Avid DS Nitris 7.0 User guide

Avid DS Nitris 7.0 User guide
Avid DS Nitris
®
™
Editing Guide
Version 7.0
m a k e m a n a g e m ove | m e d i a ™
Avid
®
Copyright and Disclaimer
Product specifications are subject to change without notice and do not represent a commitment on the part
of Avid Technology, Inc.
The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. You can obtain a copy of
that license by visiting Avid's Web site at www.avid.com. The terms of that license are also available in the
product in the same directory as the software. The software may not be reverse assembled and may be
used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the license agreement. It is against the law to copy the
software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license agreement.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission
of Avid Technology, Inc.
Copyright © 2003 Avid Technology, Inc. and its licensors. All rights reserved.
The Avid DS and Avid DS Nitris application uses JScript and Visual Basic Scripting Edition from Microsoft
Corporation.
Attn. Government User(s). Restricted Rights Legend
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. This Software and its documentation are “commercial
computer software” or “commercial computer software documentation.” In the event that such Software or
documentation is acquired by or on behalf of a unit or agency of the U.S. Government, all rights with
respect to this Software and documentation are subject to the terms of the License Agreement, pursuant to
FAR §12.212(a) and/or DFARS §227.7202-1(a), as applicable.
Trademarks
888 I/O, Adrenaline, AirPlay, AirSPACE, AirSPACE HD, AniMatte, AudioSuite, AudioVision, AutoSync,
Avid, Avid DNA, AVIDdrive, AVIDdrive Towers, AvidNet, AvidNetwork, AVIDstripe, Avid Mojo, Avid Unity,
Avid Xpress, AVoption, AVX, CamCutter, ChromaCurve, ChromaWheel, DAE, D-Fi, D-fx, Digidesign,
Digidesign Audio Engine, Digidesign Intelligent Noise Reduction, DigiDrive, Digital Nonlinear Accelerator,
DigiTranslator, DINR, D-Verb, Equinox, ExpertRender, FieldPak, Film Composer, FilmScribe, FluidMotion,
HIIP, HyperSPACE, HyperSPACE HDCAM, IllusionFX, Image Independence, Intraframe, iS9, iS18, iS23,
iS36, Lo-Fi, Magic Mask, make manage move | media, Marquee, Matador, Maxim, MCXpress, Media
Composer, MediaDock, MediaDock Shuttle, Media Fusion, Media Illusion, MediaLog, Media Reader,
Media Recorder, MEDIArray, MediaShare, Meridien, MetaSync, NaturalMatch, Nearchive, NetReview,
NewsCutter, Nitris, OMF, OMF Interchange, OMM, Open Media Framework, Open Media Management,
ProEncode, Pro Tools, QuietDrive, Recti-Fi, RetroLoop, rS9, rS18, Sci-Fi, Softimage, Sound Designer II,
SPACE, SPACEShift, Symphony, the Avid|DS logo, Trilligent, UnityRAID, Vari-Fi, Video Slave Driver,
VideoSPACE, Xdeck, and XSI are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Avid Technology, Inc. in
the United States and/or other countries.
Adobe, Acrobat, and Acrobat Reader are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows, and Windows XP are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. All other trademarks contained herein are the property of
their respective owners.
GOT FOOTAGE?
Editors — Filmmakers — Special Effects Artists — Game Developers — Animators — Educators —
Broadcasters — Content creators of every genre — Just finished an incredible project and want to
share it with the world?
Send us your reels and we may use your footage in our show reel or demo!*
For a copy of our release and Avid’s mailing address, go to www.avid.com/footage.
*Note: Avid cannot guarantee the use of materials submitted.
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide • 0130-05575-01 • September 2003
2
Contents
Using This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Who Should Use This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Symbols and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Using the Mouse, Pen, and Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Customizing the Pen or Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
If You Need Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Accessing the Online Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
If You Have Documentation Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
How to Order Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Avid Educational Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Avid DS Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
E-mail Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Web Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
FTP Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Mailing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chapter 1
Working with Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Starting a Work Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Opening an Existing Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Setting User Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Managing Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Working with Avid Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Organizing Your Project Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Working with Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Changing the Bin View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Changing the Frame in Thumbnail and Script View. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Identifying File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Displaying File Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Customizing the Details and Script Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3
Saving or Deleting a Bin View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Sorting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Sifting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Viewing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Viewing the Avid Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Sorting Columns and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Chapter 2
Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Workflow: Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Opening Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Creating a New Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Opening an Existing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another Project . . . . . 63
Setting Sequence Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Working with Different Qualities of Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Understanding Video Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Understanding Video Quality Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Understanding Audio Quality Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Understanding the Processing Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Understanding the Working Conversion Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Saving Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Creating a Copy of a Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Searching for Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Deleting Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Chapter 3
Building a Rough Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Creating Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Preparing Source Clips for Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Editing Source Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Placing Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Working on the Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Using the Mark Buttons to Set In and Out-points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Using Timecode to Set In and Out-points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4
Displaying Timecodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Displaying the Source Timecodes of a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Displaying the Sequence Timecodes of a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Moving or Trimming Objects Using the Timecode Boxes . . . . . . . 126
Adjusting the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Panning and Zooming the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Changing the Ruler Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Viewing a Sequence as a Hieracharical Tree Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Playing Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Varying the Playback Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Moving to Points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Moving to Edit Points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Looping Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Viewing Unprocessed Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Using the Position Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Switching Viewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Setting True Video Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Zooming or Panning the Viewers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Displaying Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Manipulating Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Selecting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Moving Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Renaming and Adding Comments to Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Cutting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Copying Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Deleting Clips from the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Lifting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Extracting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Revealing Unused Material on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Changing the Activeness of Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Using Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Displaying Locator Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Setting Reference Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Placing Locators on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Moving Locators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5
Deleting Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Moving to Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Annotating Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Changing the Color of Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Matching a Frame in a Master Clip or Subclip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Performing a Reverse Match Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Finding the Bin for a Clip or Subclip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Extracting Parts of a Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Converting a Timeline Region or Object. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Creating Multiple Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Replacing Timeline Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Grabbing Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Creating a Master Clip from a Snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Creating an Image File from a Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Rippling Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Inserting Clips in Ripple Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Editing Clips in Ripple Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Synchronizing Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Aligning Clips for Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Creating a Sync Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Manipulating Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Editing Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Resyncing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Deleting Synchronized Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Referencing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Creating Reference Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Converting a Container Clip to a Reference Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Processing Reference Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Chapter 4
Trimming Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Workflow: Trimming Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Understanding Trimming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Methods of Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Understanding Trim Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6
Entering and Exiting Trim Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Trimming Clips in Trim Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Reviewing a Trim Edit or Transition in Trim Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Selecting Trim Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Breaking and Relinking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Performing a Basic Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Trimming the Edit Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Trimming with the Trim Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Trimming Audio Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Backtiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Snapping Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Trimming On-the-Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Creating Overlap Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Trimming Container Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Trimming Transition Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Slipping Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Sliding Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Entering Slip/Slide Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Performing a Slip or Slide Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Reviewing a Slip or Slide Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Maintaining Sync While Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Creating a Gap When Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Chapter 5
Working with Effects and Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Displaying Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Applying Effects on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Applying Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Cutting to a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Creating One-Sided Transitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Creating Transitions Between Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Editing Transition Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Aligning Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7
Removing Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Using the Comparison Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Nesting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Creating Nested Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Navigating within Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Deleting Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Displaying Effects in a Viewer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Opening a Floating Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Changing the Image Displayed in a Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Viewing Image Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Processing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Chapter 6
Processing Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Understanding Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
When is Processing Needed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Workflow: Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Processing Areas of the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Processing a Single Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Processing a Region of a Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Previewing Effects without Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Setting the Processing Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Processing Media at Different Qualities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Creating Caches at Any Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Understanding Processing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Minimal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Complete Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Example: Minimal versus Complete Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Working with Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Playing Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Outputting Real-time Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Remote Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Monitoring Remote Processing Jobs with the Avid DMS Broker . . 286
8
Chapter 7
Applying Image Transition Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Understanding Image Transition Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Understanding the Morph Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Applying a Morph Transition Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Creating Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Joining Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Creating Barrier Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Warping the Morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Animating Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Tracking Morphed Shapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Setting the Rendering Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Applying Wipe Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Chapter 8
Working with Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Understanding the Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Applying a Deinterlace Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Applying an Interlace Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Understanding the Timewarp Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Applying an Audio Timewarp Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Applying a Video Timewarp Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Chapter 9
Animating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Workflow: Animating Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Creating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Setting Keyframes Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Setting Keyframes Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Understanding the Animation Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Using the Animation Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Working with the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
9
Editing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Editing Keyframes Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Editing Animation on the Animation Graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Offsetting Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Copying Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Repeating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Trimming Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Removing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Processing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Chapter 10
Mixing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Workflow: Mixing Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Working in Audio Container Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Audio Clips and Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Understanding the Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Changing the Mixer Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Using the Input Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Using the Output Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Using an External Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Mapping External Controls to Avid DS Nitris Commands. . . . . . . . 399
Creating a Command Mapping Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Loading a Command Mapping Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Building an Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Creating Audio Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Using the Surround Panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Mixing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Fine-tuning the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Adjusting the Mixer Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Adjusting the Mixer Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Animating the Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Animating the Input Strip Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Bypassing the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Editing the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Deleting Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
10
Converting the Sample Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Converting Sequence Sample Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Converting Clip Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Processing the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Processing Clip-based Audio Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Chapter 11
Working with Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Understanding Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Applying Crossfade Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Applying Dynamics Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Applying the 3 Band Tone Control Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Applying the 4 Band Parametric EQ Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Applying the 10 Band Graphic EQ Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Applying Fade Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Applying a Gain Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Applying Reverb Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Applying a VST Host Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Chapter 12
Media Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Understanding Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Managing Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Using the Media Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Defragmenting Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Verifying Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Copying Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Moving Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Deleting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Purging Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Example: Purging versus Deleting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Archiving Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Creating a Single Archive for a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Creating Multiple Archives of the Same Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
11
Restoring Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Restoring a Complete Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Restoring Parts of a Project Archive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Moving Projects to Another Workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Deleting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Deleting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Viewing Information about Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
12
Using This Guide
Congratulations on your purchase of an Avid DS Nitris system. You can
use your system to create broadcast-quality output incorporating every
possible production element from full-speed, high-resolution footage, to
multimedia artwork and animation, to computer-generated effects and
titling.
n
The documentation describes the features and hardware of all models.
Therefore, your system might not contain certain features and hardware
that are covered in the documentation.
Who Should Use This Guide
This guide is intended for all Avid DS Nitris users, from beginning to
advanced who are interested in learning essential skills for assembling
programs of any length in the Avid nonlinear environment and finishing
high-end uncompressed, quality television programs and commercials.
This guide and the Help will be your primary learning tools for editing
procedures as you progress through early projects, and will remain your
principal source for procedures in the future.
This guide provides information on:
•
Setting project configurations
•
Setting sequence preferences
•
Using the editing tools
•
Managing your media files
Using This Guide
Symbols and Conventions
Unless noted otherwise, the material in this document applies to the
Windows XP operating system. Avid DS Nitris documentation uses the
following symbols and conventions:
Symbol or
Convention
Meaning or Action
n
A note provides important related information, reminders,
recommendations, and strong suggestions.
c
A caution means that a specific action you take could cause
harm to your computer or cause you to lose data.
w
A warning describes an action that could cause you physical
harm. Follow the guidelines in this document or on the unit
itself when handling electrical equipment.
>
This symbol indicates menu commands (and subcommands)
in the order you select them. For example, File > Import
means to open the File menu and then select the Import
command.
t
This symbol indicates a single-step procedure. Multiple
arrows in a list indicate that you perform one of the actions
listed.
Margin tips
In the margin, you will find tips that help you perform tasks
more easily and efficiently.
Italic font
Italic font is used to emphasize certain words and to indicate
variables.
Courier Bold Courier Bold font identifies text that you type.
font
Bold font
14
Bold indicates a user interaction.
Symbols and Conventions
Using the Mouse, Pen, and Keyboard
In Avid DS Nitris, you can use a two-button mouse (with wheel) or a pen
and tablet. The left and right mouse buttons perform different operations.
Unless otherwise stated, use the left mouse button.
The mouse and pen operate slightly differently. All the procedures in this
guide are documented for the mouse. You can, however, easily use a pen
or the keyboard. The following table shows the terms relating to the
mouse, pen, and keyboard.
This Term
Means This with a Mouse Means This with a Pen
Click
Quickly click and release the
left mouse button. Always
use the left mouse button
unless otherwise stated.
Double-click Click the left mouse button
twice rapidly.
Tap the tablet once with the tip of
the pen, or touch the pen to the
tablet with enough pressure to
click.
Quickly tap the tablet twice in the
same screen pixel or press the F5
key to go from single to doubleclick.
Right-click
Quickly click and release the Press the top portion of the switch
right mouse button.
on the side of the pen or press the
F6 key to go from left to rightclick.
Drag
Click and hold the left mouse Press the pen to the tablet while
button or the wheel while you moving the pen.
move the mouse.
Alt+key,
Ctrl+key,
Shift+key,
etc.
Press and hold the first key while you press the second key. For
example, “Press Alt+F1” means to press and hold the Alt key
while you press the F1 key.
15
Using This Guide
Customizing the Pen or Mouse
By customizing the pen, you can adjust the click pressure, switch
functions, and other features. For information on customizing the pen,
refer to the documentation provided with your Avid DS Nitris system.
You can also customize the mouse. For example, you can select
left-handed configuration or change the double-click speed. For
information on customizing the mouse, refer to the Windows online Help.
If You Need Help
If you are having trouble using Avid DS Nitris:
1. Retry the action, carefully following the instructions given for that task
in this guide. It is especially important to check each step of your
workflow.
2. Check for the latest information that might have become available
after the documentation was published in one of two locations:
-
If release notes are available, they ship with your application.
-
If ReadMe files are available, they are supplied in your Avid
application folder. ReadMe files are also available from Help.
3. Check the documentation that came with your Avid application or
your hardware for maintenance or hardware-related issues.
4. See “Avid DS Customer Support” on page 18.
5. For Technical Support, please call 800-800-AVID (800-800-2843).
For international enquiries and support services, contact your Avid
Reseller. Support offerings may vary per location.
Accessing the Online Documentation
The online library contains all the Avid DS Nitris documentation in PDF
format. If it was installed on your workstation, you can access it from the
Help menu in Avid DS Nitris.
n
16
You will need Adobe® Acrobat® Reader® installed to view the
documentation online.
If You Need Help
To access the online library, do one of the following:
t
In Avid DS Nitris, select Help > Online Library.
t
Insert the Drivers CD-ROM into your CD-ROM drive, and select
Online Library from the main menu.
To install Adobe Acrobat Reader:
1. Insert the Drivers CD-ROM into your CD-ROM drive.
2. Select the appropriate workstation and select Utilities.
If You Have Documentation Comments
We’d appreciate any comments or suggestions you may have about the
Avid DS Nitris documentation.
Please e-mail your documentation comments to:
[email protected]
Include the title of the document, its part number, and the specific section
you are commenting on in all correspondence.
How to Order Documentation
To order additional copies of this documentation from within the
United States, call Avid Sales at 800-949-AVID (800-949-2843). If you
are placing an order from outside the United States, contact your local
Avid representative.
Avid Educational Services
For information on courses/schedules, training centers, certifications,
courseware, and books, please visit www.avid.com/training or call
Avid Sales at 800-949-AVID (800-949-2843).
17
Using This Guide
Avid DS Customer Support
The following sections describe various Avid DS Customer Support
options.
E-mail Support
The e-mail address for Avid DS Customer Support is:
[email protected]
You can use it for sending bug reports, usability questions, and avidds.cab
audit reports for system analysis. All e-mails are logged in the support
database and assigned a case number. Send one support request per e-mail.
n
It is mandatory that you include your SID number in the body of your
e-mail message for verification of your maintenance contract and case
logging, otherwise, response will be delayed.
Web Support
The Avid DS Customer Support and Download sections at
http://www.softimage.com/avidds provide quick access to a wide range of
resources from the Avid DS teams and user community. Downloads,
including presets, drivers, and Quick Fix Engineering (QFE), provide the
latest solutions for use with your Avid DS Nitris system. Online
documentation, tutorials, and Knowledge Base articles ensure that you get
the most out of your work with Avid DS Nitris. It's like having a dedicated
Avid DS Customer Support engineer sitting at your desk!
FTP Support
For troubleshooting purposes, an FTP server is available for uploading
large files for Avid DS Customer Support personnel to examine. You can
upload a project's archive, media files, or other large piece of data. Simply
zip the files to upload and use a short name for easy retrieval, such as
archive.zip or Case274877.zip. You can use a Windows Command Prompt
or an FTP application to upload files to our server.
18
Avid DS Customer Support
Command Prompt Commands
Command
Description
Site access
ftp ftp.softimage.com [Enter]
Folder access
cd incoming [Enter]
User name
anonymous [Enter]
Password
“your e-mail address” [Enter]
Transfer mode
bin [Enter]
Upload command
Put “path:\file name” [Enter]
Once the file upload is complete, send an e-mail to [email protected]
to inform Avid DS Customer Support as there is no automatic notification
when a file is uploaded on the FTP server. Please provide the complete and
exact file name (case sensitive) to retrieve.
Mailing List
Although the Avid DS mailing list is frequently monitored by Avid
employees, it is not part of the official support channels. You are invited to
send your support requests to any of the above channels when required.
If you have an e-mail account, you can join the worldwide network of
Avid DS users exchanging ideas. The mailing list has proven to be quite
useful for users, with a constant stream of new subscribers.
To subscribe, send an e-mail to [email protected] with the
following text in the body of your message: subscribe ds. You can get
further information on using the automated list server by e-mailing
[email protected] with “help” as your message.
You can also go to http://www.avid.com/support/forums.html, which is a
great source of information available on the Avid web site for Avid DS.
19
Using This Guide
20
Chapter 1
Working with Projects
This chapter describes how your project files and media are handled in
Avid DS Nitris. Since project organization plays a key part in the editing
process, you will learn how to create projects, and use the Avid Explorer to
organize your media into folders.
The following sections describe how to work with projects and media:
•
Starting a Work Session
•
Managing Files and Folders
•
Working with Bins
•
Viewing Events
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Starting a Work Session
When you start Avid DS Nitris, the Open Project dialog box is displayed,
so that you can view and manage all projects anywhere on the network.
Each project has its own associated sequences. When you open a sequence,
you have access to all the master clips and custom presets in the project.
Projects contain
master clips,
sequences, and
any special presets
and/or scripts you
create.
Sequence files
contain information
about your edit
decisions, composites,
and any effects you’ve
applied to your clips.
Master clips are
representations of the
digitized media stored
on your disk array.
Master clips can be
shared between
sequences within the
same project.
By default, all projects created with Avid DS Nitris are stored in their own
folder under the DS Projects folder. It’s important that you keep all the files
related to a project inside the project folder, so that they can be archived,
restored, and/or purged.
n
22
If you’re running more than one version of Avid DS Nitris on your
workstation, new projects will be classified by version, and will be stored
in a subfolder of the \DS Projects folder. You can use the Scan Disk option
to change the project path folder, so that only the projects in a particular
version folder are displayed.
Starting a Work Session
To start Avid DS Nitris, do one of the following:
n
t
Double-click the Avid DS Nitris icon on the Windows desktop.
t
Click Start > Programs > Avid Products > Avid DS Nitris v7.0 >
Avid DS Nitris v7.0.
Tip: If you selected the Load Last Sequence at Startup option in the User
Preferences dialog box and want to bypass this option, press Shift and
double-click the Avid DS Nitris shortcut on the desktop. This starts the
application and displays the Open Project dialog box from which you can
select a different project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
You can now create or open an existing project or sequence.
Creating a New Project
When you first start Avid DS Nitris or when you want to start a new
project, you are prompted to name your project, designate a location for it,
and set the project’s preferences. Once you’ve done this, a project folder is
created at the specified location. By default, all sequences associated with
this project are saved in this folder.
23
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To open a new project:
1. Do one of the following:
t
From the Open Project dialog box, click the New Project button.
t
Select File > New > Project.
Browse button
2. In the New Project dialog box, enter a unique name for your project in
the Project Name text box.
3. In the Location text box, type the path where you would like the
project files to reside. You can also use the browse (...) button to locate
the folder in which you want to save your project.
24
Starting a Work Session
4. Set the appropriate preferences for your project.
Project preferences define the way your material is captured,
processed, and output by Avid DS Nitris. Once you set the project
preferences, they become the default settings for the sequences that
you create in this project.
For detailed information on setting these preferences, click the Help
button.
5. Click OK to save the project preferences.
The Editing layout is displayed for you to start building your sequence,
and the Avid Explorer displays your project as the favorite.
Opening an Existing Project
Once you’ve created a project, it is available to all other users in your
workgroup. Opening any sequence in the project gives you access to all
master clips and presets used in that project.
To open an existing project on your workstation:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Select a Project list, select a project name.
3. From the Select a Sequence list, do one of the following:
t
Click New DS Sequence and then click New Sequence.
t
Double-click an existing sequence name.
t
Select a sequence and click Open.
If you created a new sequence, the New Sequence dialog box is
displayed for you to set the sequence preferences—see “Setting
Sequence Preferences” on page 65.
A new or existing sequence is opened.
To open an existing project on another workstation:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
25
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
2. From the Project List box, click Scan Disk.
The Scan Subdirectories for Projects dialog box is displayed.
3. Locate the \DS Projects folder on the network that contains the project
you want to open and click Select.
Avid DS Nitris searches through the selected folder and creates a
project list. You can now open any one of these projects and/or
sequences.
Setting User Preferences
You can work more efficiently by setting some personal preferences, such
as automatic saves, number of undo levels, animation preferences, and the
number of type of tracks to display when you open a new sequence. You
can also set editing preferences, such as pre-roll and post-roll frames.
After setting the preferences, they become part of your user profile under
your user name. The next time you start Avid DS Nitris, these preferences
are used.
c
26
Do not customize the fonts, windows scheme, or taskbar properties on
the Windows desktop or Avid DS Nitris may not function properly.
Starting a Work Session
To open the User Preferences dialog box:
t
Select File > User Preferences.
For information about the User Preferences options, click the Help button.
Choosing a Scripting Language
Avid DS Nitris supports several popular scripting languages. To use a
scripting language with Avid DS Nitris, you must first install the scripting
engine for that language.
Although Avid DS Nitris logs commands in its History pane using
VBScript syntax, you can write and run scripts using any language that is
ActiveX-compliant. ActiveX is a technology for sharing data between
programs. Some ActiveX-compliant scripting languages include:
•
ActivePerl
•
JScript
•
Python ActiveX Scripting
•
VBScript (default)
27
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To set a preferred scripting language:
1. From the User Preferences dialog box, select the Scripting/Logging
tab.
2. From the Scripting Language list, select your preferred scripting
language.
n
No matter what language you’ve specified in your preferences,
Avid DS Nitris logs commands using the VBScript syntax.
The Scripting Language list contains the ActiveX scripting languages
whose engines are installed on your workstation. If you just installed an
engine and it’s not listed, restart Avid DS Nitris. If it still isn’t listed,
restart your computer.
Setting Up the Command Log
Avid DS Nitris not only creates a command log in the History pane of the
Script Editor, but can also create a separate log file that is saved to disk for
each Avid DS Nitris session.
You have the option of setting a limit to the number of commands logged
in the History pane. You can also save a log file to disk, containing all
commands used in each Avid DS Nitris session.
To set the command log size:
1. From the User Preferences dialog box, select the Scripting/Logging
property page.
2. The number of commands kept in the History pane of the Script Editor
by default is 200. To modify this number, click in the Lines text box
and type a new number. To set no limit to the number, select the
Unlimited option.
To activate the log file:
1. On the Scripting/Logging property page, select the Log Commands to
File option to create a command log file.
A log file will be created the next time you start Avid DS Nitris.
28
Managing Files and Folders
2. To specify a location for the log file, type a path in the File Name
text box.
n
Avid DS Nitris overwrites the existing command log file each time you start
a new session. If you want to keep the log file, make sure you rename it
before starting Avid DS Nitris.
You can only use the logging and scripting tools to capture media.
Managing Files and Folders
After you start a project, you can organize your project files to suit your
project’s needs. When you work with files, folders, and the windows that
contain them, you are working in the Avid Explorer view.
Working with Avid Explorer
The Avid Explorer is a view that opens by default when you start a project.
By using the Avid Explorer, you can
•
Navigate and view the entire contents of your workstation
•
Organize a project’s clips, sequences, and effects in a tree structure of
folders.
•
Capture from file and import clips from other projects
Any files or applications that you can open on your Windows desktop you
can also open in the Avid Explorer. For example, imagine that you are
working on a commercial and the producer sends you a Microsoft® Word
document that lists the latest changes. You can open the document within
the Avid Explorer and refer to it while you are editing, without needing to
switch back and forth between application windows. You can also open
files associated with your Web browser through the Avid DS Nitris Web
viewer.
When you select a folder, the folder’s contents are displayed in a bin.
29
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To access the Avid Explorer:
t
From the view switcher, click the Avid Explorer (Main) button.
Avid Explorer tools
Panel 1
Panel 2
Bins
n
30
You can include the Avid Explorer as a single-instance view or a multiinstance view in any views that you create.
Managing Files and Folders
Using the Avid Explorer Views
The left side of the Avid Explorer includes two panels. Each panel can
contain one of three views: My System, Shortcuts, or Project.
The My System view shows the
contents of your workstation in a
hierarchical tree structure.
The Shortcuts view shows
shortcuts to files, folders, or
applications.
The Project view shows the
folders for the current project.
To show or hide a panel:
t
Click the Show/Hide Panel button.
Show/Hide Panel buttons
The Show/Hide Panel button is highlighted for the panel that is
displayed.
31
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To choose a view to display in a panel:
t
Click the pop-up menu next to a Show/Hide Panel button and select
My System, Shortcuts, or Project.
A check mark indicates which view is displayed.
Using the Shortcuts View
The Shortcuts view lets you create and access shortcuts that suit your work
requirements. For example, you can create a shortcut to a folder with your
favorite presets or to a graphics application. Any shortcuts you can create
in Windows can be created in the Shortcuts view.
The Shortcuts view is divided into two tabs: System and Project.
•
Shortcuts that you create on the System tab are available in all
projects.
•
Shortcuts that you create on the Project tab are available only when
the project in which you created them is open.
System tab
Project tab
To switch between tabs:
t
Click the System tab or the Project tab.
To create a shortcut, do one of the following, depending on what is
displayed in a bin:
32
t
Drag a folder or file from a bin to either tab in the Shortcuts view.
t
Drag the folder icon from a bin’s address bar to either tab in the
Shortcuts view.
Managing Files and Folders
t
In either tab of the Shortcuts view, right-click an empty area and select
New Shortcut. The Windows Shortcut Wizard is displayed. Follow
the instructions to create a shortcut in the Shortcuts view.
To delete a shortcut, do one of the following:
t
Right-click the shortcut and select Delete.
t
Select a shortcut and press Delete on the keyboard.
To access the Shortcuts context menus:
n
t
Right-click the background. Use this context menu to change the way
shortcuts are displayed (large icons, list, thumbnail) and how they are
sorted and arranged.
t
Right-click a shortcut. Use this context menu to cut, copy, paste,
delete, and other system functions.
The Create Shortcut command, which is displayed when you right-click an
object, does not create a shortcut in the My System view or Project view.
Organizing Your Project Folder
Before you start capturing material and editing sequences, create
subfolders in your project folder to hold master clips, sequences, and
custom presets. You’ll find that creating subfolders helps organize your
project, so that you can locate files quickly and easily.
Also, when Avid DS Nitris archives a project, it gathers and archives all
the files in the project folder. Therefore, it is important that you keep all the
project files within the project folder.
When you create a new project in Avid DS Nitris, a project folder is
automatically created and displayed in the Avid Explorer. It also creates
subfolders for DSPresets and scripts. This default structure can be
customized, so that all projects you create are already organized. For more
information, see “Creating a Standard Folder Structure” on page 36.
33
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
There are ways to set up your folders that make tasks, such as recapturing,
much easier. Here is an example of a simple but effective folder setup:
Project view
Show/Hide Panel
Bin
Project folder
Subfolders
n
When capturing clips, you can select the AutoSource option. This
automatically creates a folder for your master clips with the same name as
the tape from which you are capturing material.
Creating or Deleting Folders
To create a folder:
1. In the Project view, select your project folder.
The contents of the folder are displayed on the right in a bin.
2. Right-click an empty area of the bin and select New > Folder.
The new folder is displayed in the bin with the name New Folder
highlighted.
3. Type in a new name and press Enter.
4. Continue adding as many folders as you need. You can create
subfolders under your new folders. Simply click the new folder in the
Project view and then right-click the bin to add a new folder.
34
Managing Files and Folders
To delete a folder:
t
In the Project view or bin, right-click a folder and select Delete from
the Windows section of the menu.
Moving Files between Folders
You can rearrange the files in your project folders by dragging them to a
new folder.
To move a file to another folder:
t
Drag a file from a bin to a folder in the Project view or to another bin.
The No Entry icon changes to a Move icon when you place the pointer
over a folder in the Project view.
n
You cannot move clips or sequences between projects, but you can import
sequences and master clips into another project. For more information, see
“Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another Project” on
page 63.
To make a copy of a file:
t
Select the clip or sequence that you want to copy, press Ctrl and drag
the clip to an empty area in the current folder, or to another folder in
the tree.
Renaming Project Files
You can rename a master clip, sequence, or folder in your project.
n
You cannot change the name of a clip or sequence if it is open or when
previewing it in the Source viewer.
35
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To rename a clip, sequence, or folder:
1. In a bin, click the name of a clip, sequence, or folder.
2. Type in a new name and press Enter.
n
When you rename a clip, sequence, or other Avid DS Nitris file, make sure
to keep the file extension (.Clip, .Segment, and so on). Avid DS Nitris
cannot manage the file properly without the extension.
A file name can contain up to 255 characters and include spaces. It cannot
contain any of the following characters: \ / : * ? " < > |
Creating a Standard Folder Structure
If you want Avid DS Nitris to create a standard folder structure for new
projects, you can create an .ini file that will specify the folders that will
appear in the Avid Explorer when a new project is created. The .ini file
must be called folder.ini and must be stored in the \Preferences\username
folder. You can have different .ini files for each Avid DS Nitris user.
To create a standard folder structure for new projects:
1. Open a text file using a text editor.
2. On the first line of the file, type the following in uppercase letters:
[FOLDERS].
3. Type in the names of the folders you want to appear in the
Avid Explorer. For example:
n
36
-
Graphics
-
Master Clips
-
Sequences
-
Trash
The order of the folders is not important, as they will be sorted in
alphabetical order or according to the sorting method used in the Avid
Explorer.
Managing Files and Folders
4. Save the file as folder.ini and save it in the following location:
C:\Program Files\Avid\DS_v7.0\Preferences\username
Any new projects that are created will contain the folders specified in
the .ini file.
n
The DSPresets, Scripts, and Views folders are created by default.
Avid DS Nitris Group Folders
As part of a project’s workflow, you might need to work with groups of
sequential files, such as a series of scanned image files or files from a
graphics program. Typically these files share a file name that increments
by a single digit, such as beach001.jpg, beach002.jpg, and so on. The
Avid Explorer automatically combines these files into a special kind of
folder, called an Avid DS Nitris Group folder, or virtual folder. You can
then capture and manage the sequential files more easily.
37
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
The following illustration shows a list of Avid DS Nitris Group folders.
The folder is identified with the following syntax:
filename[first..last:#files].extension
For example, a folder that contains 88 files, named CatchFish1.pic through
CatchFish88.pic, is labeled:
CatchFish[1..88:88].pic
To view the individual files:
t
Double-click the Avid DS Nitris Group folder.
If a group does not include a complete series of numbers, a yellow circle
and exclamation point is displayed over the icon. The folder name displays
the total number of files, indicating that one or more files are missing. For
example, if CatchFish30.pic is missing, the folder is labeled:
CatchFish[1..88:87].pic
n
n
38
Sequential Avid DS Nitris files (*.Clip, *.Segment, *.Preset) are not
grouped in a folder.
When a folder contains a file that does not conform to the pattern of the
group, Avid DS Nitris isolates the file and the part of the group that is
affected. To combine the files into a single folder again, remove or rename
the non-conforming file.
Working with Bins
Grouping Files as Frames or Fields
By default, Avid DS Nitris groups files as a series of frames. If, however,
the file names of a group include field numbers (Frame01.1.jpg,
Frame01.2.jpg, Frame02.1.jpg, and so on), you should deselect the default
option. The folder name then includes the total number of files followed by
the letter F (field). For example,
Frame[01..06:12;F].jpg
To group files as frames or fields:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. Select the Avid Explorer property page.
3. Select or deselect the Group files as frame option.
Working with Bins
A bin is a window that displays the contents of a folder or other object.
Bins appear within the Avid Explorer view. You can minimize, maximize,
resize, and close bins using standard Windows control methods. You can
also cascade and tile bins.
The following illustration shows three bins within the Avid Explorer view.
Each bin displays its contents in a different view.
39
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Thumbnail view
Details view
Storyboard view
To open a bin:
t
Select a folder or other object in the tree.
If a folder in the tree is already selected, double-click it.
To open additional bins, do one of the following:
t
Press Shift and click a folder or other object in the tree.
If a folder in the tree is already selected, press Shift and double-click it.
t
40
Press Shift and double-click a folder in a bin.
Working with Bins
n
You can open one or more Avid Explorer windows that are not docked in
the Avid Explorer view. From the View menu, select Multi-Instance Views
> Avid Explorer. These windows include only bin tools. You can include
this Avid Explorer window as a multi-instance view in any views that you
create.
Changing the Bin View
You can display a bin in one of five different views:
•
Large icons: Displays files with large icons
•
List: Displays files with small icons in list format
•
Details: Displays files as a list with details, using columns. You can
choose and save which columns to display—see “Customizing the
Details and Script Views” on page 44.
•
Thumbnail: Displays the files as pictorial icons. This view is
especially useful for media files. You can rearrange the thumbnails in
any order within the bin by clicking and dragging.
•
Script: Displays the files as pictorial icons with an area for comments.
Clip information is displayed above the text box.
To change the bin view:
t
Click a button at the bottom of the bin.
Large Icons
List
Details
Script
Thumbnail
41
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Changing the Frame in Thumbnail and Script View
By default the first frame of a clip is displayed in Thumbnail or Script
view. Avid DS Nitris lets you select a different frame to display.
To change the frame displayed in the Thumbnail or Script view:
1. Open the clip in the Source viewer.
2. Go to the frame you want to display.
3. Click the Update Thumbnail button, located below the Source
viewer.
Identifying File Types
Each file in a bin is identified by an icon. Because a bin displays the same
files as your workstation, you see the same icons that appear in your
Windows Explorer.
n
Files that are specific to Avid DS Nitris display a generic icon when viewed
in the Windows Explorer.
Avid DS Nitris media files have their own icons, which appear on or beside
clips in a bin. When an icon is highlighted in red, it means that
Avid DS Nitris could not find any media associated with a clip. This clip
must be recaptured before you can work with it.
Icon File Type
42
Icon File Type
Audio clip
Background or composite
container clip
Video clip
Sequence
Combined audio and video clip
Still image
Audio container clip
Linked still image
Working with Bins
Displaying File Properties
Each master clip or sequence contains information about its location on the
disk array, the name of the project to which it belongs, the start, end, and
duration of the clip, as well as your own comments.
In addition, master clips contain information on the clip type, quality,
resolution, dominance, color space, bit depth, coverage, and location. For a
description of these properties, click the Help button.
To view master clip properties:
1. In a bin, right-click a master clip, and in the Avid DS Nitris section
select Properties.
The Properties dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Media tab to view information about the media associated
with the master clip.
The Media property page displays information about the selected clip.
Audio and video media files are listed separately.
43
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
n
The Media property page displays the types of media associated with the
clip you selected in the Avid Explorer. Purged media is indicated by a red
dot on the icon. It is possible to have one type of media indicated as purged
and another not.
3. Select the General tab to view the file properties.
The location of this file, its in and out times, and duration are
displayed. You cannot edit these properties, but you can add notes for
the file in the Comments text box.
4. Select the File Info tab to view information about how the original file
was captured.
The original file location, resolution, capture settings, and file status
are displayed. This information is read-only and cannot be modified,
except to re-establish a link for a linked file that has been moved from
its original location.
5. Select the Track Patching tab to view information about the audio
format (such as mono or stereo) and the audio input assignment for
master clips that were captured from tape.
You can use this property page to reassign hardware inputs to different
audio channels if necessary when recapturing audio media.
To view sequence properties:
t
In a bin, right-click a sequence, and in the Avid DS Nitris section
select Properties.
The Properties dialog box is displayed. These properties are read-only.
Customizing the Details and Script Views
Avid DS Nitris lets you customize the columns of information in Details
and Scripts views by displaying and hiding file parameters.You can choose
from Avid DS Nitris parameters, parameters from the Windows operating
system, or parameters that have been added to your Windows system from
other applications. You can also rearrange the order of columns, adjust the
size of columns, and save the arrangement.
44
Working with Bins
To create a more compact display, Avid DS Nitris parameters do not
include the product name in the column heading. Column headings for
these parameters use a darker shading.
To hide or display bin columns:
1. Do one of the following:
t
In the bin tools, click the Settings button.
t
Click the Fast Menu button and select Settings > Add/Remove
Columns.
A dialog box is displayed, either within the bin or separately. The
currently displayed column headings are marked by colored bands.
For a description of the bin columns, click the Help button.
2. Do one or more of the following:
t
Select the columns that you want to display.
Selected columns are highlighted by a colored band.
t
Deselect highlighted columns that you do not want to display.
t
Click the All/None button to select all columns.
t
Click the All/None button again to deselect all columns
45
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
3. Click the Apply button to apply your changes.
4. Click the Close button to close the dialog box.
To rearrange columns:
1. Click the heading of the column that you want to move.
The entire column is selected.
2. Drag the column to the desired position.
The column is displayed in the new position.
To change the width of a column:
t
n
Drag the border of a column heading.
If you’re using a deck that can be addressed in a format different from its
recording speed, four bin columns provide you with a quick way to find
your clips on the source tape:
•
Avid DS Nitris Physical In
•
Avid DS Nitris Physical Out
•
Avid DS Nitris Physical Start
•
Avid DS Nitris Physical Stop
These columns show timecodes in the same format as the deck faceplate.
Saving or Deleting a Bin View
If you change the bin view by adding columns, changing the order of
columns, or other customization, an asterisk is displayed at the end of the
bin view name. Avid DS Nitris lets you save and display this customized
bin view.
You can also display a preset bin view, such as Editing, Audio
Management, Video Management, or Presets.
46
Working with Bins
To save a bin view:
1. Click the Save Current Column Setting button.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
2. Accept the current name or type a new one, and click OK.
The Bin View list includes the new bin view.
To display a bin view:
t
From the Bin View list, select the view you want to display.
To delete a bin view:
1. From the Bin View list, select the view you want to delete.
2. With the Bin View list displayed, press the Delete key.
A confirmation box is displayed.
3. Click Yes.
Sorting Files
By default, clips in Details view are sorted by name, in ascending
alphabetical order (from A to Z). You can change the way clips are sorted,
using the information in any column or combination of columns.
You can change the sorting for any files that you view through the Avid
Explorer.
To change the way clips are sorted:
1. In Details view, click the column that you want to act as the primary
sorting criterion.
The clips are sorted according to the information in that column. The
number zero (0) is displayed in the title bar of the column indicating
the primary sorting status. An upward or downward pointing arrow is
also displayed, specifying the direction in which the information is
sorted (ascending or descending).
47
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
2. Press Ctrl and click a new column to act as the secondary sorting
criterion.
Any clips with the same criterion in the primary sort are now sorted
according to the information in the second column. The number one
(1) is displayed in the title bar of the column, indicating the secondary
sorting status. An upward or downward pointing arrow is also
displayed, specifying the direction in which the information is sorted.
3. Continue pressing Ctrl and clicking the columns to further refine your
column sorting.
n
When performing a single-column sort, click the column a second time to
change the direction in which the column is sorted. Click again to remove
the sorting.
When performing multi-column sort, press Ctrl and click a column a
second time to change the sorting direction. Press Ctrl and click again to
remove the sorting.
Example
In this example, clips are first sorted by channel. Notice that all video clips
are grouped together. Since they are all the same, you can sort them further
using another criterion. In this example, they are sorted further by duration.
48
Working with Bins
Clips sorted by
channel in
alphabetical order.
(primary sort)
Each channel type,
such as Video, is
further sorted
according to
duration (secondary
sort).
Sifting Files
By sifting files, you can customize any window that you view through the
Avid Explorer so that it displays only those files that meet a specific set of
criteria.
For example, in a bin that contains master clips, you can create a custom
sift to display only clips from a particular tape or only clips with a name
that contains the letters CU (for close-up). Sifting is not limited to clips;
you can use it with any files that you view through the Avid Explorer. You
can also use it to modify the files displayed in the Media Tool (see “Using
the Media Tool” on page 434).
The Custom Sift dialog box provides ten types of criteria (such as Equals
or Contains) and lets you set up to six sets of criteria.
n
Tip: To view bin columns, click the D (Details) button in the bottom bar of
the bin. To change the visible bin columns, click the Settings button in the
Avid Explorer toolbar.
49
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To sift clips or sequences:
1. In an open bin, click the Fast Menu button and select Custom Sift.
The Custom Sift dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Column list, select an Avid DS Nitris column heading to
which you want to apply the criterion.
t
To view all column headings on your system, select the Show All
Columns option.
t
To clear the Column entry, select None from the Column list.
3. From the Criterion list, select one of the sifting options.
4. In the Value text box, and type the text that you want to use as a sift
criterion.
Type the text exactly as it is displayed in the column. For example, to
view clips with a duration of more than 5 seconds, select Greater
Than as the criterion and type 00:00:05:00.
An exception is size. For example, to view clips greater than 54 KB,
select Greater Than as the criterion and type 54000.
5. Repeat these steps to add additional sift criteria (up to six sets).
50
Working with Bins
6. To clear all data, click the Clear button.
7. To preview the results of your selections, click the Apply button.
8. To save your view:
a. Click the Save button.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
b. Type a name for the sifted view and click OK.
9. In the Custom Sift dialog box, click OK.
Only the clips or sequences that meet your criteria are displayed in the
bin.
Displaying a Sifted or an Unsifted View
After you have sifted the clips in a bin, you can switch between the
unsifted view and the currently selected sifted view.
To switch between a sifted and an unsifted view, do one of the
following:
t
In a bin, click the Fast Menu button and select Show Sifted.
t
In the Avid Explorer toolbar, click the Sifting button.
Loading and Deleting a Sifted View
You can load or delete a saved set of criteria.
To load a sifted view, do one of the following:
t
In the Custom Sift dialog box, select the view that you want to load
from the Load/Save list, and click Apply or OK.
t
Click the Fast Menu button, select Load Sift, and select the view you
want to load.
To delete a sifted view:
1. Select the view that you want to delete from the Load/Save list.
2. Keep the menu open and press the Delete key on your keyboard.
3. In the dialog box, click Yes.
51
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Viewing Events
While working with Avid DS Nitris, you can track important processes,
such as the start up and shut down of Avid DS Nitris applications,
Avid DS Nitris RP processing messages, or errors when a folder cannot be
accessed. This is done using the event logging service in Avid DS Nitris.
The event-logging service stores events from various sources in a single
collection called an event log. Notifications of events include informative
messages, errors, and warnings.
The event log records important software and hardware events to help you
determine the conditions that caused the error and the context in which it
occurred. By periodically viewing the event log, you may be able to
identify problems before they cause damage.
The event logging service does not replace direct messages that are
displayed when an action is necessary. The event log simply lets you to
view the results of any actions.
A reasonable amount of disk space is reserved for the event log. When the
log is full, older events are erased to make room for new ones.
The following Avid applications log events in the event log:
52
•
Avid DS Nitris
•
Avid Media Indexer
•
Avid Project Indexer
Viewing Events
Viewing the Avid Event Log
The event logging system consists of two parts, the viewer and the event
log file. The Avid Event Log is a list of all previously logged events.
To view the Avid event log,
1. Do one of the following:
t
Select View > Multi-Instance Views > Avid Event Log.
t
In an Avid Explorer panel, select Avid Event Log in the Views
folder.
The Avid Event Log view is displayed in a bin, along with a list of
software and hardware events that have occurred.
For detailed information on the Avid Event Log, click the Avid
Explorer Help button.
53
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
2. Double-click an event log entry to display additional information.
Viewing the Windows Event Log
If you cannot start Avid DS Nitris due to a fatal error, Windows also has an
Event Viewer so that you can browse through the event logs. In the
Windows Event Viewer, events from all open applications, the operating
system, and other system services are logged.
To view the Windows event log:
1. On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon and select
Manage.
2. Click System Tools > Event Viewer.
An event log is displayed for the different Windows applications.
54
Viewing Events
3. Double-click the Avid Event Log to view the Avid DS Nitris events.
Sorting Columns and Events
You can reorder the columns and events that are displayed.
To set the column order:
t
Click on a column heading and drag it left or right to a new position.
To sort the list of events:
t
n
Click on the column heading to sort the contents below the column in
ascending or descending order.
You can perform secondary sorts on multiple columns for better grouping
of events. For instance if you want to sort the events by type and then by
time, click the Type column heading, press Ctrl and click the Date - Time
heading. A (0) and a (1) appear in the respective columns.
You can also sort the columns in the reverse order by pressing Ctrl and
clicking the column heading again. An up or down arrow appears in the
column heading to indicate the direction of the sort.
55
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
56
Chapter 2
Working with Sequences
This chapter describes how to work with sequences, search for sequences,
and set your video and audio preferences.
•
Workflow: Working with Sequences
•
Opening Sequences
•
Setting Sequence Preferences
•
Working with Different Qualities of Media
•
Saving Sequences
•
Searching for Sequences
•
Deleting Sequences
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Workflow: Working with Sequences
Before you open a sequence, you must first select the project to which it
belongs. The following illustration shows a simple editing scenario in
Avid DS Nitris.
1
Open project and sequence.
Select project
Select sequence
2
3
Set sequence preferences.
Construct sequence.
Sequence preferences can be
changed during the course of a
project to work with media at
different qualities.
58
Opening Sequences
Opening Sequences
You can easily create, open, and manage the sequences in your project
using the Open Project dialog box. A sequence is an arrangement of clips
on the timeline; it contains information about edit decisions, applied
graphics and effects, animation settings, and working preferences.
When you open a sequence in the timeline, you can immediately begin
audio/video editing, compositing, painting, titling, or audio mixing.
Because the Avid DS Nitris environment is nonlinear, these tasks can be
performed in any order, changed at any time, and moved to any location.
Avid DS Nitris also gives you the flexibility to work with different media
qualities within your sequence. For example, working with media at a
higher resolution increases processing time, so initially, you may want to
process your clips at lower resolution to obtain quicker results. When
you’re ready to output the final sequence, you can recapture the media at a
higher resolution, and reprocess the effects.
Sequence
Overview area
Video tracks
Audio track
Sequences always belong to a particular project. To access your sequences,
you must first select the project to which it belongs. To get a quick view of
all the projects on any workstation on the network, use the Open Project
dialog box.
59
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
To access the list of projects and sequences:
t
Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
Sequences within the selected project
Projects
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Open Project
dialog box.
Creating a New Sequence
You must create sequences from within a project. You can either select a
project from the Open Project dialog box and then create a new sequence,
or if your project is already open, you can create a new sequence directly
from the File menu.
To create a sequence:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Select a Project box, select the project to which your
sequence will belong.
The Select a Sequence box opens any other sequences that belong to
this project.
60
Opening Sequences
3. From the Select a Sequence box, select New DS Sequence from the
list.
4. Click the New Sequence button.
The New Sequence dialog box displays the sequence preferences.
By default, the sequence preferences are inherited from the settings
established when the project was created. These settings can be changed.
For more information, see “Setting Sequence Preferences” on page 65.
n
Avid DS Nitris requires at least 10% of your system memory (RAM) to be
free at all times. If not, you may not be able to create sequences with
custom formats that have resolutions much greater than the standard video
resolution, such as 2000×1500.
5. Click OK to accept the settings.
A new sequence is opened and the Editing layout is displayed.
To create a new sequence within the current project:
1. Select File > New Sequence.
If the sequence you’re currently working on has not been saved, you
are prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the sequence.
A new sequence is opened in your current project with the same
preferences as those of the project.
n
If you want to create a new sequence with preferences that are different
from the project, select File > New > DS Sequence.
For detailed information on these sequence preferences, click the Help
button.
61
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Opening an Existing Sequence
You can open a sequence in one of three ways:
n
•
From the File menu (if you want to open a sequence from the current
project)
•
From the Open Project dialog box (if you want to open a sequence
from another project)
•
By double-clicking the sequence in the Avid Explorer
Each time you start Avid DS Nitris, you can automatically load the last
sequence on which you were working by selecting the Load Last Sequence
at Startup option in the User Preferences dialog box. For more
information, see “Setting User Preferences” on page 26.
To open a sequence from the File menu:
1. Select File > Open > Sequence.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you
are prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The Load Sequence dialog box is displayed.
3. Browse through the folders and select a sequence. (All sequences are
indicated by the sequence icon.)
4. Click OK or double-click the sequence to open it.
To open a sequence from the Open Project dialog box:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you
are prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
62
Opening Sequences
3. From the Select a Project box, select the project to which your
sequence will belong.
The Select a Sequence box displays all sequences that belong to
this project.
4. From the Select a Sequence box, select a sequence and click the Open
Sequence button.
To open a sequence from the Avid Explorer:
1. Locate the sequence in the Avid Explorer.
2. Double-click the sequence.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you
are prompted to do so.
3. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The sequence is opened.
Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another Project
Depending on how you set up your sequences and projects, you may want
to use the same sequence or master clips in more than one project. When
you import sequences or master clips to another project, you have the
option of linking to the existing media or creating copies of the media.
By creating a link to the media, the media is shared between the two
projects, which saves space on your disk array.
n
Shared storage devices can be any storage area on your local machine or
anywhere on the network. The limitation with media sharing is that, unless
you are connected to an Avid Unity™ system, the storage device may not
have sufficient bandwidth to provide real-time access to the media for more
than one user at a time. However, if the storage device has sufficient
bandwidth, real-time playback is possible.
If you are not getting real-time playback on effects, you can either
reprocess your effects or copy the media from the shared storage to your
local storage. For more information, see “Copying Media” on page 441.
63
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
To import a sequence or master clips from another project:
1. In the Avid Explorer, locate and open the folder that contains the
sequence or master clips you want to import.
n
If you want to import a sequence or master clips that are on another
workstation on the network, you must share the project folder and the
folder containing the media at the Windows level.
2. Right-click the sequence or master clips and select Import to
Current Project.
n
If you archive a project with media that is shared between projects, the
media will be archived with both projects. When it is restored,
Avid DS Nitris checks to see if the media is still in its original location. If it
is, the link is recreated. If not, the media is restored to its original location.
The Sequence and Master Clip Import dialog box is displayed.
64
Setting Sequence Preferences
3. Select an option:
-
Link to original media links the new sequence or master clips to
the original media
-
Make new copies of media creates copies of the media at the
locations you specify for the new video and audio media.
4. Click OK.
A new folder is displayed in the current project folder, entitled
“Imported from project projectname.”
Setting Sequence Preferences
Sequence preferences define the format and quality of the audio and video
clips in your sequence. By default, the sequence preferences are inherited
from the settings you created for the current project.
During the course of building your sequence, you can switch your
sequence preferences to work with video at a lower resolution, or with
compression. Working at a lower resolution is useful when producing a
rough cut of your sequence, because your clips are processed at a much
faster rate. Working with compressed media lets you save storage space on
your disk array. For more information, see “Working with Different
Qualities of Media” on page 69.
65
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
For descriptions of all the options in this dialog box, click the Help button.
To set the sequence preferences:
1. In the Video Settings box, select a video format from the Format list.
When you select a video format other than Custom, Avid DS Nitris
automatically sets the aspect ratio, color space, frame rate, frame size,
field dominance, and pixel ratio based on the format you chose—see
“Understanding Video Settings” on page 72.
c
66
These settings cannot be changed after you save your sequence
preferences.
Setting Sequence Preferences
2. Set the Precision at which you want to process the effects in this
sequence—see “About Bit Depth” on page 82.
n
The processing settings apply to all effects in the sequence but can be
changed when you process effects individually.
3. Set the Timecode Start if other than 00:00:00:00.
n
If you select a drop-frame video format, such as NTSC, you have the option
of displaying timecode as either drop frame or non-drop frame. This option
only affects the timecode display and not the sequence frame rate. For
more information, see “About Video Format” on page 72.
4. Set the number of Video, Background, and Audio tracks you will
require in your sequence.
5. In the Storage Settings box, make a selection from the Resolution list.
Setting it at Full resolution results in large, high-quality media and
cache files. Setting it at Quarter resolution results in smaller, lowerquality media and cache files—see “About Video Quality” on page 75.
n
On some workstations where the processing power and bandwidth does not
allow you to work with HD media at full resolution, you can work in
quarter resolution mode to play your effects in real-time. On these
workstations, there will be additional options for Quarter Resolution
working mode.
6. Set the Bit Depth to be used when capturing your media.
7. Select one of the following options:
n
-
Uncompressed to work with media that is not compressed.
-
Compressed to work with compressed media. From the Preferred
Ratio list, select a compression ratio that best suits your needs.
When you are in passthrough mode, all compressions (codecs) may not be
available.
67
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Since Avid DS Nitris supports multiple qualities for your video
material, you can select the version of the captured media that you
want to use. For more information, see “Understanding Video Quality
Matching” on page 76.
8. Select one of the following options:
-
Use the closest media format available if it is not crucial that you
have an exact video media match with your sequence preferences.
If Avid DS Nitris cannot find an exact match, it finds and displays
the closest alternative.
-
Display a “media not available” message if you only want to
work with video media of a specific quality.
Avid DS Nitris uses only the media that matches the selected
resolution and compression settings. If it cannot find an exact
match for both, a “Media Not Available” message is displayed in
the viewer as you playback your clips. This serves as a good
indicator when you’ve captured video that does not conform to
your sequence preferences.
9. Select a Sample Rate for your sequence. The higher the sampling rate,
the more accurate the audio—see “Understanding Audio Quality
Matching” on page 81.
Audio quality defines the sample rate and bit depth at which an audio
signal is captured. You can set the sample rate conversion quality, so
that Avid DS Nitris can convert audio material that has a different
sample rate than the current sequence. The higher the sample rate, the
more accurate the digital representation of the signal. A higher sample
rate, however, does use more disk space.
n
When you place audio clips on the timeline that contain different sampling
rates than the current sequence, you are prompted to convert the clip to
match the current sequence sampling rate. If you do not convert the clip,
you will not have access to the audio media unless you change the
sequence preferences.
10. Select a Bit Depth value from the list. The higher the value, the more
precise the audio will be.
68
Working with Different Qualities of Media
11. Drag the SR Conversion Quality slider in the direction of one of
the following:
-
Fast to convert the sample rate quickly, but at a low quality.
-
High to preserve quality, but this setting takes longer to convert the
sample rates.
12. Click OK to save your settings.
n
When working with sequences of custom formats with resolutions that are
much greater than the standard video resolution, such as 2000×1500, a
minimal amount of system memory (RAM) must be kept available at all
times. Otherwise, you may notice significant slowdown when working on
your system.
Working with Different Qualities of Media
You can work at full, half, or quarter resolution (HD only), and with
compressed media at different ratios. This multi-quality feature lets you
balance image quality and system performance during the different phases
of your work. The working video settings (compression and resolution)
determine the quality at which your media is displayed in the viewer, as
well as the quality at which it is processed by Avid DS Nitris. You can
change the video settings at any time if you want to display or process
media at a different quality.
n
The video format cannot be changed once you create the sequence.
The quality you choose to work with at any given time depends on the task
at hand. Media can use up large amounts of disk space, and the higher the
quality of the media, the more disk space is consumed.
If you want to conserve disk space, you can do your rough cut on material
captured at low resolution or in compressed form. When your sequence is
ready for finishing, you can redigitize a specific clip, so that you can work
at the quality at which you will be outputting.
