Good health begins with a healthy mouth

Good health begins with a healthy mouth
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
MODULES FOR PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS
2nd edition
Good health begins
with a healthy mouth
MODULE I
CHILDREN
0-5
YEARS OLD
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
Also published in Spanish (2013) with the title:
Prevención y manejo integral de las enfermedades orales: módulos para profesionales de atención primaria. La buena salud empieza en una boca
sana. Módulo I: niños 0-5 años de edad.
ISBN 978-92-75-31798-3
PAHO HQ Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Pan American Health Organization.
Integrated oral disease prevention and management: modules for primary health care workers. Good health begins with a healthy mouth. Module I:
children 0-5 years old. 2nd edition. Washington, DC : PAHO, 2013.
1. Oral Health. 2. Mouth Diseases. 3. Preventive Dentistry. 4. Health Education – methods. 5. Dental Care. I. Title.
ISBN 978-92-75-11794-1
(NLM Classification: WU 113)
The Pan American Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. Applications and
inquiries should be addressed to the Department of Knowledge Management and Communications (KMC), Pan American Health Organization, Washington,
D.C., U.S.A. (pubrights@paho.org). The Office of the Assistant Director (AssistantDirector@paho.org) will be glad to provide the latest information on any
changes made to the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations already available.
© Pan American Health Organization, 2013. All rights reserved.
Publications of the Pan American Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal
Copyright Convention. All rights are reserved.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of
the Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization concerning the status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the Pan American
Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are
distinguished by initial capital letters.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the Pan American Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the
published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the
material lies with the reader. In no event shall the Pan American Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
CONTENTS
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
2
Foreword
3
Oral health: a gateway to general health
4
Soft tissue diseases of the mouth and face
6
Hard tissue diseases of the teeth
PROMOTION
7
Malformations, anomalies and neoplasms of the face and mouth
8
Trauma to the mouth and teeth
PREVENTION
9
Habits and behaviors relating to the mouth and teeth
10
Oral hygiene - key messages
11
Hand washing
12
Healthy eating recommendations
13
Oral health recommendations (poster)
14
World Health Organization (WHO) immunization schedule
15
Fluoride varnish (fv) application
16
Pain medications
17
Oral antibiotics
18
Noma treatment
19
Antifungal medications
19
Antiviral medications
20
Recommendations for parents on dealing with oral habits
21
Bottle-feeding technique for children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate
22
Clinical stages of noma
23
The importance of baby teeth
24
Anatomy of the mouth and tooth
25
Eruption schedule of baby teeth
26
Picture chart to distinguish between similar oral conditions
AND
GUIDELINES
TREATMENT
GUIDELINES
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
Foreword
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), under its Community Free of
Caries Initiative, is proud to present the Integrated Oral Disease Prevention and
Management (IODPM) modules as a practical solution to facilitate the integration
of oral health within primary health care. Integrating oral health prevention and
management into the delivery of primary health care services is now one of the
cornerstones of PAHO’s oral health program.
The IODPM modules are geared to assist primary health care workers in the
prevention of oral diseases and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) through
various promotional activities. The resulting benefits serve to increase awareness
of protective factors, such as appropriate oral self-care practices, the effective
use of fluorides, and healthy lifestyle choices related to diet, nutrition, personal
hygiene, and smoking and alcohol consumption. This integrated approach is a
“‘best practice”’ model and reorients oral health care toward prevention, tackles
common risk factors for NCDs and oral health and, facilitates early intervention.
I wish to take this opportunity to recognize the work of the oral health team at
PAHO, particularly the strong support of Dr. Nancy Valencia, and the technical
contributions of Dr. Gustavo Cruz, Dr. Dan Altman, Dr. Maritza Sosa, Dr. Yilda
Rivera, Dr. Heriberto Vera, Ms. Dariene Lazore, Ms. Joan Lazore, Ms. Mary
Beedle, MAMA Project Inc., and the Cleft Palate Foundation.
PAHO particularly acknowledges the support of Colgate-Palmolive Inc., which is
renowned for its long-standing commitment to improving the oral health of the
peoples of the Americas.
Dr. Saskia Estupiñán-Day
Regional Advisor, Oral Health
Pan American Health Organization
ORAL HEALTH: A GATEWAY TO GENERAL HEALTH
The mouth consists of teeth, gums, mucous membranes, salivary glands, and
bone. The mouth is the entrance to the body for nutrients, bacteria, viruses, and
fungi. It is a part of the body’s immune system and plays an important role in
primary health. Taking care of the mouth and maintaining good oral hygiene is a
part of being healthy. Poor oral health affects your ability to eat, speak, and be
happy.
C AN C E R
ON RIS K FACTO
M
R
OM
ORAL DISEASES
T OBAC C O
PE R IOD O N T AL
D ISE ASE S
A LC OHOL
O R AL C AN C E R
D IAB E T E S
R E SPIR AT O R Y
D ISE ASE S
P OOR DI E T
C AR IE S
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
C AR D IO V ASC U LAR
D ISE ASE S
The risk factors contributing to poor general and oral health are very similar, as
illustrated in the diagram below. Tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, and poor
diet/nutrition are common risk factors for different systemic and oral diseases.
Tobacco use and poor diet/nutrition, especially, are both risk factors for diabetes,
cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, dental decay (caries), cancer including
oral cancer, and periodontal disease (gum disease). Eliminating these common risk
factors will improve general and oral health.
S
GENERAL DISEASES
C
There is a link between oral health and general health. When general health is
impaired, oral health will also be affected. For example, signs of diabetes,
HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and arthritis can be seen in the mouth. And when oral health
suffers, there is an increased risk for poor general health, including cardiovascular
disease.
