Oracle Flash Storage System Glossary

Oracle Flash Storage System Glossary
Oracle Flash Storage System
Glossary
Part Number E53016-03
Oracle FS1-2 System release 6.1
2015 March
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Preface
Oracle Resources
Table 1: Oracle resources
For help with...
Support
Training
Documentation
Documentation
feedback
Contact Oracle
Contact...
http://www.oracle.com/support
(www.oracle.com/support)
https://education.oracle.com
(https://education.oracle.com)
•
Oracle Help Center:
(http://www.oracle.com/goto/FSStorage/docs)
•
From Oracle FS System Manager (GUI):
Help > Documentation
•
From Oracle FS System HTTP access:
(http://system-name-ip/documentation.php
where system-name-ip is the name or the public
IP address of your system)
http://www.oracle.com/goto/docfeedback
(http://www.oracle.com/goto/docfeedback)
http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/contact/index.html
(http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/contact/
index.html)
4
Preface
Typographical Conventions
Table 2: Typography to mark certain content
Convention
Meaning
italics
Within normal text, words in italics indicate one of the
following items:
monospace
•
Hypertext, as in a URL
•
A reference to a book title
•
New terms and emphasized words
•
Command variables
Indicates one of the following, depending on the context:
•
The name of a file or the path to the file
•
Output displayed by the system on the command line
monospace (bold)
Input provided by an administrator on the command line.
>
Indicates a menu item or a navigation path in Oracle FS
System Manager (GUI). For example, “Click SAN >
Storage > LUNS > Action > Clone” means to click the Clone
link on the SAN page in the GUI.
...
Indicates that one or more steps have been omitted from the
path or menu structure. The ellipsis is used within an
expression of a navigation path or within a cascading menu
structure. For example, in the SAN > Storage > LUNS > ... >
Clone menu structure, the ... implies that one or more menu
items have been omitted.
5
Glossary
A
access bias
A QoS attribute that translates to an optimization bias:
Mixed,
Random
The system reads and writes relatively
small chunks and caches data for a longer
period.
Sequential
The system reads and writes relatively
large chunks and caches data for a
shorter period.
Compare I/O bias.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
access control list A set of access control entries (ACEs) that is associated with
a file or directory that defines the access rights that each
(ACL)
user or each group has for that object. An Oracle FS System
uses ACL permissions as the basis of the security for an
object and derives the UNIX permission modes from the
collection of ACEs. A discretionary access control list (DACL)
is one of two types of ACL.
Active Directory
A Microsoft technology that enables applications to find,
use, and manage directory resources (such as user names,
network printers, and permissions). The Oracle FS System
CIFS server authenticates Kerberos clients against an Active
Directory™ server in both mixed and native mode.
When the Oracle FS System provides a CIFS server, the
CIFS client gets the ticket from Kerberos and presents it to
the system. When the Oracle FS System is a CIFS client, the
system gets the ticket from Kerberos and presents it to a
customer‑supplied domain controller.
See also Kerberos.
An Oracle FS System feature that allows access to
adaptive
filesystems that are homed on a remote NAS Controller.
forwarding
filesystem (AFFS) If a filesystem request is received on a virtual interface (VIF)
that physically resides on a Controller other than the one
containing the port for that VIF, the system forwards the
request to the remote home Controller for processing. When
the processing is complete, the system returns the results of
the request to the original Controller. The original VIF then
returns the results to the client.
See also home Controller.
See also partner Controller.
6
See also virtual interface (VIF).
addressable
(logical capacity)
A QoS attribute that defines the amount of storage that is
provisioned for a logical volume. For original volumes, the
system might provision and display a value that is greater
than what was requested, guaranteeing that the amount of
storage requested is available. For clones and copies, the
addressable logical capacity is the same as the source
volume, unless a greater amount is requested.
For thinly provisioned volumes, the addressable capacity is
unlimited. For all other volumes, the addressable capacity is
the same as or slightly less than the allocated capacity.
Compare allocated (logical capacity).
See also capacity.
See also logical volume.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
Administrator 1
The administrator role for a login account that provides the
authority to perform all administrative tasks and all
configuration tasks except for certain tasks that are reserved
for the support roles.
Compare Administrator 2.
Compare Monitor.
Compare Oracle Support.
Compare Primary Administrator.
Compare Support.
Administrator 2
The administrator role for a login account that provides the
authority to perform most administrative and configuration
tasks. A login account assigned to this role cannot, however,
perform the following tasks:
•
Manage the administrator accounts and other global
system settings such as those settings for networking,
the Controller ports, system security, and the system
time.
•
Perform software upgrades or use Guided
Maintenance to replace hardware components.
•
Shut down the Oracle FS System system.
Compare Administrator 1.
Compare Monitor.
Compare Oracle Support.
Compare Primary Administrator.
Compare Support.
7
alert
See system alert.
allocated (logical
capacity)
A QoS attribute that defines the amount of storage that is
reserved for a logical volume. An allocated capacity can
increase up to, and possibly exceed by a small amount, the
addressable logical capacity.
Compare addressable (logical capacity).
See also capacity.
See also logical volume.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
assigned
Controller
The Controller that the system has configured as the
preferred home Controller for a logical volume. Depending
on the data path over which incoming access requests arrive
for the volume, the system might re-home the volume to the
partner Controller.
Compare home Controller.
Compare partner Controller.
See also adaptive forwarding filesystem (AFFS).
See also Controller.
Auto Service
Request (ASR)
A secure, scalable software solution that automatically
generates a support case when specific system faults occur.
ASR solutions combine the Call‑Home feature of an
Oracle FS System with My Oracle Support (MOS). A
customer uses MOS to enable ASR so that Call‑Home can
generate the service requests.
See also Call‑Home.
auto-tiering
See QoS Plus.
availability
A feature of an Oracle FS System that makes the system
fault tolerant. The following availability features make
customer data highly accessible, even during hardware
replacements and non‑disruptive software updates:
•
Redundant components
•
Controller warmstarts
•
Failover and failback processing
•
RAID array rebuilds using dynamic spares for hard
disk drives
•
RAID array rebuilds using dedicated spare drives for
solid state drives
See also dynamic spare.
See also failback.
See also failover.
8
See also fault tolerance.
See also reliability.
See also Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS).
See also serviceability.
See also spare drive.
B
Backend SAS
Interconnect
A multi-lane SAS network in an Oracle FS System that
forms an intricate pattern of cross connections among the
Controller nodes and the Drive Enclosures. Sometimes
referred to as the private interconnect (PI).
Compare private management interface (PMI).
beacon
A feature of the Pilots, the Controllers, and the Drive
Enclosures that identifies the chassis or a particular
replaceable unit. During Guided Maintenance, when the
administrator or the service technician beacons a hardware
component, the system blinks the associated LED or set of
LEDs on the component. A reverse beacon blinks everything
except the LEDs on the component of interest.
See also Controller.
See also customer replaceable unit (CRU).
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also Guided Maintenance.
See also Pilot.
block‑level
snapshot
See Filesystem Copy and LUN Copy.
C
cache
A sequential record of committed transactions (a set of
modified blocks) that are guaranteed to be written to the
underlying drive group storage. The Oracle FS System
maintains one cache for each LUN. In the background, the
system asynchronously flushes each cache to permanent
storage.
The system maintains two copies of the cache in
flash‑backed memory. The primary copy exists on the same
Controller node on which the LUN resides. The secondary
copy (a mirror) exists in the flash‑backed memory in the
partner node to allow recovery in the event of a failure of
the home Controller.
9
Compare journal.
See also drive group.
See also flash-backed memory (FBM).
See also home Controller.
See also pinned data.
See also SAN Controller.