69
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
When you’re ready to output the entire sequence, you only need to
redigitize the portions of the master clips actually used in the sequence at
full, uncompressed resolution before you output to tape.
If you’re working with only compressed media, you can mix different
compression ratios within a sequence. If you’re working with both
compressed and uncompressed media, you may encounter circumstances
where both cannot be used at the same time within the same sequence.
To change the sequence preferences:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
The settings that you chose for this sequence are displayed.
For descriptions of all the options in this dialog box, click the Help
button.
2. In the Processing box, select the Type of processing.
This selection depends on the type of source material that you
have—see “Processing in Fields versus Frames” on page 83.
70
Working with Different Qualities of Media
3. Set the Precision at which you will process the video effects.
4. From the Conversion Mode box, select a mode for Presets and Media.
From now on, when you place clips or sequences on the timeline, they
will be converted using the mode you selected—see “Understanding
the Working Conversion Mode” on page 83.
n
You can still change the conversion mode for an individual clip on the
timeline by right-clicking the clip and selecting Properties.
5. Set the video resolution, bit depth, and compression at which you will
be capturing your media—see “About Video Quality” on page 75.
6. To change the audio settings, select the Audio tab.
7. From the Sample Rate Conversion box, select the Conversion on
Drop option if you want to convert all sample rates imported into your
sequence to the sample rate of the current sequence.
71
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
8. Drag the SR Conversion Quality slider in the direction of one of
the following:
-
Fast to convert the sample rate quickly, but at a low quality.
-
High to preserve quality, but this setting takes longer to convert the
sample rates.
9. Click OK to save the new settings.
Understanding Video Settings
Although Avid DS Nitris automatically sets the industry-standard video
size and frame settings for the video format you choose, you may want to
read about the various video settings, especially if you intend to work on a
custom format.
About Video Format
Video format refers to the size or aspect ratio of a picture frame.
Depending on your hardware configuration, you can work in a variety of
video formats, such as PAL D1, NTSC D1, 720p, 1080i, 1080p, or other
custom formats. When you select a video format (other than Custom),
Avid DS Nitris automatically sets the industry-standard video size and
frame settings.
Drop Frame versus Non-Drop Frame
Some formats such as NTSC (the standard North American video format),
may require a timecode adjustment if you are making a video that has to
fill an exact time slot.
NTSC video runs at 29.97 frames per second, and since timecode counts at
30 frames per second, it means that the timecode will gain on actual time at
a rate of about 3.6 seconds per hour.
Using non-drop timecode (which runs at 30 frames per second), will
gradually differ from actual time. If you use drop frame timecode,
however, it will make slight adjustments by skipping frame numbers
periodically to keep the timecode synchronized with real time. Depending
on your purpose, you may either keep the timecode synced with real time
72
Working with Different Qualities of Media
or count the frames exactly. It is important to understand that no frames in
the video are actually dropped when you choose drop frame. The video is
identical in both cases with only the timecode counter being modified.
About Frame Size
The frame size is the dimensions of a picture frame in Avid DS Nitris.
These measurements are based on pixels.
720
486
An NTSC D1 4:3 image by default
has a frame size of 720×486
pixels.
A PAL D1 4:3 image, however,
has a default frame size of
720×576 pixels.
A 16:9 HD image can have a
variety of frame sizes, such as
1920×1080 pixels or 1280×720
pixels.
About Pixel Ratio
Aspect ratio is the numerical ratio of picture width to height. The standard
aspect ratio for NTSC and PAL video and television is 4:3. For material
shot on film or HD, 16:9 is the standard aspect ratio. You can also create
non-standard aspect ratios.
Pixel ratio refers to the shape of one pixel. Different video standards have
different pixel ratios. NTSC and PAL pixels have ratios of 0.9 and 1.07
respectively, while computer-generated image, typically have square pixels
with a ratio of 1.0.
Avid DS Nitris can compensate for different pixel ratios so that a captured
image does not appear distorted. When you capture material from file, you
must set the file’s pixel ratio, which tells Avid DS Nitris the original state
of the material. For example, if you are importing a computer-generated
image, set the pixel ratio to 1.0.
73
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
About Field Dominance
Video images are displayed half a frame at a time, where each half,
referred to as a field, is comprised of alternate lines of video information
(odd and even). The two fields are combined (interlaced) to form one
frame.
Even fields
Odd fields
Two fields are
interlaced to form
one frame
Frames
The order in which odd and even fields occur over time is referred to as
field order or field dominance. With even field dominance, even fields
come first. In odd field dominance, odd fields come first. With NTSC, the
first field contains all the odd numbered scan lines and the second field
contains all the even. PAL is the opposite of NTSC in terms of field
dominance. That is, field 1 contains all the even-numbered scan lines and
field 2 contains all the odd lines.
NTSC, PAL, and HD video material can either be interlaced or
progressive, such as 1080i or 1080p. Interlaced video contains two fields,
which make up every frame. Progressive video, however, creates full
frames by scanning each line sequentially. As a result, field dominance is
not an issue. For more information, see “Interlacing versus Progressive
Scanning” on page 7 of the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and
Graphics Guide.
When you need to invert your fields, you can deinterlace your material,
then reinterlace and invert the field dominance. You can also deinterlace a
clip to display the odd and even fields as separate frames. This is useful
74
Working with Different Qualities of Media
when retouching clips or creating paint animation and field-based
rotoscopy. For more information, see “Applying a Deinterlace Effect” on
page 318 and “Applying an Interlace Effect” on page 321.
About Color Space
Color space determines how the color components of the video signal are
stored in Avid DS Nitris. There are three pixel formats available in
Avid DS Nitris: YCbCr 4:2:2 (601), YCbCr 4:2:2 (709), and RGBA.
Avid DS Nitris converts all imported material to the color space of the
sequence. All material imported in RGBA color space uses 32 bits per
pixel, even if you did not import the alpha channel. YCbCr 4:2:2 uses 16
bits/pixel and YCbCrA (YCbCr with alpha) 4:2:2 uses 24 bits/pixel.
Cache media, created from processed effects, transitions, or composites, is
treated the same way as source media. Some effects, however, require an
internal conversion to RGBA. As a result, some banding may occur when
you’re working with a YCbCr sequence with these effects. To solve this
problem, you can apply the RGB-YCbCr Dither effect. For more
information, see “Color Space Adjustment Effect” on page 508 of the
Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics Guide.
About Video Quality
Video media quality is determined by three factors:
•
Resolution, which is the amount and degree of detail in a video image,
•
Compression, which is a technique used to reduce the amount of space
necessary to store video data, and
•
Bit depth, which is the number of bits used to store information about
each pixel of an image.
The resolution you set affects the size of the captured or processed media.
The higher the resolution, the better the quality of your media, and the
larger the size of the media. Similarly, the higher the bit depth, the more
tones (grayscale or color) that are available for storage, and more accurate
color representation in the digital image. Higher bit depth also increases
file size.
75
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
When you’re performing a rough cut, you can increase throughput and
limit storage requirements by working at low resolution. Later on in the
editing process, you can use high-resolution media to obtain better results.
Compression is a technique used to reduce the amount of space necessary
to store video information. You can compress material at capture time to
reduce the size of the media file. High compression is useful when you
capture media for your initial edit. This lets you store large amounts of
material using the least amount of storage space. Compressed data usually
suffers some loss or degradation from the original source. After you’ve
done a rough cut, you can purge the compressed media, and recapture the
edited material with less or no compression. For more information, see
“Working with Different Qualities of Media” on page 69.
Understanding Video Quality Matching
When you set your video storage sequence preferences, such as the
working resolution, bit depth, compression, or sample rate, you defined the
quality at which clips are previewed and processed. If a video clip was
captured at a different quality than the option set in your sequence
preferences, Avid DS Nitris can either:
n
•
Display no media, or
•
Use the media which best approximates the resolution, compression
ratio, bit depth, or audio sample rate.
Quality matching is different for audio than it is for video—see
“Understanding Audio Quality Matching” on page 81.
Working with Exact Media Matches
If you choose to display only the media that matches your sequence
preferences, Avid DS Nitris looks for an exact match when the position
indicator passes over the clip on the timeline.
1. Resolution: Checks if there is media captured or processed at the
specified resolution.
2. Precision: For caches only. Checks if there are two caches processed
with the same precision as the sequence settings.
76
Working with Different Qualities of Media
3. Aspect ratio: Checks if the aspect ratio matches that of the current
sequence.
4. Frame rates: Verifies that the frame rates are identical.
5. Compression ratio: Checks if there is media captured or processed at
the specified compression. For the purposes of quality matching,
uncompressed media has a compression ratio of 1.0.
6. Field dominance: Checks if the field dominances are compatible. For
this criteria, the match does not have to be exact, since some media
files, such as stills, can be tagged as having a field dominance of None.
The matching criteria works as follows:
Media Quality
Field Dominance
Sequence preference
None
Even
Odd
None
Yes
No
No
Even
Yes
Yes
No
Odd
Yes
No
Yes
7. Image formats: Verifies if the following are identical:
-
Color space
-
Frame size
-
Pixel ratio
-
Bits per Channel (Number of bits used to encode a channel)
8. Compatible Resolution: Checks if the current hardware settings
support real-time effects in this resolution.
9. Compression type and ratio: Checks if there is media captured with
the same cache and at the same ratio than the sequence settings.
77
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
10. Only caches generated in Exact match mode are accepted in exact
match (This restriction does not apply to media).
The checks are done sequentially. If it finds video media that meets all the
criteria, then the media is displayed in the viewer. If any one of the criteria
fails, then the “Media Not Available” message is displayed in the viewer.
Working with Closest Media Matches
If you choose to display media that is closest to your sequence preferences,
Avid DS Nitris first verifies that you have media that matches your
frame rate.
n
In HD sequences, compression is not supported for HD media.
1. Frame rate: Verifies if the frame rate is identical, except for linked
clips.
If, after this search, no candidates are found, the “Media Not
Available” message is displayed in the viewer.
If more than one candidate is found, Avid DS Nitris uses the following
criteria to determine which media file is a closer match and will be
displayed:
2. Captured versus linked media: Captured media is considered a
closer match than linked media.
3. Conversion needs: Media with an image format, size, resolution,
compression, bit depth, or field dominance that does not need to be
converted to match the preferences of the current sequence is a closer
match than media that needs to be converted.
4. Compression: If the compression type or ratio of the two qualities are
different, then a quality match will be based on criteria in the following
order:
78
-
its codec type and ratio exactly matches those of the sequence.
-
its codec type is the same as the sequence but not its ratio.
-
its codec type can be read in real-time by the hardware.
Working with Different Qualities of Media
5. Resolution width: If none of the candidates match the resolution
width of the current sequence, then the media with the greater
resolution width is the closest match.
6. Resolution height: If none of the candidates match the resolution
height of the current sequence, then the media with the greater
resolution height is the closest match.
7. Image format: Uses the exact or closest match.
8. Aspect ratio: Uses the closest match.
-
Width in square pixels: If none of the candidates have the same
width as the current sequence, then the media with the greater
width is determined to be a closer match.
-
Height in square pixels: If none of the candidates have the same
height as the current sequence, then the media with the greater
height is determined to be a closer match.
9. Bit depth: If none of the candidates has the same bit depth as the
current sequence, then the one with the greatest bit depth is the closest
match.
10. Processing precision: For caches only. If none of the candidates has
the same precision as the current sequence, then the one with the
higher precision is preferred.
Once it finds the candidate that is the closest match, Avid DS Nitris
determines if it needs to convert the media to fit into the current sequence.
The conversion method is based on the following properties:
1. Image format: If the image format is different than the current
sequence, it will need to be converted.
2. Image size: If the image size is different than the current sequence
size, it will need to be converted.
3. Resolution: If the resolution is different than the current sequence, it
will need to be converted.
79
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
4. Field Dominance: If the field dominance is set to None, then no
conversion is needed. Odd and even are incompatible, so a field
conversion is required. The following table shows where conversion is
required:
Media Quality
Field Dominance
Sequence preference
None
Even
Odd
None
No
No
No
Even
No
No
Yes
Odd
No
Yes
No
5. Compression: If the compression type is not hardware real-time
playable, a conversion is needed.
Quality Matching Example
Here’s an example of video quality matching. Your sequence preferences
have been set to:
•
4:3 aspect ratio
•
Half-resolution
•
4:1 compression
•
Use the closest media format available
You have the following media available on disk:
80
•
Quality 1 – 4:3 aspect ratio, half-resolution, uncompressed
•
Quality 2 – 4:3 aspect ratio, half-resolution, 2:1 compression
•
Quality 3 – 4:3 aspect ratio, half-resolution, 3:1 compression
•
Quality 4 – 16:9 aspect ratio, half-resolution, 3:1 compression
Working with Different Qualities of Media
Using the quality matching formula in Avid DS Nitris:
Step
Discards
Reason
Step 1
None
All media segments are at the same resolution.
Step 2
None
No match for compression ratio. Keeps all but notes
that the smallest compression ratio will be the closest.
Step 3
Quality 4
Does not match the aspect ratio.
Between Quality 1, 2 and 3, Quality 1 is chosen because it is the least
compressed of the three.
n
Processed media (caches) are also created based on the video resolution
and compression settings. The same quality matching method is used to
select the quality of the cache during playback.
Understanding Audio Quality Matching
An audio clip can have media at multiple sample rates, just like a video
clip can have media at multiple resolutions, compression ratios, or aspect
ratios.
With audio, Avid DS Nitris first tries to play media that matches the
sample rate set in your audio sequence preferences. If it doesn’t find such
media, the audio tracks turn red and you’re prompted to convert the audio
media to the sample rate of the current sequence.
If an exact audio media match is found, then that audio media is used. If
more than one candidate meets this match, then Avid DS Nitris looks at the
following criteria:
1. Captured versus linked media: Captured media is considered a
closer match than linked media.
2. Bit Depth: If none of the candidates match the bit depth, media with a
greater bit depth is the closest match.
81
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Understanding the Processing Settings
The media resolution, bit depth, compression, or sample rate that you set in
your Sequence preferences define the quality at which clips are captured.
During processing, you can use these same settings, or you can change
them to process the captured media at a different resolution, bit depth, or
compression. This is useful if you want to process your effects at a lower
quality for preview purposes, and save on processing time. When your
sequence is ready for finishing, you can change the settings back to a
higher quality and reprocess the effects.
About Bit Depth
Bit depth is used to describe the number of bits used to store information
about each pixel of an image. The higher the depth, the more colors that
are available for storage and more accurate color representation in the
digital image.
In Avid DS Nitris, this is known as the Storage format bit depth, and is
used when storing captured media and processed media (caches).
Avid DS Nitris supports 8 or 10-bit storage bit depth for non-Custom
sequences, and up to 16 and 32-bit for custom sequences.
Setting the Processing Bit Depth
Effects can be processed at 16 or 32-bit depth. This is known as Precision.
Avid DS Nitris supports 8, 10, 16 or 32-bit media and caches. This
Precision can be set for the individual effects that support these levels, or it
can be set in your sequence preferences and applied globally to all effects
that support these levels. For a list of 16 bit/32 bit float effects, see “Effects
Supporting 16 or 32 Bits (Float) Processing” in the Help.
c
82
Although Avid DS Nitris can support higher bit depths during
processing, the storage of the caches (for non-Custom sequences) is
still done at either 8 or 10-bit depth. Note that, using a higher
precision bit depth generates smoother effects during processing, and
still produces better quality output even though some quality is lost
when storing the cache at the lower bit depth.
Working with Different Qualities of Media
Processing in Fields versus Frames
When applying effects, you must decide whether to apply the effect to each
frame or each field. This will usually depend on the type of source material
you’re using. Knowing how your source material was created will play a
role in determining how to process your effects. If processed incorrectly,
you may notice unwanted jittering or unusual artifacts.
•
Field to convert the image to fields, which processes each field of your
effects and graphics separately (using different property values if there
is animation), and then reconverts the video information to frames to
display the results. This option is better for animated effects, such as
dissolves, fades, and motion paths.
•
Frame processes the entire frame (both fields together) using the same
property values. Use this option with frame-based source material.
Static graphics images, 30 fps film, and 30 fps CGI (computergenerated images) are some examples of frame-based material.
Understanding the Working Conversion Mode
Since Avid DS Nitris is resolution independent, you can work with media
and sequences with different size and resolutions, all within the same
sequence. When dealing with media of different formats, you can specify
how Avid DS Nitris should handle the conversion.
There are different situations in which media is converted:
•
When media is imported
•
When linking to media from within a sequence
•
When using media of different formats than the current sequence
When you digitize or import media, it is digitized according to the video
sequence preferences or capture settings—see “Understanding Video
Settings” on page 72.
Since the scale/pan settings applied to the media are fixed, you cannot
change these settings when you recapture the media.
83
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
In the second and third cases, you’re dealing with how clips are converted
when they’re placed on the timeline. The conversion mode you select
determines how clips and sequences of different resolutions are displayed
when they’re placed on the timeline.
You can set the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
n
The clips that are already on the timeline will not be affected. Only clips
placed on the timeline after the sequence preferences are changed will be
converted.
You can also set the conversion mode for each clip individually using the
conversion mode settings in the Clip Properties property page. This
overrides the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
As previously explained, when you place a clip on the timeline which has a
different resolution than the current sequence, the image will be converted
using the method you set in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
However, when you place a sequence on the timeline, the conversion
becomes a little more complicated, since you may be dealing with various
resolutions within that sequence. Avid DS Nitris treats the clips within that
sequence as a single unit in order to preserve the relationship between the
clips. By doing so, Avid DS Nitris ensures that the ratio between each clip
remains the same. Once the clips are grouped together, Avid DS Nitris uses
the conversion mode you set in the Sequence Preferences dialog box to
convert all the clips as a single unit.
n
If your clip is converted more than once, it can’t be assigned one of the
defined conversion modes. Instead, a separate conversion mode called
“Multiple Conversions” is used to specify that the clip has been converted
multiple times.
When you insert a sequence within another sequence, you can always
override the current sequence preference conversion mode by modifying
each clip’s conversion mode individually in the Clip Properties property
editor. Only the clip whose conversion mode you modified will be affected.
All other clips will remain as they are.
84
Working with Different Qualities of Media
n
If you use a sequence that has processed effects within another sequence,
the caches will remain valid as long as both sequences have the same
settings. If, however, you change the conversion mode, you must process
the effects again.
The following table summarizes how each item is converted in
Avid DS Nitris:
Items
Media conversion treatment
Captured clip
Frame size, at the time of capture, is scaled and panned to the
current sequence size
Linked clip
Image size is scaled and panned to the current sequence size
Sequence
Sequence size is scaled and panned to the current sequence
size
Example
The following is an example of how a sequence, which contains linked
images of various resolutions, is converted when inserted into a sequence
that has a different resolution.
Sequence A is an NTSC D1 sequence at 720 × 486 resolution. It contains
the following images:
85
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Image 1: 1440×972 linked
image set to Scale to Fit.
Image 2: 300×300 linked
image set to Keep Original
Size and Position.
Image 3: 1000×1000 linked
image set to Center, Keep
Original Size.
Sequence B is a custom sequence at 360 × 243 resolution. The conversion
mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box is set to Center, Keep
Original Size. When you place sequence A into sequence B, the following
occurs (the original frame size of sequence A is outlined in white):
The clips are grouped together and
treated as a single unit. Since image
1 was centered in the original
sequence, it will remain centered in
the new sequence. Since sequence
B has a smaller resolution, the image
just fills up more of the viewer. This
clip has been converted in both
sequences, so its conversion mode
will be set to Multiple Conversions.
86
Image 2 was not centered in
the original sequence, so in this
sequence, the star gets cut out
of the viewer. Since the original
linked clip was set to Keep
Original Size and Position, it
has only been converted once
and its conversion mode will be
set to that of the current
sequence.
Since image 3 was centered in
the original sequence, it
remains centered. Because the
circle is so large, it fills the
entire viewer. This clip has
been converted in both
sequences, so its conversion
mode will be set to Multiple
Conversions.
Working with Different Qualities of Media
If you change the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box
to Scale to Fit, and place sequence A into sequence B again, the following
occurs:
If you compare these images with the images in the original sequence, they will be exactly the same, except
smaller. Since the images are grouped together as a sequence, the individual images are not scaled to fit the
resolution of the current sequence. Instead, the whole sequence is scaled down to fit the new sequence
resolution, which, in this case, produces a smaller version of the original sequence.
You can then go into the Clip Properties property page and change the
conversion mode for each clip individually.
When applying a conversion mode to a clip
individually, the original sequence settings
are ignored and Avid DS Nitris refers back to
the original image.
For example, the conversion mode for image 1
was set to Keep Original Size and Position.
Notice how the displayed image is the
1440×972 clip. If Avid DS Nitris had referred
back to the original sequence, then the clip
would have been displayed at 720×486
resolution.
After changing the conversion mode of an individual clip, you can always
change it back to its original setting.
87
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Saving Sequences
When you save a sequence, you are saving the contents of the timeline.
Any clips, container clips, transitions, caches, effects, and edit markers are
saved with the sequence.
It is good practice to save your sequences at regular intervals, or when you
have completed an important part of your work. The first time you save a
sequence, all information related to the sequence is saved. However, the
next time you save the sequence, only the modifications to the sequence
are saved, so it takes less time.
n
You can also create a crash recovery file for your current sequence at
regular intervals. This lets you recover the latest work on your sequence in
the event of a system failure. For more information, see “User Preferences
Dialog Box” in the Help.
To save a sequence for the first time:
1. Select File > Save.
The Save Sequence dialog box is displayed.
2. Use the Avid Explorer tools to navigate to the folder in which you want
to save the sequence.
3. Type in a name for your sequence in the File Name text box and click
OK.
The sequence is saved and a sequence icon with the sequence name is
displayed in the Avid Explorer. You can now continue editing or close
the current sequence, and begin work on a new sequence or project.
To save an existing sequence:
t
Select File > Save.
The existing sequence is overwritten.
The sequence is saved and a sequence icon with the sequence name is
displayed in the Avid Explorer. You can now continue editing or close
the current sequence, and begin work on a new sequence or project.
88
Saving Sequences
Creating a Copy of a Sequence
You can save different versions of a sequence in a project folder. If, for
example, you’ve been hired to create a series of spots for a client, you
create a project that is completely contained in a single folder. Inside that
folder, you create a number of subfolders to store elements, such as master
clips, presets, mattes, and backgrounds.
Inside that project, you create a sequence for the first spot by dragging
clips to the timeline, and saving the sequence in your project folder. For the
second spot, make a copy of the sequence calling it “Scene 2 (Take 2)”,
and make the necessary adjustments. Continue to do the same for each of
the spots.
To save a copy of a sequence:
1. Select File > Save As.
2. Type a new name for the sequence.
The sequence is saved. You can now make the necessary edits to
this sequence.
n
Another way to create versions of your sequence is by selecting the
sequence in the Avid Explorer, pressing the Ctrl key, and dragging the file
to an empty area of the folder. Copying the sequence in the Avid Explorer
takes less time than creating a copy with the Save As command.
89
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Searching for Sequences
Large projects can contain many sequences and even more master clips.
Although you can use the Avid Explorer to find a particular sequence or
clip, it can be more efficient to search for sequences and master clips using
the Clip Search tool.
The Clip Search tool lets you search for master clips or sequences within
your current project. You can do searches by source, file name, or file
properties. All clips found in the search appear in the clip tray.
To search for sequences or master clips:
1. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Clip Search.
The Clip Search dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Master Clips and/or Sequences option(s) to search for one,
the other, or both.
90
Searching for Sequences
3. To search by:
-
Source: Select a tape source name or file from the Referencing the
Following Source list and click Go.
-
File name: Type the file name in the With Name Containing text
box and click Go.
-
File property: Select an attribute from the list, either Contains or
Equals, type the text you are searching for in the text box, and
click Go.
The clips and/or sequences found in your search are displayed in the
clip tray.
n
You can only perform a clip or sequence search using one filter option at a
time.
Click Help for detailed information on the Clip Search dialog box.
91
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Deleting Sequences
If you no longer require a sequence, you can create an archive of the
project in which it resides (see “Archiving Projects” on page 449) or delete
the sequence from the project. Be careful when you delete a sequence,
because deleting a sequence can also delete media, depending on the
option that you choose.
To delete a sequence:
1. In an Avid Explorer bin, right-click a sequence that is not currently
open and select one of the following:
n
-
Delete Clip & Unused Media: Deletes the selected sequence and
its associated media if the media is not used by a master clip or
another sequence. This option deletes cache media that is used
only by the sequence.
-
Delete Clip & All Media: Deletes the selected sequence and its
associated media even if the media is used elsewhere. Although
this is a quick way to create more disk space on your drive, it can
be risky. You should only do this when you’re absolutely sure that
you no longer need the sequence’s cache media and master clips.
Selecting the Delete option under the Windows section of the menu or
pressing the Delete key deletes the selected sequence but does not delete
the associated media.
2. Click Yes to delete the sequence.
92
Chapter 3
Building a Rough Cut
This chapter describes how to perform basic editing tasks, such as
preparing source clips, arranging clips on the timeline, and synchronizing
clips to create a rough cut.
•
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
•
Creating Sequences
•
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
•
Displaying Timecodes
•
Viewing a Sequence as a Hieracharical Tree Structure
•
Playing Sequences
•
Manipulating Clips
•
Using Locators
•
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
•
Extracting Parts of a Sequence
•
Grabbing Frames
•
Rippling Clips
•
Synchronizing Clips
•
Referencing Sequences
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
Editing is the process of assembling audio and video clips on the timeline,
creating transitions between these clips, and synchronizing the sound with
the images. Because the timeline is an integral part of the editing process,
it is found in many of the layouts. The tasks in this chapter focus on the
timeline and how to use it with other tools to edit your media.
All editing tasks are based on what you select. Each time you make a
selection on the timeline, the Record viewer, timecode boxes, and tool
panels are updated to give you information on the selected object.
94
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
The following illustration shows how you can build and edit a sequence in
Avid DS Nitris.
1
Locate and prepare media for editing.
2
Preview and trim your source media in
the Source viewer.
3
Place clips on the timeline.
Create a rough cut of your
sequence by dragging clips to
the timeline.
4
Manipulate clips.
Move, trim, slip, slide, and
nest clips on the timeline.
5
Apply transitions.
Create cuts, wipes, dissolves,
crossfades, and DVE-type
transitions.
95
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
6
Synchronize audio with video.
Synchronize video or audio
events by using locators.
7
Process the sequence.
Process all transitions
and container clips in the
sequence to play the
results in real time.
Click Process button.
Creating Sequences
A sequence is an arrangement of clips on the timeline. It contains
information about edit decisions, applied graphics and effects, animation
settings, and working preferences.
Before constructing your sequence, it’s important to realize that the edits
you make to clips are non-destructive. That is, you’re not actually editing
the source media. The clips that you see in the bin and on the timeline are
simply references to the media on the disk array.
96
Creating Sequences
Setting up your sequence involves previewing and editing source clips, and
then placing them on the timeline. The quickest way to create your rough
cut is to place clips directly on the timeline. You can, however, preview
your source clips to set new in and out-points before placing them on the
timeline.
You may also want to bring in a project from an offline environment into
Avid DS Nitris. You can import an AFE, AAF, Open Media Framework®
(OMF®), or Edit Decision List (EDL) file into the Avid Explorer as logged
clips, or onto the timeline as a sequence. For more information, see
“Conforming AAF and AFE Files” and “Conforming OMF, EDL, and
ALE Files” in the Avid DS Nitris Capture and Output Guide.
Preparing Source Clips for Editing
Before you place a clip on the timeline, you can prepare it in the Source
viewer. If a single viewer is displayed, and you drag a clip to the viewer, it
changes into a dual viewer that displays the Source and Record viewers.
The Source viewer lets you view and edit source clips.
To move a clip to the Source viewer:
t
Drag a clip from a bin to the Source viewer.
Bin
Source viewer
Clip
97
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
The source clip is displayed in the Source viewer. The Record viewer
displays the frame (if any) at the current location of the position indicator
on the timeline. This lets you compare a source clip with the clip on the
timeline where it will be inserted.
For more information, see “Source and Record Viewers” in the Help.
Source viewer: Frame at position of
position indicator on source clip.
Record viewer: Frame at position of
position indicator on timeline.
Transport controls
Each viewer has its own set of controls for manipulating the source clips,
timeline clips, or material on an external device. The controls under the
Source viewer help you prepare source clips before inserting them on the
timeline. You can continuously cue and mark your source material without
affecting the sequence.
For an overview of all the controls in the Source viewer, see “Transport
Controls” in the Help.
After marking the appropriate in and out-points on the source clip, use the
Record viewer to locate the frame (in your sequence) on which the new
clip is to be inserted. You can also decide whether or not to use all the
channels of the source clip, and on which track you want to place the clip.
For more information, see “Patching Tracks” on page 108.
After the clip has been placed on the timeline, you can continue working in
dual viewer mode or use a single viewer to display only the clips on
the timeline.
98
Creating Sequences
Editing Source Clips
You can place master clips, container clips, or sequences in the Source
viewer for previewing. This lets you cue or mark new in and out-points on
the source clip, and then insert, overwrite, replace, or fit-to-fill clips on the
timeline with it.
In-point
Position indicator
Out-point
Position bar
Timecode box
Mark In-point
Play
Mark Out-point
To edit a clip for use in your sequence:
1. Click Play below the Source viewer to play the source clip.
2. Click one of the following:
t
Mark In button when the position indicator reaches the desired inpoint.
t
Mark Out button at the desired out-point.
t
Type a timecode in the I (in) or O (out) timecode box and click the
I or O button.
An in-point or out-point is displayed in the position bar. If you need to
adjust these points, drag them to a new location.
3. Click Play again to stop playing the clip.
4. You can now place the clip directly on the timeline—see “Placing Preedited Clips on the Timeline” on page 105.
99
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Creating Subclips
Instead of placing the marked clip on the timeline, you can first create a
subclip from it. This leaves the original clip untouched while a copy of the
original clip with new in and out-points is saved in a bin. The Capture
Target option of the Capture Settings dialog box specifies the location for
the new subclip, see “Media Capture Settings” in the Help.
Unlike master clips, subclips do not directly reference the original media.
Subclips remain linked to the master clips from which they were created,
and the master clips in turn reference the digitized media files located on
your storage drives. As a result, none of the original footage is lost.
To create a subclip:
1. Verify the target location for the subclip, by doing the following:
a. In the Avid Explorer toolbar, click the Capture Settings button.
The Capture Settings dialog box is displayed.
b. In the Media Capture panel, verify the Capture Target settings
and modify if needed.
2. Load a clip in the Source viewer.
3. On the position bar below the Source viewer, reposition the in and/or
out-points of a clip.
4. Place the position indicator on the frame you want to display in the
bin.
5. Click the Create Subclip button.
6. In the Create Subclip dialog box, type a name for the subclip.
n
You can use the default name, which is the parent clip name appended with
a number, such as RealClip - 001.
7. Click OK.
The new clip is created and saved in the target bin.
n
100
The source clip maintains its original in and out-points.
Creating Sequences
To change the frame of the subclip displayed in the bin:
1. Open the subclip in the Source viewer.
2. Go to the frame you want to display.
3. Click the Update Thumbnail button to change the thumbnail frame of
the subclip.
Switching Between the Source and Record Timeline
The Source timeline lets you see the timeline of the clip or sequence that is
in the Source viewer. While viewing the Source timeline, you can place in
and out-points, and zoom, pan and navigate the timeline. You cannot,
however, do any editing on the Source timeline.
To view the Source timeline:
t
With a clip or sequence in the Source viewer, click the Toggle
Source/Record Timeline button on the timeline navigation bar.
The Source timeline is displayed and the Toggle Source/Record
Timeline button turns green, as well as the position indicator.
To return to the Record timeline:
t
Click the Toggle Source/Record Timeline button again.
To automatically switch between the Source and Record timeline:
t
Right-click the Toggle Source/Record Timeline button and select
Auto.
Selecting the Source viewer displays the Source timeline. Selecting the
Record viewer displays the Record timeline.
Placing Clips on the Timeline
The timeline is where you place and edit clips to build a sequence. You can
create any number of audio and video tracks on the timeline, and place
clips anywhere on these tracks. While working with multiple tracks, you
can use the Track selector to select, manipulate, delete, ripple, patch, and
monitor your tracks. You can use multiple tracks to layer audio effects
and sound, or to add video titles and other effects.
101
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
n
Before editing your clips, you can customize the timeline to suit your work
by changing the settings to show, hide, or minimize some display areas.
You can also change the ruler’s time scale to display other time formats,
including drop frame, non-drop frame, and frame numbers. For more
information, see “Timeline” in the Help.
Dragging and dropping clips onto the timeline overwrites frames of
existing clips. A clip cannot be placed on a track if the clip completely
covers, or is completely covered by, another clip. However, if you activate
the Ripple mode on the timeline, then clips are inserted at the timecode at
which they are dropped. Existing clips are moved down the timeline to
accommodate the inserted clip.
n
You can only place clips on selected tracks.
When you drag a clip from a bin to the timeline, the move cursor is
displayed. As you drag over the timeline, a shadow is displayed to indicate
the section where the clip will be placed.
The move cursor
Clip shadow
Clips assume activeness when you place them on the timeline. Activeness
refers to the sections of a clip that can be used in the final sequence. These
active frames are indicated by an activeness bar below a clip. Not all active
clips in a sequence are included when you play the final sequence.
Whether an active clip plays in a sequence or not depends on the position
of the clip on the timeline and the track selector settings.
102
Creating Sequences
The behavior of clip activeness varies between audio, video, and
background tracks.
•
Background tracks: Only one video clip can be active at any given
time.
•
Video tracks: Multiple video clips can be active at the same time. The
clips on the top tracks play on top of clips on the lower tracks. The
effects and video clips with full-screen alpha clips placed on top tracks
are composited over the active clips on the lower tracks.
•
Audio tracks: All active audio clips play back. This lets you play
multiple audio streams at the same time.
For more information, see “Changing the Activeness of Clips” on
page 156.
Activeness bars
Video clips can be placed only on video tracks and background tracks, and
audio clips only on audio tracks. When a clip with synchronized video and
audio components is placed on the timeline, the video and audio are placed
as separate clips on the audio and video or background tracks.
Same Track versus Multi-track Editing
Although you can easily place all your video clips on a single video track,
working on multiple video tracks gives you more flexibility when editing.
You can use video tracks to layer effects. When clips are active, the clips
on the top video tracks play over the clips on the lower tracks. Any effects
and video clips with full-screen alpha clips placed on the top video tracks
are composited over the active clips on the lower tracks.
103
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
The active frames and position on the timeline determine the sequence of
events. For example, you can place shots taken with different cameras on
separate tracks. You can then easily switch the view from one camera to
another by activating and deactivating clips. For more information, see
“Cutting to a Clip” on page 231.
The following example shows how the same sequence is produced on one
video track and on multiple video tracks. The activeness bars in both
scenarios indicate which frames are used in the sequence. However, when
working with multiple tracks, the activeness of clips on the top tracks
indicate the frames used. In both scenarios, the same frames on the clips
are used.
Same-track editing:
Clip is added to the
same track.
Before
After
Multi-track editing:
Clip is added to a
new track.
Before
New track
After
Frames not displayed
during playback.
When you place clips on multiple tracks, you can reveal extra frames while
editing. This is especially useful when you want to see how many frames
are available for slipping or sliding. For more information, see “Revealing
Unused Material on Clips” on page 155.
104
Creating Sequences
n
When working with audio, placing your audio clips on different tracks lets
you play multiple audio streams simultaneously.
Placing Multiple Clips on the Timeline
You can select multiple clips from a bin and drag them to the timeline or
timeline ribbon for editing. This is a quick way to edit several clips
together. For example, if you have previously classified material by scene
number, you can quickly sort clips by scene number and then drag them all
to the timeline. Clips are placed on the timeline in the order in which you
selected them. When you select all the clips in a bin, they appear in the
order in which they were sorted.
To place multiple clips on the timeline:
1. In a bin, do one of the following:
t
To select clips randomly, hold down the Ctrl key and click any
clips that you want to select.
t
To select clips sequentially, click the first clip and hold down the
Shift key and click the last clip that you want to select.
t
To select multiple clips, drag over a region in the bin.
2. Drag the selected clips to the timeline.
Placing Pre-edited Clips on the Timeline
If you’ve previewed and edited your source clip in the Source viewer, there
are different ways to place the clip on the timeline. You can manually drag
it to the timeline, or use the Overwrite, Insert, or Replace buttons.
n
The following instructions apply only when the Ripple button is
deactivated on the tracks. For more information, see “Rippling Clips” on
page 178.
105
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To drag a clip to the timeline:
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see “Marking In and
Out-points on the Timeline” on page 122.
2. Click the Source viewer and drag the clip to a track on the timeline,
moving it close to the in-point.
t
To insert the clip, hold down the V key.
t
To overwrite the existing clips, hold down the B key.
The magnetism of the in-point automatically draws the clip to the
marked timecode.
n
The Autoswitch command on the Trim Mode menu must be deselected
before you can drag a clip from the Source viewer to the timeline.
When you drag a clip to a video or audio track, the clip becomes active.
When you drag a clip to a background track, the clip becomes active only
in areas where there are no other active clips. The following illustration
shows a clip being dragged to a background track.
Background tracks
Inserted clip
Before
After
If you want to perform three-point editing, set both an in-point and outpoint on the timeline. As a general rule, the in-point and out-point on the
timeline determine the amount of space inserted into the sequence. For
example, if the clip is longer than the marked region on the timeline, the
out-point of the clip is trimmed to fit the specified duration. If the clip is
shorter than the marked region on the timeline, a gap is added in areas not
covered by the inserted clip. The following illustration shows a clip being
placed between marked points on the timeline.
In-point
106
Out-point
Creating Sequences
To insert or overwrite a clip on the timeline:
1. Mark an in-point at the timecode where you want to place your clip.
2. If you want to edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector, see “Patching Tracks” on
page 108.
3. Click one of the following buttons:
t
Overwrite Clip to place the clip at the in-point and overwrite any
existing clips over the section that it covers.
Inserted clip
t
Insert Clip to place the clip at the in-point and ripple all
subsequent clips on the timeline.
The clip that is inserted on the timeline becomes active regardless
of other active clips on the timeline.
Inserted clip
t
Fit to Fill to size the clip to fit perfectly between the marked in
and out-points on the timeline. To use this option, you must also
have specific in and out-points marked on the clip.
107
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
n
If the clip is longer or shorter than the marked region on the timeline, the
clip is placed in a timewarp container clip and stretched or shortened
accordingly. This speeds up or slows down the action in the clip.
To replace a clip on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip on the timeline.
3. If you want to edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector, see “Patching Tracks” on
page 108.
4. Click the Replace Clip button to overwrite the selected clip with the
one that is currently in the Source viewer.
Patching Tracks
When working with multiple tracks, you can encounter a circumstance
where you must edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector. To edit the source material
onto another record track above or below it, you must patch the source
track to the targeted record track.
You can perform only one patch per edit, but there is no limit on the
number of times you can patch from the same source track. Audio can
patch only to audio tracks, and video only to video or background tracks.
108
Creating Sequences
To perform a patch:
t
In the Track selector, drag from a source track (audio or video) to the
targeted record track (a black line is displayed during the patch).
Patching V1 source track
to V2 record track.
After patching
tracks.
The selected source track moves beside the record track to which it is
patched. The patched track remains selected in preparation for your
edit.
Placing Video Clips on the Timeline
A video clip can consist of live action, graphics, animation, or imported
images. You can place video clips on video tracks or background tracks.
Placing clips on the video tracks lets you composite over other clips on the
tracks below it. Active clips on video tracks are composited in the order in
which the video tracks appear on the timeline. For more information, see
“Placing Clips on the Timeline” on page 101.
As you drag video clips to background tracks, the clips detect areas that are
occupied, so that you don’t overwrite clips that have already been
positioned in time.
To place a video clip on the timeline:
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see “Marking In and
Out-points on the Timeline” on page 122.
2. Drag a clip from a bin or Source viewer to the timeline ribbon, video
track, or background track on the timeline, and align it close to the inpoint.
109
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
A shadow is displayed on the timeline to indicate the area where your
clip will be placed. The magnetism of the clip is attracted to other
objects in close proximity. This helps you align clips with other clips,
in-point, or out-points.
n
To temporarily deactivate magnetism, hold down the Shift key as you drag
an object.
3. If you’re satisfied with the location, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on the timeline and becomes active. If
the video clip is placed on a background track, then the video clip is
only active on areas where there are no other active clips on
background tracks.
n
You can also insert or overwrite clips on your tracks and specify the track
on which to place a clip. To do this, right-click a clip and drag it from the
bin to any video track. This opens the Track Router dialog box from which
you can select a video or background track.
When you place a clip on the timeline, the in-point moves to the end of the
clip. The out-point (if any) is deleted.
n
You can display the unused frames of the clip by right-clicking on the
overview area and selecting Display > Display Unused Material before
placing the clip on the timeline.
The following illustration shows the timeline after a video clip is added to
a video track. The inserted clip shows unused material.
Unused frames
Inserted clip
110
Active frames
Creating Sequences
Placing Audio Clips on the Timeline
Audio clips are the sound portion of your sequence. They contain material
like sound effects, music, and dialogue.
When you place an audio clip on an empty timeline, an activeness bar is
automatically displayed under the audio clip. Multiple audio clips can be
active at the same time span, as long as they’re on different tracks.
n
Audio clips that do not have the sample rate specified in the user
preferences can still be placed on the timeline. However, you will not be
able to hear the clips until you recapture the audio material at the proper
sampling rate. For more information, see “Converting the Sample Rate”
on page 417.
The following table lists the audio clip types and the channels contained
with each type of audio clip, depending on how many audio channels the
audio clip has.
This type of audio clip...
Contains these audio channels
Mono
A single audio channel
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, and
right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, right, center, and
surround
4 streams
Four generic audio channels: Output 1, output 2,
output 3, and output 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE, left
surround, and right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE,
surround center, side left, and side right
111
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
This type of audio clip...
Contains these audio channels
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE,
left surround, right surround, left center, and
right center
8 streams
Eight generic audio channels: Output 1 to 8
When you place an audio clip on the timeline, it generates a waveform to
display the audio channels. Each channel has a distinct waveform. For
example, a mono clip has a single waveform, a stereo clip has two
waveforms, and an 8-stream clip has eight. Each waveform has a zero
line running through the middle.
A mono audio clip
zero line
A stereo audio clip
Like audio clips, audio tracks can also be mono, stereo, quadraphonic,
LCRS, 4 streams, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, or 8 streams. You can place any kind of
audio clip on any kind of audio track. For information, see “Track Property
Editor” in the Help.
112
Creating Sequences
If the clip and the track are not the same type:
t
The clip is yellow to indicate that the clip and track formats do not
match.
t
The clip’s audio channels are assigned to the track’s audio channels, as
much as possible.
For example, if you place a stereo clip on an 8-stream track, the stereo
clip’s two audio channels will be assigned to the first two audio channels in
the 8-stream track. Conversely, if you place an 8-stream clip on a stereo
track, the 8-stream clip’s first two audio channels will be assigned to the
stereo track’s two channels, while the other six channels in the 8-stream
clip are ignored. You can adjust the way that a clip’s audio channels
occupy a track’s audio channels in the mixer. For more information, see
“Adjusting the Mixer Outputs” on page 412.
n
You can also mix different audio signals by creating an audio container
clip. Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them
together, and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline. For
more information, see “Creating an Audio Container Clip” on page 244.
To place an audio clip on the timeline:
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see “Marking In and
Out-points on the Timeline” on page 122.
2. Drag a clip from a bin or Source viewer to the timeline ribbon or audio
track on the timeline, and align it close to the in-point.
n
If you want to select a specific track on which to place the clip, right-click
the clip and drag it from a bin to any of the audio tracks on the timeline.
This opens the Track Router dialog box from which you can select an audio
track.
A shadow is displayed on the timeline to indicate the area where your
clip will be placed. The magnetism of the clip is attracted to other
objects in close proximity. This helps you align clips with other clips,
in-points, or out-points.
n
To temporarily deactivate magnetism, press Shift as you drag an object.
113
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
3. If you’re satisfied with the location, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on an audio track on the timeline and
becomes active even where there are existing audio clips because you
can play multiple audio tracks simultaneously.
When you place a clip on the timeline, the in-point moves to the end of the
clip. The out-point (if any) is deleted. Audio clips can be active
simultaneously.
Placing Clips on the Timeline Using Sync Point Editing
Sync point editing lets you overwrite or insert material onto your sequence
in such a way that a particular point in the source material is in sync with a
particular point in the sequence. For example, you can sync an action in the
source video with an audio event such as a musical beat in the sequence,
and then edit it so that the action occurs on the beat.
Sync point editing uses the relative location of the position indicator in
both the source and record material as the sync point. Sync point editing
determines the duration of the new edit according to marks that you set.
You can apply these marks across multiple tracks when marking a
sequence. This lets you add overlap cuts.
Sync point editing requires two pieces of information:
•
Sync points: These are the points where the synchronized relationship
between the source and record material is established.
•
Duration of the relationship: This is determined by the positions of
the head and tail frames (and sometimes by the position indicator).
Both marks can be in one monitor, or one mark can be in one monitor
and the other mark in the other monitor. The duration of the material
being edited into the sequence must be sufficient for the size of the
edit.
To perform a sync point edit:
1. Load a clip or sequence into the Source viewer.
2. Load a sequence into the Record viewer.
114
Creating Sequences
3. Mark the material, do one of the following:
t
Mark in and out points in either the Source or Record viewer,
leaving the opposite monitor clear of marks.
t
Mark an in or out-point in the Source viewer, or an in or out-point
in the Record viewer. For example, if you marked an in-point in
the Source viewer, mark the out-point in the Record viewer.
4. Move the source position indicator to the sync frame in the clip. This
establishes the source sync point.
5. Move the record position indicator to the sync frame in the sequence.
6. Click the Sync Point Editing button to active sync point editing.
7. Select the source and record tracks for this edit.
8. Do one of the following:
t
Click the Overwrite Clip button to overwrite any existing marked
material on the timeline.
t
Click the Insert Clip button to place the clip in the sequence an
ripple all subsequent clips on the timeline.
t
Click the Replace Clip button to overwrite the selected clip on the
timeline.
The sync point edit is complete.
To turn off sync point editing:
t
Click the Sync Point Editing button.
115
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Working on the Tracks
There are three types of tracks on the timeline:
•
Audio tracks contain the audio clips and audio container clips of a
sequence.
•
Video tracks contain the video clips and container clips that are
composited over clips on the video and background tracks.
•
Background tracks contain the video clips and
background/composite container clips of a sequence.
While working with multiple tracks, you can use the Track selector to
select, manipulate, delete, ripple, patch, and monitor the tracks. You can
use multiple tracks to layer audio effects and sound, or to add video titles
and other effects.
You can change track properties, such as the track name or the level of
detail at which clips are displayed on a track. By default, tracks are
numbered sequentially (V1, V2, A1, A2, and so on) as they are created on
the timeline.
You can also scroll and adjust the heights of tracks.
Overview area
Timeline controls
Ruler
Timeline ribbon
Timeline effect
track ripple
Timeline effect track
Video tracks
Track selector
Background track
Audio track
Timeline navigation bar
Position Indicator
Timecode boxes
For more information, see “Track Selector” in the Help.
116
Creating Sequences
To show or hide the Track selector:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Display > Display Control
Area.
Selecting Tracks
You can select one or more tracks at the same time. When you select a
track, you can perform editing operations on the entire track. For example,
you can select two tracks and apply a track-based effect by clicking Video
Effect from the toolbar and choosing an effect from the pop-up menu. This
effect will be applied over all the clips on the selected tracks.
To select a track:
t
Track button
From the Track selector, click the Track button.
The Track button for the selected track is highlighted.
To deselect a track:
t
n
From the Track selector, click the Track button of a selected track.
You can also activate and deactivate tracks by right-clicking a track and
selecting Live Track.
To select a region on multiple tracks:
1. Drag over a section of the track to select a region.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and click another track.
The region is highlighted on all selected tracks.
Adding and Deleting Tracks
You can add any number of audio, video, or background tracks to the
timeline. Video tracks are added to the top of the timeline, and audio tracks
are added to the bottom of the timeline. Background tracks are inserted
between the audio and video tracks.
You can also delete tracks that are no longer required in the sequence.
117
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To insert a track on the timeline:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Create Audio Track, Create
Video Track, or Create Background Track.
An empty track is added to the timeline.
n
Tip: You can automatically insert a track when dragging a clip from a bin
to the timeline. Simply drag the clip to the timeline ribbon.
To remove a track from the timeline:
t
Right-click an empty area of the track and select Delete Track.
The selected track and all the clips on it are deleted from the timeline.
Reordering Tracks
You can change the order of the video, audio, and background tracks. You
cannot, however, place a video track below a background track.
To reorder tracks:
Track
button
t
Drag the Track button to a new location.
Setting the Track Height
You can enlarge or reduce the height of the tracks to improve visibility and
display more information within the tracks. You can reduce the track
height if you need more space on the timeline to view other tracks.
n
Reducing the track height may hide any effects you have applied on the
timeline.
To enlarge or reduce the height of tracks:
t
Press Ctrl and drag the line between the Track buttons to change the
height of the track above the line.
Height adjustment
118
Creating Sequences
Scrolling Tracks
As you add more tracks, the tracks at the bottom of the timeline scroll off
the desktop. Similarly as you add more clips to a track, they scroll to the
right or left of the desktop.
To scroll tracks vertically:
1. Place the pointer at the far left of the Track selector.
Scroll area
2. When the hand icon is displayed, drag up or down to view additional
tracks.
n
If you hide the Track selector, you can still scroll the tracks vertically by
holding down the X key and dragging the timeline up and down.
To scroll tracks horizontally, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the X key and drag left or right on the timeline.
t
Click the scroll bar on the timeline navigation bar and drag left or
right.
The timeline scrolls left or right.
119
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Muting Audio and Video Tracks
If there are several tracks on the timeline and you need to exclude clips
from the preview, you can turn off the audio signal on selected audio tracks
or turn off the video on a selected video track. When the sequence is
played, you do not hear clips on audio tracks that are muted and you do not
see video clips in the viewer for video tracks that are muted.
n
Mute
button
Muted tracks do not contribute to the output sequence.
To turn off the sound on an audio track:
t
Click the Mute button on an audio track.
The Mute button turns red.
To turn off the video playback on a video track:
t
Click the Mute button on a video track.
The Mute button turns red.
Setting Tracks to Solo
When you solo a track, it plays the contents of that track during the
preview. Both active and inactive video clips are displayed in the viewer.
With video, you can only solo one track at a time. With audio, however,
you can solo more than one track. Any tracks that do not have the Solo
button activated are not viewed or heard.
To solo a track:
Solo
button
n
120
t
Click the Solo button of the tracks that you want to preview.
The Solo button turns green.
The status of the Solo button on each audio track is saved along with the
sequence.
Creating Sequences
Changing Track Properties
You can view track information, such as the start and end times, track type,
and number of clips on the track. You can change the properties of any
track, including the track name and level of detail that each clip displays.
To access track properties:
t
Right-click an empty area of the track and select Track Properties.
The Track property editor is displayed.
For information about the Track properties, click the Help button.
To set the level of detail on a track:
1. In the Track property editor, select the General tab.
2. From the Level of Detail list, select one of the following:
n
-
Low to display clips or waveforms with the least amount of detail.
-
Medium to display the start and end thumbnails of clips.
-
High to display the thumbnails of clips at regular intervals and a
detailed view of the audio waveform. You must increase the height
of the track to see the waveform.
Tip: You can also change the level of detail of each clip by right-clicking
and selecting Properties.
3. From the Effect Size list, select one of the following:
-
Small to display the effect bar with no detail.
-
Large to display the name of the effect.
To rename a track:
1. In the Track property editor, select the General tab.
2. In the Name text box, type a name.
n
Depending on the height of your track, you may not be able to view the full
name. If you place the pointer over the track name, however, a tooltip with
the full name is displayed.
121
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
When you create a new sequence, an in-point is automatically placed at the
beginning of the timeline. If you want to place the clip at a specific
timecode, you can mark the in-point on the timeline where you want to
place the clip. After you place a clip at this in-point, the in-point moves to
the last frame of the clip, ready for you to place the next clip in the
sequence.
In-points and out-points let you mark points on the timeline, where you can
insert clips, or replace or overwrite existing clips.
After the in-point and out-point are set on the timeline, the I (in) or O (out)
timecode boxes display the exact timecodes. You can change the position
of the in-point or out-point by typing a new timecode in the corresponding
timecode box, or by dragging the marker along the timeline ribbon. For
more information, see “Timeline Ribbon” in the Help.
Using the Mark Buttons to Set In and Out-points
The Mark In, Mark Out, and Mark In/Out buttons provide an easy way to
set in-points and out-points on the timeline.
To mark an in-point or out-point on the timeline:
1. Place the position indicator at the location where you want to place the
in-point or out-point.
2. Click the Mark In or Mark Out button below the Record viewer.
An in-point or out-point is displayed on the timeline ribbon and in the
position bar below the viewer.
To place an in-point and out-point on a selected region:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, make sure the Selection Mode button
is selected.
2. On the timeline, select a clip, effect, or activeness bar, or drag to define
a region where you want to set the in-point and out-point.
3. On the timeline controls, click the Mark In/Out button.
122
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
An in-point and an out-point are displayed on the timeline ribbon and
on the position bar below the viewer.
Using Timecode to Set In and Out-points
You can set an in-point or out-point at an exact timecode by typing the
timecode in a corresponding timecode box. For example, if you type
12:00:00:22 in the I (in) timecode box and press Enter, an in-point is
marked at that timecode.
You can also use the scratch pad control to set in and out-points to an exact
timecode.
To mark an in-point or out-point using the scratch pad control:
1. Click the viewer that is displaying a clip or sequence.
2. Press any number on the keyboard.
A timecode box is displayed in the selected viewer.
3. Type the timecode of the frame you want to mark by using the
keyboard, followed by one of the following:
n
When typing a timecode value you can skip fields by typing a dot (.). For
example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
t
Press the I key to mark the in-point.
t
Press the O key to mark the out-point.
t
Press the D key to set the duration. Positive timecode changes the
out-point and negative timecode changes the in-point.
If you type in a positive timecode, and the in-point is undefined, it
is treated as negative timecode. If you type in a negative timecode,
and the out-point is undefined, it is treated as positive timecode.
The in-point, out-point, or duration for the clip or sequence is set.
123
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
n
You can move the in-point, out-point, or position indicator a set number of
frames. In the timecode box, type the number of frame followed by a +
(plus sign) or - (minus sign). Then press I or O to move the appropriate
marker.
To close the timecode box:
t
Press the Esc key.
To place an in-point and out-point on a portion of the sequence:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Mark an in-point on the timeline.
t
Mark an out-point on the timeline.
2. In the D timecode box, type the duration of the area you want to mark.
The other marker (in-point or out-point) is displayed on the timeline to
mark the area.
Displaying Timecodes
The timecode boxes on the status bar display timecodes for a selected
object on the timeline. You can also use the timecode boxes to enter new
values for the start, end, or duration of a selected object.
The Clip and Timeline options refer to the source and sequence timecodes.
The source timecodes are the actual times taken from the source tape.
These timecodes are displayed when you select a clip that was captured
from tape. The sequence timecodes reflect the current position of clips on
the timeline. These timecodes are used when outputting media.
When you select an object on the timeline, the Start, End, and Duration
boxes display the timecodes of a clip, activeness bar, effect bar, region
selection, transition, or edit point. The In, Out, and Duration boxes display
the timecodes of in and out-points on the timeline ribbon and the duration
between them.
For more information, see “Timecode Boxes (Timeline Status Bar)” in the
Help.
124
Displaying Timecodes
Displaying the Source Timecodes of a Clip
You can display the source timecodes of a selected clip. You can also
display the source timecode of a selected frame.
If you want to display the source timecode of a frame between the start and
end of the clip, you must place a reference locator at that frame.
To display a clip’s start and end source timecodes:
1. On the timeline, select a clip.
2. On the status bar, select the Clip option.
The clip’s start and end source timecodes are displayed on the status
bar.
Selected clip
Timecode of clip
Clip option selected
To display the source timecode at a specific frame:
1. Place the position indicator on the frame where you want to display the
source timecode.
2. On the timeline, select the corresponding clip and press M.
A reference locator is placed on the clip at the position indicator.
3. Place the pointer over this locator.
A tooltip displays the source timecode at that frame.
125
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Displaying the Sequence Timecodes of a Clip
The sequence timecodes display the current position of an object on the
timeline. You can display the start, end, and duration of a clip, activeness
bar, effect bar, region selection, transition, or edit point.
To display a clip’s timecode in relation to the timeline:
1. On the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the status bar, select the Timeline option.
The clip’s start, end, and duration on the timeline are displayed in the
timecode boxes. If you move the clip on the timeline, the timecode
boxes automatically reflects its new position.
Selected
clip
Timeline timecode of the clip.
Timeline option selected.
Moving or Trimming Objects Using the Timecode Boxes
Instead of dragging a clip on the timeline or trimming its end times, you
can type values in the timecode boxes to change the start, end, or duration
of a clip.
In addition, you can use relative input methods to change the timecode
values. This lets you offset the current timecode by a given amount.
The following table summarizes the various means of typing values in
timecode boxes, assuming that the current timecode is 01:12:34:00.
126
Displaying Timecodes
You type
NTSC Result
PAL Result
Description
Absolute Input Method
5223
00:00:52:23
00:00:52:23
Replaces the current
timecode
/5223
01:12:52:23
01:12:52:23
Replaces the rightmost
portion of current timecode
.40
00:00:01:10
00:00:01:15
Replaces the current
timecode with this many
frames (direct frame entry)
10:00.40
00:10:01:10
00:10:01:15
Combines timecode value
with direct frame entry
3:::1
03:00:00:01
03:00:00:01
Skip fields by typing
colons
Relative Input Method
110+
110-
01:12:35:10
01:12:32:20
01:12:35:10
01:12:32:15
Increases or decreases the
current timecode by the
value typed
.110+
.110-
01:12:37:20
01:12:30:10
01:12:38:10
01:12:29:15
Increases or decreases the
current timecode by the
number of frames typed
1.10+
1.10-
1:12:35:10
1:12:33:20
1:12:35:10
1:12:32:15
]
or [
01:12:34:01
01:12:33:29
01:12:34:01
01:12:33:24
Nudges the current
timecode up or down by 1
frame
Ctrl-]
or Ctrl-[
01:12:34:01
01:12:33:20
01:12:34:10
01:12:33:15
Nudges the current
timecode up or down by 10
frames
127
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
For example, to move a clip 10 frames forward, type 10+ in the Start
timecode box to move the clip forward by 10 frames. If the Ripple button
was activated when you typed the new start timecode, then the edit will
ripple across the timeline. Similarly, to move a clip backwards by 10
frames, type 10- in the Start timecode box.
Adjusting the Timeline
Framing the media on the timeline lets you make better use of the overview
area. This is particularly useful when media starts at a timecode other than
00:00:00:00. The Avid DS Nitris system considers the start time of the
media and frames it according to the earliest timecode on which material is
present, as opposed to 00:00:00:00.
To trim the timeline to the media:
t
Right-click the overview area of the timeline and select Trim Timeline
to Media.
The overview area adjusts to show the full length of your sequence.
Changing the Visible Time Span
The visible time span represents the section of the sequence that is
currently visible on the timeline. The visible time span is adjustable, so
you can display individual frames in the sequence, another section of the
sequence, or the entire sequence in the timeline.
Any clip bars that are within the visible time span are displayed on the
tracks in the timeline. You can stretch out the visible time span
interactively to zoom in or out on the timeline. You can also use the
timeline controls to adjust the length of the visible time span.
128
Displaying Timecodes
Visible time span
To move the visible time span:
1. Place the pointer over the visible time span.
A double-headed arrow is displayed.
Pointer in visible time span.
2. Drag the visible time span to the section of the timeline that you want
to view.
The timeline displays the clips within the visible time span.
Panning and Zooming the Timeline
To display a specific region on the timeline:
1. Drag over a section of the timeline to select a region.
Zoom In button
Zoom to Frame
button
2. From the timeline controls, click the Zoom In or Zoom to Frame
button.
The timeline zooms in to display the selected region, while the visible
time span in the overview area scales to highlight the selection.
129
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Using the Zoom Controls
You can change the magnification of the timeline using the zoom controls.
These controls let you zoom in or out to view more or less clip detail.
The displayed region is always centered on the position indicator. As you
move the position indicator, notice how the visible region adjusts to
indicate the section of the sequence that is currently in view.
To zoom the timeline interactively, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Z key and drag left or right over the tracks.
t
In the timeline navigation bar, drag the scale bar left or right.
To zoom in on a specific clip on the timeline:
t
In the overview area, press Ctrl+F and click a clip bar.
The track of the selected clip immediately comes into view and the
entire clip is displayed.
To zoom in to display less frames:
t
From the timeline controls, click the Zoom In button.
The timeline displays fewer frames, but in greater detail.
To zoom out to display more frames:
t
From the timeline controls, click the Zoom Out button.
The timeline displays more frames, but at less detail.
To zoom in to one-frame intervals:
t
From the timeline controls, click the Zoom to Frame button.
The timeline displays one-frame intervals between clip thumbnails.
The position indicator splits to indicate a single frame, a solid blue line
is displayed at the left of the frame, and a dotted blue line is displayed
at the right of the frame. To return to the previous display, click the
button again.
130
Displaying Timecodes
Panning the Timeline
If your sequence has several clips, they may not all be visible on the
timeline. You can pan the timeline to focus on different sections of your
sequence.
To pan the timeline, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the X key and drag left or right over the tracks.
t
In the timeline navigation bar, drag the timeline scroll bar left or right.
To zoom in or out using the visible time span:
1. Place the pointer over the left or right edge of the visible time span.
An arrow pointing to the right or left is displayed.
2. Drag the edge of the visible time span left or right to zoom the
timeline.
The time span lengthens or shortens to display more or less clip detail
in the timeline.
To display all clips on the timeline:
1. In the overview area, place the pointer over the visible time span.
2. Double-click the visible time span.
The visible time span stretches out over all clips on the timeline, so
that you can see all clips in the sequence.
3. Double-click the visible time span to return to the previous zoom area.
Changing the Ruler Display
The ruler in the timeline displays the time scale for your sequence. When
working with video, you can change the time scale to display in frames,
timecode drop frames, timecode non-drop frames, or audio samples. These
options differ between PAL and NTSC formats.
131
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To change the ruler’s time scale:
t
Right-click the ruler and select the appropriate time scale.
The exact timecode at the position of the position indicator is displayed in
the P timecode box on the status bar. Depending on the ruler time scale you
select, the timecode is displayed in hours, minutes, seconds, and
frames/audio samples.
Ruler time scale
Timecode display format
SMPTE NTSC drop frame
23:59:59;29
SMPTE NTSC non-drop
frame
23:59:59:29
25 fps (PAL only)
23:59:59:23
Audio samples
23:59:59.47999
Display as Frames
1234567
Displaying Different Rulers
While working in a container clip, you can set the ruler to display the time
scale of the current container clip, its parent container, or the top timeline.
This is useful when you want to verify the location of a clip or effect in
relation to the top timeline.
n
132
By default, a container clip’s timeline always starts at 00:00:00. This
makes it easier to determine the duration of the container clip.
Viewing a Sequence as a Hieracharical Tree Structure
To display a different ruler:
t
Right-click the ruler and select a ruler.
Viewing a Sequence as a Hieracharical Tree Structure
The Sequence view displays the timeline as a hierarcharical tree structure.
The root of the hierarchy is your sequence, which you can expand to show
individual video and audio clips, and container clips. Container clips can
be further expanded to show their contents. Items that you select in the
Sequence view are also selected on the timeline.
There are two viewing modes in the Sequence view: Show All Content and
Show Content at Time. You can select a viewing mode from the drop-down
menu at the top.
Sequence view list
133
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To access the Sequence view, do one of the following:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Sequence View.
t
From the view switcher, click the Sequence view button.
To view all the clips in your timeline:
t
From the Sequence view list, select Show all content.
The Sequence view displays all the clips in your sequence, from the
top timeline on down through all your container clips.
To view all the clips at the current playback position:
t
From the Sequence view list, select Show content at time.
The Sequence view displays all the clips in your sequence at the
current playback position, from the top timeline on down through all
your container clips.
Playing Sequences
You can use various Record viewer buttons, the position indicator, and
keyboard keys to play and shuttle your sequence.
Using the buttons below the Record viewer, you can play back your
sequence in the Record viewer and on the external monitor. When you play
the sequence, only its active frames are displayed in the Record viewer (or
heard on the speakers), allowing you to view the sequence as it will appear
in the final sequence. While previewing, however, you can play selected
tracks of your sequence to isolate some sounds or images. For information,
see “Working on the Tracks” on page 116.
n
134
You can use variable-speed play controls (J-K-L keys on the keyboard) to
shuttle, step, or pause during playback. For more information, see
“Varying the Playback Speed” on page 137.
Playing Sequences
Go to End/Fast Forward
Frame Backward
Go to Start/Rewind
Frame Forward
Play/Stop
Position indicator
Skipped Frame indicator
Position bar
10 Frames Backward
10 Frames Forward
Play From In/Out-point
Loop
For more information, see “Transport Controls” in the Help.
While playing a sequence, you might see one of the following messages
display in the viewer:
Message
Description
Processing Needed
Some clips, on which you’ve placed effects, need to be
processed before you can see the results.
Media not Available
There is no media for this clip at the quality (resolution
and compression) that you have specified in your
sequence preferences—see “Understanding Video
Quality Matching” on page 76.
Media not Found
Avid DS Nitris could not find the media for this clip. The
media may have been deleted or moved to another
location, or the connection to your storage may be faulty.
If the media has been deleted, you will need to recapture
it at the quality specified in your sequence preferences.
135
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To play a sequence:
1. Deselect the Mute button on the Track selector for all tracks.
n
Muted tracks do not play back.
2. Click the Go to Start button below the Record viewer.
The position indicator moves to the start of the sequence.
3. Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
If you’re playing a video sequence, the Record viewer updates
accordingly.
n
When playing your sequence, the Play button may turn amber if any frames
are skipped during playback. Frame skipping may occur when it reaches a
point where a frame cannot be computed before display time. For more
information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on page 282.
To stop playing a sequence during playback, do one of the following:
t
Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
t
Click the Record viewer.
t
Click the timeline ruler.
t
Press the space bar.
The position indicator moves to the position you clicked and
playback stops.
To skip to a new position on the timeline and keep playing:
t
Press Shift and click the new position on the timeline ruler.
To scrub clips on the timeline:
136
t
On the timeline ruler, drag right or left to play or rewind the clips at
your own speed, or
t
Drag the position indicator in the position bar below the Record
viewer.
Playing Sequences
To isolate specific tracks when playing the sequence:
1. In the Track selector, do one of the following:
Mute
Solo
t
Click the Solo button on the video or audio tracks that you want to
play.
t
Click the Mute button on the audio tracks that you do not want to
play.
2. Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
Only the images or sounds from the selected tracks are played.
Varying the Playback Speed
The J-K-L keys on the keyboard let you play back, step, and shuttle
through footage at varying speeds. This feature, also referred to as threebutton or variable-speed play, lets you use three fingers to manipulate the
speed of playback for greater control. You can also use the J-K-L keys to
perform smooth audio scrubbing of selected tracks.
To shuttle through the footage using the J-K-L keys on the keyboard:
1. Deselect all objects in the timeline before shuttling through the
footage.
2. Use the following keys to shuttle at varying speeds:
t
Press the L key to move forward through the footage at normal
speed. You can increase the speed by pressing the L key a number
of times.
Press the L key
To play footage at
NTSC rate PAL rate
24p rate
2 times
2x normal speed
60 fps
50 fps
48 fps
3 times
3x normal speed
90 fps
75 fps
72 fps
4 times
5x normal speed
150 fps
125 fps
120 fps
5 times
8x normal speed
240 fps
200 fps
192 fps
137
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
t
Press the J key to move backward at the same shuttle speed
increments.
t
Press the K and L keys together for slow forward (8 fps for NTSC,
6 fps for PAL, and 6 fps for 24p projects).
t
Press the K and J keys together for slow backward.
t
Hold down the K key and press the L or J key to step through
footage one frame at a time.
3. Press the K key to pause the shuttling.
4. Press the spacebar to stop the shuttling.
To shuttle clips using the position indicator do one of the following:
t
Drag the position indicator in the position bar right or left to fast
forward or rewind the clips on the timeline.
t
On the timeline ruler, drag the position indicator left or right. The
farther you drag, the faster the playback speed.
Moving to Points on the Timeline
There are several ways to move around on the timeline. You can move the
position indicator manually to any frame in your sequence, use the buttons
below the Record viewer, or type a timecode in a timecode box to quickly
move to marked points on the timeline.
To move the position indicator, do one of the following:
t
Click any point in the Timeline Ruler.
t
Click any point in the position bar below the Record viewer.
t
Deselect the Selection Mode button in the timeline navigation bar, and
then click any point on the timeline.
The position indicator moves to this position and the Record viewer
displays the frame at this timecode.
t
Click the Go to In or Go to Out button if there is an in-point or outpoint in the timeline ribbon.
The position indicator moves to the specified point.
138
Playing Sequences
To move the position indicator to a specific timecode do one of the
following:
t
Drag the position indicator left or right while reading the timecode
displayed in the P (position indicator) timecode box.
The exact position of the position indicator is displayed.
n
t
Type a value in the P (position indicator) timecode box.
t
Without selecting any timecode boxes, type a timecode value and press
Enter.
When typing a timecode value you can skip fields by typing a dot (.). For
example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
t
Select a reference locator from the Locator view.
Moving to Edit Points on the Timeline
You can move the position indicator to the next or previous edit point in the
sequence.
To move the position indicator to an edit point:
1. Right-click Trim Mode button and deselect Autoswitch.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press the , (comma) key to move the position indicator to the
previous edit point.
t
Press the . (period) key to move the position indicator to the next
edit point.
The position indicator moves to the specified point.
Looping Clips
You can play back a section of the timeline continuously by marking it
with in and out loop markers. This is useful if you want to view a small
section of the sequence while editing.
139
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To loop a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Select a clip.
t
Select a region by dragging over a section of the timeline.
The selected area or clip becomes highlighted.
3. Click the Loop button below the Record viewer.
Loop markers are displayed on the timeline ribbon at the beginning
and end of the selected region or clip including pre-roll and post-roll.
n
You can also select an effect bar, transition area, or activeness bar
for looping. If no objects are selected on the timeline, then the loop
markers surround the position indicator.
4. Adjust the loop markers by dragging them to the appropriate
timecodes.
Timeline ribbon
Loop markers
5. Click Play to play the clips within the specified region.
The marked section continues to play until you click Play again.
6. Click the Loop button again to deactivate loop mode.
Viewing Unprocessed Frames
While playing a sequence, the message “Processing Needed” is displayed
in the Record viewer if clip effects in your sequence have not been
processed. To view a clip before processing its effects, you can either play
it frame by frame or preview it. Previewing an effect reduces the quality of
the picture during playback in order to process each frame at an acceptable
speed.
140
Playing Sequences
To play a clip frame by frame:
1. Press Ctrl and click Play to play your video clip frame by frame.
The playback is slow since each frame needs to be processed. Each
processed frame is stored temporarily as an interactive cache, so the
next time you visit that frame, the results appear instantly in the
viewer.
n
In this mode, the video plays but the audio is muted.
2. Click Play again to stop playing the clips.
To preview a clip with an effect:
1. From the effect’s property editor, click the Preview button.
The preview will loop until you stop it. The playback is choppy since
Avid DS Nitris drops frames in order to display the effect.
n
In this mode, the video plays but the audio is muted.
2. Click the Preview button again to stop playing the clip.
Using the Position Bar
The position bar, below the Source and Record viewers, lets you view the
location of the position indicator, locators, and timecode as well as sets an
in-point and an out-point.
You can rescale the position bar below the Record viewer to zoom the
object selected in the timeline.
The locators on the position bar correspond to the locators on the timeline
ribbon. However, locators in the position bar cannot be moved, deleted, or
edited. To do so, you’ll have to access them from the timeline ribbon.
Position bar
In-point
Locators
Out-point
Position indicator
141
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To move the position indicator and in/out-points:
t
In the position bar, drag the position indicator or in/out-points and
move it to a new location.
To delete in and out-points:
t
In the position bar, select the in or out-point and press Delete.
To show or hide locators, tick marks, and timecode:
t
Right-click the position bar and select an option.
To change the range of the position bar to the selected object:
1. Select an object on the timeline.
2. Right-click the position bar below the Record viewer and select Zoom
to Selection.
For more information, see “Position Bar Menu” in the Help.
Switching Viewers
At times, it is useful to enlarge either the Source or Record viewer, or both,
for a better view of your clips.
To switch between single and dual viewers:
1. Select the Source or Record viewer.
2. In the viewer tools, click the Single/Dual button above the selected
viewer.
The selected viewer and its transport controls are displayed.
To enlarge or reduce both viewers:
t
Press F12 to enlarge or reduce the size of the viewers.
The viewers are displayed full-screen.
142
Playing Sequences
Setting True Video Display
Since the ITU-R 601 standard specifies a higher horizontal than vertical
resolution (or a 0.9 ratio), images appear stretched horizontally when
displayed on your computer monitor. To get a more accurate view of your
sequence as it will appear on a video monitor, you can set the viewer to
display non-square pixels.
To display non-square pixels:
t
Right-click the viewer and deselect Square Pixels.
The viewer displays your image in non-square pixels.
Zooming or Panning the Viewers
You can zoom or pan the viewer by using the Viewer menu or the keyboard
shortcuts, which allow you to work interactively with the viewer.
The Viewer property editor provides settings for various zoom and pan
controls. For example, you can set the options to automatically zoom and
pan when you are using the interactive tools, such as graphics and paint
tools, Shape tool in the Matte and Keyer effects, DVE tool, and Tracker
tool. For more information, see “Viewer Properties” in the Help.
n
The keyboard shortcuts for zooming or panning the viewer also work on
the timeline and animation editor.
To zoom in the viewer, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Z key and drag on the viewer using left mouse button to
select a region to zoom or using right mouse button to zoom
interactively.
t
Right-click the viewer, select Zoom > zoom level.
t
Position the pointer on the area of the viewer you want to zoom in on
and press Alt+Q.
t
Press Alt+Z to zoom by steps set in the Viewer Properties property
editor.
143
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To zoom out the viewer, do one of the following:
t
Right-click the viewer and select Zoom > zoom level.
t
Interactive zoom (X or Y axis): Hold down the Z key and right-drag on
the viewer.
t
Press Alt+Q again to return to the previous zoom level.
t
Press Alt+X to zoom by steps set in the Viewer Properties property
editor.
To incrementally zoom the viewer:
1. Right-click the viewer and select Viewer Properties.
2. On the Display property page, set the following:
-
In the Steps text box, set the level to zoom quickly or slowly with
Alt+Z (zoom in) and Alt+X (zoom out).
-
In the Quick Zoom Level text box, type your preferred zoom level.
3. Position the pointer on the area of the viewer you want to zoom in and
press Alt+Z repeatedly until you reach the desired zoom level.
To pan the viewer:
t
Hold down the X key and drag on the viewer.
To reset zoom or pan, do one of the following:
144
t
Hold down the Z key and click the viewer to reset zoom.
t
Hold down the X key and click the viewer, or right-click the viewer
and select Reset Pan & Zoom to reset pan.
t
Hold down the Z+X key and click a viewer to reset zoom and pan.
Manipulating Clips
Displaying Overlays
While working with the viewers, visual indicators for the head, tail, in and
out-points, and locators make editing quicker. A sawtooth pattern indicates
the head and tail of a clip.
Sawtooth
pattern indicates
head of clip.
Locator
To display the viewer overlays:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. On the Editing property page, select Show Overlays in Viewer.
The visual indicators for the head, tail, in/out-points, and locators are
displayed in the Source and Record viewers.
Manipulating Clips
After placing all your clips on the timeline, you can begin arranging them
to create a rough cut of your sequence. You can then adjust the edit points
between clips, as well as move, copy, or delete them.
n
As you rearrange your clips, the impact on other clips and their activeness
depends on what you select and whether or not the Ripple mode is
activated. When the ripple mode is on, any change to the length of a clip
propagates across the timeline to subsequent clips. For more information,
see “Rippling Clips” on page 178.
145
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Selecting Clips
All editing tasks are based on what you select on the timeline. The clips are
associated with tracks, activeness bars, edit points, transition bars, effect
bars, and regions. Selecting and manipulating any of these objects affects
the position and appearance of the clip in the final output. When editing
clips, you typically work on one clip at a time.
Before you can select objects on the timeline you must click the Selection
Mode button on the timeline navigation bar to enter Selection mode.
The following illustration shows the selectable objects on the timeline.
In-point
Clip
Effect bar
Selected
region
Tracks
Activeness bar
146
Transition
Edit point
Manipulating Clips
To select clips on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
To select a single clip, click a clip.
t
To select multiple clips, click the first clip, press Ctrl, and click
any other clips you want to select.
t
To select multiple clips within the track area, hold down the Shift
key and drag right to left over the clips you want to select.
The selected clip(s) are surrounded by a red border. When a single clip
is selected the timecode boxes on the status bar reflect its start and end
positions. The D (duration) timecode box specifies the length of time
between the two points. You can adjust the in, out, and duration
timecodes by typing values directly in the timecode boxes. This is
useful when you know the exact timecode where you want to move a
clip.
Clip start
Clip end
Clip duration
Moving Clips
You can drag clips along the same track to move them to a different point
in time. You can also drag clips from one track to another.
Synchronized video and audio clips always move together. If you need to
move them independently, you must unlock them first. For more
information, see “Synchronizing Clips” on page 183.
Moving Objects on the Timeline
You can use the J-K-L keys on the keyboard to move objects on the
timeline to the timecode of the position indicator.
147
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To move objects using the JKL keys:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. On the Editing property page, select the Selectable Objects (J-K-L
keys) options for the objects you want to move.
3. Select one or more objects on the timeline. These could be either
locators, markers, clips, activeness bars, effect bars, or edit points.
4. Press the J key or the L key to start playing.
5. Press K when you are at the desired frame. The selected object(s) are
automatically moved to this timecode.
Moving Clips on the Same Track
You can drag a clip anywhere along a track. If there are other clips in its
path, it passes directly over these clips if the Ripple mode is activated. If it
is not, then you must move it around these clips.
To drag a clip horizontally:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Click a clip to select it.
A red border surrounds the clip and the pointer changes to a move
cursor.
3. Drag the clip right or left.
To drag multiple clips horizontally:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Drag one of the clips in the selection right or left.
To move a clip with its activeness:
1. Press Shift and click the clip to select it.
A blue border surrounds the clip and the pointer changes to the Move
with Activeness cursor.
2. Drag the clip right or left.
The clip retains its activeness and changes the activeness of any clips
with which it collides.
148
Manipulating Clips
To move multiple clips with their activeness on background tracks:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Press Shift and drag the clips in the selection right or left.
The clips in the selection retain their activeness and change the
activeness of any clips with which they collide.
To move one clip past another on the same track:
1. Drag a clip to the timeline ribbon.
A shadow is displayed on the timeline as you drag the clip.
2. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the clip back to the original
track and drop it at the new location.
Moving Single Clips between Tracks
When you move clips to a different track, clip shadows appear on the
timeline where the clips will be placed.
To move a clip to a different track:
t
Using the ruler as a guide, drag a clip to a different track.
To move a clip to a different background track with its activeness:
1. Press Shift and click a clip to select it.
2. Using the ruler as a guide, drag the clip to the appropriate track.
To move a clip to a different track and constrain it to the same
timeline location:
1. Select the clip.
2. Press U and drag the clip to another track.
149
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Moving Multiple Clips between Tracks
You can move multiple clips of different types between tracks
simultaneously. The clips that you select do not have to be on the same
track.
To move multiple clips to different tracks:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Using the ruler as a guide, drag a clip to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track,
and click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the specified destination tracks.
To move multiple clips to different tracks with their activeness:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Drag the clips to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track,
and click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the specified destination tracks.
150
Manipulating Clips
To move multiple clips to different tracks and constrain them to the
same timeline locations:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Press the U key, and drag a clip to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track,
and click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the same timeline locations on the
specified destination tracks.
Renaming and Adding Comments to Clips
You can rename clips in a bin or on the timeline. Since clips on the timeline
are copies of the clips in the bin, renaming a clip on the timeline has no
effect on the name of the source clip in the bin. In the Clip property editor,
you can also add comments to clips as notes or reminders for yourself.
To rename a clip on the timeline:
1. Right-click a clip in the timeline and select Properties.
2. In the Name text box, edit the name of the clip and press Enter.
The new name is displayed on the clip in the timeline.
To add comments to clips:
1. Right-click a clip in the timeline and select Properties.
2. In the Comments text box, type your notes and press Enter.
When you reopen the clip properties dialog box, the comments are
displayed in the Comments box.
151
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Cutting Clips
Cutting a clip in two lets you manipulate the pieces independently of each
other.
To cut a clip:
1. Place the position indicator at the point where you want to apply the
cut.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Add Edit.
Although the clips appear to have been cut into two, you can still
stretch them both out to their original size by revealing the extra
frames. For more information, see “Revealing Unused Material on
Clips” on page 155.
n
The Add Edit command duplicates the clip or container clip on the
timeline. Although the duplicated clip or container clip doesn’t appear on
the timeline, it does double the size of the information on the timeline and
every element in the container clip.
Copying Clips
You can easily copy clips on the timeline. When you copy a clip, you do
not duplicate the media stored on disk. Both clips still refer to the original
media.
When you make a copy of a clip on the timeline, the new clip’s name is
prefixed by “Copy of...”. For example, if the original name of a clip is Car,
and you copy the clip to a new track, the copied clip is now called Copy of
Car. If you copy the same clip again to another track, the name of the new
clip is Copy 2 of Car. This numbering scheme continues for each copy you
create of the clip.
To copy a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select one or more clips to copy.
3. Select Edit > Copy.
152
Manipulating Clips
4. Place the position indicator at the precise timecode that you want to
place a copy of the clip, and click the Track button.
5. Select Edit > Paste.
A copy of the clip is displayed at the location of the position indicator.
You can stretch this new clip out to reveal the necessary frames. The
name of the copy is prefixed by “Copy of...”.
Deleting Clips from the Timeline
You can delete any clip on the timeline. This removes the clip from the
timeline. The master clip in the bin and its media are not affected.
To delete a clip, do one of the following:
t
Select a clip or group of clips, and press Delete.
t
Right-click a clip or a multiple clip selection, and select Delete Clip.
The clip or selection is removed from the timeline.
n
If you created clips on the timeline from an AFE file, an AAF file, an EDL,
or an OMF file without creating master clips in a bin, the clips on the
timeline are the only instances of these clips. If you remove them from the
sequence, they will no longer exist anywhere in your project. If there was
media associated with these clips it will remain on your disk array, but you
will not have access to it because it is no longer associated with any clip.
The media will remain on your disk array until it is deleted when you purge
unreferenced media.
153
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Lifting Material
Lifting lets you remove selected material from a track in the sequence and
leaves a gap. You can later move or fill this gap with other footage. When
you lift material, the overall duration of the track (or sequence) remains the
same.
Material is placed in
the Clipboard.
Lifted Clip X
Clip W
Blank space
Clip Y
Clip Z
To lift material:
1. Mark in and out-points at the start and end of the material in the
sequence that you want to lift.
2. Select the tracks that contain the material.
Material is lifted from the selected tracks only.
3. Click the Lift button to complete the edit.
Extracting Material
Extracting lets you remove selected material from a track in the sequence
and closes the gap left by its removal. When you extract material, the
duration of the track or sequence is shrunk.
Extracted Clip Y
Before
extract
After
extract
154
Clip X
Clip Y
Material is placed in
the Clipboard.
Clip Z
Track is shortened
Clip X
Clip Z
Manipulating Clips
To extract material:
1. Mark in and out-points at the start and end of the material in the
sequence that you want to extract.
2. Select the tracks that contain the material.
Material is extracted from the selected tracks only.
3. Click the Extract button to complete the edit.
n
If the clip is sync-locked with another audio or video clip, the other clip
remains on the timeline. You must delete it independently.
If Ripple mode is on, however, all the sync-locked elements are deleted.
Revealing Unused Material on Clips
When editing, you often need to see how much material is available at the
head or tail of a clip. When you display unused material, the selected clip
displays red handles on its top corners. These are the reveal handles; when
stretched out, they show any extra frames in a clip.
Reveal in handle
Reveal out handle
Shows extra frames at
the head of Smell clip.
Shows extra frames at the tail of Smell clip.
Extra frames
Activeness bar indicates
active frames in clips.
155
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To display unused material:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Display > Display Unused
Material.
To reveal or hide frames of unused material on a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip.
3. Place the pointer over the reveal handle of a clip.
An arrowhead pointing left or right is displayed.
Reveal handles
Extra material
n
You can view extra material only when there is empty space on the track.
Editing on multiple tracks gives you this flexibility.
4. Drag the reveal handles left or right to show or hide unused material.
-
To reveal more frames on the clip, drag the handle outwards. You
can only reveal as far as the last frame on the source clip.
-
To hide frames on the clip, drag the handle inwards. You can only
hide frames up to the active area of the clip.
Changing the Activeness of Clips
Activeness refers to the sections of a clip that are available for the final
sequence. The timeline uses a bottom-up hierarchy for video tracks when
playing sequences. When active clips on the top tracks overlap active clips
on lower tracks, the clips on top track are viewed on top of the clips on the
lower tracks during playback.
156
Manipulating Clips
These active frames are indicated by the activeness bar below a clip. When
you play a sequence, you can view and hear the active frames of a clip
depending on the clip’s location on the timeline and the track selector
settings. Inactive frames still appear in the timeline, but are not seen or
heard when the sequence is played.
Activeness bars indicate active clip frames.
You can adjust the activeness bar to add or remove active frames at the
head or tail of the clip. You can also activate or deactivate the entire length
of the clip using the tools on the Editing toolbar.
Activating and Deactivating Clips
In addition to adjusting the activeness bar to trim the heads or tails of clips,
you can also activate or deactivate all the frames in a clip. This is useful
when you have multiple layers of video effects and need to isolate clips on
lower tracks for viewing. Activating a clip on a video track does not change
the activeness of any other clips that overlap it. However, when you
activate a clip on a background track, the overlapping areas of other clips
become inactive.
157
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To activate or deactivate the full length of a clip:
1. Place the position indicator at the point where you want to apply the
cut.
Selected clip
Before
2. From the toolbar, click Editing and select one of the following:
-
Activate to make all the currently displayed frames in the selected
clip active.
Video track
Activated clip
After
Activeness bar is added.
Background track
Activated clip
After
Overlapping areas of other
clips become inactive.
-
158
Activeness bar is
added.
Deactivate to make all frames on the selected clip inactive.
Deactivating a clip does not change the activeness of any other
clips that overlap it.
Manipulating Clips
To activate or deactivate a region of a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Drag over a section of a clip.
The selected region is highlighted.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing and select one of the following:
-
Activate to make all the frames in the selected region active.
-
Deactivate to deactivate the selected region.
The activeness bar is removed from the selected region.
Selected region
Before
After
Deactivated section
n
You can also right-click an activeness bar and select Delete Activeness.
This removes its activeness bar.
Activeness of clips on background tracks is not always recalculated when
you deactivate clips or move them on the timeline. You can activate any
section of a selected clip on a background track where it does not overlap
other active clips on background tracks, by using the Fill Activeness
command.
To fill in the activeness of a clip:
t
Right-click the clip that needs to be activated and select Fill
Activeness.
The clip becomes active wherever there are no other active clips on
background tracks.
159
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Using Locators
The timeline ribbon displays locators, in-points, out-points, loop markers,
and indicates the portions of your timeline that may require processing.
Locators let you set reference points on the timeline, so that you can easily
move to areas of interest. The locators can also be used to help synchronize
clips. Locators display on the timeline ribbon and in the position bars.
You can add locators to clips in the Source viewer to mark a specific
timecode.
n
Tip: All locators on the timeline ribbon can also be accessed from the
Locators view in the Avid Explorer. For information, see “Displaying
Locator Information” on page 161.
In-point
Out-point
Global locator
Loop markers
Timeline ribbon
Local locator
Clip locator
Locators and markers have magnetism, which pulls a clip in when it is
moved within close proximity to a locator or marker.
n
160
Tip: At times, it may be difficult to position a clip because there are too
many locators nearby. You can override magnetism by holding down the
Shift key while dragging the clip.
Using Locators
There are two main types of locators:
•
Clip locators are for marking a reference point on a clip.
•
Reference locators are for marking a reference point on the timeline.
You can use locators to synchronize clips on the timeline. Once you set a
locator, you can drag it to a new location, rename it, or add comments to
the locator.
You can place locators on the timeline ribbon or directly on a clip. A
locator placed on the timeline ribbon remains fixed on the timeline. A
locator placed on a clip is fixed to that point on the clip. When the clip
moves, its locator moves with it.
Displaying Locator Information
The Locators view displays information on all the locators on the timeline,
including the timecode and author comments. Locators are a type of
electronic bookmark, which allow you to find and identify specific frames
during editing.
Using the Locators view as an outline for a show lets you easily jump to
any position within a longer timeline without having to scroll through the
timeline or zoom out and in.
You can also sort on various criteria in the Locators view headings, such as
position, comment, type (clip/timeline/global), video/audio tracks, review
and approval, created by, time, and version.
161
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To access the Locators view:
t
In the My System panel of the Avid Explorer, double-click Views >
Locators.
The Locators view is displayed in a bin.
Locators
Bin tools
Sorting Information in the Locators View
Depending on how you like to view information, you can sort or reverse
sort the locators.
To sort the locators:
t
Click the column heading of the column that you want to sort.
If the information in the column was in ascending order, then the
information is changed to descending order, and vice versa.
Name column in ascending order.
162
Name column in descending order.
Using Locators
Setting Reference Locators
You can place reference locators on the timeline ribbon to mark a specific
timecode at which you want to sync a clip or mark events for reference.
Reference locators can be either global or local. Global locators are visible
on the current timeline and within any container clips. Local locators are
visible only on the current timeline.
To place a local locator on the timeline, do one of the following:
t
Double-click the timeline ribbon where you want to set the locator.
t
Right-click the overview area and select Add Locator at Playback
Position > color.
A numbered locator is set on the timeline ribbon at the specified
timecode.
To place a global locator on the timeline:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Add Global Locator at
Playback Position > color.
A numbered locator is set on the timeline ribbon at the specified
timecode.
To place a locator on a clip in the Source viewer:
1. Move the position indicator located below the Source viewer, to the
point at which you want the locator to be placed.
2. Click the Locator button on the toolbar.
n
Tip: To change the name or color of the locator, and add comments, open
the locator’s property editor by right-clicking the locator and selecting
Locator Properties.
163
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Placing Locators on Clips
Locators are useful for synchronizing clips with other clips or specific
points on the timeline. You can set locators at any point on a clip.
n
Clip locators do not move with the edit points. If you change activeness on
a clip, you will have to re-mark the edit points.
To place a locator on a clip:
1. Move the position indicator to the point at which you want the locator
to be placed.
2. Right-click the clip, and select Add Locator > At Playback Position
> color.
A colored locator with a numbered label is set on the selected clip at
the position indicator. Each time you add a locator to the clip, the
number on the locator name increments. The numbering starts at 1 on
each clip on which you place locators.
Clip locator
To set a locator at the start or end of a clip:
1. Right-click a clip, and select Add Locator and one of the following:
-
At Clip Start to add a locator at the in-point.
-
At Clip End to add a locator at the out-point.
2. Select a color for the locator.
To set locators at the edit points:
t
164
Right-click a clip and select Add Locator > At Edit Points > color.
Using Locators
Moving Locators
After you have set locators, you can move them to different positions. You
can even move a locator from a clip to the timeline ribbon or vice versa.
Clip locators have magnetism, which forces clips to snap to other timeline
objects when they are in close proximity to each other.
n
If the Locator option is selected in the User Preferences dialog box
(Editing property page), you can use the J-K-L keys to move locators in the
timeline.
To move a locator on a clip:
1. On the clip, place the pointer over the triangular portion of a locator.
2. When the double-headed arrow is displayed, drag the locator to a new
location.
Move Locator cursor
To move a locator on the timeline ribbon:
1. On the timeline ribbon, place the pointer over a locator.
2. When the double-headed arrow is displayed, drag the locator to a new
location.
To move a clip with a locator:
1. On the clip, place the pointer over the square portion of a locator.
2. When the crosshair cursor is displayed, drag the locator left or right.
165
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
The clip moves with the locator as you drag it to a new location. The
locator keeps its position on the clip.
Move Clip Locator cursor.
To move a clip locator to the timeline ribbon:
1. On the clip, place the pointer over the triangular portion of a locator.
2. When the double-headed arrow is displayed, drag the locator up to a
position on the timeline ribbon.
The clip locator turns into a reference locator on the timeline ribbon.
To move a clip locator to the timeline ribbon and constrain it to the
same timeline location:
t
Hold down the U key and drag the locator up to a position on the
timeline ribbon.
The clip locator turns into a reference locator on the timeline ribbon in
the same timeline location.
To move a local locator to a clip:
1. On the timeline ribbon, place the pointer over a local locator.
2. Drag the locator to a position on a clip.
The local locator turns into a clip locator.
To move a local locator to a clip and constrain it to the same timeline
location:
t
Hold down the U key and drag the locator to a position on the clip.
The local locator turns into a clip locator at the same timeline location.
166
Using Locators
Deleting Locators
When locators are no longer needed, you can delete them through the
Locators view or on the timeline.
To delete locators using the Locators view:
1. In the Locators view, select one or more locators.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Delete.
t
Right-click one of the locators and select Delete Locator.
The selected locators are removed.
To delete a locator on the timeline:
t
On the timeline ribbon, right-click a locator and select Delete Locator.
To delete multiple locators on the timeline:
1. On the timeline ribbon, press Ctrl and click the locators that you want
to delete.
The locator(s) are selected.
n
You can only select multiple locators of the same type. That is, clip locators
must be selected separately from other types of locators on the timeline
ribbon.
2. Press the Delete key.
To delete all locators:
t
Right-click the timeline and select Delete All Locators.
Moving to Locators
Once you’ve placed locators on clips or the timeline, you can easily jump
to these reference points. When you jump to a locator and there is an active
frame at that point, it is displayed in the viewer.
167
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To jump to a locator, do one of the following:
t
In the Locators view, double-click a locator.
t
In the Locators view, right-click a locator and select Go To Locator.
t
On the timeline ribbon, select a locator.
t
On the timeline ribbon, right-click a locator and select Go to This
Locator.
The position indicator immediately moves to the selected timecode.
t
On the Editing toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Next Locator or Go
to Previous Locator.
To move to an in or out-point:
t
If there are any in-points or out-points on the timeline ribbon, click the
Go to In or Go to Out button on the transport controls to place the
position indicator at the respective points.
The position indicator immediately moves to the selected timecode.
n
In-points and out-points of clips on deactivated tracks are skipped when
you move between edit points on the timeline. For more information,
“Selecting Tracks” on page 117.
Annotating Locators
You can rename or add descriptions to your locators for future reference.
Adding comments to locators is a convenient way of noting any specific
frames that need color correcting, scratch removal, trimming, or review
and approval by the client.
To annotate a locator:
1. On the timeline ribbon, right-click a locator and select Locator
Properties.
2. In the Name text box, type a name for the locator.
This name is displayed next to the locator when you click it.
3. In the Comments text box, type a more detailed description for the
locator.
168
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
Changing the Color of Locators
Identifying specific locators is easier with the use of color. With eight
colors to choose from, you can, for example, use red to mark frames that
contain scratches and blue for frames that need some color correction.
Once you choose a color for a locator, it is used in the Locators view,
timeline ribbon, and position bar.
To change the color of a locator:
1. In the Locators view, right-click a locator and select Color.
2. Select a color from the menu.
The color of the locator is changed in the Locators view, timeline
ribbon, and position bar.
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
You can retrieve additional material from a master clip, a subclip, or
subclip’s master clip, as well as locate the bin in which you saved your
clip.
When you perform a match frame, the master clip or subclip that
corresponds to the currently selected frame is located, and the source master
clip or subclip is loaded in the Source viewer.
Performing a match bin is the same as performing a match frame, but it
also selects the original clip and displays its location in a bin.
Matching a Frame in a Master Clip or Subclip
You can locate the source clip (a master clip or subclip) for the frame
currently displayed in either the Record viewer or Source viewer. This
feature is useful when you want to relocate and reedit source material, such
as subclips and master clips.
169
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Match framing loads the source clip into the Source viewer for the frame
currently displayed in the active viewer (Source viewer or Record viewer).
It cues to the matching frame in the source clip and marks an in-point. Any
original in-point or out-points are removed from the source clip.
You can also use the Match Frame feature to locate clips quickly, based on
media relatives, when you have forgotten their location. For example, you
can matchframe a cut in the sequence to its original subclip, matchframe
the subclip to the original master clip, and then locate the bin in which the
master clip is saved. Match framing stops when you reach the master clip.
n
You can also locate frames in a sequence that match a selected source
frame—see “Performing a Reverse Match Frame” on page 171.
Match framing does not create a permanent sync relationship between
clips but provides a convenient way of locating, marking, and editing
matching material.
You cannot perform a match frame directly on a container clip, unless it is
a timewarp container. You must first open the container clip and select the
desired clip. For sync-locked master clips, select either the audio or video
clip, and Avid DS Nitris will locate the corresponding video and audio
components of the source media.
To locate the source clip of a selected frame:
1. Load a sequence on the timeline or a subclip into the Source viewer.
2. Move the position indicator to the frame you want to match.
3. Do one of the following:
t
If matchframing from a sequence, click the clip to select it.
t
In the Track selector, select the track for the frame that you want to
match—see “Track Selector” in the Help.
4. Click the Match Frame button below the viewer displaying the
desired frame to match.
170
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
The clip’s corresponding master or subclip is located and loaded into
the Source viewer, and markers are added to indicate the source in and
out-points of the clip. The position indicator below the Source viewer
is placed at the precise timecode to match the frame you selected for
match framing.
Length of parent/master clip
Length of clip on timeline
Position bar
In-point
Position indicator
Out-point
5. (Option) Click the Match Frame button below the Source viewer to
locate the next corresponding parent clip.
6. If necessary, you can replace frames at this point—see “Placing Preedited Clips on the Timeline” on page 105.
Performing a Reverse Match Frame
You can locate the frames in a sequence that match the frame selected in
the Source viewer. If the frame exists in more than one place, the sequence
cues to the first location of the match frame and continues through the
sequence to subsequent locations each time you click the Reverse Match
Frame button.
You can perform reverse match frames on sequences that contain timewarp
container and container clips. However, you might receive false-positives
for position/speed timewarp container clips. For example, the timewarp is
highlighted as containing the frame, but the frame is not present in the
timewarp container clip.
171
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
To perform a reverse match frame:
1. Load a sequence on the timeline.
2. Load the source clip in the Source viewer.
3. In the Track selector, select the tracks you want to search for the
matching frame—see “Track Selector” in the Help.
4. Move the position indicator to the frame that you want to match.
5. Click the Reverse Match Frame button.
The sequence is cued to the first matching frame.
6. Click the Reverse Match Frame button again to continue locating
matching frames in the sequence.
Finding the Bin for a Clip or Subclip
You can locate the bin for any clip selected on the timeline or displayed in
the Source viewer. You cannot do this directly on a container clip. You
must first open the container clip and select the desired clip. For
sync-locked clips, you can select either the audio or video clip to find the
bin containing the selected clip’s master clip or subclip.
To find the bin containing a clip or subclip:
1. Move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. Click the Match Bin button below the active viewer.
The bin containing the clip’s corresponding master or subclip is
displayed with the master or subclip selected. The master or subclip is
loaded into the Source viewer and markers are added to indicate the
source in and out-points of the clip on the timeline. The position
indicator below the Source viewer is placed at the precise timecode to
match the currently displayed frame on the timeline.
172
Extracting Parts of a Sequence
Extracting Parts of a Sequence
You can extract portions of your sequence to create new master clips. You
can create master clips from selected regions on the timeline, or from
selected objects.
This is useful when you’re satisfied with the effects that you’ve applied to a
clip, and you want to create a new master clip that includes the effects, or
when you want to create a single master clip from the contents of a
container clip. Combining effects or container contents in a single clip can
help to reduce processing time.
You can convert individual clips, multiple clips, or regions of the timeline
to new master clips. If you’ve selected regions of the timeline or multiple
timeline objects, you can create a single new master clip that combines all
of the selected timeline material, or multiple new master clips; one for each
selected object. You can automatically replace the existing timeline
material with the new master clips.
n
If you create a single master clip from both audio and video material, the
result is a combined audio and video clip.
You can also specify what types of tracks to convert from the timeline, and
configure processing options.
173
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Converted clips will include timeline material in different ways, depending
on how you select material.
If you select...
The new master clip will include...
One clip
The clip and all of its effects.
Multiple clips on one
track
All selected clips, all clip effects, and track effects.
Frames in the new master clip are black for the duration
of unselected material between clips.
Multiple clips on
multiple tracks
All selected clips, all clip effects, all track effects, and
timeline effects. Frames in the new master clip are
black for the duration of unselected material between
clips.
Time span on one track All material in the selected time span, including clips,
clip effects, and track effects. Frames in the new master
clip are black for the duration of unselected material
between clips.
Time span on multiple
tracks
All material in the selected time span, including clips,
clip effects, track effects and timeline effects. Frames
in the new master clip are black for the duration of
unselected material between clips.
Time span on the
timeline effect track
All material in the selected time span.
Converting a Timeline Region or Object
You can convert a portion of your timeline or an object on the timeline to a
master clip.
To convert a region of your timeline or a timeline object to a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
174
Extracting Parts of a Sequence
2. Do one of the following:
t
On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
t
Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate
options.
5. Click OK.
The new clip is processed and saved to the bin you specified.
For detailed information on the Timeline to Clip properties, click the
Help button.
Creating Multiple Clips
You can convert a timeline region or multiple selected clips into multiple
master clips.
To create multiple clips from objects on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
t
Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate
options, making sure to deselect Create one clip and click OK.
For detailed information on the Timeline to Clip properties, click the
Help button.
The new clips are processed and saved to the bin you specified.
n
You cannot create multiple clips from a selected timeline region. To create
multiple clips, you must multi-select objects on the timeline.
175
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Replacing Timeline Material
Replacing the timeline material overwrites the Timeline to Clip source
material with the new master clip.
To replace material on the timeline with new master clips:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
t
Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip dialog box, select the appropriate options,
making sure to select Replace Selection.
For detailed information on the Timeline to Clip properties, click the
Help button.
5. Click OK.
The new clip is processed and saved to the bin you specified. The Timeline
to Clip Options dialog box is closed, and you are returned to the timeline.
The new clips appear on the timeline in place of the selection.
n
You cannot replace a region of the timeline with multiple clips, even if the
region spans multiple clips. Instead, clips, or parts of clips in the selected
region, will be replaced with a single clip.
Grabbing Frames
You can create master clips or image files from the frame currently
displayed in the Record viewer.
176
Grabbing Frames
Creating a Master Clip from a Snapshot
You can create a master clip from the image on which the position
indicator is currently positioned. The master clip is automatically captured
(logged and digitized) under the name and location you specify. The
resulting master clip is identical to other master clips and lets you to
recapture it at a different resolution or compression ratio. You can specify
the length of a master clip.
To create a master clip:
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Snapshot to Clip.
3. In the Save Snapshot dialog box, specify the bin and file name, and
click OK.
n
The Snapshot to Clip command works best with images that are set to
uncompressed and full D1 resolution.
A master clip is created in the bin you specified.
Creating an Image File from a Snapshot
You can export an image of the frame on which the position indicator is
currently positioned. The image is exported as a bitmap image file in one
of several formats and saved in a bin you specify.
To create an image file:
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Snapshot to File.
3. In the Export to File dialog box, specify the bin, file name, and file
type and click OK.
4. Depending on the file type you select, a dialog box might display that
lets you to set options, such as video levels, bit depth, and
compression.
The image file is saved in the bin you specified. You can import the file
into Avid DS Nitris or use it in other applications.
177
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Rippling Clips
The Ripple mode lets you preserve the integrity of previous edits as you
continue to perform other edits on the timeline. As you move, trim, insert,
or delete clips on the timeline, you can decide if the clips that follow the
edit point should move to accommodate the change.
Inserting clips in Ripple mode.
You can ripple all tracks (timeline effect, video, background, and audio)
across the timeline or limit the rippling only to the video tracks or other
selected tracks. For example, if you’ve already edited your video clips, and
now want to work on the audio alone, simply activate the Ripple mode
only for the audio tracks.
n
178
When you activate the Ripple mode on any background track, it is also
activated on all background tracks. Only the audio and video tracks can be
rippled on a per track basis.
Rippling Clips
Working in Ripple mode is like working in insert mode. When you insert a
clip anywhere along the timeline, any successive clips are automatically
pushed later in time. Any clips that are sync-locked, such as the audio and
video components of a clip, are rippled in sync. The edits of any preceding
clips are not affected.
When you’re not in Ripple mode, you’re in the default overwrite mode.
Any clip that you place on the timeline occupies the space in which it was
placed. It does not change the position or activeness of the other clips.
To activate or deactivate Ripple mode:
1. From the timeline controls, click the main Ripple button.
The Ripple mode is activated. By default, the Ripple buttons on all the
tracks are also activated and highlighted in blue. This makes all clips in
a sequence ripple across the timeline as you perform your edits.
Activate Ripple mode
Main Ripple button
Activate timeline
effect track ripple
Activate track ripple
2. Deactivate the Ripple button on tracks that you do not want to ripple
as you insert new clips on the timeline.
3. To deactivate the Ripple mode, click the main Ripple button.
The Ripple mode is deactivated for all tracks on the timeline.
Notice that the setting of the Ripple buttons on the tracks is preserved
even after the Ripple mode is deactivated. Although the buttons are not
highlighted in blue, they still appear activated.
179
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Active state is
preserved
This indicates that you’re inserting clips from the Source viewer to the
timeline. The Insert button on the Source and Record viewer
temporarily activates the Ripple mode, allowing you to ripple clips on
tracks where this button is activated. For more information, see
“Manipulating Clips” on page 145.
Setting a Ripple End
You can select a timecode beyond which you no longer want to work in
Ripple mode. Setting the ripple end at this timecode leaves Ripple mode on
for the preceding time span, and turns it off for the succeeding time span.
When you place clips on the timeline before the ripple end, any successive
clips will be pushed up to, but not beyond the ripple end timecode. Clips
placed after the ripple simply occupy the space where they are placed,
without changing the position or activeness of the other clips.
To set the ripple end:
1. Move the position indicator to the timecode where you want to
deactivate Ripple mode.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Set Ripple End.
A light blue bar is displayed on the timeline, indicating the end of the
ripple zone.
To reactivate Ripple mode for the complete timeline:
t
180
Move the position indicator to the ripple end timecode and click
Editing > Set Ripple End again.
Rippling Clips
Inserting Clips in Ripple Mode
You can insert clips at a specified point on the timeline by activating the
Ripple mode. When the clip is inserted, all other clips from that point are
pushed forward.
To insert a clip on the timeline:
Main Ripple button
1. From the timeline controls, click the Main Ripple button.
2. Click the Ripple button on the tracks that you want to ripple forward.
3. Drag a clip from a bin or Source viewer to the timeline.
All other clips from that timecode forward are rippled on the tracks
where the Ripple mode was activated. If you inserted the clip in the
middle of another clip, that clip is split into two and the new clip is
inserted between them.
n
Press the V (insert) or B (overwrite) keys while dragging clips to the
timeline will override the current ripple setting.
Inserting clip in Ripple mode.
Before
Insertion point
Ripple mode on
Ripple mode off
Only clips on the tracks in
Ripple mode are moved.
Inserted clip
Remainder of clip is rippled.
After
Clip not rippled.
181
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Editing Clips in Ripple Mode
When moving, trimming, or deleting clips while in Ripple mode, it’s
important to preserve the integrity of edit points on other clips. Any edits
that you perform to one clip affects all successive clips on the timeline.
Instead of rippling all clips on the timeline, you can select the tracks on
which you want clips to ripple. This is useful, for instance, when you do
not want the trimming of video clips to affect the audio clips.
To edit a clip in Ripple mode:
Main Ripple button
1. From the timeline controls, click the main Ripple button.
2. Click the Ripple button on the tracks that you want to ripple.
3. Adjust the clip’s edit points as necessary.
All clips are moved left or right to accommodate the changes on the
selected clip.
If you delete a clip, all succeeding clips are moved together to close the
gap where the clip was active.
Position of clips before deletion.
Clip to be deleted.
Position of clips after deletion (in Ripple mode).
Clips moved by amount of
deleted clip’s activeness.
182
Synchronizing Clips
Synchronizing Clips
Synchronizing (syncing) clips refers to aligning points on different clips,
so that they occur simultaneously. When you synchronize clips in
Avid DS Nitris, you can sync-lock them together, so that they do not fall
out of alignment. You can break the sync-lock on clips at any time to edit
them independently of each other.
A locked group of synchronized clips is called a sync group. Each sync
group has a master clip and one or more slave clips. The master clip acts as
the focal point for the sync group, and the position of slave clips is always
relative to the master clip’s position.
One of the most common synchronization tasks that you can perform is
syncing audio clips with video clips, so that the sound in the audio clip
matches the action in the video clip.
Aligning Clips for Synchronization
Using locators can help you synchronize video and audio clips. You can
place reference locators on the timeline ribbon and then drag the clip
locator to align it with the reference locators or with other clip locators.
To align a clip at a specific timecode:
1. Move the position indicator to the timecode at which you want to
synchronize the clips.
2. Right-click the timeline ribbon and select Add Locator at Playback
Position > color.
This places a local locator on the timeline ribbon to define the point at
which to align your clips.
3. Right-click the clip and select Add Locator > location.
183
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
A clip locator with a triangular head is displayed on the clip.
Reference locator
Clip locators
4. Place a locator on each of the other clips that are to be aligned.
5. Drag the head of the clip locator left or right to align it with the
reference locator.
The clip turns blue and moves with the locator as you drag it. When
you get close to the reference locator, the magnetism between the
locators helps align the clip.
Audio and video clips
aligned at position of
reference locator.
6. Align the other clips in the same way.
184
Synchronizing Clips
Creating a Sync Group
Once you’re satisfied with the way the clips are aligned, you can lock them
together in a sync group. When you move one clip, the rest of the group
moves with it. This is especially useful when trimming audio and video
clips on multiple tracks, because the sound and accompanying images are
trimmed in sync.
You can have any number of video or audio clips synchronized together,
but you must select at least two clips to apply a sync-lock. The master clip
is the center of the sync group. If the position of any clip is offset, the
offset will always be displayed as the number of frames from the master
clip.
When you create a sync group, the order in which you selected the clips is
maintained. If you delete the master clip in the group, the second clip that
you originally selected becomes the new master clip.
n
When a clip containing both audio and video is placed on the timeline, its
audio and video components fall on separate tracks as individual clips.
These clips remain sync-locked to each other.
To lock clips in sync:
1. Align your clips on the timeline.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Ctrl and click at least two clips to lock together.
t
Place the position indicator on the clips you want to lock together.
185
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The name of the first clip that you selected ends with “Master” while
the names of the other clips end with “Slave”.
Master clip
Slave clip
n
If the selected clips are already synchronized, when you click Editing >
Sync Lock the synchronization is broken. The Sync Lock command can
lock clips and unlock clips, depending on the synchronization status of the
clips.
Adding to an Existing Sync Group
As you place clips on the timeline, you can add them to existing sync
groups. If, for example, you have a sync group containing a video track and
an audio track, you can align a second audio track with the sync group, and
add it to the group when you’re satisfied with its position.
To add clips to a sync group:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip from the sync group to which you want to add the clip.
3. Press Ctrl and select the clip that you want to add to the sync group.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The clip is added to the sync group.
Combining Two Sync Groups
You can combine two or more sync groups to form a single group,
containing all of the clips in the original groups. The clips in the second
group that you select are appended, as slave clips, to the first group that
you select.
186
Synchronizing Clips
To combine existing sync groups:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip from the sync group that you want to combine with
another group.
3. Press Ctrl and select a clip from the group that you want to add.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The groups are merged into a single sync group. The clips in the added
group are all slaves and the master of the first group remains the
master.
Unlocking Synchronized Clips
You can remove individual clips from a sync group without removing them
from the timeline. When a clip is no longer synchronized, you can edit it
independently of the other clips in the group. If you remove the master clip
from a sync group, the next clip that you originally selected becomes the
new master clip.
n
Applying the Timewarp, Interlace/Deinterlace, and 3:2 Expand/3:2
Contract effects automatically breaks the lock on synchronized clips.
To break a sync-lock:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Place the position indicator on the synchronized clips.
t
On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button,
and select one or more synchronized clips.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
Only the selected clips are removed from the rest of the sync group,
and can now be edited independently.
187
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Manipulating Synchronized Clips
You can select and move synchronized clips the same way that you would
with non-synchronized clips. There are, however, a few differences.
When you select synchronized clips, they are surrounded by a red border.
Other clips in the group are surrounded in yellow to indicate that they’re
part of the same group, but were not directly selected. If you multi-select
clips in a group or select an entire group, the selected clips will share the
focus, and be surrounded in brown.
When you move synchronized clips, the entire group moves together. You
can, however, move single clips in a sync group independently of the other
clips in the group. For more information, see “Manipulating Clips” on
page 145.
Selecting All Clips in a Sync Group
You can select all of the clips in a sync group at the same time. This is
useful if, for example, you want to delete an entire sync group.
To select all clips in a sync group:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Click one clip from the group that you want to select.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
All clips in the sync group are selected. Selected clips have red handles
and an orange outline.
Moving Synchronized Clips Independently
When Ripple mode is off, you can move one clip in the sync group
independently of the other clips in the group. Moving synchronized clips
independently creates an offset between the master clip and slave clips.
When an offset occurs, the name of each offset slave clip turns red, and
includes the number of frames by which it is offset from the master clip.
n
188
If you move a group’s master clip independently, all of the slave clips in the
group will show an offset.
Synchronizing Clips
To move a synchronized clip independently:
1. Make sure that the Main Ripple button is deselected.
2. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
3. On the timeline, select the clip that you want to move.
4. Press the W key, drag the clip along the timeline.
The position of the other clips in the sync group will not change. Any
resulting offsets will be displayed next to the names of the slave clips.
Cutting Synchronized Clips
You can cut one or more clips in a sync group in two. When you cut a
single clip, the part that you cut off remains synchronized as a new clip. If
you cut multiple clips in a group, the two new clips or group of clips
become a new sync group with the same master/slave relationships as the
original group. For more information, see “Cutting Clips” on page 152.
Editing Synchronized Clips
The same rules that apply to editing clips on the timeline apply to all
synchronized clips. That is, you can still move, slide, or trim them.
When you edit synchronized clips, red handles appear on the first selected
edit point. You can use the trim handles to adjust the clip as necessary. If
you want to trim multiple clips in the group simultaneously, you can select
the edit points of all sync group members at the same timecode.
To select all synced edit points at a specific timecode:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select an edit point of a clip in the sync group.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
All of the sync group members’ edit points, at the same timecode, are
selected. The clips can now be edited simultaneously.
189
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
n
When working with synced audio and video clips, it may be necessary to
trim an edit point on one clip independently of the others. For example, if
you want a synchronized audio clip to continue for a few seconds past the
end of its video clip peers, you can perform a split edit. For more
information, see “Selecting Trim Sides” on page 203.
Resyncing Clips
Offsets that were created by moving a synchronized clip independently of
its peers can be corrected, partially or even completely, by resyncing the
clip. Resyncing slips the offset clip until the offset is back to zero, or until
the offset clip runs out of unused material. For more information, see
“Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips” on page 221.
To resync an offset clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the offset clip.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Resync.
The clip is slipped until the offset is corrected, or no unused material is
left.
Deleting Synchronized Clips
When you delete a sync-locked clip, only the highlighted clip is deleted.
The other clips that were synchronized with it remain synchronized. If you
delete an entire group, none of the clips remain on the timeline.
If you delete a group’s master clip, the second clip that you selected when
you created the group becomes the new master clip. All subsequently
selected clips remain as slave clips.
If the group from which you deleted the clip contained only two clips, the
other clip in the group will remain on the timeline as a single clip (neither
master nor slave).
190
Referencing Sequences
To delete a synchronized clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select a clip to delete.
A red border surrounds the selected clip.
3. Press Delete to delete the clip.
The selected clip is removed. If the group contained more than two
clips, the next selected clip in the group becomes the new master clip.
To delete a sync group:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select one clip from the group that you want to delete.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
4. Press Delete to delete the clip.
The selected group is removed.
Referencing Sequences
Referencing other sequences lets you place pointers to other sequences on
the timeline in the current sequence. These pointers are called reference
clips.
A reference clip points to another sequence within the current project.
Because reference clips only point to a sequence, they consume less
memory and load faster than container clips. This improves performance
on complex timelines. Using a reference clip also lets you to work on that
portion of your sequence separately. Once it’s updated, the changes are
automatically reflected in sequences that contain this reference clip.
191
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
Creating Reference Clips
You can create a reference to any sequence that exists within the current
project. A reference clip cannot be placed on a track if it completely covers
another clip. In this case, you must place the reference clip on a different
track.
To create a reference to an existing sequence:
1. Select a sequence from the Avid Explorer.
2. Press the Alt key and drag the sequence to the timeline.
The sequence is displayed as a clip on the timeline.
Converting a Container Clip to a Reference Clip
You can lighten the load on your timeline and improve performance by
converting complex container clips to reference clips. This saves the
contents of the container clip to disk as a sequence. In the container clip’s
place on the timeline will a reference to the saved sequence.
To convert a container clip to a reference clip:
1. Right-click the container clip and select Convert to Reference Clip.
You are prompted to save your current sequence.
2. Click OK to save the current sequence and continue.
The current sequence is saved, and the container clip is saved as a
sequence with the same name as the container clip.
To open a reference clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select the reference clip.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Expand Ref Clip.
To close a reference clip:
t
From the toolbar, click Editing > Collapse Ref Clip.
The reference clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed.
192
Referencing Sequences
Processing Reference Clips
If a reference clip contains any unprocessed material, then the marker
ribbon and/or clip is highlighted in red and a message “Referenced
sequence needs processing” is displayed in the Record viewer
during playback.
n
Processing a reference clip from a master sequence using the Process
Reference command does not let you select processing options.
Avid DS Nitris will process the referenced sequence according to the
processing options of that sequence, except that it will change the mode to
Minimal.
To process a single reference clip:
1. Place the position indicator on a reference clip you want to process.
2. From the toolbar, click Processing > Process Reference Clip.
You are prompted to save the current sequence.
3. Click OK to save the current sequence or click Cancel to bypass the
save.
Avid DS Nitris closes the current sequence, opens the referenced
sequence, processes it, saves it, and then reloads the original sequence.
To process the entire timeline, including any reference clips:
1. From the toolbar, click Processing > Process Timeline and
References.
You are prompted to save the current sequence.
2. Click OK to save the current sequence or click Cancel to bypass the
save.
Avid DS Nitris processes the entire timeline, and also opens and
processes any reference clips on the top timeline.
193
Chapter 3 Building a Rough Cut
194
Chapter 4
Trimming Clips
This chapter describes how to trim edit points after you create a rough
cut sequence.
•
Workflow: Trimming Clips
•
Understanding Trimming
•
Methods of Trimming
•
Understanding Trim Mode
•
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
•
Performing a Basic Trim
•
Creating Overlap Edits
•
Trimming Container Clips
•
Trimming Transition Effects
•
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
•
Maintaining Sync While Trimming
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Workflow: Trimming Clips
Trimming is the process of fine-tuning the transitions between clips to
create smooth transitions for the final sequence.
The following illustration shows how you can trim edit points.
1
Select either edit handles, trim
handles, or clips.
Trim handles
2
Perform a dual-roll trim or a single-roll trim.
Drag the selected trim object right or
left to trim the edit point.
Clip
Before
<Edit handles
3
Trim with Ripple mode to change
recording timecode.
After
4
Transition area
Main Ripple button
Trim clips using Trim mode.
Enter Trim mode to display the
incoming and outgoing frame for
fine-tuning the trim.
196
Trim transition effects.
Use the tools in Trim mode or drag the
transition’s edit points to trim transition effects.
Set Ripple mode to change the recording
timecode when trimming with trim handles.
5
Trimming to
the left.
6
Slip or slide a clip using Slip/Slide mode.
Enter Slip/Slide mode to display the
head, tail, incoming, and outgoing
frames when slipping or sliding a clip.
Understanding Trimming
Understanding Trimming
Basic editing in the timeline initially produces a rough cut, which can be
loosely defined as a series of straight-cut edits with many rough edges and
few effects. After creating a rough cut, you can fine-tune the transitions
between each clip or between several clips. You can also trim edits as you
build a sequence rather than create a rough cut first.
Trimming lets you fine-tune the incoming or outgoing frames at the edit
points of a clip. Each clip has elements that you can select and edit: the
trim handles and edit points. Edit points are located at the ends of the
activeness bar of a clip, or where it transitions to another clip.
Selected activeness bar.
Edit points
The activeness bar also displays any transition effects that were applied to
the clip, such as a dissolve, wipe, or crossfade. Transition areas have their
own edit points that indicate the beginning and end of the transition. For
more information, see “Applying Transitions” on page 231.
Edit point
Edit point
Transition area
Activeness bar
197
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
When you select an edit point, it displays trim handles and edit handles at
that edit point.
Trim-out handle
Changes the outgoing
frame on clip A.
Trim-in handle
Changes the incoming
frame on clip B.
Base edit handle
Changes edit time without moving clips.
The edit point identifies the time at which the indicated frame will start or
end recording. You can trim clips by adjusting the edit or trim handles at an
edit point.
Trimming the edit handle changes the incoming or outgoing frame and the
recording timecode. Adjusting the trim handle changes the incoming or
outgoing frame, but keeps the recording timecode (unless in Ripple mode).
For more information, see “Rippling Clips” on page 178.
When trimming clips, it’s helpful to know how much material you have
available. You can use the Display Unused Material mode to see how many
extra frames you have available at the head or tail of a clip. For more
information, see “Revealing Unused Material on Clips” on page 155.
Methods of Trimming
There are two methods in which you can trim clips. Both methods have
their advantages:
•
Interactively on the timeline
When you trim clips on the timeline, you immediately see how it
affects the other clips in the sequence. Also, when you select and drag
an edit or trim handle, the frames are updated in the Record viewer, so
that you can search for frames as you trim the clip.
198
Understanding Trim Mode
•
Using the Trim mode
This mode provides a set of controls for fine-tuning edits, as well as
viewing the incoming and outgoing frames at the same time. It also
provides more controls for performing trimming tasks.
For more information, see “Understanding Trim Mode” on page 199.
n
When trimming a clip, you may want to preserve the integrity of edit points
on other clips. To do this, you must deactivate the Ripple mode on the
timeline. Trimming a clip provides different results depending on whether
you’re working in Ripple mode or not. For more information, see
“Rippling Clips” on page 178.
Understanding Trim Mode
The Trim mode provides a close-up view of a clip, so that you can trim the
clip on a frame-by-frame basis. The results are the same as if you were
dragging the clip’s trim handles or edit points on the timeline, except that
you are given more tools to work with in the Trim mode.
The Trim mode lets you precisely trim the incoming and outgoing frames
at the selected edit point of clips on the timeline. You can adjust frames at
an edit point by entering new in and out times or by using the trim buttons
to move the frames incrementally.
The information in the Trim mode is based on what you select on the
timeline. You must first select an edit point or transition between two clips
to see the incoming or outgoing frames in the Trim mode. Use the Previous
Edit and Next Edit buttons in the Trim mode to go to an edit point.
Select the incoming or outgoing frame, and use the trim buttons to change
the position of the edit point in the corresponding clip. If you select both
panes, by clicking between the incoming and outgoing views or by holding
the Shift key and selecting them one at a time, clicking the trim buttons
will move the edit point without changing the position of either clip.
199
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Outgoing frame
Trim Mode
Incoming frame
Transition buttons
Transport controls
Trim Nudge buttons
Transition Alignment
Frame Offset Counters
Transition Duration Timecode box
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Trim Mode controls.
Entering and Exiting Trim Mode
You can enter Trim mode either manually or automatically when you select
an edit point on the timeline.
To manually access the Trim mode:
1. From the taskbar, click the Editing button.
2. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button to
switch to Selection mode.
3. Select an edit point in the timeline.
4. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode button.
The Source/Record viewers are replaced with the Trim mode and trim
controls. If you did not select an edit point before entering Trim mode,
the transition nearest the position indicator is selected for trimming.
200
Understanding Trim Mode
To automatically access the Trim mode when you select an edit point:
1. Right-click the Trim Mode button and select Switch for Edit.
2. Right-click the Trim Mode button and select Autoswitch.
When you select an edit point in the timeline, you access Trim mode.
Deselect Switch for Edit to return to manually accessing the Trim mode.
To exit Trim mode, do one of the following:
t
From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode button.
t
From the timeline navigation bar, click the Source/Record view
button.
t
Click a location in the timeline. The position indicator moves to the
location and returns to navigation in Source/Record view if the
Autoswitch command is selected.
Trimming Clips in Trim Mode
You can select the clip to be trimmed by clicking the Incoming or
Outgoing frame in the Trim mode. A red border around the view indicates
that it is active. If you want to trim the edit point between two adjoining
clips, select both the Incoming and Outgoing frames by clicking between
the incoming and outgoing views or by pressing the Shift key and clicking
each frame.
There are several ways of trimming clips:
•
Drag the trim-in or trim-out handles left or right to change the
incoming or outgoing frames of a clip. This does not change the
recording timecode.
•
Drag the edit handle left or right to change the start or end time at
which a clip is recorded. This also changes the incoming or outgoing
frame. When trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if
Ripple mode is on or off.
201
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
•
Use the Nudge Right 1 Frame (>), Nudge Right 10 Frame (>>), Nudge
Left 1 Frame (<), and Nudge Right 10 Frame (<<) buttons to move the
clip/edit point forward or backward and trim frames at the selected edit
point. As you trim the edit point, the frames of the clip are hidden or
revealed to reflect the new incoming or outgoing frame.
These buttons appear dimmed when there are no more frames available
at the head or tail of the clip.
•
Enter values in the Frame Offset Counter text box to move the edit
point forward or backward. A positive number moves the edit point
forward, and a negative number moves it backward.
•
Use the J-K-L keys to trim the selected edit point.
As you trim clips in the Trim mode, the timeline updates to reflect the
new edit points.
Reviewing a Trim Edit or Transition in Trim Mode
After you trim an edit point in Trim mode, you can review the trim edit to
verify the trim. You can also play a transition in a loop to view the
transition.
There are two procedures for reviewing a trim edit or playing a transition
while in Trim mode.
To review the most recent trim edit or play the selected transition
using the Play Preview button:
t
Click the Play Preview button.
The Avid DS Nitris system enters a playback loop. This loop begins at
a preroll point before the transition and ends at a postroll point,
pausing briefly before beginning playback again.
To review the most recent trim edit or to play the selected transition:
1. Click the Loop button.
The Loop mode is activated and loop markers appear on the timeline
ribbon.
202
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
2. Click the Play button.
Avid DS Nitris enters a playback loop. This loop begins at a pre-roll
point before the transition and ends at a post-roll point, pausing briefly
before beginning playback again.
n
To make adjustments to the playback loop for preroll or postroll, see
“Editing Property Page” in the Help.
3. Stop the playback loop by clicking the Play button again.
4. Click the Loop button again to deactivate the Loop mode and remove
the loop markers.
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
Before you can trim a clip, you need to select an edit point. When you
select an edit point on a clip, its trim handles and edit handles are
displayed. Depending on the type of trim you want to perform, you can
select and deselect the various trim handles and edit handles.
When an edit point is selected, all other edit points at that timecode are also
selected. You can break linked edit points to trim the clips independently of
each other.
n
Before you can select edit point and trim handles on the timeline, you must
click the Selection Mode button on the timeline navigation bar to enter the
Selection mode.
Selecting Trim Sides
You can select and deselect the various trim handles and edit handles of a
clips’s edit point. When you select an edit point you are selecting the clip’s
in or out-point.
With video clips, an edit point is shared when one clip intersects with
another. If you adjust this edit point, you perform a dual-roller trim in
which both clips are trimmed simultaneously.
203
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
You can perform a single-roller trim by selecting either an in-point or
out-point. You can also select edit points on multiple audio and video clips
at the same timecode. This is useful when editing synchronized audio and
video clips. When an edit point is selected, you can turn it on or off. This is
especially useful if you want to break an edit point, so that you can trim
clips independently of each other (or perform a split edit).
To select an edit point, do one of the following:
t
On the activeness bar, click an edit point.
t
In Trim mode, click the Go to Previous Edit or Go to Next Edit
button.
By default, Avid DS Nitris selects the nearest transition in either
direction of selected tracks for trimming.
To select edit points on multiple audio and video clips:
t
Press Shift and drag left to right on the timeline to surround the
transitions you want to trim.
This method is useful when you need to select multiple transitions
staggered across parallel tracks (overlap cuts) for simultaneous
trimming.
t
Press Shift and click an edit point.
All other edit points at the same timecode are selected regardless of the
clip type.
204
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
t
Press Ctrl and click an edit point to select or deselect the edit point or
trim handles for single-roll trimming.
Select an edit
point.
Both edit points
on connected
clips become
selected.
Video clips
Audio clips
Shift-click to select
all edit points at
that timecode.
Ctrl-click to deselect
an edit point.
To deselect all edit points:
t
Click another location on the timeline.
To select the sides of a transition to trim, do one of the following:
t
In Trim mode, click the Outgoing (A-side) or Incoming (B-side)
frame.
A red border surrounds the incoming and outgoing frames to indicate
which clip will be trimmed.
t
In Trim mode, click between the outgoing (A-side) or incoming
(B-side) frame to select both sides of a transition.
A red border surrounds both the incoming and outgoing frames.
205
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
t
Click the trim handles to select or deselect side A, side B, or both.
The selected trim handle turns yellow and a red border surrounds the
incoming and outgoing frames to indicate which clip will be trimmed.
Select a trim handle.
Breaking and Relinking Edit Points
When an edit point is selected, all other edit points at that timecode are also
selected. You can break edit points to independently trim clips. Since
Avid DS Nitris preserves all edit points between clips in a sequence, you
cannot break an edit point by dragging edit points apart. To break edit
points, you must use the Break Links command on the Editing toolbar.
Linked edit points are highlighted in yellow.
Dragging an
intersecting edit
point right or left
adjusts both points
at that timecode.
Ctrl-click an edit
point to deselect it.
You can now trim this edit point independently.
206
Performing a Basic Trim
To break an edit point:
t
Select the edit points of contiguous clips, and do one of the following:
-
Press Ctrl and deselect the edit point that you do not want to
adjust. The deselected edit point is no longer highlighted.
-
From the toolbar, click Editing > Break Links.
You can now trim the clips independently of each other.
To relink edit points at the same timecode:
1. Select an unlinked edit point.
2. (Optional) Press Ctrl and click another edit point (of the same clip
type) at the same timecode.
Both edit points are highlighted.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Link Edits.
Linked edit points are highlighted with yellow.
Performing a Basic Trim
With transitions and trim sides selected, you can perform a basic trim by
doing any of the following:
•
In the Trim mode, use the Trim buttons to trim forwards or backwards
by one or ten-frame increments—see “Understanding Trim Mode” on
page 199.
•
Use the J-K-L keys to trim forwards or backwards in the
sequence—see “Trimming On-the-Fly” on page 217.
•
Use the keyboard or numeric keypad to:
-
Move the transition a specific number of frames, type a plus sign
(+) or minus sign (–) after you type the number of frames (from 1
to 99) that you want to move forward or backward. Then, press
Enter.
-
If the number of frames is larger than 99, type a period (.) before
you type the number of frames. For example, to enter 100 frames,
type .100 and press Enter. The transition moves 3 seconds and 10
frames.
207
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
-
n
Move the transition to an exact point in the timecode, type a
timecode number larger than 99, including frames. For example,
type 102 to enter 1 second and 2 frames (1:02).
When typing a timecode value, you can skip fields by typing a dot (.). For
example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
•
In Trim mode, to move the transition a specific number or frames,
type the number of frames in the Frame Offset Counter box.
Select an edit point, a trim-in handle, or a trim-out handle, and adjust
the values in the timecode boxes on the status bar. This edits frames at
the selected point more accurately.
For selected object.
Start
n
End
Duration
Position indicator
For in/out markers.
In
Out
Duration
•
Drag the trim-in or trim-out handles left or right to change the
incoming or outgoing frames of a clip. This does not change the
recording timecode (unless in Ripple mode)—see “Trimming with the
Trim Handles” on page 211.
•
Drag the edit handle left or right to change the start or end time at
which a clip is recorded. This also changes the incoming or outgoing
frame. When trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if
Ripple mode is on or off—see “Trimming the Edit Point” on page 209.
If you want to trim synchronized audio and video clips, you must
simultaneously select multiple edit points. For more information, see
“Selecting Trim Sides” on page 203.
As you trim, all selected transitions in the timeline move in unison. The
Frame Offset counters display the frame count backward or forward for
one or both trim sides, and the Trim viewer displays the new incoming or
outgoing frames.
208
Performing a Basic Trim
Trimming the Edit Point
When you move the edit handle at an edit point, you are changing the start
or end recording time for the clip. This also changes the incoming or
outgoing frame.
n
When trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if Ripple mode is
on or off.
The following illustration shows the different ways of trimming an edit
point:
Before
Trimming edit point to the left.
After
More frames are available at beginning of clip.
Before
Trimming edit point to the right.
After
Frames are hidden
from beginning of clip.
Before
Trimming intersecting edit point to the right.
After
Edit points can only be dragged as far as there is available material on
the clip.
209
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
To trim an edit point on a clip:
1. Select an edit point on a clip.
The clip’s edit handles are displayed.
2. Drag the edit point left or right.
Depending on the direction in which you drag the clip, more frames
are made available or hidden.
To trim edit points between clips:
1. Select an edit point between two clips.
The edit handles on both clips are displayed.
2. Drag the edit point left or right.
As you move the edit point, it reveals more frames on one clip and
hides frames on the other.
n
You can also adjust an edit point more precisely by selecting it and
entering a value in the S (start) or E (end) timecode boxes on the
status bar.
Adjusting the in-point and out-point on clips
Select one edit point
between contiguous clips.
Both points are
automatically selected.
Drag edit point
right or left.
210
Both edit points at that timecode
are adjusted.
Performing a Basic Trim
Trimming with the Trim Handles
The trim handles on a clip are used to change the incoming or outgoing
frames of a clip. This does not change the recording timecode. When you
move the trim-in handle of a clip, you change the incoming frame on a clip.
Similarly, if you move the trim-out handle of a clip, you are changing its
outgoing frame.
Trim-in handle
Trim-out handle
When Ripple mode is activated, trimming clips gives you different results
than when it is deactivated. The following illustrations show how clips are
affected when you trim them with and without the Ripple mode. The first
scenario illustrates what happens when you trim an in-point.
211
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Trimming an in-point
Ripple mode on
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
The following clip(s)
ripple.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
The following clip(s) ripple
back.
Ripple mode off
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
Edit point remains
fixed on timeline.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
212
Performing a Basic Trim
Trimming an out-point
Ripple mode on
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
Following clip(s) ripple
back.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
The following clip(s)
ripple.
Ripple mode off
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
Second clip extends
as long as there is
more material
available.
Before
End point of
following clip
remains fixed
on timeline.
Trimming to the right.
After
213
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
To adjust the trim handles:
1. (Optional) Click the Ripple button in the timeline controls. If
necessary, click the Track Ripple button for the individual tracks on
which you want the clips to ripple.
n
You can only ripple individual audio and video tracks.
2. Select the edit point on the clip that you want to trim.
The clip’s trim handles are displayed just above the edit point.
3. Drag the trim handle to the right or left. The trim handle can only be
moved as far as there is extra material available on the clip.
The following example shows the results of trimming a clip when you’re in
Ripple mode and when you’re not. The clips are placed on multiple tracks,
so that you can see the unused material on the clips.
Trim-in handle when not in Ripple mode.
Before
Trim-in handle to the right.
>>
After: Ripple mode off.
Clip is slipped to the left.
Opposite end’s edit point remains fixed on timeline.
214
Incoming frame remains the same.
Performing a Basic Trim
Trim-in handle in Ripple mode
Trim-in handle to the right.
Before
>>
After: Ripple mode on.
Clip is slipped to the left.
>>
Trim-in handle to the right.
Successive clips are moved the
same amount of trimmed frames.
Trimming Audio Clips
Using the trim handles to trim audio clips lets you hear the clips as you
scrub over them. For example, in the following illustration, if you move the
trim-in handle of the Drums clip, you’ll hear that clip being played. If
however, you move the trim-out handle of the Bass clip, that’s the clip
you’ll hear.
215
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Backtiming
Backtiming is a way of trimming a clip’s out-point without changing its
activeness or position. Instead of overwriting or being overwritten by the
following clip, the selected clip is slipped along its unused material.
n
When trimming backtime edits, it does not matter if Ripple mode is on or
off. Backtime edits are performed as if Ripple mode is off.
To perform a backtime edit on a clip:
Main Ripple button
1. Make sure that the main Ripple button is deselected.
2. Select the out-point that you want to edit.
3. Press E and drag the out-point trim handle right or left.
The clip is slipped along its unused material while maintaining its
activeness and position. The previous and next clips in the sequence
are not affected.
Snapping Edit Points
If you need to quickly fix a bad edit, instead of selecting the previous or
next edit point and dragging it to the position indicator, you can locate the
correct frame and then snap the edit point to that frame. Effects applied to
the clip are also trimmed.
To snap an edit point to the position indicator:
1. Move the position indicator to the desired position.
The P timecode box indicates the timecode of the position indicator.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing and select one of the following:
-
Snap In to move the in-point to the new timecode.
-
Snap Out to move the out-point.
The selected frame becomes the new in or out-point.
216
Performing a Basic Trim
n
You can also use the Snap In and Snap Out commands to trim synced clips
(for example clips with audio and video content) as long as the clips are
the same length. You should have enough unused material available to
perform this operation. For more information see “Revealing Unused
Material on Clips” on page 155.
Trimming On-the-Fly
In Trim mode, you can use the J-K-L keys on the keyboard to play
outgoing or incoming material and mark trim points. For convenience, this
method isolates the trim controls to just three keys.
To trim on-the-fly:
1. Click either the outgoing (A-side) or incoming (B-side) frame to play
in real time during the trim.
2. Select one or more transitions for single-roller or dual-roller trimming.
3. Use the J-K-L keys to step (jog), play, or shuttle through the footage at
varying speeds:
n
-
Hold down the K key while pressing the J or L key to step slowly
backwards or forwards through the footage. When you find the
frame where you want to relocate the transition, release the K key
to complete the trim.
-
Press the J or L key once to play at normal speed, or press more
than once to shuttle at higher speeds. When you see the frame
where you want to relocate the transition, press the K key to
complete the trim—see “Varying the Playback Speed” on
page 137.
If you press the spacebar while trimming with the J-K-L keys, the position
indicator moves to the current location. No trim is performed.
The Trim viewers and the timeline are updated to reflect the trim.
n
When trimming with the J-K-L keys, you cannot completely trim away a
clip. The Avid DS Nitris system always leaves one frame. To remove the
remaining frame, see “Performing a Basic Trim” on page 207.
217
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Creating Overlap Edits
You can use an overlap edit to smooth a transition by giving the illusion
that the audio or video is shared between two separate but adjacent clips.
Perform a dual-roller trim to create overlap edits.
Audio overlap example
Before
trimming
V1
A1
A2
Clip A
Clip B
Clip C
After
trimming
V1
A1
A2
Clip A
Clip B
Clip C
Clip B audio is extended.
Clip C audio is trimmed in.
To create an overlap edit:
1. Perform a straight-cut edit between two clips, including audio and
video tracks:
-
If the timing of the video edit is crucial, mark edit points according
to the video.
-
If the timing of the audio transition is crucial, mark edit points
according to the audio.
2. Perform a dual-roller trim (edit point trim) on either the video track or
the audio track, but not on both:
218
-
If the video transition occurs at the correct place, but you want the
audio from one clip to linger into the other (or the reverse), trim
the audio tracks accordingly.
-
If the audio transition occurs at the correct place, but you want the
video to transition either before or after the audio cut, trim the
video track accordingly.
Trimming Container Clips
Trimming Container Clips
You can trim a container clip just as you would trim any other clip on the
timeline. You can drag the in-point out to the start of the material (that is,
the in-point of the first clip in the container clip). The out-point of a
container clip can be dragged to infinity. When you trim a container clip, it
does not affect the length of the clips contained within it. If the clip in the
container clip is longer than the container clip itself, the extra material is
not visible in the final sequence.
Top timeline
Container clip
timeline
Container clip ends at 00:00:04:22, so this portion
is not visible in final sequence
Trimming Transition Effects
Transitions are displayed as part of the activeness bar. When you select a
transition, it is highlighted in red. You can adjust the properties of the
transition by right-clicking on this area and opening its property editor.
219
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
The edit point between two clips indicates a transition from one clip to
another. You can trim this edit point to change the timecodes at which the
transition takes place.
n
You can also edit transitions by entering values in the timecode boxes on
the status bar.
Transition’s
start point
Selected
transition
Transition’s
end point
To change the duration of a transition effect:
1. Select the edit point of the transition effect.
2. Enter the new length for the transition in one of the following places:
-
The Transition Duration timecode box in Trim mode.
-
The D (duration) timecode box on the status bar.
To change the position of the transition effect:
1. In Trim mode, select the transition effect.
2. Right-click the Transition Alignment button and select one of the
following:
Command
220
Button
Description
Transition Start
Starts the transition at the edit point.
Transition Center
Centers the transition on the edit point.
Transition End
Ends the transition at the edit point.
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
n
In the Source and Record view, you can also change the position of a
transition effect by manually moving the edit point.
To trim the transition area, see “Selecting and Breaking Edit Points” on
page 203.
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
In addition to fine-tuning your edits by trimming clips, you can also slip
the contents of a clip, or slide the clip to a different location in the
sequence. Slipping and sliding clips do not affect the overall duration of
the sequence or the sync relationships between multiple tracks.
The Slip/Slide mode lets you precisely manipulate a clip’s incoming and
outgoing frames on a frame-by-frame basis. This mode also shows the
incoming and/or outgoing frames of the previous and next clip (if any).
You can slip or slide a clip by entering new in and out timecodes, or by
using the trim nudge buttons to move the frames incrementally. After
slipping or sliding a clip in the Slip/Slide mode, you can play the results in
the viewer.
Slip/Slide Mode
Outgoing frame
Head frame
Tail frame
Incoming frame
Source
timecodes
Trim Nudge buttons
221
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Slip/Slide controls.
The Slip/Slide mode shows the frames in the selected clip and any clips to
which it is connected. The Head frame and Tail frame show the start and
end frames of the selected clip. If there are any clips before or after the
selected clip, they’re displayed in the Incoming frame or Outgoing frame.
n
In the special case where the Slip/Slide mode is used for manipulating
audio clips within an audio container, the Trim Nudge buttons (<, <<, >,
and >>) will affect the clip in units of time defined by the ruler's display
(milliseconds, samples, drop frame, or non-drop frame).
Slipping Clips
Slipping refers to moving the contents of a clip while its edit points remain
fixed. Imagine looking through a train window as the landscape slides by.
The size of the window always remains the same, but the view keeps
changing.
Slipping a clip does not change the position or duration of the active area
of a clip. You slip a clip when you are sure about the duration of a clip, but
need to change the incoming frame. When you slip a clip, the edit points
do not move, so any transitions that have been applied are maintained.
However, the transition must be reprocessed.
Active area
Before
After
222
1
2
Slip clip right or left
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
The frames that precede and follow the clip you are slipping are not
effected.
Surrounding material
remains fixed
Before
Slip 1 frame to the right
1
2
3
4
4
5
Frames
After
2
3
The active area in the illustration shows the active section of a clip. If you
slip the clip, new frames appear in the active area. You can only slip the
clip as far as there is available material on the clip. Any clips that precede
or follow the slipped clip are not affected.
n
When slipping clips, the selected clip must have extra material at the head
or tail of the clip.
There are two ways of slipping clips in the Slip/Slide mode:
t
Use the Nudge Right 1 Frame (>), Nudge Right 10 Frame (>>), Nudge
Left 1 Frame (<), and Nudge Right 10 Frame (<<) buttons to move the
selected clip’s content forward or backward. The activeness of the
selected clip does not move, nor are the previous or next clips affected.
These buttons appear dimmed when there are no more frames available
for slipping.
t
n
Enter values in the Offset text box to move the edit point forward or
backward. A positive number moves the clip’s content forward, and a
negative number moves it backward.
As you edit clips in the Slip/Slide mode, the timeline also updates to reflect
the new edit points.
223
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Sliding Clips
Slide refers to moving a clip to change its location on the timeline, while
retaining its duration and active frames. Sliding a clip moves it along the
timeline with its activeness. As you slide a clip, it trims the activeness of
the previous and next clip. You can only slide the clip as far as there is
available material on the adjoining clips.
For example, you would slide a clip when your shot has the correct action
sequence but needs to be synced with its corresponding audio track. To do
this, slide the clip along the timeline until it aligns with its audio clip.
Active area
A1
A2
A3
1
2
3
4
5
B1
B2
B3
3
4
5
B3
Slide clip right or left
If rolled to
the right...
A1
A2
A3
A1
A4
A2
A5
A3
1
2
There are two ways of sliding clips in the Slip/Slide mode.
•
Use the Nudge Right 1 Frame (>), Nudge Right 10 Frame (>>), Nudge
Left 1 Frame (<), and Nudge Right 10 Frame (<<) buttons to move the
selected clip with its activeness forward or backward, and trim frames
off the previous and next clips.
These buttons appear dimmed when there are no more frames available
for sliding.
•
Enter values in the Offset text box to move the edit point forward or
backward. A positive number moves the edit point forward, and a
negative number moves it backward.
Entering Slip/Slide Mode
The Slip/Slide mode is based on clip selection. You must first select a clip
on the timeline to see the incoming and outgoing frames in the Slip/Slide
mode.
224
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
To manually access the Slip/Slide mode:
1. From the taskbar, click the Editing button.
2. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button to
select it.
3. Select a clip from the timeline.
4. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode button.
The four-frame Slip/Slide mode replaces the Source/Record viewers.
To automatically access the Slip/Slide mode when you select a clip:
1. From the taskbar, click the Editing button.
2. Right-click the Trim Mode button and select Switch for Clip.
3. Right-click the Trim Mode button again and select Autoswitch.
When you select a clip in the timeline, the Slip/Slide mode is
displayed. Deselect Switch for Clip to access the Slip/Slide mode
manually.
To exit Slip/Slide mode:
t
From the timeline navigation bar, click the Source/Record view
button.
Performing a Slip or Slide Trim
In Slip/Slide mode, you can slip the contents of a clip or slide the clip to a
different location in the sequence.
To slip or slide a clip:
1. On the timeline, select the clip that you want to slip or slide.
n
You can slip audio and video clips together by sync-locking them. For more
information, see “Maintaining Sync While Trimming” on page 227.
2. Access Slip/Slide mode—see “Entering Slip/Slide Mode” on
page 224.
The four-frame Slip/Slide mode replaces the Source/Record view.
225
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
3. Select one of the following options from the Slip/Slide mode:
n
-
Slip to slip the selected clip
-
Slide to slide the selected clip
You cannot perform both slipping and sliding functions simultaneously.
4. Click the Trim Nudge buttons to slip or slide the clip.
Nudge Right/Left 10 frames
Nudge Right/Left 1 frame
n
You can also type the number of frames that you want to slip or slide in the
Offset text boxes. A positive number moves the clip forward and a negative
number moves it backward.
5. Monitor the progress of the trim by using the Slip/Slide modes, the
Frame Offset counters, and the timeline.
When you reach the end of available material while slipping a shot, the
trim stops. Similarly, when you reach the next transition while sliding
a shot along a track, the trim stops. A red bracket at the transition
indicates the limit. After completing the initial slide, you can perform
another slide in the same direction. It’s useful to see how much extra
material you have by displaying the frames past the activeness bar. To
do this, you must be in Display Unused Material mode—see
“Revealing Unused Material on Clips” on page 155.
6. When you’re finished, exit the Slip mode or Slide mode by doing one
of the following:
226
t
Deselect the clip and click the Trim Mode button.
t
Click the Source/Record View button.
Maintaining Sync While Trimming
Reviewing a Slip or Slide Trim
After you trim an edit point in Slip/Slide mode, you can review the trim
edit to verify the trim.
To review the most recent trim edit:
t
Click the Play Preview button.
The Avid DS Nitris system enters a playback loop. This loop begins at
a pre-roll point before the transition and ends at a post-roll point,
pausing briefly before beginning playback again.
Maintaining Sync While Trimming
Syncing clips is especially useful when trimming audio and video clips on
multiple tracks, because the sound and accompanying images are trimmed
in sync. Because single-roller (A-side or B-side) trims shorten or lengthen
the duration of the track being trimmed, any relationships that exist with
other tracks downstream of the trim will be thrown out of sync.
Single-roller trims allow you to trim one side of an edit point, whereas, a
dual-roller trim will trim both sides of the edit point.
There are three methods that ensure you do not break sync unintentionally
between two or more video and audio tracks when performing single-roller
trims:
n
•
Creating a gap on the track while trimming.
•
Sync-locking clips to maintain their relative positions—see
“Synchronizing Clips” on page 183.
•
Rippling tracks to maintain a synchronized relationship—see
“Rippling Clips” on page 178.
Because dual-roller trims do not cause sync breaks, you can only add gaps
while performing single-roller trims.
227
Chapter 4 Trimming Clips
Creating a Gap When Trimming
You can create a gap on either the A-side or the B-side of a transition while
maintaining the overall duration of the track and sync relationships. When
trimming a clip, a gap fills the duration of trimmed frames.
After you create a gap on a track, you can replace the gap with footage. For
more information, see “Placing Clips on the Timeline” on page 101.
To add a gap while trimming:
1. Select the transition.
2. Hold the Alt key and drag the A-side or B-side trim handle.
A gap fills the duration of the trim without changing the duration
of sequence.
228
Chapter 5
Working with Effects and
Transitions
This chapter describes how to apply effects and transitions, and how to nest
clips on the timeline.
•
Displaying Guides
•
Applying Effects on the Timeline
•
Applying Transitions
•
Nesting Clips
•
Displaying Effects in a Viewer
•
Processing Sequences
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
Displaying Guides
As you work with effects and graphics in the viewer, you can display
horizontal and vertical guidelines to help you align them precisely. For
more information, see “Displaying the Safe/Action Title Guides” on
page 139 of the Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide.
n
The guidelines are used for positioning purposes only. They are not visible
in the final sequence.
Applying Effects on the Timeline
Any effects that you apply on the timeline are based on what you have
currently selected. You can apply video and audio effects to the entire
timeline, individual clips or tracks, or to a selected region of a clip or track.
n
Before you can select anything on the timeline, you must be in Selection
mode. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
Effects applied to clips are called clip effects and effects applied to a track
are called track effects. Clip effects are effects that are attached to a clip
and move with the clip on the timeline. Clip effects affect only the clips on
which you’ve applied them. Track effects can be placed on audio tracks,
video tracks, background tracks, and the timeline effect track. Track effects
modify only the clips on the track on which the effect is applied. An effect
placed on the timeline effect track affects all the tracks in the timeline.
For more information, see “Applying Effects” on page 102 of the
Avid DS Nitris Getting Started Guide and “Understanding Image
Transition Effects” on page 287. For advanced tasks on compositing and
working with complex effects, see the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and
Graphics Guide.
230
Applying Transitions
Applying Transitions
Transitions are changes, like dissolves, wipes, fades, DVEs, or cuts that
you can apply to or between clips on the timeline. You can apply
transitions to the beginning or end of a single clip, or between two clips.
For example, you can use a one-sided transition to fade into a clip at the
beginning of your sequence. You can then apply wipes, cuts, and dissolves
between other clips on the timeline to move smoothly from one clip to the
next.
The type of transition you apply depends on the media you’re working
with. For instance, you can apply a dissolve, wipe, or DVE to video clips,
while you can apply a crossfade, fade-in, or fade-out to audio clips. For
more information, see “Understanding Image Transition Effects” on
page 287.
Cutting to a Clip
A cut is a jump or sharp transition between two clips. The cut transfers
activeness from one clip to another. The Cut To transition is especially
useful for multi-camera editing when you need to constantly switch
between different camera shots to create the desired edit. In this case, you
must place each camera take on a separate track. You can then “cut on the
fly” by switching the activeness from one take to another.
n
The behavior of a Cut To is the same for both audio and video clips.
To cut to a clip:
1. Place the clips on different tracks and overlap the clips at the
appropriate timecodes.
Active clip from
camera 1.
Clip on camera 2 that
you want to cut to.
231
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
2. Place the position indicator at the point, on the next clip, at which you
want to make a cut.
n
If the clip you are cutting to is inactive or on a lower track, you cannot see
its frames in the viewer. To view that clip’s frames, click the Solo button on
the track on which the clip is located.
3. Select the clip that you want to cut to.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Cut To.
The activeness is switched from the first clip to the selected clip at the
position indicator.
Cut between clips.
Clip from camera 1 is active.
5. Continue to cut back and forth between the two cameras by placing the
position indicator at the appropriate frame, selecting the clip you want
to cut to, and then clicking Editing > Cut To from the toolbar.
Cut to clip from camera 2.
232
Applying Transitions
Creating One-Sided Transitions
You can apply one-sided transitions to clips on the timeline. One-sided
transitions are usually applied to the beginning or end of a single clip to
transition into it or out of it.
To apply a one-sided transition to a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button to
select it.
2. On the timeline, select a clip’s in-point or out-point.
3. From the toolbar, do one of the following:
-
If you selected a video clip’s in-point or out-point, click Video
Effect > effect.
-
If you selected an audio clip’s in-point or out-point, click Audio
Effect > effect.
The transition’s property editor is displayed, and the transition is
displayed as a gradient on the clip’s activeness bar.
n
You can edit the duration of a one-sided transition the same way you
would edit a transition between clips; simply drag the transition points.
Creating Transitions Between Clips
You can apply a transition between clips on the same track, or on different
audio and background tracks. You can not apply transitions to different
video tracks. Transitions can be created only when there is extra material
available on one of the clips.
To apply a transition between clips:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you need to work with.
These clips can be on the same track, on different audio tracks, or on
different background tracks.
3. Select the edit point between the two clips.
233
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
4. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects and select
Dissolve/Crossfade, Wipe, or DVE.
The transition’s property editor is displayed.
The edit point can be set to be the start, end, or center of the transition.
You can also change the type of transition that you’ve applied. All
these options are available in the property editor.
After a transition is applied between two clips, it is automatically
shown as a gradient on the activeness bar.
For more information, click the Help button.
234
Applying Transitions
Same-track transition
Transition area
A transition between
two clips on different
background tracks.
Before
Edit points
Transition point at beginning of transition.
After
Transition area
Transition point at end
of transition.
Transitions have their own properties with edit points that indicate the
beginning, center, and end of the transition. These edit points become
highlighted when you select them.
Editing Transition Properties
Once you’ve applied a transition between two clips, you can change the
properties of the transition.
To change the properties of a transition:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Right-click the transition edit point and select Properties.
t
Double-click the transition edit point.
2. Change the properties in the transition’s property editor.
For more information, click the Help button.
235
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
Aligning Transitions
You can change the alignment of a transition to begin at the start, end, or
center of the edit point.
To change the alignment of a transition:
1. In Trim mode, click the transition’s edit point to select it.
2. Right-click the Transition Alignment button and select one of the
following:
-
Transition Start to align the transition to the right of the edit
point.
Transition starts at
edit point.
-
Transition Center to align the transition to center around the edit
point.
Transition is centered
at edit point.
-
Transition End to align the transition to the left of the edit point.
Transition ends at
edit point.
The icon on the Transition Alignment button represents your alignment
selection for the transition.
236
Applying Transitions
Removing Transitions
You can easily remove a transition and restore the original clips. When you
remove a transition, it becomes a cut from one clip to the next as the edit
point remains the same.
To remove a transition, do one of the following:
t
Select the transition’s edit point and press Delete.
t
Right-click the transition’s activeness bar and select Delete (transition
type).
Using the Comparison Buffer
The comparison buffer lets you take a snapshot of a frame in your
sequence and temporarily save it to memory. You can then compare the
snapshot to its source frame or to another frame in the sequence.
The comparison buffer is useful when you want to:
•
See how an effect changes a frame. Take a snapshot and compare it to
the frame in the viewer as you apply an effect to it and adjust its
properties.
Ripple effect
applied to
image.
Snapshot of
original image.
237
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
•
Fine-tune an effect. Apply an effect and take a snapshot. Then
compare it to the frame in the viewer as you adjust the effect’s
properties.
Ripple
magnitude and
size parameters
are adjusted.
•
Snapshot of image with
a Ripple effect applied
to it.
Compare one frame in your sequence to another. Take a snapshot of a
frame, then move the position indicator to the next frame or different
frame in the sequence.
Comparing the
snapshot with a
different frame.
Snapshot
of a frame.
To use the comparison buffer:
1. Right-click the viewer and select Comparison Buffer > Use
Compare Buffer.
2. Right-click the viewer again and select Comparison Buffer > Grab.
A white box is displayed around the viewer to indicate the area that is
currently saved in the buffer.
238
Nesting Clips
3. To manipulate the snapshot, do any of the following:
t
Drag the white lines around the snapshot to resize it.
t
Drag the snapshot to reposition it in the viewer. When you drag
any portion of the snapshot outside of the viewer, it is cropped to
the limits of the bounding box.
The size of the snapshot is maintained while the content changes.
t
Press Shift and drag to move the snapshot.
t
Press Ctrl and drag to slide the snapshot inside the bounding box.
t
Press Alt and click the viewer to reset the pan.
t
Press Alt and double-click the viewer to reset the image crop and
position.
4. Turn off the comparison buffer by right-clicking the viewer and
selecting Comparison Buffer > Use Compare Buffer.
Nesting Clips
You can break down complicated tasks into more manageable sections by
nesting multiple clips in a container clip. This way, an entire special effects
scene, for example, can be presented as one container clip on the timeline.
Container clips behave just like any other clip on the timeline. The same
rules of activeness, rippling, and other editing functions (trimming,
slipping, sliding) apply.
There are three basic types of container clips that you can use:
•
Composite container clips let you layer several video clips together
on video tracks. The result is treated as a single clip.
•
Background container clips let you edit several video clips together
on background tracks and treat the result as a single clip on the top or
parent timeline.
•
Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them
together, and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline.
239
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
In addition, there are image processing utilities (such as Timewarp,
Interlace/Deinterlace, and 3:2 Expand/3:2 Contract) that automatically
create container clips to hold the original clip before the effect is applied.
When you close a container clip, it is displayed as a single clip on the
timeline. You can reopen a container clip at any time to add, modify, or
delete its components.
Creating Nested Clips
When you open a sequence, you are always viewing the top timeline.
Container clips provide you with a new timeline on which you can place
clips. This lets you focus your tasks specifically on clips within the
container clip.
By default, the ruler inside the container clip starts at 00:00:00. This lets
you build a subsequence that is independent of the final sequence on the
top timeline.
Create container
from this clip.
240
Nesting Clips
A container clip timeline is nested in the top or parent timeline. When you
open a container clip, it displays its contents on this new timeline. When
you close the container clip, however, the clip is displayed relative in time
to all other clips on the parent timeline.
New container clip timeline.
A button is displayed
on the taskbar to
indicate that you’re in
a container clip.
You can add more clips to the container clip and layer or arrange them
sequentially for compositing, audio mixing, or editing subsections of a
larger project. You can even nest other container clips in this container
clip.
You can also set the ruler in the container clip to correspond to the one on
the top timeline. This lets you view clips at the exact timecode that they
will appear in the final sequence.
By default, a container clip is named “Composite Container x”,
“Background Container x”, or “Audio Container x”, where x is the next
sequential number for that type of container clip. You can easily rename a
container clip with a more suitable name by using the clip’s property
editor. For more information, see “Renaming and Adding Comments to
Clips” on page 151.
A closed container clip
represented as a single
clip on the top timeline.
241
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
Creating a Composite Container Clip
Composite container clips let you layer video clips and apply graphics,
color correction, keyer, and DVE effects to each layer. Clips placed on
video tracks are composited over each other, and when the container is
closed, the result is displayed as a single clip on the top or parent timeline.
n
If you use background tracks within your composite container, they are
combined into a single background container within the composite
container. All video tracks are stacked on top of the background container
within the composite container.
You can also create a composite container clip to draw graphics or add
titles to your clips. A composite container clip can contain a number of
video clips, and is used primarily for compositing clips and treating the
result as a single clip. For more information, see “Using a Composite
Container Clip” on page 35 of the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and
Graphics Guide.
To create a composite container clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the video clips that you want to use in the
container clip. Do one of the following:
n
Composite
Container Clip
button
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking clips.
t
From the toolbar, click Containers > Composite Container Clip.
t
From the taskbar, click the Create Container button and select
Create Composite Container Clip.
A container clip timeline is displayed. You can now place additional
clips on the tracks, add effects, and perform other editing tasks on the
clips.
Also, a new container clip timeline button is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you’re working in a composite container clip.
242
Nesting Clips
3. Do one of the following after you have finished editing the clips in this
container clip:
Container clip button
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
t
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
The composite container clip is closed and the top timeline is
displayed. All the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You
can reopen the container clip at any time by clicking the button in the
title bar of the container clip.
Creating a Background Container Clip
Background container clips let you edit several video clips together on a
background track, and treat the result as a single clip on the top or parent
timeline. Any editing tasks that can be performed on the top timeline can
also be done in a background container clip.
For example, to perform a double dissolve (commonly known as a
bi-pack), you first dissolve two clips in a container clip. On the top
timeline, you then dissolve the container clip with a third clip.
To create a background container clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the video clips that you want to use in the
container clip.
n
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on clips.
All these clips will be placed in the same container clip.
3. Do one of the following:
t
From the toolbar, click Containers > Background Container.
t
From the taskbar, click the Create Container button and select
Create Background Container Clip.
A container clip timeline is displayed. You can now place additional
clips on the background tracks, add effects or transitions, or perform
other editing tasks on the clips.
243
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
Also, a new container clip timeline button is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you are working in a background container clip.
4. Do one of the following after you finish editing the clips in this
container clip:
Top Timeline
button
Background
Container Clip
button
Container clip button
n
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
t
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
The background container clip is closed and the top timeline is
displayed. All the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You
can reopen the container clip at any time by clicking the button in the
title bar of the container clip.
An option lets the container button appear on the clip. For more
information, see “General Property Page” in the Help.
Creating an Audio Container Clip
Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them together,
and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline. These audio
container clips can be synchronized with corresponding video clips or
mixed with other audio clips.
You can create submixes by nesting audio container clips in other audio
container clips. For example, you can create a container clip just to create a
submix of all the drum sound tracks, while another container clip can be
used for the guitar submix. These two container clips can then be mixed
together to generate the final recording.
For more information, see “Mixing Audio” on page 383.
To create an audio container clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the audio clips that you want to use in the
container clip.
n
244
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on clips.
Nesting Clips
3. Do one of the following:
Audio Container
Clip button
t
From the toolbar, click Containers > Audio Container.
t
From the taskbar, click the Create Container button and select
Create Audio Container Clip.
A container clip timeline is displayed. You can now place additional
clips on the tracks, add effects and transitions, and perform other
editing tasks on the clips. In the audio container clip, you can set your
ruler to display frames or milliseconds for greater accuracy when
editing audio clips.
Also, a new container clip timeline button is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you are working inside an audio container clip.
4. Do one of the following after you finish editing the clips in this
container clip:
Container clip button
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
t
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
The audio container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed. All
the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the button in the title bar of the
container clip.
A closed audio container
clip represented as a
single clip on the timeline.
Navigating within Nested Clips
When you first open a sequence, the top timeline is displayed. The top
timeline is the topmost level of the timeline. This is where you can see all
the clips that comprise your sequence.
A container clip timeline is nested in the top or parent timeline. When you
open a container clip, it displays the contents of the container clip on this
new timeline.
245
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
You can also create container clips in container clips. A container clip that
contains another is called the parent container clip. Each time you create
or open a container clip, a corresponding button is displayed at the bottom
of the taskbar. As you continue to nest container clips, the list of buttons on
the taskbar continues to grow. These buttons provide a quick way of
navigating between container clips. The timeline buttons in the taskbar
indicate how deep the container clip is nested.
Top Timeline
Parent Timeline
Current Timeline
Container clip timelines
that are currently open.
Create new container clip
You can identify container clips by the type of button that is displayed in
the taskbar.
This button
Represents
A composite container clip.
A background container clip.
An audio container clip.
Opening Container Clips
The button at the top of the timeline buttons in the taskbar represents the
top timeline. As you create nested container clips, more timeline buttons
appear on the taskbar. The type of timeline buttons that appear correspond
to the opened container clips.
246
Nesting Clips
Container clip button
Step In
To open a container clip, do one of the following:
t
Click the button in the container clip.
t
Double-click the container clip.
t
Select the container clip and click the Step In button on the timeline
navigation bar.
The container clip timeline is displayed. A new container clip button is
displayed in the taskbar, representing the container clip in which
you’re currently working.
Closing Container Clips
After you’ve made changes to the container clip, you can close your
current container clip and go to the top or parent timeline by clicking the
respective navigation button on the taskbar.
When you click the Top Timeline button, it closes all of the container clips
below it and displays the top timeline.
Similarly, when you click a parent container clip button, it closes any
nested container clips within it and displays only the contents of the
selected container clip.
Top Timeline
button
To close a container clip and return to the top timeline, do one of the
following:
Parent Timeline
button
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
t
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
This closes all open container clips and returns to the top timeline.
To close a container clip and return to the parent timeline, do one of
the following:
Step Out
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Parent Timeline.
t
In the taskbar, click any container clip button (Parent Timeline button)
above the current container clip button.
t
On the timeline navigation bar, click the Step Out button.
The current container clip is closed and the parent container clip’s
timeline is displayed.
247
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
Deleting Nested Clips
You can delete any container clip on the timeline. Deleting a container clip
removes the container clip and its contents from the timeline.
To delete a container clip and its contents, do one of the following:
t
Select a container clip and press Delete.
t
Right-click a container clip and select Delete Clip.