3
SOFT TISSUE DISEASES OF THE MOUTH AND FACE
Has child had a serious illness or been
exposed to children that are sick?
Difficulty speaking, eating or drinking?
Fever?
Pain in throat or mouth?
Blisters or ulcers in the mouth or lips?
How long have the symptoms been
present?
Soft tissue and bone destruction of the face
Grayish-black discoloration of skin
Loss of gums, dead or dying tissue
Swelling of the face
Injury to the face
Pus, redness, warmth, pain in mouth
(signs of dental infection)
Red, swollen tonsils with pus
Blisters on the lips
White patches inside the mouth
Ulcers in the mouth
Red, swollen gums that bleed
easily
NOMA RISK FACTORS:
• Mouth infection or ulceration
• Malnutrition
• Previous systemic infection (i.e. chickenpox,
rosella, typhus, CMV, measles, malaria, TB, HIV)
• Age 6 years or younger
• Poor hygiene
• Living in poverty
• Limited access to medical care and lack of
vaccinations
In this context, mouth infections can be fatal.
• Severe destruction of soft tissue and bone
• Disfigurement of the face
• Loss of function
• Scar tissue formation
NOMA STAGES
LOOK AND FEEL
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
• Grayish-black discoloration of the skin
• Grey line separates healthy and dead tissue
• Destruction is beginning of soft tissue and
bone
• Mouth or skin ulcers may be present
• Widespread or localized swelling of the face
• Mouth or skin ulcers may be present
• Fever, swollen lymph nodes
• Difficulty speaking, eating or drinking
• Loss of gums, dead or dying gum tissue
• Painful ulcerations on gums
• Grey tissue on gums or swollen gums that
bleed easily
• Bad taste in the mouth, bad breath, fever
• Widespread or localized swelling of the face
• Caused by dental infection or tooth abscess: severe
tooth pain accompanied by red, swollen gums that
may contain pus
• Caused by trauma: presence of burns, bruises, cuts
and scratches, or puncture wounds in the area
• Fever, swollen lymph nodes
• Difficulty speaking, eating or drinking
CLASSIFY AS
NOMA STAGE IV
Scar Tissue
NOMA STAGE III
Gangrene Plaque
NOMA STAGE II
Facial Swelling
ACUTE NECROTIZING
ULCERATIVE
GINGIVITIS (ANUG)
NOMA STAGE I
FACIAL CELLULITIS
TREATMENT
 Perform all treatments for Stage I, II, and III
 Keep cleaning the wound and changing bandages daily
 Provide psychological care and counseling
 Refer URGENTLY to emergency hospital
 Perform all treatments for Stage I and II
 Gently remove dead tissue with clean tweezers
 Clean the wound with diluted peroxide or iodine, and bandage
 Refer URGENTLY to emergency hospital
 Perform all treatments for Stage I
 Use feeding tube if necessary to administer noma antibiotics
and RUTF*
 Refer URGENTLY to emergency hospital
 Administer noma antibiotics (see chart)
 Administer RUTF* if child is malnourished
 Clean mouth by rinsing with warm salt-water solution, repeat
daily
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Refer URGENTLY to dental clinic
 Administer antibiotics (see chart)
 Administer pain medication only IF needed (see chart)
 Refer URGENTLY to emergency hospital
* Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods (RUFT) are high energy, fortified ready to eat food suitable for treatment of severely malnourished
children. Each country must follow national recommendations and guidelines for management of malnutrition in children.
Severe
Moderate
Soft
Continued on next page
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
ASK
4
Has child had a serious illness or been
exposed to children that are sick?
Difficulty speaking, eating or drinking?
Fever?
Pain in throat or mouth?
Blisters or ulcers in the mouth or lips?
How long have the symptoms been
present?
LOOK AND FEEL
Soft tissue and bone destruction of the face
Grayish-black discoloration of skin
Loss of gums, dead or dying tissue
Swelling of the face
Injury to the face
Pus, redness, warmth, pain in mouth
(signs of dental infection)
Red, swollen tonsils with pus
Blisters on the lips
White patches inside the mouth
Ulcers in the mouth
Red, swollen gums that bleed
easily
SOFT TISSUE DISEASES OF THE MOUTH AND FACE
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
• Tonsils are red, swollen or have pus
• Severe throat pain and swollen lymph nodes on neck
• Small red spots on the soft or hard palate
• Fever
• Painful blisters on lip or outer edges of mouth
• Blister might be broken open or crusted over with a
scab
• Tingling, burning, or itching feeling before blister
became visible
• White patches on inside of cheeks or lips, or on the
surface of tongue or palate
CLASSIFY AS
STREP THROAT OR
TONSIL INFECTION
FEVER BLISTERS OR
COLD SORES
(Herpes Simplex Virus)
ORAL CANDIDIASIS
(Thrush)
• Single to multiple painful ulcers inside the mouth
with whitish centers and red borders
• Burning, tingling, and slight swelling of the mucous
membrane
CANKER SORES
OR STOMATITIS
• Small, ball-shaped, swelling that can form in
salivary glands or mucosa, may contain clear fluid.
• Usually painless. Can rupture, disappear, and
reappear
MUCOSAL CYST
NOMA RISK FACTORS:
• Mouth infection or ulceration
• Malnutrition
• Previous systemic infection (i.e. chickenpox,
rosella, typhus, CMV, measles, malaria, TB, HIV)
• Age 6 years or younger
• Poor hygiene
• Living in poverty
• Limited access to medical care and lack of
vaccinations
In this context, mouth infections can be fatal.
