doeacc society - KNOWLEDGE IS POWER

doeacc society - KNOWLEDGE IS POWER
BASIC COMPUTER COURSE (BCC)
(Study Material)
Prepared by
DOEACC SOCIETY
KOLKATA CENTRE
Jadavpur University Campus
Kolkata – 700032
(OCTOBER 2010)
OUTLINE SYLLABUS
Sl
No.
Duration (in Hrs.)
Topic
Theory
Tutorials
Practical
01.
Knowing Computer
01
01
01
02.
Operating Computer using GUI based Operating
System
02
00
04
03.
Understanding Word Processing
02
01
06
04.
Using Spreadsheet
01
01
04
05.
Communicating using the Internet
01
00
02
06.
WWW and Web Browsers
01
00
02
07.
Communications and Collaboration
01
00
02
08.
Making Small Presentation
01
01
01
10
04
22
Total:
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DETAILED SYLLABUS
INDEX
Chapter
1.
Topic
KNOWING COMPUTER
8
1.0
Introduction
9
1.1
Objectives
9
1.2
What is Computer?
9
1.2.1
10
1.3
1.4
Basic Applications of Computer
Components of Computer System
10
1.3.1
Central Processing Unit
11
1.3.2
Keyboard, Mouse and VDU
11
1.3.3
Other Input Devices
12
1.3.4
Other Output Devices
13
1.3.5
Computer Memory
14
Concept of Hardware and Software
15
1.4.1
Hardware
15
1.4.2
Software
15
1.4.2.1
Application Software
16
1.4.2.2
Systems Software
16
1.5
Concept of Computing, Data and Information
17-18
1.6
Applications of IECT
19
1.6.1
e-Governance
19
1.6.2
Entertainment
20
1.7
2.
Page #
Bringing Computer to life
21
1.7.1
Connecting Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor and Printer to CPU
21-25
1.7.2
Checking Power Supply
26
1.8
Summary
26-27
1.9
Model Answers
27-28
OPERATING COMPUTER USING GUI BASED OPERATING SYSTEM
29
2.0
Introduction
29
2.1
Objectives
29
2.2
Basics of Operating System
29
2.2.1
Operating System
30
2.2.2
Basics of Popular Operating System (LINUX, WINDOWS)
30
2.3
The User Interface
31
2.3.1
31-35
Task bar
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Chapter
Topic
2.4
2.5
3.
Page #
2.3.2
Icons
35
2.3.3
Menu
36
2.3.4
Running an application
37
Operating System
37
2.4.1
Changing System Date and Time
37
2.4.2
Changing Display Properties
37-42
2.4.3
To Add or Remove A Windows Component
42-44
2.4.4
Changing Mouse Properties
44
2.4.5
Adding and Removing Printers
45
File and Directory Management
45
2.5.1
46-47
Creating and Renaming of Files and Directories
2.6
Common Utilities
47
2.7
Summary
48
2.8
Model Answers
48-49
UNDERSTANDING WORD PROCESSING
50
3.0
Introduction
51
3.1
Objectives
51
3.2
Word Processing Basics
51
3.2.1
Opening Word Processing Package
51-52
3.2.2
Menu Bar
52-57
3.2.3
Using the Help
57
3.2.4
Using the Icons below Menu Bar
57-58
3.3
3.4
3.5
Opening and Closing Documents
58
3.3.1
Opening Documents
58
3.3.2
Save and Save as
58
3.3.3
Page Setup
59-60
3.3.4
Print Preview
60-61
3.3.5
Printing of Documents
61-62
Text Creation and Manipulation
62
3.4.1
Document Creation
62
3.4.2
Editing Text
62-63
3.4.3
Text Selection
63
3.4.4
Cut, Copy and Paste
63-65
3.4.5
Spell Check
65
3.4.6
Thesaurus
66
Formatting of Text
66
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Chapter
Topic
3.6
4.
3.5.1
Font and Size Selection
66-67
3.5.2
Alignment of Text
67-68
3.5.3
Paragraph Indenting
68-70
3.5.4
Bullets and Numbering
70-72
3.5.5
Changing Case
72
Table Manipulation
73
3.6.1
Draw Table
73-74
3.6.2
Changing Cell width and Height
74
3.6.3
Alignment of Text in Cell
74
3.6.4
Delete / Insertion of row and column
74-75
3.6.5
Border and Shading
75-77
Summary
77-78
Model Question & Answers
78-80
USING SPREADSHEET
81
4.0
Introduction
82
4.1
Objectives
82
4.2
Elements of Electronic Spreadsheet
82
4.2.1
Opening of Spreadsheet
83
4.2.2
Addressing of Cells
83
4.2.3
Printing of Spreadsheet
84
4.2.4
Saving Workbooks
84
4.3
4.4
5.
Page #
Manipulation of Cells
85
4.3.1
Entering Text, Numbers and Dates
85
4.3.2
Creating Text, Number and Date Series
85-86
4.3.3
Editing Worksheet Data
86
4.3.4
Inserting and Deleting Rows, Columns
86-87
4.3.5
Changing Cell Height and Width
88
Formulas and Function
88
4.4.1
Using Formulas
88-89
4.4.2
Function
89-91
4.5
Summary
92
4.6
Model Answers
92
COMMUNICATION USING THE INTERNET
93
5.0
Introduction
94
5.1
Objectives
94
5.2
Basic of Computer Networks
94
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Chapter
Topic
5.3
6.
5.2.1
Local Area Network (LAN)
94-95
5.2.2
Wide Area Network (WAN)
95
Internet
95
5.3.1
Concept of Internet
95-96
5.3.2
Applications of Internet
97-98
5.3.3
Connecting to the Internet
98-99
5.3.4
Troubleshooting
99-100
5.4
Summary
100
5.5
Model Answers
100-102
WWW AND WEB BROWSER
103
6.0
Introduction
104
6.1
Objectives
104
6.2
World Wide Web (WWW)
104-108
6.3
Web Browsing Softwares
108
6.3.1
109
6.4
7.
Page #
Popular Web Browsing Softwares
Search Engines
109
6.4.1
Popular Search Engines / Search for content
110-114
6.4.2
Accessing Web Browser
114
6.4.3
Using Favorites Folder
114-115
6.4.4
Downloading Web Pages
115
6.4.5
Printing Web Pages
115-116
6.5
Understanding URL
116-117
6.6
Surfing the Web
118
6.6.1
118
Using e-Governance Website
6.7
Summary
119
6.8
Model Answers
119-120
COMMUNICATIONS AND COLLABORATION
121
7.0
Introduction
122
7.1
Objectives
122
7.2
Basics of E-mail
122
7.2.1
What is an Electronic Mail
122-123
7.2.2
E-mail Addressing
124
7.3
Using E-mails
125
7.3.1
Opening E-mail Account
125126
7.3.2
Mailbox: Inbox and Outbox
127
7.3.3
Creating and Sending a new E-mail
127
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Chapter
8.
Topic
Page #
7.3.4
Replying to an E-mail message
127
7.3.5
Forwarding and E-mail message
127
7.3.6
Sorting and Searching E-mails
128
7.4
Document Collaboration
128-129
7.5
Instant Messaging and Collaboration
129
7.5.1
Using instant messaging
129
7.5.2
Instant messaging providers
129
7.5.3
Netiquettes
129
7.6
Summary
130
7.7
Model Answers
130-132
MAKING SMALL PRESENTATIONS
133
8.0
Introduction
134
8.1
Objectives
134
8.2
Basics
134
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.2.1
Using PowerPoint
134
8.2.2
Opening a PowerPoint Presentation
135
8.2.3
Saving a Presentation
135
Creating a Presentation
136
8.3.1
Creating a Presentation using a Template
136-137
8.3.2
Creating a Blank Presentation
137
8.3.3
Entering and Editing Text
137-140
8.3.4
Inserting and Deleting Slides in a Presentation
140-141
Preparation of Slides
141
8.4.1
Inserting Word Table or an Excel Worksheet
141-142
8.4.2
Adding Clip Art Pictures
142-145
8.4.3
Inserting Other Objects
145
8.4.4
Resizing Other Objects
145-147
Presentation of Slides
148
8.5.1
Viewing a Presentation
148
8.5.2
Choosing a Set up for Presentation
149-150
8.5.3
Printing Slides and Handouts
150-151
Slide Show
151
8.6.1
Running a Slide Show
151-152
8.6.2
Transition and Slide Timings
152-154
8.6.3
Automating a Slide Show
154
8.7
Summary
154-155
8.8
Model Answers
156
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CHAPTER 1:
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KNOWING COMPUTER
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Chapter 1:
1.0
Knowing Computer
Introduction
Welcome to the wonderful world of computing! This help file presumes that you have little or
no experience with the device commonly known as the PC (personal computer). Hopefully,
this resource will aid you in some of the basic activities that are commonly performed with a
PC.
This tutorial is divided into the following sections:
1. Objectives
2. What is Computer?
3. Components of Computer System
4. Concept of Hardware and Software
5. Concept of computing, data and information
6. Applications of IECT
7. Bringing computer to life
1.1
Objectives
This basic computer tutorial is written for those who do not know very much about
computers. The purpose of this basic computer tutorial is to help the reader better
understand how to use their computer more effectively and safely. It will help the
reader understand:





1.2
Why do we need computer in our daily life?
Components of a computer
What are the differences between hardware and software
How can we use computer to develop e-governance
After the chapter we shall discuss about some model questions and answers.
What is Computer?
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A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates
data or information, and provides output in a useful format.
Computers are not very intelligent devices, but they handle instructions flawlessly
and fast. They must follow explicit directions from both the user and computer
programmer. Computers are really nothing more than a very powerful calculator
with some great accessories. Applications like word processing and games are just a
very complex math problem.
1.2.1 Basic Applications of Computer
Computer is used every where in the world in every field of life. There are
many applications of computer for example
Computer can perform any kind of calculations in no time; where as a human
being would take months and years to do the same calculations. Now a day's
computer is used in almost every day application of life E.g. in
Banking: - Before when there was no computer, every where manual system
was followed which was a very complicated and hard work but now with the
coming of computer every thing is in a very systematic way. Every bank is
now using a computerized system because it is very fast and user friendly.
ATM cards are used every where now which let us bank any time we want.
PC banking (Personal Computer banking) let us view our bank balance,
request transfers between accounts and pay bills electronically etc.
Traffic light control: - In traffic light control the computer is being
employed to drive the traffic light. There are some programmed codes like "
turn off the red light" or "turn on the red light" to control the traffic light and
to carry out the instructions that follows.
Sports: - In sports computers are used wildly in conjunction with video
cameras. These are used to record the motion of all the sports men. 3D
programs are used later on to help the trainers see there movements and
could improve there styles of playing.
Schools and Colleges: - There are many uses of computer in schools and
collages e.g. every student details need to be stored so a computer program
could help in this way. Multimedia, animations, graphics and charts could be
used to teach the students and many boring topics can be made interesting
using multimedia. Students could access internet for online help and courses
for more information.
1.3
Components of Computer System
Just like the Human body, the computer is made up of different components, all of
which are very important for the overall effective functioning of its system. The most
basic collection includes a Computer CPU, a Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.
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1.3.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The computer's CPU is actually a small electronic
device inside the case but the term is often used to
refer to the whole collection of electronics inside the
box. It is also known as the “brain” of your computer.
Without the CPU, you wouldn’t be able to play games,
type research papers, or surf the Internet. Your
computer would basically be a very expensive
paperweight. A CPU is an internal component of the
computer. You can’t see it from the outside of the system;
you’d have to peek inside.
1.3.2 Keyboard, mouse and VDU
The Keyboard
The Keyboard is the primary input device used to communicate with the
computer. A computer keyboard closely resembles a conventional typewriter
keyboard with the addition of numerous keys that are used specifically for
computing functions.
The Mouse
Named for the resemblance of the wire coming out of it and a mouse's tail,
the mouse was introduced to computing in the early 1980's when Macintosh
created its graphical user interface (GUI). The mouse is another input device
used to point at objects on the computer monitor and select them. Using the
mouse and keyboard in combination allows the computer user substantial
latitude in how to accomplish a wide variety of tasks.
VDU (Visual Display Unit) or Monitor
This Visual Display Unit (VDU) shows information on the screen when you
type. This is called outputting information. The Computer Monitor is the
computer user's window into the workings of the computer. It consists of a
television picture tube that had been modified to accept the type of video
signal created by the computer's electronics. Conventional televisions can be
used as computer monitors if a translation device is used to connect them.