Call‑Home
A feature of an Oracle FS System that, when enabled, allows
the system to send the system status information, the
appropriate logs, and the system configuration information
to Oracle Customer Support. If the Auto Service Request
(ASR) feature is enabled, Call‑Home also notifies Oracle
Customer Support about critical issues that exist in the
Oracle FS System.
See also Auto Service Request (ASR).
See also Call-Home matrix.
See also failover.
See also system configuration database.
Call-Home matrix An XML file that defines the default settings for the
Call‑Home feature and how the Oracle FS System handles
events. Oracle Customer Support can provide a custom file
to help in the diagnosis of a particular system issue. Custom
files can be uploaded to the system by means of an
Oracle FS CLI subcommand.
Software updates reset the Call‑Home matrix to factory
settings.
See also Call‑Home.
capacity
The amount of data that a logical volume can store.
Capacity is expressed as addressable logical capacity or as
allocated logical capacity.
See also addressable (logical capacity).
See also allocated (logical capacity).
See also logical volume.
Clone FS
A point‑in‑time, read‑write, partial‑block snapshot of a
filesystem that you intend to split from the original
filesystem for immediate access. A Clone FS retains the
same QoS parameters as the source filesystem. A Clone FS
consumes storage capacity from the capacity that was
allocated for the source filesystem. Clone FSs provide a
convenient method to branch from the source data without
the need to do a full‑block copy operation.
Compare Clone LUN.
10
Compare Oracle MaxRep for NAS.
Compare Snap FS.
Compare Volume Copy.
See also filesystem.
Clone LUN
A point‑in‑time, read‑write, partial‑block snapshot of a
LUN that can be accessed immediately. A Clone LUN
retains the same QoS parameters as the source LUN. A
Clone LUN consumes storage capacity from the clone
repository that was allocated separately for the source LUN.
Formerly called a Snap LUN.
Compare Clone FS.
Compare Oracle MaxRep for SAN.
Compare Volume Copy.
See also LUN.
command line
interface (CLI)
See Oracle FS CLI.
Common Internet A protocol that allows network users in a Windows
File System (CIFS) environment to share and access files that are stored on an
Oracle FS System. The Oracle FS System implementation of
CIFS adheres to the Server Message Block (SMB) version 1.0
protocol.
Compare Network File System (NFS).
community string A text string, which can contain up to 255 printable
characters (ASCII 33‑126), that acts like a password to
control access to Management Information Base (MIB) fields
within a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
device.
See also Management Information Base (MIB).
See also Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
Controller
A 4U, clustered storage subsystem that is the front end to an
Oracle FS System. A Controller is one of the nodes in an
active-active pair of nodes, each of which provides access to
user data and mirrors the cached data and the state of the
partner node. A Controller can support the NAS protocol
and the SAN protocol at the same time. A Controller
accesses the storage pool through the Backend SAS
Interface.
Compare Drive Enclosure.
Compare Pilot.
See also Backend SAS Interconnect.
See also home Controller.
See also NAS Controller.
11
See also partner Controller.
See also SAN Controller.
See also service type.
customer
replaceable unit
(CRU)
A component in an Oracle FS System that can be replaced
by the customer. Oracle FS System Manager (GUI) facilitates
the hardware maintenance and the hardware upgrades and
provides step‑by‑step instructions for the replacement of
the components.
Compare field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also Guided Maintenance.
D
data migration
The movement of data blocks from a Storage Class to a
different Storage Class based on the QoS Plus settings of the
logical volume. The Oracle FS System uses the historical
usage statistics for each QoS Plus volume in determining
which data blocks to move. The system use the priority
level of the volume to determine the Storage Class on which
to move the data. Sometimes referred to as data progression.
Compare immobile data.
See also priority level.
See also QoS Plus.
See also statistics.
See also Storage Class.
data path
The network route from a client application to the Oracle FS
System storage arrays. The customer data network connects
to the public ports on the Controllers. From there, the data
path progresses through the Backend SAS Interconnect to
the appropriate drive groups that contain the data.
See also Backend SAS Interconnect.
See also Controller.
See also drive group.
data tier
A NAS storage tier for storing user data. A data tier is
dedicated to a specific filesystem and takes advantage of
specific performance and storage utilization properties of
the media. An administrator defines the data tiers
separately for each filesystem. The administrator can create
up to three different data tiers for a filesystem.
Compare QoS Plus.
See also metadata tier.
See also storage tier.
12
disruptive
software update
An installation of the Oracle FS System operating systems,
applications, and Drive Enclosure firmware in a way that
requires the Oracle FS System to be placed in an inactive
state temporarily and all user data paths taken offline.
Oracle FS Systems implement disruptive software updates
by restarting the entire system to bring up the new
software. User applications lose access to the Oracle FS
System storage arrays during a disruptive software update.
Compare non‑disruptive software update.
See also update.
domain
1
On the Internet, a set of network addresses that are
organized in levels of specificity, as in oracle.com. For
example, the top level of an address identifies the
most general part of the address, such as .com
(commercial) or .de (Germany).
2
For Windows, a set of network resources for a group
of users. CIFS servers that have been configured for
an Oracle FS System require a domain name to
authenticate CIFS users.
3
For NIS (Network Information System), a collection of
computers each of which has knowledge of the entire
system of computers.
See also Common Internet File System (CIFS).
See also Kerberos.
See also Network Information Service (NIS).
See also Storage Domain.
Domain
Controller (DC)
A networked computer that manages authentication and
access to network resources. CIFS users on Windows clients
authenticate through a DC. Used also in expressions such as
Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and Backup Domain
Controller (BDC).
Compare Network Information Service (NIS).
See also Common Internet File System (CIFS).
See also domain, definition 2.
Domain Name
System (DNS)
A service used on the Internet to translate host or domain
names into IP addresses. In an Oracle FS System, an
administrator identifies the IP addresses of one or more
DNS servers that a File Server can use. Also, Pilots use DNS
for sending Call‑Home logs.
See also Call‑Home, definition 1.
See also domain, definition 1.
See also File Server.
13
Drive Enclosure
A 2U chassis or a 4U chassis in an Oracle FS System that
contains SAS drives of one Storage Class. For hard disk
drives (HDDs), a Drive Enclosure contains 24 drives in
groups of 12. For performance solid state drives (SSDs), a
Drive Enclosure contains 13 drives (two groups of six, plus
one extra). For capacity SSDs, a Drive Enclosure contains 19
drives (three groups of six drives, plus one extra). Drive
Enclosures are a part of the Backend SAS Interconnect.
All of the drives in a Drive Enclosure support end‑to‑end
CRC by means of the SCSI protection information field,
which provides the data integrity metadata.
Compare Controller.
Compare Pilot.
See also Backend SAS Interconnect.
See also drive group.
See also reference tag.
See also Storage Class.
drive group
A logical object that manages a collection of drives of the
same Storage Class, all of which are from the same Drive
Enclosure. The number of drives in the drive group
depends on the drive type. A drive group containing hard
disk drives (HDDs) consists of 12 drives. A drive group
containing solid state drives (SSDs) consists of six drives. A
drive group resides in a single Storage Domain.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also dynamic spare.
See also Persistence.
See also primary drive group.
See also spare drive.
See also Storage Domain.
dynamic spare
Unallocated strips on high-capacity hard disk drives
(HDDs) in a given drive group. This spare capacity is
striped across all of the HDDs in the drive group. Dynamic
spares are used to support the RAID 5 protection level and
the RAID 10 protection level. Dynamic spares cannot cross
drive group boundaries.
Compare spare drive.
See also strip.
See also stripe, definition 2.
14
E
energy storage
module (ESM)
An array of supercapacitors that are packaged into a 2.5inch drive carrier. An ESM supplies power to the NVDIMMs in a Controller so that, during a power failure, the
NV-DIMMs can move the data from the dynamic memory
in the Controller to the flash‑backed portion of the NV‑
DIMMs.
See also Controller.
See also flash-backed memory (FBM).
Ethernet
An IEEE 802.3 standard for network transmission. Oracle FS
Systems support public connections using Fast Ethernet,
GbE, and 10 GbE technologies. These connections can be
copper or optical.
event notification Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) email messages that
notify recipients of specified system events. System events
include informational events, warning events, and critical
events such as the creation of a logical volume or the
occurrence of a hardware problem or software problem.
Event notifications are optional and, when enabled,
supplement normal event logging and Call‑Home
notification.
See also Call‑Home.
See also event severity.
event severity
The importance of events that have occurred within the
system. The level of severity ranges from Informational (no
action is required) to Critical (immediate action is required).
The administrator can set up alerts (email notifications) that
notify users when preselected events are triggered.
See also event notification.
export
A named NFS resource in a filesystem that remote clients
can mount. In Oracle FS Systems, CIFS clients can access an
NFS export if the path name definition for the CIFS share is
the same as that for the export.
Compare share.
See also Common Internet File System (CIFS).
See also filesystem.
See also Network File System (NFS).
extent
An integer number of minimum allocation units (MAUs)
that occupy a contiguous range of storage on a particular
drive group. An extent uses a particular RAID level and is
dedicated to a specific volume. A volume consists of an
integer number of extents.
See also drive group.
15
See also minimum allocation unit (MAU).
See also strip.
See also stripe, definition 1.
F
failback
The restoration of a set of services and resources (which had
been failed over earlier) to the original hardware
component.
Compare failover.
failover
The transference of a set of services and resources from a
failed hardware component to another hardware
component. For example, when the active Pilot node can no
longer function properly, failover occurs to the stand-by
Pilot node, which then becomes the active node.
Compare failback.
See also port failover.
fault tolerance
The ability of an Oracle FS System to respond gracefully to
an unexpected hardware or software failure.
See also availability.
field replaceable
unit (FRU)
A replaceable hardware component in an Oracle FS System
that requires an Oracle field support technician to replace
the component.
Compare customer replaceable unit (CRU).
See also Guided Maintenance.
File Server
A NAS object that is assigned security, network, and
protocol access attributes. These attributes apply to all of the
filesystems that are associated with a specific File Server. A
NAS Controller in an Oracle FS System requires at least one
File Server. Sometimes referred to as a CIFS server or as an
NFS server.
See also filesystem.
See also virtual interface (VIF).
filesystem
A logical volume that organizes and catalogs files and
assigns resources to a given collection of directories and
files in a NAS system. Administrators can assign different
QoS attributes to each filesystem. A filesystem is associated
with a File Server by means of exports and shares.
Compare LUN.
Compare virtual LUN (VLUN).
See also data tier.
See also export.
16
See also File Server.
See also logical volume.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
See also share.
Filesystem Copy
A block‑level, full‑image copy of a filesystem or Clone FS.
This copy can be read from and written to immediately. The
QoS properties for a Filesystem Copy can differ from the
original. Copies use the available storage in the system.
Called Copy Filesystem in Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
A duplicate copy requires greater system and storage
resources than a Snap FS. To create an archival copy, use an
inactive Clone FS.
Compare Snap FS.
See also Clone FS.
See also filesystem.
See also volume group.
flash-backed
memory (FBM)
Memory modules in a Controller that provide nonvolatile
memory. Because of the reserve of power that is provided
by an energy storage module, the FBM retains the user data
across system reset events and power loss events.
See also Controller.
See also energy storage module (ESM).
foreign drive
A drive that is new from the factory or is from a different
Oracle FS System Drive Enclosure. To incorporate a foreign
drive into the system, the administrator must accept the
foreign drive when prompted.
When a new factory drive is inserted into a Drive Enclosure,
the RAID software automatically writes Oracle‑specific
metadata on the drive, which binds the drive to the Drive
Enclosure. This binding process is called branding.
See also Drive Enclosure.
FSPM
See Oracle FS Path Manager (FSPM).
G
gateway
A router that enables traffic to flow from the network to
which the Oracle FS System is connected to other networks.
For Controllers, Oracle FS System administrators identify
this gateway by its IP address as a File Server parameter.
Pilots and Controllers use different gateways for their
respective management and data paths.
See also File Server.
17
See also route.
geomap
A description of the physical layout on the Drive Enclosures
for a given logical volume. A geomap is maintained
internally within a Controller and is available for inspection
through the Oracle FS CLI interface.
See also Controller.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also virtual LUN (VLUN).
graphical user
interface (GUI)
See Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
See Oracle MaxMan.
See Oracle MaxRep for SAN.
growth increment The capacity by which a thinly provisioned (sparse) LUN or
a thinly provisioned filesystem is expanded as usage
increases. The value of this increment is between 1 GB and
2 GB.
The minimum growth increment cannot be directly
configured.
See also geomap.
See also minimum allocation unit (MAU).
See also stripe.
See also thin provisioning.
Guided
Maintenance
A feature of Oracle FS System Manager that presents a
series of dialogs that leads a person through the exact steps
to replace a replaceable unit in an Oracle FS System. The
dialogs include features that help you to identify the
replaceable unit accurately. In addition to the guidance, this
feature automatically integrates the new unit into the
system and brings the unit into a Normal state.
See also beacon.
See also customer replaceable unit (CRU).
See also field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also serviceability.
H
halt point
A particular step that is associated with an Oracle FS
System software module at which the system startup
process is suspended. Specific halt points can be enabled
and disabled only by a Support administrator.
Halt points are used for recovery purposes only. When the
startup process is suspended, the Support administrator can
18
gather information or clear conditions that cannot otherwise
be accomplished. Halt points should never be set or cleared
without the assistance from Oracle Customer Support.
See also initialization.
See also power on with data recovery (PODR).
See also restart.
See also Support.
hardware
component
A Controller, a Drive Enclosure, or a Pilot.
Compare customer replaceable unit (CRU).
Compare field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also Controller.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also Pilot.
high availability
(HA)
See availability.
home Controller
The Controller on which the logical volume resides. The
Oracle FS System automatically moves the ownership of a
volume (rehomes the volume) to the Controller where the
majority of the I/O operations occur. Rehoming a volume
ensures efficient I/O operations for the volume.
Compare assigned Controller.
Compare partner Controller.
See also Controller.
For NAS, see also adaptive forwarding filesystem (AFFS).
For SAN, see also non‑optimized access (NOA).
hot serviceable
A CRU or FRU that can be removed and replaced without
the need for the administrator to issue any commands
before the removal or after the replacement of the unit and
without the need to power down the system or the unit
before the replacement. All data paths remain online and
functioning during the servicing of the hardware.
See also customer replaceable unit (CRU).
See also field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also serviceability.
I
immobile data
The LUN data that QoS Plus cannot migrate to a low
performance Storage Class because the Storage Class is
excluded from the available LUN storage pool.
19
See also data migration.
See also QoS Plus.
See also Storage Class.
infill
initialization
The action of the Oracle FS System automatically allocating
additional capacity to a thinly provisioned logical volume.
This additional capacity might not be contiguous with the
previous allocations.
See also thin provisioning.
1 The start‑up process in an Oracle FS System.
Sometimes called boot‑up.
See also restart.
2
Input/Output
Operations per
Second (IOPS)
The process of the Oracle FS System writing zeros to
an area in storage (to make the capacity available for
allocation).
A performance measurement for read (input) operations
and write (output) operations. Adding drive groups can
increase the IOPS capability of an Oracle FS System.
See also drive group.
Integrated Lights The service processor software that monitors the events, the
Out Manager
errors, and the faults that occur in the Oracle FS System
(ILOM)
hardware. ILOM controls all LED activity and is present on
all Controllers and on all Pilots. When documentation is
available for an event, an error, or a fault that ILOM
encounters, the ILOM messaging provides a URL to the
appropriate knowledge base article on the My Oracle
Support (MOS) website.
See also Controller.
See also Pilot.
See also Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS).
See also service processor (SP).
I/O bias
A QoS attribute that identifies the typical read‑write ratio
for files, which translates to an optimization bias for the
logical volume:
•
Mixed, if the read‑write ratio varies.
•
Read, if the read activity exceeds the write activity.
•
Write, if the write activity exceeds the read activity.
Compare access bias.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
iSCSI
An IP based standard for linking data storage devices over a
network and for transferring data by carrying SCSI
commands over IP networks. An iSCSI SAN can be
20
composed of native iSCSI initiators (such as File Servers)
and iSCSI targets (such as drive arrays and tape
subsystems). Each iSCSI target is identified by a unique
iSCSI qualified name (IQN), and each port on the Controller
is identified by one or more IP addresses.
See also SAN Controller.
J
journal
A sequential record of committed transactions (set of
modified blocks) that are guaranteed to be written to the
underlying drive group storage. The Oracle FS System
maintains one journal for each filesystem. In the
background, the system asynchronously flushes these
journals to permanent storage.
The system maintains two copies of a journal in Controller
memory. The primary copy exists on the home Controller.
The secondary copy (a mirror) exists in the non‑volatile,
flash‑backed memory in the partner Controller, which
allows data recovery in the event of a failure of the home
Controller.
Compare cache.
See also drive group.
See also flash-backed memory (FBM).
See also home Controller.
See also NAS Controller.
See also partner Controller.
See also pinned data.
K
Kerberos
A secure method for authenticating a request for a service.
Kerberos lets a user request an encrypted ticket from an
authentication process that is a part of the Key Distribution
Centre (KDC), which can then be used to request a
particular service from a server. The user's password does
not have to pass through the network.
Oracle FS System administrators can choose to authenticate
users by requiring them to request a KDC ticket.
L
link aggregation
A process that groups two adjacent Ethernet ports into a
single NAS channel, creating a higher‑bandwidth logical
link. Link aggregation provides load balancing and fault
tolerance for multiple Ethernet links. When link aggregation
21
is enabled for an Oracle FS System, the aggregated GbE
ports on each Controller node become redundant.
Conforms to the IEEE 803.2ad standard Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP) standard.
Compare port failover.
See also Ethernet.
See also NAS Controller.
local area network Computers and other devices that span a geographic area of
(LAN)
up to a few thousand meters and interact through a
common Ethernet link. An Oracle FS System provides
interfaces to four types of LAN:
•
Private management network, which the system uses
for internal communication
•
Public management network, which administrators
use to manage the system
•
Public data network to service CIFS and NFS clients
•
Public data network to service iSCSI clients
See also data path.
See also iSCSI.
See also Pilot.
See also private management interface (PMI).
log bundle
An archive of system information that can be used by
Oracle Support for diagnostic purposes. A log bundle
contains information of any combination of the following
types:
•
Controller events
•
Pilot events
•
Replication Engine events
•
System configuration
•
SAN host logs
•
System statistics
See also Controller.
See also Oracle MaxRep Replication Engine.
See also Pilot.
See also statistics.
See also system configuration database.
logical volume
A named segment of storage in a Storage Domain that
represents a NAS filesystem or a SAN LUN. Both volume
types can act as source volumes for clone operations,
22
snapshot operations, and copy operations. The products of
those operations are logical volumes as well.
See also Clone FS.
See also Clone LUN.
See also filesystem.
See also LUN.
See also Snap FS.
See also Storage Domain.
See also thin provisioning.
See also Volume Copy.
See also volume group.
loopback
diagnostics
A diagnostic test for a SAN Controller that validates the
connectivity between a target port on the Controller and a
SAN switch port. During the test, the target port sends an
Extended Link Service (ELS) Echo request to the switch,
which then routes the request back to the sending port.
See also SAN Controller.
lost data
A condition in which data might not be accessible or
available. When this condition exists, the logical volume
reports a lost data status, which means that the Oracle FS
System cannot guarantee that some data has not been lost.
This condition can arise when the following events occur:
•
During a power outage, the energy storage module
(ESM) fails or exhausts its energy reserve before it can
transfer all of the cached data from dynamic memory
to the flash‑backed memory in the NV‑DIMM.
•
A Drive Enclosure fails.
A lost data condition causes the system to take the logical
volume offline and to generate a system event.
See also availability.
See also Controller.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also energy storage module (ESM).
See also flash-backed memory (FBM).
LUN
A logical volume that is defined over a collection of drive
groups and is addressed using SCSI protocol in a SAN. An
administrator defines the QoS attributes of the LUN.
Compare filesystem.
Compare virtual LUN (VLUN).
23
See also logical volume.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
LUN Copy
A block‑level, full‑image copy of a LUN or a Clone LUN.
This copy can be read from and written to immediately. QoS
parameters for a LUN Copy can differ from the original.
Copies use the available storage in the system. Called Copy
LUN in Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
A duplicate copy requires greater system and storage
resources than the Clone LUN feature.
Compare Clone LUN.
See also LUN.
See also Volume Copy.
M
An information store that provides the current state of a
Management
Information Base collection of managed network objects and is accessed by
means of the Simple Network Management Protocol
(MIB)
(SNMP). Access to MIB state information is controlled
through the use of a community string.
An Oracle FS System exposes an MIB that corresponds to
the physical state of the system, including system status,
statistics, and notification information.
See also community string.
See also Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
management IP
The IP address that administrators use to access the
Oracle FS System management interface on the Pilot. This
address is often set to a customer‑defined address when the
Oracle FS System is first installed.
metadata tier
A NAS storage tier for storing filesystem metadata. A
metadata tier is dedicated to a specific filesystem and can
take advantage of specific performance and storage
utilization properties of the storage media. An
administrator defines one metadata tier for each filesystem.
Compare data tier.
Compare QoS Plus.
See also filesystem.
See also storage tier.
minimum
allocation unit
(MAU)
The smallest, fixed amount of contiguous storage that the
system can allocate to a volume. A MAU is an integer
number of strips and consumes approximately 256 MB of
capacity.
24
See also strip.
mirror
A RAID level in which the Oracle FS System maintains an
exact duplicate of a logical volume at a different location.
No parity data is used. Mirroring protects against the loss of
at least one drive and possibly more drives with an
improvement of the performance of random write
operations. Mirrored RAID is implemented using RAID 10
technology.
Compare RAID 6.
See also RAID 10.
Monitor
An administrator role for login accounts that provides the
authority for those accounts to perform read‑only
management tasks and to modify their own account
properties.
Compare Administrator 1.
Compare Administrator 2.
Compare Oracle Support.
Compare Primary Administrator.
Compare Support.
N
Name Service
Switch (NSS)
A service that provides ordered access to databases to
resolve users, groups, and hosts. An administrator can
identify the search order that a File Server uses among these
databases and files:
•
Network Information Service (NIS) database for host
and password resolution.
•
Domain Name System (DNS) database for host
resolution in non‑NIS environments.
•
Files (/etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/
netgroup) for password resolution in non‑NIS
environments.
See also Domain Name System (DNS).
See also File Server.
See also Network Information Service (NIS).
NAS Controller
A Controller that provides file‑based storage services. It
connects to host servers by means of a Gigabit Ethernet
connection into a LAN. NAS Controllers service filesystems
using CIFS and NFS protocols.
Compare SAN Controller.
See also Common Internet File System (CIFS).
25
See also Controller.
See also Network File System (NFS).
See also service type.
NAS/SAN
The unification of NAS and SAN environments in an
Oracle FS System, which uses a single storage pool and is
controlled by flexible, QoS‑driven policies. A Controller can
service both protocols simultaneously.
Compare NAS Controller.
Compare SAN Controller.
See also service type.
netgroup
A named list of computers that are given similar network
access. A netgroup can be convenient when establishing a
host entry that applies to a group of computers.
See also File Server.
See also Network Information Service (NIS).
netmask
A pattern that shows how an Internet address is to be
divided into network, subnet, and host parts. As a File
Server network parameter, it identifies the mask that is
assigned to the virtual network interfaces of the File Server.
Compare virtual interface (VIF).
See also File Server.
Network Data
An industry‑standard protocol that allows for the use of
Management
third‑party backup applications to manage the backup and
Protocol (NDMP) recovery of customer data.
Refer to http://www.ndmp.org/info/faq.shtml.
Network File
System (NFS)
A file‑sharing protocol that allows users who have NFS
client software installed on their workstations to access data
that is stored on an Oracle FS System. Users can manipulate
these files as though they were stored locally on their own
drive.
Oracle FS Systems supports NFS versions 2 and 3
commands over TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
Compare Common Internet File System (CIFS).
Network
Information
Service (NIS)
A network naming and administration service.
Administrators can choose to authenticate UNIX, Linux,
and Windows NFS clients by means of an NIS database.
Compare Domain Controller (DC).
See also Network File System (NFS).
Network Time
Protocol (NTP)
A standard that is used to synchronize computer clock
times in a network of computers. The Pilot management
controller synchronizes its time with an NTP server outside
26
of the Oracle FS System. Controllers synchronize their
clocks with the Pilot. You can also set the time manually.
See also Controller.
See also Pilot.
non‑disruptive
software update
An installation of operating systems, applications, and
Drive Enclosure firmware on an Oracle FS System in a way
that does not require the Controller data paths to be taken
offline and the system restarted. Instead, user applications
can continue accessing the Oracle FS System storage arrays
without interruption while the Pilot warmstarts the
Controller nodes.
Sometimes called NDU (non‑disruptive update).
Compare disruptive software update.
See also Controller.
See also Pilot.
See also update.
non‑optimized
access (NOA)
Less efficient access to a LUN through the ports on the
partner Controller for the LUN, as opposed to the
optimized access through the ports on the home Controller
for the LUN.
Compare adaptive forwarding filesystem (AFFS).
See also home Controller.
See also partner Controller.
notification
See event notification.
O
opportunistic lock In CIFS, a specialized form of file lock that allows the CIFS
client to cache data, generally improving performance.
(oplock)
Oplocks are an optional feature when an administrator
creates a File Server. Without oplocks, CIFS clients access
data files directly.
See also Common Internet File System (CIFS).
See also File Server.
Oracle FS CLI
A client‑based application that enables administrative
actions by means of commands from a shell. Through this
interface, system administrators can configure and manage
an Oracle FS System. This application follows conventions
used by other command line interfaces and supports
automation through scripting using standard shells such as
Perl and Python.
Compare Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
27
Oracle FS Path
Optional software installed on a SAN host to manage
Manager (FSPM) multiple paths to the Oracle FS System.
Oracle FS
SecureWORMfs
A type of filesystem used to enforce data retention. Data is
stored on an Oracle FS SecureWORMfs in a protected
(non‑rewritable) manner.
See also filesystem.
Oracle FS
Statistics Tools
An Oracle FS System utility that is used to download and to
format the statistics that are automatically collected by the
system. The formatted statistics can then be analyzed in, for
example, a spreadsheet. This utility can be downloaded
from any Oracle FS System.
See also statistics.
Oracle FS System The Java‑based application that administrators use to
Manager (GUI)
configure and to manage an Oracle FS System. Oracle FS
System Manager is the name of the application that is used
to manage a particular Oracle FS System.
Compare Oracle FS CLI.
Compare Oracle MaxMan.
Oracle MaxMan
The Java‑based application that administrators use to
configure and to manage multiple Oracle FS Systems.
Compare Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
Oracle MaxRep
for NAS
Optional software for NAS environments that allows
administrators to replicate filesystems onto one or more
Oracle FS Systems. This software can keep the content of the
replicas synchronized with the content of the parent
volumes.
Oracle MaxRep
for SAN
Optional hardware (the Oracle MaxRep Replication Engine)
and software that allows administrators to replicate SAN
LUNs onto one or more Oracle FS Systems for the purpose
of disaster recovery, application consistent recovery, and
business continuity. Oracle MaxRep for SAN provides a
GUI for configuration, control, and monitoring purposes.
See also Oracle MaxRep Replication Engine.
Oracle MaxRep
Replication
Engine
A 2U server that manages and monitors the replication and
recovery process for the Oracle FS System data in a SAN. A
Replication Engine captures the write requests and
replicates them immediately to a target LUN. The
Replication Engine is the hardware component of Oracle
MaxRep for SAN. The software component of Oracle
MaxRep for SAN runs on one or more Replication Engines.
If two Replication Engines are used in an Oracle FS System,
the two nodes operate as a cooperative pair. One node
28
operates in active mode while the other node operates in
stand-by mode.
See also Oracle MaxRep for SAN.
Oracle Support
The administrator role that is assigned to the pillar login
account, which is installed at the factory and cannot be
deleted. The pillar login account has special privileges
strictly for the purposes of maintenance and cannot modify
the system configurations, the data resources, the system
alerts, or any of the administrator accounts.
The pillar login account is reserved for use by Oracle
Customer Support and by authorized service providers.
Additional login accounts using the Oracle Support role
cannot be created.
Compare Administrator 1.
Compare Administrator 2.
Compare Monitor.
Compare Primary Administrator.
Compare Support.
P
partner Controller One of two Controller nodes that are paired together in an
active-active state. In terms of volume assignment, the
partner Controller is the second of the pair of Controllers
that are associated with a logical volume. The partner
Controller is not currently assigned as the home Controller.
Compare assigned Controller.
Compare home Controller.
See also adaptive forwarding filesystem (AFFS).
See also Controller.
path
The physical route along which the protocol or the data for
a logical connection travels. A path connecting a customer
hardware device to an Oracle FS System is dedicated to
transporting user data or management information.
See also Backend SAS Interconnect.
See also route.
Persistence
The internal name of the volume that contains the system
configuration database. The Persistence volume resides on a
virtual drive in the primary drive group. This virtual drive
is called the Persistence VLUN.
See also primary drive group.
See also system configuration database.
29
See also system root configuration.
See also virtual LUN (VLUN).
personality
See service type.
Pilot
An Oracle FS System hardware component that provides
system management services, system restart services,
Call‑Home services, administrative access, and maintenance
access. Administrators can connect to the Pilot nodes over
the Ethernet using Oracle FS System Manager (GUI) or
Oracle FS CLI.
Compare Controller.
Compare Drive Enclosure.
See also Oracle FS CLI.
See also Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
Pilot restart
The reinitiation of the Pilot nodes while the rest of the
Oracle FS System continues to function. The management
software restarts the Pilot nodes when the Oracle FS System
experiences one of the following events:
•
An internal issue has been detected.
•
A non‑disruptive software update (which means that
the data resources remain online) is being performed.
The restarting of the Pilot nodes does not affect or impact
the data path in any way.
Compare restart.
Compare warmstart.
See also non‑disruptive software update.
pinned data
Any modified data that the system cannot flush from
memory to physical storage due to a system failure or a
power failure. The Oracle FS System protects this
in‑memory data until the system can flush the data to
physical storage. To resolve any pinned data, administrators
can perform the following actions:
•
Fix the issue, which would then let the system flush
the pinned data.
•
Discard the pinned data.
See also cache.
See also flash-backed memory (FBM).
See also journal.
policy‑based
management
An Oracle FS System administrative mechanism that
simplifies resource management. This mechanism allows
the creation of policies to deal with situations that are likely
to occur. System administrators define QoS policies for
30
filesystems and LUNs that define the following
characteristics of the volumes:
•
Capacity limits
•
Performance targets
•
Data protection
Administrators can define other policies to handle system‑
level occurrences:
port failover
•
Event notifications
•
Data replication
•
Hardware component failures
An Oracle FS System feature that permits link loss recovery
by allowing a virtual interface (VIF) to migrate another port.
In the case of a switch failure or a cable failure, the VIF can
migrate to another port on the same Controller. In the case
of a home Controller failure, the VIF can migrate to the
partner Controller.
Compare link aggregation.
See also home Controller.
See also partner Controller.
See also virtual interface (VIF).
port group
A collection of serial‑attached SCSI (SAS) ports within the
Backend SAS Interconnect that is used to access the storage
arrays.
See also Backend SAS Interconnect.
power on with
data recovery
(PODR)
A power cycle that keeps the data intact within the
flash‑backed memory in the Controllers. PODR applies
most often in the context of a Controller node that has been
power cycled without a clean shutdown. PODR can apply
to the entire Oracle FS System as well.
See also cache.
See also Controller.
See also flash-backed memory (FBM).
See also journal.
See also shutdown.
Primary
Administrator
The administrator role that is assigned to the
administrator login account, which is installed at the
factory and cannot be deleted or disabled. The
administrator login account has the authority to perform
all administration and configuration tasks. Additional login
31
accounts using the Primary Administrator role cannot be
created.
Compare Administrator 1.
Compare Administrator 2.
Compare Monitor.
Compare Oracle Support.
Compare Support.
primary drive
group
The drive group in an Oracle FS System that contains the
system-wide Persistence volume.
See also drive group.
See also Persistence.
priority level
A QoS attribute that determines the characteristics of the
system response to the incoming I/O requests against a
volume. Generally, higher priority volumes are striped
across a greater number of drive groups when compared to
lower priority volumes. QoS Plus causes a higher priority
volume to be given a greater opportunity to occupy the
higher performance Storage Classes when data migration is
indicated for the volume.
See also data migration.
See also drive group.
See also QoS Plus.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
See also Storage Class.
private
interconnect (PI)
SeeBackend SAS Interconnect.
Private
Interconnect
Topology
Manager
(PITMAN)
A tool that runs on the Oracle FS System that collects highlevel statistics and error information. The information
collected is for the private interconnect, which is also
known as the Backend SAS Interconnect. PITMAN can be
run manually to disable selected components in the
Backend SAS Interconnect and to identify malfunctioning
hardware.
See also Backend SAS Interconnect.
private
management
interface (PMI)
The internal Ethernet network that interconnects the Pilot
nodes and the Controller nodes to support the management
function and other functions of the Oracle FS System.
Compare Backend SAS Interconnect.
processing queue A software-based container that is maintained in the
Controller memory to store incoming I/O requests. One
container exists for each of the QoS priority settings. The
32
SAN interface of a Controller places each incoming I/O
request for a LUN into the processing queue that
corresponds to the QoS priority of the LUN.
If the SAN interface of a FixController becomes
overcommitted, the Oracle FS System allocates the
processing resources of the Controller to each queue
according to the priority of the queue.
See also priority level.
Q
QoS Plus
A software feature of the Oracle FS System that enhances
the QoS properties of a LUN, which allows the system to
automatically migrate chunks of LUN data to a more
optimum storage tier for performance reasons.
When QoS Plus is requested for a LUN, the system
automatically creates a RAID 10 storage tier in the owning
Storage Domain. If the Storage Domain contains
performance hard disk drives (HDDs) or solid state drives
(SSDs) of any type, the system also creates a RAID 5 storage
tier. If the Storage Domain contains capacity HDDs, the
systems also creates a RAID 6 storage tier.
Sometimes referred to as auto-tiering or sub-LUN auto-tiering.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
See also RAID 5.
See also RAID 6.
See also RAID 10.
See also Storage Class.
See also Storage Domain.
See also storage tier.
Quality of Service The set of attributes for a logical volume that affects how
the volume utilizes storage and the priority that the
(QoS)
Oracle FS System gives to the I/O requests that target the
volume.
For LUNs that use QoS Plus, the system automatically
places the user data on a storage tier that has QoS attributes
that are appropriate for how the data is actually being used.
For filesystems, administrators can create multiple data
tiers, each having different QoS properties, on which to
store files. An administrator or a user can move the file later
to a different data tier, if desired.
See also access bias.
See also capacity.
33
See also data tier.
See also I/O bias.
See also priority level.
See also QoS Plus.
See also redundancy.
See also service level agreement (SLA).
See also Storage Profile.
See also storage tier.
queue
See processing queue.
quota
A capacity control for directories, users, or groups who
store data in a filesystem.
See also capacity.
See also filesystem.
R
rack mounted
Assembled, cabled, and tested at the factory and then boxed
for shipping to a customer site. Rack mounted is used to
identify an Oracle FS System that can be unpacked, plugged
in, and powered up without any assembly at the customer
site.
Compare rack ready.
rack ready
Assembled, cabled, and tested at the factory and then
disassembled before shipping to a customer site. Rack ready
is used to identify an Oracle FS System for which the
hardware components must be unpacked and installed in a
rack at the customer site before the system can be plugged
in and powered up.
Compare rack mounted.
RAID 5
A storage technology that stripes the data and the parity
bits across the drives in the RAID array. The Oracle FS
System writes the data and the parity bits to the drives of a
given Storage Class within a single Storage Domain. The
system intersperses the parity bits with the user data by
placing the bits into different locations for each stripe that
supports a logical volume.
Compare RAID 6.
See also redundancy.
See also Storage Class.
See also Storage Domain.
See also stripe, definition 1.
34
RAID 6
RAID 5 with double parity and no mirroring. On an
Oracle FS System, RAID 6 is supported only on hard disk
drives (HDDs).
Compare RAID 5.
Compare RAID 10.
RAID 10
A storage technology that writes two copies of the user data
to different drives. RAID 10 does not compute parity bits
for the user data. RAID 10 is typically selected for write
intensive workloads to improve performance.
Compare RAID 6.
See also mirror.
redundancy
The number of copies of the parity bits that are created for a
logical volume. Standard redundancy is a synonym for single
parity (RAID 5) and protects the user data even after the
failure of one drive. Double redundancy is a synonym for
double parity (RAID 6) and protects the user data even after
the simultaneous failure of two drives.
Redundancy stripes the data over multiple drive groups.
See also drive group.
See also mirror.
See also RAID 5.
See also RAID 6.
See also stripe, definition 1.
reference tag
A segment of the SCSI protection information field, which
contains data integrity metadata (the block address of the
data). The protection information field is a part of a data
record only at the firmware level. This information is not
available to client applications. The administrator can
control whether the system checks the reference tag
metadata for a particular LUN.
See also Drive Enclosure.
reliability
A feature of an Oracle FS System in which dependable
hardware and system software consistently serve customer
data. The reliability of the system reduces maintenance
costs and minimizes service disruptions.
See also availability.
See also Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS).
See also serviceability.
Reliability,
Availability,
The ability to serve customer data, to respond to a failure,
and to undergo maintenance without a complete system
shutdown. Oracle FS Systems are designed with these
35
Serviceability
(RAS)
features in mind to produce a highly reliable, highly
available system that is easy to service.
See also availability.
See also reliability.
See also serviceability.
replica
A copy of a logical volume. Replicas are generally used for
recovery from file corruption or catastrophic situations and
sometimes for testing purposes. Replicas include all forms
of copies, clones, and snapshots.
All replicas, except those that are created by the Oracle
MaxRep utilities, have the following characteristics:
•
Created by an explicit one‑time operation.
•
Performed on the same Oracle FS System.
•
Require no prior configuration.
•
Disassociated from and not synchronized with
changes to the parent volumes.
Oracle MaxRep operations produce copies of the data that,
once created, continue to be associated with the parent
volume. This type of replica requires pre‑configuration and
can be placed on a different system. A synchronization
operation mirrors in the replica all updates to the parent
volume.
Compare Oracle MaxRep for NAS.
Compare Oracle MaxRep for SAN.
See also Clone FS.
See also Clone LUN.
See also Snap FS.
See also Volume Copy.
Replication
Engine
replication pair
See Oracle MaxRep Replication Engine.
1
For Oracle MaxRep for NAS, a relationship
established between two filesystems on the same or
different Oracle FS System. Through the use of a
command, the administrator requests that the
replication process transfer to the target volume all
changes made to the source volume since the
previous replication process.
See also filesystem.
See also Oracle MaxRep for NAS.
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2
For Oracle MaxRep for SAN, an association of a
source LUN and a target LUN for recovery purposes.
See also LUN.
See also Oracle MaxRep for SAN.
restart
A process that ensures that the Oracle FS System software
components shut down and start back up in an orderly way.
The Pilot management software controls this process.
During a Pilot restart, all data paths are available. During a
full system restart, the data paths are not available.
During the startup of the Oracle FS System, the
management software obtains heartbeats from the
Controller nodes and verifies the configuration of the
Oracle FS System. Disruptive software updates and explicit
system administrator requests initiate system restarts.
Compare non‑disruptive software update.
Compare warmstart.
See also Controller.
See also halt point.
See also Pilot restart.
See also shutdown.
restart point
A block of information that is periodically saved during
Oracle MaxRep for NAS synchronization operations. If
needed, this information can be used to continue the
synchronization process after an interruption. The system
records a restart point approximately every minute.
See also Oracle MaxRep for NAS.
See also replication pair, definition 1.
route
The progression through hosts, routers, gateways, and other
devices that network traffic can take. Oracle FS System
administrators identify at least one gateway for a File Server
to use to route messages to other networks.
See also File Server.
See also gateway.
See also sendback routing.
S
SAN Controller
A Controller that provides block‑based storage services to a
SAN. A SAN Controller communicates with customer
servers using Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
commands over the customer SAN. SAN Controllers
support both Fibre Channel and Internet SCSI (iSCSI)
technologies.
37
Compare NAS Controller.
See also Controller.
See also iSCSI.
See also service type.
Self‑Monitoring,
Analysis, and
Reporting
Technology
(SMART)
A mechanism by which drives can report health
information and the likelihood of failure. In an Oracle FS
System, the RAID software use SMART to predict whether
a drive is in danger of failing, which allows administrators
to prevent the failure in a proactive way.
sendback routing The policy that the Oracle FS System uses to respond to an
incoming network packet, which routes the outgoing packet
by using the network port that is associated with the IP
address of the source of the incoming packet. If the
incoming request arrived at the correct network port, the
outgoing response generally responds by using the same
port.
Sendback routing is similar to boomerang or reflect mode
routing for host implementations.
See also route.
serviceability
An attribute of an Oracle FS System that eases the cost and
the time for system maintenance through such features as
self‑diagnostics, automatic failover and failback,
hot‑serviceable CRUs and FRUs, and Guided Maintenance.
See also customer replaceable unit (CRU).
See also failback.
See also failover.
See also field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also Guided Maintenance.
See also reliability.
See also Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS).
service level
agreement (SLA)
Contractually defined performance metrics in which Oracle
provides technical support, replacement parts, and on‑site
service to an entitled customer.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
service processor
(SP)
A component on a Controller motherboard and on a Pilot
motherboard that monitors the physical state of the
hardware component. Service processors also provide
access to motherboard reset operations, AC power control,
fan control, voltage monitoring, and temperature
monitoring.
This access can be through a local interface or through a
remote interface on the partner hardware node. Oracle
38
Support technicians and system administrators can access
the SP through a special management port.
Sometimes referred to as a baseboard management controller
(BMC).
See also Controller.
See also Integrated Lights Out Manager (ILOM).
See also Pilot.
See also restart.
service type
The degree of bias of a pair of Controllers toward servicing
the NAS protocol, the SAN protocol, or a combination of
the two protocols. The bias can be 100% toward one
protocol or split 70% toward one of the protocols and 30%
toward the remaining protocol. The service type defines
how much memory is optimized for I/O performance to
support SAN or NAS. Sometimes referred to as personality.
See also NAS Controller.
See also SAN Controller.
session
The period of time during which a client is logged in to an
Oracle FS System server with the credentials necessary to
run commands against the Oracle FS System. A session
begins when the server successfully authenticates the user.
The session remains active until the user explicitly ends or
quits the session or simply logs out. Often referred to as a
command session, a login session, or a shell session.
See also Oracle FS CLI.
share
A named CIFS resource in a filesystem that remote systems
can access. In an Oracle FS System, NFS users can access a
CIFS share if the path name definition for the NFS export
point is the same as that for the share.
Compare export.
See also Common Internet File System (CIFS).
See also filesystem.
See also Network File System (NFS).
shutdown
A process that completes all running processes and quiets
all parts of the Oracle FS System. The shutdown process
allows the safe removal of the power and the replacement of
the hardware components. The shutdown process disables
all of the data interfaces on the Controllers and flushes all
cached user data to permanent storage.
Shutdown can also apply to the quieting of a Pilot node or a
Controller node, such as when Guided Maintenance
prepares the system for the replacement of a non-hot
39
serviceable FRU or CRU. [Guided Maintenance shuts down
the Pilot node or a Controller node, making the node safe to
remove the power cords.]
Compare warmstart.
See also restart.
Simple Network
Management
Protocol (SNMP)
A standard network protocol that is used to monitor
Controllers, Drive Enclosures, and the drives within the
Drive Enclosures. SNMP hosts can monitor the system by
querying the SNMP service by accessing the management
information base (MIB) that is provided.
See also community string.
See also Controller.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also field replaceable unit (FRU).
See also Management Information Base (MIB).
See also trap host.
Snap FS
A point‑in‑time, read‑only snapshot of a filesystem, which
can be used later to restore the filesystem. A Snap FS has no
QoS parameters. It consumes storage capacity from the
filesystem itself. A Snap FS can be scheduled to occur at any
time.
Creating filesystem snapshots is recommended. You can use
them to recover accidentally deleted files and for quick
filesystem recovery.
Compare Clone FS.
Snap LUN
See Clone LUN.
spare drive
An unused solid state drive (SSD) that can support the
rebuilding of a drive group by means of copy-away
operations. Drive Enclosures and drive groups do not
contain an SSD that is dedicated only to this purpose. If,
however, an unused SSD exists in a Drive Enclosure and if
an SSD in that Drive Enclosure fails or is removed, the
system uses that unused drive to rebuild the drive that
failed or was removed.
Furthermore, if no unused SSD exists, the system can use its
parity data to continue functioning with a lost SSD.
Compare dynamic spare.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also drive group.
statistics
Collections of data about various aspects of an Oracle FS
System. Statistics include, for example, the access rates and
40
the access patterns of data blocks, the performance of the
SAN protocol, and capacity usage.
The collections of statistics can be viewed by using
Oracle FS System Manager (GUI). Also, these statistics can
be downloaded from the system and analyzed by the Oracle
FS Statistics Tools utility.
See also Oracle FS Statistics Tools.
See also Oracle FS System Manager (GUI).
Storage Class
A categorization of SAS physical storage, each category
having distinct characteristics with regard to capacity and
to data access performance. The Oracle FS System supports
high-capacity hard disk drives (HDDs), high-performance
HDDs, high-capacity solid state drives (SSDs), and highperformance SSDs.
See also Drive Enclosure.
See also drive group.
See also priority level.
See also Storage Domain.
Storage Domain
A virtual storage pool that consists of an assortment of
drive groups. Each drive group contains drives of a
particular Storage Class and of a particular capacity. The
properties of the drive groups that comprise a Storage
Domain can differ from one another. A Storage Domain can
contain up to 1024 drive groups.
See also drive group.
See also Storage Class.
Storage Profile
A set of QoS attributes that can be used to configure a
logical volume. Oracle provides a collection of Storage
Profiles that are optimized for specific uses within an
application context. Administrators can select one of the
available profiles, create a new profile, or modify an
existing profile.
See also Quality of Service (QoS).
storage tier
A collection of blocks of contiguous storage, all of which
have the same RAID level. This collection is spread across
one or more drive groups within a given Storage Domain.
Storage tiers are used by administrators and by the
Oracle FS System to provision logical volumes. For
filesystems, the administrator creates the storage tiers. For
SAN LUNs using QoS Plus, the Oracle FS System
automatically creates the storage tiers.
See also data tier.
See also drive group.
41
See also metadata tier.
See also minimum allocation unit (MAU).
See also QoS Plus.
See also Storage Domain.
strip
A contiguous block of storage on a single drive. A strip is
the amount of data that can be written on a drive before the
system rotates to the next drive in the drive group.
Sometimes referred to as a chunk. The size of a strip
(referred to as its depth) is 64 KB for all RAID levels and for
all Storage Classes.
See also drive group.
See also minimum allocation unit (MAU).
See also Storage Class.
stripe
1
A set of extents belonging to a particular logical
volume. These extents occupy a contiguous range of
address space in the volume, which is spread across a
number of drive groups. The preferred number of
drive groups (sometimes called the striping factor)
depends on the QoS priority level that is assigned to
the logical volume.
See also drive group.
See also extent.
See also priority level.
See also strip.
See also stripe width.
2
For solid state drives (SSDs), a set of six strips. For
hard disk drives (HDDs), a set of 12 strips. These sets
of strips are used by the RAID 5 technology and by
the RAID 6 technology.
See also RAID 5.
See also RAID 6.
See also strip.
stripe width
The number of drive groups that compose a stripe. The
stripe width is independent of the level of redundancy.
Sometimes called the striping factor.
See also drive group.
See also redundancy.
See also stripe.
Support
An administrator role that has special privileges strictly for
the purposes of maintenance. A login account having this
role is typically used only when instructed to do so by
42
Oracle Customer Support. A login account having this role
cannot modify data resources, system alerts, or
administrator accounts.
Compare Administrator 1.
Compare Administrator 2.
Compare Monitor.
Compare Oracle Support.
Compare Primary Administrator.
system alert
A message generated by an Oracle FS System to notify an
administrator of a situation or condition that the
administrator needs to resolve. These messages are
accessible through the Oracle FS System user interfaces.
(Formerly called an administrator action or AA.)
system
configuration
database
The database that contains the system metadata and resides
in the Persistence volume. For example, this database
contains the records for administrator accounts, email
addresses, snapshot schedules, and all storage and
hardware resource names and mappings. This database is
located on the primary drive group of the Oracle FS System.
See also Persistence.
See also primary drive group.
See also system root configuration.
system root
configuration
The records in the system configuration database that
describe the basic hardware resources and software
resources that are necessary to restart an Oracle FS System.
See also Persistence.
See also system configuration database.
system status
One of the four possible states of the hardware in an
Oracle FS System:
Normal
The system is in an expected state of
operation; no user intervention is required.
Warning
An error condition cannot be corrected, but
data is still accessible. User intervention is
required.
Critical
Some system element has been compromised.
Data access has been lost to some degree. User
intervention is required.
Unknown Component is unavailable or offline.
The status of a system does not directly reflect the status of
the logical volumes that the system contains.
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T
task
A unit of work within an Oracle FS System. For example,
the system converts every configuration request into one or
more tasks. The system queues the tasks so that
dependencies are satisfied and then performs the tasks.
thin provisioning An approach to storage allocation in which a logical volume
appears to be much larger than the storage actually
allocated to it. Additional storage is dynamically allocated
when necessary. Administrators interact with thinly
provisioned volumes when configuring their capacity and
growth increments. These types of volumes are sometimes
referred to as sparse filesystems and sparse LUNs.
See also capacity.
See also filesystem.
See also growth increment.
See also infill.
See also LUN.
trap host
A management device that receives Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) based network packets that
contain device statistics or status.
See also Management Information Base (MIB).
See also Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
U
uninterruptible
power supply
(UPS)
A device that contains a collection of batteries that engages
instantaneously when the device senses a loss of power
from the primary source. An Oracle FS System receives
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) traps from
the UPS device and generates events.
See also Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
update
A coordinated change in the version of the software, the
firmware, or both in an Oracle FS System. The system
handles both disruptive and non‑disruptive updates and
verifies that the software and firmware versions across the
system are compatible before allowing the change to
proceed. The system also notifies the system administrator
if an update will be disruptive to the data paths.
See also disruptive software update.
See also non‑disruptive software update.
See also path.
44
V
VIF
See virtual interface (VIF).
virtual interface
(VIF)
A logical interface for regulating network I/O across
different processes that access the same physical interface. A
virtual interface (VIF) is a virtual network port that shares a
physical network port or a pair of physical network ports
(when link aggregation is in use) with other VIFs.
See also Controller.
See also File Server.
See also link aggregation.
virtual LUN
(VLUN)
A logical unit of storage where customer data is striped and
optionally mirrored across two or more drive groups.
VLUNs support filesystems, LUNs, clones, and snapshots
and are internally managed, block‑level structures. System
administrators manage VLUNs only indirectly when they
create or modify logical volumes.
See also drive group.
See also filesystem.
See also LUN.
See also stripe.
virtual server
Sometimes referred to as VServer. See File Server.
VLAN tag
Identifies the virtual local area network (VLAN) identifier
(ID) that can be assigned to the virtual interface (VIF) of a
File Server. VLAN IDs 1 through 4094 can optionally be
used to connect a VLAN‑capable switch to the Oracle FS
System.
See also File Server.
See also virtual interface (VIF).
volume
See logical volume.
Volume Copy
A block‑level, full‑image, read‑write copy of a logical
volume. A Volume Copy is created by a copy LUN
operation or by a copy filesystem operation through the use
of Oracle FS System Manager (GUI) or Oracle FS CLI. A
Volume Copy is created by an explicit one‑time operation, is
performed on a single Oracle FS System, and requires no
prior configuration.
Volume Copy operations produce copies of the data that,
once created, are no longer associated with the source
volume. Updates to the source volume are not mirrored in
the copy.
Compare Oracle MaxRep for NAS.
45
Compare Oracle MaxRep for SAN.
See also Filesystem Copy.
See also LUN Copy.
See also replica.
volume group
An administrative system object that is used to organize
logical volumes and, possibly, other volume groups.
Volume groups can span Storage Domains.
See also filesystem.
See also LUN.
See also Storage Domain.
W
warmstart
A soft reset (not a reload) of the operating system in a
Controller. During a warmstart, the operating system data
structures are reinitialized and all customer data is kept
intact. TCP connections for NAS users are reset. A
warmstart in a SAN appears as a target reset, which causes
all outstanding commands to be retried by the host.
Compare restart.
See also Controller.
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