117 - American Radio History
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Vol.
No.
June,
117
1963
BROADCAST NEWS
published by
RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA
BROADCAST & COMMUNICATIONS PRODUCTS DIVISION, CAMDEN, N. J.
issued quarterly
PRICE
$4.00 for 4 issues
$5.00 for4 issues
in U.S.A.
otside U.S.A.
- - -
C O N T E N T S
Page
INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON
12
.
BASIC TV TAPE RECORDER, TYPE TR -2
RCA EQUIPMENT DISPLAY AT 1963 NAB
.
.
.
WAVE -TV BRINGS LIVE COLOR TO LOUISVILLE
.
.
.
WRVA INSTALLS NEW RADIO FACILITIES
TV TOWER IN GEORGIA IS WORLD'S TALLEST
WRBL -TV OPERATING CHANNEL
3
.
FROM WORLD'S HIGHEST STRUCTURE
WTVM OPERATING CHANNEL 9 FROM WORLD'S HIGHEST STRUCTURE
JACK
LEITCH
RETIRES
Saying
36
50
.
60
64
.
.
68
THE LONG STORY in this issue
are planning new installations. Many of them
is a comprehensive and detailed description
of a station's overall facilities and operations.
We've been doing one or more of these "stories"
per issue ever since the first appeared in BROADCAST NEWS for April 1933 (see Page 68). Our
thought is that such descriptions are of great
usefulness to other station engineers when they
have told us that they keep a permanent file of
these station descriptions. When they get ready
to plan a new installation of their own, they get
out the file and go through it for ideas -both as
to what to do, and what not to do.
Most of these stories, like the installations
themselves, have their genesis in the mind of
the station's chief engineer. In the case of WAVE TV we hardly need say that it was Wilbur Hudson
of BROADCAST
NEWS concerns WAVE -TV, Louisville -especially
its live-color operation. What we call a "long"
As We Were
25
55
.
.
20
story
Copyright I%]
All Rights Referred Trademark(f) ®Registered..Ilarral.l Regi..tradal,)Rarlio Corporation of America
Model of the RCA Exhibit Building now under construction at the World's Fair site. Feature
will be an elaborate color studio feeding programs throughout the Fair area (see note below).
who planned the layout, supervised the installation and arranged for us to get the material in
the story starting on Page 36. Wilbur has been
with WAVE since it went on the air in 1933 -and
he has long been a member of the BFASC Club.
As We Were
Saying
BFASC, for those who don't know, means best friend- and -severest critic. This club, which is very
unofficial, and doesn't even have a membership
roll, is made up of station engineers who, over
the years, have purchased our equipment. Having so qualified as our friends (and how better)
they become, by the rules of the club, entitled to
criticize, ad infinitum. And they do! Happily,
most of this consists of suggestions for modifications, improvements, new features -that can be
incorporated in upcoming models. More often
than not these suggestions are based on day -today operating requirements which the design
engineer- working in an isolated laboratory -may
not fully appreciate. Thus the feedback from the
BFASC helps keep our product line close to field
requirements. So, believe it or not, we like the
SC as well as the BF.
STATUS SYMBOL of the sixties in the studios is
the TK -60. While the engineers still argue the
versus 3- inch -and
whether it takes more
light or less, and where
the controls should be,
and so on far into the
night -the sponsors have
made up their minds.
h
Nowadays when a studio
C
production picture appears in ADVERTISING
AGE, PRINTERS' INK, or
the other ad magazines,
411111"
the camera shown is
most likely to be TK -60.
Producers tell us that clients ask for it, and
stars like to be photographed with it. Best of all,
stations, agencies and reps are featuring it in
their ads (see opposite page). And that doesn't
make us mad at all.
relative merits of
t
2
4Y2 -inch
Thinking about this happy turn of events, we
said to ourselves, "We've got something good
going here -let's push it." So that's why you will
be seeing more ads like the Petry page for
KMTV (see facing page).
And you will be seeing more and more TK -60's
"in the flesh." Like the soaring sixties that the
economists predicted, the TK -60 was a little slow
getting going. But now both the economy and
the TK -60 are rolling. Already there are more
of these deluxe cameras in use in U.S. stations
than any other 4'/2 -inch I.O. camera. All the signs
indicate that the TK -60 will be as preeminent in
the sixties as the TK -11 was in the fifties.
RCA GOES TO THE FAIR will be the feature story
in the next issue of BROADCAST NEWS. The
RCA Exhibit Building (see above), containing an
elaborately equipped color TV studio, has been
designated the Official World's Fair TV Communications Center. From this studio (and an RCA
mobile unit) color TV programs will be fed by a
closed -circuit network to color receivers located in
other exhibits, restaurants, lounges and public
areas throughout the Fair grounds.
The equipment in this World's Fair Studio will
be an engineer's dream come true. And, although
it will hardly be an arrangement that you will go
home and copy, still there will be some ideas
worth considering. You will want to see it in person. But for your advance information we'll
present a complete preview in our next issue.
FOOD FOR THOUGHT department. It's just possible your advertisers will expect to see in your
studios the same, shiny, new equipment they
will see at the Fair.
SEVEN FOR SEVEN is the new score for RCA made satellites. TIROS VII was successfully
launched on June 19, and programmed to supply
photographs of weather conditions during the
forthcoming hurricane season. It joins Tiros VI
which is still operating (see Page 10), on "weather
watch for the world."
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...the Camera, the TK -60!
You'd expect it to be! Wherever TV achievement and
youthful imagination are highlighted, this deluxe
new RCA camera is pretty sure to be at the scene.
IS3
The Most Trusted Name in Television
www.americanradiohistory.com
past year. Some of these proved to be due to
sloppy operating or lack of proper maintenance.
But -somewhat surprisingly -they concluded that
much of the trouble, particularly the pyramiding
kind, resulted from a widespread lack of knowledge as to how to properly monitor color pictures,
what kind of quality to expect from the network,
and how to handle the color signal through the
station.
The color seminars we have been conducting
are planned as a first-step answer to this situation.
They begin with a presentation of what the network puts on the line-especially the test signals
-and how they can be used. Following are
three papers on the handling of the color signal
in the station: first in the terminal equipment,
second in the microwave link, and third in the
transmitter.
We're under no illusion that these seminars
in themselves, solve all of the problems. Nor
even that they provide all the needed information. We do hope they will spur station engineers
into making themselves more expert in this area.
will,
WILL PRINT the papers presented at the
seminars. The material was very detailed, with
numerous slides to illustrate the narratives. Many
engineers attending the seminars asked for reprints. We promised them this. And, since we
think most station engineers will be interested,
we plan to serialize the material in BROADCAST
NEWS. The first part will appear in the next issue.
We think it will be some of the most useful information we have presented in a long time.
WE
Forrest Griswold
IT'S ALL RIGHT LEAVING HERE is the theme song
of
As We Were
Saying
a series of color seminars our engineers
have been conducting during June at locations
throughout the country. The purpose of these
seminars is to bring station engineers up -to -date
on color transmission technology and to provide
them with detailed information on how get-and
keep -a good color signal on the air.
Curiously, the idea for these seminars came
from the receiver people. What happened is that
as color receiver sales became increasingly important to dealers, there were more and more
complaints from these dealers about the quality
and /or consistency of color transmission in some
areas. Usually the stations involved attached the
blame to the network, to the telephone lines, or
to "tape." However, further investigation sometimes located the fault in the local loop, in the
station's microwave or terminal equipment and
sometimes in the transmitter itself. And, of
course, more often than not the trouble was a
successive quality loss from step to step in the
long chain from network studio to home receiver.
But no matter where the fault, one thing was
always the same. Invariably the word down the
line was, "It's all right leaving here."
In the early days of color this situation was
mildly humorous. And the story of the blue
bananas still gets a laugh. But with the money
that's riding on color today, it's no longer very
funny.
about it. RCA and NBC engineers have investigated most of the reports of
poor color that have been received during the
SO WHAT TO DO
4
HONEST INJUN, FELLOWS, we didn't mean to
blur, or slur UHF. What we meant was that the
optical horizon in the cover picture (last issue)
was a little blurred (i.e., not well defined) just
as (like) the elevation "horizon" that more or less
determines UHF coverage is not sharply delineated. In fact we first wrote it about that way.
However, in editing it down we perhaps went
too far -and left a possible ambiguity. Certainly
the amount of space we devoted to UHF -and the
very careful (and we think very fine) treatment
accorded UHF in the lead article by Mr. Peterson
-should leave no doubts as to our true feeling.
WSBT -TV's chief engineer, Scott Hagenau, also
...
record
takes us to task for saying "WBRE -TV's
also includes the first RCA 1KW UHF." He claims
WSBT -TV was first and quotes BROADCAST NEWS
to prove it. That's a hard authority to argue with,
and the book seems to back him up. BROADCAST
NEWS Volume 73 (March -April 1953) carries
stories on WSBT -TV, WSBA -TV and WFPG -TV,
indicating that all of them went on the air with
RCA 1KW UHF's on December 21, 1952. WBRETV, according to the same issue, didn't make it
until December 28, 1952. Okay, Scott?
-The Armchair Engineer
What Station Men are saying about
THE RCA "TRAVELING WAVE" ANTENNA
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At KROC -TV, Rochester, Minn.
Robert W. Cross, Chief Engineer, says:
"During installation and erection of our Travelling
Wave Antenna,
At WI
Greenville, says:
Asheville, President,
with the
Wolfson, well satisfiedPhysical and
was most favorably impressed
with the mechanical simplicity and ease of assembly.
I
Subsequent electrical check -out of the antenna
and its 1300.ft. transmission line proved it to
have the lowest VSWR of any system encountered.
At KGIN -TV, Grand Island, Nebraska
Raymond Taylor, Chief Engineer, says:
D.
"Field strength measurements show that the signal
tar exceeds the predictions of the FCC 50'50
Field Strength Curve. Reports from viewers on the fringe
area substantiate these measurements. The standing
wave ratio is very good and no ghosting is present."
At ì(04M
Pa50' Texas
says'
At KTSM -TV, El
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of
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Favorite Antenna of High-Band Stations!
CH 7
CH 8
CH 9
CH 10 CH 11 CH 12 CH 13
CJAY
KGHL
KLRN
KROC CHCH
KCMT
KSWS
KTSM
KXTV
KOAM WKBT
WAFB
WCBB
KCND CKCO
KCBD KEYC KMSO
KGIN KFVS KOVR
WBAL KNMT KS00
WNAC WMTW WWTV WIS
WPBN WOOD
WLBN WLWA KTVH WGAN
WPTT
KVAR WIBW
WIRF WQAD
WEAT WJZ
WXYZ WXGA
WMEB WLOS
WPRO WOKR
If you want more facts about this VHF High -Band
Antenna, your RCA Broadcast Representative can
help you. Or write RCA Broadcast and Television
Equipment, Building 15.5, Camden, New Jersey.
The Most Trusted Name in Television
a
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TV IN DIEBOLD VUE -MATIC DRIVE -IN
BANKING SYSTEM
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Among the first Vue-Matic installations is this three -position drive -up station at
the Union National Bank in Chicago. Tellers can handle virtually any kind of
Diebold, Inc., is using RCA's TK -202
closed circuit TV camera in a new drive -in
banking system that provides two -way
"hear and see" communications between a
bank customer and a teller, each at separate locations. The Canton, Ohio, banking
and office equipment firm has contracted
for 250 cameras, the largest single order
ever received for this type of equipment.
The system's television link permits the
banking transaction since they have access to central banking records inside the
building. Overhead heaters warm customers when outdoor temperature drops.
drive -in teller to work within the bank's
main business area and the customer's station to be located at a distance from the
bank building. Currency, bankbooks and
other items are exchanged at high speed
via a pneumatic tube.
With conventional drive -in facilities, the
teller mans a self -sufficient station, usually
an extension of the bank building, to
which the customer drives to transact his
6
www.americanradiohistory.com
business. Television communications retain
this face-to -face relationship by electronic
means and, at the same time, provide a
high degree of flexibility in the location of
physical facilities.
Since the customer station contains
within its stainless steel skin all of the
transfer and communications equipment
needed for drive-in service, it may be located apart from the bank building-as
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far as 500 feet away. Some banks have
installed the outdoor unit in a corner of
their parking lot, protecting it from the
weather with a simple shelter.
,,
The system also yields an important
security advantage since the teller is located within the central banking area and
no separate and external currency supply
is required.
1
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The Diebold Vue -Matic banking system
consists of a customer station and a teller
console, each containing a camera and a
TV monitor. The system is so designed
that the bank customer, upon arriving at
the drive-in station, sees himself on the
TV screen. By pressing a signal har, the
customer summons the teller who switches
the "hear and see" system to two -way
operation.
With TV communication established, the
teller presses a button which gives the
customer access to the system's "pneumatic courier" service. This whisks banking
items between the two points at a rate of
25 feet per second.
Inside Union National Bank, three tellers handle drive -in business quickly via "pneumatic courier" tube.
The two -way communications system remains in operation while the transaction
is completed and the banking items returned to the customer. The drive -in station camera is then switched back to the
"see yourself" mode to await the next
customer. At Vue -Matic installations, the
"see yourself on TV" feature has proven to
be a prime entertainment attraction, particularly for children accompanying a
parent to the bank.
The TK -202 cameras used at outdoor
locations include automatic sensitivity control to maintain a uniform camera signal
over a wide range of lighting conditions.
Diagram (below) illustrates how closed circuit TV
and pneumatic tube link drive -in location to bank.
Electronic tete -a -tete takes place at drive -in station as customer prepares to make a deposit.
Close -up of teller position shows clear image of
drive -in customer as it appears on 17 -inch screen.
7
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AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND USING COLOR TV AS MANAGEMENT TOOL
The Armed Forces are counted among
the innovators in the use of television. Military men have been quick to grasp TV's
potential, and to make the most of it for
both tactical and non- tactical applications.
A
current and striking illustration is the
Air Force System Command's decision to
a
full color
use closed circuit TV
-in
-as
management reporting and communications
tool. In doing so, its objective is to expedite the administration of some of the
nation's most vital weapons systems which
fall within the AFSC's responsibility.
Recently the Command began operation
of its third color TV installation and, according to Lieut. Col. Maynard Y. Binge,
Chief of its Command Management Center, is building a closed circuit network
Two RCA
TK -41C
color cameras are trained on lecturer in taping session at Andrews Air Force Base.
that ultimately will link nine of its divisions
and centers with AFSC Headquarters at
Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland.
Color television equipment, which was
supplied by the RCA Broadcast and Communications Products Division, includes, at
each location, two TK -41C color TV cameras, a TK -26 color film chain, a TRT -IB
TV tape recorder with color rack and a full
range of control and switching gear. The
Andrews AFB installation also includes a
transistorized TR -22 TV tape recorder.
Air Force staff group in briefing room views televised report on
Andrews AFB video tape recording facilities include RCA
8
TRT -113
a
Command project at distant base.
and
a
transistorized
TR
-22 shown here.
Colonel Binge said the AFSC chose color
facilities rather than black- and -white on
the basis of many TV industry studies
and other evidence that programs in color
have at least three times greater impression value than those in monochrome. "In
an age of aerospace technology and weapons systems, where men must absorb and
remember an ever -increasing amount of
information, we need the most effective
management tools available, and color TV
certainly is among them, he commented.
Closed circuit equipment is now in opera ion at Andrews AFB, at the Space Systems
Division in Inglewood, Calif., and at the
Air Force Missile Test Center at Patrick
AF Base near Cape Canaveral, Fla. For
the present it is used chiefly to tape record
briefings and status reports on key weapons systems under AFSC control. Thus a
full -dress briefing, complete with charts,
graphs and even some military "hardware"
items, can be presented before TV cameras on the West Coast and tape -recorded
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in full color. Tapes are air shipped overnight to AFSC Headquarters for viewing
and evaluation the next morning. This
makes it possible for General Bernard A.
Schriever, AFSC Commander, and his staff
to see and hear a detailed, up-to- the -minute
status report on a Command problem, and
sets the stage for a prompt decision.
Besides creating a stronger impression,
color gives the TV briefer more flexibility
in his presentation and helps to keep interest high during long or complicated briefings. Television reports on tape also permit engineering and other skilled personnel
at distant locations to remain on the job,
thereby saving the time and money required to transport them and their materials to the briefing audience.
On some occasions, one officer may accompany the tape to answer questions that
arise during playback and to provide additional information. On others, a "secure"
telephone circuit may connect headquarters
and the field installation while the briefing
is on the screen. Another advantage of
a briefing on tape is the availability of the
tape for repeat playbacks at a time convenient to key staff officers and others not
able to witness the first presentation.
Control room scene shows array of professional switching and other gear used in Andrews' CCTV system.
At some future time, AFSC plans to
operate its closed- circuit network on a "real
time" basis which, in military terminology,
means the ability to communicate about
events as they occur. Thus, most AFSC
locations would be connected by secure
video and audio links and participants in
a "live" conference would be able to hear
and see each other. AFSC also expects to
obtain mobile TV equipment for the Air
Force Missile Test Center so that cameras
can roll to vantage points near the launch
area and cover missile shots on both a
"live" and tape- recorded basis.
EUROPEANS WATCHED IT 'LIVE' VIA RELAY SATELLITE
Millions of viewers in Europe and North
America watched "live" television coverage April 9 as President Kennedy conferred honorary U.S. citizenship on Sir
Winston Churchill. The British leader himself was at a TV set in London as pictures
of the ceremony were carried abroad via
the Relay satellite, built by RCA for the
National Aeronautics and Space Agency.
monitor photograph of White House garden ceremony honoring Sir Winston Churchill was made
from NBC -TV's coverage which was bounced off Relay satellite. Signal also went to Europe via Relay.
TV
The 3 p.m. White House ceremony had
been rescheduled from 4:30 p.m. to coincide with a relatively short period of
mutual visibility on Relay's 910th revolution. TV signals were sent by conventional
video circuits to the A.T. & T. ground
station at Andover, Maine, and thence to
the satellite some 4,000 miles in space.
Relay passed the signals onward to a
ground station in England where the pro gram was fed to networks there and on the
Continent. This marked the first time an
Iron Curtain country had accepted a U.S.
'l'V program beamed by satellite. Since
Relay was launched December 13 it has
been used for more than 500 scientific experiments and demonstrations.
9
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TIROS MAY `WHEEL' IN SPACE
new TIROS would employ a "wheel con-
figuration" design. In effect, the present
hatbox- shaped satellite would be turned
on its side and made to roll endlessly
through the sky, snapping pictures of the
earth. It would be launched in a polar orbit,
meaning that every area of the world
would be photographed at least once a day.
Its two TV cameras, instead of looking
downward through the flat base -plate as
presently (parallel to the spin axis), would
be located sideways on the base- plate,
looking outward from the rim in opposite
directions (thus being at right- angles to
the spin axis).
As the satellite rolls along its orbit,
A new concept in the design of the famed
TIROS "weather eye" satellite, to provide
continuous picture- taking of the earth and
its cloud cover, will be developed by RCA
under a study contract from the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration. The
1
BALLOON- BORNE EYE
SCANS PLANET MARS
The huge balloon shown here soared to
the edge of space last March 1, carrying
a 36 -inch telescope which was aimed at
the planet Mars by a complex television
pointing system on the ground. The unmanned flight produced TV pictures of
Mars' infrared spectra which are being
studied to determine if there is enough
water on the planet to sustain life.
The remarkable ascension was carried
out by Princeton University scientists at
the National Center for Atmospheric Research at Palestine, Texas. The TV aiming
system was designed and built at RCA's
David Sarnoff Research Center. It was a
second triumph for Princeton which in
1959 sent up the first balloon -borne telescope, also aimed by an RCA TV system,
which resulted in excellent pictures of
sun spots.
Two television cameras were used, both
incorporating special image orthicons that
are at least ten times as sensitive at low
light levels as conventional I.O. tubes.
10
at
revolutions per minute, its cameras
would take a picture of the earth below
every three seconds, the intervals being
spaced to avoid excessive overlap of the
photographs. Each picture would be stored
on magnetic tape, to be read out on command when the satellite came within range
of a ground station. Pictures taken within
range of the ground installation could be
read out immediately.
12
:,
The new TIROS would use the same
type of wide -angle camera as earlier
TIROS satellites. This employs a half -inch
vidicon tube, enabling the camera to photograph 500,000 square miles of the earth's
surface with each picture.
The advantage of the wheel -design is
that it permits the television cameras to
look earthward throughout its orbit. The
present TIROS satellites can "see" the
earth only about one -fourth of the time
because the spacecraft cannot keep its base
facing toward earth. As it orbits the earth,
its position remains constant and eventually the cameras lose ground contact and
stare into space.
With the launching of TIROS VII on
June 19, NASA's record was seven weather
satellites orbited in seven trys. Since April
1,
1960, when the series began, the RCA -
built satellites have sent back more than
230,000 pictures of cloud cover, snow and
ice conditions, storms and other meteorological data. TIROS VI, launched last
September, was still operational when we
went to press. It was used for weather
observations for both the Cooper and
Schirra space flights in Mercury capsules.
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SOME FISH HAVE A TV CAMERA RIGHT IN THE LIVING ROOM
tem aboard ship, helps scientists of the
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to develop
information on fish behavior, abundance
and distribution and on other matters of
vital concern to the nation's commercial
fishermen. Three other cameras, operated
from fixed positions aboard the Albatross
IV, provide visual communications and
help to insure the safety of the ship's complement of 16 scientists and 22 officers
and crew.
Wheelhouse control console brings in pickup from
any of shipboard system's four television cameras.
The Albatross IV is a 187 -foot vessel
equipped for deep sea fishing, but her
"catch" is more likely to be TV pictures
than a mess of mackerel. This is not hard
to fathom, for the $2,000,000 ship is assigned to fisheries research by the federal
government and uses underwater television
for candid studies of life in fishdom.
The underwater camera, which is part
of an RCA -supplied closed circuit TV sys-
A unique feature of the system is a low
power TV transmitter which is used to
broadcast pictures produced by the cameras to portable receivers on the vessel's
weather decks. The Monitran transmitter
is controlled from a console in the ship's
wheelhouse where the operator selects
which of the cameras to put "on the air."
The pictures also may be received on six
wired -in video monitors, including one at
the control console.
For underwater observation, the TV
camera is encased in a special waterproof
housing and mounted at the axle position
of a wheel -like metal frame. The camera,
with its cable connection to the ship, goes
overboard inside a large trawling net. In
earlier studies using television, government
scientists have observed pictures from the
towed net and its catch continuously for
as long as three hours. A permanent pictorial record sometimes is made by photographing a monitor screen with a still
This view of Albatross IV shows two TV cameras in weatherproof
housings on crossarms of research vessel's fore and aft masts.
camera or with a motion picture camera
modified to operate at the television scanning rate of 30 frames a second.
The television camera adapted for the
Albatross IV's underwater probes is a
standard RCA industrial type (TK -202)
using a vidicon of high sensitivity. While
the vidicon performs satisfactorily with a
relatively low level of light, some underwater observations require more illumination. In such cases, a 1000 -watt diver's
lamp usually is used.
The system's three shipboard cameras
are enclosed in weather -proof housings
which are heated and cooled under thermostatic control to keep them operative under
all types of weather conditions. A windshield wiper on the housing's glass face assures the camera lens a clear view in storms
or sea spray. Two of the cameras are positioned high on the ship's masts and cover
fore and aft decks. One of them is trained
on the remotely -controlled main winch,
enabling the winch operator to make certain the area is free of ship's personnel
before the winch is started. The aft camera, which can be panned and tilted remotely from the wheelhouse, overlooks the
fishing deck, allowing the officer on the
bridge to keep track of operations there
without leaving his station. The system's
third camera is trained forward, giving
those in the after part of the ship a view
from the bow.
Better than a home fishtank is this TV monitor view of haddock
family caught by underwater camera as it swims in the Atlantic.
11
www.americanradiohistory.com
After
months of study, including visits to
other Instructional Television centers by
faculty members, the University of Akron,
on May 19, 1960, announced its intention
to enter the field of education through television. This decision was made to help
solve, in part, the problem of securing
enough qualified instructors to adequately
handle the constantly increasing number
of students enrolling at the university.
On May 31 the Fund for the Advancement of Education provided a grant to be
used for the released time of two faculty
members in order that they might carefully prepare to teach courses through educational television for a period of three
years. Involved where three required introductory courses: Two in "Effective Speaking" and one in "Reasoning and Understanding in Science."
Additional money for the operation was
made available from special funds and did
not come from tax monies or student fees.
An initial investment of $64,283 purchased
production, transmission, distribution, and
reception equipment. The TV Center, including control room and studio, thanks to
the foresight of the university administration, had been built into a new campus
building (Kolbe Hall) approximately eight
years before. This future Instructional
Television Center functioned as an auxiliary radio studio and conference classroom
until June, 1960, when orders were finally
placed for equipment.
Equipment and Facilities
The major equipment items and supporting services include:
RCA dual TK -15 vidicon camera system with output amplifiers, power supplies, master monitors, lenses, camera
cables, tripods, tripod dollies and other
related items.
2. One RCA TK -21 vidicon film camera
chain including multiplexer, two 16mm
film projectors with pedestals, RCA
TP -7 dual drum slide projector, automatic sensitivity and remote controls
and related components.
3. One RCA TG -2 sync generator, TS -5
switcher-fader, TA -3 distribution amplifier, four TS -2 video switchers, equipment racks and other items such as
three TM-41 monitrans and a Conrac
VHF off -air tuner.
1.
FIG.
1.
Dr. Louis Ross
teaching Algebra
-
Trigonometry to a freshman class. This is
distributed among four classroom buildings.
A University of Akron engineering student
is operating the RCA TK-15 camera.
12
INSTRUCTIONAL
TELEVISION
AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF AKRON
Features Talk -Back Circuits, Instantaneous
Reporting of Student Response
and Computer Calculation of Grades
by K.
F.
SIBILA,
and W.
Head, Department of Electrical Engineering
M A V R D E S, Director of Television
I
4. An
independent air-conditioning system
was installed and designed in such a
way that the existing blower system
could be utilized. A single compressor
and refrigerating unit was arranged so
that it could efficiently accommodate
both FM radio studios and the TV
Center.
(This is a partial inventory but more
detailed information follows.)
By January, 1961, the Instructional
Television Center was operating eleven
hours per week and offering five required
large -enrollment General Studies credit
courses to almost 1600 class registrants. In
less than six months the University of
Akron had developed the second largest
application of the TV medium to instruction in the state of Ohio. During the Fall
semester, 1962, almost 3600 class registrants were receiving all or part of nine
required credit courses by TV, which involved a total of 20 hours of "live" television instruction per week.
Planning
It might be useful for those
contemplating the use of television for instruction if procedures followed by the
University of Akron are listed in order of
importance, as well as occurence:
1.
Birds -eye view of the University of Akron's Kolbe Hall which
houses the Instructional Television Center, WAUP -FM's studios, transmitter
and antenna. the electronic language laboratory, and University Theatre.
FIG. 2.
who are
May, 1960: Decision announced by university officials to incorporate TV as a
permanent part of its educational facilities.
Addition to the faculty of an academically qualified and professionally
experienced Director of Television.
2.
3.
June, 1960: Responsibility and authority delegated to the Head of the Electrical Engineering Department for designing and installing the TV layout
including production and distribution
facilities, etc.
June, 1960- January, 1961: TV instructors worked with Director of Television
in preparation for the transition to
instruction through television.
Professor John Popplestone lecturing on Learning Theory to 800 General Psychology students distributed throughout four buildings and nine TV viewing classrooms.
TIC-15 cameras and microphone boom operated by University of Akron student employees.
FIG. 3.
4. September -December, 1960: Equipment
began arriving and installation by engineering students, under close supervision of the Head of the Department
of Electrical Engineering was begun.
The Director of Television made recommendations in line with his particular
programming-production needs.
A full -time Technical Director was
retained whose duties would include all
preventive and operational maintenance
of television equipment. He also (having
a first-class F.C.C. Radio -Telephone
Operator's license) would serve as Chief
Operator of Akron University's proposed radio station, WAUP-FM (which
began operating in December, 1962).
5. December, 1960: A successful series of
interview programs, originating in the
TV Center, were "piped" by co -axial
cable to the remote truck of a local
commercial TV station (WAKR) for
integration with their telecasts of campus-originated basketball games.
6. January, 1961: Dedication activities,
which included on campus closed- circuit
TV demonstrations as well as production and presentation of a live one -hour
program which was relayed from the TV
Center, via telephone line, to WAKRTV for telecasting to the Akron, Ohio,
community.
7. February, 1961: Formal instructional
television began.
13
General Construction
Construction on the closed-circuit television installation began in the empty
control and studio rooms, the floor plans
for which are shown in Fig. 4. This sketch
shows the lighting grid, and air conditioning ducts.
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Installation work of the entire project
was completed by eight co -op electrical
engineering students from the electrical
engineering department of the university
and two university electricians within a
period of some six months. Approximately
six to eight miles of coax and control cables
were installed in campus steam- tunnels and
buildings. Costs were considerably reduced
by the use of co -op students.
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Design and construction costs were
further minimized by using conventional
and readily available electrical equipment
and parts in place of regular theatrical
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11
components. For instance, the lighting grid
was clamped together with simple straptype pipe hangers in place of more costly
cast -iron theatrical clamps. Regular outdoor floodlight fixtures (costing $19 each)
were used in place of conventional studio
scoops (which would have cost approximately $45 each).
FIG. 4. Instructional television center floor plan.
The stage doors open to the University of Akron's
Theatre from which CCTV presentations are also
originated. The overhead pipes form a grid for
supporting studio lighting fixtures (see Fig. 5
below).
The pipe grid was suspended on % -inch
steel rods fastened to angle irons which
FIG. 5. Studio lighting grid arrangement.
(Inset) Detail of special cross pipe clamp.
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were bolted into the ceiling. The ceiling
height is 21 feet. The pipe grid is 13 feet
above the floor. Rectangular electrical duct
was fastened to the steel rods just above
the pipe grid. There are 22 electrical drcuits in these ducts for lighting and all circuits are controlled by low-voltage relays.
A special switching circuit makes it possible to control as many of the individual
circuits from a single switch as is desired.
Figure 5 shows the pipe grid with all lights.
Control Room
Extensive, and sometimes ingenious,
planning became necessary to insure that
all required equipment would fit into the
unusually small control room in an orderly
and efficient manner. This room had to
house all racks, camera amplifiers, lighting
control panel, power supplies, rf distribution equipment, camera monitors, switching console, audio console, complete film
chain, turntables, film-editing area, talk back relay racks, tube -tool storage space,
and cable trench, see Fig 6.
Cost was also a determining factor in
the design and fabrication of a simple
angle -iron frame work, mounted on a table,
which functions as an adequate substitute
for more expensive commercially available
switcher -fader and monitor cabinets. The
University's engineering department machine -shop made this unit for a cost of
approximately $25. The four TM -35 monitors, controls for the film chain and the
switcher -fader are located in this homemade mounting shown in Fig. 7.
14
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at the entrance point of each building
(Zero db represents 1000 micro -volts into
a 70 ohm load.) Figure 9 shows the method
of cable distribution throughout a complete
floor in a typical classroom building.
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control room layout.
The cable system as installed is a multichannel rf system having a utilization capability of nine separate channels (2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10). Four of these are
for off -air pick up of local commercial TV
stations (3, 5, 8, and channel 49 converted
to channel 4). Channels 6 and 10 were
made available for conversion of MPATI
channels 72 and 76. (To date an acceptable signal has not been received in this
area from the MPATI airplane, which is
200 miles due west of Akron.)
Three channels (2, 7 and 9), are for oncampus simultaneous transmissions by
local monitrans. The layout of the video
and rf distribution, showing all inputs, interconnections, and line amplifiers, is shown
in Fig. 10.
Talk -Back System
Another feature incorporated into the
original TV installation is a "Talk-Back"
arrangement. This permits students to ask
questions directly of a TV instructor while
lectures are in progress. Requirements
which this system had to meet include:
(1) The student should not have to
leave his seat to ask a question: (2) No
microphone should be passed around the
room, and (3) All other rooms viewing
the lecture should simultaneously hear
the question.
With these stipulations in mind a circuit
was developed using low-impedance microphones located near the front of each classroom. These microphones are connected
into the audio circuit through relays, operated by the instructor from a studio console. This console contains panel lights
one for each TV viewing classroom -and
a buzzer.
-
Video control center, showing four TM -35 master
monitors, controls for film system, and switcher -fader.
FIG. 7.
Distribution Cables and Lines
With work in the studio and control
rooms well under way, the work of installing coax cables, microphone and talk -back
system control lines was begun. The campus layout is shown in Fig. 8. All lines
between buildings were installed in service
tunnels.
The main coax, RG11 -U Poly -foam,
runs the entire length of the campus, a
distance of about 2000 ft. Two amplifiers
are inserted in this line-one at Buchtel
Hall and another in a building just west
of the ROTC Bldg. -to maintain a level
of rf signal of approximately 35 to 40 db
FIG. 8.
University
of
Akron campus RF distribution cable.
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FIG. 10.
When a student wishes to ask a question
he so indicates to a proctor in his classroom. The proctor then presses a switch
located near the front of the room. This
switch operates the buzzer and a panel
light corresponding to the specific room
from which the question is originating.
When the instructor is ready for the
question he so indicates and then depresses
the switch on his console which corresponds
to the classroom. This switch simultaneously, through relays, disconnects his mike,
the speakers in the TV sets in the classroom, and connects the room mike into the
audio circuit. The audio circuit is arranged
so that the original question is heard both
in the studio and in all viewing classrooms.
No repetition of questions is therefore
necessary.
A view of a typical classroom is shown
in Fig. 11. Room microphones are either
surface or flush- mounted. The TV instructor's studio Talk -Back console is shown
in Fig. 12. Both surface and flush -mounted
classroom control stations are used as
shown in Fig. 13.
Talk -Back control relay rack is
located in Ayer Hall to accommodate Ayer,
Knight, and Simmons Halls. Another is
located in the Education Building and a
A
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Video and
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distribution system.
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16
www.americanradiohistory.com
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"Reasoning and Understanding in Science" Class.
Special lighting provides adequate illumination for note- taking.
FIG. 11.
FIG. 13.
Classroom TV
control stations showing
RF and receiver muting
cables, talk -back pushbuttons, and technician
phone jacks. (Left) Surface
mounted.
mounted.
(Below)
Flush
FIG. 12. Instructor's studio talk -back console.
With this instrument the TV instructor can enable
any viewing student to be in direct communication with the TV center.
third is in Kolbe Hall; each has its own
audio line amplifier. Figure 14 shows the
Education Building Talk -Back control
rack.
The Education Building
In the Fall, 1962, a new Education
Building was completed. Several special
TV features were built into this new location, including complete wiring for TV
reception and talk -back communication.
17
etc., for presentation, within this room, via
TV, to large groups of students.
The lecture- auditorium seats approximately 260 persons and is equipped with
eight 23 -inch RCA table model sets,
mounted on brackets suspended from the
ceiling. These brackets were designed and
built at the university. The receivers in
this room were modified to receive either
rf or video. A special distribution system
was installed for this rf or video application. Figure 16 shows this multi -purpose
lecture -hall.
College of Education talkback con rol
rack. Contains audio line amplifier, RF amplifier,
relays and associated circuitry.
FIG. 14.
One room was designed to function as a
second TV studio-classroom. Portholes were
built into both front and back walls of
the room so that actual classes might be
televised without having cameras within
the room. Figure 15 shows this area.
All camera control and audio equipment in the Education Building was made
portable so that these cameras, with their
associated components, could be easily
transported around the campus. Remote
pick-ups from the University Computing
Center in Buchtel Hall are being used in
conjunction with several mathematics
courses. Provision is made for televising
computing equipment and processes for incorporation into lectures originating at the
main TV Center or for direct origination
of lectures from the Computing Center. A
small remote talk -back console is also available so that questions can be asked of the
Computing- Center instructor.
TV studio -classroom showing TK.15 Camera mounted in Iront port. Insert shows
Camera mounted in rear port. There is 375 ft.- candles of illumination in the room.
FIG. 15.
TIC-21
Multiple Response Indicator
One complaint from instructors using TV
is that there is no immediate way of judging how well their lectures are being received by viewing students. The Head of
the Electrical Engineering Department is
designing and building a device which will
permit an instructor to instantly determine
how well the class is receiving material.
All student chairs will be wired with five
push- buttons in a manner which will prevent any student from seeing the responses
made by any other student. The instructor
will present a question having five possible
answers. The student will react by pressing one button only. An indication of this
choice will appear on one of five meters
located on a console in the TV studio. The
instructor, from a glance at the meter panel,
will know whether he has developed his
current concept as well as was intended.
