Managing Software Inventory Guide

Managing Software Inventory Guide
IBM Endpoint Manager for Software Use Analysis
Version 9.0
Managing Software Inventory Guide
IBM Endpoint Manager for Software Use Analysis
Version 9.0
Managing Software Inventory Guide
Managing the Software Inventory Guide
This edition applies to version 9.0 of IBM Endpoint Manager for Software Use Analysis (product number 5725-F57)
and to all subsequent releases and modifications until otherwise indicated in new editions.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2002, 2013.
US Government Users Restricted Rights – Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract
with IBM Corp.
Contents
Managing software inventory
. . . . . 1
Software asset management dashboard . . . . . 1
Maintaining accurate software inventory . . . . . 4
Reviewing software inventory . . . . . . . . 5
IBM Software Classification . . . . . . . . 6
Automated bundling . . . . . . . . . . 7
Part numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Partition collocation . . . . . . . . . 10
Infrastructure collocation . . . . . . . . 10
Stand-alone product discovery . . . . . . 11
Confirming the assignment of a software instance 12
Reassigning software instances to a product . . 13
Excluding software instances from pricing
calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Including software instances in pricing
calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Sharing software instances . . . . . . . . 15
Working with software catalogs . . . . . . . 16
Catalog customization process . . . . . . . 16
Step 1: Prioritize the work . . . . . . . 16
Step 2: Analyze your software . . . . . . 17
Step 3: Review information about files and
packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Step 4: Create component signatures . . . . 19
Downloading a new software catalog . . . . . 19
Updating a software catalog . . . . . . . . 20
Searching the catalog . . . . . . . . . . 20
Creating catalog entries . . . . . . . . . 21
Editing catalog entries . . . . . . . . . . 22
Deleting catalog entries . . . . . . . . . 23
Creating signatures from package data . . . . 24
Creating signatures from scanned file data . . . 25
Viewing catalog audits . . . . . . . . . 27
Advanced catalog management. . . . . . . 28
Software model . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit signatures
supported in Software Use Analysis . . . . 31
Checking the version of the software catalog
32
Importing a software catalog to Software
Knowledge Base Toolkit . . . . . . . . 33
Publishing software catalog in Software
Knowledge Base Toolkit . . . . . . . . 34
Managing publishers in Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2013
Managing software in Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing signatures in Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding signatures to an existing software title
based on raw data . . . . . . . . . .
Adding signatures to new software titles
based on raw data . . . . . . . . . .
Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing reports . . . . . . . . . . . .
Available reports . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing computers . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing metering data . . . . . . . .
Viewing contract usage reports . . . . . .
Viewing software inventory and usage . . .
Exploring software inventory . . . . . .
Viewing audit trail . . . . . . . . . .
Managing reports . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying report filters. . . . . . . . .
Exporting reports to a file . . . . . . .
Saving report settings . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling report emails . . . . . . . .
Working with PVU and RVU reports . . . . .
PVU and RVU license usage reports . . . .
Viewing PVU and RVU consumption . . . .
Creating snapshots of PVU and RVU
consumption . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintaining contracts . . . . . . . . . .
Creating contract custom fields . . . . . . .
Creating contracts . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing contract usage reports . . . . . . .
Contract usage report . . . . . . . . . .
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Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Trademarks .
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Privacy policy considerations . . . . . 67
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
iii
iv
Managing software inventory
The topics in this section provide information about how to
discover software in your IT infrastructure. You can check how
to generate and view reports, analyze the findings, and adjust
all processes and functions for creating these reports.
Software asset management dashboard
The software asset management dashboard provides you with a quick overview of
the most important information about the software assets in your infrastructure. It
includes information about the software catalog, part numbers, the status of
software assignment confirmation, and completeness of the data that is used for
capacity calculation.
IBM Capacity Data Completeness
The widget shows whether agents are correctly configured to collect all data for
the hardware and software that is present in your infrastructure. A system can
have an incomplete and inactive scan at the same time.
Elements of the widget
1
1 Links to the Inventory Data report with results
narrowed down to computers with the particular
status.
2
2
The number of computers with a particular status.
3 A link to the VM Managers panel.
3
IBM PVU Subcapacity
The widget presents products with the highest PVU consumption rate. It shows
how many PVUs a product consumes but does not relate this information to your
license entitlements. A maximum of five products are displayed by default. The
accuracy of data that is displayed on the chart depends on when the scan data was
imported, whether the PVU table is up-to-date, and whether software assignment
was modified. If any of these factors was altered, an appropriate message is
displayed on the widget.
No Data
Indicates that no data is available. It might occur when the data from the
scans was not uploaded, the upload of the data has not finished yet, or
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2013
1
inventory scans do not work properly. The message is no longer displayed
if data from at least one agent is successfully updated.
Elements of the widget
1
The PVU consumption rate of a product.
2
A link to the whole IBM PVU Subcapacity report.
3 The current version of the PVU table.
1
4
A link to the website on which you can check
whether a new version of the PVU table is already
available.
2
3
4
A link to the Metric Table Upload panel on which
you can upload a new version of the PVU table.
5
IBM Software Classification
The widget presents the number of confirmed and unconfirmed software
installations in your infrastructure. The accuracy of data that is displayed on the
chart depends on when the scan data was imported and whether the part numbers
file is up-to-date. If any of these factors were changed, an appropriate message is
displayed on the widget.
No Data
Indicates that no data is available. It might occur when the data from the
scans was not uploaded, the upload of the data has not finished yet, or
inventory scans do not work properly. The message is no longer displayed
if scan data from at least one agent is successfully updated.
Elements of the widget
1 A link to the IBM Software Classification panel
1
2
3
4
5
with results narrowed down to software installations
whose assignment was confirmed.
2 A link to the IBM Software Classification panel
with results narrowed down to software installations
whose assignment is not confirmed yet. Go through
these items and either confirm their default
assignment or reassign them to different products so
that all installations in your infrastructure are
confirmed.
3 A link to the IBM Software Classification panel.
4
The date when the last part numbers file was
imported.
A link to the Part Numbers Upload panel on
which you can upload a new part numbers file.
Inventory Data
The widget presents a summary of the IBM software that is installed in your
infrastructure, computers, and computer groups in your infrastructure.
2
Elements of the widget
1
1 A link to the Software Installations report.
2
A link to the Computer Groups report.
3 A link to the Computers report.
2
3
Inventory Exploration
The widget presents top five publishers with the largest number of defined
contracts defined. The publishers are ordered according to the number of
computers on which their software is installed, regardless of the number of
contracts.
Elements of the widget
1
The number of products from a particular
publisher.
2
1
A link to the Software Installations report.
3 A link to the Contracts panel.
2
3
Software Catalog
The widget presents links to the publishers, software products, versions, releases,
components, and signatures in the current catalog.
Managing software inventory
3
Elements of the widget
1
Catalog overview links for all publishers, software
products, versions, releases, components, and
signatures in the current catalog.
1
2 Information about the current version of the
catalog.
2
3
3 The date when the software catalog was last
edited.
4
Catalog search field.
4
Maintaining accurate software inventory
When you know that a particular software item is installed in your infrastructure
but is not displayed in Software Use Analysis, you must customize your software
catalog so that your software inventory is accurate.
About this task
The following workflow presents one way of maintaining accurate software
inventory and is intended as a starting point for new users. You can use your own
method of ensuring that your software inventory is up-to-date and accurate.
4
Start the process of verifying
software detection and updating
the catalog
1. View software inventory. If there are software
detection problems, troubleshoot them. For more
information, see the topic Troubleshooting software
inventory problems in the Troubleshooting guide.
View software inventory
2. Optional: If there is a newer version of the
software catalog, update the catalog.
Is software inventory
missing from any computers?
YES
NO
Troubleshoot software
detection problems
Are any software
items missing?
YES
NO
You have accurate
software inventory
Update the catalog
(optional)
What type of
a signature is
required?
SIMPLE
COMPLEX
Import the latest catalog to
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
(optional)
Create a signature in
Software Use Analysis
Add a signature to
an existing hierarchy
YES
Is the software
item in the catalog?
NO
Publish the
customized catalog
Create the software hierarchy
and add a signature
Import software scan data
from IBM Endpoint Manager
Your software inventory should be accurate after the scan data import.
3. If a software item that is installed in your
infrastructure is not displayed in Software Use
Analysis, customize the software catalog.
Analyze the Raw Usage Data or Scan Data
report and identify a file, registry entry, or other
type of information that can be used to identify
the software item or its usage. If the software
item can be detected with a simple signature,
that is a file or an installation package, create a
signature by using the simple catalog
management functionality that is available
directly in Software Use Analysis.
If the software item cannot be detected with a
simple signature, use Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit to create a complex signature.
Important: A signature can be edited only in the
application in which it was created.
4. Optional: Check the version of the software
catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. If a
newer version is available, import the catalog.
5. If the software item exists in the software
catalog, add the signature to the existing
hierarchy.
6. If the software item does not exist in the catalog,
create the software hierarchy and then add the
signature.
Important: After you start customizing your
software catalog in Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit, you can no longer import the latest
IBM® catalog directly to Software Use Analysis.
You must use Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
to keep your catalog customization.
7. Publish the catalog that you customized in
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit to make it
available for Software Use Analysis.
8. Importing software scan data. The inventory
results are stored on your Endpoint Manager
server. To import software scan data, the
software catalog, and other settings that changed
since the last update, you must extract the data
from the Endpoint Manager server and load it
into Software Use Analysis.
Reviewing software inventory
After new components are discovered by software scans, the server associates
those components with products based on their relationships in the software
catalog. If the initial association does not reflect your actual environment, that is,
the discovered components do not in fact belong to the automatically assigned
products, you must change the assignment. You can reassign, confirm, and share
Managing software inventory
5
software product instances. You can also include them in and exclude them from
the pricing calculations. Work with software instances to ensure that the software
associations match your entitlements.
Before you begin
You can watch video tutorials about managing software on the wiki.
IBM Software Classification
Correct assignment of software components reduces the cost of software ownership
and ensures audit readiness. Use the IBM Software Classification panel to ensure
that software assignments reflect your entitlements.
1
4
2
5
3
1
Refreshing
To update the results according to the selected time range, click Update.
2
Selection of products
After new components are discovered, the server associates them with products
based on their relationships in the software catalog. If the relationships do not
guarantee a 100% match, the product instances are unconfirmed. To start working
with your inventory, specify whether you want to display confirmed, unconfirmed
or all classifications. Focus on the unconfirmed classification as they require your
action.