• Swollen, soft, puffy, red gums that bleed easily
accompanied by dental plaque build-up on the
teeth
Severe
Moderate
Soft
GINGIVITIS
TREATMENT
 Administer antibiotics if pus present on tonsils (see chart)
 Administer pain medication IF needed (see chart)
 Advise that child gargle with salt-water rinse and eat bland
foods
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Refer to hospital IF: sore throat lasts longer than 48
hours and/or difficulty breathing/swallowing
 Inform mother on how to prevent transmission of herpes
(see picture chart). If possible, stop breast feeding.
 Advise mother to keep child hydrated
 Administer antiviral medications only if extensive blisters
are present, with high fever, and inability to eat
 Administer pain medication IF needed (see chart)
 Place ice on area to help reduce swelling and pain
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
If white patches can easily be wiped away to reveal a red area:
 Administer antifungal (see chart)
 Advise mother on disinfection of pacifiers, pacifiers,
bottles, toys, etc (and nipples if breast feeding)
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
If white patches can NOT be wiped off: Refer to dental clinic
for evaluation
 Apply Debacterol only to ulcers, not to surrounding tissues
 If Debacterol is unavailable, administer pain meds IF
needed
 Advise mother to have child use salt-water rinses or baking
soda rinses until ulcer heals, and to avoid irritating foods
(salty, spicy, etc)
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of
dental caries)
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of
dental caries)
If the cyst keeps growing, does not rupture, and/or is painful: Refer
to dental clinic for examination
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of
dental caries)
 Encourage a dental visit
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
ASK
5
HARD TISSUE DISEASES OF THE TEETH
ASK
Toothache or sensitivity?
Consume sugary food or drinks often?
CLASSIFY AS
• Spontaneous tooth pain that is severe
• Long lasting tooth pain that is intense
• Sensitivity to hot, cold, sweets, and/or chewing
• Red, swollen gums near the hurting tooth with a
possible abscess that contains pus
DENTAL INFECTION
OR TOOTH ABSCESS
 Administer antibiotics (see chart)
 If abscess is observed, a prick with a disinfected
needle may allow pus to drain helping to relieve
some of the pain
 Administer pain medication only IF needed (see
chart)
 Refer URGENTLY to dental clinic for treatment
• White, brown, or black spots on teeth (often seen on
upper front teeth)
• Tooth pain or sensitivity to hot, cold, or sweets
EARLY CHILDHOOD
CARIES (ECC)
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish once every 6 months (Do
NOT apply on large cavities.)
 Refer URGENTLY to dental clinic for treatment
AMELOGENESIS
IMPERFECTA
 Educate mother about disease (see picture chart)
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for
prevention of dental caries)
Refer to dental clinic if: tooth appearance and
sensitivity are severe
LOOK AND FEEL
Pus, redness, warmth, swelling in the
mouth (signs of infection)
White, brown, or black spots on teeth
(dental decay)
Irregular enamel
Plaque build-up
TREATMENT
• Abnormal enamel that is soft, thin, pitted, or grooved
and fractures easily
• Teeth appear discolored
• Tooth sensitivity to thermal or chemical stimuli
• Plaque build-up but no dental decay
• Frequent eating of starchy or sugary snacks,
sweets, artificial juices, and soft drinks
Severe
Moderate
Soft
TEETH AT RISK FOR
CAVITIES
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for
prevention of dental caries)
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
6
MALFORMATIONS, ANOMALIES AND NEOPLASMS
OF THE FACE AND MOUTH
CLASSIFY AS
ASK
Was the abnormality present at birth?
Does milk or food come out of the
nasal passage?
Has the child seen a surgeon?
• Hole or slit in the lip and/or palate, immediately
noticeable at birth
• Difficulty feeding, which includes milk flowing out the
nose
• Recurrent ear infections and/or ear pain
• Failure to gain weight, poor growth
CLEFT LIP/CLEFT
PALATE
LOOK AND FEEL
Hole or slit in the lip and/or palate
Abnormal red growths
• Bright red mark, varies in size from a tiny spot to
large growth
• Gradually increases in size and volume, then may
start to slowly shrink over the years
• Usually not present at birth but appears in
infancy, most commonly in the face and neck area
TREATMENT
 Advise mother on feeding techniques. (see
guidelines)
 Administer RUTF* IF child is malnourished
 Administer antibiotics IF ear infection present
(see chart)
 Advice mother to eat diet rich in green leafy
vegetables and take folic acid supplements
throughout her childbearing years, and especially
before future pregnancies
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for
prevention of dental caries)
 Refer URGENTLY to hospital for evaluation by
surgeon
 Advise mother about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for
prevention of dental caries)
HEMANGIOMAS
Refer to clinic only IF hemangioma is:
• Growing rapidly
• Obstructing vision, hearing, breathing, or speaking
• Cosmetically deforming
* Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods are high energy, fortified ready to eat food suitable for treatment of severely malnourished children. Each country must follow
national recommendations and guidelines for management of malnutrition in children.
Severe
Moderate
Soft
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
7
TRAUMA TO THE MOUTH AND TEETH
How was the child injured?
When did it happen?
Where did it happen?
Date of last tetanus shot?
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
• Severe mouth or face trauma
• Broken or displaced bones
• Multiple broken teeth
• Difficulty moving the mouth
REMEMBER:
• Do not confuse exfoliating teeth with injured
teeth. Refer to eruption chart.
• Have patient bite down to assess teeth for injury.
• The main causes of dental trauma are:
-Sports and related injuries
-Falls and collisions
-Automobile accidents
-Child physical abuse (50% of injuries are to
face and mouth)
Children repeatedly presenting with facial injuries may be
victims of child abuse.
Report suspicions to the authorities if you suspect the
child was intentionally harmed.
TREATMENT
SEVERE TRAUMA
 Remove any debris from the soft tissue
 Clean the wounds and bandage them
 Administer pain medication IF needed (see chart)
 Administer antibiotics (see chart)
 Determine if tetanus shot is needed and administer if possible
 Refer URGENTLY to emergency hospital
(JAW FRACTURE,
OPEN FACIAL
WOUNDS)
LOOK AND FEEL
Injury to face or mouth
Redness, warmth, or swelling around
the injury
Tooth pushed into or out of gum
Broken, loose, or displaced teeth
(Have patient bite down and assess
each tooth if needed)
CLASSIFY AS
• Broken tooth: Injured tooth is broken off
completely
• Luxation: Injured tooth is displaced sideways or
very mobile
• Avulsion: Injured tooth is knocked out of gums
• Intrusion: Injured tooth is pushed into the gums
• Enamel fracture: Injured tooth has small chip or
shallow crack
• Subluxation: Injured tooth is slightly mobile and be
sensitive to touch, percussion, or chewing. May be
blood around gumline of tooth
• Dental concussion: Injured tooth is not mobile,
but is tender to percussion and often to biting
MODERATE TRAUMA
(BROKEN TOOTH,
LUXATION, AVULSION,
INTRUSION)
MODERATE TRAUMA
(ENAMEL FRACTURE,
SUBLUXATION)
MILD TRAUMA OF
TOOTH
(DENTAL CONCUSSION)
• Scratches, cuts, burns, or bruises to the soft
tissues of the mouth or face
(Soft tissue includes the hard and soft palate,
mouth floor, cheeks, lip, and tongue)
Severe
Moderate
Soft
 Rinse with clean water
 Use ice packs to reduce any swelling
 Determine if tetanus shot is needed and administer if possible
 Administer pain medications IF needed (see chart)
 First Aid:
Broken tooth: Cover tooth with gauze
Luxation: Gently push tooth back into place
Avulsion: Do NOT re-implant a baby tooth. Inform parent that
it can damage the underlying adult tooth
Intrusion: Do NOT try to pull the tooth out. Inform parent that
the tooth is will generally re-erupt on its own
 Refer URGENTLY to dental clinic for treatment
 Rinse with clean water
 Use ice packs to reduce any swelling
 Administer pain medication IF needed (see chart)
 Refer to dental clinic for treatment
 Rinse mouth with clean water
 Use ice packs to reduce any swelling
 Administer pain medication IF needed (see chart)
 Inform caregiver that tooth may become discolored
 Recommend that patient have soft diet for 1 week and avoid
chewing on tooth
 Clean external wounds with hydrogen peroxide
MILD TRAUMA
OF SOFT TISSUES
 Clean mouth wounds by having patient gargle salt water then
rinse with clean water
 Advise that patient use ice packs to reduce swelling
 Administer pain medication IF needed (see chart)
 Determine if tetanus shot is needed and administer if possible
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
ASK
8
HABITS AND BEHAVIORS RELATING TO THE MOUTH AND TEETH
• Worn down enamel, dentin may be visible and
teeth may be sensitive
• Cracked, chipped teeth
• Pain in the jaw in the morning or when eating
• Headaches or earaches in the morning
ASK
Does child grind teeth?
Does child use pacifier or bottle after 1
year of age? Does child fall asleep with
pacifier or bottle?
Does child suck on thumb, finger, or
lip?
Chew or eat non-food items such as
dirt or paint chips?
Does child snore a lot when sleeping?
• Persistent use of pacifier or bottle
• Child sleeps with pacifier or bottle
• Child consumes sugary drinks through bottle
• Pacifier and/or bottle are not kept clean
• Upper and lower front teeth do not come
together when patient bites
• Lisping or tongue thrusts out when talking
• Abnormal consumption of non-food items such
as hair, paper, feces, dirt, etc.
• Behavior lasts longer than a month and is NOT
part of cultural or religious practice
OBSERVE:
Are teeth worn, chipped or cracked?
Is pacifier and bottle clean?
Are lips red and irritated?
Is child mouth breathing?
Are fingernails irritated or bloody?
Severe
Moderate
Soft
• Dry, cracked lips
• Red, irritated skin around the lips
CLASSIFY AS
TREATMENT
TEETH GRINDING
(BRUXISM)
 Inform parents that grinding is common in children and most outgrow the habit
 Teach recommendations on how to deal with oral habits
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
In rare cases of excessive pain: Refer to dental clinic
INAPPROPRIATE
USE OF PACIFIER
AND/OR BOTTLE
 Inform caregiver of risk for dental decay and malocclusion of teeth if child consistently
uses or sleeps with pacifier and bottle
 Discourage the use of pacifier and bottle past 1 year of age
 Teach recommendations on how to deal with oral habits
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
THUMB/FINGER
SUCKING
 Inform caregiver that thumb/finger sucking is normal for infants but is inappropriate
as the child gets older as it can cause speech and dental problems
 Teach recommendations on how to deal with oral habits
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
If child has trouble eating or speaking because of malocclusion: Refer to dental clinic
PICA*
LIP SUCKING OR
BITING
 Administer RUTF** if child is malnourished
 Inform caregiver that it is normal for children to explore things with their mouth but
that behavior becomes inappropriate as the child gets older
 Teach recommendations on how to deal with oral habits
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
If child is suspect for developmental disorder: Refer to hospital for evaluation
 Advise caregiver that this is common habit in children but should decrease with age
because the habit can affect the way the teeth grow
 Teach recommendations on how to deal with oral habits
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
• Open mouth and dry lips, teeth may not be
touching in the front
• Difficulty breathing through nose, may be
congested
• Dark circles under eyes, may be sneezing and
sniffling
• Snores when sleeping
MOUTH
BREATHING
 Explain to parent that the cause of mouth breathing could be related to malocclusion,
enlarged adenoids, allergies, or sleep disorder
 Instruct patient on breathing through the nose instead of the mouth
 If allergies are suspected: Have patient use nasal spray and recommend
avoiding dust, animals, pollen, etc.