The container clip is removed from the timeline.
n
If the container clip is sync-locked with another audio or video component,
the other component remains on the timeline. You have to delete it as an
independent clip.
To delete a container clip but preserve its contents:
1. Open a container clip—see “Opening Container Clips” on page 246.
2. Press Ctrl and select all the clips in the container clip.
3. Press Ctrl+C to copy the clips.
4. Close the container clip—see “Closing Container Clips” on page 247.
5. Press Delete to delete the container clip.
6. Place the position indicator at the point on the timeline on which you
want to place the clips you copied.
7. Press Ctrl+V to paste the clips back on the timeline.
Displaying Effects in a Viewer
You can display effects in a viewer, such as a floating viewer.
Opening a Floating Viewer
When working on several different effects simultaneously, you can open a
floating viewer for each effect, as well as tree effects and container clips.
This lets you view the output of individual effects, container clips, and
248
Displaying Effects in a Viewer
whole timelines. You can also display the red, green, blue, and/or alpha
component of an image, and use the transport controls to view the rest of
your clip. For more information, see “Viewing Image Components” on
page 251.
n
Unlike the transport controls in the Source and Record viewers, you
cannot customize them by adding and removing buttons.
You can also resize and move each floating viewer to a location where it
won’t obstruct other views, and then pin it in place. Once a floating viewer
is pinned, you can freely switch between the different layouts and the
floating viewer will remain in place. When you modify an effect, the result
is displayed in its floating viewer.
A single floating viewer can display several outputs, see “Changing the
Image Displayed in a Viewer” on page 250.
n
Objects cannot be edited or manipulated in a floating viewer.
To open a floating viewer:
t
Right-click one of the following and select Open Viewer:
-
Clip
-
Clip, track, or timeline effect bar
-
Timeline effect track
-
Container clip
-
Layer effect
-
Result area in Layers view
-
Effect Tree node
-
Overview area of the timeline
To pin a floating viewer:
t
n
Click the Pin button in the upper-right corner of a floating viewer.
Tip: You can set the window size and position of floating viewers in the
User Preferences dialog box (General property page).
249
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
Changing the Image Displayed in a Viewer
You can view various outputs in a single viewer. The Reconnect Viewer
button lets you view the output of individual effects, container clips, or the
whole timeline. This is useful when you want to display the full results of a
composite in the Record viewer, and view one element at a time in a
another viewer.
To display the output of selected objects in a viewer:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Open a floating viewer—see “Opening a Floating Viewer” on
page 248.
t
Select a viewer that has a Reconnect Viewer button—see
“Customizing Toolbars” in the Help.
2. Click the Reconnect Viewer button for the selected viewer.
3. Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select Current
Selection.
The Reconnect Viewer button turns red, indicating there is an alternate
object that you can view.
4. Click an object on the timeline that you want to display in the viewer.
Each object you select is displayed in the viewer when the position
indicator moves to the selected object.
5. (Option) If you want to continue to display the output of the currently
selected object, do the following:
t
Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select Lock
Selection.
The Selection mode ends.
The Reconnect Viewer pop-up menu sets the viewer’s connection points.
You can choose from three preset options or choose a selection mode.
Selection mode displays the output of objects you select on the timeline.
n
250
The Reconnect Viewer button must be selected to choose options from the
pop-up menu.
Displaying Effects in a Viewer
To set a viewer’s output connection point:
1. Click the Reconnect Viewer button for the selected viewer.
2. Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select the desired
connection—see “Reconnect Viewer Menu” in the Help.
The Reconnect Viewer button turns red.
You can now click the Reconnect Viewer button to switch between
displaying this object and the current object displayed in the viewer.
To lock the current output displayed in a viewer:
t
Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select Lock Selection.
The current selection continues to display in the viewer.
Viewing Image Components
The viewer lets you display the red, green, blue, and/or alpha component
of an image. During compositing, it’s particularly useful to display the
alpha component, so that you can monitor the matte of a clip or layer.
Viewer Red
Viewer Green
Viewer Alpha
Viewer Blue
To display the red, green, or blue component, do one of the
following:
t
From the viewer tools, click the red, green, or blue button.
t
Right-click the viewer, and select Red, Green, or Blue Component.
To display the alpha channel, do one of the following:
t
From the viewer tools, right-click the Viewer Alpha Channel button,
select a degree of opacity, and click the button to display the alpha
channel.
t
Right-click the viewer and select Alpha Component and a degree of
opacity.
251
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
The alpha channel displays the resulting composite, either on the top
timeline or in a composite container clip.
To display the matte, do one of the following:
n
t
Right-click the viewer and select Alpha Component > Matte.
t
From the viewer tools, right-click the Viewer Alpha Channel button
and select Viewer Alpha Full.
t
From a keyer property editor, select the Output Matte option to
switch the keyer output between the RBG and alpha channels. When
selected, the alpha channel (matte) is output as an RGB image. This is
useful when a key is applied on a video track as you don’t have to solo
the track before displaying the alpha channel.
Before processing the effect, deselect the Output Matte option if you don’t
want to output the alpha channel as an RGB image.
The alpha channel displays the resulting composite, either on the top
timeline or in a composite container clip. You can also view the mattes
of individual layers.
Processing Sequences
If you’ve applied transitions and effects to clips and then nested them in
container clips, you must process them before playing them. Processing is
not performed automatically, since it takes time and system resources to
process your clips. You can process all or part of the timeline. You can
also choose different levels at which to process your clips. For more
information, see “Processing Effects” on page 255.
n
252
All audio and some video effects and transitions do not need to be
processed as they are computed during real-time playback.
Processing Sequences
To process a sequence:
1. Do one of the following:
t
From the toolbar, click Processing > Process.
t
In the timeline controls, click the Process button.
Process button
Highlighted timeline
ribbon indicates
unprocessed section
of the sequence.
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
Click Help for detailed information on the processing options or see
“Processing Effects” on page 255.
3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress indicator is displayed on the bottom of the desktop to show
the status of the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
253
Chapter 5 Working with Effects and Transitions
254
Chapter 6
Processing Effects
This chapter describes how your effects are processed in Avid DS Nitris,
and how to work with projects and media:
•
Understanding Processing
•
Workflow: Processing
•
Processing Areas of the Timeline
•
Processing a Single Effect
•
Setting the Processing Options
•
Understanding Processing Modes
•
Working with Real-Time Effects
•
Remote Processing
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Understanding Processing
Avid DS Nitris is built upon a powerful combination of the Nitris Digital
Nonlinear Accelerator™ (DNA), which delivers hardware-guaranteed realtime performance, plus a software-based processing architecture, which
computes effects using the processor of your workstation.
Processing is the creation of a final image or sequence of images after a
special effect has been applied. Depending on the power of your
workstation, many effects can be computed in real time, allowing you to
view the results during playback. More complex effects, however, may
need to be processed before the results can be viewed.
During processing, Avid DS Nitris steps through each clip frame by frame,
calculating the various paint strokes, compositing layers, transitions, and
other effects that you created, and writes the results to cache files so that
your source media remains unaltered.
Effect applied to a clip in the
timeline generates new
media when processed.
Source media
Source media is the
material that you capture
from tape or file. It is stored
on the disk array.
256
Cache media
Cache media is also
stored on the disk array.
When Avid DS Nitris
encounters processed
effects during playback,
it points to the cache
media instead of the
original source media.
Understanding Processing
When you play your sequence over the processed frames, Avid DS Nitris
points to this cache instead of the clips' source media. This support for
non-destructive editing lets you continuously make changes and reprocess
your clips without affecting your source media.
n
You can commit processed results to a master clip and use the cache media
as source material in future sequences using the Timeline to Clip button.
For more information, see “Extracting Parts of a Sequence” on page 173.
When is Processing Needed?
Processing is usually needed for video images and graphics. Some video
effects do not need processing as Avid DS Nitris can compute the effects
during playback. These are known as real-time effects.
When you apply an effect to a clip, the timeline ribbon above it changes
color to indicate the processing requirements. There are three possible
color states on the timeline ribbon—green, yellow or red. Once the effect is
processed (and a cache is created), the color of the timeline ribbon above it
is clear.
If you have the Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation, you get guaranteed realtime playback and output of some real-time effects. These effects will have
a green color on the timeline ribbon in the area where they are applied.
If you are not using the Nitris DNA hardware, then Avid DS Nitris will
process all effects using the software. If your workstation has sufficient
processing power, many effects can be computed in real time by the
software, allowing you to view the results during playback. These realtime effects will be indicated by a yellow color on the timeline ribbon.
A real-time effect with advanced settings, or a stack of multiple real-time
effects may become too complex for your workstation to process. As a
result, the calculated frame might be delivered to the video output late, so
Avid DS Nitris skips to the next frame to keep in synchronization with
corresponding audio clips. A red dot is displayed on the Play button when
a frame can’t be delivered in time. This means that the real-time effect will
require processing to a cache file before the final output.
257
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Any effects that cannot be processed in real-time by the hardware or the
software will have a red color on the timeline ribbon. When you play back
the areas where these effects are applied, you will see a “Processing
Needed” message displayed in the viewer.
The illustration below shows the different conditions of effects on the
timeline (refer to this topic in the Help to see this in full color):
Red indicates that the effect
cannot be played in real time and
needs to be processed first.
Yellow indicates that the clip can be played
in real time and processing is optional.
Process button
Green indicates
that the clip is
guaranteed to
play in real time,
and processing
is not required.
Timeline
ribbon
When the red highlighed area is
played back, the viewer does not
show the resulting image.
The Process button also turns red or yellow to indicate that processing may
be needed. During processing, Avid DS Nitris steps through each clip
frame by frame, calculating the various paint strokes, compositing layers,
transitions, or other effects that you created. The results of the computation
are written to a cache file with the new processed media. This guarantees
perfect playback and output of your sequence.
Processing can be demanding on your system resources in terms of both
time and storage space. For more information on processing your effects
more efficiently, see “Understanding Processing Modes” on page 275.
258
Workflow: Processing
Workflow: Processing
1
On the timeline, select a region or
object to process (clip, track, layer,
effect, or transition bar).
or
2
Click the Process button.
or
3
4
Select an applied effect and open its
property editor.
Click the all... button.
Set the processing options.
Process media for
real-time playback.
259
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Processing Areas of the Timeline
Processing on the timeline is based on selection. You can process a
selected object or region, or all the clips on the current timeline. To work
even more efficiently, you can process your more complex effects at
different stages in your sequence. For example, if you have effects nested
within a container clip, you can open the container and process the
individual effect instead of processing the entire container clip.
n
The Process button turns red, yellow, or green even if the effect is nested
within a container clip.
When a section of the timeline requires processing, the timeline ribbon
above the effect turns red, yellow, or green. Red means that the section
must be processed, while yellow means that processing can be handled by
Avid DS Nitris during playback, but you should still process it before final
output. Green indicates that the clip is guaranteed to play in real time and
processing is not required. You can, however, still process these effects.
Process button
turns red or yellow.
Corresponding red or yellow highlights on timeline
ribbon indicates sections that may require processing.
Objects
Portions of clip that will be processed to generate new media.
260
Processing Areas of the Timeline
To select areas for processing:
Selection
Action
Entire sequence
On the timeline, click the Process button.
Object
Select a clip, effect bar, or transition bar and click the
Process button,
or
•
Double-click the effect or transition bar on the timeline
to open the property editor.
•
Click the All... button.
Timespan
Highlight a region of the timeline, and click the Process
button.
Cache bar
Select the cache bar and click the Process button,
or
Right-click the cache bar and select Process.
•
When you click the Process button, the Processing Options dialog box
is displayed—see “Setting the Processing Options” on page 265 for
further instructions.
•
After setting the appropriate options in the Processing Options dialog
box, click OK to begin processing.
After processing is complete, the timeline ribbon is updated to reflect
the new state of the timeline.
261
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Processing a Single Effect
If you are experimenting with an effect, you can process directly from the
property editor as you make changes to the parameters. Even within a
property editor, there are many options available when processing an
effect. You can process the results on a single frame, a subregion of a
frame, or all the frames in the clip on which you applied the effect.
To process from a property editor:
1. Double-click on the effect or transition bar on the timeline.
n
For time-based and source-generated effects, right-click the clip and select
Properties, and then select the effect from the menu.
The property editor of the effect opens.
Process controls
262
Processing a Single Effect
2. Select one of the following:
Use this
To
Process the current frame.
Enable the auto-process mode. Each time you
adjust a property value, the frame is automatically
processed and updated in the viewer.
n
Results may take time to display while
Avid DS Nitris processes the effects.
Process all frames on which this effect was
applied. This option displays the Processing
Options dialog box.
Process the region selected in the viewer.
3. When you click the Process button, the Processing Options dialog box
opens—see “Setting the Processing Options” on page 265 for further
instructions.
4. After you set the processing options, click OK to begin processing.
After processing is complete, you can play and view the results.
You can quickly view the results from an effect’s property editor.
n
When previewing effects from within a property editor, the preview only is
displayed in the viewer and not on the output monitor.
To preview the results of an effect:
t
In the property editor, click the Preview button.
On the timeline, loop markers are placed at the beginning and end of
the effect. They include the number of pre-roll and post-roll frames
that were set in the User Preferences dialog box. The selected area is
played continuously between the marked region until you click the
Stop button.
263
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Processing a Region of a Frame
If you want to apply an effect on part of an image, you can process only the
region of the frame on which the effect was applied. You can also use
subregion processing to test an effect on part of the image before
processing the effect on all the frames.
To process the effect on a region of the current frame:
1. In the property editor, select Subregion.
2. In the viewer, drag diagonally across the image to form a selection
box.
3. At the top of the property editor, click the frame button.
The effect is computed for that frame within the selected box.
n
If you are just using the Subregion option for testing, make sure you
deselect it after you’ve seen the results. Otherwise, when you process all
the frames, only the selected region will be processed.
Previewing Effects without Processing
When you place the position indicator at a specific frame, Avid DS Nitris
automatically processes all effects applied at this frame. This may not
happen instantly as the number and complexity of the effects may require
additional computation time. When the computation is complete, however,
you can see the results on one frame before processing all the rest. These
results are stored temporarily on disk and are known as interactive caches
or memory caches.
These results are only kept temporarily to improve your interaction time
when viewing the results of effects on a frame-by-frame basis. This way,
there is no need for Avid DS Nitris to recompute an effect when a frame is
revisited.
To view an effect on a series of frames:
t
Hold down the Ctrl key and click Play on the transport controls.
Avid DS Nitris steps through each frame, creating interactive caches
for each one.
264
Setting the Processing Options
Setting the Processing Options
Depending on the complexity of your effects, it may take time and system
resources to process images. You can reduce processing time significantly
by choosing the options that best suit the task you’re currently performing.
For descriptions of all the options in this dialog box, click the Help button.
265
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
To set the processing options:
1. In the Processing Options dialog box, select one of the following
options:
Option
To
Current Timeline
Process a selected region on the timeline.
Duration of Selection
Process a selected region on the timeline.
Selected Object
Process just the objects that you have selected.
Cache List
Process the effects, composites, and/or transitions
that have been added to the cache list.
2. Select Include Real-time Effects to process real-time effects that are
too complex for your hardware to process, and play back in real time
without skipping frames. Processing creates a cache on disk for the
processed real-time effects, so that you can view them upon
playback—see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 280 for
more information.
n
All real-time effects are processed by Avid DS RP regardless of the Include
Real-time Effects setting.
3. To make processing more efficient, select Minimal or Complete,
depending on your particular scenario—see “Understanding
Processing Modes” on page 275 for more information.
4. To optimize the processing quality of your video media, set the
Options for Field or Frame Processing, and Precision—see
“Understanding the Processing Settings” on page 82.
n
266
These settings can also be set specifically on an applied effect. Settings on
the Option property page of the effect will take precedence—see “Setting
the Processing Bit Depth” on page 82.
Setting the Processing Options
5. For the Storage Settings, set the Resolution and Bit-Depth at which
you want to process your media.
To decrease processing time or save on storage space, you may want to
lower the resolution at which the caches are created. The lower the
resolution, the faster the processing times and the less storage space
used—see “Processing Media at Different Qualities” on page 269.
6. In the Location box, select Process Remotely if you have one or more
Avid DS RP workstations in your workgroup where you can send your
processing job.
7. Set the storage devices—Process Video To and Process Audio To,
where your processed media will be stored. (These storage devices
were configured when Avid DS Nitris was installed.)
The Time Available indicates the time remaining on the storage
devices for processing and saving video and/or audio caches based on
the processing options you selected.
8. To receive an e-mail notification when processing is complete, select
Send email to and type your e-mail address in the text box.
n
Before you can use the e-mail Notification option, you must specify your
SMTP server in the Data Management property page of the User
Preferences dialog box. To receive email from a local process, you need to
setup the email server on your workstation.
To receive e-mail from an RP workstation, you need to setup the e-mail
server on the workstation where the DMS Broker is installed. Refer to the
Avid ProEncode Setup and User’s Guide for details on configuring the
DMS Broker to send email notifications.
9. To hear a sound when video processing is complete, select Play sound
and select an 8-bit or 16-bit .wav file.
10. Select Update Viewer While Processing to display the frames in the
viewer and monitor as they’re processed. This option has no effect on
the processing time.
267
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
11. If you have sufficient space on the storage device, click OK to
begin processing.
A progress bar is displayed at the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process. The progress bar shows the number of passes,
frames, and the estimated time that Avid DS Nitris will take to process
your selection. These passes are based on the number of container
clips and the levels of processing required within the selected region.
Here’s the information that is displayed on the progress bar during
processing:
268
Information field
Description
Processing (Minimal)
The type of processing mode that was selected. You
have the option of Minimal or Complete—see
“Understanding Processing Modes” on page 275.
1/2
A running count of the number of passes required to
process the selected area
Frame: 57/139
A running count of the number of frames to be
processed for the current pass
Total: 57/442
A running count of the total number of frames to be
processed
Total time est: 5 min.
The total time (min:secs) required for processing the
selection
Setting the Processing Options
After processing is complete, you can play and view the results of the
processed area.
If the processing job was sent to a remote station for processing, the cache
bars turn blue to indicate that they have been sent to a remote machine for
processing. When the area is processed, the caches are automatically
imported into the current project. The cache bar turns green and the red
highlights on the timeline ribbon disappear.
Processing Media at Different Qualities
Since Avid DS Nitris is resolution-independent, you can process your clips
at low resolution or in compressed form during the rough cuts of your
work, and then reprocess at full resolution in uncompressed form before
outputting to tape. Working with high-quality media increases processing
time, so initially, you should process your clips at lower resolution to
obtain quicker results. When you’re ready to output the final production,
you can switch back to the higher quality media.
When you set your working sequences preferences to a lower resolution,
the clip in the Avid Explorer (or on the timeline) references the highquality media on disk, but produces a cache file at lower quality on your
workstation. You can change your working preferences at any time to
reprocess the clip at a better quality. The clip maintains pointers to all these
media files, so you can view the processed media at different qualities.
Media and cache files can sometimes be very large, so once you’ve
completed your edits, you can purge the clip to clear out this redundant
media. For more information, see “Purging Media” on page 443.
269
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Media processed at different
working preferences
Full resolution,
2:1 compression
Quarter resolution,
2:1 compression
Source media
Full resolution,
2:1 compression
Full resolution,
no compression
Each time you change your working qualities (such as switching to a
different resolution), Avid DS Nitris automatically looks for media of that
quality on your disk for you to work with. When you process your effects,
a new cache file is created if no cache file exists at that quality.
n
When you use a lower resolution for processing, your sequence preferences
are automatically set to that resolution, so that you can view the results. To
change the resolution of the sequence back to full, open the Sequence
Preferences dialog box and set the resolution to Full.
Creating Caches at Any Level
You may want to create your own caches at certain points in your clip
effect stack or effects hierarchy. It is best to add a cache after an effect that
has a long processing time. Once the cache is created, you do not need to
reprocess the entire stack each time a new effect is added on top of it.
You can add a cache bar directly on the timeline or you can add a cache
node in an Effects Tree. The cache bars and cache nodes indicate where
caches will be created.
270
Setting the Processing Options
The cache nodes and bars are displayed in different colors to indicate the
status of the cache:
Color
Description
Yellow
The effect needs to be processed. Either no cache
currently exists, or the effect properties were changed
thus requiring the effect to be reprocessed.
Green
A cache exists and the effects can be played.
Blue
The effect is currently being processed on an RP
workstation.
Some scenarios where adding your own caches might be useful are:
•
To process the results part way up a clip effect stack.
1
Red highlight
indicates processing
is required
Indicates that
processing is
required
Insert a cache bar between the generated
clip and a color correction effect.
The cache bar is yellow, indicating that the
generated clip (with a clouds image)
needs processing to be played back in real
time.
2
When you process in Complete mode, the
cache bar turns green and the area on the
timeline ribbon disappears.
3
If you modify the color correction
properties, the red highlight returns in the
timeline ribbon, but the cache bar remains
green. This means that the generated clip
is still real-time playable and that only the
modifications to the color correction effect
need to be processed.
271
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
•
Caching the results at any point in an Effects Tree. You can connect the
cache node to the output of any effect node in the tree, or insert it
between two nodes. After processing in Complete mode, you can view
the cache and play back its output in real time.
The cache node is added to the Effects Tree and then inserted at the point where you want
to create a cache. The cache node is yellow, which indicates that processing is required.
Once you’ve processed the effect(s) up to the cache node, it turns green. This
indicates that a cache has been created and any effects applied to your clip before
that cache can be viewed in real time.
Using the Cache Bar in the Timeline
If you have a stack of effects in the timeline, you can create caches at any
point by adding a cache bar. Cache bars, like effect bars, can be applied to
a clip, track, or timeline. You can also resize them and move them along
the timeline.
Cache bars have different colors depending on whether caches exist for its
entire time span. They are yellow, if any part of the time span below the
cache bar is unprocessed and they are green if a cache, or playable media,
exists for the entire time span.
n
272
Cache nodes can also be blue. They turn blue when they are sent to a
remote machine for processing. For more information, see “Remote
Processing” on page 285.
Setting the Processing Options
Even though Avid DS Nitris may be able to play back an effect or several
effects in real time, caches bars will still be yellow if the effects have not
been processed. The cache bar remains yellow because complex real-time
effects are not always 100% real-time playable. Once you process your
real-time effects, the cache bar will turn green, ensuring playback without
any frames being skipped.
You can process the effects, composites, or transitions below the cache bar,
which creates a separate cache file. You can also purge the contents of the
cache bar or any redundant cache files below the cache bar. For more
information, see “Purging Media” on page 443.
To apply a cache bar:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Select a clip.
t
Select a region on a track.
t
Select a region on the timeline effect track.
2. Right-click the clip or area selected and select Add Cache.
A cache bar is created over the clip or region you selected. The cache
bar is green if the time span covered by the cache bar is playable in real
time, or it’s yellow if processing is required.
Cache bar (indicated in yellow)
added to selected clip
n
You can add a cache bar to a clip, track, or to the timeline effect track. If
you want to add a cache bar to several clips, you can’t multi-select the
clips and then add a cache bar. You must do each one separately. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 270.
273
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
3. Right-click each cache bar and select Add to Cache List.
Each cache bar is added to the Cache List.
4. Click the Process icon.
The Processing Options dialog box opens.
5. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the Cache List option to
process all entries in the cache list.
6. Set the necessary options and click OK to begin processing.
To process a cache bar:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Select the cache bar and click the Process icon in the timeline
controls.
t
Right-click the cache bar and select Process.
The Processing Options dialog box opens.
n
You can add a cache bar and process it in one step by right-clicking the
selected clip or track and choosing Add Cache and Process from the menu.
2. In the Process box, select Include Real-time Effects.
If you have real-time effects in the area covered by your cache bars,
you should select this option to ensure real time playback for the entire
time span covered by the cache bar. If you don’t, the cache bar will
remain yellow.
3. Select the appropriate settings for the other options and click OK.
Avid DS Nitris processes the effects below the cache bar, which turns
green to indicate that playable media exists for the entire time span
covered by the cache bar.
n
274
You can also create a clip in the Avid Explorer from the cache you created.
Simply right-click the cache bar and choose Cache to Clip from the menu.
Understanding Processing Modes
Understanding Processing Modes
There are two modes of processing in Avid DS Nitris—Minimal and
Complete. In both modes, Avid DS Nitris processes effects down to the
deepest level necessary for playback of the current timeline. It also only
reprocesses the effects properties that have changed since the last time the
clips were processed.
Minimal Processing
The Minimal processing mode is the most efficient when you’re in the
initial stages of editing. Minimal processing is faster since it processes just
the effects, transitions, or layers that are necessary to ensure playback at
the current level. It also creates only one cache which is saved at the level
where the last effect was processed. The only drawback to this option is
that if you make changes at a higher level, you must reprocess all the lower
levels to regenerate the cache.
Complete Processing
The Complete processing mode processes all effects, transitions, or layers
that are necessary for playback at the current level. It generates caches at
each level of the timeline. Although this mode uses more disk space,
subsequent processing is more efficient since it only regenerates caches for
the changed effects or layers.
When processing in Complete mode, caches are created in this order: clip,
track, clips composited on video track, timeline effect track. In cases where
you have nested container clips, the containers are processed starting from
the deepest nested container clip and working upwards.
275
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
This is the order in which caches are created on the timeline:
Top timeline
4
Timeline effect track
3
Clips composited on video tracks
2
Composited clip on Video track 1
Composited clip on Video track 2
Video tracks
3
2
Video track 1
1
Video clip + effects
Background/composite container clip
Video track 2
Audio tracks
3
2
Audio track 1
Audio container clip
1
Audio track 2
Example: Minimal versus Complete Processing
The following example is a scenario in which a section of the timeline
needs processing. The dissolve to be processed includes part of a container
clip that has two effects. Within the container is a clip that also has an
effect on it.
276
Understanding Processing Modes
Processing a region of a container clip
Top timeline
Dissolve between clip
and container clip
Container clip with two
effects on top of it
Clip inside container clip with one clip effect
In Case A, we’ll perform Minimal processing, and in Case B, we’ll use
Complete processing.
n
During processing, Avid DS Nitris works frame by frame. It starts with the
source image on the first frame, and dynamically computes the effects on
that frame at each level of the timeline. This continues for each frame in
the sequence where an effect is applied.
Case A: Minimal Processing
Since the region to be processed includes part of a container clip,
Avid DS Nitris first processes the effect inside the container clip. Next, the
the dissolve between the two clips, and then the two track effects. The
results of processing all the effects is saved in one cache at the top timeline
level.
277
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Therefore, when you open the container clip and play its contents, you will
not be able to view the results of the effect because the cache was saved at
the top timeline.
Top timeline
Generate one and
only cache for all
effects at this level.
Region to be
processed.
When changes
are made here,
cache must be
added for all
levels.
1
Process effect stack
from bottom to top.
Process transition
inside container clip.
Process clip effect.
Inside the container clip.
Case B: Complete Processing
With the Complete processing mode, Avid DS Nitris creates caches at each
cache level of the timeline where an effect is processed. Avid DS Nitris
first processes the clip effect in the container clip. It generates a cache for
this clip effect. Since there are no additional track or timeline effects
applied, the track and container caches are left empty, but a cache is
created for the dissolve.
The clip effects above the container clip are then processed from the
bottom of the stack to the top and stored as a clip cache.
278
Understanding Processing Modes
If you later make changes to the effects on the top timeline, Avid DS Nitris
only needs to reprocess the cache at that level. The effect inside the
container clip below it does not require processing as its cache is still valid.
Top timeline
Region to be
processed.
Use cache #3.
3
Process effect stack
from bottom to top and
generate cache #3.
2
When changes
made here,
cache is simply
added to existing
caches at other
levels (takes
much less time).
Process transition,
cache #2 inside
container.
Process clip effect and
generate cache #1.
1
Inside container clip.
By processing caches at different levels, you can easily purge and
reprocess effects without having to reprocess effects created at other levels.
However, you may wonder why certain effects need to be reprocessed
despite the fact that you processed in Complete mode.
279
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Working with Real-Time Effects
A real-time effect is an effect that you can apply to your sequence and play
without having to process it first. Depending on the power of your
workstation, many effects can be computed in real time. This means that
when you apply a real-time effect to a clip, track, layer, or Effects Tree,
you can play the results immediately without having to process the effect.
Real-time effects fall into two categories—hardware real-time effects and
software real-time effects. When you apply a real-time effect to a clip,
track, or layer, areas of the timeline ribbon turn green or yellow to indicate
that the results of the effect(s) you applied can be played without
processing.
If you have the Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation, you get guaranteed
real-time playback and output of some effects. These effects have a green
color on the timeline ribbon in the area where they are applied.
Green areas on
timeline ribbon
indicate effects
that are
guaranteed to be
played and output
in real time.
n
If you are working in a Custom sequence, these real-time effects need to be
processed regardless of whether they are software or hardware-based.
If you are not using the Nitris DNA hardware, then Avid DS Nitris will
attempt to process effects using the software. If your workstation has
sufficient processing power, many effects can be computed in real time by
the software, allowing you to view the results during playback. These
effects will be indicated by a yellow color on the timeline ribbon.
280
Working with Real-Time Effects
Yellow areas on
timeline ribbon
indicate effects
that can be played
in real time.
Several effects, including dissolves, wipes, color correction, DVE, bluegreen (chroma) keyer, titles, and audio effects (except Timewarp) can often
be played in real time. Stacking multiple real-time effects or boosting some
effect parameters, however, may require more bandwidth than your
workstation can handle and thus require that you process the effects before
final mastering.
The real-time effect is shown in yellow.
Timeline ribbon indicates
sections that may require
processing.
Notice that when a
second effect is applied
over the real-time effect,
that portion of the clip
requires processing.
Red indicates the
region where the
effect definitely needs
to be processed.
In some cases, the calculated frame might be delivered to the video output
late. As a result, Avid DS Nitris skips to the next frame to keep in
synchronization with corresponding audio clips. A red dot is displayed on
the Play button when a frame can’t be delivered in time.
n
If you place the pointer over the Play button when the red dot is displayed,
a tooltip indicates how many frames (audio and/or video) were skipped.
The Play button is reset whenever you restart playing.
281
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
For a complete list of real-time effects and the conditions under which
these effects may cease to be real-time playable, see “Real-Time Effects”
in the Help.
Examples
•
A single color correction will play in real time, but five color
corrections require more bandwidth for processing and might skip
frames during playback.
•
A keyer is a real-time effect, but if you choose to “grow” or “shrink”
the matte, you will not be able to play the effect in real time.
These effects can always be processed to cache if required. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 270.
Playing Real-Time Effects
Avid DS Nitris will always try to play back effects in real time. When it
reaches a point where a frame cannot be computed before display time, the
system will repeat the previous frame to maintain progression along the
timeline.
Skipped frames will occur when a real-time effect sequence is very close to
surpassing the processing resources of your workstation. A red dot will
appear on the Play button as soon as a frame can’t be delivered in time.
This means that the real-time effect should be processed to a cache file
before the final output.
If you place the pointer over the Play button when the red dot is displayed,
it will indicate how many frames (audio and/or video) were skipped. The
normal state of the Play button is reset whenever you restart playing.
n
282
Tip: Always use the Play button or press the Enter key for playback, and
not the Up Arrow on the keyboard which is a 100% varispeed that can
cause frames to skip (and hence, any corresponding audio to fall out
of sync.)
Working with Real-Time Effects
If you’re satisfied with the sequence preview in the output monitor and
Avid DS Nitris can successfully play effects on the timeline without
skipping frames, then you can output your sequence to tape without
processing.
n
For progressive sequences, such as 1080p, and 720p, during play back, the
real-time effects are processed on-the-fly in frames. For interlaced
sequences, such as NTSC, PAL, and 1080i, real-time effects are processed
on-the-fly in fields. When the position indicator is parked on a frame, the
real-time effects are processed in frames.
Before mastering, or at any point in your production, you can process realtime effects to a cache, so Avid DS Nitris can refer to this cache file when
playing back the effects. By creating a cache, normal playback can take
place and guarantee smooth output of your sequence. In general, it is good
practice to process real-time effects before mastering.
To force processing of your real-time effects, select Include Real-time
Effects in the Processing Options dialog box. Each of the processed effects
will then have a cache created on disk and Avid DS Nitris will no longer
have to process these on-the-fly during playback. For more information see
see “Setting the Processing Options” on page 265.
Working with Real-Time Effects in HD
With the Avid Nitris DNA hardware capabilities, you can view real-time
effects with HD media at full resolution. If you are using a previous
Avid DS hardware platform, you can get the same real-time effects that are
available with Nitris DNA if you work in quarter resolution mode. This
way you can do all your work with quarter resolution HD media to view
the real-time effects, and then recapture the media at full resolution to add
the finishing touches to your project.
To view real-time effects in quarter working resolution mode:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
The Sequence Preferences dialog box opens.
2. In the Working Video Settings box, set the resolution to Quarter.
3. Under Quarter resolution working mode, select Enable real-time
effects.
283
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
n
This option is only available when working with an HD sequence on a nonNitris DNA workstation.
4. Recapture your clips at quarter resolution.
5. Play back your sequence to view the effects.
With the real-time effects option enabled, you can only view clips that have
been captured or processed in quarter resolution. You will not be able to
play back full and half resolution media and caches. These clips will
indicate that processing is needed (red highlight will display in the timeline
ribbon). To view these clips, you will need to process them at quarter
resolution.
n
Avid DS RP does not support the real-time effects option, therefore if you
are sending your processing request to an RP workstation, it won’t
recognize that it has to process full and half resolution media.
Outputting Real-time Effects
During an output-to-tape operation, Avid DS Nitris requires extra
resources which may result in insufficient bandwidth during playback.
When this happens, the Skipped Frames indicator is displayed on the
transport controls. Avid DS Nitris will attempt to output again, starting
immediately before the skipped frames occurred.
n
If your system is equipped with an Open G/L card, Avid DS Nitris might
stop updating the software viewer to transfer bandwidth resources to the
output monitor and prevent frames from skipping.
If the output-to-tape operation fails after several attempts, you will be
prompted to stop the operation. At that point, you must process that section
of the sequence before restarting the output to tape. This operation is very
fast due to the performance of the system.
c
284
Be careful with sequences that contain audio. Retrying an output-totape operation does not guarantee that the audio will be perfectly
synchronized. You should process your sequence or output the audio
to tape in a separate pass.
Remote Processing
Remote Processing
Instead of waiting while your workstation processes effects, you can send a
processing job to a remote workstation running Avid DS RP, so that you
continue working on your own workstation.
The RP software can be installed on any number of workstations on your
network, and the process requests are automatically dispatched to the first
RP workstation that is available. For more information, see the
Avid DS Nitris Installation and Administration Guide.
If you have more than one RP workstation in your workgroup, the Avid
DMS will automatically dispatch your job to the first available RP
workstation. If the RP workstation is already working on another job, your
job will be added to its processing queue.
To send a job to an RP workstation:
t
Follow the steps in “Setting the Processing Options” on page 265, and
select the Process Remotely option.
Once you send a processing job to a remote workstation, a blue cache bar
is displayed above the clip where the effect was applied. The cache bar
turns yellow while the effect is being processed, and eventually turns green
when the processing is complete.
n
If you place your mouse cursor over the cache bar, it will display the
processing status of the effect.
As your effects are processed, the caches are automatically imported back
into your current project. The highlights on the timeline ribbon will
disappear as the process requests are completed.
n
If you abort the processing request, the cache bar turns red.
If you change certain effects or composites in your sequence that were sent
to a remote machine for processing, the caches for those effects or
composites will be invalid when they are imported back into your project.
The cache bar will turn red to indicate that processing is required.
285
Chapter 6 Processing Effects
Monitoring Remote Processing Jobs with the Avid DMS Broker
Avid Distributed Media Services (DMS) Broker lets you monitor and
manage your remote processing jobs that have been dispatched to any RP
workstation in your workgroup.
To monitor a remote processing job:
1. Open a view of the Avid DMS by clicking the DMS button in the status
bar in one of the following ways:
-
Ctrl-click the DMS button to open a view in the Avid DS Explorer.
This lets you dock the view directly in the Explorer where it can be
easily accessed
-
Click the DMS button to open a view in the Microsoft Internet
Explorer
-
Ctrl+Shift-click the DMS button to open a view in the
DS Web view
2. The DMS view opens and automatically logs you in as the user.
The Jobs page displays the status and other information about jobs that you
have submitted to the DMS Broker. From here you can cancel, delete or
retry jobs, depending on your level of privilege.
For more information on using the DMS Broker, refer to the Avid
ProEncode Setup and User’s Guide.
n
286
When DMS is installed in an Avid DS workgroup, an Avid DS client
functions as a ProEncode client, and an RP workstation as a ProEncode
Provider.
Chapter 7
Applying Image Transition
Effects
This chapter describes the image transitions effects and how to apply them.
•
Understanding Image Transition Effects
•
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition
•
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition
•
Understanding the Morph Effect
•
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
•
Applying Wipe Effects
Understanding Image Transition Effects
The image transition effects let you create transitions between clips on the
same track, on different audio and video tracks, but not different
background tracks. You can apply image transition effects on the timeline
or to an Effects Tree. For more information, see “Applying Effects on the
Timeline” on page 230. You can also create transitions between two nodes
in an Effects Tree. For more information, see “Applying an Effects Tree as
a Transition” on page 72 of the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics
Guide.
n
Transitions on the timeline can be created only when there is extra
material available on one of the clips.
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition
The Dissolve effect lets you apply a transition between video clips in
which the image from one clip gradually becomes less distinct as the
image from the other clip replaces it. The Dissolve effect ensures that the
alpha channel is multiplied into color channels before applying the
dissolve.
n
You can use the Blend transition effect if you do not want the alpha
channel to affect the color channels, or if you require channel masking
services when dissolving.
You can apply a dissolve at the start, center, or end of the transition. You
can also adjust the amount of the dissolve if you want the frames of one
clip to be more apparent than the other. You can apply a dissolve as an
effect for single-sided transitions at the beginning or end of a clip.
The Dissolve effect can only be applied on clips on the timeline or as a
node in an Effects Tree.
Since the Dissolve effect is a real-time effect, you can view the results
upon playback without having to first process the effect.
n
First clip
In some cases, real-time effects may require processing to ensure that no
frames are skipped. For more information, see “Playing Real-Time
Effects” on page 282.
Dissolve at 25%
Dissolve at 50%
Dissolve at 75%
Second clip
To apply a dissolve on the timeline:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure the clips
that receive the dissolve have extra material.
288
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two clips on which you
want to apply the dissolve.
The selected edit point turns red.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade.
On the timeline, the transition area is displayed as a gradient on the
activeness bar.
4. On the Dissolve property editor, adjust the amount of the dissolve, and
specify the start point and duration of the transition.
n
The start point and duration options are only available when you apply a
dissolve on the timeline.
For more information, click the Help button.
To apply a dissolve in an Effects Tree:
1. Right-click an empty area of an Effects Tree and select Add Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. From the \Image Transitions folder, select Dissolve and click OK.
289
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
A Dissolve node is added to the Effects Tree.
3. In the Effects Tree, double-click the Dissolve node.
The Dissolve property editor is displayed.
4. On the Timing property page, adjust the amount of the dissolve and the
function curve to control the timing and percentage of the mix.
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition
The DVE effect lets you transform the size, position, and shape of images
in three-dimensional space. Using DVEs, you can create effects such as
“push-wipes”, “fly-bys”, or picture-in-picture.
You can apply DVEs to clips, tracks, layers in the Layers view, or Effects
Trees. On the timeline, you can use DVEs for transitions between two clips
or for single-sided transitions at the beginning or end of a clip. For more
information, see “Applying Transitions” on page 231.
290
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition
To apply a DVE to a transition on the timeline:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the
clips to receive the DVE have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two video clips on which
you want to apply the DVE.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > DVE.
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the DVE property editor, modify the properties of the DVE to
achieve the effect you want.
For more information, click the Help button.
To learn about applying DVEs on layers in a composite, see “Applying a
DVE” on page 176 of the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics
Guide.
291
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
Understanding the Morph Effect
The Morph effect lets you transform one image or a sequence of images
into another over a sequence of frames. You can morph between still or
moving images.
You can apply the Morph effect as a transition on the timeline or in an
Effects Tree.
When morphing a still image, you can, for example, show a change
between two images, such as the progressive aging of a girl into a woman
or the transformation of a woman into a man.
Outgoing image with morph
applied to face.
Morph with 50% shape
interpolation, 50% transparency.
Incoming image with morph
applied to face.
When morphing a moving image, you can show a change between two
sequences of images, such as a walking boy turning into a walking man.
The Morph effect is comprised of a warp effect on an incoming image, a
warp effect on an outgoing image, and a dissolve between them. For more
information, see “Warp Effect” on page 536 of the Avid DS Nitris
Compositing and Graphics Guide.
292
Understanding the Morph Effect
The outgoing image is warped from its original shape to the shape of the
incoming image. The incoming image is warped in the opposite direction,
going from the shape of the outgoing image to its original shape.
Manipulating the transparency value lets you control the dissolve between
the two images.
The Source shape morphs from the original image to a distorted image
resembling the shape of the target.
The target shape morphs in the opposite direction, from distorted image,
resembling the shape of the source to the original target image.
The basic workflow for creating a morph:
1. Select the images to morph together.
2. Create source and target shapes that describe the morph
transformation.
293
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
3. Join the shapes and adjust the correspondence between them.
4. Track the shapes or adjust the shape positions over time with
keyframes, if necessary.
5. Set the rendering options.
6. Process the morph.
Applying a Morph Transition Effect
You apply the Morph transition effect in the same way as a simple dissolve
or wipe. In an Effects Tree, you apply it like any other effect between two
inputs. For more information, see “Working with the Effects Tree” on
page 74 of the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics Guide.
To create a morph transition between clips:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips on which you want to apply the
Morph effect. They can be placed on the same or different tracks.
Make sure the clips that receive the effect have extra material.
2. Select the edit point between the two video clips.
The selected edit point turns red.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade or
Wipe.
The Dissolve or Wipe property editor is displayed, and the transition
area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Wipe or Dissolve property editor, click the Load Preset button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
5. From the \Image Transitions folder, select the Morph effect.
The Morph property page is displayed.
For more information, click the Help button.
294
Understanding the Morph Effect
Creating Shapes
Shapes are Bézier curves that outline the parts of your image that you want
to morph. The Morph effect uses these shapes as a guide to transition from
one to the other. Shapes can be open-ended or closed. They can stand alone
or be joined to another shape.
The Morph Effect has four shape creation tools, available from the Shapes
property page:
Freehand
Ellipse
Polyline
Rectangle
To create a source and destination shape:
1. Double-click the transition area between the two clips to open the
Morph property editor.
2. On the Shapes property page, select the Source option from the
Output box.
The outgoing image is displayed in the viewer.
3. From the Shape Creation box, select a drawing tool to create the
source shape.
4. Create a rough shape around the object that you want to warp.
The source shape is displayed in red.
295
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
Source shape drawn with
the Polyline tool on the
outgoing image.
n
You can zoom and pan in the viewer to frame the portion of the image you
want to trace.
5. From the Editing Tools box, click the Edit Shape tool.
Control points along the source shape are displayed.
n
If you copy open shapes from the Morph effect into a keyer or Matte effect,
the shapes will automatically be closed.
6. Drag the control points so that your shape outlines the part of the
image you want to morph.
Control point
To add an additional control point, hold down the A key and click the
line on which you want the control point to appear.
296
Understanding the Morph Effect
n
If the source image is moving between frames, you should rotoscope or
animate the source shape over the length of the transition. For more
information, see “Creating Animation” on page 341.
7. From the Output box, select the Destination option.
The incoming image is displayed in the viewer.
8. From the Shape Creation box, select a shape tool to create the target
shape.
n
When you draw the shapes on the destination image, be sure to draw them
in the same direction and order in which you created them on the source
image. For example, if you started drawing the shape on the source image
from the top and to the right, and also draw the shape on the destination
image from the top and to the right. This will avoid unwanted deformations
in the morphed image. However, if you want to create a deformation, you
can create the shape on the destination image differently.
9. Create a shape on the destination image representing the target shape
or the final image into which the source image will morph.
The target shape is displayed in blue.
Target shape drawn with
the Polyline tool on the
incoming image.
n
To close a shape created with the polyline tool, press Ctrl and click.
297
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
10. Use the following tools from the Transformations box to manipulate
your shape:
Select
Rotate
Scale
Skew
11. From the Editing Tools box, click the Edit Shape tool.
Control points along the target shape are displayed.
12. Drag the control points to modify the shape.
n
If the target image is moving between frames, you can track the target
shape over the length of the transition. For more information, see
“Tracking Morphed Shapes” on page 305.
13. On the Shapes property page, select the Apply option.
The Morph effect is applied to the clips.
For more information, click the Help button.
Joining Shapes
After you have created your shapes, you can join them together to create a
relationship between the beginning shape of the source image and the
ending shape of the target image. The Morph effect automatically
interpolates between the two shapes over the length of the transition.
n
298
You can only join open-ended shapes with other open-ended shapes and
closed-ended shapes with other closed-ended shapes.
Understanding the Morph Effect
When the two shapes are joined, you can match corresponding features on
the two shapes. Each shape has four correspondence points that describe
the location of key positions on a shape. You can place these points at key
locations on a shape, such as where the Bézier curve changes direction.
Correspondence point
Move a correspondence
point to this location.
Correspondence points have some restrictions:
•
There must be at least four correspondence points per shape.
•
Shapes intended to be joined must have the same number of
correspondence points.
•
Correspondence points on the ends of open-ended shapes cannot be
moved or deleted.
•
Correspondence points cannot cross over each other. There is a limit as
to how close they are allowed.
To join the source and target shapes:
1. From the Output box, select the Mix option.
Both images and shapes appear in the viewer.
2. From the Transformations box, click the Select button and select the
source shape (red line).
3. From the Editing Tools box, click Join, and drag the source shape
towards the target shape.
299
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
A blue line is displayed as you drag the pointer from the source shape
to the target shape. When the pointer touches the target shape, the two
shapes momentarily turn yellow and are joined together by a
correspondence vector.
Source shape joined to target shape
by a correspondence vector.
Source shape in red
Target shape in blue
n
To break the join between two shapes, click Join in the Editing Tools box
and click one of the shapes. A dialog box is displayed asking you if you
want to break the join, click OK.
4. From the Editing Tools box, select the Correspondence option.
The source and target shapes are highlighted in yellow. Each shape
contains four correspondence points. The correspondence points on
each shape are connected with correspondence vectors.
5. Move the correspondence points on the source shape to key locations
on the curve, such as where the curve changes directions.
6. Match the correspondence points of the target shape with those of the
source shape.
300
Understanding the Morph Effect
When you’re morphing between similar objects, such as between two
faces, you should move the correspondence points to try and match up
key features on the source image with those on the target.
Move the correspondence points so
that key features on the source
image match those of the target
image. In this case, the features of
the face (eyes, nose, and mouth).
n
To add additional correspondence points, press A and click the shape on
which you want the point to appear. To delete correspondence points,
select a point, and press Delete.
To increase the precision of the shape during processing:
t
Increase the Density value.
The number of correspondent vectors (yellow lines) between
correspondence points increases as the Density value increases.
Correspondence
point
Edge density
Original
shape
Shape with edge density of 5.
301
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
During processing, Avid DS Nitris does not use the actual shapes you
created, but uses the edge densities of the shapes to create an
approximation of the shapes. That is, a shape’s edge density defines how
closely the form used in the morphing process matches the shape that is
drawn.
Shapes are subdivided between correspondence points based on the
shape’s edge density. The higher the edge density, the more edges, and the
more closely the shape is depicted by its edges. Thus, the more precise the
transition between shapes.
When you change the edge density, be careful not to use too high a density
setting. There is no exact formula for selecting the best density for any
given shape. Choose one that approximates the shape enough, but not too
much. Setting a shape’s density unnecessarily high slows down processing
time.
For more information, click the Help button.
Creating Barrier Shapes
You may find that the area outside your source or target shapes also gets
distorted when your image is morphed. To get rid of this unwanted
distortion, you can create a barrier shape for either the source or target
shapes, which prevents the distortion from spreading to the rest of the
image.
To create a barrier shape:
1. Create a third shape encompassing both the source and target shapes.
The barrier shape is displayed in red or blue depending on which
option you choose.
2. From the Editing Tools box, click the Copy and Join button.
A copy of the shape is created directly on top of its original. By doing
so, you are creating a static warp where the source and target shapes
are the same. This static warp acts as a barrier, which prevents the
original warp from spreading to other areas of the image.
302
Understanding the Morph Effect
Warping the Morph
After you create the morph between the two images, you can also apply a
warp to the output of the morph. For example, you have two faces that
morph from one to the other, and you want to change the length of the nose
of both images. To do so, you can warp the noses from within the Morph
effect.
To warp the output of the morph:
1. On the Shapes property page, select the Mix option.
Both the incoming and outgoing images are displayed in the viewer.
2. Select the Apply option.
3. Draw the source and target shapes, and then join them.
The warp source and target shapes are displayed in green.
4. Draw a barrier shape for the areas you don’t want to affect.
The shape is animated using the same interpolation as the Morph
effect. If you want to use a different interpolation than the Morph
effect, you can apply individual warp effects to each clip before
applying the Morph effect.
For more information, click the Help button.
Animating Shapes
You can animate the interpolation between shapes or the shapes
themselves when the objects are moving over time. For still images, the
Morph effect automatically interpolates between the source and target
shapes. You can add keyframes and modify the way the source morphs
into the target. For moving images, you can animate the shapes frame-byframe to match the movement in the clip. For more information, see
“Creating Animation” on page 341.
303
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
To animate the interpolation between shapes:
1. Double-click the transition area between the clips to open the Morph
property editor.
2. Scrub slowly through the transition on the timeline.
By default, the object moves from the source shape to the target shape
in a linear manner, moving from 0% shape interpolation and 0%
transparency at the beginning of the transition to 100% shape
interpolation and 100% transparency at the end of the transition.
3. Place the position indicator anywhere within the transition area.
4. On the Shapes property page, modify the Shape Interpolation
Amount.
The amount of morphing changes as you modify the Shape
Interpolation Amount.
5. Click the Animation Key button.
A keyframe is added at that point in time, changing how the object
moves from source to target shape.
6. Move the position indicator to another area of the clip, modify the
Shape Interpolation Amount, and add another keyframe.
7. Animate the Transparency value in the same way as the Shape
Interpolation Amount.
8. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Animation Editor.
The animation editor is displayed.
9. Tweak the shape and transparency animation by modifying, adding,
and deleting keyframes to both the Blend Shapes and Opacity function
curves.
n
You can also modify the slope of the function curves from Linear to either
Spline or Constant interpolation.
For more information, click the Help button.
304
Understanding the Morph Effect
Tracking Morphed Shapes
If your image moves or scales, you’ll need to set up trackers to track the
source, destination, and barrier shapes. To correctly track the shapes, you
need to increase the trackers’ target area and search regions, and ensure
that the Always Update option is selected.
To track the shapes:
1. On the Shapes property page, select either Source or Destination in
the Output box, depending on the image you want to track.
2. From the Transformations box, click the Select Shape button.
3. In the viewer, drag around all the shapes to select them.
Since all the shapes, including the source, destination, and two barrier
shapes move and scale, you need to track all the shapes.
4. On the Tracker property page, click Show.
All four trackers are displayed.
5. Use the period (.) or comma (,) keys on the keyboard to cycle through
each tracker and set the following for each tracker:
t
Increase the size of the search and target areas to consider the
change in the size of the area on which the shape is drawn.
t
Click the Always Update button.
Since the area of the image defined by the shapes scale and move,
the tracker targets must be updated in each frame.
n
This option makes the trackers compare the pixel pattern of the current
frame to that of the previous frame, rather than the first frame at the
tracking start point (or the set target). Use this option when the target area
changes in appearance as the clip is played. This can cause cumulative
tracking errors. When you select this option, the Set Target option
becomes deselected and vice versa.
305
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
t
Set the Confidence level.
If you find that the tracker stops frequently, try lowering the
confidence level.
n
If you are tracking field-based material, you can select the Track in Fields
option. A keyframe will be set on each tracked field. The target used is the
contents of the target region in field 1 of the target frame. If you track in
fields, you do not need to first deinterlace, track, and then reinterlace the
clip.
6. Click the Track Forward (or Track Backward) button.
7. On the Shapes property page, deselect the Show Shapes option to see
the final result without the drawn shapes and tracker boxes.
8. In the Output box, select Mix to see the resulting morph.
For more information, click the Help button
Setting the Rendering Options
The final look of your morph depends largely on the render settings you
choose. You can go from a quick low resolution test to a high resolution
image for final output by simply changing a few of the settings in the
Render property page.
The render settings let you choose how the edges of your shapes are
defined, how precise the transition is between shapes, how pixels are
interpolated, and how soft or jagged the edges are.
To set the rendering options:
1. In the Morph property editor, select the Render tab.
2. For the Edge Mode setting, select one of the following options:
-
306
Fixed to pin the border of the image in place. Be careful when
using this option because it can cause distortion and shearing if
your warped object moves or grows in size.
Understanding the Morph Effect
-
Sliding to move the image’s borders with the rest of the warped
object. This option produces less distortion.
Image before being warped or stretched.
Image stretched upwards and
processed with Edge mode set to
Fixed. Notice how the borders of the
image do not move, resulting in a
distorted image.
Image stretched upwards and
processed with Edge Mode set to
Sliding. Notice how the borders of the
image do not stay in place, but
compensate for the stretched image,
resulting in a less distorted image.
307
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
-
n
Cookie Cutter to keep everything that falls within your closed
shapes and remove everything else. This option is also useful for
creating mattes. You cannot use this option with open-ended
shapes.
To close a shape, press Ctrl and click the viewer.
With Edge Mode set to Cookie Cutter,
the area outlined by the closed
shapes is cut out. The rest of the
image is ignored and set to black.
A matte is automatically created
based on the areas that were cut out.
3. For the Warp Precision setting, which affects transition quality, select
one of the following:
308
-
Linear to do a quick test. This option processes the morph at the
lowest quality, but is very fast and uses the least amount of
memory.
-
Low or Medium if you need slightly higher quality than the
Linear option. The quality of the images improve with only
slightly slower processing times.
-
High if you need a high-quality image that is processed in a
reasonable amount of time. This option produces professional
quality images.
-
Very High or Super High if you require an extremely smooth
transition between shapes. Both of these options provide
extremely high-quality images, but take considerable amounts of
time to process.
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
4. For the Interpolation setting, which effects pixel quality, select one of
the following:
-
None if you want quick results. This option results in marginal
pixel image quality, but the processing time is very quick.
-
Bilinear if you need reasonable image quality within a reasonable
processing time. This is the default setting.
-
Bicubic if you go from a small source shape to a larger target
shape. This option results in high pixel-quality, which is required
when the morph enlarges parts of the image.
-
Scaling if your target shape is scaled down by more than 50%.
This option results in the least amount of degradation, but also
takes the longest time to process.
5. Select the Antialiasing option if you want the edges of the shapes or
regions to be smooth. If you deselect this option, the edges are jagged.
6. Select the Soften Edges option if you want the pixels around the edges
of the shapes to blend gradually with the pixels of the surrounding
image.
7. Process the effect and then play it back on the timeline to view the
results.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
The Picture-in-Picture effect lets you transform the size and position of an
image in three-dimensional space. You can apply the Picture-in-Picture
effect to clips on the timeline or video tracks, or to an Effects Tree.
On the timeline, you can use the Picture-in-Picture effect for transitions
between two clips or for single-sided transitions at the beginning or end of
a clip. For more information, see “Creating One-Sided Transitions” on
page 233.
309
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
Since the Picture-in-Picture effect is a real-time effect, you can view the
results upon playback without having to first process the effect. For more
information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on page 282.
To apply a Picture-in-Picture effect as a transition:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the
clips to receive the effect have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two video clips on which
you want to apply the Picture-in-Picture effect.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade.
The Dissolve property editor is displayed, and the transition area is
displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Dissolve property editor, click the Load Preset button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
5. From the \Image Transitions folder, select the Picture-in-Picture
effect and click OK.
310
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
6. In the Picture-in-Picture effect property editor, modify the properties
to achieve the effect you want.
n
.
When you apply the Picture-in-Picture effect as a transition or to an
Effects Tree, the Source property page is also displayed, from which you
can adjust the direction in which the Picture-in-Picture effect is applied
and the source image’s opacity level.
For more information, click the Help button.
311
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
To apply the Picture-in-Picture effect in an Effects Tree:
1. Drag a clip to the timeline and create a composite container clip from
it—see “Creating a Composite Container Clip” on page 242.
2. From the Avid Explorer, drag a second clip into the Effects Tree.
The clip is added to the timeline, but not to a layer.
3. Add the Picture-in-Picture effect to the tree, and connect the inputs as
shown here:
The Input node that is connected to the Input 1 port of the Picture-inPicture effect, in this case the Racer clip, is used as the picture for
the effect.
To apply the Picture-in-Picture effect on the timeline:
1. Drag the clip to be used as the background clip to the timeline.
2. Add a video track to the timeline, above the track with the background
clip.
3. Drag the clip on which you want to apply the effect to the new video
track.
4. Apply the Picture-in-Picture effect to the clip on the new video track.
5. In the DVE (Picture-in-Picture) effect property editor, modify the
properties of to achieve the effect you want.
For more information, click the Help button.
312
Applying Wipe Effects
Applying Wipe Effects
The Wipe effect lets you create a transition between two overlapping clips,
such that the second clip is revealed according to a specified pattern. You
can also apply a border between the two clips by specifying the position,
color, and edge softness.
You can apply wipes to clips, tracks, or trees. On the timeline, you can also
use wipes for transitions between two clips, or for single-sided transitions
at the beginning or end of a clip. For more information, see “Creating OneSided Transitions” on page 233.
n
You can apply a wipe to an Effects Tree in the same way that you apply a
dissolve. For more information, see “Applying a Dissolve Effect to a
Transition” on page 288.
Since the Wipe effects are real-time effects, you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process the effect. In some cases, realtime effects may require processing to ensure that no frames are skipped.
For more information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on page 282.
To apply a wipe between two clips:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with. They can
be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the clips to
receive the wipe have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two video clips on which
you want to apply the wipe.
The selected edit point turns red.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Wipe.
313
Chapter 7 Applying Image Transition Effects
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Wipe property editor, adjust the amount of the wipe, and specify
the start point and duration of the transition.
n
The start point and duration options are only available when you apply a
dissolve or wipe on the timeline.
For more information, click the Help button.
314
Chapter 8
Working with Time Effects
This chapter describes the time effects and how to apply them to clips:
•
Understanding the Time Effects
•
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect
•
Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect
•
Applying a Deinterlace Effect
•
Applying an Interlace Effect
•
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Understanding the Time Effects
The time effects let you process images by rearranging the fields and
frames in a clip. Time effects include 3:2 Contract, 3:2 Expand,
Deinterlace, Interlace, Timewarp, and Freeze. You can apply time effects
only to clips.
n
These effects aren’t like other clip effects, in the sense that they create
container clips. You can only apply them from the toolbar.
When you apply a time effect, a container clip is created for holding the
entire source clip, even if you only used part of it. First frame and end
frame markers inside the container clip indicate the portion of the source
clip that is actually used. Only that portion is visible on the top timeline.
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
Unlike other effects, a time effect is not represented by an effect bar that
you can move, copy, delete, or trim. You can, however, save a time effect
as a preset and apply it to different clips.
To apply a time effect:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects and select a time effect.
A container clip is created.
To modify a time effect:
t
On the timeline, right-click a container clip, select Properties, and
then select the parameters that you want to modify.
The effect’s property editor is displayed for you to make any
adjustments.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect
The 3:2 Contract effect lets you process video fields to recreate the original
film sequence at 24 frames per second. This removes artifacts, so that you
can work on clean frames.
You can apply the 3:2 Contract effect only to video clips.
n
316
Because the 3:2 pulldown technique is not required with PAL video
material, this effect is only used on sequences in NTSC format.
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect
AA BB BC CD DD EE FF FG GH HH
Clip created from film
transfer using 3:2 pulldown.
Mixed fields that might
contain artifacts.
3:2 Contract
AA BB CC DD EE FF GG HH
3:2 Expand
AA BB BC CD DD EE FF FG GH HH
n
When using these effects inside composite container clips, you should
apply the 3:2 Contract effect inside the composite container clip, complete
the graphics or compositing tasks, and then go to the parent timeline to
apply the 3:2 Expand effect.
To contract video fields:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. Frames composed of mixed fields occur in pairs. Place the position
indicator on the first frame in any pair of frames composed of mixed
fields.
AA BB BC CD DD EE FF FG GH HH
Place the position indicator on one of these frames.
3. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > 3:2 Contract.
The clip is contracted to 24 frames per second. A container clip is
created.
4. On the timeline, the length of the clip is updated.
For more information, click the Help button.
317
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect
The 3:2 Expand effect lets you expand the video fields to recreate a
30-frames-per-second clip. Once you’ve added effects to your clips, you
need to expand the video fields.
You can apply the 3:2 Expand effect only to video clips.
n
Because the 3:2 pulldown technique is not required with PAL video
material, this effect is only used on sequences in NTSC format.
To expand video fields:
1. From the timeline, select a 3:2 Contract container clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > 3:2 Expand.
A 3:2 Expand container clip is created and the clip recovers its original
length.
3. On the timeline, the length of the clip is updated.
For more information, click the Help button.
n
During a 3:2 Expand, if a clip starts or ends with a frame composed of
mixed fields, red frames are added at the beginning or end of the clip to
ensure a fully recoverable operation. You can trim the clip to remove these
frames. For more information, see “Understanding Trimming” on
page 197.
Applying a Deinterlace Effect
The Deinterlace effect lets you separate each frame of a clip into two
fields: one containing even lines and the other containing odd lines.
In the deinterlaced clip, each field appears as one frame and contains half
the lines of video information of the original frame. For viewing purposes,
the in-between lines are replaced either by duplicates or by interpolation.
As a result, the clip becomes twice as long on the timeline.
318
Applying a Deinterlace Effect
You can apply the Deinterlace effect only to clips.
Deinterlacing clips is useful for several tasks, including:
•
Working with clips originally shot with a video camera or field-based
material.
•
Creating a field-based animated matte (rotoscopy) or paint animation:
The camera captures 60 fields per second; when objects are moving
very fast, individual fields might contain slightly different images. If
you want your matte to accurately track the outlines of the moving
object, you must create a different matte for each field. When you
deinterlace the clip, each field is displayed separately. You can then
use the graphics tools to create a matte which accurately tracks the
moving object.
•
Retouching images: Artifacts on clips sometimes appear only on one
field of a clip. The way to remove such artifacts is to deinterlace the
clip, expose the corrupt field, retouch it, and then reinterlace the clip.
•
Tracking: Since individual fields can contain different images, you
should deinterlace clips before tracking to more accurately track
objects.
After you’ve worked on the fields in a clip, you must recombine (interlace)
them to display the resulting frames and recover the original playback
speed. For more information, see “Applying an Interlace Effect” on
page 321.
To use the Deinterlace and Interlace effects in a composite container
clip:
1. Apply the Deinterlace effect to a clip on the top timeline.
2. Apply the composite container clip to the deinterlace container clip.
3. Perform the graphics or compositing tasks inside the composite
container clip.
4. Go to the top timeline to apply the Interlace effect.
To preserve your edits on the top timeline, make sure that the Ripple
mode is activated.
319
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
To deinterlace a clip:
1. Apply the Deinterlace effect to a clip.
A container clip is created and the Deinterlace property editor is
displayed.
2. From the Interpolation box, select one type of interpolation.
3. Select the Invert Field Dominance option to change the order in
which odd and even fields occur in time.
The duration of the clip is doubled.
n
If you deinterlace a clip that is part of a composite, the clip’s duration is
doubled. To maintain synchronization, make sure that you deinterlace the
other clips in the composite.
For more information, click the Help button.
320
Applying an Interlace Effect
Applying an Interlace Effect
The Interlace effect lets you shorten deinterlaced clips by half because
every two consecutive frames are interleaved into a single frame. This
interlaced frame contains both odd and even fields. You can use the
Interlace effect after you’ve finished making the necessary modifications
to a deinterlaced clip.
You can apply the Interlace effect only to clips.
To interlace a clip:
1. From the timeline, select a Deinterlace container clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Interlace.
A container clip is created and the Interlace property editor is
displayed.
3. Select the Invert Field Dominance option to change the order in
which odd and even fields occur in time.
The duration of the clip is reduced by half.
For more information, click the Help button.
To use the Deinterlace and Interlace effects in a composite container
clip:
1. Apply the Deinterlace effect to a clip on the top timeline.
2. Apply the composite container clip to the deinterlace container clip.
3. Perform the graphics or compositing tasks inside the composite
container clip.
4. Go to the top timeline to apply the Interlace effect.
To preserve your edits on the top timeline, make sure that the Ripple mode
is activated.
321
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
The Timewarp effects let you change the speed of clips. You can speed
them up, slow them down, or have them play in reverse.
Applying a Timewarp effect creates a container clip in which frames are
added, removed, or rearranged to create the pacing that you want. Slowing
the action down increases the number of frames, while speeding the action
up decreases it.
The timewarp container clip holds the entire source clip, even if you only
used part of it. First frame and end frame markers inside the container clip
indicate the portion of the source clip that is actually used in the timewarp.
Applying an Audio Timewarp Effect
The audio Timewarp effect lets you alter the length and speed of an audio
clip without affecting the original pitch. There are two methods of
changing the speed—by specifying a percentage of the original speed or by
typing a new SMPTE duration.
You can also adjust the pitch of any source audio with or without a change
in its duration. This effect lets sounds to be transposed a maximum of
two octaves up or down in pitch with or without altering playback speed.
The audio timewarp has been optimized for human speech.
n
322
If your Avid DS Nitris system has a Merging Technologies audio card
installed, you can use the audio Timewarp Timezone effect, from Merging
Technologies. For more information, see “Applying Merging Audio
Timezone Effects” on page 324.
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
To apply the audio Timewarp effect:
1. From the timeline, select an audio clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor
is displayed.
3. Do one of the following to define the new speed:
-
In the Speed (%) box, type a new speed as a percentage of the
original speed.
-
In the Duration (SMPTE) box, type a new end timecode for the
container clip.
You can define the speed using either the speed or duration control.
Because these properties are interdependent, when you change one, the
other is updated automatically. For example, if you specify a new end
timecode, the speed is adjusted so that the clip fills the new duration.
4. Adjust the length of the crossfade using the CrossFade control.
323
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
5. Adjust the Minimum Pitch control to set the minimum or lowest pitch
used during the timewarp processing.
6. Do the following to adjust the pitch shift:
-
In the Pitch Shift area, click Enable to active the pitch shift
options.
-
Adjust the pitch by changing the values of the Coarse and Fine
options. The Coarse option transposes in semitones (half steps)
and the Fine option transposes in cents (hundredths of a semitone).
-
Adjust the Pitch Shift Ratio control to set the amount of
transposition (pitch change).
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Merging Audio Timezone Effects
The audio Timewarp Timezone effect lets you alter the length and speed of
an audio clip without affecting the original pitch. The audio timewarp has
been optimized for human speech.
n
To use the audio Timewarp effect, Timezone from Merging Technologies,
you must have a Merging Technologies audio card installed on your
system.
There are two methods of changing the speed: by specifying a percentage
of the original speed or by entering a new SMPTE duration.
To apply the audio Timewarp (timezone) effect:
1. From the timeline, select an audio clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp TimeZone
property editor is displayed.
3. Click the Load Preset button and select one of the Merging TimeZone
presets.
324
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
4. Do one of the following to define the new speed:
-
In the Speed (%) box, type a new speed as a percentage of the
original speed.
-
In the Duration (SMPTE) box, type a new end timecode for the
container clip.
You can define the speed using either the speed or duration control.
Because these properties are interdependent, when you change one, the
other is updated automatically. For example, if you specify a new end
timecode, the speed is adjusted so that the clip fills the new duration.
5. In the Quality box, specify how you want the processing to be done.
The higher the quality setting, the more processing power, and
therefore more time is required to complete the process. You can, for
example, set the quality to Fast while you experiment with parameters.
Once you’ve decided on your settings, set the quality to High to
process the final result.
6. Click the Update Duration button to update the clip displayed on
the timeline.
7. On the Advanced property page, set the following parameters:
-
Blocklength: Specify the size of the audio blocks used to perform
the Timezone processing. As a general rule, percussive sounds,
such as drums, piano, or clicks, should use shorter blocklengths,
while instruments such as strings, wind, and flute, should use
longer blocklengths. For clips that combine both percussive and
tonal sounds, like music, you’ll need to experiment with this
parameter for an optimal setting.
-
Cross Fading: Specify the length of the crossfade applied
between each audio block during the Timezone processing.
-
Energy Detection (dB): Specify the energy threshold for
processing audio blocks. When you select this option, only audio
blocks that do not exceed the specified energy threshold are
processed. This is particularly useful for percussive content or for
speech applications. Do not select this option when an exact
processed file size must be guaranteed.
For more information, see “Timewarp (audio timezone) Property Editor”
in the Help.
325
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
Applying a Video Timewarp Effect
The video Timewarp effect lets you speed up or slow down the action in a
video clip. You can also reverse the action in a clip, freeze frames, or
match the duration of two clips.
The Timewarp effect has five modes:
n
326
Mode
Description
Constant
Speeds up or slows down the action in a clip by giving it a
new constant speed—see “Applying a Constant Speed” on
page 328.
Speed
Applies a variable speed, so that the action speeds up and/or
slows down progressively—see “Applying a Variable Speed”
on page 331.
Input Speed
Applies a variable speed based on the source clip in
the timewarp container clip, so that the action speeds up
and/or slows down progressively—see “Applying a Variable
Speed Based on the Source Clip” on page 332.
Position
Rearranges the action completely by changing the position of
frames in time—see “Changing the Position of Frames” on
page 334.
Hold
Freezes frames—see “Freezing Frames” on page 336.
Inside a timewarp container clip, audio and video synchronization are not
valid. Therefore, you cannot play the audio portion of a clip from inside a
video timewarp container clip or from a clip that is a container clip of a
timewarp container clip.
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
To apply a video timewarp:
1. From the timeline, select a video clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor
is displayed.
This portion of
the property
editor varies
according to the
mode.
3. From the Mode list, select one of the following:
n
-
Constant to apply a constant speed to the entire clip.
-
Speed to specify a speed that varies throughout the clip.
-
Input Speed to specify a speed based on the source clip.
-
Position to apply frame mapping.
-
Hold to freezes frames.
To freeze frames in the selected clip, you can also go the frame that you
want to freeze and click Time Effects > Freeze in the toolbar.
327
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
4. Select the Interpolate option to create smoother motion.
As frames are added or removed, the timewarp interpolates between
frames (or fields in field processing mode) to create a smoother
motion.
5. Select the Invert Fields option to reverse field dominance in a
clip—see “Understanding Video Settings” on page 72.
n
If you selected the Frames option in the Processing Options dialog box,
then the Invert Fields option in the Timewarp property editor will have no
effect when you process the timewarp.
6. Click the Update Duration button to update the clip displayed on the
timeline.
n
If you have problems applying a timewarp to material that has been
transferred from film using a 3:2 pulldown, you should first apply a 3:2
Contract effect, then apply a Timewarp, and then apply a 3:2 Expand
effect on the timewarped results, using the Frames option in the
Processing Options dialog box. For more information, see “Applying a
3:2 Contract Effect” on page 316 and “Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect” on
page 318.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Constant Speed
Using the Constant mode, you can assign a new apparent speed to a portion
of a clip. For example, in a scene where a runner is crossing the finish line,
you can set the speed to 50% to slow down the action.
You can define the speed using any of the speed or duration controls.
Because these properties are interdependent, when you change one, the
others are updated automatically. For example, if you specify a new
duration by changing the end timecode, the speed is adjusted so that the
clip fills the new duration.
Once you’ve applied a new constant speed to a clip, you can adjust the
clip’s in and out-points and its duration.
328
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
To apply a constant speed:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Constant from the Mode
list.
The Constant mode properties are displayed.
Constant mode
properties
2. To define the new apparent speed, do one of the following:
-
Speed (%): Type a new speed as a percentage of the original
speed.
-
Speed (Frames per Second): Type a new speed in frames per
second (enter a negative value if you want to reverse the action in
the clip).
-
Duration (SMPTE): Type a new duration for the container clip.
-
Duration (Frames): Type a new duration in frames.
Frames are added or removed from the clip to change the apparent
speed of action. Speed values are rounded, so that the number of
frames is an integer.
329
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
3. Click the Update Duration button to update the container clip’s
duration on the timeline.
n
If the Interpolate option is deselected and the new constant speed is slower
than the original speed, the updated duration of the clip on the timeline
may not match the updated duration in the property editor. This is because
slowing down the clip without interpolation simply duplicates each full
frame a fixed number of times. To remove the extra frames, you can simply
trim them in the timeline.
When Interpolation is selected, extra frames are not generated because
some frames are mixed together.
For more information, click the Help button.
To adjust the clip’s in and out-points on the source clip:
1. Select the timewarped clip that contains the in or out-points you want
to change.
2. Do one of the following:
-
From the top timeline, select the clip’s in or out-point. Hold down
the F key and drag the edit handle to move the in or out-point
forward or backward in time.
-
From inside the timewarp container clip, select the First Frame or
End Frame marker and drag it to the new in or out-point.
The clip now uses more or less material, but its duration on the top
timeline does not change. This will either speed up the action or slow it
down, depending on whether you increased or decreased the number
of frames being used.
To adjust the clip’s duration:
1. Select the timewarped clip whose in or out-points you want to change.
2. From the top timeline, select the clip’s in or out-point.
3. Hold down the G key and drag the edit handle to move the in or outpoint forward or backward in time.
The clip’s duration is increased or decreased, but its in and out-points
in the source material do not change.
330
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Applying a Variable Speed
Using the Speed mode, you can assign different speeds to different parts of
a clip without changing the clip’s duration on the timeline.
For example, if you apply a timewarp to a clip in a basketball scene, you
can slow the action down and then speed it up again to make the ball
gradually slow down as it approaches the net, come to a stop above the net,
and then fall through the net at full speed.
Changing the speed changes the portion of the source clip that is used,
since more or less material is needed to maintain the clip’s duration. After
each change, the first frame and end frame markers inside the timewarp
container clip are updated accordingly. A base frame marker is set at the
frame where you originally applied the timewarp.
Animation Key button
Apparent speed at
timecode 00:00:04:07.
Apparent speed
at position
indicator.
331
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
To apply a variable speed:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Speed from the Mode list.
The Speed function curve is displayed.
2. Change the apparent speed of the clip by doing one of the following:
-
Edit the function curve—see “Working with the Animation
Graph” on page 350.
-
Move the position indicator to a specific timecode and type a value
in the Speed text box.
If the Autokey mode is on, a keyframe is created on the function curve.
If the Autokey mode is off, you can use the Set/Remove Key button in
the Timewarp property editor to add or remove keyframes from the
function curve.
n
You can also edit the function curve in the animation editor by
right-clicking the Animation Key button and selecting Animation Editor.
In the animation editor, you can work on a copy of the function curve and
preserve the original until you’re ready to accept your changes. For more
information, see “Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves” on
page 369.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Variable Speed Based on the Source Clip
Using the Input Speed mode, you can assign different speeds to different
parts of a clip, and update the clip’s duration accordingly.
Changing the speed in the Input Speed mode does not affect the portion of
the clip that is used because the changes are based on the source material.
Instead, the clip’s duration is lengthened or shortened, depending on
whether you slowed the clip down or sped it up. However you change it,
the final timewarped clip will retain the first and end frames that you
originally specified.
332
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Apparent speed at
timecode 00:00:02:10.
Apparent speed at
position indicator.
To apply a variable speed based on the source clip:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Input Speed from the
Mode list.
The Input Speed function curve is displayed.
2. Select the Show Input Frames option.
The Input Speed function curve is updated to represent the source
material for the timewarp container clip.
3. Change the apparent speed of the clip by doing one of the following:
-
Move the position indicator to a specific timecode and type a value
in the Speed text box.
-
Edit the function curve—see “Working with the Animation
Graph” on page 350.
If Autokey mode is activated, a keyframe is created on the function
curve.
If Autokey mode is deactivated, you can use the Set/Remove Key
button in the Timewarp property editor to add or remove keyframes
from the function curve.
4. Deselect the Show Input Frames option.
333
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
5. Click the Update Duration button to update the duration of the clip on
the top timeline.
For more information, click the Help button.
Changing the Position of Frames
Using the Position mode, you can move frames to different timecodes. For
example, to reverse the action in a clip, you can place the last frame first
and the first frame last.
In Position mode, a position curve maps the frames’ original timecode
inside the container clip (the vertical axis) versus their new timecode (on
the horizontal axis). You can change this mapping by editing the function
curve.
In the following example, the clip plays backward slowly from the last
frame to the first, then plays forward fast, from the first frame to the last.
Animation Key button
Original timecode of
the frame at timecode
00:00:00:16.
Original timecode of the
frame at position
indicator.
334
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
To change the position of frames:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Position from the Mode
list.
The Position function curve is displayed.
2. Change the position of frames by doing one of the following:
-
Edit the function curve—see “Working with the Animation
Graph” on page 350.
-
Move the position indicator to a specific timecode.
-
In the Position box, type the original timecode of the frame that
you want to move to the current location of the position indicator.
If Autokey mode is activated, a keyframe is created on the function
curve.
n
You can also edit the function curve in the animation editor by
right-clicking the Animation Key button and selecting Animation Editor.
In the animation editor, you can work on a copy of the function curve and
preserve the original until you’re ready to accept your changes. For more
information, see “Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves” on
page 369.
To reverse the action in a clip:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor is
displayed.
3. Click the Load Preset button.
4. From the Load Preset dialog box, select the Reverse effect.
In the Base Frame box, Last is selected. In the Speed (%) box, the
value is -100, indicating that the clip will play in reverse.
5. Change the negative speed value to make the clip play backwards at a
different speed.
For more information, click the Help button.
335
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
Freezing Frames
Using the Hold mode, you can freeze the action of a specified frame by
giving it a speed of zero. Then you can specify whether to freeze a frame or
field by using the Hold On options. Avid DS Nitris replaces frames in a
specific part of the clip by using the frame or field you specified in the
Timewarp property editor. Field-based holds require processing whereas
frame-based holds do not.
To freeze frames:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. Using the transport controls, locate the frame you want to freeze.
3. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Freeze.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor
is displayed.
n
336
You can also freeze frames by clicking Timewarp and selecting Hold from
the Mode list in the Timewarp property editor.
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Notice that the Fix At text box contains the selected frame’s timecode
in the timewarp container clip, and not on the top timeline. A base
frame marker is set at this timecode on the timeline in the timewarp
container clip.
All subsequent frames in the clip are replaced by the current frame
causing the action to freeze indefinitely. You also have the option of
holding the first or last frame of the container clip.
4. Adjust the base frame by changing the Fix At value.
n
You can also adjust the base frame by moving the base frame marker in the
timewarp container clip.
5. By default, the Hold This Frame Indefinitely option is selected. If
you want the action to slow down gradually, type a value in the
Ease In text box.
The action slows down over the specified number of frames.
6. If you want to convert the clip into a still image based on the specified
frame, select the Replace Entire Clip With This Frame option.
7. If you want to freeze a frame and then let the action resume, select the
Hold This Frame for a Fixed Duration option and set the following:
-
Duration: Type the number of frames during which the action is
frozen.
-
Ease In: Type the number of frames during which the action slows
down to a stop.
-
Ease Out: Type the number of frames during which the action
recovers its original speed.
8. If you want to create a strobe effect do the following:
-
Select the Strobe option.
-
In the Frequency text box, type the number of frames that are
repeated and then skipped.
Starting with the first frame in the container clip, a specified number of
frames is repeated and then the same number of frames is skipped.
337
Chapter 8 Working with Time Effects
9. To freeze either a frame or field, select one of the following from the
Hold On boxes:
n
-
Frame: Freezes both fields of the selected frame.
-
Field 1: Freezes the first field of the frame.
-
Field 2: Freezes the second field of the frame.
Freeze frame timewarps do not require processing when you set the Hold
On mode to Frame, and you’ve set the Ease In and Ease Out values to
zero.
Freeze frame timewarps do require processing when you set the Hold On
mode to Field 1 or Field 2, or when you’ve specified an Ease In or Ease
Out value.
10. Click Update Duration to update the clip’s duration.
For more information, click the Help button.
Giving One Clip the Duration of Another
You can use the Timewarp effect to give one clip the same number of
frames as a second clip. This is useful when you want to composite a clip
that contains a single-frame image with another clip that contains action.
To give one clip the duration of another:
1. Place two clips on the timeline.
2. Select the first clip (the clip whose duration you want to change).
3. Press Ctrl and click the second clip (the one whose duration you want
to match).
4. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A container clip is created over the first clip and the Timewarp
property editor is displayed. On the timeline, the length of the first clip
is updated to match the length of the second clip.
For more information, click the Help button.
338
Chapter 9
Animating Objects
This chapter describes the different ways you can animate an object’s
properties. You can use the animation tools to create and adjust animation
by setting keyframes and manipulating function curves.
After you master the animation techniques, you can refer to specific
chapters in this guide and the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics
Guide to learn how to animate transitions, video and audio effects,
composited layers, or graphics.
•
Workflow: Animating Properties
•
Creating Animation
•
Understanding the Animation Editor
•
Editing Animation
•
Processing Animation
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Workflow: Animating Properties
1
Create animation.
Display effect’s
property editor.
Place position
indicator on a frame.
Keyframing
Process
Adjust parameters.
Set a keyframe
manually
or
automatically
(Autokey mode).
2
Edit animation.
Move between
keyframes, adjust
parameters, and
reset, add, and/or
remove keyframes.
or
Display animation editor and
modify the function curve.
3
Process animation.
In the final sequence, the effect’s properties change over time.
340
Creating Animation
Creating Animation
Animation is the change of an object/image over time. To create
animation, you record changes to an object’s properties. Using a process
called keyframing, you specify the object’s properties at the first and last
frame of each change. Properties are automatically calculated and set for
the frames in between, producing a change in the object. You can add as
many keyframes to an object as you need to create your animation.
n
Adding animation requires system resources that might impact your
system’s performance.
Objects and effects that you can animate include transitions, video and
audio effects, layers, and graphics. For example, you can animate the blur
on a video effect, the order of a layer in a composite, the rotation of a
stroke, or the color of a title.
There are several ways to create animation:
•
Use the Autokey mode to set keyframes automatically, as you adjust
the object’s properties—see “Setting Keyframes Automatically” on
page 342.
•
Use the Animation Key button and Animation button to set keyframes
manually each time you adjust the object’s properties–see “Setting
Keyframes Manually” on page 343.
•
Use the animation editor to manipulate the function curves of selected
object properties—see “Understanding the Animation Editor” on
page 346.
•
Create a motion path to animate a DVE.
•
Record audio animation in the mixer.
341
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Setting Keyframes Automatically
When you activate the Autokey mode, keyframes are automatically created
each time you modify an object’s properties. Automatic keyframing only
sets keyframes for the properties that you modify, which is useful when
you want to adjust specific properties without adding or modifying the
keyframes of the other properties.
To set keyframes automatically:
1. When you’re ready to begin animating, do one of the following:
t
On the status bar, click the Autokey button.
t
From the File menu, select User Preferences to open the User
Preferences dialog box. From the Animation property page, select
the Set Keys When Changing Values option.
t
Right-click the Animation Key button in the property editor of the
object that you want to animate, and select Autokey.
t
Click the auto button in the property editor.
The Autokey mode is activated and the Animation Key button turns
red whenever a keyframe is set. Keyframes will automatically be set
for all property editors and animatable properties until Autokey is
deselected.
2. Move the position indicator to the frame on which you want the
animation to start.
3. Use the property editor to adjust the values of the properties that you
want to animate.
A keyframe is automatically set each time you adjust the properties.
4. Go to another frame and adjust the properties again.
A new keyframe is set at the current timecode and property values are
computed for all frames between the keyframes.
5. If necessary, go to different points in the clip and continue adding
keyframes.
6. If you want to stop adding keyframes automatically, click the Autokey
button again to deactivate the Autokey mode.
342
Creating Animation
7. Do one of the following to view the animation:
t
Process the effect and play the clip—see “Processing Animation”
on page 381.
t
In the property editor, click the Preview button.
t
Press Ctrl and click Play to play the clip frame by frame.
When you play the clip, the keyframed properties change as the clip
advances.
n
In the Autokey mode, keyframes are set only for the properties that you
modify. To set a keyframe for all animatable properties, you should use the
Animation Key button. For more information, see “Setting Keyframes
Manually” on page 343.
Setting Keyframes Manually
You can create animation by adjusting properties and manually setting
keyframes at different points in time. Manually setting keyframes lets you
to preview your changes before you actually set any keyframes.
This method is also useful when you want to set keyframes using the
controls in the property editors or views, or interactively in the viewer.
The Animation button at the left of numeric parameters on property editors
lets you to set a keyframe for individual parameters at the current position
of the position indicator.
The animation controls change color depending on the status of the
animation and keyframe. For example, the animation controls turn yellow
when you modify the value of an animation parameter but do not set a
keyframe. The yellow indicates a temporary value for the parameter. If you
move the position indicator to another frame, the temporary value is
removed and the curve is restored. If you want to set a keyframe for the
temporary value of the parameter, click the Animation button for that
parameter.
343
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
When you click the Animation Key button, keyframes are set for all
animation properties of the effect at the current position of the position
indicator. However, when the Animation Key button is yellow (indicating
there are temporary values) clicking the Animation Key button will set
keyframes only for those properties that have temporary values.
n
When keyframes are set for all properties, clicking the Animation Key
button removes all the keyframes.
The following table describes the animation control status indicator colors.
Color
Status description
Gray
No keyframes are set. You can preview adjustments to animation parameters.
Green
No keyframes are set at the current position of the animation.
Red
Keyframes are set at the current position of the animation.
Yellow
Temporary change to a parameter value at the current position of the animation.
n
344
For the Color Correction and Color Correction Classic effects, clicking
the Animation Key button does not set keyframes if all the parameters are
set to their default settings. For more information about color correction
effects, see “Returning to Default Values” on page 172 of the
Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics Guide.
Creating Animation
To set keyframes manually:
1. Click the Autokey button to turn off Autokey mode.
2. Open the property editor in which you want to create animation.
3. Move the position indicator to the frame in which you want the
animation to start.
4. Adjust the properties that you want to animate.
5. Set the keyframes by doing one the following:
t
To set a keyframe for an individual numeric parameter, click the
Animation button beside the parameter.
t
To set keyframes for several properties that you modified, click
the Animation Key button.
t
To set a keyframe for all properties in the property editor when
there are temporary values set, press Ctrl and click the Animation
Key button.
t
To set a keyframe for all properties in the property editor when
there are no temporary values set, click the Animation Key
button.
6. If necessary, go to different points in the clip and continue adding
keyframes.
7. Do one of the following to view the animation:
t
Process the effect and play the clip—see “Processing Animation”
on page 381.
t
In the property editor, click the Preview button.
t
Press Ctrl and click Play to play the clip frame by frame.
When you play the clip, the keyframed properties change as the clip
advances.
345
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Understanding the Animation Editor
The animation editor is where you can display and control the animation of
a selected object. An object’s animation is represented by a function curve
on the animation graph. A function curve is a graphical representation of
an object’s property changes over a period of time. All function curves can
be edited.
n
Some property editors contain animation graphs, where you can view or
manipulate function curves without opening the animation editor.
To access the animation editor, do one of the following:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Animation Editor.
t
In a property editor with animation controls, right-click the Animation
Key button and select Animation Editor.
For descriptions of the Animation Editor tools, see these topics in the Help:
Animation Editor
•
Animation Controls (Global in Status Bar)
•
Animation Tools
•
Animation Editor Menus
•
Animation Graph Menu
•
Animation Tree Menu
Animation graph
Animation tools
Animation menu bar
Animation tree
Global animation controls
346
Understanding the Animation Editor
Using the Animation Tree
The animation tree displays a hierarchy of animated objects, such as
effects or layers. You can navigate this tree to locate individual animated
properties. When you select an item in the tree, its function curve is
highlighted in the animation graph. You can also hide individual curves,
leaving only the ones that you want to edit.
Pin button
Object properties
Control box
Hidden
parameter
Animated
parameter
Option
Description
Object properties
Represents the animated properties of an object
Control box
Indicates properties where function curves exist
Animated parameter
Represents an animated effect, layer, or graphic
Pin button
Marks an object so that it remains in the animation
editor when you select a different object
347
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Navigating the Animation Tree
When you select an object, the animation property tree displays its
properties. When you select a property from the tree, it highlights the
corresponding function curve.
You can expand and collapse the tree to show or hide properties. A plus
sign (+) marks each property icon that has additional properties. After you
click the plus sign to expand an item in the tree, it changes to a minus sign
(-) to indicate that it can be collapsed.
To expand or collapse the animation tree:
t
Click the plus sign (+) next to an object to expand it.
Expand
Collapse
The object’s animatable properties are listed below the expanded
object, and the plus sign changes to a minus sign.
t
Click the minus sign (-) next to an object.
The object’s properties are no longer visible in the animation tree, and
the minus sign changes to a plus sign.
Displaying Function Curves
When editing function curves, it is often useful to display several curves
simultaneously, so that you can synchronize the animation of different
properties. Conversely, it is useful to hide the function curves of properties
that you do not want to animate.
348
Understanding the Animation Editor
To show or hide a property’s function curve:
t
In the animation tree, click the control box next to the property whose
function curves you want to hide or display.
The control box is light-blue when the function curve is displayed. It is
gray when the function curve is hidden.
To hide or display all the function curves of an object:
t
In the animation tree, click the control box next to the object whose
function curves you want to show or hide.
A plus sign in the control box indicates that all of its function curves
are displayed. The control box is gray when all the function curves are
hidden.
Displaying Function Curves of Different Objects
You may want to view or edit several function curves simultaneously. For
example, when applying color correction to two clips, you may want to see
their animated properties simultaneously. You can do this by pinning
(marking) the function curves of different objects, so that they can all be
viewed in the animation editor at the same time.
To view the function curves of multiple objects:
1. Open the property editor of the first animated object.
2. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Edit Animation.
The animation editor is displayed. In the animation tree, all the
animatable properties are displayed.
3. Click the Pin button of the function curve that you want to keep
displayed in the animation editor.
Pin
button
349
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
4. Leaving the animation editor open, select another object whose
function curve you want to view.
The animatable properties of the second object are displayed in the
animation editor above the pinned properties.
Pinned
objects
5. Pin the properties of the new objects that you want to display.
To unpin a function curve:
t
Click the Pin button again to unpin the property.
When you open a different object, the unpinned properties are no
longer displayed in the animation editor.
Working with the Animation Graph
The animation graph is the area on the animation editor where you can
manipulate the function curve or keyframe values of any animated
property. You can edit the keyframed values by adjusting the key points on
a selected function curve. The horizontal axis (X axis) displays the time
scale in frames or milliseconds. The vertical axis (Y axis) displays the
values of the animated property.
350
Understanding the Animation Editor
In the animation graph, function curves are highlighted in light-blue over
the duration of the animated effect. In addition, when you select a function
curve, it is displayed in white over the duration of the effect and its
keyframes are displayed in red. When you select a keyframe, its precise
coordinates are reflected on the X and Y scales.
Value scale
Region of effect
Selected
keyframe
Time and value of selected keyframe
Time scale
Customizing the Animation Graph
By customizing the display of the animation graph, you can change the
incremental values of the time and value scales, the spacing between grid
lines, and show or hide other indicators on the graph. For example, the grid
in the animation graph is useful when adding or moving keyframes. You
can display or hide the vertical or horizontal grid lines independently.
To customize the animation graph:
1. From the animation editor, click the Preferences button.
2. In the Animation Editor Preferences property editor, select the Editor
tab.
3. To show or hide the grid, do one of the following:
t
In the Grids area, set the Display Grid options.
t
Press G.
4. To display the precise coordinates of a selected keyframe, select the
Key Coordinates option, in the View box.
Small indicators on the animation graph’s axes show the value and
time of the selected keyframe.
351
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Changing the Time Scale
Like the timeline, you can set the time scale on the X axis to display in
frames or milliseconds.
To change the time scale:
t
In the timeline, right-click the ruler and select Display As.
The time scale on the ruler changes according to your selection.
Zooming the Animation Graph
You can enlarge or reduce the animation graph to view function curves at
close range or view all the function curves in an animation.
To zoom in and out:
1. To activate the zoom mode, do one of the following:
t
Press Z.
t
In the animation editor, click the Zoom button.
2. To zoom in on a specific rectangular area, drag on the animation
graph.
When you drag the pointer, a rectangle is displayed. When you release
the mouse button, the display zooms into the rectangular area.
3. To perform a continuous zoom, right-drag on the animation graph.
To reset the zoom:
t
Press Z and click the animation graph.
Panning the Animation Graph
You can scroll over the animation graph to view the full length of the
function curves in an animation.
To pan the animation graph, do one of the following:
352
t
Press X and drag up/down to pan the Y axis, and drag left/right to pan
the X axis.
t
In the animation editor, click the Pan button to activate the pan mode.
Editing Animation
To reset the pan:
t
n
Press X and click the animation graph.
Tip: To reset both the pan and the zoom, press the Z+X keys, and click the
animation graph.
Editing Animation
Once you’ve animated an object, you can use the animation editor to view
and modify its properties. The animation editor represents the animation as
one or more function curves on the animation graph, where the values of
the animated properties are plotted over time.
Emboss effect
changes
over time
Frame 0
Frame 4
Frame 9
Frame 12
Function curve of the Relief property
Relief property
gradually increases
from frames 0 to 9 and
then decreases rapidly
from frames 9 to 12.
Keyframes at
frames 0,4,9 and 12
353
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
You can use the animation editor to manipulate a function curve, or to finetune the animation frame-by-frame. You can also add, move, or delete
function curves or keyframes, and trim, crop, or remove an entire
animation.
The animation editor can display function curves for multiple animations
simultaneously. Pinning an animation to the animation editor keeps its
function curves displayed while you work on other function curves.
n
Some effects, like fades or transitions, have an animation graph built into
one of their property pages. You can add keyframes on this function curve
the same way you add keyframes to function curves in the animation
editor.
When you want to adjust properties using the controls in property editors
or layer controls on other views, you can edit animations with the
Animation Key. For example, if you’re adding a graphics animation to a
composite, you would typically create the graphics in the viewer and
record keyframes using the Animation Key.
Editing Keyframes Manually
You can manually set or delete keyframes on a frame-by-frame basis using
the object’s property editor.
To edit keyframes manually:
1. Open the property editor in which you want to create animation.
2. In the property editor, right-click the Animation Key button and select
First Key.
The position indicator moves to the first keyframe in the animation.
3. If necessary, edit the settings and click the Animation Key button to
set a keyframe.
The new settings at this frame automatically override any previous
settings.
354
Editing Animation
4. Click the Next Key button to move to the next keyframe.
5. If you want to add a keyframe, use the Frame Backward and Frame
Forward buttons on the transport controls to advance your clip to the
appropriate timecode. Change the values and click the Animation Key
button to add a keyframe.
6. Continue to edit keyframes until you reach the end of the animated
sequence.
To remove a keyframe:
1. In a property editor or view, click the Previous Key or Next Key
buttons (located next to the Animation Key button) to go to a timecode
where a keyframe has been set.
The Animation Key button will be red to indicate that a keyframe is set
on the current frame.
2. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Remove Key.
The current keyframe is removed.
355
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Editing Animation on the Animation Graph
In the animation editor, each animatable property is represented by a
different function curve on the animation graph. You can modify these
curves to edit the animation.
Pinned
function curve
Marked
parameters
Selected
function curve
Keyframes
Selected keyframe
When working in the animation graph, you can display the function curves
of properties that you want to animate, or hide curves to isolate a specific
property. Function curves on the graph appear in blue for the duration of an
effect. When you select them, they’re highlighted in white and their
keyframes are displayed.
As you modify function curves, you can take snapshots that let you
compare the results of a change to a function curve to the original curve.
Snapshots appear in black on the graph.
There are several ways of manipulating keyframes to change the result of
an animation. You can add new keyframes, delete existing ones, move a
keyframe to a new value or time, and control all of the keyframes at a
specific timecode.
356
Editing Animation
You can also adjust a keyframe’s tangents to increase or decrease the slope
of the function curve at that keyframe. For example, if you want a property
to change rapidly at a specific time, you can increase the slope of the
function curve at that keyframe.
Once you’ve finished adjusting a curve, you can snap keyframes to the
nearest point on the grid to precisely align keyframes with timecodes.
n
You can undo any operation performed on a function curve. From the Edit
menu, select Undo or press Ctrl+Z.
For more information, see “Animation Graph Menu” in the Help.
Viewing Locators in the Animation Graph
In the animation graph, you can display any locators that you placed on the
timeline to help you align keyframes at specific points in your sequence.
To display locators in the animation graph:
t
From the animation editor, select View > Locators.
Selecting Keyframes in the Animation Graph
Once animation has been created for an object, you can edit the individual
keyframes that have been set. Before you can edit a keyframe, you must
select it.
To select a keyframe:
1. In the animation editor, click the Select button.
2. In the animation graph, click a keyframe.
The selected keyframe is highlighted and its tangent handles are
displayed.
To select multiple keyframes:
t
Press Shift and click a keyframe.
The selected keyframes are highlighted.
357
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
To select a range of consecutive keyframes:
t
Press V and drag over a section of the function curve.
The selected region is highlighted in white.
n
Tip: To change the value of multiple keyframes, press Shift and click to
select the keyframes and enter a new value in the Value text box.
Adding, Moving and Deleting Keyframes
Using the animation tools, you can add, move, and delete keyframes to edit
an animation.
On the animation graph, you can move keyframes to values that are out of
a property’s range. However, the values that are actually processed are the
maximum or minimum values displayed in the property editor.
To add a keyframe:
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected and the
keyframes are displayed in red.
2. To add a keyframe, click the Add Key button and click the animation
graph.
The closest selected function curve updates to pass through the
new keyframe.
n
You can use the Select tool to change the value of multiple keyframes.
Press Shift and click keyframes to select them. Now enter a new value in
the animation graph value box.
To move a keyframe:
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected, and the
keyframes are displayed in red.
358
Editing Animation
2. To move a keyframe, click the Select button and do one of the
following:
t
Drag a keyframe to a new position.
The value and/or frame of the selected keyframe is updated.
t
Click a keyframe and in the Frame and Value boxes, enter a new
frame and/or value.
The function curve is updated to pass through the modified
keyframe.
To delete a keyframe
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected and the
keyframes are displayed in red.
2. To delete a keyframe, click the Remove Key button, and click a
keyframe.
The keyframe is removed and the function curve is updated.
3. To remove all the keyframes on the selected function curve, right-click
the Animation Key button and select Remove Animation.
You will be prompted to confirm before all the keyframes are deleted.
n
Pressing the Delete key only deletes selected keyframes.
Selecting Function Curves
Before you can manipulate a function curve or edit specific keyframes, you
must select it. Before you can cut, copy, or paste function curves, you must
select a region.
You can select individual keyframes, a region of the function curve, the
entire function curve, or several function curves.
359
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
To select function curves:
1. In the animation editor, click the Select button and do one of the
following:
t
In the animation tree, click a property and select its function curve.
Press Shift and click additional properties to select multiple
function curves.
Property
t
Press Shift and click a function curve to select it. Click additional
function curves for multiple selection.
t
Drag the pointer to form a rectangle over the function curve(s) that
you want to select.
Any function curves that pass through the rectangle are selected. Using
this method, you also select the individual keyframes.
In the animation graph, selected function curves are displayed in white
over the duration of the effect, and keyframes are red.
2. Click the Frame button to view the entire selection.
The selected function curve is framed, so that you can see it in full
view. Framing is based on the duration and values of the keyframes on
the function curve.
To select a region of a function curve:
1. Select a function curve.
2. In the animation editor, click the Select Region button or press V to
activate the Select Region mode.
3. In the animation graph, drag over a region to select it.
Using this method, you also select the individual keyframes that are
within the region and on the selected function curve.
360
Editing Animation
Manipulating Keyframes
When you select a function curve, its keyframes are displayed in red. You
can add new keyframes, as well as move or delete existing keyframes. In
addition, you can change the value or frame of a keyframe.
To add a keyframe:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
2. Click the Add Key button or press A.
3. On the animation graph, click to add a keyframe.
The closest selected function curve is updated to pass through the new
keyframe.
To move a keyframe:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
The function curve is highlighted and the keyframes are displayed in
red.
2. Drag a keyframe to move it to a new position.
The value and/or frame of the selected keyframe is updated.
n
On the animation graph, you can move keyframes to values that are out of
a property’s range. However, the values that are actually processed are
the minimum or maximum values displayed in the property editor.
To remove a keyframe:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
The keyframes are displayed in red.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Click the Remove Keyframe button.
t
Press D.
3. Click the keyframes that you want to remove.
n
Tip: To remove a keyframe, you can also select it and press Delete.
361
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
To remove all the keyframes on a function curve:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
The keyframes are displayed in red.
2. Press the Backspace key.
You are asked to confirm the deletion. Click OK to delete all the
keyframes on the selected curve.
n
Pressing the Delete key only deletes selected keyframes.
To change the value or frame of a keyframe:
1. In the animation graph, select a keyframe.
2. In the Frame and Value text boxes, enter a new frame and/or value.
The function curve is updated to pass through the modified keyframe.
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Keyframes on Multiple Function Curves
The meta curve region is a powerful tool that lets you add, move, and
remove keyframes on every visible function curve in the animation graph.
When you display the meta curve region, red locators appear below the
animation graph at every timecode at which a keyframe is placed on a
function curve. If several function curves have keyframes at the same
timecode, all of those keyframes are represented by a single locator.
n
Though locators in the meta curve region can represent and control
multiple keyframes, those keyframes are not locked together. If you move a
keyframe out of alignment with other keyframes, a new locator will appear
in the meta curve to represent the keyframe’s new location.
Adding keyframes in the meta curve region places a keyframe on every
visible curve, at the current timecode. Moving a locator in the meta curve
region moves all of the keyframes at that timecode. Deleting keyframes
from the meta curve region removes any keyframes on any function curves
at the current timecode.
362
Editing Animation
Corresponding
keyframes
Meta curve
locator
Meta curve region
To display the meta curve region, do one of the following:
t
To display all curves, select View > Meta Curve Region > Display
for all curves.
t
To display selected curves only, select View > Meta Curve Region >
Display for selected curves only.
The meta curve region is displayed below the animation graph.
To hide the meta curve region:
t
From the animation editor, select View > Meta Curve Region > Hide
Meta Curve Region.
The meta curve region is hidden.
To add a keyframe to all visible function curves:
1. From the animation editor, click the Add Key button.
2. Click anywhere in the meta curve region.
A keyframe is added to every visible function curve in the animation
editor at the current timecode.
To move all keyframes at a specific timecode:
1. From the animation editor, click the Select button.
2. Drag a locator in the meta curve region.
All keyframes represented by the locator are moved to the new
timecode.
363
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
To delete a keyframe from all visible function curves:
1. From the animation editor, click the Remove Key button.
2. Click a locator in the meta curve region.
All keyframes represented by the locator are deleted.
Synchronizing Animation
You can synchronize keyframes in the animation editor by dragging their
locators in the meta curve region. Moving one locator to the same
timecode as another synchronizes their respective keyframes at the current
timecode. This is useful when, for example, you want to coordinate
changes to several of an object’s properties at the same time.
To synchronize keyframes:
1. In the animation graph, select a function curve and add a keyframe to
it.
A locator is displayed in the meta curve region, representing the first
keyframe.
2. Select a different function curve, and add a keyframe to it.
A locator is displayed in the meta curve region, representing the
second keyframe.
3. In the meta curve region, click the second keyframe’s locator and drag
it on top of the first keyframe’s locator.
The keyframes are now synchronized, and represented by a single
locator in the meta curve region. Moving the locator moves both of the
keyframes.
Modifying Regions
In Avid DS Nitris, you can select and modify a region of the animation
graph. Keyframes in a selected region are automatically selected, and can
be moved simultaneously. You can also stretch or shrink a selected region
horizontally or vertically.
364
Editing Animation
To modify a region of the animation graph:
1. Click the Select Region button, and select the region of the function
curve that you want to copy.
The selected region is highlighted, and edit controls appear along on
all four sides.
2. Drag the edit controls to stretch or compress the region.
Changing the Slope of a Function Curve
The slope of a function curve determines how a property changes between
keyframes. For example, in a scene where an actor moves from artificial
lighting to sunlight, you can animate the color correction, so that it changes
at the same rate as the light changes, as illustrated in the following
examples:
•
If the actor is walking through an open door, the color correction
should increase rapidly along a spline curve.
Spline
•
If the actor steadily approaches the end of a tunnel, the color correction
should increase linearly.
Linear
365
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
•
If the actor is suddenly exposed to sunlight, the color correction should
be constant, and then change in one step.
Constant
When you select a keyframe, its tangent handles are displayed, allowing
you to change the slope of the function curve at that keyframe.
To change the slope of a function curve:
1. Select a keyframe.
The tangent handles are displayed.
2. Select a tangent handle and drag it to a new position. If the tangent
handle is close to the key point, press Ctrl to give priority to the
tangent handle.
Tangent handles
Changing the Type of Function Curve
There are three types of function curves: linear, constant, and spline.
366
•
Linear: A type of curve that consists of straight line segments between
control points. Use this type of curve when you want a property to
change at a constant rate between two keyframes.
•
Constant: A type of curve where a property’s value changes only at
keyframes; between keyframes, the value is constant.
•
Spline: A type of curve that lets you fine-tune the animation by
changing the slope of the curve at each keyframe.
Editing Animation
Linear
Constant
Spline
To change the type of curve for selected keys:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
For detailed information, click the Help button.
3. From the Animation Editor Preferences property editor, select the
Keys tab.
367
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
4. From the Interpolation box, select a curve type.
Option
Description
Constant
Creates a curve with constant values that change in steps.
Linear
Creates a curve where keyframes are joined by straight lines.
Spline
Creates a smooth curve whose slope you can modify at
any point.
The function curve is updated between the keys that you selected.
To change the type of curve for selected curves:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the animation editor menu, select Curves > Constant
Interpolation, Linear Interpolation, or Spline Interpolation.
t
Right-click the curve, and select Constant Interpolation, Linear
Interpolation, or Spline Interpolation.
t
From the animation editor, click one of the interpolation buttons.
The function curve is updated according to the option you selected.
To set the tangent slope options:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
3. On the Keys property page, select one of the following options from
the Slope box:
-
Unified to keep the slopes together as they move, keeping a
constant angle between them.
-
Broken to let the slopes move freely as you drag each handle
individually.
Click Help for detailed information on the Animation Editor Preferences.
368
Editing Animation
To change the slope of a spline at a keyframe:
1. On a spline function curve, select a keyframe.
The tangent handles are displayed at the selected keyframe.
2. Click a tangent handle to select it and drag it to a new position.
The slope of the function curve changes at the keyframe.
n
If the tangent handle and the keyframe are close together, hold down the H
key and drag. This lets you manipulate the tangent handle.
Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves
Snapshot curves are temporary copies of function curves that stay in the
animation graph after you edit the original curves. Using the snapshot
curves, you can edit function curves, compare the edited curve to the
temporary copy of the original, and revert to the original if you’re not
satisfied with the change. When you’re ready to accept your changes, you
can update the snapshot curve to reflect the edits that you made.
To use snapshot curves:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
3. On the Editor property page, select the Snapshot Curve option from
the View box.
A snapshot curve is created and hidden behind the original function
curve.
4. Edit the selected function curve.
The snapshot curve is displayed in black.
5. If you want to revert to the snapshot curve, click the Swap button.
The original curve is highlighted and you can edit it.
6. When you’re satisfied with the edits, click the Snap button.
The black snapshot curve is updated to match the white function curve.
For detailed information, click the Help button.
369
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Snapping Keys to Grids and Frames
You can make keyframes snap to the nearest frame on the grid’s X axis or
to the nearest frame on the grid’s X axis. Snapping keyframes to the grid
lets you position them at precise timecodes.
To snap a keyframe to the grid:
t
Select Edit > Snap to Grid.
To snap a keyframe to its nearest frame:
t
Select Edit > Snap to Frame.
Click Help for detailed information on the Edit menu commands.
Locking Keyframe Positions
You can freeze a keyframe’s values, as well as its location in time by
locking the key’s position on the X or Y axis.
If the function curve uses a spline interpolation to transition action to the
next keyframe, you can also freeze the keyframe’s speed of transition and
influence on the function curve by using the animation editor’s tangent
handle locking controls.
To lock a keyframe’s position on the animation graph:
1. From the animation graph, select a keyframe.
2. Do one or both of the following:
t
Click Keys and select Lock in X (Time) to lock the key’s location
in time on the X axis.
t
Click Keys and select Lock in Y (Value) to lock the key’s value
on the Y axis.
The keyframe is frozen in place on the graph and cannot move until
Lock in X or Lock in Y is deselected. You can still manipulate the
keyframe tangent handles to change the shape of the slope.
370
Editing Animation
Offsetting Animation
You can offset an animation by moving an entire function curve. If, for
example, you’re satisfied with a function curve’s slope, but want the
corresponding change in properties to occur later in the animation, you can
move the entire curve farther down the timeline.
To offset an animation:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Hold down the R key, and drag the curve to reposition it on the
timeline.
To offset multiple function curves:
1. Hold down the Shift key, and click each function curve to select it.
2. Hold down the R key, and drag the curve to reposition it on the
timeline.
Copying Animation
You can copy the animation of one property to another by copying the
function curve. For example, you can animate the Z position of an object,
so that it appears to move away from the viewer. You can then copy the
animation to a blur effect, so that the blur increases as the objects move
away from the viewer. You can then adjust the blur function curve
according to the scale of the blur parameter.
To copy an animation, you simply copy a property’s function curve and
paste it onto the function curve of another property. You can copy the
entire curve or a region of a curve. When pasting the animation, you can do
one of the following:
•
Insert the copy at a selected timecode.
•
Replace a portion of the function curve at a selected timecode.
•
Paste the copy over a selected region.
371
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
To copy an entire animation:
1. In the animation tree, click a property.
In the animation graph, the property’s function curve is highlighted.
Copy from
this curve.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. In the animation tree, click a property to receive the animation.
In the animation graph, its function curve is highlighted.
Copy to
this curve.
372
Editing Animation
4. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted. In the animation graph, the function curves
for both properties are identical and appear as only one curve.
Two identical
curves appear
as one.
To copy a region of a function curve:
1. In the animation graph, do one of the following to specify the region
that you want to copy:
t
Select contiguous keyframes.
The region to be copied is between the first and last selected
keyframes.
t
Click the Select Region button and select the region of the
function curve that you want to copy.
Region to
be copied.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. If you want to paste the animation to a different property, select a
function curve.
373
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
4. Specify where to paste the animation by clicking the Select Region
button and doing one of the following:
t
Clicking a timecode.
When the animation is copied, it starts at the specified timecode.
t
Selecting a region.
When the animation is copied, it fits into this region. If you copy an
animation to a region of a different size, the animation is automatically
scaled in time.
n
If you do not specify where to paste the animation, it’s pasted at its
original timecode on the selected curve.
5. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted, replacing the selected function curve over the
specified region.
Animation pasted to second
curve at selected timecode.
Animation pasted to selected
region of second curve.
To insert a copied region of a function curve:
1. In the animation graph, do one of the following to specify the region
that you want to copy:
t
Select contiguous keyframes.
The region to be copied is between the first and last selected
keyframes.
t
374
Click the Select Region button and select the region of the
function curve that you want to copy.
Editing Animation
Region to be copied.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. If you want to paste the animation to a different property, select a
function curve.
4. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
5. On Paste Options property page, select the Insert option from the
Paste Options box.
6. To specify where to insert the animation, click the Select Region
button, and click a timecode.
n
If you do not specify where to paste the animation, it’s pasted at its
original timecode on the selected curve.
7. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted at the selected timecode on the selected curve.
Copied animation inserted
in second curve.
375
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Repeating Animation
Cycling animation lets you to repeat a function curve for the duration of an
animation. By applying different types of cycles, you can quickly create
repetitive animations like blurring in and out.
When you create cycles, the repeated information is not added to the
function curve. It’s based on the original keyframes, but does not contain
any keyframes. When you adjust the original keyframes, changes are
reflected throughout the cycle.
Creating a Basic Cycle
A basic cycle repeats the shape and pattern of a function curve, as defined
by the keyframes, for the duration of the animation. For example, you can
use a basic cycle to animate a blur in and out of a clip.
To create a basic cycle:
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you
want to repeat.
2. Click Curves and select Cycle.
The pattern is repeated along the X axis of the animation.
Original curve with keyframes.
Curve cycled along X axis
without keyframes.
376
Editing Animation
Creating a Relative Cycle
A relative cycle repeats the shape and pattern of the function curve by
starting each cycle at the value of the last key in the preceding cycle. The
result is a progressive offset that creates a gradual overall change in the
animation while repeating the basic pattern. For example, you can use a
relative cycle to blur in and out of a clip, while gradually sharpening the
overall focus.
To create a relative cycle:
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you
want to repeat.
2. Click Curves and select Relative Cycle.
Last point of one
cycle becomes start
point of next cycle.
Freezing a Cycle
Freezing a cycle applies it to the time span between two specified
timecodes in the animation. When the cycle is frozen, the keys in the
cycled part of the function curve are sampled and applied to each cycle in
the frozen part of the curve. You can then edit the function curve. If the
cycle is not frozen to the entire length of the animation, it will be removed
from any leading or trailing frames.
Freezing cycles is useful when you only want to repeat a cycle for part of
an animation, or when you want to make slight modifications to the same
basic curve throughout the animation.
377
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
To freeze a cycle:
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you
want to repeat.
2. Click Curves and select Freeze Cycle.
The Freeze Cycle dialog box is displayed.
3. Enter a start and end timecode.
The cycle is applied between the start and end timecodes, and the
repeated information is added to the function curve.
Original cycled curve.
Cycle removed from
trailing frames.
Cycle removed from
leading frames.
Cycle is frozen to this interval.
Deleting a Cycle
Since the repeated information is not added to the function curve, you can
delete the cycle while preserving the original keyframes.
To delete a cycle:
t
378
Click Curves and select Constant Extrapolation or Gradient
Extrapolation.
Editing Animation
Trimming Animation
When you want to trim animation, you should trim the animated effect by
rescaling the function curves or cropping them.
To specify how the animation is trimmed:
1. Open the property editor of the effect that you want to trim.
2. In the property editor, do one of the following:
t
Deselect the Crop Curves option to rescale the function curves.
When you trim the effect on the timeline, the function curves are
rescaled in the animation editor.
t
Select the Crop Curves option.
When you trim the effect bar on the timeline, the function curves are
cropped in the animation editor. On the animation graph, the
highlighted area of the function curve shows the new length of the
animated effect. For more information, see “Loading Effects” in the
Help.
Rescaled function curve
Cropped function curve
Trimmed effect
Removing Animation
An object’s animation can be composed of more than one function
curve.A separate function curve exists for each animatable property of an
object. When removing animation, you can choose whether you want to
remove the entire animation or just selected animated properties within
the animation.
379
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
Removing the Entire Animation
When you remove an animation, you’re deleting the function curves for all
the animated properties of the selected object.
n
When you remove animation, locked keys will also be deleted.
To remove the entire animation:
1. Open the property editor or view for the property whose animation you
want to remove.
2. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Remove Animation.
All keyframes on all functions curves are deleted. The function curves
become straight lines.
Removing the Animation of a Single Property
You can remove the animation of a single property by removing all the
keyframes from the property’s function curve.
To remove all the keyframes on a function curve:
1. Select an animated object.
2. In the animation editor, select View > Animation Editor.
The animation tree is displayed.
3. From the animation tree, click the property whose function curve you
want to remove.
In the animation graph, the corresponding function curve is
highlighted.
4. Press the Backspace key.
All keyframes on the function curve are deleted and the function curve
becomes a straight line.
380
Processing Animation
Processing Animation
You can view the evolution of your animation by stepping through the
animation frame by frame. Before you can play the clip, you must first
process the animation.
To process animation:
1. Do one of the following:
t
From the toolbar, click Processing > Process.
t
In the timeline controls, click the Process button.
2. In the Processing Options Dialog Box dialog box, select the
appropriate options.
3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress bar is displayed on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
For more information, click the Help button or see “Understanding
Processing” on page 256.
381
Chapter 9 Animating Objects
382
Chapter 10
Mixing Audio
This chapter describes how to mix audio, as well as how to create mixes
and submixes using audio container clips and effects. You will also learn
how to animate your audio mixes.
•
Workflow: Mixing Audio
•
Working in Audio Container Clips
•
Audio Clips and Tracks
•
Understanding the Mixer
•
Using an External Controller
•
Building an Audio Mix
•
Fine-tuning the Mix
•
Animating the Audio Mix
•
Converting the Sample Rate
•
Processing the Mix
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Workflow: Mixing Audio
Audio mixes are best created in an audio container clip. The following
illustration shows how the audio tracks are created and fed into the mixer.
1
Create an audio container clip.
Create an audio container clip to
hold all the clips that will be mixed.
2
Apply audio effects.
Apply effects on the
timeline tracks.
Left
Right
Apply effects
on the mixer
input strips.
Mixer
3
4
Process the mix.
Close the audio container clip to
automatically process the mix.
384
Fine-tune the mix.
Adjust the volume and balance
of the audio streams.
Working in Audio Container Clips
Working in Audio Container Clips
Audio container clips let you compress multiple audio tracks with up to 64
tracks of audio down to a single audio clip on one track, leaving you with
more audio streams and tracks to work with. You can have any
combination of audio clips and tracks in an audio container clip. The
format of the container clip itself, however, depends on the mixer
configuration specified inside the container clip.
This illustration shows a group of audio clips that have been mixed down
to a single clip on the timeline.
A closed audio container
clip is represented as a
single clip on the timeline.
An open audio
container clip.
Here are other reasons for using audio container clips:
•
Animating (automating) your mix: If you need to boost or lower the
signal at different points in time, it’s more efficient to animate the mix
in a container clip. This way, if you move the container clip, its
animation moves with it.
•
Submixing: You can edit specific sounds more efficiently by creating
submixes of common track types. For example, mix hard sound effects
like creaking floors and footsteps in one container clip, vocal tracks in
another, and instrumentals in yet another container clip. Then, premix
all of the clips in their respective container clips and play them
simultaneously on the parent timeline.
385
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
•
Sample Accurate Editing: Within an audio container clip, you can do
your editing in terms of audio samples as opposed to the video frames
used on the top timeline.
•
Processing: When you close an audio container clip, the tracks and
any effects are automatically processed and represented as a single clip
on the parent timeline.
For more information, see “Creating Nested Clips” on page 240.
Audio Clips and Tracks
Audio clips and tracks can have up to eight channels of audio in any of the
following formats:
386
Format
Description
Mono
Single channel of audio
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, center, right, surround
4 Stream
Four audio channels: Output 1 to 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), left surround, right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, Low
Frequency Emitter (LFE), surround center, side left,
side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, Low
Frequency Emitter (LFE), left surround, right
surround, left center, right center
8 Stream
Eight audio channels: Output 1 to 8
Audio Clips and Tracks
Since the clip and track formats are independent of each other, you can
place any kind of audio clip on any audio track. You can also place
different format clips on the same track. For example, you can place a
mono and a stereo clip on the same stereo track.
n
You can manipulate audio clips in much the same way as video clips. You
can play them in the viewer, drag and drop them from the Avid Explorer to
the timeline, trim, copy, and delete clips, and add effects to them.
Stereo clip with two
channels of audio.
Mono clip with one
channel of audio.
When you place an audio clip on a track with a different format, it turns
orange. This does not prevent you from playing it back.
387
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Understanding the Mixer
Although you can perform some mixing by applying effects to the audio
clips on the timeline, the mixer gives you greater flexibility and control
over your overall audio mix. The mixer combines the audio signals coming
from the audio tracks and routes them to the output strips.
You can assign the channels of an audio track to a specific output strip.
Depending on your audio hardware configuration, you can have up to eight
audio output channels available. For more information, see “Assigning a
Mixer Input Strip to an Output Channel” on page 396.
The mixer has two views:
Standard view
The standard view is the default view of the mixer. In this
view you can add audio effects, adjust the volume levels, pan
the signals, and mute or solo the various tracks. You can also
animate most of the controls on the mixer.
Routing view
The Routing view contains the Matrix Routing panel for the
input strips, which lets you assign the input strips to audio
output channels.
Also, in this view, the number of level meters on the input
strips matches the number of audio channels on the track.
For example, 5.1 tracks have six level meters and eight
stream tracks have eight level meters.
n
If you’ve activated the pan on a mono track, the
number of level meters on the input strip matches the
number of output channels. This is because the mono
signal has been split to allow for the positioning of the
sound with the pan control.
To access the mixer:
t
388
From the view switcher, click the Mixer button.
Understanding the Mixer
To access the routing view:
t
Click the Routing View button.
To access the standard view:
t
Click the Standard View button.
For information about the mixer controls, click the Help button.
Changing the Mixer Configuration
You can capture and output up to eight channels of audio in various
formats. For more information, see “Mixer Configuration Formats” in the
Help.
To change the mixer configuration:
t
Click the Mixer Config list box and select a configuration.
Using the Input Strips
Input strips appear on the mixer as you add audio tracks to the timeline. On
each input strip, you can control the sound of all the clips on its
corresponding audio track. You can use the strip controls to adjust the
overall volume, add effects to the whole track, and pan the signal to the
output strips.
389
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
The results of the adjustments on the input strips are mixed and passed to
the output strips, which let you adjust the output volume of the audio
signals. The signal from the output strips is then directed to an
external device.
An input strip corresponds to an audio track on the timeline. The strip
controls let you add effects and adjust the overall volume and balance of
each track. The signals from all strips are then mixed and routed to the
output strips.
For more information, see “Mixer Input Strips” in the Help.
Adding Effects on a Mixer Input Strip
Adding an effect on the mixer strip is equivalent to applying an effect to
the entire audio track. When you apply an effect to a mixer strip, the effect
is displayed in the mixer strip’s effects box. Effects on the mixer strips are
processed from top to bottom. These effects are also applied before you
make any adjustments to the volume and pan controls.
You can apply an effect to a mixer input strip by selecting one from the
Load Preset dialog box or by dragging an effect preset from a toolbar.
Effects box
Mixer Strip
390
Understanding the Mixer
To add an effect using the Load Preset dialog box:
1. Right-click the effects box and select Add Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Select an effect and click OK.
The effect is applied to the strip and displayed in the effects box.
To add an effect using a toolbar:
t
From a toolbar, drag an audio effect or preset to the effects box.
The effect is applied to the strip and displayed in the effects box.
Adjusting the Volume
The level meter lets you monitor the level of incoming and outgoing audio
signals (in decibels). There are level meters on the input and output strips.
The fader is used to control the volume on the mixer strips. It simulates an
audio taper fader, except the scale is more precise (between +5 and -5 dB).
To adjust the volume on the mixer strips:
t
n
Drag the fader up or down to set the volume at the appropriate decibel
level.
The fader levels do not correspond to the level meter. The fader levels
range from 20.0 dB to -inf dB, while the level meter shows the energy level
of the signal from 0 dB to -inf dB.
By default, the level meters on the input strips are post-effects and
pre-fader. This means that they display the energy levels according to the
strip effects that have been applied. When you adjust the volume, the
change is only shown on the output strips. However, it is possible to make
the level meters on the input strips post-fader.
To make the level meters of an input strip post-fader:
t
n
Click the Post button on the mixer input strip.
Tip: Double-clicking the fader returns it to the zero position.
391
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Adjusting the Audio Balance
The pan control lets you adjust the balance of the signal to the output
strips. Dragging the slider left or right determines the percentage
distribution.
You can only change the balance of the signal if the mixer is configured as
stereo. If the mixer is configured in one of the surround formats (LCRS,
Quadrophonic, 5.1, 6.1, or 7.1) you must use the Surround Panner.
If you move the pan control all the way to the left or right, then 100% of
the signal is routed either to the left or right output strip. On mono tracks,
the pan control at the center position splits the signal 50/50. For stereo
tracks, however, 70.7% of the signal is routed to each of the output strips
when the pan control is at the center.
The following example illustrates the distribution of the signals on a stereo
track with the pan activated and deactivated.
Pan is
deactivated.
392
100% of
signal routed
to the left
output strip;
0% to the
right output.
70.7% of
signal
routed to
both output
strips.
100% of
signal
routed to
both output
strips.
Pan is activated
(center position).
Pan to the left.
Understanding the Mixer
To pan the signal on the input strips:
1. Right-click the pan control and select Enable Pan.
The pan control is activated; you can now adjust the balance. A check
mark is displayed beside the selection indicating that pan has been
activated.
2. Drag the pan control to the left or right.
n
Tip: Double-clicking the pan control returns it to the center position
3. To deactivate the pan control, right-click it and select Enable Pan.
c
If you leave the pan control enabled at the center position, there will
be a 3 dB loss in your signal.
Using the Mute and Solo Buttons
You can listen to individual audio tracks by isolating their signals or
muting them. The Solo buttons let you monitor track signals and do not
affect the recording. You can also use the Mute buttons on the input strips
when listening to tracks, but it actually prevents the signal from being
routed to the outputs.
To listen to a single track:
t
Click the Solo button of a strip.
You can activate the Solo button on more than one input strip at a time.
393
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Solo the input
strips that you
want to hear
during playback.
Also, you can activate both the Mute and Solo buttons at the same time. In
this case, mute always overrides solo. For example, first solo the strips you
want to hear. During playback, click the Mute button on those same strips
to hear the various combinations of the signals.
Mute the strips
that you do not
want to hear.
For example, if you are working on background noise effects for a voice
dialogue, solo the voice track and the different background noise tracks.
You can then selectively mute the various background tracks to listen to
their combined effects against the voice track.
394
Understanding the Mixer
To mute a mixer strip:
t
Click the Mute button on the strips that you do not want to hear.
To mute all of the mixer strips:
t
Click the Master mute button on the mixer.
To isolate a mixer strip:
t
Click the Solo button on the strips that you do want to hear.
Naming a Mixer Input Strip
You can change the default name of any mixer input strip. This name is on
its corresponding audio track in the timeline. If you change the audio track
name, the mixer input strip name is updated accordingly.
To change the name of an input strip:
t
n
Click in a strip name text box, type a new name, and press Enter.
Tip: Since the strip name corresponds to the track name, you can also
change the name from the Track property editor.
Reordering the Mixer Input Strips
The input strips appear in the order that their corresponding audio tracks
appear on the timeline. Therefore, reordering the tracks changes the order
of the input strips.
395
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
To reorder the input strips:
t
From the Track selector, drag the audio Track button to a new
location.
The track is moved to the new location and the order of the input strips
changes to match the tracks.
Track button
Move cursor
Cursor indicates
invalid location.
Assigning a Mixer Input Strip to an Output Channel
You can specify which output channels are used by the audio channels of
each input strip during playback and recording using the Matrix Routing
panel. The Matrix Routing panel is available in the Routing view of the
mixer and is located at the top of each input strip.
Matrix routing
panel
Output channels
Input channels
The Matrix Routing panel has a tabular format where each column
represents an audio channel of the input strip and each row represents one
of the output strips or output channels. Using this panel, you can route each
input channel to one or more output channels.
396
Understanding the Mixer
n
If you’ve enabled the pan on a mono track, the number of input channels
on the input strip matches the number of output channels. This is because
the mono signal has been split to allow for the positioning of the sound
with the pan control.
To assign an input strip to an output channel:
t
For each input channel, click each cell that corresponds to the output
channel to which you want to assign it.
A black dot is displayed in the cell to indicate the assignment. You can
assign an input channel to more than one output channel.
Using the Output Strips
The results of the refinements on all the input strips are mixed and passed
to the output strips. Output strips let you adjust the output volume of the
audio signals. The number of output strips on the mixer depends on the
mixer configuration selected. The signal from the output strips is then
directed to an external device.
n
If you are working within a container clip, the signal is routed to the
parent container clip.
For more information, see “Mixer Output Strips” in the Help.
Muting the Output Strips
The Mute button on the mixer output strip activates or deactivates the
sound of a selected output strip. When mute is activated for a mixer output
strip that is on the top timeline, it prevents the signal from being directed to
the output device.
n
When mute is activated on a mixer output strip in a container clip, it
prevents the signal from being directed to the parent container clip.
To mute an output strip:
t
On an output strip, click the Mute button.
397
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Using an External Controller
An external controller is a hardware device that’s connected to your
Avid DS Nitris workstation. It lets you access commands in the software
through controls on the device. You can, for example, use the fader on a
controller to move the fader in an audio strip or, vice versa, use the
position indicator to move the jog wheel.
The only restriction is that specific control types, such as faders, rotary
knobs, or switches should be assigned to appropriate commands in
Avid DS Nitris. For example, assigning a fader on the external controller
to a button in Avid DS Nitris is not possible.
The External Controller Setup view lets you assign the controls on the
external controller to any of the hundreds of commands available in
Avid DS Nitris.
To access the External Controller Setup view:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > External Controller Setup.
For more information, see “External Controller Setup View” in the Help.
398
Using an External Controller
Mapping External Controls to Avid DS Nitris Commands
When reassigning a command or control, you should first check for
assigned items.
To view the status of controls and commands:
t
In the Display box of the External Controller Setup view, use the
options to filter the controls and commands.
When both options are selected, all controls and commands
are displayed.
Slider01 is assigned to
Gain in Strip 1 (Audio
Functions).
Slider01 is unassigned.
To assign a control to a command:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, select the Unassigned option
from the Display box to display unassigned controls and commands.
n
You can only map unassigned controls to unassigned commands.
399
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
2. From the Commands list, select a command and drag it to a control in
the Controls list on the left.
Audio gain on Output1 is assigned to Encoder5
on the external controller.
3. Continue to drag items from the Commands list to items in the
Controls list.
4. When you are satisfied with the new mapping, click the Apply button.
To unassign a control or command:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, click an assigned control or
command in the Controls or Commands list.
The name is highlighted.
2. Click Delete.
The item becomes unassigned. If only the Assigned option is selected,
this item disappears from the list and appears in the unassigned list.
n
Tip: You can undo a mapping operation by choosing Undo from the
Edit menu.
3. When you are satisfied with the mappings, click the Apply button.
400
Building an Audio Mix
Creating a Command Mapping Set
You can configure the command mapping of the external controller to suit
the type of work you do and your particular work habits.
To create a command mapping preset:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, click the Save button.
The Save Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Select a folder in which to save the preset, and enter a name in the File
Name text box. You can also add a comment in the Comments text
box.
3. Click OK.
Loading a Command Mapping Set
You can load the default command mapping set or one that you created
with your personal preferences.
To load a command mapping set:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, click the Load button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Select a command mapping preset.
3. Click OK.
Building an Audio Mix
You can use the Editing layout to create mixes and add audio effects to
your clips at different stages. You can start your mixing session by
overlapping audio clips on the timeline, and then fine-tune the signal on
the mixer by adding audio effects, and adjusting the volume and balance of
the signal before output.
401
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Avid DS Nitris supports up to 64 tracks of audio on a timeline. This
capability also depends on the overall throughput of your system. For
example, the number of video tracks, compression settings, disk
fragmentation, or audio effects can all affect the system throughput.
Instead of relying solely on the throughput, you can give yourself more
flexibility by creating mixes using audio container clips.
Audio container clips let you compress as many as 64 tracks down to one,
leaving you more audio tracks to work with. Here are some other reasons
to use container clips:
•
Grouping sound tracks: If you want to edit specific sounds more
efficiently, you can group sound tracks and create submixes of
common track types in an audio container clip. For example, you can
mix hard sound effects like creaking floors and footsteps in one
container clip, vocal tracks in another, and instrumentals in yet another
container clip. All of these clips can be premixed in their respective
container clips, and then played simultaneously on the top timeline.
•
Animating (automating) your mixes: If you need to boost or lower
the signal at different points in time, it’s more efficient to animate the
necessary controls in a container clip. This way, if you move the
container clip, its animation moves with it.
•
Sample accurate editing: Inside an audio container, the timeline ruler
is displayed in terms of audio samples, as opposed to video frames.
This lets you have greater control over the placement of your audio
clips.
When you close the audio container clip, the tracks are automatically
processed and represented as a single clip on the top timeline. You can
now play the mix in real time.
n
402
Before doing your mixes, make sure you’ve already edited your sound
tracks (music and dialogue).
Building an Audio Mix
Creating Audio Tracks
Whether you’re building a mix in an audio container clip or not, you need
to add audio tracks to the timeline. Audio clips and tracks in
Avid DS Nitris can have up to eight channels of audio in any of the
following formats:
Format
Description
Mono
Single channel of audio
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, center, right, surround
4 Stream
Four audio channels: Output 1 to 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), left surround, right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), surround center, Side left, Side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), left surround, right surround, left center,
right center
8 Stream
Eight audio channels: Output 1 to 8
403
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
To create an audio track, do one of the following:
t
Right-click in the overview area, and select Create Audio Track and
a track format.
t
Drag an audio clip from the Avid Explorer to the timeline ribbon.
Tracks created this way adopt the format of the audio clip.
To determine a clip’s audio format:
t
Right-click a clip on the timeline and select Properties.
The Clip property editor is displayed, and the audio format is shown in
the Type box.
To determine a track’s audio format:
t
Right-click a track and select Track Properties.
The Track property editor is displayed, and the audio format is shown
in the Format list box.
To change a track’s audio format:
1. Right-click a track and select Track Properties.
The Track property editor is displayed.
2. In the Format list box, select the format you want.
n
404
Audio clips appear yellow if their format does not match the audio track
format, such as when a stereo clip is placed on a mono track.
Building an Audio Mix
Using the Surround Panner
The Surround Panner lets you specify the positioning and movement of the
sound elements in your sequence. You can, for example, use it to create the
effect of footsteps crossing a room, or simulate the sound of a door closing
behind your listening audience.
You can only use the Surround Panner on mono tracks and if the mixer
configuration is set to one of the surround output configurations, namely
LCRS, Quadrophonic, 5.1, 6.1, or 7.1.
For more information, click the Help button or see “Surround Panner” in
the Help.
Panning area
Track list
Mute, solo and
animation buttons
Divergence
Pan control
Gain and LFE faders
To access the Surround Panner:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Surround Panner.
To specify the location of a sound:
t
Drag the pan control to the location you want in the panning area.
405
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
To specify the size of a sound source:
t
Adjust the Divergence value.
Mixing Clips
There are several ways of mixing audio on the timeline. You can:
•
Place audio clips on different tracks on the timeline, but within the
same region. Unlike video clips on background tracks, audio clips do
not lose their activeness when placed at the same timecodes as other
audio clips. This lets you play several clips simultaneously.
Mixing audio tracks.
Both clips are active.
•
Overlap clips on the timeline to create a crossfade from one audio clip
to another. The two audio clips can be on the same track or different
tracks. For more information, see “Applying Crossfade Effects” on
page 424.
Crossfade between two audio clips.
Crossfade transition
•
406
Create a submix in an audio container clip. Place multiple audio clips
in a container clip and mix them down to a single clip on the top
timeline.
Building an Audio Mix
Creating a Submix
The mixer can support up to 64 input tracks. If you notice frames skipping
during playback (indicated by a red light on the transport controls), you
should mix your audio tracks in container clips instead.
In a container clip, you can mix 64 tracks of audio down to one, giving you
more tracks to work with. An audio container clip can also contain other
container clips, letting you create many more submixes.
For example, create a container clip to hold different dialogue, foley, and
background music tracks, and mix them down to a single track in
preparation for a scene. When the audio container clip is closed, these
tracks appear as a single clip, which you can mix with other audio clips
and/or synchronize with corresponding video clips.
Audio container clips also lets you display the timeline ruler in samples,
frames, or milliseconds, giving you greater accuracy when editing audio
clips.
The initial format of your audio container clip depends on the clip selected.
That is, if the audio container is created from a stereo clip, then the
container will be stereo. You can, however, change the format of an audio
container clip by changing the mixer configuration within the container.
For more information, see “Changing the Mixer Configuration” on
page 389.
To create an audio container clip:
1. Place a clip on the track where the container clip will be created.
2. Right-click the clip and select Create Audio Container Clip.
n
Audio
container clip
button
You can select more than one clip on a track by holding down the Ctrl key
and clicking the clips that you want to select. These clips all become part
of the new container clip.
A new timeline is opened, and the selected audio clip is placed on the
first track. You can now insert additional audio tracks on which to
place other audio clips that form the mix.
407
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Also, notice that a new container clip button is displayed in the
taskbar. This button indicates that you’re working in an audio
container clip.
n
Inside an audio container clip, the ruler time scale is set to samples by
default. You can change the time scale by right-clicking on the ruler and
choosing a different time scale.
An open audio container clip.
Stereo audio clip
4 stream
audio clip
Mono audio clip
Taskbar
3. When you’ve finished editing the clips in this container clip, click the
Top Timeline button in the taskbar to close the audio container clip
and return to the top timeline.
A closed audio container clip is represented as a single clip on the timeline
Taskbar
408
Fine-tuning the Mix
When you close the container clip, Avid DS Nitris automatically
processes the mix and displays a single clip on the parent audio track.
While processing, a progress bar indicates the status of the process.
The number of passes that Avid DS Nitris processes is based on the
number of nested container clips in the current container clip.
Container clip icon
After processing, you can mix the resulting clip with other audio clips
on the timeline. You can reopen the container clip by clicking the icon
on the container clip.
Fine-tuning the Mix
After you’ve placed and edited your audio clips on the timeline, you can
fine-tune the signal using the mixer. Each input strip in the mixer
corresponds to an audio track on the timeline. The strip controls let you
add effects and adjust the overall volume and balance of each track. The
signals from all the strips are then mixed and routed to the output strips.
A strip’s volume level is displayed in decibels on the level meter. The level
meters resemble a plasma display, which shows the level of energy for an
audio signal at a specific point in time. Stereo tracks have a dual level
meter to indicate the strengths of each stream. Mono tracks only have a
single level meter.
The signal that results from the adjustments on the input strips are then fed
into the mixer, where all the audio signals are combined into a single
composite signal. The mixed audio signals are then directed to the output
strips. Here, again, you have the option to adjust the volume before
outputting it to a parent container clip or external device. For more
information, see “Understanding the Mixer” on page 388.
409
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Input strips
Output strips
Adjust levels
after the mix
Adjust levels
before all the
strips are mixed.
Adjusting the Mixer Inputs
As you add audio tracks to the timeline, the input strips appear on the
mixer, which always reflects the appearance of the audio tracks on the
timeline. If you reorder the audio tracks on the currently-displayed
timeline, the mixer is updated accordingly.
The quality of an audio mix depends on the volume and pan levels on each
input strip. You should set the levels, so that the mix is well balanced. The
controls on the input strips let you manipulate the signal coming from each
audio track on the timeline. You can adjust the volume and pan levels of
each strip before the signal is fed into the mixer. You can also use the Mute
and Solo buttons to listen to the signals coming from individual tracks.
n
The Solo buttons are for monitoring purposes only and do not stop the
signal from going into the mixer.
The fader is used to control the volume on the mixer strips. It simulates an
audio taper fader, except that the scale is more precise between the +5 dB
and -5 dB range.
410
Fine-tuning the Mix
The level meter ranges from 20.0 dB to -∞ dB. On the input strip, the level
meter maintains the energy levels even if the volume is adjusted or the
strip is muted. This lets you view the signal as it comes from the audio
tracks. The volume change is only shown on the output strip level meters.
n
Click Post on the mixer input strip to have the level meter reflect the
volume change.
You can also add effects to the signal before it’s processed in the mixer.
For more information, see “Fine-tuning the Mix” on page 409.
To fine-tune the sound on an input strip:
1. Click the Solo button on the input strip that you want to tune.
Only the sound from this input strip can be heard.
2. Move the position indicator to the beginning of the first audio clip on
the respective track.
3. On the transport controls, click Play.
4. During playback, click the Solo button to hear the effect of the track in
and out of the mix. Click the Solo button again to turn off the effect.
5. As the sequence is played back, drag the fader up or down.
n
Double-clicking the fader button returns it to the 0 dB position.
6. For mono tracks, you can also activate the pan control if you want to
change the routing of the signal. The pan control lets you adjust the
balance among the output strips. Moving the pan control determines
the distribution of the audio signals among the output strips—see
“Adjusting the Audio Balance” on page 392.
7. After you’ve completed the fine-tuning for this strip, deselect the Solo
button, and repeat this procedure for all the other input strips.
411
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Adjusting the Mixer Outputs
The results of the adjustments on all the input strips are mixed and passed
to the output strips. Output strips let you adjust the output volume of the
audio signals. The number of output strips on the mixer depends on the
selected mixer configuration. The signal from the output strips is then
directed to an external device.
n
If you’re working in an audio container clip, the signals are directed to the
parent container clip.
To adjust the volume on the output strip:
1. On the output strip you want to listen to, click the Solo button.
This lets you focus on the sounds from this strip alone.
2. Move the position indicator to the beginning of the sequence.
3. On the transport controls, click Play.
4. As the sequence is playing, monitor the output levels on the level
meter and drag the fader up or down to adjust the volume of this strip.
5. Repeat this procedure for the other output strip(s).
6. After you’ve fine-tuned each output strip, make sure you deselect any
Solo buttons to listen to the combined results of the output strips.
Animating the Audio Mix
When you want to adjust the volume or balance at different stages of the
sequence, you can use the animation capabilities of the mixer to automate
the volume and balance of your audio signals.
You can animate the fader, mute, and pan controls on the input strips
before the signal is processed in the mixer. You can also choose the strips
that you want to animate.
412
Animating the Audio Mix
When you animate the pan control, fader, and mute settings during realtime playback, the adjustments are graphed as function curves. You can
easily modify these function curves in the animation graph after the
recording is complete.
c
All animation is track-based. Therefore, if you move the audio clips to
a different track, you will lose the associated animation. If you want to
keep the associated animation, then drag and drop the previously
saved sequence on the timeline. New audio tracks will contain the
audio animation.
Animating the Input Strip Controls
The Animation button lets you record any adjustments you make to the
pan, mute, and fader controls on the mixer strip in real time. The Solo
button cannot be animated because it’s a tool that lets you listen to the
sounds of the different tracks.
To activate animation on the strips:
1. On the strip that you want to animate, click the Animation button.
Animation button
By default, all the controls on this strip are animated when you begin
the keyframing process. You can, however, select the controls that you
want to animate.
2. Right-click the Animation button and select a command from the
menu.
n
Pan can only be animated if the pan control is activated. Right-click the
pan control and select Enable Pan.
413
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
3. Deselect the controls that you do not want to participate in the
animation.
To animate the controls:
1. Click the Animation button on the input strips that will participate in
the animation.
2. On the transport controls, click Play.
3. Adjust the controls on the input strip as the sequence is playing.
Any actions that you perform with the previously activated controls
are automatically recorded.
4. To stop playing the sequence, click Play again.
5. Click the Animation button on the input strip to deactivate it.
n
If you leave the Animation button activated, you can record over the
animation simply by replaying the sequence and redoing the control
movements at the appropriate times. The previous animation’s function
curve is overwritten until you stop the recording.
6. Go to the beginning of the sequence and click Play to see the results of
the recorded animation.
If you open the animation editor, you can see your animated
movements graphed on the function curve.
Function
curve
Keyframes at frames 0,4,9 and 12.
The animation editor displays the function curve that you generated.
414
Animating the Audio Mix
n
You can also use the Animation Key button to manually animate your
controls. For more information, see “Setting Keyframes Manually” on
page 343.
Animation Key button
Bypassing the Animation
When you play a sequence that’s been animated, all the controls that were
animated will automatically play back. If you want to monitor certain
sounds, you can bypass the animated movements of some or all of
the controls. This lets you fine-tune your audio signal. Any animated
controls that are bypassed are still processed and sent to the outputs.
To bypass the animation during playback:
1. On an input strip, right-click the Animation button and select a
command to bypass from the menu.
A check mark beside the command indicates that it will be bypassed.
2. Select any other items that you want to bypass during playback.
When you replay the sequence, the controls that you selected for
bypass do not participate in the animation.
415
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Editing the Animation
All animated movements can be modified by adjusting the keyframes that
were set for the animated controls.
To edit the animation:
1. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Animation Editor.
2. In the animation tree, select the name of the strip on which the
animation was created.
3. Click the plus sign (+) to expand the tree, and then select a property or
control whose keyframe, values need to be adjusted.
The corresponding function curve is displayed in the animation graph.
4. Adjust the key points on the function curve at the appropriate timecode
settings.
For more information, see “Editing Animation on the Animation Graph”
on page 356.
Deleting Animation
You can delete all or part of the animation on the mixer input strips.
To delete all animation on the mixer:
t
Right-click the Animation Key button and select Remove Animation
Curves.
The function curves for the pan, gain, and mute of each input strip in
Animation Key button
To delete animation on individual strip controls:
t
Animation button
416
On an input strip, right-click the Animation button and select one of
the following:
-
Any of the Delete options from the bottom of the menu.
-
Delete All Animation to remove all animation on this input strip.
Converting the Sample Rate
Converting the Sample Rate
Avid DS Nitris supports conversion of sample rates for clips, as well as
sequences and projects. You can change the sampling rate of clips to
conform to the rest of the sequence. Similarly, you can change the sample
rate of sequences to conform to the sampling rate supported by your audio
hardware.
Converting Sequence Sample Rates
If you load a sequence/project with a sample rate that’s not supported by
your audio hardware, you will be prompted to convert the sequence/project
to a supported sampling rate.
n
If you convert the sample rate of the sequence in this manner,
Avid DS Nitris does not convert the sample rates of the sequence’s audio
clips. You must convert the sample rates of the audio clips manually. For
more information, see “Converting the Sample Rate Manually” on
page 419.
Converting Clip Sample Rates
Audio clips can be used in sequences that have a different sample rate.
When you place an audio clip on the timeline, its sample rate is converted
according to the settings in the Sequence Preferences dialog box (Audio
property page). You can convert the sample rate automatically or
manually.
417
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Converting the Sample Rate Automatically
Automatic conversion is the process by which Avid DS Nitris converts an
audio clip’s sample rate to match the sample rate of the sequence in which
it’s used.
To automatically convert a clip’s sample rate:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
2. In the Sequence Preferences dialog box, select the Audio tab.
3. In the Sample Rate Conversion box, select the appropriate options:
-
Conversion on Drop to automatically convert the sample rate of a
clip that you place on an audio track.
-
Conversion on Drop and Confirm Each Time to prompt you
with a message before converting the sample rate of a clip that you
place on an audio track.
When the clip is placed on an audio track, a dialog box is displayed,
prompting you to start the conversion.
4. Use the Conversion Quality controls to specify a conversion quality.
For more information, click the Help button.
418
Converting the Sample Rate
Converting the Sample Rate Manually
You can place clips on the timeline without having their sample rate
automatically converted to match that of the sequence. However, if an
audio clip’s sample rate doesn’t match that of the sequence, you will not be
able to hear it when you play the sequence. To hear the clip, you must
manually convert it to the sample rate of the sequence.
n
When an audio clip’s sample rate does not match the sequence’s sample
rate, the clip appears red on the timeline.
To manually convert the sample rate of a clip:
t
Right-click a clip on the timeline and select Convert to Current
Sample Rate.
To manually convert the sample rate of a track:
t
Right-click an audio track and select Convert to Current Sample
Rate.
Converting Audio Container Clips
When you convert the sample rate of an audio container clip, only the
cache itself is converted. The clips inside the container clip are unaffected.
This lets you use a container clip in a sequence or project that has a
different sample rate, without having to convert all of the clips inside the
container clip.
To convert the sample rate of an audio container clip:
t
Right-click an audio container clip and select Convert to Current
Sample Rate.
To convert the sample rate of audio clips inside a container clip:
1. Open a container clip and manually convert the individual clips.
2. Close the container clip.
419
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
Processing the Mix
Unlike video clips, all audio clip, track, and strip effects (as well as any
animation) are processed in real time, so that no caches need to be created.
The only exception is when you create audio container clips. These
container clips are processed automatically when you close them.
n
You can process clip-based audio effects to reduce your workstation’s
memory usage. For more information, see “Processing Clip-based Audio
Effects” on page 422.
The following illustration shows how audio effects are processed from the
tracks on the timeline to the strips on the mixer.
420
Processing the Mix
Clip effects processed
1
Clip effects are processed
first, in order from bottom
to top.
2 Track effects processed
Track effects are
processed next, also in
order from bottom to top.
Audio signal passed to input strips
Left
3
Right
The signals from the audio tracks are
passed to the corresponding mixer input
strip.
Strip effects processed
5
Mixer
Effects on the mixer input
strip are processed in order
from top to bottom.
Adjust the volume and
balance
4
On the input strips you can
adjust the volume and
balance of the audio signal.
6
Audio signal passed to output
strips
The signals from the input strips
are combined and passed to the
output strips.
Audio clip effects are processed before track effects. If the effects are
stacked, then they’re processed from bottom to top. The signal from the
audio track is then passed to the corresponding mixer input strip, where
you can adjust the volume and balance of the incoming signal. If you’re
still not satisfied with the results, you can add more effects to the strip.
These strip effects are processed from top to bottom.
The signals from all the input strips are then mixed together and distributed
to the output strips based on the pan levels set on the input strips. On the
output strips, you can make the final adjustments to the volume level using
the fader.
421
Chapter 10 Mixing Audio
The resulting signal is recorded on your external device. If you’re currently
working in a container clip, then the resulting signal is sent to the parent
container clip.
When you close an audio container clip, Avid DS Nitris automatically
processes the mix and displays a single clip on the parent audio track.
While processing, it will indicate the progress. The number of passes that
Avid DS Nitris processes are based on the number of nested container
clips in the current container clip.
If you haven’t made any changes to the clips in the container clip, then
processing is not necessary.
Processing Clip-based Audio Effects
All audio clip, track, and strip effects (as well as any animation) are
processed in real time. However, you might want to process clip-based
audio effects to reduce your workstation’s memory usage.
To process a specific audio clip effect on the timeline:
1. Right-click the audio clip and select Clip Cache.
2. Apply an audio effect to the audio clip.
The clip area on the timeline changes to yellow, indicating the effect is
real-time but can also be processed.
3. Click the Process button.
4. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the following options:
n
422
-
Selected Object
-
Include Real-time Effect to force processing and create a cache on
disk for the real-time effects
You can process several audio clip effects by selecting Current Timeline
on the Processing Options dialog box.
Chapter 11
Working with Audio Effects
This chapter describes the audio effects and how to apply them:
•
Understanding Audio Effects
•
Applying Crossfade Effects
•
Applying Dynamics Effects
•
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects
•
Applying Fade Effects
•
Applying a Gain Effect
•
Applying Reverb Effect
•
Applying a VST Host Effect
Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects
Understanding Audio Effects
The audio effects are used to adjust the output signal of your audio clip.
You can apply audio effects to clips, tracks, or mixer input strips. For
information, see “Working with Effects and Transitions” on page 229.
Since all of the audio effects are real-time effects, except for the Timewarp
effect, you can hear the results upon playback without having to first
process the effect. For information about Timewarp effects, see “Applying
an Audio Timewarp Effect” on page 322.
n
In some cases, real-time effects may require processing to ensure that no
frames are skipped. For more information, see “Playing Real-Time
Effects” on page 282.
If you are adjusting parameters in an audio property editor during
playback, you may notice a slight time lapse before you hear the results of
the change. This will not affect the quality of the final output to tape or file.
Applying Crossfade Effects
A crossfade is an audio transition between two clips over a specified
number of frames. The sound of the outgoing clip gradually becomes less
audible as the incoming sound increases to the desired volume.
To create a crossfade between two clips:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the
clips to receive the crossfade have extra material.
2. Select the edit point between the two audio clips on which you want to
apply the crossfade.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade.
424
Applying Dynamics Effects
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Crossfade property editor, adjust the amount of the crossfade
and specify the start point and duration of the transition.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Dynamics Effects
The Dynamics effects let you control the dynamic range of the audio
signal. You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input
strips.
There are five dynamics processes available in the Dynamics property
editor: Gate, Expander, Compressor 1, Compressor 2, and Limiter.
For a list of the Dynamics effects, see “Dynamics Effects” in the Help.
425
Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects
To apply a dynamics effect:
1. Apply a dynamics effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Dynamics property editor is displayed.
2. On the General property page, set the Attack and Release times.
3. On the Threshold property page, set the ratios.
4. Adjust the thresholds for the required processes.
For more information, click the Help button.
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects
The Equalizer (EQ) effects let you boost or cut the output signal at certain
frequencies. You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer
input strips.
Applying the 3 Band Tone Control Effect
The 3 Band Tone Control effect lets you adjust the decibel level of the
bass, middle, and treble frequencies, and the overall audio signal. You can
boost or cut the signal in a decibel range of -15 dB to +15 dB.
To boost or cut the frequency ranges of the audio signal:
1. Apply the 3 Band Tone Control effect to a clip, track, or mixer input
strip.
2. In the 3 Band Tone Control property editor, specify the amount of gain
(in decibels) to be added to or cut from each of the frequency ranges.
To boost or cut the overall gain of the input signal:
t
In the Input Gain text box, specify the amount of gain (in decibels) to
be added to or cut from the whole signal.
For more information, click the Help button.
426
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects
Applying the 4 Band Parametric EQ Effect
The 4 Band Parametric EQ effect lets you boost or cut the audio signal at
four different frequencies. You can boost or cut the signal in a decibel
range of -24 dB to +24 dB. You can also boost the overall gain of the audio
clip’s input signal.
To boost or cut the overall gain of the input signal:
1. Apply the 4 Band Parametric EQ effect to a clip, track, or mixer input
strip.
The 4 Band Parametric EQ property editor is displayed.
2. On the Band 1 property page, specify the amount of gain (in decibels)
to be added to or cut from the whole signal.
To boost or cut the frequency ranges of the audio signal:
1. In the Frequency text box, enter the frequency at which you want the
effect to be applied.
2. In the Gain text box, enter the amount of gain (in decibels) to be added
to or cut from the audio signal at the selected frequency.
3. In the Q text box, enter the Q factor (resonance).
4. Specify the curve type: Peaking, LF (low frequency) Shelving, or HF
(high frequency) Shelving.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying the 10 Band Graphic EQ Effect
The 10 Band Graphic EQ effect lets you boost or cut the audio signal at
preset frequencies ranging from 31 Hz to 16 kHz. The bands are separated
by exactly one octave, and each band has a bandwidth of one octave.
You can also boost or cut the overall gain of the audio clip’s input signal.
427
Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects
To boost or cut the overall gain of the input signal:
1. Apply the 10 Band Graphic EQ effect to a clip, track, or mixer input
strip.
The 10 Band Graphic EQ property editor is displayed.
2. On the Bands 1 - 5 property page, specify the amount of gain (in
decibels) to be added to or cut from the whole signal in the Input Gain
text box.
To boost or cut the frequency ranges of the signal:
t
Specify the amount of gain (in decibels) to be added to or cut from
each of the frequency ranges.
For more information, click the Help button or see “10 Band Graphic EQ
Property Editor” in the Help.
Applying Fade Effects
The fade effects let you animate the volume of your audio clip over time.
You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
To apply the Fade effect:
t
Apply a fade effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Fade property editor is displayed. It consists of a single property
page which contains a function curve to control the volume of your
audio clip. Adjust the curve to set an increase or decrease in volume.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Gain Effect
The Gain effect lets you boost or cut the output gain of an audio signal.
This is done by increasing or decreasing the decibel level.
You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
428
Applying Reverb Effect
To adjust the output gain of an audio clip:
1. Apply the Gain effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Gain property editor is displayed.
2. In the Level text box, enter the desired decibel level of the audio clip.
To invert the output signal:
t
Select the Invert phase option.
To reset the decibel level to the default value (0):
t
Click Unity.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Reverb Effect
The Reverb property editor lets you apply a reverberation effect to your
clip. The reverberation effect simulates the many reflections of sound that
can occur within a room and can be used to add depth to a sound.
You can apply audio effects to clips, tracks, or mixer input strips.
To apply the Reverb effect:
t
Apply the Reverb effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Reverb property editor is displayed.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a VST Host Effect
The VST Host effect lets you load and use VST plug-in effects in Avid DS
Nitris. You must have VST plug-in effects installed before you can use
them in Avid DS Nitris.
429
Chapter 11 Working with Audio Effects
n
Avid DS Nitris implements version 1.0 of the VST Host and works with any
VST plug-in effects that support this version of the VST Host.
During the installation of Avid DS Nitris, a \VSTPlugIns folder is created
in the Avid DS Nitris installation folder. In a default installation the full
path to the folder would be: C:\Program Files\Avid\DS_v7.x\VSTPlugins.
Avid DS Nitris recognizes any VST plug-ins installed in the \VSTPlugIns
folder and any of its subfolders or installed with Cubase VST.
You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
n
Consult the vendor’s documentation on how to install and uninstall a VST
plug-in effect.
To apply a VST plug-in effect:
1. Install a VST plug-in effect on your system.
2. Apply the VST Host effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The VST Host property editor is displayed.
3. From the Effect list, select the plug-in effect you want to use.
To use a VST plug-in effect bank or program:
1. Apply the VST Host effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The VST Host property editor is displayed.
2. From the Effect list, select the plug-in effect you want to use.
3. Click Load and navigate to the folder where the VST effect bank (.fxb
files) or program (.fxp files) are installed.
By default, Avid DS Nitris looks in the folder in which the VST
plug-in is located.
4. Select the file you want and click OK.
5. From the Program list, select the effect preset you want to use.
For more information, click the Help button.
430
Chapter 12
Media Management
This chapter describes how to manage your project files and media in
Avid DS Nitris and how to use your disk space efficiently by purging,
deleting, and archiving. This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Understanding Media
•
Managing Media
•
Archiving Projects
•
Restoring Projects
•
Moving Projects to Another Workstation
•
Deleting Projects
•
Deleting Clips
•
Viewing Information about Storage Devices
For details on setting up your storage areas, see “Planning your Storage
Locations” in the Avid DS Nitris Installation and Administration Guide.
Understanding Media
Media in Avid DS Nitris exists in one of two forms: source media or
caches. Media is the digitized form of source material after it has been
captured or imported from tape or file into Avid DS Nitris.
Chapter 12 Media Management
A cache is a media file that is generated when you process an effect,
transition, or composite created in your sequence. During playback,
Avid DS Nitris refers to this cache file instead of the source media.
Both source media and cache media are stored on high-performance disk
arrays. The following illustration shows the relationship between source
and cache media.
Master clips in the Avid Explorer.
Effect applied to a clip in the timeline.
Source media
Cache media
Cache media is created when
effects and transitions applied to
your clips are processed. It is also
stored on the disk array. When
Avid DS Nitris encounters
processed effects during playback, it
points to the cache media instead of
the original source media.
Source media is the
material that you capture
from tape or file. It is stored
on the disk array and
referenced by master clips.
Disk array
432
Understanding Media
Like captured media, you can process your clips at different resolutions
and compression ratios. Each time you change your working qualities
(resolution, compression ratio, or bit depth), and process your clips, a
separate cache file is created.
To keep track of different media qualities and avoid data redundancy, the
time, quality, and channel information is used to store the coordinates of
the media.
•
Time: The source timecode or timeline timecode of your media.
•
Quality: The quality aspects of an image (resolution, compression,
format).
•
Channel: The number of video and/or audio components in the media
file.
To handle caches even more efficiently, the Media Indexer uses
information or metadata to create a unique reference for each cache file. If
this same clip and effect are reused anywhere else in your sequence or
project, then the Media Indexer reuses the same cache. This lets you
automatically view the results of an effect as soon as it is placed on the
timeline. For this same reason, however, you may notice that purging
caches does not necessarily free up storage space. If a cache is used by
another part of the sequence or project, it will not be purged.
Changing the duration of the clip, or its properties, or stacking another
effect on the clip, will require a new cache. However, the Media Indexer
still tries to use any existing caches for the parts of the clip that have not
changed.
The Media Indexer also manages the creation of caches at different stages
in your sequence to ease the reprocessing and purging of caches. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 270.
433
Chapter 12 Media Management
Managing Media
When working on big projects, you can easily accumulate large amounts of
media captured from different sources in different formats, resolutions,
and compression ratios. To organize your work and use disk space
efficiently, you need to find, purge, move, and delete media. When you are
working with projects and sequences that share media, you need to
determine how the media is shared.
Using the Media Tool
The Media Tool lets you view media files and the clips, sequences, or
projects with which they are associated. In addition, it provides a
comprehensive way of looking at your assets (projects, sequences, clips,
and media) and how they relate to each other.
You can use the Media Tool to display your files in a variety of
combinations. For example, you can display the media associated with a
single clip or the media associated with all clips in a project. You can
display all media contained in two projects, display only the media that is
shared—and then display only the media that is not shared.
The Media Tool lets you view more than just media files: you can also
view associations between projects, sequences, and master clips. You can
display all projects in your workgroup, and then all sequences in those
projects. Then select two of these sequences and display all master clips in
these sequences. And you can perform various media management tasks
on the objects that are displayed: recapturing, purging, defragmenting,
copying, moving, and deleting.
You can also edit from the Media Tool by dragging a clip or sequence to a
viewer or the timeline.
To access the Media Tool, do one of the following:
t
In an Avid Explorer panel, open the Views folder and click Media
Tool.
The Media Tool opens as a view inside the Avid Explorer.
t
434
Select Data Management > Media Tool.
Managing Media
t
Select one or more clips or sequences, right-click, and select Show
Media.
The Media Tool opens as a multi-instance view, with the selected
objects in the left panel and the associated files in the right panel.
Master clips
Projects
Media
Sequences
Processor
Panel A
Panel B
Bin tools
Media Tool
tools
The two panels of the Media Tool represent the association between the
items in the panels. For example, if master clips are displayed in the left
panel (panel A), all media files for the clips are displayed in the right panel
(panel B).
If you select objects in one panel, the related objects in the other panel are
also selected. For example, if you select a master clip in panel A, the
associated media files are selected in panel B. And if you select a media
file in panel B, the associated master clip is selected in panel A.
435
Chapter 12 Media Management
Using Media Tool Icons to Display Files
The Media Tool icons, at the top of the view, give you any easy way to
display project and media files. After the files are displayed, you can
rearrange them to display their associations.
To display project and media files by using the Media Tool icons:
t
Drag an icon from the top part of the Media Tool to either one of the
panels. The results are described in the following table:
Drag this to a panel
To display
Projects icon
All projects defined in your project root.
Sequences icon
All sequences in the current project
Clips icon
All master clips in the current project.
Media icon
All media in the current project.
The Processor icon flashes while the Media Tool is processing the display.
To stop the processing, click the Cancel button in the Media Tool tools.
Displaying Associations Between Files
There are several ways you can display the associations between projects,
sequences, master clips, and media files.
To display associations by dragging to a panel, do one of the
following:
436
t
Drag one or more project folders, sequences, master clips, or media
files from an open bin to one of the panels.
t
Drag one or more items from one panel to another.
Managing Media
The results of these actions are described in the following table:
Drag this
To
To display
Project
Panel A
All sequences in the project in Panel B.
Sequence
Panel A
Panel B
All master clips in the sequence in Panel B.
All projects using that sequence in Panel A.
Master clip
Panel A
Panel B
Media used by the master clip in Panel B.
All sequences that use the master clip in Panel A.
Panel B
All master clips that use the media file in
Panel A.
Media file
To display associations by right-click dragging within a panel:
t
From a list of items, right-click one or more items and drag them to an
empty part of the same panel.
For example, if you drop the Media Tool sequence icon to panel A, all
sequences in the current project are displayed. Right-click a sequence,
drag it to an empty part of panel A, and panel B displays all master
clips in the selected sequence.
To display associations by dragging to a Media Tool icon:
t
Drag an object from one panel to an icon in the top part of the dialog
box.
Use this action if you want to “hop” to a different association. For
example, if a sequence is listed in panel A, by default its master clips
are listed in panel B. To view media for the sequence, drag the
sequence from panel A to the Media icon.
437
Chapter 12 Media Management
Modifying the Media Tool Display
After you have displayed your choice of objects, you can use the Media
Tool tools to modify the display. Some of these tools let you show
additional associations between project files and media.
To modify the Media Tool display:
t
Click one of the following Media Tool tools:
Click this
File
438
To
Union
Display all items contained in the contents of Panel A
in Panel B (default).
Intersection
Display only the items shared by the contents of
Panel A in Panel B.
Intersection
Complement
Display only the items not shared by the contents of
Panel A.
Include Cache
Files
Display cache media as well as source media. After
you click the button, reprocess the sequence to display
the media.
Clear All
Remove objects from both panels.
History Back
Show the previous display in the Media Tool history
list.
History Forward
Show the next display in the Media Tool history list.
Cancel
Cancel Media Tool processing.
Managing Media
You can also use the standard bin tools and procedures to modify the
display:
•
Bin tools: Click a bin tool button to change the way the files are
displayed—see “Bin Tools” in the Help.
•
Bin views: Select a bin view to change the information displayed in
Details and Script views—see “Saving or Deleting a Bin View” on
page 46. The Video Management and Audio Management views are
designed especially for media files.
You can edit the bin display and create a customized view by clicking
the Fast Menu button and selecting Settings > Add/Remove
Columns.
•
Sorting: You can sort by using the information in any column or
combination of columns—see “Sorting Files” on page 47. For
example, to sort your media files by storage, click the Location
column.
•
Sifting: Select a Custom Sift to display only files that meet specific
criteria—see “Sifting Files” on page 49.
Viewing Media
You can view media files, like other files, as thumbnails, making it easier
to identify and locate particular media. You can also step through the
media files by changing the frame that is displayed on the thumbnail. This
gives you a basic idea of what is included in each media file.
To change the frame displayed on the thumbnail:
1. In the Media Tool or a bin, click the Thumbnail button.
2. Right-click a media file and select View Frame and one of the
following:
-
First Frame to display the first frame of the media file.
-
Middle Frame to display the middle frame of the media file.
-
Last Frame to display the last frame of the media file.
-
Advanced to open a dialog box that lets you enter a particular
frame number to be displayed.
439
Chapter 12 Media Management
The thumbnail displays the frame number you choose. The setting is
used for all media files in the bin or the Media Tool. This setting does
not affect master clips or sequences.
Defragmenting Media
The more you capture, delete, and purge media from your system, the more
likely that your media files become fragmented on your disk array.
Fragmented media may slow down your system or cause playback
problems, such as skipped frames, therefore you should defragment your
disk array regularly. This, however, can be a lengthy process.
To defragment video media files:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, select one or more video media files that
you think might be fragmented.
2. Right-click one of the selected files and select Defragment.
The selected video media files are defragmented.
Verifying Media
If you encounter problems while playing back your sequences, there may
be corrupted media on your disk array.
To verify your media:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, select one or more media files.
2. Right-click one of the selected files and select Verify Media.
If you have any corrupted files, you are prompted to delete them.
Media that you delete will have to be recaptured or reprocessed.
440
Managing Media
Copying Media
You can copy media from one storage area to another. You can copy one
file at a time, a selection of files, or an entire folder of media files.
To copy a media file:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, right-click a media file and select Copy
to Storage.
n
To copy more than one file, hold down the Ctrl key while selecting files,
and then right-click one of the selected files to select the Copy option.
2. In the Copy Media dialog box, select the video and audio storage area
to which you want to copy your media.
Any projects using this media are automatically linked to your local drive.
This is because, by default, the Media Indexer is configured to look at your
local storage area first. You can verify this by opening the Media Indexer
and verifying that your local storage is the first one in your list. For more
information, see “Configuring your Storage Locations” in the
Avid DS Nitris Installation and Administration Guide.
Moving Media
If you add or remove a storage device from your system, you may have to
move some media files from one storage area to another. You can move
one file at a time, a selection of files, or an entire folder of media files.
To move a media file:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, right-click a media file and select Move
to Storage.
n
To move more than one file, hold down the Ctrl key and click the necessary
files, and then right-click one of the selected files to display the menu.
441
Chapter 12 Media Management
2. In the Move Media dialog box, select the video and audio storage area
to which you want to move your media.
Deleting Media
If you’re sure that you no longer need certain media files, you can
manually delete them from your storage area. When media is deleted, the
clips that refer to that media are maintained, but indicate that no media is
attached to them. Since the master clips are not deleted, it is possible to
recapture this media later.
n
The Purge dialog box provides additional features that make it easier to
determine which media files to delete. For more information, see “Purging
Media” on page 443.
To delete media files:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, right-click a media file and select Delete.
You are prompted to confirm your decision.
2. Click Yes to delete the media.
n
442
To delete entire projects and their associated media files, see “Deleting
Projects” on page 463 and “Viewing Information about Storage Devices”
on page 466. See also “Deleting Clips” on page 465.
Managing Media
Purging Media
Media files often contain large amounts of information that can quickly use
up your system storage space. It is good practice to purge unused media,
especially if you have captured different qualities of media from the same
source.
There are two types of media generated in Avid DS Nitris:
•
Source media is created when you capture or import files.
•
Processed media (cache) is generated when you process effects,
graphics, or composites in your sequence.
You can purge your source media and cache files without losing vital
information about the edits you made. Since a clip is a representation of the
digitized media stored on your disk array, you can delete your media
without deleting the clip and sequence files. This is called purging your
media. You can later use the clip or sequence files to recapture the source
material or reprocess the effects. Purging source media requires you to
recapture the original media, while purging caches requires you to
reprocess the sequence before it can be played back in real time.
When a clip’s source media is deleted, the clip icon in the Avid Explorer
turns red. When caches are purged, the icon does not change color, but
areas of the timeline that rely on this processed media are highlighted in
red.
n
To check what type of media is associated with a clip, right-click the clip
and select Properties. For more information, see “Displaying File
Properties” on page 43.
It is possible to purge only the video or audio portion of a clip. In this case,
the icon in the Avid Explorer does not turn red, as there is still media
associated with the clip. You can only purge media from the current
project. If you want to purge media in another project, you must open that
project and then purge the media.
443
Chapter 12 Media Management
There are several ways to purge source media or cache files in
Avid DS Nitris.
Purge from
To do this
Avid Explorer bin
Delete media of selected clips and sequences.
Cache bar menu
Delete the caches associated with the cache bar, the
cache files below the cache bar, or both.
Toolbar
Delete all cache files from the current sequence, all
interactive memory caches, or a cache file associated
with a particular clip, effect, or area on the timeline.
Purge dialog box
Delete source and cache media of specific clips,
sequences, or projects. This option gives you more
control over what types of media are deleted and from
what source they will be deleted.
Purging Source Media
Source media is the digitized form of source material after it has been
captured and imported from tape or file into Avid DS Nitris. You can
select the type of media you want to delete.
You can purge media at the clip, sequence, or folder level:
444
•
Purging a clip deletes media that was captured for that clip.
•
Purging a sequence deletes media for all clips in the sequence.
•
Purging a folder deletes media of the master clips contained in that
folder.
Managing Media
To purge a file or folder from the Avid Explorer:
1. In the Avid Explorer, right-click a clip, sequence, or folder, and select
Purge Media.
The Purge dialog box is displayed.
The media for your selection will be purged unless you change the
option under the Display Associated Media For list.
n
To purge everything but the clips selected in the Avid Explorer, select the
Except For option in the Display Associated Media list.
445
Chapter 12 Media Management
2. Select the other options as necessary.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the options in the
Purge dialog box.
n
To remove the largest number of unused media files and gain storage
space, select the Unreferenced Media option and the Optimize For
Maximum Storage Space Recovery option. Note that this is a timeconsuming process.
You should keep media used in other project files unless you are absolutely
sure that they are not required.
You can delete cache media and reprocess it later. For more information,
see “Purging Caches” on page 446.
3. Click the Refresh Purge List button.
A list of media that meets all the criteria that you selected is displayed
in the Purge list. By default, all the files in the list are selected, but you
can select any number of media files from the list to purge.
4. Click the Purge button to begin deleting the media.
After you purge source media and it is deleted from your disk array, the
clips that reference this media have a red icon beside them in the Avid
Explorer. Clips on the timeline that have no associated media, display the
“Media Not Available” message in the viewer when you play back the
sequence.
Purging Caches
When you process effects, graphics, and/or a composite in your sequence,
a cache file is generated on your disk array, so that you can play back the
newly-created media.
If you need storage space, you can delete this cache media and reprocess it
at a later time. When you delete a sequence’s caches, the Process button on
the timeline turns red, and the unprocessed regions are highlighted on the
timeline ribbon.
446
Managing Media
If you’re using cache bars to generate caches, you can purge the caches at
the different levels at which they were created. The cache bar’s color
indicates if playable media exists for the entire region covered by the cache
bar. If any part under the cache bar is unprocessed, the cache bar will be
yellow. If the entire region has been processed and playable media exists,
the cache bar is green. For more information, see “Understanding
Processing” on page 256.
To purge the cache of selected objects on the timeline:
1. Select one or more clips, effect bars, container clips, or tracks.
2. From the Editing toolbar, select Purge > Purge Cache.
To purge caches for all objects on the current timeline:
t
From the Editing toolbar, select Purge > Purge All Caches.
To purge caches generated with cache bars:
t
Right-click a cache bar and select one of the following:
-
Purge Selected to purge only the cache media associated with the
selected cache bar.
-
Purge Below to purge any unnecessary cache media that lies
below the cache bar, while keeping the cache real time playable.
(This option is useful if you processed using the Complete option
and no longer need the caches at each level anymore.)
-
Purge to purge the cache media associated with the cache bar, as
well as any cache media that lies below it.
447
Chapter 12 Media Management
Example: Purging versus Deleting Media
Purge master clip from sequence A.
Result: The master clip is never deleted.
Master clip
If the Keep Media Used in Other Sequences option is selected, and
the master clip is used in another sequence, then the media is not
deleted.
If the Keep Media Used in Other Sequences option is not selected,
then the media is deleted.
Sequence
Sequence
Once the media is deleted, when you play back a sequence that
uses this master clip, the “Media Not Available” message is displayed
in the viewer whenever it encounters this clip.
Because the master clip was not removed, it’s easy to recapture the
media from the Avid Explorer or timeline.
Media
Delete Clip and Unused Media for master clip from sequence A.
Master clip
Result: Deletes the master clip in the Avid Explorer.
Avid DS Nitris checks to see if this clips media is used elsewhere. If it
is, then the media is not removed.
Although the master clip is deleted, the clips remain on the timeline in
sequence A and B, and still refer to the original media.
Sequence
Sequence
Media
Delete Clip and All Media for master clip from sequence A.
Result: Deletes the master clip in the Avid Explorer, as well as its
associated media regardless of whether this clip is used in another
sequence.
Master clip
Although the master clip is deleted, the clips on sequence A and B
remain on the timeline. When you play back either of your
sequences, the “Media Not Available” message is displayed in the
viewer whenever it encounters this clip in your sequence.
Sequence
Sequence
General Note
Purge always keeps the master clip; it removes the media
depending on the setting.
Delete always removes the master clip; it removes the media
depending on the command selected.
448
Media
Archiving Projects
Archiving Projects
Archiving is a way to create backups of your project, move a project to
another workstation, or free up space on your local disk. You can restore
archived projects later, if necessary.
You can archive both the project files and their related media. If you
choose to archive only the project files, you can recapture the media easily
once the project is restored.
Archive all
files related
to project.
Project files
Sequences and
clips refer to
media on disk.
Archived project files and media.
Only media related to
clips and sequences in
project are archived.
Source and cache media
n
You can archive or restore media only if its format (frame rate, resolution,
or quality) is compatible with the current sequence format. For example,
you cannot restore an NTSC archive while you are working in a PAL
sequence. Similarly, you cannot restore an HD archive in an NTSC
sequence.
449
Chapter 12 Media Management
Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving
Before you start creating the archive, create an external device preset, so
that it is available from the Device list when you archive your media to
tape.
To create a device preset:
1. Connect the external device to your Avid DS Nitris system.
2. Select View > Multi-Instance Views > Deck Configuration.
3. Set the Edit Mode to Assemble in your preset to avoid having to stripe
the entire tape before archiving your media to tape.
Even when outputting in Assemble mode, you must stripe the first few
seconds of the tape.
For more information on creating an external device preset, see
“Configuring the External Device” on page 18 of the Avid DS Nitris
Capture and Output Guide.
n
Tip: Test the external device by outputting a segment of a sequence before
creating an archive.
Creating a Single Archive for a Project
The following procedure describes how to archive a project and media to a
single tape. If your project is too large to fit on a single tape, see “Creating
Multiple Archives of the Same Project” on page 454.
To archive a project:
1. Check the device that you want to use to create the archive—see
“Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving” on page 450.
2. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
3. Select the Archive tab.
450
Archiving Projects
Projects
4. Select a project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed
projects.
You can archive projects from anywhere on the network. Click the
Refresh button to get an up-to-date list of the projects you can access.
5. If you want to archive the media associated with your project, select
the type of media you want to archive from the Media Archive
Options box.
For video media and video cache media, you must specify a
compression rate, resolution, and bit depth for the media you want to
archive. For audio media and audio cache media, you must specify a
sample rate.
n
If you want to archive cache media, you must also archive the master
media. You cannot archive only cache media.
451
Chapter 12 Media Management
Video is always archived to tape, and audio is always archived to the
specified media location on disk.
The status area displays the amount of time required on tape to archive
your video media. It also displays the amount of disk space that the
project files, including the audio media (if any) will consume. If the
media archive is longer than the length of your tape, you need to split
the media onto two tapes. For more information, see “Creating
Multiple Archives of the Same Project” on page 454.
6. By default, all projects are archived in the \DS Archives folder. You
can select a different destination folder for the project files by doing
one of the following:
n
t
Type the path in the Project Archive Destination text box.
t
Click the Browse button to search for the appropriate folder.
Avid DS Nitris does not let you archive a project at the root of a drive,
such as F:\. The archive must be within a folder. For example, F:\DS
Archives\ is a valid location for a project archive.
7. Click the Archive button to begin archiving your project.
If your project contains linked clips, a message is displayed, warning
you that linked clips cannot be archived as the media does not reside
within the current project. You should backup these files separately.
If you are archiving video media to tape, once the archive is opened
(and the audio is archived), the Creating Media Archive dialog box
opens.
452
Archiving Projects
8. In the Archive Tape Options box, select a device to which you want to
archive the media files.
9. In the Archive Tape Options box, type a value in the In-point timecode
box to set the starting timecode of the archive on the tape. By default,
the in-point timecode is set to 00:00:00:00.
10. Click the Continue button.
Your media files are archived to tape.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Creating Media
Archive dialog box.
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an
archivetape.log file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you cannot
restore your media. It is also a good idea to compare the timecodes in the
archivetape.log file with those on the archive tape. If they’re the same, you
shouldn’t have any problems restoring your project. If they’re different,
however, archive the project again.
n
The archive.log file contains the Avid DS Nitris version number, so you
know which version you were using when the archive was created.
453
Chapter 12 Media Management
Once the archive is complete and the log file has been checked, you can
delete your project to make space on your disk. For more information, see
“Deleting Projects” on page 463.
n
If you want to archive a project with a non-standard video format, you can
create an archive of the project files only (do not include the media), and
then back up the folder that contains the media for your project on another
medium, such as CD, Jaz, or DLT. When restoring this project, all you
have to do is make sure you copy the folder containing the media files back
to its original location. All the media will be linked back to the original
master clips inside the project.
Creating Multiple Archives of the Same Project
If you archive a large project and its media, you may find that one tape is
not enough to hold all your media.
You can create two separate archives of the same project, each one
containing different types of media, such as:
Archive
Contents
1
Project data, audio media, audio cache, and video media
2
Project data and video cache
It’s very important that the project data for both archives are identical for
you to be able to restore the project accurately at a later date.
n
454
Be sure to keep track of which projects were archived using the multiple
archive method as Avid DS Nitris does not remind you when it comes time
to restore the project. It is also important to name your tapes
appropriately, so that you can easily distinguish the media on the tapes.
Archiving Projects
To create multiple archives of the same project:
1. Check the device that you want to use to create the archive—see
“Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving” on page 450.
2. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
3. From the Project Manager, select the Archive tab.
4. Select a project to archive.
5. Select the following media archive options:
-
Archive video media files to tape
-
Archive audio media files to disk
-
Archive audio cache media to disk
6. For the video media, select a compression rate, resolution, and bit
depth of the media you want archived. For the audio media and audio
cache media, select a sample rate.
7. Type a path in the Project Archive Destination text box where you
want the archive to reside.
8. Click the Archive button to begin archiving the first part of your
project.
The project files and audio media are archived to disk and the Creating
Media Archive dialog box is displayed before it starts to archive any
video media.
9. In the Archive Tape Options box, select the device to which you want
to archive the media files.
10. Type a value in the In point timecode box to set the starting timecode
of the archive on the tape. By default, the in-point timecode is set to
00:00:00:00.
11. Click the Continue button.
Avid DS Nitris archives your video media to tape.
12. Without making any changes to your project folder, select the same
project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
13. From the Media Archive Options box, select the Archive video cache
files to tape option.
455
Chapter 12 Media Management
14. Select the compression rate, resolution, and bit depth of the media you
want to archive.
15. Click the Archive button to begin archiving the cache media.
The project data is archived to disk again and the Creating Media
Archive dialog box is displayed.
16. From the Archive Tape Options box, select the device to which you
want to archive the media files.
17. Type a value in the In point timecode box to set the starting timecode
of the archive on the tape. By default, the in-point timecode is set to
00:00:00:00.
18. Click the Continue button.
Avid DS Nitris archives your cache media to tape. You now have two
archives of the same project on two separate tapes.
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an
archivetape.log file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you cannot
restore your media. It’s also a good idea to compare the timecodes in the
archivetape.log file with those on the archive tape.
Restoring Projects
Projects are archived when a job is completed, to create backups of your
project files, or to move a project to another workstation. If you need to
work on the project again, you simply have to restore it. You can restore
the project files, as well as any video and/or audio media that was archived
with it.
If you only want to work on a small portion of an archived project, you can
select the parts of the project you want to restore.
Information about archived files can be found in text files in the project’s
archive folder. The archive.log file records the dates of all archive and
restore operations for a selected archive, and the archivetape.log file keeps
a list of all its archived media files. You can use this file to determine the
compression ratios and resolutions at which the media was archived.
456
Restoring Projects
Note the following:
•
You can restore media only if its format (frame rate, resolution, or
quality) is compatible with the current sequence format. For example,
you cannot restore an NTSC archive while you are working in a PAL
sequence. Similarly, you cannot restore an HD archive in an NTSC
sequence.
•
If you restore a project that contains third-party plug-in effects onto a
machine that does not have the plug-ins installed, the effects will
appear over the clips they were applied to, but they will be empty.
They will be editable after you install the plug-ins.
•
Video and audio cache files cannot be restored from archives created
in a version earlier than Avid|DS 6.0. When restoring this type of
archive, a message is displayed, and the options for restoring cache
files are dimmed.
•
If you are restoring from an archive in which one or more video
compressions (codecs) are no longer supported, a dialog box is
displayed. Use this dialog box to substitute a supported codec.
•
You can restore an archive only from a drive or device that supports
both read and write operations. For example, you cannot restore an
archive directly from a read-only CD-ROM, but you can use a CDRW. For a CD-ROM, copy the archive to a local drive to restore it.
Restoring a Complete Project
From the Project Manager, you can restore the project files and
corresponding media. If you’re restoring a project whose media was
archived on more than one tape, see “Restoring a Project Archived on
Multiple Tapes” on page 462.
To restore a complete project:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Restore tab.
457
Chapter 12 Media Management
3. In the Archive Folder text box, type the location of the archived
project file that you want to restore, or click the Browse button to
search for the file.
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to
place the restored files.
458
Restoring Projects
5. If you want to restore the project’s media, select the Select media to
restore option from the Options box.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box lets you select specific clips or
sequences for which you want the media to be restored.
6. Since you want to restore the complete project, ignore this dialog box
and click OK. The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
7. Select the type of media you want to restore with the corresponding
compression ratio and resolution, and click OK.
If you have video material archived on tape, you will be prompted to
insert the tape into the deck. If you have material on disk, it will
automatically be restored from your archive.
8. Click the Restore button.
If you’re restoring material from videotape, Avid DS Nitris controls
the deck, searches for the appropriate footage on the tape, and then
digitizes it.
n
If you encounter problems restoring material from tape, you should
disable the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar and try
capturing again. When restoring full resolution HD material at 29.97 and
30 frames per second, the viewer is automatically disabled.
Avid DS Nitris usually stops the deck, rewinds, and then pre-rolls
before capturing material. With an archive, however, the media should
be stored on tape one right after the other. As a result, the pre-roll is
skipped and the all media is captured in one pass. This feature, known
as streaming capture, greatly reduces the time to restore an archive.
459
Chapter 12 Media Management
n
If the restoration is not entirely successful, that is, some clips were not
restored, click Restore to recapture the missing clips.
Once a project is restored, you can open the project from the Project
Manager and work with its sequences.
Restoring Parts of a Project Archive
At times, you may only want to restore part of a project, some of its clips,
or one particular sequence. Avid DS Nitris lets you select the project files
and associated media files to restore.
To restore parts of a project archive:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Restore tab.
3. In the Archive Folder text box, type the location of the archived
project file that you want to restore, or click the Browse button to
search for the file.
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to
place the restored files.
5. To restore the media of a selected part of your project archive, click
Select Media to Restore from the Options box.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box lets you select specific clips or
sequences for which you want the media to be restored.
6. Select the Only Restore media referenced by the following files
option to activate the selective restore function.
460
Restoring Projects
7. Click one of the following:
t
Add Clip to select individual clips for which you want the media
to be restored.
t
Add Sequence to select individual clips for which you want the
media to be restored.
8. In the Avid Explorer, select the clips or sequences for which you want
media to be restored and click OK.
The selected clips or sequences are displayed in the Media Options
(1/2) dialog box.
n
To remove items from the list, select the items and click Delete.
9. When you have all the clips and/or sequences you want, click OK.
The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
10. Select the type of media you want to restore with the corresponding
compression ratio and resolution, and click OK.
If you have video material archived on tape, you are prompted to insert
the tape into the deck. If you have material on disk, it is automatically
restored from your archive.
11. Click Restore.
If you’re restoring material from videotape, Avid DS Nitris controls
the deck, searches for the appropriate footage on the tape, and then
digitizes it.
461
Chapter 12 Media Management
Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes
You can restore a project whose media was archived on multiple tapes. As
the project files are archived with each tape, you must be careful not to
overwrite your project files.
To restore a project archived on multiple tapes:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Restore tab.
3. In the Archive Folder text box, type the location of the archived
project file that you want to restore, or click Browse to search for
the file.
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to
place the restored files.
5. From the Options box, select the Select media to restore option to
restore the audio media files.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box is displayed.
6. Since you want to restore the complete project, leave this dialog box
inactive and click OK.
The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
7. Select the audio media and audio cache file options, and then
click OK.
8. Click the Restore button.
9. After the project data and audio media files are restored, you can begin
restoring the video and cache files.
10. Repeat steps 2 to 7, but this time restore your video media files. When
Avid DS Nitris asks you if you would like to skip the restoration of the
project information, click Yes.
By choosing Yes, you are only restoring the video media files and not
overwriting the project data.
11. Repeat steps 1 to 7 again, but this time restore the video cache files.
Your entire project with media and cache files are now restored. You
can open the project from the Project Manager and work with your
sequences.
462
Moving Projects to Another Workstation
Moving Projects to Another Workstation
You can easily move your project files to another Avid DS Nitris
workstation. Simply archive your files with or without the associated
media, copy them to a folder on the new workstation, configure the media
storages so that they match those of the machine on which the project was
archived, and then restore the project.
n
If you want to move individual media files, see “Moving Media” on
page 441.
To move a project to another workstation:
1. Archive your project to a location on the network—see “Archiving
Projects” on page 449.
n
Make a note of your current storage paths, so that you can easily configure
the storages on the new workstation where you will be restoring your
project.
2. On the new workstation, make sure that you’ve configured the same
storage areas as the machine on which you archived your project—see
the “Configuring your Storage Locations” of the Avid DS Nitris
Installation and Administration Guide.
3. Restore your project from the network location—see “Restoring
Projects” on page 456.
Deleting Projects
When you no longer need a project, archive it first and then delete it from
your system. For more information, see “Archiving Projects” on page 449.
When you delete a project, the project folder, project files, and all media
associated with the project are deleted.
463
Chapter 12 Media Management
To delete a project:
1. Close the project that you want to delete.
2. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
3. From the Project Manager, select the Delete tab.
4. Select a project to delete by selecting it from the list of displayed
projects.
5. Click Delete.
You are prompted to confirm your decision.
6. Click Yes to delete the project and its media.
464
Deleting Clips
Deleting Clips
When you first capture media into Avid DS Nitris, a master clip is created
in a bin in the Avid Explorer to represent the digitized media on your
storage device. If you no longer require the master clip, you can delete the
clip from the project.
Be careful when you delete a master clip, because deleting a clip can also
delete its associated media, depending on the option that you choose.
Since master clips and their media are stored separately, you can delete the
media, but keep the clip so that you can later recapture the media. For more
information, see “Purging Media” on page 443. For a comparison of
deleting and purging, see “Example: Purging versus Deleting Media” on
page 448.
You delete subclips the same way you delete master clips.
n
For information on deleting a sequence, see “Deleting Sequences” on
page 92.
To delete a clip from a bin:
1. In an Avid Explorer bin, select the clip or clips that you want to delete.
You cannot delete a clip while it is displayed in the Source viewer
2. Right-click a selected clip, and select one of the following:
t
Delete Clip & Unused Media: Deletes the clip. Also deletes the
media for the clip if the media is not used in a sequence or in
another master clip in the current project. If the media is being
used, then only the clip is deleted and not the media.
t
Delete Clip & All Media: Deletes the clip and associated media
even if this clip or its media is used elsewhere. Although this is a
quick way to create more disk space on your drive, it can be risky.
You should only do this when you’re absolutely sure that you no
longer need the media associated with this clip.
465
Chapter 12 Media Management
n
Selecting the Delete option under the Windows section of the menu or
pressing the Delete key deletes the selected master clips, but does not
delete the associated media.
3. Click Yes.
A progress bar is displayed, showing that the delete is in progress. You
can click Cancel to stop the delete process.
n
You can also delete clips by using the Media Tool—see “Using the Media
Tool” on page 434.
Viewing Information about Storage Devices
The Media property page of the Project Manager gives you detailed
information on your storage devices. You can find out the exact location
and size of your storage, the free disk space available, and the percentage
that is full. It provides information on which projects have associated
media on the device and lets you delete media folders.
To view information about storage devices:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. From the Project Manager, select the Media tab.
466
Index
Numerics
10 Band Graphic EQ effect 427
3 Band Tone Control effect 426
3:2 Contract effect 316
contracting video fields 317
3:2 Expand effect 318
expanding video fields 318
4 Band Parametric EQ effect 427
A
Activate tool 158
activeness 102, 156
audio clips 111
clips 156
cutting to another clip 231
filling 159
rolling 224
video clips 109
Add Edit tool 152
adding
filler during trim 228
keyframes 361
alignment
clips 183
locators 183
alpha, displaying 251
animating
audio 385, 402, 412–416
audio bypass 415
input strips 413
mute 413
objects 341
pan 413
relative cycling 377
volume 413
animation
copying 371
copying function curves 369
creating 341–345, 376
customizing animation graph 351
cycles, deleting 378
cycles, freezing 377
cycling 376
editing 353–380, 416
editor 341, 353
freezing position 370
function curves 349, 354, 356, 365, 414
function curves, copying 369
graph 350, 356, 370
key 354
keyframes 342–345
locking keys 370
manipulating keyframes 361
meta curve region, displaying 363
methods 341
mixer strips, deleting 416
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
offsetting 371, 371
panning 352
pinning 354
processing 381
removing 379
repeating 376
selecting 413
snapping keys to frame 370
snapping keys to grid 370
snapshot curves 369
synchronizing 364
tree 416
trimming 379
unpinning function curves 350
workflow 340
zoom 352
animation editor 341, 346, 353
accessing 346
changing time scale 352
changing type of function curve 366
function curves 346
graph 350
tree 347
animation graph 350, 356, 370
changing slope of function curve 365
changing time scale 352
changing type of function curve 366
customizing 351
displaying timeline locators 357
keyframes, selecting 357
manipulating keyframes 361
meta curve region 362
panning 352
regions, modifying 364
regions, selecting 360
selecting function curves 359
selecting keyframes 357
selecting region 360
timeline locators 357
zooming 352
animation tree 347
468
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
collapsing 348
displaying function curves 348
displaying function curves, different objects
349
expanding 348
navigating 348
applying effects
dynamics 425
fade 428
Timewarp, audio 323, 324
archive.log file 453, 456
archiving
archive.log file 453, 456
from network 451
large projects 454
linked clips 452
media 451
non-standard projects 454
projects 449
shared media 64
to multiple tapes 454
A-side (outgoing frames), in trims 217
aspect ratio 66, 73
HD 73
audio
animating 385, 402, 412–416
animation, recording 341
balance 392
bit depth 68
clip formats 403
clip formats, determining 404
clips 386
container clip icon 408
container clips 244, 384, 385, 407
crossfade 231, 406, 424
editing 94
effects 424
effects, adding 390
effects, processing 422
fade effects 428, 428
formats 386, 403
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
J
formats supported 389
Gain effect 428
input strips 389, 390
inverting output signal 429
mixing 384, 401, 406
muting 393
output strips 389, 397
panning 410
processing 386
Reverb effect 429
routing signals 392
sample accurate editing 402
sample rate 68
sample rate conversion 417
samples 386
soloing 120, 393
strip effects 390
submix 244, 385, 407
track formats 403
tracks 112, 116, 386, 403
volume 391, 410
VST Host effect 429
waveform 112
workflow 384
audio clips 103
activeness 111
effects, processing 422
manually converting sample rate 419
mixing 406
audio container clips 244, 384, 407
audio effects 424
10 Band Graphic EQ 427
3 Band Tone Control 426
4 Band Parametric EQ 427
Crossfade 424
Dip 428, 428
Dynamics 425
EQ 426
Equalizer 426
fade 428
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
Fade In 428, 428
fades 428
Timewarp 322
Timezone 322
audio formats 389
4 stream 403
5.1 403
6.1 403
7.1 403
8 stream 403
LCRS 403
mono 403
quadraphonic 403
stereo 403
audio quality matching, sequence preferences 81
audio timewarp 322
timezone 324
audio track
manually converting sample rate 419
types 112
audio track format
changing 404
determining 404
Autokey mode 341, 342
automatic framing See Autokey mode
automation See animation
autosaving sequences 88
Avid DMS 286
Avid DS Nitris
projects folder 22
Avid Event Log 52
viewing 53
viewing Windows Event Log 54
Avid Explorer 29
bins 39
creating new folders 34
file properties, displaying 43
folders, creating/deleting 34
My System view 31
panels 31
469
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
J
panels, displaying a view 32
Project view 31
selecting multiple clips 105
Shortcuts view 32
standard folder structure 36
views 31
B
background
container clips 243
tracks 116
backtiming 216
edits 123
balance, adjusting on mixer 392
barrier shapes 302
bins
clips, sorting 47
columns, changing width 46
columns, displaying 45
columns, hiding 45
customizing in Details and Script views 44
identifying Avid DS Nitris file types 42
matching 169
matching clips 172
opening 40
rearranging columns 46
sifting 49
sorting clips 47
views 41
views, saving and deleting 46
working with 39
bi-pack 243
bit depth 68
for processing 82
video 75, 82
video, precision 82
when processing 82
breaking links 207
B-side (incoming frames), in trims 217
470
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
building sequences 96
bypassing
audio animation 415
C
Cache List 266, 274
cache management 431
creation order 275
media 431
caches 432
creation order 275
different qualities 269
interactive 264, 264
invalid 285
memory 264
purging 443, 447
turning into master clip 257
clip
master, creating from cache 257
clip locators 164
clips
activating 158
activating region 159
adding comments 151
adding notes 151
adding to sync groups 186
aligning 183
audio 103, 386
backtiming 216
breaking synchronization 187
changing active areas 156
changing activeness 157
constrain drag See Locators
container See container clips
copying 35, 152
cutting 152
cutting to 231
deactivating 158
deactivating region 159
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
deinterlacing 320
delete all occurrences 465
delete if media unused 465
deleting 465
deleting from Avid Explorer 465
deleting from the timeline 153
deleting synchronized 190
deleting sync-locked 155
displaying unused material 110
dragging and dropping 102
dragging to timeline 106
editing 182
filling activeness 159
four-point editing 107
importing 63
inserting 107
inserting with ripple 179, 181
interlacing 321
locators 161, 183
locators, placing 164
locking 185, 185
looping 139
manipulating 145–159
matching bins 172
moving 35, 147
moving between tracks 149, 150
moving multiple clips with activeness 149
moving on same track 148
moving one past another 149
moving to different track 149
moving with activeness 148
naming 151
nesting 239–248
overwriting 107, 179
overwriting subclip 101, 102
placing audio clips on timeline 111
placing on specific tracks 110
placing on timeline 101, 105, 105, 106,
109–114
playing 136
T U V W X Y Z Index
playing at various speeds 137
pre-editing 99
previewing 141
processing 252
properties 151
purging 444
renaming 36, 151
replacing 108
resyncing 190
revealing unused frames 155
reversing action 335
rippling 178
scrubbing 136
searching 90
selecting 146
selecting from Avid Explorer 105
selecting multiple 147
shuttling 138
sifting 49
sliding 224, 224
slipping 222, 223
sorting 47
sorting (example) 48
synchronized 103
synchronizing 164, 183–191
sync-lock 183
trimming 196, 197, 201, 207, 220
video 103, 109
viewing frame-by-frame 141
viewing unprocessed frames 140
color space 66, 75
RGB 75
YCbCr 75
YUV 75
columns
hiding and displaying in bins 45
rearranging 46
combining
sync groups 186
command map
471
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
creating, External Controller Setup 401
loading, External Controller Setup 401
comparison buffer, using 237
Complete mode processing 275
example 278
composite container clip 242
compression 75
HD 78
ratios, mixing 70
working at different quality 69
constant function curve 366
constrain drag 166, 166
constrain drag See Locators
container clips 239–248
3:2 Expand/Contract 315
audio 239, 244, 384, 385, 407
background 239, 243
closing 247
composite 239, 242
converting to reference clips 192
creating 240–243
deconstructing 248
deleting 248
icons 246
identifying 246
interlace/deinterlace 315
navigating 245
opening 245, 246
timeline 241
trimming 219
types 239
contracting video fields 317
conversion modes
sequence 84
correspondence points 299
adding 301
crossfade 231, 406, 424, 424
transitions 424
Crossfade effects 424
Cubase VST 430
472
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
cursor
move 102
curves
constant 366
linear 366
spline 366
Custom Sift dialog box 50
customizing
bin views 44
cut 231
Cut To 231
cutting synchronized clips 189
cycle
basic, creating 376
deleting 378
freezing 377
relative, creating 377
D
Deactivate tool 158
defragmenting
media 440
Deinterlace effect
deinterlacing clips 320
interpolation types 320
deinterlacing clips 320
Delete all occurrences command 465
Delete if unused command 465
delete versus purge media 448
deleting
clips 465
clips from the timeline 153
clips in Avid Explorer 465
cycles 378
files 463
media (Media Tool) 442
media (Purge) 443
projects 463
sequences 92
1 A B C D E
F G H
sync-locked clips 155
Total Delete 92
Details view
bin 41
customizing 44
sorting clips 47
dialog boxes
custom sift 50
Dip effect 428
direct frame entry 127
disk
array, making space 443
available storage space 466
display time scale, ruler 131
display, unused material mode 155
dissolve 243
applying in Effects Trees 289
applying on timeline 288
Dissolve effect 288
DMS 286
DMS Broker
e-mail setup 267
dominance, field 74
dragging and dropping
clips 102
drives
fragmented 440
drop frame 72
drop frame format 67
DS Archives folder 452
DS Presets folder 33
dual viewer 97, 98
dual-roller trim 227
DVE
applying as transition 291
fly-bys 290
push-wipes 290
DVE effect 290
Dynamics effect 425
dynamics effects 425
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
applying 425
E
edit handles 198
edit points 197
backtiming 216
breaking 207, 207
linking 207
on transitions 234
selecting 203
snapping to 216
trimming 209
trimming intersecting 210
editing
audio animation 416
backtiming 123
four-point 107
linking edits 207
multi-camera 231
preparing media 97
ripple activated 182
same track vs. multi-track 103
sample accurate 402
source clips 99
three-point 106
workflow 94
effects
audio 424
box 390
image transition 287–314
previewing 263, 264
processing 252, 280
real-time 257, 280
source-generated 262
time 315
time effects 316
time-based 262
track 230
transition 287–314
473
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
e-mail notification
from DMS Broker 267
from local workstation 267
EQ effects 426
10 Band Graphic EQ 427
3 Band Tone Control 426
4 Band Parametric EQ 427
equalizer effects See EQ effects
event log 52
events 52
expand/contract fields 315, 316, 318
Explorer
See Avid Explorer
external controller 398
External Controller Setup view
accessing 398
creating command map 401
loading command map 401
mapping controls 399
F
fade effects
applying 428
audio 428, 428
fader 391
animating 413
fades
audio effect 428
fade-in 231
fade-out 231
field dominance 66, 72, 74, 74
fields
expand/contract 315, 316, 318
interlacing 74
order 74
processing 283
file properties, displaying 43
files
displaying properties 43
474
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
purging caches 447
showing and hiding parameters 45
types 42
Fill Activeness tool 159
filler, adding during a trim 228
fit to fill 107
floating viewer
opening 248, 249
pinning 249
fly-by effect 290
folders
Avid DS projects 22
creating new 34
deleting 35
DS Archives 452
folder.ini 36
locating 172
moving files 35
project, organizing files 33
purging contents 444
renaming 36
formats
audio 386
drop frame 67
non-drop frame 67
video 72
four-point editing 107
fragmented drives 440
frame
changing in Thumbnail and Script views 42
processing subregion 264
frame rates 66
frame size 66, 73, 73
HD 73
NTSC 73
PAL 73
sequence preferences 68
frames
active 157
displaying on ruler 131
1 A B C D E
F G H
head 222
incoming 198, 199, 222, 224
interactive processing 264
matching 169
non-drop 132
outgoing 198, 199, 222, 224
processing 283
revealing 155
tail 222
unused 110
framing, media in timeline 128
freezing
cycles 377
keyframe 370
frequency range
boosting 426, 427, 428
cutting 426, 427, 428
function curves 356
animation 354
changing slope 365, 365
changing type 366
constant 366, 366
copying 369
copying region 373
displaying 348, 349, 349
editing 350
hiding 348
in animation editor 346
inserting copied region 374
linear 365, 366
making temporary copies 369
manipulating 341
manipulating keyframes 361
panning 352
pinning 349, 354
selecting 360
selecting region 360
selecting, animation graph 359
setting type 366
showing 348
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
slope of spline, changing 369
slope, changing 365
slopes, tangent settings 368
snapshot curves 369
spline 365, 366
trimming 379
type, setting 366
types 366
unpinning 350
viewing 348
zooming 352
G
gain
adjusting output 429
audio effect 428
boosting input signal 428
cutting input signal 428
input signal, boosting 427
input signal, cutting 427
Gain effect 428
global locators
defined 163
setting 163
graph, animation 370
group folder 37
H
handles
edit 198, 209
reveal 155
trim 198, 211
HD 73
aspect ratio 73
compression 78
formats 72
real-time effects 283
475
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
height, setting tracks 118
I
image components, viewing 251
image effects
Picture-in-Picture 309
image files
creating 177
creating from snapshot 177
image transition effects 287–314
Dissolve 288
DVE 290
Morph 292–309
Picture-in-Picture 309
Wipe 313
importing
clips 63
from another project 63
sequences 63
incoming frames
Slip/Slide mode 221
Trim mode 199
in-points
marking 122
input strips 389
adjusting audio levels 410
animating 413
deleting animation 416
fine-tuning the sound 411
mixer 390
using 389, 390
volume 391
insert mode 179
interactive caches 264, 264
Interlace effect 321
interlacing
clips 321
fields 74
inverting output signal, audio 429
476
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
J
J-K-L keys 137
moving locators 165
K
keyframes
adding 358, 362, 362, 363
changing values 362
creating automatically 341
creating manually 341, 343, 354
deleting 355, 358, 362, 364
editing 354
freezing position 370
locking position 370
manipulating 361, 361
moving 358, 361, 362, 362, 363
removing 361, 362
selecting 357
snapping to grids and frames 370
keyframing 341
L
Large icons view (bins) 41
L-cut edit (overlap edit) 218
level meter 391
linear function curve 366
linked clips
archiving 452
linking edits 207
List view (bin) 41
local locators
defined 163
setting 163
locators
aligning 183
annotating 168
1 A B C D E
F G H
clip 164
constrained dragging 166, 166
deleting 167
for synchronization 183
global 163
local 163
locating 167
moving 165
placing on clips 164
reference 139, 163, 184
setting 163
using 160
viewing in animation graph 357
Locators view
accessing 162
displaying information 161
locking
keyframe positions 370
synchronized clips 185, 185
log
events 52
loop markers 139
looping clips 139
M
magnetism 110, 160
manipulating keyframes 361
markers
adding, moving, deleting 122
loop 139
meta curve region 362
timeline 122, 123
marking, in/out points 122, 123
master clips 22
creating 177
creating from snapshot 177
searching 90
sifting 49
match bin 172
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
matching frames
master clip 169
reverse 171
subclip 169
matching quality example 80
material
retrieving 169
revealing unused 155
matrix routing 396
Matrix Routing panel 396
media 431
checking for corruption 440
copying 441
defragmenting 440
deleting 463
deleting (Media Tool) 442
deleting (Purge) 443
displaying Media Not Available message 68
importing to current project 63
moving 441
moving to another workstation 463
not available 135
not found 135
processed 443
processed qualities 269
processing needed message 135
purging 443
quality, closest match 78
quality, exact match 76
restoring 456
sharing between projects 63
showing for clip or sequence 435
source 443
types 443
use closest available 68
verifying 440
viewing 439
viewing as thumbnails 439
media icons, Avid DS Nitris 42
Media Not Available message 68, 135, 446
477
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
J
Media Not Found message 135
Media Tool
described 434
displaying associations 436
icons 436
opening 434
tools 438
memory
optimizing 69
memory caches 264
purging 444
messages
Media Not Available 135, 446
Media Not Found 135
Processing Needed 135, 258
Referenced Sequence Needs Processing 193
meta curve region 362–364
displaying 363, 363
hiding 363
marker 362
using 362
metadata 433
Minimal mode processing 275
example 277
mixer 388, 407
accessing 388
adding audio effects 390
adjusting audio balance 392
adjusting volume 391
assigning output channels 396
input strips 389, 410
input strips, fine-tuning sound 410
muting 393
muting output strips 397
naming input strip 395
output strips 397, 412
output strips, fine-tuning sound 412
reordering input strips 395
routing view 388
soloing 393
478
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
mixer input strips
assigning output channels 396
muting 395
naming 395
reordering 395
soloing 395
using 390
mixer output strips, using 397
mixer view
adding audio effects 390
adjusting audio balance 392
adjusting volume 391
assigning output channels 396
input strips 389
muting 393
muting output strips 397
naming input strip 395
output strips 397
reordering input strips 395
soloing 393
mixing 384, 384, 401, 406
animating 385
fine-tuning 409–412
panning 410
processing 420
processing order 421
sub-mixing 385
volume, adjusting 410
workflow 384
modes
Autokey 342
Complete, processing 275
Constant, Timewarp effect 328
Display Unused Material 155
Hold, Timewarp effect 336
Input Speed, Timewarp effect 332
insert 179
Minimal, processing 275
overwrite 179
Position, Timewarp effect 334
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
processing 275
Ripple 178
Speed, Timewarp effect 331
mono audio tracks 409
Morph effect 292–309
adding correspondence points 301
barrier shapes 302
correspondence points 299, 299
joining shapes 299
setting rendering options 306
shapes, animating 303
shapes, breaking 300
shapes, creating 295
shapes, joining 298
morphing
correspondence points 299
processing 306
rendering 306
shapes, animating 303
shapes, creating 295
shapes, joining 298
motion path
creating 341
move cursor 102
moving
keyframes 361
locators in timeline 165
multi-camera editing 104, 231
multi-track editing 103
Mute button 116, 393
mute, animating 413
muting
audio tracks 120, 137
mixer input strips 393
video tracks 120
My System view, Avid Explorer 31
N
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
non-drop frame 72
format 67
non-square pixels 143
NTSC 72
frame size 73
O
offset 190
clips, resyncing 190
one-sided transitions 233
Open Project dialog box 60
opening
existing project 25
projects 22
sequences 59
outgoing frames
Slip/Slide mode 221
trimming 199
out-points, marking 122
output
real-time effects 283
without processing 283
output gain, adjusting 429
output routing 396
output strips 389
adjusting audio levels 412
adjusting volume 412
mixer, fine-tuning sound 412
using 397
overlap edits, creating 218
overlay tracks See background tracks
overlays
displaying in viewer 145
sawtooth pattern 145
overwrite mode 179
overwriting
clips 179
No Entry icon 35
479
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
P
PAL, frame size 73
pan
animating 413
animation graph 352
mixer 410
pan control
adjusting on mixer 392
enabling 393
panels
showing/hiding, Avid Explorer 31
panning
function curves 352
timeline 131
viewer 143
parent timeline 241
patching tracks 108
path, motion
creating 341
performance, real-time 281
Picture-in-Picture effect 309
pinning
floating viewer 249
function curves 349, 354
pixel ratio 66, 73
pixels, non-square 143
playback
problems due to corrupted media 440
slowdown 440
playing
clips 136
clips frame-by-frame 141
real-time effects 282
sequences 134
varying speed 137
position bar 141
position indicator
moving 138, 139
moving to a specific timecode 139
scrubbing 136
480
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
position, locking keyframe 370
precision bit depth 82
preferences
project 25
sequence 65
preview modes, switching 142
previewing
clips 141
effects 263
Process button
requires processing 258
processed media, purging 443
processing
animation 381
area, selecting 260
audio 386
audio effects 422
audio mix 420
bit depth 82
cache creation order 275
cache management 431
caches 432
colors on timeline ribbon 257
Complete mode 275, 275
Complete mode, example 278
effects 280
fields 83
frames 83
from property editor 262
in fields 283
in frames 283
interactive 264
media 431
media, different qualities 269
Minimal mode 275, 275
modes 275
on timeline 260
options 265
order, when mixing 421
Process button indication 258
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
progress bar information 268
property editor 262
real-time 256, 259, 422
reference clips 193
region of frame 264
remotely 285, 286
selecting area 260
sequence preferences 83
sequences 252
setting bit depth (precision) 82
timeline 260, 422
timeline ribbon indication 257
when needed 257
workflow 259
Processing Needed message 135, 258
progress bar information 268
progressive scanning 74
project files
master clips 22
renaming 35
sequences 22
Project Manager 464
Project view, Avid Explorer 31
projects
archiving 449
backing up 456
creating 23
deleting 463
files, deleting 463
folder structure 36
moving 35, 449
moving to another workstation 463
multiple versions 22
opening 22, 24
opening existing 25
opening from a network 25
organizing 33
preferences 25
renaming files 35
restoring 456, 457, 459
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
restoring from multiple tapes 462
selective restore 460
subfolders, creating 33
properties
clip 151
tracks 121
property editors
processing 262
processing frames 262
Timewarp (audio) effect 322
Timezone 322
purge versus delete media 448
purging
clips 444
files or folders in Avid Explorer 445
folder contents 444
media 443
memory caches 444
methods 444
processed media 443
sequences 444
source media 444
timeline caches 447
push-wipe effect 290
Q
qualities, processing media 269
quality
media, closest match 78
media, exact match 76
video 75
video format 72
quality matching
audio 81
caches 81
video 76
481
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
R
Razor tool
See Add Edit tool
real-time effects 280
Avid DS HD 283
defined 257
hardware-based 280
output to tape 283
performance 281
playing 282
processing 256, 259, 422
software-based 280
reconnect viewer display 250
recording audio animation 341
reference
locators 139, 184
reference clips
converting from container clips 192
creating 192
processing 193
using 191–193
reference locators, setting 163
Referenced Sequence Needs Processing message
193
region
marking 122
meta curve 363
relative cycle 377
remote processing 285
monitoring jobs 286
removing
keyframes 361
renaming tracks 121
resolution 75
independence 269
working at different quality 69
restoring
complete projects 457
from multiple tapes 462
media 459
482
T U V W X Y Z
non-standard projects 454
part of project archive 460
projects 456, 459
selective restore 460
resyncing clips 190
retrieving additional material 169
reveal handles 155
revealing
activating reveal mode 156
unused frames 155
Reverb audio effect 429
reverse match frame 171
RGB 75
Ripple mode 145, 178
activating 179
editing clips 182
end, setting 180
inserting clips 181
tracks, video 178
trimming frames 211
rotoscopy 319
rough cut 97
routing audio 392
routing view 388
ruler
changing 131
changing ruler type 132
changing time scale 132
display time scale 131
setting display format 131
S
sample accurate editing 402
sample rate 68
sample rate conversion 417
audio container clips 419
automatic 418
clips 417
manual 419
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
J
sequences 417
samples, displaying on ruler 131
Save As command 89
saving
sequences 88
subclips 101
sawtooth pattern, viewers 145
scanning, progressive 74
scratch pad control 123
Script Editor
activating the log file 28
setting the command log size 28
setting up the command log 28
Script view
bins 41
changing displayed frame 42
customizing 44
scripting languages
choosing 27
scrubbing 136
searching
master clips 90
sequences 90
sequence conversion mode, multiple 84
sequence preferences 65
audio quality matching 81
compression ratio, working 76
converting sample rates 71
field dominance 72
frame size 68
processing 83
video format 66
video quality matching 76
sequence timecodes
displaying 124, 126
Sequence view
accessing 134
displaying timeline 133
sequences 22
autosave 88
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
building 96, 101
copying 89
creating 60
creating versions 89
creating with different preferences 61
creating within current project 61
deleting 92
importing 63
opening 59, 62
opening from Avid Explorer 63
opening from File menu 62
opening from Open Project dialog box 62
playing 134
playing at various speeds 137
processing 252
purging 444
renaming 36
Save As command 89
saving 88, 88
scrubbing 136
searching 90
setting preferences 65
setting up 96
sifting 49
skip while playing 136
stop playing 136
versioning 89
workflow 58
setting
global locators 163
local locators 163
shape tracker 305
shapes
animating 303
barrier 302
copying from Morph effect 296
joining 299
Morph shapes 295
shared media, archiving 64
sharing
483
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
media between projects 63
shortcuts
deleting, Avid Explorer 33
Shortcuts view, Avid Explorer 32
shuttling clips 138
sifted view
creating 49
loading or deleting 51
switching 51
sifting
clips and sequences 49
switching views 51
Sifting button 51
single-roller trim 227
skipped frames, fragmented media 440
sliding clips 224, 224
Slip/Slide mode 222
accessing automatically 225
accessing manually 225
described 221
reviewing edits 227
sliding clips 224
slipping clips 223
slipping clips 222, 223
slipping/sliding shots, Slip/Slide mode 221
slopes
changing 365
function curve 365
Snap In command 216
Snap Out command 216
snapping
edit points 216
keys 370
snapshot
curves, animation 356, 369
Snapshot to Clip command 177
Snapshot to File 176, 177
Solo button 116, 393
soloing
mixer strips 393
484
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
tracks 120, 137
sorting
clips 47
clips (example) 48
source generated effects, processing 262
source media
committing caches to source 257
methods to purge 444
purging 443, 444
source timecodes, displaying 125
Source timeline 101
viewing 101
spline
changing slope 369
function curves 366
split edits (overlap edits)
creating 218
split-edits (overlap clips) 190, 204
square pixels 143
status bar
timecode boxes 124
stereo tracks 409
storage device
viewing information about 466
streaming capture 459
strip effects 390
subclips
creating 100
overwriting 101
sifting 49
updating 101
subfolders, creating 33
submix 244, 407
surround channels 111, 403
Surround Panner view 405
sync
maintaining during trim 227
sync-locked tracks, trimming with 227
sync groups 183
adding to 186
1 A B C D E
F G H
breaking 187
combining 186
creating 185
cutting 189
manipulating 188
offset 190
selecting all clip 188
synchronized clips
cutting 189
manipulating 188
moving independently 188
offset 190
synchronizing animation 364
synchronizing clips 164, 183–191
aligning 183
deleting 190
editing 189
using locators 183
sync-lock 183
unlocking 187
T
tangent slopes
broken 368
setting options 368
unified 368
tangents 357
three-button play 137
three-point editing 106
Thumbnail view 41
changing displayed frame 42
time effects 315
3:2 Contract 316
3:2 Expand 318
Deinterlace 318
Interlace 321
modifying 316
Timewarp 322–324
time scale
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
animation graph 352
changing, animation graph 352
time-base effects, processing 262
timecode
drop frame 72
timecode boxes
setting in and out-points 123
status bar 124
trimming with 126
timecodes
displaying 124
sequence 124
sequence, displaying 126
source 124
source, displaying 125
timeline 97
annotating locators 168
building sequences 96
converting to a clip 174
creating a master clip 177
creating an image file 177
deleting locators 167
displaying different rulers 132
framing media 128
in-points 122
locating locators 167
marking in and out-points 122
marking region 122
moving locators 165
moving to edit points 139
moving to marked points 138
of container clip 241
outputs 122
panning 131
parent 241
placing clips 101, 106, 109
placing multiple clips 105
placing pre-edited clips 105
processing 260
purging caches 447
485
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
ruler 131
Source 101
switching between source and record timlines
101
top 241
trimming 128
viewing Source timeline 101
visible time span 128
zooming 130
timeline controls
panning 131
zooming 130
timeline ribbon
annotating locators 168
deleting locators 167
locating locators 167
moving locators 165
placing locators on clips 164
reference locators 163
requires processing 257
yellow highlights 280
Timeline to Clip command 175, 175, 176
Timewarp (audio) property editor
applying effect 322
Timewarp effect 322–324
applying 323, 324, 327
audio 322
audio timezone 324
changing frame position 334
changing speed 331
changing speed based on source clips 332
Constant mode 328
constant speed 328
freezing frames 336
Hold mode 336
Input Speed mode 332
modes 326
Position mode 334
setting duration 338
Speed mode 331
486
T U V W X Y Z
variable speed 331, 332
video 326
Timezone property editor 322
top timeline 241
track controls
muting audio tracks 120
scrolling tracks 119
setting track height 118
setting tracks to solo 120
show or hide 117
track effects 230
Track selector
deselecting tracks 117
muting tracks 120
scrolling tracks 119
selecting tracks 117
setting track height 118
setting tracks to solo 120
show or hide 117
tracking
morphed shapes 305, 305
tracks
adding 117
audio 112, 116, 386, 403
background 116
changing properties 121
deleting 117
deselecting 117
disabling 117, 117
displaying details 121
enabling 117, 117
inserting 117
mono (audio) 409
muting audio 120, 137
muting video 120
naming 121
patching 108
removing 117
reordering 118
scrolling 119
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
J
selecting 117
setting height 118
soloing 120, 137
stereo (audio) 409
sync-locked, trimming with 227
video 116
working with 116
transitions 231–237, 287–314
adjusting 219
applying between clips 233
applying one-sided 233
creating between clips 233
creating one-sided 233
Crossfade 231, 424
cut 231
Dissolve 288
DVE 290
edit points 234
editing properties 235, 235, 236, 236
Fade-in 231
Fade-out 231
Morph 292–309
Picture-in-Picture 309
processing 252
removing 237
selecting additional for trimming 204
trimming 219
Wipe 313
transport controls
position bar 141
trees
animation 347, 416
trim handles 198
Trim mode 199
accessing 200
defined 199
reviewing edits 202
selecting several transitions 204
trimming clips 201
trimming
adding filler during 228
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
adjusting trim handles 214
animation 379
clips 197, 201, 220
container clips 219
edit points 209
function curves 379
intersecting edit points 210
maintaining sync 227, 227
methods 198
on the timeline 207
Ripple mode activated 211
sides, selecting 203, 217
slip and slide procedures 221
split-edits 190
timeline to media 128
transitions 219
two heads or tails 204
using timecode boxes 126
with sync-locked tracks 227
with trim handles 211
workflow 196
U
unpinning function curves 350
unused material
hiding 156
revealing 156
Update Thumbnail button 42
User Preferences dialog box
opening 27
V
variable-speed play 137
verifying, media 440
versioning 22
sequences 89
video
487
Index 1 A B C D
E
F G H
I
bit depth 75, 82
clips 103, 109
clips, activeness 109
clips, placing on timeline 109
container clips See background
container clips
display 143
editing 94
format, setting 66
quality matching 76
synchronizing 183–191
timewarp 326
tracks 116
tracks, rippling 178
video format 69, 72
aspect ratio 73
color space 75
drop frame 72
field dominance 74
frame size 73
non-drop frame 72
pixel ratio 73
video quality 75
compression 75
resolution 75
viewer
changing objects displayed 250
collapsing 142
displaying channels 251
dual 97, 98
expanding 142
floating 248
panning 143
placing clips 97
switching between single and dual 142
viewing alpha or RGB channels 251
zooming 143
viewers
overlays 145
sawtooth 145
488
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
viewing
image components 251
viewing image components 251
views
animation editor 346
Avid Explorer 29
Locators 161
Mixer 388
Sequence 133
Slip/Slide 221
Slip/Slide mode 222
Surround Panner 405
Trim 199
trimming 199
virtual folder 37
visible time span
changing 128
displaying clips 131
moving 129
zooming 131
volume
adjusting on mixer 391
adjusting on output strips 412
fader 391, 410
mixer 410
VST Host audio effect 429
VST plug-ins
applying 430
effect banks 430
installing 430
programs 430
W
waveforms 112
Windows Event Log, viewing 54
Wipe effect 313
applying 313
workflows
animation 340
1 A B C D E
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z Index
audio 384
editing 94
processing 259
sequences 58
trimming 196
Y
YCbCr color space 75
yellow highlights, timeline ribbon 280
YUV color space 75
Z
zooming
animation graph 352
function curves 352
timeline 130
using visible time span 128
viewer 143
489
Index 1 A B C D
490
E
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
T U V W X Y Z
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement