing.
Remember, 4 Gs in two to three seconds. Scan the accelerometer. Excessive
G-loading and/or loading the aircraft too quickly will cause an excessively rapid
deceleration, and may result in overstress. Insufficient G-loading, or taking too long
to obtain the correct acceleration, will deplete the aircraft’s energy state, resulting in a
stalled or near-stalled condition when approaching the inverted position.
e.
Relaxing too much back-stick pressure while passing through the inverted position at
the top of the Loop. This will result in a "floating" sensation. Remember to maintain
some positive G-loading throughout the entire maneuver. Conversely, failure to relax
sufficient back-stick pressure over the top will result in excessive angle of attack and
stick shakers. If this occurs, relax the back-stick pressure slightly.
f.
Failure to initiate the pull-out soon enough during the second half of the Loop. This
results in excessive airspeed and recovery below the initial altitude.
907. WINGOVER
1.
Description. The Wingover is a 180º reversal in the direction of flight accomplished by
combining a smooth climbing turn for 90º with a smooth diving turn for 90º. Recovery should
be on the same altitude and approximately the same airspeed at which the maneuver was started.
Figure 9-5 Wingover
2.
General. The Wingover will develop your ability to smoothly control the aircraft in
balanced flight through constantly changing attitudes and airspeeds. It is a slow and gentle
maneuver when properly executed. No abrupt control movements are necessary. The maneuver
may be initiated in either direction and is always performed in a series of two. You should
therefore complete the series on the same heading that the first Wingover was initiated. Flying
the maneuver in series will enable you to develop a "feel" for the changing control pressures and
the rhythm of the maneuver. Successive Wingovers, when continued without interruption, serve
as clearing turns for the next series.
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PRIMARY CONTACT
When your instructor first demonstrates the Wingover, it is of primary importance that you
acquire a mental picture of the path through which the aircraft is flying. Notice the appearance
of the nose and the wings in relation to the ground and the horizon at various points during the
maneuver. Once you are able to visualize this, the Wingover is merely a matter of flying the
aircraft in balanced flight through this pattern. Since you are learning to fly the aircraft in a
predetermined pattern, keep your scan primarily outside of the cockpit. Use your instruments
only for an occasional reference to crosscheck your sensory impressions.
The rate of roll should be constant throughout the maneuver. The nose should always move at a
constant rate in relation to the horizon as it describes arcs, first above and then below the
horizon. Remember that in turns to the right, torque and slipstream effect must be offset with a
greater amount of rudder input than in turns to the left. Proper performance of the maneuver
demands smooth coordination of control pressures to maintain balanced flight. The rate of pitch
and roll during the Wingover is relatively slow, therefore the resultant increased G-loading is
relatively slight. It should not be necessary to exceed 2.0 Gs at any time during the maneuver.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 200-220 KIAS. Set power to ~70%
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
b.
Begin in straight-and-level flight, with briefed entry airspeed and power setting.
Select the desired reference point on the horizon or ground, and align the aircraft so
the reference point is directly off a wingtip. Blend aileron, rudder, and elevator
pressures simultaneously to start a gradual climbing turn in the direction of the
reference point. If turn rate and pitch rate are the same, it will be difficult to obtain 45
degrees nose up. The initial bank should be very shallow to prevent excessive turn
rate. As the nose is raised, the airspeed decreases, causing the rate of turn to increase.
Time the turn and pull-up so the nose reaches the highest pitch attitude
(approximately 45°) when the aircraft has turned 45° or halfway to the reference
point. Use outside references and the attitude indicator to crosscheck these pitch-andbank attitudes. Bank continues to increase as the nose falls. The aircraft should be
pointed at the reference point as a maximum bank of 90° is reached and the nose
reaches the horizon. The lowest airspeed occurs just as the nose reaches the horizon.
c.
Do not freeze the pitch or bank at the horizon. Passing the horizon, let the nose fall,
and begin rolling out of bank. The second half of the leaf (nose below horizon)
should be symmetric and approximately the same size as the first half (nose above the
horizon). The bank should change at the same rate as during the nose up portion of
the leaf. When the aircraft has turned 135°, the nose should be at its lowest attitude
and the bank should be 45°. Continue blending control stick and rudder pressure to
simultaneously raise the nose and level the wings. Monitor the progress of the turn
9-12 AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER NINE
by checking the outside reference point (off opposite shoulder from maneuver start).
The aircraft should be wings level at entry airspeed as the nose reaches the horizon,
having completed 180° of turn.
d.
Without delay, begin the second leaf in the opposite direction of the first. Repeat
steps b and c.
e.
Upon completion of the series, the aircraft should once again be established in level
balanced flight, on the original heading and altitude.
NOTE
Set up perpendicular to a long road or section line. Visualize the
road as the straight line part of a dollar sign ($). The two turns of
the maneuver complete the “S” portion of the dollar sign. If
ground references are unavailable, the heading bug can be set to
the initial heading and used to monitor the progress of the turns.
During the nose up part of turns, pull to put the bottom foot (foot on inside of turn) on
top of the horizon and roll around it until reaching approximately 60° bank.
When bringing the nose back to the horizon from a nose-low attitude, the number of
knots below wings level airspeed should be approximately equal to the number of
degrees nose-low. For example, if the wings desired level airspeed is 220 knots, the
airspeed should be approximately 190 knots at 30° nose-low, 200 knots at
20° nose-low, etc.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Rushing the maneuver. Remember, the Wingover is a relatively slow and finesse
maneuver.
b.
Failure to obtain 45º nose up and 45º AOB simultaneously. This is usually caused by
an excessive roll rate and/or insufficient back-stick pressure during the initial pull-up.
Once the AOB exceeds 45º, it is difficult to raise the nose any higher. This type of
error will result in excessive airspeed at the 90º checkpoint. As the aircraft rolls,
smoothly increase the back-stick pressure so as to obtain 45º nose up simultaneously
with 45º AOB. The required back-stick pressure reaches a maximum at
approximately this point. You must then continue to roll towards the 90º checkpoint
at a constant rate while beginning to relax the back-stick pressure. By the time you
reach 90º AOB you should only have enough back-stick to keep from feeling light in
your seat (i.e., slight positive G-loading).
c.
Exceeding 90º AOB.
AEROBATICS 9-13
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PRIMARY CONTACT
d.
Holding excessive back-stick pressure at the 90º checkpoint, thereby "pulling" the
nose through and obtaining the reciprocal heading too early during the recovery.
Conversely, releasing all of the back-stick pressure, thereby inducing a zero or
negative G state.
e.
Poor timing of the roll and pitch rate during recovery. The wings should come level
simultaneously as the nose reaches the level flight attitude.
f.
Commencing the second Wingover in the series off airspeed, heading, altitude, etc.
908. BARREL ROLL
1.
Description. A barrel roll is a maneuver in which the aircraft is rolled 360 about an
imaginary point which bears 45 off the nose of the aircraft (Figure 9-6). Definite seat pressure
should be felt throughout the roll. Practice in both directions.
Figure 9-6 Barrel Roll
2.
General. The Barrel Roll will help develop your confidence, coordination and "sense of
feel" while flying the aircraft through rapidly changing attitudes and airspeeds. Since attitude,
heading, and airspeed change so rapidly, this is an excellent maneuver for developing your
ability to maintain orientation.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 200-220 KIAS. Set power to ~80%.
9-14 AEROBATICS
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CHAPTER NINE
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
4.
b.
Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you. Just prior to entry, check
and report the entry altitude over the ICS. Commence the maneuver by smoothly
raising the nose while keeping the wings level. As the nose passes ~20° above the
horizon, roll and pull so that the nose travels around in an arcing path towards the
selected 90º checkpoint. After 45º of turn, the angle of bank should be 90º and the
nose will be at its highest point during the maneuver (approximately 55-60º above the
horizon).
c.
Continue rolling the aircraft at a constant rate until in a wings level, inverted attitude,
heading directly at the 90º reference point on the horizon. Your nose should be
slightly above the horizon, airspeed 100-120 KIAS. Fly the aircraft through the
inverted position and continue rolling at a constant rate, targeting a 30o nose low,
completing the maneuver on the original heading and altitude. Maintain a positive
"G" load throughout the maneuver. If performed properly, 2.5 Gs should not be
exceeded at any time during the maneuver.
d.
The nose should appear to make an arcing path about the imaginary point on the
horizon 45º from your original heading. The last half of the arc will, therefore, be the
same distance below the horizon that the first half is above the horizon. Remember,
as the airspeed decreases towards the top of the maneuver, it will be necessary to
increase the deflection of the ailerons, rudder, and elevator to maintain a constant rate
of pitch and roll. Conversely, as the airspeed increases towards the bottom of the
maneuver it will be necessary to decrease the deflection of the ailerons, rudder, and
elevator to maintain a constant rate of pitch and roll. Notice that this roll is started as
a climbing turn, which then becomes a continuous roll at a constant rate.
e.
Maintain orientation throughout the maneuver by concentrating on your reference
points. Maintain a constant rate of roll and nose movement. Inscribing a small arc
above the horizon in the first half of the maneuver and a larger arc below the horizon
in the last half will result in too great an airspeed at the completion of the maneuver
or unnecessarily high "G" forces to recover on airspeed. During the roll out to the
original heading, adjusting the back-stick pressure will enable you to recover on
altitude and at aerobatic cruise airspeed.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to raise the nose high enough during the first 45º of turn. Generally, this will
result in a correspondingly nose low attitude and proportionally high airspeed when
recovery is made.
AEROBATICS 9-15
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PRIMARY CONTACT
b.
Improperly coordinating the rate of roll with the rate of pitch. An insufficient roll rate
will result in an overshoot of the intended recovery heading while an excessive roll
rate will result in an undershoot. A common tendency is to allow the roll rate to
accelerate after passing the inverted position.
c.
Failure to maintain balanced flight. Too much or too little rudder will produce
essentially the same results as too fast or too slow a rate of roll, respectively.
d.
Failing to scan ahead for the reference point and/or section line and thereby losing
orientation.
e.
Student not looking outside enough, attempting to execute Instrument Barrel Roll.
f.
Failure to get the nose far enough below the horizon on the backside resulting in
being high and slow upon completion of maneuver.
909. AILERON ROLL
1.
Description. The aileron roll is a 360° roll about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. The
maneuver is complete when the wings are parallel to the horizon.
Figure 9-7 Aileron Roll
2.
General. Plan your clearing turn so as to roll out on a good section line or with the nose
aimed at a prominent reference point. When performing the maneuver make your control inputs
smooth, brisk and positive.
9-16 AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
3.
CHAPTER NINE
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 180-220 KIAS. Set power to ~80%.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
4.
b.
Smoothly raise the nose to ~10° nose-high pitch attitude. Relax back-stick pressure
and stop nose track, then roll the aircraft left or right using aileron
c.
As the aircraft approaches wings level, neutralize the aileron, and return to level
flight.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to relax the back-stick pressure prior to rolling. Back-stick pressure is
required only to set the initial nose attitude. Failure to relax the back-stick pressure
will cause the nose to follow an arcing path rather than having the aircraft roll about
its longitudinal axis. It will also cause the nose to drop rapidly while passing the
inverted position.
b.
Delaying initiation of the roll once the nose high attitude is set. This causes excessive
airspeed decay, which results in a sluggish roll performance.
910. SPLIT-S
1.
Description. The split-S combines the first half of an aileron roll with the last half of a
loop. The aircraft climbs during entry and descends during recovery. The maneuver is complete
when the aircraft returns to level flight.
AEROBATICS 9-17
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PRIMARY CONTACT
Figure 9-8 Split-S
NOTE
Student solos are strictly prohibited from performing the Split-S,
Immelmann, Cloverleaf, Combination Maneuver, and intentional
sustained inverted flight maneuvers. Failure to comply with this
safety related restriction is considered sufficient grounds for
attrition from flight training.
2.
General. The Split-S provides a means of rapidly converting the potential energy of
altitude into airspeed while reversing the direction of flight. Once the pull is commenced from
the inverted position, airspeed builds rapidly and altitude is quickly lost. If performed correctly,
the altitude loss should be approximately 3000 feet. Remember to select a long, well defined
section line which extends behind as well as in front of you.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Transition to 150 KIAS.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
b.
Reduce power to idle and maintain altitude while slowing to 140 KIAS.
c.
Raise the nose to an approximately ~10° pitch attitude.
9-18 AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER NINE
d.
Roll the aircraft to the wings-level, inverted attitude. Once inverted, neutralize the
ailerons. Quickly verify that the wings are level by referencing the horizon and
correct as necessary.
e.
Apply backpressure to bring the nose through the horizon. Attempt to
achieve maximum nose track, without stalling.
f.
Airspeed and G-loading (approximately 4 Gs) increase during the pullout.
g.
Perform a proper AGSM.
h.
Once back to level flight, check oil pressure within normal limits. Report the oil
pressure over the ICS and reset power as required.
NOTE
Like the loop, attempt to set up the maneuver over a road or
section line. Ensure wings are level inverted before starting pull.
Looking at successive points above the canopy bow (as described
on the back half of the loop) that lead in a straight line from below
the aircraft out to the horizon can also help ensure a straight pull.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to maintain altitude and/or balanced flight during the deceleration.
b.
Delaying roll initiation, airspeed decay causes difficult lateral control.
c.
Failure to obtain, check and/or correct wings level prior to the pull-out. This results
in disorientation and a rolling pull-out.
d.
Pulling too much back-stick before sufficient airspeed has been gained resulting in a
near-stalled AOA.
911. CUBAN EIGHT
1.
Description. Each half of this maneuver is a combination of a slightly modified loop and
Immelman. The first portion of each leaf is approximately the first five-eighths of a loop
followed by a half roll. The pull and roll is then repeated in the opposite direction. The
maneuver looks like an 8 on its side. The maneuver is complete at level flight, with entry
airspeed and on original heading.
AEROBATICS 9-19
CHAPTER NINE
PRIMARY CONTACT
Figure 9-9 Cuban Eight
2.
General. Remember to select a long, well defined section line which extends behind as
well as in front of you.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 230-250 KIAS. Set power to MAX.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
During the last 90º of turn, lower the nose slightly and accelerate to 230-250 KIAS.
b.
Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you. Just prior to entry, check
and report the entry altitude over the ICS. Commence the AGSM and immediately
start a smooth straight pull-up, accelerating to 4Gs within two to three seconds. Do
not use the aileron.
c.
Recheck the wings level as the nose passes through the horizon. Adjust stick pressure
as necessary to keep the nose moving at a constant rate. Increase right rudder
pressure as airspeed decreases.
9-20 AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER NINE
d.
Shortly after passing the vertical position, tilt your head back and visually locate
the opposite horizon. Correct with aileron as necessary to maintain the wings
parallel to the horizon. Check the nose in relation to the section line and correct
directional deviations as necessary by adjusting the rudder input.
e.
Airspeed will reach its slowest point at the top of the modified loop (100-120 KIAS).
The greatest amount of right rudder input will therefore be required at this point in
order to maintain balanced flight. The amount of aft stick force required to maintain a
constant nose pitch rate will have decreased significantly from the initial pull-up.
Maintain positive G-loading and wings parallel to the horizon.
f.
Allow the nose to fall through the opposite horizon, adjusting the amount of aft stick
pressure to maintain a constant pitch rate. As the nose approaches a point 45º below
the opposite horizon, slow the nose movement by releasing back-stick pressure and
commence a roll in either direction. During the roll, it will take slight forward stick
pressure as the aircraft passes wings vertical to hold the heading and allow the nose
to continue pitching downward to a position 45º below the horizon.
g.
After completing the half roll, maintain 45° nose-low until beginning the pull up for
the second half of the maneuver. Plan to initiate the pull up to attain briefed entry
airspeed at the horizon (passing through level flight). Begin the pull-up at
approximately 205 to 210 KIAS (airspeed lead point approximately equal to number
of degrees of nose-low pitch). Continue the pull-up into another loop entry. The
second half of the Cuban-8 is identical to the first except the roll is in the opposite
direction.
NOTE
Use ground references, or heading bug, as in other over the top
maneuvers. Upon reaching 45° nose-low inverted (seat on the
horizon), momentarily freeze the control stick before the
coordinated roll. To maintain 45° nose-low, pick a point on the
ground and freeze it in the windscreen.
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Same common errors as the first half of a Loop.
b.
Improper forward stick application during roll resulting in less than the desired 45º
nose down attitude.
912. IMMELMANN
1.
Description. The Immelmann is a half loop followed by a half roll, all flown in the same
vertical plane. The maneuver is complete after a momentary pause in level flight with wings
level on an opposite heading from entry.
AEROBATICS 9-21
CHAPTER NINE
PRIMARY CONTACT
Figure 9-10 Immelmann
2.
General. This maneuver offers a quick means of reversing the direction of flight while
trading excess airspeed for increased altitude. Remember to select a long, well defined section
line which extends behind as well as in front of you.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 230-250 KIAS. Set power to MAX.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
b.
Lower the nose slightly and accelerate to 230-250 KIAS.
c.
Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you. Just prior to entry, check
and report the entry altitude over the ICS. Commence the AGSM and immediately
start a smooth straight pull-up, accelerating to 4 Gs within 2-3 seconds. Do not use
the aileron.
d.
Recheck the wings level as the nose passes through the horizon. Adjust stick
pressure as necessary to keep the nose moving at a constant rate. Increase right
rudder pressure as airspeed decreases.
e.
Shortly after passing the vertical position, tilt your head back and visually locate
the opposite horizon. Correct with aileron as necessary to maintain the wings
parallel to the horizon. Check the nose in relation to the section line and correct
directional deviations as necessary by adjusting the rudder input.
9-22 AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
4.
CHAPTER NINE
f.
As the nose approaches a point ~10º above the opposite horizon ("FCP canopy bow"
on the horizon), slow the rate of nose movement by neutralizing back-stick pressure.
Commence a roll in either direction to the upright position. Anticipate the need for
slight forward stick pressure as the aircraft passes 90º of roll.
g.
The maneuver is complete when the aircraft is once again in the level flight attitude
on the reciprocal heading. The airspeed should be approximately 120 KIAS. The
nose attitude will therefore be slightly high.
Common Errors.
a.
Same common errors as the first half of a Loop.
b.
Commencing the roll to upright attitude either too early or too late.
c.
Utilizing improper rudder and/or poorly coordinated rudder inputs during the roll.
913. CLOVERLEAF
1.
Description. The cloverleaf is composed of four identical maneuvers, each of which
changes heading by 90°. The pull up is similar to the loop, although with less G-load. The top
part is a rolling pull to the horizon 90° displaced from the original heading. The pulling roll
resembles a nose-high recovery. The lower part or pull through is flown like a split-S. The
maneuver is complete in level flight after four leaves in the same direction. Fewer than four
leaves may be performed when practicing the maneuver.
Figure 9-11 Cloverleaf
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PRIMARY CONTACT
2.
General. Combine elements of the loop, roll, and split-S into a fluid maneuver.
3.
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 200-220 KIAS. Set power to MAX.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
b.
Begin in straight-and-level flight, with briefed entry airspeed and power setting. Pick
a reference point 90° off the nose in the desired direction. The initial part of the
maneuver is a straight pullup similar to a loop except for a slightly lower G-loading
(2-3 Gs).
c.
As the aircraft reaches 45° nose-high (feet on the horizon), begin a coordinated roll
toward the 90° reference point. Allow the nose to continue climbing during the roll
so the maneuver is fairly slow and lazy.
d.
Coordinate the pull and roll so the nose passes through the reference point with the
aircraft wings level, inverted, and at a relatively low airspeed (100-120 KIAS). Do
not stare at the airspeed indicator, but note the airspeed at the inverted point. Keep
the wings level and pull through the bottom of the maneuver as in the split-S. To
avoid excessive G and airspeed at the bottom, attempt to MAX perform (as in the
split-S) once the nose passes the horizon.
e.
Approaching the horizon in the pull through, reduce back pressure to allow
acceleration to entry airspeed at the horizon. Complete three additional leaves in the
same direction.
NOTE
Use section lines or prominent roads off of the wingtip in the
direction of turn to visually identify 90° points. Begin roll when
your feet are on the horizon. A combination of roll and pull is
necessary to be inverted wings level over the reference point.
Crosscheck G-load at horizon after each pull though the bottom.
Reaching 200-220 knots at the horizon, G-loading may then have
to be reduced to the 2-3 Gs required for the initial pull up by
releasing back-stick pressure.
4.
Common Errors.
Getting disorientated in the maneuver.
9-24 AEROBATICS
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER NINE
914. COMBINATION MANEUVER
1.
Description. A Combination Maneuver is nothing more than combining a series of
aerobatic maneuvers into a single evolution. A maximum of FOUR maneuvers may be "linked"
together.
2.
General. The aerobatic training you receive is NOT intended to prepare you for the air
show circuit. As previously discussed, aerobatic training IS taught to allow you to make the
aircraft perform precise and controlled maneuvers, flying the aircraft throughout more of its
envelope.
By combining maneuvers, you will need to plan ahead to the second maneuver while completing
the first half. As always, maintain a constant and vigilant scan, especially during the maneuvers.
Energy management should be a part of the discussion so as to plan maneuvers to maximize
airspeed/altitude, while staying within assigned airspace. This should be a major consideration
for which maneuvers are linked together and in what order.
Example: Loop - Cuban Eight - Immelmann - Split-S
3.
Procedures. Perform all maneuvers IAW the procedures previously set forth for the
maneuvers you intend to fly. The SNA shall pre-plan his/her Combination Maneuvers and
thoroughly brief his/her intentions to the IP before execution.
915. INVERTED FLIGHT
1.
Description. The Inverted Flight maneuver is the intentional flying of the T-6B in the
inverted wings level attitude for a maximum of 15 seconds. Review T-6B NATOPS Flight
Manual regarding inverted flight.
2.
General.
It is imperative that you tighten your restraint harness to the maximum extent possible (without
cutting off your circulation). Regardless of how tight you think your belts are, once inverted,
you will have the sensation of being pulled from the aircraft. Notice the nose attitude. The T-6B
requires a relatively high nose attitude in order to maintain level flight.
Reference points that may be used to keep the aircraft from changing altitude while inverted are:
a.
Front Cockpit = prop arc on the horizon.
b.
Rear Cockpit = intersection of rear canopy bow and canopy rail on the horizon
Monitor the oil pressure and clock to remain within limits. Ensure the rudder pedals are within
reach in this attitude.
AEROBATICS 9-25
CHAPTER NINE
3.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Procedures.
a.
CONFIGURATION: Entry airspeed 180-200 KIAS.
CHECKLIST: Complete the Pre-Stalling, Spinning and Aerobatic Checklist.
CLEAR AREA: Clear working area with visual scan, TCAS, and clearing turns as
required.
4.
b.
Raise the nose to an approximately ~10° pitch attitude, stop the nose movement by
relaxing back-stick pressure.
c.
Roll the aircraft to the wings-level, inverted attitude. Once inverted, neutralize the
ailerons and apply enough forward stick pressure to maintain altitude. Immediately
note the clock and check oil pressure. Return to normal flight immediately if oil
pressure is not in the normal range.
d.
Prior to 15 seconds inverted, use coordinated aileron and rudder to roll the aircraft
back to the upright flight attitude. Recheck the oil pressure in the normal range.
Common Errors.
a.
Failure to maintain straight-and-level flight while inverted.
b.
Poor coordination of control inputs during the roll to the inverted and/or upright
positions.
9-26 AEROBATICS
CHAPTER TEN
ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES
1000.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter contains procedures to conduct Angle of Attack (AOA) approaches. The AOA
approach is typically used by carrier based airplanes to perform a precision approach to the
carrier. The skills learned by conducting AOA approaches in the T-6B will be used as a building
block for advanced jet training.
1001.
ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES
1.
Description. The AOA approach is a descending 180º balanced turn to final followed by a
normal flared landing. During the approach, the optimum AOA is maintained by controlling
nose/pitch attitude and rate of descent is controlled by power adjustment.
2.
General. You are introduced to angle of attack approaches for two primary reasons. One
is to simply broaden your exposure to different aspects of aviation. Additionally, AOA
approaches are commonplace in jet and multi-engine aircraft and are virtually mandatory when
used with a visual glideslope indicator during carrier landings. Should you end up flying jets or
multi-engine aircraft, your exposure to AOA approaches in the T-6B will be beneficial.
AOA is displayed on the PFD and AOA indexer. The PFD provides continuous AOA readout.
When the gear is down, the indexer displays one or two of three illuminated symbols.
Depending on which symbols are illuminated, the indexer tells you if you are flying at optimum,
higher than optimum, or less than optimum AOA. Refer to the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual
for further discussion of the AOA system.
For a pattern with gear down, flaps LDG, and PCL set for a 3° glidepath, the optimum approach
speed (center donut) is approximately 100 KIAS at maximum landing weight. As landing
weight decreases, approach AOA (center donut) continues to provide the optimum approach
speed and maneuver speed (regardless of bank angle). Optimum approach airspeed decreases
approximately 1 knot for every 100 pounds of fuel burned.
The AOA system in the T-6B is calibrated in units of AOA, not degrees. An adjustment is
automatically made to the readout based on whether the flaps are up, set to TO, or LDG.
Because of this, optimum AOA is 10.5 units, regardless of configuration.
As you can see, flying an approach at optimum AOA gives you an adequate safety margin
(approach airspeed above stall speed), while keeping your approach and landing speed low.
3.
Procedures.
a.
AOA approaches will normally be flown after one or more touch-and-go landings.
After a touch-and-go, climb out at 120 KIAS with the flaps up. Climb to pattern
altitude.
ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES
10-1
CHAPTER TEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
b.
During the turn, notify other aircraft in the pattern that your are performing an AOA
approach.
c.
Level off at pattern altitude at 120 KIAS. TRANSTION as follows:
No Flap AOA: Established on downwind, reduce power to 15-20% and slow to
optimum AOA (~110 KIAS). Carefully adjust power to 25-30% to maintain pattern
altitude and adjust nose attitude to maintain optimum AOA, an amber donut, “O” on
the indexer. Maintain 10-11 units and a ¾-1 wingtip distance on downwind.
TO Flap AOA: Established on downwind, reduce power to 15-20%, lower flaps to
TO and slow to optimum AOA (~100 KIAS). Carefully adjust power to 25-30% to
maintain pattern altitude and adjust nose attitude to maintain optimum AOA, an
amber donut, “O” on the indexer. Maintain 10-11 units and a ¾-1 wingtip distance
on downwind.
LDG Flap AOA: Established on downwind, reduce power to 15-20%, lower flaps
to LDG and slow to optimum AOA (~95 KIAS). Carefully adjust power to 25-30%
to maintain pattern altitude and adjust nose attitude to maintain optimum AOA, an
amber donut, “O” on the indexer. Maintain 10-11 units and a ¾-1 wingtip distance
on downwind.
d.
Perform the Before Landing Checklist prior to abeam position.
e.
At the 180º position, initiate final turn by reducing power to approximately 15-20%.
Lower the nose slightly to maintain 10-11 units, commence the TURN and TALK.
Your pattern over the ground should be the same as in previous landings. You may
require less angle of bank with TO Flap/LDG Flap approaches. Using the same angle
of bank as in a normal approach would result in too tight a turn.
f.
During the approach, scan the AOA indexer, the aimpoint and the altimeter. Adjust
power and attitude as necessary to maintain the proper rate of descent and 10-11
units. If the green "slow" chevron ("V") lights up, your AOA is higher than optimum
and your airspeed is too slow. To correct, lower the nose slightly. The chevron
points in the direction the nose needs to go. Too low of a nose attitude results in
illumination of the red "fast" chevron, indicating less than optimum AOA and
excessive airspeed. In this case, the correct response is to raise the nose. Again, all
nose attitude adjustments must be coordinated with power to control altitude/rate of
descent.
g.
Rate of descent should be constant. Vary the angle of bank and power as necessary to
arrive at the proper 90º position (10-11 units AOA, 450 feet AGL or ½ the pattern
altitude in feet AGL, perpendicular to the runway). Maintain 10-11 units AOA
through the rest of the turn to final. When you are established on final with
1200-1500 feet of straightaway from the runway threshold, ensure 150-250 feet of
altitude and maintain 10-11 units AOA until just prior to the runway threshold. On
10-2 ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES
PRIMARY CONTACT
CHAPTER TEN
short final, transition to a normal flared landing.
NOTE
The intent of this training is to do an AOA approach to a normal
flared landing, not an AOA approach to an AOA landing!
4.
Common Errors.
a.
Excessive nose attitude corrections. Scanning the indexer will indicate if you are not
at optimum AOA. A glance at the gauge will show how far from optimum. Correct
only as much as necessary.
b.
Failure to coordinate power and attitude changes. Keep in mind that power affects
AOA attitude. Remember to control AOA with attitude and rate of descent with
power.
c.
Using the same angle of bank as utilized during normal landing patterns.
d.
Failure to transition to a normal flared landing.
ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES
10-3
CHAPTER TEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
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10-4 ANGLE OF ATTACK APPROACHES
CHAPTER ELEVEN
NIGHT CONTACT
1100.
INTRODUCTION
You are now ready to enter one of the most interesting stages of your flight training - NIGHT
CONTACT. There is no reason for you to approach it with any more apprehension than you did
the transition from day to night driving in an automobile. In fact, you will find much in common
between the two experiences. Just as you did not try to drive at night until you had perfected
your skill in handling an automobile in the daylight, you now come to night flying with an
improved feel of the airplane and the ability to make your airplane do precisely what you want it
to do. One of the greatest tactical advantages of Naval Aviation is our superior night operational
capability. As a fleet Naval Aviator, a great percentage of your flying will be conducted at night.
Your first night flight is not intended to teach you all there is to know about night flying, but to
familiarize you with the fundamentals. You will come to realize that there are differences in
night flying, but that a careful study of these differences will make flying at night as safe as in
the daytime.
Good night flying, like good night driving, requires increased care. You will have to identify
obstructions and other aircraft, not by entire outline, but by such small identifying features as a
few colored lights. This is not difficult if you leave the ground well prepared for the conditions
you will meet, and if you remain constantly alert. Once you are in the air, clear of all ground
obstructions, the only possible obstruction remaining will be other aircraft. Obviously it is
essential that you know the location of other aircraft.
1101.
NIGHT FLYING PHYSIOLOGY
1.
Night Vision. You will remember from lectures on flight physiology that the eye uses
different parts for night vision than for day vision. Because of the difference in function of the
rods and cones, technique must be changed in order to spot objects at night: Do not stare at a
spot, but scan the vicinity of the sky in which you believe the object to be located.
The eyes must be adapted for night vision; the pupils must dilate and the rods must be brought
into full use. It takes approximately 30 minutes for the eyes to become completely adapted, and
only 10 seconds for all adaptation to be lost in bright light. Adaptation may be accomplished by
total darkness or by gradually approaching darkness such as normal daylight to sunset to night.
2.
Vertigo. Vertigo, in aviation, is a feeling of dizziness and disorientation caused by doubt
in visual interpretation of your attitude. This feeling is often experienced at night from lack of a
well-defined horizon. The period immediately after takeoff, leaving a well-lighted runway and
entering complete darkness, brings on this feeling of disorientation. Trust and use your flight
instruments.
3.
Moving and Stationary Lights. Often you will not be able to see anything of the aircraft
ahead except its tail light or strobe lights. In such cases, it will be difficult to judge distance,
NIGHT CONTACT
11-1
CHAPTER ELEVEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
since the only criterion for judgment will be changing intensity at changing distance; therefore,
you will have to check its movement in relation to known references to ascertain relative
movement. Ordinarily, you can judge distance and relative motion by the distance between two
lights on the same aircraft. You will undoubtedly experience some difficulty in discerning
moving lights from fixed lights or stars. This can be further complicated by the autokinetic
effect, the apparent motion of stationary objects. Again, this may be overcome by using known
references for comparison.
1102.
PERSONAL PREPARATION
Briefs for all night flights will be given prior to commencing syllabus night operations. Ensure
that you eat a good meal prior to attending the brief. There are many times when the night’s
flight operations will be lengthy, so ensure that your body is properly fueled.
Students are expected to know Emergency procedures thoroughly prior to the brief and will be
quizzed on them by the Instructor Pilot. If you are not absolutely certain about all Night
procedures and Emergency procedures, make sure you are certain before you leave the briefing
room.
In addition to the normal flight equipment required for day flight operations, the following
equipment is required for all night flights:
1.
Flashlight with clear and red lenses.
2.
Clear visor installed in your helmet (prior to the brief).
1103.
NIGHT GROUND PROCEDURES
This section provides the basic procedures essential to the safe operation of the airplane on the
ground at night. These procedures cover night operations both before and after flight.
1104.
PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES
The night preflight will include all items checked on day preflight with the following additions:
1.
Check the operation of all interior lights in both cockpits during the cockpit check.
2.
With the battery on, complete a check of all exterior lights. Conduct a walk-around of the
aircraft to ensure operation of all exterior lights. Ensure any discrepancies are corrected prior to
flight.
1105.
LIGHT SIGNALS
The student must have a precise knowledge of all light signals to safely conduct night operations.
The T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual contains the required ground handling signals.
11-2 NIGHT CONTACT
PRIMARY CONTACT
1106.
CHAPTER ELEVEN
START
The start will be accomplished in the same manner as daylight operations except that the NAV
lights switch will be on and the ANTI-COLLISION (strobe) lights will be off. Cockpit lights
will dim during start. When the pilot is ready for the start, he will signal the lineman by rotating
the flashlight at the lineman or if ambient light permits, use appropriate hand signals for
clearance to start. The lineman will repeat the signal with his wand or appropriate hand signal
and will man the fire extinguisher for the start.
NOTE
In the line area, where adequate light is available, hand signals
may be used as in daylight operations. However, when lighting is
not adequate, hand signals must be passed as light signals (see the
T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual for ground handling signals).
1107.
TAXI
The Before Taxi Checklist shall be completed and clearance from Ground Control received prior
to taxi in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and local SOP. All taxiing will be
conducted in accordance with current course rules. Caution must be exercised to prevent
excessive taxi speeds caused by lack of outside references and depth perception. Landing/Taxi
lights should be used during all night taxi evolutions in areas not adequately illuminated.
Consideration will be given to courteous use of lights to avoid the disorientation of other aircraft,
ground support, and tower personnel. Taxi is only permitted on lighted, authorized taxiways (see
SOP). If there is any doubt as to your position on the field or any confusion caused by light
signals, STOP! Do not continue until reoriented. Turn Landing/Taxi lights off while conducting
the Overspeed Governor and Before Takeoff Checklists or if a delay is encountered at the hold
short line awaiting takeoff.
1108.
NIGHT FIELD LIGHTING
1.
BLUE LIGHTS: Blue lights mark all taxiways. There should be blue lights on both sides
of the taxiway.
2.
WHITE LIGHTS: White lights mark the boundaries of the duty runway.
3.
GREEN LIGHTS: Green lights mark the threshold of the duty runway.
4.
RED LIGHTS: Red lights mark all obstructions on the airfield.
5.
ROTATING BEACON: There is a rotating white and green beacon located at fields that
are open for night operations. A military airfield’s white light will be split by a 3° void. This
will give the impression that there are two separate, closely timed flashes of light. A civilian
airport has a solid white light and can be easily distinguished from a military field.
NIGHT CONTACT
11-3
CHAPTER ELEVEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
6.
TETRAHEDRON: A wind tetrahedron points in the direction of the wind and is lighted
with red lights along the left rear and side of the tetrahedron and green lights on the right rear,
side and top of the tetrahedron.
7.
WIND TEE: A lighted wind tee is located in the grass area immediately west of the
control tower at NAS Corpus. The wind tee is free-swinging and outlined in green lights.
1109.
OVERSPEED GOVERNOR CHECKLIST
Taxi to the appropriate runup area for the duty runway and night operations, (see current SOP).
Complete the Overspeed Governor and Before Takeoff Checklist as in daytime operations. Taxi
to the holdshort line in accordance with local course rules.
1110.
1.
INBOUND TAXI PROCEDURES
Landing traffic will turn off only on lighted taxiways (see current SOP for any exceptions).
2.
When clear of the duty runway, switch to Ground Control and complete the After Landing
Checklist (strobe lights will be turned off or IAW local SOP).
3.
Make the appropriate call to Ground Control for taxi.
4.
Taxi via the most direct route to the appropriate line. Inbound Taxi procedures are the
same as Outbound Taxi procedures. See current SOP for inbound taxi routes.
1111.
ENGINE SHUTDOWN
1.
Engine shutdown will be conducted in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual
and the current SOP.
2.
1112.
The navigation lights will remain on until the propeller has come to a complete stop.
POSTFLIGHT INSPECTION
1.
All aircraft will be postflighted following each flight in accordance with the T-6B
NATOPS Flight Manual.
2.
Complete a thorough postflight inspection utilizing a white-lens flashlight.
1113. NIGHT CONTACT FLIGHT PROCEDURES
This section provides the basic procedures required to conduct night flight operations. While
these procedures form a basis, the expanded procedures for each Training Air Wing may be
varied. Consult your most current SOP for further amplification.
11-4 NIGHT CONTACT
PRIMARY CONTACT
1114.
CHAPTER ELEVEN
TAKEOFF PROCEDURES
1.
All takeoffs will be conducted in accordance with the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and
the current SOP.
2.
Call for takeoff clearance IAW local SOP/Course Rules.
3.
Once takeoff clearance has been issued, position on the duty runway. Crossing the
holdshort line, complete the Lineup Checklist. Position the aircraft on the runway centerline.
Commence Takeoff procedures IAW daytime operations.
1115.
HOMEFIELD DEPARTURE
Comply with tower instructions and make departure in accordance with local SOP.
1116.
LANDING PATTERN
Entry to touch-and-go fields will be in accordance with the current SOP/Course Rules. Break
procedures will remain the same as day operations. After the break or crosswind turn, roll out
with a ¾-1 wingtip distance on the downwind leg.
At night, the wingtip distance remains the same as in the day. Crosscheck the PFD for the
reciprocal heading of the duty runway to assist in maintaining wingtip distance abeam.
Crosscheck the attitude gyro to maintain wings level in the downwind leg.
Transition the same as daytime. At the 180º position, start the approach turn and make the
appropriate radio call in accordance with local SOP. The approach and landing at night are the
same as in the daytime. Your 90º position and final checkpoints remain the same. The
Landing/Taxi lights will be used in accordance with local Course Rules.
Avoid fixating on the intended point of landing. A waveoff should be executed if you cannot
touch down in the first one-third of the runway or if lined up extremely right or left of runway
centerline.
Initiating the landing transition, smoothly and continuously reduce the PCL to idle and control
your rate of descent with a smooth, continuous flare until touchdown. It is imperative that you
focus on the end of the runway vice directly over the nose. "Spotting the deck" may result in a
hard landing. Remember, at night, peripheral cues are greatly reduced requiring a continuous
scan.
After touchdown on the main gear, smoothly lower the nose to the deck. Smoothly apply power
to full forward; following engine spool-up, raise the nose to the takeoff attitude. Make a normal
takeoff by maintaining directional control with rudders and climb out at 120 KIAS. Make
heading corrections as necessary to maintain runway centerline as you proceed upwind. When
the proper interval has been established and you are cleared downwind by the tower (at
controlled fields only), you may begin your crosswind turn utilizing a maximum of 45º angle of
NIGHT CONTACT
11-5
CHAPTER ELEVEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
bank If the preceding aircraft is full-stop, wait until it is 45º behind the wingtip.
NOTE
Due to lack of ground reference points at night, attention should be
given to the effects of crosswinds throughout the landing patterns.
1117.
WAVEOFF
If you waveoff for any reason during an approach, execute the normal waveoff procedures.
Waveoff procedures are the same as during day operation. Maintain 120 KIAS and climb IAW
SOP/Course Rules. Turn downwind with proper interval (or as directed by the tower). If you
are given a waveoff prior to the 180º position, make a waveoff in a racetrack pattern in
accordance with local SOP. Fly up the side of the runway dictated by local Course Rules or as
tower directs. Take interval in the pattern when you can safely do so. Remember, you are under
tower control at homefield. If you are unable to comply with directions given by the tower, let
them know.
It is mandatory to execute a waveoff under any of the following conditions:
1.
Waveoff lights from the RDO or wheels watch.
2.
Red light from the tower.
3.
Verbal command from the IP, RDO, crash crew, or the tower.
4.
No clearance received from the tower for a touch-and-go or full-stop landing.
5.
Unable to touch down safely on the first one-third of runway.
It is the prerogative of the pilot to initiate a waveoff at any point in the approach when he/she
feels uncomfortable.
1118.
HOMEFIELD ARRIVALS
Refer to current SOP.
1119.
HOMEFIELD BREAK
The Night Break procedures are basically the same as day procedures in accordance with local
SOP.
1120.
LANDING
Landing and rollout will be conducted the same as during daylight operations.
11-6 NIGHT CONTACT
PRIMARY CONTACT
1121.
CHAPTER ELEVEN
NIGHT EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
The Emergency procedures for the T-6B are outlined in the T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual and
the Pocket Checklist.
1122.
VISUAL AIRCRAFT-TO-AIRCRAFT SIGNALS
In the event of lost communications, it is necessary to have standard visual aircraft-to-aircraft
signals.
1.
"FOLLOW ME" - If another aircraft joins on you, turns its external lights off and on
several times, and then continues ahead of you, this means "follow me."
2.
"CONTINUE ON COURSE" - While following another aircraft as described above, it
turns its external lights off and on several times and breaks away sharply to the RIGHT, this
means "continue on course."
3.
"ORBIT THIS POSITION" - If the aircraft you are following turns its external lights on
and off several times and then breaks sharply to the LEFT, this means "orbit this position."
Establish an orbit and remain there until the aircraft again joins up and signals to follow.
4.
"I MUST LAND IMMEDIATELY" - If it becomes necessary to make an immediate
landing and you have no radios, signal to the aircraft that joins up with you by using your
flashlight. With a lighted flashlight pointed directly towards the other aircraft, rotate the light in
a circular motion similar to your signal to the lineman for start.
NIGHT CONTACT
11-7
CHAPTER ELEVEN
PRIMARY CONTACT
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11-8 NIGHT CONTACT
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
A100.
GLOSSARY - N/A
GLOSSARY
A-1
APPENDIX A
PRIMARY CONTACT
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A-2 GLOSSARY
APPENDIX B
COMMUNICATIONS
B100.
INTRODUCTION
Radio communications are a critical link in the air traffic control system. The link can be a
strong bond between aircrew and controller, but it can be broken with surprising speed, leading
to disastrous results. The most important aspect of aircrew-controller communications is
understanding. The controller must understand what you want to do before he can properly carry
out his control duties. Similarly, you must know exactly what he wants you to do. Although
brevity is important, concise phraseology may not always be adequate. Use whatever words are
necessary to state your message. It cannot be stressed enough that communication plays a vital
role in the flight evolution. With experience, it should become second nature.
B101.
COMMUNICATION
There are several things to consider when using aircraft radios:

First, pause and listen before you transmit. If you hear others talking, the keying of your
transmitter will be futile. You will probably jam the frequency, causing them to repeat
their call. If you have changed frequencies, allow your receiver time to tune, then listen
and make sure the frequency is clear before you begin your transmission. Also, do not
transmit during an exchange between the controller and another aircraft. For example, if
the controller asks another aircraft a question, you should wait until the other aircraft has
answered before transmitting.

Think before keying your transmitter. Know what you want to say. If it is a lengthy
transmission such as a flight plan, write it down. Avoid saying "and" prior to each
transmission.

After your call, release the button and wait a few seconds before calling again. The
controller may be jotting down your call sign, looking for your flight plan, transmitting on
a different frequency, or switching his transmitter to your frequency.

Be alert to the sounds, or lack of sounds, in your receiver. Check your volume and
frequency setting. Check your equipment to ensure that your microphone is not stuck in
the transmit position. Frequency blockage can, and has, occurred for extended periods of
time because of unintentional transmitter operation. This situation is referred to as a "stuck
mike." Avoid revealing your innermost thoughts during this time.

Be sure that you are within the performance range of station equipment. UHF radios are
limited to "line-of-sight" communications. Remember that as altitude increases, radio
range increases. The approximate range of your radio can be determined by using the
range chart located in the Meteorology section of your Flight Information Handbook
(reproduced as
Figure 1).
COMMUNICATIONS
B-1
APPENDIX B
PRIMARY CONTACT
For example, an aircraft at 5000 feet will have an approximate radio range of 50 nautical miles to
a ground station.

Know what to expect. As you progress through each flight you should know what is
expected to happen. In order to do this, you and controllers will make certain
transmissions. If you know what is to be said ahead of time, responding correctly will be
much easier. Use the proper formats and terminology to assist you in making brief and
concise transmissions. Good phraseology enhances safety and is the mark of a true
professional.
NOTE
Active ELT signals can interfere with normal communications. If
an ELT is broadcasting on Guard, temporarily switch the UHF to
"T/R" (vice "T/R +G"). Wait a few minutes and re-select
"T/R +G." Repeat as necessary.
Figure B-1 Range Reception Chart
B102.
CALL SIGNS
1.
Ground Station Call Signs. When calling a ground station, you should begin with the
name of the facility being called, followed by the type of facility being called; for example:
Clearance Delivery
Ground Control
Airport Traffic Control Tower
Radar Departure Control
Radar or Nonradar Approach
FAA Air Route Traffic Control Center
FAA Flight Service Station (FSS)
USAF Pilot to Metro Service (PMSV)
B-2 COMMUNICATIONS
"Clearance Delivery"
"North Ground," "Navy Corpus Ground"
"North Tower," "Navy Corpus Tower"
"Pensacola Departure," "Corpus Departure"
"Pensacola Approach," "Corpus Approach"
"Jacksonville Center," "Houston Center"
"Pensacola Radio," "San Angelo Radio"
"Eglin Metro," "Kelly Metro"
PRIMARY CONTACT
APPENDIX B
2.
Aircraft Call Signs. Improper or abbreviated call signs can result in a pilot’s executing a
clearance intended for another aircraft. As an example, assume that a controller issues an
approach clearance to an aircraft at the bottom of a holding stack and an aircraft with a similar
call sign (at the top of the stack) acknowledges the clearance with the last two or three numbers
of his call sign. If the aircraft at the bottom of the stack did not hear the clearance and failed to
intervene, flight safety would be affected. This kind of "human" error can strike swiftly and is
extremely difficult to rectify. You must be certain that aircraft identification is complete and
clear before taking action on an ATC clearance. FAA personnel should not abbreviate call signs
of aircraft having authorized call signs. FAA may initiate abbreviated call signs of other aircraft
by using a prefix and the last three digits or letters of the aircraft identification after
communications are established. Controllers, when aware of similar or identical call signs, will
take action to minimize errors by emphasizing certain numbers or letters, by repeating the entire
call sign, or by repeating the prefix.
B103.
1.
VERBALIZATION
Time
The 24-hour clock system is used in radio-telephone transmissions. The hour is indicated by the
first two figures and the minutes by the last two figures. FAA uses Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Zulu ("Z") for all operations.
Example: 0000 ZERO ZERO ZERO ZERO
Example: 0920 ZERO NINER TWO ZERO
Time may be stated in minutes only (two figures) in radio-telephone communications when no
misunderstanding is likely to occur. When two figures are used, the current hour (within 60
minutes) is understood to be the time being referenced.
Example: "Mobile Radio, [Call sign], low-level, entering Victor Romeo One Zero Two
Zero at Point Alpha at Four Three, exit Point Foxtrot."
"Four Three" is understood to mean 43 minutes past the current hour. If the call was made at
0935 local time, the aircraft will enter the low-level route at 0943 local.
Current time in use at a station is stated in the nearest quarter minute in order that pilots may use
this information for time checks or to set their clocks. Fractions of quarter minutes less than
eight seconds are stated as the preceding quarter minute; fractions of quarter minutes of eight
seconds or more are stated as the succeeding quarter minute.
Example: 0929:05 TIME: ZERO NINER TWO NINER STRAIGHT UP 0929:10 TIME:
ZERO NINER TWO NINER AND ONE QUARTER
COMMUNICATIONS
B-3
APPENDIX B
2.
PRIMARY CONTACT
Figures
Digits indicating hundreds and thousands in round numbers, such as ceiling heights and upper
wind levels up to 9999, shall be spoken as follows:
Example: 500 FIVE HUNDRED
4500 FOUR THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED
Numbers above 9999 shall be spoken by separating the digits preceding the word "thousand."
Example: 10,000 ONE ZERO THOUSAND
13,400 ONE THREE THOUSAND FOUR HUNDRED
All other numbers shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit.
Example: 10 ONE ZERO
When a radio frequency contains a decimal point, the decimal point is spoken as "point" or
"decimal."
Example: 322.1 THREE TWO TWO POINT ONE
322.1 THREE TWO TWO DECIMAL ONE
3.
Altitudes and Flight Levels
Up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL (FL180), state the separate digits of the thousands, plus
the hundreds, if appropriate.
Example: 12,000 ONE TWO THOUSAND
12,500 ONE TWO THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED
At and above 18,000 feet MSL (FL180), state the words "flight level" followed by the separate
digits of the flight level.
Example: 19,000 FLIGHT LEVEL ONE NINER ZERO
Feet in MSL (Mean Sea Level) is understood in altitudes; therefore it is not necessary to say
"feet."
4.
Directions
State the three digits of all magnetic courses, bearings, headings, or wind directions. All are
assumed to be magnetic. The word "true" must be added when it applies.
Example: (magnetic course) 005 ZERO ZERO FIVE
(true course) 050 ZERO FIVE ZERO TRUE
B-4 COMMUNICATIONS
PRIMARY CONTACT
APPENDIX B
(magnetic bearing) 360 THREE SIX ZERO
(magnetic heading) 100 ONE ZERO ZERO
(wind direction) 220 TWO TWO ZERO
5.
Speeds
State the separate digits of the speed followed by the word "knots." The controller may omit the
"knots" when ordering a speed adjustment: "Reduce/increase speed to one five zero."
Example: 250 TWO FIVE ZERO KNOTS
185 ONE EIGHT FIVE KNOTS
95 NINER FIVE KNOTS
6.
Phonetic Alphabet
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) phonetic alphabet (Figure B-2) is used by
FAA personnel when communications conditions are such that the information cannot be readily
received without their use. Air traffic control facilities may also request pilots to use phonetic
letter equivalents when aircraft with similar sounding identifications are receiving
communications on the same frequency.
Pilots should use the phonetic alphabet when identifying their aircraft during initial contact with
air traffic control facilities. Additionally, use the phonetic equivalents for single letters and to
spell out groups of letters or difficult words during adverse communications conditions.
CHARACTER
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
MORSE CODE
•—
—•••
—•—•
—••
•
••—•
——•
••••
••
•———
—•—
•—••
——
—•
———
•——•
——•—
•—•
•••
—
••—
•••—
•——
TELEPHONY
Alfa
Bravo
Charlie
Delta
Echo
Foxtrot
Golf
Hotel
India
Juliette
Kilo
Lima
Mike
November
Oscar
Papa
Quebec
Romeo
Sierra
Tango
Uniform
Victor
Whiskey
PHONIC (PRONUNCIATION)
(AL–FAH)
BRAH(–VOH)
(CHAR–LEE) or (SHAR–LEE)
(DELL–TAH)
(ECK–OH)
(FOKS–TROT)
(GOLF)
(HOH–TEL)
(IN–DEE–AH)
(JEW–LEE–ETT)
(KEY–LOH)
(LEE–MAH)
(MIKE)
(NO–VEM–BER)
(OSS–CAH)
(PAH–PAH)
(KEH–BECK)
(ROW–ME–OH)
(SEE–AIR–RAH)
(TANG–GO)
(YOU–NEE–FORM) or (OO–NEE–FORM)
(VIK–TAH)
(WISS–KEY)
COMMUNICATIONS
B-5
APPENDIX B
PRIMARY CONTACT
—••—
—•——
——••
•————
••———
•••——
••••—
•••••
—••••
——•••
———••
————•
—————
X
Y
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
Xray
Yankee
Zulu
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
Nine
Zero
(ECKS–RAY)
(YANG–KEY)
(ZOO–LOO)
(WUN)
(TOO)
(TREE)
(FOW–ER)
(FIFE)
(SIX)
(SEV–EN)
(AIT)
(NIN–ER)
(ZEE–RO)
Figure B-2 Phonetic Alphabet
7.
Common Terms
English is the international aviation language. Through the years, aviators and controllers have
developed what is, at times, their own language. Several terms have been modified to fit the
aviation environment. Here is a list of common aviation terms you will use throughout your
career.
ACKNOWLEDGE
Let me know that you have received and under
stood my message
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH,
execute an immediate right turn heading 180, vector
for traffic, acknowledge."
ADVISE INTENTIONS
Tell me what you plan to do.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ TOWER, advise
intentions after touch-and-go."
AFFIRMATIVE
Yes.
ALTITUDE RESTRICTION
An altitude or altitudes stated in the order flown
which are to be maintained until reaching a specific
point or time.
AT PILOT’S DISCRETION
ATC has offered the pilot the option of complying
with the instruction whenever he/she wishes.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, descend
at pilot’s discretion and maintain one six thousand."
CLEARANCE LIMIT
The fix, point, or location to which an aircraft is
cleared when issued an ATC clearance.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign] is cleared to Navy
Pensacola."
B-6 COMMUNICATIONS
PRIMARY CONTACT
CLEARANCE ON REQUEST
APPENDIX B
Used by Clearance Delivery to inform the pilot that
his clearance is being processed by ATC.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CLEARANCE,
your clearance is on request."
CLEARED AS FILED
Means the aircraft is cleared to proceed in
accordance with the route of flight filed in the flight
plan. This clearance does not include the altitude,
SID, or SID transition.
(also CLEARED VIA FLIGHT PLAN
ROUTE)
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign] is cleared to Navy
Pensacola as filed (flight plan route). . ."
CLEARED
ATC authorization for an aircraft to perform a
specific procedure (Approach, Land, Takeoff, etc.).
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ TOWER, cleared
to land RWY 14."
CLIMB UNRESTRICTED
Rate of climb to an assigned altitude is not restricted
and/or published altitude restrictions on a SID are
no longer applicable; however, the remaining items
of the SID are binding.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE,
climb unrestricted to one one thousand."
CONCUR
I agree with you.
CONTACT
Establish communications with (followed by the
name of the facility, and, if appropriate, the
frequency to be used).
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, contact
Pensacola Approach now on 270.8."
CORRECTION
An error has been made in the transmission and the
correct version follows.
EXAMPLE: "_____ CENTER, [Call sign], leaving
niner thousand, correction eight thousand, for three
thousand."
CROSS (FIX) AT/ABOVE OR BELOW An altitude restriction at a specified fix is required.
DISCRETE FREQUENCY
A separate radio frequency for use in direct pilot
controller communications.
DISREGARD
Cancel my last message.
EXECUTE
Perform a task.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ TOWER, execute
missed approach."
COMMUNICATIONS
B-7
APPENDIX B
EXPECT
PRIMARY CONTACT
Used under certain conditions to inform a pilot that
an altitude/additional clearance will be provided
later.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE,
expect seven thousand at Victoria."
EXPEDITE
To execute promptly.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ TOWER, expedite
clearing runway."
FLY HEADING (DEGREES)
Informs pilot of heading he should fly.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH, fly
heading 290."
GLIDESLOPE/PATH
Used by ATC to inform an aircraft making a
precision approach of its vertical elevation relative to
descent profile.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], above glidepath,
correcting slowly."
GO AHEAD
Proceed with your message.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CLEARANCE
DELIVERY, I have your clearance. Advise ready to
copy?" "[Call sign], go ahead."
GUARD
Guard frequency (243.0 MHz) is the universal
emergency UHF frequency.
GO AROUND
Instructions for a pilot to discontinue his approach to
landing.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ TOWER,
obstruction on runway, go around."
HAND–OFF
An action taken to transfer the radar identification of
an aircraft from one controller to another if the
aircraft will enter the receiving controller’s airspace
and radio communications will be transferred.
HOW DO YOU HEAR/READ
A question relating to the quality of the transmission
or to determine how well the transmission is being
received.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE,
how do you hear (read)?"
B-8 COMMUNICATIONS
PRIMARY CONTACT
IDENT
APPENDIX B
Request for a pilot to activate the aircraft
transponder identification feature. This will help the
controller to confirm an aircraft identity. (No verbal
response necessary.)
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, ident."
IMMEDIATE
Used by ATC when such action is required to avoid
a hazardous situation.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE,
immediate right turn heading 180."
INOPERATIVE
Used to describe a piece of equipment which has
ceased to function properly; e.g., an inoperative
TACAN.
INTERCEPT
To meet or cross.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE,
intercept the Crestview 230 radial and proceed
inbound."
LAST ASSIGNED
Last clearance assigned by ATC and acknowledged
by the pilot.
LEAVING
To depart an altitude/flight level at which you were
level.
EXAMPLE: "_____ APPROACH, [Call sign],
leaving one zero thousand for six thousand."
MAINTAIN
Concerning altitude/flight level, the term means to
remain at the altitude/flight level specified. The
phrase "climb and" or "descend and" normally
precedes "maintain" and the altitude assignment.
NOTE: Concerning other ATC
instructions, the term is used in
its literal sense.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH,
descend and maintain two thousand two hundred."
NEGATIVE CONTACT
Previous issued traffic is not in sight.
EXAMPLE: "Maintain VFR."
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH, you
have T-47 traffic at your 12 o’clock at one mile, one
six thousand." "[Call sign], negative contact."
MILITARY OPERATIONS
AREA/MOA
MISSED APPROACH
Airspace assignment of defined vertical and lateral
dimensions to separate certain military training
activities from IFR traffic.
A maneuver conducted by the pilot when an
approach cannot be completed to a landing.
COMMUNICATIONS
B-9
APPENDIX B
PRIMARY CONTACT
NEGATIVE
"No" or "Permission not granted" or "That is not
correct."
NEGATIVE CONTACT
Previous issued traffic is not in sight.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH, you
have T-47 traffic at your 12 o’clock at one mile, one
six thousand."
"[Call sign], negative contact."
NEGATIVE INFORMATION
Used by pilots to inform ATC that they have not
received runway and wind information from ATIS.
EXAMPLE: "_____ GROUND, [Call sign], taxi,
negative information."
NO JOY
You were unable to contact ATC on a particular
frequency.
NORDO
A contraction meaning "no radio." It is used to
describe aircraft that have lost radio communication
capability.
OUT
When said at the end of a transmission means: My
transmission is ended; I expect no response. Should
be used when it may not be apparent that no response
is expected.
OVER
When said at the end of a transmission means: My
transmission is ended, I expect a response. Should
be used when it may not be apparent that a response
is expected.
PASSING
Climbing or descending through an altitude/flight
level.
EXAMPLE: "_____ CENTER, [Call sign], passing
eight thousand."
RECYCLE
Reset your transponder. Indicates that ATC is not
properly receiving your IFF.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, recycle
transponder, Code 2321."
READ BACK
Repeat the message back to me.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign] is cleared . . . Departure
314.0, read back."
REPORT
Used to instruct pilots to advise ATC of specified
information.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH,
report PENSI."
B-10 COMMUNICATIONS
PRIMARY CONTACT
APPENDIX B
REQUEST
To ask for. EXAMPLE:"_____ APPROACH, [Call
sign], request TACAN 13R approach to a full stop."
ROGER
I understand (not yes); acknowledges information.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER,
surveillance radar is down at Navy Pensacola."
"[Call sign], roger."
SAY AGAIN
Used to request a repeat of the last transmission.
SAY ALTITUDE
Used by ATC to ascertain an aircraft’s specific
altitude/flight level. When the aircraft is climbing or
descending, the pilot should state the indicated
altitude rounded to the nearest 100 feet.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE, say
altitude." "[Call sign], passing eight thousand two
hundred."
SAY HEADING
Used by ATC to request an aircraft heading. The
pilot should state the actual heading of the aircraft.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH, say
heading."
SEARCH AND RESCUE/SAR
Service which seeks missing aircraft.
SQUAWK
Activate specific modes/codes functions on the
aircraft transponder. (No verbal response necessary
unless you did not hear all four digits that were
specified and want to confirm them.)
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, squawk
code two-one-zero-zero."
Example Codes: Emergency squawk 7700. Lost
Comm 7600. VFR squawk 1200.
STAND BY
The controller or aircrew must pause for a few
seconds, usually to attend to other duties of higher
priority. Also means to "wait."
SWITCHING
A response to an ATC request to contact a new
agency on a discrete frequency followed by reading
back the frequency.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, contact
JAX Center now on 351.9." "[Call sign], switching
351.9.”
COMMUNICATIONS
B-11
APPENDIX B
TRAFFIC IN SIGHT
PRIMARY CONTACT
I have visual contact with other air traffic.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE,
traffic at your 12 o’clock and two miles, three
thousand, type unknown." "[Call sign], traffic in
sight."
UNABLE
Indicates inability to comply with a specific
instruction, request, or clearance.
EXAMPLE: "_____ APPROACH, [Call sign],
unable to execute the ILS approach."
VECTOR
Heading issued to an aircraft to provide navigational
guidance by radar.
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, turn left
090, vector for traffic."
VERIFY
Request confirmation of information.
EXAMPLE: "Verify assigned altitude."
WILCO
I have received your message, understand it and will
comply."
EXAMPLE: "[Call sign], _____ GROUND, taxi
runway 13L." "[Call sign], wilco."
8.
Basic Formats
Adherence to the following guidelines will assist you in the application of proper radio
communication:
a.
The format for contacting an agency is always, "Agency called, aircraft identification,
message."
If at a loss for the "right" words, remember: WHO you are, WHERE you are, and
WHAT you want.
b.
When instructed to squawk or ident on your IFF, no verbal response is necessary
unless confusion exists.
Example: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE, squawk 0622." (Dial Code 0622 in
aircraft’s IFF transponder.)
Example: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE, IDENT." (Momentarily select the
ident position on the transponder.)
c.
When advised to "contact" a new controlling agency, acknowledge with "switching"
and repeat the specific frequency.
B-12 COMMUNICATIONS
PRIMARY CONTACT
APPENDIX B
Example: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE, contact Houston Center on 322.4."
"[Call sign], switching 322.4."
If unable to contact the new agency on the frequency given, return to the transferring
agency and state, "No joy." The transferring agency will give you an alternate
frequency to reattempt contact.
d.
Always report leaving an altitude. Unless requested, it is not necessary to report
reaching an altitude.
Example: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, climb and maintain FL210."
"[Call sign], leaving FL180 for FL210."
e.
When in a climb and instructed to climb to a new altitude (i.e., other than that issued
in your clearance), you should acknowledge the new altitude.
Example: (you are passing 6000 for 9000 and Departure says):
"[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE, climb and maintain 13,000."
"[Call sign], climbing to 13,000."
f.
When instructed to "report" a specific point or time of information, report only the
item requested.
Example: "[Call sign], _____ APPROACH, report ROMEK."
"[Call sign], WILCO." (Upon reaching ROMEK): "_____ APPROACH,
“[Call sign], ROMEK."
Example: "[Call sign], _____ CENTER, say altitude passing."
"[Call sign], passing 5500."
g.
"Roger" nice-to-know information.
Example: "[Call sign], your clearance is on request."
"[Call sign], roger."
Example: "[Call sign], _____ DEPARTURE, radar contact."
"[Call sign], roger."
h.
"Wilco" instructions or commands which do not require a readback. You may wilco
several commands with a single wilco.
Example: "[Call sign], proceed direct to MARYS, report reaching."
"[Call sign], wilco." (Covers two commands: 1) proceed MARYS, report
MARYS.)
Or
COMMUNICATIONS
B-13
APPENDIX B
PRIMARY CONTACT
"[Call sign], proceeding direct to MARYS, wilco" (Wilco covers the
command not repeated; i.e., report IAF.)
i.
Mandatory readbacks include: headings, altimeter settings, leaving an altitude, and
frequency assignments.
Example: "[Call sign], PENSACOLA DEPARTURE, turn left heading 180, descend
and maintain one six thousand, altimeter 30.02."
"[Call sign], left 180, leaving FL210 for one six thousand, altimeter
30.02."
j.
9.
Always acknowledge call-ups to your aircraft call sign. If you do not respond, the
controller has no way of knowing whether you received the information or have
experienced radio failure.
Summary
We have covered some of the procedures and terminology used during communications with
ground controlling agencies. Proper utilization of this basic knowledge will enhance your
abilities to successfully operate in the aviation environment in a professional manner.
B-14 COMMUNICATIONS
APPENDIX C
THE PRE-FLIGHT BRIEF
C100.
AN OVERVIEW
The Pre-Flight Briefing Guide is a general purpose format used to discuss the majority of
contingencies or emergency considerations that might arise in the course of a normal flight. Use
of the Pre-Flight brief is not unique to the T-6B aircraft or to the Naval Air Training Command,
but finds application in every aspect of Naval Aviation.
Preparing the Brief. The content of the brief includes those details relevant to communications,
weather, navigation/flight planning and aircraft emergencies that are necessary for the safe and
orderly conduct of a particular flight. Use the published briefing guide to organize the
information you want to convey and amplify it as required.
No briefing is intended to be all-inclusive. Briefings should be tailored to the mission at hand;
i.e., a briefing for a Formation hop would involve much additional detail that would not be
relevant to a Contact briefing. Additionally, those missions that intend to take the aircraft into
IMC weather would include crew coordination specifics that would not be covered in a Contact
briefing except as a matter of contingency.
Crew Coordination. A fresh buzzword in Naval Aviation recently popularized because of the
number of incidents or mishaps that have occurred without it and which could have easily been
avoided with a little more of it. A professionally prepared Pre-Flight Brief is step one toward
maximum crew coordination and efficient mission completion.
Use of Standard Operating Procedures. Reference to Standard Operating Procedures or
published regulations is highly encouraged during briefings to avoid lengthy dissertations,
provided that all members of the flight are thoroughly familiar with the procedures. The
Pre-Flight Brief itself is founded on the premise of training and operations standardization for
maximum combat readiness.
Any questions? An often overlooked, but perhaps most important, segment of the Pre-Flight
briefing period which should be included in the conclusion of every brief. Use this period to
clarify SOP or other details that may be pertinent to the assigned mission. The members of the
flight that are being briefed should hold questions until the conclusion of the brief to the greatest
extent possible. The enclosed pages are provided as an example or guide in preparing a PreFlight brief for Contact operations. It is admittedly wordy and intended for use with local
Standard Operating Procedures.
The T-6B aircraft is inherently reliable. The odds of any one of these contingencies arising are
slim, but with a proper Pre-Flight brief, you will be prepared to respond confidently and
correctly should such a situation actually occur.
THE PRE-FLIGHT BRIEF C-1
APPENDIX C
C101.
PRIMARY CONTACT
THE BRIEFING
The brief should serve several functions. First, the brief should serve to inform all crewmembers
about elements critical to safe mission completion. A briefing guide shall be used to prompt the
briefer, but all items in the briefing guide will not apply to every mission. Items that do not
apply may be passed over without mention. Those items which will be handled routinely in
accordance with a published instruction may be briefed as such. Of particular importance to the
Student Naval Aviator in this portion of the brief is the sequence of events or route of flight.
Leave nothing to unspoken assumption; the instructor pilot expects his or her students to ask
questions.
Just as important to dissemination of information in briefing, is the delineation of cockpit
responsibilities. This function is the cornerstone of crew coordination. Put some serious thought
into how tasks will actually be performed in normal and emergency conditions, then brief them
as such. All crewmembers are responsible for ensuring that the flight conforms to existing
limitations. Where the pilot in command does not specify stricter limits, existing SOP or the
T-6B NATOPS Flight Manual always applies.
Another function of the brief is for the pilot in command to determine whether or not his crew is
ready to fly. In the training command, the instructor pilot will evaluate a student’s motivation
and degree of readiness by checking the student’s knowledge against standards established in the
T-6B JPPT Curriculum.
For all flights, each student being graded shall check existing and forecast weather, and furnish
the instructor with a grading sheet. The student shall bring a Master Curriculum Guide (MCG),
Pocket Checklist, and all required charts and pubs to the brief. The flight shall be conducted as
briefed. When circumstances require a change in plans, the pilot in command is responsible for
updating the brief. When any crewmember is unclear with regard to any changes in plans, it is
his or her responsibility to resolve any questions.
C-2 THE PRE-FLIGHT BRIEF
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