 Advise on oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
If malocclusion suspected: Refer to dental clinic for evaluation. If enlarged adenoids, or
sleep disorder is suspected: Refer to hospital for evaluation
• Nails or cuticles are irritated and bitten
NAIL BITING
 Teach recommendations on dealing with oral habits
 Advise about oral hygiene and nutrition
 Apply fluoride varnish every 6 months (for prevention of dental caries)
* Eating disorder characterized by persistent and compulsive cravings for non-food items i.e. metal, coins, clay, coal, soil, feces, chalk, paper, soap, mucus, ash, gum, etc.
Practices are not part of cultural traditions or religious norms. Extreme behaviors are more common in children with autism and developmental disabilities.
** Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods are high energy, fortified ready to eat food suitable for treatment of severely malnourished children. Each country must follow national recommendations and guidelines for management of malnutrition in children.
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
9
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
ORAL HYGIENE - KEY MESSAGES
 Plaque is a layer of bacteria that forms on the teeth. It can develop on any surface of the teeth, especially along the gum line
 The bacteria produces acid which dissolves the enamel of a tooth and leads to dental decay
 If dental plaque accumulates and is not removed, it can harden and turn into calculus or tartar which is a risk factor for
gum disease
 Poor oral make easy large amounts of plaque build-up
Dental Plaque
 Wipe infants gums after feeding with a clean washcloth
 When teeth start to erupt, brush the gums and teeth with a small soft bristled toothbrush
 Brush toddlers’ teeth with a pea-size drop of fluoride toothpaste for at least two minutes, twice a day
 Teach children to spit out toothpaste, not swallow it
 Always clean children’s teeth before going bed. The last thing that touches children’s teeth before bedtime should be a
toothbrush with fluoride toothpaste
Toothbrushing
for Infants and Toddlers
Toothbrushing
for Young Children
Fluoride Toothpaste
Toothbrush
Healthy Diet
Dentist Visits
1
2
3
4
1. 2. Place a toothbrush to the teeth at a 45-degree angle and gently brush in a circular motion. Clean the outside surfaces of the upper
and lower teeth
3. Clean the inner surfaces of the upper and lower teeth
4. Clean the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth. Do not forget to brush the tongue!
 Parents and caregivers should take an active role in brushing their children’s teeth
 Brush children’s teeth with fluoride toothpaste, or assist children with toothbrushing, at least twice a day
 Use no more than a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste
 Teach children that they do not swallow the toothpaste
 Toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste helps make teeth stronger teeth and protect against dental decay
 Make sure the bristles are soft to protect the child's teeth and tender gums
 Use a small size brush to fit toddler’s mouth
 Change the toothbrush every three months or when bristles begin to wear
 Only water or milk in baby’s bottle. Do not put baby to bed with a bottle
 Wean child from bottle by 1 year of age
 Avoid sugary, starchy snacks or sugary drinks especially between meals. Prepare healthy snacks for your child and encourage
more water consumption
 Eat a balanced diet rich in vegetables, fruits, dairy, meats and beans
 Recommend first dentist visit by age one
 Visit a dentist at least once a year for check-ups
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
Toothbrushing
10
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
WASHING YOUR HANDS WITH SOAP
IS THE BEST WAY TO STAY HEALTHY
HAND WASHING
Wet your hands
Apply any soap to help
get rid of bacteria and
germs
Lather and scrub (20 sec)
Rinse (10 sec) to wash
away all the soap
Dry your hands
Between your fingers
Under your nails
Tops of your hands
Washing hands with any type of soap and clean water
is the best way to stop the spread of germs and disease
WHEN SHOULD YOU WASH YOUR HANDS?
BEFORE
AFTER
Before, during, and after preparing food
Before eating food
Before and after caring for someone who is sick
Before and after treating a cut or wound
After using the toilet
After changing diapers
After cleaning a child who has used the toilet
After blowing your nose, or sneezing
After touching an animal
After touching animal feed or animal waste
After touching garbage
11
HEALTHY EATING RECOMMENDATIONS
0 - 6 months Breastfeeding
BENEFITS FOR ORAL HEALTH
• Suckling at the breast is good for a toddler’s tooth and jaw
development and prevents non-nutritive sucking habits
The benefits to the infant include:
• Bonding with mother
• Ideal nutrition
• Enhanced immune system
• Reduced infections
• Physical and developmental growth benefits
• Improved intelligence
• Reduced risk of chronic diseases and allergy
HOW?
6 months – 2 years
BENEFITS FOR ORAL HEALTH
Breastfeeding and complementary solid foods
At 6 months of age, the child starts to get introduced to solid
foods such as porridge or mashed food. By 1 year of age, the
child increases to different variety and texture of foods
2 - 5 years
Solid foods
By 2 years of age, the child should be eating solid foods including
most of the foods the rest of the family eats
• A breast-fed infant exercises the orofacial (mouth/face) muscles
substantially more than a bottle-fed infant, which is needed for proper
orofacial development
• A breast-fed baby moves the lower jaw quite vigorously to get milk.
This provides exercise and encourages well-formed jaws and
straight, healthy teeth
• The bottle can produce an excessive flow of milk which encourages
the infant to acquire an abnormal posturing of the mandible to avoid
suffocation. Excessive bottle feeding can also lead to early childhood
caries
The establishment of a healthy diet from an early age is the foundation
of a healthy lifestyle and can prevent oral diseases and systemic
diseases.
HOW?
• Eat a balanced diet that includes cereals and grains, vegetables,
fruits, dairy, and meats and beans
• Limit the consumption of foods high in sugar and starch, and sticky
foods (raisins, dried fruits, potato chips, candies)
• Avoid soft drinks, juice, energy drinks or any type of sugary drink
• Prepare healthy snacks that are protective against dental caries
(cheese, milk, vegetables)
• Put only water in a child’s bottle or sippy cup. Avoid letting them
sleep with a bottle
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
12
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE
Administering FV at the time of immunization would maximize the number of children receiving FV. The application of FV is a cost-effective prevention
intervention for children at high-risk for dental cavities.
VACCINE
AGE OF VACCINATION
2m
4m
6m
12m
18m 24m 4-6yrs
TBC
(Tuberculosis)
OPV
(Polio)
DTaP
(Diphtheria, Tetanus,
Pertussis)
HEPATITIS B
HEPATITIS A
MMR
(Measles, Mumps,
Rubella)
(Chickenpox)
YELLOW FEVER
HIB
FLUORIDE VARNISH (FV)
The Pan American Health Organization recommends fluoride varnish every six months.
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
VARICELLA
14
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
FLUORIDE VARNISH (FV) APPLICATION
READ
• FV must be applied every six months to be
effective
• Do NOT use if child has an allergy to pine nuts or
colonphony/colonphonium
APPLY
ADVISE
• Dry the teeth by wiping them with clean, dry
cotton. The teeth must stay dry throughout the FV
application
• Apply a thin layer of varnish on all surfaces of the
teeth according to the manufacturer’s directions.
Do NOT apply on large cavities
• Don’t worry about saliva getting on the teeth after
the FV is applied. The varnish dries very quickly
• FV must stay on teeth overnight to be effective.
The teeth may appear to have a yellow, sticky
surface
• Have the child avoid hard, sticky, or crunchy
foods for the rest of the day
• Do not let the child brush, floss, or use mouth
rinse until the next morning. The sticky feeling and
yellow color will disappear at this time
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
Fluoride varnish is a highly concentrated form of topical fluoride used to prevent tooth decay.
15
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
MEDICATION
IBUPROFEN
ACETAMINOFEN AND
PARACETAMOL
PAIN MEDICATIONS
INDICATIONS
DOSAGE
FREQUENCY
COMMENT
Pain, fever, swelling
4 - 10 mg/kg/dose
OR
1.8 - 4.5 mg/lb/dose
Every 6 - 8 hours
(Maximum: 4
doses/day)
Take with food
Pain, fever
10 - 15 mg/kg/dose
OR
4.5 - 6.8 mg/lb/dose
Every 4 - 6 hours
(Maximum: 2.6
grams/day)
• 1 kg = 2.2 lbs
• Dosages are based on United States standards. Contact your country’s Ministry of Health to find out local regulations.
• Pain medications are not for long term use.
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
Notes:
16
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
ORAL ANTIBIOTICS
Antibiotic dosages are per day. The dosage must be divided up into equal parts and administered. Maximum dosage cannot exceed adult dose.
INDICATION
DOSAGE
amoxicillin
Mouth/face infection,
Strep throat
Mild-to-moderate
infection
Severe infection
clindamycin
FREQUENCY
20 mg/kg/day
OR
9 mg/lb/day
Divided doses every
8 hours X 7 days
25 mg/kg/day
OR
11.4 mg/lb/day
Divided doses every
12 hours X 7 days
40 mg/kg/day
OR
18.2 mg/lb/day
Divided doses every 8 hours
X 7 days
45 mg/kg/day
OR
20.5 mg/lb/day
Divided doses every
12 hours X 7 days
COMMENT
May be taken with food
Take if allergic to
amoxicillin
10-20 mg/kg/day in divided doses
OR
4.5-9 mg/lb/day in divided doses
Divided doses every 6-8
hours X 7 days
May be taken with food
Anaerobic orofacial
infection/abscess
15-35 mg/kg/day in divided doses
OR
6.8-15.9 mg/lb/day in divided doses
Divided doses every 8
hours X 10 days
(If upset stomach occurs
Ear infection
8-12 mg/kg/day in divided doses
OR
3.6-5.5 mg/lb/day in divided doses
Divided doses every 12
hours X 10 days
Take with 8oz of water
metronidazole
co-trimoxazole
Notes:
• Dosages are for children over 3 months of age that are under 40 kg, or 88 lbs. (1 kg = 2.2 lbs)
• Dosages are based on United States standards. Contact your country’s Ministry of Health to find out local regulations.
Take without food
than take with food.)
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
MEDICATION
17
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
INDICATION
AGE & WEIGHT
DOSAGE
12 years and up
+40 kg
(+88 lb)
1,000 mg
5 – 11 years
20-40 kg
(44-88lb)
750 mg
1 – 4 years
10-19 kg
(22-42lb)
500 mg
2 – 12 months
5-9 kg
(11-20 lb)
375 mg
12 years and up
+40 kg
(+88 lb)
500 mg
5 – 11 years
20-40 kg
(44-88lb)
250 mg
amoxicillin
noma
metronidazole
noma
1 – 4 years
10-19 kg
(22-42lb)
125 mg
2 – 12 months
5-9 kg
(11-20 lb)
62.5 mg
• Begin antibiotic treatment at first sign of noma.
• Treat malnutrition with RUTF.
• Seek medical consultation as soon as possible.
• Continue antibiotic treatment while traveling to clinic/hospital. Upon arrival, inform medical staff of antibiotic treatment.
• Maintain emergency stock of amoxicillin and metronidazole (250mg) in Child Survival Kit in each village.
*Information obtained from MAMA Project, Inc. Prevention and Control of Noma in Nigeria
mamaproject@enter.net MAMAProject.org
FREQUENCY
COMMENT
Every 8 hours X 14 days
May be taken with food
Every 6 hours X 14 days
(May be taken with food if
upset stomach occurs.)
Take without food
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
MEDICATION
NOMA TREATMENT
18
ANTIFUNGAL MEDICATIONS
For Candidiasis or Oral Thrush
NYSTATIN DOSAGE
• 1-2 ml x 4 Times a day
• Avoid feeding for 5 to 10 minutes
GENTIAN VIOLET
• Using a cotton swab, apply only the effected area every 1-2 times daily for 7 days
• Make sure the area is dry before using this medication
• Avoid swallowing any of the medicine
ANTIVIRAL MEDICATIONS
To improve healing time and reduce symptoms of cold sores. Begin treatment when lesions first appear or as early as possible.
TOPICAL APPLICATION
ACYCLOVIR 5% CREAM
Every 3 hours (6 times per day) x 7 days
PENCICLOVIR 1% CREAM
Every 2 hours x 4 days
VALACYCLOVIR CREAM
Every 3 hours (6 times per day) x 7 days
Contact your country’s Ministry of Health to find out local regulations for antifungal and antiviral medications.
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
19
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PARENTS
ON DEALING WITH ORAL HABITS
A bad habit is a behavior that is repeated and causes harm. Your child might not know he/she is performing the behavior. Don’t use
harmful punishment on the child. Instead, try to help the child stop performing the bad habit with kindness, education, distraction, and praise.
Be kind
Don’t get mad and punish the child. The punishment can be more harmful than the habit
Talk to child
Explain to child that bad oral habits can introduce germs inside the mouth and cause problems with their teeth
Tell the child that “big” kids don’t perform these behaviors
A child might be performing a behavior because of stress. Talk to the child and find out what might be bothering him/her. Comfort the
child and encourage him/her to talk to you when feeling sad, stressed, anxious, or nervous
Distract the child
Encourage the child to perform other behaviors like sing a song, read a book, breathe deeply, or relaxing exercises
Praise the child
When the child is NOT performing the unwanted habit say positive things like “Your fingernails look so nice since you stopped biting
them. I’m so proud of you!”
Ignore the habit
Don’t think the behavior is caused by a curse or evil spirit and pursue harmful or painful treatments
Sometimes giving the child attention, even if it is negative attention, will cause the child to continue the behavior
Be patient
Often times a habit will stop as the child gets older
Seek medical attention
Sometimes habits are a sign of an illness such as allergies, malnutrition, hyperactivity, anemia, intestinal parasites, epilepsy, pain,
anxiety, and neurological conditions. The child might need to be evaluated by a medical professional
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
Don’t assume
20
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
BOTTLE-FEEDING TECHNIQUE FOR CHILDREN
WITH CLEFT LIP AND/OR CLEFT PALATE
Preparing a bottle
Holding the infant
Feeding
 Turn the nipple inside out.
 Cut a small "X" over the hole with a clean blade.
 Turn the nipple right side out and clean before use.
The mother should hold the baby in a upright position
while supporting his/her head. Gravity will help the milk
flow down the baby’s throat.
If the infant gags frequently during feeding, the nipple
opening may be too large and a smaller hole may be
needed.
It is important to establish the emotional bond between
parent and child. The mother needs to be comfortable
when holding the child and should be able to see the
infant’s face in case there are any problems.
On average, a baby will feed 6-8 times a day, taking
around 30 minutes for 2-3 ounces of milk; otherwise the
infant will use more calories than he/she takes in. It is
important to provide the baby with enough calories to
gain weight.
Gently squeeze the bottle in pulses to assist milk flow into
mouth. Infants will periodically stop sucking to rest and
breathe; do not squeeze the bottle at this time. If the infant
gags, stop feeding and allow him/her to finish swallowing
the milk already in the mouth.
Burp the baby after every ounce, since he/she may be
swallowing large amounts of air during feeding.
An average baby will lose weight immediately after birth but return to birth weight within a couple of weeks. If the baby does not gain weight appropriately, or if problems with feeding persist, refer the
infant to a medical center.
This information was obtained from The Cleft Palate Foundation (cleftline.org)
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
A cleft lip/cleft palate is an opening in the lip and/or palate due to the incomplete fusion of the lip and/or palate when the baby is just a fetus. Babies born with cleft lip/cleft palate
may not be able to breastfeed properly because the anatomy of the lip, plate, and nose can affect the baby’s ability to suck milk and swallow it. Therefore, feeding with a bottle is
usually needed for the mother and baby to have a successful feeding time.
21
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
CLINICAL STAGES OF NOMA
noma is an infection that destroys the soft tissue and bone of the mouth and face. It starts with
an intraoral lesion and within a matter of weeks develops into a life-threatening condition.
MAJOR RISK FACTORS
Intraoral Infe
ction
Stage 1
Stage 2
Intraoral Lesion
ss
Recent illne
Facial Swelling
Additional risk factors:
• poverty
• poor oral hygiene
• poor sanitation
• lack of access to medical care
Stage 3
Gangrenous Plaque
Stage 4
Scar Tissue formation
REMEMBER: noma is not a curse from bad spirits! noma is a disease that can be prevented and treated. Make sure children get a healthy diet,
practice good oral hygiene, receive immunizations, and receive appropriate medical attention when needed.
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
ent
ishm
r
u
lno
Ma
22
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
THE IMPORTANCE OF BABY TEETH
Baby teeth are essential for proper nutrition and chewing, speech, appearance and self-esteem,
development of the oral cavity, and eruption of adult teeth.
Speaking
In many cases, the importance of baby teeth (also called primary or milk
teeth) is overlooked by parents and caregivers. Baby teeth start to erupt
around 6 months of age and last until around 12 years of age. They serve
many functions for a healthy child and should be cared for properly.
Teeth assist in the formation
of words and proper speech
Smiling and building
self esteem
The appearance of healthy
teeth and smile contributes
to high self-esteem and
positive relationships with
others
Eating
Developing the oral cavity
Chewing and speaking
provides exercise to the
muscles and bones of the
oral cavity
HEALTHY BABY TEETH
Guiding the eruption
of adult teeth
Baby teeth provide a path for
erupting adult teeth to follow
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
Teeth are needed for
chewing and eating all the
foods in a healthy diet
23
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
ANATOMY OF THE MOUTH
ANATOMY OF A TOOTH
ENAMEL
HARD PALATE
CROWN
GUMS
DENTINE
PULP CONTAINING
BLOOD VESSELS
AND NERVERS
UVULA
NECK
SOFT PALATE
GUM (GINGIVA)
BONE
PERIODONTAL
MEMBRANE
CEMENTUM
LIP
OPENING AT TIP
OF ROOT
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
TEETH
ROOT
TONGUE
24
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
ERUPTION SCHEDULE OF BABY TEETH
Baby teeth have a schedule of eruption and shedding. Permanent teeth will take the place of baby teeth after they have been shed. Do not confuse
a shedding, or loose, baby tooth for injured tooth. However, if a baby tooth become loose immediately after an injury then it should be treated as
an injured tooth. Refer to the Trauma Chart for treatment.
Erupt/Grow
Shed/Lose
Central incisor
8-12 months
6-7 years
Lateral incisor
9-13 months
7-8 years
Canine (cuspid)
16-22 months
10-12 years
First molar
13-19 months
9-11 years
Second molar
25-33 months
10-12 years
Lower Teeth
Erupt/Grow
Shed/Lose
Central incisor
6-10 months
6-7 years
Lateral incisor
10-16 months
7-8 years
Canine (cuspid)
17-23 months
9-12 years
First molar
14-18 months
9-11 years
Second molar
23-31 months
10-12 years
Upper
Lower
CHILDREN 0 -5 YEARS OLD
Upper Teeth
25
INTEGRATED ORAL DISEASE
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
PICTURE CHART TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN
SIMILAR ORAL CONDITIONS
Herpes Simplex Virus
Canker Sore
Herpes Simplex Virus infection (also called cold sores or fever
blisters) causes painful blisters on the lips and outer edges of
mouth. Blisters can be spread easily from person to person.
They can also be spread to the genitalia. Do not share food,
eating utensils, cups, or lipsticks
A canker sore is a painful ulcer inside the mouth, usually
located on the cheek. The cause of canker sores is unknown
but they usually heal within 7-10 days
Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Bruxism
Amelogenesis Imperfecta is a disorder of tooth enamel. It can
lead to discolored teeth, abnormal anatomy, weakened
enamel, and easy breakage
Bruxism refers to the grinding of teeth, which is usually caused
by stress. This usually occurs at night when patient is
sleeping. It can lead to jaw pain, morning headaches, and
worn down enamel
Strep Throat
Oral Candidiasis
Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the tonsils that causes
red, swollen tonsils with white patches
Oral Candidiasis (also called thrush) is a yeast infection inside
the mouth. The white patches can easily be wiped off to reveal
a red area
Gingivitis
Periodontitis
Gingivitis is a swelling of the gum tissue. The gums might
appear red and puffy, and bleed easily when brushed. This
condition can lead to periodontitis
Periodontitis is a gum disease caused by bacteria. It causes
loss of gum tissue, destruction of bone surrounding teeth,
loose teeth and eventually tooth loss. The risk factors for
periodontal disease include tobacco, alcohol, and drug use
Dental Caries
Dental Abscess
Dental caries (also called a cavity or tooth decay) is caused by
bacteria. The bacteria release acid that demineralizes the
enamel of a tooth and leads to decay. Good oral hygiene is
important for removing these bacteria
A dental abscess (also called tooth infection) is caused by a
bacterial infection at the root of a tooth. Bacteria and pus build
up below the tooth causing an abscess to form on the gum
26
PAHO acknowledges the support of MAMA Project Inc., Cleft Palate Foundation, and Colgate-Palmolive Inc.
Pan American Health Organization
525 Twenty-third Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037, United States of America
Country/City Code: (202) Tel: 974-3000 Fax: 974-3663 www.paho.org
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising