Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Fish Protection and Downstream Migration –
Actual Topics (partly) solved in Germany
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dept. Of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Kassel, Germany
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Introduction and Current Status
The „Forum Fish Protection and Downstream Migration“
Example for fish protection by modern screen
Concepts and examples for bypassing of the fish
Conclusions
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Status Upstream Migration
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In Germany the technology of
upstream migration is
commonly regarded as well
developed, because the
guideline DWA-M 509 was just
issued in May (after a draft
period of 4 years!).
But this guideline is already outdated, because the state-ofthe-art documented in this
broschure is several years old.
This guideline makes planners
prefer the vertical slot fish
pass. So, at many sites verticalslot fishpasses are build despite
of the high cost.
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
New Developments
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So, the process of developments to
solve the problem of upstream migration
with less cost and to avoid
disadvantages of the „standard“ is still
going on.
Newer solutions and developments, like
the superactive baffle (Larinier) fish
pass or the combined baffle-brushfishpass or the latest developments of
fish locks are not specified in this
guideline.
Baffle-brush-fishway
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Forum Fish Protection and Downstream Migration
Forum Fischschutz und Fischabstieg www.forum-fischschutz.de
In Germany, a centrally moderated process on fish protection and
dowstream bypassing was started 2 years ago and will be finished in
November. The goal of this forum is the discussion of the state-of-the
art, the exchange of knowledge and the establishing of a common
understanding of the problems and solutions availabe for this issue.
The results up to now are:
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The mortality or risk of damage when passing the turbines can be
very different between e few percent and 100 percent depending on
the type of turbine (hydrodynamic screw turbines vs. Pelton
turbines).
The mortality rate can only be estimated when defining a design fish
species and size.
Discussions are going on, whether the fish individuum is important or
the fish population.
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Results of the „Forum Fish Protection and Downstream
Migration (2)
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Behavioural screens (louvers, electric curtains, subsonic devices,
stroboscope light, etc.) expose also a selective efficiency, i.e. the
efficiency depends on the fish species and the local conditions.
A high efficiency can only be expected for fine screens (10 mm).
Fine screens are available, but only for small and medium-size
hydropower plants.
Currently the design of fish protection means has to be based on a
target species.
There is a big lack of knowledge on the behaviour of fishes in front
of screens and bypass intakes.
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Downstream Migration
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Concerning the fish protection
and downstream migration
there is no comparable
guideline available.
Due to the lack of knowledge
one book (Ebel, 2013) is
regarded as a kind of
standard.
But: there is a severe bug in
this book, which has to be
adressed later.
Ebel, Guntram: Fischschutz und Fischabstieg an
Wasserkraftanlagen. Halle/Saale 2013 (ISBN 978-3-00039686-1)
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Best Fish-friendly Screen available
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Fish-friendly Screen – Advantages and Features
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Optimum profile
Spacing from 6 to 15 mm
Very little head loss: 25 mm
with 1 m/s and 10 mm spacing
Round and smooth nose
Easy to clean, because all
debris stays on the screen
surface and can be wiped off.
Little material demand –
stainless steel
Good protection of fish because
force is distributed over more
rods
Protection against overload
Coarse trash rack necessary
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Functional Principles of Fish Bypassing
Function
Principle
description
Guide the fish to a bypass
Fish is guided by
tangent component
to the side of the
bypass
Angled horizontal screen
Fish is guided by
tangent component
to a bypass
channel
Inclined screen
Fish is taken by rising
trough behind a protection
comb and released into a
channel to tailrace
Gate
VN
V
Bypass
channel
VT
Screen
Principle
sketch
Fish-lifting trough
V
VN
Gate
Bypass
VT
Turbine
Turbine
Plan view
Trough in
upper
position
Longitudinal section
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Comb
Turbine
Angled Horizontally Guiding Screen Halle-Planena
river Saale
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Hydropower Site Planena, river Saale from upstream
Foto: Kehl (www.wkw-halle.de)
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Hydropower Site Planena, river Saale Guiding Screen
Foto: Kehl (www.wkw-halle.de)
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Hydropower Site Planena,
river Saale
Door in Fish Bypass
Foto: Kehl (www.wkw-halle.de)
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Angled Horizontally Guiding Screen - Discussion
There is one main critical attribute which is currently neglected,
but very important – the dependency of the flow characteristics on
the headrace geometry:
Streamlines
Streamlines
53,0
Guiding Screen
84°
Guiding Screen
Bypass Channel
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Weir
Bypass Channel
°
Angled Horizontally Guiding Screen - Conclusion
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Important for guiding effect ist the angle between the
streamlines and the screen surface – not the angle to a
river axis!
There is only a continuous guiding component to the
bypass, if the headrace is not significantly wider than the
screen aspect (from upstream).
Guiding screens (angled in plan view) are effective in
channels with parallel banks, not in rivers with a large
headwater area.
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Inclined Screen - Example
Pilot-site Unkelmühle, river Sieg (Germany)
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Graphics: Dumont - Floecksmuehle
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Unkelmuehle, river Sieg – 10 mm Inclined Screen 30 deg
Foto:
Floecksmuehle
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Unkelmuehle – Bypass Channel and Gate
Fotos:
Floecksmuehle
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Inclined Screen - Discussion
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There is a lack of knowledge on the efficiency of inclined screens
with bypass entrance close to the surface, because many fish
species do not like to change the swimming level.
The hydraulic conditions at transition channels (from headrace to
bypass channel) are complicated and correlated to strong
acceleration.
There is a strong evidence, that acceleration is not easily accepted
by the fish.
Some species, especially eels, try to escape in upstream direction.
So, they need a special bypass system
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
The Fish-lifting Trough
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Vertical fine trash screen
Bottom gutter
Trough of stainless steel
with vertical movement
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fish protecting comb
and
wiping strip
Lowering type gate in the
side wall with bypass
channel to tailrace
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
Conclusions
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The fish guiding concept causes high cost due big screen
area.
Horizontal angled screens show hydraulic performance only
if the headrace width is not bigger than the screen aspekt
width.
There are no efficiency results available up to now, which
prove, that the fish migration system exhibits a high
efficiency in a short time.
The fish-lifting trough shows a high efficiency in the
laboratory tests.
2 Pilot projects are prepared right now (river Fulda,
Interlaken)
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
THANK YOU!
Hydraulics Laboratory and Testing Facilities
Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Hassinger
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