Chapter 1 Knowing Computers

Chapter 1 Knowing Computers
Chapter 1
Knowing Computers
1.0 Introduction
Welcome to the wonderful world of computing! This book presumes that you have little or no experience with
the device commonly known as the PC (personal computer). Hopefully, this resource will aid you in some of the
basic activities that are commonly performed with a PC.
1.1 Objectives
In this lesson we will learn about:






What is Computer
Components of Computer System
Data and information
Hardware and Software
Applications of IECT
Connecting basic devices to the CPU
1.2 What is Computer?
A computer is an electronic device that receives input, stores and manipulates data or information, and provides
output in the desired format. Computers handle instructions flawlessly and fast. They must follow explicit
directions from both the user and computer programmer. Computers are really nothing more than a very powerful
calculator with some great accessories. Applications like word processing and games are just a very complex math
problem.
1.2.1 Basic Applications of Computer
As we discussed earlier, computer is present in a variety of places, from schools and offices to the big
manufacturing units; from our homes to banking institutions. Therefore, we can say that a computer has wide
ranging applications. We are discussing some of the applications in brief.
1. Word Processing - If you want to work with text, like typing a letter, writing books, reading ebooks, etc, you can use any word processing software available. Such software makes your work
easier and better by providing you writing and editing tools. Some of the typical features of a
word processor include:
 Different fonts styles, sizes and colours
 Copy and paste
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
 Spelling and grammar checking
 Inserting images, tables, charts, etc.
Making Presentations – We need to make presentations to vendors, clients or our seniors all the
time. Presentation software enables us to create presentations easily and lets us collate data of
different types like text, tables, figures, audio, video, etc. together.
Desktop Publishing - Desktop publishing software enables you to create layouts for pamphlets,
banners, handouts and books.
Internet - Internet is a global network of computers. Through the internet you have fast and easy
access to information stored in all the computers. Besides accessing information, you can use email to send messages or chat feature to talk with online friends. Offices are finding it increasingly
useful to use video conferencing to hold meetings with executives scattered across offices
worldwide.
Banking – Computers are used in banks as they can do complex calculations at very fast speeds
and store large amount of data.
Medicine – We see computer terminals in all hospitals we need to visit. They are used for
administrative purposes as well as during diagnosis, surgery and curing. Computers are widely
used in research and discovering cures for deadly diseases.
Telecommunications – Mobile phones are an important part of our lives. These phones have
software embedded in them for everything we do using it – right from talking and messaging to
listening to music.
Education – Computers have proved a boon to students in form of CBTs, e-learning software and
online tutorials. You can attend classes from the comfort of your home, get guided by tutors
though the internet or take exams online.
Whatever uses we have discussed are but the tip of an iceberg. The computer and embedded software is present
everywhere. Be it washing machines, televisions, microwave ovens at home; film studios, scientific research
centres, space exploration centres or the defence systems working at our borders, everything uses chips and
software.
1.3 Components of Computer System
Computer system is made up of following components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Central processing unit
Input devices
Output devices
Storage devices
Auxilliary devices
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1.3.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. All the mathematical calculations and logical
comparisons are done by the CPU. It also activates and controls the operations performed by all other units of the
computer system. The CPU has three components:
1. Control Unit (CU) – As the name suggests, CU is the unit that controls all the instructions to be
carried out by the CPU. All the other units and devices interact with each other via CU, not directly.
2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – This is the part of the CPU that actually does the calculations and
comparisons based on the instructions received from the CU.
3. Main Memory – Data and instructions related to the process being carried out by the CU are
stored in the main memory or the primary memory.
1.3.2 Keyboard, Mouse and VDU
Keyboard
The Keyboard is the primary input device used to communicate with the computer. A computer keyboard closely
resembles a conventional typewriter keyboard with additional keys like function keys, arrow keys, etc.
Mouse
Mouse is an input device used to point at objects on the computer monitor and select them. It is also called
pointing device.
VDU (Visual Display Unit) or Monitor
Visual Display Unit (VDU) is an output device used to display results. The Computer Monitor is also used to display
the data being entered by the user.
1.3.3 Other Input Devices
Keyboard and mouse are the two main input devices of a computer system. Other than these two, we are
discussing some other input devices that can be attached to the computer.
Barcode readers
A barcode reader, also known as a point of sale (POS) scanner is a hardware device capable of reading a barcode
and printing out the details of the product or logging that product into a database. A perfect example of a barcode
reader is a super market barcode scanner that reads and logs the price of a product.
Digital Camera
A camera stores the pictures or video in electronic format. These can be directly uploaded to the computer system.
Joystick
A joystick allows an individual to easily move an object in a game such as navigating a plane in a flight simulator.
Optical scanner
Optical scanner is an input device that allows a user to take an image or text and convert it into a digital file,
allowing the computer to read or display the scanned object.
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1.3.4 Other Output Devices
Printer
A printer is used to print data sheets, documents, pictures, etc. on paper.
Speaker
A speaker gives you sound output from your computer. Some speakers are built into the computer and some are
attached externally.
Headphones
Headphones also give sound output from the computer. They are similar to speakers, except they are worn on
the ears so only one person can hear the output at a time.
1.3.5 Computer Memory
Just like humans, computers rely a lot on memory. They need to process and store data, just like we do. However,
computers store data in digital format, which means the information can always be called up exactly the way it
was stored. Also, unlike our memory, the computer's memory doesn't get worse over time. There are two types
of memory in a computer:
1. Primary Memory – RAM and ROM
2. Secondary Memory – Hard disk
Random Access Memory
When your computer boots up, it loads the operating system into its random access memory, or RAM. This allows
your computer to access system functions, such as handling mouse clicks and keystrokes, since the event
handlers are loaded into RAM. Whenever you open a program, the interface and functions used by that program
are also loaded into RAM.
Read Only Memory (ROM)
This type of memory is active, regardless of whether the system is turned on or is switched off. It is a kind of
permanent non-volatile storage memory. As the name 'read only' suggests, the contents in it cannot be changed
or modified. It is an integrated circuit which is pre-programmed with important data that should necessarily be
present for the computer to carry out its normal functionalities.
Cache
Cache is a kind of RAM which a computer system can access more responsively than it can in regular RAM. The
central processing unit looks up in the cache memory before searching in the central memory storage area to
determine the information it required. This rules out the need for the system to search for information in larger
and bigger memory storage areas, which in turn leads to a faster extraction of data.
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Computer Hard Drive
These devices are important data storage components that are installed in the CPU. Their memory ranges widely,
and a user may choose the memory depending on the data needed to be stored and accessed. Nowadays, hard
drives having a memory capacity of 250 gigabytes to 1 terabytes are normally used.
Flash Memory
This is a non-volatile kind of memory which is intended to contribute to portable storage and a convenient transfer
of data from one computer to another. The data in it can be erased and re-programmed as per the user's
requirements. It only has a specific number of erase and write cycles that it can withstand, after which it creates
a tendency to lose out on the stored information. Memory cards and USB flash drives are some modes of this type
of memory storage.
These are just the common computer memory types which facilitate memory and data storage. However, there
are many subtypes which are sorted out according to the memory-related functionalities they perform and the
requirements they serve.
1.4 Concept of Hardware and Software
1.4.1 Hardware
Computer hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and related devices. Internal hardware devices
include motherboards, hard drives, and RAM. External hardware devices include monitors, keyboards, mice,
printers, and scanners. The internal hardware parts of a computer are often referred to as components, while
external hardware devices are usually called peripherals. Together, they all fall under the category of computer
hardware. A typical computer (Personal Computer, PC) contains in a desktop or tower case the following parts:




Motherboard which holds the CPU, main memory and other parts, and has slots for expansion
cards
Power supply - a case that holds a transformer, voltage control and fan
Hard disk, floppy disk and other drives for mass storage
Interface controllers (parallel, serial, USB, Firewire) to connect the computer to external
peripheral devices such as printers or scanners
1.4.2 Software
In general, computer software is the general terminology to describe computer programs. Software needs to be
accessed before it can be used. There are many terms used for process of accessing software including running,
executing, starting up, opening, and others. Computer programs allow users to complete tasks. A program can
also be referred to as an application and the two words are used interchangeably. Examples of software programs
or applications would be the Operating System (DOS, Windows7, O/S2, UNIX, etc.), Word processor (typing
letters), Spreadsheet (financial info), Database (inventory control and address book), Graphics program, Internet
Browser, Email and many others. Also, any document that you create, graphic you design, sound you compose,
file you make, letter you write, email you send or anything that you create on your computer is referred to as
software. All software are stored in files. Software is stored on a disk or tape whether that disk is a floppy, hard
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Disk, CD, tape or one of the dozens of other storage devices available. Software can be divided into two general
classes: systems software and applications software.
1.4.2.1 Application Software
Application software is a program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases,
for another application. Application software (also called end user programs) includes database programs, word
processors and spreadsheets. Applications software is unable to run without the operating system and system
utilities.
1.4.2.2 System Software
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain
a platform for running application software.
The most basic types of system software are:
1. BIOS and device firmware – they provide basic functionality to operate and control the hardware
connected to or built into the computer.
2. Operating System – IT allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like
transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device. It also
provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software.
3. Utility software – It helps in analyzing, configuring, optimizing and maintaining the computer.
1.5 Concept of Computing, Data and Information
Data
Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics related to an object. Data can be processed to create useful
information. Data is a valuable asset for an organization. Data can be used by the managers to perform effective
and successful operations of management. It provides a view of past activities related to the rise and fall of an
organization. It also enables the user to make better decision for future. Data is very useful for generating reports,
graphs and statistics.
Example
Students fill an admission form when they get admission in college. The form consists of raw facts about the
students. These raw facts are student's name, father name, address etc. The purpose of collecting this data is to
maintain the records of the students during their study period in the college.
Information
The manipulated and processed form of data is called information. It is more meaningful than data. It is used for
making decisions. Data is used as input for processing and information I output of this processing.
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Example
Data collected from census is used to generate different type of information. The government can use it to
determine the literacy rate in the country. Government can use the information in important decision to improve
literacy rate.
1.6 Applications of Information, Electronics and Communication Technology
(IECT)
1.6.1 e-Governance
Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a
country’s affairs, including citizens’ articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations.
E-governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the electronic medium in order to
facilitate an efficient, speedy and transparent process of disseminating information to the public and for
performing government administration activities. E-governance can bring about a change in the way citizens relate
to governments and to each other. E-governance can bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of
citizen needs and responsibilities. Its objective is to engage, enable and empower the citizen.
Why introduce e-governance?
The purpose of implementing e-governance is to enhance good governance. Good governance is generally
characterized by participation, transparency and accountability. The recent advances in communication
technologies and the Internet provide opportunities to transform the relationship between governments and
citizens in a new way, thus contributing to the achievement of good governance goals. The use of information
technology can increase the broad involvement of citizens in the process of governance at all levels by providing
the possibility of on-line discussion groups and by enhancing the rapid development and effectiveness of pressure
groups. Advantage for the government is that the government may provide better service in terms of time and
making governance more efficient and more effective. In addition, the transaction costs can be lowered and
government services become more accessible.
The fields of implementation of e-governance are:



e-administration – It refers to improving government processes and the internal working of public
sector with new ICT-executed information processes.
e-services – It refers to improved delivery of public services to citizens. Some examples of
interactive services are – requests for public documents, requests for legal documents and
certificates, issuing permits and licenses.
e-democracy – It implies greater and more active citizen participation and involvement enabled
by ICTs in the decision-making process.
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1.6.2 Entertainment
In today’s electronic era computers have invaded almost every field of our life and entertainment is no exception.
With advancement in computer hardware and widespread reach of Internet, computer has become a useful tool
in entertainment. Using computer you can listen to music, watch movies and DVDs, play games and even hook up
your cable connection. All this has been possible due to advancement in multimedia concept of computers and
accompanying progress in computer hardware. Multimedia is a combination of pictures, audio, video, animation,
and text for improving content displayed by the computer. E.g. using Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition,
you can run almost anything (DVD, MP3, iPad, home theatre system, etc.) you want using your computer as the
hub.
1.7 Bringing Computer to Life
1.7.1 Connecting Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor and Printer to CPU
When connecting the PS/2 keyboard, ensure the
computer is off; if the keyboard is a USB keyboard
the computer can be off or on during the
installation.
PS/2 Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect your PS/2 keyboard
to CPU:
1. Connect the keyboard to the PS/2
port on the back of the computer.
2. When looking at the back of the
computer you may notice two
PS/2 ports next to each other.
Verify you're connecting the
keyboard into the purple
connection as shown in the
picture.
3. If your PS/2 ports are not color
coded the keyboard will be the
connection closest to the left edge of the computer (when looking at it from the back).
4. If the connections are vertical and not horizontal as shown, the keyboard connection may be
either depending on the type of case and motherboard. Look for a small symbol next to the port
to identify which one is the keyboard.
USB Keyboard
Connect the USB keyboard to the USB ports on the back or front of your computer, or if you are using a USB port
hub, connect the mouse to the hub.
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Install Software / Drivers
If your keyboard has any special features such as a built in touch pad or special buttons or is wireless, for these
features to work properly, the software and/or drivers for the keyboard must be installed after the computer
keyboard has been connected to the computer.
Installing a PC computer mouse
When connecting the PS/2 or Serial mouse, ensure the computer is off; if the mouse is a USB mouse the computer
can be off or on during the installation.
PS/2 Mouse
Connect the mouse to the PS/2 port on the back of the computer. Today, although many computers are still using
PS/2 mice if you're using a USB mouse, skip to the next section. When looking at the back of the computer you'll
notice two PS/2 ports next to each other. Verify you're connecting the mouse into the teal or green connection.
Serial Mouse
Connect the mouse to the serial port on the back of the computer. If the computer has serial devices currently
connected to the computer and the computer has two serial ports we recommend you use the first serial
connection if you encounter problems connecting the mouse. Once connected, depending on your computer
setup, you may need to configure the mouse in CMOS setup as found in the next section.
USB Mouse
Connect the USB mouse to the USB ports on the back or front of your computer or if you are using a USB port hub,
connect the mouse to the hub.
Setup in CMOS setup
If you've connected a serial or USB mouse it may be necessary to setup the ports in CMOS setup. If the mouse
you're using is a serial mouse and it's having issues being detected verify that the serial ports or COM ports are
enabled and assigned properly in CMOS. If the mouse was a USB mouse, ensure that USB is enabled and if
available, also ensure that the USB Legacy support is also enabled; this allows the mouse to work in legacy mode,
for example DOS.
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Connecting Monitor and printer
Put your printer in the position you want. If you
have a laser printer, allow a few inches of space on
all sides for ventilation. Ink-jet printers don't
require ventilation. Follow these steps to connect
the printer:
1. Turn off your computer and unplug
the power cord.
2. Connect the white connector end
of the DVI cable attached on the
monitor to the connectors on the
computer.
3. Connect the USB cable that was
included with your monitor to the
computer and the upstream USB connector on the monitor. Once this cable is connected to the
computer and the monitor, you can use the USB downstream on the monitor.
4. Connect any USB device.
5. Connect the power cord.
6. Turn on your monitor and computer. If you do not see an image, see Troubleshooting Your
Monitor.
7. Buy a bidirectional, IEEE 1284-compliant parallel printer cable. (Printers rarely come with cables)
or USB cable suitable with the specific printer.
8. Shut down the computer, but leave it plugged into the surge suppressor.
9. Compare the connectors at the opposite ends of the cable.
10. Attach the 25-pin end of the cable to the parallel, or printer, port on the computer (the plug will
go in only one way) or the required USB connection in proper port.
11. Tighten the hand screws securely for parallel port.
12. Connect the other end of the cable into the printer's socket.
13. Latch the retaining clips (on most printer ports).
14. Plug the power cord into the printer and into the surge suppressor.
15. Turn on the printer.
16. Install cartridges according to the printer manufacturer's instructions.
17. Turn on the computer.
18. Install printer driver software according to the manufacturer's instructions.
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19. Add the printer to the list of printers your computer recognizes.
1.7.2 Checking Power Supply
To be able to test your computer's power supply, you can
follow these instructions:
1. Turn off your power switch and plug it out
from the power supply.
2. Remove the cable from the CPU and start
unscrewing the power supply section in order
to remove the whole power supply (square
metal box) from the CPU.
3. Once done, locate the main ATX connector and find the green wire.
4. Also locate for the black wire near the green wire and with the use of a paper clip, connect and
safely bond the two together with a piece of isolating tape.
5. Put back all the power supply and switch the system on again and ensure that your system
ventilation is working.
6. To check whether the connection is correct, the Molex in between the yellow and black wire
should display at least 12 volts.
CHAPTER 2
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Operating Computer Using GUI Based Operating System
2.0 Introduction
An operating system (OS) is an interface between hardware and user. It is responsible for the management and
coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer. There are two types of operating
systems:
1. Command Line Interface (CLI) – Here the user has to remember the commands that are to be
given at the command prompt. Examples of such OS are DOS and UNIX.
2. Graphical User Interface (GUI) - GUI operating systems use icons and menus to carry out
commands. Because of their ease of use, GUI Operating Systems have become the dominant
operating system used by end-users today. Windows is the most popular GUI OS.
2.1 Objectives
In this chapter we’ll learn about:



Features of Operating System
Functions of Operating System
Elements of GUI
2.2 Basics of Operating System
Today most operating systems perform the following important functions:
1. Processor management – Assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the
computer system.
2. Memory management – Allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system
programs as well as user programs and data.
3. Input/output management – Co-ordination and assignment of the different output and input
devices while one or more programs are being executed.
4. File management – Storage of files of various storage devices. It also allows all files to be easily
changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other files manipulation routines.
5. Prioritization – Establishment and enforcement of a priority system. That is, the OS determines
and maintains the schedule in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system.
6. Automatic transition from one job to another job as directed by special control statements.
7. Interpretation of commands and instructions.
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8. Resource Allocation – Coordination and assignment of compilers, assemblers, utility programs,
and other software to the various users of the computer system.
9. Facilities easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator
(human). It also establishes data security and integrity.
2.3 User Interface
As we discussed earlier, the Graphical User Interface has a visual environment using windows, buttons, and icons.
As Microsoft Windows operating system is the most popular, we will discuss the different features of a GUI based
operating systems with the help of Windows operating system.
2.3.1 Task Bar
Taskbar is a bar displayed at the bottom of the GUI desktop. It is used to launch and monitor running applications.
The taskbar in Microsoft Windows may include the Start menu button, Quick Launch bar, taskbar buttons, and
notification area.
Taskbar elements
 The Start menu button gives access to installed programs, recent documents and OS settings.
 The Quick Launch bar contains shortcuts to applications. Microsoft Windows XP displays the Quick
Launch bar by default, so it might already be part of your taskbar. Look for the Quick Launch bar
directly to the right of your Start button. If your Quick Launch bar is disabled, you can display it by
right clicking your taskbar, and selecting Toolbars  Quick Launch option.
Setting Taskbar Options
In Windows, you can customize the taskbar according to your choice. To do so, right-click the Taskbar. The popup menu displays some of the commonly used options and the properties option. You can select the option you
want by clicking on “Properties” to open the Taskbar and Start Menu properties dialog box. Some of the options
are discussed below:





Lock the taskbar: If selected, all sizing handles on the taskbar are hidden so you can't accidentally
move or resize it.
Auto-hide the taskbar: If you select this option, the taskbar will be hidden most of the time so as
to not take up any space on the screen. To make it visible, move the mouse pointer to its position
prior to hiding.
Keep the taskbar on top of other windows: If selected, the taskbar is visible at all times, even
when large maximized program windows are covering the rest of the screen.
Group similar taskbar buttons: If selected, multiple taskbar buttons collapse into a single button
so the buttons don't become too small on the taskbar.
Show Quick Launch: If selected, Quick Launch toolbar is displayed to the right of the Start button.
2.3.2 Icons
Icon is a graphic symbol that denotes a program or a command or a data file or a concept in a graphical user
interface.
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There are thousands of icons in windows Operating system. Some important icons are categorized into six groups
as follows:
1. File management icons are used for storing and retrieving files and folders within the system. E.g.
My Computer, My Document, etc.
2. Database management icons are used for accessing different types of databases.
3. Office Icons are used for accessing office applications. E.g. Word, Excel, etc.
4. Internet access icons are used for upload and download files from the internet. E.g. Internet
Explorer, FTP, etc.
5. Multimedia icons are used for accessing audio and video files. E.g. Windows Media Player, Sound
Recorder, etc.
6. Utility Icons are used for managing the system. E.g. Backup, Control Panel, etc.
2.3.3 Menu
2.3.4 Running an Application
Running an application in GUI based operating system is quite easy and can be done in many ways. Some of the
ways are mentioned below:
1. If the application icon is available on the desktop, double-click it
2. Click on the Start Menu to open the list of applications installed. Choose the application you want
to run and double-click it.
3. Click on Start Menu then click on Run and type the name of the application in the textbox and
press enter.
2.4 Operating System Simple Setting
2.4.1 Changing System Date and Time
Follow these steps to adjust system date and time:
1. Click on the time that is displayed in the task bar. This will bring up the Date and Time Properties
box. You can also right-click on the time by clicking on the "Adjust Date and Time" menu option.
Or, click Start  Control Panel  Date and time to open the dialog box.
2. Change the date, month, year, time settings as you want.
3. Click "Apply” button to save the changes.
2.4.2 Changing Display Properties
To change the display property, right click on the desktop then select properties a new window will appear having
following tabs:
1. Theme – Here you can change theme of the OS.
2. Desktop – Here you can change the background and colour scheme of the windows.
3. Screen Saver – Here you can change screen saver and power settings.
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4. Appearance – Here you can change style, colour scheme, font of the windows and icons.
5. Settings – Here you can change screen resolution and colour scheme.
All the tabs have “Advanced” button that can be clicked to open more options to be adjusted.
2.4.3 To Add and Remove a Windows Component
Follow these steps to add or remove a windows component:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Click on Start  Settings  Control Panel  Add or Remove Programs.
Add/Remove Windows Program dialog box appears.
Select the Add/Remove Windows Component icon on the left side of the dialog box.
Add/Remove Windows Component dialog box opens.
Select the component to be removed and click on “Next”
A message box will appear asking you to confirm you really want to remove the component.
Select the OK button to remove it.
2.4.4 Changing Mouse Properties
Follow these steps to change mouse properties:
1. Click on Start  Settings  Control Panel  Mouse.
2. Mouse Properties dialog box appears.
3. Change the shape of the Mouse Pointer, Mouse Buttons configuration, Pointer Options, etc. as
per your choice.
2.4.5 To Add or Remove Printers
To print, you need to connect a printer directly to your computer (when it is connected in this way, it's referred
to as a local printer), or create a connection to a network or shared printer.
To Add a Local Printer
First, connect the printer to your computer following the manufacturer's instructions. Windows will attempt to
automatically install the printer. If Windows can't automatically install it, or if you've previously removed the
printer and want to add it again, follow these steps:
Click on Start  Settings  Control Panel  Printers.
Printer dialog box appears.
Click Add a printer. To open the Add Printer Wizard.
Select Add a local printer option to open Choose a printer port page.
Ensure that the Use an existing port option button and the recommended printer port are
selected, and then click Next.
6. On the Install the printer driver page, select the printer manufacturer and model, and then click
Next.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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Remove a printer
1. Click on Start  Settings  Control Panel  Printers.
2. Printers dialog box appears.
3. Right-click the printer that you want to remove, and then choose Delete.
4. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide
confirmation.
2.5 File and Directory Management
2.5.1 Creating and Renaming of Files and Directories
A file object provides a representation of a resource that can be managed by the I/O system. Like other objects,
they enable sharing of the resources, they have names, they are protected by object-based security, and they
support synchronization. The I/O system also enables reading from or writing to the resource.
A directory is a hierarchical collection of directories and files. The only constraint on the number of files that can
be contained in a single directory is the physical size of the disk on which the directory is located.
Creating new files or folders
Follow these steps to create new folders:
1. Open Windows Explorer, navigate to the drive or folder in which you want to create your new
folder.
2. Right click anywhere in the white space and hover the mouse over new.
3. Click on folder from the sub-menu that appears.
4. You will then be prompted to name the folder, simply type in the name and then press enter
(return) key.
The same procedure may be followed for creating files.
Renaming Files and folders
Follow these steps to rename files and folders:
1. Right click on the folder or file which you want to rename.
2. Then click on the sub-menu Rename.
3. Filename gets highlighted. Write the name of the file or folder you want and press Enter.
2.6 Common Utilities
Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the
computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool. Some of the utilities of OS are:
1. Disk defragmenters can detect computer files whose contents are broken across several locations
on the hard disk, and move the fragments to one location to increase efficiency.
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2. Backup utilities can make a copy of all information stored on a disk, and restore either the entire
disk (e.g. in an event of disk failure) or selected files (e.g. in an event of accidental deletion).
3. Archive utilities output a stream or a single file when provided with a directory or a set of files.
Archive utilities, unlike archive suites, usually do not include compression or encryption
capabilities. Some archive utilities may even have a separate un-archive utility for the reverse
operation.
4. Disk compression utilities can transparently compress/uncompress the contents of a disk,
increasing the capacity of the disk.
Chapter 3
Understanding Word Processing
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3.0 Introduction
In this chapter you are going to learn how to create a simple memo or note or a complex and complicated multi
column business document using word processing software. We are going to learn Microsoft Word to help us
create and edit professional looking documents.
3.1 Objectives
In this chapter we will learn to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Start Microsoft Word 2003 and understand its parts
Create a document
Format the document
Save the document
Print the document
3.2 Word Processing Basics
3.2.1 Opening Word Processing Package
There are mainly three ways of opening a Microsoft Word Package:
1. Select Start  Programs  Microsoft Office  Microsoft Word
2. Double-click on the Word icon on the desktop.
3. Select Start  Run  open a dialog box  write WinWord in text box and press Enter
Components of the Word Window
Besides the usual PC window components (close box, title bar, scroll bars, etc.), a Word window has other
elements, as shown in the following figure.
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Fig. 1: Microsoft Word 2003 Window
3.2.2 Menu Bar
There are 9 menus available in a menu Microsoft Word document.
1. File menu
a. New - Opens a new document. If you use the keyboard combination indicated on the
right, a blank document opens immediately. Selecting the New menu item with your
cursor gives the opportunity to open a large number of types of documents.
b. Open - Opens a previously saved document.
c. Close - Closes the active document but does not quit the application.
d. Save - Saves the active document with its current file name, location and format.
e. Save As - Saves by opening a window which gives you the opportunity to change the file
name, location or format.
f. Page Setup - Sets margins, paper size, orientation and other page layout options.
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g. Print Preview - Shows how the file will look when you print it.
h. Print - Prints the active file and also gives the opportunity to change print options
i. Exit - Closes Microsoft Word.
2. Edit menu
a. Undo - The actual entry of this item will depend on what you did last. This selection can
be repeated several times.
b. Repeat - After an action has been undone, it can be reinstated in the document.
c. Cut - Removes the selection from the active document and places it on the clipboard.
d. Copy - Copies the selection to the clipboard.
e. Paste - Inserts the contents of the clipboard at the insertion point (cursor) or whatever is
selected.
f. Clear - Deletes the selected object or text, but does not place it on the clipboard.
g. Select All - Selects all text and graphics in the active window.
h. Find - Searches for specified text in the active document.
i. Replace - Searches for and replaces specified text and formatting.
3. View menu
a. Normal - The default document view for most word processing tasks.
b. Page Layout - An editing view that displays your document as it will look when printed.
This view takes more system memory and scrolling may be slow.
c. Toolbars - Displays or hides different tools using toolbars. The right pointing arrow
indicates a list of toolbars. To add one slide down to the name of the toolbar and click to
select.
d. Ruler - Displays or hides horizontal and vertical rulers at the top and left side of the
document.
e. Header and Footer - Adds or changes the text that is displayed at the top or bottom of
every page of the document.
f. Full Screen - Hides most screen elements so you can see more of your document.
g. Zoom - Controls how large, or small, the current document appears on the screen.
4. Insert menu
a. Page Break - Use this command to send your cursor to the top of the next page even
though the text does not extend to the bottom of the previous page
b. Date and Time - Choose from several available formats for displaying date, time, or date
and time.
c. Auto Text - Insert any of several pre-set text lines or create your own.
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d. Symbol - Insert a symbol from each of your symbol fonts, or any standard font which
includes symbols.
e. Footnote - Place a footnote at the bottom of the page or the end of the document.
f. Picture - Insert pictures from clip art or a file. You can also insert auto shapes, word art,
or a chart.
g. Text Box (Frame) - Use this to place captions near tables or drawings, or to set off text at
the beginning of a page. Click and draw the box after making this selection.
h. File - Insert a saved document into the active document at the cursor.
i. Object - Insert an object such as clip art, word art, an equation or much more.
j. Hyperlink - An interesting use of hyperlink is to place a link to any document stored on
your computer. You can later open that document by clicking on the link.
5. Format menu
a. Font - Change font style, size, color and a large number of other features. You can also
change the spacing between letters here.
b. Paragraph - Indent a paragraph using either margin or place some chosen amount of
space before or after the paragraph.
c. Bullets and Numbering - As promised in the Insert menu, if you wish to change the bullet
style, it can be done here. Your bullets can be literally any symbol you wish them to be
d. Border - Create borders around blocks of text, or around the entire document. On the
Page Border tab, under the Art pull down menu you can find a huge selection of graphic
borders; hearts, stars, planets and much more.
e. Drop Cap - Make the first letter of a paragraph or chapter large enough to span several
lines.
f. Style - If you prefer not to use the Formatting toolbar, document style can be changed
here.
g. Background - Another task which can be handled in the Formatting toolbar, you can
choose the color to highlight selected text in your document.
h. Change Case - DO YOU EVER FORGET THE CAPS LOCK? If so, come to this sub-menu and
change the case of the highlighted text. Bold, Italic, Underline - Format selected text; Bold,
Italic, or Underlined.
i. Object - Make changes to any selected object; image, word art, auto shape or any other
object inserted into the document.
6. Tools menu
a. Spelling and Grammar - Choose either submenu or the same window opens. Questioned
spelling is in red, grammar in green.
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b. Language/Thesaurus - Have you used the word "like" too many times? Highlight the word,
select Thesaurus and get suggestions like similar and analogous.
c. Word Count - Need to know how many words are in your document? Select Word Count
and find out how many pages, words, characters, paragraphs, and lines are there.
d. Auto Summarize - Exactly what it sounds like, Word summarizes the document, reducing
the length of the document, keeping the meaning.
e. Auto Correct - Word will automatically correct some things. If this feature is irritating to
you, come here to change what is corrected. You can also turn off this feature.
f. Customize - Opens the same window that you get by going to the View menu and
selecting Toolbar/Customize.
g. Options - Modify Word settings here. Modify print, editing, spelling and other options
from this sub-menu.
7. Table Menu
We will deal with its content in Section 3.6.
8. Window menu
a. New Window - This opens another window with a copy of the active document.
b. Arrange All - Displays all open files in the window. This makes dragging and dropping from
one document to another much easier.
c. Split - Splits the active window into panes.
d. Open Document List - There is no need to drag windows to the side so you can see other
documents open in Word. Come to the bottom of this window for a listing of all open
documents. The active document has a check mark beside it.
9. Help menu
a. Microsoft Word Help - Open Word's Assistant and get a search box to type in. Word
displays possible matches for you to read about.
b. Contents and Index - See an index of all topics available in Word's Help documentation.
c. Microsoft on the Web - That's right! It is exactly what it sounds like. Select a link and a
Microsoft help page is opened in your browser. If you are online, Word will make the
connection and then display the page.
d. About Microsoft Word - Not sure which version of Word you working with. Check here
for version information and for the product ID number.
3.2.3 Using the Help
If you need help while you work, you can use the following resources:
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Type a question for help box
To quickly access Help, use the Type a question for help box on the menu bar. You can type questions in this box
to quickly find the answers you need. For example, type how I create a smart tag to learn about smart tags. The
content returned is shown in order of relevance where the most likely answer to your question appears first.
3.2.4 Using the Icons Below the Menu Bar
As shown in Fig 1, Standard Tool Bar and Formatting Tool Bar are usually placed below the Menu Bar. Some of the
most used icons here are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
New – Opens a new blank document
Cut - Removes the selection from the document and places it on the clipboard
Save – Saves the document
Copy - Copies the selected item(s) to the clipboard
Paste - Places the content of the clipboard at the insertion point
Format painter - Copies the format from a selected object or text and applies to other objects or
text
Undo - Reverses the last command, use pull-down menu to undo several steps
Redo - Reverses the action of the Undo button,
Columns - Changes the number of columns in a document Displays or hides the Drawing toolbar
Zoom - Enlarges or reduces the display of the active document
3.3 Opening and Closing Documents
When we start working with Word, the first thing that we need to do is to learn how to open an existing document.
3.3.1 Opening Word Documents
1. Click the open button on the standard toolbar. Or
2. Click the file menu and then click Open Or Press ctrl + O
3.3.2 Save and Save as
After you create a new document, follow these steps to save it:
1. Click the Save button on the standard toolbar. Or
2. Click the file menu and then click Save Or Press ctrl + S
3. When we save a document the first time, Word displays the Save As dialog box so we can type a
name for the document.
4. To save an existing document under a new name click the file menu and then click Save As Or
Press F12
5. Click the Save button and you're done.
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3.3.3 Page Setup
Open the Page Setup menu. Scroll to the “File” tab and then click on “Page Setup” to make the following changes:
1. Set the margins: Under the "Margins" tab you can specify the width of all of your margins by
entering in the desired width (in inches) into the corresponding field. You can set the width of the
left, right, bottom, top and gutter margins.
2. Set the orientation: Under the “Orientation” field you can determine if your page prints vertically
as a portrait or horizontally as a landscape by clicking the desired radial button.
3. Set up how the pages print: Under the “Pages” field you can select how you wish the pages to
print by selecting the desired option from the drop-down menu to the right.
4. Choose your paper selection: Under the “Paper” tab you can specify the paper size and width by
making the desired selections under the “Paper Size” field. Use the drop-down menus and up and
down arrows to modify the paper size and format. Under the “Paper Source” field you can set
what printer paper tray are being used for the document when printing.
5. Choose your layout: In the "Layout" tab you can specify where sections start by selecting an
option from the “Sections” field drop-down menu.
6. Set the header and footer attributes: Under the “Header and Footer” field you can select that
headers and footers print on every page, or on every other odd or even page, by choosing the
desired options from the drop-down menu to the right. You can also set the distance that headers
and footers print from the edge of the paper by entering in the desired width (in inches) under
the “From Edge” field menu inside of the “Header and Footer” field box.
7. Set the page's vertical alignment: You can determine the vertical alignment of the page
underneath the “Page” field by choosing the desired alignment from the drop-down menu inside
of the field box.
Save the changes. Click on the “Ok” button to save all of the page setup changes that you just made.
3.3.4 Print Preview
As its name suggests, Print Preview lets you to see what a document would look like if it were printed. This allows
you to make changes and revisions to your document, if you don't like the way it looks.
To bring up Print Preview, do the following:
1. Click File menu barClick Print Preview
2. You are taken out of your Print Layout view.
3. You can now examine what your document will look like when it is printed.
Zoom
If things look too small in Print Preview, there are two ways to zoom in closer. You can click the magnifier, which
is the second of the two icons. Then click the page you want to zoom in on with your left mouse button. To zoom
out again, click your right hand mouse button. The second method is to click the black down-pointing arrow, just
to the right of 25%. You'll get a drop down list of values. Click one with your left mouse button
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View Multiple Pages
Another handy icon on the Print Preview toolbar is the Multiple Pages icon, the fourth one along. Click on the icon
with your left mouse button to get the six Multiple Page options to choose from. When you have finished viewing
your work, click the "Close" button on your Print Preview toolbar. You will be taken back to your Print Layout view.
Having seen what your Header looks like, we can now move on to inserting some page numbers. We'll insert the
page numbers into the Footer area of the Page.
3.3.5 Printing Documents
You can print the active document by following these steps:
1. Click the Print button on the standard toolbar. Or
2. Click the File menu and choose Print or press ctrl + P
3. Click Print icon on the Standard toolbar.
Preview a document
You can see how your document will look on printing before actually printing it. Follow any of these steps to open
the Print Preview of the document:
1. Click Print Preview on the Standard toolbar.
2. Click the File menu and choose Print Preview.
3. To exit print preview and return to the previous view of the document, click Close.
Print all or part of a single document
Follow these steps to print all or part of a single document:
1. On the File menu, click Print. Or Press ctrl + P
2. Under Page range, specify the portion of the document you want to print. If you click Pages, you
must also enter the page numbers or page ranges you want to include, or both.
Note: You can also select the portion of the document you want to print. To do that click Print on the File menu,
and then click Selection.
Print only odd or even pages
Follow these steps to print odd or even pages of a single document:
1. On the File menu, click Print.
2. In the Print box, click either Odd pages or Even pages.
Print specific pages and sections
You can print specific pages, one or more sections, or a range of pages in more than one section.
1. On the File menu, click Print.
2. Under Page range, click Pages.
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3. In the Pages box, type instructions to print one of the following Noncontiguous pages type the
page numbers with commas between them. Type the range of pages with a hyphen between the
starting and ending numbers in the range.
4. For example, to print pages 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8, type 2, 4-6, 8
3.4 Text Creation and Manipulation
Word helps us in creating documents that are primarily text based. Once you have written whatever you want to
write, you can manipulate it using various tools provided.
3.4.1 Document Creation
The first thing to do is create a new document. As you've already seen, Word opens with a blank document already
displayed, ready for editing. At this point, you have several choices:
1. You can start working in the blank document that's already open, entering text and other
elements. When you're ready, you can save the file as either a Word document or a Web page.
(See the "Saving Your Documents" section, later in this chapter.)
2. You can start with one of Word's built-in templates, which may already contain some of the text
and much of the formatting you need. Any time you want to create a new blank document, the
quickest ways to do it are to click the New button on the Standard toolbar or to use the keyboard
shortcut Ctrl+N. These commands create a blank document based on Word's default Normal
template. If you use File, New instead, you can choose to create a document based on a different
template.
3.4.2 Editing Text
Editing documents in Word is just as simple as entering text in a blank document. By clicking within the body of
the document, you can add text. By default, Overwriting is turned off, which means text to the right of the
insertion point will be moved to the right. It is important to note, however, that if you highlight part of your
document and then start typing, the highlighted portion will be deleted and the new text will appear in its place;
it doesn’t matter whether you have hard returns, images, tables, or text highlighted, the results will be the same.
If you accidentally delete part of your document, you can use the Undo feature (ctrl+z) to undo up to 100 changes
you have made to your document.
If you want to delete portions of your document, you can simply highlight the portion you would like to delete
and press the delete key;
Unless you’ve changed Word options, Word will automatically correct the spacing at the point of the deletion.
To delete individual elements of your document, you have two options: The delete key will delete objects to the
right of the insertion point, while the backspace key will delete objects to the left of the insertion point.
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3.4.3 Text Selection
There are many quick shortcuts provided in MS-Word which helps you select text in your word document.
1. General Selection: Click on the start of selection holds down the left mouse button while dragging
the cursor over the text.
2. To select a single word: Double-click on the word
3. To select a line: Move the cursor to the left, it will change to a right-pointing arrow, and then click
your mouse.
4. To select a sentence: Hold down CTRL button, and then click on the sentence.
5. To select a paragraph: Triple-click on the paragraph.
6. To select a block of text: Click on the start of selection, scroll the page, and hold down SHIFT
button while click on the end of your selection.
7. To select a vertical block of text: Hold down ALT button while drag the cursor over the text.
8. To select the whole document: Click CTRL and A buttons simultaneously.
3.4.4 Cut, Copy and Paste
One of the most useful features of Word is that you can copy a part of the text and repeatedly paste it wherever
you want. Let’s learn how to do that.
Cutting text
To cut text, use one of the following techniques:
Technique 1 - Menu Cutting
1. Highlight the text you want to cut.
2. From the menu bar, click EditCut
3. Your highlighted text has gone.
Technique 2 - Right Click Cutting
1. Highlight the text you want to cut:
2. Click on the highlighted text with the right mouse button to get the popup menu
3. Choose Cut, by clicking it with the left mouse button
Technique 3 - Keyboard Cutting
1. Highlight the word or words you want to cut
2. Press ctrl + X
3. Your highlighted text is cut from your document
Copying Text
If you want to copy text or other objects in Microsoft Word, you can highlight the text or object and use the
shortcut menu to copy it onto the clipboard. You can then move or paste the subject into a different location or
document. Follow these steps to do so:
1. Open an existing file or start a new blank document from which you want to copy highlighted text.
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2. Select the text you want to copy using the methods discussed before.
3. Right-click anywhere on top of the selected text to bring up the shortcut menu.
4. Click the Edit menu and choose "Copy" or press ctrl + C to copy the highlighted text onto your
clipboard.
Pasting Text
Follow these steps to paste the copied text:
1. In all versions of Microsoft Word, you can paste copied text using ctrl + V or Edit Paste. You get
more control if you choose Edit  Paste Special.
2. In Word 2003, you get yet another option. In Tools  OptionsEdit you can tick Show Paste
Options buttons to give you even more control. If you tick that option, when you paste (using ctrl
+ V or EditPaste), you see a little clipboard thing, which contains a drop down menu.
3.4.5 Spell Check
You can use the spell-check feature in Microsoft Word to check spelling and grammar in your documents. You can
spell check any selection (even just one word) or the whole document. Follw these steps to use this feature:
1. Select the text you want to spell check, or place the cursor anywhere in the text to spell check the
entire document.
2. From the Tools menu, select Spelling and Grammar option or press F7 function key to open the
Spelling and Grammar dialog box.
3. View any flagged words or phrases in the upper-left window. Just above this window, you will see
the reason Word has flagged this text.
4. Check the Suggestions window in the lower-left corner of the Spelling and Grammar window for
correction suggestions.
5. Click the Change button to make the suggested correction.
6. Click Change All if you want all instances of this error corrected within the text that you are spell
checking.
7. Enter your own change if you disagree with the suggested correction (or if there is no suggestion)
by placing your cursor in the flagged text window and correcting the text as you would in any
Word document.
8. Click the Change button to implement your correction.
9. Click Ignore if no correction is needed; click Ignore All to skip all further occurrences of this
"misspelling."
Tip: Click the Check Grammar checkbox in the lower-left corner of the Spelling and Grammar window to have
Word check both grammar and spelling at the same time.
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3.4.6 Thesaurus
The Microsoft Word Thesaurus makes it possible to look up synonyms and antonyms to words as you type them.
Follow these steps to open Thesaurus and use it:
1. Open Microsoft Word and begin typing your document. When a word comes up you would like
to use the thesaurus for, select it.
2. Choose Tools Language Thesaurus. You can also right-click on the selected word to bring up
a pop-up menu that has the option of synonyms and antonyms.
3. Find the list of word meanings on the left side of the window. These are the possible meanings of
the word you selected. Select the meaning that most closely fits how you intended to use the
word. For additional help in selecting a meaning, Microsoft Word will put the part of speech of
the word in parenthesis. When you have selected your meaning, press the "Look Up" button.
4. Look on the right side of the window for a list of synonyms generated by the thesaurus. Depending
on the word, the thesaurus may also list a few antonyms. These will be displayed with
("Antonym") behind the word.
5. Pick the synonym you'd like to use and press the "Replace" button. The synonym replaces the
original word in your document. If you're unhappy with your list of words, pick the one you like
best and press "Look Up" again. The Microsoft Word thesaurus will then generate synonyms of
the synonym.
3.5 Formatting the Text
In Microsoft Word a user can change the properties of any text. For example, changing the text's font, font size,
colour, or making it bold, italic and/or underlining it.
3.5.1 Font and Size Selection
The handwriting of the computer is called font. You can change style of the font, its size, colour, width, look, etc.
using the tools provided. Let’s learn how to format your document by formatting the text.
Changing font type
To change the font of text within a Microsoft Word document, follow these steps:
1. Highlight the text whose font you want to change.
2. Click the down arrow next to the font on the format bar. Often, the default font is Times New
Roman. If you simply want to change the font to bold, italic, or underlined, click on the B, I, or U
on the format bar.
3. After clicking the down arrow for the font, you should be able to select from each of the installed
fonts on your computer. Click the font you wish to use and the highlighted text will change.
4. If you do not have any text to highlight or wish to type text in a different font, move the cursor to
the location of where you want to new text, click the down arrow on the font option on the
formatting toolbar and select the font you wish to use.
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Changing font size
To change the font size of text within Microsoft Word, follow these steps:
1. Highlight the text whose font size you want to change.
2. Click the down arrow next to the size on the format bar. Often, the default size is 12.
3. After clicking the down arrow for the font, you should have a selection of different sizes to select
from.
4. If you do not have any text to highlight or wish to type text in a different size, move the cursor to
the location of where you want to new text, click the down arrow on the size option on the
formatting toolbar and select the size you wish to use.
3.5.2 Alignment of Text
Microsoft Word gives you a choice of following types of alignment:
1. Left-Justified: The text is aligned to the left of the page. To do this, press ctrl + L
2. Right-justified: The text is aligned to the right. To do this, press ctrl + R
3. Centered: The text is centered between the left and right margins. To do this, press ctrl + E
4. Justified: The text is flush, i.e. aligned, on both sides. To do this, press ctrl + J
You can also do the alignment using the four alignment buttons: Align Left, Center, Align Right, and Justify on the
format tool bar. These buttons are to the right of the text attribute buttons: Bold, Italic, Underline.
3.5.3 Paragraph Indenting
Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. Within the margins,
you can increase or decrease the indentation of a paragraph or group of paragraphs. You can also create a negative
indent (also known as an outdent), which pulls the paragraph out toward the left margin. You can also create a
hanging indent, in which the first line of the paragraph is not indented, but subsequent lines are.
Working with Indents
You can adjust the indent for an individual paragraph, the indent for a group of paragraphs, or the margins for the
entire document. If you are setting margins for the entire document, refer to Adjusting Document Margins.
Word offers three types of indents:
1. Normal indent: It inserts a specified amount of space between the page margin and all the lines
in a paragraph.
2. First line indent: It inserts space between the first line and the page margin so it looks like you
used a tab.
3. Hanging indent: It uses a normal indent for the first line and then moves subsequent lines farther
to the right.
Note: Paragraph indents can be set using the Paragraph dialog box or the Ruler.
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Working with Indents: Dialog Box Option
Follow these steps to set indent in your document using the dialog box:
1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph. If you are adjusting more than one paragraph,
select all desired paragraphs.
2. From the Format menu  select Paragraph. The Paragraph dialog box appears.
3. Select the Indents and Spacing tab In the Indentation section, in the Left and Right text boxes, type
the desired amount of indenting (in inches).
4. To select a different indent for the first line, from the Special pull-down list, select First line or
Hanging.
5. If you selected a first line or hanging indent, in the By text box, type the desired amount of
indenting (in inches).
6. Click OK.
Working with Indents: Ruler Option
Instead of using the Paragraph dialog box, you can make indent adjustments using the Ruler at the top of your page.
Follow these steps to set indent in your document using the ruler:
1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph.
2. Click and drag the appropriate indent button to the desired location on the Ruler
3.5.4 Bullets and Numbering
Bullets are used to set-off and emphasize sections of text and are symbols such as dots or diamonds. The
numbering feature also acts like the bullets, only that it use the number instead of symbol to represent. We can
use bullets or numbering for any of these situations:
1. Break the long sentence into points form
2. Enhance readability
3. Grab attention and highlight important points
To apply bullet formatting to a list, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to add bullets to.
2. From the Format menu, click Bullets and Numbering.
3. From the Bullets and Numbering dialog box displayed, the Bulleted tab should be displayed, if not,
select it.
4. A list of different bulleted styles will appear. Select a style that you like.
5. Click on the OK button or press Enter.
To remove bullet formatting from a list, follow these steps:
1. Select the list to which the bullet formatting has been applied.
2. Click on the Bullets icon on the Formatting toolbar.
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To add numbering to a list, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you wish to re-format as a numbered list.
2. Click on the Numbering icon on the Formatting toolbar.
To add alternative numbering styles to a list, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the text you wish to re-format as a numbered list.
From the Format menu, click Bullets and Numbering.
From the Bullets and Numbering dialog box displayed, click on the Numbered tab.
A list of different numbered styles displayed, select the numbering format that you require.
Click on the OK button or press Enter.
To remove numbering from a list, follow these steps:
1. Select the list to which the bullet formatting has been applied.
2. Click on the Numbering icon on the Formatting toolbar.
3.5.5 Changing Case
Text can be typed in lowercase or small letters, uppercase or capital letters, or a mix of the two cases. Have you
found yourself wishing you could change the capitalization of a section of text without having to retype the whole
thing? You can, when you use the Format or Change Case Command.
To do so, follow these steps:
1. Highlight the text you want to change.
2. Choose Format Change Case. This opens the dialog box that gives you the choice between
Sentence case, lower case, UPPER CASE, Title Case, and tOGGLE cASE.
3. Next, choose the type of formatting you want to use from the below choices
4. Click OK. Or press shift + F3
5. Sentence case: capitalizes the first letter of the first word and puts the rest in lowercase.
6. Lower case: changes everything to lowercase, with nothing capitalized.
7. Title case: capitalizes the first letter of every word. Toggle case changes capital letters to
lowercase and vice versa. (You don't use this choice much anymore because if you make a mistake
such at typing tOGGLE, using the Shift key while Caps lock is on, Word automatically corrects it
and turns off the Caps lock.)
8. Alternatively, press the Shift+F3 shortcut key repeatedly to cycle through three formats: UPPER
CASE, lowercase and Title Case.
3.6 Table Manipulation
In a word document, you can insert tabular form of data too. This can be done by drawing a table using Table
menu and entering data into it. After creating and editing the table, we can format it as well.
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3.6.1 Draw Table
To draw your own table from scratch, follow these steps:
1. Select Table  Draw Table.
2. Once this option is selected, the "Tables and Borders" toolbar will pop up (we will cover this
toolbar more in-depth in a little bit).
3. Click on the first icon on this toolbar, the "Draw Table" tool (looks like a pencil drawing a line), to
begin drawing a table.
4. Navigate to the location in your document where you want to draw your table.
5. Using the "Draw Table" tool, click and drag to form the outside border of the table, determining
its width.
6. When you are finished, let go of the mouse button so that the outside border of the table can be
rendered.
You can draw rows and columns by using the "Draw Table" tool to draw vertical lines to create columns, and
horizontal lines to form rows. Continue to draw your table as you see fit. Now that you have the initial table
inserted into your Word document (either by using the "Insert Table" or "Draw Table" method), you can begin to
modify your table as needed.
3.6.2 Changing Cell Width and Height
To change cell width or height, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In your table, click in the column whose width you want to change.
Click the "Cell height and width" button you just created to open a dialog box.
Specify the column width you want and click OK.
You can this also by clicking and dragging the borders of rows or columns.
Drag the borders until you create the desired amount of space between rows or columns.
3.6.3 Alignment of Text in Cell
Select the text inside a cell or a group of cells or the complete table whose text you want to align. Now align the
text as you would do for any normal text using keyboard shortcuts or icons on the format tool bar.
3.6.4 Delete/Insertion of Row and Column
To insert a cell, row, or column to a table, follow these steps:
1. In the Table menu, point to Insert.
2. Choose one of the options displayed as per your requirement.
Tips: To quickly add a row at the end of a table, click the last cell of the last row, and then press the TAB or ENTER
key.
1. To add a column to the right of the last column in a table, click in the last column. On the Table
menu, point to Insert, and then click Columns to the Right.
2. You can also use the Draw Table tool to draw the row or column where you want.
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To delete a cell, row, or column from a table, follow these steps:
1. Select the cells, rows, or columns you want to delete.
2. On the Table menu, point to Delete, and then click Columns, Rows, or Cells.
3.6.5 Border and Shading
Applying borders and shading are two ways to enhance the appearance of your tables. Using shading for individual
cells can help emphasize the information contained in it or differentiate headings from content.
In order to use the toolbar option, the Tables and Borders toolbar must be displayed. To display the Tables and
Borders toolbar, from the View menu, select Toolbars  Tables and Borders.
Follow these steps for adding borders using drawing option:
1. Access the Tables and Borders toolbar.
2. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, from the Line Style pull-down list, select the desired line style.
Your pointer turns into a pencil.
3. From the Line Weight pull-down list, select the desired line weight. Click the on BORDER COLOR
 select the desired border colour.
4. In your table, click individual cell borders or drag along borders to apply the new style. The border
is applied to your table.
5. To turn off the drawing pencil, double click the table Adding Borders: Button Option.
6. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the border. On the Tables and Borders
toolbar, from the Line Style pull-down list, select the desired line style Your insertion point turns
into a pencil.
7. From the Line Weight pull-down list, select the desired line weight.
8. Click the on BORDER COLOR » select the desired border color
9. Click the on OUTSIDE BORDER » select the desired border placement The border is applied to your
table.
Follow these steps for adding shading using tool bar option:
1. Click within or select the cells in your table to which you want to apply the shading. You can apply
both borders and shading to cells within a table.
2. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, click the on SHADING COLOR and select the appropriate option.
The shading is applied to your table.
Follow these steps for adding borders using dialog box option:
1. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the border.
2. From the Format menu, select Borders and Shading to open Borders and Shading dialog box.
3. Select the Borders tab In the Setting, Style, Color, and Width sections and select the desired border
options.
4. OPTIONAL: To apply custom border settings, in the Preview diagram, click the lines or buttons.
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5. Click OK.
Follow these steps for adding shading using dialog box option:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the shading.
From the Format menu, select Borders and Shading to open Borders and Shading dialog box.
Select the Shading tab.
Under Fill, select the desired shading option. From the Apply to pull-down list, verify the selection.
OPTIONAL: Under Patterns, from the Style pull-down list, select the desired shading pattern
Click OK.
CHAPTER 4
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Using Spreadsheet
4.0 Introduction
Spreadsheet is used to do work with data for which we need to do mathematical calculations, create charts,
graphs, etc. Microsoft Excel is the electronic spreadsheet program that we will learn in this chapter.
4.1 Objectives
In this chapter we will learn to:




Start Microsoft Excel 2003 and understand its components
Save, edit and print a worksheet
Populate a data series
Use functions
4.2 Elements of Electronic Spreadsheet
Most of the Excel screen is devoted to the display of the spreadsheet. A spreadsheet is made of intersecting rows
and columns. The intersection of a row and column is a rectangular area called a cell.
4.2.1 Opening Spreadsheet
Excel displays a new workbook when it is opened. All the cells are empty in default spreadsheet of this new
workbook. A cell is active when the border is highlighted. When you enter information, the information is stored
in the active cell.
4.2.2 Addressing of Cells
As told earlier, a cell is made by intersection of a row and a column. Each row has a number associated with it and
each column has an alphabet associated with it. So the cell formed by intersection of a row and a column has both
the number (of the row) and alphabet (of the column) as cell address. E.g., a cell formed by intersection of column
D and row 32 has the cell address D32. When a cell is selected, its address is shown in the address box.
4.2.3 Printing of Spreadsheet
4.2.3.1 Print All Pages
To print a worksheet, follow these steps:
Click on File Print to open the “Print” dialog box.
Click ‘All’ from ‘Print Range’ and Click ‘Active Sheet’ radio.
Now click ‘OK’ Button.
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4.2.3.2 Print Selected Pages
To print selected pages of a worksheet, follow these steps:
Click on File Print to open the “Print” dialog box.
Click ‘Pages’ and type start page number into ‘From’ and end page number in ‘To’ box from ‘Print
Range.’
Click ‘Active Sheet’ radio.
Now click ‘OK’ Button.
4.2.4 Saving Workbook
To save a worksheet, follow these steps:
1. Click on File Save to open the “Save” dialog box.
2. Type filename in the ‘File Name’ box.
3. Click on ‘Save’ button.
4.3 Manipulation of Cells
4.3.1 Entering Text, Numbers and Dates
To enter text, follow these steps:
1. Select a cell by clicking on it, and enter ‘Excel is fun’ without quotes.
2. Observe that your text is displayed in two areas. Text is displayed in the active cell within the
workbook and it is also displayed in the formula bar. The formula bar is activated as soon as
you begin typing in a cell.
To enter number, follow these steps:
1. Select a cell by clicking on it.
2. Enter 789.
3. Observe that your number is displayed in two areas. Number is displayed in the active cell
within the workbook and it is also displayed in the formula bar.
To enter Date, follow these steps:
1. Select a cell by clicking on it.
2. Enter 29/09/2010 using format dd/mm/yyyy. The default date format is mm/dd/yyyy.
4.3.2 Creating Text, Number and Date Series
Creating Text Series
To create a text series, follow these steps:
1. Select any blank cell from worksheet and type any alphanumeric value.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
Choose ‘Fill’ option from Edit menu.
Choose Series from Fill sub menu and appear ‘Series’ dialogue box.
Type step value of series into ‘Step Value’ box and type last value of list into ‘Stop Value’ box.
Click on ‘OK’ button.
Creating Number Series
To create a number series, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select any blank cell from worksheet and type any number.
Choose ‘Fill’ option from Edit menu.
Choose Series from Fill sub menu and appear ‘Series’ dialogue box.
Type step value of series into ‘Step Value’ box and type last value of list into ‘Stop Value’ box.
Click on ‘OK’ button.
Creating Date Series
To create a date series, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select any blank cell from worksheet and type any date.
Choose ‘Fill’ option from Edit menu.
Choose Series from Fill sub menu and appear ‘Series’ dialogue box.
Type step value of series into ‘Step Value’ box and type last date of list into ‘Stop Value’ box.
Click on ‘OK’ button.
4.3.3 Editing Worksheet Data
If you want to edit the data you entered into a cell, follow these steps:
1. Select desired cell and double click on cell or press F2 key
2. Now type the changed data.
3. Click on Enter button.
4.3.4 Insert and Deleting Rows and Column
To insert a column, follow these steps:
1. Highlight column A by clicking the column heading.
2. Choose Columns from the Insert menu.
3. Column A should be a blank column now.
To insert a row, follow these steps:
1. Highlight row 1 by clicking in the Row number.
2. Choose Rows from the Insert menu.
3. Column 1 should be a blank row now.
To delete a column, follow these steps:
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1. Highlight column A by clicking in the column heading.
2. Choose Delete from the Edit menu.
3. Column A should be removed now and Column B changed to A.
To delete a row, follow these steps:
1. Highlight Row 2 by clicking in the Row number.
2. Choose Delete from the Edit menu.
3. Row2 should be removed now and Row 3 changed to Row 2.
4.3.5 Changing Cell Height and Width
To change cell width of column D, follow these steps:
1. Position the pointer between the column headings for column D and column E.
2. The pointer should change shape to show a double arrow as you position the pointer between
the two column headings. When the pointer changes shape, you can change the width of the
column by dragging to the right or left.
3. Press the mouse button and drag to the right until the desired width is reached.
The cell height can be changed by repeating the above steps with rows.
4.4 Formulae and Functions
4.4.1 Using Formulae
Formula is used to do mathematical calculations on a set of data. Functions are used to form all or part of a
formula. A typical formula in excel looks like this:
=function name(range of cells)
The formula always starts with an equal to sign, otherwise excel takes it as simple text value. Function name is the
name of the mathematical or logical functions that you are using. The function is applied to values entered in cells.
Range of cells defines that set of cells where those values are entered.
4.4.2 Functions
Some of the common functions of Excel are explained below in brief:





SUM() – This function adds the given numbers
MIN() – This function finds the smallest number of a given set of numbers
MAX() – This function finds the biggest number of a given set of numbers
AVERAGE() – This function finds the average of a given set of numbers
COUNT() – This function counts the number of cells containing numeric value in the given range
of cells
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
COUNTIF() – This function counts the number of cells in the given range of cells depending on a
stated criterion
Chapter 5
Communication Using Internet
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5.0 Introduction
In 1969, the US Department of Defense started a project to allow researchers and military personnel to
communicate with each other in an emergency. The project was called ARPAnet and it is the foundation of the
Internet. Throughout the 1970's, what would later become the Internet was developed. While mostly military
personnel and scientists used it in its early days, the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990's changed
all that. Today, the Internet is not owned or operated by any one entity. This worldwide computer network allows
people to communicate and exchange information in new ways.
5.1 Objectives
In this chapter we will learn about:
1. Networks – LAN and WAN
2. Concept of Internet
3. Applications of Internet
5.2 Basics of Computer Network
A network is made of two or more computers connected to each other. Depending on the size of the network, i.e.
the number of computers connected and the average distance between them, there can be two types of network:
1. Local Area Network (LAN)
2. Wide Area Network (WAN)
5.2.1 Local Area Network (LAN)
It connects network devices over a relatively short distance like in a single building or campus. LANs are typically
owned, controlled and managed by a single person and organization.
5.2.2 Wide Area Network (WAN)
A WAN provides long distance transmission of data, voice, image and video information over large geographical
areas that may comprise a country, continent, or even the whole world.
5.3 Internet
5.3.1 Concept of Internet
The Internet can be defined as a network of globally connected computers that is decentralized by design. A
network is a collection of inter-connected computers. The Internet can also be referred to as a network because
it is a collection of millions of computers. These computers may be situated in any part of the world. When we say
that the Internet has a decentralized design, we mean that there is no centralized body that controls the way in
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which the Internet functions. Each computer connected to the Internet is called a host. The operator/ user of a
particular host can choose from the millions of available Internet services and can also make services available
through the Internet.
When we talk of so many computers and other devices communicating with each other, there must be some rules
and regulations defined to do so. These rules, followed by two devices to communicate with each other, are called
protocols. The commonest form of internet, the Ethernet, uses TCP/IP protocol. TCP/IP is actually a protocol suite,
i.e. group of protocols, consisting of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol) protocols.
TCP/IP Protocol Layers
Like most networking software, TCP/IP is modeled in layers. This layered representation leads to the term protocol
stack, which refers to the stack of layers in the protocol suite. By dividing the communication software into layers,
the protocol stack allows in ease of implementation and code testing, and the ability to develop alternative layer
implementations. Layers communicate with those above and below via concise interfaces. In this regard, a layer
provides a service for the layer directly above it and makes use of services provided by the layer directly below it.
These layers include:
1. Application Layer: The application layer is provided by the program that uses TCP/IP for
communication. An application is a user process cooperating with another process usually on a
different host. Examples of applications include Telnet and the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
2. Transport Layer: The transport layer provides end-to-end data transfer by delivering data from
an application to its remote peer. Multiple applications can be supported simultaneously. The
most used transport layer protocol is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which provides
connection-oriented reliable data delivery.
3. Internetwork Layer: The internetwork layer, also called the internet layer or the network layer,
provides the “virtual network” image of an internet (this layer shields the higher levels from the
physical network). Internet Protocol (IP) is the most important protocol in this layer. IP provides
a routing function that attempts to deliver transmitted messages to their destination. A message
unit in an IP network is called an IP datagram. This is the basic unit of information transmitted
across TCP/IP networks.
4. Network Interface Layer: The network interface layer, also called the link layer or the data-link
layer, is the interface to the actual network hardware. In fact, TCP/IP does not specify any protocol
here, but can use almost any network interface available.
5.3.2 Applications of Internet
Internet enables us to connect to different types of information networks and exchange information. Some of the
applications of Internet are:





Communication via e-mail, chat and Instant Messaging (IM) tools
Research
Job Searches
Shopping
Entertainment
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

Tutorials and study materials
Business Development
5.3.3 Connecting to the Internet
To connect to the internet, you must have access to the following resources:
1. Computer System – A Processor with 400 MHz or faster speed is recommended, With Windows
95/98 at least 48 MB of RAM and more will help increase the computer’s speed for faster Internet
cruising. A Sound Card and Speakers also are recommended so one can hear the audio
information on the Internet.
2. Modem – Computer and other electronic devices work with digital signal while the cable used for
networking uses analog signal. Modem converts digital signal to analog and vice-versa.
3. Internet Service Provider (ISP) – ISPs are organizations that allow users to dial into ISP computers
(for a fee) to connect to the ISP’s Internet link. ISPs generally provide an Internet connection and
an e-mail address.
4. Software – The software or application needed to access internet is called web browser or
Internet browser.
5.3.4 Troubleshooting
Losing access to one’s e-mail and favorite Web sites can be as frustrating as picking up a dead telephone receiver.
Although the problem may lie with the ISP, it's worth knowing how to troubleshoot user’s own end of the line,
too.
Instructions
1. Make sure that the cable is correctly connected to both a phone line and user’s modem and that,
when user is using an external modem, it's connected to the PC.
2. If modem is internal, skip this step. Unplug the power cord from modem and shut down user’s
computer. Plug the modem back in and restart the computer.
Connection Refusal by ISP
1. Make sure regarding that username and password are correct. These are usually entered through
a connection program provided by the ISP.
2. Check whether the host name and domain name information are correctly entered in the TCP/IP
settings. This information will be supplied by ISP.
Problems in Loading Web Pages or Sending E-mail
1. Call ISP's support number to find out if the user has been affected by a service outage.
2. Unplug the power from modem for at least 10 seconds, shut down the computer, plug the modem
back in and restart the computer.
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Chapter 6
WWW and Web Browser
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6.0 Introduction
WWW stands for World Wide Web. WWW is a collection of interlinked hypertext pages on the Internet. Hypertext
is text that references some other information that can be accessed by clicking the word, moving mouse over the
word or pressing a keyboard key. Using the WWW we can access information on other devices on the Internet.
6.1 Objectives
In this chapter we will learn about:





WWW – World Wide Web
Web browsers
Search engines
Using the web resources
Using e-governance sites
6.2 World Wide Web (WWW)
The web is the most popular Internet service next to e-mail. It accesses a larger quantity and greater variety of
data than any other service on the Internet. The World Wide Web or the web, in short, is an Internet based global
information system. The web offers video, interactive multimedia and live audio, in addition to more basic data
types, such as text documents and still photographs.
6.2.1 Important elements of the Web:
Web Sites Vs Web Pages
Web site is a place on Internet where information about an organization/topic has been stored. Information can
be a single page or multiple pages. Pages are linked in such a way that by clicking the mouse you can move from
one page to another. A Web page is a part of a complete Web site. There is theoretically no limit to the number
of pages that a website can have. The only constraint is availability of storage space.
Hypertext
Hypertext is a system of organizing, navigating, distributing and publishing information electronically. Hypertext
information is organized into an interconnected web of linked text and image. Hypertext documents (called web
pages) contain navigational anchors (commonly known as hyperlinks) that allow you to navigate to another part
of the same document. It is also used for accessing information on the Internet. Hypertext makes the information
relatively easy to navigate using a universal software application called a web browser, such as Microsoft Internet
Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Mozilla Firefox, etc. The most common example of the hypertext is the help
system available in Windows OS and other windows-based applications like Excel, Word, etc.
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Hyperlinks
A hyperlink or link provides access to another hypertext document or multimedia file that you may wish to visit.
Web browsers distinguish text hyperlinks by different color or underlined text blocks. When clicked with mouse,
a hyperlink downloads and displays. Hyperlinks often direct you to a related or more detailed information
regarding the desired subject matter. Rather than listing detailed information about each subject, this page
provides hyperlinks which would allow you to visit and view only the information you desire.
Web Browser
A Web browser is a software application program that resides on your PC and can display text, images, and
multimedia data found on different Web pages. It allows you to specify a Web page, navigate using links and
“bookmark” your favourite Web pages. The commonly used web browsers are Internet Explorer, Netscape
Navigator, Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox.
6.2.2 Basic Features of Web
Some of the basic features of the web are:






Hypertext Information System – The idea behind hypertext is that instead of reading text from
beginning to end as in a book, you can jump easily from one point to another as per your interest.
The information does not take up any disk space and is easily available as well.
Graphical and easy to Navigate – One of the best features of the web is its ability to display both
text and graphics in full color on the same page. Before the web, using the Internet involved
simple text-only connections or complicated interfaces or encoding to view graphic.
Cross-platform – You can access web information equally well from any computer with any
hardware or software configuration.
Distributed – The web is successful in providing so much information because that information is
distributed globally across thousands of web sites, each of which contributes the space for the
information it publishes. You as a consumer of that information, go to that site to view the
information. When you are done you go somewhere else, and your system reclaims the disk
space. You do not have to install it, or change disks, or do anything other than point your browser
at that site.
Dynamic – Because information on the web is contained on the site that published it, the people
who published it in the first place can update it at any time. If you are browsing that information
you always have access to the most updated information.
Interactive - Interactivity is the ability to “talk back” to the web server. The web also enables you
to communicate with the publisher of the pages you are surfing. For example pages can be
designed that contain interactive forms like feedback, polls, comments, etc. which reader can fill
out.
6.3 Web Browsing Software
A web browser is a program you use to view pages on Net and navigate the www. Browsers are sometimes
referred to as web clients. A wide range of web browsers is available for every type of systems you can imagine,
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including GUI and text-only for dial-up UNIX connections. Most browsers are freeware. All you have to do is to get
a browser downloaded from the Internet. A web browser does the following two types of services:


Given a URL address, it should be able to access that information. For hypertext web documents,
this means that the browser must be able to communicate with the web server using the HTTP
protocol.
The web can also manage information contained on FTP, in Usenet news posting, in e-mail, etc.
The browsers can often communicate with those servers or protocols as well. Different browsers
may format and display the same file differently, depending on the capabilities of the h/w and the
default layout options for the browser itself. Retrieving documents from the web and formatting
them for your system are the two tasks that make up the core of a browser’s functionality.
However, depending on the browser you use and the features it includes, you may also be able
to play multimedia files, view and interact with Java applets, read your mails or use other
advanced features that a particular browser offers.
6.3.1 Popular Web Browsing Software
NCSA Mosaic
Mosaic was the first full-color graphical browser and was instrumental in making the web as popular as it is today.
Mosaic was developed by NCSA at the University of Illinois, with several supported commercial versions available
from companies such as Spry and Spyglass. NCSA Mosaic is free for personal use and comes in versions for
Windows, Macintosh and UNIX (the X window system). Each version is called WinMosaic, MacMosaic and Xmosaic
respectively.
Netscape Navigator
It is also known as Netscape and is available for Windows, Macintosh, and for many different versions of UNIX
running the X windows system. It is well supported and provides up to the minute features including an integrated
news and mail reader, support for Java applets, and the ability to handle “plug-ins” for more new and interesting
features yet to be developed.
Microsoft Internet Explorer
Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) enables you to connect to the Internet to gain access to the vast stores of
information on these computers. Subscribe to your favourite sites so that the content is automatically updated
whenever you want-daily, weekly or monthly. Internet Explorer can download updated Web Pages or entire sites
in the background while you do other work on your computer. You can add a Web page to your list of favourites
for easy access from the Favourite menu or Explorer bar. With Auto Complete, when you start typing a frequently
used URL in the Address bar, Internet Explorer completes the address for you. Using security zones, you can set
different levels of security for different areas of the Web to protect your computer. With Content Advisor, you
can screen out objectionable or offensive content. IE is available free.
Mozilla Firefox
It is a fast, full-featured web browser that makes browsing very efficient. Firefox includes pop-up blocking, tab
browsing, integrated google searching and simplified privacy controls that let you cover your tracks more
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effectively. A streamlined browser window shows you more of the page than any other browser. This is also
available free.
6.4 Search Engine
A search engine is a program which looks through its database for information that matches your request.
Information in the database are about websites and their contents. Examples of search engines are Google, Alta
Vista, Yahoo, Hot Java Excite, Infoseek, HotBot, etc. The effectiveness of search engine can be measured by two
main parameters:


Exhaustive indexing
Specific terms
Indexing is the processing of a document representation by assigning content descriptions or terms to the
document. In Indexing the web documents are characterized by recall (ratio of the number of relevant documents
retrieved to the total number of documents retrieved). Automatic indexing includes single term indexing,
statistical methods, as well as information theoretical and probabilistic methods. In addition to this automatic,
indexing uses linguistic and multi-term or phrase indexing. Since the Internet is a vast collection of information, it
is difficult to find specific information you actually need. Therefore the search feature in a web browser such as
the Internet Explorer provides an easy access to a special facility called search engine. Search engines scan the
Internet for the words or topics you are looking for. Web crawler is a program that crawls through the web and
collects information regarding the web sites. This information is put into the database of a search engine.
6.4.1 Popular Search Engines/Search for content
There are many search engines available on the web. Most of the search engines provide website reviews and
homepage services, in addition to key-word searches. Some of the popular search engines are:




Google
Yahoo!
Alta Vista
MSN
6.4.2 Accessing Web Browser
To access a web browser, you need to do the following:



Install web browser software like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox on any other in your machine.
Double click the browser icon to open the web browser.
Provide an address of a page which you want to see in the address bar and press Enter
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6.4.3 Using Favorites Folder
If you want to save a webpage that you want to come back to later, you can add it to “Favourites” folder. It's a
great system for organizing your search efforts in manageable folders. Follow these steps to create a favorite in
Internet Explorer:




When you are on a web page you want to save, click on the "Favorites" icon in the Internet
Explorer toolbar.
You'll see either a drop down menu or a side screen window pop up.
Select Add to Favourites to open the Add Favourites dialog box.
Change the filename and/or folder name as you want and click OK.
6.4.4 Downloading Web Pages
To download a web page you need to do the following:



Click Tools  File  Save As to open the Save Webpage dialog box.
Enter the location where you want to save the page and name with which you want to save it.
Click Save to save the webpage.
6.4.5 Printing Web Pages
To print a web page you need to do the following:


Click Tools  Print to open the Print dialog box.
Choose your options (especially All/Selection/Pages option is important), set print preferences
and click print.
6.5 Understanding URL
URL is the acronym for Uniform Resource Locator. It refers to the address of a page or a site on the Internet. Files
can be accessed on Internet through their URLs. The URL contains the following information:




The Internet name of the site containing resource
The type of service the resource uses, e.g. HTTP, FTP, etc.
The Internet port number of the service (if this is omitted the browser assumes a commonly
accepted default value)
The location of the resource in the directory structure of the server structure of URL.
Example: http://www.yahoo.com/images/logo.gif specifies an image file(logo.gif) located in the image directory
in the www.yahoo.com domain. A partially qualified URL is the one that specifies a resource on the Internet whose
location is relative to a starting point specified by an absolute URL. In fact the concatenated absolute and relative
URLs constitute a complete URL. After going to the absolute URL one can use relative URL to point to another file
in the same directory by just using other document’s filename as the relative URL. The additional information like
service, hostname, port, directory name will be assumed based on the URL used to reach the first document
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6.6 Surfing the web
Surfing the Internet is usually seen as very useful, fun, dangerous, or a tremendous waste of time, depending on
who you ask. All of the above is true, but what is also true is that the Internet is a necessity in today's world. As
we have discussed before, there is so much information about every conceivable topic on the web that can be
accessed only by surfing. Besides, you can download software, audio, video, files, etc. or do shopping on the web.
6.6.1 Using e-governance website
E-Government (short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government, or
connected government) is creating a comfortable, transparent, and efficient, cheap and fast interaction between
government and citizens (G2C – government to citizens), government and business enterprises (G2B –
government to business enterprises) and relationship between governments (G2G – inter-agency relationship).
There are four domains of e-government, namely, governance, information and communication technology (ICT),
business process re-engineering (BPR) and e-citizen.
The primary delivery models of e-Government can be divided into:




Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Consumer (G2C)
Government-to-Business (G2B)
Government-to-Government (G2G)
Government-to-Employees (G2E)
Within each of these interaction domains, four kinds of activities take place:




Pushing information over the Internet, e.g. regulatory services, general holidays, public hearing
schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc.
Two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or another
government agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with agencies and post problems,
comments, or requests to the agency.
Conducting transactions, e.g. lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants.
Governance, e.g. online polling, voting, and campaigning.
Chapter 7
Communication and Collaboration
7.0 Introduction
Effective communication is an essential skill needed to thrive in the world. Beyond mastering subject area content,
we need to be able to express ourselves in a variety of methods. Our choices for how we express ourselves digitally
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are growing every day - through voice and video-chats, Instant Messaging and even avatars in immersive virtual
worlds - which we need to learn to be able to communicate with others.
7.1 Objectives
In this chapter you will learn:


To use communication tools on the Internet
To build sustainable online communities
7.2 Basics of Email
7.2.1 What is Email?
Email stands for electronic mail. It consists of two components – header and body. The message header contains
control information, including, sender's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually additional
information is added, such as a subject header field. Internet e-mail messages consist of following two major
sections:


Header — It has many components like summary, sender, receiver, and other information about
the e-mail. Some of the components are:
o From: The e-mail address, and optionally the name of the author(s). In many e-mail client
setting is not changeable except through changing account settings.
o To: The e-mail addresses, and optionally name(s) of the message's recipient(s). Indicates
primary recipients.
o Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy; addresses added to the SMTP delivery list but not (usually) listed
in the message data, remaining invisible to other recipients.
o Cc: Carbon copy; many e-mail clients will mark e-mail in your inbox differently depending
on whether you are in the To: or Cc: list.
o Subject: A brief summary of the topic of the message. Certain abbreviations are
commonly used in the subject, including "RE:" and "FW:"
Body — The message itself is unstructured text; sometimes containing a signature block at the
end. This is exactly the same as the body of a regular letter.
7.2.2 Email address
The process of sending an e-mail message can be explained in some basic steps. Let's say you have an e-mail
address [email protected] and you need to send a mail message to us at [email protected] This is the route which your mail travels until it is delivered:


Open your email client program and compose the message. The message composition can include
typing the text message in the text field, attaching files and photos.
Fill the To, BCc, Cc, etc. fields as required.
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



Click the "Send" button. The email software will automatically format the mail message in an email format and send it to your pre-configured SMTP server.
The next major step proceeds in your mailbox's SMTP server. Once the message is sent from the
mail client, the SMTP server receives it over the network and reads the email address set in the
"To" field. Then it asks for the MX record corresponding to the recipient’s e-mail address. For
example, if we send a message to [email protected], the SMTP server asks the DNS
Zone server for a MX record for the domain my-ntcdomain.com.
Once the DNS server responds with the MX DNS record of the recipient’s e-mail address, the SMTP
server connects to it and delivers the message to the opposite mail server.
Once the e-mail message is delivered to the mailbox on the recipient’s mail server, the recipient
can start his/her mail client software application and receive the message by downloading it from
the server using the POP3 protocol.
Benefits of Using E-mail
E-mail has following benefits:





Easy to use: E-mail helps us to manage our contacts, send mails quickly, maintain our mail history.
Speed: The e-mail is delivered instantly, anywhere across the globe. No other service matches the
e-mail in terms of speed.
Easy to prioritize: Since the mails have subject lines, it is easy to prioritize them and ignore
unwanted mails.
Reliable and secure: Constant efforts are being taken to improve the security in electronic mails,
thus making it one of the secured ways of communication.
Automated e-mails: It is possible to send automated e-mails using special programs like the auto
responders. The auto responders reply back to the sender with generalized pre-written text
messages.
7.3 Working with email
7.3.1 Opening an email account
If you do not have your own email address, here are some web sites which provide free email facility:



google http://mail.google.com
yahoo http://www.mail.yahoo.com
msn http://mail.msn.com
Each free email site has its own sign-on procedures that you need to follow. When you are done you will have an
instant email account and you should check your mail. The first message is usually a welcome mail from the mail
service.
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7.3.2 Mail Box: Inbox and Out-Box
The "in box" contains the mail sent to you, available now to read, answer, store, or delete. The out box (or sent
box) shows mail you have already sent.
7.3.3 Creating and Sending New Email
Follow these steps to create a new email message and send it:






In the To box, type the e-mail address of at least one recipient. If you're sending the message to
multiple recipients, type a semicolon (;) between e-mail addresses.
If required, type e-mail addresses in Cc and BCc boxes as well.
In the Subject box, type a title for your message.
In the message box, type your message.
To attach a file to the message, click the Attach File to Message button on the toolbar (located
just below the menu bar). Locate the file, select it, and then click Open. The file now appears in
the Attach box in the message header.
To send the message, click the Send button.
Note: - To change the style, font, size, or color of the text, select the text, and then click one of the buttons on
the formatting bar (located just above the message area).
7.3.4 Replying to email messages
You can reply to a message by clicking on “Reply” link in the message. A new compose message window opens
where sender’s email address is put in the “To” field, subject is repeated with “RE:” prefixed and message is
repeated in the body.
7.3.5 Email forwarding
Email forwarding refers to the operation of re-sending an email message delivered to one mail address to one or
more different email addresses. You can click on “Forward” link to do that.
7.3.6 Sorting and Searching mails
All mail providers (like gmail, yahoo, etc.) give search box on the top or left hand bar of the inbox. You can search
the e-mails on the basis of sender name, message subject or any other word(s).
7.4 Document collaboration
Collaboration of documents is very crucial in a business or any institution since it allows people within the
establishment to work on the same document in pieces to produce a single document. It involves file exchange of
work done through removable media or by email, through file server, information portals or SharePoint and Wikis.
With document collaboration, the contributors have the ability to add, edit and even remove the text in the system
if deemed appropriate.
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7.5 Instant Messaging
7.5.1 Instant messaging (IM)
Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is
conveyed via computers connected over a network such as the Internet. Instant messaging requires an instant
messaging client that connects to an instant messaging service. Instant messaging differs from e-mail in that
conversations happen in real-time. In certain cases IM involves additional features, which make it even more
popular, i.e. to see the other party by using web-cams or to talk directly for free over the internet.
7.5.2 Instant messaging providers
Some of the popular Instant Messengers are Yahoo Messenger, MSN Messenger, RediffBol, Google Talk and
Skype.
7.5.3 Netiquettes
Etiquette is the practice of good manners - being polite and helpful, being kind and not aggressive, and being
mindful of the fact that others may see things differently than one. Netiquette is etiquette to be followed while
using the Internet. Some common netiquettes include:



You should behave with others the way you want them to behave with you.
Do not be abusive.
Don’t copy information shared by others blindly.
CHAPTER 8
Making Small Presentations
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8.0 Introduction
PowerPoint is a powerful presentation program from Microsoft. It gives you the facility to create presentations
that incorporate video, audio, pictures, tables, graphs, animations, etc. This program is widely used in business
and classrooms and is an effective tool for training purposes. Many free add-ons and templates are available
online from Microsoft and a host of other websites. In addition to an on screen slide show, PowerPoint has printing
options that allow the presenter to provide handouts and outlines for the audience as well as notes pages for the
speaker to refer to during the presentation. PowerPoint is a "one-stop-shop" to create successful presentations
for the business world, the classroom or just for your own personal use.
8.1 Objectives
In this chapter we will learn:





Basics of Microsoft PowerPoint 2003
How to create a presentation
How to prepare slides
Making slide show
Taking printouts/handouts of a presentation
8.2 Basics
8.2.1 Using PowerPoint
To start using PowerPoint, you need to open the software. To do so, double click on the PowerPoint 2003 icon on
the Windows desktop or click on the Start  Programs  Microsoft Office  Microsoft PowerPoint. Now you
can use the wizard provided by the software, start with a blank presentation or edit an existing one to create your
own presentation.
8.2.2 Opening a PowerPoint Presentation
To open an existing PowerPoint Presentation, follow these steps:
1. Click on File  Open to open the Open dialog box.
2. Choose the file that you want to open.
3. Click OK.
8.2.3 Saving a Presentation
To save a PowerPoint Presentation, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click on File  Save to open the Save dialog box.
Choose the location where you want to save from the Save in text box.
Enter filename you want.
Click on Save.
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The Save dialog box opens the first time you are saving a presentation. After that, whenever you save from the
menu or by pressing Ctrl+S keys, these details are not asked.
8.3 Creating a Presentation
There are many ways to create a presentation. Here we are listing some of the ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.
From a blank presentation
From an existing presentation
Using PowerPoint Wizard
Using in-built design templates
8.3.1 Creating a Presentation Using a Template
PowerPoint calls its built-in color schemes Design Templates. Design Template can only be applied to all slides of
a presentation. To make design changes in certain slides only, see section on customizing background.
1. From the Format menu, choose Apply Design Template
2. Clicking the various presentation options shows thumbnail views of their designs.
3. Click "OK" to choose one.
Design Templates
Design Templates will convert ALL of our slides into a theme. Each slide will have the same color scheme and the
formatting will change to a special look. You can be in any View (Normal View, Slide View and Slide Sorter View
are preferable) to select Design Templates.
1. Click on Format Menuthen Click-on Apply Design Template.
2. Click on the choices on the left side of the window (see arrow below). On the right side a special
template will appear with its own formatting.
3. Pick a Design Template you like and then click on Apply. Be sure to scroll up and down and to click
on additional choices.
Note: With Designs, they are automatically applied to all of the slides. You may choose additional effects for the
Designs by using the Background and Slide Color Scheme selections.
8.3.2 Creating a Blank Presentation
To create a blank presentation, follow these steps:
1. Click on File  New to open a window at the right side of the screen.
2. Select Blank Presentation.
3. Click on OK.
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8.3.3 Entering and Editing Text
The most common way to add text to a slide is to type it directly into any placeholder (places already there on the
slide to add text, picture or any other object) on the slide. However, if you are using a blank slide (without
placeholders) or if you want to enter text outside placeholders, you can use a text box.
Adding text to a placeholder
As soon as you select a slide layout the new slide appears with dummy text (such as "Click to add title") in the
placeholders. When you click inside a placeholder, the dummy text disappears, the cursor becomes a blinking line
(|) and you can start typing.
Adding text to a text box
1. Click on Insert  Text Box or on the text box icon on the drawing toolbar.
2. Take your mouse to the slide; the mouse pointer changes to a dagger.
3. Click and hold down the left mouse button while you drag the mouse to draw a text box. When
the box is the size you want it, release the mouse button.
4. Click inside the text box and start typing.
Formatting a text box
1. If the text box is not already selected, select it by moving the cursor over it until the cursor
becomes a four-way arrow and clicking on it until you see the text box border highlighted.
2. Right-click on the text box and select Format Text Box or select Format menu  Text Box. On the
Format Text Box dialog you can use the tabs on the top to make your selections.
3. On the Colors and Lines tab you can select a fill color and a line color and style for the text box
border.
4. On the Text Box tab you can choose a particular vertical alignment for the text, word wrap,
automatic resizing or rotation of the text.
5. You can also rotate a text box: select the text box and click on the rotate icon.
6. Click on green handles and drag as much as you want it to rotate.
8.3.4 Inserting and Deleting Slides in a Presentation
As you have understood by now, a presentation is a collection of slides. Like in a document we write in pages, in
a presentation we create slides.
Inserting slides in PowerPoint
There are many ways of adding new slides in a presentation. We are discussing some of these ways briefly below.
Auto Layout
After you have opened a new presentation, PowerPoint displays the New Slide dialog box containing several Auto
Layouts. Auto Layouts provide a pre-determined layout for each specific type of slide, such as bulleted lists, graphs,
and/or images. Click on each thumbnail image and a description will be printed in the message box. Highlight the
layout you want and click OK.
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New Slides
The same dialog box will appear every time you insert a slide. You can insert a slide by any of the methods
described below:
1. Click Insert  New slide
2. Click on the New Slide icon on the toolbar; the new slide will be added after the current one.
3. If you are in Outline view, you can click on the outline to highlight the slide after which you want
to add the new slide and follow the steps for inserting slides.
Note: You can change a slide's layout at any time. Just click on the Format menu --> Slide Layout to see the Layout
Dialog.
Deleting Slides in PowerPoint
To delete a slide, select it in the slide list on the left window and press the delete button. Or, you can right-click
on the slide and choose delete from the pop-up menu.
8.4 Preparation of Slides
As we discussed at the beginning of the chapter, the advantage of using PowerPoint to create presentations is
that we can put data in the form of text, table, pictures, video, etc. at one place. In this section we will learn how
to do so.
8.4.1 Inserting Word Table or Excel Worksheet
To insert Word Table
Follow these steps to insert a word table:
1. Select InsertObject  Word Document
2. Click on OK
To insert Excel Worksheet
Follow these steps to insert an excel sheet:
1. Select Insert  Object  Excel Worksheet
2. Click on OK
Importing and linking data from Excel into PowerPoint
Importing data
PowerPoint allows you to transfer a whole Excel datasheet or a range of data into a presentation. Follow these
steps to import data from an excel file:
1. Create a new chart slide or click on an existing one.
2. Double-click on the chart to open the datasheet.
3. Click the cell located in the upper-left corner.
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4.
5.
6.
7.
Select Edit  Import File to small windows explorer window.
Find and double-click on the Excel file that you want to import data from.
On the Import Data Options dialog, choose a sheet or a range of data cells to import.
Click OK to import.
Linking data
When you can create a link between Excel and PowerPoint Graph, every time you change a cell in Excel, the
corresponding cell in the PowerPoint datasheet will update automatically. Follow these steps to link data of an
excel file:
1. In Excel select the range of data you want to link to PowerPoint.
2. From the Excel Edit menu, choose Copy
3. Switch to the PowerPoint datasheet and double-click on the graph to open the datasheet.
4. Select Edit menu  Paste Link.
CAUTION: This is a one-way link. Changes made in Excel are updated in PowerPoint, but changes made in
PowerPoint's Graph do not update the original Excel Spreadsheet. When you link to data in another program, all
existing data from the Microsoft Graph datasheet is deleted.
8.4.2 Adding Clip Art Pictures
To Insert Picture from Clip Art follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click Insert PictureClip Art.
A new pane showing Clip Art gallery opens on the right side of your window.
Select the Clip Art you want to insert.
Click OK or double-click the picture.
8.4.3 Inserting Other Objects
Other Objects can be inserted from the Insert Menu. Choose Insert -> Object. A number of objects are available,
like:





Adobe Acrobat Document
Bitmap Image
Microsoft Excel Chart
Microsoft Excel Worksheet
Microsoft Word Document
8.4.4 Resizing and Scaling an Object
Drawing Object
Unlike most other PowerPoint functions, some drawing functions are accessible only via the Drawing toolbar on
the bottom of the PowerPoint screen. If you don't see the Drawing toolbar, activate it by selecting View 
Toolbars  Drawing.
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Drawing in PowerPoint is particularly easy due to the wide selection of AutoShapes that the program provides for
your convenience. Follow these steps to insert an autoshape:
1. Pull up the AutoShapes menu by clicking on the arrow.
2. From the pull-up menu, choose the desired shape.
3. As soon as you have selected a shape, your cursor will become a crosshair (+) when you move it
over the slide.
4. Press and drag the cursor until the object reaches the desired size (you can always format the size
later).
Formatting a drawing
Click on the drawing to select it (until you see the 'handles' around it) and then use either the Format menu 
AutoShape dialog to format it (a right-click on the object will also work in PC) or the drawing toolbar.
1. Resize and move a drawing by clicking on its “handles", in the same way used to format text boxes
and images.
Tip: Hold down the SHIFT key to move objects across a straight line.
Click on the arrow next to the paint bucket tool to change the drawing's fill color. Experiment with
the 'Fill Effects' options on the paint bucket menu to create artistic color combinations
3. Click on the line color icon to change the color of the object's border, and on the three style icons
to change the style of the border and/or the arrows.
2.
8.5 Presentation of Slides
8.5.1 Viewing a Presentation
You can view your presentation in any of the following views:
1. Normal View: Till now you have been working in the normal view where you see your list of slides
in the left pane and current slide in the middle pane.
2. Slide Sorter View: In the slide sorter view you can view all your slides together in a single window.
You can adjust the size of each slide. This view is used to arrange the slides in the desired order.
3. Outline View: In the outline view, the text contained on each slide is displayed in the left pane.
8.5.2 Choosing a Setup for Presentation
To choose a setup for a Presentation Select Slide Show -> Set Up Show.
From Here the various Options available are:
1. Show Type
2. Show Options
3. Show Slides
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From the Show Slides options, we can select only those slides which we want to show in the slide Show.
8.5.3 Printing Slides and Handouts
PowerPoint allows you to print your presentation as slides, notes, handouts, or even outlines. Choose File  Print
from the menu bar. This will bring up the "Print" dialog box.
1. In the "Print what" pull-down menu, choose the item you would like to print.
2. If you choose "print slides", what you will get is one slide per page.
3. If you choose "print handouts", you have the option to choose the number of slides you want to
print on each page.
4. If you choose "print outline view" you will get only the text of your slides (as it appears in outline
view) but none of the graphics or animation.
8.6 Slide Show
8.6.1 Running a Slide Show
There are at least three ways to start a slide show:
1. Select View menuSlide Show
2. Click the projector button on the lower left part of the screen
3. Press the F5 Key
8.6.2 Transition and Slide Timings
Animating text and objects
There are two ways to animate text and objects: Preset Animation and Custom Animation. Although Preset
Animation is relatively simpler, we strongly recommend Custom Animation because it allows more control over
animation. The instructions below pertain to Custom Animation only:
1. Click on the slide that you wish to animate and select Slide Show  Custom Animation.
2. In the Custom Animation dialog box, each object is identified in the Check to animate slide objects
list.
3. If you don't remember what a particular object is, click the object's name in the list; that object
appears selected in the preview window. Click in the object's checkbox to animate that object.
4. On the Effects tab make your entry animation and sound selections. You may also choose to dim
an object after animation.
5. On the Order and Timing tab arrange the objects in the order that you want them to appear.
6. You may also choose the objects to appear on mouse click or automatically.
Slide transitions
Transitions determine the effects applied when you move from one slide to another during an on-screen
presentation. Follow these steps to apply slide transition to your slides:
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To choose a transition effect, select Slide Show  Slide Transition.
Select a transition effect from the drop down menu.
Choose the desired transition speed.
Choose a sound to accompany the transition if required.
Advance option determines when the current slide proceeds to the next.
6. Automatically after xx seconds, makes the transition xx seconds after the preceding transition
ended.
7. Choose Apply or Apply to All, depending on whether you want to apply the effect to current slide
or all slides.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8.6.3 Automating a Slide Show
Follow these steps to automate your slide show:
1. Select Slide Show -> Slide Transition.
2. Select the Automatically After option and provide the time.
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