3
Actions
The actions menu is available from the list at the top of the table or when you
right-click a row on a product, release, or component. Use the following actions on
the selected items to ensure that they match your entitlements:
v “Reassigning software instances to a product” on page 13
v “Confirming the assignment of a software instance” on page 12
v “Including software instances in pricing calculations” on page 15
v “Excluding software instances from pricing calculations” on page 14
v “Sharing software instances” on page 15
6
Tip: To select more than one product or release at a time, hold down the Ctrl key.
To select a range of products or releases, hold down the Shift key.
4
Filter
You can narrow down the number of products that are displayed on the panel by
filtering them down.
Part numbers
This column shows the part numbers that you purchased and imported to the
server. Make sure to systematically import a list of your part numbers, because
they facilitate software assignment. You can import the list from Passport
Advantage® or create it yourself.
Automated bundling
Automated bundling is the process of automatically assigning component instances
to products based on four rules: part numbers, partition collocation, infrastructure
collocation, and stand-alone product discovery. The results of automated bundling
are shown on the IBM Software Classification panel.
After a software scan, new component instances are automatically associated with
products based on a combination of four product-component linking rules.
1. First, the automated bundling process assigns points to product-component
connections.
2. Next, the connections that have the highest number of points are marked as the
ones with the greatest internal score.
3. After that, assignments are selected when the final bundles are calculated.
Each of the rules in the following table contributes to the internal score that is
calculated when components are assigned to product bundles.
Table 1. Bundling rules
Rule
Description
“Part numbers” on page 8
This rule uses the part numbers list to identify possible target
products. Part numbers are the records of the software
offerings that were purchased from IBM. They can be
downloaded from Passport Advantage or obtained from your
customer records.
“Partition collocation” on
page 10
This rule discovers the component instances that are on the
same partition, and are related to a product in the software
catalog.
For example: DB2® that is installed on the same computer as
Software Use Analysis is bundled with Software Use Analysis.
“Infrastructure collocation”
on page 10
This rule discovers the component instances that are installed
in the same infrastructure, and are related to a product in the
software catalog. The search does not include the agent on
which the product is installed.
“Stand-alone product
discovery” on page 11
This rule identifies the component instances of particular
products, and indicates the product that contains the lowest
number of components.
Important:
v If the internal score is low, more actions might be necessary, for example manual
bundling.
Managing software inventory
7
v Instances that are a part of an excluded product cannot be rebundled
automatically. Instances can be bundled with excluded products only if they are
associated with the excluded products based on the software catalog or the
stand-alone product discovery. Any new instance that is assigned to the
excluded product is also excluded on the agent.
Part numbers
Part numbers represent software products that you purchased. They can be used to
increase the accuracy of automated bundling by narrowing down the number of
possible products to which a discovered component can be assigned.
Example
Automated bundling assigns a database component to one of the products that
were discovered in your infrastructure. However, the database component can also
be potentially assigned to another software product.
Database component
Product 1
Product 2
Before you confirm the assignment of the database component or change it
manually, you can import the part numbers list into Software Use Analysis. Based
on the list and the component-product relations that are defined in the software
catalog, the initial assignment of the database component is more accurate.
Database component
Product 1
Based on imported
part number information
Product 2
Limitations
The extent to which part numbers can improve automated bundling is limited by
the following factors:
v Part numbers influence the assignment of only those components whose
assignment is not confirmed yet
v Part numbers that were purchased before 2010 are not contained in the software
catalog
v Part numbers that represent products that have limited availability are not
contained in the software catalog
v Part numbers that represent products that are available only outside of the
United States are not included in the catalog
8
Preparing the part numbers file:
The part numbers file can be used to increase the accuracy of automated bundling
by narrowing the number of possible products to which a discovered component
can be assigned. You can download the file from Passport Advantage or create it
manually.
Procedure
v To download the file from Passport Advantage:
1. Log in to Passport Advantage.
2. From the menu on the left, select Reporting > Order history.
3. If applicable, select the relevant site or sites.
4. In the Type of order section, select All.
5. Specify the Sales order date and click Submit detail report. Your report is
ready.
6. To save the file, click Download report, and then select Comma delimited.
v To create a CSV file on your own, create a file in which the column with part
numbers is called Part number. Use a comma as a field separator and quotation
marks (" ") as a text delimiter. For example:
"Part number", "Order type"
"D07UMLL", "Licenses"
"D08UMLL", "Licenses"
"D09UMLL", "Licenses"
Tip: Only the column named Part number is treated as the one that contains
part numbers. If your part numbers file also contains a column that is named
Order type, only the rows that contain the Licenses element are imported.
Uploading part numbers:
Upload and import part numbers to increase the accuracy of automated bundling
of software components.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Uploads permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. Prepare the part numbers file.
2. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Part Numbers Upload.
3. Click Browse and choose the part numbers file to upload. You can upload
either a csv or zip file.
4. Optional: If you want to overwrite the existing part numbers, select the
Overwrite existing part numbers check box.
Note: The check box is enabled only if you have previously imported a part
numbers file.
5. Click Upload.
When you upload the file, a new entry is created in the Upload History table.
The status is Pending until you run the import.
Managing software inventory
9
Important: If more than one entry is Pending in the table, only the latest one
will be executed during the import.
6. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Data Imports, and then click
Import Now.
Results
The part numbers were imported to Software Use Analysis and saved in the
adm.current_part_numbers table in the database. If you want to remove the part
numbers from the server, click Remove All Part Numbers and then run the
import. You can remove the part numbers only if you have previously imported
the part numbers file to the server.
Partition collocation
Partition collocation is a rule that discovers component instances that are on the
same partition and are related to a product in the software catalog. If any of the
discovered component instances has a confirmed, one-to-one, or auto-bundled
relation to the product, the other instances are automatically bundled with the
same product.
Example
The assignment of the Server 2 component to Product 4 is simple, auto-bundled, or
manually confirmed. The database component is assigned to Product 1. Both
components are on the same partition.
Server 2 component
User defined,
auto-bundled,
Product 4
or simple
Database component
Product 1
Based on the software catalog data, the database component is automatically
reassigned to Product 4.
Server 2 component
Database component
Product 4
Based on software
catalog data
Product 1
Infrastructure collocation
Infrastructure collocation is a rule that discovers component instances that are
installed in the same infrastructure and that are related to a specific product in the
software catalog. The search does not include the agent on which the product is
installed. If any of the discovered component instances has a confirmed,
10
one-to-one, or auto-bundled relationship with the product, the other instances are
automatically bundled with the same product.
Example
The assignment of the Server 2 component to Product 4 is simple, auto-bundled, or
manually confirmed. The database component is assigned to Product 1. Both
components are in the same infrastructure.
Server 2 component
User defined,
auto-bundled,
Product 4
or simple
Database component
Product 1
Based on the software catalog data, the database component is automatically
reassigned to Product 4.
Server 2 component
Database component
Product 4
Based on software
catalog data
Product 1
Stand-alone product discovery
Stand-alone product discovery is a rule that identifies component instances of
particular products, and indicates the product that contains the lowest number of
components. If the possibility that the instances belong to a product is above a
specific threshold, they are automatically bundled.
Example
The agent discovers the database component and the server checks which products
contain this particular database component in the software catalog. The database
component is assigned to the product with the lowest number of components, in
this case, Product 2.
Managing software inventory
11
Confirming the assignment of a software instance
After new components are discovered, the server associates them with products
based on their relationships in the software catalog. If the relationships do not
guarantee a 100% match, the product instances are unconfirmed. If the default
bundling matches your environment, you must manually confirm the instances in
default products. If the default bundling does not match your environment, you
must reassign instances to achieve a 100% match.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage IBM Software Classification permission to perform
this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > IBM Software Classification.
2. If the default bundling reflects your environment, right-click the instance whose
bundling you want to confirm, and click Confirm the assignment of instances.
3. If the default bundling does not reflect your environment, reassign instances to
correct products.
12
Reassigning software instances to a product
You can reassign software instances to another product in two ways. You can select
instances that you want to reassign and choose a product with which you can
bundle them from a list. Alternatively, you can find a software product to which
you want to reassign the instances and see whether all instances that you want to
reassign are eligible for that product. Reassignment of software instances to proper
products lowers the total cost of ownership, reduces the risk of unplanned cost of
license compliance payments, and the risk of not meeting the conditions of your
contractual licensing.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage IBM Software Classification permission to perform
this task.
About this task
The two main reasons for reassigning instances are:
v Fixing mistakes - If a component is assigned to a wrong product, you can
identify the correct product, select the instances, and bundle them to the right
product.
v Repurposing - If a component is assigned to a software product that you want
to uninstall, you can simply reassign the component to another legitimate
product.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > IBM Software Classification.
2. You can reassign software instances from the level of the instances or from the
level of the product. To reassign software instances to another product from the
level of the instances, perform the following steps.
a. Find the product to which you want to reassign the software instances.
b. Right-click the product, and click Reassign instances to this product.
c. Select the instances that you want to reassign to the product, and click
Reassign.
3. To reassign software instances to another product from the level of the product,
perform the following steps.
a. Find the instance that you want to reassign.
b. Right-click the instance, and click Reassign instances to another product. A
list of eligible products to which all instances can be reassigned is
displayed.
c. Select the product to which you want to reassign the instances, and click
Reassign.
Example
According to the software catalog, Product 4 is associated with Database component.
If you know that Database component is a part of Product 1, you have to reassign
this component from Product 4 to Product 1. After you reassign it, Product 4
disappears from the inventory, and Product 1 replaces it. If either Product 1 or
Product 4 is PVU-based or CPU-based, during the next recalculation, the
consumption of processor value units or central processing units will be
recalculated according to the new association.
Managing software inventory
13
Product 1
Database
component
Product 4
Example 2
Both Product 1 and Product 4 can contain Database component. In your current
infrastructure, the component is assigned to Product 4. If you decide to uninstall
Product 4 and install Product 1, you only need to rebundle Database component from
Product 4 to Product 1.
Excluding software instances from pricing calculations
You can exclude one or more product instances from the PVU and systems
software calculations if it is allowed by your license agreement.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage IBM Software Classification permission to perform
this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > IBM Software Classification.
2. Right-click an instance that you want to exclude from the pricing calculations,
and click Exclude instances from pricing calculation.
Tip: To select more than one product or release at a time, hold down the Ctrl
key.
3. If the instances that are displayed in the table are correct, click Next.
4. Choose the reason for excluding the instances. The possible reasons are:
v Backup, disaster recovery
v Alpha, beta, early support program
v Component of a non-licensed product: if the product has a different licensing
model than PVU or systems model, its component might be excluded from
the calculations, depending on your license agreement.
v Evaluation, trial
v Not eligible for licensing: the PVU or systems license agreement was not
signed for a product.
v Component is not compatible with the server or agent system: the
component is installed on a server and cannot be initiated because of
differences, for example, in the architecture or operating system. An example
might be a file server.
v Other: you must enter a comment to justify the exclusion.
5. Click Exclude.
14
Important: Instances that are assigned to the excluded product cannot be
reassigned.
Including software instances in pricing calculations
You can include one or more instances in the PVU and system software pricing
calculations to reduce the risk that you do not meet your contractual licensing
conditions. You can include only those instances that were previously excluded.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage IBM Software Classification permission to perform
this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > IBM Software Classification.
2. Right-click an instance that you want to include in pricing calculations, and
click Include instances in pricing calculation.
Tip: To select more than one product or release at a time, hold down the Ctrl
key.
Sharing software instances
You can share an instance of a component between more than one product. It
contributes to the pricing of all products that are assigned to the particular
instance.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage IBM Software Classification permission to perform
this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > IBM Software Classification.
2. Right-click the instance that you want to share, and click Share instance.
3. Choose products with which you want to associate the selected instance, and
click Share.
Example
The same instance of Database component can be used by both Product 1 and Product
2. After the association, both products appear in the inventory. If either Product 1
or Product 2 is PVU-based or CPU-based, the consumption of processor value units
or central processing units is recalculated according to the new associations.
Managing software inventory
15
Product 1
Database
component
Product 2
Working with software catalogs
To correctly identify the components of various software products in your
infrastructure, ensure that your software catalog is always up-to-date. Periodically
import a software catalog that contains the most recent software products. Also,
manually add those products that are installed in your infrastructure but do not
have corresponding entries in the catalog.
Catalog customization process
The process of adding custom signatures to the software catalog requires careful
planning and consideration. It starts with identifying products that you expect to
discover but are not reported or are missing from the software catalog. Next, you
should organize your work to ensure that the most important products are given
the highest priority. Then, you determine what files or packages can be used to
detect the software and report its usage. Finally, you can create the signatures.
Note: Software Use Analysis is intended for software inventory and license
management. It is suggested that you extend the software catalog for those
purposes only.
Process input
The input to the catalog customization process is a list of software products that
you want to be discovered. The list can be based on the general knowledge of your
environment and the procurement data. As the discovery, monitoring, and license
management of every software product require extra effort, target products on the
basis of license expenses. Focus on a few selected products and adopt an iterative
approach instead of trying to work on all products simultaneously.
Required skills
A set of skills that are helpful during the creation of the custom catalog content
includes:
v General knowledge of the software products that are used in your company,
their architecture, and licensing models
v General knowledge of the operating systems on which the software is installed
Step 1: Prioritize the work
Before you start adding custom signatures to the software catalog, prioritize your
work. Start with products that are critical from the business perspective. Then,
iteratively continue with the remaining products until all software that is used in
your company is discovered.
16
To optimize your work on the custom catalog content, adopt an iterative approach.
Start by grouping all software products that are used in your company into
software families and focus on one software family per iteration. Analyze and
create software signatures for all products that belong to the family on which you
are working. If a software family is too extensive, split it into smaller groups, for
example based on editions or distributions. The iterative approach allows for
continuously extending the catalog content and verifying its correctness at the
same time. Thus, you can gain more benefits in less time.
Step 2: Analyze your software
Extend the software catalog only with information that is related to products that
are used in your company but are not reported or do not exist in the catalog.
Consult the product administrators and available documentation to gather
information that is related to the product architecture and licensing model.
To gather basic information about a software product, work with the administrator
who is responsible for its installation and has the knowledge of its architecture and
licensing model. Try to establish a reference installation. Investigate the architecture
of the product to obtain the following details:
v Separately installable pieces (components) that constitute the product and are
important for discovery or licensing purposes
v Version number of each component
v Ways to check whether the component is installed
v Platforms on which the component can be installed
v Licensing model
If the product administrator is unable to provide the information necessary for
creating the licensing model, consult the available documentation. It can be found
on the installation media, in the product installation path, license agreements,
installation instructions, or online resources.
Step 3: Review information about files and packages
To identify candidates for software signatures, review information about files and
packages that exist on the computer where a particular software product is
installed.
Candidates for file and package signatures
Most efficient signatures are file-based signatures with constant size that is
different for each release or signatures that are based on package data where a
wildcard (*) can be used. In both cases, the file and package data should be
removed during the product uninstallation or changed during the product upgrade
or downgrade.
When you are looking for candidates for such signatures, always check:
v Whether any product documentation describes methods for determining the
product edition and release based on files or package data
v Whether the product name and version can be unambiguously determined, for
example, by the file name
v Whether there are any component-specific files:
– Executable files whose version, part of version, or size is specific to the
particular release
– Files whose name or its part is specific to the particular release
– Files whose content defines the product name and version
Managing software inventory
17
– Other files with constant size, for example, a graphic that contains the
product release number
– Libraries with version or constant size
v Whether there are application-specific packages
Do not create signatures that are based on:
v Shared or external libraries
v Files that can be used by another product
v File names that are commonly used, for example, readme.txt
Available reports
Use one of the following reports to identify candidates for signatures.
Package Data
The report provides information about the packages that are installed on
the computers in your infrastructure. To find a package that can be used as
a signature, filter the report to the data from the computer on which the
particular software product is installed.
Scanned File Data
The report provides information about files that were detected on the
computers in your infrastructure. To find a file that can be used as a
signature, filter the report to the data from the computer on which the
particular software product is installed. To further narrow down the
results, specify the whole or part of the path to the directory where the
software is installed. Then, look at the following columns:
v Recognized - the column shows whether the file was recognized as part
of an existing signature
v Caused Detection - the column shows whether the file contained
enough information to cause detection of the related software
Important: The columns are not displayed by default. To display the
columns, click Configure View and select the appropriate check boxes.
If the value in both columns is false, the file is not used for software
detection and can be used to create a new signature.
Only files with the following extensions can be used to create software
signatures:
*.A, *.APP, *.BAT, *.BIN, *.CMPTAG, *.EAR, *.EXE, *.FXTAG, *.ITLM, *.LIC,
*.NLM, *.O, *.OCX, *.PL, *.PRODUCT, *.PTF, *.RPM, *.SGN, *.SH, *.SIG,
*.SIGNATURE, *.SL, *.SPB, *.SWIDTAG, *.SWTAG, *.SY, *.SYS, *.SYS2, *.TCL,
*.XPM, *.a, *.app, *.bat, *.bin, *.cmd, *.cmptag, *.com, *.ear, *.exe,
*.fxtag, *.ink, *.itlm, *.lic, *.mdb, *.nlm, *.o, *.ocx, *.pl, *.product,
*.ptf, *.rpm, *.sgn, *.sh, *.sig, *.signature, *.sl, *.so, *.spb, *.swidtag,
*.swtag, *.sy, *.sys, *.sys2, *.tcl, *.xpm
Unrecognized Files
The report creates a ranking of files that are most commonly encountered
in your computer infrastructure but do not produce matches for any
signature. The ranking of 1000 file names is separate for each computer
group. It is based on the number of computers on which the files were
detected, the number of copies of a particular file, and the alphabetical
order. The files are listed by name with no regard to their size or version
metadata. To access such detailed information, click the file name.
18
Step 4: Create component signatures
Use the following guidelines to avoid common mistakes and to create the most
accurate signatures that better recognize software.
To obtain the best results, try to create signatures that meet the following
requirements:
v The signature is based on the main executable file of the software.
v The signature combines the main executable file of the software with package
data if it is available.
v The signature discovers only one release. If it discovers release 7.2, it cannot be
valid for releases 7.1 or 7.3.
v The signature is generic and discovers a particular release and all its
mod-releases and fix packs. To ensures that the signature is generic:
– Use a wildcard (*) in the package version, for example: 7.2.*
– Specify the version of the file rather than its size
– If a signature combines a file and package data and neither of them has a
version, accept a file with any size
Tip: If you are unable to cover all fix packs and mod-releases, combine separate
conditions for each of them.
Version of the software that are provided in the package and in the file might
sometimes be inaccurate and might not match the version that is displayed in
Software Use Analysis. If such discrepancy occurs, ensure that the proper version
is defined in the software catalog. Consider creating more specific rules for
handling issues related to software versioning.
Downloading a new software catalog
You can download the latest software catalog from the IBM Endpoint Manager
server.
About this task
The Software Catalog Update (SUA 9.x) task downloads a ZIP file that contains a
software catalog in an XML format and two CSV files with charge unit data.
Charge unit data consists of information about charge unit definitions, their
relations with the products, and additional parameters and part numbers that are
used for software licensing purposes.
If the task is not applicable on your endpoint, see Server operation problems in
the Troubleshooting section.
Procedure
1. Start the IBM Endpoint Manager console.
2. In the navigation bar, click Sites > External Sites > IBM Endpoint Manager for
Software Use Analysis > Fixlets and Tasks.
3. In the upper-right pane, click Software Catalog Update (SUA 9.x), and then
click Take Action.
4. Click the name of the computer on which you want to download the software
catalog, and click OK.
Managing software inventory
19
Results
The software catalog was downloaded to the sua_catalog folder in the Software
Use Analysis installation directory, by default: /opt/IBM/SUA/sua_catalog.
What to do next
Copy the catalog file to the computer from which you access the Software Use
Analysis web user interface and then update the catalog.
Updating a software catalog
Regularly update the software catalog and check for updates every month to keep
your software inventory up-to-date. If you do not edit the content of the software
catalog that is provided by IBM, update the catalog directly in Software Use
Analysis.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Uploads permission to perform this task.
About this task
If you do not edit the content of the software catalog or if you use the built-in
catalog management functionality to create your customized catalog content, you
can upload a ZIP file that contains both the catalog in an XML format and two
CSV files with charge unit data. If the catalog is modified in Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit, you must import the software catalog in Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit, publish, and then import it to Software Use Analysis. You must upload a
ZIP file there that contains only the CSV files. Then, you can use Software
Knowledge Base Toolkit to update the catalog file. For more information about
updating the catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit, see: “Importing a
software catalog to Software Knowledge Base Toolkit” on page 33.
Procedure
1. Download the catalog from the IBM Endpoint Manager console.
2. In the navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Upload
3. Click Browse, select the file in a ZIP format, and click Upload. The default
location of the file is /opt/IBM/SUA/sua_catalog.
Results
The software catalog file and the charge unit data are listed in the table. The
statuses are Pending until you import the scan data to process and update new
data.
Searching the catalog
You use the search feature to quickly locate software items in which you are
interested. Software items are structured into hierarchies that consist of the
software publisher, title, version, release, component, and signature. You can search
for the software by any of these categories.
20
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Home.
2. In the Catalog Search area, enter a part or all of the publisher, title, version,
release, component, or the signature name for which you want to search. For
example, to search for software products that are published by IBM, you can
enter IB, BM, or IBM.
3. Click Search.
Results
The search results are displayed in Catalog Search. You can drill down through the
results to view more detailed information.
Creating catalog entries
You can use the built-in functionality to add software products that are installed in
your infrastructure but are not present in the IBM catalog to your custom catalog.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Customization, and
then click New.
2. In the Create Catalog Entry window, provide the publisher name, product
name, and release number.
Managing software inventory
21
3. Select a condition or conditions that must be fulfilled for the software item to
be discovered.
v To create an installation package signature, select the first condition, and
specify the name of the package, its version, and vendor.
v To create a file signature, select the second condition, and specify the name
of the file and its size or version. If neither the file size nor the version are
relevant, select Any size or version.
Tip: If you select one condition and specify multiple files or installation
packages, detection of any of them causes that the software item is discovered.
If you select both conditions, at least one file and one installation package must
be detected for the software item to be discovered.
4. To save the catalog entry, click Submit.
Editing catalog entries
You can use the built-in catalog management functionality to edit publishers,
software products, and releases that exist in your custom catalog.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
About this task
Restriction: When you edit the name of a publisher, product, version or release
you cannot change it to a name that already exists in the custom catalog.
22
Procedure
1. To edit a publisher that exists in your custom catalog:
a. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Customization.
b. In the left pane navigation tree, search for the name of the publisher and
click it.
c. Edit the name and add the website address of the publisher, and click Save.
2. To edit a software product or release that exists in your custom catalog:
a. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Customization.
b. In the left pane navigation tree, search for the name of the software product,
its version, or release, and click it.
c. Edit the details of the entry, and click Save.
Deleting catalog entries
You can use the built-in catalog management functionality to delete entries from
your custom catalog.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Customization.
2. In the left pane navigation tree, search for the entry that you want to delete.
3. Click the entry that you want to remove from your custom catalog, and click
Delete.
Important: You can delete an entire hierarchy, that is a publisher, software
product, version, release, component, and signature simultaneously. However,
you cannot delete multiple entries, for example multiple publishers, at the same
time.
Managing software inventory
23
Creating signatures from package data
You can use the scanned file data to amend your custom catalog. You can add
signatures for software products that are installed in your infrastructure but are not
present in the IBM catalog. You identify the product name, or another piece of
information that can be used to identify the software and add the signature.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints and Manage Catalogs permissions to
perform this task.
Procedure
1. Log in to Software Use Analysis.
2. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Package Data.
3. To filter the report data, click Configure View and specify the appropriate
filtering options.
4. In the Name column, look for the location where the missing software title is
installed. Click the arrow on the right from the Name of the file that you want
to use as a signature, and click Create Signature.
24
5. In the Create Catalog Entry window, provide the publisher name, product
name, and release number.
Tip: The most efficient signatures are file-based signatures with a constant size
that is different for each release, or signatures that are based on registry entries
where a wildcard (*) can be used. You can use a wildcard in the Name,
Version, and Vendor fields for a package. A wildcard represents any string and
can be combined with other characters. For example, you might use IBM * SDK
for Java™, 5.*, * for the name, version, and vendor.
6. To save the catalog entry, click Submit.
Important: If you create an entry that exists in the software catalog an
informational message is displayed, and both signatures are saved in the
catalog.
Results
You added a software signature to your custom catalog. The signature can now be
used to detect software or its usage.
Creating signatures from scanned file data
You can use scanned file data to amend your custom catalog. You can add
signatures for software products that are installed in your infrastructure but are not
present in the IBM catalog. You identify the file name, or another item of
information that can be used to identify the software and add the signature.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints and Manage Catalogs permissions to
perform this task.
Managing software inventory
25
Procedure
1. Log in to Software Use Analysis.
2. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Scanned File Data.
3. To filter the report data, click Configure View and specify the appropriate
filtering options.
a. Optional: Select the Recognized and the Caused Detection check boxes to
add two columns to the view of scan data.
v The Recognized column shows whether the file was recognized as part of
an existing signature. If the value is true, the file meets one or all
conditions of the signature.
v The Caused Detection column shows whether the file contained enough
information to cause detection of the related software.
4. Optional: In the File Path column, look for the location where the missing
software title is installed.
5. Click the arrow on the right from the File Name that you want to use as a
signature, and click Create Signature.
6. In the Create Catalog Entry window, provide the publisher name, product
name, and release number.
26
7. To save the catalog entry, click Submit.
Important: If you create an entry that exists in the software catalog, an
information message is displayed, and both signatures are saved in the catalog.
8. To make the signatures available for software detection, click Reports > Import
Now, or wait for a scheduled import.
Results
You added a software signature to your custom catalog. The signature can now be
used to detect software or its usage.
Viewing catalog audits
You can display a list of all changes that were made to the content of your
customized catalog. The changes include creating an entry, modifying an existing
entry, and deleting an entry. You can add, remove, and sort the report columns,
and apply filters.
Procedure
1. To display a list of changes to customized catalog content, click Reports >
Catalog Audit. In this view, you can see information about customized catalog
entries that were created, modified, and deleted.
2. Optional: You can resize and sort the report columns by clicking and dragging.
You can also customize the type of information displayed. To add or remove
columns, and to apply filters, use the Configure View feature.
3. To view a detailed report for an item, click one of the items in the Action list.
Managing software inventory
27
Advanced catalog management
You can use the catalog management functionality that is available in Software Use
Analysis to create your custom software catalog. However, this functionality cannot
be used to create complex signatures. If you want to create such signatures, use
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit.
Software model
Software items can be classified into two software types: software products and
components. In Software Knowledge Base Toolkit, for all those types, you can
define software hierarchies, which consist of the parent product level, versions, and
releases.
Software types
The software types into which you can classify software items that are stored in
the knowledge base differ in terms of licensing attributes and the types of
dependencies that can be defined for them. The software type determines the role
that the software item can play in relation to other items.
Software product
A logical unit of software packaging and sharing that has a managed
development and maintenance lifecycle and customer visible attributes. It
can be a collection of components and other products whose licensing may
be dependent on the licensing of the product as a whole.
Component
A unit of software, which cannot be offered and licensed independently of
other software items. It cannot be installed separately but it can be
detected as installed or running on computer systems by means of its own
signatures. It can be assigned to products and shared between many
different product definitions.
The structure of those items in the knowledge base is hierarchical - components
can be assigned to software products and products can be bundled into more
complex products. A graphic representation of the structure is shown in the figure
below. Many components can be assigned to one product, and that the same
component can be assigned to many products. Similarly, many products can be
assigned to one product, and one product can be shared between many products.
The software item to which one or more other items are assigned is referred to as
the enclosing software item.
28
An example of a structure in which two products are bundled
Product
Office (product)
Word (product)
Version
Office 2010
Office 2007
Word 2010
Word 2007
Word 2010
Professional
Word 2007
Professional
Release
Office 2010
Standard
Office 2007
Professional
Office 2010
Professional
Components
Word 2010
Word 2007
Signatures
File signature:
“word.exe” version 2010
File signature:
“word.exe” version 2007
Software levels
The following tables present terminology differences between Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit and Software Use Analysis.
Table 2. Differences in software hierarchy
Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit
Software Use Analysis
Description
Product
Software product
It is the root of the hierarchy. It groups all the versions of a
software item. Some of the attributes that are specified for the
product are inherited by subordinate levels of the hierarchy.
Every software hierarchy can contain only one parent product.
Version
Software version
It is a separately licensable software item immediately
subordinate to the parent product. It can group one or more
releases.
Release
Software release
It is a separately licensable software item immediately
subordinate to an item at the version level. It can only be
subordinate to one version.
Managing software inventory
29
Table 2. Differences in software hierarchy (continued)
Software Knowledge
Base Toolkit
Software Use Analysis
Description
Variation
Software release
It is a modification of a release (for example, a patch or a fix
pack) which can be separately identified during software scans
and influences the discovery of the release to which it is
subordinate. It cannot be licensed individually. Variations are
converted into software releases during data import from
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit to Software Use Analysis and
some precision is lost at that stage.
Table 3. Differences in component-related information
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
Software Use Analysis
Product component
x
Component version
x
Component release
Software component
Component variation
30
Graphical representation of changes in the software model
IBM software model
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
Software Use Analysis
Product
Component product
Software title
Product version
Component version
Software title
version
Product release
Component release
Software title
release
Software relationship
Signature
Software component
Software relationship
Signature
Independent Software Vendor model
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
Software Use Analysis
Product
Software title
Product version
Software title
version
Product release
Software title
release
Software component
Signature
Software relationship
Signature
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit signatures supported in
Software Use Analysis
In Software Knowledge Base Toolkit, there are eight types of signatures that can be
defined for software items and used to detect those items on computer systems.
Five of them are supported in Software Use Analysis. Every signature depending,
on its type and function, can be classified as a recognition signature, a monitoring
signature, or a signature used both for recognition and monitoring.
For more information about Software Knowledge Base Toolkit signatures, see the
section Managing software signatures in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit 1.2.2
information center.
Managing software inventory
31
Table 4. Types of signatures supported in Software Use Analysis
Signature
type
File
Installation
registry
Filter
Recognition
function
Description
A generic file that is
always installed with a
specific release of the
item.
A key that is recorded in
the operating system
installation registry or the
InstallShield
MultiPlatform (ISMP)
registry when a software
item is installed.
A signature that is used
to identify software items
that were installed on a
computer system via an
installation package.
Windows
registry
A key that is recorded in
the Windows registry
when a software item is
installed.
Common
Inventory
Technology
(CIT) XML
A native representation of
a signature in Common
Inventory Technology.
Monitoring
function
Example
v File name: BBPICVU.EXE
Yes
Yes
v Size: 474112
v Key: csm.client
Yes
No
v Value: Cluster Systems Management Client
1.4.0.0
v Source: operating_system
v Package name: new_package
Yes
No
v Package version: 20.4.76*
v Package vendor: new_vendor
Key:
Yes
No
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\
Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\{79DA
B940-B5EA-DBED-A348-B1B687CE38A6}\
Signature content:
<Variable name="IS_INSTALLED" export="
true"><PackageInfoEqual provider="os"
code="SNbnr" value="Core OS 1.7.0 SNbn
r" /></Variable>
Yes
No
<Variable name="IS_INSTALLED" export=
"true"><And><Compare type="string"
relation="ne"><VectorToScalar>
<FindFilePathEx name="WBSFFP0601.SYS2"/>
</VectorToScalar><ValueOf value="" />
</Compare><Compare type="string" relation
="ne"><VectorToScalar><FindFilePathEx
name="fabric-federation-vmm-8.0.jar"/>
</VectorToScalar><ValueOf value="" />
</Compare></And></Variable>
Checking the version of the software catalog
Compare your software catalog version with the one that is stored in Software
Knowledge Base Toolkit to ensure that you can detect the latest software releases.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. Log in to Software Use Analysis.
2. In the navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Upload. The current catalog
version is displayed on the panel.
3. To compare the current catalog version with the latest version that is stored in
the knowledge base, open Software Knowledge Base Toolkit, and click Manage
Exports > Publish Catalog. The catalog version is displayed on the panel
32
4. If you see any changes in the catalog, export the new catalog. To export the
catalog, in the navigation bar click Manage Exports > Publish Catalog
Important: You must publish the catalog in the canonical 2.0 format.
Importing a software catalog to Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit
To ensure accuracy of software inventory data, regularly check for new versions of
the software catalog that is published by IBM. If a new software catalog is
available, import it to Tivoli® Software Knowledge Base Toolkit and publish its
content so that it is available for Software Use Analysis.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
The following procedure is relevant if you maintain your custom catalog in
Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. If you use the simple catalog management
functionality that is available in Software Use Analysis, import the software catalog
directly into Software Use Analysis. For more information, see: “Updating a
software catalog” on page 20.
About this task
Import of the software catalog into Software Knowledge Base Toolkit is
time-consuming. If it is possible, import the catalog during a less busy period.
Procedure
1. Download the software catalog and save it on your computer.
2. From the IBMSoftwareCatalog_canonical_2.0_form_date.zip file that you
downloaded, extract the XML file with the canonical 2.0 catalog.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Important: After you extract the catalog file, ensure that the
IBMSoftwareCatalog_canonical_2.0_form_date.zip contains only the charge
unit data and part numbers file. You will have to upload this compressed files
to Software Use Analysis.
Log in to Software Knowledge Base Toolkit.
From the navigation bar, select Manage Imports > Canonical XML Document.
Click New Import.
Choose the mode of importing the catalog:
v If you do not maintain your own content that you want to merge with the
imported information, select Quick mode.
v If you maintain your own content that you want to merge with the imported
information, select Advanced mode.
Provide the reason for importing the catalog.
Browse for the catalog file and click OK. You must wait for the import to
complete.
Managing software inventory
33
What to do next
After you import the IBM software catalog and customize its content, you must
publish it in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit so that it can be imported to
Software Use Analysis.
Publishing software catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
When you import a new IBM software catalog into Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit and customize it, you must publish the catalog so that it becomes available
for Software Use Analysis.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Catalogs permission to perform this task.
About this task
When you are importing a software catalog from Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit, you must upload charge unit data and part numbers file separately to
Software Use Analysis to properly discover software.
Procedure
1. Log in to Software Knowledge Base Toolkit.
2. From the navigation bar select Manage Exports > Publish Catalogs.
3. Select Canonical 2.0 (for Software Use Analysis 2.0) and click Publish.
34
4. Log in to Software Use Analysis.
5. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Catalog Servers.
6. To automatically import the software catalog from Software Knowledge Base
Toolkit, in the upper left corner of the top navigation bar, click Update Catalog.
7. To upload charge unit data and part numbers file, click Management > Catalog
Upload.
8. Browse for the IBMSoftwareCatalog_canonical_2.0_form_date.zip file, and
click Upload.
Important: The IBMSoftwareCatalog_canonical_2.0_form_date.zip file contains
the software catalog file, charge unit data, and a part numbers file. Before you
upload the compressed file to Software Use Analysis, remove the catalog XML
file. The compressed file that you upload should contain only the charge unit
data and part numbers file.
What to do next
You published the software catalog and updated it in Software Use Analysis. Then,
you uploaded charge unit data and part numbers file. To generate an accurate
report, import software scan data from IBM Endpoint Manager into Software Use
Analysis.
Managing publishers in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
Every software item in the software catalog must be associated with a software
publisher. Managing publisher entries in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
involves creating new publishers, modifying their profiles, and associating software
items with them.
Managing software inventory
35
About this task
The following procedure is relevant if you want to create complex signatures and
manage the content of the catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. However,
you can create simple signatures and maintain your custom catalog in Software
Use Analysis by using the built-in simple catalog management functionality.
Procedure
If the information related to a particular software publisher that is contained in the
software catalog does not reflect your infrastructure:
1. Find information about the publisher.
2. If the publisher exists in the software catalog, edit information that is associated
with the particular publisher:
v Modify publisher details.
v Manage publisher-related software.
v Reassign software to another publisher.
v Manage publisher aliases.
3. If the publisher does not exist in the software catalog, add the publisher.
Managing software in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
Software items include software products and components. Their versions, releases,
and variations are organized into hierarchies. Managing those items in Software
Knowledge Base Toolkit involves creating new items, modifying their profiles, and
specifying signatures for them. All software items must be assigned to software
publishers. In most cases, before you can manage software entries you must run a
search of Software Knowledge Base Toolkit for those entries.
Before you begin
Before you start managing software, become familiar with the software model and
software relationship types.
About this task
The following procedure is relevant if you want to create complex signatures and
manage the content of the catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. However,
you can create simple signatures and maintain your custom catalog in Software
Use Analysis by using the built-in simple catalog management functionality.
Procedure
If the information related to a particular software item that is contained in the
software catalog does not reflect your infrastructure or you would like to
customize that information:
1. Find the existing software entry.
2. If the software entry exists in the software catalog, edit the information that is
associated with the particular software item:
v
v
v
v
v
36
Edit details in the software entry profile.
Customize software aliases.
Manage product identifiers.
Manage licensing attributes.
View products to which the software item belongs.
v
v
v
v
v
Add a level to the software hierarchy.
Manage components that are assigned to the software item.
Manage bundled products.
View replacement relationships between software items.
Reassign a software hierarchy to another publisher.
v Rename a software hierarchy.
3. If the software entry does not exist in the software catalog, add the software
entry.
4. If some data related to a particular level of a software hierarchy is no longer
valid or relevant, delete the software entry.
Restriction: Entries that are marked as deleted are exported to the catalog as
deleted and are not displayed in the default search results. If the data that
applies to those entries is still relevant, you can undelete the entries. For data
consistency reasons, you cannot undelete individual software entries unless no
parent entries are defined for them in the hierarchy tree. Every time you
undelete an item in the hierarchy, all the items located above it in the same
branch are also undeleted.
Managing signatures in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit
Signatures are file names, registry entries, and other types of information that are
unique to a particular software item and can be used to identify it. Signatures can
be manually added to Software Knowledge Base Toolkit or generated in the
process of mining data that is obtained through scans of computer systems on
which the software items are installed or running.
Before you begin
Before you start managing software signatures, become familiar with signature
types.
About this task
The following procedure is relevant if you want to create complex signatures and
manage the content of the catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. However,
you can create simple signatures and maintain your custom catalog in Software
Use Analysis by using the built-in simple catalog management functionality.
Procedure
If a software item that you have installed in your infrastructure is not detected:
1. Find a signature that is defined for an existing software item.
2. If the signature exists in the software catalog:
v View the details of the signature.
v Edit the signature.
3. If the signature does not exist in the software catalog, add the signature.
Important: If a signature is no longer used to effectively detect a software item,
you can delete it.
Managing software inventory
37
Adding signatures to an existing software title based on raw data
If the software that was not detected in Software Use Analysis exists in the
software catalog, you must identify the file, registry entry, or other information
that can be used to identify the software and add the signature.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints permission to perform this task.
About this task
The following procedure is relevant if you want to create complex signatures and
manage the content of the catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. However,
you can create simple signatures and maintain your custom catalog in Software
Use Analysis by using the built-in simple catalog management functionality.
Procedure
1. Log in to Software Use Analysis.
2. If you want to add a detection signature:
a. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Scanned File Data.
b. To filter report data to the computer on which the missing software is
installed, click Configure View and specify appropriate filtering options.
c. In the File Path column, look for the location where the missing software
title is installed, and choose the file that you want to use as a signature.
3. If you want to add a usage signature:
a. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Metering Data.
38
b. To filter report data to the computer on which the missing software is
installed, click Configure View and specify appropriate filtering options.
c. In the Process Name column, look for the process that runs the missing
software product.
4. Log in to Software Knowledge Base Toolkit.
5. To search for the software title to which you want to add a signature, click
IBM Tivoli Software Knowledge Base Toolkit > Manage Software > Find
Software
6. Click the name of the software and then select the exact version and release of
the software title.
7. From the Signature type list, select the type of signature that you want to
create, and click Add.
Managing software inventory
39
8. Provide the name of the file that is to be used as a signature and its size.
9. Select the signature scope, platform, and confidence level.
10. Provide the reason for adding the signature and click Create.
Results
You added a software signature that will be now used to detect software or its
usage.
Adding signatures to new software titles based on raw data
If the software that was not detected in Software Use Analysis does not exist in the
software catalog, you must identify the file, registry entry, or other information
that can be used to identify the software. Then you must create the software
hierarchy and add the signature.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints permission to perform this task.
About this task
The following procedure is relevant if you want to create complex signatures and
manage the content of the catalog in Software Knowledge Base Toolkit. However,
you can create simple signatures and maintain your custom catalog in Software
Use Analysis by using the built-in simple catalog management functionality.
Procedure
1. Log in to Software Use Analysis.
2. If you want to add a detection signature:
a. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Scanned File Data.
b. To filter report data to the computer on which the missing software is
installed, click Configure View and specify appropriate filtering options.
40
c. In the File Path column, look for the location where the missing software
title is installed, and choose the file that you want to use as a signature.
3. If you want to add a usage signature:
a. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Metering Data.
b. To filter report data to the computer on which the missing software is
installed, click Configure View and specify appropriate filtering options.
c. In the Process Name column, look for the process that runs the missing
software product.
Managing software inventory
41
4. Log in to Software Knowledge Base Toolkit.
5. Check whether the software title that was not detected is in the catalog:
a. In the left pane, click IBM Tivoli Software Knowledge Base Toolkit >
Manage Software > Find Software.
b. Search for the software title to which you want to add a signature.
6. If the software title does not exist in the software catalog, add it.
a. Click Manage Software > New Software.
b. Specify the name of the product.
c. Select the software publisher from the list if the publisher exists in the
software catalog or create the publisher if it is not in the catalog.
d. Provide the reason for adding the software title to the catalog, and click
Create.
7. From the Signature type list, select the type of signature that you want to
create, and click Add.
42
8. Provide the name of the file that is to be used as a signature and its size.
9. Select the signature scope, platform, and confidence level.
10. Provide the reason for adding the signature and click Create.
Results
You added a new software title to the catalog and a signature that will be now
used to detect the software or its usage.
Reports
Reports provide detailed information about the computers in your infrastructure
and the software items that are installed on these computers. You can decide what
type of information you want to display by choosing the appropriate type of
report. You can also customize the type and amount of information that is
displayed in a report and save the report settings to reuse them.
Viewing reports
You can view the reports that are generated by Software Use Analysis to monitor
the software that is installed in your infrastructure and to ensure compliance with
software licenses. Each report provides you with different information about your
infrastructure, for example the computer groups, software installations, and the
content of your software catalog.
Available reports
Reports are the primary source of information about computers in your
infrastructure and software that is installed on these computers. The type of report
that you view depends on what information you need.
Saved Reports
Saved Reports
Saved reports provide quick access to information that is frequently used
in your enterprise. You can specify filters and parameters of any report
that you want to reuse and save the settings for quick reference.
Managing software inventory
43
Software Inventory
Inventory Exploration
The report provides information about the software items that are installed
in your infrastructure. It shows the time and frequency of use of the
software items, and the contracts that are created for them. The
information about a software product is structured into a hierarchy. You
can drill down from the publisher of the software product to software
titles, versions, releases, and components.
On each level of the software product hierarchy, you can view information
about contracts to which the products are assigned. The report shows the
number of software instances that are covered by contracts and the cost of
acquisition and maintenance of the licenses for that product. You can use
the report to efficiently manage your software inventory by monitoring the
cost of software licenses and the use of the particular software products.
Software Installations
The report provides information about the computers in your
infrastructure and the software items that are installed on these computers.
You can use the report to get an overview of your software inventory and
the time and frequency of use of the software products in your
infrastructure. You can also see the signatures that were used to detect the
software products.
Package Data
The report provides information about the packages that are installed on
the computers in your infrastructure. You can find out what is the name of
every package, its version, vendor, description, and type.
Scanned File Data
The report provides information about all files that the software inventory
tool scanner found on the computers in your infrastructure. You can track
every computer and find out which files were detected on a computer. You
can see the location, size, and version of each file. The data from this
report is used to generate other reports.
Unrecognized Files
The report creates a ranking of files that are most commonly encountered
in your computer infrastructure but do not produce matches for any
signature. The ranking of 1000 file names is separate for each computer
group. It is based on the number of computers on which the files were
detected, the number of copies of a particular file, and the alphabetical
order. The files are listed by name with no regard to their size or version
metadata. To access such detailed information, click the file name.
You can use the report to investigate the unrecognized files and to create
matching signatures, thus improving the signature coverage in your
infrastructure. However, the aggregation of unrecognized scan data slows
down the imports, particularly in large deployments. Thus, it is disabled
by default. You can enable it by selecting the right option in the
Management > Unrecognized Scan Data.
Metering Data
The report provides information about the use of software items that are
installed on the computers in your infrastructure. You can track every
computer and find out what processes it runs. You can learn when each
process was used for the first and last time, and what was the total time
and frequency of its use. You can also see what is the average number of
44
runs of each process per day and what is the average run time of each
process. The data from this report is used in other reports.
License Usage
IBM PVU Subcapacity
The report shows PVU products that are eligible for subcapacity licensing.
For every product, you can see the history of license consumption over the
specified period, and the maximum license consumption. You can create a
snapshot of this report for auditing purposes.
All IBM Metrics
The report shows all PVU and RVU products for both subcapacity and full
capacity licensing. For each product, you can see the type of license,
history of license consumption over the specified period, and the
maximum license consumption. You can create a snapshot of this report for
auditing purposes.
Audit Trail
The report provides information about software bundling actions, uploads
and imports of the PVU table, software catalog and charge units, as well as
changes to the VM managers. You can view details of each action, its type,
date, and the user who performed it. You can use the report to track all
actions that have influence on the information that is displayed on other
reports.
Infrastructure
Computers
The report provides information about each computer in your
infrastructure. You can see what operating system is installed on each of
the computers, what is the ID, DNS name, and the IP address of the
computer. You can also find out how many software items are installed on
every computer and when information about the particular computer was
displayed.
Computer Groups
The report provides information about computer groups that are defined in
your infrastructure. The information includes the ID of the computer
group, its name, and description. You can find out how many computers
and subgroups are in the computer group, and what is the number of
software items that are installed in that group. The report also provides
information about the contracts that are assigned to a computer group,
with the acquisition and maintenance cost for each contract.
Hardware Inventory
The report provides information about the state of agents in your
infrastructure. For every computer on which an agent is installed, you can
view processor details, and the number of PVUs assigned to each core. In
the Default PVU Value column, you can see whether the number of PVUs
assigned to a particular processor was based on the PVU table or a default
value was used. A default value is used if a particular type of a processor
is not listed in the PVU table.
Catalog
Software Catalog
The report provides information about the author and content of the
Managing software inventory
45
software catalog. The report shows the total number of publishers,
software products, versions, releases, and signatures in your software
catalog.
Signatures
The report provides information about the software items that are installed
in your infrastructure, the software catalog, and signatures. You can view
information about software products, their publishers, versions, and
releases. You can find out when the software catalog was created and who
the author of each software record was. You can also learn when the
signature was created and modified, and what its detection type is.
Catalog Audit
The report provides information about all modifications that were made to
the content of your custom software catalog. For each modification, you
can see detailed information about the current status of the software entity,
as well as its status before and after modification.
Contracts
Contract Usage Data
The report provides information about the contracts that you created for
the software items. You can see the relationship between the number of
software products that you are entitled to use and the actual number of
software instances that are used. You can use the report to eliminate
unused licenses and track computers that use unlicensed instances of a
software product.
Viewing computers
You can display a list of all computers that are available in your infrastructure. You
can view information about computer properties and the software that is installed
on your computers. You can customize the type and amount of information that is
displayed by adding, removing, and sorting the report columns, and by applying
filters.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. To display a list of all the computers in your infrastructure, click Reports >
Computers. In this view, you can see information about your assets, including
computer name, operating system, IP address, and the software installed.
Note: The date in the Latest Scan Import column is only updated if there are
changes in the content of the scan file. If scan data is unchanged after any new
scan, the Latest Scan Import column will not be updated.
2. To view the details report of a single computer, click one of the items in the list.
3. Optional: You can resize and sort the report columns by clicking and dragging.
You can also customize the type of information displayed. To add or remove
columns, and to apply filters, click Configure View.
4. Optional: To choose the type of report that you want to display about the
selected item, in the upper-right corner click Home and select one of the
following options:
v To see computer properties and a summary of license data, click Home.
46
v To see information about the software that is installed on the computer and
its usage, click Software Installations.
v To see information about all applications that are installed on the computer
and their usage, click Metering Data. The report lists all applications,
whether they were matched by the signatures in the catalog or not.
v To see information about registry keys, Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)
files, and AIX® packages, click Package Data.
v To see information about all files that were detected on the computer, click
Scanned File Data.
Viewing metering data
The data that is displayed in the metering data report is obtained from monitoring
the process tables of endpoints. It can be used to create and diagnose signatures.
You can view detailed information about all applications that are installed, either
in your entire infrastructure, or on a single computer in that infrastructure. The
applications that are listed in the metering data report are matched against
signatures to provide confirmed usage data.
Before you begin
You must have the View Raw Data permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. To see a list of all applications that are installed on all computers in your
infrastructure, click Reports > Metering Data.
2. Optional: You can resize and sort the report columns by clicking and dragging.
You can also customize the type of information displayed. To add or remove
columns and to apply filters, click Configure View.
3. To filter the information to the details report of a single computer, click one of
the items in the Computer Name column. In this view, you can see computer
properties and a summary of license data.
Results
The information that is displayed in the metering data report is constrained by
several factors. The information that is listed in the First Used column can be
constrained by the date on which the administrator of Endpoint Manager enabled
the tracking of application usage on the computer. The Last Used column is
constrained by the last time the computer reported to Endpoint Manager and had
its data that is imported to Software Use Analysis. If a program that you expected
to see in the metering data report is not listed, its usage cannot be detected by a
signature.
Viewing contract usage reports
Contract usage reports are based on the contracts that you create for software
licenses. The report shows the number of software instances that you are entitled
to under a license and the actual number of instances that are used. You can use
the report to reduce spending on unused licenses, and to track computers that use
unlicensed instances of a software product.
Before you begin
v
You must have the Manage Contracts permission to perform this task.
v You must create contracts for the licenses that you have for software products.
Managing software inventory
47
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Contract Usage Data.
2. To see details of a contract, click the contract name.
Viewing software inventory and usage
You can view detailed information about the software items that are installed in
your infrastructure and the time and frequency of use for that software.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. To see a list of all software items that are installed on all computers in your
infrastructure, click Reports > Software Installations.
2. To filter the information down to the details report of a single software item
that is installed on a computer, click the link in the Details column. This view
shows information about the software title, usage time and frequency, and the
signatures that were used to detect the software item.
Results
The page with the details of a software item shows information about the
signatures that were used to detect that software. The signatures are accompanied
by an icon that indicates whether the signature matched the data.
v
- All or part of the signature matched the software item.
v
- All or part of the signature did not match the software item.
Other information includes excerpts of raw data from the viewed computer that
was used to match the signature. If you believe that the software was erroneously
detected, you can use that data to examine how the signature was evaluated. You
can also view the installation path of matched software that has file-based
signatures. If a software item uses a complex signature, you can view the
hierarchical structure of the signature to better understand the process of detection.
Exploring software inventory
Software items are structured into hierarchies that consist of the software publisher,
software title, its version, release and components. You can drill down through the
hierarchy to gather more detailed information about the software items that are
installed in your infrastructure.
Before you begin
You must have the View Endpoints permission to perform this task.
About this task
Information about a software product is structured into a hierarchy that can be
drilled down from the publisher of the software product to software titles,
versions, releases, and components. On each level of the software product
hierarchy, you can view information about contracts that the product is assigned
to. This information includes the number of software instances that are covered by
48
the contracts, and the cost of the acquisition and maintenance of the licenses for
that product. You can use the report to efficiently manage your software inventory
by monitoring the cost of software licenses and the use of the software products.
Procedure
1. To see the list of publishers of the software items that are installed in your
infrastructure, click Reports > Inventory Exploration.
2. To see software titles by the publisher that are installed in your infrastructure,
click a link in the Publisher column.
3. Drill down through the software hierarchy by browsing the aggregated data of
publishers, software titles, versions, releases and components.
Viewing audit trail
You can display a list of all actions that influence the information that is displayed
on the reports and check when they were performed and by whom. The tracked
actions include modifications to software classification, uploads and imports of the
PVU table, software catalog and charge units, as well as changes to the VM
managers.
Before you begin
You must have the View Audit Trail permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. To display a list of user actions, click Reports > Audit Trail.
2. Optional: You can resize and sort the report columns by clicking and dragging.
You can also customize the type of information displayed. To add or remove
columns, and to apply filters, click Configure View.
Results
The audit trail contains information about the following actions:
v Modifications to the software classification: confirming and changing the default
classification, sharing an instance between products, including an instance in
and excluding it from pricing calculations
v Uploads: successful or failed upload of the software catalog, charge unit data,
PVU table
v Imports: successful or failed import of the software catalog, charge unit data,
PVU table
v VM managers: adding, modifying, and deleting VM managers
Managing reports
You can manage the reports that are generated by Software Use Analysis so that
they suit your needs. You can customize the reports by applying filters and saving
your personal settings for future use. You can also export the reports to a CSV or
PDF file, and schedule report emails so that specified recipients are notified when
important events occur.
Applying report filters
The type of information that is displayed on all reports is set by default. If you
find the information either insufficient or excessive, you can apply report filters to
adjust the amount of information to your needs.
Managing software inventory
49
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Reports and select the report that you want to
view.
2. In the upper right corner, click Configure View to access the filtering options.
3. To add a filter, click the plus sign (+).
Tip: Click the trash can to delete a filter.
4. Select the filter operator. The filter operators that are available depend on the
type of column header you are filtering on.
5. Enter the value that you want to use as a filter.
6. If you are adding multiple filters, select all or any from the drop-down list.
If you select all, then only items that meet every condition are shown. If you
select any, items must meet only one of the conditions to be shown.
7. Click Submit.
Exporting reports to a file
If you need a hardcopy of a report that is generated in Software Use Analysis you
can export the report to a CSV or PDF file. You can also use the CSV file to create
charts and statistics that are based on the information from the report.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Reports and select the report that you want to
view.
2. To export the report into a file, click one of the following toolbar buttons:
v
v
50
- Generates a CSV file.
- Generates a PDF file.
Saving report settings
You can specify the report filters and parameters that you want to reuse and save
the report settings. You can view the exact type of information that you need, or
send a saved report to other users of Software Use Analysis.
Creating saved reports:
You can save the report settings to access the exact information that you need.
Procedure
1. To save a report, click Reports and select the type of report that you want to
save.
2. Optional: Resize and sort the report columns by clicking and dragging. Adjust
the report view by adding or removing columns and applying filters. To
customize the report view, click Configure View.
3. In the upper left corner of the window, click Save As. Specify the name of the
report that you want to save. Select the Private check box if you do not want
other users of Software Use Analysis to view the report.
Viewing and sending saved reports:
You can reuse the saved reports and send them to other users of Software Use
Analysis.
Procedure
v To see the list of all saved reports, click Reports > Saved Reports.
v To view a saved report, click the name of a saved report in the Name column.
v To rename the report or modify its privacy status, click the row in which the
saved report is located. In the Edit Report section, type the new name of the
report. You can also change the privacy status of the report by selecting or
clearing the Privacy check box.
v To send the report to other users of Software Use Analysis by email, click the
row in which the saved report is located. Select the Report Subscription check
box in the bottom of the window. Specify the report format and recipient email
address. You can also specify the starting date and frequency of sending the
report.
Managing software inventory
51
Scheduling report emails
You can schedule report emails so that reports are automatically sent to the
specified recipients by email. This option is especially useful if a person does not
work with Software Use Analysis or is not familiar with the application, but must
have access to the reports.
Before you begin
v You must configure mail notifications.
v You must save the report that you want to send.
Procedure
1. Open the report that you want to send.
2. To schedule a report export, click Schedule. The Schedule Report Export
window opens.
3. Select the file format of the report and adjust the page settings as necessary.
4. Specify the email address to which you want to send reports. If you want to
specify multiple recipients, separate their email addresses with commas.
5. Define the start time and frequency of sending the reports.
6. Select the language of the reports.
7. To save the export schedule, click Save.
Working with PVU and RVU reports
You can view PVU and RVU MAPC (Managed Activated Processor Cores) full
capacity and subcapacity reports. You can recalculate PVU and RVU MAPC values,
and generate snapshots of PVU and RVU MAPC license consumption.
52
PVU and RVU license usage reports
The report shows a list of all the software products included in PVU and RVU
MAPC (Managed Activated Processor Cores) reports. You can see the license type
and usage for each product, and the history of license consumption over the
specified time period.
The software products in the report are divided according to license type. You can
drill down through the report for PVU and RVU MAPC reports to access the full
capacity or subcapacity reports for a product. You can also view a computer report
that shows details of servers and computers on which the products are deployed.
The information in the report columns and the calculations on which the
information is based are explained for each of the reports in the following tables.
Table 5. Columns in PVU and RVU MAPC license usage reports
Name of the
column
Description
Product
Name of the product.
License Type
Type of license.
License Peak
Value
The maximum PVU or RVU MAPC values that are used by the product over the specified time
period.
License Peak
Value History
Graphic representation of the history of license consumption over the specified time period.
Table 6. Columns in PVU and RVU MAPC full capacity reports
Name of the
column
Contents
Server Name
Name of the server.
Processor
Details of the processor.
CPU Core Full The total count of physical processor cores for the server on which the product is deployed.
Capacity
PVU Full
Capacity
PVU only. The total count of PVUs for the server on which the product is deployed.
Table 7. Columns in PVU and RVU MAPC subcapacity reports
Name of the
column
Description
Server Name
Name of the server.
Processor
Details of the processor.
CPU Core
Subcapacity
The number of processor cores that are used by a product.
CPU Core
Subcapacity
Limit
The total count of physical processor cores for the server on which the product is deployed,
counted at the time when subcapacity is maximal. Maximal subcapacity is when the number of
cores that are used by the product is the highest.
PVU
Subcapacity
PVU only. The number of PVUs that are used by a product.
PVU
Subcapacity
Limit
PVU only. The total count of PVUs for the server on which the product is deployed, counted at the
time when subcapacity is maximal. Maximal subcapacity is when the number of cores that are used
by the product is the highest.
Managing software inventory
53
Table 8. Columns in the PVU and RVU MAPC computer reports
Name of the
column
Description
Computer
Name of the computer that uses the product.
OS
Operating system of the computer.
IP Address
IP address of the computer.
Product
Version
Software product version.
Component
Product component that was found on the computer.
Path
Path to the software that was found on the computer.
Last Seen
Last date the software was found.
Apart from the license usage data, the following additional information is
displayed on the detailed subcapacity report for a particular product:
Time Range
Specifies the time frame for which subcapacity data was calculated. Data
from the products that were not installed within this time range is not
included in the report.
License Peak Value Time
The day and time when the highest PVU value was recorded for a
software product within the specified time range.
Viewing PVU and RVU consumption
You can view a list of all software products included in PVU and RVU MAPC
(Managed Activated Processor Cores) reports. You can see the license type and
usage for each product, and the history of license consumption over a specified
time period. You can drill down through a report to view details of servers and
computers that are used by each software product.
Before you begin
You must have the View License Metrics permission to perform this task.
Procedure
1. You can view full and subcapacity reports, or only PVU subcapacity reports:
v To view a list of full and subcapacity products, click Reports > All IBM
Metrics.
v To view a list of PVU subcapacity products, click Reports > IBM PVU
Subcapacity.
2. Optional: You can resize and sort the report columns by clicking and dragging.
You can also customize the type of information displayed. To add or remove
columns, apply filters, or set the time range for the report, click Configure
View.
v To specify the time range for which you want to view the report, customize
one of the available options in the Time Range section.
54
3. To recalculate the PVU or RVU MAPC value for a product, click Recalculate.
The option is enabled only if the PVU or RVU MAPC values need to be
recalculated. If values need to be recalculated, you can see a red square in the
License Peak Value column for a product. After you initiate the recalculation
process, the progress is displayed below the top menu bar.
4. To view a PVU full capacity, RVU MAPC full capacity, PVU subcapacity, or
RVU MAPC subcapacity report for a product, click the product name in the
Product column.
5. To view a computer report for a product, click the computer name in the
Server Name column.
Creating snapshots of PVU and RVU consumption
You can create a snapshot of the IBM PVU Subcapacity and All Metrics report,
and store it as a record of PVU and RVU MAPC (Managed Activated Processor
Cores) consumption in your enterprise over a particular period. You can create the
snapshots with any frequency that is suitable for your purposes.
Before you begin
You must have the View License Metrics and View Audit Trail permissions to
perform this task.
Procedure
1. Open the IBM PVU Subcapacity or All IBM Metrics report.
2. Optional: To configure the period for which you want to create the snapshot,
click Configure View, and then select the time range.
Tip:
v If you select Last, and provide a number of days, for example 5, the report
contains entries from the last five days until the current date and exact time.
Entries from five days and 2 hours ago are not included.
v If you specify a period from a particular date until now, the reports contain
entries from that date starting at 00:00:00.
v If you specify a period from a date to a date, the reports contain entries from
the first date starting at 00:00:00 to the second date ending at 23:59:59.
3. Optional: To limit the number of products that are included in the snapshot,
click Configure View, and then specify the name of the product in the Filters
section.
Managing software inventory
55
4. To create the snapshot, in the top navigation bar, click Audit Snapshot.
Results
The csvreport.zip file is downloaded to your computer. It contains the following
files:
v audit_trails.csv - it contains information about software classification actions,
uploads and imports of the PVU table, software catalog and charge units, and
changes to the VM managers.
v checksums.txt - it contains checksums that are used to verify whether any CSV
files from the audit snapshot were tampered with. On Linux computers, the
following command can be used to verify the report CSV files.
sha256sum -c checksums.txt
v data_condition.txt - it contains information about the period that is covered by
the snapshot, the version of the PVU table and software catalog, dates of the last
aggregation, and whether recalculation was required at the time of creating the
snapshot.
v part_numbers.csv - it contains information about part numbers that were
uploaded to Software Use Analysis when the snapshot was created.
v pub_key.pem - it contains a public key file that can be used to verify the
signature.rsa file against the checksums.txt file.
v pvu_full_capacity.csv - the file is generated only when you create a snapshot
of the All IBM Metrics report. It contains information about software products,
their PVU consumption under full capacity license, and details of the computers
on which the software is installed.
v pvu_sub_capacity.csv - it contains information about software products, their
PVU consumption under subcapacity license, and details of the computers on
which the software is installed.
v rvu_full_capacity.csv - the file is generated only when you create a snapshot
of the All IBM Metrics report. It contains information about software products,
their RVU MAPC consumption under full capacity license, and details of the
computers on which the software is installed.
v rvu_sub_capacity.csv - the file is generated only when you create a snapshot of
the All IBM Metrics report. It contains information about software products,
their RVU MAPC consumption under subcapacity license, and details of the
computers on which the software is installed.
Note: The IBM PVU Subcapacity snapshot generates only a
pvu_sub_capacity.csv file.
56
v signature.rsa - is a digital signature that can be used to verify whether the
checksums.txt file was tampered with. Verification can be achieved with
OpenSSL. On Linux computers, the following command can be used to verify
the checksums.txt file.
openssl dgst -sha256 -verify pub_key.pem -signature signature.rsa checksums.txt
Contracts
You use contracts to track license compliance for the software products that are
installed in your environment. When you purchase a software license, you create a
contract that contains information about the cost of acquiring and maintaining the
license, and the period of entitlement. You use that information to track spending
that is associated with software licenses and manage costs of extending or
downsizing licenses for the software products. You can also avoid costs that are
related to license non-compliance by ensuring that enough software licenses are
purchased.
Maintaining contracts
You can create contracts to store information about your software licenses, their
cost, and periods of entitlement. If there is a discrepancy between software
entitlement that you defined in the contracts and your infrastructure, you must
balance your software or modify the contracts.
About this task
The following workflow shows one way of maintaining accurate contracts and is
intended as a starting point for new users. You can use your own method of
ensuring that your contracts are up-to-date and accurate.
Managing software inventory
57
1. Enter your contracts in Software Use Analysis to store
the information about your software licenses, their cost,
and the period for which they entitle you to use the
particular piece of software.
Start
Enter your contracts
2. Optional: Modify your computer groups. If the
existing computer groups are not adequate for your
contracts, create new computer groups or edit the
existing ones to improve the distribution of your
contracts.
Modify computer groups
Make changes to your
catalog
3. Make changes to your software catalog. To correctly
identify the components of various software products
in your infrastructure, ensure that your software
catalog is always up-to-date. Periodically import a
software catalog that contains the most recent software
products. Also, manually add those products that are
installed in your infrastructure but do not have
corresponding entries in the catalog.
Import data from
IBM Endpoint Manager
View contract usage report
4. Import scan data from IBM Endpoint Manager to make
your changes available to Software Use Analysis.
There are
too many
licenses.
5. View the contract usage report to verify what your
current usage of the licenses is:
What is the current
status of your licenses?
There are
not enough
licenses.
The software items are
on the wrong computers.
Buy more
licenses
Install missing
software
Do you want
to keep the software
YES
Modify
your
contracts
NO
Uninstall
the
software
Scan the computers in your
infrastructure
v If you have more licenses than software instances,
you can deploy more software instances within your
infrastructure.
v If you have more software instances than licenses,
you can buy more licenses or uninstall the software
from some of the computers.
v If the software is installed on the wrong computers,
you can modify the contracts so that they apply to
the computers on which the software is installed.
You can also uninstall the software from the
computers that are not entitled.
6. Scan the computers in your infrastructure to obtain the
latest software data that reflects the changes in your
contracts.
7. Import software scan data to Software Use Analysis to
generate accurate reports.
Import the latest inventory data from
IBM Endpoint Manager
You have accurate record of your software contracts.
Creating contract custom fields
You can customize your contracts by creating custom fields that store information
of your choice about the software licenses in your environment. Choose a
meaningful name for each custom field to reflect its purpose. After you create a
custom field, it is available in the Create Contract pane, among other fields that are
required to create a contract.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Contracts permission to perform this task.
58
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Contract Custom Fields.
2. To create a custom field for a contract, in the upper left corner of the Contract
Custom Fields window, click New.
3. In the Create Contract Custom Field pane, enter the name of the field, specify
whether the field is required for a contract, and choose the type of the
requested input.
4. To save the custom field, click Create.
5. To make the custom field available for the reports, click Reports > Import
Now.
Results
You created a custom field for a contract. You can now create a contract or edit the
existing ones to add the values for the new fields.
Creating contracts
You create contracts to store information about your software licenses, their cost,
and the period for which they entitle you to use a piece of software. The contracts
are then used to generate a contract usage report. The report shows the number of
software instances that you are entitled to and the actual number of software
instances that are used.
Before you begin
You must have the Manage Contracts permission to perform this task.
About this task
You can create a contract for a single software title or for multiple titles. You can
create contracts for software items on the level of a software product, its version,
or release. If you have a single contract for any version of a product, you can
assign the contract to that product. The contract then applies to all versions of that
product.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Management > Contracts.
2. To create a contract for a software license, in the upper left corner of the
Contracts window click New.
3. In the Create Contract pane, enter the name of the contract and specify the
software product or products that you want to assign to that contract. When
you start typing in the title, version, or release of the software product, a list of
Managing software inventory
59
possible values is displayed below the search field. Scroll through the list to
locate the exact software product and to avoid providing an incorrect or
misspelled name of the product.
4. Choose the type of licensing that is used for the product or products that you
assigned to the contract:
v Choose Seats if a limited number of product instances can be deployed.
Additionally, you must specify the number of software instances that you are
entitled to under the license.
v Choose ELA if an unlimited number of product instances can be deployed.
5. Choose the computer group to which you want to assign the contract. Provide
the acquisition and maintenance cost, and the entitlement start date. You can
also specify the entitlement end date, and the maintenance start and end dates.
6. To save the contract, click Create.
60
7. To make the contract available for generating a contract usage report, click
Reports > Import Now.
Results
You created a contract that reflects your entitlement to use a particular software
product under the license that you have for that product. You can now generate a
contract usage report to find out whether you conform to the license regulations.
Viewing contract usage reports
Contract usage reports are based on the contracts that you create for software
licenses. The report shows the number of software instances that you are entitled
to under a license and the actual number of instances that are used. You can use
the report to reduce spending on unused licenses, and to track computers that use
unlicensed instances of a software product.
Before you begin
v
You must have the Manage Contracts permission to perform this task.
v You must create contracts for the licenses that you have for software products.
Procedure
1. In the top navigation bar, click Reports > Contract Usage Data.
2. To see details of a contract, click the contract name.
Contract usage report
Contract usage report shows the relation between the contracts for software
licenses and the software products that are installed in your infrastructure. Before
you can analyze the report, you must be familiar with the meaning of the report
columns and the calculations on which the information is based.
Contract usage report shows the relation between the number of software product
instances that you are entitled to under a particular license and the actual number
of software instances that are being used. You can analyze the report and use the
information that it provides to reduce license-related spending. You can eliminate
unused licenses and track computers that use unlicensed instances of a software
product. The information in the report columns and the calculations on which the
information is based are explained in the table.
Table 9. Columns in the contract usage report
Name of the
column
Contents
Name
Name of the contract.
Entitled
Computers
Computers that are entitled to use the software.
Licensed
Computers
Computers that are entitled to use the software and have this software installed.
Managing software inventory
61
Table 9. Columns in the contract usage report (continued)
Name of the
column
Total Licenses
Contents
Number of licenses for the particular software product that are available. If the product is licensed
per computer, the number of computers entitled to use the product is provided. If an unlimited
number of products can be deployed under the particular license, the column includes the
abbreviation ELA (Enterprise Licensing Agreement). Higher-level users can define a contract that
applies to a broad group. If lower-level users view a contract usage report that is defined in such a
way, they see the larger total number of licenses for the product. However, when the lower-level
users view the list of instances, they see only those instances of the product for which they have
permissions.
For example, a global administrator defines a contract for 5000 instances of Lotus Notes®, out of
which 3500 instances are used. A lower-level user has an infrastructure that consists of 100
computers. The user is entitled to 100 instances of Lotus Notes, but only 70 instances of the product
are used. If the global administrator makes the contract viewable to the lower-level user, the user
sees that 3500 instances of Lotus Notes out of 5000 available instances are used. However, when
lower-level users view the list of instances that are pertinent to their computer group, they see only
the numbers that reflect the use of licenses in their computer group. The report shows 70 used
instances of Lotus Notes out of 100 instances available under the particular license.
License Delta
Difference between the number of software product instances that you are entitled to under a
particular license and the actual number of software instances that are used. If the license delta is a
positive number that is displayed in green, the number of product instances that are used does not
exceed the license entitlement. If the license delta is a negative number that is displayed in red, the
number of product instances that are used exceeds the license entitlement.
Cost Delta
Difference between the cost of purchasing the license for the particular software product and the
cost of used or unused instances of that product. If the cost delta is a positive number that is
displayed in green, the number of product instances that are used does not exceed the license
entitlement. The number indicates that you have some spare licenses that you can distribute in
your enterprise or that you can reduce the license-related cost by not extending the excessive
licenses. If the cost delta is a negative number that is displayed in red, the number of software
product instances that are used exceeds the license entitlement. You must either reduce the number
of product instances used or purchase licenses for more instances of the software product.
Acquisition
Cost
Overall cost of purchasing the license for the particular software product.
Cost per Seat
Cost of the license for the software product for each product instance.
62
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Index
I
installation
overview
4
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2013
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