RSTS/E System User`s Guide

RSTS/E System User`s Guide
RSTS/E
System User's Guide
Order No. AA-EZ12A-TC
June1985
information about RSTS/E, provides rules for
This manual contains general
Language) on RSTS/E, and describes comusing DCL (DIGITAL Command
mands for file, system and programming operations.
OPERATING SYSTEM AND VERSION : RSTS/E
RSTS/E
SOFTWARE VERSION :
V9.0
V9.0
digital equipment corporation, maynard, massachusetts
in this document is subject to change without notice and should
The information
construed as a commitment by Digital Equipment Corporation. Digital
not
be
Equipment Corporation assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear
in this document.
The software described in this document is furnished under a license. and may
be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license
of software on equipment
No responsibility is assumed for the itsuseaffiliated
or reliability
companies.
that is not supplied by DIGITAL or
Copyright © 1985 by Digital Equipment Corporation. All rights reserved.
COMMENTS form on the last page of this docuThe postage-paid READER'S
ment requests your critical evaluation to assist us in preparing future documentation.
The following are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation:
d 9 0010 TM
FMS-11
RSTS
DEC
DECmail
DECmate
DECnet
DECtape
DECUS
DECwriter
LAMASSBUS
PDP
P/OS
Professional
Q-BUS
Rainbow
RSX
RTUNIBUS
VAX
VMS
VTWork Processor
Contents
Preface
Summary of Technical Changes
Getting Started with RSTS/E
Using Your Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Your Project-Programmer Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Your Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Using the Terminal (CTRL, DELETE, RETURN Keys) . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Beginning a Terminal Session: HELLO or LOGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
The System Command Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Other Command Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Using Login Command Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Getting Information About Commands: HELP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Ending a Terminal Session: LOGOUT or BYE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Exceeding Your Disk Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Using DCL Command Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Maintaining Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Accounts, Directories, and Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Putting Files into Your Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Displaying Your Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
File Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
File Names and Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Protection Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Running a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Using DECnet/E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Displaying Network Status: SHOW NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
Using the Network: SET HOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Understanding Command Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Continuing Commands on More than One Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Entering Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Abbreviating Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Abbreviating Command Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Abbreviating Parameters, Qualifiers, and Qualifier Arguments . . . . . . . . 2-6
Entering File Specification Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Entry Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining Qualifier Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Qualifier Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Output File Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Uppercase, Lowercase, and Nonalphanumeric Characters
Entering Dates and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The /BEFORE, /SINCE, and /AFTER Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . .
Absolute Date and Time Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combinations of Absolute Dates and Times . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relative Date and Time Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Command Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Command Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Command Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Executing Command Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working With Files
Creating and Modifying Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CREATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying File Names and Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIRECTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Files: DELETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying, Renaming, and Appending Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RENAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sorting Files and Merging Sorted Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MERGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparing Files: DIFFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allowing Access to Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Protection Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SET PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting File Characteristics: SET FILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 3-3
. 3-6
3-11
3-11
3-19
3-22
3-26
3-26
3-35
3-38
3-42
3-42
3-50
3-57
3-60
3-60
3-64
3-66
2-7
2-7
2-7
2--8
2-8
2-8
2-9
2-11
2-11
2-12
2-12
2-13
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-15
2-15
System and Account Operations
SHOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
System and Account Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Attached and Detached Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
SHOW USER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
SHOW JOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
CTRL/T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
SHOW SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
SHOW ACCOUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
SET PASSWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
REQUEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Terminal Status and Operations
Displaying and Setting Terminal Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SHOW TERMINAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
SET TERMINAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Creating a Log File of a Terminal Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
OPEN/LOG-FILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
CLOSE/LOG-FILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
SET LOG-FILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Working with Devices
Working with Physical Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocating Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Assigning and Allocating Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Device Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Working with Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
The Public Disk Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Private Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Working with Magnetic Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protecting Files on Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Tape Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
ANSI and DOS Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Physical Device Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
ALLOCATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
REALLOCATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
MOUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
INITIALIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
DISMOUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
SHOW DEVICE, SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED, SHOW DISKS . . . . . 6-17
Logical Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Logical Names and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
System-Wide and User Logicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Numbers of Logical Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
How to Override Name Precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASSIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DEASSIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print/Batch Services
Specifying Print and Batch Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entry Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entry Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing Files: PRINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Submitting Entries for Batch Processing : SUBMIT . . . . . . .
Displaying Print and Batch Queue Entries: SHOW ENTRY . . .
Modifying a Print or Batch Queue Entry: SET ENTRY . . . . .
Deleting a Print or Batch Entry from a Queue : DELETE/ENTRY
Displaying a Queue's Characteristics: SHOW QUEUE . . . . .
Program Development
Developing Programs on RSTS/E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combining Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relocating Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The RT11 and RSX Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RT11-Based Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSX-Based Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BASIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COBOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIBOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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FORTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ..
FORTRAN/1777 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FORTRAN/FOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MACRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input File List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simple (Nonoverlaid) Linking . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overlaid Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Language Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forms Management System Qualifier . . . . . . . . . . .
Debugging Qualifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description Qualifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Address Space and Library Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . .
Output File Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overlay Qualifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . 6-20
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6-23
. . . 7-2
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7-2
7-2
7
7-9
7-13
7-16
7-19
7-20
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8-2
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-9
8-14
8-16
8-16
8-19
8-22
8-24
8-25
8-26
8-26
8-.2'7
8-27
8-28
8-29
8-30
8-30
8-31
8-32
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When You Can Use /STRUCTURE
When Must You Use Overlays? . .
What Are Overlays? . . . . . . . .
Rules for Constructing Overlays . .
The /STRUCTURE Dialogue . . . .
The Memory Map File . . . . . . .
The Temporary Files Produced by LINK .
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8-32
8-33
8-33
8-34
8-36
8-39
8-41
RUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42
DCL Error Messages
Special Characters Used in Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specification
More About Command Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Switching Between Command Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
BASIC-PLUS Keyboard Monitor Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
RTll Keyboard Monitor Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
RSX Keyboard Monitor Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
More About RSTS/E File Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
RSTS/E File Specification Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
/PROTECT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
/FILESIZE Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
/CLUSTERSIZE Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-9
/POSITION Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10
/MODE and /RONLY Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-11
Glossary
Index
Figures
1-1 Executing System and User Login Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
2-1 The COPY Command Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
8-1 Outlining the Call Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33
8-2 A Simple Overlay in Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34
8-3 Separate Paths in an Overlay Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35
8-4 Allocating Space for Common Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36
8-5 Overlay Structure Using Concatenated Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39
8-6 Sample From a Memory Map File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-40
Tables
1-1
1-2
2-1
2-2
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
4-1
4-2
4-3
6-1
6-2
6-3
7-1
8-1
8-2
8-3
A-1
B-1
B-2
B-3
Special Function Keys on RSTS/E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSTS/E File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Terms Used in Command Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonalphanumeric Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands for File Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Protection Codes for Nonexecutable Files . . . . . . . . . .
File Protection Codes for Executable Files . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common File Protection Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SHOW Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SHOW USER and SHOW JOB Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . .
SET Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands for Devices and Logical Names . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSTS/E Physical Device Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abbreviations in SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED and SHOW DISKS
Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print/Batch Services Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Development Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Development Commands on RSTS/E . . . . . . . . . .
Language Qualifier, Source Language, and Linker Relationship . .
DCL Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BASIC-PLUS Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RT11 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSX Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
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. 1-5
1-18
. 2-2
2-10
. 3-1
3-61
3-62
3-63
. 4-2
. 4-5
4-14
. 6-1
. 6-3
6-18
. 7-1
. 8-1
. 8-5
8-26
. A-2
. B-3
. B-4
.
Preface
Objectives
Audience
the RSTS/E operating system and the use of the DIGITAL
This manual describes (DCL)
on RSTS/E systems.
Command Language
with files, getting
commands for operations such files
as working
This manual describes
and
running
batch jobs,
the system and its devices, printing not describe commands
information aboutprograms.
which
that this manual does
and developing for you toNote
use them; see the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide for
require privileges
descriptions of privileged DCL commands.
Although some familiarity with computers is helpful, you do not need to be an
experienced computer user or programmer to use this manual.
Document Structure
The manual is divided into eight chapters and two appendixes :
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
and
how
to
use
i
t
.
It
the
basics
ofthe
RSTS/E
system
Describes
environments,
running
a
descriptions
of
the
command
includes
allows
you
to
and
using
DECnet/E.
(DECnet/E
program,
communicate with other computers.)
Describes
how procedures.
to use commands interactively and introduces how to
use command
used
to
create,
display,
edit,
copy,
Describes
the
RSTS/E
commands
and compare files.
day-to-dayyourRSTS/E
Describes
password.operations, such as
displaying how
systemto usestatusDCLandinchanging
characteristics,
and
and
set
your
terminal
Describes
how
to
display
how to enable and disable terminal logging.
Describes the devices available for your use on a RSTS/E system.
Print/Batch
Services
(PBS)
commands
in
the
RSTS/E
Describes
the
processing.
submit
files
for
print
or
batch
facility, used to
Chapter 8
Appendix A
Appendix B
Describes
programs. the commands available for you to develop and run
Lists
error
messages
that
RSTS/E
displays
when
you enter a
command that RSTS/E cannot execute.
Contains
information
aboutIt also
the BASIC-PLUS,
RSX, and RT11
command
environments.
contains
information
about RSTS/E
file specification.
The manual also contains a glossary of RSTS/E and DCL terms.
Related Documents
See
the RSTS/E
Guideandto Writing
command
procedures
their use.Command Procedures for more information on
For
complete
details
on
how
see the PDP-11 SORT/MERGEto define
User's and
Guide.control SORT and MERGE operations,
To get started with BASIC-PLUS-2 programming, read the Introduction to BASIC.
See
the RSTS/E
Documentation
the RSTS/E
documentation
set. Directory for a description of the other manuals in
Conventions
This manual uses the following symbols and conventions:
[]
Square
brackets
show the optional parts of a command in format
statements.
For example:
DIRECTORY [file-spec[,...]]
The
square
brackets
in
this
example
indicate
that
you can, if you
include
file
achoose.specification ([file-spec]), or more than one ([,...])
Square
also indicate the choice you have in using a
commandbrackets
. For example,
/[NO]DELETE
This
means you can type either
/DELETE
or
/NODELETE,
depending
the
on the form of qualifier you select.
Do not brackets
confuse thein square brackets in command formats with the
square
[52,20]. See ChapterProject-Programmer
1 for a description.numbers (PPNs), as in
<>
Angle
brackets
place holder for what
the system
insertssurrounding
when an text
errorindicate
messagea occurs.
CTRL/ x
The control key, which you use in combination with another key.
For example, enter CTRL/U by holding down the CTRL key and
pressing the keyboard key labeled "U." RSTS/E displays, or
echoes, CTRL/U at your terminal, as ^U.
The key labeled RETURN on your terminal . You press the
RETURN key to complete lines and commands that the system
will process .
dot matrix
co lo r
Information in this typeface indicates an example of computer/user
dialogue .
In examples, black characters are data produced by the computer.
Red characters indicate information that you type.
Summary of Technical Changes
RSTS/E
V9.0 is asupport
major release
the RSTS/E
PDP-11 operating system. This
manual contains
for the offollowing
new features:
" Privileges
" Login command files
" Command procedures
" Relative date and time formats
" New file manipulation commands: SORT, MERGE, SET FILE
" New SHOW commands for system and account status
" New SET PASSWORD command for changing your password
" New qualifiers for SET TERMINAL
" Terminal logging feature
" New SHOW commands for devices
" Print/Batch Services (PBS): new facility for print and batch processing
Getting Started With RSTS/E
This
you to RSTS/E and contains information to help you become
familiarchapter
with introduces
using the system.
Using Your Account
In order for you to use the computer, your system manager must assign you an
account number and password. The account number identifies you to the system.
The password is a precaution to keep uninvited users from accessing the system.
Privileges
When
you log
system displays
a message
that you
to confirmmessages.
are logged
in toin,yourthe account.
The system
may alsoat your
displayterminal
informational
After
in, you have
all the RSTS/E
that your account allows.
Your you
systemlog manager
decidesaccesswhatto privileges
to givefacilities
your account.
Like
mostcopy,usersandof your
system,
youfiles,
will probably
have
sufficientyourprivileges
to create,
modify,
delete
your
own
as
well
as
to
change
own
password.
Other
users
of
your
system
may
be
granted
additional
privileges,
allowing
them to
perform operations such as:
"
9
"
"
"
"
Creating and deleting accounts
Adding commands to the system
Controlling the number of users on the system
Saving user files in case of accidental damage
Shutting down the system
Reading and modifying other users' files
This
only those
and functions
can bemanual
used bydescribes
most system
users,commands,
that is, userscommand
who do qualifiers,
not have privilege
to affectthat
accounts other than their own, or to affect the system itself. See the RSTS/E System
Manager's Guide for detailed descriptions of commands, qualifiers, and functions
requiring additional privileges.
Your Project-Programmer Number
Account numbers on RSTS/E are called project-programmer numbers, or PPNs. Your
PPN corresponds to your account and identifies you as a system user.
A PPN consists of two numbers enclosed in square brackets and separated by a
comma, for example, [52,20] . The numbers are:
9 A project number (the number 52 in [52,20]), which corresponds to a group of
users. For example, all employees in a particular work group may be assigned
the same project number.
A programmer number (the number 20 in [52,20]), which is unique for each
user in the group.
The brackets around the PPN show that the two numbers are used together. Do not
type the brackets when you log in, although you will need to use the brackets in
many operations dealing with files. Also, do not confuse brackets around a PPN with
brackets used to indicate optional parts of a command (see "Conventions" in the
Preface) .
If you have more than one account on the system, you must use different PPNs and
passwords to log in to your different accounts.
Your Password
Your password protects your account from unauthorized use. Passwords on RSTS/E
systems can consist of 6 to 14 alphanumeric characters. (The system manager may
restrict some users' passwords to a maximum length of 6 characters, while other users
may use up to 14 characters.)
Your system manager may assign you a password or let you choose your own. The
method of assigning a password depends on the policy at your site. However, most
users are granted sufficient privilege to change their own passwords at will. (Frequent
password changes help to protect the system from unauthorized users.)
To minimize the chances that unauthorized users can discover your password,
DIGITAL recommends the following guidelines:
9 Do not use names or words that could be readily associated with any user (for
example, WRITER, GUEST, or your first name).
" Choose a password that contains both letters and digits.
" Change your password at least once a month.
See Chapter 4 for details on how to use the SET PASSWORD command to change
your password.
1-2
Getting Started With RSTS/E
Using the Terminal (CTRL, DELETE, RETURN Keys)
You use a terminal to communicate with the system. Terminals can be grouped into
two main categories : hard-copy and video. A hard-copy terminal, such as an LA120,
prints the characters you type and data from the system onto lineprinter paper. A
video terminal, such as a VT100 or VT220, displays characters on a Cathode Ray
Tube (CRT) screen.
Most of the keys on a terminal match keys on a typewriter keyboard . However,
several keys on your terminal's keyboard have special functions. Three of the most
commonly used function keys are labeled CTRL, DELETE (also known as
RUBOUT), and RETURN.
The key labeled CTRL is called the control key. You always use the control key in
combination with another key. For example, you can use CTRL/U to delete all the
characters on a command line if you have not yet pressed the RETURN key. Enter
CTRL/U by holding down the control key and then pressing the "U" key on the
keyboard. RSTS/E displays, or "echoes," this at your terminal as "U. For example:
EDIT/EDT RACER .PDQ CTRUU
On your terminal, this looks like:
EDIT/EDT RACER .PDQ ^U
The line is now deleted. Press the RETURN key for the DCL prompt:
Use the DELETE key to erase one letter at a time, or hold the key down to erase
words and lines. The DELETE key has the same function on a hard-copy terminal
and on a video terminal, but the effects look different. (On some hard-copy terminals,
the key labeled RUBOUT performs the delete function .) For example, suppose you
misspell a command and use the DELETE key twice:
COPIE
On a video terminal, the resulting line reads:
$ COP
By contrast, a hard-copy terminal displays deleted characters between backslashes (\),
because a hard-copy terminal is not designed to "erase" characters. For example:
$ COPIE\EI\
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-3
The RETURN key allows you to:
" End commands - When you enter the name of a command, pressing the
RETURN key tells the system to execute the command. For example:
$ DIRECTORY
" End lines - When you enter text in a file, the RETURN key ends each line
and begins a new one. For example:
Each ",, ear about 5i_)(_)
runners enter Littleton's
annual road race,
" Respond to a prompt - Sometimes pressing the RETURN key causes the
system or a program to assume a response, or "default." For example, the
following system prompt allows you to enter a line width, but lets you know
that, if you press RETURN without entering a number, the system assumes a
width of 50 characters per line :
Width of line <::5ci :;^
" Verify that the system is in operation - When the system is down, or not
operational, it does not respond when you press RETURN. Otherwise, the
system displays another DCL prompt:
Note
A common mistake is to press the NO SCROLL key (on VT100s),
HOLD SCREEN key (on VT200 series), or CTRL/S (on VT52s) to
stop output to the terminal, and then forget to press NO SCROLL,
HOLD SCREEN, or CTRL/Q to resume output. (Nothing is printed at
the terminal when you press NO SCROLL, HOLD SCREEN, or
CTRL/S.) In either case, the system does not display another DCL
prompt when you press RETURN. You must press NO SCROLL or
HOLD SCREEN again, or CTRL/Q, to resume output.
Table 1-1 lists the RSTS/E special function keys.
1-4
Getting Started With RSTS/E
Table 1-1 : Special Function Keys on RSTS/E
Key
CTRL/C
CTRL/O
CTRL/Q
CTRL/R
CTRL/S
CTRL/T
CTRL/U
CTRL/X
CTRL/Z
DELETE or
RUBOUT
ESCAPE or
ALTMODE or
CTRL/[
FORM FEED or
CTRL/L
HOLD SCREEN
LINE FEED or
CTRL/J
NO SCROLL
RETURN
TAB or CTRL/l
Function
Halts execution of the current command or program and returns control to the
job keyboard monitor. Echoes as "-C" on the terminal.
Stops and restarts terminal output while a program is running. The stopped
terminal output is lost. Echoes as "-O" on the terminal.
Resumes terminal output suspended by CTRL/S while a program is running.
You can only use CTRL/Q if the TTSYNC characteristic is set for the terminal.
(See Chapter 5 for more information on terminal characteristics.)
Redisplays the current terminal line.
Suspends terminal output while a program is running . You can use CTRL/S
only if the TTSYNC characteristic is set for the terminal. (See Chapter 5 for
more information on terminal characteristics.)
Displays a one-line status report for your job. The report includes your job
number, keyboard number, job state, and other information. See Chapter 4 for
more information. (Note that CTRL/r is an optional feature, so it may not be
available on your system.)
Deletes the current terminal line. CTRL/U does not erase characters from the
screen. Instead, it echoes ""U" and moves the cursor to the next line.
Deletes unprocessed terminal input, including the current line. Echoes as "^X"
on the terminal.
Is an end-of-file (EOF) marker. CTRL/Z can also be used to end a DCL
command and return to the $ prompt. Echoes as ""Z" on the terminal.
Erases the last character typed. Hard-copy terminals display erased characters
between backslashes.
Sends a typed line to the system for processing. Echoes as a "$" on your
terminal.
Sends a typed line to the system for processing. Performs four line feed
operations at a video terminal. Advances paper to the top of the next page on
hard-copy terminals. (See Chapter 5 for information on the FORMFEED
terminal characteristic .)
Performs the same function as CTRL/S and CTRL/Q on VT200-series
terminals. The TTSYNC characteristic must be set for the terminal.
Ends the current line. (Same as RETURN .)
Performs the same function as CTRL/S and CTRL/Q on VT100, VT101,
VT125, and other VT100-series terminals. The TTSYNC characteristic must be
set for the terminal.
Sends a typed line to the system for processing . Performs a carriage return/line
feed operation at the terminal.
Moves the cursor to the next tab stop on the terminal line. (By default, tab
stops are eight spaces apart.)
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-5
Beginning a Terminal Session : HELLO or LOGIN
You can log in to your account on the system as soon as you have a PPN and
password. RSTS/E provides two commands for logging in to your account: HELLO
and LOGIN. To get started, type HELLO (or LOGIN) and press RETURN :
HELLO
The system signals that it is in operation by displaying a message similar to:
RSTS/E ii9,o 15-Jun-85 05 :52 PM
User :
This message gives you the following information :
" The name and version number of the computer's software.
" The date and time when you log in. RSTS/E keeps track of the length of time
you use the system and its resources, starting with the date and time of login.
" The prompt for your PPN. RSTS/E displays the User: prompt.
Enter your PPN and password after the prompts as shown. Note that the system does
not display your password as you type it. This prevents anyone who may be watching from discovering your password.
User : 52,20
Password :
You will generally be able to log in this way with no problems. However, it may help
you to know the following constraints:
" If you wait too long before answering the User: and Password: prompts (the
limit is 30 seconds) or if your response to either prompt is incorrect, the system
prints ?Invalid entry - try again, and reprints the User:prompt. If you type in
the wrong PPN, the system does not tell you until after you have typed your
password.
" After two invalid login attempts, RSTS/E waits 5 seconds before displaying the
User:prompt; this wait time increases with each successive invalid login attempt.
" After five invalid login attempts, the system prints ??Access denied. If you are
trying to use the system over a dial-up line when this happens, the system
disconnects the phone line. Verify your PPN and password before trying again.
When you log in successfully, you may see a message showing the date and time you
last logged in to the system. This message confirms that you now have access to
RSTS/E. For example:
Last lo55ed in on 14-Jun-85, 12 :32 PM at KB2 :
1-6
Getting Started With RSTS/E
Your system manager may choose to display other messages of general system
interest:
15-Jun-85 The
t 17-Jun-85,
from system
8 :00 AMwillto be1 :00downPM Saturday
for maintenance
.
RSTS/E is now at command level, which means that it is ready to accept the commands you enter. The dollar sign ($) prompt indicates the DCL command environment, which is the default for RSTS/E.
You can also use the LOGIN command when you are already logged in to the
system if you want to "reset" your current job to the state it was when you originally
logged in. Typing LOGIN while you are logged in causes RSTS/E to execute the
login procedure again, as if you had logged out and then logged back in.
The System Command Environment
The default keyboard monitor on your system is the command environment that is
present when you log in. DCL is the default keyboard monitor for RSTS/E systems.
The dollar sign ($) prompt means that RSTS/E is ready for you to enter DCL
commands.
Other Command Environments
From DCL, you can switch to one of three other command environments, all of
which have different prompts, as shown:
Ready The BASIC-PLUS environment
>
The RSX environment
The RT11 environment
Some commands - such as RUN to run a computer program - are common to all
environments. Other commands are available in only one environment, although the
actions you perform are similar throughout the command environments. For example,
you use the DELETE command in the DCL environment to delete files you have
created; you use the UNSAVE command in the BASIC-PLUS environment.
RSTS/E uses DCL as its default command environment because DCL commands are
used on other DIGITAL systems, including VAX/VMS. So if you change from a
RSTS/E to a VAX/VMS system, or back again, you will be able to use many of the
same commands.
You may want to switch from the DCL command environment, depending on your
work needs or your particular preference. For example, the BASIC-PLUS
environment is useful if you do a great deal of programming in the BASIC-PLUS
language. By the same token, the RSX and RT11 environments emulate the
commands available on DIGITAL's RSX and RT-11 operating systems for the
PDP-11 computer; if you have worked with either of these systems, you may feel
more "at home" in one of these environments.
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-7
Appendix B provides more detailed information about switching between the
command environments. In addition, it lists some of the commonly used commands
in the BASIC-PLUS, RSX, RT11 environments .
Using Login Command Files
At login, the RSTS/E system attempts to execute the system-wide command file
LOGINCOM located in account [0,1] on the system disk. This file contains
commands defined by the system manager that are executed for all users. In addition,
the system-wide login command file normally contains a command that invokes a
private LOGINCOM file located in your directory on the system disk. If your system
manager allows the use of private LOGINCOM files, the system automatically
executes these commands every time you log in. This feature lets you tailor the
system for your everyday use.
For example, if you enter the same sequence of commands every time you log in,
place these commands in a command file (also called a command procedure) named
LOGINCOM. You can also define synonyms for often-used DCL commands in your
LOGINCOM file, making them easier to type and remember. The LOGINCOM file
could also contain commands to assign logical names, run programs, execute other
command procedures, or display message files. For example:
! Display system messages
TYPE $NEWS .TXT
! Execute a command procedure
$ @ TERM .COM
RUN DB1 :12t2141000KIE .E}tE ! Run a Program
! Assign a logical name
ASSIGN DR3 :C4t?-141 WORK :
! Define a command to execute a procedure
$ TODD == "@REMIND"
! Abbreviate a command
$ S == "SHOW SYSTEM"
! NicKname a command
$ WH-0 == "SHOW USERS"
Use the at sign (cu) command to execute and test your LOGINCOM file. For
detailed information on creating and executing various types of command procedures,
including LOGIN.COM files, see the RSTS/E Guide to Writing Command Procedures.
Figure 1-1 shows the difference between the user-defined and the system-defined
login command files.
1-8
Getting Started With RSTS/E
E'STS/ E Y9 .(--) 15-Jun-85 12 :35 PM
User . =tZ 1.4
Password :
Last Iog5ed in on 14-Jun-85 9 :35 AM at KB33 :
The system LOGIN.COM runs
until the end-of-file,
when control is passed
to [2,214] LOGIN.COM
[2,214] LOGIN .CO M runs
until the end-of-file
SY :101-11 LOGIN .COM
$TYPE $NOTICE .T ";T
$ENDLOGIN :
DB1 :0 .'2141 LOGIN .COM
$ASSIGN Dr3 :c3,<141 WORK :
RUN DB1 :C3t3141 COOKIE .E ;E
When [2,214] LOGIN.COM
completes, control is
returned to user at
terminal
Figure 1-1: Executing System and User Login Files
In Figure 1-1, the file specification for the system-defined login command file is
SY:[0,1]LOGIN.COM. The file specification for the user-defined login file is
DB1 :[2,2141LOGIN.COM. When user [2,214] logs in, the system-defined login file
executes first. After the system-defined login file completes, the command interpreter
locates and executes the user-defined login file on the default disk and directory for
user [2,214] .
Getting Information About Commands: HELP
You can use the help facility to learn about the commands that are available on
RSTS/E. Each time you use HELP, RSTS/E displays the information you request and
then displays the DCL prompt.
To use HELP, type:
HELP
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-9
The system displays the list of DCL topics on which you can get information:
DCL
The RSTS/E System Users Guide contains descriptions of the DCL
commands that YOU Use in filet system . and Programming operations .
The RSTS/E System Managers Guide contains descriptions of the DCL
commands used in system management operations .
See the RSTS/E Quick Reference Guide for the syntax requirements
for all DCL commands on RSTS/E .
For instructions on using this HELP facilityt type HELP HELP .
Additional help is available on :
ALLOCATE
APPEND
BACKUP
BASIC
BROADCAST
CLOSE
COBOL
COPY
DEASSIGN
DEFINE
DELETE
DIFFERENCES DIRECTORY
DISMOUNT
EOD
EX IT
Expressions
Functions
GOTO
HANGUP
INITIALIZE
INQUIRE
INSTALL
LOAD
LOGIN
LOGOUT
MERGE
MOUNT
ON
PRINT
READ
REMOVE
RESTORE
RSTS
RUN
SORT
START
STOP
TYPE
UNLOAD
WRITE
ASSIGN
BYE
CREATE
DETACH
DUMP/SYSTM
FORCE
HELP
Labels
MACRO
OPEN
RENAME
SET
SUBMIT
ATTACH
CCL
DEALLOCATE
DIBOL
EDIT
FORTRAN
IF
LINK
MAIL
Operators
REQUEST
SHOW
Symbols
The help display on your system may be different from what is shown here because
the system manager can change the help information.
The display lists topics on which there is help available. For example, if you want to
read about the LOGIN command, you type:
HELP LOGIN
1-10
Getting Started With RSTS/E
RSTS/E displays information about the LOGIN command and lists its restrictions and
qualifiers. The display on your terminal reads:
HELP LOGIN
LOGIN
The LOGIN command is used to :
o Create a new job by logging into are account at a terminal
o Log in Your current job under a different account
o Reset Your current job to its initial logged-in state
Format
LOGIN [account]
Privilege Required
DEVICE to log in an account at a restricted terminal
GACNT or WACNT to log in a new job under a different account
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/NOOVERRIDE
/[NO]0YERRIDE[=NOLOGINS]
/TERMINAL=KBD[ :]
Prompts
Password : (if logging into different account and no WACNT or
GACNT Privilege)
For more informationt see the RSTS/E System User's Guide and the
RSTS/E System Manager's Guide .
The RSTS/E topic provides you with the RSTS/E system help facility, similar to the
following display:
HELP RSTS
RSTS
Help can be obtained on a Particular topic by typing :
HELP topic subtopic subsubtopic . . .
A topic can have the following format :
1) an alphanumeric string (e . g . t a command names options etc .)
t) same Preceded by a "/" (=> interpreted as a switch)
3) the match-all symbol
Examples :
HELP DIRECTORY /S
HELP SET STALL
Abbreviations result in all matches being displayed .
Additional help is available on :
/OUTPUT
/PROMPT
ASSIGN
ATTACH
BASIC
ADVANCED
DISMOUNT
DCL
DEASSIGN
BYE
FIT
DIRECTORY
EXIT
FILENAMES
LOGIN
HELP
HELLO
KEYBOARD
QUE
MOUNT
PIP
PLEASE
RS ;;
RUN
REASSIGN
RT11
TYPE
SWITCH
SYSTAT
TECO
VTEDIT
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-11
RSTS/E help messages are available in a "hierarchy." This means that the help you
request is available in levels of increasing detail. You can type HELP RSTS and a
topic, such as RSX, for information about the topic:
HELP RSTS RSX RE
Each topic may have a subtopic, which you can include in the command line:
HELP RSTS RSX DISMOUNT E
Ending a Terminal Session: LOGOUT or BYE
RSTS/E provides two commands for ending, or logging out of, your terminal session
when you are finished using the system: LOGOUT and BYE. (Use whichever of these
two commands you find most convenient; their effect is identical.)
You can include one of two qualifiers when using the LOGOUT command: /BRIEF
or /FULL.
If you simply type LOGOUT (or BYE), the /FULL qualifier is the default :
$ LOGOUT E
RSTS/E displays information about the status of your account at the time of logout:
blocKs
in use 02 :36 PM
Saved
allUserdisK52t?_0fileslo99ed
on SYoff: 15GB
KB2
at
15-Jun-85
Jot
13
System
RSTSwas V93 .0minutes t 2 .4 seconds
Run
time
Elapsed
time was 21 minutes
Good afternoon
The log-out information tells you:
" The status of your permanent files (Saved all disk files) . RSTS/E also shows the
use of your file storage space (1568 blocks in use).
" Your job number (13), PPN (52,20), terminal number (KB2), the date
(15-Jun-85) and time of logout (02 :36 PM) .
" The name and version of the computer's software (RSTS/E V9.0) .
" The time you spent at the terminal (run time and elapsed time).
" Any log-out messages (Good afternoon) .
Note the difference between run time (3 minutes and 2 .4 seconds) and elapsed time
(21 minutes) . Run time is the amount of CPU time you used. The commands you
type require the use of the system's central processing unit (CPU). Elapsed time
shows how long you were logged in to the system. Although you were logged in for
21 minutes, you used the computer's CPU for only a fraction of that time.
1-12
Getting Started With RSTS/E
If you include the /BRIEF qualifier after the the LOGOUT command, RSTS/E ends
your session at the terminal by displaying a one-line message. The BYE command
has a corresponding qualifier, /F (for "fast"), which produces the same message as
LOGOUT/BRIEF:
BYE/F RE
Job 13 User 53#20 logged off KB2 at 15-Jun-85 02 :36 PM
Exceeding Your Disk Quota
On occasion, you may create more files than your RSTS/E disk quota allows. A disk
quota is the amount of file storage space allocated to your account.
RSTS/E enforces two disk quotas for your account: a "logged-in" quota which is
enforced all the time you are using the system; and a "logged-out" quota, which is
enforced at log-out time. You cannot log out if you have exceeded your quota; you
must first delete one or more files and then try again.
For example, if you created a file named BIRDS.TXT to practice editing text, but you
no longer need the file, you can delete it by typing:
DELETE BIRDS .TXT RE
If you try to log out and find you have exceeded your disk quota, the system displays
a message similar to:
RE of 1000 exceeded by 128 blocks
DiskLOGOUT
quota
Some file(s) must be deleted before lolling out
In the previous example, RSTS/E will not let you log out until you free at least 128
blocks of storage space. The Size column in the DIRECTORY command (see Chapter
3) includes the blocks of storage space each file requires:
$ DIRECTORY RE
Name
Type
Size89 Prot
Name .Typ
Size130 Prot
SY :152,201
G0>;, PATTYC
: G0>
VANISH
.COB
:
.RNO
STRIDR
.BAS
120
:: G0"
ROAD
MAP
280
: GO).
350
: GO"
FLAGS . DAT
159
G0 :
TEST . MAC
Total of 1128 blocks in G files in SY :152t201
In general, it is a good idea to delete any files you do not need before attempting to
log out. This practice saves space on the system. If you need all your files, you can
copy some of them onto magnetic tape to store them before deleting them from your
directory. See Chapter 6 for information about copying files to magnetic tape.
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-13
Using DCL Command Qualifiers
by typing a command name and
In the DCL environment, you use commands
use
qualifiers,
modify the effects of a
pressing the RETURN key. You can also word the which
recognizes as a
command, by typing a slash (/) followed by a twocomputer
qualifier. For example, the LOGOUT command has possible qualifiers: /BRIEF
and /FULL.
but before pressing the RETURN key.
You type a qualifier after the command name
If you do not use qualifiers, DCL makes assumptions known as defaults.
command, the /FULL qualifier is the default.
For example, if you use the qualifier
LOGOUTinstead,
which modifies the effect of LOGOUT
You could type the /BRIEFmessage
instead
of
the
full log-out display.
by displaying a one-line
the use of qualifiers in more detail. In addition, the command
Chapter 2 describes
descriptions in this manual list the qualifiers and defaults available for each command.
Maintaining Files
DCL commands in this manual affect files. It is helpful
to understand the
Many of the between
with
files
accounts and directories when you work
.
relationship
Accounts, Directories, and Files
When you begin a RSTS/E session, you log in to an account. Your PPN is an
account number, which identifies you to the system.
The system uses your account to keep track of the system resources you use, such as
the amount of time you access the computer's memory (run time) or are logged in
(elapsed time), and the amount of storage space your files require. If you have more
than one account on the system, RSTS/E sees each account as belonging to a
separate user, who is identified by a PPN.
A directory is a collection of files in your account that are kept in a specific location
on a disk. An account may have several directories on different disks. Each directory
stores information, such as the name and size of each file.
You identify a file by specifying its location and its name. A file's location consists of:
The node on the network - A node is a computer system with DECnet/E,
which connects two or more systems together. See the section "Using DECnet"
for more information .
9 The device - Files are usually kept on disks or magnetic tapes. Your files are
located on a set of disks called the public structure, unless you specify
otherwise.
o The directory - A device can be divided into directories, in which you can
store files. You specify your directory like you specify your account, by using
your PPN.
1-14
Getting Started With RSTS/E
A file's name, chosen by the person who created the file, consists of:
* The file name - One- to six-alphanumeric characters (MYFILE)
The file type - Zero- to three-alphanumeric characters, preceded by a period
(.TXT)
Putting Files into Your Directory
You can put files into your directory either by moving them from another directory or
account or by creating them. The following example creates a file with the CREATE
command (see Chapter 3) to show the placement of a file in a directory.
To use the CREATE command, type:
CREATE
The command prompts you for a file specification:
File :
You can assign the file almost any name you choose. For this example, name the file
ROAD.MAP:
File : ROAD .MAP
Enter the text as follows, and press CTRL/Z when you are finished. (CTRL/Z is
displayed on the terminal as "Z, but the characters "Z do not become part of the file.)
If you make a mistake on a line before you press the RETURN key, you can press
the DELETE key to correct it.
RE
Although
I eight
have been
a jogger
did notfor. RE
more
than
Yearst
I
enter
CTRIJZ any road races until 1985
The newly created file named ROAD .MAP is now in your directory.
Displaying Your Files
If you are new to a RSTS/E system, you may or may not have files in your directory.
Files exist in your directory only if someone put them there; it is possible that the
system manager or another user gave you some files. If you created ROADMAP in
the previous section, then information about the file appears in a directory listing .
You can check for files in your directory with the command:
DIRECTOR`(
If you have no files in your directory, RSTS/E displays a message similar to:
%No files matching 152+7-O7?????? .??? - continuing
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-15
The PPN ([52,20]) identifies your directory, and the question marks (?????? .???) show
that no files are found.
If there are files in your directory, the system displays information about each file. For
example :
Name .Type
FINISH .COB
START . BAS
TEMPIG .TMP
Size
89
12
258
Prot
: 60 :11
":: G0 :>
G0
Name .TyP
TENK
RNO
ROAD . MAP
Size
130
3
Prat
:: G0>
<: 60>
SY :1521203
Total of 492 blocKs in 5 files in SY :152t203
Your directory provides the following information about each file in your account :
Name.Type
The names and types of your files.
Size
The size of your files in numbers of blocks . (A block is 512
characters.)
Prot
The protection code assigned to your files . This determines whether
or not other users can read, write, or execute the files .
SY: [52,20] identifies your directory as being on the system disk (SY:) in your account
([52,20]) .
Certain operations (such as compiling and linking programs) cause RSTS/E to create
a temporary file with a TMP file type. Temporary files are scratch files that programs
use for work space . The file named TEMP16 .TMP in the preceding listing is a
temporary file.
Do not display or work with temporary files, because they often contain codes that
can make your terminal work abnormally. Temporary files are mentioned only
because they use disk space and are displayed in the directory listing ; the system
automatically deletes them when you log out.
The TYPE command displays the contents of a file. The following example shows the
contents of the file ROADNAP:
TYPE ROAD .MAP
Although I have
more than eight
enter any road
RE
been a jogger for
Yearst I did not
races until 1985 .
File Specifications
A file specification is the full name and location of a file. In its complete form, the file
specification includes :
"
"
"
"
"
1-16
A node name on the DECnet/E network, if applicable
The device name or logical name (see Chapter 6 for descriptions)
The directory
The file name
The file type
Getting Started With RSTS/E
The format of a complete file specification is:
node : : device:[directory]filename. typ
The delimiters (special characters) in a file specification are brackets, commas, and
colons. Brackets ([ ]) surround a PPN. A comma (,) separates the two numbers in a
PPN. Double colons (::) follow node names, while a single colon (:) follows the
device name.
A dollar sign ($) in place of a PPN indicates the directory [1,2], which is the system
library. (The system library stores most of the system files and programs.) For
example, the following command displays a system file named NOTICEJXT:
$ TYPE $NOTICE .TXT HE
A file specification can be as simple as:
ROAD .MAP
In this case, RSTS/E assumes your own directory, the local node, and the system disk
by default. See the section "Using DECnet" for an explanation of host node.
An example of a file specification that does not assume any defaults is:
GARP : :DRO :C52t201R0AD .MAP
The parts of the file specification are:
- The node (system) on the network
CARP: :
- The device at node CARP: : on which the file is located
DRO:
- The directory on the disk at node GARP::
[52,20]
ROAD.MAP - The file name and type
File Names and Types
When creating a file, you can assign it any name with up to six alphanumeric
characters. You can also change the name of a file with the RENAME command (see
Chapter 3) .
A file type consists of one to three alphanumeric characters that follow a file name.
There is a period between the file name and file type. File types provide you with a
shorthand way to identify a file's contents. For example, the file STATUS.DOC has a
file name of STATUS and a file type of . DOC .
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-17
Note
If you assign a file name of more than six characters or a file type of
more than three characters, RSTS/E accepts your input then truncates
the name to the first six characters and the type to the first three
characters . For example, if you name a file LONGNAME. LIST,
RSTS/E truncates it to LONGNA.LIS.
You can assign any alphanumeric file name and type in a file specification, although it
is a good idea to use a "mnemonic" name. This means that you should assign the
file a name that reminds you of its contents. For example, TEST. DAT could be a data
file ( .DAT) that you create to test a program (TEST) . If you have a file containing a
BASIC-PLUS program to run your payroll, you might name it PAYROL.BAS . The
file type . BAS indicates a BASIC-PLUS source file. (A "source" file contains the
program you typed in.)
An advantage of using a mnemonic file type is that RSTS/E recognizes several file
types by default (for example, DOC, DAT, RNO, COM, and so on). If you assign a
file one of these types, then you do not always have to type it explicitly. For example,
if you are using the COBOL command to compile a program, you can type :
COBOL PROG1
RSTS/E assumes the resulting source file to be PROG 1 .CBL, because the file type
.CBL is the default for a COBOL source file.
Table 1-2 lists some common file types on RSTS/E.
Table 1-2: RSTS/E File Types
File
.B2S
.BAC
.BAK
.BAS
.CBL
.COM
.CRF
.CTL
.DAT
.DBL
.DIF
1-18
Meaning
BASIC-PLUS-2 source file
BASIC-PLUS compiled file
Backup file created by several types of utility programs
BASIC-PLUS source file
COBOL source file
DCL comand procedure
Cross-reference listing file
Batch control file
Data file
DIBOL source file
DIFFERENCES output file
Getting Started With RSTS/E
(continued on next page)
Table 1-2: RSTS/E File Types (Cont .)
File
Meaning
.DIR
.DOC
.EDT
.ESC
.FLB
.FOR
.FIN
.HLP
LIB
.LNK
.LOG
.LST
.MAC
.MAI
.MAP
.MLB
.OBJ
File produced by the DIRECTORY command
RUNOFF output file
EDT initialization file
Terminal set-up file
FMS-11 form library file
FORTRAN-IV source file
FORTRAN-77 source file
System program help text file
Resident library file
Input file used by the DCL LINK command
Batch output log file
Listing file
MACRO source file
DECmail/RSTS mailbox file
Map file created by the LINK command or Task Builder
MACRO library file used by the RSX-based MACRO assembler
Object file, which is a compiled BASIC-PLUS-2, COBOL, DIBOL, FORTRAN, or
MACRO program
Overlay Description Language input file used by the Task Builder
Object module library file used by the Task Builder
Post-Mortem Dump file
RUNOFF input file
Run-time system
Executable FORTRAN-IV or MACRO program produced by the LINK command or
the RT11-based LINK program
Save Image Library (RSTS/E monitor or system program)
Skeleton file produced by the COBOL-81 compiler
SORT-11 file
Symbol table file produced by the Task Builder
System file, usually for internal use
Temporary file created by a system program (deleted when you log out or if the disk
is rebuilt)
(continued on next page)
.ODL
.OLB
.PMD
.RNO
.RTS
.SAV
.SIL
.SKL
.SRT
.STB
.SYS
.TMP
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-19
Table 1-2: RSTS/E File Types (Cont.)
File
.TSK
.TXT
Meaning
Executable BASIC-PLUS-2, COBOL, DIBOL, FORTRAN-77, or MACRO program
produced by the LINK command or the Task Builder
ASCII text file
Protection Codes
You determine who, if anyone, can have access to files you create by using
protection codes. RSTS/E displays the protection codes of files between angle
brackets (< >) in your directory listing. For example:
Name Type Size
Prot
Name .Typ
Size
Prot
SY :C52t2O7
FINISH .COB
89 : 60" TENK RNO
130 : GO>
START . BAS
12
: GO :
ROAD
. MAP
3
: Gig :;
In the example, 60 is the default protection code that RSTS/E assigns. (On some
systems, the system manager may have chosen a different default protection code .) If
one of your files has a protection code of 60, only you (or a user with additional
privileges) can read, edit, or delete it. A protection code remains fixed until you
change it. See the section "Allowing Access to Files" in Chapter 3 for a list of
available protection codes and a description of how to assign them.
Wildcards
Wildcards let you refer to a group of files all at once by specifying a pattern of
identification . You can use wildcards to specify all files that have a common element
in their names.
For example, if you have the files TIMING . COB, TIMING. BAS, and TIMING.DAT is
your directory, you can display information about them by typing a wildcard (in this
case an asterisk) in place of the file type:
DIRECTORY TIMING .*
RSTS/E provides the following two wildcard characters:
" Asterisk (*) - Use the * as a wildcard in specifying a PPN (for example, [*,20],
[52,*], or [*,*]) or in specifying file names or types (for example, *.BAS, or
MYFILE. * ).
" Question mark (?) - Use the ? as a wildcard to replace a single character in a
file name or type. The question mark wildcard will display all file names
containing the alphanumeric string, regardless of whether the single character is
present. (For example, specifying PROG?.COB will display PROG.COB, as well
as PROGLCOB, PROG3.COB, and PROGB.COB, if those files are present in
the directory.)
1-20
Getting Started With RSTS/E
Running a Program
followed by the name of the program. A the
You run most programs by typing RUN"executable"
program. Chapter 8 describes
program that can be running,
run is called
an
For more
compiling, and linking programsappropriate
on RSTS/E.language
DCL commands for programming
language, refer to the
information about each
manual and user's guide.
There are two types of executable programs: user programs and system programs .
created by a
referred to as user programs because they arenamed
Some programs areexample,
BANKER
you create a BASIC-PLUS program
system user. Forcheckbook,ifyou
can run the user program BANKER.BAC by typing:
that balances a
RUN BANKER .BAC RE
Other programs are referred to as system programs, because they are installed as part
of the system software. You can run system programs with one of the following :
" A DCL command - For example, you run the system's editor program (EDT)
by typing EDIT and pressing the RETURN key. EDIT is the DCL command
that runs the EDT program.
" The RUN command - For example, you can switch to DCL from another
keyboard monitor by typing:
RUN $SWITCH E
Keyboard Monitor to switch to? DCL RE
Using DECnet/E
The DECnet facility links two or more DIGITAL computer systems as a network .
DECnet refers to both the hardware (machinery) and software (programs) involved in
network operations. The DECnet software available on RSTS/E is called DECnet/E.
If your system has DECnet/E, then your system is part of a network that allows you
to perform file, system, and programming operations on another system. To find out
if your system has DECnet/E, type the following command:
SHOW NETWORK E
You should get one of the following responses :
" If the system displays network information (see the next section), you can use
DECnet/E on your system.
" If DECnet/E is on your system but is not currently in operation, the system
displays:
SHOW NETWORK RE
No information
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-21
If your system does not have DECnet/E, the system displays the error message:
?Command not installed
Note
If your system does not have DECnet/E, go on to Chapter 2.
You can use some of the commands in this manual over the network. The commands and their qualifiers that you can use in network operations are labeled with
the symbol ON in the command descriptions.
DECnet/E also lets you log in to another computer system from your account. You
can then use that system as though your terminal were connected to it directly. Use
the SET HOST command (see the next section) to log in to another system, or node,
on the network.
To log into another system on the network, you need to have an account and
password for that system. In addition, the network between your system and the
other system must be working. (You use the SHOW NETWORK command,
described in the next section, to check for available nodes on the network.)
You should know the following terms to become familiar with DECnet/E:
Network The family of software modules, files, hardware components, and facilities
that ties different DIGITAL systems together.
A computer system that is connected to other computers by a network.
Node
Node names are assigned by the system manager. There are three types
of nodes:
Host
The node you access with the SET HOST command.
Local
The node you logged in to before using the network; your
original system.
Remote Any node in the network other than the local node.
To summarize, the node of the network you first log in to is local, and the system you
reach by the network is remote. You connect to another system by specifying the
host and then logging in . However, if you want to communicate with a system on the
network from your local node, you can use DCL commands over the network
without logging in to the remote system.
For a complete description of the capabilities that DECnet/E has to offer, see the
Introduction to DECnet and the manuals in the DECnet/E documentation set .
1-22
Getting Started With RSTS/E
Displaying Network Status: SHOW NETWORK
The SHOW NETWORK command displays the systems you can connect to on the
network. To use the SHOW NETWORK command, type:
SHOW NETWORK RE
If the network is in operation, RSTS/E displays the names of the different nodes your
system can access. For example:
Active Node Volatile Summary as of 11-JUN-85 14 :31 :11
Executor Node = 1 .135 (GARP)
State
= On
Identification
= GARP DECnet/E V2 .0
Active Links
= 3
Remote Node = 1 .13 (SNOOPY)
State
= Reachable
Circuit
= DMC-1
Remote Node = 1 .20 (CLOUDS)
= Reachable
State
Circuit
= DMC-1
For a complete description of the elements in the SHOW NETWORK display, see the
DECnetlE System Manager's Guide.
Using the Network: SET HOST
The SET HOST command lets you log in to another computer from the system you
are currently logged in to. To use the SET HOST command, type:
SET HOST
RSTS/E prompts you for the node name with :
Node :
Enter the name of a node that is available on the network. For example, you connect
to a node named SPEEDY by typing:
Node : SPEEDY
A faster method is to type SET HOST and follow it directly by a node name, then
press RETURN. For example:
$ SET HOST SPEEDY
Getting Started With RSTS/E
1-23
After the connection is made, the local node displays a message stating that the
connection has been established. You must have an account on the remote node to
log in. When the connection is established, you use the normal log-in dialogue for
that system. When you successfully log in, you can use the remote node essentially as
if your terminal were connected to it directly.
When you are finished, use the LOGOUT command to log out of the remote node.
After about five seconds, control returns to your local node.
There are two ways you can end your session at the remote node and return directly
to the local node:
" The first way, which DIGITAL recommends for normal use, is to follow the host
system's normal log-out procedure. This deletes any temporary files you may
be using.
" The second way is to type CTRL/P, which prompts you for a network
command. For example :
CTRUP RE
GARP : :NET> EXIT RE
For more information on using the network, see the DECnetlE Guide to User Utilities.
1-24
Getting Started With RSTS/E
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
commands
interactively.
It also introduces
This
chapter
shows
how
to
use
RSTS/E
procedures
or
command
files, that the
special
groups
of
commands,
called
command
system executes automatically for you.
This chapter explains how to enter:
" Commands
" File specifications
" Qualifiers
" Character string data
" Numeric values
" Date and time values
" Command procedures
Understanding Command Formats
The commands in this manual are grouped by related functions. (For example,
Chapter 3 describes all commands that manipulate files.) Each command description
includes:
" A brief description of the command's function
" Syntax information (command parameters)
" The command's qualifiers and defaults, if any
" The command's prompts, if any
" Detailed information about each command parameter and qualifier
The command format descriptions in this manual use the terms in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1: Terms Used in Command Formats
Term
Meaning
The use of the elements in a command string.
Format
The elements that modify the effect of the command string in some way.
Qualifiers
Qualifiers that modify the command itself.
Command Qualifiers
Qualifiers that modify the treatment of a file included in the command
File Qualifiers
string.
Defaults
The assumptions RSTS/E makes when you enter the command string and
do not use all the available parts of the format.
Prompts
The text that RSTS/E displays to request your input.
Command Parameters The parts of a command string that specify what the command is
operating on. (For example, what file is affected by the command.)
file-spec
A file specification .
input file-spec
The specification of a file to be used as input in the command string.
output file-spec
The specification of a file to be used as output in the command string.
For example, the command format in Figure 2-1 lists the syntax elements for using
the COPY command. (See Chapter 3 for the complete COPY command description.)
2-2
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Duplicating, Renaming, and Appending Files
COPY
The commands described in this section let you duplicate, rename, and append the
contents of files.
COPY
The COPY command duplicates one or more existing files, or concatenates two or
more files . You can use this command for local and network file specifications .
Format
COPY input-file-spec[, . . . ] output-file-spec
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/Allocation =n
/BEFORE= date
/BLOCK SIZE= n
/BLOCK SIZE =512
CLUSTER SIZE = n
/CREATE
/[NO]CONT
/[NO]LOG
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/[NO]OVERLAY
/NOOVERLAY
/POSITION[ =n]
/POSITION=0
[ =MIDDLE]
[ = INDEX]
/PROTECTION= n
[NO]QUERY
/NOQUERY
/[NO]REPLACE
/SINCE =date
Prompts
From: input-file-spec[. . . .]
TO: output-file-spec
OK to replace existing file file-spec ?
Use COPY to:
" Copy one file to another file
" Merge more than one file into a single file
" Copy a group of files to another group of files
For example, if you have a file named SMITH.MAR and you want to make a copy
of it as file JONESJOE, you type:
COPY SMITH .MAR JONES .JOE
Figure 2-1: The COPY Command Format
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-3
Suppose you want to use COPY to copy all the files named JOKES and GAMES in
your account to one file named PARTY.TYM on disk DB2:.
In the following example, you specify that the files should not replace existing files.
Therefore, you include the following information in the command line:
9 A command qualifier (/NOREPLACE)
Two input file-specs (JOKES.* and GAMES.*)
" One output file-spec (DB2:PARTY.TYM)
The dialogue at your terminal looks like:
RE .* RE
$FromCOPY/NOREPLACE
:
.*tGAMES
JOKES
ToFile: JOKESDB2.1:PARTY
.TYMto REDB2 :152t201PARTY .TYM
copied
FIle
File JOKES
GAMES .2.TXTcopied
copiedto toDB2DB2:152t201PARTY
:152,201PARTY.TYM.TYM
Note that RSTS/E prompts you for your input. This is called "interactive" mode,
meaning that you and the system are communicating directly with each other.
RSTS/E can also operate in "batch" mode, meaning that the system is executing
commands in a command procedure. (A command procedure is a series of commands that RSTS/E processes automatically without requiring input from you.)
RSTS/E displays its DCL dollar sign ($) prompt when the COPY operation is
complete.
Entering Commands
The complete specification of a command, including the command name, command
qualifiers, parameters, and file qualifiers (if any), is called a command string. Because
you can continue a command on more than one line, RSTS/E uses the term
command string to define the entire command that is passed to the system. By
contrast, the term command line describes the part of a command string that you
type on one line.
The general format of a command string is:
$ command-name[/qualifiers ....]parameter[/qualifiers ...] [...]
Each item in a command must follow these rules:
At least one blank or tab character must separate the command name from the
first parameter; at least one blank must separate each additional parameter
from the previous parameter. Note that you can use multiple blanks and tabs in
all cases where a single blank is required.
Each qualifier must be preceded by a slash (/). You can enter any number of
blanks or tabs before or after the slash.
2-4
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Continuing Commands on More than One Line
The maximum number of characters you can enter on one line is 132. However, you
can enter a command string on more than one line by using the continuation
character, a hyphen (-), as the last element on a command line.
Command line continuation is especially useful when you enter a command and want
to specify many qualifiers, or when you place a command in a command procedure
and want to make the procedure more readable. For example :
PRINT
MYFILE - RE
/AFTER=17 :90 - RE
/COPIES=20 - RE
/NAME=GUIDO RE
There is no restriction on the number of continued lines you can use to enter a
command . However, the total number of characters in a command string must not
exceed 255 .
Entering Comments
Comments explain or document commands or files. You indicate a comment by
preceding it with an exclamation mark (!). For example, the following line in a
command procedure uses a comment to explain the use of the DIRECTORY
command in a control file:
$ DIRECTORY W :[*#*] !W : is a lolical name for disk DB2 :
All the text (and spaces) starting at the exclamation point to the end of the line is
considered a comment . The comment does not affect the action of the DIRECTORY
command .
Comments are valid in the following positions:
As the first item on a command line; in this case, the entire line is considered a
comment and is not processed.
9 Following the last character in a command string, or after a hyphen that signals
continuation in a command line.
For example :
$ !THIS ENTIRE LINE IS A COMMENT RE
$ PRINT MYFILE - ! PRINT COMMAND COMMENT RE
Continue : /COPIES=3
! 3 COPIES, PLEASE RE
The system prints the "Continue :" prompt in the last line to show that what follows is
a continuation line.
When you continue a command on more than one line, RSTS/E uses the Continue :
prompt to indicate that it is still accepting the command . Note that the hyphen to
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-5
continue the command must come before the comment. Hyphens after the
exclamation point (!) are ignored. This means that you cannot continue comments,
although the next line could read:
! Comment included .
In this last line, you have no command, just a comment.
Abbreviating Keywords
Keywords are the command names, qualifiers, or options that RSTS/E recognizes.
You can abbreviate all RSTS/E keywords by truncating (abbreviating) them to the
first four characters. You can also abbreviate many of these keywords to two or three
characters, if the keyword remains unique. You can abbreviate:
" Command names
" Command keyword parameters
" Qualifiers
" Qualifier keyword values
The following two sections describe the rules for abbreviating keywords.
Abbreviating Command Names
You can abbreviate command names to two characters if the abbreviation is unique.
For example, the PRINT command is the only command that begins with the
characters "PR." Therefore, you can abbreviate the PRINT command to two
characters. The DEALLOCATE and DEASSIGN commands, however, have the same
first three characters, so you cannot abbreviate these commands to fewer than four
characters.
Abbreviating Parameters, Qualifiers, and Qualifier Arguments
You can also abbreviate parameters, qualifiers, and qualifier arguments to two
characters if the abbreviation is unique. For example, /SIZ is the minimum
abbreviation of the /SIZE qualifier; fewer than three characters conflicts with /SINCE.
(Note that the slash (/) character is not considered when counting characters .)
Some qualifiers permit a negative form. For example, /NOJOURNAL is the negative
form of the /JOURNAL qualifier. In applying the minimum four-character
abbreviation rule, do not count the NO prefix as the first two of the four characters.
In this case, the minimum abbreviation that guarantees uniqueness is /NOJOUR.
The underscore (_), as in the / [NO]D _LINES qualifier, is considered optional
syntax. This means that the minimum abbreviation for guaranteed uniqueness is
/D_LIN and /NOD__LIN.
2-6
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Entering File Specification Lists
An input file parameter for many commands has the format:
file-spec[, ...I
This format indicates that you can enter more than one file specification. You can
separate the file specifications with commas (,) or plus signs (+). See Table 2-2 for
further discussion.
Any number of blanks or tab characters can come before or follow the commas or
plus signs. RSTS/E treats the list of file specifications as a single parameter.
Entering Entry Specifications
An entry specification parameter, often used in Print/Batch Services (PBS)
commands, has the format:
queue-name: [ppn]entry-spec
This format indicates:
* The queue in which the print or batch entry is to be placed.
e The project-programmer number (PPN) assigned to the entry.
If you do not specify a PPN, the default is your own. (Unless you have
sufficient privileges, you cannot specify a PPN different from your own.)
* The name of the print or batch entry.
See Chapter 7 for more information on entry specification.
Entering Qualifiers
Commands can take one or both of the following types of qualifier:
e Command qualifiers
File qualifiers
Command qualifiers have the same meaning regardless of whether they appear after
the command name or after a parameter. For example :
PRINT/QUEUE=LP1
: SPRING.SUM/QUEUE=LP1
.SUMtFALL .SUM:
PRINT SPRING .SUMtFALL
In this example, the /QUEUE qualifier is a command qualifier; therefore, the two
PRINT commands are the same.
Unlike command qualifiers, file qualifiers can have different meanings depending on
where you place them in the command line. If you specify a file qualifier immediately
after a file specification parameter, it affects only the file it follows. If you specify a file
qualifier after the command name, it affects all the files specified as parameters.
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-7
For example:
$ PRINT/COPIES=2 SPRING .SUMtFALL .SUM RE
PRINT SPRING .SUM/COPIES=2#FALL .SUM RE
The first PRINT command requests two copies of each of the files SPRING.SUM and
FALL.SUM. The second PRINT command requests two copies of the file
SPRING .SUM, but only one copy of FALL.SUM.
In some cases, you can specify file qualifiers only after a parameter - not after the
command name. (For example, the /LIBRARY qualifier used with the MACRO
command.) In this case, the qualifier description indicates that the qualifier can apply
only to a file parameter. In general, however, if you specify a file qualifier following
the command name, the qualifier applies to all files specified.
Determining Qualifier Defaults
Many of the command formats in this manual show defaults. When you do not
explicitly include a qualifier in a command line, RSTS/E assumes a default qualifier.
For example, when you copy a file, RSTS/E normally displays a message confirming
that the COPY operation was successful. If you type /NOLOG in the command line,
you suppress the message. Otherwise, RSTS/E assumes the /LOG qualifier and
displays the message.
Entering Qualifier Arguments
Many qualifiers can be followed by a keyword, file specification, character string, or
numeric value.
You must separate a qualifier and value with either an equal sign (=) or colon
For example, the following specifications are the same:
/OUTPUT=DB1 :NEW .DAT
/OUTPUT :DB1 :NEW .DAT
Many qualifiers accept one keyword or variable value. This manual presents this
format as:
/qualifier = value
For example:
/COPIES=3
/DATE=MODIFIED
Entering Output File Qualifiers
Some qualifiers request output from a command and optionally accept a file
specification value. For example, the /LIST and /OBJECT qualifiers for the compilers,
as well as the /EXECUTABLE and /MAP qualifiers for the LINK command, are
output file qualifiers that fit into this category.
2-8
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
The following rules apply to output file qualifiers:
If the qualifier is present by default, the output file specification defaults to your
directory on the public disk structure and the name of the first input file. The
qualifier provides a default file type. For example:
Output File
Command
A.TSK
LINK A
A.TSK
LINK A,B
A.TSK
LINK [52,20]A,[52,20jB
LINK A.OBJ
A.TSK
the output file
If the qualifier does not specify an output file specification,
structure
and the name
defaults
to
your
account
on
the
public
disk
specification
For
of the first input file. The qualifier provides a default file type. example:
Command
Output File
LINK/EXECUTABLE A
A.TSK
LINK/EXECUTABLE A,B
A.TSK
LINK/EXECUTABLE A.OBJ A.TSK
If you specify /LIST without a file specification, the listing goes where the object
file goes, but it has an LST file type. If you do not specify an object file, then
the listing has the same name as the first input file, an LST file type, and is in
your directory on SY:.
If you specify /MAP without a file specification, the map goes where the
executable file goes, but it has a MAP file type. If you do not specify an
executable file, then the map has the same name as the first input file, a MAP
file type, and is in your directory on SY :.
If the qualifier indicates a file specification for the output file, then any parts
entered in the file specification are used to name the output file, and no default
file name is supplied. For example:
Command
Output File
LINK A,B/EXECUTABLE=C C .TSK
A.LST, B.OBJ
FORTRAN/LIST =A B + C
[52,20jA.TSK
LINK/EXE = [52,20]A
Entering Uppercase, Lowercase, and Nonalphanumeric Characters
You should remember the following rules when you enter RSTS/E commands:
You can use any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters; both are
treated the same.
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-9
9 RSTS/E treats multiple blanks and tabs the same as a single blank.
RSTS/E ignores blanks and tabs at the beginning or end of the command
string, around commas and plus signs, around equal signs, and around colons
that delimit qualifier values. RSTS/E does not permit blanks or tabs in file
specifications, dates and times, keywords, or numbers.
e You can use quoted, or literal, strings in some RSTS/E commands (such as
REQUEST) and in network file specifications. A quoted string consists of
characters enclosed in quotation marks.
Table 2-2 lists nonalphanumeric characters that have special meanings in RSTS/E.
Table 2-2: Nonalphanumeric Characters
Symbol
/
+
2-10
Name
Colon
-
Slash
Plus sign
Comma
Hyphen
[]
?
=
Square brackets
Question mark
Equal sign
'
$
Asterisk
Period
Exclamation point
Quotation mark
Apostrophe
Dollar sign
@
At sign
Meaning
A colon can serve one of the following functions:
" Device name delimiter in a file specification .
" Node name delimiter; used as a double colon
" Qualifier value delimiter; separates a qualifier name
from its value.
Qualifier delimiter.
List element separator for parameters.
List element separator for parameters.
Continuation character. As the last nonblank character in a
command string, indicates that a continuation line follows.
If the statement to be continued contains a comment, the
hyphen must be the last nonblank character before the
exclamation point .
Directory delimiters in a file specification .
Wildcard character in a file specification .
Qualifier value delimiter; separates a qualifier name from its
value.
Wildcard character in a file specification.
File type delimiter in file specifications.
Comment delimiter.
Literal string delimiter.
Symbol substitution delimiter.
Command file character. Used as the first character in first
position of a command file statement.
In a file specification, denotes the directory [1 .2], which is
the system library.
Executes command procedure interactively.
(continued on next page)
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Table 2-2 : Nonalphanumeric Characters (Cont .)
Symbol
Name
<SPACE>
Space
<TAB>
Tab
Meaning
Separates fields in a command string. Otherwise ignored
unless embedded in a string delimited by quotation marks.
Separates fields in a command string. (Equivalent to one
space [blank] character; otherwise ignored.)
Entering Dates and Times
Some RSTS/E commands let you specify a date or time when the command will take
effect. For example, you can print 10 copies of a file to be printed after 5:00 PM on a
weekend, when fewer people need the line printer, by typing a line such as:
PRINT NOTIN .NOW/COPIES=10/AFTER=15-JUN-85 :5 :0)()PM
In RSTS/E, you can specify the following date and time formats:
" Absolute - A specific date and time of day. For example :
23-May-1985 :10 :53 :22
" Relative - A date or time calculated from the current date or time. For
example:
+3DAYS or +2HOURS
" Combinations of absolute and relative dates and times. For example:
TOMORROW+3DAYS-1HOUR
The /BEFORE, /SINCE, and /AFTER Qualifiers
You can specify a date with any command that allows the /SINCE or /BEFORE
qualifier. (Generally these commands are used for working with files.) The
/SINCE =date qualifier applies to files that are created or modified on or since the
specified date, depending on whether or not you also use the /CREATED or
/MODIFIED qualifier.
The /BEFORE= date qualifier applies to files that are created or modified before the
specified date, depending on whether or not you also use the /CREATED or
/MODIFIED qualifier .
You can use the /SINCE and /BEFORE qualifiers together to provide a range of dates
for file operations.
The /AFTER qualifier lets you specify a date, a time, or both. Use /AFTER with
commands that affect jobs in a batch or print queue, to indicate that the system
should not begin executing the batch job, or print the file, until after a specified time.
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-11
Absolute Date and Time Formats
There are three formats for absolute dates:
The alphanumeric format is dd-mmm-yy, as in 23-MAR-85. In this format, dd is
the date of the month ; mmm is the first three letters of the month; and yy is the
last two digits of the year, or the entire year (as in 1985). The yy is optional you can just type dd-mm. If you omit the year, RSTS/E assumes the current
year.
" The numeric format is yy.mm.dd, as in 85.3.23 (for March 23, 1985). In this
format, yy is the last two digits of the year or the entire year (as in 1985); mm
is the month; and dd is the date of the month.
" Use these keywords to specify a date: TODAY, TOMORROW, or
YESTERDAY.
Note
You can specify any date from 1-JAN-70 to 31-DEC-99, inclusive. If
you specify a date outside that range, you get the message:
?Invalid date
There are two formats for absolute times: 24-hour time and AM/PM time.
" A 24-hour time has the form hh:mm. In this format, hh is the hour, in the
range 0 to 24, and mm is the minute, in the range 0 to 59. The minute is
optional. The default minute is 00. For example, 11 is equivalent to 11 :00. The
limits of time formats are:
- 00:00 is midnight, and is considered the beginning of the specified date.
- 12 :00 is noon.
- 24:00 is midnight, and is considered the end of the specified date.
An AM/PM time can be in the format hh:mmAM, hh:mmPM, or 12:OOM. In this
format, hh is the hour, in the range 1 to 12; mm is the minute, in the range 0
to 59; and M (for meridian) stands for noon . You can use either 00:00 or
24:00 to specify midnight.
Combinations of Absolute Dates and Times
The order for specifying both a date and time is date:time. For example:
23-JUN-85 :11 :OOAM
TOMORROW :1 :00AM
2-1 2
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Syntax
If you specify just a time, RSTS/E assumes TODAY. If you specify just a date when
using the /AFTER qualifier, then RSTS/E assumes 11 :59PM. (In other words, the job
processes after the end of the specified day.)
The punctuation marks (syntax) in a time specification indicate the time value you
enter. If you specify both the date (dd-mmm-yy) and the time (hh:mm), you must
type the colon between the date and the time.
A line ending with a hyphen (-) is continued, rather than recognized as a part of the
date. For example:
PRINT/AFTER=15CONTINUE : RE
This PRINT command specifies 3:00 PM today, according to 24-hour time.
Relative Date and Time Formats
In addition to absolute dates and times, you can also specify relative dates and times.
There are three formats for relative dates and times:
+ or -nD[AYS]. For example:
+23D or -2DAYS
+ or -nH[OURS]. For example:
+23H or -8HOURS
+ or -nM[INUTES]. For example:
+30M or -15MINUTES
You may specify these formats in any order or in any combination you choose.
If you specify a relative date, you may or may not want to also specify either an
absolute or relative time, with the following results:
" If you do specify an absolute time, then that time is used. For example,
PRINT/AFTER=3PM + 2DAYS means 2 days from today at 3:00 PM.
If you do not specify an absolute time, but specify only a relative time, then the
time is calculated from the current time. For example (if it is currently 1:45
PM), PRINT/AFTER=TOMORROW +2HOURS means tomorrow at 3:45 PM.
If you do not specify a time at all, then time is not considered. For example,
PRINT/AFTER= 05-AUG +3DAYS means first thing on August 9th; this has the
same result as specifying /AFTER=08-AUG.
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-13
Some other examples of specifying relative dates and times are:
" To print out a listing three days from today starting at 3:00 PM, type:
PRINT/AFTER=3 :OOPM+3DAYS
e To print a file tomorrow at the same time as today, type:
PRINT/AFTER=TODAY+OHOURS
or
PRINT/AFTER=+24HOURS
9 Tostarting
job
named
WEEKLY
that
resubmits
itself
every
seven
days
set upat a2 batch
PM, type the following command in WEEKLY.COM:
SUBMIT/AFTER=Z :OOPM+7DAYS WEEKLY .COM
Using Command Procedures
Command
procedures
are
files
that
contain
DCL
commands.
You
execute
these
commands
bycommands
running theyouprocedure.
Useinteractive
commandterminal
procedures
to execute
sequences
of
use
during
sessions
or commands
you
submit
for
batch
processing.
To
fully
understand
how
to
use
command
procedures on RSTS/E, see the RSTS/E Guide to Writing Command Procedures.
Command consists
procedures
canorrange
from
simple lines
to complex.
A simple
command
procedure
of
one
more
command
for
the
DCL
command
interpreter
to(.TMP)
execute.
For
example,
the
following
command
procedure
deletes
all
temporary
files and then shows a directory listing:
DIRECT. COM
! Delete* .TMPTMP files and show director
DELETE
DIRECTORY
A more complex command procedure performs program-like functions . It can :
" Contain loops and error checking routines
9 Perform arithmetic calculations and input/output (I/O) operations
Manipulate character string data
e Call or pass parameters to other command procedures
all
files
with
For
example,
the
following
command
procedure
displays
occurrences
of
a .B2S file type in a user's account:
. COM
132S
files
Display
all
B2S
Y NEXT-FILE
= F$SEARCH("_SY :_* .B2S")
LOOP
:
$ WRITE
EQS . "" THEN EXIT
IF NEXT-FILE
0
NEXT-FILE
$$ NEXT-FILE
GOTO LOOP = F$SEARCH( )
2-14
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Creating Command Procedures
To create a command procedure, use either a text editor (such as EDT) or the DCL
CREATE command. The following example shows how to create a simple command
procedure using EDT :
EDIT/EDT
RUN
.COMriot exist
Input
file
does
CEOBI
!Run PROG1
three REPrograms
RUN
RUN PROG2
RUN PROG3
CTRUZ
*EXIT
RUN .CO M U lines
The next example shows how to create the same procedure using the DCL CREATE
command:
CREATE RUN .COM
!Run three Programs
RUN PROG1
RUN PROG2 RE
$ RUN PROG3
cTRVz
$
Note that the examples use the file type COM. When you enter the at ((J'*) command at the DCL prompt, the command interpreter assumes that the at sign (@)
character is followed by the name of a file with the file type COM. In addition, if you
enter the @ command without specifying a file, RSTS/E prompts you for the file
specification .
Formatting Command Procedures
When you create a command procedure, start each command line with a dollar sign
($) character. The use of the $ character ensures that DCL will process the command
when you execute the procedure from another keyboard monitor such as
BASIC-PLUS. Omit the $ character for data lines.
Executing Command Procedures
You can execute command procedures in many different ways on RSTS/E systems.
For example:
" At login time, using LOGIN.COM files
(or from any other
" At DCL command level, using the at sign (@) command
(c~
monitor,
using
the
$
character
before
the
command)
keyboard
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
2-15
" In batch processing, using the SUBMIT command
" From inside another command procedure (nesting)
" With the RUN command from any keyboard monitor, providing the command
file is executable
See the RSTS/E Guide to Writing Command Procedures for a complete description
of each method of executing command procedures.
2-16
Using RSTS/E Commands and Command Procedures
Working With Files NJ
This chapter describes DCL commands that are used in file operations.
Table 3-1 lists the commands as they appear in this chapter .
Table 3-1 : Commands for File Operations
Command
CREATE
EDIT
DIRECTORY
TYPE
DELETE
COPY
RENAME
APPEND
SORT
MERGE
Meaning
Creating and Modifying Text Files
Lets you enter text that you can save as a file
Starts the EDT text editor
Displaying File Names and Files
Displays information about files in a directory
Displays the contents of individual text files at the terminal
Deleting Files
Deletes files from a directory
Copying, Renaming, and Appending Files
Duplicates a file or concatenates files
Assigns a new name to a file
Copies a file to the end of another file
Sorting and Merging Files
Invokes the PDP-11 SORT utility to reorder the records in one through ten files
into a defined sequence and to create a single new file containing the reordered
records
Invokes the PDP-11 MERGE utility to combine two through ten similarly sorted
input files and create a single output file
(continued on next page)
Table 3-1 Commands for File Operations (Cont .)
Meaning
Command
Comparing Files
DIFFERENCES Creates a new file that lists differences in the text of two other files. Use
DIFFERENCES to compare earlier versions of a file with its later versions.
Allowing Access to Your Files
SET
Specifies the protection code of a file to determine who, if anyone, can read,
PROTECTION
modify, or delete a file. The /DEFAULT qualifier assigns the same protection
code to all the files you create in a session at the terminal.
Setting File Characteristics
SET FILE
Sets various characteristics of a specified field
3-2
Working With Files
CREATE
Creating and Modifying Text Files
CREATE
The CREATE and EDIT commands let you create files in DCL.
The CREATE command lets you enter text and save it as a file.
Although you will use the EDIT command more often than CREATE to create files,
the CREATE command is useful when you want to:
" Preallocate (set) the size of a file
" Create a file from a command procedure
There is less overhead when you preallocate the size of a file, because the system
assigns enough space for the file only once, rather than having to assign more space
several times as the file grows larger.
Because preallocation causes less overhead, access to the file is faster. Allocating the
size of a file is not necessary, but it is occasionally useful if a program will be using
the file. Preallocation avoids possible overhead caused when the file size is extended
by the program's use.
You also preallocate the size of a file if you need a contiguous file of a specific size.
You must specify /ALLOCATION with the /CONTIGUOUS qualifier.
While you are creating a file with the CREATE command, you can use the DELETE
and CTRL/U keys to delete text on the current line. When you are finished entering
text, you press CTRL/Z to save the text as a file.
Format
CREATE file-spec
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
=n
/ALLOCATION = 0
/ALLOCATION
SIZE =n
/CLUSTER
/[NO]CONTIGUOUS
/NOCONTIGUOUS
/POSITION[ = n]
/POSITION =0
[ =MIDDLE]
[ =INDEX]
/PROTECTION = n
/[NO]REPLACE
Prompts
File: file-spec
OK to replace existing file filespec ?
Working With Files
3-3
CREATE
Command Parameters
File-spec
Specifies the name of the file to be created. You cannot use wildcard characters
in the file specification.
Command Qualifiers
/ALLOCATION =n
Creates space on the disk by forcing the initial allocation of the file to a number
of 512-character blocks, which you specify with n. The following example
provides three blocks of space to create a file named BOSTON.MAR:
CREATE BOSTON .MAR/ALLOCATION=3 RE
/CLUSTER _SIZE = n
Establishes the cluster size for a disk file. A cluster is a number of contiguous
blocks taken together as a unit. The cluster size is the minimum unit of allocation
for the file.
This qualifier is useful for large files. By specifying a large cluster size, you can
speed up random access to the data. See Appendix B for more information on
specifying cluster size.
/CONTIGUOUS
/NOCONTIGUOUS
Indicates whether or not the file is to be contiguous, which means that the file
occupies consecutive physical disk blocks.
If you do not specify an allocation, or if the allocation is too small, you get the
following error message when the system tries to increase the size of the
contiguous output file:
?Protection violation
/PROTECTION =n
Specifies the protection code of the file .
RSTS/E normally assigns files a protection code of 60, unless your system
manager has changed the default. If you use the SET PROTECTION/DEFAULT
command before creating the file, the protection code becomes the value you
specified as the default. See the SET PROTECTION command at the end of this
chapter.
/POSITION = n
/POSITION = MIDDLE
/POSITION = INDEX
Specifies the starting position of the target file on disk. This qualifier is ignored for
files created on devices other than disks.
3-4
Working With Files
CREATE
the starting
If you specify /POSITION with an argument, then that value indicates
(beginning
of disk)
which
to
place
the
file.
The
minimum
value
is
0
disk cluster at
.
If
you
specify
0
and the maximum value is the disk's maximum cluster number .
(the default), the file is created at the first available cluster on the disk
If you specify /POSITION =MIDDLE, the file is created at the first available cluster
past the middle of the disk.
at the first available cluster
If you specify /POSITION= INDEX, the file is created
following the storage allocation table (SATT.SYS) on the disk.
/REPLACE
/NOREPLACE
the same file specification as
/REPLACE requests that if a file already exists withdeleted.
the one you are creating, the existing file is to be
in your directory, and you
For example, if there is a file named BLACKCAT
existing
file, type:
the
file
you
are
creating
to
replace
the
want
CREATE BLACK .CAT/REPLACE RE
If the CREATE command is going to replace an existing file, but you do not
specify /REPLACE or /NOREPLACE, DCL displays the prompt:
OK to replace existing filespec
You can reply with one of the following:
Y
Yes, replace the file
N
No, do not replace the file
No, do not replace the file
/NOREPLACE forces the CREATE command to fail if the file being created
already exists. In addition, it suppresses the "OK to replace existing filespec?"
prompt.
If you use the CREATE command in a command procedure, you should explicitly
specify either /REPLACE or /NOREPLACE. This prevents DCL from issuing the
"OK to replace existing filespec?" prompt.
Working With Files
3-5
EDIT
EDIT
3-6
The EDIT command starts the EDT editor program, which lets you create and edit
text files.
This section provides basic command and syntax information for the EDIT command.
To learn about editing text with the EDT editor, see the Introduction to the EDT
Editor, which is a tutorial manual that you can use at your terminal. For details about
each command and feature of EDT, see the EDT Editor Manual.
You can also get information about EDT while using it. EDT's help facility provides a
description about each of its editing commands. After you use the EDIT command to
start EDT, type HELP after the asterisk (*) prompt for help text. (In keypad editing,
you press the HELP key for help text. See the EDT Editor Manual for details.)
Format
EDIT file-spec
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/COMMAND = file-spec
/COMMAND= EDTINI. EDT
/NOCOMMAND
/EDT
/EDT
/FORMAT=STREAM
/FORMAT =STREAM
/FORMAT=VARIABLE
/JOURNAL
/JOURNAL = [file-spec]
/NOJOURNAL
/OUTPUT = file-spec
/OUTPUT
/NOOUTPUT
/[NO]READ--ONLY
/NOREAD _ONLY
/[NO]RECOVER
/NORECOVER
Prompts
File: file-spec
Command Parameters
file-spec
Specifies the file to be created or edited using the EDT editor. If the file does not
exist, it is created.
The only part of the file specification that you must supply is the file name. EDT
does not provide a default file type when creating files; if you do not include a file
type, no file type is assigned.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification.
Working With Files
EDIT
Command Qualifiers
/COMMAND =file-spec
/NOCOMMAND
Controls whether or not EDT reads a command file before prompting at the
terminal. If you specify a command file, EDT executes all commands in the file
before beginning the editing session. For example, if you have a file named
CHANGE. INI containing line editing commands, you use it when editing the file
RUN.DAT by typing:
EDIT RUN .DAT/COMMAND=CHANGE .INI RE
By default, EDT looks for a command file named EDTINI.EDT when you begin
an editing session. If the file EDTINI.EDT is in your directory on the public
structure, EDT uses the commands it contains when the session begins. If you
specify the /NOCOMMAND qualifier, EDT does not read a command file before
beginning the editing session. To suppress the effects of the command file
EDTINI. EDT when you start an editing session with file RUN.DAT, type:
EDIT RUN .DAT/NOCOMMAND E
Otherwise, the commands in the EDTINI.EDT file automatically affect your editing
session.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the command file specification .
/EDT
Makes sure that the EDIT command starts EDT, if your system manager has
changed the default on your system from EDT to another editor. Otherwise, you
do not need to use this qualifier.
For example:
$ EDIT/EDT NEWFIL .RNO RE
The EDT editor is invoked, so you can produce a file named NEWFIL.RNO.
/FORMAT = STREAM
/FORMAT = VARIABLE
Determines the format of the output file.
/FORMAT= STREAM creates the file in stream ASCII format. The default is
/FORMAT =STREAM. /FORMAT =VARIABLE creates the file in variable-length
format. See the RMS-11 User's Guide for information about stream and variable
file formats.
/JOURNAL[ = file-spec]
/NOJOURNAL
Controls whether or not a journal file is created for the editing session. A journal
file contains a copy of the edits you make to another file, from the beginning to
the end of the editing session. If your editing session ends abnormally (as in a
Working With Files
3-7
EDIT
system failure or "crash"), you can restart EDT (using the /RECOVER qualifier)
and reinstate all commands from the aborted session.
When you begin an editing session, EDT automatically creates a journal file with
the same name as the input file and a JOU file type. If you are editing a file
named RUN.DAT, for example, the journal file is named RUN.JOU .
The command line to state explicitly that you want a journal file when you edit
RUN.DAT, and to name the journal file RUNDAT.V01 is:
EDIT RUN .DAT/JOURNAL=RUNDAT .VO1 RE
If you specify the /NOJOURNAL qualifier, no journal file is created.
If you omit the /JOURNAL qualifier or if you specify the qualifier without a file
specification, the editor creates a journal file with the same file name as your input
file and a default file type of JOU. EDT also assumes a default file type of JOU if
you specify a file name but not a file type when you use the /JOURNAL qualifier.
Your directory contains the journal file when the system resumes operation after a
system crash. By default, EDT places the journal file in the same directory and
device as the output file, if you specified /OUTPUT when creating the file.
Otherwise, EDT uses the same directory and device as the input file.
For example, suppose you start a session to edit the existing file MARY.DAT, but
you want the finished output file to become file BETH.DAT:
EDIT MARY .DAT/OUTPUT=BETH .DAT E
If the system crashes, the journal file is named BETH .JOU. You can then recover
from a system crash by typing:
EDIT MARY .DAT/OUTPUT=BETH .DAT/RECOVER RE
If you used the /OUTPUT qualifier to invoke EDT, you must also use it when you
recover the file. (The journal file does not "remember" the command line you
typed to begin the editing session.)
You cannot use wildcard characters in the journal file specification.
You cannot use /NOJOURNAL if you specify /NOREAD _ONLY.
/OUTPUT =file-spec
/NOOUTPUT
Defines the file specification of the file created during the editing session. If you
do not specify the /OUTPUT qualifier, the output file replaces the input file, and
the previous version of the input file is saved as filename . BAK. EDT deletes any
previous file named filename.BAK.
3-8
Working With Files
EDIT
For example, suppose you type:
EDIT PAPER .NUM
If you continue the editing session and then exit from EDT by saving your edits,
EDT automatically creates a new output file named PAPER.NUM. The file you
began the session with is renamed to PAPER.BAK.
If you want the output file to be named something other than the original file
name, you can specify the output file name explicitly . For example, the following
command line tells EDT to put the contents of the file you are about to update
into a file named SUPPLY. DAT:
$ EDIT PAPER .NUM/OUTPUT=SUPPLY .DAT RE
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification .
You can suppress the creation of the output file with the /NOOUTPUT qualifier.
For example:
$ EDIT PAPER .NUM/NOOUTPUT RE
Use of the /NOOUTPUT qualifier does not suppress creation of the journal file.
You cannot use /OUTPUT if you specify /READ-ONLY.
/READ-ONLY
/NOREAD_ONLY
Controls whether EDT disables journaling and the creation of an output file when
you view a file. The /READ-ONLY qualifier is equivalent to specifying
/NOOUTPUT and /NOJOURNAL. You can use the /READ-ONLY qualifier to
examine files without modifying them.
The default is /NOREAD_ONLY, which allows journaling and output.
/RECOVER
/NORECOVER
Determines whether EDT reads commands from a journal file before starting the
editing session. The /RECOVER qualifier is useful if you are editing a file and the
system crashes, as in the case of a power failure. The /RECOVER qualifier lets
you restore your work on the file. The default is /NORECOVER, which tells EDT
not to recover the edits you made to the file.
For example, if you are editing file PAPER.NUM when the system ceases
operations, or crashes, you can use the /RECOVER qualifier to restore your work
when the system is back in operation:
$ EDIT PAPER .NUM/RECOVER
Working With Files
3-9
EDIT
If you named the journal file something other than PAPERJOU (for example, to
REAMS.DAT) when you began the previous editing session, use the following
command line when restoring your work:
EDIT PAPER .NUM/RECOVER/JOURNAL=REAMS .DAT
3-10
Working With Files
DIRECTORY
Displaying File Names and Files
The DIRECTORY command displays information about files. Use the TYPE command
to display the contents of individual files.
DIRECTORY
The DIRECTORY command displays information about files.
Format
DIRECTORY [file-spec[, ...] ]
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/BEFORE = date
/BRIEF
/CREATED
/CREATED
/NODATE
/DATE[ = CREATED]
[ =MODIFIED]
[ =ALL]
/NODATE
/FULL
/CREATED
/MODIFIED
/OUTPUT =file-spec
/[NO]PROTECTION
/PROTECTION
/SINCE =date
/SIZE[ =ALLOCATION]
/SIZE= USED
[ =USED]
/NOSIZE
/SIZE
/TOTAL
If you type the DIRECTORY command and press the RETURN key, DCL lists the
files in your directory on the public structure. For example:
DIRECTORY
Name Tip Size
FINISH .COB
130
START BAS
89
Prot
C G0)
£ G07
Name Tip
TEN
K
ROAD MAP
Size
4
3
TEMP1G .TMP 258 < G0i
Total of 484 blocks in 5 files in SY :152t203
Prot
< G0>
<: GO :>
SY :C52t203
Working With Files
3-11
DIRECTORY
You can see directory listings only of files to which you have access (read, write, or
execute) . If you specify a file or directory which is not yours, and to which you do
not have access, one of the following error messages is displayed:
?File does not exist
?Can't find file or account
Command Parameters
file-spec[,. . . ]
Specifies one or more files to be listed. If your installation has DECnet/E, you can
also specify the node on which the files are located. The default is the local node.
The rules for using the file specification are:
" If you do not enter a file specification, the DIRECTORY command lists all the
files in your directory on the system disk.
" If you specify only a device name, the DIRECTORY command lists the files in
your directory on that device. For example, if you have files on a disk named
DB1 :, you can type :
$ DIR DB1 : RE
" If you use wildcards for a file name or type, RSTS/E displays all files with that
name or type. For example, if your account contains files named RACER,
RACE.2, and RACE.3, you can type:
DIRECTORY RACE .*
To get information about all the files in the directories you have access to, type :
$ DIRECTORY C*t*]* .* RE
This lists all files in all directories on the public disk structure. The first set of
asterisks (in [*,*] ) corresponds to every account number. The second set of
asterisks (* .*) represents every file name and type.
If a file specification contains a file name and a wildcard for the file type, the
DIRECTORY command assumes all file types. Similarly, you can specify a file
type and a wildcard for the file name . Therefore, both of the following are valid
command lines:
$ DIRECTORY RACE .* RE
$ DIRECTORY * .1
If you provide more than one file specification, separate the file specifications
with commas (,) or plus signs (+). You can use wildcard characters in the
directory specification, file name, or file type of a file specification to list all files
that satisfy the elements you specify. For example:
$ DIRECTORY RACE .1t** .DAT .DB1 :* .* RE
3-12
Working With Files
DIRECTORY
Command Qualifiers
/BEFORE=date
Specifies that only those files created or modified earlier than a given date be
listed. See Chapter 2 for the syntax to specify dates.
You can use the /BEFORE qualifier with either the /CREATED or /MODIFIED
qualifier. For example:
$ DIRECTORY/CREATED/BEFORE=28-JUN-85 RE
DIRECTORY/MODIFIED/BEFORE=TODAY RE
If you omit the /BEFORE qualifier, RSTS/E displays the files without regard to
their dates.
You can use /BEFORE only when listing files on the local (your own) node.
/BRIEF
the file name and type of each file. If you specify /BRIEF, you do not
Lists onlynumber
of blocks for the files or their protection codes. For example:
see the
DIRECTORY/BRIEF RE
Name
Typ Name Typ Name Typ Name Typ
SYROAD:C52#201
MAP TEMP25 .TMP STRIDE .T\T PACE DAT
U files 25 blocKs
If you do not specify /BRIEF, the sizes and protection codes are also included in
the display.
/CREATED
Selects the files according to their dates of creation . Use the /CREATED qualifier
only with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifiers. For example:
s DIRECTORY/BEFORE=10-JUN-85/CREATED E
Prot
SY :152t2o7
Name
Typ
Size
Prot
Name
Typ
Size
21
:
.
ROAD
,
MAP
4
:
60>
STRIDE
.
TitT
40>
PACE . DAT 8 <: 60 :"Total of 33 blocks in 3 files in SY :152t201
(You can select files either
Do not use /CREATED with the /MODIFIED qualifier.
modification,
but not both.) After a
according to their date of creation or date of
file is created, any later updates cause the file to be modified.
By default, the selection of files according to a date uses the creation date.
You can use /CREATED only when listing files on the local (your own) node.
Working With Files
3-13
DIRECTORY
/DATE = CREATED
/DATE = MODIFIED
/DATE[ = ALL]
The /DATE qualifier causes the DIRECTORY listing to include the date when a
file was created or last accessed, or both. If you specify /DATE without an
argument, /DATE = ALL is the default.
/DATE = CREATED requests information about the file's creation date and time:
DIRECTORY/DATE=CREATED
Date
Time
SY :152t20]
Name Typ Size Prot
ROAD MAP 4
'. 60> 14-Jun-85 10 :13 AM
Total of 4 blocks in 1 file in SY :152,201
/DATE = MODIFIED displays the date when the file was last updated or accessed:
$ DIRECTORY/DATE=MODIFIED
Access
Name Typ Size Prot Access Name Typ Size Prot
SY :C52t201
ROAD MAP 4 : 60'> 08-Jun-85 STRIOE .TXT 21 < 40 :> 14-Jun-85
Total of 25 blocks in 2 files in SY :152t201
/DATE= ALL provides date and time information about the creation and access
of a file:
$ DIRECTORY/DATE=ALL
Name Typ Size Prot
Access
Date
Time
SY :C52t201
ROAD MAP
4 < 60> 08-Jun-85 14-Jun-85 04 :25 PM
Total of 4 blocks in 1 file in SY :C52t20]
/NODATE
Lists information about files but does not include dates. Unless you specify
/DATE, the /NODATE qualifier is assumed. For example:
$ DIRECTORY/NODATE RE
SY :152t201
Name Typ
Size Prot
Name Typ Size Prot
ROAD . MAP
4 : 60>
STRIDE . TDtT
21 : 40>
Total of 25 blocks in 2 files in SY :152#201
You can use /DATE and /NODATE only when listing files on the local (your own)
node.
3-14
Working With Files
DIRECTORY
/FULL
Lists the following items for each file:
" Name
" Type
" Number of blocks used
" Protection
" Date last accessed or modified
" Creation date and time
" Cluster size
" Run-time system name
" Position of first block in file
" File attributes, if any
The /FULL qualifier implies the qualifiers /DATE= ALL and /PROTECTION as
defaults. The /FULL qualifier also includes information about the file's cluster size
(in the Clu column) and position on the disk (in the Pos column). Often the
/FULL qualifier is used with a file specification. For example :
DIRECTORY/FULL RACE .* RE
Name .Trp Size Prot Access Date
Time
Clu RTS Pos
SY : 152 t2O3
RACE .1
4
.' GO :> 12-Sep-85 12-SeP-85 01 :02 PM 4 . . .RSX 22699
RACE .2 3 '. GO> 25-SeP-85 25-SeP-85 09 :55 AM 4 . . .RSX 23284
Total of 7 blocks in 2 files on SY :152t203
/MODIFIED
Selects files according to the last date the file was modified. Use this qualifier only
with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifiers. For example:
$ DIRECTORY/MODIFIED/BEFORE=12-JUN-85
Name T "rp Size Prot
Name Tip Size Prot SY :152t203
ROAD MAP
4 .' GO> STRIDE .TXT 21 ": 40>
Total of 25 blocks in 2 files in SY :152t203
$ DIRECTORY/MODIFIED/SINCE=18-JUN-85
Name Trp Size Prot Name T "rp Size Prot
SY :1521203
ROAD . MAP
4 ": 60> STRIDE . TXT 21 ' 4i»
RACE .1
3 < GO>
Total of 28 blocks in 3 files in S1' :152#203
Working With Files
3-15
DIRECTORY
Note that this display lists only the file name and type, file size, and protection
code. Use /DATE= MODIFIED to display the dates of file access .
Do not use /MODIFIED with the /CREATED qualifier. (The date you specify can
apply only to the creation or modified date ; thus, you cannot specify both
/CREATED and /MODIFIED .) After a file is created, any later updates cause the
file to be modified .
You can use /MODIFIED only when listing files on the local (your own) node .
/OUTPUT = file-spec
Creates a file containing the output of a DIRECTORY listing, instead of displaying
the output at your terminal. You must include a file name with the /OUTPUT
qualifier. If you omit the file type in the file specification, the default type is DIR.
For example, the following command line puts the directory listing into a file
named RACES . DIR:
DIRECTORY/OUTPUT=RACES RE
$ TYPE RACES .DIR RE
Name
ROAD
RACE
Tip
MAP
.1
Size
4
3
Prot
:: 60>
":: 60'i
Name Tip Size
STRIDE .TXT 21
Prot
": 40>
SY :152,201
Total of 28 blocks in 3 files in SY :152t201
DIRECTORY RACES RE
Name Trp
RACES .DIR
Size
2
Prot
". 60 .
Name
Typ
Size
Prot
SY :152#201
Total of 2 blocks in 1 file in SY :152t201
Note that the output file has the type DIR.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the output file specification .
/PROTECTION
/NOPROTECTION
Specifies the protection code of files to be in the directory listing.
You can use this qualifier only when listing files on the local (your own) node .
/SINCE = date
Specifies that only those files created or modified on or after a specified date be
displayed.
3-16
Working With Files
DIRECTORY
You
normally
qualifier .
If
creation
format
$
use
you
date .
the
omit
The
/SINCE
the
date
dd-mmm-yy
qualifier
/SINCE
can
be
with
qualifier,
either
or yy .m m .dd
either
you
obtain
TODAY
(as
the
or
the
or
85 .5 .12) .
or
or /MODIFIED
regardless
files,
YESTERDAY,
12-MAY-85
in
/CREATED
all
a
For
date
in
of
the
example :
DIRECTORY/CREATED/SINCE=oG-APR-85
Name
Typ
ROAD
Size
MAP
RACE
.1
Total
of
You
can
":
3
<::
blocKs
28
use
Prot
U
/SINCE
Name
:"
G0
in
3
only
Size
Typ
STRIDE .T ;;T
files
when
in
listing
Prot
<1-
21
SY :152t20]
4 0,.:.
SY :152,2O]
files
on
the
local
(your own)
node .
/SIZE = ALLOCATION
/SIZE = USED
The
/SIZE
qualifier
lists
the
number of
two
examples :
Compare
the
$
.LOG/SIZE=USED
DIR
*
following
Name
Typ
BAR
. LOG
3
LOG
LINK
Total
DIR
Name
of
Size
27
Name
Typ
F00
. LOG
G
12
GCS ::;
HELP
LOG
G
blocKs
in
Prot
::
Size
uses
U
files
in
Size
Prot
::
SY :152t2O]
RE
Name
Typ
Size
Prot
::
40>
12
GO :
HELP
LOG
8
::
G0>
blocKs
allocated
LOG
allocated.
SY :152t2O]
8
LINK
is
Gig ::.
LOG
::
or
.
U0 :;
F00
U
32
Prot
either
GC, :::.
LOG
of
file
GO :..
BAR
Total
a
RE
* .LOG/SIZE=ALLOCATION
Typ
blocks
in
4
files
in
SY :C52t2O]
SY :152,2O]
The first example shows /SIZE= USED, which is the default. The Size column
shows the number of blocks used by each file. By contrast, the Size column in the
example shows the number of blocks allocated to store each file. This
second
may be larger because disk space is allocated in multiples of the file's cluster size.
You can use /SIZE only when listing files on the local (your own) node .
/NOSIZE
The /NOSIZE qualifier suppresses information on file size. The default is /SIZE.
Working With Files
3- 17
DIRECTORY
/TOTAL
The /TOTAL qualifier displays the total amount of space your files require,
without listing information about each file. For example:
DIRECTORY/TOTAL RE
SY :C52t207
Total of 647 blocKs in 24 files in SY :C52#201
You can use /TOTAL only when listing files on the local (your own) node.
3-1 8
Working With Files
TYPE
The TYPE command displays the contents of a text file (as opposed to a binary or
temporary file) at the terminal.
Format
TYPE file-spec[, .. . ]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/BEFORE=date
/CREATED
/MODIFIED
/[NO]QUERY
/NOQUERY
/SINCE =date
Prompts
File: file-spec[... . ]
For example, you can display the contents of the file TRAIN.TXT:
TYPE TRAIN .TXT RE
Even
thougha new
it wasrunninI
difficult
to
undertake
regime
Iablewas toamazed
at howmy soon
was .
increase
daily I mileage
You can control the display of a file in any of the following ways:
" To temporarily halt the output, use CTRL/S . To resume output where it was
interrupted, use CTRL/Q. This works only if your terminal has the TTSYNC
characteristic set. (See Chapter 5 for more information on setting terminal
characteristics.) On VT100 terminals you can also press the NO SCROLL key
to stop and restart output. On VT200 terminals you can press the HOLD
SCREEN key to stop and restart output.
" To suppress the display but continue command processing, use CTRL/O. If you
press CTRL/O again before processing is completed, output resumes at the
current point in command processing .
" To stop command execution entirely, press CTRL/C. The use of CTRL/C
returns you to DCL command level .
Working With Files
3-19
TYPE
Command Parameters
file-spec[,...]
Specifies one or more files to be displayed. If your installation has DECnet/E, you
can specify the node where the files are located. You can also use wildcards.
If you want to display more than one file, separate the file specifications with
commas (,) or plus signs (+). In either case, RSTS/E displays the files in the
order you specify. The TYPE command allows wildcards in place of the directory,
file name, and file type fields. The following command line contains wildcards and
commas:
$ TYPE * .TXTtROAD .MAP,RACE .* RE
This command line displays the contents of all files having the file type TXT, the
file ROAD. MAP, and all files named RACE.
Command Qualifiers
/BEFORE = date
/SINCE = date
/CREATED
/MODIFIED
Displays files created or modified before or since the specified date. See
Chapter 2 for information on specifying dates and times.
The following example displays all data files created before 01-Jun-85:
TYPE/CREATE/BEFORE=o1-Jun-85 * .DAT OLOWRK .DAT RE
The following example display all files that were modified today:
NUWORK .WED RE
TYPE/MODIFIED/SINCE=TODAY
/QUERY
/NOQUERY
When you use the /QUERY qualifier, the system displays the name of each file
you request and asks if you want to see the file. (The /QUERY qualifier is useful
only when you use wildcard file specifications in the TYPE command line.)
For example, if you have eight files in your directory with the file type TXT, you
can type:
TYPE * .TXT/QUERY RE
3- 2 0 Working With Files
TYPE
DCL prints a file specification followed by a question mark (?) prompt. You can
reply by typing one of the following responses:
Y
Yes, display the file
N
No, do not display the file
No, do not display the file
CTRUZ Quit; return to command level
For example:
[52,2(_]TRAIN
TXT? NY RERE
[52t2ci]STRIDE .TXT?
Hill
training
taughtare(Tie good
that for
short#
9UicK
steps
running
uphill
. Longerinclines
strides
are
test
for
downhill
and straightaways .
[ 52 ,2O]PACE . TXT? CTRUZ
Working With Files
3-21
DELETE
Deleting Files : DELETE
The DELETE command permanently removes a file from a directory.
Format
DELETE file-spec[, .. . ]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/BEFORE = date
/CREATED
/CREATED
/ERASE
/[NO]LOG ~N)
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/[NO]QUERY U
/NOQUERY
/SINCE = date
Prompts
Files: file-spec[....]
For example, if you want to delete the file BETH.DAT, type:
DELETE BETH .DAT
Command Parameters
file-spec[, .. . ]
Specifies the name of one or more files to be deleted. If your installation has
DECnet/E, you can specify the node where the files are located.
Each file specification must contain a file name and a file type. You can specify
wildcard characters for the directory, file name, or file type. For example:
DELETE DB2 :RACE .*
To delete more than one file, separate the file specifications with commas (,) or
plus signs (+). If you omit the account specification or device name, RSTS/E uses
your directory and the system disk. For example:
DELETE R0AD .MAPt* .TEXT+STRIDE .*RE
Command Qualifiers
/BEFORE =date
Specifies that only the files dated earlier than a particular date be deleted. The
/BEFORE qualifier is useful only when you include wildcard characters in the file
specification.
3-22
Working With Files
DELETE
Use the /CREATED or /MODIFIED qualifiers in conjunction with /BEFORE to request
that RSTS/E delete only files created or modified before the specified date. If you do
not specify either of these qualifiers, /CREATED is the default .
For example, suppose you have files named RESULT.A, RESULT .B, and RESULT .C
in your directory, and you created file RESULT .C today. To delete the files created
before today, type:
DELETE/BEFORE=TODAY RESULT .* RE
RESULT .A deleted
RESULT .B deleted
You can use /BEFORE only when deleting files on the local (your own) node.
/CREATED
Specifies that only files created within a defined time period be deleted. Use the
/CREATED qualifier with either the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifiers.
For example, if you do not want to save any of the files you created today, type :
DELETE/CREATED/SINCE=TODAY RE
If you do not specify /MODIFIED or /CREATED, the default is /CREATED.
You can use /CREATED only when deleting files on the local (your own) node.
/ERASE
Specifies that you want to zero the file prior to deleting it. This qualifier is useful if
you want to erase a file for security purposes .
For example, to erase the file JIM .LOG, type:
DELETE/ERASE JIM .LOG RE
JIM .LOG erased and deleted
/LC "3
/NOLOG
Controls whether the DELETE command displays the file specification of each file
after its deletion.
The default is /LOG ; normally the DELETE command displays the names of files
after it deletes them. For example :
DELETE RISTUS .ONE RE
RISTUS .ONE deleted
You can request the deletion message explicitly with /LOG:
DELETE/LOG PETER .WRK RE
PETER WRK deleted
Working With Files
3- 23
DELETE
Note that the /NOLOG qualifier suppresses the usual message:
DELETE/NOLOG ROAD .MAP
/MODIFIED
Specifies that only files modified within a defined time period be deleted. Use the
/MODIFIED qualifier with either the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifiers. If you do not
specify /MODIFIED, the default is /CREATED.
For example, if you want to delete all files that have not been modified since
June 11, type:
DELETE/MODIFIED/BEFORE=11-JUN RE
A file's revision date is updated whenever the file is modified. (Your system
manager can change the default, so that the file is updated whenever the file is
read or modified.)
You can use /MODIFIED only when deleting files on the local (your own) node.
/QUERY
/NOQUERY
Specifies that you want to select files to be deleted. Use the /QUERY qualifier
when you use a wildcard in the command line, so you can avoid deleting files
unintentionally. The default is /NOQUERY.
For example, suppose you want to delete some of your files with a . DAT file type.
The command line is:
DELETE * .DAT/QUERY
DCL prints a file specification followed by a question mark (?) prompt. You can
reply by typing one of the following responses:
Y
Yes, delete the file
N
No, do not delete the file
No, do not delete the file
CTRUZ
Quit; return to command level
The display at your terminal looks similar to:
152,20]WRITE DAT^ N RE
1 52 , 2O ]MANUAL .DAT^ `i
MANUAL .DAT deleted CTRUZ
152 , 20 ]PACE . DAT^
/SINCE =date
Specifies that only the files dated on or after a particular date be deleted.
A file is implicitly modified on the date it was created. Therefore, a file's date of
modification never exceeds its date of creation.
3-24
Working With Files
DELETE
Use the /CREATED or /MODIFIED qualifier to request that only files created or
modified on or after the specified date be deleted. If you do not specify
/CREATED or /MODIFIED, the DELETE command deletes all files created since
the specified date.
For example, the following command line deletes all files created on or after
June 11 :
$ DELETE/SINCE=11-JUN * .* RE
To delete all files named RACE that were modified since April 6, type :
$ DELETE/MODIFIED/SINCE=06-APR RACE .* RE
You can use /SINCE only when deleting files on the local (your own) node.
Working With Files
3- 2 5
COPY
Copying, Renaming, and Appending Files
This section describes commands that let you copy, rename, and append the contents of
files.
COPY
The COPY command duplicates one or more existing files, or concatenates two or
more files. You can use this command for local and network file specifications.
Format
COPY input-file-spec[....] output-file-spec
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/ALLOCATION =n
/BEFORE= date
/BLOCK SIZE =n
/BLOCK _SIZE =512
/CLUSTER SIZE =n
/CREATED
/[NO]CONT
/[NO]LOG
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/[NO]OVERLAY
/NOOVERLAY
/POSITION[ = n]
/POSITION=0
[ =MIDDLE]
[ = INDEX]
/PROTECTION- n
/[NO]QUERY
/NOQUERY
/[NO]REPLACE
/SINCE =date
Prompts
From: input-file-spec[ . ..]
To: output-file-spec
OK to replace existing file file-spec ?
Use COPY to:
" Copy one file to another file
" Merge more than one file into a single file
" Copy a group of files to another group of files
For example, if you have a file named SMITH.MAR and you want to make a copy of
it as file JONESJOE, you type:
COPY SMITH .MAR JONES .JOE
3-26
Working With Files
COPY
The following command copies all of your files on the public structure (SY:) to a tape
(MTO: ). (If the tape is in DOS format, the files are copied to your PPN on the tape.)
For example :
$ COPY SY :* .* MTO :
To copy every file on a tape (MTO:) into your directory on the public structure (SY : ),
type:
$ COPY MTO :1*#*]* .* * .* RE
If you copy files from ANSI tape to disk, you do not need to .)include the [*,*] directory specification. (ANSI format tapes do not have directories
When you specify more than one input filethe and a single
output file, the COPY
command merges all the input files into output file :
COPY RABBIT. i tRABBIT .2 tRABBIT .3 BUNNY .ALL
RE
The example merges a copy of files RABBITA, RABBIT .2, and RABBIT.3 into one
file named BUNNY.ALL.
If you specify more than one input file and give an output file specification that
contains a wildcard character, the COPY command creates one output file for each
input file:
COPY HARE .1tHARE .2PHARE .3 BIGFUT .* RE
The example copies files HAREA, HARE.2, and HARE.3 into files named BIGFUTA,
BIGFUT.2, and BIGFUT .3, respectively.
Similarly, the following example copies all files named ONE into files named TWO,
with the same file types :
COPY ONE .* TWO .*
You can specify multiple input files in any of the following ways:
e Separate input file specifications with commas (,) or plus signs (+) . For
example :
$ COPY ROAD .LST .RACE .DATtENTRY .LS T RESULT .MRG
The input files ROAD.LST, RACE.DAT, and ENTRY. LST are copied in that
order into an output file named RESULT .MRG .
e Specify wildcard characters in place of the directory specification, file name, or
file type of an input file specification. The following example copies all COBOL
source files on DJ160,*] to the public structure :
$ COPY D :11GO>*]* .CBL SY :* .* RE
Working With Files
3-27
COPY
The expression D:[160,*] means all directories on disk D: with project number
160. For example, directories DJ160,5],D:[160,25], and D:[160,39]. All
COBOL source files (* .CBL) on D:[160,*] are copied to the public structure
(SY:) into files of the same name and type. You must have access to each of
these files to use this command string.
The COPY command creates multiple output files when you specify multiple
input files and do one of the following:
Include asterisk wildcard characters (*) in the output directory specification, file
name, or file type fields. For example:
$COPY RACE1 .*PROAD .MAP DB1 :* .* RE
Omit the output file name, or omit the file type and its preceding period (either
of which is equivalent to specifying a wildcard).
When you specify a wildcard for any part of the output file specification, the COPY
command uses the corresponding part of the input file specification .
Command Parameters
input-file-spec[,. . . ]
Specifies one or more input files to be copied. If you specify more than one input
file, separate them with either commas (,) or plus signs (+). You can use wildcard
characters for the directory, file name, or file type.
The following example uses wildcards and commas:
COPY * .TXTtRACE .1tRACE .2 FINISH .TXT
This command line copies all files with the type .TXT, and files RACE. I and
RACE.2 into a file named FINISH.TXT.
output-file-spec
Specifies the name of the file into which the input files are to be copied.
You must specify at least one part of the output file specification .
If you do not specify a device or directory, the COPY command uses the public
structure and your own directory. For other parts that you do not specify, the
COPY command uses the corresponding field of the input file specification .
If you specify an asterisk wildcard character (*) in place of the file name or file
type of the output file specification, the COPY command creates one or more
output files, based on the input file specification . It uses the corresponding part of
the input file specification to name the output file.
3-28
Working With Files
COPY
For example, assume you have files NAME . 1, NAME.2, and NAME.3 in your
directory. To copy these files into duplicates named NEW. 1, NEW.2, and NEW.3,
you type:
COPY NAME .* NEW .* RE
You can use wildcard characters in the directory specification of an output file.
For example, the following command copies all files in all directories on the public
structure onto DB1:, into the corresponding directory, file names, and file types :
DBI :C*t*]
COPY
The preceding command line copies all files in all directories onto a disk named
DB1 : . The file names remain the same because you do not specify an output file
name.
The ability to copy files depends on the file protection codes and whether or not
you have write access to the directory to which you are copying them.
Command Qualifiers
/ALLOCATION = n
Creates space on the disk by forcing the initial allocation of the output file to a
number of 512-byte blocks, which you specify with n. The following example
provides three blocks of space to copy the file PAPERNUM into SUPPLY.DAT:
COPY PAPER .NUM SUPPLY .DAT/ALLOCATION=3
If you do not specify the initial allocation of the output file, then RSTS/E determines it by the size of the input file being copied .
You can use /ALLOCATION only if the input and output files are on the local
(your own) node.
/BEFORE = date
/SINCE = date
/CREATED
/MODIFIED
Copies files created or modified before or since the specified date. See Chapter 2
for information on specifying dates and times.
The following example copies all data files created before 01-Jun-85 into a file
named OLDWRK.DAT:
s COPY/CREATED/BEFORE=01-Jun-85 * .DAT OLDWRK .DAT RE
The following example copies all files that were modified today into a file named
NUWORK.WED:
COPY/MODIFIED/SINCE=TODAY * .* NUWORK .WED RE
Working With Files
3-29
COPY
/BLOCK _SIZE = n
Lets you specify a block size for output to magnetic tape. For example:
COPY MYFILE .TXT
MMO :MYFILE .TXT/BLOCK_SIZE=2048
The argument of the /BLOCK_ SIZE = n qualifier must be an even integer in the
range of 18 to 4096 bytes. The default is 512 bytes.
If you are copying a large file, a larger block size can be useful because it reduces
the number of interblock gaps that are needed; therefore, you can fit more data
onto a tape. On the other hand, a small block size is often preferable for a small
file, since it reduces the amount of space wasted at the end of the file.
If you specify an invalid value for n, the COPY command prints the error
message ?Bad block size.
The /BLOCK -SIZE= n qualifier has the following restrictions :
9 The qualifier can be used only for magnetic tape. Its use on disk is ignored.
9 The qualifier applies only to output files. The COPY command automatically
handles input magnetic tape files with block sizes other than 512 bytes.
If the output tape is in ANSI format and is intended for interchange with
another operating system, the block size must be an even integer between 18
and 2048 bytes. Tapes having block sizes greater than 2048 bytes cannot be
read by other operating systems.
e If the output tape is intended for use on the RT-11 operating system, the block
size must be 512 bytes.
If both the input and output files are on magnetic tape, and both have large block
sizes, the COPY command may fail because of insufficient buffer space. If this
happens, transfer the file to disk, and then use the COPY command to transfer
the file from disk to tape.
/CLUSTER .-- SIZE = n
Establishes the cluster size for a disk file. A cluster size is a number of contiguous
blocks taken together as a unit. The cluster size is the minimum unit of allocation
for the file .
This qualifier is especially useful for large files because specifying a large cluster
size speeds random access to the data.
In addition, you can avoid filling up your directory by specifying a large cluster
size. (In your directory, the system maintains an internal list of the clusters in each
file. If your directory fills up, you will receive the error message ?No room for user
on device, even though the disk is not full.)
3-30
Working With Files
COPY
RSTS/E allows cluster sizes of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 blocks. With
the SHOW DISK command, you can display
the minimum
cluster size theof each
the minimum,
the system
disk. If you specify a cluster size below
uses disk's
minimum and does not display an error message.
/CONTIGUOUS
/NOCONTIGUOUS
Indicates whether or not the output file is to be contiguous. A contiguous file
occupies consecutive physical disk blocks.
For example, the following command line causes the file MANUAL.RUN to be
stored in consecutive blocks on disk DB2:.
COPY MANUAL .RUN D52 :* .*/CONTIGUOUS
By default, the COPY command creates an output file in the same format as the
input file. If an input file is contiguous, the COPY command
corresponding
attempts to create a contiguous output file. If there is not enough contiguous disk
space, the system copies the file into available empty disk blocks and displays the
message:
%File file-spec created noncontiguous
The /CONTIGUOUS qualifier should not be used if the output file is not on disk.
If you are concatenating several input files, or if the single input file is on a device
other than disk, and you are creating a contiguous output file, you must use the
/ALLOCATION qualifier to preallocate the size of the output file. This is necessary
because the system cannot judge the size of the output file in these cases.
If you do not specify an allocation, or if the allocation is too small, RSTS/E
displays the following error message when the system tries to increase the size of
the contiguous output file:
?Protection violation
If you copy a file from a tape andthewant the filetheto be contiguous, you can use two
COPY commands: one to copy file from tape, and another to create a
contiguous file.
from tape MTO: a
For example, assume you want ([52,20])
to copy file FRIDAYMOW
the public structure. You renametothe
contiguous
file
in
your
account
on
file to WORK.END temporarily, because you cannot copy file FRIDAYMOW to
itself when making it contiguous:
COPY FRIDAY
MTO :FRIDAY
.WOW SY to:[52t201WORK
.END/LOG
[File
.WOW copied
SY :[52t2O1WORK
.END1
$[File
COPY SYWORK
.END FRIDAY.WOW/CONTIGUOUS/LOG
:[52t2()1WORK
.END copied to SY :[52,201FRIDAY .WOW1
WORK .END/LOG RE
WORKDELETE
.END Deleted
Working With Files
3-31
RENAME
Command Qualifiers
/BEFORE =date
/SINCE =date
/CREATED
/MODIFIED
Renames files created or modified before or since the specified date. See
Chapter 2 for information on specifying dates and times.
The following example renames all files created before 01-Jun-85 with a file type
of .TXT to files with a file type of DAT:
RENAME/CREATE/BEFORE=01-JUN-85 * .TXT * .DAT RE
The following example renames all files that were modified today to files with a
file extension of WED:
RENAME/MODIFIED/SINCE=TODAY * .* * .WED RE
/LOG
/NOLOG
When you rename a file, RSTS/E automatically displays a message to confirm
that the file was renamed . You can also request this message explicitly with the
/LOG qualifier, although /LOG is the default . The /NOLOG qualifier suppresses
the message . For example :
RENAME RACE1 .TXT FUN1 .RUN RE
RACE1 .TXT renamed to FUN1 .RUN
RENAME RACE2 .TXT FUN2 .RUN/LOG RE
RACE2 .TXT renamed to FUN2 .RUN
RENAME RACE3 .TXT FUN3 .RUN/NOLOG RE
/PROTECTION = n
Specifies the protection code to assign to the file to be renamed . By default, the
protection codes of the files are not changed .
/QUERY
/NOQUERY
Allows you to select which files you want to rename. The /QUERY qualifier is
only useful when you use wildcards in the old file specification . The default is
/NOQUERY .
When you use /QUERY, RSTS/E displays individual file names and a question
mark prompt . You can reply with :
Y
N
cTRUZ
3- 36
Working With Files
Yes, rename the file
No, do not rename the file
No, do not rename the file
Skip remaining files ; return to command level
COPY
The first command copies file FRIDAY. WOW from tape MTO : into a file named
WORK. END in your account ([52,20] on the public structure.) The second
command copies WORKEND to a contiguous file named FRIDAYMOW. The
third command deletes the file WORKEND, because you used it only to move
file FRIDAYMOW into your account as a contiguous file . (Note that the /LOG
qualifier displays each completed file operation .)
If you specify /CONTIGUOUS and there is not enough contiguous disk space, the
file is not contiguous and the system prints the error message :
?No room for user on device
If you specified a network node name on either the input or output file, a
different error message displays:
?Device full : Can't create or extend file
/LOG
/NOLOG
Controls whether the COPY command displays the file specifications of each file
copied. /LOG is the default.
Unless you specify /NOLOG, the COPY command displays the file specifications
of the input and output files. For example:
COPY DR3 :[52t203CREATE .BAS Ilt2U81* .* RE
[File DR3 :[52t2O]CREATE .BAS copied to [1 .2U83CREATE .BAS3
/OVERLAY
/NOOVERLAY
Requests that data in the input file be copied into an existing output file, replacing
the output file's existing data. The physical location of the file on disk does not
change.
For example, assume you rewrote the first chapter (CHAP1 .TXT) of a manual
(MANUAL.RUN). To overlay the existing chapter with the new first chapter, type:
COPY CHAPI .TY,T MANUAL .RUN/DYERLAY RE
If the input file is smaller than the output file, the excess data in the output file is
not removed. In such a case (unless you use the /NOLOG qualifier), the COPY
command prints a message similar to the following:
[File CHAP1 .TXT copied into Prefix of [It?-481 MANUAL .RUN3
The default is /NOOVERLAY. In addition, RSTS/E ignores the /OVERLAY
qualifier if the output file is written to any device other than a disk.
You can use this qualifier only when the input and output files are on the local
(your own) node.
3-32
Working With Files
APPEND
APPEND
The APPEND command adds the contents of one or more files to the end of the file
you specify. APPEND is similar in syntax and function to the COPY command.
Format
APPEND input-file-spec[, . .] output-file-spec
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/BEFORE =date
/CREATED
/[NO]LOG U
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/[NO]QUERY
/NOQUERY
/SINCE = date
Prompts
From: input-file-spec[, .. . ]
To: output-file-spec
For example, assume you create two files and then decide to append the first file to
the second one:
CREATE FILE .A RE
This is File A . RE
CTRUZ
CREATE FILE .B RE
And this is File B .
cTRUz
RE
The APPEND command puts the contents of FILE .A at the end of FILER
APPEND FILE A.A appended
FILE .B REto [52t2O]FILE .51
[File FILE
TYPE FILE .B RE
Arid this is File B .
This is File A .
FILE.B now includes a copy of FILE.A; the original FILE.A remains unchanged.
Note that you cannot append a file to itself. If you try, RSTS/E displays an error
message:
APPEND MOXIE .DAT MOXIE .DAT RE
?Protection violation - file MOXIE DAT
3-38
Working With Files
COPY
/POSITION =n
/POSITION =MIDDLE
/POSITION =INDEX
Specifies the starting position of the target file on disk. This qualifier is ignored for
files copied on devices other than disks.
If you specify /POSITION with an argument, then that value indicates the starting
disk cluster at which to copy the file. The minimum value is 0 (beginning of disk)
and the maximum value is the disk's maximum cluster number. If you specify 0
(the default), the file is copied at the first available cluster on the disk.
If you specify /POSITION = MIDDLE, the file is copied to the first available cluster
past the middle of the disk.
If you specify /POSITION = INDEX, the file is copied to the first available cluster
following the storage allocation table (SATT.SYS) on the disk .
/PROTECTION =n
Specifies the protection code of the output file .
You cannot use /PROTECTION with /OVERLAY, or in network operations.
By default, RSTS/E assigns files a protection code of 60, unless your system
the default. Furthermore, if you use the SET PROTECTION/
manager
DEFAULTchanges
the COPY operation, the protection code becomes
command
before
the value you specified as the default. See the SET PROTECTION command
description at the end of this chapter.
You can use /PROTECTION only if the input and output files are on the local
(your own) node.
/QUERY
/NOQUERY
Lets you select files to be copied when you specify more than one file. The
/QUERY qualifier is useful only if you use wildcards. The default is /NOQUERY.
When you use /QUERY, RSTS/E displays each input file name and a question
mark prompt. Enter one of the following responses after each prompt:
Y
Yes, copy the file
No, do not copy the file
No, do not copy the file
CM
Skip remaining files; return to command level
Working With Files
3-33
APPEND
Command Qualifiers
/BEFORE = date
/SINCE = date
/CREATED
/MODIFIED
Appends files created or modified before or since the specified date. See
Chapter 2 for information on specifying dates and times.
The following example appends all data files created before 01-Jun-85 to a file
named OLDWRKDAT:
$ APPEND/CREATED/BEFORE=01-Jun-85 * .DAT OLDWRK .DAT E
The following example appends all files that were modified today to a file named
NUWORK.WED:
APPEND/MODIFIED/SINCE=TODAY * .* NUWORK .WED RE
/LOG
/NOLOG
Controls whether the APPEND command displays the file specifications of each
file appended. Unless you specify /NOLOG, the APPEND command displays the
file specifications of the input and output files after each append operation. For
example:
APPEND ATHENS .TXT OHIO .TXT/LOG E
[File ATHENS .TXT appended to 152#20]OHIO .TXT]
APPEND ATHENS .TXT MASS .TXT E
[File ATHENS .TXT appended to [52#20]MASS .TXT]
APPEND ATHENS .TXT MAINE .TXT/NOLOG RE
/QUERY
/NOQUERY
Determines whether to append individual files to other files. The /QUERY qualifier
is only useful when you use wildcards in the input file specification. The default is
/NOQUERY .
When you use the /QUERY qualifier, DCL displays a file name followed by a
question mark prompt. You can reply with either:
Y
CTRUZ
3-40
Working With Files
Yes, append the file
No, do not append the file
No, do not append the file
Skip remaining files; return to command level
COPY
For example, if you have files STRIDE.TXT, RACE.TXT, and FINISH.TXT in
your account, you can use the /QUERY qualifier as follows:
$ COPY * .TXT MANUAL .RUN/NOOVERLAY/QUERY
STRIDE .TXT? Y
File STRIDE .TXT copied to MANUAL .RUN
RACE TXT? N
FINISH .TXT? cTRUz
$
/REPLACE
/NOREPLACE
The /REPLACE qualifier requests that if a file already exists with the same file
specification as the one you are creating, the existing file is to be deleted.
For example, if there is a file named ROAD.MAP in your default directory, and
you want the file you are copying to replace the existing file, type:
$ COPY ROAD .MAP/REPLACE
If the COPY command is going to replace an existing file, but you do not specify
/REPLACE or /NOREPLACE, RSTS/E displays the prompt:
OK to replace existing filespec
You can reply with one of the following:
Y
Yes, replace the file
N
No, do not replace the file
No, do not replace the file
A YES response allows you to copy the file and replace the existing file. Otherwise, the system returns to command level.
For example, suppose you mistakenly enter the name of an existing file that you
do not want replaced. The display at the terminal reads:
$ COPY FOO .TXT SORE .FUT
OK to replace existing file DRi :152,2O]SORE .FUT? N
The /NOREPLACE qualifier forces the COPY command to fail if the file being
created already exists. In addition, it suppresses the "OK to replace existing
filespec?" prompt.
If you use the COPY command in a command procedure, you should explicitly
specify either /REPLACE or /NOREPLACE. This prevents DCL from issuing the
"OK to replace existing filespec?" prompt.
3-34
Working With Files
SORT
Sorting Files and Merging Sorted Files
SORT
The commands in this section let you reorder the contents of a file or files, and combine
several sorted files into a single output file.
The SORT command invokes the PDP-11 SORT utility to reorder the records in one
through ten files into a defined sequence and to create a single new file containing
the reordered records.
This section provides basic command and syntax information for the SORT
command. For complete details on the qualifiers and additional information on how
to define and control SORT operations, see the PDP-11 SORT/MERGE User's
Guide.
3-42
Working With Files
RENAME
RENAME
The RENAME command changes the file name or type of an existing file.
Format
RENAME old-file-spec[, . .] new-file-spec
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/BEFORE =date
/CREATED
/[NO]LOG
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/PROTECTION =n
/[NO]QUERY
/NOQUERY
/NOREPLACE
/[NO]REPLACE
/SINCE =date
Prompts
From : old-file-spec[, . . .]
To: new-file-spec
For example, you can rename the file JIM. DAT to MORGAN.DAT with the command
line:
RENAME JIM .DAT MORGAN .DAT
Command Parameters
old-file-spec[, .. . ]
Specifies one or more files whose specifications you want to change. The files
must be stored on a disk.
You can use wildcard characters in the directory, file name, or file type of the file
specification. If you use wildcards, all the files you specify are renamed (assuming
that they are your own files or that you have additional privilege to rename other
users' files).
new-file-spec
Provides the new file name or type to be applied to the input file. The RENAME
command uses the file name and type of the input file specification to provide
defaults for fields you do not specify in the output file. (You cannot change the
device or directory of the files.)
You can specify an asterisk (*) in place of the file name or type of the output file
specification, or you can omit either one; the RENAME command uses the
corresponding field in the input file specification to name the output file. The
/QUERY qualifier is useful when you use RENAME with wildcards.
Working With Files
3-35
SORT
Command Qualifiers
/KEY = (field[.. . . 1)
Defines a SORT key. You can specify this qualifier up to ten times to define ten
different key fields to be sorted.
The /KEY qualifier consists of two required arguments that define the position and
size of the key field within the record, and several optional arguments that define
the type of data within the key field. You must separate the arguments with
commas and enclose them in parentheses.
Required Arguments for the /KEY Qualifier
POSITION:n
Specifies the position of the key within each record,
where the first character of the record is position 1 .
SIZE:n
Specifies the length of the SORT key in characters,
bytes, or digits, depending on the key field data type .
The total of all key field sizes must be less than 255
bytes. The valid sizes, based on data type, are:
Data Type
Values for n
CHARACTER 1-255
BINARY
1, 2, 4, 8
DECIMAL
1-31
Note
You cannot use the SIZE argument with floating point data types
(D FLOATING, F_FLOATING, or ASCII FLOATING.
Optional Arguments for the /KEY Qualifier
CHARACTER
Indicates the type of data in the SORT key
BINARY
field. If not specified, SORT assumes that
DECIMAL
data is CHARACTER.
ASCII_FLOATING
ASCII ZONED
DIBOL _ZONED
D-FLOATING
F-FLOATING
PACKED _DECIMAL
3-44
Working With Files
RENAME
If the file exists and you do not specify /REPLACE, DCL displays the error
message :
?Name or account now exists - file file-spec - continuing
For example, suppose you want to rename some of your files with a .TXT file
type to files with a .DAT file type . You can enter the following command line and
then answer the prompts as follows :
RENAME * .TXT * .DAT/QUERY RE
152,20>RACEI .TXT^ Y RE
RACE1 .TXT renamed to RACE1 .DAT
152t2O]STRIDE .TXT^ Y RE
?Name or account now exists - file STRIDE .DAT - continuing
C52 t2O1ATLAS .TXT^ N RE
152t207TEXT .TXT^ CTRUZ
/REPLACE
/NOREPLACE
Replaces any existing files with a file to which you assign the same name. The
default is /NOREPLACE. The /NOREPLACE qualifier (whether by default or by
inclusion) is useful when you know that you need all your files and do not want
to risk replacing one .
For example, assume you want to rename the file PAVEDDAT to TRACKSDAT,
and that you no longer need the existing file named TRACKS. DAT. The first of
the following command lines assumes the /NOREPLACE qualifier, the second
explicitly includes /NOREPLACE, and the third command line replaces the file:
RENAME PAYED .DAT TRACKS .DAT
?Name or account now exists - file TRACKS .DAT - continuing
$ RENAME PAYED .DAT TRACKS .DAT/NOREPLACE
?Name or account now exists - file TRACKS .DAT - continuing
$ RENAME PAYED .DAT TRACKS .DAT/REPLACE RE
File PAYED .DAT renamed to TRACKS .DAT
Working With Files
3-37
SORT
/DUPLICATES
/NODUPLICATES
Alternatively specifies how input files containing records with equal keys are to be
sorted in the output file (see the previous /[NO]STABLE qualifier discussion). The
/NODUPLICATES qualifier specifies that only one record be retained when SORT
encounters records with equal keys. The default is /DUPLICATES .
Note
Do not use /NODUPLICATES and /STABLE in the same SORT
operation.
/PROCESS =type
Defines the type of sort. You can specify one of the following sort types:
RECORD
Requests SORT to resequence the entire contents of
the input file(s) and create an output file containing
the reordered records.
TAG
Requests SORT to sort only the record keys, and
then reaccess the input files to create an output file
containing the resequenced records.
ADDRESS
Requests SORT to produce an address file sorted by
record keys. The output file can be read as an index
to read the original file in the desired sequence.
INDEX
Requests SORT to produce an address file
containing the key field of each data record and a
pointer to its location in the input file. The output file
can be read to randomly access the data in the
original file in the desired sequence.
The default is /PROCESS= RECORD.
/STATISTICS
/NOSTATISTICS
Specifies whether a statistical summary displays after the SORT operation
completes. The default is /NOSTATISTICS .
/WORK __ FILES = n
Specifies the number of temporary work files to be used during the sort process.
You can specify 0 or any value from 3 through 10. A value of 0 indicates that no
work files are necessary because the data will fit in physical memory.
3-46
Working With Files
APPEND
Command Parameters
input-file-spec[, .. . ]
to the output file. If your installation
Specifies one or more input filestheto append
node
where
the input files are located.
has DECnet/E, you can specify
than one input file, separate the file specifications with
If you specify more signs
commas (,) or plusfile. (+). All files are appended, in the order specified, to the
end of the output
in any part of the file specification. For example, to file
You can use
wildcards
files STRIDE.REP, STRIDE.COP, and STRIDE.TXT into an existing
combineEVENT.DOC,
you type:
named
APPEND STRIDE .* RE RE
To :
EVENT .DOC
[File STRIDE .REP appended to [52#20]EVENT .DOC]
[File STRIDE .COP appended to [52t2O]EVENT .DOC]
[File STRIDE .T T appended to [52t2O]EVENT .DOC]
output-file-spec
(The output file
Specifies the file to which the input files are to be appended.
must be on a disk.) If your installation has DECnet/E, you can specify the node
where the output file is located.
If the output file does not exist, RSTS/E displays the following error messages:
output-file-spec - continuing
?Can't
file or account
to output-file-spec]
[File find
input-file-spec
copied- file
RSTS/E then creates a new output file.
output file specification. If you do not
You must specify at least one part of the
command uses your directory on
specify a device and/or directory, the APPEND
do not specify, the APPEND
the public disk structure. For otherfield
fieldsofthatthe you
input file specification .
command uses the corresponding
in any part of the output file
If you specify the asterisk wildcard characterthe(*)corresponding
field of the related
specification, the APPEND
command uses
input file specification . For example:
RE
APPEND
RE.TT.* appended
To[File
: TWOONE.* ONE
[52t2O]TWO .THT]
.DAT]
[File ONE .DAT appended toto [52t201TWO
Working With Files
3-39
SORT
Output File Qualifiers
/FORMAT = (record-format[, . . . ])
Defines the output file record format . You can specify one or more of the
following arguments:
FIXED[:n]
VARIABLE[ : n]
RMS _STREAM[ :n]
STREAM[:n]
CONTROLLED[: n]
BLOCK _SIZE = n
Defines the output file record format and
size, where n is the length of the longest
record in the output file. If n is not
specified, the default is a length long
enough to hold the longest output record.
Specifies, when the output file is directed to disk or
magtape, the block size in bytes. If one or more
input files is a tape file, the output file block size
defaults to the maximum of the block sizes of all tape
input files . If the input file is a disk file, the default
value is 512 bytes.
/SEQUENTIAL
Specifies that the organization of the output file is sequential . This is the default
for an ADDRESS or INDEX sort process; for a RECORD or TAG sort process,
the output file organization defaults to the organization of the input file .
/RELATIVE
Specifies that the organization of the output file is relative. By default, a RECORD
or TAG sort process results in an output file that has the same organization as the
input file. Use the /RELATIVE qualifier to create a relative output file from a
sequential or indexed-sequential input file
/INDEXED_SEQUENTIAL[ = n]
Specifies that the organization of the output file is indexed-sequential . You specify
the number of keys (1 through 255) to make sure that SORT allocates sufficient
RMS space. The default value is 1.
/OVERLAY
/NOOVERLAY
Specifies whether an existing file is to be overlaid with the sorted records of the
input file. The default is /NOOVERLAY, which means a new output file is created
and does not overlay an existing file.
/ALLOCATION = n
Specifies the number of 512-byte blocks to be allocated for the output file . By
default, SORT allocates blocks based on the number of records sorted .
3-48
Working With Files
APPEND
For example, suppose you want to append some of your files with the type DAT
to a file named RACES.TXT:
APPEND
* .DAT
TO RACES .TKT/QUERY
RACE
1
.
DAT^
1
'
RE
IRACEI
.DAT Nappended to 152t2O]RACES .TXT7
RACE2
.DAT?
RACE3 .DAT^ CTRUZ
Working With Files
3-41
MERGE
MERGE
The MERGE command invokes the PDP-11 MERGE utility to combine two through
ten similarly sorted input files and create a single output file. Note that input files to
be merged must be in sorted order.
This section provides basic command and syntax information for the MERGE
command. For complete details on the qualifiers and additional information on how
to define and control MERGE operations, see the PDP-I1 SORT/MERGE User's
Guide .
Format
MERGE/qualifiers input-file-specl,input-file-spec2[, . . .]
/qualifiers output-file-spec/qualifiers
Command Qualifiers
/KEY
/[NO]STABLE
/[NO]DUPLICATES
/[NO]CHECK- SEQUENCE
/PROCESS
/COLLATING_SEQUENCE
/[NO]STATISTICS
/WORK _FILES
/SPECIFICATION
Input File Qualifiers
/FORMAT
/INDEXED _SEQUENTIAL
/[NO]SHAREABLE
/TREE _SPACE
Output File Qualifiers
/FORMAT
/SEQUENTIAL
/RELATIVE
/INDEXED _SEQUENTIAL
/[NO]OVERLAY
/ALLOCATION
/[NO]CONTIGUOUS
/LOAD _FILL
/BUCKET _ SIZE
Prompts
File: input-file-specl,input-file-spec2[ . . . . ]/qualifiers
Output: output-file-spec/qualifiers
3-50
Working With Files
SORT
Indicates whether a binary or decimal key
is to be compared as a signed or an unsigned
integer. UNSIGNED causes all numbers to be treated
as positive. SIGNED is the default.
Indicates whether the sign of a decimal
LEADING _SIGN
data type key appears at the beginning or end of the
TRAILING __SIGN
key. If you specify the key data type as DECIMAL,
but do not specify either of these subqualifiers, the
default is TRAILING _SIGN.
Indicates whether the sign of a decimal
OVERPUNCHED SIGN
data type key is superimposed on the decimal value
SEPARATE-SIGN
or is separated from the decimal value. If you specify
the key data type as DECIMAL, but do not specify
either of these subqualifiers, the default is
OVERPUNCHED_SIGN .
ASCENDING
Indicates whether the key is to be sorted
DESCENDING
into ascending or descending order. If you specify
neither of these subqualifiers, the default is
ASCENDING.
/COLLATING -SEQUENCE= sequence which records are to be arranged. The
Specifies the collating sequence in
sequence may be ASCII, EBCDIC, or MULTINATIONAL. The default is
/COLLATING SEQUENCE= ASCII.
/STABLE
/NOSTABLE
in the
Specifies how input files containing records with equal keys are to be sorted
equal
with keys
output file. The default is /NOSTABLE, which causes any recordsunpredictable
to be grouped together in the output file, possibly resulting in an
that any
sort order for those particular records. The /STABLE qualifier specifies
order
in which
be
directed
to
the
output
file
in
the
records with equal keys are to
qualifier
they were input to SORT . See the following /[NO]DUPLICATES
discussion.
SIGNED
UNSIGNED
Working With Files
3-45
MERGE
Required Arguments for the /KEY Qualifier
POSITION:n
Specifies the position of the key within each record,
where the first character of the record is position 1 .
SIZE:n
Specifies the length of the MERGE key in characters,
bytes, or digits, depending on the key field data type .
The total of all key field sizes must be less than 255
bytes. The valid sizes, based on data type, are:
Data Type
CHARACTER
BINARY
DECIMAL
Values for n
1-255
1,2,4,8
1-31
Note
You cannot use the SIZE argument with floating point data types
(D FLOATING, F FLOATING, or ASCII -FLOATING) .
Optional Arguments for the /KEY Qualifier
Indicates the type of data in the MERGE
CHARACTER
key field. If not specified, MERGE assumes
BINARY
DECIMAL
that data is CHARACTER.
ASCII _FLOATING
ASCII _ZONED
DIBOL_ZONED
D _FLOATING
F FLOATING
PACKED __DECIMAL
SIGNED
~ndicates whether a binary or decimal key
UNSIGNED
is to be compared as a signed or an unsigned
integer. UNSIGNED causes all numbers to be treated
as positive. SIGNED is the default.
LEADING _ SIGN
Indicates whether the sign of a decimal
TRAILING _SIGN
data type key appears at the beginning or end of the
key. If you specify the key data type as DECIMAL,
but do not specify either of these subqualifiers, the
default is TRAILING -SIGN.
3-52
Working With Files
SORT
/SPECIFICATION[ =file-spec]
Indicates that commands and file qualifiers, including key field definitions, are
contained in a specification file. See the PDP-I1 SORT/MERGE User's Guide for
complete details on using specification files.
Input File Qualifiers
/FORMAT = (file-attribute[ .. . . ] )
Specifies attributes of the input file to override the existing data that SORT
normally obtains through PDP-11 RMS. You can specify one or both of the
following arguments:
FILE _SIZE: n
Defines the size of the file in blocks. This argument is
required for files that are not on disk or magnetic
tape.
If no input file size is specified, SORT uses the
default value of 1000 blocks.
Specifies, in bytes, the length of the longest record,
RECORD SIZE:n
overriding the record size defined in the file header
or label. This argument is required for files that are
not on disk or magnetic tape, or if the longest record
size (LRL) is unavailable or known to be inaccurate.
/INDEXED _SEQUENTIAL[ = n]
Specifies that the organization of the input file is indexed-sequential . You specify
the number of keys (1 through 255) to make sure that SORT allocates sufficient
RMS space. The default value is 1 .
/SHAREABLE
/NOSHAREABLE
Specifies whether the input files are opened in write-shareable mode. Use this
qualifier when you want to sort files that may be updated by another user during
the sort operation. The default is /NOSHAREABLE .
TREE _SPACE = n
Specifies the percentage distribution of available work area between
SORT/MERGE tree-related data structures and I/O-related data structures. You
can specify from 1 to 100 percent (%) . For SORT, the default division of work
area is 55% to the tree and 45% to I/O.
Working With Files
3-47
MERGE
/PROCESS = type
Defines the type of merge. You can specify one of the following merge types:
RECORD
Requests MERGE to resequence the entire contents
of the input files and create an output file containing
the reordered records.
TAG
Requests MERGE to merge only the record keys,
and then reaccess the input files to create an output
file containing the resequenced records.
ADDRESS
Requests MERGE to produce an address file merged
by record keys. The output file can be read as an
index to read the original file in the desired
sequence.
INDEX
Requests MERGE to produce an address file
containing the key field of each data record and a
pointer to its location in the input file. The output file
can be read to randomly access the data in the
original file in the desired sequence.
The default is /PROCESS =RECORD.
/STATISTICS
/NOSTATISTICS
Specifies whether a statistical summary displays after the MERGE operation
completes. The default is /NOSTATISTICS.
/WORK _FILES = n
Specifies the number of temporary work files to be used during the merge
process. You can specify 0 or any value from 3 through 10. A value of 0
indicates that no work files are necessary because the data will fit in physical
memory.
/SPECIFICATION[ =file-spec]
Indicates that commands and file qualifiers, including key field definitions, are
contained in a specification file. See the PDP-11 SORT/MERGE User's Guide for
complete details on using specification files.
3-54
Working With Files
SORT
/CONTIGUOUS
/NOCONTIGUOUS
Specifies whether the allocation of disk space for the output file is to be
contiguous. If you specify /CONTIGUOUS, you must also specify /ALLOCATION
to define the number of blocks to allocate for the output file. The default is
/NOCONTIGUOUS.
/LOAD _FILL
Used only with indexed files, this qualifier loads the buckets according to the fill
size established when the file was created.
/BUCKET _SIZE =n
Used with disk files, this qualifier specifies the number of 512-byte blocks per
bucket for the output file. The maximum size you can specify is 32 blocks. If you
do not specify a bucket size, the bucket size of the output file defaults to that of
the input file.
Working With Files
3-49
MERGE
BLOCK _SIZE = n
Specifies, when the output file is directed to disk or
magtape, the block size in bytes. If one or more
input files is a tape file, the output file block size
defaults to the maximum of the block sizes of all tape
input files. If the input file is a disk file, the default
value is 512 bytes.
/SEQUENTIAL
Specifies that the organization of the output file is sequential. This is the default
for an ADDRESS or INDEX sort process; for a RECORD or TAG sort process,
the output file organization defaults to the organization of the input file.
/RELATIVE
Specifies that the organization of the output file is relative. By default, a RECORD
or TAG sort process results in an output file that has the same organization as the
input file. Use the /RELATIVE qualifier to create a relative output file from a
sequential or indexed-sequential input file.
/INDEXED_SEQUENTIAL[ = n]
Specifies that the organization of the output file is indexed-sequential . You specify
the number of keys (1 through 255) to make sure that MERGE allocates sufficient
RMS space. The default value is 1.
/OVERLAY
/NOOVERLAY
Specifies whether an existing file is to be overlaid with the sorted records of the
input file . The default is /NOOVERLAY, which means a new output file is created
and does not overlay an existing file.
/ALLOCATION = n
Specifies the number of 512-byte blocks to be allocated for the output file. By
default, MERGE allocates blocks based on the number of records sorted.
/CONTIGUOUS
/NOCONTIGUOUS
Specifies whether the allocation of disk space for the output file is to be
contiguous . If you specify /CONTIGUOUS, you must also specify /ALLOCATION
to define the number of blocks to allocate for the output file. The default is
/NOCONTIGUOUS.
/LOAD _ FILL
Used only with indexed files, this qualifier loads the buckets according to the fill
size established when the file was created.
/BUCKET SIZE
Used with disk files, this qualifier specifies the number of 512-byte blocks per
bucket for the output file. The maximum size you can specify is 32 blocks . If you
do not specify a bucket size, the bucket size of the output file defaults to that of
the input file.
3-56
Working With Files
MERGE
Command Parameters
input-file-specl,input-file-spec2[, ...]
names of the sorted files whose records are to be merged. At least
Specifies the
than ten, must be specified and separated by commas.
two files, but notbemore
the
same
in all files.
The keys must
If the file specifications do not include a file type, MERGE assumes the default file
type of .DAT.
output-file-spec
Its qualifiers can request
Specifies the name of the merged file to be created.
command
string may have only one
characteristics for the merged output file. The
output file specification .
If the output file specification does not file,
include a file type, MERGE assigns the
default file type of .DAT to the output regardless of the file types of the input
files.
Command Qualifiers
/KEY = (field[....1)
can be specified up to ten times to define
Defines a MERGE key. Thisbe qualifier
merged.
ten different key fields to
consists of two required arguments that define the position and
The /KEY qualifier
and several optional arguments that define
size type
of the keydatafieldwithinwithinthe thekeyrecord,
field. The arguments must be separated with
the ofand enclosed in parentheses.
commas
Working With Files
3-5 1
DIFFERENCES
For example, you may want to use DIFFERENCES to compare a file (such as
HOME.WRK) with its earlier backup version (HOME.BAK). The command line you
enter is:
DIFFERENCES HOME .WRK HOME .BAK
RSTS/E displays a message telling you which files it is comparing:
Comparing : 1) SY :12t2141HOME . WRK to 2) SY :C2t2141HOME . BAK
Because you did not include a directory in the command line, the default is your
directory.
Next, RSTS/E displays the lines containing text that does not match. The sections in
the following example are labeled 1) and 2), corresponding to the first and second file
being compared. The sections of text are separated by rows of asterisks (*) :
1) SY :C2,2141HOME .WRK
the writings of Milton and
Donne . Fortunately I find
their worK interesting .
2) SY :C2t2147HOME .BAK
the writings of Marchand and
Hogan . Fortunately . I find
their worK interesting .
^1 Difference FoLind
Notice that the numbers 1) and 2) correspond to HOME. WRK and its backup
version, HOME.BAK. DIFFERENCES lists the differences in the two files one group
of lines at a time.
Command Parameters
input-file-spec
Specifies the name of the first input file to be compared.
You must include a file name. The default file type is null. You cannot use
wildcard characters in the file specification.
compare-file-spec
Specifies the name of the second input file to be compared. You must include a
file name. The default file type is null.
Command Qualifiers
/IGNORE = BLANKLINES
Specifies that blank lines between data lines are to be ignored during the
comparison . By default, the DIFFERENCES command compares every line in
each file and reports all differences.
3-58
Working With Files
MERGE
OVERPUNCHED SIGN Indicates whether the sign of a decimal
SEPARATE SIGN
data type key is superimposed on the decimal value
or is separated from the decimal value. If you specify
the key data type as DECIMAL, but do not specify
either of these subqualifiers, the default is
OVERPUNCHED SIGN.
ASCENDING
Indicates whether the key is to be merged into
DESCENDING
ascending or descending order. If you specify neither
of these subqualifiers, the default is ASCENDING.
/CHECK-SEQUENCE
/NOCHECK_SEQUENCE
Examines the input files to be merged to make
sure that they are in order. If a
record is out of order, MERGE displays the following warning message at the end
of the merge operation :
%S0R-E-BAD_0RDER# Input file Cn7 is out of order
The default is /CHECK_ SEQUENCE.
/COLLATING_SEQUENCE = sequencein which records are to be arranged. The
Specifies the collating sequence MULTINATIONAL. The default is
sequence may beSEQUENCE
ASCII, EBCDIC,
or
/COLLATING_
= ASCII.
/STABLE
/NOSTABLE how input files containing records with equal keys are to be merged in
Specifies
the output file. The default is /NOSTABLE, which causes any records with equal
together in the output file, possibly resulting in an
keys to be grouped
merge
order for those particular records. The /STABLE qualifier
unpredictable
specifies that any records with equal keys are to be directed to the output file in
the order in which they were input to MERGE. See the following
/[NO]DUPLICATES qualifier discussion.
/DUPLICATES
/NODUPLICATES
Alternatively specifies how input files containing records with equal keys are to be
merged in the output file (see the previous /[NO]STABLE qualifier discussion).
The /NODUPLICATES qualifier specifies that only one record be retained when
MERGE encounters records with equal keys. The default is /DUPLICATES.
Note
Do not use /NODUPLICATES and /STABLE in the same merge
operation.
Working With Files
3-53
Allowing Access to Files
This section describes what it means to assign protection codes to your files. Then it
explains how to use the SET PROTECTION command and the /DEFAULT qualifier.
Using Protection Codes
A protection code determines who has access to a file.
The protection code consists of one to three decimal digits . This code determines the
file's degree of protection on two levels:
" The actions (reading, writing, executing, and deleting) against which it is
protected . Anyone who can write in a file can also delete it, and vice versa.
" The user or class of users against whom it is protected.
RSTS/E recognizes three classes of users for protection purposes :
" Owner - The owner of the file, known to the system by a PPN [52,20]) .
Group - The owner's group, known to the system by any PPN whose project
number (the 52 in [52,20]) is the same as the owner's project number. Group
read or write access also allows the owner read or write access.
World - All other users on the system, known to the system by any PPN
whose project number is different from the owner's. World read or write access
also allows both the owner and the owner's group read or write access.
For example, 60 is the default protection code that RSTS/E normally assigns. (The
code is something other than 60 if your system manager changed the default, or if
you use the SET PROTECTION/DEFAULT command described in the next section.)
If one of your files has a protection code of 60, only you or a user with sufficient
privileges can read, edit, or delete it. A protection code remains fixed unless you
change it.
Note
Some users on your system (for example, the system manager) may
have privileges that allow them to access files regardless of the
protection codes.
3-60
Working With Files
MERGE
Input File Qualifiers
/FORMAT= (file-attribute[, ... ])
Specifies attributes of the input file to override the existing data that MERGE
normally obtains through PDP-11 RMS . You can specify one or both of the
following arguments:
Defines the size of the file in blocks. This argument is
FILE _ SIZE: n
required for files that are not on disk or magnetic
tape.
If no input file size is specified, MERGE uses the
default value of 1000 blocks.
RECORD_SIZE :n
Specifies, in bytes, the length of the longest record,
overriding the record size defined in the file header
or label. This argument is required for files that are
not on disk or magnetic tape, or if the longest record
size (LRL) is unavailable or known to be inaccurate .
/INDEXED_SEQUENTIAL[ = n]
Specifies that the organization of the input file is indexed-sequential . You specify
the number of keys (1 through 255) to make sure that MERGE allocates sufficient
RMS space. The default value is 1.
/SHAREABLE
/NOSHAREABLE
Specifies whether the input files are opened in write-shareable mode. Use this
qualifier when you want to merge files that may be updated by another user
during the merge operation. The default is /NOSHAREABLE .
TREE _SPACE = n
Specifies the percentage distribution of available work area between
SORT/MERGE tree-related data structures and I/O-related data structures . You
can specify from 1 to 100 percent (%). The default division of work area is 30%
to the merge list and 70% to I/O.
Output File Qualifiers
/FORMAT = (record-format[, . .. ] )
Defines the output file record format. You can specify one or more of the
following arguments:
Defines the output file record format and
FIXED[ :n]
size, where n is the length of the longest
VARIABLE[m]
record in the output file. If n is not
RMS _STREAM[ : n]
specified, the default is a length long
STREAM[: n]
enough to hold the longest output record .
CONTROLLED[m]
Working With Files
3-55
Individual codes added to the executable protection code 64 have meanings different
from those in Table 3-2.
Table 3-3 lists the compiled codes for executable files (64 + code).
Table 3-3: File Protection Codes for Executable Files
64+
Code
1
2
4
8
16
32
128
3-62
Working With Files
Meaning
Execute protection against the owner
Read and write protection against the owner
Execute protection against the owner's group
Read and write protection against the owner's group
Execute protection against all others not in the owner's group
Read and write protection against all others not in the owner's group
Program with privileges
DIFFERENCES
Comparing Files: DIFFERENCES
The DIFFERENCES command compares two text files and lists any sections of text
that differ between the two files.
Format
DIFFERENCES input-file-spec compare-file-spec
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/IGNORE= BLANKLINES
/MATCH =size
/MATCH =3 DIFFERENCES =300
/MAXIMUM DIFFERENCES = n
/MAXIMUM=KB:
/OUTPUT =file-spec
/OUTPUT
Prompts
File 1: input-file-spec
File 2: compare-file-spec
DIFFERENCES compares the two files by groups of lines and produces an output file
if the /OUTPUT qualifier is used; otherwise, output is sent to the terminal. This output
file lists the differences, if any.
The qualifiers for the DIFFERENCES command can be categorized according to their
functions:
The /IGNORE= BLANKLINES qualifier requests DIFFERENCES to ignore
blank lines while comparing files.
By default, DIFFERENCES compares every line in each file.
e The /MATCH and /MAXIMUM _DIFFERENCES qualifiers control the extent of
the comparison .
for a
By default, DIFFERENCES reads every line in the first input file and looks
matching line in the second input file. Lines are considered matched only if
three identical sequential lines are found in each file.
at your terminal. Use the
The DIFFERENCES command normally displays its report output
to an alternate file
/OUTPUT qualifier to request DIFFERENCES to write the
may print one of
two
files
are
significantly
different,
then
the
system
or device. If the
the following error messages:
?Maximum memory exceeded
?Maximum differences (300) encountered - sKipping rest of file
Working With Files
3-57
SET PROTECTION
SET PROTECTION
The SET PROTECTION command specifies the protection code of a file. You assign
a protection code to determine who else, if anyone, can have access to your files. (To
check the protection codes of your files, use the /PROTECTION qualifier with the
DIRECTORY command.)
A file specification and protection code are required unless you use the /DEFAULT
qualifier. You must include either an equal sign or a space between the command
SET PROTECTION and the protection code you specify.
Format
SET PROTECTION[ = In filespec[ . . . . I
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/DEFAULT
/[NO]QUERY
/NOQUERY
/[NO]LOG
/LOG
For example, you set the protection code of a file named TIME.TRY to 42 by typing:
SET PROTECTION=U2 TIME .TRY E
Command Parameters
n
The value you specify for n can be any of the protection codes in Table 3-2,
Table 3-3, and Table 3-4, depending on the privileges you have been given by
the system manager.
filespec
You can include one or more file specifications in the command string. Wildcard
characters are allowed.
Command Qualifiers
/DEFAULT
The /DEFAULT qualifier specifies the default protection code of each file you
create. (You can override the default for individual files .) /DEFAULT stays in
effect until you log out.
If you use SET PROTECTION/DEFAULT, RSTS/E assigns the protection code
you specify to all files you create during the current session. Do not include a file
specification when you use the /DEFAULT qualifier. Also, you must include either
an equal sign or a space between the command and the protection code:
SET PROTECTION[=]n/DEFAULT
3-64
Working With Files
DIFFERENCES
For example, if files HOGAN.TOM and HOGAN.SAM have similar contents but
have unequal numbers of blank lines, you can disregard the blank lines in their
comparison by typing:
DIFFERENCES HOGAN .TOM HOGAN .SAM/IGNORE=BLANKLINES RE
/MATCH = size
Controls the number of lines that must be identical for DIFFERENCES to consider
them a match. For example, to make sure that five identical lines are found to be
considered a match between MARYB.TXT and BILL.TXT, type:
DIFFERENCES MARYB .TXT BILL .TXT/MATCH=5
By default, after DIFFERENCES finds unmatched lines, it assumes that the files
match after it finds 3 sequential lines that match. The match size you specify
overrides the default value of 3.
/MAXIMUM _ DIFFERENCES = n
If you specify /MAXIMUM_DIFFERENCES, DIFFERENCES terminates after
locating n differences. The output file lists differences only on lines compared until
the maximum has been reached.
For example, you may need to compare two large data files (MIKE .DAT and
EDDIE .DAT), but if more than four differences are found, any further comparison
would not be worth your while. In this case you type :
DIFFERENCES MIKE .DAT EDDIE .DAT/MAXIMUM_DIFFERENCES=U
By default, DIFFERENCES aborts after 300 differences are found.
/OUTPUT = file-spec
Stores the result of the comparison in a file rather than displaying it at your
terminal. If you omit the /OUTPUT qualifier, the output displays at your terminal.
The /OUTPUT qualifier is especially useful if you are using a video terminal and
want a listing of the output. For example, you can request that the output from
comparing files RACE.A and RACE .B be stored in a file that you name
RESULT. C:
DIFFERENCES RACE .A RACE .B/OUTPUT=RESULT .C
goes to a file with
a file specification,typethe ofoutput
If you specify /OUTPUT without
DIF. If you had not
file and a file
the same file name as the first input
assigned the file name RESULT .C in the previous example, it would have been
named RACE.DIF.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification.
Working With Files
3-59
SET FILE
Setting File Characteristics: SET FILE
In addition to the SET PROTECTION command described in the previous section, you
can use the SET FILE command to specify protection code, as well as other characteristics of a file .
Format
SET FILE file-spec
Qualifiers
Defaults
/NOCONTIGUOUS
/[NO]DELETABLE
/DELETABLE
/[NO]LOG
See discussion
/[NO]PLACED
/PROTECTION = n
/RUNTIME_SYSTEM =name
Command Parameters
file-spec
Specifies the file whose characteristics you want to set or change.
Command Qualifiers
/NOCONTIGUOUS
Lets you extend a contiguous file by changing it to noncontiguous.
/DELETABLE
/NODELETABLE
Specifies whether a file can be deleted or renamed. The default is /DELETABLE.
/LOG
/NOLOG
Specifies whether the file specification of each modified file is displayed at the
terminal. If the file specification contains any wildcards, the default is /LOG.
Otherwise, the default is /NOLOG.
/PLACED
/NOPLACED
Specifies whether a file, after modification, is placed at its present position on the
disk.
/PROTECTION =n
Specifies the protection code of a file. The protection code must be in the range
of 0 to 255. You can also use the SET PROTECTION command, described in
the previous section, to specify a file's protection code.
/RUNTIME _SYSTEM=name
Specifies the run-time system associated with the file.
3-66
Working With Files
When you create a file, RSTS/E assigns it the default protection code 60 :
CREATE ANNIE .DAT RE
Heres a file of only one
:CTRL/Z>
DIR
Name
ANNIE
Total
line .
ANNIE .DAT
Typ
DAT
of
1
Size
1
block
"::
in
1
Prot
60";
file
Name
in
Typ
Size
Prot
SY :152t201
SY :152t201
You assign a protection code with the SET PROTECTION command, as in :
SET
ANNIE
DIR
Name
ANNIE
Total
PROTECTION=4o ANNIE .DAT
DAT renamed to ANNIE
ANNIE .DAT
Typ
DAT
of
1
.DAT :40>
RE
Size
1
block
RE
<:
in
1
Prot
40>
file
Name
in
Typ
Prot
Size
SY :C52t201
SY :152t201
A factor in assigning protection codes is whether a file is executable . An executable
file is produced by the LINK command or by the COMPILE command of
BASIC-PLUS or BASIC-PLUS-2 . An executable file contains the protection code 64.
See Table 3-3 for executable file protection codes.
A nonexecutable file, on the other hand, is any file that does not contain a protection
code of 64 .
Table 3-2 lists the file protection codes for nonexecutable files.
Table 3-2: File Protection Codes for Nonexecutable Files
Meaning
Code
1
Protection against reading by owner
2
Protection against writing by owner
4
Protection against reading by owner's group
8
Protection against writing by owner's group
16
Protection against reading by anyone not in the owner's group
32
Protection against writing by anyone not in the owner's group
128
A protected data file ; overwritten with zeros when deleted
Working With Files
3-61
SHOW
SHOW
the system and its resources,
the SHOW command to display information about
Use
.
as well as the current status of your job or account
the type of information you want the SHOW command to display, use
To specify
one of the options listed in Table 4-1.
Note
additional capabilities for users with greater
The SHOW command thehas RSTS/E
System Manager's Guide for more
levels of privilege. See
information.
Format
SHOW option
Table 4-1: SHOW Command Options
Option
ACCOUNT
BUFFERS
CACHE
DATE
DAYTIME
TIME
DEVICE [dev[:] ]
DEVICE/ALL
DEVICE/ALLOCATED
DISKS
ENTRY [entry]
ENTRY/ALL
FILE [file-spec]
FILE/ALL
JOB [job-number]
JOB/ALL
4-2
System and Account Operations
Displays
Information about accounts . See this chapter for more information .
Information about available buffers, in-use and maximum job count,
hung terminal count, and total logged errors.
Current cache settings.
Current date and time.
Status of devices in use on the system, or a device you specify. See
Chapter 6 for more information .
All allocated or open devices, excluding terminals and disks. See
Chapter 6 for more information .
Status of all mounted disks. See Chapter 6 for more information .
Print or batch entries that have been queued. See Chapter 7 for
more information .
Information about installed files on the system. See the RSTS/E
System Manager's Guide for more information .
Status of jobs on the system. See this chapter for more information .
(continued on next page)
The protection code you set for a file is the total of the code numbers for the types of
protection you want. For example, the usual system default (60) protects against
reading, writing, and deleting by all users except its owner, because it is a sum of 4,
8, 16, and 32.
Table 3-4 lists common codes and their meanings.
Table 3-4: Common File Protection Codes
Code
232
Sum of Codes
128+64+32+8
124
64+32+16+8+4
104
64+32+8
62
32+16+8+4+2
60
32+16+8+4
48
32+16
42
32+8+2
40
32+8
0
Meaning
Executable file that is privileged and protected against
reading and writing by anyone except owner. However,
anyone can execute the file.
Executable file that is protected against reading, writing, and
execution by anyone except owner.
Executable file that is protected against reading and writing
by anyone except owner. However, anyone can execute the
file.
Protected against reading by anyone except owner. Protected against accidental deletion or modification by owner
or anyone else.
Protection against reading and writing by anyone except
owner.
Protection against reading and writing by anyone not in
owner's group. Can be read or written by anyone in owner's
group.
Protection against writing by anyone including owner;
readable by everyone.
Protection against writing by anyone except owner; readable
by everyone.
No protection (any user can read, write, and delete).
Working With Files
3-63
SHOW
The following is an example of the SHOW USER command, along with an explanation of each numbered element in the display:
$ SHOW USER
RSTS !i9 .0 status at 09-Jun-85t 05 :50 PM UP : 6 :22 :19
State Run-Time IRS
Jot
Who
Where
What
Size
17/64K SL
3 .4 . . .RSX
3
1t226 KB27
NET
SYSTAT 20/64K RN LcK
3 .2 . . .RSX
5
11214 KB26
4/64K - C
9 :39 .4 DCL
11
11196 KB30* DCL
8 :13 .6 . . .RSX
14
1#231 KB45
BACKUP 15/GUK SL
The display tells you the following:
System status information -You are using RSTS/E Version 9.0 software. At
the present day and time (09-Jun-85, 05 :50 PM) the system has been
operating for 6 hours, 22 minutes, and 19 seconds (Up: 6:22 :19).
Job - There are five attached jobs now in use on the system.
Who - This column displays the accounts to which the jobs belong.
Where - This column displays the keyboards controlled by the jobs. The
asterisk (*) following KB30 indicates a dial-up line.
What - Various operations (SYSTAT, BACKUP) are being performed.
Size - These numbers indicate both the actual size of your job, as well as the
size to which the job can expand. The size is shown in thousands of words or K words - of computer storage space. A word is a unit of storage in the
computer that holds 16 bits, or 2 ASCII characters, of information. In
computing, K approximates thousand-word units of memory storage (actually
1K=1024 words) . The Size column is mainly to tell you the load each job
places on the system.
State - The status of each job is determined by the operation being
performed. For example, the SYSTAT job's status is RN Lck. This means that
the job is running or waiting to run (RN), and that it is locked in memory
(Lck) during the SYSTAT operation. The SYSTAT operation is completed
when the display appears at your terminal and is followed by the DCL
prompt, which shows that your job is no longer locked in memory.
Run-Time - The system keeps track of the CPU time each job uses . For
example, the BACKUP job has used a total of 8 minutes and 13 seconds of
CPU time .
RTS (Run-Time System) - RSTS/E provides a variety of run-time systems,
including DCL and null RTS (shown on the display as ". . .RSX") .
4-4
System and Account Operations
SET PROTECTION
/QUERY
/NOQUERY
The /QUERY qualifier prompts you to state whether you want to change a file's
protection code. The default is /NOQUERY.
The /QUERY qualifier is useful only when you use wildcards in the file
specification . You can enter one of the following responses to the question mark
prompt:
Y
Yes, change the protection code
N
No, do not change the protection code
No, do not change the protection code
CTRUZ
Return to command level
For example, if you have several files named MOODY, you can determine their
protection codes as follows :
SET PROTECTION=40/QUERY MOODY .*
[52,201MOODY OAT^ Y
MOODY .DAT renamed to MOODY .DAT : 40 :
C52t201MOODY LIN? N RE
C52t2O1MOODY JON? . CTRUZ
Do not use either the /QUERY or /NOQUERY qualifiers with /DEFAULT.
/LOG
/NOLOG
Determines whether RSTS/E displays a message to confirm that a file's protection
code was changed. The default is /LOG. To suppress the message when changing
the protection code of a file (such as STRIPE.LIS), type:
PROTECTION=64 STRIPE .LIS/NOLOG RE
Unless you specify /NOLOG, a message displays:
SET PROTECTION=64 STRIPE .LIS/LOG RE
STRIPE .LIS renamed to STRIPE .LIS ":: 64>
Do not use /LOG or /NOLOG with /DEFAULT.
Working With Files
3-65
SHOW
Table 4-2: SHOW USER and SHOW JOB Abbreviations (Cont.)
Abbreviation
RJ
??
+ or -
Description
Job
is waiting forwithRJ2780
(The RJ2780
communicating
an IBMI/O.system.
) is a device for
Job's state cannot be determined by the SHOW command.
Job
has temporary
privilege.
ATheplusminus
sign sign
(+) means
thatthatthe
temporary
privilege
is
active.
(-)
means
theactive.program has temporary privilege, but that it is not
The following
descriptions
appear after one
or more ofstatus
the other
job statemayabbreviations:
Locked
Job is locked in memory for the current operation.
No Swapping Amemory.
program has requested that the job not be swapped from
Swapping In Job is currently being swapped into memory.
Swapping Out Job is currently being swapped out of memory.
Job
is swapped
outB, and
occupies
slot nn files
in swap0 through
file X; file3 of
isthedenoted
by
A,
C,
or
D
to
represent
swappingfile 0.structure. For example, A03 means slot 3 of
swapping
RTS Column (Run-time System)
Note
Any run-time system available on your system may appear in this column. Some of
the most commonly used run-time systems are listed here.
Lck
Nsw
Swi
Swo
Xnn
BASIC
BASIC2
DCL
RT1I
RSX
. .RSX
4-6
Meaning
RJ2780
Temporary
Privileges
BASIC
BASIC-PLUS-2
DCL
RT11
RSX
-
System and Account Operations
The BASIC-PLUS run-time system.
The BASIC-PLUS-2 run-time system.
The
DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) keyboard
monitor.
The RT11 run-time system.
The RSX run-time system.
"Null RTS,"
the monitorsystem.
is executing your job directly
withoutmeaning
using a run-time
System and Account Operations
This
describessuchtheas:commands that let you perform common system and
accountchapter
operations,
" Displaying system status
" Displaying account information
" Changing your password
" Sending a message to the system operator's terminal
SHOW USER
SHOW USER
The SHOW USER command displays information about the status of jobs on the
system.
Format
SHOW USER [ [ppn] ]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/ALL
/ATTACHED
/ATTACHED
/DETACHED
/OUTPUT =filespec
/TERMINAL =KBn:
Command Parameters
[ppn]
Specifies the account whose jobs are to be displayed. If you do not specify an
account, the SHOW USER command displays all attached jobs on the system.
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Specifies that all jobs, both attached and detached, be displayed.
/ATTACHED
Specifies that only attached jobs be displayed.
/DETACHED
Specifies that only detached jobs be displayed.
/OUTPUT =filespec
Specifies whether the display is directed to a file.
/TERMINAL = KBn:
Specifies that only the job logged in at a particular terminal be displayed.
4-8
System and Account Operations
SHOW
Table 4-1: SHOW Command Options (Cont.)
Option
JOB/PRIVILEGES
LIBRARIES
LOGICAL [name]
LOGICAL/ALL
LOGICAL/SYSTEM [name]
LOGICAL/SYSTEM/ALL
MEMORY
NETWORK
PRINTER [printer-name[:] ]
PRINTER/ALL
QUEUE [queue-name[ :] ]
QUEUE/ALL
RECEIVERS
RUNTIME SYSTEMS
SERVER [server-name[:] ]
SERVER/ALL
SYMBOL [symbol-name]
SYMBOL/ALL
SYSTEM
TERMINAL
USER [ppn]
USER/ALL
Displays
Privileges assigned to your account.
All installed resident libraries and dynamic regions.
Information about user-defined logical names.
Information about system-wide logical names.
Status of system memory allocation.
Names of the nodes that your system can access.
Characteristics of all printers on the system, or the printer you
specify.
Characteristics of a print or batch queue. See Chapter 7 for more
information.
Status of all declared message receivers.
Status of all installed run-time systems.
Characteristics of one or more servers in the Print/Batch Services
(PBS) facility . See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide for more
information.
Value of a specified symbol or all symbols in a local symbol table or
the global symbol table. See Chapter 6 for more information.
System default characteristics. See this chapter for more information.
Characteristics of your terminal. See Chapter 5 for more
information.
Information about attached jobs, or all jobs, on the system. See this
chapter for more information.
System and Account Status
The SHOW USER command displays information about users who are logged in and
what system resources they are using. The SHOW JOB command displays the status
of your current job. The SHOW SYSTEM command displays the default
characteristics of the system. The SHOW ACCOUNT command displays data about
an account.
System and Account Operations
4-3
CTRUT
CTRUT
In addition to using the SHOW JOB command, you can get a quick one-line status
report on your current job by pressing CTRL/T. When you press CTRL/T, RSTS/E
displays a report similar to the following:
18 GARP : :KB32 E;'(=;TAT+BAS4F "C'nR 11tIC. K+ 1G K :_, 3 ;+ .5i
The report shows:
" Your current job number (for example, 18)
" The node name of your system (for example, GARP)
" The keyboard number of your terminal (for example, KB32)
" The name of the program or operation you are currently running (for example,
SYSTAT)
" The current run-time system name (for example, BAS4F)
" The current job state (for example, ^C(OR))
" The current program size in words (for example, 11)
" The maximum program size in words (for example, (16)k)
" The run-time system size in words (for example, + 16K)
" The amount of CPU time in seconds your job has used (for example, 3.3)
" The amount of time the job has run since the last CTRL/T (for example,
Note
CTRL/T is an optional feature, so it may not be available on your
system.
4-10
System and Account Operations
SHOW
Table 4-2 shows the elements you may find in a system status display. You might
want to refer to this table when you use the SHOW USER or SHOW JOB
commands.
Table 4-2: SHOW USER and SHOW JOB Abbreviations
Abbreviation
DET
RN
RS
BF
SL
SR
FP
TT
HB
KB
-C
CR
MT,MM, or MS
LP
DT
DK,DM,DB,
DP,DL,DR
DX
Meaning
Description
Where Column
Detached
Job is detached from all terminals.
Dial-up
Job is running over a dial-up line .
Who Column
Job is not logged into the system .
State Column (Job Status)
Run
Job is running or waiting to run.
Residency
Job is waiting for residency. (The job has been swapped
out of memory and is waiting to be swapped back in.)
Buffers
Job is waiting for buffers (no space is available for I/O
buffers) .
Sleep
Job is sleeping (SLEEP statement) .
Send/Receive
Job is sleeping and is a message receiver.
File Processor
Job is waiting for file processing by the system (opening
or closing a file, file search).
Terminal
Job is waiting to perform output to a terminal.
Hibernating
Job is detached and waiting to perform I/O to or from a
terminal. (Someone must attach to the job before it can
resume execution.)
Keyboard
Job is waiting for input from a terminal.
CTRL/C
Job is at command level, awaiting a command. (In other
words, the keyboard monitor has displayed its prompt
and is waiting for input.)
Job is waiting for input from a card reader.
Card Reader
Magnetic Tape
Job is waiting for magnetic tape I/O.
Job is waiting to perform line printer output.
Line Printer
Job is waiting for DECtape I/O.
DECtape
Job is waiting to perform disk I/O.
Disk
Flexible
Diskette
Job is waiting to perform flexible diskette I/O.
(continued on next page)
System and Account Operations
4-5
SHOW ACCOUNT
SHOW ACCOUNT
The SHOW ACCOUNT command displays data about an account.
Format
SHOW ACCOUNT [dev:[ppnl ]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/ACCOUNTING DATA
/BRIEF
/BRIEF
/FULL
/OUTPUT =filespec
Command Parameters
dev:[ppn]
Specifies the disk and account to be displayed. If you do not specify the disk, the
default is SYO:; if you do not specify account, the default is your own PPN.
Command Qualifiers
/ACCOUNTING _DATA
/BRIEF
/FULL
Specifies the amount or type of information to be displayed about the account.
If you specify /ACCOUNTING _DATA, RSTS/E displays accounting information
only. For example:
SHOW ACCOUNT/ACCOUNTING-DATA RE
Account Name
Allocation
KCT CPU-Time Connect Device
1112141
4692
1041124 01 :40 :27 .3 91 :21 02:48
If you specify /BRIEF (the default), RSTS/E displays brief general information
about your account . For example :
SHOW ACCOUNT RE
Account Name
Allocation IDNCLP Last Lolin
Expires
11t2141
4692 IDN P KB2 : 19-Jun-85 10 :48 AM
4-12
System and Account Operations
SHOW
Attached and Detached Jobs
jobs.
of system status involve attached and detachedinput.
Some of the command displaysassociated
and thus allows user
An attached job is one that is RSTS/E iswithuseda terminal,
to perform various system functions,
By contrast, a detached job
on
such as printing files on the line printer.
time
manager invokes a program at system start-up
For example, supposethattherunsystem
considers
through any queue on the system . RSTS/E
to keep track of jobs because
it is not associated with a specific terminal.
that job to be detached,
by detached jobs. They
the names of programs that are runcreated
You may not recognizeRSTS/E
at your site. In
- some could the
be
need not be standard programsprograms
manager.
primarily by systemSystem
addition, some of thesemanagement areare used
Manager's
described
in
the
RSTS/E
Programs for system
Guide.
The following is an example of a display produced by the SHOW USER/ALL or
SHOW JOB/ALL commands. Note that both attached and detached jobs are
displayed:
RSTS V9 .0 status at
Jot
Who
Where
1
1t2
Det
Det
1r2
4
1 .196 KB30
7
1t2
Det
1^
1r?-17 PlJ17
15
11214 KD26
Det
17
1t2
09-Jun-85t 05 :50
What
Size
ERRCPY 11/64K
OPSRUN 22/64K
DCL
4/G4K
QUMRUN 24/G4K
DCL
14/64K
SYSTAT ^0/G4K
PBS . . . 18/64K
PM UP : 6 :22 :34
State
Run-Time Pri/RB RTS
10 .2
0/6 . . .RSX
SR A40
.7
-8/6
. . .RSX
SL
2
:44
^C
DCL
9 :39 .4 -8/6
0/6 . . .RS :(
1 :04 .5
SL
8 :52 .8 -16/G DCL
RN
5 .^ -8/6 . . .RSX
RN LcK
6 :00 .0 -8/6 . . .RSX
SL
System and Account Operations
4-7
SET
SET
Use SET and an option to define or change certain default characteristics, such as the
default protection codes the system assigns to your files.
SET option
Table 4-3 lists the options that you can use with the SET command.
Table 4-3: SET Command Options
Option
ENTRY
I Modifies
informationan . entry ona printor batch queue. See Chapter 7for more
I
FILE
HOST
LOG FILE
PASSWORD
PROTECTION
TERMINAL
Function
Specifies the characteristics of a file. See Chapter 3 for more information.
Specifies the network node to connect your terminal to, so you can log in
I to that node. SeeChapter 1 for more information.
enables
or disables. output
to a log filSeee thatChapter
you previously
I Selectively
opened
with
the
OPEN/LOG
FILEcommand.
5for more
information.
changeyour password. Seefollowing sections in this chapter for
I Letsmoreyouinformation.
I Determines
information. the protection codeof afile . See Chapter 3 for more
I Specifies
information.the characteristics of a terminal. See Chapter 5 for more
Note
The following SET options are used in command procedures. See the RSTS/E Guide
to Writing Command Procedures for more information on how to use these options
[NO]CONTROL=C I Controls CTRL/C checking within a command procedure.
[NO]DATA
[NO]ECHO
[NO]ON
[NO]VERIFY
4-14
I Controls
commandaprogram
file . or a command
from yourwhether
terminal,DCLratherreadsthandatafromarequiredby
I Controls
procedurewhether
execution.terminal output is enabled or disabledduring command
I Controls error checking within a command procedure.
I Controls
procedurewhether
execution.DCLcommand linesaredisplayed during command
System and Account Operations
J
SHOW JOB
SHOW JOB
also displays information about the
The SHOW JOB command, like SHOW USER,more
status of jobs on the system. This command is convenient, however, for quickly
showing the status of only your own job.
Format
SHOW JOB [job-number]
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
/ATTACHED
/DETACHED
/OUTPUT =filespec
/TERMINAL = KBn:
Command Parameters
job-number
a job number,
Specifies the the job number to be displayed. If you do not specify
example:
displays
only
your
own
job.
For
the SHOW JOB command
SHOW JOB
5 11214 KB26 SYSTAT 20/64K RN LcK 4 .2 -8/6 . . .RSX
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Specifies that all jobs, both attached and detached, be displayed.
/ATTACHED
Specifies that only-attached jobs be displayed.
/DETACHED
Specifies that only detached jobs be displayed.
/OUTPUT =filespec
Specifies whether the display is directed to a file.
/TERMINAL = KBn:
Specifies that only the job logged in at a particular terminal be displayed.
System and Account Operations
4-9
SET PASSWORD
" 0 through 9
including spaces, except the
9 Any printable character (for example,
.
question mark (?) character
DIGITAL recommends the following guidelines to minimize the chances that unauthorized users can discover your password either by trial-and-error guessing or a
systematic search:
e Do not use names or words that could be readily associated with any user (for
example, WRITER, GUEST, or any part of your name).
" Change your password at least once a month.
When you type your password, RSTS/E does not display (echo) your input ; this helps
ensure secrecy. To protect against typing errors that you cannot see when you enter
your new password, you must type the new password twice. If you do make an error,
an error message displays and the password remains unchanged.
Note
In some cases, the system manager may have modified your account
with a special qualifier (/LOOKUP) . If so, you will not be able to use a
password over six characters long, and you can only use letters and
digits. See your system manager if you have trouble changing your
password .
4-16
System and Account Operations
SHOW SYSTEM
SHOW SYSTEM
The SHOW SYSTEM command displays the default characteristics of the system:
Format
SHOW SYSTEM
SHOW SYSTEM RE
System
name ::
Date
format
Time
format
: default :
Magtape
label
Magtape
Power faildensity
restartdefault
delay: :
Job
limit.lobs
: :
Current
Password Prompting :
RSTS
V9.0 GARP : :
Alphabetic
AM-PM
DOS
800
BPI
13 seconds
4025
Network and Dialup users
System and Account Operations
4-11
SET PASSWORD
SET PASSWORD
The SET PASSWORD command lets you change your own password at any time to
provide a greater level of protection against unauthorized users of the system. To
maintain secrecy, you should change your password frequently.
Usually, all users are granted the privilege to do this; however, in some cases the
system manager may restrict which users have the right to change their passwords.
Format
SET PASSWORD dev:[ppnl
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/[NO]LOG
/LOG
Prompts
Old password: old password
New password: new password
New password again, for verification: new password
Command Parameters
dev:[ppn]
Specifies the disk and account for which the password is to be changed. Unless
you have sufficient privileges, you can only change your own account's password.
If you do not specify the disk, the default is SYO:; if you do not specify an
account, the default is your own PPN.
Command Qualifiers
/LOG
/NOLOG
Specifies whether the following message, confirming that the password was
changed, displays:
Password set for account dev :CPPri7 .
The default is /LOG.
Passwords can contain from 6 to 14 characters. The characters can be in uppercase,
lowercase, or a combination. Valid characters are:
9 A through Z
9 a through z
System and Account Operations
4-15
This change (replacing "No Broadcast" with "Broadcast") is now shown in the
SHOW TERMINAL display:
SHOW TERMINAL RE
Terminal : KB1 :
Device-Type : VT100
Scope
Lowercase
Tat
No Form
Resume=Control_C BreaK
TTSync
Hostsvnc
CRFi11=0
Broadcast
Control=(R#TtC)
No Control= ;(
Speed not settable No Eight-Bit
Width=80
No Delimiter
Interactive
Many of these characteristics (such as CRFill =n, Parity, and TTYSYNC) need to be
set only once for the terminal, so you may never need to reset them. Usually the
system manager sets these characteristics when the terminal is first connected to the
system. However, characteristics such as Broadcast and Width= n depend on your
preference for using the terminal. See the SET TERMINAL command in this chapter
for a description of characteristics you can set.
There are no true "default" characteristics. That is, if you do not specify a
characteristic, it is either implied by a terminal type (such as /VT100), or it remains
constant when you change other settings. A terminal characteristic remains the same
unless you either change it or specify a different terminal type. The SET TERMINAL
command description lists the terminal types you can specify.
Although RSTS/E assigns a set of predefined characteristics for each specific terminal
type, you can reset any of these characteristics. For example, suppose you type:
SET TERMINAL/DEVICE_TYPE=VT2U0 RE
RSTS/E now assumes that your terminal has a set of characteristics that correspond
to a VT240. You can check these characteristics with the SHOW TERMINAL
command, and change them if you want .
5-2
Terminal Status and Operations
REQUEST
The REQUEST command displays a message at the system operator's terminal.
Format
REQUEST
["]message["]
When you use the REQUEST command to send a message to an operator, the
message is displayed at the operator services console.
Command Parameters
message
Specifies the text of a message to be displayed at the operator services console .
For example:
REQUEST Do we need more Paper for the line Printer? RE
The message text can have a maximum of 128 characters.
System and Account Operations
4-17
SHOW TERMINAL
/FULL
Specifies a display showing additional characteristics. For example:
$ SHOW TERMINAL/FULL RE
Terminal : KB1 :
Device-Type : VT100
Tab
No Form
Lowercase
TTSync
Hostsync
Resume=Control_C
Control=( RtTtC)
No Control= ;;
Broadcast
Width=80
No Delimiter
Speed not settable
Interactive
No Parity
No Escape-Sequence
UP-Arrow
No Alt-Mode
Restricted
No Autobaud
No ANSI
No Advanced-Video
No Printer-Port
No Regis
Sixel
No Select-Erase
No Loadable_Characters
Scope
Break
CRFill=O
No Eight-Bit
No Local-Echo
No Dialup
132_Colurnns
No Katakana
No User-Defined-Keys
/PERMANENT
/NOPERMANENT
Specifies whether the display shows the permanent characteristics set for your
terminal by the system manager. The default is /NOPERMANENT, showing the
characteristics you have set for the current terminal session. When you log out,
RSTS/E resets your terminal to the permanent characteristics.
5-4
Terminal Status and Operations
Terminal Status and Operations NJ
This chapter describes various operations you perform on your terminal, including:
Displaying and setting your terminal's characteristics
e Creating a terminal log file to save a copy of a terminal session
Use thethe SHOW
TERMINALcommand
commandto change
to displaythatinformation
aboutUse your
terminal
and
SET
TERMINAL
information.
the
OPEN/LOG-FILE
and
CLOSE/LOG-FILE
commands
to begin andenableend andterminal
logging
to
a
f
i
l
e
,
and
the
SET
LOG_FILE
command
to
selectively
disable
logging within the log file.
Displaying and Setting Terminal Characteristics
The SHOW TERMINAL command, described in this chapter, produces a display
similar to the following:
SHOW TERMINAL E
Terminal : KB1 :
Device-Type : VT100
Tab
NoHostsync
Form
Lowercase
Scope
TTSync
Resume=Control_C
Break
Control=(R
#TtC)
No
Control=X
No
Broadcast
CRFi11=0
Width=8c7
No
Delimiter
Speed
not
settable
No Ei~ht_Bit
Interactive
Now, suppose you want to change the No Broadcast characteristic (which prevents
messages from other users from appearing on your terminal) to Broadcast (which
allows
these messages). You use the following SET TERMINAL command to change
this characteristic
:
$ SET TERMINAL/BROADCAST RE
SET TERMINAL
Command Qualifiers
/132 _COLUMNS
/NO132 _COLUMNS
Specifies whether the terminal can display single-width characters in an array of
24 lines by 132 columns.
/ADVANCED _VIDEO
/NOADVANCED _VIDEO
Specifies whether the terminal supports the Advanced Video Option (AVO),
which includes additional character attributes, screen memory, and ROM sockets .
/ALT _MODE
/NOALT _MODE
Specifies whether the system treats ASCII 027, 125, and 126 as ESCAPE. If you
specify /NOALT_MODE, the system treats only ASCII 027 code as ESCAPE.
/ANSI
/NOANSI
Specifies whether the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences.
BREAK
/NOBREAK
Specifies whether the system translates the BREAK key as a CTRL/C character
(Binary 3). If you specify /NOBREAK, the system translates the BREAK key as a
NULL character (Binary 0).
/BROADCAST
/NOBROADCAST
Specifies whether the terminal receives system broadcast messages.
/CONTROL= [(option[,option. . ..1)]
/NOCONTROL = [(option[,option.. . .1)]
Specifies the following:
/CONTROL= R enables the CTRL/R retype facility.
/NOCONTROL =R disables the CTRL/R retype facility.
/CONTROL=T enables the CTRL/T job status display facility.
/NOCONTROL=T disables the CTRL/T job status display facility.
/CONTROL= C means that CTRL/Cs are trapped and handled.
/NOCONTROL =C means that CTRL/Cs are ignored by the system.
/CONTROL= X means that CTRL/X clears the type-ahead buffer.
/NOCONTROL =X means that CTRL/X is interpreted as data.
5-6
Terminal Status and Operations
The system assigns physical device names to peripheral devices, such as:
e Line printers (LP:)
e Terminals (KB:, for "keyboard")
e Magnetic tape drives (MM:, MT:, or MS:, depending on the kind of tape drive)
e Disk drives (such as DB:, DM:, or DR:, depending on the kind of disk)
Note that a physical device name consists of two letters, optionally followed by a unit
number, and always ended with a colon (: ). The alphabetic characters are generally
an abbreviation of the device's generic name. The unit number uniquely identifies the
device itself or the drive on which it is mounted .
You can use physical device names in all operations that let you specify a device. For
example, you can display the characteristics of a specific terminal by including a
physical device name, such as KB2 :
SHOW TERMINAL KB2 : RE
Similarly, you can determine which disk or magnetic tape you want to use in file
transfer operations. For instance, assume you have a tape mounted on a tape drive
named MT2 : . To copy file RACEME in your directory to the tape on drive MT2:,
type:
COPY RACEME MT2 : RE
Another example of a physical device name is SY:, which refers to the public disk
structure. You can therefore use SY: to refer to the public disk structure, regardless of
the drive on which a disk is located. Such an assignment is useful if, for example, the
drive on which the disk is usually mounted is put offline for maintenance, and the
system disk is temporarily mounted on another drive. Then, in order to reference
accounts on the system disk, you do not need to adapt your commands or programs
to fit hardware changes.
If you do not specify a physical device name, the system assumes the public structure
(SY: ) . For non-file-structured devices (for example, a line printer) you only need to
specify the physical device name; the system ignores any specified file name, type, or
directory.
Physical device names are also often used in logical name assignments (discussed
later in this chapter). The following example assigns the logical name MARCH to
DB2:, which is a disk drive:
ASSIGN DB2 : MARCH RE
6-2
Working with Devices
SET TERMINAL
SET TERMINAL
The SET TERMINAL command lets you specify the characteristics of your terminal .
Note
The SET TERMINAL command has additional capabilities for users
with greater levels of privilege. See the RSTS/E System Manager's
Guide for more information.
Format
SET TERMINAL [KBn[:] ]
Command Qualifiers
/[NO]132_COLUMNS
/[NO]ADVANCED_VIDEO
/[NO]ALT-MODE
/[NO]ANSI
/[NO]BREAK
/[NO]BROADCAST
/[NO]CONTROL= [(option[, option.. . .1)]
/[NO]CRFILL[ =n]
/[NO]DELIMITER[ =c]
/DEVICE TYPE =terminal type
/[NO]EIGHT BIT
/[NO]ESCAPE- SEQUENCE
/[NO]FORM-FEED
/HARDCOPY
/[NO]HOST-SYNC
/INQUIRE
/[NO]KATAKANA
/[NO]LOADABLE _CHARACTERS
/[NO]LOCAL-ECHO
Command Qualifiers (Cont.)
/LOWERCASE[ =INPUT: OUTPUT]
/[NO]PARITY[ = option]
/[NO]PRINTER_PORT
/[NO]REGIS
/RESET
/RESUME = [ANY: CONTROL _C]
/SCOPE
/[NO]SELECT- ERASE
/SETUP =file-name
/[NO]SIXEL
/SPEED = (input[,output)]
/[NO]TAB
/[NO]TTSYNC
/TYPE = n
/[NO]UP-ARROW
/UPPERCASE[ =INPUT: OUTPUT]
/[NO]USER- DEFINED KEYS
/WIDTH =n
Command Parameters
[KBn[:]]
Specifies the terminal whose characteristics are to be set. Unless you have
sufficient privilege to specify other terminals, you can only set the characteristics of
your own terminal .
Terminal Status and Operations
5-5
Note
You
LPn:
, DTn:
,maximum
DXn:, KBn:number
, MMn:of, MTn:
, units
and MSn:
wherecann. LP:isreference
between
0
and
the
such
the
on
,
DT:
,
DX:
,
MM:
,
MT:
,
and
are
each
the
system
same as
specifying unit 0 of the related device. MS:
Ifdesignators
your systemMS:hasandonlyMT:TS11,
TU80,
or IfTSV05
tape units,
the TE16,
are
the
same.
your
system
has
only
TU16,
the same.TU45, or TU77 tape units, the designators MM: and MT: are
If you do not specify a unit number, the defaults are:
Disk
- Public
structure
Keyboard
Yours
All other devices - Unit 0
Use
the inSHOW
DEVICE
command,
described
later
in this
chapter,
for a thatlist ofis not
devices
use
on
your
system.
If
you
specify
a
device
or
type
of
device
part of your system's configuration, the system displays the following error message:
?Not a valid device
An underscore (_) before a name suppresses any interpretation of the name as a
logical name. For example, if you assign the logical name MTO: to a disk, you specify
MTO: when you want to refer to magnetic tape unit 0.
Allocating Devices
Sometimes you may need to allocate (reserve), a device for your exclusive use. Only
one job at a time can use an allocated device.
You can only allocate devices that are not already in use. For example, if another
user is already using a tape drive, you cannot immediately allocate it to yourself. If
you attempt to do so, the system displays the following error message:
?Device not available
Assigning and Allocating Devices
The ALLOCATE command allocates a device to you . ALLOCATE can also assign a
logical name for the device you are using.
Use the ALLOCATE command to assign logical names and allocate devices for your
use. Use the ASSIGN command to assign logical names only. In either case, you get
an error message if you try to exceed the number of logical names you can assign.
The DEALLOCATE command releases a device from your exclusive use, but only
the DEASSIGN command cancels the logical name assignment.
6-4
Working with Devices
SET TERMINAL
/ESCAPE_SEQUENCE
/NOESCAPE _SEQUENCE
Specifies whether the system treats an ESC character (value 27) as an indication
of an incoming escape sequence. The system does not echo either the ESC
character or the characters in the sequence.
If you specify /NOESCAPE_SEQUENCE, the system treats the ESC character as
a line terminator and echoes it as a dollar sign ($) character.
/FORM_FEED
/NOFORM_FEED
Specifies whether the hardware form feed and vertical tab control are enabled.
The system transmits form feed and vertical tab characters without translation.
If you specify /NOFORM_FEED, the hardware form feed and vertical tab control
are disabled. The system transmits four line feed characters in place of a form
feed or vertical tab character.
/HARDCOPY
/SCOPE
Specifies whether the terminal is a hardcopy or a CRT display device. If you
specify /HARDCOPY, then /NOTTSYNC is set by default.
If you specify /SCOPE, then /TTSYNC is set by default.
/HOST_SYNC
/NOHOST_SYNC
Specifies whether the terminal has special hardware that lets the computer
interrupt character transmission by sending an XOFF character (Value 19) to the
terminal. The computer instructs the terminal to resume character transmission by
sending an XON character (Value 17) to the terminal .
/INQUIRE
Interrogates the terminal by sending an ANSI ESCAPE identifying sequence to
determine the terminal type . The system then sets the appropriate terminal
characteristics.
If the terminal does not respond within five seconds, the system searches the
default file $TERDFL.SYS for the terminal's default characteristics . If an entry is
found, the system sets the specified characteristics; if no entry is found, the system
displays an error message.
This qualifier causes the terminal's type-ahead buffer to be cleared .
You should only use the /INQUIRE qualifier on DIGITAL terminals . (However,
DIGITAL does not support it on LA36 terminals.)
/KATAKANA
/NOKATAKANA
Specifies whether the terminal supports the Katakana character set.
5-8
Terminal Status and Operations
language processors, and, possibly, the library of system programs. The other disk
packs (the public disks) contain information created by the users . (The system disk
also may contain user programs and data, which are stored in files.)
When you are logged in to the system and working with a disk file, you are usually
not concerned about which disk in the public structure happens to contain your file .
The particular disk is chosen by the system according to current time-sharing needs.
Each of the disks contains a master list of users' accounts, and, for each account, a
list of all files stored under that account. By using these lists, the system is able to
locate your file when you request it from your terminal.
Private Disks
A good deal of system file activity, such as creation, access, editing, and deletion,
takes place on the public disk structure. Because it is the largest constantly available
medium of file storage, it is generally the busiest. However, not all the disks on the
system need be in the public structure. Some of them may be private disks, which
belong to a single user account or perhaps to a few user accounts. (These accounts
alone are on the disk.)
An important difference between a private disk and one on the public structure is that
you can always create a file on the public structure, whereas you can do so on a
private disk only if you have a directory there . On both types of disks, file protection
codes govern your read and write access to existing files. Another difference is that a
private disk can be mounted or dismounted at any time, whereas a public disk must
remain mounted during timesharing. This difference is of special concern to the
owner(s) of the private disk and to your system manager, who determines which
disks on the system are public and which are private.
Working with Magnetic Tapes
Magnetic tape is a compact, relatively inexpensive medium that can provide large
amounts of offline storage. One reel of magnetic tape can store many files .
Unlike disks, magnetic tape allows only sequential access to files.
To copy files from a tape, you should:
1. Allocate the drive. (This step is optional, but it provides security.)
2. Physically mount the tape.
3. Issue the MOUNT command. (This step is optional, if the tape has default
density and format.) The MOUNT command also allocates the drive, if you did
not allocate it already.
4. Copy files from the tape using the COPY command. (With the COPY
command, you can copy a file that requires multiple tapes. User programs can
access tape
files if they are stored on only one tape, but system programs can
files
access stored on more than one tape.)
6-6
Working with Devices
SET TERMINAL
To set more than one of these options on a single command line, you can
combine them in a list. For example :
SET TERMINAL/C0NTR0L=(RtTtC)
/CRFILL[ =n]
/NOCRFILL
Specifies the carriage return fill factor, where n is between 0 and 6. The default is
/NOCRFILL, meaning that no fill characters are generated .
/DELIMITER[ =c]
/NODELIMITER
Specifies a private delimiter. If the argument is a character within quotation marks
(for example, /DELIMITER = ".<tab>" ), that character becomes the private
delimiter.
If the argument is a number (for example, /DELIMITER =9), the private delimiter
becomes the character whose binary value matches that number. Thus, any
ASCII character whose binary value is between 1 and 127 can be a private
delimiter.
The /NODELIMITER qualifier cancels any private delimiter previously set with
/DELIMITER.
/DEVICE TYPE =terminal type
Sets the default characteristics for the specified terminal type. The following
terminal types can be specified with this qualifier:
LA12
LA34
LA36
LA38
LA50
LA100
LA120
LA180S
VK100
VT52
VT55
VT100
VT101
VT102
VT105
VT125
VT131
VT132
VT220
VT240
Note
You can specify the following terminal types without explicitly using
the /DEVICE _TYPE qualifier: LA34, LA36, LA38, LA120, VT52, or
VT100.
/EIGHT_BIT
/NOEIGHT_BIT
Specifies whether the terminal supports eight bit characters.
Terminal Status and Operations
5-7
Note
Where ANSI is used in RSTS/E documentation, it refers to the
RSTS/E implementation of American National Standard X3.27-1978,
magnetic tape labels and file structure for information exchange .
RSTS/E implements a subset of this standard.
In addition, RSTS/E uses U (undefined) record format, which is not
defined in ANSI standard X3.27-1978.
The advantages of using DOS tape are:
" Files are associated with PPNs.
" Files are better for storing binary files that have no attributes, such as OBJ
(object) or .BAC (compiled BASIC-PLUS) files.
When you initialize a tape with the INITIALIZE command, you can select either ANSI
or DOS format. Later, when you mount the tape, you must again tell the system
whether the tape is in ANSI or DOS format. If you do not specify a format, the
system uses the default determined by your system manager.
There are two ways to tell if a tape containing data is written in DOS or ANSI format:
" Look for a label on the tape. The person who put data on the tape may have
placed a label on the tape and written DOS or ANSI on it.
" Try mounting the tape as either DOS or ANSI. When you mount a tape on a
drive, RSTS/E checks the format. If you entered the right format, you can
continue with tape operations. If you entered the incorrect format, RSTS/E
displays the error message ?Bad directory for device, in which case you can try
again using the other format.
If the tape is in ANSI format, then files on the tape do not have PPNs. They have
only names and types.
If the tape is in DOS format, then each file on the tape has a PPN. The PPN of a
tape is like the directory on a disk file. For example, a DOS format tape on drive
MTO: might contain a file whose specification is:
MT0 : 1 1 t21 SL0W .RUN
Another file on the tape might have the specification:
MT0 :13t491000D .RUN
6-8
Working with Devices
SET TERMINAL
/REGIS
/NOREGIS
Specifies whether the terminal supports the Remote Graphic Instruction Set
(REGIS).
/RESET
Resets the terminal's characteristics, if you have changed them, back to the
permanent set of characteristics that the system manager originally assigned for
that terminal.
/RESUME =[ANY:CONTROL_C]
Defines XON/XOFF processing. The argument ANY enables typeout and echo
when you type any character after XOFF. The argument CONTROL-C enables
typeout and echo only when XON or CTRL/C are entered after XOFF.
/SELECT_ERASE
/NOSELECT _ERASE
Specifies whether the terminal supports the selectively eraseable character
attribute.
/SETUP =file-name
Sends the specified file's data, in binary mode, to the terminal. If you specify the
file name alone, the system assumes the file is in the user's account on the system
disk with a file type of .ESC.
Use this qualifier to initialize a terminal for which special software settings must be
made.
/SIXEL
/NOSIXEL
Specifies whether the terminal supports Sixel Graphics, which transfers binary
graphic images between the system and the terminal or the terminal and a printer.
/SPEED =(input[,output)]
Specifies the speed at which the terminal sends and/or receives data. If you
specify only one speed, RSTS/E uses that speed for both input and output.
/TAB
/NOTAB
Specifies whether hardware tab control is enabled. The system transmits tab
characters without translation.
If you specify /NOTAB, hardware tab control is disabled. To move to the next tab
stop, the system transmits the correct number of space characters instead of the
tab character.
5-10
Terminal Status and Operations
DEALLOCATE
DEALLOCATE
The DEALLOCATE command releases a device that you reserved for private use, so
that other users may have access to it. (However, note that DEALLOCATE does not
deassign any logical name you may have assigned to the device ; for that you need
the DEASSIGN command .)
Format
DEALLOCATE [device-name[:] ]
Command Qualifiers
ALL
Prompts
Device: device-name[ :]
Command Parameters
device-name[ :]
Specifies the name of the device to be deallocated. The device name can be a
physical device name or a logical name. The device name parameter is required
unless you specify the /ALL qualifier.
Command Qualifiers
ALL
Requests that all devices you have currently allocated be deallocated.
If you specify /ALL, you cannot specify a device name.
6-10
Working with Devices
SET TERMINAL
/LOADABLE _CHARACTERS
/NOLOADABLE _CHARACTERS
Specifies whether the terminal supports dynamically redefinable character sets,
allowing the terminal to load fonts which can then be invoked as a character set.
/LOCAL_ECHO
/NOLOCAL ECHO
The /LOCAL _ECHO qualifier specifies that the system does not echo characters
received from the terminal. This qualifier is used only for terminals that have their
own local echo.
If you specify /NOLOCAL_ECHO, characters are sent to the system, which
echoes each character received and translates certain characters as to their action.
For example, the CR character echoes as a carriage return and line feed
sequence.
/LOWERCASE[ =INPUT:OUTPUT]
/UPPERCASE[ = INPUT:OUTPUT]
Specifies the following:
/LOWERCASE enables lowercase for input and output.
/UPPERCASE disables lowercase for input and output.
/LOWERCASE= INPUT enables lowercase for input.
/LOWERCASE =OUTPUT enables lowercase for output.
/UPPERCASE = INPUT disables lowercase for input.
/UPPERCASE= OUTPUT disables lowercase for output.
If you specify /LOWERCASE or /LOWERCASE= INPUT, then /NOALT MODE
is set by default. If you specify /UPPERCASE or /UPPERCASE= INPUT, then
/ALT-MODE is set by default.
/PARITY[ = option]
/NOPARITY
Specifies whether EVEN or ODD parity option is set, in which case the system
sends characters to the terminal with the parity bit set for either even or odd
parity, but ignores the parity bit on characters received.
If you specify /NOPARITY, the system ignores the parity bit on characters it
receives and treats the parity bit on characters it transmits to the terminal as a
data bit.
/PRINTER_PORT
/NOPRINTER_PORT
Specifies whether the terminal has a printer port.
Terminal Status and Operations
5-9
MOUNT
Depending on whether you are mounting a tape or disk, the MOUNT command:
Specifies a tape's density and format
Checks that a tape or disk's device specification is correct
Checks that a tape or disk has been initialized
Verifies that a tape or disk drive had not been allocated to another user
Allocates a tape drive (reserves it for your use)
Verifies that a disk or tape is physically loaded on the device you specified
Verifies that the pack-id on a disk or the label on a tape (except for DOS tape)
matches the label you specified
e Allows you to mount a private pack for your own use
"
e
e
e
e
e
e
Command Parameters
device-name [ : ]
Specifies the physical or logical name of the drive on which a device is to be
logically mounted.
pack-id
logical-name
label
Identifies the tape or disk to be mounted. The pack-id, logical-name, or label can
have from one to six alphanumeric characters.
The label is required when you mount a disk or a tape in ANSI format. It is not
required (and is ignored) when you mount a tape in DOS or foreign format.
Command Qualifiers
/DENSITY = n
Specifies the density in bits per inch (bpi) at which the tape will be read or
written. This qualifier is valid only with tapes.
You can specify 800 or 1600 bpi, depending on the density supported by the
tape drive. The default density depends on your installation .
/FORMAT=ANSI
/FORMAT = DOS
/FORMAT = FOREIGN
Indicates whether the tape is in a standard format used by the RSTS/E operating
system. This qualifier is valid only with tapes.
6-12
Working with Devices
Creating a Log File of a Terminal Session
and use a terminal log file to save a copy file,
of theall
This section tells youduring
how toa create
at your terminal. AfterfileyouNote
open theyoulog can use
output that appearswritten to session
terminal are saved in the command
. that
characters that areeither at thetheinteractive
procedure.
level or within a
a terminal log file open and terminal logging
changes
dollar
is
in
effect,
DCL
Whenever a log file isdollar sign followed by a period ($.), as a reminder thatitslogging
sign prompt ($) to a
is in effect.
written to a log file are the same characters output to the terminal,
The characters
following
exceptions:
with the
" Messages broadcast to the terminal do not appear in the log file.
" If you enter CTRL/T at the terminal, neither the ^T nor the one line status
display appear in the log file.
" If you enter CTRL/R at the terminal, neither the ^ R nor the redisplayed line
appear in the log file.
disables terminal output, such as entering
Note that any condition or command that
output
to the log file. In addition, if you enable
CTRL/O at the terminal, also disables
procedure, the SET NOVERIFY command
a log file during execution of a command
and to the log file. The
disables output of DCL command lines both todatatheandterminal
SET NOECHO command disables outputthe of file. command lines to the terminal
only; output continues to be written to log
The following sections describe the commands that you use to:
" Open a terminal log file
" Close a terminal log file
" Selectively disable and enable output to the log file
5-12
Terminal Status and Operations
INITIALIZE
INITIALIZE
The INITIALIZE command deletes any data on a tape and writes a new label.
INITIALIZE allocates the tape drive if it is not already allocated .
Use INITIALIZE to prepare a new tape or a tape that contains no useful files. Use
MOUNT to prepare an already initialized tape that contains files you want to keep.
Note
See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide for information on using
INITIALIZE with disks.
Format
INITIALIZE device-name[:] [label]
Command Qualifiers
/FORMAT = ANSI
/FORMAT = DOS
/DENSITY = n
Prompts
Device:
device-name [ :]
Label:
label
Proceed (Y or N):
Note
The label prompt appears only for a tape in ANSI format or if
/FORMAT= ANSI is specified. The proceed prompt asks you to
confirm whether you want to initialize the tape. Type yes or no
(Y or N) in response to the prompt .
Command Parameters
device-name [ : ]
Specifies the name of the drive on which the tape is physically mounted.
label
Specifies the identification to be encoded on the tape. You can specify a
maximum of six alphanumeric characters. For an ANSI-format tape, the label is
required. For a DOS-format tape, the label is ignored, because DOS tapes do not
have labels.
6-44
Working with Devices
SET TERMINAL
/-I7SYNC
/NOTTSYNC
Specifies whether the system responds to the CTRL/S combination (XOFF) by
interrupting character transmission and to the CTRIL/Q combination (XON) by
resuming character transmission.
If you specify /NOTTSYNC, the CTRL/S and CTRL/Q combinations have no
special meaning.
/TYPE =n
Sets the value of the terminal's type code, which identifies the terminal type in the
SHOW TERMINAL display. Values 0-127 are reserved for DIGITAL terminals.
Values 128-255 can be used to identify other terminals.
/UP-ARROW
/NOUP _ARROW
Specifies whether the system echoes a control and graphic character combination
as the circumflex (^) character (Value 94), followed by the proper graphic. For
example, CTRL/E prints out as ^E.
If you specify /NOUP ARROW, the system echoes control and graphic character
combinations as is.
/USER_DEFINED _KEYS
/MOUSER_DEFINED __KEYS
Specifies whether the terminal supports User Defined Keys (UDKs), which let you
save a full command string and invoke it with a single key.
/WIDTH= n
Sets the width of the terminal's print line to n, which can be between 1 and 254.
Terminal Status and Operations
5-11
DISMOUNT
DISMOUNT
The DISMOUNT command releases a disk or tape previously accessed with a
MOUNT command. Use the DISMOUNT command before you take the drive off
line, or before you physically dismount the tape or disk.
Note
The DISMOUNT command has additional capabilities for users with
greater levels of privilege. See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide
for more information.
The DISMOUNT command deallocates the device if it was allocated to you. You
cannot DISMOUNT a device if there are open files on it. If you try, RSTS/E displays
the error message:
?Account or device in use
Format
DISMOUNT device-name[ :] [label]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
(for tapes only)
/UNLOAD
/[NO]UNLOAD
Prompts
Device: device-name[:]
Pack-id: pack-id label
Command Parameters
device-name[:]
Specifies the name of the device to be dismounted. If you omit a unit number,
the default depends on the type of device.
label
Specifies the identification label of the device. Unless you have additional
privilege, you must specify a disk's pack-id label to dismount it. For tapes, the
label is optional (and is ignored).
Command Qualifiers
/UNLOAD
/NOUNLOAD
Rewinds and unloads the tape. This protects the tape against unauthorized access
by other users. The default is /UNLOAD.
6-16
Working with Devices
OPEN/LOG-FILE
/ENABLE
Indicates that output should be logged to the file. This qualifier is the default
when you issue the OPEN/LOG _FILE command.
/REPLACE
/NOREPLACE
Specifies whether to replace an existing file with a new file. If the log file that you
specify already exists:
" The /REPLACE qualifier tells RSTS/E to delete the existing file and create a
new file.
" The /NOREPLACE qualifier tells RSTS/E not to replace the file if it exists; in
this case, an error message displays.
If you specify neither qualifier, then RSTS/E issues a warning message and asks if
you want to replace the file.
Note that this qualifier conflicts with the /APPEND qualifier.
/TIME _STAMP
/NOTIME _STAMP
Indicates whether to prefix each line in the log file with a date/time stamp. The
default is /NOTIME _STAMP . However, if you specify /TIME _STAMP, RSTS/E
prefixes each line in the log file with a date/time stamp specifying the date and
time that the line was copied to the log file. Note that the date and time format is
based on the system defaults that your system manager establishes. The date/time
fields occupy the first 22 characters of each line.
Here is an example using the OPEN/LOG _FILE command:
$ OPEN/LOG_FILE/TIME_STAMP TERM .LOG
This command opens the log file TERM. LOG. The TIME _STAMP qualifier specifies
that the date and time is to precede each line written to the log file . Note that after
you open the log file, the prompt changes to $. to remind you that a log file is active.
5-14
Terminal Status and Operations
SHOW DEVICE
Table 6-3 contains the abbreviations included in the SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED
and SHOW DISKS displays.
Table 6-3: Abbreviations in SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED and SHOW DISKS Displays
Abbreviation
AS
OPEN
DOS
ANSI
TRN
Pub
Pri
NFS
R-O
DLW
DP
Lck
NFF
Job n
Dirty
Logical Names
Meaning
Description
SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED Command
Device is explicitly allocated to ajob.
Assigned
Device is open on a channel.
Open
Magnetic
DOS
format. tape is assigned with DOS (Disk Operating System)
Magnetic
ANSI
Institute)assigned
format.with ANSI (American National
Standardstapeis
The monitor is using the device for DECnet communications.
Network
Services
SHOW DISKS Command
Public
Disk is public.
Private
Disk is private.
Non-fileDisk is open as a non-file-structured device.
structured
Read-only
Disk unit is read-only (write-protected).
Date
(modify),entries.
rather than date of last access, is
Write of Last Date
storedofinlastfilewrite
accounting
Dual-Ported The
disk cantime.beTheaccessed
different RSTS/E systems at
the same
disk mustby twobe read-only.
Locked
Disk is in a locked state.
New
New
First Files
tory. files on the disk are put at the beginning of the direcJob n
Private
NFS). disk is allocated to job n (reported with PRI and
Dirty
Disk needs rebuilding (reported with PRI, LCK, and R-O).
Logical names let you keep programs and command files independent of the physical
locations of those files. They also provide a covenient shorthand way to specify
devices and directories that you refer to frequently .
6-18
Working with Devices
OPEN/LOG-FILE
OPEN/LOG-FILE
The OPEN/LOG _FILE command opens a disk file for terminal logging . You can
issue the OPEN/LOG _FILE command either interactively or within a command
procedure.
You can only open one log file at any given time. If a log file is already open when
you attempt to open a second log file, RSTS/E issues an error message and does not
open the second file; instead, the current log file remains open.
Format
OPEN/LOG- FILE file-spec
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/APPEND
See discussion
/DISABLE
/ENABLE
/ENABLE
/ENABLE
/[NO]REPLACE
See discussion
/[NO]TIME-STAMP
/NOTIME _STAMP
Prompts
File: file-spec
Command Parameters
file-spec
Specifies the disk file to open for logging terminal output. RSTS/E displays an
error message if you specify a nondisk file, or if the file-spec is invalid. RSTS/E
also displays an error message if a log file is already open. If you do not specify a
file type, RSTS/E assumes a file type of . LOG. Unless you include the /APPEND
qualifier, RSTS/E opens the file for output, and deletes any existing file of the
same name.
Command Qualifiers
/APPEND
Tells RSTS/E to add data to the end of the file you specify. This qualifier lets you
append terminal output to the end of an existing log file. If the file you specify
does not exist, then RSTS/E ignores this qualifier and opens a new file. Note that
only RSTS/E stream ASCII files can be appended: if you specify a file that has
RMS attributes, an error message displays.
/DISABLE
Indicates that terminal output should not be logged to the file until you issue the
SET LOG-FILE/ENABLE command to enable terminal logging.
Terminal Status and Operations
5-13
SHOW DEVICE
How to Override Name Precedence
Sometimes you may have a logical name that conflicts with a physical name.
The system always recognizes and accepts a device's physical name, whether or not a
logical name has been assigned to that device. Thus, you can specify a magnetic tape
running on drive MT2 and assigned the logical name STAR as either MT2: or as
STAR: .
If you put an underscore before a physical name, the system will not try to interpret it
as a logical name (for example, _MT2: ). A physical device name preceded by an
underscore causes the system to access that device, regardless of any prior
assignment .
RSTS/E evaluates the parts of a file specification in the following sequence. When a
file specification contains a name followed by a colon, RSTS/E first determines
whether or not the name is a user logical. If it is, then the system replaces the name
with its expansion. (An expansion is the device name or PPN to which the logical
name was assigned.) Otherwise, it checks to see if the name is a system-wide logical.
If the name is not a system-wide logical, RSTS/E then determines whether the name
designates a valid physical device on your RSTS/E system. (During system
generation, your system manager selects which devices are valid on your system.)
Finally, if the device name is not a physical device name, the system displays the
error message:
?Not a valid device
6-20
Working with Devices
SEULOG_FILE
SET LOG-FILE
After you open a log file, you can use the SET LOG _FILE command to selectively
enable and disable logging to the file. You can also use this command to enable or
disable the time stamp feature in the log.
Format
SET LOG _FILE
Command Qualifiers
/DISABLE
/ENABLE
/[NO]TIME-STAMP
Command Qualifiers
/DISABLE
Indicates that terminal or command file output should not be logged to the
current log file. If logging is currently disabled, then RSTS/E ignores this qualifier.
This qualifier conflicts with /ENABLE.
/ENABLE
Indicates that terminal or command file output to the log file should be enabled. If
logging is currently enabled, then RSTS/E ignores this qualifier. This qualifier
conflicts with /DISABLE.
/[NOITIME STAMP
Enables or disables the time stamp feature, which prefixes each line in the log file
with a date/time stamp in a format that your system manager has defined.
Use the SET LOG-FILE/DISABLE command to temporarily suppress output to the
current log file. After you disable logging, RSTS/E displays the $ prompt to indicate
that logging is disabled.
5-16
Terminal Status and Operations
ASSIGN
The
ASSIGN
command
equates
a logical
name name
to a partEXCER:
of a physical
file
specification.
The
following
example
equates
the
logical
to
the
directory
DB2: [3,24]:
ASSIGN DB2- :13,241 EXCER :
The string "DB2:[3,24]" is called the "expansion" of the logical name EXCER.
Later,
you can
to the directory by its logical name when you issue a RSTS/E
command.
For refer
example:
$ DIRECTORY EXCER :
When
the: withsystem
executes thisDB2:[3,24],
DIRECTORY
command,
it replaces
the directory
logical name
EXCER
its
expansion,
and
lists
all
of
the
files
in
that
on
your terminal .
Another example is:
$ TYPE EXCER :RUNNER .DAT
When the system executes this command, it replaces the logical name EXCER: with
its expansion and displays the contents of the file DB2 :[3,24]RUNNER. DAT on your
terminal.
You can equate a logical name to a physical device name, to a directory, or to both.
For example :
$ ASSIGN DB2 : EXCER
!(DBE : is a Physical device)
$ ASSIGN 13t241 EXCER :
!( 13tZ41 is a directory)
$ ASSIGN DB2 :C3t241 EXCER : !( 13t241 is a directory on DB2 :)
When you assign a logical name, the partial file specification that you assign to the
logical name may itself include a previously assigned logical name. When the system
executes the ASSIGN command, it replaces the previously assigned logical name with
its expansion and displays an informational message. Therefore, if you later change
the assignment of the first logical name, the expansion of the second logical name is
not affected. For example, consider the following sequence of commands:
$ ASSIGN DB2 : WORK :
$ ASSIGN WORK :13,241 EXCER :
$ DEASSIGN WORK :
$ TYPE EXCER :RUNNER .DAT
In this example, the logical name EXCER: corresponds to DB2: [3,24] . The TYPE
command displays DB2:[3,24] RUNNER.DAT even though the logical name WORK:
has been deassigned .
6-22
Working with Devices
SET/LOG-FILE
If you issue the SET LOG-FILE/DISABLE command when no log file is open,
RSTS/E displays an error message. If you issue the command when logging is already
disabled, then RSTS/E ignores the command. For example:
OPEN/LOG-FILE TEMP,LOG
INQUIRE FILE "Enter the name of the file to edit"
SET LOG-FILE/DISABLE
EDIT 'FILE'
SET LOG-FILE/ENABLE
CLOSE/LOG-FILE
EXIT
In this command procedure you:
1 . Open the log file TEMP. LOG and write output to the file.
2. Use the INQUIRE command to prompt for the name of a file to edit.
3. Issue the SET LOG-FILE/DISABLE command to temporarily disable logging
because you do not want to log the editing session.
4. Use the SET LOG FILE/ENABLE command to reenable logging after the
editing session ends, and continue writing output to the file.
5. Issue the CLOSE/LOG-FILE command to close TEMP. LOG before the
procedure exits.
Use the SET LOG FILE/ENABLE command to reenable output to an open log file.
After you reenable logging, RSTS/E displays a $ prompt followed by a period ($.), to
indicate that logging is in effect. If you issue the SET LOG-FILE/ENABLE command
when no log file is open, RSTS/E displays an error message. If you issue the command when logging is already enabled, then RSTS/E ignores the command.
Terminal Status and Operations
5-17
SET/LOG-FILE
Note that you can also use this command to enable or disable the time stamp feature,
as well as enabling or disabling output to the current log file. For example:
!Disable logging temporarily
$ .SET LOG-FILE/DISABLE
!Now reenable logging
SET LOG-FILE/ENABLE
!Now disable time stamps
$ .SET LOG_FILE/NOTIME_STAMP
$ . !Now reenable time stamps
$ .SET LOG-FILE/TIME-STAMP
In this example, you temporarily disable and reenable logging, and then temporarily
disable and reenable time stamps in the log file.
5-18
Terminal Status and Operations
Specifying Print and Batch Entries
The PRINT and SUBMIT commands instruct PBS to enter files on a print or batch
queue, respectively. A PBS queue controls how print and batch system resources are
allocated .
Once a file is queued for printing or batch processing, it becomes an "entry." You
often may need to access your print or batch entry. For example, you may want to
modify the entry or delete it, or you may want to display the entry's status in the
queue so you can see whether it has started or finished printing or batch processing .
PBS provides two methods of identifying and accessing entries in a queue:
" Entry number
" Entry specification
Entry Number
PBS assigns a unique entry-number to each queued print or batch entry. This
number shows the order in which the entry was placed in the print or batch queue.
Since it is unique, you can use the entry-number to identify and access your entry if
you want to modify, delete, or display it.
For example, here is an entry on a print queue, as displayed by the SHOW ENTRY
command :
1st Print enter 5 PRINT :[
1t2141MAIL Status STARTED Pri 128
This display tells you that the entry-number is 5, which you can then use to identify
the entry while it is in the queue.
Entry Specification
Besides the entry-number, you can also access an entry in a queue by specifying the
following attributes:
e The name of the queue on which the entry is located
e The entry's owner (PPN)
" The entry name
PBS permanently establishes these attributes when it creates the entry; you cannot
modify them once the entry is placed in the queue. The format of an entry-spec is:
queue-name: [PPN]entry-name
Thus, you would type the entry-spec for the entry shown in the previous example as
follows :
PRINT :[1,2147MAIL
7-2
Print/Batch Services
Working with Devices
All RSTS/E users share the system's peripheral devices, such as line printers and
magnetic tape drives. You can refer to these devices by either physical or logical
device names.
Table 6-1 summarizes the commands you use to work with devices.
Table 6-1: Commands for Devices and Logical Names
Meaning
Command
Reserves a device so that only you can use it
ALLOCATE
Releases a device from your exclusive use, so that other users
DEALLOCATE
may access the device
Logically loads a magnetic tape or disk onto a device
MOUNT
Clears ("zeros") a tape for use
INITIALIZE
Logically unloads a magnetic tape or disk from a device
DISMOUNT
Displays devices that are in use on your system
SHOW DEVICE
SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED Displays status of allocated and open devices
Displays status of all mounted disks
SHOW DISKS
Assigns a logical name to a directory or a physical device
ASSIGN
Cancels logical name assignments you made with the ASSIGN
DEASSIGN
command
Working with Physical Devices
device name.
A physical
device
ondevice
a RSTS/E
systemorhasdeviceits own
Each
ofis thealsodevices
it to
specification
(because
you
use
name
called
a
designator
specify a device).
PRINT
Printing Files : PRINT
The PRINT command queues one or more files for printing, either on the default
print queue or on a queue you specify.
Format
PRINT file-spec[ ... . I [entry-spec]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/AFTER = date-time
/FORMS =form-name
See discussion
/HOLD
/JOB COUNT= n
/JOB _COUNT = I
/NAME=entry-name
See discussion
/OWNER =ppn
See discussion
/PAGE _LIMIT =n
See discussion
/PRIORITY=n
See discussion
See discussion
/QUEUE= queue-name [ : ]
Defaults
File Qualifiers
/NOCONVERT
/[NO]CONVERT
/COPIES = I
/COPIES =n
/NODELETE
/[NO]DELETE
/FEED
/[NO]FEED
/[NO]FLAG-PAGES
/FLAG PAGES
/NOTRUNCATE
/[NOITRUNCATE
Prompts
File: file-spec[ .... I
Command Parameters
file-spec[, . .I
Specifies one or more files to be printed. If you specify more than one file,
separate the file specifications with commas (,) or plus signs (+). In either case,
the PRINT command prints all the files as a single print job. You can use wildcard
characters for the file name, file type, and directory.
If you do not specify a file type, the PRINT command uses the default file type
.LST. If you do not specify a device, the PRINT command uses SY :.
You can also specify a node name as part of the file specification . If you specify a
file on a remote node, PBS temporarily copies the file into your account, prints it,
and then deletes it. Note that you cannot use any qualifiers if you specify a node
name.
7-4
Print/Batch Services
Table 6-2 lists the RSTS/E physical device names.
Table 6-2 : RSTS/E Physical Device Names
Designator
DK:,DL:,DM:,
DP:,DR:,DB:,
DU :, or SY:
SYO:
DKO: to DK7:
DLO: to DL3:
DMO: to DM7:
DPO: to DP7:
DRO: to DR7:
DBO: to DB7:
DUO: to DU7:
PP:
PR:
CR:
CD:
MTO: to MT7:
MMO: to MM7:
MSO: to MS3:
LPO: to LP7 :
DTO: to DT7 :
KB:
TT: or TI:
KBn:
TTn:
NL:
PKn:
DXO: to DX7:
Device
RSTS/E public disk structure
System disk
RK05 disk units 0 through 7
RL01/RL02 disk units 0 through 3
RK06/RKO7 disk units 0 through 7
RP02/RPO3 disk units 0 through 7
RM02/RM03/RM05/RM80 disk units 0 through 7
RP04/RPO5/RPO6 disk units 0 through 7
RA80/RA81/RA60/RC25/RD51/RX50 units 0 through 7
High speed paper tape punch
High speed paper tape reader
CR11 punched or CM11 mark sense card reader
CD11 punched card reader
TE10/TU10/TSO3 magnetic tape units 0 through 7
TE16/TU16/TU45/TU77 magnetic tape units 0 through 7
TS11/TU80/TSVO5 magnetic tape units 0 through 3
Line printer units 0 through 7
TU56 DECtape units 0 through 7
Your terminal
Your terminal (synonyms for KB:, the terminal that initiated the job)
Terminal n on the system
Terminal n on the system (synonym for KBn:)
The null device
Pseudo keyboard n
RXO1/RX02 flexible diskette (floppy disk) units 0 through 7
Working with Devices
6-3
PRINT
/NAME = entry-name
Specifies the 1 through 9 character name assigned to the entry. You can display
the entry-name with the SHOW ENTRY command . In addition, PBS prints the
entry-name on the first page (also known as the flag, or banner, page) of the hard
copy.
/OWNER= [ppn]
Indicates the owner of the print job. PBS displays the project-programmer
number on the job header page. You can only specify jobs with your own PPN
(the default), unless you have sufficient privilege to specify others.
/PAGE LIMIT = n
/PAGE LIMIT = UNLIMITED
Specifies the maximum number of pages to be printed in the job. You can specify
only up to the maximum page limit assigned to the queue by the system
manager.
You can specify /PAGE-LIMIT= UNLIMITED only if the queue's maximum page
limit is also set to UNLIMITED .
/PRIORITY = n
Specifies the priority of the print job, in the range 1 through 255. The PRINT
command processes entries in priority order: higher-priority entries before
lower-priority entries.
You cannot specify a priority higher than the maximum priority assigned to the
queue by the system manager.
/QUEUE= queue-name[ : ]
Specifies the name of the queue on which the entry is placed. The queue you
specify must be a print queue.
If you do not specify a queue-name in the entry-spec or if you do not specify
/QUEUE, PBS places the entry on the default print queue.
Use the SHOW ENTRY command to verify an entry's position in the queue.
File Qualifiers
/CONVERT
/NOCONVERT
Specifies whether all zeros should be converted to the letter O before printing.
The default is /NOCONVERT.
/COPIES = n
Specifies the number of copies to print. By default, the PRINT command prints
one copy of a file; you can use /COPIES to request up to 255 copies. For
example, the following command line requests three copies of file INDIA.TXT:
PRINT/COPIES=3 INDIA,T),T
7-6
Print/Batch Services
command. (This step is optional, but it deallocates the
5. Issue the DISMOUNT
drive and rewinds the tape.)
6. Physically dismount the tape .
Protecting Files on Tapes
on disks. While
from protectionWhileof files
of files on tapes works differently
Protectionusing
the
device
to your job. read any file onisit.allocated
the device is allocated
youyou,are you havea tape,
over the tape. You canjob. The MOUNT No
completetapecontrol
toother user can access
it is allocatedallocate
to yourthe tape device to your job.
the while
command
both
command and the DEALLOCATE,
ALLOCATE and LOGOUT commands free the tape device so
The DISMOUNT,
that other jobs can allocate it.
Tape Density
When you initialize a tapeare:on a device, you decide what the tape's density will be.
The two considerations
* The amount of information to be stored on the tape
9 The degree of portability (interchangeability) between systems
1600 bits
a density of 800 or with
you have a choice of specifying
For example, assume
much information on a tape a
get roughly twice asdrives
per inch (bpi). You ;canhowever,
support 1600 bpi.
not
all
tape
density of 1600 bpi
ANSI and DOS Format
RSTS/E has two file structures for tapes:
because it complies with the standards of the American National
9 ANSI format,Institute.
Standards
because RSTS/E adopted it from the Disk Operating System
9 DOS format,
format.
The ANSI format is an industry standard. The advantages to using ANSI format tapes
are:
to move the contents of a tape from one system to
e Portability - If you expectthat
another, it is very possible the other systems will recognize ANSI format .
9 Multiple tapes - The files you copy can be stored on more than one reel of
tape.
Working with Devices
6-7
PRINT
/TRUNCATE
/NOTRUNCATE
Indicates whether lines that exceed the width of the page should be truncated.
The system manager determines the page width ; it may vary according to the
form you specify with the /FORMS qualifier.
The default is /NOTRUNCATE, which means that lines exceeding the form width
continue, or "wrap," onto the next line.
7-8
Print/Batch Services
ALLOCATE
Physical Device Commands
This section contains descriptions of some commands you use when working with
physical devices. See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide for commands and functions
that require additional privileges to use.
ALLOCATE
The ALLOCATE command reserves a physical device for your use during the current
session and optionally establishes a logical name for the device. Once a device has
been allocated, other users cannot access the device until you specifically deallocate it
or log out. You can allocate a device only when it is not allocated by another job.
Format
ALLOCATE device-name[:] [logical-name[:) ]
Prompts
Device: device-name
Command Parameters
device-name[:]
A logical or physical name.
logical-name[:
Specifies a one- to six-character logical name to be associated with the device.
RSTS/E automatically translates any references you make to the logical name to a
physical device associated with the name. The logical name parameter is optional.
Working with Devices
6-9
SUBMIT
entry-spec
queue-name : [ppn]entry-name
Specifies the queue and the name of the entry. The entry-name can contain from
one to nine characters . If you do not specify a queue, PBS submits the entry on
the default batch queue. If you do not specify an entry-name, PBS assigns the
first non-numeric file name in the list of file-specs, or BATCH if none is found.
Your own PPN is the default.
Command Qualifiers
/AFTER = date:time
Specifies a date:time value after which the entry is eligible for batch processing . If
you do not specify this qualifier, PBS assumes the entry is immediately eligible.
If you specify only a time value, PBS assumes today's date. If you specify only a
date value, PBS assumes the end of the day (11 :59 p.m.) .
/CPU LIMIT = n
/CPU LIMIT = UNLIMITED
Specifies the maximum CPU time, in minutes, allowed for your batch job. This
limit applies to the entire batch job, not to each command procedure within the
job. You can only specify the maximum CPU limit of the batch request's queue.
If you specify /CPU_ LIMIT = UNLIMITED, the batch request's queue must also
have its maximum CPU limit set to UNLIMITED. A batch request with
CPU _ LIMIT = UNLIMITED is allowed an infinite amount of CPU usage during
processing .
If you do not specify this qualifier, PBS assigns the batch queue's default CPU
limit.
/HOLD
Specifies that the entry be placed in a HOLD state on the queue. Entries in a
HOLD state are not processed until you release them with the SET
ENTRY/RELEASE command .
/LOG _ DELETE
/NOLOG _ DELETE
Specifies whether the log file should be deleted after printing. The default is
/NOLOG _DELETE.
/LOG _FILE [ = file-spec]
/NOLOG FILE
Specifies whether a log file is created for the batch job and if so, the file-spec of
the log. By default, PBS creates a log file at the start of a batch job.
7-10
Print/Batch Services
MOUNT
MOUNT
The MOUNT command prepares a tape or disk for processing by system commands
or user programs. Issue the MOUNT command after you physically mount the tape
or disk and put the drive on line.
Note
The MOUNT command has additional capabilities for users with
greater levels of privilege. See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide
for more information.
If the MOUNT command fails with the error message ?Disk pack
needs REBUILDing, but you do not have sufficient privileges, have
your system manager mount the disk.
Format
For disks:
MOUNT device-name[ :] pack-id [logical-name] ]
For magnetic tapes:
MOUNT device-name[ :] {[label]}
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/[NO]WRITE
See description
Qualifiers for Disks
Defaults
/PRIVATE
/PRIVATE
/[NO]SHARE
/SHARE
Qualifiers for Tapes
/DENSITY = n
/FORMAT =ANSI
/FORMAT = DOS
/FORMAT = FOREIGN
Prompts
Device: device-name[:]
Label: label (for ANSI tapes only)
Pack-id: pack-id (for disks only)
Working with Devices
6-11
SUBMIT
If you do not specify this qualifier, PBS assigns the batch queue's default time
limit.
File Qualifiers
/DELETE
/NODELETE
Specifies whether the command file should be deleted after batch processing
completes. You must have write access to the file for which you specify /DELETE.
The default is /NODELETE.
You may type the /DELETE qualifier after any file name to delete only that file,
or you may type the /DELETE qualifier immediately after the SUBMIT command
to delete all files included in the command .
7-12
Print/Batch Services
MOUNT
if it is not in ANSI or DOS format. If you mount a tape with
A tape is FOREIGN
FOREIGN, the program you use to read the tape must be able to
/FORMAT=
process any labels on the tape.
/PRIVATE
a private disk, accessible only to those users who have
Allows you tothemount
accounts on disk. (Your system manager designates whether disks are public
or private.)
/SHARE
/NOSHARE
qualifier
Determines whether the private disk you use is shared.onlyThe /NOSHARE
that mounts
allows you to mount a private disk that is accessible to the job
it. The /SHARE qualifier allows all users who have accounts on the. disk to access
it. The /PRIVATE and /SHARE qualifiers have the same meaning If you specify
/NOSHARE, you cannot specify /PRIVATE.
The default is /SHARE.
/WRITE
/NOWRITE
Controls whether or not you can write
data to a tape or disk. The /WRITE
qualifier allows you to modify thethedatadata.contained on a tape or disk. If you specify
/NOWRITE, you cannot modify
access to protect files. For a
You can specify /NOWRITE to provide read-only
it. For a tape, the drive itself must be
disk, this is equivalent to write-protecting
write-protected; /NOWRITE simply generates an error message if the device is not
write-protected.
/WRITE is the default for tapes. When the
When the device is not write-protected,
/WRITE is also the default for disks (initialized as
disk drive is not write-protected,
is the default if the drive is write-protected.
read/write). However, /NOWRITE
the
warning
%Device write protected, you have
Therefore, if you receive tape withmessage
logically mounted yourinitialized
disk or as read-only.read-only access. The default is also
/NOWRITE for disks
Working with Devices
6-13
SHOW ENTRY
/BATCH
Specifies that only batch queue entries be displayed . This qualifier conflicts with
/PRINT.
The default is that both print and batch queue entries are displayed.
/BRIEF
Requests a brief listing of information about entries in the queue. It is the default.
For example:
SHOW ENTRY/BRIEF
1st Print enter 5 PRINT :[ 1#2141MAIL Status STARTED Pri 128
The /BRIEF qualifier displays the following information about each entry:
" Position - the entry's start position relative to other entries
" Entry type - Print or Batch
" Entry number
" Queue name
" Owner's PPN
" Entry name
" Entry status - one of the following:
- READY - The entry is ready for processing.
- AFTER - The entry is waiting for an /AFTER date and time to be met
before it can start processing.
- HOLD - The entry is waiting for a SET ENTRY/RELEASE command in
order to start processing .
- STARTED - The entry has started processing. (Use the /FULL qualifier
to display the date and time that the entry started.)
- ABORTING - The entry is in the process of being terminated.
" Priority in the queue
/FILES
Displays all file-specs, and their qualifiers, included in the entry. Unless you have
additional privilege, you can only see the file-specs contained in your own entries.
7-14
Print/Batch Services
INITIALIZE
Command Qualifiers
/DENSITY =n
Specifies the density in bpi at which to write the tape. You can specify a density
of either 800 or 1600 bpi if the tape drive supports it.
If you do not specify a density, the system uses the default specified by your
system manager.
/FORMAT =ANSI
/FORMAT= DOS
Specifies the tape format. If you do not specify a format, DCL uses the default
determined by your system manager.
Working with Devices
6-95
SET ENTRY
Modifying a Print or Batch Queue Entry: SET ENTRY
The SET ENTRY command modifies one or more attributes of an entry. You also
use SET ENTRY to hold or release an entry for processing.
Format
SET ENTRY entry-spec or entry-number
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/[NO]AFTER =date: time
/ALL
See discussion
/BATCH
See discussion
/CPU LIMIT = n
/FORMS = form-name
/HOLD
/JOB COUNT= n
/PAGE_LIMIT =n
/PRINT
See discussion
/PRIORITY=n
/RELEASE
/TIME LIMIT= n
Prompts
Entry: entry-spec or entry-number
Command Parameters
entry-spec
entry-number
Specifies either the entry-spec or entry-number of the print or batch entry to be
modified. If you specify the entry-spec, PBS modifies all entries matching the
specification . If you specify the entry-number, PBS modifies only the entry with
the matching number . Wildcards are allowed.
Command Qualifiers
/AFTER =date:time
/NOAFTER
Specifies a date:time value after which the entry is eligible for printing or batch
processing.
If you specify only a time value, PBS assumes today's date. If you specify only a
date value, PBS assumes the end of the day (11:59 p.m.) .
7-16
Print/Batch Services
SHOW DEVICE
SHOW DEVICE, SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED, SHOW DISKS
There are three SHOW commands that display information about physical devices on
the system. They are:
" SHOW DEVICE [dev:] - Displays all devices on the system, or a specified
device
" SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED - Displays the status of all allocated and open
devices
" SHOW DISKS - Displays the status of all mounted disks
Examples of each command, and their displays, follow:
SHOW DEVICE
_K832 : KB32
(KBG3: :) Control DZ0 :3 CSR 760140 Status : Restricted
Device
SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED
Busy
Devices Jot
:
Device
PKO
DMR-0
DMC-1
DMP-0 .0
10
TRN
TRN
TRN
Why
Open
AS+Open
AS+Open
AS+Open
$ SHOW DISKS RE
Disk Structure :
DsFi Open
Size
DB3
0 340664
DB4
2 340664
DU1
47 400168
Free
Clu
15288 4% 8
21920 6% 8
41864 10% 8
Err
0
2
0
Name
DBLB
S
GROKSY
Level
1 .1
1 .2
1 .2
Comments
Prit R-0t
Prit DLW
Putt DLW
DLWt DP
System Manager's Guide for more information on each column type
See the RSTS/Ethree
examples.
in the previous
Working with Devices
6-47
SET ENTRY
You can specify /PAGE-LIMIT= UNLIMITED only if the queue's maximum page
limit is also set to UNLIMITED .
/PRINT
Specifies that only print queue entries be modified.
The default is that both print and batch queue entries are selected to be changed.
/PRIORITY = n
Specifies the priority of the print or batch request, in the range 1 to 255. PBS
processes entries with higher priorities before those with lower priorities . You
cannot specify a priority higher than the queue's maximum .
/RELEASE
Specifies that an entry previously placed in a HOLD state be released .
/TIME LIMIT = n
/TIME LIMIT = UNLIMITED
(Batch entries only.) Specifies the maximum elapsed time, in minutes, allowed for
the requested batch job. This limit applies to the entire batch job, not to each
command procedure within the job.
If you specify /TIME LIMIT = UNLIMITED, the batch request's queue must also
have its maximum time limit set to UNLIMITED. A batch request with
TIME -LIMIT= UNLIMITED is not limited to any amount of elapsed time during
processing .
7-18
Print/Batch Services
SHOW DEVICE
You can assign a logical name to a physical device name
or to a directory. The
logical names that you assign are valid for your job only. For example, only your job
can reference the logical name that you assign to a device. No other job can
reference that logical name.
Logical Names and Devices
You can use logical device namesThe
to describe the nature of information on a disk,
magnetic
tape,
or
other
medium.
logicalYouname
remember
the physical name with its device number.
can may
choosebe aeasier
logicalto name
withoutthan
regard to what device types may be available at some future time.
not depend on the physical device
The logical names that you assign for devices
a logicaldoname is independent
the on
specifications.
Unlike
a
physical
name,
which the medium is mounted. Logical device names make it easier toofadaptdrive
a
program for use on different drives. Thus, if you write a program referencing physical
devices, you can give these devices logical names of your own choosing by issuing
the ASSIGN command. This action associates your chosen names with the devices
and makes the program independent of the devices' physical locations on the system.
System-Wide and User Logicals
When you assign logical names, you are the only one who can use them. Your
logical name assignments are deleted when you log out. The logical names that you
assign are called user logical names, to distinguish them from system-wide logicals.
System-wide logicals are logical names that everyone on the system can use. Certain
system-wide logicals are standard for most RSTS/E systems; others are assigned for
your site by the system manager. See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide for more
information on system-wide logicals.
Numbers of Logical Names
A job can have a maximum of four logical name assignments at a time if you specify
only device names. However, if one or more of the logical names is associated with a
directory, the job is limited to three logical name assignments.
You can assign more than one logical name to a device. For example, you could
assign to the tape on drive MMO: the logical names RACE1, RACE2, and RACE3,
and use any of these three names as your application requires.
Working with Devices
6-19
SHOW QUEUE
Displaying a Queue's Characteristics: SHOW QUEUE
The SHOW QUEUE command displays the status of one or more print or batch
queues. The display includes information about the queue's characteristics, such as
default form name, size limits, and the servers assigned to the queue .
Format
SHOW QUEUE queue-name[ :]
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
/BATCH
/BRIEF
/FULL
/PRINT
Prompts
Queue: queue-name[ :]
Default
See discussion
/BRIEF
/BRIEF
See discussion
Command Parameters
queue-name
Specifies the name of the queue to be displayed. Wildcards are allowed.
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Specifies that all queues be displayed.
/BATCH
Specifies that only batch queues be displayed.
The default is to display all queues matching the queue-name parameter,
regardless of type.
/BRIEF
Specifies a brief display (the default), which includes the following information
about the specified queue:
" Queue type - Print or Batch
" Queue name
7-20
Print/Batch Services
DEASSIGN
The DEASSIGN command cancels logical name assignments you made with the
ASSIGN command.
Note
The DEASSIGN command has additional capabilities for users with
greater levels of privilege. See the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide
for more information.
Format
DEASSIGN [logical-name[:] ]
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Prompts
Logical Name: logical-namek]
Command Parameters
logical-name[ :
Specifies a one- to six-character logical name to deassign.
A logical name is required unless you specify /ALL. If you do not specify either
/ALL or a logical name, the system prompts you for a logical name. For example:
DEASSIGN
Logical Name : EXCER
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Deletes all logical names that you assigned. For example:
DEASSIGN/ALL
Working with Devices
6-23
Print/Batch Services 7
theautomatically
SUBMIT command
Whenever
you
use
the
PRINT
command
to
print
files
or
use
using
totheexecute
command
procedures
for
batch
processing,
you
are
the
you RSTS/E
use to: Print/Batch Services (PBS) facility. This chapter describes commands
9 Place entries on a print or batch queue for printing or batch processing
" Check the status of your print or batch job on a queue
9 Modify your print or batch entry before it is printed or processed
* Delete a print or batch entry from a queue
up default
print andthisbatch
queues
for your
system,
Your
system
manager
usually
setssimple
the
commands
chapter
describes
to
print
files
soor that
you
only
need
to
use
command
procedures
for
batch
processing.
If
you
are
interested
in,
or
need
submit
know, more
detailed
information
about
how
PBS
performs
its
print
and
batch
toprocessing
functions, see the complete description of PBS organization and operations
in the RSTS/E System Manager's Guide.
Table 7-1 summarizes the PBS commands that this chapter describes.
Table 7-1 : Print/Batch Services Commands
Command
Meaning
PRINT
Produces a listing, or "hard copy," of a file
SUBMIT
Submits a command file for batch processing
Displays the names of files that are currently being printed or processed, as
SHOW ENTRY
well as files pending on the print or batch queue
SET ENTRY
Modifies one or more attributes of a file that is entered on a print or batch
queue
DELETE/ENTRY Cancels an entry on the print or batch queue
SHOW QUEUE
Displays the status of a print or batch queue.
Developing Programs on RSTS/E
You can develop programs on RSTS/E using a variety of techniques and languages.
BASIC-PLUS (supplied with all RSTS/E systems) is highly interactive, and provides a
self-contained programming environment.
BASIC-PLUS is an interpreted language. As you enter lines of source code into the
system, BASIC-PLUS immediately translates them into code that the system can
execute. Thus, you can run a program right after you finish entering it.
Other high-level languages (such as BASIC-PLUS-2, COBOL, DIBOL, and
FORTRAN) are compiled languages, generating PDP-11 object code. To develop
programs in these languages, you must create a source program, then compile it and
link it before it can be run.
In addition, the MACRO-11 assembler (supplied with all RSTS/E systems) lets you
write programs that correspond line-for-line with PDP-11 machine instructions . You
follow the same general steps to develop MACRO programs as you do for compiled
languages.
BASIC-PLUS and BASIC-PLUS-2 are command environments on RSTS/E. This
means that you can switch from DCL command level to a BASIC environment,
which has its own prompt for accepting your input. (The BASIC-PLUS prompt is
"Ready." The BASIC-PLUS-2 prompt is usually "BASIC2," depending on what your
system manager has specified.) By contrast, you develop programs in some other
languages by using DCL commands.
The number and type of programming tools available on any given RSTS/E system
(as well as the language you choose for any given application) depend on many
factors. These factors include: the size of the system ; its cost; and the application
environment.
The following is an overview of the program development cycle for compiled
languages - that is, those RSTS/E languages other than BASIC-PLUS. For
information about programming in a specific language (including sample programs
and procedures), see the appropriate language manual.
Overview
8-2
RSTS/E offers a number of different languages for program development. Although
each language is unique, you use a similar process when developing any program
that you compile.
Briefly, the major steps are:
1 . Design - Planning and initial coding.
2. Edit - Entering code into a source file.
3. Compile - Compiling or assembling source code into an object file .
Program Development
Unlike entry-numbers, entry-specs do not uniquely identify an entry. For instance, in
the above example, you (as user [1,214]) could have several entries named MAIL on
the print queue named PRINT: . You should therefore be very careful when using
entry-specs to access an entry to modify or delete it; you might inadvertently modify
or delete other entries having the same entry-spec .
PrinVBatch Services
7-3
Linking
A program that is ready for execution by the system is called an executable file.
(Other terms for executable file are save image, task, or load module.)
To prepare an executable file from your object module, you must link it. Linking a
program into an executable file performs three major functions:
" Combination of modules - You can link several separately compiled object
files together into a single executable file.
" Relocation of addresses - Because the assignment of actual memory locations
for any object module must depend on the other object modules which go into
the load module with it, the link step is the time when references to absolute
memory locations are fixed.
Other object modules - You can incorporate modules that the system supplies
into your executable file. Each high-level language requires certain object
modules to be linked into executable files for programs written in that language.
Combining Modules
There are two main reasons why you want to be able to link an executable file from
separately compiled object modules:
If your program is complex, it is helpful to be able to compile it in several
smaller pieces as opposed to one large program. During debugging, you can
then recompile only the smaller piece that you have changed before linking a
new executable file for further testing.
You can link subroutines into a main program. You do so by maintaining a
library of subroutines from which the linker can extract object modules.
Therefore, you can reduce repetitious source coding in your main program.
The use of subroutines also allows you to write the main portion of your program in
one language, and other portions in another. For example, when writing a main
program in FORTRAN, you might also want to code a special or performancesensitive subroutine in MACRO.
Relocating Addresses
The final location of an object module in a linked executable file cannot be
determined until the object modules are combined during linking. Therefore, object
modules are relocatable. In addition to binary machine instructions, an object module
contains tables of information that direct link-time operations, such as address
relocation .
Note that the linker can optionally produce a listing of resolved addresses, called a
map.
8-4
Program Development
PRINT
entry-spec
queue-name: [ppn]entry-name
Specifies the queue and the name of the entry. The entry-name can contain from
one to nine characters. If you do not specify a queue, PBS submits the entry on
the default print queue. If you do not specify an entry-name, PBS assigns the first
non-numeric file name in the list of specified file-specs, or PRINT if none is found.
Your own PPN is the default.
Command Qualifiers
/AFTER = date-time
Requests that the file not be printed until a specific time of day or date. See
Chapter 2 for a description of the standard syntax rules for specifying date and
time values.
For example, to have a file named TIBET.MEM start printing after 5:30 PM on
September 11 (after normal working hours when there are fewer requests for
listings), specify the date and time as:
$ PRINT/AFTER=11-SEP :05 :30PM TIBET .MEM
If the specified date or time has already passed, the file is queued for printing as
soon as possible.
/FORMS = form-name
Specifies the name of the form required for the specified file(s). You specify the
forms type with an alphanumeric name defined by the system manager. Check
with the system manager to learn which form names you can specify.
/HOLD
Specifies that the entry be placed in a HOLD state on the queue. Entries in a
HOLD state are not processed until you release them with the SET ENTRY/
RELEASE command.
/JOB COUNT=n
Requests that the entire job be printed n times, from 1 to 255. By default, the job
is printed once.
The following example prints four copies of a file named AFGHAN.TXT:
$ PRINT/JOB_COUNT=U AFGHAN .THT
/JOB_COUNT differs from the /COPIES qualifier in the order in which multiple
files are printed. For example, if you request three copies of files HOGAN.TOM
and MARCH.ANN, the /JOB_COUNT qualifier prints one copy of
HOGAN.TOM, followed by one copy of MARCH.ANN, and repeats the grouping
until three copies of each file are printed:
$ PRINT/J0B_000NT=3 HOGAN.TOM#MARCH .ANN
Print/Batch Services
7-5
The file types assigned to executable files are .SAV for the RT11-based linker and
.TSK for the RSC-based linker. The file type of object files is OBJ in either environment.
RT11-Based Programming
You can use RSTS/E's RT11-based commands to develop programs in either
FORTRAN-IV or MACRO. Depending on your application, the programs you develop
can be either:
9 Run directly on your RSTS/E system
9 Debugged on RSTS/E, compiled, and run on an RT-11 system
Using MACRO, you can write programs that use any feature of RSTS/E, or programs
that use only RT11 monitor directives.
RSX-Based Programming
You can use RSTS/E's RSX-based commands to develop programs in MACRO or
any of the high-level languages. Depending on your application, your developed
programs can be either:
" Run directly on your RSTS/E system
9 Debugged on RSTS/E, compiled, and run on an RSX-11 system
Using MACRO, you can write programs that use any feature of RSTS/E, or programs
that use only RSX monitor directives. Certain features of RSTS/E are also available
directly through some high-level languages (for example, the BASIC-PLUS SYS calls,
which are also available in BASIC-PLUS-2).
If you want to use the RMS data management package in your application, you will
be using RSTS/E's RSX-based languages. (See RMS documentation for more
information.)
8-6
Program Development
PRINT
If you specify /COPIES after the PRINT command name, each file is printed the
number of times you specify. For example, to print three copies each of
BOMBAY .TXT and LAHORE.MEM, type:
$ PRINT/COPIES=3 B0MBAY .TXTtLAHORE .MEM
If you specify /COPIES after a file specification, PBS prints only that file the
specified number of times. The following command line requests two copies of
NEPAL .DAT, one copy of SIKKIM.DAT (by default), and five copies of
BHUTAN.DAT:
PRINT NEPAL .DAT/COPIES=2tSIKKIM .DATtBHUTAN .DAT/COPIES= 5
The /COPIES qualifier differs from /JOB_COUNT in the order in which multiple
files are printed. For example, if you request three copies of files TEDFOR.BOB
and MOODYAON, PBS prints three copies of TEDFOR.BOB, followed by three
copies of MOODY.JON.
$ PRINT/COPIES=3 TEDFOR .B0BtMOODY .JON
/DELETE
/NODELETE
Controls whether files are deleted after printing. /NODELETE is the default.
If you specify /DELETE after the PRINT command name, all files specified are
deleted after printing. For example:
PRINT/DELETE OUTPUT,DATtRESULT .TXT
Both OUTPUT.DAT and RESULT.TXT are deleted after printing.
If you specify /DELETE after a file-spec, only that file is deleted after printing. For
example:
PRINT CONCRD .MAStLOWELL .MAS/DELETEtBOXBRO .MAS
Only the file LOWELL.MAS is deleted after printing.
You must have write access to the file to delete it after printing,
/FEED
/NOFEED
Specifies whether the printer should leave six blank lines at the end of each page.
The default is /FEED.
/FLAG PAGES
/NOFLAG PAGES
Specifies whether flag (file header) pages should be printed at the beginning of
each file listing. If you specify /FLAG_PAGES, the number of flag pages printed
is determined by the system manager, and may vary according to the form you
specify with the /FORMS qualifier.
Print/Batch Services
7-7
BASIC
Command Qualifiers
/BP2
Invokes the BASIC-PLUS-2 programming environment.
/BPLUS
Invokes the BASIC-PLUS programming environment.
8-8
Program Development
SUBMIT
Submitting Entries for Batch Processing: SUBMIT
The SUBMIT command enters a request for batch processing, either on the default
batch queue or on a queue you specify.
one or more command
When you use the SUBMIT command, you specify
.
See
RSTS/E Guide to Writing
procedures to be executed by the batch server aboutthewriting
and executing command
Command Procedures for detailed information
procedures.
Format
SUBMIT file-spec[... . ] [entry-spec]
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/AFTER =date:time
See discussion
/CPU LIMIT= n
/HOLD
/[NO]LOG-DELETE
/NOLOG _DELETE
See discussion
/[NO]LOG_FILE =file-spec
/NOLOG _QUEUE
/[NO]LOG QUEUE = queue-name
See discussion
/NAME =entry-name
See discussion
/OWNER =ppn
/PARAMETERS = (parameter, .. . )
See discussion
/PRIORITY = n
See discussion
/QUEUE=queue-name
See discussion
/TIME_LIMIT=n
Defaults
File Qualifiers
/NODELETE
/[NO]DELETE
Prompts
File: file-spec[, . . .]
Command Parameters
file-spec
submitted for batch job
Specifies one or more command files (procedures) tonotbespecify
a file type, PBS
must
specify
a
file
name.
If
you
do
execution. You
not
specify
a device, PBS
assumes a default file type of . COM, and if you do
assumes the default device -SY:. Wildcards are allowed.
each file-spec in the
You can only submit files to which you have read accessfile. Forwhich
you have read
PBS
attempts
to
find
at
least
one
to
SUBMIT command,
refuses
the
batch
and
access; if it finds none, PBS displays an error messagefile-spec,
you must have both
request. If you specify the /DELETE qualifier with a
read and write access.
Print/Batch Services
7-9
COBOL
Command Qualifiers
/ANSI FORMAT
/NOANSI _FORMAT
Indicates whether the source program is in ANSI COBOL format or in DIGITAL's
terminal format.
An ANSI COBOL source file has 80-character records with Area A beginning in
column position 8.
The recommended default is for the COBOL command to assume that the input
records are in terminal format (Area A begins in column position 1 and the lines
do not have line numbers). However, your system manager can change the
default at system installation.
/C81
Specifies the COBOL-81 compiler. This is the default.
/CHECK
/NOCHECK
/CHECK= [NO]BOUNDS
/CHECK = [NO]PERFORM
Controls whether the compiler produces extra code to check for program
correctness at run time . The /CHECK qualifier verifies subscripts, indexes, and
perform statement ranges. The /CHECK qualifier is the recommended default and
causes COBOL-81 to check each subscript and table at run time against the
ranges defined by its data-name's OCCURS clause. (Your system manager can
change this default at system installation.) The /CHECK qualifier also causes
COBOL-81 to determine if your program's PERFORM ranges are nested properly
(if nested at all) . If COBOL-81 detects improper nesting during execution, it issues
an error message to that effect.
The /NOCHECK qualifier suppresses all checking, which can save execution time
and decrease task image size. If you use /NOCHECK to suppress error checking,
an out-of-range subscript or index does not generate an error message. The
/NOCHECK qualifier also stops the compiler from generating code needed for
checking PERFORM statement ranges . If you use /NOCHECK and the program's
PERFORM statements are nested incorrectly, the program does not produce valid
results.
You can have the compiler generate code to check only subscripts and indexes
by specifying /CHECK= (BOUNDS, NOPERFORM). Likewise, you can check
only PERFORM statement ranges by specifying /CHECK= (PERFORM,
NOBOUNDS) .
8-10
Program Development
SUBMIT
If you do not specify a file-spec, PBS creates the log file in your own account on
the default device SY:, using the first six characters of the entry name and a file
type of LOG. (Any file with the same name will be replaced.)
If you specify a file-spec, PBS creates that file at the start of the batch job,
replacing any file having the same name.
/LOG QUEUE [ =queue-name]
/NOLOG _QUEUE
Specifies whether a log file should be queued for printing when the batch job
completes and if so, the queue on which it should be printed. The default is
/NOLOG_QUEUE.
If you do not specify a queue name, PBS queues the log file on the default print
queue.
/NAME = entry-name
Specifies the one- to nine-character name assigned to the entry.
/OWNER =ppn
Indicates the owner of the batch job. You can only specify your own PPN, unless
you have sufficient privilege to specify others.
/PARAMETERS = (parameter[, ...])
Specifies from one to eight optional parameters to be passed to the batch job.
PBS assigns the parameters to the local symbols P1 through P8 when it executes
the first command procedure in the job.
/PRIORITY = n
Specifies the priority of the batch request, in the range 1 to 255. PBS processes
entries with higher priorities before those with lower priorities. You cannot specify
a priority higher than the queue's maximum.
/QUEUE= queue-name[:]
Specifies the name of the queue on which the entry is placed. The queue
specified must be a batch queue.
Use the SHOW ENTRY command to verify an entry's position in the queue.
!TIME LIMIT = n
/TIME_LIMIT = UNLIMITED
Specifies the maximum elapsed time, in minutes, allowed for the requested batch
job. This limit applies to the entire batch job, not to each command procedure
within the job. You can only specify the maximum time limit of the batch
request's queue.
If you specify /TIME LIMIT=UNLIMITED, the batch request's queue must also
have its maximum time limit set to UNLIMITED. A batch request with
TIME_LIMIT = UNLIMITED is not limited to any amount of elapsed time during
processing.
Print/Batch Services
7-11
COBOL
listfile]
/LIST[
=
/NOLIST
Controls whether the compiler produces an output listing.
create a listing
listing with
file. Iftheyousamespecify
The
compiler,
by default,
does notcreates
/LISTCOBOL-81
without
a
file
specification,
the
compiler
a
the/NOOBJECT,
same device asthenthethe
the
object
file,
and
in
the
same
directory
on
name
as
an LST
type. file,
If youandalsois inspecify
object
your directory on SY:.
file hasfile,the butsamewithname
as thefilesource
Ifdefault
you include
specification, the listing is written to that file or device. The
file typea isfileLST.
/MAP
/NOMAP
MAP.forThecompatibility
/NOMAP with
qualifier
is the
The
/MAP
qualifier is the sameThisas qualifier
/SHOW=exists
previous
same
as
/SHOW=NOMAP.
releases of RSTS/E.
/NAMES=
as the compiler to generate program section names ending with the
Requests
suffix,fileaa.mustIf you
linka different
several object
files
intoprogram
one
two-character
alphanumeric
have
suffix
for
its
executable
file then each object
section names.
If you do not specify the /NAMES qualifier, RSTS/E uses the default suffix SC.
/OBJECT[ = objfile]
/NOOBJECT
Controls whether the compiler produces an object file and a skeleton file. These
files are used as input to the LINK command, which in turn produces an
executable program.
By default, (or if you specify /OBJECT without a file specification), the compiler
produces an object file with the same file name as the input file in your directory
on the public disk structure, with a file type of OBJ. The compiler also uses the
default file type of OBJ when you include a file name but no file type with the
/OBJECT qualifier. The skeleton file is in the same directory and has the same
name as the object file, but has an SKL file type.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification .
/SHOW
/NOSHOW
/SHOW = MAP
/SHOW = NOMAP
Determines whether the compiler produces a Data Division map showing the
memory addresses for Data Division entries. The /SHOW and /SHOW= MAP
qualifiers perform the same operations. The /NOSHOW and /SHOW= NOMAP
8-12
Program Development
SHOW ENTRY
Displaying Print and Batch Queue Entries: SHOW ENTRY
the print or batch
The SHOW ENTRY command displays information about entries incharacteristics,
queue. This display shows each entry's current status as well as its
such as queue-name, entry-name, entry-number, owner, and priority.
Format
SHOW ENTRY [entry-spec or entry-number]
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
See discussion
/BATCH
/BRIEF
/BRIEF
/BRIEF
/FILES
/BRIEF
/FULL
See discussion
/PRINT
Command Parameters
entry-spec
entry-number
Specifies the entry-spec or entry-number of the entry you want to display. Use
the entry-number when you want to display a single entry. Use the full entry-spec
(queue:[ppn]name) to display all entries meeting the specification.
You can specify wildcard characters anywhere in the entry-spec. If you do not
specify any entry parameter, the SHOW ENTRY command displays all print and
batch entries owned by you.
Note
By default, PBS does not display entries by queue. To see a list of the
entries in a particular queue, specify the queue-name in the
entry-spec.
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Specifies that all entries are to be displayed. Using the /ALL qualifier is the same
although you may include other qualifiers to
as specifying the entry-spec
restrict the entries selected.
If you do not specify /ALL, the entry-spec defaults to entries with your PPN.
Print/Batch Services
7-13
DIBOL
DIBOL
The DIBOL command compiles a DIBOL-11 program. You can include up to six
source file specifications to be compiled into a single object file with the DIBOL
compiler. The default file type is DBL.
Format
DIBOL filespec[ ....]
File Qualifiers
Defaults
/[NO]DEBUG
/NODEBUG
/LIST[ = listfile]
/NOLIST
/NOLIST
/OBJECT[ =objfile]
/OBJECT
/NOOBJECT
/WARNINGS
/WARNINGS
/NOWARNINGS
File Qualifiers
/DEBUG
/NODEBUG
Controls whether the compiler uses the DIBOL Debugging Technique (DDT) .
If you specify /DEBUG, you must also use the /DEBUG qualifier when you link
the program. If your program consists of a main program and one or more
separately compiled subroutines, and you want to use the debugging tool on the
entire program, you must compile each subroutine with the /DEBUG qualifier.
You can mix sections of your program that have been compiled with /DEBUG
with sections that have not been compiled with /DEBUG . However, you can use
debugging tools only in the sections compiled with /DEBUG.
/LIST[ = listfile]
/NOLIST
Controls whether or not the DIBOL compiler produces an output listing.
By default, the compiler does not create a listing file . If you specify /LIST without
a file specification, then the compiler gives a listing file the same file name as the
object file (or, if you specify /NOOBJECT, as the first input source file) . The file is
placed in the same directory on the same device as the object file, but with a
. LST file type .
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification .
/OBJECT[ = objfile]
/NOOBJECT
Controls whether the compiler produces an output object file.
8-14
Program Development
SHOW ENTRY
/FULL
Displays the full status of each entry. In addition to all the information shown by
the /BRIEF and /FILES qualifiers, the /FULL qualifier also displays the following:
Priority
" JOB COUNT (number of copies to be printed)
Date and time the entry was submitted
e Date and time the entry was last modified (if ever)
Date and time the entry started processing
" AFTER date and time (specified by the /AFTER qualifier)
" Server name (if the job is STARTED)
For example:
entry
iG NORMAL
PRINT :[ 1t2141BETH Status READY Pri 128
2ndJot Print
Form
Count
1#
08-Jun-85 .DOC
at 03 :10 PM
Entered
1>_SY on:E1#21415ETH
Print/Batch Services
7-15
FORTRAN/1777
FORTRAN
FORTRAN/1777
The FORTRAN command compiles up to six FORTRAN source files into a single
object file.
There are two FORTRAN compilers available on RSTS/E:
Command
Invokes
FORTRAN-77
FORTRAN/1777
FORTRAN-IV
FORTRAN/FOR
The FORTRAN/1777 command invokes the FORTRAN-77 compiler.
Format
FORTRAN/1777 file-spec[, .. . ]
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/CHECK
/[NO]CHECK
/CONTINUATIONS =19
/CONTINUATIONS = n
/NOD _LINES
/[NO]D _LINES
/NOI4
/[NO]I4
/NOIDENTIFICATION
/[NO]IDENTIFICATION
/NOLIST
/LIST[ = listfile]
/NOLIST
/NOMACHINE_ CODE
/[NO]MACHINE CODE
/OBJECT
/OBJECT[ = objfile]
/NOOBJECT
/WARNINGS
/[NO]WARNINGS
/WORK FILES =2
/WORK._ FILES =n
Prompts
File: file-spec[, . ..]
Command Parameters
file-spec[, ...]
Specifies one or more FORTRAN source programs to be compiled. If you do not
specify a file type, the compiler uses the default file type of FTN.
You can specify more than one input file. The files are compiled as a single input
file. The result is one object module and, if /LIST is specified, one listing.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification .
8-16
Program Development
SET ENTRY
For example, you type the following command line to have a job named BOCAT
printed after March 2 at 1:00 in the afternoon:
$ SET ENTRY BOCAT/AFTER=o2-JUN-85 :01 :OOPM
The /NOAFTER qualifier releases an entry (previously set with the /AFTER
qualifier) for immediate processing.
/ALL
Specifies that all of your entries are to be modified. Using the /ALL qualifier is the
same as specifying the entry-spec
although you may include other
qualifiers to restrict the entries selected.
/BATCH
Specifies that only batch queue entries be modified.
By default, both print and batch queue entries are selected to be changed.
/CPU _LIMIT =n
/CPU _ LIMIT = UNLIMITED
(Batch entries only.) Specifies the maximum CPU time, in minutes, allowed for
the batch job. This limit applies to the entire batch job, not to each command
procedure within the job.
If you specify /CPU-LIMIT= UNLIMITED, the batch request's queue must also
have its maximum CPU limit set to UNLIMITED. A batch request with
CPU LIMIT = UNLIMITED is allowed an infinite amount of CPU usage during
processing .
/FORMS = form-name
(Print entries only.) Specifies the name of the form required by the entry. See
your system manager to find out which form names you can specify.
/HOLD
Specifies that the entry be placed in a HOLD state on the print or batch queue.
PBS does not process entries in a HOLD state until you release them with the
SET ENTRY/RELEASE command.
/JOB COUNT=n
(Print entries only.) Specifies that the entire job be printed n times, from 1 to 255.
/PAGE _ LIMIT= n
/PAGE LIMIT =UNLIMITED
(Print entries only.) Specifies the maximum number of pages to be printed in the
job. You can specify only up to the maximum page limit assigned to the queue
by the system manager, unless you have sufficient privilege to specify a higher
limit.
Print/Batch Services
7-17
FORTRAN/F77
If you give a file specification, the listing is written to that file. The default file type
is . LST.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification .
/MACHINE CODE
/NOMACHINE CODE
Controls whether the listing produced by the compiler includes the machine
language code that the compiler generated .
The default is /NOMACHINE_CODE, which omits machine language code in the
listing. The /NIACHINE CODE qualifier is invalid unless you also specify the
/LIST qualifier.
/OBJECT[ = objfile]
/NOOBJECT
Controls whether the compiler produces an output object file.
By default (or if you specify /OBJECT without a file specification), the compiler
produces an object module that has the same file name as the first input source
file, in your directory on the public disk structure. The default file type OBJ.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification .
/WARNINGS
/NOWARNINGS
Controls whether the compiler produces diagnostic messages for warning
conditions.
Use /NOWARNINGS to override the compiler default, which is to issue warning
diagnostic messages.
/WORK FILES = n
Determines the number of temporary disk work files that should be used during
compilation . You can use from one to three files; the default value for n is 2.
If you increase the number of files, the size of the largest program to be compiled
can be increased, but you may decrease compilation speed.
8-18
Program Development
DELETE/ENTRY
Deleting a Print or Batch Entry from a Queue : DELETE/ENTRY
The DELETE/ENTRY command uses the name or number of an entry to cancel a
request to the print or batch queue.
Format
DELETE/ENTRY entry-spec or entry-number
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
/BATCH
/PRINT
Prompts
Entry: entry-spec or entry-number
Command Parameters
entry-spec
entry-number
Specifies either the entry-spec or entry-number of the print or batch entry to be
deleted. If you specify the entry-spec, PBS deletes all entries matching the
specification. If you specify the entry-number, PBS deletes only the entry with the
matching number. Wildcards are allowed.
Note
Be careful when you delete jobs using the entry-spec parameter. More
than one entry with the same entry-spec may exist .
Command Qualifiers
/ALL
Specifies that all of your entries are to be deleted. Using the /ALL qualifier is the
same as specifying the entry-spec
although you may include other
qualifiers to restrict the entries selected.
/BATCH
Specifies that only batch queue entries be deleted.
The default is that both print and batch queue entries are selected.
/PRINT
Specifies that only print queue entries be deleted.
The default is that both print and batch queue entries are selected.
Print/Batch Services
7-19
FORTRAN/FOR
When the compiler produces inline code (/CODE = followed by EAE, EIS, or
FIS) the object program executes at greater speed and generally uses less physical
memory. Inline code achieves this optimization, in part, by omitting instructions to
detect or report certain error conditions. However, you can generate code for
error checking by including the /CODE= THR option in the compiler command
line.
When the compiler generates threaded code (through the /CODE= THR option),
the object program produced uses a symbolic library routine to perform each
operation required for program execution. The executable program consists of a
"threaded" list of the addresses of library routines and appropriate operand
addresses. This type of code generation produces an object module that operates
independently of hardware arithmetic configuration. You can combine it with any
of the FORTRAN-IV OTS libraries to produce a valid executable program for
each type of arithmetic hardware without any need for recompilation.
/D LINES
/NOD LINES
Indicates whether the compiler reads and compiles debugging lines. (Debugging
lines have a D in column 1 of the source program.) If you specify /D _LINES,
lines that have a D in column 1 are compiled.
The default is /NOD_LINES, which means the compiler assumes that lines
beginning with a D are comments and does not compile them.
/I4
/NOI4
Controls how the compiler interprets INTEGER and LOGICAL declarations that
do not specify a length.
If you specify /I4, the compiler allocates a default length of two words (four bytes)
for integer and logical variables.
By default (or if you specify /NOI4), the compiler interprets these as INTEGER-2
and LOGICAL-2, respectively .
/LINENUMBERS
/NOLINENUMBERS
The /LINENUMBERS qualifier indicates that internal sequence numbers are to be
included in the executable program for routine diagnostics.
The /NOLINENUMBERS qualifier suppresses generation of internal sequence
numbers.
/LIST = llistfilel
/NOLIST
Controls whether a listing file is produced.
The compiler does not create a listing file by default. If you specify /LIST without
a file specification, then the compiler gives a listing file the same file name as the
8-20
Program Development
Program Development
O
chapter describes DCL commands for developing, linking, and running programs
This
on RSTS/E.
Note
This manual does not explain programming concepts. To use this
chapter, you need to know how to write programs in the language
you select. See the appropriate programming manuals for information
about using each language.
Table 8-1 describes the commands you use to develop programs on RSTS/E.
Table 8-1: Program Development Commands
Command
BASIC
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN
MACRO
LINK
RUN
Function
ProgrammingLanguages and Environment
Invokesthe
BASIC-PLUSuse ororBASIC-PLUS-2
programmingenvironment,
on the qualifiersyou
thedefault setbyyour
systemmanager. depending
Compiles COBOL-81 programs.
Compiles aDIBOL-11 program.
. Twocompilersyou useareavailable:
FORTRAN-IVand
Compiles
aFORTRAN
programthequalifiers
orthe
default
setbyyoursystem
FORTRAN-77;
dependingon
manager.
Assembles aprogram written inMACRO-11.
ProgrammingOperations
Links together object files toproduce an executable file .
Executesasystemoruserprogram.
MACRO
MACRO
8-22
The MACRO command invokes a MACRO-11 assembler. You can include up to six
file specifications with the MACRO command.
On RSTS/E you can use either MACRO/RT11 or MACRO/RSX11. The default is
MACRO/RSX11, unless your system manager has changed it. The default file type is
.MAC with one exception: MLB is the default file type if you use the RSX-based
assembler with the /LIBRARY qualifier.
Format
MACRO/RT11 filespec[ . .. ]
OR
MACRO/RSX11 filespec[ ... . ]
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
/CROSS. REFERENCE
/LIST[ = listfile]
/LIST[ = listfile]
/NOLIST
/OBJECT[ =objfile]
/OBJECT[ =objfile]
/NOOBJECT
File Qualifiers
/LIBRARY
Command Parameters
filespec [, . .]
Specifies one or more source files to be compiled into a single object file. The
default file type is MAC with one exception : MLB is the default file type if you
use the RSX-based assembler with the /LIBRARY qualifier.
Command Qualifiers
/CROSS REFERENCE
Requests a cross-reference listing of symbols in the listing file.
/LIST[ =listfile]
/NOLIST
Controls whether a listing file is produced. Unlike the other languages on RSTS/E,
MACRO produces a listing file by default. (In other words, the /LIST qualifier is
assumed.) The assembler gives a listing file the same file name as the object file
and puts it in the same directory on the same device as the object file. If you
specify /NOOBJECT, then it assumes the name of the first input source file, and is
placed in your directory on the public structure. The default file type is LST.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification.
Program Development
4. Link - Combining object files into an executable file.
5. Test - Making trial runs of an executable file and finding errors.
The next four sections introduce the tools you use for the edit, compile, link, and test
steps. The commands you use in each step depend on the programming language
you select.
Editing
Compiling
A source program is a file containing text; this is the form of your program that you
actually write. The text in a source program consists of statements in BASIC,
COBOL, DIBOL, FORTRAN, MACRO, or some other high-level language.
You generally use an editor such as EDT (which you invoke with the EDIT
command) to create a file containing the text of your source statements. An editor
allows you to type lines of the program and save it as a file . When you have entered
the program lines into the file the way you want them, you are ready for the compile
step.
There is a command for compiling each high-level language. The compiler:
1. Reads the source-code file you have created with your editor
2. Compiles it into PDP-11 machine code
3 . Writes the compiled machine code into an object file
On PDP-11 systems, the object output is called a "module" ; it contains your program
in the binary language that, when linked, is executable by a PDP-11 computer.
A single line of source code, especially in a high-level language, may be compiled
into many PDP-11 instructions. The efficiency (and improved clarity) of not having to
write machine instructions a line at a time is one of the important reasons for using a
high-level language.
MACRO is called an "assembler ." For this discussion, its function is the same as that
of any compiler. MACRO turns source code into object code, and it fits into the
program development cycle the same way as do the compilers.
In addition, the MACRO assembler can produce a listing that shows both your source
code and the generated object code. This listing, like other listings prepared by
compilers, is helpful during the debugging process.
Another listing that is useful in debugging is the "cross-reference" listing. This listing
shows where each symbol is referenced in your source program. For the MACRO
assembler, you can request this cross-reference as part of the assembler's program
listing. For some of the other languages, there are separate programs that operate
independently of the compilers to produce cross-reference listings. For example,
BASIC-PLUS has BPCREF; BASIC-PLUS-2 has B2CREF .
Program Development
8-3
LINK
LINK
The LINK command combines one or more of your compiled or assembled object
files, including routines from appropriate libraries, into a single executable file.
Note
This section describes the DCL LINK command and its qualifiers. See
the RSTS/E Task Builder Reference Manual or the RSTS/E RT11
Utilities Manual for a complete description of linking concepts,
overlays, and libraries .
Format for Simple (Non-Overlaid) Link
LINK file-specl[,file-spec2 ... . I
Format for Overlaid Link
LINK /STRUCTURE
(LINK prompts for overlay structure)
Command Qualifiers
Defaults
Language Qualifier
/BASIC or /BP2
/BP2
/COBOL or /C81
(unless your system
/DIBOL
manager has selected
/F77
another)
/FOR
/RSX1l
/RT1 l
Debugging Qualifier
/[NO]DEBUG
/NODEBUG
Description Qualifier
/DESCRIPTION
Forms Management System Qualifier
/[NO]FMS
/NOFMS
8-24
Program Development
(continued on next page)
Testing
You can rarely create a program that does not contain at least one error, either in its
logic or in its coding. You may discover errors while you are editing the program.
Furthermore, the compiler may find errors during the compilation process. The
compiler informs you of any errors it finds by using error flags in the listings. The
linking process may also catch certain errors and issue appropriate messages.
However, often you do not discover that the program does not work properly until
you run your program. Some programming errors are difficult to find. For this reason,
special debugging tools are supplied with most high-level languages. See the
appropriate programming language manual for information about available debugging
tools.
The RT11 and RSX Tools
Most of the high-level languages available on RSTS/E are very similar to corresponding languages on RT-11 or RSX-11 . Therefore, the program development commands
you use on RSTS/E are similar to the RT11 and RSX program development
commands.
For example, when you develop a FORTRAN-IV program on RSTS/E, you use
commands similar to those on RTIL When you develop a program in other
high-level languages (including FORTRAN-77, but excluding BASIC-PLUS), you use
commands similar to those on RSX. You can develop MACRO-11 programs using
either set of program development commands.
The description of the program development cycle stated earlier applies to the
commands for either RT11 or RSX. However, the appropriate command for each
programming environment is unique: there is one set of commands for RT11, and
another set for RSX.
Table 8-2 shows the two sets of commands.
Table 8-2 : Program Development Commands on RSTS/E
Generic Name
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN
MACRO
Linker
RT11 Command
FORTRAN/FOR
MACRO/RT11
LINK/FOR
LINK/RT11
RSX Command
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN/F77
MACRO/RSX11
LINK/F77
LINK/C81
LINK/DIBOL
LINK/RSX11
LINK/BP2
Program Development
8-5
LINK
Table 8-3: Language Qualifier, Source Language, andLinker Relationship
Linker
Qualifier
Source Language
/BP2
RSX-11-based
BASIC-PLUS-2
/BASIC
/COBOL
COBOL-81
RSX-11-based
/C81
/DIBOL
DIBOL
RSX-11-based
/F77
FORTRAN-77
RSX-11-based
/FOR
FORTRAN-IV
RT11-based
/RSX11
MACRO Assembler
RSX-11-based
/RT11
MACRO Assembler
RT11-based
Input File List
The LINK command creates an executable file from one or more of your compiled or
assembled object files. You specify the input files, that is, the object files, in one of
two places in the LINK command: either beginning on the same line as the LINK
command or in response to the prompt, depending on whether you use the
/STRUCTURE qualifier to request overlays.
In any case, the standard RSTS/E defaults for file specifications apply. The default
device is the public structure (SY:) ; the device must be disk. The default file type for
input files (your object files to be linked) is OBJ. Note that for COBOL programs, the
LINK command expects to find a skeleton file (type SKL) on the same device and
account, with the same file name, as each OBJ file listed. (A COBOL compile
automatically produces .SKL and OBJ files.)
Simple (Nonoverlaid) Linking
For a simple (nonoverlaid) link, specify the object files beginning on the same line as
the LINK command. If you have many files, you can continue a line by typing a
hyphen (-) at the end of the line.
The LINK command translates the command you specify into a command line to
another program. The translated command cannot exceed 127 characters (80
characters for a COBOL program). If the continued command line is too long, you
get the error message ?Command too long. If you need to link more files, you must
run the Task Builder or the LINK linker directly (see the RSTS/E Task Builder
Reference Manual or the RSTS/E RT11 Utilities Manual).
8-26
Program Development
COBOL
COBOL
The COBOL command compiles a COBOL-81 program . (You can compile only one
source file at a time with COBOL-81.)
Format
COBOL [source __file]
Defaults
Command Qualifiers
/NOANSI _FORMAT
/[NO]ANSI-FORMAT
/C81
/C81
/CHECK
/[NO]CHECK
/CHECK= [NO]BOUNDS
/CHECK= [NO]PERFORM
See description
/CODE = [NO]CIS
/NOCROSS _REFERENCE
/[NO]CROSS-REFERENCE
/NODEBUG
/[NO]DEBUG
/NODIAGNOSTICS
/DIAGNOSTICS[ = diagfile]
/NODIAGNOSTICS
/NOLIST
/LIST[ =listfile]
/NOLIST
/NOMAP
/[NO]MAP
/NAMES = SC
/NAMES =as
/OBJECT[ =objfile]
/OBJECT[= objfile]
/NOOBJECT
/NOSHOW
/[NO]SHOW
/SHOW = [NO]MAP
/NOSUBPROGRAM
/[NO]SUBPROGRAM
TEMPORARY=device
/TEMP=SY:
/NOTRUNCATE
/[NO]TRUNCATE
/[NO]WARNINGS
/WARNINGS
/WARNINGS = [NO]INFORMATIONAL
Prompts
File: source file
Command Parameters
source file
Specifies a COBOL program to be compiled. You must specify a source file
name . If you do not include a file type, the compiler uses the default type of
. CBL.
No wildcards are allowed for the source file.
Program Development
8- 9
LINK
/FOR
Indicates that the object files listed in the command are FORTRAN-IV object files.
/F77
Indicates that the object files listed in the command are FORTRAN-77 object files.
With FORTRAN-77, you can use I/O channels 1-14 in your program. The
maximum record size for I/O is 512 bytes. See the PDP-11 FORTRAN User's
Guide if you need a larger record size.
If your program stores a format specification in an array, the size of the
specification is limited by the size of an internal buffer, which is 64 bytes. See the
PDP-11 FORTRAN-77 User's Guide if your program requires more space.
The LINK command always includes RMS with this qualifier . You cannot specify
/OTS = RESIDENT with this qualifier. FORTRAN-77 does not have an Object
Time System (OTS) resident library.
/RSX11
Indicates that the RSX-11-based assembler (using the MACRO/RSXll command)
on RSTS/E systems (MAC.TSK) produced the object files listed in the command.
The LINK command includes RMS only if you specify the /RMS qualifier. The
default for MACRO programs is /NORMS.
/RT11
Indicates that the RT11-based assembler (using the MACRO/RTll command) on
RSTS/E systems (MACRO.SAV) produced the object files listed in the command.
The LINK command cannot use RMS with this qualifier.
Forms Management System Qualifier
/FMS
/NOFMS
Indicates that you used the capabilities of the DIGITAL Forms Management
System (FMS-11) in your program . You can use this qualifier in conjunction with
any of the RSX-based language qualifiers. You cannot use it with the /FOR or
/RTll qualifiers.
/FMS = RESIDENT
Specifies the FMS resident libraries FDVRDB and FDVRES. FDVRDB is the FMS
resident library that uses debug mode. FDVRES is the resident library without
debug mode.
Your system manager can decide to let these libraries belong to a cluster. Cluster
libraries are useful if you need to use more than one resident library. When they
are clustered, resident libraries share the same virtual address space in your
8-28
Program Development
COBOL
produce
the
the
qualifiers
also
same
results
and
are
recommended
defaults.
However, your system manager can change the default
at system installation.
You can use this qualifier only in conjunction with /LIST.
/SUBPROGRAM
/NOSUBPROGRAM
Indicates the hascompiler
is compiling
a subprogram
.calling
Use thisprogram
qualifier-only
iis,f theif the
subprogram
not
passed
parameters
from
the
that
subprogram
does not contain the PROCEDURE DIVISION USING header. The
default is /NOSUBPROGRAM.
/TEMPORARY=device
Changes
thespecify
storagefor area
for(device).
temporaryThisworkqualifier
files from
SY: if(theyoudefault)
to theout
value
you
"dev"
is
useful
are
running
ofwayspace
on
the
system
disk,
or
if
you
have
a
faster
disk
available.
Because
of
the
the compiler
names
its temporary
work files,
twosamesimultaneous
compilationsof
ofthesource
programs
with
the
same
file
name,
in
the
account,
(regardless
types used)
produces
unpredictable results.qualifier
This problem
willanotnondefault
occur,
however,
if
you
use
the
/TEMPORARY=dev
to
specify
device for those files.
/TRUNCATE
/NOTRUNCATE
Specifies
that
the
compiler
perform
decimal
truncation
on
the
values
of
COMP
data items.
The
recommended
default. (Your
is forsystem
COBOL-81
to perform
binarythe truncation
rather
than
decimal
truncation
manager
can
change
default
at
installation.) With binary truncation, the maximum value a COMP item cansystem
contain
depends
on its storage
allocation.
If you specify
/TRUNCATE,See thethe
maximum
value
depends
on
the
item's
PICTURE
character-string.
COBOL-81 RSTS/E User's Guide for more information.
/[NO]WARNINGS
/WARNINGS = INFORMATIONAL
/WARNINGS = NOINFORMATIONAL
The /NOWARNINGS and /WARNINGS= NOINFORMATIONAL qualifiers stop
the compiler from issuing informational diagnostics during the compilation. If you
specify either of these qualifiers, only warning and fatal diagnostics will appear in
the list file, diagnostics file, and diagnostic summary.
The /WARNINGS and /WARNINGS= INFORMATIONAL qualifiers, the
recommended defaults, specify that the compiler issue informational diagnostics
during the compilation.
Program Development
8-13
LINK
If you use /DEBUG and it cannot be applied, you receive the error message:
Description Qualifier
/DESCRIPTION
Indicates that the input file describes the process for linking the program, including
object files to link, the executable and/or map files to create, and various other
options. A description file is sometimes called a "task builder command file."
If you program in BASIC-PLUS-2, you can specify /DESCRIPTION if you want to
use CMD and ODL Task Builder command files created by the BASIC-PLUS-2
BUILD command. Although /DESCRIPTION and /BP2 can perform the same
functions, unlike /BP2, you can tailor /DESCRIPTION to your system, generally
resulting in a smaller program .
You cannot use this qualifier with any of the other LINK qualifiers. The default file
type is . CMD. You can specify only one input file with /DESCRIPTION .
Address Space and Library Qualifiers
Two general types of libraries may be available on your system :
Disk libraries (nonresident)
Resident libraries
For disk libraries, the Task
A library is a collection of software modules in a single file.in your
program and builds it
Builder takes a copy of each routine that you reference
program.
into your
in computer memory) so
Your system manager defines libraries as resident (residing
into your
that more than one user can share them. Instead of buildingof routines
the library. The copy is
program (as is done with disk libraries), you share a copy
resident in memory as long as you or someone else requires it.
Because they are shared, resident libraries occupy less space on the system. Your
program uses less memory and processor time: therefore; it runs faster. However,
because it is necessary to dedicate permanent physical memory for resident libraries,
your system manager might choose not to install them. By default, the LINK
command uses resident libraries if they are present on your system. Otherwise, LINK
uses the appropriate disk libraries.
Because both resident and disk libraries take memory from your job, their use affects
the amount of memory that is available for your program to work in. There is a
may
32K-word limit on job space for programs on RSTS/E. Your system manager further.
also have set a parameter called the SWAP MAX that can limit program size reassign
SWAP MAX has an upper limit of 31K; however, your system manager can
this upper limit to a lower value.
8- 30
Program Development
FORTRAN/F77
Command Qualifiers
/CHECK
/NOCHECK
the
Controls
produces extra code that checks for program
correctnesswhether
at run timecompiler
.
The
/CHECK
(the default) causes the production
of code to check that all array referencesqualifier
are to addresses within the address
boundaries specified in the array declaration.
/CONTINUATIONS= n
Specifies the maximum number of continuation lines to be permitted.
The number of lines, n, is a decimal number from 0 through 99. By default, the
compiler accepts a maximum of 19 continuation lines.
/D_LINES
/NOD_LINES
Indicates whether the compiler reads and compiles debugging lines, which have a
D in column 1 of the source program. (Debugging lines check that the program is
working; they are not needed after the
debugged.) If you specify
/D-LINES, lines that have a D in columnprogram
1 are iscompiled.
The default is /NO DLINES, which means the compiler assumes that lines
beginning with a D are comments and does not compile them.
/I4
/NO14
Controls how the compiler interprets INTEGER and LOGICAL declarations that
do not specify a length.
If you specify /14, the compiler allocates a default length of two words (four bytes)
for integer and logical variables.
If you specify /NO14, the compiler interprets the declarations as INTEGER-2 and
LOGICAL-2, respectively. /NOI4 is the default.
/IDENTIFICATION
/NOIDENTIFICATION
Controls whether the FORTRAN-77 compiler identification and version numbers
are typed on your terminal. The default is /NOIDENTIFICATION .
/LIST[=listfile]
/NOLIST
Controls whether a listing file is produced.
Byfiledefault, the compiler does not create a listing file. If you specify /LIST without
a specification,
the compiler gives a listing file the same file name as the
file, (or, if youthenspecify
object
/NOOBJECT, as the first input source file) and in the
same directory on the same device
as the object file, but with an LST file type.
Program Development
8-17
LINK
/MAP[ =file-spec]
/NOMAP
Use the /MAP qualifier to indicate that you want the LINK command to produce
a memory map file . Use the /NOMAP qualifier, or (since /NOMAP is the default)
simply omit the qualifier if you do not want a memory map file. You must specify
/MAP if you use the /NOEXECUTABLE qualifier.
If you use /MAP, you can also assign a file specification for the memory map file.
If you omit the file specification, LINK produces map file on the same device, with
the same account and name as the executable file. The default file type is MAP.
For RSX-based languages, specifying the /MAP qualifier produces the Task
Builder's memory map file. For RT11-based languages, the /MAP qualifier
produces the LINK.SAV memory map.
Overlay Qualifier
/STRUCTURE
Indicates that you want to be prompted for an overlay structure (see the following
sections) .
When You Can Use /STRUCTURE
If you wrote your program in BASIC-PLUS-2, DIBOL, or FORTRAN-77, you can use
the /STRUCTURE qualifier with the LINK command to specify an overlay structure.
The /STRUCTURE qualifier presents a dialogue that makes it easy to work with
overlays.
Note
Instead of using LINK and /STRUCTURE, you can specify overlays for
these languages using the Overlay Description Language (ODL)
recognized by the Task Builder. The RSTS/E Task Builder Reference
Manual describes ODL. Using the ODL language is more complex
than using the /STRUCTURE qualifier with LINK; however, it is also
more powerful.
COBOL programmers work with overlays within the language itself, by using the
segmentation facility of the COBOL compiler. The RSTS/E COBOL User's Guide
describes this facility. You do not need to use the /STRUCTURE qualifier if you are
doing overlays in COBOL; the LINK command processes the skeleton files output
from the COBOL-81 compiler.
If you program in FORTRAN-IV or in MACRO under the RT11 run-time system, you
must run the LINK.SAV program directly to specify an overlay structure. The RSTS/E
RT11 Utilities Manual describes this program in detail.
8-32
Program Development
FORTRAN/FOR
object file. (If you specify /NOOBJECT, then the compiler gives the name of the
first input source file.) The file also is in the same directory on the same device as
the object file, but with an LST file type.
If you give a file specification, the default file type is LST. You cannot use
wildcard characters in the file specification .
/MACHINE CODE
/NOMACHINE CODE
Controls whether the listing produced by the compiler includes the machine
language code that the compiler generated.
The default is /NOMACHINE-CODE, which omits machine language code in the
listing. The /MACHINE_CODE qualifier is invalid if /LIST is not specified .
/OBJECT[ =objfile]
/NOOBJECT
Controls whether the compiler produces an output object file.
By default, or if you specify /OBJECT without a file specification, the compiler
produces
object module that has the same file name as the first input source
file, in yourandirectory
on the public disk structure, with a default file type of OBJ.
If you give a file specification, the default file type is OBJ. You cannot use
wildcard characters in the file specification .
/OPTIMIZE
/NOOPTIMIZE
Tells the compiler whether to produce optimized code. The default is /OPTIMIZE.
Use the /NOOPTIMIZE qualifier during a debugging session to make sure that the
debugger
program. has sufficient information to help you locate errors in your source
/WARNINGS
/NOWARNINGS
Controls whether the compiler produces diagnostic messages for warning
conditions.
Use /NOWARNINGS to override the compiler default. (The default is to issue
warning diagnostic messages.)
Program Development
8-21
LINK
and SUB2 do not call
Figure S-2 shows a simple overlay in memory. Note thatisSUB1
necessary for program
or use data from each other. This logical independenceor references
to data that are not
pieces that overlay each other. In this example, callswhich is the MAIN
program.
currently in memory must be made from the root,
MAIN
SUB1
(UNUSED MEMORY)
MAIN
SUB2
(UNUSED MEMORY)
TIME2
TIME 1
MK-00575-01
Figure 8-2 : A Simple Overlay in Memory
Rules for Constructing Overlays
In general, you must structure an overlay tree so that calls or references to data take
place between overlay pieces that are on the same path. A path is any route from the
root of the structure that follows a series of branches to an outermost piece of the
tree . Calls or references to data cannot take place between pieces that are along
different paths.
8-34
Program Development
LINK
Library Qualifiers
/FMS = [NO]RESIDENT
/OTS = [NO]RESIDENT
/[NO]RMS
/RMS = [NO]RESIDENT
Output File Qualifiers
/[NO]EXECUTABLE[ = filespec]
/EXECUTABLE
/[NO]MAP[ =filespec]
/NOMAP
Overlay Qualifier
/STRUCTURE
(no overlay structure)
Prompt (No Overlays)
Files: file-specl [,file-spec2 ....]
Prompt (Overlays requested with /STRUCTURE qualifier)
ROOT files:
file-specl[,file-spec2....I
Root COMMON areas:
[common-area][, . .]
Overlay:
[file-spec[,...][ + ]]
(more prompts for overlays)
Overview
Two linker programs are available on RSTS/E:
e The RSX-based linker (the Task Builder)
e The RT11-based linker (LINK.SAV)
The LINK command invokes one or the other, depending on your source language.
(You indicate the source language by including a language qualifier.) BASIC-PLUS-2
is the default.
Table 8-3 shows the language qualifiers and whether the RSX-11-based or
RT11-based linker is run in each case.
Program Development
8-25
LINK
Two examples are shown in Figure 8-4. The common block COMA is defined in the
pieces A2 and A21. The space for COMA is allocated in A2 because that piece is
closer to the root. The common block COMB, however, is defined in AO and BO.
These pieces are not on the same path, so the space for COMB is allocated in both
AO and BO. Note that AO and BO cannot communicate through COMB. When the
overlay containing BO is loaded, for example, any data stored in COMB by AO is lost.
The /STRUCTURE dialogue that follows allows you to place COMB in the root of the
overlay structure, where it can be accessed by AO and BO properly.
A2
I'
~ ---]
I
Ii
ijrr L .invita
SPACE FOR COMB ALLOCATED
IN BOTH AO AND BO BECAUSE
THEY ARE ON DIFFERENT PATHS
i I
SPACE FOR COMA ALLOCATED
IN A2 BECAUSE IT IS
CLOSER TO THE ROOT
MK-00591-01
Figure 8-4 : Allocating Space for Common Areas
The /STRUCTURE Dialogue
You can use the /STRUCTURE qualifier with /F77, /BASIC, or /BP2 and the /DIBOL
qualifier. You cannot use /STRUCTURE with the /FOR, /RT11, /COBOL, or /C81
qualifiers.
8-36
Program Development
LINK
program. See the RSTS/E Task Builder Reference Manual for more information
on cluster libraries.
Without cluster libraries, FMS uses 4K words of virtual address space in your
program.
With cluster libraries, the LINK command clusters the FMS resident libraries with
all resident libraries being used. However, the LINK command will not use cluster
libraries with the /DIBOL qualifier.
/FMS = NORESIDENT
Specifies FMS without a resident library.
Debugging Qualifier
/DEBUG
/NODEBUG
Invokes the appropriate debugging tool for a program that is written in
COBOL-81, DIBOL, or RSX-11-based MACRO, and/or uses FMS . The
debuggers invoked with each qualifier follow. The default for each language is
/NODEBUG .
Note that when you use the /DEBUG qualifier with either /C81 or /DIBOL, you
must also use the /DEBUG qualifier when you compile the program . If your
program consists of a main program and one or more separately
subroutines, and you want to use the debugging tool on the entirecompiled
you
must compile each subroutine with the /DEBUG qualifier. You can program,
mix sections of
your program that have been compiled using /DEBUG with sections that have not
been compiled using /DEBUG . However, the debugging tools will be used only in
the sections compiled with /DEBUG .
For a COBOL-81 program, /DEBUG invokes the COBOL-81 Symbolic
Debugger. See the COBOL-81 RSTS/E User's Guide for information on the
debugging techniques used.
For a DIBOL program, /DEBUG invokes the DIBOL Debugging Technique
(DDT) . See the CTS-500 DIBOL User's Guide for information on the debugging
techniques used.
If you are using FMS, /DEBUG invokes the debug mode of FMS in addition to
the other debugging tool. The debug mode of FMS is not available with
COBOL-81 . See the FMS-11/RSTS Reference Software Manual for information
on the debugging techniques used.
For an RSX-11-based MACRO program, /DEBUG invokes the Octal Debugging
Tool (ODT) . See the IAS/RSX-11 ODT Reference Manual for information on the
debugging techniques used.
For a FORTRAN or RT1l-based MACRO program, /DEBUG has no meaning.
Program Development
8-29
This message informs you that, as a result of your command, the file is being
reorganized .
Angle brackets ( < > ) surrounding text indicate a place holder for what the
system inserts when an error message occurs.
Table A-1 lists the DCL error messages that you can get when using RSTS/E and the
probable cause.
Table A-9 : DCL Error Messages
Message and Meaning
?Account or device in use
The device cannot be mounted or dismounted because it is open or has one or more open files.
This error can also occur when a user attempts to access a non-shared disk from a job other than
the one that mounted the disk.
?Additional argument required
You did not specify enough arguments in the DCL function .
?Additional qualifier required
You did not include a qualifier required in a command.
?Ambiguous keyword
You abbreviated a keyword too short; DCL cannot distinguish it from other keywords.
?Argument not allowed
You used an argument with a qualifier that does not accept one.
?Argument required
An argument was not supplied with a qualifier which required one. For example, /SINCE=,
without an argument, would generate this error.
The user did not supply an argument to a DCL function that required one.
??Bad directory for device
The directory of the device referenced is in an unreadable format. For example, the tape format
differs from the format you specified with the MOUNT command.
?Can't access terminal <error text>
An error occurred while attempting to access the terminal to send the setup file to.
?Can't find file or account
Either the account or file does not exist, or you typed a file specification incorrectly.
?Can't mount a private disk as public
You tried to mount as public (using the MOUNT command's /PUBLIC qualifier) a disk that was
initialized as private.
?Can't rebuild disk because device is write protected
A privileged user attempted to rebuild a disk (using the MOUNT command's /REBUILD
qualifier), and the drive is write protected. Therefore, the mount and rebuild operations fail.
(continued on next page)
A-2
DCL Error Messages
LINK
files to be linked. You use two symbols, the plus sign ( + ) and the comma (,) to show
how the files are to be overlaid. You can also use the exclamation point (!) to include
comments in the overlay dialogue.
The Plus Sign (+) Symbol
Consider again the LINK command to overlay the structure shown in Figure 8-4:
$ LINK/F77/STRUCTURE RE
ROOT files : ROOT
Root COMMON areas : COMB RE
Overlay : A0+ RE
Overlay : Al RE
Overlay : A2+ RE
Overlay : A21 RE
Overlay : A22 RE
Overlay : RE
Overlay :
Overlay : BO
Overlay : RE
As shown, you indicate a branch in the overlay structure by ending a line with a plus
sign following the pieces from which the branch occurs . The next Overlay: prompt is
indented two places, to show that you are at the next overlay level . For example, A1
and A2 overlay each other; their addresses begin immediately after the address taken
by A0. Likewise, A21 and A22 overlay each other after A2.
Repeat this process to obtain the desired overlay structure . When you want to return
to the previous level in the overlay structure, press the RETURN key in response to
an Overlay : prompt.
Note that you can nest overlays to seven levels.
The Comma (,) Symbol
You use the comma (,) operator in an Overlay: prompt between files that are to be
concatenated in the overlay structure.
8-38
Program Development
Table A-9 : DCL Error Messages (Cont .)
Message and Meaning
?Data error or incorrect density
This message occurs for one of the following reasons:
" You specified the incorrect density.
" You did not specify a density, but your system's default density is incorrect for the tape.
" The data on the tape is damaged.
" The tape drive is faulty.
To correct the problem, specify the correct density. If that does not solve the problem, try
mounting the tape on another drive.
?Default macro for KB <n>: does not exist
The SET TERMINAL/INQUIRE command could not recognize the terminal and there was no
default macro specified for this keyboard in the default file, TERDFL.SYS. You should supply a
default macro for the keyboard. Until that is done, the keyboard's characteristics have to be set
manually.
?Device does not exist
The device name you specified does not exist on your system.
%Device hung or write locked
%Dismount will proceed as requested
You attempted to dismount a disk that has been physically dismounted. However, the logical
dismount will succeed.
?Device hung or write locked
Check the hardware condition of the device requested. Possible causes of this error include a line
printer out of paper or a disk drive being off line.
%Device in use
You specified /NOSHAREABLE in an INITIALIZE/SERVER command; however, the print
server's device is not available or no pseudo-keyboards are currently available for the batch
server. PBS allocates the device as soon as it becomes available.
?Device is not a terminal
A device other than a terminal was specified. Only specify keyboards.
?Device must be disk
You specified a file on a nondisk device, where a disk device is required.
?Device not available
The specified device exists on the system, but an attempt to allocate or use it is prohibited for
one of the following reasons:
" The device is currently reserved by another job.
" The device requires privilege for ownership and you do not have the necessary privilege.
" The device or its controller has been disabled by the system manager.
" The device is a keyboard line for pseudo keyboard use only.
(continued on next page)
A-4
DCL Error Messages
LINK
When you use the /STRUCTURE qualifier, you are prompted for an overlay
structure.
When Must You Use Overlays?
If your program is too large to fit in the space available, you must specify an overlay
structure for it. The discussion of the language qualifiers tells how much space is
available for programs written in the various languages when you use the LINK
command.
The easiest way to find out if your program is too large is to try to link it using a
language qualifier. If you get the error message ?Task has invalid memory limits, your
program is too large.
What Are Overlays?
The best way to explain overlays is by example. Suppose your program consists of a
main program (called MAIN) and two separately compiled subroutines (called SUB1
and SUB2) . Suppose further that MAIN calls both SUB1 and SUB2, and that neither
SUB1 nor SUB2 contain any calls to separately compiled subroutines or to MAIN.
Figure 8-1 shows the call structure.
(CALL SUBI)
(CALL SUB2)
MK-00574-01
Figure 8-1: Outlining the Call Structure
You can specify an overlay structure such that MAIN is loaded when the program is
first run. When MAIN calls SUB1, the loading code built into MAIN during the LINK
process loads SUB1 for execution. Then, when control passes back to MAIN and it
calls SUB2, SUB2 is brought in to memory overlaying SUB1 .
Program Development
8-33
Table A-1 : DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Disk is mounted private or non-shared
This message can be displayed for one of two reasons:
A user with MOUNT privilege attempted to dismount a private or public disk that was
mounted as nonshared (by the same job) or private by specifying /PUBLIC in the
DISMOUNT command.
e A user without MOUNT privilege attempted to dismount a private disk that was mounted
as nonshared (by the same job) or private by specifying /PUBLIC in the DISMOUNT
command.
Therefore, in both cases the dismount fails.
?Disk is mounted public
A user with MOUNT privilege attempted to dismount a public disk that was mounted as public,
without specifying /PUBLIC in the DISMOUNT command, so the dismount fails.
%Disk is mounted read-only
This warning occurs if you do not specify either read or write access (/NOWRITE or /WRITE)
when mounting a disk initialized as read-only. Therefore, you are granted read access only.
?Disk needs rebuilding but device is write protected
A privileged user attempted to mount a dirty disk (and did not specify /REBUILD or
/NOREBUILD), but the device is write protected and the automatic rebuilding cannot be
performed. Therefore, the mount fails.
?Disk needs rebuilding but you do not have the necessary privilege
This message occurs when a user without MOUNT privilege tries to mount a private disk that
was not logically dismounted. The system manager can correct the situation by rebuilding the
disk.
?Disk pack is locked out
This message occurs when a user without DEVICE privilege attempts to open files on a disk
restricted to users with DEVICE privilege.
?Disk pack is not mounted
The DISMOUNT command was attempted, but the disk pack was not mounted on the specified
disk drive.
??Disk pack mount error
Fatal disk mounting error. The disk is corrupt and cannot be successfully mounted with the
MOUNT command.
?Division by zero
The expression specified by the user attempted to divide by zero.
?Do not specify file name or type
This message can occur with the first parameter of the ASSIGN command. Remember to use a
space between the first parameter (the string you assign) and the second parameter (the name
you assign it). For example, "ASSIGN DR3: X", not "ASSIGN DR3:X" .
(continued on next page)
A-6
DCL Error Messages
LINK
There are two maps available, depending on the language qualifier you use. The
RSX-based languages produce a memory map that is described in the RSTS/E Task
Builder Reference Manual. The RT11-based languages produce a memory map that
is described in the RSTS/E RT11 Utilities Manual.
You will probably be interested in the memory map only if you are working with
overlays and want to examine in some detail what the LINK command has done for
you.
Figure 8-6 shows the first page of a memory map the following LINK command
sequence produces.
LINK/STRUCTURE/MAP=TRY2/EXEC=TRY2 RE
ROOT Files : USER RE
Root COMMON areas :
Overlay : INTRO RE
Overlay : CRUNCH RE
Overlay : CHATR
Overlay : RE
TRY2 .TSK
Memory allocation map
22-JUN-85
TKB 08-006
13 :42
PARTITION NAME : GEN
IDENTIFICATION : IGRE
TASK UIC
: 11f1961
STACK
LIMITS : 001000 001777 001000 00512 .
PRG XFR ADDRESS : 021 154
TOTAL ADDRESS WINDOWS : 4 .
TASK EXTENSION : 512 . WORDS
TASK IMAGE SIZE : 6048 . WORDS
TOTAL TASK SIZE : 6560, WORDS
TASK ADDRESS LIMITS : 000000 027447
R-W DISK BLK LIMITS : 000002 000036 000035 00029 .
TRY2 .TSK OVERLAY DESCRIPTION :
BASE
TOP
LENGTH
----------000000 022127 022130 09304 .
USER
022130 023707 001560 00880,
INTRO
022130 022577 000450 00296 .
CRUNCH
022130 024317 002170 01144 .
CHATR
024320 025613 001274 00700 .
R3PUT
025614 027447 001634 00924 .
R3UPDA
Figure 8-6: Sample From A Memory Map File
8-40
Program Development
PAGE 1
Table A-1 : DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?File does not exist
This message occurs for one of the following reasons:
" An input file that must be present is not present.
" A wildcard file specification does not match any files.
" A file is not accessible because of its assigned protection code.
?File name required
A file specification you typed does not include a file name, but one is needed.
?File specification required
This error occurs if you specify node: : without a file specification (except with DIRECTORY). It
also occurs if you have two commas with no characters between them in a file specification list.
?Files cannot be on different nodes
This message occurs with network operations . Each input file specification you include in a
network command must be on the same node.
?File must be disk
The file specified on the OPEN command was not a disk file.
?Form <form-name> does not exist
The form name you specified was not defined by the system manager. See your system manager
to find out what form names are available.
?Forms Definition File does not exist
The forms definition file, PBS$:FORMS.SYS does not exist.
?Forms not defined [for server <server-name>]
The forms you specified could not be found in the forms definition file.
%oID label ignored
You mounted a tape in DOS format and specified an ID label. Identification labels are not
encoded on DOS tapes; therefore, the label you specified is not recognized by the MOUNT
command.
%ID label should be specified when you mount an ANSI tape
You mounted a tape in ANSI format, but did not specify the tape identification label. DIGITAL
recommends that you specify the identification label. Thus, the MOUNT command can verify
that the tape you selected has been mounted.
?ID labels don't match
The identification label you specified does not match the identification label encoded on the tape.
To correct the problem, specify the correct identification label. If you do not know what
identification label is encoded on the tape, you can omit the ID label from the MOUNT
command.
?Illegal byte count for I/O
The range of memory starting at the load address given is not available. Refer to the memory
status report of a display program (SYSTAT or DISPLY) to select an available range of memory.
(continued on next page)
A-8
DCL Error Messages
LINK
When you use /STRUCTURE, the LINK command prompts you for an overlay
structure, as shown in the following example . This example shows how you would
link the overlay structure shown in Figure 8-4 :
LINK/F77/STRUCTURE RE
ROOT files : ROOT
Root PSECTS : COMB RE
Overlay : AO+ RE
Overlay : Al RE
Overlay : A2+ RE
Overlay : A21 RE
Overlay : A22 RE
Overlay : RE
Overlay : RE
Overlay : 50
Overlay : RE
ROOT files: Prompt
The first prompt presented is "ROOT files:". You respond to this prompt by typing
the object files that are to form the root of the overlay tree. In this case, there is only
one such file, named ROOT. If you have more than one such file, type them all on
one line and separate them with commas. If you need to continue, type a hyphen (-)
at the end of a line. The LINK command then displays the Continue: prompt.
There is a limit on the number of characters you can type for root files; the translated
command line must be less than or equal to 127 characters.
Root PSECTS: Prompt
The next prompt presented is "Root COMMON areas:". If you are a high-level
language programmer, you will probably be interested in this question only if you
define a common area in two pieces of your program that overlay each other. When
you need to place such a common area in the root of the overlay structure, where it
can be accessed properly as a common area, you specify the name of the common
area in response to this question.
If you need to place more than one such common area in the root, you simply type
the common area names, separated by commas. To continue a line, type a hyphen
or a comma at the end of the line. If you type a comma, the LINK command
assumes you have finished one PSECT name and displays the Continue: prompt for
you to type more. Typing a hyphen lets you continue typing a PSECT name you
began on the previous line.
There is no limit to the number of program sections you can place in the root of your
program.
Overlay: Prompts
With further /STRUCTURE prompts, you define the overlay structure beyond the
root section. You respond to the "Overlay:" prompts with file specifications for object
Program Development
8-37
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Invalid CCL command
You used the CCL prefix followed by a command that is not installed as a CCL command on
your system.
?Invalid channel number
The I/O channel number specified was invalid. Channel numbers can range from 1 to 13 on
OPEN, READ and CLOSE commands, and from 0 to 13 on WRITE commands.
?Invalid character
You typed an invalid punctuation character.
?Invalid command
The command name you gave is not a DCL command, and is not defined on your system as a
CCL command. Or, the line begins with a punctuation character rather than with a keyword.
?Invalid date
A date either has improper syntax, represents a nonexistent date (for example, 30-Feb), or
represents a date before 1970 or after 1999.
?Invalid density <n>
You tried to mount or initialize a tape, but specified a density other than 800 or 1600 bpi. The n
is the density you specified.
?Invalid device
The device specified could not be found in the list of standard devices or in the user-defined
macros. Specify a valid device.
?Invalid entry name
The entry name you specified is invalid.
?Invalid expression
This covers a range of expression problems. The most common of these is an expression ending
in an operator without supplying a second operand (for example, A = B *) .
?Invalid file specification
A local file specification has improper syntax .
?Invalid fill factor
A fill factor was specified that was less than 0 or greater than 6.
?Invalid form definition
The definition of the specified form contains an invalid keyword or keyword argument.
?Invalid form name
The form name you specified is either longer than six characters or consists of one or more
nonalphanumeric characters.
?Invalid function name
The function name specified after F$ is invalid. The minimum abbreviation point is not met for
the function (for example, F$LE is not valid because of F$LEFT and F$LEN) .
(continued on next page)
A-10
DCL Error Messages
RUN
RUN
Runs an executable file .
Format
RUN file-spec
Prompts
Program: file-spec
Command Parameters
file-spec
Specifies an executable file.
If you do not specify a file type, the RUN command uses any of the following file
types, which correspond to executable files:
" BAC - A BASIC-PLUS compiled program. (See the BASIC command
description for more information.)
" COM - A DCL command file. You may use the [#] command on any .COM
file, but to use the RUN command, the executable bit (64) must be set.
" SAV - A "save image" file, which runs under the RT11 run-time system. (For
example, a FORTRAN-IV executable file is a save image file.) Save image files
are produced by LINK/FOR or by LINK/RT11 .
" .TSK - A "task" file, which runs under the RSX run-time system (or a
derivative of RSX). See the LINK command description and the RSTS/E Task
Builder Reference Manual for more information.
Your installation may have a different set of executable file types, depending on
the run-time systems your system manager has installed.
If you omit a file type, the RUN command searches the specified directory for a
file having each runnable file type. The order of the search depends on your
installation. For example, at some installations the RUN command might search
for a TSK file first. If that fails, run then searches for a BAC file, then a SAV file.
However, another installation might search for file types in a different order.
You cannot use wildcard characters in the file specification, and you must specify
a file name.
8-42
Program Development
Table A-1 : DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Invalid speed
The speed specified was not a valid speed for the interface of the terminal. Only specify speeds
that the interface supports.
?Invalid symbol name
You specified a symbol name that contains invalid characters.
?Invalid time
A time either has improper syntax or represents a nonexistent time (like 25:00 or 13:OOPM).
?Invalid width
You specified a width that was less than 1 or greater than 254.
?Invalid with network file specification
You gave a network file specification in one of the commands that accepts them (RENAME,
COPY, and so on), but you also gave a qualifier that can be used only with local operations .
?UO to detached keyboard
This message can result from one of two actions:
" You tried to perform I/O with a terminal line that is used for dial-up terminals, but nobody
was dialed in.
" Your job became detached (perhaps because you were dialed in and your line was later
hung up) and then tried to perform I/O with the terminal.
The second situation either causes the job to hibernate or causes this error condition, after which
the job hibernates . You see this message when you subsequently attach to the job.
?Keyword required
You typed nonalphanumeric characters when a keyword is needed instead. (If you type
alphanumeric characters without a valid keyword, you receive the error message, ?Invalid
keyword.)
?Label already defined
A label was defined more than once in an indirect command procedure .
?Label too long
The label you specified in the indirect command procedure was longer than 255 characters.
?Log file already open
A log file was already currently open when you attempted to open another log file using the
OPEN/LOG _FILE command.
?Log file not currently open
You attempted to enable or disable logging using the SET LOG FILE command, and a log file
did not exist.
?Log file print queue closed
The print queue required for a SUBMIT command's /LOG QUEUE qualifier is closed or
marked for deletion. Use a different print queue for the log file.
(continued on next page)
A-12
DCL Error Messages
LINK
Figure 8-6 shows that the memory map file is obscure in terms of what you specify in
the LINK command. However, you can determine some basic facts:
The size of the program is listed in the line headed "TOTAL TASK SIZE" . In
this case, the program is 6560 words long.
9 The section headed TRY2.TSK OVERLAY DESCRIPTION shows the overlay
structure constructed by LINK. The first two columns of information give the
starting address (BASE) and ending address (TOP) of each major overlay piece
in the structure. The next two columns (LENGTH) give the length of each
piece in octal and decimal number of bytes, respectively.
The original LINK command dealt with four files: USER, INTRO, CRUNCH,
and CHATR. You can see the overlay structure specified by the indentation in
the memory map: INTRO, CRUNCH, and CHATR overlay each other
following USER .
R3PUT and R3UPDA are overlay pieces from the disk library RMSLIB.OLB,
which the LINK command has placed in two special overlay structures called
co-trees. The RSTS/E Task Builder Reference Manual describes co-trees.
The Temporary Files Produced by LINK
When you use the LINK command with RSX-based languages, the LINK command
processor creates two files for the Task Builder: a command file and an ODL file.
These files tell the Task Builder what to do in creating the executable file and map
file.
These files are left in your account. The TMP file type indicates that they are
temporary files; that is, they are deleted from your account when you log out.
The command file is the same type of command file you would use with the
/DESCRIPTION qualifier. (These temporary files are not created if you use the
/DESCRIPTION qualifier.)
Program Development
8-41
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
%More than 16 speeds specified for <terminal>
While processing the TERSPD.SYS file, a terminal was found that had more than 16 speeds
specified. Only the first 16 speeds are used.
?Name or account now exists
You attempted either to COPY to or RENAME an existing file. This error can occur with
RENAME if you do not specify /REPLACE and the output file already exists . It can also occur
with COPY if you specify /NOREPLACE and the output file already exists.
?Network node names must be the same
Different node names were specified on input file specifications .
?No buffer space available
The system is overloaded and cannot complete your command because small buffers are
currently unavailable. Try the command again later.
?No channels available
A DCL I/O or command file channel is not available. You may have issued an OPEN or at (@)
command, but a channel is not available. Use the CLOSE command to close one or more files
or use the EXIT command to unnest a level and try again.
?No default (Print,Batch) queue
You did not specify a queue name with the PRINT or SUBMIT command, and no default queue
exists.
?No default print queue for log file
The /LOG _QUEUE qualifier in a SUBMIT command was specified without an explicit queue
name; however, no default print queue exists. Use an explicit queue name for the log file.
?No file name or type permitted
A device:ppn syntax was expected and you supplied a full file specification which included either
a file name or type.
?No logins
This message can be displayed when you try to log in, for one of two reasons:
" The system is full, so it cannot accept additional users.
" The system manager has disabled logins.
(Possibly, logins are disabled because the system will be shut down shortly.)
?Non-executable file
This error occurs if the file you are trying to run is a source file; for example, BAS. You need to
compile and link the file before you run it. (Note that an executable file includes the value 64 in
its protection code.)
?Non-printable character
You typed a control character.
(continued on next page)
A-14
DCL Error Messages
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?No run-time system
This error can occur if the program you are trying to run requires a run-time system that is not
installed.
?Not a valid device
The device name that you gave is invalid for any of the following reasons:
" It is not assigned as a system-wide or user logical name.
" It is not a physical device name of any device that is installed on your system.
" The device name is valid, but not with this command. For example, "INITIALIZE TT:"
(you cannot initialize a terminal).
?Not enough available memory
An attempt was made to load a executable program that is too large to run, given the job's
private maximum memory size. Either the program must be allowed to expand above a private
maximum memory size, or the system manager must increase the job's private memory size
maximum to accommodate the program.
?Number not in range <low> or <high>
You typed a number where one is allowed, but the number is not in the valid range. The valid
range is from <low> to <high>.
?Number too big
You typed a number where one is allowed, but the number is too large. Refer to the command
description to find out the largest acceptable value.
?Number too small
You typed a number where one is allowed, but the number is too small. Refer to the command
description to find out the smallest acceptable value.
?Pack-id labels don't match
The identification code for the specified disk pack does not match the identification code already
on the pack. This message can occur when you try to mount or dismount a disk.
?Page limit exceeds queue's maximum
You specified a /PAGE _LIMIT value in a PRINT command larger than the maximum allowed
for the queue.
?Parameter or argument too long
This message occurs if a file specification, text string, or qualifier argument exceeds 127
characters.
?PPN does not exist
The project-programmer number (PPN) you specified as part of the job specification does not
exist.
?PPN needed
The command you typed requires that a PPN be specified.
(continued on next page)
A-16
DCL Error Messages
DCL Error Messages
This appendix lists some DCL error messages that you may encounter when using
RSTS/E . Table A-1 also indicates the probable cause of the error in your use of a
command or system program.
If you perform DECnet/E operations, you may receive messages that are described in
DECnet/E documentation but not in this appendix. In addition, the utility programs
that support DCL can produce messages not all of which are listed here. Those
messages are listed in the RSTS/E Utilities Reference Manual.
Special Characters Used in Error Messages
The question mark (?) and percent sign (%) characters preceding a message indicate
its severity. A single question mark precedes nonfatal error messages, which means
that the command failed to do what you asked but you can continue. For example :
?Too many Parameters
In this case, the command failed because you included too many parameters .
A double question mark precedes severe error messages, which means that the
command failed to do what you asked and you cannot continue. For example:
??Fatal system 1/0 failure
Bycommand
contrast,maythe notpercent
identifies
which means that the
have signworked
as youa warning
intended.message,
For example:
ZLogical name has not been assigned
Indevice.
this case, the MOUNT command worked but no logical name was assigned to the
Informational
messages
do
not
have
a
preceding
about the effects of a command. For example: character; they provide extra details
Queue file bein5 reorsanized - Please wait . . .
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
(Print,Batch) server <server-name> initialized [non-]shareable [with forms <form-name>]
Acknowledgment message for INITIALIZE/SERVER command.
(Print,Batch) server <server-name> modified
Acknowledgment message for SET SERVER command.
(Print,Batch) server <server-name> started
Acknowledgment message for START/SERVER command.
(Print,Batch) server <server-name> stopped
Acknowledgment message for STOP/SERVER command.
Print/Batch Services started at <time>
Acknowledgment message when you issue the START/QUEUE/MANAGER command to begin
Print/Batch Services.
Print/Batch Services stopped at <time>
Acknowledgment message for STOP/QUEUE/MANAGER command if no jobs are being
processed.
Print/Batch Services will stop after (completing,aborting) <n> job[s]
Acknowledgment message for STOP/QUEUE/MANAGER command if any jobs are currently in
progress.
?Priority exceeds queue's maximum
You specified a priority for a PRINT or SUBMIT entry larger than the maximum allowed for the
queue.
?<privilege> privilege required
You typed a command that requires some privilege, and you do not have it.
??Program failure in <program-name>
This message reports a problem in the software. It is followed on the next line by an explanation
of the problem. You should verify that the failing program is correctly installed. If necessary, you
should then submit an SPR. The SPR should show the dialogue that preceded the message, the
exact text of the message, and a list of patches that have been installed in the failing program .
?Program PBS$:PBS.TSK does not exist
The Print/Batch Services (PBS) program was not found when you issued the
START/QUEUE/MANAGER command.
(continued on next page)
A-18
DCL Error Messages
Table A-1 : DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Device not file-structured
An attempt was made to access a device, other than a disk drive or magnetic tape drive, as a
file-structured device.
?Device not write protected
You specified the /NOWRITE qualifier when you tried to mount a tape, but the device is not
write protected. Write protect the device by removing the plastic ring from the tape hub.
?Device offline
You tried to use a tape or disk, but the device is off line.
%Device write protected
The tape or disk is protected against write access. Therefore, you can only read files on the
device, but cannot write (perform output) to the device. If you want to write to the device, first
write enable the device, next dismount the device, and then mount the device again.
?Device write protected
You requested write access to a device that is write protected. Write enable the device and then
retype the command.
?Directory does not exist
A file specification indicates a directory that does not exist on the particular disk. Or, a wildcard
directory specification failed to produce a match on the disk specified. This error can occur only
with disk files.
??Disk error during swap
A hardware error occurs when your job is swapped into or out of memory. The contents of the
job area are lost, but the job remains logged in to the system and returns to DCL. Report such
occurrences to the system manager.
Disk is being rebuilt - wait...
This informational message is displayed when a user attempts to rebuild a disk. The disk is
logically mounted when the rebuilding operation is complete.
%Disk is restricted and mounted non-shared, read-only
A user specified /NOREBUILD (to suppress rebuilding) in the MOUNT command and the disk
was dirty. Therefore, the disk is mounted nonshared and restricted, and read-only access is
granted. ("Restricted" means that access is allowed only to users with DEVICE privilege.)
?Disk is mounted non-shared
This message can be displayed for one of two reasons:
" A user with MOUNT privilege attempted to dismount a private or public disk that was
mounted as nonshared by specifying /PUBLIC in the DISMOUNT command.
" A user without MOUNT privilege attempted to dismount a private disk that was mounted
as nonshared by specifying /PUBLIC in the DISMOUNT command.
Therefore, the dismount fails. In both cases, the requests to mount and dismount are from
different jobs.
(continued on next page)
DCL Error Messages
A-5
Table AA DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Reserved symbol name
The user attempted to define a local or global symbol which began with a reserved prefix of $,
F$ or f$, or delete a reserved global symbol from the symbol table that began with $.
?Server already exists
You issued the INITIALIZE/SERVER command to define a server that already exists.
?Server does not exist
You specified the name of a print or batch server that does not exist. Use the SHOW SERVER
command to list the defined servers.
?Single character expected
A single character inside quotes was expected and more than one character was supplied (for
example, SET DATA/END OF DATA = "$$").
?Speed is not allowed for <terminal>
The speed specified is not one of the speeds allowed for this terminal in the TERSPD.SYS file.
??Stack overflow
This message indicates a system problem. The system manager should send in an SPR, giving
the dialogue that preceded the message, the text of the message, and a list of patches that have
been installed.
?String too long
While in an expression, a string became too long to fit in the 255 available bytes.
?Substitution too complex
The user's request for apostrophe substitution was rejected because the substitution was too
complex (it reached the maximum number of substitution iterations allowed on one command) .
?Symbol name conflicts with <symbol-name>
The user specified an assignment whose symbol name or abbreviation point conflicted with an
existing symbol definition in the same symbol table.
?Symbol name too long
The symbol name specified by the user exceeded 255 characters.
%Symbol table almost full
This warning is issued when your local or global symbol table has less than 100 free bytes.
??Symbol table full
You attempted to define a label or symbol when the local or global symbol table was already
filled up. Note that if you are in a command procedure when your symbol table gets full, the
command procedure aborts.
?Syntax error
The command has improper syntax. This occurs when there is not a more specific message
describing the syntax error.
(continued on next page)
A-20
DCL Error Messages
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Illegal filename
The file name given in the command contains characters other than alphabetic or numeric
characters.
?Illegal switch usage
A CCL command contains an error in an otherwise valid CCL switch (qualifier) . For example,
you cannot use the /SI:n switch without a value for n or a colon; or you cannot specify more
than one of the same type of CCL switch.
?Illegal value <n>
The swap file number specified is not 0, 1, or 3. (The swap file 2 already exists on the system
disk and need not be added.)
?Impossible density for this device
You tried to mount or initialize a tape, but specified a density not available on the tape drive you
used. To correct the problem, use another drive or specify a different density.
?Incorrect density
You specified a density different from the tape's density. This message appears only if you are
using a tape drive that determines the tape's correct density. Therefore, you do not need to
specify the tape density with the MOUNT command .
?Incorrect density or uninitialized tape
This message can occur for the following reasons:
. You tried to mount a tape that had not been initialized.
" You specified an incorrect density.
e You did not specify a density, and your system default density was incorrect for the tape.
If the tape has not been initialized, use the INITIALIZE command. Otherwise, specify the correct
density.
?Invalid account
The account specified was not valid either containing invalid characters (for example, [^^^]) or
an invalid format (for example, [1,2345]).
?Invalid argument
This error can occur when you use a qualifier in the form /qualifier= argument. The qualifier you
used is spelled properly, and the equal sign (=) or colon (:) is present; however, the argument is
either missing or syntactically invalid.
This error message is displayed when there is no more specific message to describe the syntax
error.
?Invalid at interactive level
You specified a command that is invalid at the interactive level. (For example, GOTO LABEL)
?Invalid BATCH command
Although the command is valid in interactive mode, the command is not a valid BATCH
command because it implies or requires interaction with the user. (For example, INQUIRE, SET
NODATA)
(continued on next page)
DCL Error Messages
A-9
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
??Unable to create DCL work file
DCL's work file for storing the user's symbol tables could not be created on disk. The user may
be over quota. Corrective action should be taken before the user continues processing .
?Unable to read DCL work file
The user's symbol tables could not be read in from the DCL work file. If RSTS/E is processing
an indirect command file, then control immediately returns to the interactive level.
?Unable to start Print/Batch Services
<error message>
Some external condition, as the error message on the second line describes, prevented PBS from
being started.
??Unable to write DCL work file
The user's symbol tables could not be written out to the DCL work file. The user may be over
quota. Corrective action should be taken before the user continues processing. If RSTS/E is
processing an indirect command file, then control immediately returns to the interactive level.
?Unbalanced parentheses
Parentheses do not match up (for example, A=((5)+6).
?Undefined label <label>
The label specified on the GOTO command does not exist in the indirect command procedure
being executed.
?Undefined symbol
The symbol name specified is not defined in the global or local symbol tables.
?Unexpected character
A character was encountered in a qualifier or a parameter that was not expected. For example,
in SET TERMINAL/WIDTH =80FOO, the "F" of "FOO" would be an unexpected character.
?Unit number required
This message occurs when you specify a device-name without a device-number (for example,
DM: instead of DMO:).
?User macros nested too deep
There were more than 50 nested user macros or a user macro called itself.
?Wildcard entry name not allowed
The command you specified does not allow wildcard entry names. Specify the name of a single
entry instead.
?Wildcards not allowed
You included a wildcard in a file specification, where wildcards are not allowed.
?Wildcard PPN not allowed
The command you specified does not allow wildcard PPNs. Specify the name of a single PPN
instead.
(continued on next page)
A-22
DCL Error Messages
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?Log file print queue does not exist
The print queue you specified with the /LOG _QUEUE qualifier in a SUBMIT command does
not exist. Specify a different queue.
%Logical name not assigned
This warning can be displayed for one of two reasons :
" You had INSTAL privilege and specified a logical name that was not assigned as a system
logical. (This means that neither the alternate logical name nor the pack-id label were
assigned.)
" You did not have INSTAL privilege and specified an alternate logical name when
attempting to mount a disk.
The mount succeeds in both cases, but the logical name is not assigned.
?Magtape record length error
When performing input from magnetic tape, the record on tape was found to be longer than the
buffer designated to handle the record.
?Magtape select error
When access to a magnetic tape drive was attempted, the selected unit was found to be off line.
This error can occur when you transfer data to or from a tape.
?Map or executable file required
With LINK, you specified /NOEXECUTABLE and did not specify a map file.
??Maximum memory exceeded
This is a nonrecoverable RSTS/E error caused by the following conditions:
" While loading a program into memory, the job's private maximum memory size was
reached.
" While executing a program, the system required more memory for string or I/O buffer
space, and the job's private maximum memory size or the system maximum was reached.
?Missing closing apostrophe
The user did not specify matching apostrophes ('. .. ') when requesting apostrophe substitution .
?Missing closing bracket
This error can occur in a local or remote file specification. There is a left bracket ([) or left angle
bracket (<), but no right bracket (]) or right angle bracket (>).
?Missing closing quote
A quotation mark (") is not matched with another quotation mark. (This error can occur in
remote file specifications .)
?Missing device or file name
The command must contain either a device specification or a device and file name specification.
If you use the /SI:n switch, a file name must be present.
?Missing open parenthesis
You did not specify an open parenthesis [(] when one was expected.
(continued on next page)
DCL Error Messages
A-13
Table A-1: DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
Previous logical name assignment replaced
An informational message to indicate that an ASSIGN command redefined a previously defined
user logical.
(Print,Batch) entry <entry-number> <entry-spec> created
Acknowledgment message to PRINT or SUBMIT command.
(Print,Batch) entry <entry-spec> - <error text>
For SET ENTRY, indicates that an entry was not modified for the reason stated in the error text.
?Print/Batch Services already started
You issued the START/QUEUE/MANAGER command; however, the Print/Batch Services (PBS)
package is already started.
?Print/Batch services not running
You issued a command that requires action by PBS; however, the package is not running.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> assigned to server <server-name>
Acknowledgment message for ASSIGN/QUEUE command.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> deassigned from server <server-name>
Acknowledgment message for DEASSIGN/QUEUE command.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> closed
Acknowledgment message for CLOSE/QUEUE command.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> deleted
Acknowledgment message for DELETE/QUEUE command.
%(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> - <error text>
For SET QUEUE, indicates that a queue was not modified for the reason stated in the error text.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> marked for deletion
Acknowledgment message for DELETE/QUEUE command when the queue you specified still has
entries on it. The queue is deleted as soon as it becomes empty.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> opened
Acknowledgment message for OPEN/QUEUE command.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> started
Acknowledgment message for START/QUEUE command.
(Print,Batch) queue <queue-name> stopped
Acknowledgment message for STOP/QUEUE command.
(Print,Batch) server <server-name> (deleted,marked for deletion)
Acknowledgment message for DELETE/SERVER command.
%(Print,Batch) server <server-name> - <error text>
For SET SERVER, indicates that a server was not modified for the reason stated in the error text.
(continued on next page)
DCL Error Messages
A-17
The command environment name can be any one of the following:
" DCL
" BASIC
" RT11
" RSX
The system transfers control to that keyboard monitor, establishing it as your "job
keyboard monitor." That is, you can type commands to the keyboard monitor you
switched to until you switch again, or log off the system.
Note
You can issue DCL commands from any keyboard monitor by typing
the $ character followed by the command. For example, if you are in
the BASIC-PLUS command environment and you want to use the
DCL SHOW USER command, type :
SHOW USER
DCL will execute the SHOW USER command, then automatically
return to the BASIC-PLUS environment.
Note that if you type the $ character with no command, you will
switch back into the DCL command environment.
BASIC-PLUS Keyboard Monitor Commands
The BASIC-PLUS command environment provides commands useful to the
BASIC-PLUS programmer on RSTS/E systems. The BASIC-PLUS interpreter lets you
type in a program using BASIC-PLUS statements that are translated and stored in
your job area.
Many of the BASIC-PLUS commands (which are distinct from language statements)
let you list, compile, store, and otherwise work with the BASIC-PLUS program you
create. Note, however, that BASIC-PLUS has a very powerful feature, called
"immediate mode" that allows you to type many language statements as though they
were commands.
Table B-1 briefly describes BASIC-PLUS commands. See the BASIC-PLUS
Language Manual for a complete description of BASIC-PLUS commands.
B-2
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
Table A-1 : DCL Error Messages (Cont.)
Message and Meaning
?THEN clause required
The action clause was missing on the IF <expression> THEN command or on the ON
<severity-level> THEN command .
?THEN keyword required
The THEN keyword was missing on the IF <expression> THEN command or on the ON
<severity-level> THEN command.
?Time limit exceeds queue's maximum
You specified a /TIME _LIMIT value in a SUBMIT command larger than the maximum allowed
for the queue.
?Too many arguments
You used the notation /qualifier= (arg,arg. ... ) with a qualifier that accepts only a single argument.
?Too many elements in list
In a list of file specifications or other items (separated by commas or plus signs), you indicated
more file specifications than are allowed. For example, you exceeded one of the following limits:
. The DIBOL, RENAME, DELETE, and SET PROTECTION commands allow six file
specifications .
. The COPY command allows six input file specifications and one output file specification.
" The PRINT and SUBMIT commands allow up to 11 file specifications.
?Too many files or parameters
You specified too many file specifications in a PRINT or SUBMIT command, or a parameter
string in a SUBMIT command is too long to be handled by PBS. Reduce the number of file
specifications or use a shorter parameter string.
?Too many logical names assigned
With the ASSIGN command, you exceeded the maximum number of logical names . You can
only assign up to four logical names (only three logical names if any of the logical assignments
includes a PPN).
?Too many open files on unit
You specified the same magnetic tape or DECtape drive both as input and output files on COPY
or APPEND.
?Too many parameters
This message occurs if you specify more command parameters than the command can accept.
For example, you specified more than eight parameters with the /PARAMETERS qualifier.
?Too many printers initialized
The device you specified could not be initialized because the maximum number of spooling
devices has already been initialized.
?Unable to copy tape command file to disk
The user specified an indirect command file on magnetic tape, and some error occurred when
attempting to copy it to a temporary disk file for processing.
(continued on next page)
DCL Error Messages
A-21
Table B-1 : BASIC-PLUS Commands (Cont.)
Command
SCALE
TAPE
UNSAVE
Description
Sets the scale factor to a designated value or displays the values currently in
effect if no value is designated.
Disables the echo feature on the terminal; this is useful if you are using a
terminal with a paper-tape reader.
Deletes the file specified.
RT11 Keyboard Monitor Commands
The RT11 Run-Time System has a keyboard monitor. If you switch control to RT11,
a period () prompt displays, and you can type commands. You can use the standard
RSTS/E commands ASSIGN, BYE, DEASSIGN, HELLO, and MOUNT.
Table B-2 briefly describes RT11 commands.
Table B-2: RT11 Commands
Command
B/E/D
CCO[NTINUE]
CO[NTINUE]
CL[OSEJ
DATE
ER[RORJ
Description
The commands B, E, and D let you examine memory locations, as follows:
" B <address> - Sets a base address from which offsets in E and D
commands are computed. Initially, the base is 0.
" E <offset> - Prints the contents of location <address> + <offset>.
" D <offset> <value> - Replaces the contents of location <address->
+ <offset> with <value>.
Any address from 0 to 177777 is valid for these commands; however,
addresses outside your current job image area (as determined by the SIZE
command) will give an error.
Resumes the execution, as a detached job, of a program that was stopped
by a CTRL/C. If, for any reason, the program cannot be restarted, the error
message ?Can't continue displays on the terminal.
Resumes execution of a program stopped by a CTRL/C. If, for any reason,
the program cannot be restarted, the error message ?Can't continue displays
on the terminal.
Closes all open channels. Tentative files are made permanent.
Displays the current date on the job's terminal.
Prints the RSTS/E error message text associated with the last encountered
error, if there was one. For example, any failure on file lookup gives an
error message similar to ?Fil not fnd?. Typing CTRL/C to return to RT11's
period prompt ( .) and then typing ERR will print the full RSTS/E error
message for the error encountered; for example, ?Can't find file or account.
(continued on next page)
B-4
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
More About Command Environments and
RSTS/E File Specification
18
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More About Command Environments
Chapter 1 discusses the four RSTS/E command environments : DCL, BASIC-PLUS,
RT11, and RSX. Each offers its own advantages. Each command environment has its
own prompt:
Prompt
Environment
$
DIGITAL Command
Language (DCL) environment
environment
Ready
BASIC-PLUS
RT11
environment
>
RSX environment
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Switching Between Command Environments
DCL is the default RSTS/E command environment. You can switch to another,
however. Use the following command to switch to and from any command
environment:
SET JOB/KEYBOARD_MONITOR=Ecommand environment name]
Table B-2: RT11 Commands (Cont.)
Command
SI[ZE]
ST[ART]
TI[ME]
UNLOCK
VE[RSION]
Description
Sets the size available for an RT11 program, in K words. When the RT11
run-time system is entered, the size is set to 2K words. To see the current
size, type SIZE without a value.
You must use SIZE to insure enough memory before typing a GET or RU
command. The job image area is automatically expanded for R and RN
commands, from information carried in the file itself. However, a size given
with SIZE overrides any computed value (for R and RN) if the computed
value is smaller than the SIZE value.
Starts a program loaded with GET. The format of the command is:
ST[ART] [addr]
where addr is an even octal number specifying the address where program
execution is to begin. If addr is omitted or 0, execution begins with the
address in location 40 in the low 1000 bytes of memory.
Displays the current time of day at the job's terminal.
Unlocks a disk pack, so that programs running under nonprivileged
accounts can open files on the disk. The format is:
UNLOCK dev:
where dev: is the device designation of the disk to be unlocked.
Prints the current emulator version number.
RSX Keyboard Monitor Commands
The RSX run-time system has a keyboard monitor. If you switch control to RSX, an
angle bracket (>) prompt is displayed. You can use the standard RSTS/E commands
ASSIGN, BYE, DEASSIGN, HELLO, and MOUNT.
Table B-3 briefly describes RSX commands.
Table B-3: RSX Commands
Command
DISMOUNT
UNSAVE
SHUTUP
B-6
Description
Prepares a device for dismounting, so that you can remove a disk pack of
magnetic tape from a device. The format of the command is:
DISMOUNT dev:
Deletes a specifically named file from your account. The format of the
command is:
UNSAVE filename.type
Shuts down the system if no other jobs are running on the system, all disks
are dismounted, all other run-time systems are removed, and no logins are
allowed.
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
Table B-2: RT11 Commands (Cont.)
GE[T]
Command
IN[ITIALIZE]
LOCK
MO[NITOR]
R
RE[ENTER]
RN
RU
RUN
SH[UTUP]
Description
Loads an RTll-executable file (with a file type of SAV) into memory, but
does not execute it. (The START command is used to run programs loaded
with GET.) No automatic expansion of the job image area occurs with GET;
you must use SIZE if necessary.
Loading for GET differs from R or RUN in that certain low-core areas are
preserved rather than loaded from block 0 of the SAV file .
Resets all RT11 conditions, except for logical assignments, to the state they
are in when RT11 is first entered as the job keyboard monitor.
Denies access to a disk pack by users with insufficient privileges . The format
is:
LOCK dev:
where dev: is the device designation for the disk.
Exits to the job keyboard monitor. This will be the default keyboard monitor
unless you have run the SWITCH utility to set a job keyboard monitor.
Runs a program from the system library account. The file can be associated
with any run-time system. For example, R LINK has the same effect as
RUN $LINK.
The R command will automatically expand the user job image area, if
necessary.
Reenters or restarts a program already in memory whose execution has
been halted. Bit 13 in the Job Status Word (see the RSTS/E System
Directives Manual) must be set to allow a restart. If it is set, execution begins
at the address specified by the contents of word 40 in the low 1000 bytes of
virtual memory. All channels are reset (see SRESET directive, RSTS/E
System Directives Manual) unless the chain bit (bit 8 of the Job Status
Word) is set. If restart is not possible, the message ?No restart is displayed
on the terminal.
Loads the file named (from the user's account if no project-programmer
number is given) and begins execution. The program may be associated
with any run-time system. If necessary, the user job image area is
automatically expanded for the program to be loaded and run. The RN and
R commands are identical except for the accounts searched for the file
when no explicit project-programmer number is given.
RU is the same as a GET followed by a START. You must use SIZE to
expand the user job image area, if necessary; no automatic expansion
occurs with RU.
This command is passed on by the RT11 run-time system to the RSTS/E
monitor - it works the same in any command environment.
If (1) only one job is running on the system, (2) logins are disabled, (3) no
disks except the system disk are mounted, and (4) no files are open on the
system disk, then the SHUTUP command logs the current job off the
system and bootstraps the initialization code after the job is logged off.
(continued on next page)
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
B-5
/PROTECT Switch
The /PROTECT switch establishes a protection code for the file. The /PROTECT
switch consists of:
" A slash (/)
" PROTECT (or a minimum abbreviation of PROT)
" A colon ( : )
" A number specifying the protection code. Use a number sign (#) before octal
numbers, and a decimal point (.) to terminate decimal numbers.
The protection code is a string of one to three digits. This string determines the file's
degree of protection on two levels: the actions - reading, writing, and deleting against which it is protected, and the user or class of users against whom it is protected.
See Chapter 3 for a complete description of how to specify protection codes.
/FILESIZE Switch
The /FILESIZE switch allows the creation of a disk file of the specified size, in blocks,
before any read/write operations are performed. Thus, /FILESIZE reserves space on
the disk for data to be placed in the file. This switch consists of :
" A slash (/)
" FILESIZE or SIZE (or a minimum abbreviation of FI or SI)
" A colon ( : )
" An optional number sign (#) for octal conversion of the argument n
" The argument n, a decimal number which indicates the number of blocks in the
pre-extended file
" An optional trailing decimal point ( .) to ensure that n is interpreted as a decimal
number.
The argument n specifies the length in disk blocks to which the file is pre-extended .
That is, it reserves a specified portion of disk space for the file. The value of the
/FILESIZE argument is dependent on the type of file. If the file's protection marks it
as executable, the argument n must be in the range of 0 to 65535. If the capability to
create large files is present on your system and the file is not marked as executable,
the argument n can be in the range of 0 to 223-1 (assuming that the disk is large
enough) . Note that you cannot run an executable file that is larger than 65535
blocks. An attempt to pre-extend such a file beyond block 65535 returns a ?Protection violation error message .
B-8
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
The /FILESIZE switch may be minimally abbreviated to /FI or to /SI. The following list
shows its valid forms:
/FI:[#]n[ .]
/FIL:[#]n[ .]
/FILE: [#]n[.]
/FILESIZE: [#]n[. ]
or
/SI:[#]n[ .]
/SIZE:[#]n[ .]
/CLUSTERSIZE Switch
The /CLUSTERSIZE switch establishes the minimum cluster size for a disk file; a
cluster is a number of contiguous blocks taken together as a unit. The /CLUSTERIZE
switch is especially useful for large files; specifying a large cluster size speeds up
random access to the data and prevents such files from crowding or filling your
directory, whose size is limited. RSTS/E permits cluster sizes of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,
128, or 256 blocks.
The /CLUSTERSIZE switch consists of:
e A slash (/)
e CLUSTERSIZE (or a minimum abbreviation of CL)
9 A colon (: )
o An optional minus sign (-) to specify a negative cluster size (see the next
paragraph)
* An optional number sign (#) for octal interpretation of the argument n
e The argument n specifying the cluster size in blocks
* A decimal point (.) to ensure decimal interpretation of n
The following list shows the valid forms of the option :
/CL:[-] [#]n[ .]
/CLUj-] [#]n[ .]
/CLUSJ-] [#]n[.]
/CLUSTERSIZE:[-] [#]n[ .]
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
B-9
Specifying a negative cluster size avoids certain errors associated with disk devices. A
negative cluster size causes the system to use the absolute value of the cluster size, if
the device on which the file is created allows that value. If the absolute value is less
than the device cluster size at which the file is to be created, the system uses the
device cluster size instead of returning an error.
/POSITION Switch
The /POSITION switch allows you to specify the location of a file on disk. The
/POSITION switch consists of:
9 A slash (/)
e POSITION (or a minimum abbreviation of PO)
o A colon (: )
The argument n, a decimal number that specifies the desired placement of the
file
The argument n indicates a device cluster number on the disk. The device cluster
numbers vary from disk to disk; see the RSTS/E System Generation Manual for a
table of device sizes.
If the value of n in /POSITION :n is 0, no placement is performed and the system
determines the location of the file on the disk. If the value of n is a nonzero number,
the system attempts to place the first block of the file at the specified device cluster
number on the disk . If the file cannot be placed at that location, the system places the
first block of the file at the first free cluster number that is greater than the
specification.
When a file is placed, it is marked as such by the monitor. Note that no error is
returned if the system is unable to place the file at the specified location. To
determine the actual location of the file on disk, use the /PO, /FU, or /S options of
the DIRECT program. For example:
DIR /PO
SY :1212111
RMSTST .B2S
RMSTST .OBJ
RMSTST .MAP
CHTST . BAS
CHTST1 .TSk
18698
18720
18723
6(1 .20
16562
The following list shows the valid forms of the POSITION option:
/PO: n
/POS: n
/POSI :n
/POSITION:n
B-10
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
Note that the position of a file on disk may change if you backup and restore the file
with the BACKUP program.
/MODE and /RONLY Switches
The /MODE switch enables the passing of up to 16 (decimal) bits of information to
the device driver at file open time. The meaning of these bits (if any) is device
dependent, and determines the read/write mode for data transfer. For explanations of
the bits, see the RSTS/E Programming Manual.
The /MODE switch consists of:
* A slash (/)
e MODE (or a minimum abbreviation of MO)
* A colon (:)
e An optional number sign (#) for octal interpretation of the argument n
e The argument n specifying a mode setting between 0 and 32767 (decimal)
inclusive
e An optional decimal point (.) to ensure decimal interpretation of n
The following list shows the valid forms of the option :
/MO:[#]n[.)
/MOD:[#]n[.]
/MODE :[#]n[.]
The /RONLY switch enables setting of the read-only MODE value for a disk file. The
/RONLY switch consists of:
e A slash (/)
e RONLY (or a minimum abbreviation of RO)
The following list shows the valid forms of the option:
/RO
/RON
/RONL
/RONLY
More About Command Environments and RSTS/E File Specifications
B-11
Glossary
Absolute Time
A specific date or time provided in a command line. (Compare with Real Time.)
Account
What you log into with a Project-Programmer Number (PPN) and a password on a RSTS/E
system.
Account Number
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account to charge you for computer time and arrange,
Alphanumeric
A contraction of alphabetic-numeric; the set of characters that compose text. Characters
include letters and numerals, and exclude special characters.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute. Creates standards to ensure consistency in all aspects
of computer technology: command languages, keyboards, codes, and so forth.
ASCII code
American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a standard 7-bit code representing the
128 characters in which textual information is recorded.
Batch Processing
A way of scheduling programs that allows you to enter jobs to be run without your input at a
terminal. Batch processing can be used, for example, in data processing operations that need
no interaction.
Glossary-1
Baud Rate
The speed at which information is transferred between devices on a system .
Bit
Contraction of "binary digit." A bit is the smallest unit of information in a binary system of
notation,
Block
A set of consecutive machine words, characters, or digits handled as a unit, particularly in
input and output operations. On the RSTS/E system, a block is equal to 256 16-bit words or
512 8-bit bytes.
BPI
Bits per inch ; a measure of tape density. Common densities for magnetic tapes are 800 or
1600 bpi.
Buffer
A temporary storage area used to contain data. Buffers hold data being passed between
processes or devices that operate at different speeds or times.
Byte
A group of eight binary digits (bits) processed as a unit. Each ASCII character is stored in one
byte.
CCL
See Concise Command Language.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The portion of a computer system that controls the interpretation and execution of
instructions.
Channel
A logical concept that helps you manage the flow of data to and from a running program.
Character
An element in a set of symbols. A human-readable symbol can be a letter from A to Z, a
number from 0 to 9, or a special symbol . A machine intelligible symbol is made of a group of
binary digits. Some machine-readable symbols are "non-printing" characters (such as tabs or
control characters), because they cannot be displayed on a line printer listing or a video
screen.
Cluster Size
The unit of size in which files are allocated. Cluster size is measured in blocks.
Command
A user-initiated order to a computer system that causes the performance of a predefined
operation. A command is the part of an instruction that specifies the operation to be
performed.
Glossary-2
Command environment
An interface through which you can communicate with the computer. DCL and BASICPLUS are examples of command environments.
Command level
The part of a session at a terminal when the system awaits your input. For example, you can
recognize DCL command level by its dollar sign ($) prompt.
Command line/command string
A line (or set of continued lines), normally terminated by pressing the RETURN key. A
command line or string contains a command and (optionally) information modifying the
command. The full form of the command string contains a command, its qualifiers, and its
parameters (file specifications, for example) and their qualifiers.
Compile
To translate a source program (one written by a user) into machine language.
Concatenate
To unite in a series; to link together many items into one.
Concise Command Language (CCL)
A way to call a system program and provide it with input on a single command line. Many
system programs (such as PIP on RSTS/E), use the name of the program as the command
name, followed by the command line required by that program . CCLs can be different for
each RSTS/E system.
CPU
See Central Processing Unit.
Crash
An unexpected computer system shut-down, caused by problems such as power failures.
Creation date
The date on which a file on RSTS/E is created or updated.
CRT
Cathode Ray Tube. A CRT is used in video display terminals, such as VT220s and VT100s.
Sometimes video terminals are called "CRT devices."
CTRL (control key)
The keyboard character that causes a control action. It is used in combination with an
alphabetic key. For example, if you hold down the control key and press the "U" key on a
RSTS/E system, the system responds by deleting characters from the cursor to the beginning
of the line.
DIGITAL Command Language (DCL)
The default command language on RSTS/E systems.
DECnet
A family of hardware/software products that creates distributed networks from DIGITAL
computers and their interconnecting devices. DECnet allows you to do such operations as
copying files from one computer (node) to another, and connecting your terminal to a
remote computer.
Default
To omit information in a computer operation and let the computer make a predefined
assumption about the operation; the assumption made by a program when you do not
provide a value.
Density
The number of bits per inch (bpi) that can be stored on a magnetic tape.
Device
A peripheral hardware unit used to perform input and output operations.
Dial-Up Line
A communications circuit that connects a terminal and a computer over a telephone line.
Disk
A mass storage device that holds data on rotating magnetic platters.
Disk Quota
The capacity of a disk to store information. Each user of a computer system is allowed a
finite amount of storage space. On RSTS/E, the system notifies you if you try to exceed your
disk quota.
Display
The printing of text at a hard-copy terminal, or the output of text at a video screen.
DOS
Disk Operating System. DOS is used primarily to refer to a tape format.
Echo
The display of characters you type at a terminal. When you log in to a RSTS/E system, for
example, generally the PPN is echoed, but the password is not.
Editing Session
The time you spend at a terminal using a text editor.
Editor
A program that allows you to modify data, programs, or files.
Elapsed Time
The amount of time you are logged in to a computer system.
Glossary-4
Error Message
A notice from the computer that indicates an error and usually contains recovery information;
a program message indicating the presence of a mistake. For example, RSTS/E displays an
error message if you type in data that it cannot process.
Field
One or more characters treated as a unit; a specified area of a record used for a single type
of data. For example, a file name is occasionally referred to as the "name field" of a
complete file specification .
File
An ordered collection of stored text or data; a collection of related information. For example,
you could create files on RSTS/E to contain data for a program or text for a report.
File Specification
The name used to identify the node, device, directory name, file name, and file type under
which you store a file.
File Type
The part of a file specification that follows the file name. A file type (sometimes called an
"extension" on RSTS/E) consists of a period (.) followed by up to three alphanumeric
characters.
Hard copy
Computer output printed on paper, such as from a line printer or a hard-copy terminal.
Hardware
The physical equipment or machinery of a computer system . Devices are examples of
hardware. (Compare with Software.)
Help Facility
A set of online messages that describes the functions of available programs on a system.
Host
The computer system that processes your commands and responds to them. The network
node that you are currently logged in to.
Input
Information that is transmitted to a computer; information to be processed by the computer;
a device involved in gathering data. For example, when you type in a program at a terminal
that is connected to the computer, you are providing input. Among other things, the terminal
is serving as an input device.
Installation
The location of a computer system . For example, this manual refers to your installation as the
computer system at your site.
Glossary-5
Interactive
The process of communication between a person and a computer system. For example, the
computer prompts you for input and you type in a response .
Interface
A shared boundary between two elements of a computer system, such as between two
programs or devices.
Job
Everything a user does from beginning to end of a terminal session, for example, commands,
programs, processing, or output.
Job Number
The number RSTS/E assigns to your job when you log in. Your job number is deleted when
you log out.
Journaling
The recording of user input during an editing session. For example, if you edit a file using
EDT and the system crashes, journaling allows you to recover your work when the system
resumes operation.
Keyboard
The set of keys that you use to type at a terminal to provide input to the computer.
Keyboard Monitor
A part of the system software that provides communication between a person at a keyboard
and the operating system. The keyboard monitor interprets the commands you type at the
keyboard.
Keyword
A word that is an integral part of a command or qualifier.
Link
To combine or connect two independent entities; a reference to another element in a set of
elements. Linking is generally used to mean combining two or more object files into an
executable file.
Literal
Characters that are interpreted literally. For example, in BASIC-PLUS programming, you can
enclose a character string in quotation marks so that the characters are used as literals.
Local Node
The node a user first logs in to on the system. The local node is generally used in discussions
of network operations . (Compare with Remote Node.)
Logical Name
A name that a user or system manager can assign to a physical device or to a PPN.
(Compare with Physical Name.)
Log In
The process of gaining access to a computer system.
Log Out
The process of ending a session with the computer.
Magnetic Tape
A plastic tape coated with magnetic material on which data is recorded in narrow tracks.
Memory
Merge
Internal computer storage. Memory is also a device on which data can be stored and from
which it can be accessed.
In files, to join the contents of one file to the contents of another file.
Microsecond
One millionth of a second.
Millisecond
One thousandth of a second.
Mnemonic
Mode
An aid to memory, as in mnemonic file names, where the name of the file reminds you of
the contents of the file .
A state of being, such as "interactive mode," in which the system or a program prompts you
for your input .
Network
Node
A set of interconnected computer systems.
An individual computer system in a network that can communicate with other computer
systems in the network.
Non-File-Structured Device
Null
A device that does not separate data into distinct files and does not maintain directories.
type consists of no
An element that is explicitly left blank. For example, a null fileincludes
a file type, which is
alphanumeric characters. In other words, the file specification
null.
Glossary-7
Operating System
Output
Software that controls the execution of computer programs and performs system
An operating system is an integrated collection of programs that supervise computerfunctions.
operations.
The device involved in transferring data from memory; the data created as the result of
transfer; processed data. For example, when your terminal displays the contents of a file, the
terminal serves as an output device.
Parameter
The object of a command. A parameter can be a file specification or a keyword option.
Parity Bit
A binary digit appended to a group of bits to make the sum of all the bits always odd (odd
parity) or always even (even parity). (Parity pertains to the way data is transmitted between
the system and its devices.) A parity bit is used to verify data storage.
Password
The character string assigned to each user that verifies user access privileges to a system; a
way of assuring file confidentiality on time-sharing systems. You need a PPN and a password
to log in to a RSTS/E system.
Physical Name
Priority
A name for a peripheral device; identifies the drive, control circuit, and medium together.
(Compare with Logical Name.)
The level of importance assigned to an operation in computing. For example, you can set the
priority of a print request so that your job is printed before or after other jobs in the print
queue.
Programming
The process of planning, writing, testing, and correcting the steps required for a computer to
solve a problem or perform a desired operation.
Project-Programmer Number (PPN)
Prompt
See Account Number.
A symbol indicating that the system is prepared for input from a user.
Protection Code
A feature that allows you to decide who can have access to your files.
Pseudo Keyboard
A part of RSTS/E software, primarily used in batch jobs. The pseudo keyboard operates like
a real terminal, except that the "typist" is a program rather than a person .
Glossary-8
Qualifier
A command language keyword that modifies the operation of a command. Qualifiers are
always preceded by slash (/) characters. (On some systems, a qualifier is called a "switch.")
Queue
A line-up of jobs to be performed in sequence, as in a batch or print queue, in which certain
jobs are given priority over others.
Read
A process that performs input from a file or a device.
Read-Only
The state a device or file is in when it can be used for input but not for output. (Same as
Write-Locked.)
Real Time
Synonym for time as we know it, in 24-hour days. (Compare with Absolute Time.)
Remote Node
Any node in the network other than the local node. In other words, a remote node is any
node except the one you originally logged in to. (Compare with Local Node.)
RSTS/E
An acronym for Resource-Sharing Timesharing System/Extended, a DIGITAL operating
system .
Run Burst
The length of time, measured in ticks, that a job is allowed to run uninterrupted in the CPU
of a computer.
Run Time
The time in which a program is executed. Run time is the actual amount of CPU time
required for a program to complete execution.
Run-Time System
System software that manages a programming language. The number of run-time systems
can differ from one system to another.
Software
The set of programs that controls the operation of a computer system.
SPR
Software Performance Report . Submitted by a user (generally the system manager) to report
a possible problem in the software.
Swapping
The transfer of a job from memory to disk or vice versa. Lets the system run more jobs than
its memory can hold at once.
Glossary-9
Switch
Syntax
System
See Qualifier.
The rules governing the structure of statements in a computer language; the structure of a
language.
A combination of hardware and software that performs processing operations; a collection of
components that forms a functional unit.
System Manager
The person or group of people who schedule the access and use of a computer system.
Temporary File
A file that is deleted from your account when you log out.
Terminal
A device, consisting of a keyboard and display mechanism, used to enter and receive data to
and from a computer. LA120s (hardcopy) and VT100s (video) are examples of terminals.
Tick
A fraction of a time slice. A tick is about bo of a second .
Timesharing
A method of computer operation in which more than one user shares the system at the same
time. The central theory of timesharing is that the system processes each user's job in slices
of time, so rapidly that the user is often unaware that processing time is shared.
Time Slice
The amount of time (in fractions of a second) that the computer assigns to each user's job
during timesharing.
Translator
Software that converts human-readable programs into machine-readable code .
Utility
A program or set of programs that performs a set of commonly used functions, such as
copying or deleting files. The PIP program and the EDT editor are examples of utilities on
RSTS/E.
Wildcard
A symbol that allows you to refer to more than one file with a single file specification. The
asterisk (*) is a commonly used wildcard symbol in DCL, as in *.DAT to specify all names of
data files.
Word
A unit of storage in the computer. A word holds 16 bits, or two ASCII characters, of
information.
Glossary- 1 0
process
protection
as Read-Only
thatfeature
performs
that output
does not
to permit
a file orthe
a device
output of data or changes to a file or device
Write
A
.
Write-locked
A
(Same
.)
.
Glossary-11
SHOW
system
qualifier
TERMINAL
ENTRY
ENTRY
qualifier,
number,
using,
command,
command,
command,
ACCOUNT
date
JOB
ENTRY
QUEUE
USER
common
command,
command,
status
command,
DEVICE/ALLOCATED
DISKS
command,
_VIDEO
time
command,
command,
1-1
_DATA
qualifier
command,
2-11
n1-14
display,
command,
command,
command,
command,
area
qualifier
display,
to
3143
3-26
714
command,
3-50
7-9
1-20
qualifier,
3-3
6-9
space,
qualifier,
4-5t
4-9
7-16
6-18t
4-8
7-13
7-20
5-5
7-19
8-36f
4-12
display,
Abbreviations
in
6-18t
in
in
Account,
Account
/ACCOUNTING
SHOW
/ADVANCED
SET
/AFTER
/AFTER=
:
PRINT
SET
SUBMIT
/ALL
DELETE/ENTRY
SET
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
ALLOCATE
Allocating
/ALLOCATION
MERGE
SORT
/ALLOCATION=
COPY
CREATE
_MODE
format,
_FORMAT
qualifier,
TERMINAL
TERMINAL
command,
programming,
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
jobs,
command,
=date
JOB
qualifier,
USER
command,
qualifier,
qualifier,
2-8
=date
environment,
6-7
qualifier
qualifier,
qualifier,
_FILE
B-3t
4-7
command,
2-6
qualifier,
command,
8-7
3-38
qualifier,
qualifier,
8-7
command,
8-7
6-21
3-38
3-38
command,
8-9
8-7
3-38
3-38
3-38
4-9
to
1-7
3-38
4-8
3-41
5-55-13
/ALT
SET
ANSI
/ANSI
SET
/ANSI
COBOL
APPEND
/BEFORE
/CREATED
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/QUERY
/SINCE
/APPEND
OPEN/LOG
Arguments
abbreviating,
entering,
ASSIGN
Attached
/ATTACHED
SHOW
SHOW
B
BASIC
/BP2
/BPLUS
BASIC
BASIC-PLUS
command
commands,
/BATCH qualifier
DELETE/ENTRY command, 7-19
SET ENTRY command, 7-16
SHOW ENTRY command, 7-13
SHOW QUEUE command, 7-20
/BEFORE qualifier, 2-11
/BEFORE =date qualifier
APPEND command, 3-38
COPY command, 3-26
DELETE command, 3-22
DIRECTORY command, 3-11
RENAME command, 3-35
TYPE command, 3-19
/BLOCK-SIZE= n qualifier,
COPY command, 3-26
/BP2 qualifier,
BASIC command, 8-7
/BPLUS qualifier,
BASIC command, 8-7
/BREAK qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/BRIEF qualifier
DIRECTORY command, 3-11
SHOW ACCOUNT command, 4-12
SHOW ENTRY command, 7-13
SHOW QUEUE command, 7-20
SHOW TERMINAL command, 5-3
/BROADCAST qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/BUCKET_SIZE qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
BYE command, 1-12 to 1-13
C
/C81 qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
Call structure outline, 8-33f
/CHECK qualifier
COBOL command, 8-9
FORTRAN/F77 command, 8-16
/CHECK= BOUNDS qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
/CHECK= PERFORM qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
/CHECK SEQUENCE qualifier,
MERGE command, 3-50
CLOSE/LOG-FILE command, 5-15
/CLUSTER-SIZE= n qualifier
COPY command, 3-26
CREATE command, 3-3
/CLUSTERSIZE switch, B-9
COBOL command, 8-9
/ANSI _FORMAT qualifier, 8-9
/C81 qualifier, 8-9
/CHECK qualifier, 8-9
/CHECK= BOUNDS qualifier, 8-9
/CHECK= PERFORM qualifier, 8-9
/CODE= CIS qualifier, 8-9
/CROSS _REFERENCE qualifier, 8-9
/DEBUG qualifier, 8-9
/DIAGNOSTICS qualifier, 8-9
/LIST qualifier, 8-9
/MAP qualifier, 8-9
/NAMES= as qualifier, 8-9
/NODIAGNOSTICS qualifier, 8-9
/NOLIST qualifier, 8-9
/NOOBJECT qualifier, 8-9
/OBJECT qualifier, 8-9
/SHOW qualifier, 8-9
/SHOW= MAP qualifier, 8-9
/SUBPROGRAM qualifier, 8-9
/TEMPORARY= device qualifier, 8-9
/TRUNCATE qualifier, 8-9
/WARNINGS qualifier, 8-9
COBOL-81 programming, 8-9
/CODE qualifier,
FORTRAN/FOR command, 8-19
/CODE= CIS qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
/COLLATING _SEQUENCE qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
/132 COLUMNS qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
@ command, 2-15
Command environments, 1-7 to 1-8
BASIC-PLUS, B-1
DCL, B-1
RSX, B-1
RTll, B-1
Command files
see command procedures
Command procedures, 2-14 to 2-16
login, 1-8 to 1-9
/COMMAND= file-spec qualifier,
EDIT command, 3-6
Commands
abbreviating, 2-6
ALLOCATE, 6-9
APPEND, 3-38 to 3-41
ASSIGN, 6-21
BASIC, 8-7
BASIC-PLUS, B-3t
BYE, 1-12 to 1-13
CLOSE/LOG _FILE, 5-15
Commands (Cont
.)
COBOL, 8-9
continuing on more than one line, 2-5
COPY, 3-26 to 3-34
CREATE, 3-3 to 3-5
DEALLOCATE, 6-10
DEASSIGN, 6-23
DELETE, 3-22 to 3-25
DELETE/ENTRY, 7-19
DIBOL, 8-14
DIFFERENCES, 3-57 to 3-59
DIRECTORY, 3-11 to 3-18
DISMOUNT, 6-16
EDIT, 3-6 to 3-10
entering, 2-4
entering qualifiers, 2-7
for file operations, 3-lt
format description, 2-3f
formats, 2-1 to 2-14
FORTRAN, 8-16
HELLO, 1--6
HELP, 1-9 to 1-12
INITIALIZE, 6-14
LINK, 8-24 to 8-41
LOGIN, 1-6
LOGOUT, 1-12 to 1-13
MACRO, 8-22
MERGE, 3-50 to 3-56
MOUNT, 6-11
OPEN/LOG _FILE, 5-13
PRINT, 7-4
program development, 8-lt
qualifier defaults, 2-8
RENAME, 3-35 to 3-37
REQUEST, 4-17
RSX, B-6t
RTl l, B- 4t
RUN, 8-42
SET, 4-14 to 4-16
SET ENTRY, 7-16
SET FILE, 3-66
SET HOST, 1-23
SET PASSWORD, 4-15
SET PROTECTION, 3-64
SET TERMINAL, 5-5 to 5-11
SET/LOG __FILE, 5-16
SHOW, 4-2 to 4-13
SHOW ACCOUNT, 4-12
SHOW DEVICE, 6-17
SHOW DEVICE/ALLOCATED, 6-17
SHOW DISKS, 6-17
SHOW ENTRY, 7-13
SHOW JOB, 4-9
SHOW NETWORK, 1-21, 1-23
Commands (Cont
.)
SHOW QUEUE, 7-20
SHOW SYSTEM, 4-11
SHOW TERMINAL, 5-3
SHOW USER, 4-8
SORT, 3-42 to 3-49
SUBMIT, 7-9
terms used in formats, 2-2t
TYPE, 3-19 to 3-21
using qualifiers, 1-14
Comments, entering, 2-5
Compiling programs, 8-3
/CONTIGUOUS qualifier
COPY command, 3-26
CREATE command, 3-3
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
Continuation character, 2-5
/CONTINUATIONS = n qualifier,
FORTRAN/F77 command, 8-16
Control keys
see keys
/CONTROL qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/CONVERT qualifier,
PRINT command, 7-4
/COPIES = n qualifier,
PRINT command, 7-4
COPY command, 3-26 to 3-34
/ALLOCATION= n qualifier, 3-26
/BEFORE= date qualifier, 3-26
/BLOCK -SIZE= n qualifier, 3-26
/CLUSTER _ SIZE = n qualifier, 3-26
/CONTIGUOUS qualifier, 3-26
/CREATED qualifier, 3-26
/LOG qualifier, 3-26
/MODIFIED qualifier, 3-26
/OVERLAY qualifier, 3-26
/POSITION qualifier, 3-26
/PROTECTION= n qualifier, 3-26
/QUERY qualifier, 3-26
/REPLACE qualifier, 3-26
/SINCE= date qualifier, 3-26
/CPU LIMIT = n qualifier
SET ENTRY command, 7-16
SUBMIT command, 7-9
CREATE command, 3-3 to 3-5
/ALLOCATION= n qualifier, 3-3
/CLUSTER _ SIZE = n qualifier, 3-3
/CONTIGUOUS qualifier, 3-3
/POSITION qualifier, 3-3
/PROTECTION = n qualifier, 3-3
/REPLACE qualifier, 3-3
/CREATED qualifier
APPEND command, 3-38
COPY command, 3-26
DELETE command, 3-22
DIRECTORY command, 3-11
RENAME command, 3-35
TYPE command, 3-19
/CRFILL qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/CROSS _REFERENCE qualifier
COBOL command, 8-9
MACRO command, 8-22
CTRL keys
see keys
CTRL/T key, 4-10
D
/D- LINES qualifier
FORTRAN/F77 command, 8-16
FORTRAN/FOR command, 8-19
Date and time formats, 2-11
absolute, 2-12
relative, 2-13
/DATE qualifier,
DIRECTORY command, 3-11
Dates, format, 2-11
DCL
default keyboard monitor, 1-7
using command qualifiers, 1-14
DEALLOCATE command, 6-10
DEASSIGN command, 6-23
/DEBUG qualifier
COBOL command, 8-9
DIBOL command, 8-14
DECnet/E, using, 1-21 to 1-24
Default keyboard monitor, 1-7
/DEFAULT qualifier,
SET PROTECTION command, 3-64
/DELETABLE qualifier,
SET FILE command, 3-66
DELETE command, 3-22 to 3-25
/BEFORE = date qualifier, 3-22
/CREATED qualifier, 3-22
/ERASE qualifier, 3-22
/LOG qualifier, 3-22
/MODIFIED qualifier, 3-22
/QUERY qualifier, 3-22
/SINCE= date qualifier, 3-22
DELETE key, 1-3
/DELETE qualifier
PRINT command, 7-4
SUBMIT command, 7-9
DELETE/ENTRY command, 7-19
/ALL qualifier, 7-19
/BATCH qualifier, 7-19
/PRINT qualifier, 7-19
/DELIMITER qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/DENSITY = n qualifier
INITIALIZE command, 6-14
MOUNT command, 6-11
Detached jobs, 4-7
/DETACHED qualifier
SHOW JOB command, 4-9
SHOW USER command, 4-8
/DEVICE _TYPE qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
Devices
ALLOCATE command, 6-9
ASSIGN command, 6-21
DEALLOCATE command, 6-10
DEASSIGN command, 6-23
disks, 6-5 to 6-6
DISMOUNT command, 6-16
INITIALIZE command, 6-14
logical, 6-18 to 6-23
magnetic tape, 6-6 to 6-8
MOUNT command, 6-11
names, 6-2, 6-3t
physical, 6-1 to 6-18
SHOW commands, 6-17
specifying, 6-2
table of commands, 6-lt
/DIAGNOSTICS qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
DIBOL command, 8-14
/DEBUG qualifier, 8-14
/LIST qualifier, 8-14
/NOLIST qualifier, 8-14
/NOOBJECT qualifier, 8-14
/NOWARNINGS qualifier, 8-14
/OBJECT qualifier, 8-14
/WARNINGS qualifier, 8-14
DIBOL-11 programming, 8-14
DIFFERENCES command, 3-57 to 3-59
/IGNORE= BLANKLINES qualifier, 3-57
/MATCH= size qualifier, 3-57
/MAXIMUM DIFFERENCES = n qualifier,
3-57
/OUTPUT= file-spec qualifier, 3-57
Directory, 1-14
DIRECTORY command, 3-11 to 3-18
/BEFORE= date qualifier, 3-11
/BRIEF qualifier, 3-11
/CREATED qualifier, 3-11
quota,
format,
editor,
command,
6-5
qualifier,
sign
TERMINAL
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
6-5
=date
6-6
6-5
qualifier
qualifier,
to
command,
($)
qualifier,
7-2
1-13
__FILE
command,
3-6
qualifier,
command,
_FILE
command
6-7
6-6
qualifier,
file-spec
qualifier,
prompt,
STREAM
VARIABLE
file-spec
qualifier,
_FILE
qualifier
7-2
[file-spec]
qualifier,
3-6
to
3-11
3-6
file-spec
qualifier,
3-11
3-11
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
3-6
3-10
command,
3-11
command,
3-43
3-11
command,
to
3-11
3-50
command,
qualifier,
1-7
qualifier,
3-22
3-11
6-16
3-6
(Cont
3-10
qualifier,
3-11
3-6
qualifier,
qualifier,
3-6
3-11
3-6
3-6
)5-5
5-16
5-16
3-11
3-6
5-13
5-13
3-6
3-6
3-6
DIRECTORY
/DATE
/FULL
/MODIFIED
/NODATE
/NOSIZE
/OUTPUT=
/PROTECTION
/SINCE
/SIZE
/TOTAL
/DISABLE
OPEN/LOG-FILE
SET/LOG
Disk
Disks,
private,
public,
system,
DISMOUNT
Dollar
DOS
/DUPLICATES
MERGE
SORT
E
EDIT
/COMMAND=
/EDT
/FORMAT=
/FORMAT=
/JOURNAL=
/NOCOMMAND
/NOJOURNAL
/NOOUTPUT
/OUTPUT=
/READ-ONLY
/RECOVER
EDT
/EDT
EDIT
/EIGHT-BIT
SET
/ENABLE
OPEN/LOG
SET/LOG
Entry
number,
specification,
/ERASE
DELETE
.
messages,
ofqualifier,
TERMINAL
_PAGES
qualifier,
TERMINAL
_FEED
A-2t
and
wildcards,
?command,
types,
_SEQUENCE
and
command,
3-42
ENTRY
and
your
switch,
qualifier
file,
3-26
3-22
command,
1-15,
3-50
command,
character,
command,
command,
point,
lists
RSTS/E,
maintaining,
ANSI
codes,
3-35
DOS
FOREIGN
3-60
to
1-15,
1-16
3-38
3-57
types,
3-lt
command,
command,
%
8-4
1-18t
A-1
disk
A-23t
3-3
to
qualifier,
of,
to
qualifier,
to
characters,
3-3
B-8
qualifier
to
command,
qualifier
as
3-49
1-20
command,
to
to
to
3-34
3-25
3-11
command,
3-56
1-20
quota,
2-7
1-17
7-4
3-43
7-4
3-37
3-65
B-7
2-5
3-41
3-59
to
3-50
6-11
qualifier,
qualifier,
3-10
to
1-14
6-14
1-13
3-21
A-1
7-13
5-5
5-5
to 1-20
Error
DCL,
use
/ESCAPE
SET
Exceeding
Exclamation
comment
Executable
F
/FEED
PRINT
Files
appending,
commands,
comparing,
copying,
creating,
deleting,
displaying,
merging,
names
preallocating,
protecting,
protection
renaming,
RSTS
sorting,
specifying,
specifying
specifying
using
using
/FILES
SHOW
/FILESIZE
/FLAG
PRINT
/FORM
SET
/FORMAT
MERGE
SORT
/FORMAT=
INITIALIZE
MOUNT
/FORMAT=
INITIALIZE
MOUNT
/FORMAT=
MOUNT
_LINES
qualifier,
qualifier,
LINES
keys
ENTRY
command,
qualifier
TERMINAL
command,
ENTRY
qualifier,
=command,
qualifier,
qualifier
command,
keys
qualifier,
command,
ACCOUNT
ENTRY
QUEUE
TERMINAL
form-name
commands,
programming,
qualifier,
STREAM
VARIABLE
qualifier,
command,
FILES
qualifier,
qualifier,
qualifier,
_CODE
qualifier,
_CODE
qualifier,
qualifier,
8-16
8-19
qualifier,
command,
command
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
command,
command
8-16
8-19
1-9
=3-6
command,
3-6
command,
8-19
qualifier,
command,
1-6
n7-4
8-16
8-16
8-19
qualifier,
7-4
8-16
qualifier,
8-19
qualifier
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
8-16
qualifier,
to
5-16
8-19
7-9
8-19
qualifier,
n8-16
8-16
8-19
8-19
8-16
qualifier,
1-12
7-16
7-16
3-11
8-19
7-13
7-20
8-16
5-5
8-16
8-16
8-19
4-12
5-3
8-16
/FORMAT=
EDIT
/FORMAT=
EDIT
/FORMS
PRINT
SET
FORTRAN
FORTRAN
FORTRAN/F77
/CHECK
/CONTINUATIONS=
/D
/I4
/IDENTIFICATION
/LIST
/MACHINE
/NOLIST
/NOOBJECT
/OBJECT
/WARNINGS
/WORK
FORTRAN/FOR
/CODE
/D
/I4
/LINENUMBERS
/LIST
/MACHINE
/NOLIST
/NOOBJECT
/OBJECT
/OPTIMIZE
/WARNINGS
/FULL
DIRECTORY
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
Function
see
H
/HARDCOPY
SET
HELLO
HELP
/HOLD
PRINT
SET
SUBMIT
qualifier
qualifier
1-4t
TERMINAL
_SYNC
TERMINAL
COUNT
ENTRY
TERMINAL
command,
as
command,
command,
command,
_SEQUENTIAL
qualifier,
monitor,
1-7
command,
BLANKLINES
command,
1-5t
continuation
command,
1-5t
4-7
2-5
1-5t
1-4,1-5t,
4-7
1-5t,
1-4,1-5t,
1-5t
[file-spec]
qualifier,
DOS
n1-5t
command,
qualifier,
=
qualifier,
ncommand,
command,
command,
3-19
3-19
command,
command,
qualifier,
command,
3-6
qualifier
command,
3-43
qualifier,
qualifier,
3143
714
3-50
3-50
6-14
3-19
qualifier,
3-19
6-14
qualifier,
7-16
qualifier
8-16
8-16
3-57
6-14
6-14
8-19
5-5
5-5
5-5
/HOST
SET
Hyphen,
character,
/I4
FORTRAN/F77
FORTRAN/FOR
/IDENTIFICATION
FORTRAN/F77
/IGNORE=
DIFFERENCES
/INDEXED
MERGE
SORT
INITIALIZE
/DENSITY=
/FORMAT=ANSI
/FORMAT=
/INQUIRE
SET
J
/JOB __
PRINT
SET
Jobs
attached,
detached,
/JOURNAL=
EDIT
K
/KATAKANA
SET
/KEY
MERGE
SORT
Keyboard
default,
Keys,
ALTMODE,
CTRL/C,
CTRL/I,
CTRL/J,
CTRL/L,
CTRL/O,
CTRL/Q,
CTRL/R,
CTRL/S,
Keys (Cont
.)
CTRL/T, 1-5t, 4-10
CTRL/U, 1-3, 1-5t
CTRL/X, 1-5t
CTRL/Z, 1-5t
DELETE, 1-3, 1-5t
ESCAPE, 1-5t
FORM FEED, 1-5t
HOLD SCREEN, 1-5t
LINE FEED, 1-5t
NO SCROLL, 1-4, 3-19
RETURN, 1-4, 1-5t
RUBOUT, 1-5t
TAB, 1-5t
Keywords
abbreviating, 2-6
TODAY, 2-12
TOMORROW, 2-12
YESTERDAY, 2-12
L
Language qualifiers, 8-25t
/LIBRARY qualifier,
MACRO command, 8-22
/LINENUMBERS qualifier,
FORTRAN/FOR command, 8-19
LINK command, 8-24 to 8-41
qualifiers, 8-24
/LIST qualifier
COBOL command, 8-9
DIBOL command, 8-14
FORTRAN/1777 command, 8-16
FORTRAN/FOR command, 8-19
MACRO command, 8-22
/LOAD _FILL qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
/LOADABLE _CHARACTERS qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/LOCAL _ECHO qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
Log file, of terminal session, 5-12 to 5-18
/LOG qualifier
APPEND command, 3-38
COPY command, 3-26
DELETE command, 3-22
RENAME command, 3-35
SET FILE command, 3-66
SET PROTECTION command, 3-64
/LOG _DELETE qualifier,
SUBMIT command, 7-9
/LOG FILE = file-spec qualifier,
SUBMIT command, 7-9
/LOG_ QUEUE = queue-name qualifier,
SUBMIT command, 7-9
Logical devices
see logical names
Logical names, 6-18 to 6-23
ASSIGN command, 6-21
DEASSIGN command, 6-23
overriding, 6-20
specifying, 6-19
system-wide, 6-19
table of commands, 6-1t
user, 6-19
Login procedure, 1-6 to 1-7
LOGIN command, 1-6
LOGIN.COM file, 1-8 to 1-9
system and user, 1-9f
LOGOUT command, 1-12 to 1-13
Logout procedure, 1-12 to 1-13
/LOWERCASE qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
M
/MACHINE _CODE qualifier
FORTRAN/1777 command, 8-16
FORTRAN/FOR command, 8-19
MACRO assembler, 8-3
MACRO command
/CROSS _REFERENCE qualifier, 8-22
/LIBRARY qualifier, 8-22
/LIST qualifier, 8-22
/NOLIST qualifier, 8-22
/NOOBJECT qualifier, 8-22
/OBJECT qualifier, 8-22
MACRO commands, 8-22
MACRO-11 programming, 8-22
Magnetic tape, 6-6 to 6-8
ANSI and DOS format, 6-7
density, 6-7
/MAP qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
/MATCH = size qualifier,
DIFFERENCES command, 3-57
/MAXIMUM DIFFERENCES = n qualifier,
DIFFERENCES command, 3-57
Memory map file sample, 8-4Of
MERGE command, 3-50 to 3-56
/ALLOCATION qualifier, 3-50
/BUCKET _SIZE qualifier, 3-50
/CHECK-SEQUENCE qualifier, 3-50
/COLLATING _SEQUENCE qualifier, 3-50
/CONTIGUOUS qualifier, 3-50
/DUPLICATES qualifier, 3-50
/FORMAT qualifier, 3-50
Index-7
SCROLL
FILE
=switch,
qualifier,
command,
command
command,
command,
_SPACE
command,
_FILL
command,
entry-name
command,
using,
qualifier
command,
as
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
command,
command,
qualifier,
qualifier
command,
_SEQUENTIAL
command,
qualifier,
qualifier,
qualifier,
qualifier,
key,
ANSI
DOS
FOREIGN
nB-11
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
1-21
command,
qualifier,
qualifier,
3-50
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
(Cont
1-4,
3-6
3-6
3-19
6-11
6-11
qualifier,
3-26
6-11
qualifier,
7-4
3-50
qualifier
8-14
to
6-11
8-9
8-9
3-22
7-9
3-38
3-50
3-50
3-50
3-35
3-66
3-19
1-24
)3-50
qualifier,
3-50
3-50
6-11
3-50
3-11
3-11
3-50
6-11
qualifier,
3-50
6-11
8-16
6-113-50
MERGE
/INDEXED
/KEY
/LOAD
/OVERLAY
/PROCESS
/RELATIVE
/SEQUENTIAL
/SHAREABLE
/SPECIFICATION
/STABLE
/STATISTICS
/TREE
/WORK__FILES
/MODE
/MODIFIED
APPEND
COPY
DELETE
DIRECTORY
RENAME
TYPE
MOUNT
/DENSITY=
/FORMAT=
/FORMAT=
/FORMAT=
/PRIVATE
/SHARE
/WRITE
N
/NAME
PRINT
SUBMIT
/NAMES=
COBOL
Network,
NO
/NOCOMMAND
EDIT
/NOCONTIGUOUS
SET
/NODATE
DIRECTORY
/NODIAGNOSTICS
COBOL
/NOJOURNAL
EDIT
/NOLIST
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN/1777
.
memory,
module,
command,
command,
_STAMP
qualifier,
8-35f
qualifier
command,
command,
qualifier
8-32
command,
ACCOUNT
JOB
USER
command,
command,
command,
command,
qualifier,
ppn
___qualifier
file-spec
command,
file-spec
qualifier,
qualifier
qualifier,
qualifier,
FILE
qualifier,
8-34f
command,
8-3
command,
to
command,
files,
qualifier
qualifier,
command,
characters,
command,
command,
(Cont
command,
8-41
3-6
command,
qualifier,
command,
command,
3-6
8-14
3-43
8-14
qualifier
3-26
8-14
qualifier
8-39f
7-4
5-13
8-9
5-13
8-22
8-22
8-9
5-13
8-22
command,
3-50
5-13
7-9
) 4--9
3-11
3-11
5-13
4-8
2-10t
8-16
8-16
8-19
3-57
8-19
8-19
8-19
5-13
4-12
/NOLIST
FORTRAN/FOR
MACRO
Nonalphanumeric
/NOOBJECT
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN/1777
FORTRAN/FOR
MACRO
/NOOUTPUT
EDIT
/NOSIZE
DIRECTORY
/NOWARNINGS
DIBOL
O
Object
/OBJECT
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN/1777
FORTRAN/FOR
MACRO
OPEN/LOG
/APPEND
/DISABLE
/ENABLE
/REPLACE
TIME
/OPTIMIZE
FORTRAN/FOR
/OUTPUT=
DIFFERENCES
DIRECTORY
EDIT
/OUTPUT=
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
Overlays,
concatenated
in
paths,
/OVERLAY
COPY
MERGE
SORT
/OWNER=
PRINT
SUBMIT
.
Print/Batch
physical
project-programmer
_
ENTRY
TERMINAL
FILE
command,
_6-5
LIMIT
devices,
qualifier,
command,
command,
_PAGES
qualifier,
-LIMIT=
TERMINAL
COUNT
6-2,
commands,
devices
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
your
command,
tape,
qualifier
command,
switch,
entry-name
command,
date
qualifier,
to
1-2
6-2
files,
form-name
nppn
command,
devices
=6-3t
command,
qualifier,
2-6
6-6
qualifier,
nqualifier,
n6-1
own,
Services
6-6
command,
qualifier,
=3-3
qualifier
7-4
qualifier,
command,
7-4
B-10
qualifier,
n7-4
n7-4
3-26
to
to
7-4
command,
qualifier,
4-15
6-17
qualifier,
7-9
6-11
3-3
3-66
7-4
qualifier,
6-18
6-8
7-4
qualifier,
6-14
7-16
6-9
6-16
number
7-4
7-4
7-4
6-10
5-5
7-4
7-4
5-3
7-4
7-4
/PAGE
PRINT
SET
Parameters,
abbreviating,
/PARAMETERS
SUBMIT
/PARITY
SET
Password
changing
guidelines,
PBS
see
Peripheral
see
/PERMANENT
SHOW
Physical
ALLOCATE
DEALLOCATE
disks,
DISMOUNT
INITIALIZE
magnetic
MOUNT
names,
SHOW
specifying,
/PLACED
SET
/POSITION
COPY
CREATE
/POSITION
PPN
see
Preallocating
PRINT
/AFTER=
:time
/CONVERT
/COPIES=
/DELETE
/FEED
/FLAG
/FORMS=
/HOLD
/JOB
/NAME=
/OWNER=
/PAGE
/PRIORITY=
prompt,
command
ENTRY
and
TERMINAL
ENTRY
qualifier
specification,
based,
based,
command,
development
command,
command,
ENTRY
QUEUE
_PORT
8-4,
8-5
qualifier,
1-1
qualifier,
command,
1-7
Services
=
codes,
command,
8-3
batch
1-21,
of
qualifier
entries,
switch,
3-63t
n8-14
8-3
7-lt
8-16
files
8-6
command,
qualifier
8-9
qualifier,
command,
command,
8-22
8-24
8-6
7-2
8-7
(Cont
queues,
command,
8-42
command,
1-20,
command,
command,
on
qualifier,
8-7
command,
command,
B-8
(PBS),
7-4
2-7
3-43
7-4
number
7-2
totape,
3-50
7-9
6-11
commands,
7-9
)8-41
7-4
3-60
7-2
7-16
7-16
7-1
6-7
7-13
(PPN),
7-13
7-20
7-20
5-5
to
7-19
7-19
to3-65
7-21
8-1t
1-2
PRINT
/QUEUE
/TRUNCATE
/PRINT
DELETE/ENTRY
SET
SHOW
SHOW
Print/Batch
commands,
DELETE/ENTRY
entry
entry-number,
print
PRINT
SET
SHOW
SHOW
specifying
SUBMIT
/PRINTER
SET
/PRIORITY
PRINT
SET
SUBMIT
/PRIVATE
MOUNT
Privileges,
/PROCESS
MERGE
SORT
Program
Programming
BASIC-PLUS,
BASIC-PLUS-2,
COBOL-81,
DIBOL-11,
FORTRAN,
MACRO-11,
RSX
RT11
Programs
compiling,
creating,
linking,
running,
testing,
Project-programmer
$
/PROTECT
Protection,
Protection
common,
.
executable
nonexecutable
disk
FILE
ENTRY
FILE
PROTECTION
TERMINAL
DCL
command,
command,
command,
command,
command,
command,
ACCOUNT
JOB
ENTRY
QUEUE
TERMINAL
USER
codes
arguments,
2-8
2-11
command,
structure,
2-11
2--7
command,
command,
command,
command,
_FILE,
command,
command,
2-11
commands,
command,
__FILE
command,
=command,
2-6
command,
qualifier,
files,
(Cont
command,
ncommand,
command,
command,
command,
3-6
qualifier
8-24
command,
command,
3-26
5-16
files,
6-5
8-7
714
8-14
3-62t
command,
8-9
3-50
command,
2-8
command,
3-22
8-22
6-11
command,
3-3
3-3
)3-35
3-38
3-66
3-35
3-66
3-61t
6-14
1-14
4-9
7-16
3-11
4-8
3-57
8-16
7-13
8-19
7-20
5-5
7-19
5-13
4-12
5-3
3-64
Protection
for
for
/PROTECTION
DIRECTORY
/PROTECTION
COPY
CREATE
RENAME
SET
Public
A
Qualifiers
abbreviating,
/AFTER,
/BEFORE,
defaults,
entering,
entering
/SINCE,
using
APPEND
BASIC
COBOL
COPY
CREATE
DELETE
DELETE/ENTRY
DIBOL
DIFFERENCES
EDIT
FORTRAN/F77
FORTRAN/FOR
INITIALIZE
LINK
MACRO
MERGE
MOUNT
OPEN/LOG
PRINT
RENAME
SET
SET
SET
SET
SET/LOG
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
.
prompt,
PROTECTION
_ONLY
TERMINAL
ENTRY
TERMINAL
disk,
qualifier,
7-2
command,
command,
command,
qualifier,
qualifier
qualifier,
command,
command,
switch,
command,
(Cont
key,
command,
queue-name
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
command,
command,
qualifier,
command,
qualifier
qualifier,
qualifier
date
command,
command,
command,
1-13
qualifier,
date
qualifier,
qualifier,
1-4
1-7
command,
qualifier,
) B-11
qualifier,
3-35
qualifier,
3-6
command,
3-19
n3-19
3143
3-26
3-43
3-35
3-26
714
3-35
qualifier,
command,
3-50
command,
4-17
3-22
7-9
3-38
3-35
3-3
3-35
3-35
3-35
qualifier,
3-35
7-16
to3-35
3-37
5-5
5-5
3-35
5-13
3-64
Qualifiers
SORT
SUBMIT
TYPE
/QUERY
APPEND
COPY
DELETE
RENAME
SET
TYPE
Queue,
/QUEUE
PRINT
/QUEUE=
SUBMIT
Quota,
.
R
/READ
EDIT
Ready
/RECOVER
EDIT
/ReGIS
SET
/RELATIVE
MERGE
SORT
/RELEASE
SET
RENAME
/BEFORE=
/CREATED
/LOG
/MODIFIED
/PROTECTION=
/QUERY
/REPLACE
/SINCE=
/REPLACE
COPY
CREATE
OPEN/LOG-FILE
RENAME
REQUEST
/RESET
SET
/RESUME
SET
RETURN
/RONLY
RSX
command environment, 1-7
commands, B-6t
RSX-based programming, 8-6
RT11
command environment, 1-7
commands, B-4t
RT11 and RSX program development
commands, 8-5t
RT11-based programming, 8-6
RUBOUT key
see DELETE key
RUN command, 8-42
Running a program, 1-21
/RUNTIME SYSTEM = name qualifier,
SET FILE command, 3-66
S
/SCOPE qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/SELECT _ERASE qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/SEQUENTIAL qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
SET command, 4-14 to 4-16
ENTRY, 7-16
HOST, 1-23
options, 4-14t
PASSWORD, 4-15
TERMINAL, 5-5 to 5-11
SET CONTROL= C command, 4-14t
SET DATA command, 4-14t
SET ECHO command, 4-14t
SET ENTRY command, 4-14t, 7-16
/AFTER = date:time qualifier, 7-16
/ALL qualifier, 7-16
/BATCH qualifier, 7-16
/CPU LIMIT = n qualifier, 7-16
/FORMS= form-name qualifier, 7-16
/HOLD qualifier, 7-16
/JOB COUNT =n qualifier, 7-16
/PAGE _LIMIT = n qualifier, 7-16
/PRINT qualifier, 7-16
/PRIORITY= n qualifier, 7-16
/RELEASE qualifier, 7-16
/TIME _ LIMIT = n qualifier, 7-16
SET FILE command, 3-66, 4-14t
/DELETABLE qualifier, 3-66
/LOG qualifier, 3-66
/NOCONTIGUOUS qualifier, 3-66
/PLACED qualifier, 3-66
/PROTECTION= n qualifier, 3-66
SET FILE command (Cont. )
/RUNTIME SYSTEM = name qualifier, 3-66
SET HOST command, 1-23, 4-14t
SET LOG _FILE command, 4-14t
SET ON command, 4-14t
SET PASSWORD command, 4-14t, 4-15
SET PROTECTION command, 3-64, 4-14t
/DEFAULT qualifier, 3-64
/LOG qualifier, 3-64
/QUERY qualifier, 3-64
SET TERMINAL command, 4-14t, 5-5
/ADVANCED _VIDEO qualifier, 5-5
/ALT _MODE qualifier, 5-5
/ANSI qualifier, 5-5
/BREAK qualifier, 5-5
/BROADCAST qualifier, 5-5
/132 _COLUMNS qualifier, 5-5
/CONTROL qualifier, 5-5
/CRFILL qualifier, 5-5
/DELIMITER qualifier, 5-5
/DEVICE-TYPE qualifier, 5-5
/EIGHT-BIT qualifier, 5-5
/ESCAPE _SEQUENCE qualifier, 5-5
/FORM _FEED qualifier, 5-5
/HARDCOPY qualifier, 5-5
/HOST-SYNC qualifier, 5-5
/INQUIRE qualifier, 5-5
/KATAKANA qualifier, 5-5
/LOADABLE _ CHARACTERS qualifier, 5-5
/LOCAL _ECHO qualifier, 5-5
/LOWERCASE qualifier, 5-5
/PARITY qualifier, 5-5
/PRINTER_PORT qualifier, 5-5
/REGIS qualifier, 5-5
/RESET qualifier, 5-5
/RESUME qualifier, 5-5
/SCOPE qualifier, 5-5
/SELECT-ERASE qualifier, 5-5
/SETUP= file-name qualifier, 5-5
/SIXEL qualifier, 5-5
/SPEED qualifier, 5-5
/TAB qualifier, 5-5
/TTSYNC qualifier, 5-5
/TYPE= n qualifier, 5-5
/UP-ARROW qualifier, 5-5
/UPPERCASE qualifier, 5-5
/USER _ DEFINED _KEYS qualifier, 5-5
/WIDTH = n qualifier, 5-5
SET VERIFY command, 4-14t
SET/LOG _ FILE command, 5-16
/DISABLE qualifier, 5-16
/ENABLE qualifier, 5-16
/TIME_STAMP qualifier, 5-16
Index-11
TERMINAL
ACCOUNT
BUFFERS
CACHE
command,
4-9
DATE
DAYTIME
DEVICE
DEVICE/ALLOCATED
DISKS,
DISKS
ENTRY
qualifier,
FILE
JOB
JOB/PRIVILEGES
LIBRARIES
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
4-8
qualifier,
qualifier,
file-name
qualifier,
6-17
qualifier,
4-2t
command,
7-13
command,
7-20
qualifier,
6-17
4-11
command,
command,
file-spec
command,
file-spec
qualifier
4-12
=KBn
5-3
1-23
command,
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
command,
6-18t
4-5t
command,
4-9
7-13
_DATA
4-12
command,
command,
7-13
4-2
7-13
4-12
command,
7-13
7-13
qualifier,
command,
3-43
command,
7-13
3-50
qualifier,
6-11
qualifier,
to4-2t,
4-2t
4-9
4-9
4-2t
4-13
6-17
4-2t,
command,
qualifier,
4-2t,
4-2t
4-2t,
4-2t
4-2t
4-9
5-5
4-2t,
command,
4-3t
4-9
4-12
6-17
4-9
7-13
6-17
4-12
4-12
4-3t4-2t,
/SETUP=
SET
/SHARE
MOUNT
/SHAREABLE
MERGE
SORT
SHOW
/ACCOUNTING
/BRIEF
/FULL
/OUTPUT=
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
ACCOUNT,
DEVICE,
DEVICE/ALLOCATED,
DISKS,
ENTRY,
JOB,
NETWORK,
options,
QUEUE,
SYSTEM,
TERMINAL,
USER,
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
abbreviations,
SHOW
6-17
SHOW
abbreviations,
SHOW
SHOW
/ALL
/BATCH
/BRIEF
/FILES
/FULL
/PRINT
SHOW
SHOW
abbreviations,
/ALL
/ATTACHED
/DETACHED
/OUTPUT=
/TERMINAL
:
SHOW
SHOW
qualifier,
command,
TERMINAL
NETWORK
LOGICAL
LOGICAL/SYSTEM
MEMORY
NETWORK
PRINTER
QUEUE
RECEIVERS
RUNTIME
SERVER
SYMBOL
SYSTEM
TERMINAL
TIME
USER
qualifier,
qualifier,
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
command,
date
qualifier,
qualifier,
MAP
command,
command,
qualifier,
command,
command,
command,
qualifier,
__SEQUENTIAL
command,
SIZE
command,
file-spec
qualifier
=KBn
qualifier,
qualifier,
command,
command,
4-5t
_SEQUENCE
7-20
4-8
command,
2-11
qualifier,
command,
qualifier,
command,
3-42
_SYSTEMS
5-3
qualifier,
command,
7-20
command,
7-20
5-3
qualifier,
7-20
command,
qualifier,
command,
3-19
3-26
7-20
command,
qualifier,
8-9
3-43
3-22
qualifier,
3-38
3-35
to4-8
4-2t
4-8
4-3t,
5-3
3-49
3-43
3-11
4-3t,
3-43
3-43
command,
4-3t
4-3t,
3-43
4-3t
4-3t
4-3t
qualifier,
5-5
1-21
4-3t
command,
4-3t,
4-8
qualifier,
4-3t
4-8
7-20
4-11
5-3
3-43
4-3t
3143
4-3t
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
/SHOW
COBOL
SHOW
/ALL
/BATCH
/BRIEF
/FULL
/PRINT
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
/BRIEF
/FULL
/PERMANENT
SHOW
SHOW
abbreviations,
/ALL
/ATTACHED
/DETACHED
/OUTPUT=
/TERMINAL
/SHOW=
COBOL
/SINCE
/SINCE=
APPEND
COPY
DELETE
DIRECTORY
RENAME
TYPE
/SIXEL
SET
/SIZE
DIRECTORY
SORT
/ALLOCATION
/BUCKET
/COLLATING
/CONTIGUOUS
/DUPLICATES
/FORMAT
/INDEXED
:
SORT command (Cont. )
/KEY qualifier, 3-43
/LOAD _FILL qualifier, 3-43
/OVERLAY qualifier, 3-43
/PROCESS qualifier, 3-43
/RELATIVE qualifier, 3-43
/SEQUENTIAL qualifier, 3-43
/SHAREABLE qualifier, 3-43
/SPECIFICATION qualifier, 3--43
/STABLE qualifier, 3-43
/STATISTICS qualifier, 3-43
/FREE _SPACE qualifier, 3-43
/WORK_FILES qualifier, 3-43
/SPECIFICATION qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
/SPEED qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/STABLE qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
/STATISTICS qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
SUBMIT command, 7-9
/AFTER = date:time qualifier, 7-9
/CPU _LIMIT = n qualifier, 7-9
/DELETE qualifier, 7-9
MOLD qualifier, 7-9
/LOG _DELETE qualifier, 7-9
/LOG _FILE = file-spec qualifier, 7-9
/LOG _QUEUE = queue-name qualifier, 7-9
/NAME= entry-name qualifier, 7-9
/OWNER= ppn qualifier, 7-9
/PARAMETERS qualifier, 7-9
/PRIORITY= n qualifier, 7-9
/QUEUE= queue-name qualifier, 7-9
/TIME _LIMIT = n qualifier, 7-9
/SUBPROGRAM qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
System disk, 6-5
System status display, 4-4, 4-5t
System-wide logical names, 6-19
T
/TAB qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
Tape density, 6-7
Task Builder, 8-25
/TEMPORARY =device qualifier,
COBOL command, 8-9
Terminal characteristics
displaying, 5-1, 5-3
setting, 5-1, 5-5 to 5-11
Terminal logging, 5-12 to 5-18
CLOSE/LOG _FILE, 5-15
OPEN/LOG _FILE, 5-13
SET/LOG_FILE, 5-16
/TERMINAL= KBn: qualifier
SHOW JOB command, 4-9
SHOW USER command, 4-8
/TIME _LIMIT = n qualifier
SET ENTRY command, 7-16
SUBMIT command, 7-9
/TIME _STAMP qualifier
OPEN/LOG _FILE command, 5-13
SET/LOG _FILE command, 5-16
Times, format, 2-11
TODAY keyword, 2-12
TOMORROW keyword, 2-12
/TOTAL qualifier,
DIRECTORY command, 3-11
/TREE_ SPACE qualifier
MERGE command, 3-50
SORT command, 3-43
/TRUNCATE qualifier
COBOL command, 8-9
PRINT command, 7-4
/ITSYNC qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
TYPE command, 3-19 to 3-21
/BEFORE = date qualifier, 3-19
/CREATED qualifier, 3-19
/MODIFIED qualifier, 3-19
/QUERY qualifier, 3-19
/SINCE= date qualifier, 3-19
/TYPE =n qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
U
Underscore character, to override name
precedence, 6-20
/UP-ARROW qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
/UPPERCASE qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
User logical names, 6-19
/USER _DEFINED_KEYS qualifier,
SET TERMINAL command, 5-5
Index-13
TERMINAL
_FILES
qualifier,
command,
command,
FILES
ncommand,
1-20
command,
qualifier,
qualifier
keyword,
=qualifier
command,
ncommand,
command,
3-43
qualifier,
5-14
S-9
3-50
6-11
2-12 5-16
5-16
5-19
5-5
/WARNINGS
COBOL
DIBOL
FORTRAN/F77
FORTRAN/FOR
/WIDTH=
SET
Wildcards,
/WORK
MERGE
SORT
/WORK
FORTRAN/F77
/WRITE
MOUNT
Y
YESTERDAY
Index-14
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RSTS/E
System User's Guide
AA-EZ12A-TC
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