CSC 170 - Introduction to Computers and Their Applications

CSC 170 - Introduction to Computers and Their Applications
CSC 170 - Introduction to
Computers and Their
Lecture 8 –Internet Basics
Connection Basics
• Data travels over the
Internet at an incredible
speed, but that speed
varies; some Internet
services are faster than
• It is easy to check the
speed of your Internet
connection by running a
few online tests
Connection Basics
• The most common measurement of connection
speed is the amount of data that can be
transmitted in a specified time; technically, it is
a measure of capacity.
Connection Basics
Connection Basics
• ISPs control connection speeds based on the service plan
you’ve selected
• Your bandwidth cap is the top speed allowed by your
• During peak times, ISPs can place further limits on speed,
a process called bandwidth throttling
• When Internet upload speed differs from download speed,
you have an asymmetric connection
• When upload and download speeds are the same, you have
a symmetric connection
Connection Basics
• Ping is utility software designed to measure
• Ping rate indicates how quickly data can reach a server
and bounce back to you
• Latency is the elapsed time for data to make a round-trip
from point A to point B and back to point A
• Jitter measures the variability of packet latency caused
when network traffic and interference can delay packets
and create erratic data flow
• Packet loss refers to data that never reaches its destination
or gets discarded because it arrives too late.
Connection Basics
• To determine whether or not your slow
Internet connection is caused by your ISP or
your computer you can use a Traceroute, a
network diagnostic tool that lists each router
and server.
Connection Basics
Connection Basics
• Although public Internet access is available
in many locations, such as coffee shops and
libraries, most consumers like the
convenience of having their own Internet
Connection Basics
Cable Internet Service
• The gold standard of fixed Internet access is cable
Internet service, which is offered by the same
companies that supply cable television.
• CATV stands for community antenna television.
• With cables branching out from a central location,
the topology of a CATV system works well as the
infrastructure for a digital data network.
Cable Internet Service
• CATV coaxial and fiber-optic cables have plenty
of bandwidth to carry television signals for
hundreds of channels in addition to digital data.
• CATV cables provide bandwidth for television
signals, incoming data signals, and outgoing data
Telephone Network Internet Service
• Telephone companies offer four types of service:
dial-up, ISDN, DSL, and FTTH.
• A dial-up connection is a fixed Internet
connection that uses a voiceband modem and the
telephone company’s circuit-switched network to
transport data between your computer and your
• A voiceband modem converts digital signals from
a computer into audible analog signals that can
travel over telephone lines.
Telephone Network Internet Service
Telephone Network Internet Service
• When you use a dial-up connection, a
voiceband modem places a regular
telephone call to your ISP; the circuit
remains connected for the duration of the
call to carry data between your computer
and the ISP.
Telephone Network Internet Service
• .
Telephone Network Internet Service
• ISDN stands for Integrated Services Digital Network; it
divides a telephone line into two channels, one for data and
one for voice, by using packet switching
• DSL (digital subscriber line) is a high-speed, digital,
always-on, Internet access technology that runs over
standard phone lines; it’s offered by AT&T’s U-verse
• FTTH (fiber-to-the-home) is the use of high-capacity
fiber-optic cables, rather than coaxial cables, to connect
homes to broader municipal networks
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