If so, he can proceed to the next step in
his lecture with a reasonable amount of
confidence about student readiness for new
material.
The device can also be used for giving
multiple- choice tests containing as many
test items as desired. This system is being
designed so that it can be connected into
the Computing Center where a tabulation
Special lighting, including power- groove
fluorescent lamps, was provided above a
plastic grid ceiling. For TV use the level
of light in the room is 375 ft.-candles. A
TK -15 camera is mounted at the front
port for class observation, and a TK-21
camera is mounted on a remotely operated
pan and tilt at the rear port for observation
of the instructor and his activities.
A small control room is located adjacent to the special Studio -classroom. Camera controls, switching arrangements, and
audio pick -up from all points is handled
here. The video and audio signals can be
sent either to the main TV Center in Kolbe
Hall for distribution via the main rf cable
to all receiving points on the campus or
directly to the large lecture room.
Two other pick -up points are provided
a hall close to two small conference type rooms where a TK-15 camera
can be located so that it can point into
either of these rooms, and the second is in
the large lecture-auditorium where the
intent is to permit the use of a TK -21
camera for specific visual aids purposes
such as magnification of small items, charts,
-one in
18
www.americanradiohistory.com
Education Building Lecture- Auditorium.
Here a group of students are discussing concepts
which were presented moments earlier over TV
by the Psychology Professor.
FIG. 16.
of all responses by each student, as well
as his total grade, can be made available to
both student and instructor within 20
minutes after completion of the test.
General Observations
Forty required courses (amounting to
almost 1300 hrs. of TV presentations) have
been taught in full, or in part, to almost
13,000 University of Akron class regisperiod covtrants since February, 1961
ering five semesters. This includes the
Spring, 1963, semester. Reasoning and
Understanding in Science, Education in
American Society, General Psychology,
Analytic -Geometry, Algebra- Trigonometry,
Analytic -Calculus, Military Science, General Inorganic Chemistry, Effective Speaking, and Institutions in the U.S.A. are
some of the courses which have been, and
are being, taught through television.
Other specialized TV applications have
included the presentation of: Freshman
Orientation programs; professional broadcast training; extra- curricular forensic
union debates and discussions; and demonstrations for various educational and public
associations.
What reaction has there been to this
utilization of electronic aids in education
on this campus? In January, 1963, Dr.
D. J. Guzzetta, Vice President and Dean
of Administration made the following observations among others:
-a
"In the overall picture, all electronic
devices enable us to do a better teaching job because we obtain better utilization of faculty time.
"Everybody has a front row seat with
TV. Thus, the use of small visual -train-
ing aids is more effective because all
students are able to see them well
situation which is impossible in large
lecture classes.
"According to instructors, students do
at least as well -perhaps better-where
TV is used to supplement a shortage of
qualified teachers in crucial areas of in-
-a
struction.
"We know that one good teacher in a TV
classroom is worth more than several
inexperienced or mediocre instructors in
conventional lecture rooms.
"Another major advantage of TV is its
capacity to relay uniform background
material for observation by discussion type classes (which are normally unsuited for TV lectures)
With TV,
they can all observe the same situations
real advantage for purposes of discussion and testing."
...
-a
Dr. Thomas Sumner, Dean of the General College and Professor of Chemistry
who has been teaching the required sophomore course, Reasoning and Understanding
in Science, via TV, has commented:
"I think that TV is particularly applicable to large lecture -type classes.
Formerly, not only was I unable to use
visual materials effectively, but there
were very few questions asked by students. Right or wrong, it's true that most
students won't ask what may turn out
to be a `stupid question' while face-toface with the instructor. They will, howanonymously phrase a question
ever
(via talk -back) to an instructor who's
halfway across the campus.
"We can do more for the good student
with TV because he can see and hear
better than in a conventional class.
"A big advantage for the instructor
is that he needn't teach the same course
As
two or three times the same day
...
...
there's no need to be monotonously redundant, the teacher is more stimulated
right from the start.
"Of course, we must remember that
TV is not `all or nothing' -some courses
feature one -out-of -three weekly classes
on TV and the rest are discussion or
question- and-answer sessions.
"And, for those who become agitated
at the mention of `visual aids', it is necessary only to remind them that TV is
one in a long series of visual aids, of
which the greatest is the book. Like the
book, TV's effectiveness is dependent
upon intelligent and judicious use. As
with any aid to education TV simply
helps people to help themselves."
This discussion has centered on Instructional Closed-Circuit Television. However,
the University of Akron has also established an FM radio station, electronic language laboratory, and a computer center
as integral parts of the educational complex within the past two years.
Planning is currently underway which
could result in the on- campus production
of televised courses that would be transmitted by closed-circuit to one of the
major industrial corporations in the area.
These courses would be taken for university credit by company employees at the
industrial site.
As the educational demands continue to
increase, educational leaders must continue
to bring into existence the means by which
these needs must be satisfied. Perhaps by
the end of 1963 the University of Akron
will witness greater advances toward
Broadcast Educational Television. Television tape recording could make further
changes in teaching- learning patterns. And
the concepts underlying Programmed
Learning certainly won't be overlooked by
farsighted teachers.
19
TV TAPE
RECORDER
TYPE TR -2
Basic Compact,
Adaptable to Color,
Accommodates
a Full Line of
Accessories
by H. H. KLERX
RCA TV Tape Merchandising
1.
The TR-2 TV Tape Recorder is a compact compatible
quadruplez recording center for monochrome and color operation.
FIG.
The
RCA Type TR -2 basic quadruplex
TV Tape Recorder has been developed to
meet the increasing need within the TV
Tape recording industry for a compact,
lower-cost equipment which maintains high
standards of performance, reliability, and
interchangeability
and is suitable for
color tv operation.
-
The TR -2 maintains all the excellent
performance specifications characteristic of
its famous predecessors, and at the same
time offers new features not found in many
recorders today.
Features include: Compact size (3 rack
units), low cost, and choice of two models
(the standard studio model and the short rack model for mobile units). A complete
line of accessories is available to enhance
programming flexibility and operating convenience, and to make the TR -2 recorder
an excellent choice for any TV Tape recording facility.
Full Line of Accessories
The TR -2 will accommodate a wide
range of accessories. These are available
for either the standard or mobile type recorders. Basic accessories include:
20
1.
Air Bearing Headwheel
Pixlock
3. Two-speed Operation
2.
4. Picture Monitor
Waveform Monitor
6. Audio Cue Channel
7. Automatic Timing Corrector
S. Color Playback Accessory
5.
Compact, Partially -Transistorized Design
One of the basic objectives considered
in the design of the TR -2 was to reduce
the size, weight and power requirements,
and at the same time to include the latest
advances in the state of the art. The equipment utilizes proved designs and provides
proved performance. In fact, the TR -2 is
essentially an outgrowth of the well known
TRT -1B and TR -11 Recorders.
Transistor circuitry has been included
l;berally in the design. The areas of transistorization have been carefully selected
to materially improve performance and
conserve space. As a result, the TR -2 is not
only a compact recorder offering superior
performance, but it also accepts a wide
variety of accessories that can be integrated
in the basic TR -2 cabinet.
The highlights of the new TR -2 design
will be covered in detail, but are summarized as follows:
Simplified control panel
transistor headwheel servo
3. Transistorized 4 by 2 switcher
1.
2. Precision
4. Electronic quadrature alignment
5. Color adaptability
6. Studio and mobile models
7. Complete line of accessories
Simplified Control Panel
The control panel of the TR -2 is functionally laid out to provide all operating
controls and adjustments at the operator's
fingertips. Figure 2 shows the convenient
grouping of these controls. At the left of
the panel there is a series of nine pushbutton switches, pre -wired to key signal
circuits within the recorder. These pushbuttons permit a rapid check of the overall
stability and performance of the system,
and they are arranged to provide three
signal feeds to the picture monitor and
nine signal feeds to the waveform monitor.
The operator may readily check these nine
key signals to determine the "go" status
of the recorder.
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The functional arrangement of this compact control panel expedites setup, check-out, and operation of the TR -2 Recorder.
The first position, Video In, provides
both picture and waveform observation of
the incoming signal to the recorder. The
second position, Demod Out, provides picture and waveform observation of the demodulator output, thereby providing an
immediate check of the FM system in the
recorder. The third position, Video Out,
provides both picture and waveform observation of the signals leaving the tape
recorder. In this position, video, pedestal
and sync levels can be determined; also
a continuous check on the quality of the
outgoing signal can be performed.
The remaining push- button positions
switch signals to the waveform monitor
only, while the picture monitor remains on
the Video Out position.
Position four, Switcher RF, provides a
waveform display of the 4 by 1 switcher
output. In this position the four rf channels in the recorder can be monitored to
determine proper head optimization levels
and other important performance characteristics. Position five, Control Track Record, provides a waveform display of the
control track signal being fed to the record
head. The sixth position, Control Track
Play, provides a waveform presentation of
the control track signal during playback
and, in addition, simultaneously monitors
MOTOR
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16
playback of the control track signal while
the recorder is in the record mode of
operation.
At the lower right of the control panel
are located controls for selecting either
internal or external reference signals during record or playback
also controls
to permit recording of audio and cue signals only (if the cue accessory is installed).
A two -speed control selector for 7% or
15 -inch tape speed is also provided on this
control panel. This facilitates the installation of the two-speed conversion accessory
and places this important control at the
operator's fingertips.
A VU Meter is located to the right of
the loudspeaker. This meter, with its associated selector switch, provides for monitoring of the erase, record /play and input
audio signals, for both the program and
optional cue channels. In addition, control
track record and play signals may also be
monitored by this meter.
To the left of the speaker is the video
record current meter and selector switch.
These permit checking the record heads of
each of the four video channels. Another
position on the switch permits a check of
the tracking accuracy of the capstan servo.
The control track phasing adjustment is
located directly below these controls.
...
The seventh position, Reference Pulses,
provides a waveform display of the reference pulses, and, in addition, superimposes
on the picture monitor reference pulses
from the tonewheel -providing a quick
check of the headwheel servo stability. The
eighth position, Capstan, provides a waveform display of the capstan servo signal
indicating overall stability of the capstan
servo. The ninth position, Linelock Monitor, provides both picture and waveform
display of the output signal. This position
also switches the picture monitor to external sync so that critical observation of
pixlock (optional accessory) can be observed. In addition this position also monitors the switchlock mode, which is a standard feature of the TR -2.
The horizontal row of buttons across the
center lower portion of the control panel
includes the Stop, Fast Forward, Rewind,
Play, Standby, Remote and Record controls. The center of the control panel
houses an 8 -inch monitoring speaker driven
by a transistorized audio amplifier. Audio
record and playback level controls, as
well as speaker volume control. are located
directly below.
Precision Transistor Headwheel Servo
An all -transistor precision headwheel
servo, see Fig. 3, is employed using modu-
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pletely transistorized
headwheel
servo features
built -in switch lock
operation. Pixlock
operation is ac-
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Studio and Mobile Models
The studio-type TR -2 is available in a
7
All FM switching functions are included on a single chassis. A 4 by 2
switcher, fully transistorized, has been integrated at the rear of this 2 by 1 switching chassis. A 4.chaanel equalizer has also been incorporated into this basic unit.
FIG. 4.
rf
lar construction identical to the processing
amplifier. (A module extender is provided
with the recorder to facilitate all servicing
of this type of equipment without removal
from the recorder). The improved stability
and simplified set-up adjustments of this
new headwheel servo are important factors
in obtaining consistent day -in, day-out
peak performance. This servo system provides a choice of two modes of operation
normal tonewheel lock and switchlock.
When in the switchlock mode of operation,
it is possible to switch signals from this
tape recorder along with any other studio
signals and not experience the characteristic roll when the transfer of signals is
being made.
-
A third mode of headwheel servo is
available on an optional basis. Space is
provided in the headwheel servo frame to
accommodate a linelock module (fifth
module from the left in Fig. 3) which then
permits the recorder to be operated in a
third mode known as Pixlock, which is
described under Accessories.
Transistorized 4 by
2
Switcher
A single chassis incorporating all FM
switching functions is used in the TR -2
recorder to accomplish head switching. See
Fig. 4. This switcher provides a continu-
ous FM output signal derived from the
four record /playback heads located in the
headwheel. A 4 by 2 rf switcher, fully
transistorized, has been made an integral
2 by 1 switcher, the output of
which drives the demodulator. In addition,
the 4- channel equalizer has also been incorporated into this basic unit, providing
precise matching of response of the four
magnetic heads during playback.
part of the
22
of minutes. Independent delay lines are
used in both record and playback, thereby
permitting the operator to correct quadrature errors that may be present on tapes
obtained from other sources. Four dual concentric -shaft switch assemblies, with
their respective delay lines, are mounted
on a single electronic chassis. See Fig. 5.
The record or playback delay lines are
switched in and out of the circuitry depending upon the mode of operation. The
inner knob controls precise quadrature
when setting up the headwheel assembly
in the record mode, while the outer knob
sets precise quadrature when playing back
tapes from the headwheel assembly.
The sync separator, formerly a part of
the 2 by 1 switcher, has been divorced from
this unit and relocated in the main control
panel. This function, too, has been fully
transistorized.
The net effect of the changes made in
the FM switching circuitry has been to reduce space and power consumption by a
factor of almost 3 to 1, as well as localize
controls -placing them within easy reach
of the operator.
single unit (three racks) 69/ inches wide,
84 inches high, and 25 inches deep. For
mobile applications, the TR -2 is housed in
two separate units, each unit (two racks)
measuring 66 inches high by 25 inches
deep, by 47/ inches wide. The size and
weight of this short -rack recorder makes it
ideal for mobile applications as well as
applications where portability or frequent
change of location is desired.
Accessories
The block diagram, Fig. 6, shows where
space has been provided in the studio
model to accommodate accessories.
Air Bearing Headwheel
Electronic Quadrature Control
An improved forni of delay line is being
utilized in the TR -2 to provide precise steps
of delay- enabling the operator to obtain
accurate quadrature alignment, in a matter
An air bearing conversion kit, including
compressor and air filtering equipment, is
optional equipment. When installed in the
TR -2, this permits use of air-bearing as
well as ball- bearing headwheels on an inter-
The electronic quadrature chassis incorporates improved
delay lines and dual controls for both recording and playback.
FIG. 5.
Functional diagram of the studio model
Recorder. Mounting space which has been
provided for optional accessories is indicated by
the gray panels.
FIG. 6.
TR -2
HEADWHEEL
AMPLIFIER
CAPSTAN
DEMODULATOR
AMPLIFIER
HEADWHEEL
CAPSTAN
AMPLIFIER
AMPLIFIER
MODULATOR
TO -2
TM 9
SCOPE
8" MON.
TAPE
T
RANSPORT
PANEL
RECORD
CONTROL
AMPLIFIER
PANEL
ATC.
PLAYBACK AMP.
RECORD
FROC. AMP.
PLAY
BACK DELAY
INPUT SELECTOR
RF
SWITCHER
MASTER ERASE
AUDIO
SHELF
TONE WHEEL
AMPLIFIER
AUDIO CUE
WP -16 POWER
AIR PUMP
HEADWHEEL
.
SERVO
Pixlock
CAPSTAN
SERVO
ACCESSORY
SUPPLY
WP -16 POWER
SUPPLY
Two -Speed Operation
A two -speed conversion accessory is
available for installation in the TR -2 recorder. Use of this accessory permits operation at either 7.5 inches -per-second or 15
inches -per- second tape speeds. Full compatibility and interchangeability is maintained at the 15 ips speed. At the 7.5 ips
tape speed complete interchangeability is
maintained with other RCA tape recorders
equipped with this new accessory.
Significant advantages of two -speed operation are the increased recording time
(up to 3 hours) and the significant reduction in tape cost.
The control circuitry required for this
conversion is an integral part of the TR -2
recorder. A convertor panel (fully transistorized), a newly designed capstan motor,
capacitor panel and pre -emphasis networks
for the audio and cue channels are part of
the conversion. These may be mounted on
the rear of the recorder as shown in Fig. 7.
Operation of the TR -2 recorder with the
two -speed conversion requires the use of
changeable basis. The chief advantages of
the air bearing assembly are essentially
jitter-free operation and longer life, resulting from the use of air -lubrication. Normally, the air bearing compressor and
filtering equipment are mounted externally.
Pixiock
A pixlock servo accessory, fully transistorized and in modular form, may be
plugged into the headwheel servo. A pre-
wired blank space is provided for the
addition of this module. See Fig. 3. The
addition of the pixlock accessory provides
a third mode of servo operation -enabling
the recorder to operate in complete synchronization with local studio signals. During playback, tape signals can be switched,
faded, lap dissolved, super imposed or used
in conjunction with electronically generated special effects.
a special narrow track headwheel assembly available in either ball or air bearing
types. These headwheels will provide compatible recordings at either tape speed with
imperceptible change in picture quality.
Picture Monitor
An 8 -inch monitor for viewing the picture may be mounted in the TR -2 directly
above the main control panel. The monitor
operates on either internal or external sync,
depending upon the position of the monitor
selector switch.
Waveform Monitor
A 5 -inch Type TO -2 Waveform Monitor
may be mounted immediately above the
main control panel, adjacent to the picture
monitor. This waveform monitor has been
specially designed for TV tape recording
applications, with all frequently -used controls pushbutton- operated. Picture and
waveform monitors are shown in Fig. 8.
Audio Cue Channel
Since the audio, cue, erase, record and
playback heads are already a part of the
The 2 -speed convertor panel, fully transistorized, mounts at the rear of the tape deck.
Control circuitry required for conversion to 2 -speed
operation is an integral part of the TR -2 Recorder.
FIG. 7.
23
www.americanradiohistory.com
microsecond) is sufficient to achieve intermixing of tape and studio TV signals. The
additional stability obtained with ATC
(which further reduces this residual error
electronically) provides almost perfect time
relationship when intermixing tape and
studio programs.
Color Accessory
Either the standard or mobile version of
the TR -2 Recorder is capable of recording
color signals. Playback of the signal will
require the addition of the color playback
accessory. For playback of color signals,
this accessory is generally housed in a portion of a fourth rack.
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picture monitor and 5 -inch waveform monitor may be mounted im.mediately above the main control panel. These monitors are especially designed for tv tape
recording applications-switching circuits for the monitors are built -in the basic recorder.
FIG. 8.
An
8 -inch
basic TR -2 Recorder, this accessory consists of the electronics required to complete
the audio cue system in the TR -2. This
accessory consists of a
-inch shelf, containing the necessary amplifiers. It may be
included in the TR -2 Recorder itself, since
space has been provided.
5/
recorder to a point where residual picture
jitter is reduced to within 0.03 microseconds.
As mentioned previously, the electromechanical stability achieved by the pixlock servo (in the order of one -tenth
Automatic Timing Corrector
The ATC accessory (see Fig. 9) is a
fully transistorized unit, of modular construction, similar to the processing amplifier and headwheel servo. ATC is electrically connected between the demodulator
output and input to the processing amplifier. Its primary purpose is to remove jogging or skewing and other geometric errors
that can be introduced into the playback
signal as a result of improper recording.
In addition, it has the effect of improving
the overall timing stability of the tape
FIG. 9. The automatic timing corrector (ATC) is
a fully transistorized unit of modular construction,
similar to the processing amplifier and headwheel
servo. Its purpose is to remove skewing and other
geometric errors in the playback signal.
24
www.americanradiohistory.com
To sum up, the use of these foregoing
accessories makes it profitable to purchase
the TR -2 as a basic unit with a view to
adding accessories as the need develops.
The accessories may be employed with
either the studio or the mobile TR -2 Recorder. Many of the accessories can be
installed in the TR -2 cabinet, while certain
others are mounted in a separate rack. Use
of the entire complement of accessory
equipment requires only the use of a part
of one additional rack.
Basic Recorder
The TR -2 is termed a basic recorder
because emphasis was placed upon designing a quadruplex recorder capable of providing the user with a wide selection of
accessories that can be added to suit individual requirements. As a result, the
TR -2 meets high performance standards,
at very low cost. Both the mobile and
studio versions of the TR -2 Television
Tape Recorder should find wide acceptance
in an industry already familiar with the
proven performance of other RCA Television Tape Recording equipments.
RCA AT NAB
THE SHOWPLACE
FOR
NEW EQUIPMENT
25
EVERYTHING FOR FM STEREO
Focal point of the RCA exhibit at the
1963
NAB Convention was the above spacious
rotunda highlighting FM stereo operations
and complete equipment for AM, FM and
TV audio. From here, the visitors' attention
was directed down a plushly carpeted center aisle around which was exhibited the
industry's most complete and comprehensive line of radio and television broadcast
equipment. The effect was much like that
of a deluxe automobile showroom where
latest model tv tape recorders, studio cameras, film cameras and projectors, switching and special effects equipment, audio
amplifiers, audio consolettes, reel and cartridge tape recorders could be seen in
operation. Also represented were TV transmitters, AM and FM transmitters, FM
stereo monitoring and multiplexing equipment, antennas and transmission line, and
automatic logging equipment.
26
...
AM AND TV AUDIO
Stereo Demonstration
Under the audio rotunda, operated a
complete audio control center with special
emphasis on stereo demonstration. Equipment in this area included the popular
BC -7 dual -channel consolette, BCM -2 auxiliary mixer, a stereo -equipped RT -2I audio
tape recorder, several cartridge tape units
(including the new RT -37 stereo cartridge
tape system) and a stereo transcription
package (BQ-51 turntable, with BA -36
stereo preamp, 16 -inch tone arm and universal cartridge).
New Stereo Cartridge Tape
On display for the first time, the stereo
cartridge tape system is designed to the
same high quality performance standards
as its monophonic brother, the RT -7. Like
the RT -7, it is fully transistorized.
The RT -37 system is particularly useful
in producing local commercials with the
"presence" and added impact that stereo
can bring to the sponsors message. Cartridges handle any type of programming
from spots to a full 30 minute show.
The system consists of separate recording and playback units each
inches
high and 19 inches wide for standard rack
or console mounting. It features the use of
three cue frequencies
stop cue, an end
of message cue and a trip cue (which
may be placed anywhere on the tape to
automatically trigger other studio equipment capable of being remotely started).
Also featured are separate playback -record
heads to permit simultaneous monitoring
while program material is being recorded.
New Studio Consolette
Containing many of the operational features of the deluxe BC -7, a new studio
consolette, the BC -8, provides dual channel
operation with eight mixing positions. De-
5/
-a
signed for operating convenience and ease
of servicing, the consolette offers two channel mixing and switching with monitoring
facilities, plus dependable plug-in transistor amplifiers, low impedance mixing circuits, self-contained power supply and
built -in cue /intercom amplifier.
Plug -in, unitized construction is the key
to the flexibility of the BC -8A. The basic
console consists of a wired housing including all operating controls, three dust -protected speaker muting relays, one VU
meter, with provisions for adding an optional second VU meter, and the guide
assemblies for accepting plug-in transistor
modules. These comprise three preamplifiers, two program amplifiers, one cue/
intercom amplifier, one monitor amplifier,
one power supply, and two high -level isolation units. Plug-in units used are identical with those of the BC -7 Console and
BCM -2A Auxiliary Mixer.
4
1. Accent to the entrance of the RCA exhibit was this dramatic rotunda which served as
an operating audio control center for AM, FM, and
TV audio equipment.
FIG.
Deluxe BC -7 console featured stereo
demonstration of reel and cartridge tape recorders,
and stereo transcription equipment.
FIG. 2.
Highlighted amidst a complete line of
audio equipment are a new BC-8 consolette, RT -7
cartridge tape system, and new RT -37 stereo
cartridge tape equipment.
FIG. 3.
CARTRIDGE
STUDIO
CONSOLETTE
TAPE SYSTEM
STEREO GA',
.
TAPE RECORDER
ASlIV BFGYG Of1104/C7R97CL
27
LATEST IN TV TAPE RECORDING EQUIPMENT
Three RCA tv tape recorders operated
throughout exhibit hours to demonstrate
the newest equipment available to improve
tape operations. Two of the recorders were
one of
deluxe transistorized TR -22's
-
which was fully equipped for color, and the
other monochrome. A third recorder, the
TR -2, was completely fitted out with a line
of block building accessories including Pix
Lock, two -speed operation, picture and
waveform monitors, audio cue channel and
automatic timing corrector (ATC).
New Electronics for Color
Color demonstration of the TR -22 featured newly designed electronics called
Color ATC (automatic timing corrector).
The equipment used with the TR -22 corn-
prises six modular units which are easily
inserted in the video path to provide precise stabilization of color -signal reproduction. By measuring the residual "jitter" in
a signal which has been pre -stabilized by
Pix Lock and standard ATC, the Color
ATC circuits electronically offer precise
stabilization of such high accuracy that the
color signal obtained is of high quality and
requires no further processing.
The Color ATC has two modes of operation. In the first mode, the device is used
to stabilize a normal color recording. In the
second mode, the Color ATC is capable of
stabilizing the chroma content of a second generation color "dub" made by a demodulation /remodulation process. Further, the
Color ATC "senses" which of these two
modes is required and automatically operates in that mode.
The Color ATC has no operating controls. It is placed in the circuit automatically by the selection of color -deviation
FM standards, and its correcting action
commences automatically when the pixlock
servo achieves lock -up. The presence of
burst on the reproduced signal automatically causes the insertion of regenerated
burst at the output. Centering of the variable time -error correcting- element is also
carried out automatically. There are only
nine set -up controls associated with the
Color ATC. These controls, once set, need
no further attention for long periods.
FIG. 4. This deluxe transistorized TV tape recorder, TR -22, was completely outfitted for color taping. New color processing equipment is comprised of six tansistorized plug -in modules accommodated in the module bank of the TR -22 recorder.
DELUXE CONSOLE. _.INCLUDING
ATC. COLOR AI
C
BUILT IN PIX-LOCN.AIR BEARING HEADWHEEL
STABILIZED CIRCUITS FOR LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE
FU_LY INSTRUMENTED FOR SIMPLIFIED OPERATION
28
Basic TV Tape Recorder, TR -2
Also demonstrated was a basic quadruplex TV Tape Recorder, Type TR -2. It
utilizes the same accepted design as the
popular TRT series. The TR -2 embodies
high standards of performance, reliability
and interchangeability in a low -cost, com-
pact unit.
Circuits of proved performance are utilized throughout. Also, transistors are employed wherever they do the most good
in attaining materially improved results
and significant savings in space.
A complete line of accessories are available individually, so they may be incorporated as desired into the basic equipment. These accessories include air -bearing
headwheel, Pix Lock, two-speed operation,
picture monitor, waveform monitor, audio
cue channel, automatic timing corrector,
and a color playback accessory. Space has
been provided for housing most of these
accessories in a standard three -rack unit.
As as result, the TR -2 allows the user to
select a tape equipment to fit his immediate requirement, and at the same time,
protect his future needs.
A second TR-22 transistorized TV tape recorder was demonstrated in black -and -white operation at both half and full speed. Display
at left provided pictorial comparisons of pixlock, automatic timing control
and two-speed operation.
FIG. S.
A basic quadruplex TV tape recorder filled out the tape equipment complement on display. The TR -2 shown here was fully equipped
with Pixlock, two-speed operation, picture and waveform monitors audio
cue channel, and automatic timing corrector.
FIG. 6.
HIFI NINE
RECORDINGS
TELEVISION
FILM RECORDER
1
29
-TU-124 25B
FIELD EXPANDABLE
POWER CAPABILITY
HIGH-EFFICIENC
f
TETRODE
OUICK.CHANGECAVRtE
SILICON RECTIFIERS
FIG. 7. Rack cabinet at left contains the BW-73A Multiplex Modulation Monitor: the TBM-3000 FM Frequency
Monitor: the BTS -1A Stereo Subcarrler Generator and the BW -74 Modulation Monitor Stereo Adapter. The TT25DH VHF Transmitter occupies center with the sections of the UHF TTU- 12A/25B Transmitter at far right.
AM, FM AND TV TRANSMITTER EQUIPMENT
In
Automatic Parameter -Logging Equipment
AM Transmitters
system
proposed for strip -chart recording of as
many as 22 operating parameters of AM.
FM, or TV transmitters. The "heart" of
the system is a synchronous "commutator"
that switches the strip -chart recorder input
to 22 (or fewer) transmitter test points
once every 30 minutes. These test points
can be power output, PA plate current,
carrier-frequency monitor output, modulation monitor output, etc. The measurement
is recorded on a moving strip chart in
sequence. A feature of the system is an
alarm which instantly indicates improper
operation regardless of recording sequence.
the transmitter section of the RCA
exhibit, there were two AM, one FM and
two TV transmitters. Other displays presented automatic parameter -logging gear,
modulation monitors (mono and stereo),
subcarrier -generator equipment for FM
stereo and transmission lines and antennas.
A 1- kilowatt, BTA -1R1, and a
watt, BTA -5T, were displayed.
5 -kilo-
The BTA -1R1 is a self- contained, singlecabinet transmitter using only 5 tube types,
an all -silicon -rectifier power supply and
temperature- controlled crystals. The transmitter offers complete readiness for remotecontrol operation by including, as standard
equipment, the control motor, relays and
appropriate wiring.
The BTA -ST uses the recently -perfected
high -efficiency Class "C" power -amplifier
circuit configuration that increases PA
efficiency 10 to 15 percent above that of
a conventional Class "C" amplifier. Temperature-controlled crystals assure maxisummer or
mum frequency stability
winter, even in unheated transmitter plants.
...
Shown fur the first time was
a
FM Transmitter Display
Four pieces of station equipment were
shown in the FM- transmitter display: a
5- kilowatt transmitter (BTF -SD) ; a multia
plex-modulation monitor (BW -73A)
stereo adapter for the modulation monitor (BW -74) and a stereo subcarrier gen;
erator (BTS -IA).
The BTF -5D is a modern, efficient and
highly reliable transmitter. Designed for
30
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SCA and /or stereo programming, the exciter uses the RCA direct -FM (reactance)
modulation technique. For simplicity, the
system uses only two power stages (a 250 watt driver; 5 -kw final) between the exciter output and antenna terminals.
The BW -73A Multiplex -Modulation
Monitor is a self -contained device that is
both a qualitative and quantitative facility
for the various modulation levels in a
multiplexed transmitter.
The BW -74 Stereo Adapter is the newest
p'ece of equipment in this group. It extends the usefulness of the BW -73A by
deriving left- and right -channel stereo programming for simultaneous monitoring in
addition to accurately measuring the level
of the pilot amplitude and the modulation
level of each stereo channel. Audio outputs
of 600 ohms are furnished for feeding
suitable monitoring amplifiers.
The BTS -1A Stereo -Subcarrier Generator is designed for use with direct -FM
transmitter exciters and is type -accepted
for use with all RCA FM transmitters.
Since its simplified circuitry is largely passive, only two tubes are used.
Television Transmitters
The "star" of the transmitter display
was the TT -25DH VHF transmitter. This
transmitter reduces the floor -space requirement to as much as 50 percent below the
:
t
/1.1.( 7112/
TRANSMISSION LINE
requirements of previous designs. Using a
walk -in enclosure design, the TT -25DH
eliminates the floor area dedicated to rear access space without reducing accessibility.
A unique feature of the transmitter is
the diplexed-amplifier configuration in the
visual portion. Using Type 6166A ceramic
tetrodes -each in an individual cavity
the transmitter combines the outputs of
two 12.5 -kw linear amplifiers to develop
the 25- kilowatt (peak visual) power output. Diplexed amplifiers improve the picture quality of the air signal because the
system reduces antenna reflections instead
of retransmitting them.
A portion of RCA's 25- kilowatt UHF
transmitter-the TTU -25B -was shown.
The display consisted of the rectifier cabi-
-
Transmission line and antennas. The three elbows on the display panel (left) indicate the relative sizes of the 3, 6. and 9 -inch Universal transmission line. The traveling wave -antenna section
appears in the center of the picture with the BFA FM antenna section immediately to the right. A
section of the UHF -Pylon antenna stands at the far right.
FIG. 9.
Automatic parameter -logging equipment. Rack at left represents the studio portion of the
system with the transmitter- located gear in the rack at right. The black box between the racks houses
the demonstration controls for the automatic power- output control.
FIG. 8.
GGINC
PaRAMETERpsNMI,T RERSIaN
net and the cabinet containing the power amplifier cavity. The quick -change- cavity
design demonstrates the lightweight attributes of conventional- tube -amplifier design.
Universal Transmission Line
A specially-built panel supported samples of the 3 -, 6- and 9 -inch Universal
transmission line for FM and TV use.
Cutaway models displayed the "wrist-
band" bullet design. This wrist -band bullet
confines any copper shavings within the
inner conductor, thereby eliminating insulator breakdown caused by accumulations
of shavings on the dielectric material.
FM and TV Antennas
The antenna display consisted of three
actual sections of transmitting antennas:
two TV and one FM.
The FM antenna was a single section
of the BFA series. These antennas use
stainless steel radiating elements to prevent
performance-degrading corrosion.
The TV- antenna sections, one VHF and
one UHF, were cut -away to reveal the
rugged internal construction. The VHF
antenna
a "traveling- wave"
.
is
available for high -band use in four power
gains: 9x, 12x, 15x, and 18x. The higher gain versions permit maximum power with
a 25 kw transmitter.
.
.
.
.
.
UHF -pylon antennas, similar in appearance to the traveling -wave system, use a
different operational principle, owing to the
physics of the UHF spectrum. Available in
power gains up to 52, the UHF pylon antenna is a rugged, long-life device.
31
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NEW TRANSISTORIZED EQUIPMENT
FOR THE TV FILM ROOM
Anew
monochrome film camera chain.
TK -22, a new professional tv film projector, TP -66, and a look at the technological
improvements that lie ahead for color film
were featured in operating demonstrations.
4 -V
Color Film Camera
A developmental 4- vidicon color film
camera demonstrated a number of ad-
vanced concepts, to be used in forthcoming
equipment designs.
The equipment is completely transistorized and employs a 1%-inch vidicon for
its monochrome or "luminance" channel
which is entirely separate from the "chrominance" or color signal delivered by the
red, green and blue one -inch vidicon tubes.
The four -tube principle has been corn-
pared with four -color printing in which the
imposition of black on the three primary
colors enriches the hues and provides
sharper definition in the finished picture.
Picture quality is further enhanced by
using the 50 per cent larger vidicon for the
monochrome channel.
In producing the compatible color signal
for broadcast, the three primary color signals are combined in a colorplexer and.
after modulation, the luminance signal from
the separate monochrome channel is added.
New 16mm TV him Projector
Center of much interest and activity was
the new TP -66 Film Projector. Its many
advanced features include provision for
automatic change of both projection and
sound system lamps, virtually instantane-
ous start (three- tenths of a second), automatic cueing, reverse operation and automatic restoration of film loops.
Many of the normal manual -control operations, susceptible to human error, have
been automated. Others are simplified to
provide a projector designed specifically
for the precise timing and reliability demanded by television.
Transistorized Vidicon Film Camera
Perhaps the most significant step in the
transistorization of film equipment, was
represented by the demonstration of a new
monochrome vidicon film camera chain,
TK -22. The new film chain uses a larger
(1;% -inch) vidicon pickup tube which
boosts picture resolution to a new level of
quality. To stabilize performance at this
A look at the improvements that lie ahead for color TV film, was provided by this demonstration of a 4-vidicon, transistorized color TV film system.
FIG. 10.
32
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This display demonstrated transistorized equipment for the modern TV film room.
Included were a new vidicon film camera chain,
TIC -22 (right), and a new 16 -mm TV projector,
TP -66 (left and inset photo).
FIG. 11.
Close -up of the TIC -22 transistorized film
camera and associated control and processing
equipment. Control and processing units for two
complete camera chains are mounted in the 51/4inch rack frame shown.
FIG. 12.
high level, the new camera is equipped with
automatic sensitivity control to assure consistent quality in TV picture output in spite
of variations in film density.
The new camera's pickup tube is 50 per
cent larger than the -inch vidicon used
in current TV film cameras. Its introduction
by RCA parallels the larger -tube trend in
"live" TV cameras where 41/2-inch image
orthicons are replacing the 3 -inch size for
many applications. The increased tube size
gives the electron beam a larger target to
scan which, in turn, assures a sharper television picture, with greater detail.
With maximum transistorization in the
TK -22 camera, substantial reduction in
space required for the camera control unit
is achieved. It takes up only one -eighteenth
of the rack space required for earlier control equipment. The transistorized design
also improves camera reliability and stability, reducing maintenance and lowering
the heat level at which the TK -22 operates.
Another benefit is in power consumption,
which has been lowered to one -fifth the
needs of current model cameras.
1
33
SWITCHING, EFFECTS, AND PRESET CONTROL SYSTEMS
Switching equipment on display included
a TS -40 transistorized system, complete
with special effects, and a new preset
switching system, TSA -3, designed to reduce the number of technical operations
required for tv station control.
Preset Switcher, TSA-3
Combining audio -video switching and
machine start- and -stop in one unit, this
new equipment allows a tv studio engineer
to "punch up" as many as ten events in
advance and to put them "on- the -air" by
means of a single switching bar.
The equipment uses interlocked pushbutton switches to "memorize" a sequence
of program segments and to control the tv
projectors, TV tape recorders and other
programming sources needed to put them
on the air. As many as 15 video sources,
with accompanying audio, may be connected to and controlled by the new system. In addition, six "audio -only" sources
are available for use where sound other
than that normally associated with the
video source is desired.
The control panel employs backlighted
pushbuttons -low brilliance for the preset
condition and full brilliance for "on the
air " -to give operator an instant read-out
of current and upcoming program events.
Transistorized Switcher, TS-40
The TS -40 system on display is one of
five standard systems available from RCA.
These have been designed to meet a broad
range of television switching requirements.
The standard systems have been supplied
for a large number of actual installations
and are based on the needs of the majority
of television studio operations.
Direct switching as well as a choice of
picture transitions, including lap dissolves, fades and superimpositions, are accommodated. When used with RCA special effects system, TS -40 offers a brilliant
variety of "electronic editing" techniques
such as: split screen effects, wipes, picture
inserts and traveling matte effects.
In addition, the switcher is available on
a custom assembled basis to meet the exact
requirements of almost any installation.
Systems engineering assistance is available
to aid in planning such custom systems.
Close -up of TSA -3 preset switcher. Included at the control position are the preset
buttons, power switch, remote delegate switches,
input designations, and "Next/Event" switches.
Relays and stepper switches for operating external devices (audio and video switchers, tape
recorders, film and slide projectors and remote
readout and control panels) are located on a
chassis at the rear of the panel.
FIG. 14.
34
FIG. 13. Both color and monochrome performance of a typical TS -40 transistorized switching system with special effects was demonstrated in this display.
A new line of transistorized Video Amplifiers (left) was shown for the first time.
LIVE STUDIO FEATURES TK -60 AND TK -41 CAMERAS
FIG. 15. Live studio features a complete line of cameras. Monochrome and color pictures originated here. Studio lighting was by Kliegl and the studio floor was covered in "Montina Corlon" supplied by the Armstrong Cork Company.*
In the live studio, four television cameras
were displayed in action. These included
the TK -60 4% -inch Image Orthicon Camera, the new TK -14 3 -inch Image Orthicon Camera, the TK -15 Professional Vidicon Camera and the TK -41 Color Camera.
Each is designed to fulfill specific program
requirements, thereby giving the broadcaster a wide selection of camera equipment
to exactly fit his needs.
The TK -60 camera is designed specifically for use with the 4r/ -inch image orthicon to produce the ultimate in fine pictures.
In addition, super-stabilized circuits assure
simplified control and unvarying picture
quality. Its striking appearance and built -in
production features make it the deluxe
monochrome camera of the RCA line.
Newly improved to get the highest picture quality from a 3 -inch image orthicon,
the TK -14 camera incorporates new advances in stabilized circuits and image
orthicon shielding techniques. 'l'he shielding techniques eliminate cross -talk from
the deflection coils into the image section
of the tube, and improve video response by
a factor of two to one. New circuits also
afford more precise focus current regulation and stabilization of the image orthicon
control voltages. The result is finer picture
quality and greater reliability from a 3 -inch
image orthicon camera.
The TK -15 is a professional -type vidicon camera, excellent for many studio situations and for closed -circuit use. It features
simplified, low cost operation and maintenance. Equipped with Automatic Picture
Control, the TK -15 adjusts itself for
lighting variations to assure the best in
vidicon pictures.
The TK -41 color camera needs no intro -
duction-it has become the standard of the
world. Recent improvements include precision yokes for accurate image registration,
new prism optics which eliminate spurious
reflections in the received picture, and
stabilization of amplifier and image orthicon control circuits to simplify operations.
FIG. 16. New 41/2-inch Image orthicon camera,
TK -60. The deluxe camera of the RCA line, the
TH-60 produces the ultimate in fine TV pictures.
`Montina Vinyl Carton
is composed of vinyl chips of
various sizes which capture the colorful veining of
natural stone fragments. They are laid in a bed of translucent vinyl which gives a third dimensional effect to
the flooring. Montina Corlon is recommended for installation above, on, or below grade. Its exceptional durability makes it ideal for heavy traffic areas.
35
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WAVE -T V
Vint
in. Color
louisvillk
BRINGS
LIVE
COLOR
TO
LOUISVILLE
Equipped with Live, Film and Tv Tape Facilities,
17 Local Programs are Colorcast Weekly
Television was brought to Kentucky for
the first time in 1948 when WAVE -TV
went on the air. Telecasting on Channel 5,
at 24,000 watts, the station from the first
was a basic NBC -TV affiliate. Progress was
made in 1953 when WAVE -TV switched
to Channel 3, with ERP of 100,000 watts,
operating from a new 600-foot tower and
transmitter at Bald Knob, Tndiana. This
increased the height above average terrain
from 528 to 914 feet. However, the most
important development occurred in 1962,
when the station brought live color television to Louisville.
1962 Brings Color TV
Having transmitted network color since
1954, WAVE -TV became the first station
in Kentucky to transmit live color on
August 15, 1962. A gradual development
thereafter was made in color transmission,
so that by the end of the year, four programs were being telecast regularly in
color, either live or on tape. In addition,
three weekly half -hour film programs were
being shown in color.
FIG. I.
35
New WAVE Radio and Television Center in downtown Louisville.
New Building Dedicated
WAVE, AM -TV, moved into its new
Radio and Television Center, in downtown
FIG. 2.
Weekly live color program "Kentucky Afield.' combines studio demonstrations with film shot on location.
3.
Inner courtyard of new
building. showing parking area
in rear.
FIG.
Louisville, July 1959. The new building
makes a marked contribution to the rebuilding of the area, having won several
awards for design and landscaping.
WAVE Inc. increased its holding in 1961
by purchasing WFRV -TV, Green Bay,
Wisconsin, a 100,000 -watt NBC affiliate,
on Channel 5. This brought the total number of stations owned and operated to
four: WAVE AM -TV; WFIE -TV, Evansville, Indiana; and WFRV -TV.
Radio Station WAVE went on the air in
1933 with a power of 1000 watts on 940 kc.
Five of the original staff are still with the
station: George W. Norton, Jr., President;
Nathan Lord, Manager; Clifford Shaw,
Music Clearance Director; Burt Blackwell,
Chief Television Director: and Wilbur
Hudson, Chief Engineer. A summary of
the aims of WAVE is highlighted in these
words from the station's opening statement:... "dedicating itself to the betterment and enjoyment of the people it serves,
presenting programs of national importance, of local interest, music, sports
..."
Full- length opera "Beatrice" was commissioned, produced, and broadcast by WAVE to
dedicate new building.
FIG. 4.
37
TV tape color program "Excursion" is a
series dealing with the arts.
FIG. 5.
Color Leadership in Louisville
by
GEORGE
W.
NORTON,
Today WAVE -TV has all the color facilities it is possible for a station to provide
-live cameras, videotape, film, slide, and
network color. We have expanded our color
schedule as fast as possible, to the point
where we are now doing 17 local color
programs a week, including 11 live shows,
FIG. 6.
JR., President,
WAVE
Inc.
videotape programs, and 3 film programs. This constitutes more than half of
our local originations.
There is no doubt that color is the TV
service of the future, but to a large extent
it is here now. More and more color sets
are being made and sold every year. Al3
most all the major set manufacturers are
selling color sets, offering a wide variety
of makes to choose from. As it pioneered
television in Kentucky in 1948, and first
brought network color to Kentucky in
July 1954, so is WAVE -TV proud again
to be pioneering local color telecasting in
Kentucky.
Set distributors indicate that as of May
1, 1963, there are approximately 15,000
color TV sets in use within the coverage
area of WAVE -TV.
Response of the viewing public to
WAVE -TV's local color efforts has been
most gratifying. Our telephone comment
sheet each day carries dozens of favorable
comments and inquiries about our color
efforts. Dealers -many of them outside the
Louisville metropolitan area -have voluntarily called us to report the color quality
to be excellent.
WAVE -TV at the present time makes no
extra charge for showing color film.
In summary, we are very optimistic
about the future prospects for color TV
business. We recognize that color development requires leadership, and we are proud
to be the one to offer this leadership in
Kentucky and Southern Indiana.
Scene from "Morning Show" a live, daily half -hour color program.
38
www.americanradiohistory.com
FIG. 7.
Color program "University.' is produced weekly in cooperation with the U. of Kentucky.
Half of Local Originations Are in Color
by GEORGE P A T T E
We have found that adding color to our
live programs has indeed provided another
dimension, a "fourth dimension," as some
have called it. This, in turn, has increased
audience interest, a matter of obvious importance to all stations. Our experience
indicates that there is no question that
color will be an increasingly important
factor in television.
THE MORNING SHOW, a live daily
R S O N,
Program Manager
hunting and related outdoor activities uses
studio demonstration combined with film.
Other color videotape programs are EXCURSION, a series dealing with the arts
and cultural activities; and UNIVERSITY, which features, each week, a leading
FIG. 8.
faculty member presenting his specialty.
We have been carrying three half -hour
color films weekly: "NORTHWEST PASSAGE" on Saturday afternoon, "TRUE
ADVENTURE" on Saturday night, and
"PLANET EARTH" on Sunday night.
Daily news, weather, and sports program is done in color from 1l to 11:20 p.m.
half -hour program featuring demonstrations, interviews, exercises, and local talent,
has proved to be especially effective in
color, with strong visual impact. We have
started telecasting our 11:00 -11:20 P.M.
news, weather and sports program strip in
color, which combines well with the TONIGHT SHOW following for a continuous
two hour block of color every night, and,
on several nights a week, when the preceding 10:00 -11:00 P.M. hour on NBC is in
color, provides a continuous block of three
hours or more.
We videotape a number of our programs
in color for telecasting on week -ends. These
are taped during the week, when the participants are more readily available, and
full technical crews are scheduled. KENTUCKY AFIELD, a program on fishing,
39
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WAVE -TV
Color Commercials
by RALPH JACKSON
Vice- President and Station Manager
At
the present time, WAVE -TV is running color commercials for five accounts,
totaling 26 commercials per week. Three
of these are on film
Wrigley's Gum,
Standard Oil, which sponsors the weather
three nights a week, and Jerry's Drive -Ins.
Swiss Cleaners is on videotape -color being
chosen to show draperies and pillows to
best advantage. Six live color commercials
for Royal Bank are done each week on the
11 p.m. news.
-
-
Two other color commercial advertisers
recently completed schedules
live V. C.
Glass Co. commercials for Mohawk carpets,
and film commercials in the "Northwest
Passage" series for RCA color TV sets,
with local dealer tags.
Techniques of airing color commercials,
WAVE-TV Production Department has
found, are not basically different from
FIG. 9.
Typical color commercial produced by WAVE -TV.
those for black- and-white commercials, but
there are a number of departures which
color has brought.
off. Approximately fifty per cent more lighting is required for color. All scenery sets
have been repainted for color. Frequently
colorful objects are added to brighten up
plain sets, for example, sports scoreboards
now use team insignia in color.
The results in monochrome as well as
color must be kept in mind when planning.
Clothing, for example, should not have two
pastel shades together, or be in a hard
finish, or be all- white -else both the color
and black -and -white pictures are thrown
The clients that have used it, report that
color adds to the effectiveness of their
commercials.
WAVE Farm Program
WAVE, Inc. owns and operates a farm at
Worthington, Ky., 13 air miles from the
studios. The farm is used to demonstrate
all phases of farm operation each Saturday,
from noon to 1 p.m. This is often done in
cooperation with the University of Kentucky and Purdue University Colleges of
Agriculture.
The farm is no show place, but an effifarmer's
cient, practical working farm
farm. For many years it has produced
sheep, beef and dairy cattle, hogs, poultry,
alfalfa, corn, wheat, barley oats, bluegrass,
orchard grass and fescue. For the farm
telecasts, the important crop of tobacco has
been added.
In scope, FARM includes all categories
of interest and value to farmers: Soils, machinery, buildings, fertilizers, insecticides,
chemicals, livestock, crops, feed. Also home
living and other subjects that concern the
farmer in his everyday living.
-a
40
The reason for FARM, and the producing farm that WAVE -TV operates, is to
serve as completely as possible the station's
large farm audience. Within this Kentucky Southern Indiana area there are more than
150,000 farms with a population in excess
of half a million.
To telecast a normal farm program,
WAVE -TV uses two cameras. One is transported to the barns in the farmyard center
by means of a specially constructed sled,
hauled by a tractor. The second camera,
equipped with a Zoomar lens, is moved
about the farm in a small pick -up truck
for covering the day's activities. Farm director, farm manager and the program's announcer travel by jeep from point to point.
In the farmyard center, technicians have
constructed a central tv studio, with control
panels, heavy wire for the electric load,
and floodlights as well as sky light for bet-
ter lighting. This studio is 30 feet wide and
45 feet long and has large sliding doors on
both sides of the building, making it easy
for animals and large equipment to enter
and leave the studio. Hinged doors at either
end of the building permit the maximum
amount of natural light to enter. The studio
floor is partly concrete and partly crushed
rock, the concrete strip allowing the camera
to move evenly.
The station's mobile remote unit handles
switching and camera control at the farm.
One of the farm's silos is used as a microwave -relay tower to send the signal back
to the studios.
In August, 1962, WAVE added a 500 acre tract for use in its TV Farm Show.
This tract will be used in connection with
a model automated cattle -feeding operation,
now under construction.
FIG. 10. Microwave antenna is mounted
on silo at farm for link with TV studio.
FIG. 11.
FIG. 12. One TV camera is moved about the
farm in a pick -up truck to follow the actions.
FIG. 14.
Farm program is produced live at stations own livestock raising and producing farm.
Entire program is done live. Commercials
and announcements are integrated into the program.
FIG. 13.
Demonstrations include methods for raising chickens to become big. healthy profitably marketable poultry.
41
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Technical Equipment
Facilities
by WILBUR HUDSON
Chief Engineer
The
layout of the studios, control rooms,
and technical facilities in the new building
for WAVE and WAVE -TV were a culmination of years of planning on the part of the
engineering staff, seemingly endless hours
of discussion with other departments, and
visiting of new plants.
The WAVE, Inc. Board of Directors had
determined that WAVE -TV would go to
full color -live, film, tape, and, of course.
NBC network. Not only has this been accomplished, but room for future expansion
has also been provided.
No Master Control
WAVE stayed away from a master TV
control. There are two control points, one
WAVE -TV Chief Engineer Wilbur Hudson (standing) at audio console with Louis Lau, per.
sonnet supervisor. This dual console is one of a long list of equipments designed and constructed by
the WAVE engineering department. Panel at left makes possible switching any one of six microphones
to the input of each BA -21A preamp. The output of the mixers feed into BA-23A program amplifiers.
FIG. 16.
being a booth from which both studios can
be visually observed. This is the main control point. Four outputs of the 12 by 6
relay switcher appear at this point, as well
as remote control of film, video tape, and
audio. This booth is soundproofed from
the equipment area-which is the second
control point.
Facilities in the equipment area are a
duplication of those in the main control
booth, with the exception that the remainWAVE -TV equipment room, showing
audio switching console, two TIC-31, ani three
TIC -11 camera controls. Also power supplies. video
switching console, and film controls. At far right
is TAT-1A TV Tape Recorder, with color monitor.
This area is used as a secondary control point
during taping and rehearsals.
FIG. 18.
FIG. 17. WAVE -TV engineer Norman Preston at video switching position, which controls two of outputs from switcher. Panel in front is a duplicate of that in studio control booth. Most TV taping is
handled from this control point.
tent machinist. The two audio consoles are
typical products of the shop. They are
specifically designed to provide the features
needed without having a number of leftover features not needed. These consoles
use BA -21A, BA-23A and BA -24A amplifiers, around which the switching system is
designed. They are dual- channel consoles,
which adds to their versatility. Push button microphone selection makes 36 microphones available to either console without
patching.
Training and Maintenance
The shop has been a valuable asset in
many ways, one of which we are more
cognizant each day, in training good personnel. After a man has built or modified
complicated TV equipment and lined it up
and gotten the "bugs" out, he has a pretty
good idea of the why and wherefore of
each circuit and has become somewhat of
an expert in keeping it working.
In order to keep equipment well maintained, it is quite obvious a complete line
of test equipment must be available. This
has been acquired, and a regular schedule
of maintenance sees that the overall system
is well within tolerance.
Personnel, Scheduling, Training
ing two outputs of the 12 by 6 relay
switcher appear here. Also in the equipment
area are the 6 black and white camera
controls.
This equipment area encompasses 950
square feet. Thirty standard BR -84 racks
house equipment. The TRT -1A TV Tape
Recorder is located here also.
All equipment wiring is through a slot
in the floor into wire baskets on the ceiling of the basement. This one feature has
proven its worth in accommodating necessary changes.
WAVE -TV film projector room, showing
TK -26 3 -V Color Film Camera, TP.6 16mm Projector, TP-15 Multiplexor, and random select projector
shooling into a periscope. Frcd Ray attends the
projector.
FIG. 19.
Film Room
Film is located in a room adjoining the
equipment area. Here are concentrated the
color controls for two live TK -41 Color
Cameras and one TK -26 3 -V Color Film
Camera, as well as a TK -21 Monochrome
Film Camera, and two TP -16 16mm Film
Projectors, TP -7 Slide Projector, and
TP -15 Multiplexer.
Custom Equipment
A considerable amount of equipment was
custom built in the model shop by WAVE
engineering personnel, and a very compeFIG. 20. WAVE -TV color control equipment for
two TK-9I Live Color Cameras and one TK -26 3 -V
Color Film Camera. Engineer Jim Gardner is at
the controls.
44
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Three engineers and a supervisor handle
the complete television transmitter schedule. These men are regularly assigned to
this job. Twenty -four full -time and two
part -time engineers, along with two supervisors, handle all work at the studio, (AM
and TV) and maintenance. One of the
supervisors schedules all studio personnel.
WAVE, Inc. trains its engineers for the
utmost versatility and flexibility. Most of
the studio personnel will, during a month,
work as cameraman, video man, TD, audio,
(both AM and TV), be on a TV remote
crew, and also handle some film and slides,
as well as maintenance and possibly some
new construction.
Many of these men can do one job better
than another. This is known to the scheduling supervisor and he endeavors to put
round pegs in round holes. However, it is
necessary for everyone to be able to do a
creditable job on anything- should it be
necessary to re- assign him. For instance,
sickness or vacation at the TV transmitter
requires sending a replacement from the
studio. We have several men who are qualified transmitter men. Incidentaly every
WAVE engineer holds a first class license.
FIG. 21. Roy Parris at audio console in studio control room. Its duplicate of
control in equipment room. Both were built by WAVE -TV. All amplifiers are
housed in cubicle under console. At left is RT -7A Cartridge Tape unit.
It becomes obvious that careful engineer
scheduling is required in order to have men
available at the proper times and proper
places, to assure efficient and economical
operation.
WAVE AM Operations
Programs originate in two studios and an
announce booth, totaling 895 square feet.
The largest studio is approximately 28 by
22 feet. Two separate control rooms and an
equipment room total 490 square feet. Dual
channel consoles in each control room along
with BQ -2A Turntables and a number of
tape recorders furnish the necessary tools
for production and airing WAVE programs.
FIG. 22. WAVE -TV control booth. Robert Russell at video switcher. Panel between
two TM -6 monitors contains controls for film and slide projectors. Other controls include
genlock, network level, stab -amp, and video switcher outputs. Camera monitors are on
overhead shelf. Narrow window allows vision into both studios 1 and 2 for director.
WAVE -TV's Type TAT -IA Color TV Tape Recorder. AI
H. B. Holtman, assistant chief engineer; at right Robert Roth,
FIG. 24.
FIG. 23.
WAVE -TV Model Shop. Here most of custom con-
soles were built under supervision of machinist Paul Raible.
left
maintenance supervisor.
4
rf
FIG. 26. Note camera atop the brick wall set,
used for overhead shots of weekly amateur boxing.
TV Studio No. 1 is 45 by 65 feet with cyclorama permanent
kitchen built-in and facilities for color and monochrome production.
FIG. 25.
TV Studios
Studio No. 1 is 65 by 45 feet with 22foot ceiling height. Walls and ceilings are
covered with a 2 -inch blanket of glass wool
which, in turn, is covered with white muslin. Over this is stretched
-inch mesh
chicken wire to protect it from damage.
This is satisfactory and efficient acoustical treatment. Floors of the studio are
smooth concrete with a special hardening
agent added to the concrete to retard dust.
4
FIG. 27. WAVE-TV robot camera, focused here
on Newscaster Livingston Gilbert, has lights in
front and rear to cue the remaining time. This
camera is remotely controlled by video operator.
A sound lock from this studio to the
prop
room makes possible bringing
in cars,
trucks, boats, and other large items for
live display.
Two lighting rails on either side of the
studio run the full length. On these are
transverse rails 12 feet long, on which
pantographs holding the fixtures are placed.
This mobile system of lighting makes possible good lighting of sets, as the lights move
with ease on the tracks.
After seeing lighting tubs in use at other
stations, we have designed a version with
four 1000 watt bulbs per tub. These will
replace some of our present scoops on
pantographs and will be equally versatile.
We are of the opinion this "tub" type light
will make possible flat, even light for color,
with a lot less effort. Those working under
the lights prefer this type lighting to scoops
and spots, as it is easier on the eyes, and
makes reading a prompter much easier.
TV Studio No. 2 is 36 by 25 feet and
treated in the same manner as Studio 1.
Both studios are equipped for color and
monochrome television productions.
Prop Area
Storage of props becomes a problem of
considerable dimension. We feel this is
under control at WAVE -TV, as we provided 6300 feet of storage adjacent to the
studio. A ramp makes possible delivery
trucks driving into the prop area, when
necessary, and also is used to bring in other
large props for telecasts. Another 15,000
square feet of space is available in the
basement for dead storage.
FIG. 28. TV Studio No. 2. 26 by 35 feet, Is equipped for monochrome and color TV.
46
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Air Conditioning for
New Building and
Color TV
by BERNIE HOLTMAN
Assistant Chief Engineer
3.
4.
5.
6.
It
was desired to have an efficient refrigeration system, requiring a minimum of
maintenance and capable of rapid start -up
during unseasonable warm spells that occur
in Louisville during the winter months. In
order to achieve this, coupled with low
operating cost, and a measure of emergency
back -up capability, the following features
were included:
1.
7.
8.
Radio studios & control
rooms, newsroom
Music, film editing,
lounge, dressing rooms,
lobby
TV control, equipment
& projection rooms
General offices
Art & props, carpentry &
machine shop, electronic
shop and storage
Future expansion area
5,620 CFM
4,590 CFM
3,660 CFM
7,470 CFM
3,860 CFM
4,000 CFM
allows constant static drop across the filters
which maintains system balance, and eliminates periodic manual changing and disposition problems of throw-away filters. It
has been trouble-free and economical.
Electronic Controls
Each fan -coil unit feeds a hot deck and
a cold deck, which feed supply ducts to the
individual rooms. Each supply duct has a
mixing damper which proportions the air
from each deck, driven by a transistorized
motor assembly controlled by a room
Individual fan -coil air handling units.
eight in all, for various zones in the
building.
FIG. 29.
Compressor -Condenser-Chiller System.
Six 30 h.p. compressors are associated with two
800,000 B.T.U. chillers. three compressors to each
chiller. System No. 1 feeds treated water at 45 F
through a closed circuit to the TV areas of the
building. System No. 2 feeds the rest of the
building.
Each compressor has its individual air cooled condenser on the roof. No cooling tower is
used. Each condenser has two 48-inch fans, belt
driven by one 3 h.p. motor. This system eliminates
the problems of corrosion, algae control, water
and sewer-tax costs, freeze -up protection.
FIG. 30.
-
thermostat. The stat sensing element is a
coil of high- temperature -coefficient wire,
which is an arm of a bridge circuit. Room
temperature is controlled by a variable resistor. There are 47 individual transistormotor controlled zones divided among the
eight air handling systems.
The temperature of the hot and cold
decks of the zone units are controlled by
2. Roll -type
media filters for each fan -
coil unit.
3. Six compressors, each with an air-
cooled refrigerant condenser.
4. Two identical chillers, each with a
chilled water circulating pump.
5. All
electronic control system.
Air Handling Units
The bulding is divided in to eight zones,
each having its separately- controlled fan/
coil unit:
TV Studio No.
1
15,500 CFM
2. TV Studio No.
2
9,750 CFM
1.
Each of the eight zones has its own outside air intake and exhaust ducts, chilled
and hot water coils, and control system.
When a given zone is not occupied, its fan
is turned off, thus reducing the overall load
from the compressors or boiler. There is a
central control panel in the electronic shop,
as well as individual control stations.
outside air, acting through tube -type amplifiers upon electric positioning motors which
control circulating water valves and air
dampers. Maximum use of outside air is
made for cooling, through "economizer"
duct and damper arrangements, before refrigeration is called for. The controls for
both heating and cooling throughout the
building are all -electronic, no air cornpressor, tubing or pneumatic devices being
employed.
Roll -Type Filters
Color TV Studio
The air filter in each fan -coil unit is of
the roll -media type which automatically
changes the filter media through the use
of timer -controlled motors. A roll of media
lasts from one to two years and the rate of
change can be varied at will. This system
The TV studio air conditioning was designed with ducts and grilles sized to handle a future heat load expected to be 50
watts per square foot for color, but with
present refrigeration and blower capacity
of 30 watts per square foot. It was found
47
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that the 30 watt capacity was adequate
when color operation commenced, using the
4415/16 image orthicons in the color cameras, with light levels of 250 to 400 foot candles.
AM Radio Transmitter
In 1933, WAVE went on air with power
of 1000 watts from a 239 -ft. tower atop
the Brown Hotel. Power was increased to
5000 watts in 1940 and operations were
transferred to the new transmitter building
in Jeffersonville. Indiana. In June 1955,
WAVE installed a Type BTA -5H 5KW
High Fidelity AM Transmitter, which is
currently being employed. The older transmitter, with RCA Type 250 -K exciter and
-G Amplifier, is being used for standby
1
and Conelrad operation.
A brick structure 41 by 30 feet houses
radio transmitting equipment. Two towers
250 -foot high are arranged for day and
night patterns. The transmitter equipment
is remotely controlled for both daytime
and night operations.
TV Transmitter
In 1953, WAVE -TV switched to Channel 3 with ERP of 100,000 watts, operating from a new 600-foot tower at Bald
FIG. 31. AM radio transmitter building in Jef-
fersonville, Ind. Note 2 -tower array, at right and
left. For normal operation, transmitter is remotely
controlled from downtown Louisville studio.
FIG. 32. WAVE Radio transmitter room with
BTA -SH Transmitter. Two cubicles on left house
phasing units for day and night patterns. An
older transmitter (not seen) serves as standby.
WAVE -TV transmitter site 500 feet
above Louisville. The tower and TF -6AL Antenna
overall height are 600 feet. The location, Bald
Knob, Indiana, is the highest site in the Louisville
area for television towers.
FIG. 33.
Knob, Indiana (north of New Albany) on
a hill 1000 feet above sea level. This move
together with the power boost increased
WAVE -TV's coverage by over 65 per cent.
The transmitter building has been designed for maintenance -free operation. It
is a small 35 by 60 -foot all -aluminum structure. Operation is efficient and economical.
For example, exhausted hot air from transmitter equipment is piped back to heat the
building.
An RCA Type TT -25BL 25KW TV
Transmitter is used in combination with a
100 -foot Type TF -6AL 6 -Bay Superturnstile Antenna with 6.7 gain to achieve effec48
www.americanradiohistory.com
mobile unit. Back at the studio a rotatable
antenna is employed to receive signals from
this mobile unit.
IIIIIIIIII
Itttt11111
llllllfltl
111111tIII
17
At the studio, in the courtyard of the
new building, a 135 -ft. tower supports two
microwave dishes. One is used for receiving
signals from the farm and the other from
the mobile unit. A passive reflector on the
tower is used for transmitting the video
signal from the rooftop dish on downtown
Louisville building to the transmitter at
Bald Knob
distance of 10 air line miles.
III tIitt
-a
4
WAVE-TV Type TT -25BL TV Transmitter,
located atop Bald Knob, north of New Albany,
Indiana. Bob Dickerson is at the controls.
FIG. 34.
tive radiated power of 100 kilowatts. The
600 -foot tower is located on a hill which
is 914 feet above average terrain.
Microwave System
WAVE-TV has installed four microwave systems. Between studios and transmitter, A TVM -1A RCA 1 watt 7000 me
system is the regular channel. In addition,
a standby system of 10 watts on 2000 me
is available.
Between studio and the farm, an RCA
0.1 watt system is installed. At the farm.
camera cables and video cables are installed
on overhead messengers so that programming to and from the mobile unit can be
accomplished with ease. Also. on occasions
the fourth microwave system (portable)
is used in a double hop to program from
remote areas of the farm.
The portable microwave system is used
in conjunction with the WAVE -TV remote
FIG. 35. WAVE -TV transmitter
room, showing the control
desk and racks of input and
monitoring equipment.
4
Self- supporting 135 -ft.
microwave tower. Note two receiving dishes on platform -one
fixed, and one rotatable. The reflector handles a 7000 me STL
microwave and also a 2000
me STL, both with roof- mounted
antennas.
FIG. 36.
FIG. 37. An RCA STL microwave unit is adjusted by
Robert Roth, maintenance and
equipment supervisor in Louisville studio building. Rotatable antenna on tower is also
controlled here.
49
WRVA INSTALLS NEW
RADIO FACILITIES
Virginia's Most Powerful Voice Rings Loud and
50 -KW Ampliphase Transmitter
Clear From New
by R. W. RAABE, Chief Engineer
WRVA -Radio began broadcasting with a
1000 watt transmitter in 1925 as the highest powered station in Virginia. A typical
community operation, it presented programs representative of religious, civic, cultural and entertainment life of the South.
Owned and operated by Larus and Brother
Company, its policy was stated by the late
William T. Reed, Sr., then President, at
the dedication, "To render service to Richmond and Virginia."
Today, still Virginia's most powerful radio station, WRVA is now more powerful
and clearer than ever thanks to its new
RCA BTA -50H 50 -kw AM Ampliphase
Transmitter, and the new BTF-20D 20 -kw
FM Transmitter, with an effective radiated
power of 200 kw.
FIG. 1. A down -the -front view of the new RCA 50H with
the old 50 kw transmitter in the background on the other
side of the front -to -rear center corridor of the building. The
exhaust duct exits through the upper half of a window
The two new transmitters are housed in
a picturesque colonial mansion set upon a
bluff overlooking the historic James River
some 50 miles up stream from Jamestown,
the first permanent English settlement in
America.
Together, these two new transmitters occupy less space than required to house the
old 50 -kw transmitter, which is now used as
a stand -by unit.
Because of their modern, compact design,
the new RCA transmitters were installed
without the necessity of making any alterations to the existing 50 -kw veteran of 23
years, or additions to the existing building.
Program Services
I'hrough the years, the station has broadcast from 72 of Virginia's 98 counties and
from 28 of its 34 cities. In the early years.
it began broadcasting services of the Old
at this end of the transmitter. A 30 -inch fan at the exhaust point is provided to permit additional air movement
during the hottest summer days. With this arrangement
there is always more than adequate cooling available.
50
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------- - - - --1
__
.......rñ..
w. a.n+.u+.w..+,..-
_.-
----
; i'
--
r.i
WRVA -Radio transmitter building of Colonial architecture and re-enforced
concrete and brick construction throughout overlooks the historic lames River.
FIG. 2.
Dominion's churches and has continued
this down through the years. In its list of
services to education, WRVA -Radio is
proud of its "School Closing Notices"
broadcast each winter. Superintendents
from county and school districts are assigned new codes each fall so that they may
call the station when the snows come to
have their schools officially closed by the
station.
iors vieing for University of Richmond
scholarships.
High on its list of services to the people
of Virginia is its service to Virginia farmers.
A survey by the Virginia State Department
of Agriculture revealed that WRVA -Radio
was the top-ranked station by the State's
farm population when it came to tuning
in farm market reports, farm weather
reports, etc.
In its service to youth, the station originated the program "Scholarship Quiz"
which featured, annually, a 13 -week broadcast-visit to Virginia high schools with sen-
Three Power Sources
The three high -voltage transformers for
the BTA -50H are mounted in the basement
of the transmitter building directly beneath
3.
Immediately below the new RCA 50H, in the basement, is mounted the switch gear associated with the transmitter. To the left of this are the three high voltage transformers enclosed within a
heavy wire grating. Mounting this switch gear in the basement has proven entirely practical since
the necessity to manually operate these breakers is very rare.
FIG.
Alden Aaroe. Director of WRVA
Special Services, at master control.
FIG. 4.
the transmitter. The additional switch gear
is mounted on the wall adjacent to the high
voltage transformer cage. Transformers for
the BTF -20D are stacked and also mounted
in the basement beneath the FM transmitter.
Power for the entire transmitter building
is furnished by any one of three sources.
The Virginia Electric and Power Company
has two services (from Richmond and
Williamsburg) brought to an automatic
changeover switch at the entrance to the
transmitter property. A 200 kw Cummins
diesel generator in an adjacent building is
on stand -by duty. Sufficient power can be
derived from the stand -by unit to operate
both transmitters at full power, plus all
auxiliary building services. This generator
is entirely automatic in operation thus reducing loss of air time in the event of commercial power failures.
Built-In Cooling
Both RCA transmitters are cooled by
internal blowers. The blowers are mounted
on the concrete floor inside their respective
units and the warm air is transmitted
through sheet metal ducts to the outside
of the building. Thermostatically controlled
louvres allow the use of some of this heat
to warm the working areas on the main
floor of the transmitter building.
FM Transmitter
WRVA -Radio is presently duplicating its
AM programming on FM with a 200 -kw
ERP signal. Since WRVA's 1B clear-channel pattern is a fulltime figure 8, the non directional FM pattern does an excellent
job of supplementing service in the null
areas of the AM service. To date, excellent
FM reception reports have been received
51
i
RCA
BTA
50H
% %.
I
I
I
I
//
% /%
%/
AM
AUXILIARY 50 KW ENCLOSURE
TRANSMITTER
CONTROL ROOM
50 KW
ANTENNA
PHASOR
DUMMY
SHOP AREA
4rAI
ANT
FIG. 5.
WRVA-Radio transmitter building floor plan.
in excess of 100 miles out. The FM transmitter is located in the same room with the
speech equipment for all three transmitters.
If, in the future, multiplex or stereo operation should be desired, the required
subcarrier generators can be added to the
BTF -20D very easily. No additional
changes would be required in either the
transmitter or antenna systems for the multiplex operation.
Formerly WRVA-Radio had a separate
FM transmitter located in the transmitter
building of WRVA -TV on the opposite side
of Richmond. The former FM unit was
operated by remote control from the station's Hotel Richmond studios. Under the
present setup, one engineer can take care of
all WRVA- Radio's transmitting facilities.
Antenna System
The AM antenna is directional, in order
to bring into its intensive signal coverage
the bulk of Virginia's population. The antenna system consists of two guyed 445 foot towers spaced 470 feet apart. The
ground system is composed of 120 radials
for each tower plus extended wires in given
FIG. 6. Transmitter Supervisor, Ted Chezik, at
new RCA 20D FM transmitter. Above the 20D,
note exhaust duct. This is equipped with booster
fans as a safety factor under extremely hot
weather conditions. With this arrangement, this
excellent FM transmitter is a very cool running
piece
52
www.americanradiohistory.com
of
equipment.
A problem was solved by bringing harmonic filters of BTF -20D FM Transmitter across
control room ceiling and through wall as shown.
Line lengths were accurately laid out so both
would be equal. The lines lead to wall- mounted
diplexer where outputs of two 10 -kw amplifiers
are combined. Below diplexer is a water -cooled
7.5.kw load, which comes into play in event a
l0.kw amplifier needs servicing. This is accomplished automatically and keeps the FM signal
on the air without interruption with 50 kw ERP.
FIG. 7.
The two 445-foot towers with a full -time
figure eight pattern delivers a signal to the north.
west which includes the metropolitan population
cf Richmond. The other lobe delivers its signal to
the southeast which includes the heavily populated Tidewater area. The new RCA 50H trans
mitter has done much to improve WRVA's AM
service to these large audiences.
FIG. 8.
WRVA diesel electric set rated at 250 KVA. This generator can
operate new ampliphase and FM transmitters at full output plus all auxiliary building and lighting equipment. It is entirely automatic in operation.
FIG. 10.
FIG. 9. The RCA BFA -12A center-fed antenna is corner mounted
on one of 445 -foot AM towers. At
the bottom of the FM antenna the
transmission line can be seen as
it swings into the tower. From
this point the line is supported at
the cross bracing that carries the
ladder, making the line readily
accessible for inspection.
FIG. 11. WRVA 50 -kw dummy antenna with covers removed. showing
a special matching network on the left with the water -cooled dummy load
on the right. This equipment was specifically designed by RCA for WRVA.
53
$VA-A,ADIO
ROO
RUMS
5TATIO.
PREMIER
500001MTT5-440
NC
SAPA FM 94.5 MC
YICMlIOMD
FIG. 13.
FIG. 12. The FM transmission line drops out of
AM tower and tied into ground system. The bottom quarter -wave section of line is suspended by
specially designed hangers insulating this section
from AM tower. Tuning of stub is accomplished
by adjusting movable strap connecting transmission line to tower at quarter -wave point. The hori.
zontal portion of the line runs out a distance of
forty feet then enters the ground. From this point
to transmitter building line is buried well below
frost line. The AM lines are also buried in this
manner. The shield over the line protects it from
falling ice. Two Austin transformers are shown.
One supplies current for heating elements of
BFA 12- section antenna. Heaters turn on automatically at low heat when temperature at ground
level reaches a low of 40F.
directions to neutralize certain adverse
ground attenuation conditions. Approximately 225,000 feet of wire is buried in the
100 -acre transmitter site.
The Type BFA 12 -bay FM antenna is
side mounted on one of the AM towers.
Isolation of the FM and AM signals is ac-
WRVA mobile radio unit Is
a familiar sight
complished by the use of a stub tuned to
the AM frequency. This stub is formed by
the AM tower and the 3%s inch FM transmission line, tuning of the stub being done
by a movable jumper between the FM
transmission line and the AM tower approximately a quarter -wave up the tower.
This method of AM and FM isolation has
proven to be simple and effective, requiring
no isolation coils or tuning capacitors. Both
transmission lines to the transmitter building are buried well below the frost line.
The AM tuning houses contain matching
networks for normal operation, single -tower
operation, or Conelrad operation in order
to cover emergency situations. A common
phasing unit feeds either 50 kilowatt transmitter to the antenna system. A water cooled dummy antenna permits testing the
50 -kw transmitter not on the air. Any
combination of antenna and dummy load
requirement is available by push button
switching. The normal transfer time from
one AM transmitter to the other requires
only three seconds. This switching system
was designed and installed by the station's
engineering staff.
in and around Richmond, Va.
FM Operating Plus
Since the BTF -20D is designed with 10kw output amplifiers, loss of air time is
diminished. Should trouble occur in either
of the amplifiers the other remains on the
air automatically. This is accomplished by
the use of a 7.5 kw dummy load at the
base of the diplexer where the output of
the two amplifiers is combined. Should one
of the amplifiers fail, the dummy automatically comes into play presenting the proper
load for the remaining amplifier. All this
occurs with no perceptible break in the
program other than a power reduction
which, due to the limiter action in the receiver, is hardly noticeable.
Custom Installation
The advances made in transmitter design
by RCA has made it possible to do 95 per
cent of the installation during normal working hours. The entire technical installation
was accomplished by the station's engineering staff. WRVA engineers have, in addition, installed nearly every conceivable
emergency arrangement to insure uninterrupted 24 hour service for all listeners.
STATION STAFF
(left to right)
WILLIAM R. PRESTON
Vice-President. Radio and TV
Lares & Brother Co.. Inc.
JOHN B. TANSEY
General Manager
WRVA-Radio
RUDOLPH W. RAABE
Chief Engineer
WRVA-Radio
54
www.americanradiohistory.com
TELEVISION TOWER
IN GEORGIA IS WORLD'S
TALLEST STRUCTURE
WRBL -TV and WTVM With RCA Antennas
Atop 1749 -Foot Tower
Cover 25,000 Square Mile Area
Piercing the sky 1749 feet above the
Georgia pinewoods, a needle -like TV tower
-now the tallest man -made structure in
the world
beaming television programs
of WTVM and WRBL -TV, Columbus,
Georgia, to an area of more than 25,434
square miles.
-is
WTVM operates on Channel 9 and is
owned by Martin Theaters of Georgia, Inc.
of which Mr. C. L. Patrick is Executive
Vice President. Channel 3 WRBL -TV is
owned by Columbus Broadcasting Com-
NEW TV TOWER 1749 FT.-
EMPIRE
STATE
pany. J. W. Woodruff is president and
general manager.
Coverage Area Multiplied
To pinpoint the Georgia-Alabama border
with the world's tallest landmark was not
the only vision of the management of the
two stations which began operation in
1960 sharing a 1260 -foot TV tower. Extending the structure last summer to almost
a third of a mile high widened the transmission range for telecasts to reach many
viewers in distant areas for the first time.
Clear pictures are now being reported as far
south as the Gulf of Mexico, and west to
Montgomery, Alabama. Reception in Atlanta and Macon, Georgia, has greatly
improved.
RCA Prime Contractor
Design, fabrication and erection of the
215 -ton structure was subcontracted by
RCA to Stainless, Inc., North Wales, Pa.
BUILDING
1500 FT.
Bethlehem Steel Company supplied most
of the tower steel as well as the six miles
of guy- strand cables which hold the tower
in position. Erection was initially performed
by J. M. Hamilton, Inc., Gastonia, N. C.
and the tower extension was performed by
Furr and Edwards, Rome, Georgia.
EIFFEL
TOWER
1000 FT.
IÌ
FIG. 1. Comparison of world's tallest tower to
other famous structures.
Original Tower Extendable
Prior to construction of the new tower
the TV antennas of WTVM and WRBLTV were supported by a 1000 -foot, triangular tower ten feet wide on each face.
This special tower exceeded the structural specifications of ordinary TV towers
of this height; it was designed to allow
additional sections that would ultimately
support the antennas at a height of 1760
feet above ground at wind velocities up
to 110 mph, (50 -pound wind loading).
FIG. 2. Full-length view of the WRBL -TV /WTVM
tower with Inset showing two antennas at top.
55
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Aerial view of the world's tallest structure as the RCA Super -Turnstile Antenna was moved into place. Men on gin -pole indicate comparative size of antenna.
FIG. 3.
Use of an "extendable" tower such as
this was the key to substantial savings in
time and expense for the two stations. It
eliminated the work of dismantling an
otherwise inadequate tower, and replacing
it with one of suitable design.
Tubular materials are used throughout
the entire structure.
High Gain TV Antennas
At the summit of the structure is a
stacked TV antenna and lighting beacon
assembly 260 feet in length and weighing
ten tons.
The antennas consist of an RCA Type
TF -6AL Channel 3, 6-section Super -Turnstile and an RCA Mark II Super Gain
Channel 9, 18 -layer antenna. Members
supporting the antennas had to be designed and fabricated to rigid electrical and
and mechanical specifications.
56
Tower Extended Without Lost Air Time
Extension of the 1260-foot tower to the
new height of 1749 feet was completed
in less than two months, ahead of schedule,
and without loss of air time for either
station. Television transmission continued
during construction through two temporary antennas mounted from one side of
the original 1000 -foot tower. After erection of tower steel was completed, and the
permanent antennas relocated at the top
of the new tower, the temporary antennas
were removed.
Safety First
During construction the erection crew
ascended and descended the tower in a
temporary elevator car operated by cables
attached to the gin pole. For safety and
efficiency, constant voice communication
was maintained between the men on the
tower and those manning the lifting hoist
and tag lines on the ground.
FIG. 4. Looking up the tower between two of the
the four stacks of super -gain antennas.
Outrigging of Temporary Antennas
WRBL -TV's temporary antenna was a
Channel 3, RCA single- section Super
Turnstile which was mounted on the permanent structure with its center of radiation 850 feet above ground. The dual run
of 3jß -inch line leading to the original
RCA six-section Super -Turnstile Antenna
was disconnected at the 1,000 -foot elevation and, by means of an adaptor /transformer and elbows which formed a "U"
turn, was run back down the tower for a
distance of 160 feet. This co -ax was then
connected to the inputs of the single section antenna at the 841 -foot level.
The second temporary antenna, a Channel 9 Super-Turnstile, was installed on the
tower face with its center of radiation 804
feet above ground. The 6N -inch transmission line was then disconnected from the
Super Gain antenna and connected to the
standby antenna by means of an adaptor/
transformer, a 50/50 power -dividing tee.
and a 90- degree quadrature section.
Dismantling Original Antennas
After installation and check -out of the
temporary super-turnstiles on the side of
the 1000 -foot tower, the stations transferred to them and the two original antennas, plus a 15 -foot transition section
that couples the super -gain antenna to the
tower, were removed and lowered to the
ground to allow for tower extension.
Ground Assembly of Tower Sections
To support the antennas at the extended
height, the project required the addition
of 488 feet of steel to the existing 1000 -foot
tower. Sections of the triangular structure,
25 -feet in length, were fabricated at the
Stainless Pine Forge plant and shipped
knocked down by rail and truck to the
tower site. These lengths were then bolted
together on the ground ready for erection.
The gin pole was an auxiliary tower
section equipped with a rotating pulley at
the top. Bolted to the side of the main
tower, it was used together with a ground
lifting hoist and load line to hoist sections
to be bolted to the top of the structure.
As sections were joined, the gin pole was
raised 50 feet, until all 488 feet of tower
were added.
Relocating High Gain Antennas
The Mark II Super -Gain antenna and
the TF-6AL Super -Turnstile and light
beacon assembly, which attain a total
length of 261 feet, were then installed
successively at the top of the tower at an
elevation of 1488 feet. New sections of
Riggers used this temporary elevator car (tool basket) to
ascend and descend the tower during the extension of tower height.
FIG. 5.
57
transmission lines were installed through
the tower extension and connected to the
permanent antennas. After check -out, operations were transferred to the main antennas, the temporary antennas were
lowered. Following this, the new tower
sections were painted to complete the final
phase of construction.
WTVM
WRBL-TV
Pre -Stressed, Proof -Loaded Guys
A total of 24 guy cables are
installed
at eight levels in three azimuth directions.
utilizing two levels of existing guys with
added link extensions. Use of higher
strength, bridge- strand cable permitted a
reduction in the diameter of the guy, contributing to reduced wind and ice load. All
guys were equipped with open sockets for
connection to the tower, and with closed bridge sockets and tensioning adjustments
at the ground anchorages.
ATLANTA
e.
etMACON
]
/
Pivot -Base Design
As opposed to a fixed-type design, the
base of the 1749 -foot structure is "pinned"
by a pivot configuration which assures
even distribution of the 215 -ton load, and
eliminates any redundant moment at the
bottom of the tower.
FIG. 7.
GA.
COLUMBUS
GULF
OF
MEXICO
New TV tower extends telecasts west to Montgomery, Alabama. and south to the Gulf of Mexico.
FIG. 6.
Side view of tower and antennas showing guy attachments.
TF -6AL CHN. 3
ANTENNA
10
-0
-TOWER CROSS
MARK
II
SECTION
CHN. 9
ANTENNA
z
o
f
L
Drafman s drawing of two antennas
"slacked" atop the world's tallest tower.
FIG. 8.
58
www.americanradiohistory.com
4
Beside assuring even
distribution of load, the pivot
base design provides utmost
simplicity and clean access
lines at base of lower.
FIG. 9.
FIG. 11. Side- mounting of tem-
porary channel -9 antenna.
"Electronically" Designed Tower
The WTVM /WRBL -TV structure is
the 27th tall tower (over 1000 feet) to
be designed with the aid of a new electronic
computer installed at the subcontractor's
headquarters in North Wales, Pa.
Utilizing data such as moments, shears,
reactions, axial stress and deflections at
various guy levels, calculated and programmed by the subcontractor's engineering staff, the computer expedites the final
tower design and with much greater speed
and accuracy than heretofore possible.
TOWER LEG
2 -3g -COAX
LADDER
HAND RAIL
HFH
RCA
TOWER
LEG
TF- EAR
ANTENNA
SIDE MOUNTED
COAX
SUPPORT
ANGLES
FIG. 10. Tower log flanges are precision welded
for snug fit and ease of erection.
ELEVATION ABOVE BASE
773-
I
I
ANTENNA WORK PLATFORM
59
www.americanradiohistory.com
WRBL -TV OPERATING
CHANNEL 3 FROM WORLD'S
HIGHEST STRUCTURE
...
Increases Coverage From 37 to 66 Counties
Rising above the pinelands southeast of
Columbus (Ga.) is a steel, copper, glass
and plastic structure that is the tallest of
the monuments to man's ingenuity . . .
a slender, needle -like edifice that elevates
two television- transmitting antennas almost a third of a mile into the sky.
The beacon atop the Channel 3 superturnstile antenna of WRBL -TV . . the
is 1749 feet
"WeeReBeL" station
.
.
.
above ground.
WRBL -TV Management,
History and Other Data
Columbus Broadcasting Company, the
operator of WRBL-TV, WRBL-AM and
-FM, is a private corporation owned by
four interests: J. W. Woodruff, Sr., J. W.
Woodruff, Jr., J. Barnett Woodruff and the
R. W. Page Corporation. Columbus Broadcasting is the offspring of a merger between
the Woodruff-owned WRBL -AM and -FM
radio operations and the owners of the
Columbus Ledger-Enquirer newspaperpublishing organization.
WRBL -TV started operations in 1953,
with a seven -hour daily schedule, using a
studio and office building constructed for
the WRBL-AM and -FM operations during
1950. The building was enlarged and modified to accommodate the TV operation. A
CBS -TV affiliate since the first day of operation, network programming was delivered to Columbus via an air pickup of the
CBS affiliate in Atlanta at a site on Pine
Mountain, a peak 32 miles north of Columbus. Microwave formed the link between
WRBL and Pine mountain.
The trademark of WRBL -TV is a
caricature of a small boy, nattily attired in
a Confederate uniform, with the name
"WeeReBeL ". The George P. Hollingbery
Company serves as national sales rep.
FIG.
1.
Joe
Gamble, WRBL-TV's chief engineer, shown at the tower during construction.
60
www.americanradiohistory.com
City (Alabama). The de-intermixture proceedings of 1957 reassigned WRBL-TV to
Channel 3 and the present site went on the
air during 1960 using a 1000 -foot tower
to place the top of the antenna 1260 feet
above ground. WRBL -TV shared this
tower with WTVM, also of Columbus.
At the time of erection of the 1000 -foot
tower, the managements of both stations
anticipated an increase in tower height.
For this reason, the tower was designed
to be "ex- tendable" so that additional
height could be added later without obsolescence of the existing tower. (See "Television Tower In Georgia Is World's Tallest
Structure," page 55.)
The WRBL trademark . . a clever
device that communicates the stations' call
letters as well as Its geographic location.
FIG. 2.
.
WRBL -TV originally went on the air
as a Channel 4 station in 1953 with transmitter and antenna in downtown Columbus. During 1955, WRBL -TV went to full
power and moved its transmitter site
across the Chattahoochee River to Phenix
WRBL -TV Programming
As mentioned earlier, WRBL -TV serves
as the primary CBS -TV outlet in Columbus, however, WRBL -TV broadcasts much
local programming.
"At Home With Rozell", a morning program of primary interest to the housewife,
had its first airing in September, 1954 and
is still on the daily schedule.
Mrs. Rozell Fabiani, hostess of the program, has won many public-service awards
for her commercial contributions to the
television art. These awards include
McCall's Gold Mike Award (two consecutive years), the highest award given
women in the radio and television field.
Mrs. Fabiani also holds an honorary Life
Membership in the National Congress of
Parents and Teachers. In 1960, "At Home
With Rozell" won the second highest honor
in the Carol Lane Awards for Traffic
Safety Programs as a result of "Operation
Courtesy," a feature beamed to promote
traffic safety among high -school students.
The latest laurel bestowed on the program
is the top award in the television class of
the 1962 Grocery Manufacturers of
America Convention.
"Chattahoochee RFD ", a program for
the agricultural interests in the area won
the Georgia Farm Bureau Award as the
best program in the agricultural category.
"Colonel Chick and Bozo," obviously a
children's program, has a daily guest list
of local children. The program has been
a personality children's hour on WRBL -TV
since the first programming days of the
station back in 1953.
News and Public Affairs holds a respected place in the programming concept
of WRBL -TV. Under the able direction of
George Gingell, a news -corps of eight
people gather, prepare and present news
programming four times daily. The featurenews program in this schedule is "Evening
Edition" on the air for a full hour daily.
Dick McMichael serves as anchor man for
the program. A film sequence, entitled
"Pulsebeat ", presents human-interest features of local origin. It was conceived by
Jack Gibney.
FIG. 3. WRBL-AM -FM -TV Office and Studio Building at 1350 Thirteenth Avenue
in Columbus. Constructed in 1950 for WABL -AM and FM, the facility was
enlarged during 1953 to accommodate the TV operation. The tower in the background supports the microwave antenna for the STL (studio -to- transmitter) link.
61
Mr. J, W. Woodruff, it ", President and
General Manager of WRBL.AM.FM -TV. He has
served in this capacity since 1935 (WRBL -AM
went on the air in May, 1928).
FIG. 5.
affairs programming is under the talented
control of George Gingell.
FIG. 4. The "'Colonel Chick and Bozo" set.
The program puts local youngsters on camera during its daily late -afternoon time slot.
"Colonel Chick" is Charles "Chick" Autry and
"Bozo" is Jack Morin. Pictured with them are
local children.
Another segment of "Evening Edition"
station's daily
editorial. The voice of Opinion is that of
George Gingell. The sports report is handled by Walter Graham preceding the
weather report with Doug Wallace. Mr.
Wallace too, is an old hand at WRBL-TV,
for he's been giving the weather facts and
figures since those early days in late
November, 1953.
The set for - Evening Edition," a 45minute program that precedes Walter Cron
kite's world -and -national news program. From
left to right: George Gingell, Dick McMichael,
Doug Wallace and Walter Graham.
FIG. 6.
is "Personal Opinion ", the
Joe Gamble has served as chief engineer
since 1944. He and his staff supervised
and coordinated all installations of RCA
equipment in the company's AM -FM -TV
operations.
t.
In the sales department, George Jenkins
directs national sales while Robert Walton
serves as Local Sales Manager.
1,111
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7
wtif' r 41aï1{Fij
r4
As a wrap -up for "Evening Edition ",
WRBL-TV joins the CBS -TV network for
Walter Cronkite's early -evening world-andnational news report from New York.
"Evening Edition" is augmented by a
30- minute news program at 7:30 AM and
another at 11:00 PM. The mid -day news
occupies a 15- minute slot at 1:00 PM and
is edited to a great extent for the pre-
dominantly- female audience.
WRBL -TV People
Mr. J. W. Woodruff, Jr. has served the
company since 1935 as General Manager
(WRBL -AM went on the air during July,
1928 and WRBL -FM during September,
1946).
Ridley Bell serves as station manager
and director of operations; news and public
62
www.americanradiohistory.com
u
'-
... -Lar
....__
_
I
FIG. 7.
WRBL -TV Station Manager, Ridley Bell.
Indicating the high calibre of Columbus
Broadcasting Company management, fifteen employees have a service record of
ten years or more while an additional 23
have established service in excess of
five years.
Transmitter Equipment
WRBL's transmitter facilities are 100
percent RCA -equipped
AM, FM and
TV. The AM transmitter is a 5- kilowatt
BTA-5H operating on 1420 kc; the FM
facility is a BTF -3B transmitter coupled
to a BFA -8 antenna. The combination
delivers 21 kw effective radiated power.
FIG. 8.
...
The TV transmitter is a 25- kilowatt
TT -25CL transmitter while the antenna is
a six-section TF -6AL Super Turnstile. This
combination results in maximum power ...
100 kw ERP. WRBL-TV uses a TTC -5
Control Console with the transmitter.
WORK BENCH
AURAL RECTIFIER
RACK EQUIPMENT
AURAL PA
AURAL CONTROL
Studio Equipment
Three TK -31 Image Orthicon Cameras
serve WRBL -TV's "live" studio in the
pickup of the local programming mentioned
earlier.
New Antenna Height Increases
Coverage to 66 Counties
The additional 488 feet of tower height
lets the 100 -kw signal of WRBL reach
out to a 66- county area (estimated) that
includes Macon on the east, Albany on
the southeast, Dothan on the south and
Montgomery on the west, not to mention
the hundreds of smaller communities in the
WRBL -TV employs 25 -kw Type TT -25CL TV transmitter.
TTC
-5
AURAL
XFMR
CONTROL DESK
WTVM
TRANSMITTER
TT-6AL
DRIVER
PLANT
VISUAL
AFMR
rVISUAL CONTROL
BTF -3
LJ L -___.
VISUAL PA
B
FM TRANSMITTER
VISUAL RECTIFIER
J
¡
STORAGE CABINET
L__J
Alabama -Georgia countryside.
The Columbus TV market area has practically doubled since the increase in tower
height. Earlier, the market comprised only
37 counties as compared to the present
estimate of 66.
LIVING QUARTERS
WRBL's transmitter plant floor plan. The station shares the building as well as the tower.
Transmitter personnel live in the "front" part of the building.
FIG. 9.
63
FIG.
1.
E. D.
Martin, President, Martin Theaters
of Georgia, Inc.
FIG. 2.
Roy E. Martin, Jr., Vice President.
OPERATING CHANNEL 9 FROM
WORLD'S HIGHEST STRUCTURE
Now Serves as Far as Macon, Albany and
Montgomery with Unduplicated ABC Programming
In
1953, Columbus had a two TV- channel
allocation: 4 and 28. WDAK -TV went on
the air during October of that year using
Channel 28.
The de-intermixture proceedings of 1957
dissolved the Channel 28 allocation and
replaced it with Channel 9 from Dothan
(Ala.). The Columbus Channel -4 allocation went to Dothan and was replaced with
a Channel 3 assignment, which WRBL -TV
now occupies.
In 1957, Martin Theaters of Georgia
(Inc.) acquired full ownership of Channel
28 and changed the call to WTVM. Almost
immediately, plans were started to move
the station to Channel 9.
WTVM went on the air on Channel 9
during 1960, sharing a 1260 -foot tower
with WRBL-TV at a site 16% miles southeast of Columbus, near Cusseta, Ga.
WTVM Management
WTVM is a division of Martin Theaters
of Georgia, a privately -owned corporation
under the control of President E. D.
64
8.
WTVM film programming starts here. Herman Ragland loads the
Type TP -7 Slide Projector which works into the TP.11 Film Multiplexer. The
two 16 -mm projectors are TP-16 units. The pickup is via RCA vidicon camera.
FIG.
FIG. 3.
C. L. Patrick, Executive Vice President
FIG. 4.
Reeve Owen, V.P.
&
Gen.
Mgr..
WTVC,
Chattanooga, Tennessee.
FIG. 5.
Joe Windsor, WTVM General Manager.
Martin, Vice President Roy E. Martin and
Executive Vice President C. L. Patrick.
Martin Theaters also owns WTVC (Channel 9) in Chattanooga of which Reeve
Owen is Vice President and General Manager. Mr. Owen only recently transferred
to Chattanooga from WTVM and, as Vice
President and General Manager of the
Columbus operation, conceived and planned the combined operation of WTVM
and WRBL-TV.
Program control room at the downtown
studio. John Stikes (through glass) announcing;
Den Watson at switcher and Herman Ragland at
camera control unit.
FIG. 9.
FIG. 6.
Ted C. Short, WTVM Station Manager.
FIG. 7.
Charles Parrott, WTVM Chief Engineer.
65
r'y
"1
VISUAL CONTROL
VISUAL PA
WORK BENCH
VISUAL RECTIFIER
F,
II
TIC-5
-I
CONTROL DESK
I
WRBL -TV
TRANSMITTER
PLANT
I
I
r
TT -I I AH
DRIVER
1
JLJ
POWER
CONTROL
I
REGULATOR
U
RACK EQUIPMENT
AURAL CONTROL
AURAL PA
L
STORAGE CABINET
AURAL RECTIFIER
I
1
LIVING
QUARTERS
FIG. 10. WTVM shares the transmitter building with WRBL -TV.
This floor plan illustrates the roomy, well laid -out plant.
RCA TRT -1B TV Tape facility in the control room at the down
town studios. WTVM uses this recorder for commercial spots and programs.
FIG. 11.
One of the two r -f power amplifiers
located to the rear of the driver of the transmitter
(see FIG. 10). Primary -power switching device.;
on rear wall.
FIG. 13.
WTVM transmitter plant. In foreground is the TTC -5 Control Console. At far
background are the rectifier and control cabinets for the TT-25CH aural power amplifier.
FIG. 12.
66
www.americanradiohistory.com
FIG. 14.
Peter Cole, WTVM News Director, on the set for the
5- minute
newscast at 7:25 A.M.
Joe Windsor is now general manager of
WTVM with Charley Parrott serving as
chief engineer. Ted Short is station manager and Jack Poole is director of operations.
Network Service
As a result of the change in allocations
for the area, WTVM is the only primaryABC outlet between Atlanta to the north
and the Gulf of Mexico to the south and,
as such, the only station serving Macon,
Albany and the Columbus -Phenix City
area with an unduplicated Grade "B" television service.
WTVM's weekly schedule totals 12172
hours of air -time, 15 percent of which is
live programming.
Studios and Offices
in Downtown Columbus
Staffed by 38 full -time
employees,
WTVM occupies a three -story building
located at 1307 First Avenue. General
Manager Joe Windsor heads a management team with an average age of only
35 years . . . one of the reasons for
WTVM's great business success.
The pictures on these pages indicate the
quality of the facilities WTVM operates,
using the finest of broadcast equipment.
...
..
The transmitter driver
an RCA TT-11AH
.
which drives the TT -25CH power amplifiers. Making a
routine check is John Maxwell, resident engineer.
FIG. 15.
67
JACK LEITCH RETIRES
BROADCAST NEWS will never be quite the same.
Neither will the broadcasting industry -at least,
the technical side of it. For Jack Leitch has retired.
We couldn't believe it when he first told us. But
it's true -on June 1, he took down his ticket and
drove off to his seven acres of yard and garden.
It doesn't seem quite right. He's too young. He's
got more drive than men half his age. And he's
our favorite author. What will we do without him?
Not that he hasn't earned a little time off. When
we first met Jack -and that would have been
1930 or 1931 -he already had a considerable career behind him. He had
been a "wireless operator" in the
Army, traveled the world as a ship's
operator for Marconi and as Radio
Officer in the Merchant Marine, had
been a ship's radio inspector for RCA
and then a Federal Radio Inspector.
He was "RI" in the Philadelphia office
from 1924 to 1928, as many an early
broadcaster will well remember. Not
the least of these was Dr. Leon Levy,
then joint owner and General Manager of WCAU. And that led to Jack's
appointment in 1929 as Chief Engineer of WCAU.
It was early in the game (the total
income of all the broadcasting stations on the air in 1929 was less than
1963 John G. Leitch who as chief
engineer, technical supervisor, technical
$30 million). But Jack Leitch and Dr.
director and vice president directed the
Levy had a vision of the years to
technical planning and operation of the
WCAU stations from 1929, until his re.
come -and they were determined to
lirement on June 1, 1963.
make WCAU the best equipped station
in the country.
By 1931 (when BROADCAST NEWS came on
the scene), they were in the midst of installing an
RCA 50-B Transmitter in what was probably the
world's first truly modern transmitter building.
With it went a 500 -foot, guyed, vertical radiator
(the second in the country). At the same lime
they were putting the finishing touches on a
9 -story studio building on Chestnut Street in
downtown Philadelphia. It was the bottom of the
depression -but WCAU was building for the
future. They spared no expense, cut no corners,
demanded the best and newest in equipment.
Among other things Jack Leitch insisted that
he must have something better than condenser
microphones. To meet his demand we brought
from the laboratory the velocity microphone on
which Dr. Olson was just completing his work.
Thus WCAU became the first station to be
equipped with the famous 44A Microphone
the microphone which was to be preeminent for
a decade -and which in new versions is still first
choice for fine studio sound pickup.
To go with the velocity microphones Jack demanded -and got -the first large- scale, all -a.c.operated studio equipment installation. He also
got the first RCA transcription turntables, the first
-
68
custom -built audio control -consoles and
many other innovations which were to set the
trend in studio equipment design for two decades.
RCA
All of this happened at just the time we were
starting BROADCAST NEWS. So it was not surprising that we turned to WCAU for material to
fill our pages. Certainly proximity, and the happy
coincidence that WCAU was using mostly RCA
equipment had something to do with it. But
mostly it was because we were so tremendously
impressed with what WCAU was doing -and the
way Jack Leitch was doing it.
Thus it was that there appeared in the April
1933 issue of BROADCAST NEWS-which was
then just seven issues old -a detailed, and beautifully illustrated article describing the glossy new
studios of WCAU (see opposite page). It was
the first of the "long" station stories which
were to become the hallmark of our magazine.
And it was a wondrously happy choice, for
the new WCAU studios turned out to be the
finest that had ever been built -and, although
some studios built later may have come close,
none ever managed to surpass WCAU, in appearance, in spaciousness, in facilities or in convenience of arrangement.
In the past thirty years we have visited hundreds of stations the country over -but none, we
think, have matched those early WCAU studios
for sheer beauty. Their glass and stainless steel
motif would be considered "modern" today -in
1932, it was out of the then world. The studio
wall designs and murals were personally done
by John Vassos. In fact we first met John dressed
in a smock and beret, (he won't like us for that)
up on a ladder painting a mural in WCAU's
Studio C.
But what would most surprise today's young
squirts would be the size of those studios. There
were seven of them (not counting an auditorium
studio added later). The largest was 55 by 32
feet by 23 feet high. Two others were nearly as
large. Even the smallest (22 feet by 12 feet) was
large by today's standards. Just imagine that,
kids -and all of it just for radio!
It paid off. WCAU became as successful as it
was striking. And as the station grew in prestige,
Jack Leitch broadened his activities and became
one of the technical leaders of the industry. He
worked with Leopold Stokowski in perfecting the
technique of symphony pickups-and built for
the irascible orchestra leader a novel, light -beam
volume indicator. He developed a workable electronic organ. He and his engineers installed the
first sound -reinforcing systems for Robin Hood
Dell in Philadelphia and Lewisohn Stadium in
New York. Not infrequently RCA engineers called
on him to test and evaluate new ideas and equipments. For example, many of the field measurements which Dr. G. H. Brown used to check his
WCAU A Modern
Monument
to the Art of Broadcasting
1933 Feature story of BROADCAST
NEWS No. 7, April 1933, was Jack Leitch's
14 -page story describing the new studio
building of WCAU. Replete with many
photographs and drawings it set a pattern
for future station stories.
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1949 Feature story of BROADCAST
NEWS No. 54, April 1949, was a 22 -page
story by Mr. Leitch describing the conversion of the earlier radio studios for TV use.
Like the previous story it became a primer
11. AI
for other stations making similar plans.
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-
1953 Feature story of BROADCAST
NEWS No. 72. January- February 1953, was
this 26 -page story describing the plant that
Jack built to house all of WCAU's radio
and TV activities. Probably the finest and
most detailed story of this type ever published anywhere it completed a remarkable
triology of one station's progress.
WCAU's NEW
Philadelphia Bulletin Stations' New Studio
Building Features Functional Dsign and
Complete Inieg.arion of Rodio and Television
RADIO
&
TELEVISION CENTER
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ay
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'.*:.,...-....,.
..,.
1943 -45
1943
From the Arctic to the tropics -Lt. Corn. Leitch with the Attack
Forces; Gilberts, Marshalls and Marianas.
Lt. Commander John G. Leitch
as Officer -in-Charge, U.S. Naval Station,
Greenland.
calculations on antenna radiation were made at WCAU with
the assistance of Jack and his crew.
All of these accomplishments, and others, were duly reported
in BROADCAST NEWS issues of the thirties. Came 1941, and
both Jack and BROADCAST NEWS went off to war. Entering
the Navy as a lieutenant he emerged as a full commander and
is now Captain, USNR, Retired. A brilliant record is compressed
here into two pictures; one of Jack as Officer -in-Charge of U.S.
Naval Station, Greenland, and a second, as a member of the
attack forces for the Gilberts, Marshalls and Marianas. Later
he served on the staff of Admiral Nimitz and the staff of the
Chief of Naval Operations in Washington.
With the end of the war Jack returned to WCAU -and once
more things began to happen thereabouts. A construction permit for TV was granted in September 1946, and WCAU -TV went
on the air in May 1948.
When the radio studios described above were built in 1931,
Jack Leitch and Dr. Levy had discussed the possibility that TV
would someday "turn the corner." And plans were made then
to permit the adaptation of the building to television. It would
be folly to claim that all the requirements were foreseen. But
the very size of the WCAU radio studios, their height, the
placement of observation booths on a level above the studio
floor and the provision of spiral stairways from upper booths
to the studio floor were features of the original installation
that made conversion to TV relatively easy.
Such conversions of radio studios for TV were typical in the
first post -war years. The WCAU operation was outstanding and
was of great interest. In another "long" story with many illustrations and drawings in the April 1949 issue of BROADCAST
NEWS Jack Leitch told how it was done. The story became a
primer for stations that followed.
But nobody foresaw TV's hungry demand for space -for
prop- storage, for equipment, for lights -and for the myriad of
personnel. WCAU -TV's make -do, like all others, soon became
unbearably cramped.
And so Jack Leitch began the planning of a "Radio and TV
Center" which would be a plant for the future -to serve, as his
1931 Studio had served for 20 years. He set out to build the
biggest and the best. And he did just that. The studio plant he
created for WCAU and WCAU -TV became the focus of attention
for all the chief engineers who were dreaming of new plants.
It was the first big and elaborate TV setup. And its features
were widely copied. Like its predecessor, the new WCAU center was unequalled when it was built and has been unsurpassed
by anything built since. Constructed in the heyday of local TV
programming, as the original 1932 building was built at the
zenith of local radio programming, the WCAU Center is notable
for its spaciousness and for the facilities and flexibility provided
for local programming.
Once again Jack Leitch had set a pattern which a whole
industry was to follow. And once again he wrote it up in what
is probably the most carefully illustrated and detailed article
we have ever printed in BROADCAST NEWS. We have reproduced here the lead pages from the three "long" stories which
Jack Leitch wrote for us. He also wrote a number of shorter
stories -and furnished material for still others. All told BROADCAST NEWS has carried some dozen articles on WCAU.
So now you know why BROADCAST NEWS will miss him so!
The industry will miss him, too. Partly because his experience, his knowledge and his drive have made him one of its
technical leaders. But more so, perhaps, for his strong personal
traits. These are many, but the two which stand out most to
us are: first, the willingness with which he would try a new
idea or new equipment, and second, the certainty that he would
express a carefully considered, but very, very frank opinion
about it. This frankness, coupled with a natural parsimony with
words, could add up to some very brusque remarks -as we
have cause to know.
At the time of our first meeting with Jack we were the
youngest and greenest of RCA salesmen. As mentioned previously, he was then installing an RCA 50 -B Transmitter and
new RCA studio equipment. It was our job to maintain liaison
(which is a polite expression for "you tell him we're going
to be late "). Suffice to say, that after that initiation nothing that
happened later ever scared us very much.
We never did learn how much of that hellfire he radiates
when perturbed is really tongue -in-cheek. But when we recovered enough to look, we noted that there was a crinkle
of humor around the edges of those penetrating see- rightthrough -you -eyes. And we soon learned that he would lean
over backwards to be fair, that his actions were always those
of a gentleman, and that when he relaxed a little, he was a
very interesting conversationalist.
We came to value his opinions and to enjoy our contacts with
him. We feel sure that all those who know him well share this
feeling. And we certainly hope that his retirement from active
station work will not change this.
When we asked Jack what he was going to do, he said, "I
don't know" -and that was certainly typical. But we have a
feeling that anyone who has broadcasting in the blood the way
Jack does, will not lose it overnight -and we certainly hope not.
The industry needs his pungent evaluations -and BROADCAST NEWS needs his articles.
-JPT
70
PICTURES OF
WCAU STUDIOS
-
BUILT
IN
REPRODUCED FROM BROADCAST NEWS,
APRIL, 1933
Studio I, the smallest studio. 22 feet long, 12 feet wide.
This and other studios had murals designed by John Vassos.
Studio A, 55 feet long, 32 feet wide, 23 feet high. Three windows
at top are in observation gallery. Control room is in center below.
Studio B. approximately the same size as Studio A. This is a
view looking from the observatory gallery toward the "dead"' end.
1932
D. another two -story high studio nearly as large as A and B.
was decorated with electronic motif( woven in tapestry covering walls.
Studio
71
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