1924 Cadillac - GM Heritage Center

1924 Cadillac - GM Heritage Center
ADVANCE INFORMATION
CONFIDENTIAL TO
CADILLAC DISTRIBUTORS
DEALERS
and
SALESMEN
TYPE V-63
CADILLAC
MOTOR
CAR
DETROIT
COMPANY
Foreword
Each succeeding type introduced by the Cadillac Motor Car Company
has been heralded the world over as the greatest Cadillac.
And each one in its turn has been the greatest Cadillac.
Now comes Type V-63.
Type V-63 represents the most noteworthy advance in Cadillac design
and construction since the inception of the V-eight engine in 1914.
Without doubt, here is the greatest Cadillac.
That distributors, dealers and salesmen may know the Type V-63
—its fundamentals, its improvements, its refinements—this advance
information has been prepared.
By way of introduction, we wish to outline briefly the three outstanding features of the Type V-63:
A new V-Eight motor which has eliminated vibration at all speeds.
Four-wheel brakes of Cadillac dependability and exclusive design.
New bodies unsurpassed by the costliest custom-built jobs.
In addition, there are many refinements, mechanical and otherwise.
The complete line of Type V-63 cars is as follows:
Copyright 1923
Cadillac Motor Car Company
0osed <J&odels
Two-passenger Coupe, five-passenger Coupe, five-passenger Town
Brougham, five-passenger Sedan, five-passenger Imperial Sedan, sevenpassenger Limousine, seven-passenger Suburban, and seven-passenger
Imperial Suburban.
Open -CftCodeh
<
Roadster, Phaeton and seven-passenger Touring Car.
^Advance
N
Information
INE years ago, the Cadillac Motor Car Company brought out its
first eight-cylinder car. Back of this radical departure from the
former program of four-cylinder production was the realization of a
growing public demand for more dependable, comfortable and economical transportation.
In framing the structural characteristics of this car, the Cadillac
engineers and designers took recognition of the fact that an automobile
is primarily a passenger-carrying vehicle, and that a motor car having a
maximum passenger capacity on a minimum of chassis length serves to
best advantage the basic purpose for which it is intended.
Of all the motor types then available none fulfilled the requirements
for such a car as did the 90° V-eight. Its short overall dimension
required a minimum of chassis length, leaving maximum room for
passenger accommodation. Its compact arrangement and sturdy components promised the utmost in rugged dependability. Its smooth
flow of power was a revelation to all. "With these desirable attributes
the 90° V-eight was selected as the engine on which Cadillac could stake
its future and serve the public.
Experience has proved that the creators of the first Cadillac V-eight
planned well for the future, probably better by far than they themselves realized. Their foresight, careful analysis, and painstaking
execution laid the foundation for five subsequent types, each one incorporating refinements and improvements over its predecessor but retaining the fundamental characteristics and tried features of the original.
After manufacturing and marketing over 155,000 90° V-type engines,
the Cadillac Motor Car Company is today a stronger exponent of this
type than ever before.
The Type V-63 is as logical a result of the Cadillac established policy
of consistent growth as were the eight-cylinder models that preceded it.
Research and experimentation during the last two years have been
ADVANCE INFORMATION
page six
crowned with an unusual degree of success and have made possible the
incorporation of advanced engineering features that mark a greater
step forward than any which have been made since the first V-eight.
The most seasoned motorist, seated behind the wheel of the Type V-63,
will experience a pleasant surprise at discovering a docility and pliability
such as has never been before realized in automobile design.
The Type V-63
page seven
cylinder engines. The power impulses occur regularly every quarter
revolution of the crankshaft. The firing interval is conditioned by the
angle between the cylinder blocks, and with no other angle than 90° will
an eight cylinder V-type engine have uniformly spaced impulses.
The compensators, which are of forged steel, are placed on the crankshaft at four points: between the front main bearing and the first crankpin; between the first and second crank pins; between the third and
Engine
The Type V-63 engine, while externally similar in appearance to its
forerunners, is the first V-type eight-cylinder engine to be inherently
balanced, a development of such significance as to invalidate commonly
accepted ideas of balance and to establish a new standard of engine
smoothness.
With the same bore and stroke—3½ x 5½—as all former Cadillac
eight-cylinder engines, it has the same piston displacement and the
same S. A. E. power rating—314 cubic inches and 31.25 horsepower,
respectively.
Conforming to Cadillac engineering practice heretofore, the cylinders
are cast in blocks of four each which are placed at an angle of 90° to each
other with the cylinders directly opposite.
The (Compensated
CAMLLAC TYPE V-63
Qrankshaft
The new principle, introduced in the Type V-63, is embodied mainly
in the crankshaft, which is novel in two respects—the arrangement of
the cranks or throws and the use of compensators or counter-weights
attached to and revolving with the crankshaft.
The Type V-63 crankshaft has four throws or cranks in two planes
at right angles to each other, rather than all in one plane as is conventional V-type eight-cylinder practice. If the crank pin at the forward
end of the crankshaft be considered to correspond with thefigureXII on
the dial of a clock, the second, third and fourth crankpins would fall at
three, nine and six o'clock, respectively.
This rearrangement of the crankshaft throws makes necessary a new
firing order but the firing interval is the same as on all Cadillac eight-
The new Type V-63 compensated crankshaft
fourth crank pins; and between the fourth crank pin and the rear main
bearing. Each compensator is attached to the crankshaft by two large
bolts of alloy steel, positively secured.
An understanding of the compensating principle of the Type V-63
engine, employed for the first time by any manufacturer, requires an
explanation of the disturbing forces which tend to produce vibration in
an automobile engine.
They are chiefly of four kinds:
1. Torque reaction or the reaction of the power impulses on
the engine supports;
2. Centrifugal forces due to unbalanced rotating parts;
3. Torsional forces tending to twist the crankshaft and cause
torsional vibration, and
4. Inertia forces resulting from the reciproeatingor alternating
movement of the pistons in the cylinders.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
page eight
I.
Torque
'Reaction
Each power impulse that drives the crankshaft reacts on the cylinder
blocks, tending to turn the engine as a whole in the opposite direction.
This reaction, called "torque reaction," is resisted by the engine supports which are thus subjected to a repeated force, depending upon the
intensity and frequency of the power impulses.
The effect of torque reaction in producing vibration is more noticeable
when the impulses are heavier and less frequent and when they occur
at irregular intervals. The light, regular overlapping impulses of the
90 degree V-type eight-cylinder engine, occurring four times every
revolution of the crankshaft^ produce so nearly a constant flow of
power that the vibration effect of torque reaction is negligible.
2. Qentrifugal
page nine
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
types of engines, having four or more cylinders and with the same piston
displacement.
Even with its extreme shortness, the Type V-63 crankshaft has the
large diameter of 2% inches. This, gives the crankshaft a great
degree of rigidity, insuring freedom from torsional vibration.
¢. 'Reciprocating
Inertia
Forces
Inertia forces, due to the alternating movement of the pistons, are the
principal disturbing forces in an automobile engine and their elimination is one of the designer's most difficult problems. At a crankshaft
speed of 2,500 revolutions per minute, a piston is traveling at the rate of
Forces
Unbalanced centrifugal forces result when the center of gravity of the
rotating parts—flywheel, crankshaft and lower ends of the connecting
rods—does not coincide with the axis of rotation. The complete
elimination of unbalanced centrifugal forces is made entirely possible
by the accurate machining of all surfaces of the rotating parts, and
by balancing these parts in sensitive balancing machines. This has
always been standard practice on all Cadillac eight-cylinder engines.
New firing order
J.
Torsional
"Vibration
Among other forces acting on the crankshaft of an automobile engine are
torsional forces, tending to twist the shaft. This tendency is obviously
more marked in a long shaft than in a short one. Many engines have
crankshafts of such length that the torsional deflation introduce serious
vibration, the attempt sometimes being made to minimize this vibration by the use of auxiliary loose-rim flywheels or so-called vibration
dampeners.
It is because of this inherent defect of a long crankshaft that Cadillac
engineers have never approved of more than four cylinders in line. The
V-type eight-cylinder engine has, in fact, the shortest crankshaft of all
over 3,000 feet a minute at mid-stroke. When it is realized that this
piston must be stopped, started, and accelerated to the same velocity in
the opposite direction within a distance of approximately five inches,
and during an interval of one-eightieth of a second, it can be seen that
the forces involved assume tremendous proportions.
Engineers have always attempted to neutralize the effect of inertia
forces by arranging the crankshaft throws so as to cause the forces more
or less to cancel each other. Types of engines in which the'inertia
forces completely cancel each other are designated as "inherently
balanced." The Type V-63 engine is of this type and is the first V-type
eight-cylinder engine to be "inherently balanced."
ADVANCE INFORMATION
page ten
To demonstrate the inherent balance of the Type V-63 engine requires
a discussion too technical for these pages. Suffice it to say that by
placing the crankshaft throws in two planes at right angles to each
other, the component inertia forces are divided into pairs of forces
which are equal and opposite although not in the same plane. The
effect of these forces is then completely neutralized by the compensators. The weights of the compensators and the angles at which they
are placed are so calculated that their centrifugal effect causes the
whole assembly—crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons—to operate
with the smoothness of a balanced flywheel.
^Bearings 'Promise J^ong
Life
Three main bearings support the crankshaft, a smaller number of long
bearings being preferable to a large number of short ones for two reasons.
It is difficult in a short bearing to maintain an oil film between the
crankshaft and the bearing metal. It is also difficult to maintain the
alignment of a larger number of bearings, and, unless the alignment is
accurately maintained, the loads are not uniformly distributed among
the bearings.
It should be observed, that although the compensated crankshaft of
the Type V-63 engine relieves the bearings of all duty except loads due
to the power impulses, other forces being completely neutralized, the
diameter of the bearings is even greater than in former Cadillac
eight-cylinder engines. Obviously, distributing a smaller load over a
larger bearing, insures longer life.
The pistons and connecting rods are the same as those previously
used except that the connecting rod bearings and the lower ends of the
rods have been enlarged to correspond with the increased crank pin
diameter.
• ' ' ' . .
•page eleven
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
Ports in Qy Under 'Block
The cylinder blocks are essentially the same as heretofore. A minoi
change, of significance to the mechanic, relocates two of the studs
by which the cylinder blocks are attached. The nuts on these studs
which are at the ends of the inner rows of studs, are outside the valvt
compartments and thus are more accessible.
Qamshaft
Has Sixteen
Flywheel
Theflywheelis a steel forging similar to that on former Cadillac eightcylinder engines except in weight. The flywheel effect of the compensators and the larger crankshaft permit a lightening of the flywheel
itself.
Qams
The valve system of the Type V-63 is materially the same as that of the
Type 61. Tungsten steel valves, giving an opening lfj* in diameter,
are operated from a single camshaft through rocker arms suspended
from the upper crankcase cover plate. The hollow camshaft, however
has sixteen instead of eight cams, each valve being operated by ac
individual cam. The valve rocker arm and plate assembly has been
redesigned to conform with the new camshaft. Additional supports are
provided for the rocker arm shafts so that there is a support on each side
of each rocker arm, thereby making a more rigid assembly.
Timing
Qhains
Wider
The camshaft and fanshaft are driven by silent chains of the same make
as before, but of a new type. Each chain also is one-quarter of an inch
wider than formerly. The new design and the increased width of the
chains, together with the smoothness of crankshaft rotation, has
increased the life of these chains so far as to render a chain adjustment
unnecessary. The sprockets on the front end of the camshaft are
accordingly combined in one sprocket which is keyed to the camshaft.
Fuel
JPighter
^hCachined
System
Pressure feed, for the fuel supply, is given continued preference ovei
other systems. The elements are practically the same as on previous
types.
The twenty-gallon gasoline tank is improved in two details. The
quantity gauge is placed in a more convenient location at the left end
page twelve
ADVANCE INFORMATION
of the tank corresponding to the filler, which is situated as on the
Type 61. The gasoline and air connections are in accessible positions
on the front side of the tank, with ample clearance below the frame
cross-member.
The two-inch carburetor, with thermostatically controlled vents and
air valve spring, is identical with that on the Type 61, permitting the
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
page thirteen
ders instead of being vertical. This renders unnecessary any springing
of the manifold in removing and installing, and insures tight joints.
Ignition
The Cadillac-Delco high-tension ignition system, with double timercontact points, is continued for its eighth year. The conduits enclosing the ignition wiring are supported on bosses especially cast for that
purpose on the cylinder blocks, instead of on brackets fastened by the
cylinder head nuts. This renders it unnecessary to disturb the ignition
wiring conduits when removing the cylinder heads.
A new ignition coil of the transformer type is used, securing greater
efficiency. The coil is also completely enclosed in moulded Bakelite,
making it weather-proof.
The high-tension terminal has been removed from the side of the
coil towards the front seat and placed above the coil where it is concealed within and protected by the Bakelite casing.
Qooling
Cadillac engine Type V-63
use of both high- and low-test fuels and insuring a correctly proportioned mixture at varying degrees of temperature.
Provision is made as before for draining to the ground any gasoline
overflowing from the carburetor. The valve channel, however, is
kept free of drain pipes by using a single pipe passing between the two
center cylinders on the right hand side.
There is no change in the strainers and settling chambers, the same
thorough consideration being given to cleaning the gasoline supply as
heretofore.
The exhaust-heated intake manifold is also used, but the flanges for
the connections to the cylinder blocks are placed parallel to the cylin-
G ^ i r A M - W>3
i/
*•••'
J
System
System
Minor improvements have been made in the cooling system. The
radiator condenser is located further toward the rear and is suspended
in a vertical position so that the incoming vapor will have to pass
through a greater depth of liquid. Necessity for filling the condenser
through the floor board has been eliminated, the operation being automatic.
The two centrifugal pumps are driven by a spiral gear from the
crankshaft and contain thermostatically controlled valves as before.
J^tibrication
Lubrication of the Type V-63 engine is by pressure feed from a gear
pump on the front of the crankcase, typical of all eight-cylinder Cadillac
cars. The pump drive, the location of the oil reservoir, and the circulating system are the same as before.
A larger and more convenient oil filler is provided, bringing the opening above the hose connection between the radiator and the engine.
ADVANCE INFORMATION
page fourteen
This filler is provided with a hinged, instead of a threaded, cap, and has
a large strainer.
The oil-level indicator has been improved, eliminating the glass and
thus insuring permanent visibility of the indicator ball.
Starting
and fighting
System
The Cadillac-Delco single-unit, two-pole motor-generator, successfully
used on the Type 61 and other former Cadillac cars, is continued.
For the fifth year the head-lamps have the tilting reflectors but they
have been redesigned in shape and mechanism.
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
'Power Transmission
The Cadillac-Exide storage battery is in a case reinforced by
through-bolts between adjacent cells. Simpler filler caps are used,
making removal of the caps for adding distilled water more
convenient. The storage battery is carried, as before, under the
left hand dust shield.
The ignition and lighting switch is of a new type simpler in construction. Instead of blades giving a wiping contact, brushes are used to
make contact with rotors or commutators.
The head lamps, side lamps, instrument board lamps, and tail lamp
are controlled by the lighting switch lever. The lock is so arranged that
the instrument board and tail lamps can be turned on while the
switch is locked. When this is done, the side lamps are automatically
turned on as soon as the switch is unlocked.
System
The Type V-63 clutch and transmission units have proven their superiority through previous use in the Type 61. Only a minor change is
incorporated in the transmission to provide for the operation of the
back-up light switch by the transmission control lever.
The transmission gear tooth surfaces, which engage in intermediate
gear and direct drive, are finished by a grinding process, first used
by Cadillac, that results in exceptional quietness.
Substantially the same full-floating rear axle is used as on later Type
61 cars. The pinion carrier is bolted directly to the differential carrier
with shims between the flanges for adjustment.
«
The side-lamps are similar in appearance to the head lamps.
The tail-lamp has been included in a triple utility lamp. Besides the
customary red light for ordinary use, there is a bright red light for
traffic signalling, and a bright white light for use when backing up.
The traffic lamp switch is operated by the brake pedal. The back-up
lamp switch is operated by the transmission control lever, and is turned
on whenever the transmission is in reverse. The stop and back-up lamp
bulbs have the same candle-power as the head-lamp bulbs. The connection to the triple utility lamp is made through a special cable and
plug carrying all three wires.
•page fifteen
Frame and
Wheels
The Type V-63 frame is even more rigid than its predecessors. While
the side bars have the same dimensions as the Type 61 frame, two new
cross-members have been added. One of these, tubular in shape, is
placed a short distance in the rear of the transmission. The other is a
cross-member of channel section located directly opposite the front
ends of the rear springs.
The artillery type wheels, with steel felloes and twelve hickory
spokes, are similar to those used on Type 61 cars.
Steering
System and Front
zAxle
Former Cadillac cars have been remarkable for the ease with which
they are steered. The worm and sector type of steering gear which has
been largely responsible for this result is continued in the Type V-63.
The ratio of movement between the steering wheel and the sector
shaft has been increased, however, making for still easier operation as
well as reducing road shock.
A minor, but much appreciated, improvement has been made at the
upper end of the steering column. A large, adjustable packing gland
has been placed at this point to prevent the lubricant in the column
from overflowing when too much has been injected. In connection
with this change the oil hole for lubricating the bushing at the upper
page sixteen
ADVANCE INFORMATION
end of the column has been re-located, enlarged, and provided with a
plug.
The front axle has been entirely re-designed and strengthened to
resist the additional stresses imposed by the front wheel brakes. It
is of the reverse-Elliot type with forked spindles, and straight axle ends.
The parallel rod, connecting the two steering spindles, is in the rear,
rather than in the front, of the axle. The connections at the ends of the
parallel rod are of the adjustable ball-and-socket type instead of the
yoke-and-pin construction.
Adjustable taper roller bearings are used as before in the steering
spindles. The number of rollers in each bearing has been increased
resulting in more uniform distribution of wear on the bearing cups.
Further facilitating easy turning of the front wheels, the steeringspindle bolts are inclined at an angle which brings the point of contact
between the tire and the road nearer the pivot axis. The caster effect,
by which the reaction of the road on the wheels tends to keep them in
the straight-ahead position, is retained.
Spring
System
The three-quarter platform spring system, by which Cadillac cars
have been distinguished almost since their inception, is used on Type
V-63 cars. No change has been made except in the selection of spring
weights and deflections to conform to new chassis and body requirements.
•page seventeen
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
Four Wheel brakes
The addition of front wheel brakes to the already efficient Cadillac
system brings to the owner of the Type V-63, not only greatly increased
braking ability, but also safer, smoother, and more durable brakes.
The complete braking system of the Type V-63 consists of three pairs
of brakes—external brakes acting on the rear wheels; internal brakes
acting on the rear wheels; and internal brakes acting on the front
wheels. All of the brake drums have the same diameter—17
inches.
The rear wheel external brakes and the front wheel internal brakes
are operated simultaneously by the brake pedal.
The rear wheel internal brakes are operated by a hand lever which
has the customary provision for locking the rear wheels when the car
is standing. The hand brakes are independent of the foot brakes in
every detail of their mechanism, thus providing a complete reserve
braking system.
Safety
*J£ajor
Qonsideration
Type V-63 brakes are designed with the greatest consideration
for safety. In the case of front wheel brakes, safety in control is more
important than maximum ability to stop quickly. A front wheel
which is sliding without rotating has no power to change the direction
of the car. Front wheel brakes must provide against the contingency
of locking both front wheels on a turn.
This is accomplished in the Type V-63 by a construction which provides that when the brakes are applied with the steering wheel turned
to the right or left only the brake on the inner wheel will take effect,
leaving the outer wheel free to rotate. Similarly, if the car is sliding
straight ahead on a slippery surface with both front wheels locked,
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
page nineteen
and if the steering wheel is then turned, the outside front brake will
automatically release. The outer wheel will therefore start to rotate,
giving it power to change the direction of the car. It is, accordingly,
impossible for both front-wheel brakes to be locked on a turn, no
matter how much pressure is applied to the pedal.
Provision for safety is further made by properly proportioning
the braking effect between the front and rear wheels. In order that
the front wheels will not lock until more than enough pressure has
been applied to lock the rear wheels, the braking effect of the front
wheel brakes is purposely made less than that of the rear wheel brakes.
The proportion of braking effect taken by the front wheels can be adjusted within limits to meet the requirements of differently distributed
loads or to suit individual preference.
Finally, safety is enhanced by the provision made to counterbalance
the effect of heat in expanding the brake drums. It is not an uncommon experience in touring mountainous roads, to find that the brake
pedal—if it operates external brakes—will apply the brakes earlier in
its travel, after braking down a long grade, than at the beginning of the
grade. This is the result of the heat from friction, which expands the
drums and decreases the clearance between the brake lining and the
drums. If the original adjustment is fairly close, some brakes, under
such conditions, are apt to seize.
Conversely, a brake pedal which operates internal brakes will not
take effect as early in the pedal travel when the brake drums are hot
as at other times. If the brake clearance has become excessive, the
pedal may even strike the toe board before the brakes take effect.
If all four brakes of a four-wheel brake system are either external
or internal brakes, these effects are doubled.
On the Type V-63, internal brakes on the front wheels are combined
with external brakes on the rear wheels. Through the division bar,
to which the brake pedal is connected, the effect of expansion of the
front wheel brake drums is neutralized by the opposite effect of expansion of the drums on the rear wheels. The applied position of the
brake pedal therefore hardly changes as the drums expand, minimizing
the possibility on long steep grades, either of the brakes seizing or of
being unable to apply the brakes because of heated drums.
page twenty
ADVANCE INFORMATION
The use of internal brakes on the front wheels also produces an automatic thermal equalizing effect which is sufficient when the car is traveling straight ahead to correct any slight inequality which might exist
in the adjustment of the front wheel brakes. If one front-wheel brake
has slightly less clearance than the other and takes effect first, the
greater friction will heat and expand the corresponding brake drum.
The expansion of the drum will increase the clearance slightly and permit the pedal to be depressed further until the other brake takes effect.
Adjustment
Infrequent
A second consideration in the design and construction of brakes should
be freedom from attention. Unusual steps have been taken to render
the necessity for adjustment of Type V-63 four-wheel brakes infrequent.
One feature contributing toward this is a two-stage pedal construction which increases the effective travel of the brake pedal. The rod
from the brake pedal to the division bar is connected to the pedal at
two points, one of which is nearer the pedal shaft and, naturally, has
a greater leverage than the other. The connections are so adjusted
that, during the first part of the pedal travel—corresponding to normal
use—the brakes are applied through the connection nearest the pedal
shaft, and the leverage permits application of the brakes with light
foot pressure. When the brake lining has worn so that the pedal is
within a short distance of the toe board, the upper connection takes
effect and the rate of pedal travel is reduced. The result of this twostage construction is that the brakes can be used for a much longer
time before the pedal touches the toe board. At the same time, the
change in leverage gives notice to the driver that the second stage has
been reached and that adjustment must be made in the near future.
In addition to making every inch of pedal travel count, the brakes
have been freed from the need of frequent attention, by increasing the
life of the brake lining. The distribution of braking duty among four
instead of two wheels lessens of itself the load on each brake. Lining
wear is proportionately less than with two brakes alone.
Not content with this, Cadillac engineers have provided for Type
V-63 front-wheel brakes a special type of lining, which is highly com-
page twenty-one
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
pressed and subjected during manufacture to a heat treatment. This
lining, moreover, is burnished by machine before assembling the brake
bands on the axles. As a result an extraordinary amount of braking
service is rendered before the clearance between the lining and the
drums has been appreciably increased. Instead of requiring twice the
amount of adjustment usually given rear wheel brakes, Type V-63
four-wheel brakes do not require nearly as frequent attention as rear
wheel brakes alone.
^Details of 'Brake
(Construction
All three sets of brakes are of the flexible-band type, which permits
the lining to conform to any slight distortion of the brake drums
resulting from heat.
Flexible brake bands are also self-energizing, the friction between the
lining and the drum assisting to increase the pressure with which the
brake is applied.
The rear-wheel external brakes are essentially the same as the corresponding brakes on former Cadillac cars. The toggle lever and the
anchor, however, have been moved to lower positions on the brake
bands giving a greater length of the band above the drum. The upper
part of an external brake band is more effective than the lower part
because the forward rotation of the wheel tends of itself to wrap the
upper part of the band more tightly around the drum. By increasing
the length of the upper part of the band, more effective braking is
obtained.
A stop screw has been added above each external brake to preserve
a uniform clearance throughout the increased length of the upper part
of the band. The anchor adjusting screw has also been made selflocking.
The front internal brakes are of the expanding toggle type similar
in principle to previous rear wheel internal brakes but differing in
method of application. As in the external brakes, the location of the
anchor with relation to the toggle makes use of the self-applying effect
of rotation of the wheel.
Careful provision has been made for protecting the front wheel brakes
from the weather. The brake drum overlaps the edge of the dust
page twenty-two
ADVANCE INFORMATION
shield in an angle-shaped projection which automatically catches and
throws off any water or dirt which may pass the dust shield. Connections which are outside the brake drums and which are exposed to
splash from the front wheels are enclosed.
The rear wheel internal brakes are of the expanding toggle type
previously used. The hole for the inspection and adjustment of the
brakes has been enlarged and a new type of cover, more easily removed
and attached, is employed.
Each set of brakes is mechanically operated through positive pullrod connections. Connections at the front axle are made through
universal joints which allow play of the springs and movement of the
steering spindles.
The brake control mechanism is designed so that either set of brakes
is as effective to retard or prevent reverse motion of the car as forward
motion.
The rear wheel external brake equalizer is suspended from the frame
cross-member opposite the front ends of the rear springs. The location
of the equalizer is such that the rods between it and the rear axle pivot
about approximately the same axis as the rear springs. Movement of
the rear springs accordingly has no effect on the brake action, the pedal
remaining stationary on the roughest roads. A rocker shaft for the
rear wheel internal brakes is provided on the same cross-member to
which the rear wheel external brake equalizer is attached.
All lever and rocker shaft bearings are provided with lubricating connections for use with the pressure gun in the tool equipment.
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
page twenty-three
J\(ew Qadillac "Bodies
creation of the eleven body styles for the Type 63, Cadillac
I NandTHEFisher
body builders have produced bodies which in construction are unsurpassed by the costliest custom-built jobs.
The lines of the Type 63 offer a pleasing development of Cadillac
body design, and the many improvements and refinements mark these
new productions as masterly examples of the coach builder's art.
The bodies afford more leg room, side room, and head room, both in
the front and in the rear compartments. In this respect they are more
comfortable than any former model. Yet, the Type V-63 bodies appear
larger and lower to the observer because of the skillful blending and
proportioning of the lines.
All frame work in the closed and open body styles is constructed of
first quality, selected ash, which is thoroughly seasoned and kiln dried
before being used. The wooden parts of the bodies are compactly braced
and the joints are mortised and glued. All metal stampings are made
from special automobile steel and sheet aluminum.
The Factory has striven to give the purchasers of the Type V-63
the best paint job procurable in the standard colors—coach-makers,
blue, claret lake (maroon), and Buckingham gray—also in special colors.
In the Type V-63 there is offered, for the first time, a special relief design around the windows and doors of all closed body styles, which
may be painted in colors to match the under body, or in any harmonizing shade desired. Painting a Type V-63 body takes 28 days
for the standard jobs.
Type V-63's radiator is one inch higher than was the Type 61, and
the hood is longer. The radiator cap marks a distinct departure from
caps manufactured by other companies. This original cap is attractive
in its nickel and Bakelite dress. Bakelite is used for the grip part while
nickel trimmings appear above and below it.
page twenty-four
ADVANCE INFORMATION
Retaining the characteristic of sturdiness, the Type V-63 hood is a
graceful expression of the designer's art. Hood rattles are eliminated
by the new hood pulls, which have been designed to hold the hood absolutely rigid. Concealed bolts secure the hood fastenings to the hood.
Both the head and side lamps are of a new design—dignified, rich,
typically Cadillac. The head-lamps are more nearly cylindrical in shape
while the side-lamps are more of the bullet type.
The new fenders are original in design and are constructed of a special
18-gauge steel. The edging continues into the black enameled edge
of the running board to give the fenders the effect of running the
complete length of the car.
Likewise, the running boards are made of special steel. Binding on
the outside edge is secured to the board by concealed bolts, a exclusive Cadillac feature.
The new instrument board is improved both in appearance and
utility. A separate eight-day clock is a feature.
The flush-type ventilator with a wind deflector is another refinement
of merit, as is the mirror of universal adjustability.
No metal bars are placed on the rear of the bodies as on Type 61.
Instead there are special Cadillac trunk racks which will not permit
the trunk to touch the surface of the car. The aluminum strips on
these racks are fastened with concealed bolts. An improved tire carrier has also been installed.
Qlosed
bodies
One of the most important improvements to be found in the closed
bodies, and one which will appeal especially to the men and women who
prefer to drive their own cars, is the front-door post of special design,
which allows the driver a greater vision. For years boby designers
have sought to improve this condition with indifferent success, but
Cadillac bodies of this year have eliminated an inch and a half of the
"blind spot." The two-piece ventilating wind-shield, besides being
rain-proof and wind-proof, also aids the driver's vision.
The division between the front and rear compartments of the chauffeur driven cars—the Imperial Suburban, the Imperial Sedan, the Open
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
page twenty-five
Limousine, and the Town Brougham—extends across the full width
of these cars and allows for the lowering of the special curved glass.
The plate glass in all closed bodies is & inch thick, and is of the
mirror finish.
The doors, which are fitted with a patented door check, are of the
flush type and are perfectly water-proof and dust-proof. Genuine buttwalnut veneer panels, brought through in matched sets, are used on the
inside of all doors in the closed cars. The walnut moulding, the mohair
finishings trimmed in a panel effect, and the tufted pockets add to the
richness of the interior appearance of the doors.
Window lift handles on the front doors are located so that they do
not interfere with the driver's hands while he is operating the car.
Silk roller-type curtains are carried on the body header above the
doors, rather than on the doors themselves.
Improved riding qualities are found in the rear seats of the closed
models. In the Type V-63, the seats approximate more nearly the
lounge type. The horizontal cushion is made to fit underneath the back
springs, in such a way that it causes the shape of the back and the seat
to conform more naturally with the occupants' position. The spring
seats and the back springs are made of specially graded individual
coils which insure utmost pliability. The rubber padded arm rest
adds to the comfort.
The roof is of superior soft, slat construction which tends to deaden
sound.
A word only about the finishings. The carpets, curtains, and
upholstery have been planned with the care that would be used
in decorating the most elaborate drawing room. The upholstery and
other interior trimmings are of a new line of velvet mohair which may
be had in either plain or cut designs. The pleasing shades offered in
the upholstery harmonize with the body colors. This mohair is made
from the first carding of goat hair.
Similarly, the smoking and vanity cases have been specially designed so that they will match the interior wood work.
In the Imperial Suburban, the Open Limousine, and the Town
Brougham an additional eight-day clock is mounted above the division
window for the convenience of the rear seat passengers.
page twenty-six
ADVANCE INFORMATION
page twenty-seven
CADILLAC TYPE V-63
Facts <±About the Qlosed Qars
Open Bodies
The inside of the body is one inch longer.
A special golf-bag compartment, which locks, is located on the side of
the car. The leather back and buggy bows add a touch of distinction
to this model.
Nineteen-gauge steel is used in constructing the doors of the open
models, which are opened and shut from the inside byflush-typehandles
of improved design. The outside handles are of polished nickel.
Ventilating curtains for all doors, and a special metal door stop, which
makes its appearance for the first time, are important features. The
stop has an adjustable rubber bumper to prevent rattles.
The tonneau floor is constructed so that it reinforces the entire rear
end of the body.
The front seat construction makes it the most rigid seat ever used
on any Cadillac type. Pivot pins in the auxiliary seats are an important
addition, as they are so designed that they take up all the play in the
auxiliary seats and brackets, and, further, prevent any rattles.
A large tool box, built in the right hand dust shield, contains all hand
tools in a separate compartment while the larger tools and equipment are
held in place by spring clips. The tool box is equipped with a key lock.
TWO-PASSENGER COUPE.
FIVE-PASSENGER COUPE. The body is one inch higher and two inches
longer. The rear seats have been widened four inches as has the driver's
seat. The cushion in the driver's seat is one inch longer and one-half
inch higher. The auxiliary seat is specially designed to duplicate
closely the driver's seat in style and appearance. Its cushion is four
inches longer than that of the Type 61 and the back is two inches higher.
FIVE-PASSENGER SEDAN. The rear compartment is seven inches longer,
affording more leg room. The car is two inches wider across the rear
seat and one-half inch higher inside than was the Type 61. Here again
we find the leather back and buggy bows.
IMPERIAL SEDAN. The dimensions are the same as those of the fivepassenger Sedan. The chief difference lies in the glass division between
the tonneau and the driver's compartment. This glass can be lowered
completely if so desired. The leather back and buggy bows are also
features on this car.
SEVEN-PASSENGER SUBURBAN. The rear seat of this model is one and
one-half inches longer than its predecessor, the Type 61. It is two
inches wider across the rear seat and the doors are one-half inch higher.
IMPERIAL SUBURBAN. The tonneau offers the same improvements as
those embodied in the seven-passenger Suburban. The glass division
between the front and rear compartments, which may be lowered
completely, is a distinct characteristic of this body style.
OPEN LIMOUSINE. The changes are the same as in the seven-passenger
Suburban.
TOWN BROUGHAM. This new addition to the Cadillac line is an aristocratic creation, eminently suited for milady's shopping tours, social
calls and theater use. The driver's seat is not enclosed as is the rest
of the car, and is separated from the occupants' compartment by the
division glass which may be lowered completely. The leather back
and other fine appointments bespeak custom body building.
Facts aAbout the Open Models
ROADSTER. TWO extra passengers may be accommodated in the comfortable cushion-back auxiliary seat placed beneath the rear deck. A
combination door and step, of new design, on the right side of the car
opens into a compartment where golf-bag, week-end bag, or small
parcels may be carried. When opened, this door serves as a step to
assist the occupants of the deck seat in entering the car. New pulls on
the cover of the deck make it easier to open. The top bows are of a
special construction to facilitate lowering and folding the top in a compact manner.
The PHAETON. Has a new trunk support fastened with concealed
screws.
TOURING CAR. The rear seat has been widened one inch, now measuring 46 inches.
.192¾
K!]-lrie.-M\Ln^ clatr-. and
nnveificatJi
L?fie Storyof
CADILLAC
CON STRUCTION
LIBRARY REFERENCE COPY
NOT TO CIRCULATE
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u/ie Stoiy of
CADILLAC
CON
STRUCTION
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CADILLAC MOTOR CAR COMPANY
DivisuHt nf tiftuTiti
Mttitirs
(jtrpnrutiun
IIKTKOIT, M I C H I G A N . I . S. A.
The Stoiy of Cadillac Construction
Cupviit.-litiMl l"iM liv Caililiai- Moliir Cur Co.
!>Hroit. Michisriui
~"^1JI,J story of automobile development is interwoven with the story of Cadillac progress and
- each chapter marks epochal accomplishment in
automotive transportation to which Cadillac contributed by the several recognized advancements introduced in Cadillac chassis. In the type V-63. Cadillac
comes forth with further signal improvements.
The new V-63 engine possesses perfect inherent balance by virtue of a fully compensated crankshaft and
establishes new standards of comparison for engine performance.
Cadillac also introduces this season four-wheel brakes
which are effective under all operating conditions.
i t is by advances such as these that Cadillac has
achieved its position of leadership. For the benefit of
motorists who like to go deeper into construction details
and the reasons for the superiority of the Cadillac, this
brief analysis of V-63 is presented.
THE
STOitY
OF
C. V n I L I, \ (". C ( i \ S T II I' C. T I (i N
3. IIHJH engine speed is also made possible by the light IIHJII
reciprocating parts, resulting in the development of a •<l",,<t
great amount of power from small piston displacement.
I. CKKAT elliciency is made possible by high compression of the gases in the combustion chambers. Amount
of compression of the mixture is one of the important
factors in securing elliciency, but it is limited in many
cases by a tendency to pro-ignition. The easy cooling of
the small pistons of the Cadillac V-63 engine permits
of high compression of the gases without the rise in
temperature from which pro-ignition results.
5. T u n placing of the cylinders opposite each other,
rather than all in line or staggered, makes the Cadillac
V-type of engine the shortest of all engines with four
or more cylinders and of eoual nislon rlicul^.r..»."..+
Cadillac V - 6 3 Power Plant
presents the Y-63 engine, which is inherently
balanced at all engine speeds.
Numerous advantages are possessed by tlie Cadillac
V-type, 90-degree, eight-cylinder engine, as follows:
CADILLAC
1. Till-" Cadillac V-63 engine has a smooth, easy
turning movement, resulting from the overlapping of
the frequent power strokes.
2. T I I K Cadillac engine has a low rate of wear because
of the light power impulses and the reduction of inertia
forces, resulting from its light reciprocating parts.
The. compensated crankshaft construction relieves the
bearings of all centrifugal and inertia load and only
the working pressure exerted by pistons is carried on
I h.i
I i / I A I M U fVCt
cranks in two planes at right angles to each other,
lather than all in one plane as in other types of Veights. As a result, of this rearrangement of the crankshaft throws, the V-63 engine has a new firing order,
although the firing interval is still evenly spaced,
the impulses occurring regularly every quarter revolu-
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STOItY
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Four (compensators of forged .steel are secured to the
crankshaft. Each crankshaft with its compensating
weights is dynamically balanced on a special machine
so that the entire reciprocating and centrifugal mass is
perfectly balanced at all engine speeds.
An understanding of the compensating principle of
the V-63 engine, now employed for the first lime
by any manufacturer, requires an explanation of the
disturbing forces which lend to produce vibration.
and opposite although not in the same plane. The effect
of these oiit-of'-plane forces is then completely neutralized by the compensators.
Tin' weights of the compensators and the angles at
which they are placed are, so calculated that their centrifugal effect causes the whole assembly—crankshaft,
connecting rods and pistons — to operate with the
smoothness of a balanced flywheel.
other forces acting on the crankshaft of an
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automobile, engine are torsional forces, tending to twist <>j
the shaft. This tendency is obviously more marked in a
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long shaft than in a short one.
ft is because of this inherent defect of a Jong crankshaft t h a t Cadillac engineers have never approved of
more than four cylinders in line.
Even with its extreme shortness, the V-63 crankshaft
lias the. large diameter of 2'} $ inches. This gives the
crankshaft a great degree of rigidity.
A.MO.M;
INKHTI.V forces, due to the alternating movement of
the pistons, are the principal disturbing forces and
their elimination is one of the designer's most difficult
problems.
Types of engines in which the inertia forces completely cancel each other are designated as "inherently
Cadillac V - 6 3 Power Plant
presents the V-63 engine, which is inherently
balanced a t all engine speeds.
Numerous advantages are possessed by the Cadillac
V-type, 90-degree, eight-cylinder engine, as follows:
CADILLAC
1. Turc Cadillac V-63 engine has a smooth, easy
turning movement, resulting from the overlapping of
the frequent power strokes.
balanced.'" The Cadillac V-63 engine, is of this type
and is the first \ - t y p e eight-cylinder engine to be
"inherently balanced."
By placing the crankshaft throws in two planes at
right angles to each other, the component inertia
f o r c e s sire r l i v i d e d i n t o n;iit\s o f forces! w h i c h sire COMIII
main bearings support the crankshaft, a smaller
number of long bearings being preferable to a large number of short ones for two reasons. I t is difficult in a
short bearing to maintain an oil film between the
crankshaft and the bearing metal. I t is also difficult
to maintain the, alignment, of a larger number of
bearings.
THRKI;
ft should be observed that although the compensated crankshaft of the Cadillac \ -63 engine relieves
I be bearings of all duty except loads due to the power
impulses, other forces being completely neutralized, the
diameter of the bearings is even greater than in former
Cadillac eight-cylinder engines.
Hmri,
Till!
STOUY
OF
T i n : connecting rods are drop-forged from special
formula steel, and finished over their entire surface,
reducing weight to a minimum, and insuring uniformity.
The connecting rods from cylinder blocks on each
side of the valve channel connect with the four-throw
crankshaft, the hearing of each throw taking care of
the ends of connecting rods from opposite cylinders.
The conneding rods exemplify Cadillac manufacturing precision. The machining and finishing of one pair
of connecting rods and pistons involve three hundred
thirty-six operations. Two dimensions are held within
the limits of three ten-thousandths of tin inch; four
within one-half thousandth of an inch: thirty-nine
within one. thousandth of an inch; twenty-eight within
two thousandths of an inch, and more than fifty
within ten thousandths of an inch. More than 200
gauges and micrometers are used to insure that the
pistons and connecting rods conform to the dimensions
specified on the drawings. This care is typical of
thousands of operations in building the Cadillac car.
Tin-: pistons are of unusually light design, the entire
eight pistons weighing no more than two pistons of the
average four-cylinder engine with ecpial piston displacement. Gray cast iron alloy of Cadillac special formula
is used.
Three concentric piston rings are carried above the
wrist-pin. Each ring has two small grooves cut in its
circumference which entrap lubricating oil, rendering
the seal against compression leakage most effective.
T H K most striking characteristic of the Cadillac crankcase, or engine base, is its weight efficiency, with ample
strength, rigidity and stability.
C A D I I.LAC
CO \ S T I i I ' C T I D . N '
The material employed is a special copper alloy
aluminum, with a strength-to-weight ratio more than
twice that of an iron casting.
Seven ribs brace the deep walls of the crankcasc and
support the crankshaft and camshaft bearings. The
center and rear crankshaft bearings are supported by
two ribs each.
The crankshaft bearing caps are not simply bolted to
the supporting ribs, but are held in place over the bearings by through-bolts, eleven inches long, which pass
between the ribs to the very top of the crankcase and
share with it the tensile stress imposed by both the dead
and live load of the crankshaft.
The Cadillac engine is supported at three points—
two points at the rear of the crankcase, and the ball and
socket joint on the front coverplate.
CADILLAC
cylinders are cast en bloc, in fours, with
detachable heads.
Both inlet and exhaust valves are on the same side
of the combustion chamber.
Cvlih,
Tur: separately cast head members permit the accurate
profiling of the combustion chambers. This results in
uniform compression, and the smoothly machined surface reduces the tendency of carbon to adhere.
Casting of the cylinder heads separately renders it
possible in manufacturing to have access to both ends
of the cylinder bore, permitting use of the plug gauge
in both ends of the cylinder.
A gray east iron alloy of Cadillac special formula
used in the cylinder blocks gives them exceptional
wearing qualities and facilitates the formation of a
glass-like surface on the walls of the bore.
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THE
STOUY
OF
(. \ I) I L L AC
C O X S T H l! C T I 0 X
shall is hollowed through its entire length. Each valve
is actuated by a rocker arm, carrying a hardened steel
roller which rides upon the cam.
The rocker arms are pendant from shafts, supported
from the underside of the crankcase top coverplale.
They are bushed with replaceable bearings of a special
composition.
The motion of the valve rocker arms is transmitted to
hardened steel push rods with adjustable lappets, and
passed on to the valve stems.
The Cadillac poppet valves are forged from high
quality tungsten steel.
The diameter of the valve opening is approximately
one and eleven-sixteenths inches. The valve steins
have their bearings in guides four and a half inches
long pressed into the cylinder blocks. This length prohibits the possibility of wear.
Fuel System
Tin: 20-gallon tank al the rear of the frame is of Terne
plate steel, rectangular in section.
T H E Cadillac eiglit-cylinder V-type design permits a
simple and unusually quiet valve mechanism. The single
camshaft has sixteen cams, each operating one of the
sixteen valves. I t is positioned directly above the
crankshaft, and driven from it by a silent chain of
unusual width and strength.
Its five bearings constitute more than one-third of its
overall length.
The camshaft is a drop forging with integral cams. To
convey abundant supply of lubricant to its bearings the
THE HOW of fuel to the carburetor is positively assured
by a pressure of air on the contents of the tank, which
is automatically maintained between one and two
pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure.
The pressure is furnished by an air compressor
supported on the front coverplate of the engine and
driven by an eccentric on the camshaft.
Two settling chambers and two strainers between
tank and carburetor purify the engine fuel before it
(Miters the mixing chamber.
TIIK
'•dor
i.lnrfttul
""'
STOIIY
OF
THE Cadillac carburetor is designed by Cadillac engineers to meet every requirement of the Cadillac eightcylinder V-63 engine, and is manufactured in the
Cadillac factory.
The carburetor, located between the cylinder blocks,
is of the air-valve, single jet type, but with a number of
exclusive features.
The auxiliary air supply, by which the correct mixture is automatically maintained at all speeds and
throttle openings, is controlled by a leather-seated
swing valve, governed by an adjustable spring.
Three thermostatic elements are embodied in the
V-63 carburetor. One thermostatic device controls the
actionoftheauxiliary air valve. The second thermostatic
element regulates the action of the throttle pump to
compensate for changes in temperature. A third thermostat, acting only at unusually high temperatures,
opens a vent to permit the escape of pressure which
might be generated in very warm weather by "hightest" gasoline.
imp
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THE requirement for a mixture of additional richness at
the moment of acceleration is met by a plunger pump,
operated from the throttle shaft, forcing the necessary
extra fuel through the spraying nozzle.
lift
'ahi
vaporization of the present low grade gasoline
j s provided for in the Cadillac engine by an exhaustheated intake manifold.
'By the application of heat above and beyond the
carburetor, that part of the mixture which normally
would condense and lodge as vapor on the walls of
the intake manifold remains a part of the explosive
C A D f L L A C. C O N S T U U C T I O N
Alternate high and low pressure in the exhaust
manifolds sets up a surging action which draws the
hot exhaust gases through the passageway as soon as
the engine is started.
This immediate application of heat at the vital point
in the fuel system gives good carburetion in a cold
motor almost instantly.
The Exhaust System
block of four cylinders has its individual exhaust
system, insuring the rapid conduction of the spent
gases away from the cylinders.
EACH
Timing Chains
COMPLETE
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SrLENT timing chains have been used on Cadillac engines since 1911-1912. They have the advantage of
being quieter than gears, and they retain this quietness
throughout their life.
A large double sprocket is keyed directly to the camshaft and is driven from the crankshaft sprocket by a
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THE
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OK
camshaft sprocket drives
the fan and generator
shaft.
No adjustment of the
chains is necessary hecause of the increased
size of the chains employed and the, smoothness
with which the crankshaft
rotates.
The Ignition
System
T H E Cadillac engine has
a single ignition system
of the Delco high tension
type, a simple, high grade
and reliable design embodying the following elements:
A source of current, the generator, or, at low speeds,
the storage battery.
An ignition timer, which interrupts the low tension
current at the proper instant to produce a spark in the
high tension circuit.
An induction coil, transforming the primary current
of six volts into one of suJIicient voltage to jump between the points of the spark plugs. This coil is of the
transformer type and is completely enclosed in moulded
bakelite, making it waterproof.
A condenser, which assists the induction coil to raise
the voltage, and which protects the contact points of
the, ignition timer against burning.
CA D I L L A C
CONSTRUCTION
A high tension distributor, which directs the
distribution of the high
tension current to the
spark plugs.
A. resistance unit,
which protects the ignition coil and tinier contacts from injury.
Structurally, the ignition timer, the distributor, the
condenser and the resistance unit constitute a single
assembly, which is bolted to the rear of the fanshaft
housing.
THE ignition timer, which is driven by a vertical shaft Doubl
contac
through spiral gears from the fanshaft, has two sets of
contact points. These, share between them the current
which would otherwise pass through one.
The liring order of the cylinders is as follows:
|© © © ©
8© © © ©
ONE of the many steps taken by the Cadillac to make
driving entirely pleasurable, free from constant attenlion to details, is the automatic spark control which
relieves the operator of practically all spark lever
manipulation.
The Cooling System
THE temperature of the Cadillac engine is maintained
at the point of maximum efficiency and smooth running
In- IVirr/vl ii-iiicr circulation, thermostatically controlled.
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CADILLAC
THE
CONSTRUCTION
S 'J' 0 It Y O F
of water through the radiator and water
jackets is maintained by two centrifugal pumps, one
for each block of cylinders.
CIRCULATION
control of motor temperature was developed and first employed by the Cadillac Company.
A balanced valve and a thermostatic member are
housed and mounted in each pump.
When the engine is cold, the thermostat valves are
closed, and the supply from the radiator is cut off.
The water then is circulated only through the water
jackets of the cylinders and heads.
As soon as the temperature of the water in the water
jackets readies the predetermined point, the thermostats force open the valves and allow only sufficient
cooled water from the radiator to enter to keep the
temperature down to the predetermined point.
THERMOSTATIC
T H E copper tubular and plate radiator embodies but
four elements—the upper and lower tanks, the vertical
tubes, and the horizontal plates. The construction is
such t h a t there is a positive metallic connection between
each tube and each plate, insuring the rapid conduction
of heat away from the tubes.
A six-bladed fan is driven a t engine speed from the
camshaft by a silent chain. A friction clutch, under
spring tension, allows the fan to slip at high speeds.
A CONDENSING device, protected by patent rights,
renders it possible to use with safely the inexpensive
alcohol solution as an anti-freezing cooling medium. A
condenser of simple construction is attached to the
frame, and is connected by a tube to the overllow which
runs from the upper tank of the radiator. I t is filled
automatically.
T h e Engine Lubricating System
T H E engine is lubricated by the pressure circulation
system, employing a gear pump which is driven
from the water pump drive shaft through helical
gears.
The oil supply is carried in the pressed steel reservoir
which closes the under side of the crankcase.
T H E oil is forced by the pump to a manifold fitting
which runs the length of the crankcase above the oil
pan, and at the left. Leads to each of the main bearings
from this manifold circulate oil to all crankshaft
bearings.
in
Lemls
beariu
THE
STORY
OK
OIL passages drilled through the crankshaft conduct the
oil from the main bearings to the connecting rod
bearings.
Oil forced from the connecting rod bearings is thrown
by centrifugal force onto the cylinder walls and pistons,
lubricating the cylinders and wrist-pins.
T H E pressure under which the oil is forced to the main
and connecting rod bearings is controlled by a ball
vah r e pressure regulator.
Overflow oil from the regulating valve, forced into
the hollow camshaft, is a source of supply for the
camshaft bearings, the engine chains and the gasoline
system air pump.
T H E valve rocker arms are lubricated by oil entrained
in cup-like depressions at upper ends.
All oil drains back into the reservoir through a fine
wire gauze.
An oil level gauge is fastened to the t o p cover}>late
of the crankcase, at the right of the carburetor.
The Starting and Lighting System
T H E Cadillac-Delco starting and lighting system is the
result of many years of effective cooperation between
the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company and the
Cadillac.
T H E units of the starting system include a source of
current supply—a generator; a means of storing the
current generated — a storage battery; and a method
of applying t h e current to crank the engine —a motor.
The motor and generator functions are combined in
one unit, a motor-generator.
CADILLAC
CONSTRUCTION
A SINGLE wire system connects the different units, the
circuit being completed through the frame.
.sv,,,
sii»i
As a generator, the armature is driven at engine speed
by an extension of the fanshaft, which in turn is driven
through a silent chain from the camshaft.
When acting as a motor, the sole function of the
motor-generator is to crank the engine. The armature
is then geared to the flywheel by idler gears, which are
meshed upon pressing the starter button.
,v,>i
T H E specially built Cadillac-Exide storage battery
gives uninterrupted service and long life.
The
huiic
Cadillac Headlamps
headlamps are provided with highly efficient
diffusing lenses which deflect and spread out the rays.
To provide for deflecting the rays still further on special
occasions when more illumination is desired nearer the
car, as in rounding sharp corners and going over the
crests of steep grades, and when headlights may be
wanted in city driving, the reflectors in the headlamps
are pivoted so t h a t they can be tilted. They are controlled by a button on the instrument board.
CADILLAC
TIIH
STOItY
OF
A SINGLE wire system supplies current to the lamps, one
side of each lamp socket being grounded.
The headlamps, side lamps, tail lamp and speedometer lamp are controlled by a single lever from
the ignition and lighting switch on the instrument
board.
The tail lamp has been included in a "triple utility"
lamp. Besides the customary red light for ordinary use,
there is a bright red light for stop signaling, and a
bright white light for use when backing up. The slop
signal switch is operated by the brake pedal. The backup lamp switch is operated by the transmission control
lever, and is turned on whenever the transmission is in
reverse.
An inspection lamp with fourteen feet of cord and
reel is located under hood.
Protection is afforded to the ignition, lighting and
horn circuits by circuit breakers.
T h e Power Transmission System
T H E clutch has seventeen steel plates; nine plain driven
discs and eight driving discs faced on both sides with an
asbestos friction fabric.
The periphery of each driving disc is serrated in the
form of gear teeth, of ten pitch, which mesh with
similar teeth on the inner surface of the clutch driving
ring, bolted to the flywheel. The effect produced by
this method of driving the clutch is t h a t of eighty-one
driving keys and as many keyways, greatly reducing
the load on each key.
The thrust of a three-hundred-pound coil clutch
spring, which forces driving and driven discs tightly
together, is taken by a ball-thrust bearing.
C A D I L h A C C O N S T 11 U C T [ () N
Careful compounding of leverage has made the
clutch release pedal astonishingly smooth and easy.
T H E Cadillac selective gearsct provides for three Gears,
speeds forward and one reverse. The gears and shafts
are chrome nickel steel forgings, heat-treated. The
faces of the gear teeth are accurately ground and
the ends of the teeth are backed off, facilitating
easy and quiet gear-shifting. Wide gear faces distribute tooth pressure over an ample area to minimize
frictional wear.
The clutch shaft and main transmission shaft revolve
on ball bearings. To allow differential motion between
the clutch shaft and the transmission shaft, when
other than direct drive is in use, the front end of the
transmission shaft revolves on a H y a t t flexible roller
bearing, housed in the rear end of the clutch shaft.
The countershaft revolves on two roller bearings on a
stationary tubular shaft.
Tins propeller shaft between the transmission and the
rear axle is of seamless drawn steel tubing.
rear axle carries the weight of the car independently of its transmission of power to the rear wheels, a construction usually designated as full-floating. The load
is taken by the pressed steel, tube-shaped housing. Into
the ends of this pressing, chrome nickel steel sleeves are
riveted and welded. The wheel bearings arc mounted
upon these sleeves.
The transmission of power and the gear reduction are
accomplished by the helical bevel gear and pinion, and
the two live axle shafts of chrome nickel steel. The
ninion trear is a nickel steel fonrin^.
THIS
Propel
The re<
THE
STORY
OF
Helical bevel gears insure a degree of quietness
impossible -with straight-tooth gears. Pinion gear and
shaft arc integral, being supported on each side of the
gear by tapered roller bearings. The differential is the
bevel gear type.
Frame and Running Gear
engineers have not been content to allow
only an ample factor of safety in the frame. They
have designed a foundation on the basis of rigidity.
Body and chassis, as a result, have an increased
length of life.
The side bars have a long, deep channel section
through the center, where the stress is most severe,
and a Avide top flange. There is a gradual reduction
in the section toward each end with a moderate kickup at the rear.
The side bars are rigidly tied together by seven cross
members: a central cross member of channel section;
the cross member for the front engine support; a channel
cross member opposite the front ends of the rear spring
and four additional cross members of steel tubing.
CADILLAC
will impress the purchaser or prospective purchaser as the primary consideration in the design and
construction of Cadillac wheels.
They are of the artillery type, with twelve spokes
in each wheel. The best selected hickory, thoroughly
seasoned, composes the spokes which are of especially
large elliptical section.
The felloe is of steel, hollow in section, and the
spokes are anchored in the felloe by hydraulic pressure,
forming a practically indestructible unit.
The wheels revolve upon adjustable roller bearings.
SAFETY
CADILLAC
CONSTRUCTION
The consideration of safety has been given unusual
attention in the device used for locking-on the front
wheels.
T H E front axle has been entirely redesigned and
strengthened to resist the additional stresses imposed
by the front wheel brakes. It is of the reverse Elliott
type with forked spindles, and straight axle ends.
Adjustable tapered roller bearings are used in the
steering spindles.
Further facilitating easy turning of the front wheels,
the steering spindle bolts are inclined at an angle which
brings the point of contact between the tire and the
road nearer the pivot axis. The caster effect, by which
the reaction of the road on the wheels tends to keep
them in the straight-ahead position, is a feature which
has been employed by Cadillac for years.
The Steering System
T H E steering gear is of the worm and sector type.
The worm is machined from a solid bar of steel and
is keyed to the steering
column, which is a length
of seamless steel tubing.
The worm is supported
in the steering gear housing by bearings, which
take the radial load, and
adjustable ball bearings,
which take the thrust.
The sector is machined
from a single drop forging of nickel steel. Adjustment of the posi-
The.
T i l 15 S T O R Y
OF
tion of the sector relative to the worm is easily
made.
The tubular steering connecting rod has a hall and
socket joint at each end. The spindle arms, of generous
dimensions, are forged of chrome nickel steel.
The turning diameter is forty-four feet.
T h e Spring System
T H E front springs are semi-elliptical and three semielliptical units, arranged on the platform principle,
comprise the rear suspension system.
The combined length of all five units is more than
nineteen feet.
Rear axle torque reactions are transmitted by a substantial torque arm to t h e chassis frame.
Unusual precautions have been taken against spring
breakage.
The spring leaves are siiico-maiiganese steel, heattreated to give maximum life in service. The Iengtli of
the springs and t h e width and thickness of the plates
composing the spring leaves have been accurately
determined.
'liptic
pring
on in
llirecIform
nsion
I rear
The spring eyes are lined with phosphor bronze
bushings, bearing on shackle bolts with the unusually
large diameter of three,
fourths of an inch. The
y j^^jm*f
forged steel shackles, in
which these bolts are
1 wV* V l ^ Pm
.-11
*
j*
*.•*.
ty*
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journaled, have uncom* • ^n&i&Ut&tjA
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monly large bearing surfaces.
%
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C A D I I . L A C. C I I N S T I M ' C T I O N
F o u r - W h e e l Brakes
Tiirc addition of front wheel brakes to the already
efficient Cadillac system brings to the owner of the
V-63 not only greatly increased braking ability, but
also safer, smoother, and more durable brakes.
The complete braking system of the V-63 consists
of three pairs of brakes—external brakes acting on the
rear wheels; internal brakes acting on the rear wheels;
and internal brakes acting on the front wheels. All of
the brake drums have the same diameter—17 inches.
The rear wheel external brakes and the front wheel
internal brakes are operated simultaneously by the
brake pedal.
The rear wheel internal brakes are operated by a
hand lever which has the customary provision for
locking the rear wheels when the car is standing. The
hand brakes are independent of the foot brakes in every
detail of their mechanism, thus providing a complete
reserve braking system.
V-63 brakes are designed with the greatest
consideration for safety. In the case of front wheel
brakes, safety in control is more important than maximum ability to stop quickly.
This is accomplished in the Cadillac V-63 by a construction which provides t h a t when the brakes are
applied with the steering wheel turned to the right or
left, only the brake on the inner wheel will take effect,
leaving the outer wheel free to rotate. Similarly, if the
car is sliding straight ahead on a slippery surface with
both front wheels locked, and if the steering wheel is
then turned, the outside front brake will automatically
release. The outer wheel will, therefore, start to rotate.
CADILLAC
T II K S T 0 K Y OF
giving it power to change the direction of the car. It is,
accordingly, impossible for both front wheel brakes to
be locked on a turn.
Provision for safety is further made by properly
proportioning the braking effect between the front and
rear wheels. In order that the front wheels will not lock
until more than enough pressure has been applied to
lock the rear wheels, the braking efTect of the front
wheel brakes is purposely made less than that of the
rear wheel brakes. However, the proportion of braking
effect taken by the front wheels can be adjusted within
limits to meet the requirements of differently distributed loads or to suit individual preference.
Finally, safety is enhanced by the provision made
to counterbalance the effect of heat in expanding the
brake drums.
On the Cadillac V-63, internal brakes on the front
wheels are combined with external brakes on the rear
wheels. Through the division bar, to which the brake
pedal is connected, the effect of expansion of the front
wheel brake drums is neutralized by the opposite effect
of expansion of the drums on the rear wheels. The applied position of the brake pedal therefore hardly
changes as the drums expand, minimizing the possibility
on long steep grades citlier of the brakes seizing or of
being unable to apply the brakes because of heated
drums.
A SECOND consideration in the design and construction
of brakes should be freedom from attention.
One feature contributing toward this is a two-stage
pedal construction which increases the effective travel
of the brake pedal. The rod from the brake pedal to the
division bar is connected to the pedal at two points, one
CADILLAC
CO N S T 11 V C T I O N
of which is nearer the pedal shaft and, naturally, has a
greater leverage than the other. The connections are so
adjusted that, during the first part of the pedal travel—
corresponding to normal use—the brakes are applied
through the connection nearest the pedal shaft, and the
leverage permits application of the brakes with light
The sit
nirclmi
OttUlh
four-wl
foot pressure. When the brake lining has worn so that
the pedal is within a short distance of the toeboard,
the upper connection takes effect and the rate of pedal
travel is reduced.
In addition to making every inch of pedal travel count,
the brakes have been freed from the need of frequent
attention by increasing the life of the brake lining.
The distribution of braking duty among four instead of
two wheels lessens of itself the load on each brake.
Lining wear is proportionately less than with two
brakes alone.
ALL three sets of brakes arc of the flexible-band type, Details
which permits the lining to conform to any slight coimlrm
distortion of the brake drums resulting from heat.
The rear wheel external brakes are essentially the
same as the corresponding brakes on former Cadillac
cars.
The front internal brakes are of the expanding toggle
type similar in principle to previous rear wheel internal
brakes but differing in method of application.
THE STORY
CADILLAC
OF
Careful provision has been made for protecting the
front wheel brakes from the weather. The brake drum
overlaps the edge of the dust shield in an angle-shaped
projection which automatically catches and throws off
any water or dirt which may pass the dust shield.
Connections which are outside the brake drums and
which are exposed to splash from the front wheels are
enclosed.
The rear wheel internal brakes are of the expanding
toggle type. The hole for the inspection and adjustment
of the brakes has been enlarged and a new type of
cover, easily removed and attached, is employed.
Each set of brakes is mechanically operated through
positive pull rod connections. Connections at the front
axle are made through universal joints which allow play
of the springs and movement of the steering spindles.
The brake control mechanism is designed so that
either set of brakes is as effective to retard or prevent
reverse motion of the car as forward motion.
The rear wheel external brake equalizer is suspended
from the frame cross member opposite the front ends
of the rear springs. The location of the equalizer is
such that the rods between it and the rear axle pivot
about approximately the same axis as the rear springs.
Movement of the rear springs accordingly has no effect
on the brake action, the pedal remaining stationary on
the roughest roads. A rocker shaft for the rear wheel
internal brakes is provided on the same cross member
to which the rear wheel external brake equalizer is
attached.
All lever and rocker shaft bearings are provided with
lubricating connections for use with the pressure gun
in the tool equipment.
CONSTRUCTION
fine points of engineering and these precise /'/,<• /«
manufacturing practices converge to a common focus, unulys
which is the behavior of the car in the owner's hands.
They insure, as nothing else can do, great excellence in
two phases of performance, viz.: (1) spirited, flexible,
quiet action of the new Cadillac and (2) rare longevity
of all parts, which guarantees the Cadillac standard of
performance during a long period of use.
You may test the first very readily, as any Cadillac
dealer will be glad to place a car at your command. The
second will be confirmed by a large and very notable
list of Cadillac owners, Avhom Cadillac has served long
and faithfully and whose recognition of Cadillac excellence has made it the leader in an exacting field.
THESE
A separate booklet is devoted to describing
and picturing Cadillac body styles and will
be mailed on request
J . i i M , ' - ' K r, O M
7 - J : i . <Hi. i.-rl.
:'vv >>-::•
cl994.
LIBRARY REFERENCE COPY
NOT TO CIRCULATE
CADILLAC
OPERATOR'S
MANUAL
V-63
PRICE 35 CENTS
CADILLAC MOTOR CAR COMPANY
DETROIT
OPERATION
Copyrighted 1924 By Cadillac Motor Car Co.
Detroit, Mich.
PRINII.I) IN U. S A
I RIESKMA BROS.
DETROIT
1-OL'KTH EDITION
Part I
5
LICENSE DATA
The following information may be found useful in making license application:
Number of cylinders
8
Cylinder bore
3¼ in.
Piston displacement
314 cubic in.
Stroke
5½ in.
Horsepower (N. A. C. C. rating)
31.25
Engine number:
The engine number is stamped on the crank case just back of the righthand block of cylinders, and on the name plate attached to the forward
face of the dash.
The number of each "V-63" engine begins with the figures "63."
Wheelbase:
132 and 138 in.
Tread
56 in
THE THREE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS IN CONNECTION
WITH THE CARE OF THE ENGINE
1. Use of Suitable Oil
The use of Cadillac Engine Oil is recommended (see under "Lubricants'
page 31.)
2. Replacement of Oil
Replace the engine oil at the end of each 500 miles of travel durinj
warm weather and at the end of each 350 miles of travel or once a wee!
during cold weather. (See under "Replace Engine Oil" page 33 anc
"Replace Engine Oil Frequently During Cold Weather," page 34.)
3. Manipulation of Carburetor Enriching Button
Fig. /.
Instruments, Control Levers and Vcdah.
After starting the engine, do not run it with the carburetor enrichinj
button pulled back any longer than is absolutely necessary. (See unde:
"Starting the Engine," page 9.)
6
7
THE USER'S RESPONSIBILITY
The information, advice and instruction contained in this Manual are
furnished because the user of a motor car needs them. But if the user fails
to heed the advice, the loss is not wholly his but partly ours as well.
justment seems necessary and you are not sufficiently acquainted with the
construction of the car to know what adjustment is necessary or how to
make it, don't experiment but take the car to a Cadillac maintenance
station. Maintenance stations operated by Cadillac distributors and dealers
display the official sign illustrated on the cover of this Manual.
A Cadillac car in the hands of an operator who will give it the reasonable consideration to which it is entitled, and which every car requires, will
run as smoothly and as quietly as is possible for any motor car to run. No
car will give greater satisfaction nor will any car stand more abuse. But no
car can be expected to stand continued abuse without showing the results
of it sooner or later.
The most important thing in the care of an automobile is proper lubrication. Part Two of this Manual gives detailed directions regarding lubrication.
We are interested that Cadillac cars render unfailing service and satisfaction. They are built for that purpose but the user must do his part after
the car comes into his possession. The Cadillac is capable of rendering the
best of service and directions are furnished which will guide the user toward
obtaining that service. But if he persists in ignoring these directions,
there is no one but himself upon whom he can rightfully place the responsibility for difficulties which may result.
Before the cars are shipped, the fuel and cooling systems are drained.
When the car is received and before it is placed in use, the supply of gasoline
and water must be replenished. During freezing weather an anti-freezing
solution should be used instead of water. (See under "Anti-Freezing
Solutions," page 23.)
DRIVING AND CARING FOR A MOTOR CAR
Driving an automobile means more than simply starting, steering and
stopping. To drive an automobile properly requires an understanding of
the principles involved and the exercise of intelligence and judgment.
With well designed and correctly built automobiles, probably 95 per
cent of the so-called "troubles" are directly traceable to lack of lubrication,
abuse, carelessness, and a lack of an understanding of the principles involved.
To begin with, the driver should study the construction of his car and
thoroughly acquaint himself with its mechanism, the functions of its various
parts and the "why" of everything connected with it. If he understands
these he is better able to realize why certain things must be done and why
certain other things must not be done, if he is to obtain the most satisfactory
results, the greatest efficiency and the greatest economy, together with durability and long life of the engine and car. Remember that the difference
between a comprehensive understanding of your car and the superficial
knowledge possessed by many drivers is the difference between having
"troubles" and not having them.
On the other hand is frequently found the user who is constantly tinkering with his car when there is no necessity for it. Avoid both extremes. If,
after seeing that all parts are lubricated properly and that all bolts, nuts
and screws are tight, the car is running well, let it alone. Many users drive
their Cadillacs for months without finding an adjustment necessary. If ad-
PLACING A NEW CAR IN RUNNING CONDITION
The car should be lubricated thoroughly in accordance with directions
contained in this Manual. (See under "Lubrication," Part II.)
Filling the Cooling
System
Fill the cooling system with water during warm weather and with a
suitable anti-freezing solution during freezing weather (see under "AntiFreezing Solutions," page 23.) To fill the cooling system proceed as follows:
Make sure that the cylinder drain plugs " E " , Fig. 22, are tightly in
place. Close the water pump drain valves "G". Turn the thermostat
control shaft " B " on each water pump so that the triangular indicator on
the end of the shaft points up. The shaft may be turned in either direction.
There is a drain plug " E " in each cylinder block and a drain valve "G"
and a thermostat control shaft " B " at each water pump. A special wrench
for the drain valves "G" and the thermostat control shafts " B " is included
in the tool equipment of the car.
Remove the radiator filler cap "A" and till the cooling system to within
one inch of the top of the filler. Then add three quarts additional to fill the
condenser which is connected to the radiator overflow pipe. This may be
done by pouring the liquid slowly into the radiator filler or by removing the
filler strainer and pouring the liquid directly into the overflow pipe through
a small funnel. The second method is the shorter.
Screw the radiator filler cap down tightly after replacing it. This is important because the operation of the radiator condenser depends upon a
tight joint at the radiator cap.
8
9
OPERATION
After filling the cooling system turn the thermostat control shafts " B "
so that the triangular indicators point down. These indicators should point
up when filling the cooling system and down at all other times.
Caution:—Do not use water in the cooling system during freezing weather.
Use a good anti-freezing solution. Water will freeze even though the engine
be run continuously.
Filling the Gasoline Tank
The gasoline tank is at the rear of the car. (See Figure 21.) The filler
cap can be removed after loosening the thumb screw.
Filtered gasoline should be used to prevent dirt or water entering the
gasoline system. Only high-grade, reliable filling stations, which supply
filtered gasoline should be patronized.
After filling the tank and screwing on the filler cap, tighten the thumb
screw. This is necessary to prevent leakage of the air pressure by which
gasoline is forced to the carburetor.
Operating a New Car
It is recommended that the operator of a new car refrain from driving it
at its maximum capacity and speed until the car has been driven at least
five hundred miles.
Although the parts of a Cadillac car are machined and ground with the
greatest possible accuracy and fineness of finish, manufacturing processes
cannot give to bearing surfaces the fine polish which results from actual
operation at moderate speed and under light loads.
For this reason, it is advised that a car be driven no faster than twenty
miles per hour for the first two hundred and fifty miles, and no faster than
twenty-five miles per hour for the second two hundred and fifty miles.
TOOL BOX LOCK
A compartment for tools is provided in the right hand dust shield. The
hinged door of the compartment forms a part of the dust shield and is
locked with the switch key. To open the tool box door insert the switch
key and turn the nickel plated handle to the right. Do not attempt to turn
the key in the lock. Insertion of the key unlocks the handle.
STARTING THE ENGINE
1. First make certain that the transmission control lever is in the
neutral position and that the hand brake is applied, (see Figure 1.)
2. If the fuel pressure gauge on the instrument board indicates a
pressure of less than one pound, increase the pressure by means of the hand
air compressor. The handle of the compressor is screwed into place. Loosen it by unscrewing it a few turns in the counter-clockwise direction. After
the pressure has been increased to at least one pound, lock the plunger in
place by holding it in and turning it in the clockwise direction.
3. Place the spark lever about one-third the way down from the
"Advance" position, except in cold winter weather, when it should be at
the "Advance" position. If the engine should be cranked by hand, always
place the spark lever at the "Retard" position. If this precaution is not
observed, a back kick will occur, resulting in personal injury.
4. In extremely cold winter weather, prime the carburetor by placing
the throttle lever at the "Close" position, then pushing the accelerator
button down to the floor and permitting it to return. Twice repeat this
operation. Do not prime the carburetor except in extremely cold weather.
5. Place the throttle lever approximately one-fourth the way down
from the "Close" position.
6. In cold weather, or in warm weather, if the engine has been standing
for some time, pull back the carburetor enriching button.
7. Switch on ignition by moving the ignition switch lever up.
8. Push down on the starter button. This will bring the starter into
operation and will cause the engine to "turn over." (See under "Caution.")
In extremely cold weather, when the car has been standing long enough
to have become thoroughly chilled, it is a good plan to release the clutch
before pressing down on the starter button, and to hold the clutch pedal
down during the cranking operation. If the habit is formed of doing this
regularly one will not be so likely to neglect to do it during cold weather.
9. Immediately the engine commences to run under its own power,
which should be in a few seconds, permit the starter button to return to the
normal position. If the carburetor enriching button is back, push it as far
forward as possible without causing the engine to stop or slow down materially. Push it in as far forward as it goes as soon as the engine is warm
enough to permit it. It is important that the button be left back no longer
than is absolutely necessary.
10
OPERATION
If the engine does not start within thirty seconds, do not continue to
operate the starter, but permit the starter pedal to return to the normal
position and determine the cause. Be certain that the ignition is on,
that there is gasoline in the tank, and sufficient air pressure to force it to
the carburetor. The starter will crank the engine only; ignition and gasoline must be present before it will run.
Caution:—The action which causes the engine to "turn over" is produced
by a gear of the electric starting motor sliding into mesh with teeth on the fly
wheel of the engine. When pushing down on the starter button to throw these
gears into mesh, if it should so happen that they are in just such positions that
the ends of the teeth of the starter gear come against the ends of the teeth of the fly
wheel, instead of the teeth of one sliding between the teeth of the other, do not
use force. Simply permit the starter button to return to the normal position
and then push it down again. In the meantime, the gears ivill probably have
changed their relative positions sufficiently to permit the teeth to mesh.
11
OPERATION
Starting the Car
To start the car, after starting the engine and unlocking the transmission
lock, push down on the left pedal, which is the clutch pedal, thereby releasing the main engine clutch. Be sure the clutch pedal is pushed down
far enough to release the clutch completely. Then disengage the hand
brake by means of the hand lever—still holding the clutch pedal down.
(If the car is standing on a grade it will be necessary to hold it with the
foot brake until ready to start.) Next shift into low gear.
To do so, move the control lever as far to the left as possible and then
pull it back as far as it will go (Fig. 3.) Open the throttle slightly by means
of the accelerator pedal or throttle lever and permit the main clutch to engage gradually, by allowing the pedal to come towards you slowly.
Oil Pressure
Lubricating oil is fed under pressure to the main and connecting rod
bearings of the engine (see under "Engine Lubrication," page 32.) The
pressure of the oil is indicated by the pressure gauge on the instrument
board. (See Fig. 1.)
When the engine is not running, the hand of the oil pressure gauge
should remain at zero, but immediately the engine is started and while it
is in operation, pressure should be indicated. The pressure indicated
depends upon the speed of the engine and the viscosity of the oil.
If at any time while the engine is in operation, the hand of the oil
pressure gauge remains at zero, stop the engine at once and determine the
cause. Serious engine trouble is a result of continuing to run the engine
without oil pressure.
GEAR SHIFTING
Caution: Do not attempt to shift from neutral to any gear,
^,
/^
v
or from one gear to any other without first disengaging the
-''
*-'
main engine clutch by pushing and holding down the clutch
/rp.
pedal (see Figure 1.)
^As the transmission is of the selective type, the operator may shift from any gear to any other gear without
shifting through a third gear.
(^\
~ ,,.
i'r?i
Control Lever
Referring to Fig. 2, the ball at the top of the transPositions.
mission control or gear shifting lever is shown at " N " in
the neutral position, at " L " in the low gear position, at " I " in the intermediate gear position, at " H " in the high gear position, and at "R" in the
reverse gear position.
r
Fig. S.
Neutral to Low
Gear.
(NJ-J
Fig4.
Low Gear to
Intermediate Gear.
If it should so happen that the gears which mesh to make low gear are in
positions such that the ends of the teeth of one gear come against the ends
of the teeth of the other gear instead of the teeth of one sliding between
the teeth of the other, do not force them but return the transmission control
lever to the neutral position, engage the clutch by allowing the clutch pedal
to come towards you, again release the clutch, then shift into low gear as
directed above.
After the car is under way in low gear, release the clutch and shift into
intermediate gear. To do this move the control lever back to the neutral
position, then to the right and push it forward as far as it will go (Fig. 4.)
Then permit the clutch to engage. In shifting from low to intermediate
gear, it is advisable to pause for a moment in the neutral position if there it
a tendency of the gears to clash.
After the car is under way in intermediate gear, shift into high gear.
To do this, simply release the clutch and then pull the control lever straight
back (Fig. 5.) Then permit the clutch to engage.
12
OPERATION
It is possible when starting the car on level ground to shift from low gear
to intermediate gear and from intermediate to high gear at low speeds, and
shifting can be done more quietly than at higher speeds. In starting on an
incline a higher rate of speed must be attained before shifting gears.
Reversing
To start the car backwards, with the control lever in the neutral position, release the clutch, move the control lever to the left and push it forward as far as it will go. Open the throttle slightly by means of the
accelerator pedal or throttle lever and engage the main clutch gradually.
If it should so happen that the transmission gears which mesh to make
reverse are in just such positions that the ends of the teeth of one gear come
against the ends of the teeth of the other gear, do not force them, but return
the transmission control lever to the neutral position, engage the clutch,
again release the clutch and shift into reverse gear as directed.
r-y
®
V
<a>
Fig. 5.
Intermediate Gear
to High Gear.
Shifting
into Lower
U-®
U
O
Fig. 6.
Neutral to Reverse
Gear.
Gear
If, when ascending steep grades or pulling through soft mud roads or
deep sand in high gear, the speed of the car is reduced until the engine labors,
shift into intermediate gear. To do this, release the clutch, then push the
control lever forward as far as it will go. Then engage the clutch. It is best
to allow the car to slow down before making the shift and then, after releasing the clutch, to shift quickly. An experienced driver may find it more
satisfactory to shift from high into intermediate gear in the following
manner:
Release the clutch, return the control lever to the neutral position, engage the clutch, at the same time slightly accelerating the engine; then
release the clutch again, and instantly shift into intermediate gear. Engage
the clutch.
This entire change may be made in less time than it takes to read these
directions by one who becomes familiar with this method. Shifting in this
manner may be accomplished satisfactorily at higher speeds than is possible
OPERATION
1
when shifting in the usual manner. It is not recommended, however, tha
the operator attempt to shift from high to intermediate gear in this manne
until he has considerable experience in shifting in the ordinary way.
Stopping the Car
First close the throttle and then release the engine clutch. Next returi
the transmission control lever to the neutral position. The clutch may thei
be re-engaged. Stop the car by pushing forward on the brake pedal. Afte
the car has been brought to a stop, apply the hand brake by means of th<
hand brake lever.
Stopping the Engine
After stopping the car and applying the hand brake, move the ignitio)
switch lever down.
TILTING HEAD LAMP REFLECTORS
Cadillac headlamps are provided with highly efficient diffusing lense
which deflect and spread out the rays. To provide for deflecting the ray
still further on special occasions when more illumination is desired neare
the car, as in rounding sharp corners and going over the crests of stee]
grades, the reflectors in the headlamps are pivoted so that they can b
tilted. They are controlled by a button on the instrument board (see Fig
1) and are tilted down when the button is pushed forward. To raise th
reflectors for illumination of the distant road pull the button out from th
instrument board.
DRIVING SUGGESTIONS
Rules of the Road
Road and traffic laws vary greatly in different localities. It is, therefore
impossible to set down a complete list of rules which may be followed in al
parts of the country. The following are some of the rules which are universa
in practically all parts of the United States.
In meeting a vehicle going in the opposite direction pass to the right.
In passing a vehicle going in the same direction pass to the left.
Always stop with the right hand side of the car next to the curb. If it i
necessary to turn the car around to do this, it should be done.
Never turn around or turn off onto another road without making abso
lutely certain that there is no other vehicle directly behind you.
Never enter upon street car tracks without making sure that there i
no car directly behind you—no matter how sure you feel, look and see.
Do not cross street car or steam railroad tracks without making certai:
that it is absolutely safe to do so. At any railroad crossing which is on a:
up grade or which for any reason must be approached very slowly, it is
wise precaution to shift to intermediate gear before crossing as the car ca
thereby be accelerated more quickly, if necessary.
14
OPERATION
In crowded traffic do not apply the brakes suddenly unless it is absolutely necessary. It may be that a following vehicle cannot stop as quickly
as you can.
On wet asphalt streets or slippery roads do not apply the brakes suddenly unless it is absolutely necessary. Cadillac four wheel brakes minimize the possibility of skidding under these conditions but their effectiveness
should not induce anyone to drive less carefully.
Always signal vehicles at the rear, before turning. The law requires this
in most cities.
Slow down in passing vehicles going in the opposite direction.
One of the most essential things to remember is that you should never
"take a chance."
Coasting
To coast on the level, close the throttle and then release the main engine
clutch by pushing forward on the left pedal.
When descending grades a good method is to close the throttle and, with
the clutch engaged, allow the engine to do the holding back as much as
possible. This saves much wear on the brake band linings. The resistance
offered by causing the car to drive the engine when "high gear" or "direct
drive" is engaged is usually sufficient to control the speed. When the engine
does not offer sufficient resistance the speed may be checked further by
applying the foot brakes.
When it is necessary to descend a very steep grade it is best to engage the
intermediate or possibly the low speed gear before commenting the descent,
and if the resistance thus obtained is not sufficient, to supplement it by the
foot brakes. Bear in mind that the more the resistance of the engine is
used in coasting the longer the brake band linings will last and the longer
the brakes will retain their adjustment.
Do not switch off the ignition when coasting with the car driving the
engine. This does not appreciably increase the resistance and is liable to
injure the engine. Even with the throttle closed some fuel is admitted to
the cylinders and if this is not burned it condenses on the cylinder walls and
washes off the oil by which the pistons are lubricated. In time a sufficient
quantity of this unburned fuel would find its way into the crankcase to
dilute the oil supply and destroy its lubricating qualities.
DONT'S FOR GENERAL OPERATION
Don't fail to change the engine oil frequently.
Don't fail to push forward the carburetor enriching button as soon after
starting as possible.
OPERATION
15
Don't fill the lubricating system of the engine alone and neglect to lubricate all other parts of the car.
Don't neglect the lubrication of any part of the car.
Don't run the car at sustained high speed when it is new.
Don't permit filling station attendants to remove the strainer in the oil
filler before adding oil. This strainer, which is of fine mesh, is necessary to
insure against dirt or other foreign matter entering with the oil.
Don't allow the clutch to engage suddenly.
Don't prime the carburetor too much.
Don't attempt to shift from neutral to any gear, or from one gear to
another gear without first releasing the clutch.
Don't attempt to shift from the reverse gear to any other gear when the
car is moving.
Don't attempt to shift from any forward gear to the reverse gear when
the car is moving.
Don't attempt to shift from the high gear to the low gear when the cai
is moving.
Don't attempt to shift from the intermediate gear to the low gear when
the car is moving, unless it is moving very slowly. Ordinarily it is best tc
stop the car altogether.
Don't switch off the ignition when coasting with the car driving the engine
Don't push the starter button when the engine is running.
Don't turn the steering gear when the car is standing. This is not onlj
unnecessary but is also bad practice. The front wheels pivot more easily i
they are rotating.
Don't fail to investigate any unusual sound which may develop in th«
car. The car should be inspected at the maintenance station of a Cadilla<
distributor or dealer.
Don't neglect to inspect the level of the acid in the storage battery ever]
500 miles and add distilled water if necessary. (See page 59.)
Don't turn corners at high speed.
Don't neglect to keep the cooling system filled.
Don't drive fast or attempt to stop suddenly on wet pavements.
Don't attempt to start the engine with the switch turned off, withou
air pressure or without gasoline in the tank.
Don't neglect to keep the tires inflated properly.
Don't race the engine when it is not driving the car There is no worse abuse
16
OPERATION
CURTAINS
TIRE AIR PRESSURES
Storage of Curtains
The side curtains for open cars are carried in an envelope provided with
cloth partitions to prevent the curtains from rubbing and chafing. All
curtains are tagged to facilitate attaching.
In the touring car the curtains are stowed under the front seat. In the
phaeton the curtains are stowed in a compartment provided in the back of
the front seat and which opens in the tonneau. The roadster has a parcelcompartment just back of the seat in which the curtains are stowed.
Before the curtains are stowed away they should
be dry and clean.
Curtain Fasteners
The curtains are held in place with fasteners which
become locked on three sides when snapped into place
and must be lifted on the side which is not locked
in order to release them. This side is indicated by
a small projection on the fastener as shown by the
arrow (Figure 7). This type of fastener cannot be
released by lifting it at any other side.
1
OPERATION
For normal driving the following air pressures are recommended fo:
the 33" x 5" tires which are standard on V-63 Cadillac cars.
Body Style
Touring
Phaeton
Roadster
5-passenger Sedans
7-passenger Sedans
2-passenger Coupe
Victoria
5-passenger Coupe
Limousine
Town Brougham
With Driver Only
Rear
Front
45 lbs.
t
i
i
(
t
t
t
t
it
50 lbs.
45 "
45 "
50 "
55 "
45 "
50 "
50 "
55 "
50 "
With Full Load
Rear
Front
45 lbs.
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
((
65 lbs.
60 '
50 '
65 '
70 '
50 '
60 '
60 '
70 '
65 "
Note—Front tires on cars driven at high speeds must be inflated to
more than the pressure recom mended above. This is important.
Fig. 7.
Curtain Fastener
SPEEDOMETER
The speedometer registers the speed at which the car is traveling, the
total number of miles traveled, and the trip mileage. The total mileage
cannot be reset but the trip mileage can be reset to zero.
An automobile repairman should never be permitted to attempt to
adjust or repair the speedometer head or to replace the glass. This work
can be done only by men experienced in speedometer work and only with
special machinery and tools.
If the speedometer head is removed, handle it with the same care that
you would a fine watch. The speedometer head may easily be damaged
by rough handling.
CLOCK
The clock is at the right of the ignition and lighting switch. It has an
eight day movement and is wound and set in the same manner as any
stem winding watch. The winding and setting stem is on the under side of
the clock just back of the instrument board.
Fig. 8
Tire Valve Cap
TIRE VALVE CAPS
The caps which fit over the tire valve stems on
some makes of tires are combination dust and valve
caps. They can be removed or replaced without
screwing the cap the entire length of the thread on
the stem.
To install one of these tire valve caps, place the
cap over the valve stem and turn it a few turns to
the right to engage the thread in the sliding nut
inside the cap. (See Fig. 8.) If the sliding nut is too
far inside the cap to be reached by the valve stem,
shake it down by tapping the bottom of the cap on
some solid object. When the valve stem has been
started in the sliding nut push the cap down as far
as it will go. Turn the cap to the right until it
locks tightly.
To remove a tire valve cap turn'it two or three
turns to the left. This loosens the sliding nut inside
the cap. Next pull the cap up as far as it will go.
Then remove the cap by unscrewing it the rest of
the way.
OPERATION
18
DEMOUNTABLE RIMS
Demounting
Rim with
Tire
Jack up the axle until the wheel is free from the ground. Then remove
the valve cap and the valve stem clamping nut. Loosen the eight rim
clamping nuts with the brace wrench furnished with the tool kit. Turn
each clamp so that the lug is away from the rim and hold it in this position
by tightening the nut slightly with your fingers. Turn the wheel so that
the valve is at the top and pull the bottom of the rim towards you until it clears the wheel. The rim with tire can then be removed by lifting it
straight up.
OPERATION
It
The tire may be removed without removing the rim from the wheel.
Deflate the tire. Then open the lock with the pointed end of the tire tool
or with a screw-driver.
Raise one end of the ring with the tool as shown (Figure 9) until the
lug is clear of the slot in the rim.
Raise the end of the ring further and force the lug out over the edge of
the rim. (Figure 10.)
Start at the end of the ring, which is
out of the groove, and remove the entire
ring from the rim. (Figure 11.) (See note.)
Turn the wheel until the valve stem is
at the top, and pull the lower part of the
tire towards you until it is clear of the
rim. The tire may then be removed from
the rim by lifting it straight up.
Mounting Rim with Tire
If the rim you are mounting has no split clamping ring, take the one
from the rim removed. Turn the wheel so that the hole for the valve stem
is at the top. Hold the rim so that the valve stem is at the top and so that
the rim latch and the clamping ring are towards you. Insert the valve
stem and then push the bottom of the rim into place.
Turn each clamp to its original position and turn the clamping ring so
that the split in the ring comes directly under one of the clamps. Tighten
each clamping nut slightly. Then continue around the wheel, tightening
each nut firmly. Screw on the valve stem'clamping nut and tighten it firmly
against the rim. Thi* <> iinpurliml. Install the valve cap. (See page 17.)
Fig. 11.
Removing Tire from Rim,
Third Position.
Note—In removing the ring from the
rim, care should be taken to avoid opening the ring beyond its elastic limit.
When the ring is free from the rim, the
ends should overlap from J^ to 1J^ inches,
which they will do if the ring has not been
stretched in removal.
If the ends of the ring do not overlap they should be closed together
before replacing. If this is not done there is a possibility of the lock failing to engage the lugs on the ends of the ring. This might later be the
cause of an accident.
If the rim does not run true, mark the part that runs "out" from the face
of the wheel. Then slightly loosen the nuts diametrically opposite this part
and tighten the nuts at the marked part. Proceed in this manner until the
rim does run true.
Removing Tire from Rim
Caution—Do not attempt to remove a tire from a demountable rim without first completely deflating the tire. Serious personal injury may result if
this is attempted.
Fig. n.
Placing Tire on Rim,
First Position.
Placing Tire on
Fig. IS.
Planing Tire on Rim,
Second Position.
Rim
If the demountable rim is on the wheel, jack up the axle and turn the
wheel until the hole for the valve is at the top.
OPERATION
20
Hold the tire so that the valve stem is at the top and insert the valve
stem in the valve stem hole in the rim and wheel. Then push the bottom
of the tire into place.
Fig. 14.
Placing Tire on Rim.
Third Position.
Insert one end of the locking ring in
the slot in the rim. Then with the tool as
a lever, force the tire back far enough to
allow the ring to go on easily. (Figure
12.)
Starting at the end of the ring which
is inserted in the slot in the rim, force the
remainder of the ring into place by using
the tire tool as pliers. (Figure 13.)
Insert the flat end of the tool between
the rim and the ring and turn the tool up
edgewise. (Figure 14.) This will lift the
loose end of the ring and force it into
place.
Draw the ends of the locking ring
together with the tool. (Figure 15.)
Then swing the lock into place.
Then inflate the tire. (See under
"Tire Air Compressor," page 21 and "Tire
Air Pressures," page 17.)
If the demountable rim is not attached
to a wheel, lay the rim with the tire flat
on the ground when removing or replacing a tire.
Fig. 15.
Placing Tire on Rim,
Fourth Position.
OPERATION
21
Care should be exercised not to permit the inner tire to strike the body
of the car when removing or replacing it.
TIRE AIR COMPRESSOR
Using the
Compressor
To inflate a tire, first attach the air hose to the connection projecting
from the left hand dust shield just back of the battery box cover, then connect the other end to the tire valve. Do not connect the hose to the tire
first, if there is air pressure in the tire.
If the engine is running, release the clutch by pushing the left pedal
down. Hold the pedal down until you are certain the transmission gears
have ceased to revolve, and then turn the slotted head of the compressor
control shaft in the clockwise direction (see Figure 1). If the engine is not
running, it is unnecessary to disengage the clutch before bringing the compressor into operation.
Run the engine at a speed of approximately 1,000 revolutions per minute.
With all lights turned off, the ammeter on the instrument board should
indicate approximately thirteen at 1,000 revolutions per minute of the engine.
With the side, tail and speedometer lights turned on, the ammeter should
indicate approximately eleven at this speed. If the portable lamp is also in
use, the ammeter should read approximately ten. The compressor operates
at its most efficient speed at 1,000 revolutions per minute of the engine.
Do not race the engine in operating the compressor, or at any other time,
when it is not driving the car.
To stop the compressor, turn the slotted head of the control shaft in
the counter-clockwise direction.
Caution:—Do not turn the compressor control shaft to bring the compressor
into operation when (he engine is running anil the clutch is engaged.
TIRE HOLDER
The tire holder is designed to carry two standard size tires inflated on
rims.
To remove the tire with rim, remove the cap from the lock at the center
of the clamp and unlock it. Then unscrew the clamp as far as it will go.
The tire then may be removed.
To put a tire on the holder proceed in the reverse manner.
When mounting two tires on the tire holder, the clamping or locking rings
should face each other to prevent theft of the tires by removing them from
the rims. If mounting one tire on the tire holder, the clamping or locking
ring should face to the front or toward the body.
COLD WEATHER SUGGESTIONS
STARTING THE ENGINE
Manipulation of Carburetor Enriching
Button
Pull back the carburetor enriching button before attempting to start the
engine in cold weather, but immediately the engine commences to run under
its own power push the button as far forward as possible without causing the
engine to stop or slow down materially and as far forward as it goes as
soon as the engine is warm enough to permit it.
OPERATION
22
Priming
the
Carburetor
In extremely cold weather, if the engine is not started in 30 seconds with
the carburetor enriching button pulled back, remove the foot from the
starter button. This will stop the cranking operation. Now open and close
the throttle once or twice with the hand throttle or the foot accelerator. Do
not open and close the throttle more than twice. Opening and closing the
throttle operates the throttle pump of the carburetor. This raises the level
of the gasoline in the carburetor, thereby priming it. If the throttle is
opened and closed more than twice, gasoline is forced out of the carburetor.
Position for Spark Lever
Except in extremely cold weather the spark lever should be placed about
one-third the way down from the "Advance" position when starting. In
extremely cold weather, it should be in the "Advance" position when starting.
(If the engine is to be cranked by hand, the spark lever should be placed at
the "Retard" position.)
It is the practice of some drivers to place the spark lever at the "Retard"
position when starting the engine. While this is the proper position for the
spark lever if the engine is to be hand cranked, there is no reason for retarding
the spark when the engine is electrically cranked and starting is facilitated
if the spark lever is advanced. In extremely cold weather there is no reason
why the spark lever cannot be placed in the "Advance" position if the
engine be electrically cranked and a quicker start is assured if this is done.
The following will explain why it is possible to fully advance the spark lever
at such times:
The mixture in a cold engine does not burn as rapidly, nor is there so
much energy in it, as when the engine is warmer and the fuel is better
vaporized. When the engine is cold a large percentage of the heat of each
explosion is instantly dissipated by reason of the cold combustion chambers
and cylinder walls, the result being that an explosion which in a hot engine
would occur early enough and have energy enough to produce a "spark
knock" or "back kick," occurs so much later and is so much less intense,
that neither of these results is produced.
It is best to have the spark lever in the fully advanced position for cold
weather starting for the following reasons:
As explained before, a cold mixture ignites much more slowly than a hot
mixture. A cold, slow-burning mixture, if ignited on top dead center on
account of the spark being in the retarded position, may burn through the
power stroke, through the exhaust stroke and may be still burning in the
combustion chamber when the inlet valve is opened to draw in another
charge. When this happens, the flame sets fire to the incoming charge,
OPERATION
2.-
igniting the mixture in the intake pipe and carburetor, producing a "pop
back" in the carburetor. The possibility of this happening is very much
less if ignition is started earlier by placing the spark lever in the fully advanced position.
Position
for Throttle
Lever
In winter weather the throttle lever should be opened only slightly
for starting. Many drivers make a practice of opening the throttle wide
or nearly so immediately the engine is started and after shifting the transmission into gear. The full suction of each piston through the carburetor
under these conditions causes the auxiliary air valve in the carburetor to
open wide, allowing a large volume of cold air to rush into the carburetor.
The proportion of air to gasoline drawn in under these conditions is
practically the same as when the engine is hotter, but as only a portion of
the gasoline drawn in is vaporized, and as only the vaporized portion burns,
the proportion of air to gasoline burned is greater than when the engine is
warmer, thus producing a "lean" mixture. A "lean" mixture is slow buring, whether it is warm or hot, and a cold "lean" mixture is particularly slow
burning. Thus if the throttle is opened suddenly before the engine is thoroughly warm, the cold "lean" mixture resulting, burns so slowly that a
"pop back" in the carburetor is almost sure to occur.
Use of Starter
Button
Do not press the starter button while the engine is running.
In extremely cold weather, when the car has been standing long enough
to become thoroughly chilled, it is a good plan to release the clutch before
pressing down the starter button and to hold the clutch pedal down during
the cranking operation. If this is not done, the starter is called upon to
turn the jackshaft in the transmission in addition to cranking the engine.
While at ordinary temperatures the additional energy required is almost
negligible, in extremely cold weather the lubricant in the transmission may
offer enough resistance to the transmission gears to increase considerably
the demand upon the battery. If the habit is formed of regularly holding
the clutch pedal down during the cranking operation one will not be so likely
to neglect to do so during cold weather.
ANTI-FREEZING SOLUTIONS
In cold weather a good anti-freezing solution should be used. A solution of commercial glycerine and water is recommended of the correct
proportion for the temperature experienced. The following are the freezing
temperatures of glycerine and water solutions:
OPERATION
24
Glycerine
Water
Freezing Temperature
(Parts by volume)
(Parts by volume)
(degrees Fahr.)
1
3
20°
1
2
12°
1
1
0
°
3
2
—4°
Do not use a solution containing calcium chloride, as it is injurious to
the metal parts of the cooling system.
The radiator condenser also makes it possible to use with safety an antifreezing solution of denatured or wood alcohol and water. The following
are the freezing temperatures of denatured alcohol and water solutions.
Denatured Alcohol
Water
Freezing Temperature
(Parts by volume)
(Parts by volume)
(degrees Fahr.)
1
4
10°
1
3
0°
1
2
—10°
1
1
—25°
It is a good plan to draw out a sample of the solution occasionally and
to test its specific gravity with a hydrometer graduated between the limits
of the foregoing table.
Before filling the cooling system with anti-freezing solution, the condenser
should be drained by removing the plug "R", Fig. 22. If water is left in
the condenser at this time, it may freeze before enough alcohol passes over
from the radiator to lower its freezing temperature.
The capacity of the cooling system exclusive of the condenser, is 5¾
gallons. The condenser should contain an additional three quarts, making a
total of six gallons.
Caution—Do not use water alone in the cooling system during freezing weather.
Use a good anti-freezing solution. Water will freeze even though the engine
be run continuously.
ADDITIONAL COLD WEATHER SUGGESTIONS
OPERATION
2
Frequent Changing of Oil
Water and gasoline may accumulate in the crank case of the engin
during cold weather. It is necessary, therefore, to drain the oil frequentl;
and replace it. (See under "Replace Engine Oil Frequently During CoI<
Weather," page 34.) If water and gasoline are permitted to accumulate ii
the crank case, serious damage to the engine may result.
Strainers in Gasoline System
It may be found necessary to remove the strainers in the gasoline lin<
more frequently during cold weather in order to prevent an accumulatioi
of water at these points which would freeze and prevent the gasoline froir
flowing to the carburetor. (See under "Settling Chambers and Strainers,'
page 50.)
OPERATION OF ENGINE
General
Principle
The production of power by the engine may be described briefly as follows:
Gasoline is forced by air pressure from the tank to the carburetor. At
the carburetor the gasoline is mixed with air in the proper proportion,
forming an explosive vapor or gas. The gas is drawn through the intake
manifold and inlet valves into the cylinders of the engine, where it is compressed and ignited by electric sparks, the pressure of the resulting explosions
producing the power.
The quantity of gas supplied to the engine is regulated by a throttle
valve at the carburetor which is operated by means of the throttle lever
at the steering wheel or by the accelerator button at the right of the brake
pedal.
Four-Cycle
Engine
The engine is of the four-cycle type, that is, there are four movements
or strokes of each piston and two revolutions of the flywheel to complete
each power producing stroke. The four strokes of the cycle each have a
different function and follow one another in the same order as follows:
Starting in Intermediate or High Gear
Starting in intermediate or high gear should not be done at any time,
but this is particularly unfair to a cold engine, as it necessitates a further
opening of the throttle than is necessary when starting on low gear, with
the probability of a "pop back" in the carburetor.
Suction Stroke. The suction stroke commences with the piston at its
highest point in the cylinder and with the inlet and exhaust valves closed.
Immediately the piston starts to descend the inlet valve opens and through
chis valve a charge of gas from the carburetor is drawn into the space above
the piston.
Cold Test of Engine Oil
Use oil having a low cold test. In other words, use oil which flows freely
at low temperature. (See under "Lubricants," page 31.)
Compression Stroke. As the piston starts upward again after completing
the suction stroke, the inlet valve closes. As there is then no escape for the
gas in the cylinder, it is compressed, the maximum compression being reached
when the piston is at the top of its stroke.
OPERATION
26
Power Stroke. At the completion of the compression stroke, the spark
takes place at the spark plug, igniting the compressed charge of gas. The
heat resulting from the rapid combustion causes the pressure of the confined gas to rise almost instantaneously to several times its pressure
before the explosion. This pressure exerted on the piston forces down the
piston and produces the impulse which is transmitted by the connecting
rod to the crankshaft, causing it to rotate.
Exhaust Stroke. Just before the piston reaches the end of the power
stroke, the exhaust valve opens. It remains open as the piston travels
upward again on the exhaust stroke, driving the burned gas out from the
cylinders. By the time the piston has reached its highest point it has forced
out the burned gas and the exhaust valve closes. Having completed the
four strokes, the piston is now ready to draw in a new charge and to repeat
the cycle.
The same cycle of events takes place in all of the cylinders but no two
pistons are at the same point in the cycle at the same time. In the Cadillac
eight cylinder V-type engine, the impulses in the eight cylinders are so
timed that a power stroke is begun every quarter turn of the crankshaft.
In other words, the crankshaft receives four overlapping impulses every
revolution. The order in which the impulses take place is shown in Figure 16.
OPERATION
27
amount of time elapses from the instant the circuit is closed at the ignition
timer until the charge is ignited in the cylinder. While this time is but the
merest fraction of a second, in fact, almost infinitesimal, yet it is time just
the same and must be taken into account when dealing with such a rapidly
acting mechanism as an automobile engine.
The lapse of time required to ignite the charge is always the same regardless of the speed of the engine and pistons. You will realize that when the
engine is running, say 3000 R. P. M., the pistons are traveling many times
as fast as they do when it is running only 300 R. P. M. When the engine
is running 3000 R. P. M., it is necessary therefore to start the ignition process earlier.
In the Cadillac this is accomplished by means of a ring governor located
directly under the ignition timer. As the speed of the engine increases, the
ring in the governor assumes a position more nearly horizontal, forcing the
timer cam slightly ahead on the shaft by which it is driven. This causes
the timer contact points to break earlier, thereby starting the ignition
process earlier in relation to the positions of the pistons. When the engine
slows down, the ring in the governor assumes a position more nearly vertical, forcing the cam back on the shaft by which it is driven, causing the
contact points to break later and thereby starting the ignition process later
in the strokes of the pistons.
Manual Spark Control
The automatic control takes care of the spark position for all ordinary
driving. A spark lever is provided, however, by which the ignition timing
may be still further advanced or retarded.
Ordinarily the spark lever should be carried about one-third the way
down from the "Advance" position. To get the best results, however, it
should be retarded further for extremely low speeds and advanced further for
extremely high speeds. The car should be driven at all times with the greatest possible spark advance permitted by the speed of the engine.
Fig. 16. Firing Order
Automatic Spark Control
When each piston is at its highest position in the cylinder is, of course,
the time when the charge is at its greatest compression, or, in other words,
when the gas is "jammed in the tightest." Ignition occurring exactly at
this instant produces a much more forceful explosion than if it occurred at
a time when the charge was not so tightly compressed.
If the charge were ignited the instant the contact is made in the ignition
timer, regardless of the speed of the engine, the spark could be set permanently in one position and would not require changing. But a certain
Advancing the spark too far for given engine speeds will usually cause a
slight pounding noise, which is sometimes not noticed by the beginner, as
it is usually but slight owing to the substantial character of the crankshaft
and bearings.
When starting the engine, place the spark about one-third the way down
from the "Advance" position, except during extremely cold weather when it
should be placed at the "Advance" position. If the engine should be cranked
by hand, the lever should be placed at the "Retard" position. If this caution
is not observed a "back kick" may occur, probably resulting in personal injury.
28
OPERATION
WINDSHIELD POSITIONS
Open Cars
Under ordinary conditions, sufficient ventilation in the front compartment of the open cars is provided for by the cowl ventilator which is operated by a levei' just in front of the instrument board and at the right of the
steering column. Additional ventilation for warmer weather is provided
for by the adjustable upper and lower sections of the windshield.
To secure greater ventilation by means of the windshield, the lower section of the windshield should be tilted inward. The thumb screws half way
up the windshield standards must be loosened before the lower section can
be moved and should be tightened afterward. If still greater ventilation
is desired, the upper section may be tilted toward the driver. The rubber
strip between the windshield glasses must be removed before either the upper or lower section of the shield is tilted inward.
The normal position of the windshield for inclement weather is with
the upper and lower sections closed, and with the removable rubber strip
between the glasses. If rain or snow should freeze on the glass, making it
impossible to clean it with the windshield wiper, the upper section may be
tilted out at a slight angle. This is known as the "rain vision" position.
Closed Cars
Ventilation in the front compartment of some of the closed cars is provided for by raising the windshield glass which is in one piece. The g'ass
slides up and down and is operated by a knob above the windshield. (See
Fig. 1). The knob should be turned counter-clockwise to raise the glass
and clockwise to lower it.
If only moderate ventilation is desired, the windshield glass should be
raised only a slight amount, so that the lower edge of the glass is still below
the ledge over the instrument board. In this position air is deflected down
behind the instrument board through an opening extending the entire width
of the windshield. If additional ventilation is desired, the windshield glass
should be raised above the level of the ledge over the instrument board.
In this position air enters the compartment direct.
On closed cars which have the windshield in two sections ordinary ventilation is provided by the cowl ventilator as on the open cars. To secure
greater ventilation in these cars the upper edge of the lower section of the
windshield should be tilted outward, leaving the upper section closed.
To
do this, loosen the thumb screws at the sides, lift the handles until the
lower edge clears the weather strip on the cowl, and then push outward.
Tighten the thumb screws when the windshield is in the open position. If
still greater ventilation is desired the lower section of the windshield should
be closed and the upper section tilted outward.
LUBRICATION
i
t
{
i
5
i
Part II
LUBRICATION
30
LUBRICATION
3
LUBRICANTS
IMPORTANCE OF LUBRICATION
There is no one thing which is the primary cause of more trouble and
the cause of more expense in maintenance to the mechanism of an automobile than insufficient lubrication.
All moving parts of the Cadillac car are manufactured with an unusual
degree of accuracy. In order to maintain the splendid running qualities
of the car, it becomes necessary systematically to introduce suitable lubricants between surfaces which move in contact with one another.
It should be borne in mind constantly that where one part moves upon or in
contact with another friction is created. Friction means wear, and the wear wiU
be of the metal itself unless there is oil. The use of too much oil is better than
too little, but just enough is best.
Proper lubrication not only largely prevents the wearing of the parts,
but it makes the car run more easily, consequently with less expense for
fuel and makes its operation easier in every way.
The oiling diagram shown on page 36 indicates the more important
points which require attention. But do not stop at these. Notice the
numerous little places where there are moving parts, such as the yokes on
the ends of various brake rod connections, etc. A few drops of oil on these
occasionally will make them work more smoothly.
Judicious lubrication is one of the greatest essentials to the satisfactory
running and the long life of the motor car. Therefore, lubricate, and lubricate judiciously.
There are many grades of oils. There are none too good. Naturally
we have experimented a great deal with numerous lubricants to determuu
which are best adapted for the various parts of the Cadillac car. It is noi
always an easy matter for users to obtain suitable lubricants. The constant
demand made upon us by Cadillac users has induced us to provide suitable
lubricants which may be obtained from Cadillac distributors or dealers.
Engine Oil
Cadillac Engine Oil is recommended and is supplied in three grades:
light, medium and heavy. If some other oil is preferred our Technical
Department will mail a complete up-to-date list of tested and approved
oils on request.
The oil used should be a filtered one and not an acid or alkali treated oil.
We cannot hold ourselves responsible for damage resulting from the use
of oil not suited to the Cadillac engine.
Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant
Cadillac Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant is recommended for the
rear axle and transmission. In its absence we recommend a mixture of
steam cylinder oil and a small amount of cup grease mixed to such a consistency that the mixture flows easily at temperatures from 60° to 70° Fahrenheit. If necessary to secure easier gear shifting at extremely low temperatures the lubricant can be thinned with the light grade of engine oil.
Gun Grease
Cadillac Roller Bearing and Cup Grease is recommended for use in the
grease gun or, in its absence, number three cup grease.
Distributor Grease
Cadillac Distributor Grease is recommended for the distributor.
Universal Joint Grease
Cadillac Universal Joint Grease is recommended for the universal joints
on the drive shaft or, in its absence, number three fibre grease.
Steering Gear Lubricant
A mixture consisting of seventy-five per cent of Cadillac Rear Axle and
Transmission Lubricant and twenty-five per cent Cadillac Roller Bearing
and Cup Grease or number one cup grease is recommended for the steering
gear.
32
LUBRICATION
ENGINE LUBRICATION
LUBRICATION
aa
When the red ball of the indicator is at "Full" the engine should contain seven quarts of oil.
Lubricating System
The lubrication of the engine is by oil under pressure. A supply of oil
is carried in the oil pan. Oil is drawn from the oil pan by an oil pump and
forced to the main engine bearings.
The connecting rod bearings on the crank shaft are lubricated by oil
from the main bearings forced through holes drilled in the crank shaft. A
hole drilled in the forward end of the crankshaft communicates with a hole
drilled in the crankshaft sprocket through which oil is supplied to the camshaft driving chain. The cylinders are lubricated by oil thrown from the
lower ends of the connecting rods.
The pressure of the oil is regulated by pressure regulator (Figure 17),
containing a valve under spring tension. When the pressure is reached
for which the valve is set, the valve is forced open and the oil overflows
past the valve. A small hole drilled in the regulator housing allows oil to
by-pass the valve when the valve is seated. Oil flowing through the bypass and oil forced past the valve is carried to the camshaft bearings, power
pressure pump in the gasoline system and the camshaft sprockets and
chains through a hole drilled in the camshaft.
There is one gauge and one indicator in the lubricating system. The
pressure gauge is located on the instrument board and indicates the pressure of the oil. The indicator is attached to the upper cover of the crank
case near the carburetor and indicates the level of the oil in the engine.
Filling Lubricating System
An oil level indicator on the engine is for the purpose of indicating when
the supply of engine oil is low and when a sufficient amount has been added.
The indicator is between the cylinder blocks and is under the intake manifold, on the right hand side.
Oil should be added whenever the red ball of the indicator is down to
the line marked "Fill." Do not risk running the engine after the red ball
has reached the line marked "Fill." If, through oversight, the red ball
should reach the line marked "Empty" the engine should be stopped immediately and supplied with oil. The oil filler is just back of the radiator on
the right side. (See Figure 17.)
Use only oil which is suitable (see under "Lubricants," page 31), and
be certain that the oil is free from dirt or lint before pouring it into the
engine.
Fig. 17.
Oil Filler, Pressure Regulator, Level Indicator and Drain Plug.
Replace Engine Oil
At the end of each 500 miles of travel remove the drain plug from the
engine oil pan (see Figure 17). After the oil has drained out replace the plug
and through the oil filler on the housing just back of the fan, add seven
quarts of fresh engine oil (see under "Replace Engine Oil Frequently During
Cold Weather," page 34). A socket wrench with a long handle is supplied
with the tool equipment to facilitate the removal and replacement of the
drain plug.
At the end of the first 1,000 miles of travel, at the end of the next 3,000
miles of travel and at the end of every 4,000 miles of travel thereafter, drain
the oil pan as directed in the preceding paragraph, replace the plug and
through the filler add a mixture consisting of three quarts of kerosene oil
and one quart of engine oil. The mixture must be free from dirt and lint.
Run the engine at a speed of between 600 and 1,000 revolutions per minute
for the period of one minute. Then drain the oil pan, remove it and the
screen from the engine and thoroughly clean the oil pan and screen. Do
not fail to add seven quarts of fresh engine oil after replacing the oil pan.
34
LUBRICATION
After cleaning the lubricating system with a mixture of kerosene and
engine oil it is a good plan to clean the valve and seat of the pressure regulator. The regulator is located just back of the right hand block of cylinders.
The valve can be removed after removing the regulator cover by unscrewing it. It is important also to make certain that the small by-pass hole by
which oil is permitted to escape when the regulator valve is closed, is clean
and free from any obstruction. Do not use waste in cleaning the regulator
valve or its seat. Use cloth free from lint.
Every alternate time the oil pan and baffle plate are removed and cleaned,
it is also recommended that the plugs in the crankpins be removed and the
oil passage-ways cleaned. The car should be taken to a Cadillac distributor
or dealer for this work.
Caution:—Do not fail to replace the engine oil as frequently as suggested.
Replace Engine Oil Frequently During Cold Weather
The mileages given under "Replace Engine Oil" at which engine oil
should be replaced and the oil pan and screen cleaned are those at which
this work should be done during warm weather.
During cold weather water and gasoline may accumulate in the crankcase of the engine. It is necessary, therefore, to drain the oil pan and clean
the oil pan and screen much more frequently than during warm weather.
The frequency with which it is necessary to do this depends very largely
upon the manner in which the car is driven. In cases where the car is driven
short distances only and frequent stops are made so that the engine base
and the oil remain cold it will be necessary to drain the oil pan and to clean
the oil pan and screen much more frequently than in cases where the car
is driven for longer distances with fewer stops, so that the engine base
becomes thoroughly warmed.
If the car is constantly making short trips in cold weather the oil should
be drained every 350 miles of travel or once a week and the oil pan and
screen cleaned once a month.
Unless the oil is drained out and the oil pan and screen are cleaned frequently
in cold weather, serious damage to the engine may result, particularly on cars in
short trip service.
Oil Pressure
The pressure indicated by the oil gauge on the instrument board varies
with the speed and temperature of the engine and the viscosity of the oil.
When the engine is warm and supplied with fresh Cadillac Engine Oil or oil
of approximately the same viscosity, the pressure as indicated by the gauge
should be from five to seven pounds when the engine is idling. (When idling
the engine should run at approximately 300 revolutions per minute, if the
LUBRICATION
3;
throttle stop-screw at the carburetor is properly adjusted.) At highei
speeds a higher pressure should be indicated and at lower speeds, a lowei
pressure. Before the engine has become warm, higher pressures will be
indicated at given speeds. In other words, maximum pressures will b«
indicated at given speeds when the engine is cold and the oil is fresh; minimum pressures, when the engine is hot and the oil becomes thin from use
Practically all engine lubricating oils become less viscous from use even
under normal conditions. Running the engine too long with the carburetoi
enriching button pulled back will cause the oil to be thinned more rapidly
due to the condensation of gasoline from the rich mixture.
Caution
If when starting the engine after replacing the oil it is found that the
pressure gauge does not register pressure, stop the engine immediately and
prime the oil pump. This may be done by disconnecting, at its upper
end, the oil pipe running from the engine around the right hand side of the
dash, and forcing clean engine oil into the pipe. Connect the pipe and
tighten the union before starting the engine.
Do not continue to run the engine if, as a result of low viscosity of the oil,
or other cause, pressure is not indicated on the gauge when the engine is running,
(See under "Replace Engine Oil," page 33.)
GENERAL LUBRICATION
It is manifestly impossible to give exact directions in every instance as
to just how frequently each individual point should be oiled or exactly how
much lubricant should be applied. In the following directions this is given
approximately, based on average use. The numbers refer to Fig. 18.
With the tool equipment of each car is packed a lubrication chart, with
a schedule for the lubrication of the car. This is intended to be hung in
the garage to serve as a reminder.
EVERY 125 MILES
Engine: 28
At every 125 miles, or oftener, determine the quantity of oil in the engine
and add oil if required (see under "Filling Lubricating System," page 32, and
under "Replace Engine Oil," page 33).
EVERY 500 MILES
Grease Gun Connections: G
Points "G" should be lubricated with the grease gun at every 500 miles
of travel. Cadillac Roller Bearing and Cup Grease or No. 3 cup grease is
recommended.
37
LUBRICATION
Springs: 1, 2, 12, 17, 27
It is recommended that the springs be lubricated every 500 miles by
painting the edges and ends of the leaves with engine oil. A small, stiff
brush should be used. After applying the oil, the car should not be washed
until it has been driven far enough to allow the lubricant to work in between
the leaves. Do not open the leaves and insert lubricant.
Replace Engine Oil
Replace the engine oil at the end of every 500 miles of travel. (See under
"Replace Engine Oil" Page 33 and "Replace Engine Oil Frequently During
Cold Weather," page 34.)
Water in Storage Battery: 5
Every five hundred miles inspect the level of the acid in the storage
battery and add distilled water if the level is low. (See under "Adding
Water to Storage Battery," page 59.)
EVERY 1000 MILES
Oil Cups: O
A few drops of engine oil should be applied at points "O" every 1,000
miles.
Universal Joints:
4,20
Fill the forward and rear universal joints on the drive shaft between the
transmission and rear axle with Cadillac Universal Joint Grease every 1,000
miles. A connection is furnished with the grease gun which fits the filling
holes.
The forward joint on some cars is surrounded by a cylindrical shield
shown at 20, Fig. 18, to prevent grease from being thrown upon the under
side of the floor. To fill the joint it is necessary first to detach this shield
from the transmission case and to slide it back over the drive shaft. This
may be done after loosening the two screws which hold the shield and turning the shield through a small arc in a counter-clockwise direction. On
other cars the shield covers only the upper half of the joint and grease can
be injected from underneath without removing the shield.
Fan Driving Clutch: 16
There is a lubricating point in the hub of the rear fan disc just forward
of the shield which encloses the fan spring. On some cars there is a grease
gun connection at this point and on others an oil hole. Lubricant should
be applied at this point every 1000 miles, using Cadillac Roller Bearing
and Cup Grease if the car has a grease gun connection or engine oil if it has
an oil hole. It may be necessary to crank the engine to bring the connection or hole to the top so the lubricant can be applied.
38
LUBRICATION
39
LUBRICATION
Generator Oil Cups: 23, 24
These oil cups conduct lubricant to the forward and rear bearings on
the armature shaft of the motor generator. A few drops of engine oil should
be applied every 1,000 miles.
Valve Stems: 11, 25
Apply engine oil to the valve stems and cam slides every 2,000 miles.
This may be done by lifting the valve compartment covers and inserting
the spout of the oil can.
Oil Holes at Steering Wheel: 6, 7
A few drops of engine oil should be applied at "6" and " 7 " every 1,000
miles. The hole at "6" is in the collar directly above the steering wheel.
The oil hole at " 7 " is at the upper end of the steering column and is closed
by a screw plug, which must be removed before the oil can be applied. Do
not mistake the hole in the collar just below the steering wheel for an oil
hole. This hole is for tightening the collar in assembly and is not drilled
through.
Steering Gear: 10
The steering gear should be lubricated every 2,000 miles by applying the
grease gun to the connection at "A", Pig. 26. Lubricant made by mixing
75 percent of Cadillac Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant with 25 percent of Cadillac Roller Bearing and Cup Grease or No. 1 cup grease is recommended. In order to determine when sufficient grease has been injected, remove the screw plug from the hole in the steering column just below
the steering wheel and inject grease with the gun until it flows from this hole.
Engine Rear Supports: 9, 22
There are felt wicks in the frame brackets to which the engine supports
are bolted. Engine oil should be applied at these points every 1,000 miles
of travel or oftener if necessary.
Speedometer Flexible Drive Shaft
The flexible shaft by which the speedometer is driven is carried in a flexible
casing. The shaft should be removed from the casing and lubricated at the
end of every 2,000 miles of travel. Cadillac Roller Bearing and Cup Grease
is recommended.
Do not under any circumstances attempt to lubricate the speedometer
head. Any parts in the head which require lubrication are amply supplied
when the head is assembled.
Clean Engine Lubricating System
At the end of the first 1,000 miles of travel, at the end of the next 3,000
miles of travel, and at the end of every 4,000 miles of travel thereafter,
clean the lubricating system and the oil pan and screen. (See under "Replace Engine Oil" page 33 and "Replace Engine Oil Frequently During
Cold Weather," page 34.)
EVERY 2000 MILES
Transmission: 21
The transmission should contain sufficient lubricant to bring it up to the
level of the filling hole at the right hand side. The level should be inspected
every 2,000 miles and lubricant added if necessary. Cadillac Rear Axle and
Transmission Lubricant is recommended.
Rear Axle: 18
The rear axle should contain enough lubricant to bring it up to the level
of the filling hole in the rear cover plate. The level should be inspected
every 2,000 miles and lubricant added if necessary. Cadillac Rear Axle and
Transmission Lubricant is recommended.
Timer and Distributor:
26
Every 2,000 miles remove the small breather at the rear of the timerdistributor housing by unscrewing it and pack Cadillac Distributor Grease
around the gears by which the timer and distributor are driven.
EVERY 4000 MILES
Clutch Thrust Bearing: 8
Every 4,000 miles remove the cover plate shown at " 8 . " With the engine
not running reach in and turn the clutch thrust bearing so that the small
filler screw is at the top. Remove the screw with a screw driver. Care
must be exercised not to drop the screw into the clutch case.
A small connection for the grease gun is furnished with the tool kit.
Screw this into the threaded hole from which the filler screw was removed
and attach the grease gun.
Cadillac Roller Bearing and Cup Grease is recommended.
Wheels: 3, 14, 19, 29
Front Brake Trunnions IS, 30
Every 4,000 miles, or every six months if the car is driven but little, all
the wheels should be removed (see under "Wheels" page 64) and the bearings
thoroughly cleaned in either gasoline or kerosene and examined. The
bearings should be lubricated with a thin grease. Cadillac Roller Bearing
and Cup Grease is recommended.
Do not use heavy grease, as it will roll
away from the path of the rollers and will not return.
LUBRICATION
40
ADDITIONAL
In addition to the places specially mentioned, note carefully and oil
all of the small connections and joints throughout the car, such as the various
brake rod connections and joints in the brake mechanism.
Remember that wherever one part moves in contact with another
wear will be reduced to the minimum by lubrication.
l)t> m>l inject ttia iniirh (jrciixc. Before
replacing the wheel be sure and wipe off
any grease appearing around the trunnion bearing.
System
Fill. /•''.
/•'rmil II her! HIIII.I
l.illiricaltiiif
At the end of every 4,000 miles of
cmimriiim. </•><«(/ wind lii-morH. •
travel clean the engine lubricating
system and the oil pan and screen. (See under "Replace Engine Oil" page
33 and "Replace Engine Oil Frequently During Cold Weather," page 34.)
Every alternate time the oil pan and baffle plate are removed and cleaned.
it is also recommended that the plugs in the crankpins be removed and the
oil passage-ways cleaned. The car should be taken to a Cadillac distributor
or dealer for this work.
Horn:
13
The horn is lubricated when assembled and does not require further
lubrication but the commutator of the horn should be inspected every 4,000
miles and cleaned if necessary. To do this remove the motor shell from the
horn. (On cars with the horn mounted on the fanshaft housing, the horn
with bracket must be removed from the engine before t he motor shell can
be removed from the horn). If the commutator appears to be dirty clean
it with a dry cloth. This should be done with the horn motor running so
that the commutator will be cleaned on all sides. Do not attempt to
polish the commutator or brushes with oil or vaseline. These parts are
designed to run dry.
Replace Transmission
Lubricant:
41
Replace Rear Axle Lubricant:
18
At the end of every 4,000 miles of travel remove the drain plug from the
axle and drain out all of the lubricant. Refill with 5 quarts of suitable lubricant.
Cadillac Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant is recommended.
The filler is shown at "18," Fig. 18.
Every 4,000 miles, while the front
wheels are removed for lubricating, the
brake operating trunnions inside the
front wheel brake drums should also
be lubricated by attaching the grease
gun to the connection at "A," Fig. 19.
and injecting grease just until it begins
to appear around the trunnion bearing.
Clean Engine Lubricating
LUBRICATION
21
At the end of every 4,000 miles of travel remove the drain plug from the
under side of the transmission case and drain out all of the lubricant. Refill
with two quarts of suitable lubricant. Cadillac Rear Axle and Transmission
lubricant is recommended. The filler is shown at "21," Fig. 18.
GENERAL CARE
Part III
GENERAL CARE
45
TIRES
Each tire maker publishes a booklet with instructions for care and repair
of tires. Every motorist should provide himself with one of these and
thoroughly familiarize himself with the contents. We give here suggestions
that apply to pneumatic tires in general.
Probably 75% of so-called "tire trouble" is the result of misuse. We
give here some suggestions regarding the more important points of the care
of tires.
Result of Under-Inflation
Under-inflation causes a tire to flatten out under load. This causes the
side walls to bend sharply as the tire revolves. The result is the breaking
of the side walls. An under-inflated tire is susceptible to bruise, broken
cords and blow-out.
Result of Improperly Aligned Front Wheels
Running a car with the front wheels out of alignment causes rapid tread
wear. This usually affects both tires similarly, although sometimes only
one tire is affected. An incorrect adjustment of the front axle parallel rod
or a bent steering arm is responsible for the condition. Unless the wheels
are in proper alignment the treads of the front tires will wear away in a
remarkably short time.
Neglect of Small Cuts
If cuts extending to the cords are neglected deterioration and
blistering of the tire tread is the result. It is unnecessary to remove a tire
to treat small cuts of this nature. Tire companies furnish a plastic compound for filling cuts. This prevents moisture and dirt from getting in. If
a cut is large, it should be vulcanized at once.
Result of Improperly Adjusted Tire Chains
Tires are sometimes badly damaged through the use of tire chains which
are incorrectly adjusted or which are fastened to the spokes of the wheel
holding the chains tightly in place.
The least injury results when chains are applied loosely leaving play
enough to permit them to work around. The wear on the tire is thus distributed evenly. Probably the greatest amount of injury comes from using
chains unnecessarily on paved streets.
Result of Sudden Application of the Brakes
The sudden application of the brakes resulting in sliding the wheels
causes the treads to wear away in spots. A tire will give away very rapidly
under this severe treatment.
GENERAL CARE
46
Additional
Suggestions
The tires are constructed for the purpose of carrying up to certain maximum loads and no more. It should be realized that overloading a car beyond the intended carrying capacity is sure to materially shorten the life of
the tires.
Do not turn corners or run over sharp obstructions, like car tracks, at
a high rate of speed. Such practice is sure to strain or possibly break
the cords, with the result that the further life of the tires will be limited.
Remember that most tire troubles are the result of abuse.
Avoid scraping the tires against the curb and running in ruts. This
kind of wear scrapes off the rubber side wall and exposes the layers of
cords to dirt and moisture, which soon starts to rot the cords.
In turning in a narrow street, avoid striking the curb.
If a tire goes flat without any indication of injury to the tire, see that
the valve is not leaking. A little moisture on the tip will show bubbles if
the air is escaping.
In case of puncture, the car should be stopped at once and the tube
repaired or replaced, or the tire replaced by the extra one. The tire should
also be examined carefully and the cause of the puncture ascertained and
the nail, glass or whatever it may be, should be extracted. Before replacing
the tire on the rim, examine the inside of the casing to see that the cause
of the puncture is not still protruding. It is also advisable to look over the
outside of the tires frequently and take out any pieces of glass or other
particles which may have become imbedded in the casing.
Don't run in ruts or car tracks; the sides of a tire will soon wear out
under such treatment. Avoid large stones or other obstructions in the
road. To hit one of these may break the carcass even though no external
injury be visible.
The garage floor should be kept free from oil or gasoline. The tires on
a car left standing on a grease-covered floor deteriorate quickly, the natural
enemies of rubber being oil and gasoline. These destroy the nature of the
rubber, rendering it soft, so that it cuts and wears away quickly.
If the car is not used during the winter, it is better to remove the tires
from the rims, keeping casings and tubes in a fairly warm atmosphere away
from the light. It will be better to slightly inflate the tubes, as that keeps
them very nearly in the position in which they will be used later on. If the
tires are not removed and the car is stored in a light place, it will be well
to cover the tires to protect them from the strong light, which has a deteriorating effect on rubber.
47
GENERAL CARE
The greatest injury that can be done to tires on a car stored for the
winter is to allow the weight of the car to rest on the tires. The car should
be blocked up, so that no weight is borne by the tires, and the tires should
then be deflated partially. This will relieve the tires of all strain, so that
in the spring they should be practically no worse for the winter's storage.
STORAGE
Engine
To prepare the engine for storage proceed as follows: Start the engine,
cover the radiator and run the engine until it is hot. (See under "Personal
Danger in Running Engine in Closed Garage," page 52.) The engine should
be run at a speed which will show an ammeter reading of about 10 with all
lights switched off. It usually requires from two to ten minutes to heat
up the engine.
After the engine is hot, stop the flow of gasoline to the carburetor by
removing the gasoline tank filler cap, thus relieving the air pressure. Immediately the engine starts to slow down from a "lean mixture" inject
from three to four tablespoonfuls of clean fresh engine oil into the carburetor. This may be done easily after lifting the large polished aluminum cap on the carburetor directly over the air valve. This will stop the
engine. Be certain there is no fire near when the filler cap is removed. Replace and tighten the cap after the engine stops.
Open the compression relief cocks by turning them counter-clockwise.
Put from two to three tablespoonfuls of clean fresh engine oil into each
cylinder and before closing the cocks crank the engine three or four revolutions with the ignition switched off. This will tend to distribute the
oil over the cylinder walls.
If the engine is started again repeat the series of operations given in
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3.
Drain the cooling system. You will find complete directions in this
book under "Draining the Cooling System," page 54.
Storage
Battery
(See under "Preparing Battery for Winter Storage," page 60).
Tires
During winter storage it is best to remove the tires from the rims and
keep the casings and tubes in a fairly warm atmosphere away from the
light. It is best to inflate the tubes slightly after the tires have been removed
to keep the tires in the position in which they are when inflated on the rim.
GENERAL CARE
48
If the tires are not removed from the car, and the car is stored in a light
place, it is best to cover the tires to protect them from strong light, which
has a deteriorating effect on rubber.
The greatest injury that can be done to tires when the car is stored is
to allow the weight of the car to rest on them. If the tires are not removed
the car should be blocked up so that no weight is borne by the tires and the
tires partly deflated.
Body and Top
It is best to put the top up and cover the entire car to protect it from dust.
Taking the Car Out of Storage
When the car is taken out of storage and before the engine is started,
drain the oil from the oil pan, remove and clean the oil pan and baffle plate
and replace the oil with fresh oil. (See under "Replace Engine Oil," page 33.)
The following instructions should be followed carefully in starting the
engine:
Open the compression relief cocks by turning them counter-clockwise
and put from two to three tablespoonfuls of clean fresh engine oil into each
cylinder.
Close the cocks and with the ignition turned off turn the engine over a
few revolutions by hand. This will tend to distribute the oil over the
cylinder walls.
Start the engine in the usual manner.
Immediately the engine starts push the carburetor enriching button as
far forward as possible without causing the engine to stop or slow down materially and open the throttle to a point which causes an ammeter reading
of approximately 10 with all lights switched off. With the engine running
inject from two to three tablespoonfuls of clean fresh engine oil into the carburetor. This may be done after lifting the large polished aluminum cap on
the carburetor directly over the air valve.
Push the carburetor enriching button forward as far as it will go as soon
as the engine is warm enough to permit it.
CARE OF THE FINISH
The finish of an automobile requires more careful and frequent attention when the car is new than when it is older and the varnish is harder.
Particular care should be taken to keep mud from the body and hood of the
car while new.
Never permit mud to remain on the finish over night or long enough to
dry. If it is not possible to wash the car thoroughly before putting it away
GENERAL CARE
49
for the night, flush it off and then thoroughly wash the car the next morning.
Mud permitted to remain on the car until it has dried, is not only difficult
to remove but stains and dulls the finish.
WASHING THE CAR
Use clean water and plenty of it.
Do not use water containing alkali.
In parts of the country where the regular water supply contains alkali use
rain water. Do not use hot, water, as it destroys the lustre. The temperature of the water should be between 40 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Do
not wash the hood while it is hot. The effect on the finish is the same as
washing it with hot water. Unless the hood is allowed to cool before washing, the lustre will soon disappear.
If a hose is used in washing, do not have water pressure greater than will
carry the water 6' beyond the end of the hose. Water under higher pressure
drives the grit and dirt into the varnish. It is best not to use a nozzle.
Start at one of the front wheels, first going over the underside of the
fender, the wheel and the chassis nearby, with water flowing gently from
the hose. This will flush off most of the mud and dirt.
If it is necessary to use soap to remove road oil from the underside of
the fenders or machine oil or grease from the chassis, use a little good automobile soap dissolved in a pail of water and apply the soapy solution with
a sponge. Do not let this soapy solution remain on the finish more than
two or three minutes but immediately wash it off thoroughly with a good
soft carriage sponge. Then proceed to wash the under surfaces of the remaining fenders, the wheels and the remainder of the chassis in a similiar manner.
When the washing of the chassis is completed begin at the front of the
car and with the water running gently from the hose, flow on the body,
hood and upper surfaces of the fenders. This will soften the accumulation
of road dirt and remove most of it. Then go over the car again and remove
all dirt by rubbing lightly with a soft wool sponge, which should be kept
exclusively for the body, hood and upper surfaces of the fenders. At the
same time, apply gently from a hose an abundance of water. Rinse the
sponge frequently in clean water to remove any grit. After the washing
is completed squeeze the sponge as dry as possible and pick up all water
from crevices.
Then thoroughly wet a clean soft chamois, wring it as dry as possible,
and dry the finish. Rinse the chamois and wring it out frequently. Do not
rub the finish or apply more pressure than is necessary to dry off the water.
Water evaporates quickly and leaves the finish in good condition.
If it is desired to chamois the wheels and chassis, wet the parts with
clean water if they have become dry, and then wipe them. Use a separate
50
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GENERAL CARE
chamois for the chassis. Do not use on the body a chamois that has been
used on the chassis or wheels.
Do not use soap, gasoline, kerosene or anything of this nature on the
finish. Such ingredients attack the varnish.
Do not clean the glass with preparations which may contain harmful
ingredients. Use only cleaning compounds which are known to have no
destructive effects on highly polished glass.
GASOLINE SYSTEM
General Description
The supply of gasoline is carried in a tank at the rear of the car and is
forced to the carburetor by air under a pressure of one to two pounds. A
float controlled needle valve in the carburetor maintains the gasoline at
the correct level in the carburetor bowl.
The gasoline pressure is indicated by a gauge on the instrument board
(see Figure 1). A hand air compressor on the instrument board is provided,
by which pressure for starting may be obtained when the car has been
standing long enough to make this necessary. When the engine is running,
pressure is automatically maintained by an air compressor on the engine,
driven by an eccentric on the front end of the cam shaft. An air pressure
relief valve connected in the air line prevents the pressure rising above that
for which the valve is set.
The pipe extending almost to the bottom of the gasoline tank is a continuation of the gasoline line. The air line simply enters the tank at the
top and does not extend into the gasoline.
Filling the Gasoline Tank
The gasoline tank is at the rear of the car. (See Fig. 21.) The filler
cap may be removed after loosening the thumb screw.
Gasoline should be strained through a wire cloth of very fine mesh before
it is poured into the tank. If dirt or water is allowed to enter the gasoline
system it may cause great annoyance by getting under the carburetor inlet
needle and causing the carburetor to flood.
After filling the tank, screw on the filler cap and tighten the thumb
screw. This is necessary to prevent leakage of the air pressure by which
the gasoline is forced to the carburetor.
Settling Chambers and Strainers
There are two settling chambers in the gasoline system, one at the under
side of the gasoline tank and the other attached to the left hand side of the
frame of the car just under the front floor boards.
GENERAL CARE
51
There is a drain plug at the bottom of each of these settling chambers.
Every one thousand miles or oftener the plug in the settling chamber under
the floor boards and the plug in the settling chamber underneath the gasoline tank should be removed to drain the settling chambers of any dirt or
water which has accumulated. Before unscrewing either of the plugs, the
car should be driven out of the garage into the open and the gasoline system
relieved of all air pressure by removing the gasoline filler cap on the tank.
Be sure there is no fire near the car when these plugs are removed.
There are two strainers in the gasoline system which require cleaning
periodically—one at the point where the gasoline feed pipe is attached to
the carburetor, and the other attached to the drain plug in the settling
chamber under the front floor boards. (See Fig. 21.)
PRESSURE GAUGE -
GASOLINE GAUGE
-^==1
HAND AIR COMPRESSOR"'
GASOLINE LINE
FILLER CAP
CARBURETOR
STRAINER
CATCH BASIN —
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
GASOLINE TANK
SETTLING CHAMBER
DRAIN PLUG
SETTLING CHAMBER
AND STRAINER
DRAIN PIPE
POWER AIR COMPRESSOR
Fig. 21. Gasoline System.
The strainers should be removed and cleaned every one thousand miles
or oftener. Remove the filler cap to relieve the air pressure before removing
either strainer. In cold weather it may be found necessary to remove the
strainers more frequently, to prevent an accumulation of water at these
points which would freeze and prevent gasoline from flowing to the carburetor.
CARBURETOR
The carburetor is correctly adjusted when jthe car is assembled and unless
tampered with should not require readjustment. It is unnecessary to change
the adjustment for changes in season and weather.
Good carburetor action cannot be expected until the engine is thoroughly
warmed up. Imperfect carburetor action while the engine is cold does not
indicate that the carburetor requires adjustment.
If adjustment of the carburetor seems to be necessary have it made by
a Cadillac distributor or dealer. The adjustment should not be attempted
by one unfamiliar with it.
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GENERAL CARE
53
Refilling the Cooling System
Personal Danger of Running Engine in Closed Garage
Carbon monoxide, a deadly poisonous gas, is present in the exhaust of
gasoline engines. Increasing the proportion of gasoline to air in the mixture
fed to the engine, in other words, enriching it, increases the amount of
carbon monoxide given off.
The presence of carbon monoxide makes it very dangerous to run the
engine while the car is in a small, closed garage. If the doors and windows
are open the danger is lessened, but it is far safer, particularly if an adjustment of the carburetor is being made, to run the car into the open.
Fill the cooling system with water during warm weather and with a suitable
anti-freezing solution during freezing weather. (See under "Anti-Freezing
Solutions", page 23.) To fill the cooling S3'stem proceed as follows:
Make sure that the cylinder drain plugs "E", Fig. 22, are tightly in place.
Close the water pump drain valves "G". Turn the thermostat control shaft
"B" on each water pump so that the triangular indicator on the end of the
shaft points up. The shaft may be turned in either direction.
Serious personal injury may be caused by the presence of carbon monoxide in a garage if the percentage of it in the air is greater than a very small
fraction of one per cent. Unconsciousness may result without warning.
It is reported that no indication of danger is given by personal discomfort
until too late. Deaths resulting from the presence of carbon monoxide in
garages have been reported.
COOLING SYSTEM
General
Description
The cooling system is of the forced circulation type. Circulation through
each cylinder block is independent of that through the other, two pumpe
being provided.
The temperature of the liquid circulated by the pumps is under thermostatic control, the purpose of which is to permit liquid circulated through
the water jackets of the cylinders to warm up to the temperature at which
the engine operates best, very soon after the engine is started and to prevent
the temperature dropping below this point while the engine is running.
Condenser
A condenser, the purpose of which is to prevent the loss of the cooling
medium by evaporation, is attached to the right hand side of the car frame
and connected by a pipe to the radiator overflow pipe.
The operation of the condenser requires an air tight seal at the radiator
filler cap. To make it possible to screw down and tighten the cap without
injury to the rubber gasket, two metal washers are interposed between the
head of the cap and the gasket. It is important that nothing be installed
on the radiator cap which may cause an air leak or which makes necessary
the elimination of the washers or cutting a hole through the gasket.
Fig. 22. Cooling System
There is a drain plug "E" in each cylinder block and a drain valve "G"
and a thermostat control shaft " B " at each water pump. A special wrench
for the drain valves "G" and the thermostat control shafts " B " is included in
the tool equipment of the car.
Remove the radiator filler cap "A" and fill the cooling system to within
one inch of the top of the filler. Then add three quarts additional to fill the
condenser which is connected to the radiator overflow pipe. This may be
GENERAL CARE
54
done by pouring the liquid slowly into the radiator filler or by removing the
filler strainer and pouring the liquid directly into the overflow pipe through
a small funnel. The second method is the shorter.
Screw the radiator filler cap down tightly after replacing it. This is important because the operation of the radiator condenser depends upon a tight
joint at the radiator cap.
After filling the cooling system turn the thermostat control shafts "B" so
that the triangular indicators point down. These indicators should point up
whenfillingthe cooling system and down at all other times.
Adding Cooling Solution
If only a small amount of cooling solution is necessary to fill the system,
it is necessary only to remove the radiator filler cap and pour in the required
amount.
Screw down the radiator filler cap firmly after replacing it. This is
necessary to insure operation of the condenser.
Draining the Cooling System
To drain the cooling system turn the thermostat control shaft "B,"
Fig. 22, on each water pump so that the triangular indicator on the end of
the shaft points up. The shaft may be turned in either direction. Then
open the drain cock "G" on each water pump and remove the drain plug
"E" on each cylinder block.
To drain the condenser remove the drain plug "R."
GENERAL CARE
55
After the liquid is drained off, refill the cooling system with hot water and
repeat the operations outlined above.
In cleaning the cooling system do not turn the water pump shafts "B"
(Fig. 22) each time the cooling system is drained and refilled. After draining it the first time, leave the shafts with the indicators pointing up until
the cleaning has been completed and the cooling system has been refilled
with fresh liquid. Then turn the shafts so that the indicators point down.
If, in draining the second time, the water is very dirty, it may be desirable to repeat the flushing operation a third time, using a solution of salsoda. If the sal-soda solution is used, be sure that it is drained out and the
system flushed again with clear water.
The sal-soda solution should not be permitted to get onto the finish of
the hood or radiator.
GADILLAG-DELGO ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
General Description
The Cadillac-Delco system is the single wire, single unit system. One
side of the motor, generator, storage battery, lamps, horn and ignition
apparatus is connected to some part of the frame of the car or the engine.
The other connections are made with copper wires or cables.
The motor generator serves both as a generator of current and as an
electric motor for cranking the engine when starting. The principal elements of the motor generator are an armature and a field. There are two
windings on the armature and two in thefield—oneon the armature and
one in the field are used when the motor generator is used as a generator
and the other windings when it is used as a motor.
GENERATION OF CURRENT
Cleaning the Cooling System
The cooling system should be drained and flushed out every two or three
months. This can be done in the following manner:
Run the engine with the radiator covered until the liquid in the cooling
system is boiling hot.
Shut off the engine and immediately drain the cooling system.
If an alcohol anti-freezing solution is drawn off part of it may be used
again if the sediment is allowed to settle. In case it is used the specific
gravity should be tested with a hydrometer, after it has cooled thoroughly.
When the engine is not running and the lights are turned on, the ammeter,
located on the instrument board (see Figure 1) indicates on the "discharge"
side of the dial, the amount of current drawn from the storage battery
for the lights. When the ignition switch is turned on the ammeter indicates
in addition the current used in slowly rotating the armature of the motor
generator. When the starter button is pushed down, the current is no
longer required for slowly rotating the armature of the motor generator.
The ammeter then indicates only the current used for ignition and lights
if turned on. The ammeter does not indicate the amount of current used
in the cranking operation.
GENERAL CARE
56
Before the engine is running fast enough to generate sufficient current
to equal the current demand, the ammeter indicates on the "Discharge"
side the amount of current being drawn from the storage battery. When
the engine has attained a speed sufficient to generate current to more than
equal demand, the ammeter indicates on the "Charge" side the excess
current. This passes to the storage battery and recharges it.
Ordinarily, with all lights switched off, sufficient current is generated to
start recharging the battery when the car is operated in high gear at speeds
from ten to twelve miles per hour and, of course, at much lower speeds
when the car is operated in low or intermediate gear. With all lights turned
on sufficient current is generated to take care of the requirements at speeds
from ten to fifteen miles per hour. At speeds greater than this the surplus
current passes through the storage battery and recharges it. In other words,
the ammeter indicates the rate at which the storage battery is being charged
or discharged.
To determine the total output of the generator turn off all the lights
and add the amount of current used for ignition, i. e., two to three amperes,
to the ammeter reading.
MOTOR GENERATOR COMMUTATORS
Do not put oil on the commutators of the motor generator.
IGNITION SYSTEM
The ignition system embodies the following elements: A source of current, the generator, or at low speeds, the storage battery; an ignition timer,
which interrupts the low tension current at the proper instant to produce
a spark in the high tension circuit; an induction coil, transforming the
primary current of six volts into one of sufficient voltage to jump between
the points of the spark plugs; a condenser, which assists the induction coil
to raise the voltage, and which protects the contact points of the ignition
timer from burning; and a high tension distributor which directs the distribution of the high tension current to the spark plugs in the respective
cylinders.
Spark Plugs
Spark plugs should be clean. When carbon or soot is permitted to collect
on them short circuiting of the current results and prevents the proper
ignition of the charge in the cylinder. A good method of cleaning plugs is
to wash them in alcohol. Use gasoline in the absence of alcohol.
In order to get the best results the points of the spark plugs should be
.023 of an inch apart.
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57
Cleaning Lamp Reflectors
The reflectors of the head and side lamps are plated with pure silver. In
polishing, extreme care must be exercised in selecting materials which will
not scratch it.
Powdered dry rouge and a chamois skin are recommended. If the reflectors are tarnished, moisten the rouge with alcohol, and apply with the
chamois. Then polish with a dry chamois and rouge.
The chamois should be soft and must be free from dust. Do not use a
chamois used for any other purpose.
Lamp
Bulbs
It is recommended that bulbs for the lamps be purchased from a Cadillac
distributor or dealer. In any event bulbs should have the correct voltage
and candle power rating. The following is a table of correct voltages and
candle powers:
Lamps
Voltage
Candle Power
Head
8
21
Side
8
4
Instrument
4
2
Tail
4
2
Stop light
8
21
Back-up light
8
21
Portable
8
4
Dome, enclosed cars
8
4
Quarter, enclosed cars
8
2
Cigar Lighter
The cord which supplies current to the cigar lighter (Fig. 1) is carried on
a reel which is fastened to the front face of the instrument board and which
operates in a manner similar to a curtain roller. The cord may be pulled
out to any desired length and will lock when slowly released. To return the
lighter to its receptacle, pull the cord out slightly and then let it rewind
rapidly. To turn on the current, press the button in the rim of the
lighter. The current can be turned on only when the reel is locked, that is.
when the cord is slack.
Some cars are equipped with a different type of cigar lighter which does
not have the locking feature and the cord must be held taut while the lighter
is in use. On these cars the current is automatically turned on when the
lighter is taken out and turned off when the lighter is returned to its receptacle.
Portable Lamp
The portable lamp is attached to the right hand side of the front face
of the dash. The wire to the lamp is wound upon a reel. The current for
the lamp is controlled by a small switch button near the lamp socket. To
use the lamp lift the right hand side of the engine hood and pull the lamp
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GENERAL CARE
straight out from its socket. To release the reel and return the lamp to its
socket, press in on the switch button, holding it in while the cord is rewound.
STORAGE BATTERY
General
Description
The storage battery consists of three cells. It is carried in a compartment in the left hand dust shield. The cover of this compartment forms a
part of the dust shield and may be removed after turning the nickel-plated
handle to the right. On some cars this handle is fitted with a lock which
must be unlocked by inserting the switch key before the handle can be
turned. Do not attempt to turn the key. Insertion of the key unlocks
the handle.
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GENERAL CARE
The battery is designed especially for the Cadillac-Delco electrical
cranking, lighting and ignition system and is unusually rugged and long
lived. It is made by the Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa.,
whose batteries are known as "Exide" batteries.
The specific gravity of the acid solution in the battery is an indication
of the state of charge. (See under "Hydrometer Syringe," page 60.) In a
fully charged battery the specific gravity should be from 1.270 to 1.290. If
the specific gravity registers from 1.150 to 1.170 it indicates that the battery
is practically discharged. A battery discharged below a specific gravity of
1.150 will not crank the engine nor will it burn the lights to full candlepower when the engine is not running.
Adding Water to Storage
Battery
The acid solution in the battery must always cover the plates and the
level of the acid solution should be kept even with the bottom of the filling
tubes. Water should be added every 500 miles or frequently enough to keep
the level up to this point. Do not mid acid. Usually it will require only a
teaspoonful or so; in hot weather it may require more. Be sure to replace
and tighten the filling plugs after adding water.
To remove a filling plug, turn it as far as possible in the counter-clockwise direction, then lift it straight up. To replace it, set the plug in place and
turn it in the clockwise direction until tight.
If a plug is left out or is loose, acid solution will escape from the cell,
especially when the battery is being charged. If a plug is lost or broken,
obtain a new one and install it as soon as possible.
If one cell regularly requires more water than the others, thus lowering
the specific gravity of the acid solution in that cell, a leaky jar is indicated.
Even a very slow leak will in time result in the loss of all the acid solution
in the cell. A leaky jar should be replaced immediately by a new one.
Fig. 23. Storage Battery, Sectional View.
Caution:—Never run the engine with the storage battery disconnected.
Serious damage to the motor generator may result. Do not remove the motor
generator or attempt any adjustment of the circuit breakers or remove any of
the wires to the circuit breakers, icithout first disconnecting the storage battery.
Water for filling the battery must be pure. Distilled water, melted artificial ice or fresh rain water are suitable for this purpose. If rain water is
used, it should not be allowed to come in contact with any metal. It should
not be caught from a metal roof or in a metal receptacle.
Never keep the water in a metal container, such as a metal bucket or
can. It is best to get a bottle of distilled water from a druggist or from an
ice plant. A quart will last a long time. The whole point is to keep metal
particles out of the battery. Spring water, well water or hydrant water
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GENERAL CARE
from iron pipes generally contains iron and other metals in solution, which
will ultimately cause trouble if used.
Fig. 24- Hydrometer Syringe
Hydrometer
Syringe
A hydrometer (Fig. 24) is an instrument for testing the specific
gravity of a liquid. A hydrometer syringe is a hydrometer specially
designed for convenience in testing the specific gravity of the acid solution
in storage batteries. Hydrometer syringes are not a part of the electrical
system but can be purchased from any "Exide" representative
To test the solution in the storage battery with a hydrometer syringe,
proceed as follows:
Remove the filling plug from the cell to be tested, compress the rubber
bulb of the syringe, and insert the pipette into the solution of the cell.
Hold the syringe as nearly vertical as possible, and gradually lessen the pressure on the bulb until enough of the acid solution is drawn into the syringe
to float the hydrometer. The specific gravity reading is taken on the hydrometer at the surface of the acid solution in the glass barrel.
If the acid solution is below the top of the battery plate, or so low that
it is not possible to draw enough of the solution into the barrel to float the
hydrometer, fill the cell to the proper level (see Fig. 23), by adding pure
water, run the engine until the water has become thoroughly mixed with
the acid solution, and then take the reading as above described. The engine
should run for several hours after water is added before an hydrometer
reading is taken.
Preparing
Battery
for Winter
Storage
When the car is stored for the winter the level of the acid solution should
be even with the bottom of the filling tubes. (See under "Adding Water
to Storage Battery," page 59.) If water is added it should be added just
before the last time the car is used so that it will be thoroughly mixed with
the acid solution. When the car is stored, the specific gravity of the acid
should register from 1.270 to 1.290. In this condition there is no danger
of the acid solution freezing. The specific gravity of water is 1.000 and
water freezes at 32 degrees F. above zero.
Unless the battery is fully charged or nearly so it is probable that the acid
tolution in the battery will freeze and cause extensive damage.
GENERAL CARE
61
The following is a table of the freezing temperatures of sulphuric acid
and water solutions of specific gravities from 1.050 to 1.300.
Specific Gravity
(Hydrometer Reading)
1.050
1.100
1.150
1.164
1.200
1.250
1.275 to 1.300
Freezing Temperature
(Degrees Fahr.)
+27°
+18°
+ 5°
0°
—17°
—61°
—90°
The battery should be charged every two months during the "out of
service" period, by running the engine. If the above is impossible and there
is no garage equipped for charging batteries to which it may be conveniently
sent, the battery may be allowed to stand without charging during the
winter, provided the specific gravity of the acid solution registers from 1.270
to 1.290 at the time the car is laid up. Much better results and longer life
from the battery will be obtained by giving the periodic charges.
The wires of the battery should be disconnected during the "out of
service" period, as a slight leak in the wiring will discharge the battery.
Placing Battery in Service Again
If the battery has received periodic charges it will be unnecessary to
give it any special attention, other than to fill it to the proper height with
distilled water and connect the wires which were disconnected when the
car was stored. After the car has been driven for a number of hours, the
specific gravity of the acid solution should be taken with a hydrometer
syringe. The solution should register from 1.270 to 1.290 if the battery is
fully charged.
A greenish deposit sometimes exists on the terminals of a storage battery which has been stored. This deposit may be removed with a solution
of bicarbonate of soda (common cooking soda) in water. Do not allow any
of this solution to get into the cells of the battery.
If the battery has not been kept charged during the winter, it is advisable
to remove it from the car and give it a fifty-hour charge at a 4-ampere rate,
before putting it into service again. This should be done at a plant equipped to take care of the work.
Sediment
The sediment which gradually accumulates in the bottom of the jars,
should be removed before it reaches the bottom of the plates. The need of
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GENERAL CARE
cleaning may be determined by inspection. Its necessity is indicated by
lack of capacity, excessive evaporation of the acid solution and excessive
heating when charging. If a battery is in need of cleaning or repairs, it is
best to communicate with a Cadillac distributor or dealer or with the nearest
Exide depot, who will advise you where to ship the battery. Do not ship
batteries without receiving instructions.
Exide Depots and Sales Offices
The Electric Storage Battery Company, whose general offices and works
are at Alleghany Avenue and 19th Street, Philadelphia, Pa., has representative stations in towns of any considerable size where battery repair work
is done, as well as sales offices and Exide battery depots in a number of
the larger cities of the country, where complete assembled batteries and
repair parts are carried in stock. For the location of the nearest Exide representative, write the local Cadillac distributor or dealer, or, if preferred,
the Electric Storage Battery Company, at Philadelphia.
TRANSMISSION AND CLUTCH
TRANSMISSION
General
Description
The transmission is in unit with the engine, and is of the selective type
of sliding gear. The gear changes are accomplished by the movement of a
hand lever at the driver's right (see Figure 1, also under "Gear Shifting,"
page 10).
When traveling in high gear, power from the engine is transmitted through
the transmission without passing through any of the transmission gears.
Power is transmitted through transmission gears when the car is operated
in intermediate, low, or reverse gear.
Changes of gear must never be attempted without first disengaging the
clutch by holding down on the clutch pedal.
Lubrication
The transmission case should always contain lubricant enough to bring
the level up to the filler plug in the right-hand side of the case. The level
should be inspected at least every 2,000 miles, and lubricant added if
necessary.
At the end of every 4,000 miles the transmission case should be thoroughly drained and refilled with fresh lubricant.
Cadillac Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant is recommended for the
transmission.
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GENERAL CARE
CLUTCH
General Description
The main clutch is of the multiple disc dry plate type. The driving
discs are covered on both sides with a friction material composed largely
of asbestos, and are driven by gear teeth in a clutch ring bolted to the fly
wheel of the engine.
The driven discs are not covered. These discs are carried on a clutch
hub and drive the clutch hub through keys. The clutch hub in turn drives
the transmission shaft.
When the clutch is engaged by allowing
the clutch pedal to come toward you, the clutch
spring forces all of the discs together.
The resulting friction between the driving
and driven discs drives the transmission shaft
and the car when the transmission control
lever is in other than neutral position.
The clutch pedal should be adjusted occasionally to compensate for wear on the facings
of the clutch discs. This adjustment is explained below under "Adjustment of Clutch
Pedal Clearance."
Adjustment
of Clutch Pedal Clearance
Fig. e5.
Clutch Control.
After the car has been run for some time it may be found that the facings on the clutch discs have become compressed or worn to some extent
and that consequently the clutch pedal strikes the stop screw before the
clutch is fully engaged. When this condition exists a readjustment may be
made as follows:
Remove the pin "T," Fig. 25, and unscrew the yoke "S," which is
threaded on the rod "O," so that when the pin " T " is replaced the clutch
pedal has a movement back and forth of one and one-quarter inches without
starting to release the clutch. Secure the pin " T " with a cotter pin and
tighten the lock nut "R."
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GENERAL CAKE
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GENERAL CARE
being sure that one of the
notches in the washer
fits over the stud "D."
Replace the lock nut
"A" and tighten carefully. Replace the cotter pin.
STEERING GEAR
General
Description
The steering gear is of the worm and sector type. Adjustments are
provided in the steering gear for taking up play, which may result after
long use.
The worm and sector are contained in
a housing, which is bolted to the web of
the side bar, and serves as a container for
lubricant.
Lubrication
The steering gear should be lubricated
every 2,000 miles by applying the grease
gun to the connection at "A", Fig. 26.
Lubricant made by mixing 75 percent of
Cadillac Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant with 25 percent of Cadillac Roller
Bearing and Cup Grease or No. 1 cup
grease is recommended. In order to determine when sufficient grease has been injected, remove the screw plug from the hole in
the steering column just below the steering
wheel and inject grease with the gun until
it flows from this hole.
It is better to adjust
the wheel bearings a
little too loose than
tight. If, after the adjustment is apparently
correct, a notch in the
washer " B " is not diFig. 27. Front Wheel Bearings and Adjusting Nuts.
Over
the
stud
"D," it is best to loosen the adjustment rather than to tighten it.
Fig. 26. Steering Gear Lubrication
Connection
WHEELS
The adjustment of wheel bearings or the removal of wheels should not
be attempted by one unfamiliar with work of this nature. It is recommended
that the car be taken to a Cadillac distributor or dealer for this work.
Removing a Front Wheel
Jack up the axle until the wheel is free from the ground. Remove the
hub cap by unscrewing it. Remove the cotter pin. Remove the lock nut
"A," Fig. 27. Remove the washer " B . " Remove the adjusting nut "C."
The wheel may now be removed.
Before replacing the wheel, see that the bearings are clean and that they
are filled with a thin grease. Be sure that the grease is free from dirt and grit.
Replacing a Front Wheel and Adjusting
rectlv
Bearings
In replacing the wheel, adjust the nut " C " very carefully. (See under
"Caution in Adjusting Wheel Bearings," page 66.) Replace washer " B , "
Removing a Rear Wheel
Remove the hub cap " B " , Fig. 28, by unscrewing it.
Remove the spring locking ring " I . "
Withdraw the axle shaft "K."
Jack up the axle so that the wheel will clear the floor.
With a screw driver or blunt tool straighten the lug of the outer lock
washer " E " which has been bent over the lock nut " D . "
Remove the lock nut " D , " both washers " E " and the adjusting nut " P . "
The wheel can then be taken off.
Replacing a Rear Wheel
and Adjusting Bearings
Before replacing the wheel
see that the bearings ' A " and
"G" are clean and filled with
light grease which is free from
dirt and grit.
In replacing the wheel, set
the adjusting nut " F " very
carefully. (See under "Caution in Adjusting Wheel Bearings.") Before replacing the
lock washers "E," straighten
them or use new ones. Place
both washers in position, re-
Fig. 2S. Sectional View of Rear
Hub, Showing Bearings.
66
GENERAL CARE
versing the outer one with respect to the inner so that the lugs on one
washer are opposite the spaces between the lugs on the other washer,
that is, so that the lugs on the two washers are staggered. Install and
tighten the lock nut "D." Next select that lug on the inner washer which
falls nearest to the center of one of the tlat sides of the adjusting nut and
with a screw driver or other suitable tool bend this lug over the nut. In the
r=ame way bend one of the lugs of the outer washer over one of the flat sides
of the locking nut. In bending the lugs of the locking washers, take care
not to alter the adjustment of the inner nut nor loosen the outer nut.
CAUTION IN ADJUSTING WHEEL BEARINGS
When adjusting the wheel bearings, with which the wheels are equipped,
great care must be exercised not to get them tight. These bearings will
revolve even when adjusted very tightly, but that condition is sure to prove
disastrous. They should be adjusted so that a very slight amount of play
or looseness may be discerned.
67
GENERAL CARE
Adjustment
Provision is made at each brake for its adjustment to compensate for wear
on the brake lining. It is recommended that the car be taken to a Cadillac
distributor or dealer for all brake adjustments. If this is done before the pedal
pad is less than one inch from the toe board when the brakes are fully applied,
no emergency adjustment will be required. In the event, however, that the
adjustment is neglected and as a result the pedal pad touches the toe board
before the brakes are fully applied, an emergency adjustment may be made
by screwing down the adjusting nuts "C", Fig. 29, one or more half-turns. The
nuts "C" lock every half-turn and must be turned a half-turn at a time.
If, after a bearing has been adjusted to a point that is apparently correct, the locking device cannot be placed in position without changing the
adjustment, it is far better to loosen the adjustment until it can be secured
with the locking device than to tighten the bearing adjustment.
General
Description
BRAKES
There are three pairs of brakes: the rear wheel external brakes, the rear
wheel internal brakes, and the front wheel internal brakes. The rear wheel
external brakes and the front wheel brakes are operated by the brake pedal
and are used for regular service. The rear wheel internal brakes are operated
by a hand lever and are used principally for locking the rear wheels when the
car is standing.
The purpose of the front wheel brakes is to add to the braking ability as
much as is consistent with safety. It is not desirable to attempt to secure
the maximum possible braking effect on the front wheels for the reason that
when a front wheel slides without rotating it has no power to change the
direction of the car. The driver of a car with both front wheels locked has
therefore no control over its direction, particularly in rounding slippery corners.
The Cadillac front wheel brakes are accordingly designed so that when the
foot brakes are applied while the steering wheel is turned to right or left, only
the brake on the inner wheel is effective, and the outer wheel is left free to
rotate. This feature also provides that if the brakes are applied with sufficient
pressure to lock both front wheels while moving straight ahead on a slippery
road and the steering wheel is then turned to right or left, the brake on the
outer wheel will automatically release and the wheel will turn freely, giving it
ability to steer the car.
Fig. 29. Hear Wheel Brake* i Wheel Removed)
If adjustment of nuts "C" is not sufficient, a more complete adjustment
should be made as follows:
Loosen the three locking nuts "E", Fig. 29, and screw the two stop
screws "G" and the stop screw "X" away from the brake band. Observe the
clearance between those parts of the brake lining nearest the hexagonal
headed screw "A" and the brake drum. This clearance should be .030-.040 of
68
G E N E R A L CARE
an inch. If the clearance is not correct adjust the screw "A" until it is. The
screw "A" is kept from turning of its own accord by a lock washer which turns
with the screw and locks every half-turn. It must accordingly be turned a
half-turn at a time.
Loosen the locking nut "T" and adjust the nut "B" and the fcrew ; 'X" so
that there is a uniform clearance of .030-.040 of an inch between the lomr part
of the brake lining and the brake drum. To decrease the clearance between the
brake lining and the drum the nut " B " should be turned counter-clockwise
(looking up.
Adjust the nut "C" and the two stop screws "G" so that there is a uniform
clearance of .030-.040 of an inch between the upper part of the brake lining
and the drum.
After m a k i n g t h e foregoing a d j u s t m e n t s so t h a t I here is a uniform clearance of .030-.040 inch between tin- d r u m and t h e lining, check the result by
a p p l y i n g the: b r a k e a n d measuring: t h e travel of the upper end of the lever
"Z."
T h i s t r a v e l should not lie less t h a n J s inch.
If t h e end of t h e lever < - Z " travels less t h a n , 7 S inch in moving from the
released position t o t h e applied position, r e a d j u s t one or all of the n u t s " ( ' "
a n d " B " a n d t h e screws " A , " " f t " a n d " X " to increase t h e clearance slightly, k e e p i n g t lie clearance uniform a t all points a r o u n d t h e d r u m . D o not
fail to t i g h t e n t h e locking nut " T " a n d the locking n u t s " K " when t h e a d j u s t m e n t lias been m a d e .
D o n o t c h a n g e t h e a d j u s t m e n t of t h e screw " S . " T h i s screw is properly
set when t h e car is assembled a n d does not require readjustment in t a k i n g
u p w e a r on t h e lining.
Since the brakes are designed so that the greater proportion of the braking
load is taken by the rear wheel brakes, the rear wheel foot brakes can be
adjusted several times before it is necessary to make any adjustment of the
front wheel brakes. In any event the car should be taken to a Cadillac distributor or dealer and the front wheel brakes adjusted before the limit of
adjustment for the rear wheel foot brakes has been reached.
All joints in the brake connections should be oiled at regular intervals.
The brakes should also be tested occasionally to be sure that they are in
serviceable condition. When the brake band linings have worn so that
further adjustment is impossible they can be renewed.
SNUBBERS
The spring rebound snubbers, of which there are four, one for each of the
front and rear side springs, should be readjusted at the end of the first 1000
miles of travel. This is necessary on account of a slight settling of the springs
and firmer seating of the coils of the snubber belts. The snubbers should
also be lubricated every 4000 miles. Refer to a Cadillac distributor or
dealer regarding adjustment or lubrication of snubbers.
69
INDEX
INDEX
Adjustments—
Page
Bearings, Front Wheel
65
Bearings, Rear Wheel
65
Bearings, Caution in Adjusting Wheel 6(3
Brakes, Rear External (foot)
6"
Clutch Pedal Clearance
6¾
Spark Plugs
50
Cooling S y s t e m —
Anti-Freezing Solutions
Cleaning Cooling System
Condenser, Radiator
Description of Cooling System
Draining Cooling System
Re-filling Cooling System
Air Compressor for Tires
Page
23
54
52
52
54
53
Curtains
16
r,,M,t
2i
Curtain Fasteners
16
Air Pressure lor Tires
!7
Anti-Freezing Solutions
23
Danger of Running Engine
Closed Garage, Personal
Battery, Storage (see Storage B a t tery)
58
Bearings—
Front Wheel Bearings
65
Rear Wheel Bearings
65
Timken Bearings, Caution in Adjusting
60
Brakes—
Description of
66
Rear Wheel Foot Brakes, Adjustment
67
Bulbs, L a m p
57
Carburetor
51
ClutchDescription of
63
Lubrication of Release Ball R a c e . . . 39
Pedal Clearance
63
Clock
16
Coasting
14
Cold Weather Suggestions
Anti-Freezing Solutions
Oil, Frequent Changing of
Priming the Carburetor
Replace Engine Oil
Spark Lever, Position of
Starter Button, Use of
Strainers in Gasoline System
Storage of Car
23
24
21
33
22
23
25
47
in
62
Demountable Rims (see Rims)
18
Diagram, Lubrication
36
Don'ts for General Operation
14
Draining the Cooling System
54
Driving Suggestions
13
Electrical S y s t e m Cigar Lighter
Exide Battery Depots
Generation of Current
Headlamps
Hydrometer Syringe
Ignition System
Portable Lamp
Spark Plugs
Storage Battery
57
62
65
13
60
66
57
56
58
EngineCare of
5
Firing Order
26
Four Cycle, Principle of
25
Lubrication of Engine
32
Number, Engine
5
Operation of Engine
25
Starting Engine in Cold Weather... 21
Stopping Engine
13
Storage, Preparing for
47
Exide Battery Depots
62
Filling Cooling System
53
Filling Lubricating System
32
Finish, Care of
48
C o m m u t a t o r s , Motor Generator... 50
Foot Brakes on Rear Wheels, Adj u s t m e n t of
67
Condenser, Radiator
Four Cycle Engine
52
25
70
INDEX
Front Wheels—
I'age
Bearings, Adjustment
05
Lubrication
30
Removing and Replacing... .04 and 05
Garage. Personal Danger in Running Engine in Closed
52
Gasoline System—
Description of
Filling Gasoline Tank
Settling Chambers
Strainers
50
50
50
50
Gear S h i f t i n g Reversing
Starting Car
Stopping Car
Grease, Gun
Headlamps—
Reflectors, Cleaning
Tilting Reflector Control
10
11
13
31
57
13
Motor Generator—
56
55
Mounting Rim
18
License Data
00
5
Lighting S y s t e m Bulbs, Lamp
Headlamp Reflectors, Tilting
Portable Lamp
Reflectors, Cleaning
Lubrication, General—
Chart, Lubrication
Diagram, General Lubrication
Importance of Lubrication
Oil (see Lubricants)
57
13
57
57
30
36
30
31
Description of Lubricating System..
Filling Lubricating System
Oil Pressure
10 and
Replacing Engine Oil
32
32
34
33
Lubricants—
Engine Oil
31
Rear Axle and Transmission Lubricant
31
Gun Grease
31
Page
13
Page
Storage of Car
47
Strainers in Gasoline System
50
5
Shifting Gears
10
Syringe, Hydrometer
60
Operating a New Car
8
08
Throttle-
Operation of Engine
25
Oil (see Lubricants)
31
Snubbers
SparkAutomatic Spark Control
Lever, Position of Spark
Manual Spark Control
Number, Location of Engine
PartsNew Parts, Ordering
72
Returning Parts
72
Pedals, Clutch
63
Plugs, Spark
56
Portable Lamp
57
Preparing Car for Storage
Pressure—
Oil Pressure
Air Pressure for Tires
47
34
17
Pump—
21
Radiator—
Anti-Freezing Solutions
Draining Radiator
Filling Radiator
Repair Parts
23
54
7
72
Rear Axle—
Bearings, Rear Wheel
65
Brakes
66
Lubrication of Rear Axle
38
Wheel, Removing and Replacing
Rear
65
Rear Wheels—
Lubrication, Engine—
Rules of the Road
Settling Chambers in Gasoline System
50
Tire Air Compressor
Hydrometer Syringe
Page
Commutators
Description of
71
INDEX
Bearings, Adjustment
Lubrication of
Removing and Replacing
65
3¾
65
Reflectors, Cleaning Headlamp
57
Rims, Demountable—
Demounting Rim
Mounting Rim
Placing Tire on Rim
Removing Tire from Rim
18
18
19
18
26
22
27
Spark P l u g s Accumulation of Carbon on
56
Cores, Cleaning
56
Points, Setting
56
Speedometer—
Lubrication of Shaft
39
Repairs to
16
Springs—
Lubrication of Springs
37
StartingCar, Starting
11
Engine, Starting
9
Engine, Starting in Cold Weather.. 21
Failure of Engine to Start
10
Steering Gear—
Lubrication
39 and 64
Stopping—
Car, Stopping
13
Engine, Stopping
13
Storage Battery—
Description of
58
Hydrometer Syringe
60
Sediment
61
Water, Adding
59
Storage, Preparing For
60
Position of Lever in Starting
23
Tilting Headlamp Reflectors
13
TiresAir Compressor for
Air Pressure
Care of Tires
Holder, Tire
Injuries to Tires
Placing Tire on Rim
Removing Tire from Rim
Repairs to Tires
Storage of Tires
Valve Caps
21
17
45
20
45
19
18
72
47
17
Transmission—
Description of
Lubrication of
62
38 and 62
Valve Caps, Tire
17
Washing Car
49
Water, Adding to Storage Battery. 59
Wheels (see Front and Rear Wheels) 64
Wheel Bearings, Caution in Adjusting
66
Windshield Positions
28
REPAIR PARTS
72
REPAIR PARTS
Genuine
Cadillac
Parts
Cadillac owners are cautioned against permitting the use of other than
genuine Cadillac parts in the repair of their cars. The quality of the
Cadillac car is identical with the quality of its component parts, the production of which is based upon more than twenty years of experience in
designing, manufacturing, and inspecting. No other individual or organization has access to the data resulting from this experience nor could they
possibly have the same interest in protecting the owners of Cadillac cars.
Uniform Parts Prices
Cadillac parts are sold at uniform prices throughout the United States
and are not subject to the addition of transportation, excise or other supplementary charges. Printed price lists published by the Cadillac Motor Car
Cimpany are open to inspection by owners at any authorized Cadillac distributor's or dealer's establishment.
Ordering New Partt
With many thousands of Cadillac automobiles in use, it is obviously impractical to deal directly with each Cadillac owner. We cannot open
accounts with any except regular distributors with whom annual contracts
are made.
To avoid unnecessary delay and correspondence new parts should, where
possible, be ordered from the distributor or dealer from whom the car was
purchased or from the nearest Cadillac distributor or dealer, who carries a
large stock and is generally in a position to supply a part immediately. If
he cannot do so, he can order it for you.
Where, however, conditions are such as in our judgment to warrant it,
we will fill orders for parts at current list prices, f. o. b. factory, provided the
order is accompanied by cash. In ordering, send the engine number and
type of the car with an accurate description of the part desired, preferably
accompanied by a sketch with dimensions. If this cannot be done, return
the part tagged properly and with transportation charges prepaid. (See
below under "Returning Parts"). Otherwise, we cannot promise prompt
service or to fill the order intelligently.
Our responsibility ceases in all cases, with delivery to the transportation
company.
Returning Parts
In the event parts are returned, transportation charges must be prepaid
or the parts cannot be accepted. They should be tagged properly with
the name of the owner and the engine number of the car. A letter should
be sent, giving complete instructions regarding the disposition of the parts.
Tires, Speedometer and Clock
In cases of repairs to tires, speedometer, or clocks, correspondence should
be opened with the manufacturers or one of their branches. If necessary
the parts should be sent to them. Transportation charges should be prepaid.
N-2-1—50(H)
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