VDU
Keyboard
Mouse
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1.3.3 Other input devices
Any hardware device that sends data to the computer, without any input
devices, a computer would only be a display device and not allow users to
interact with it, much like a TV. Keyboard and mouse are the two main input
devices of a computer system.
Other than these two below is a full listing of all the different types of
computer input devices found on a computer.
Barcode readers
A barcode reader, also known as a point of sale (POS) scanner is a hardware
device capable of reading a barcode and printing out the details of the
product or logging that product into a database. A perfect example of a
barcode reader is a super market barcode scanner that reads and logs the
price of a product.
Barcod
e
Barcode reader
Digital Camera
A camera that stores the pictures or video it takes in
electronic format instead of to film.
Joystick
A joystick allows an individual to easily move an
object in a game such as navigating a plane in a flight
simulator.
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Optical scanner
Hardware input device that allows a user to take an
image or text and convert it into a digital file,
allowing the computer to read or display the scanned
object.
1.3.4 Other Hardware Devices
Printer - A printer prints whatever is on the monitor
onto paper. Printers can print words, numbers, or
pictures.
Speaker - A speaker gives you sound output from
your computer. Some speakers are built into the
computer and some are separate.
Floppy Disk - A floppy disk is used to record
information on. The information is stored on the
floppy disk and can be used later or used on another
computer.
Headphones - Headphones give sound output from
the computer. They are similar to speakers, except
they are worn on the ears so only one person can hear
the output at a time.
Compact Disk - Some compact disks can be used to
put information on. This is called burning
information to a CD.
NOTE: A CD can also be an input device.
1.3.5 Computer Memory
Just like humans, computers rely a lot on memory. They need to process and
store data, just like we do. However, computers store data in digital format,
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which means the information can always be called up exactly the way it was
stored. Also, unlike our memory, the computer's memory doesn't get worse
over time.
There are different types of memory in a computer that are assigned a task of
storing several kinds of data. Each has certain peculiarities and capacities.
Basic Computer Memory Types Explained
Random Access Memory
When your computer boots up, it loads the operating system into its random
access memory, or RAM. This allows your computer to access system
functions, such as handling mouse clicks and keystrokes, since the event
handlers are all loaded into RAM. Whenever you open a program, the
interface and functions used by that program are also loaded into RAM.
Read Only Memory (ROM):
This type of memory is active, regardless of whether the system is turned on
or is switched off. It is a kind of permanent non-volatile storage memory. As
the name 'read only' suggests, the contents in it cannot be changed or
modified. It is an integrated circuit which is pre-programmed with important
data that should necessarily be present for the computer to carry out its
normal functionalities.
Cache
Cache is a kind of RAM which a computer system can access more
responsively than it can in regular RAM. The central processing unit looks up
in the cache memory before searching in the central memory storage area to
determine the information it requires. This rules out the need for the system
to search for information in larger and bigger memory storage areas, which in
turn leads to a faster extraction of data.
Computer Hard Drive
These devices are important data storage components that are installed in
the CPU. Their memory ranges widely, and a user may choose the memory
depending on the data needed to be stored and accessed. Nowadays, hard
drives having a memory capacity of 120 gigabytes to 500 gigabytes are
normally used.
Flash Memory
This is a non-volatile kind of memory which is intended to contribute to
portable storage and a convenient transfer of data from one computer to
another. The data in it can be erased and re-programmed as per the user's
requirements. It only has a specific number of erase and write cycles that it
can withstand, after which it creates a tendency to lose out on the stored
information. Memory cards and USB flash drives are some modes of this type
of memory storage.
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These are just the common and main computer memory types which facilitate memory and
data storage. However, there are many subtypes which are sorted out according to the memoryrelated functionalities they perform and the requirements they serve.
1.4
Concept of Hardware and Software
1.4.1 Hardware
Computer hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and related
devices. Internal hardware devices include motherboards, hard drives, and
RAM. External hardware devices include monitors, keyboards, mice, printers,
and scanners.
The internal hardware parts of a computer are often referred to as
components, while external hardware devices are usually called peripherals.
Together, they all fall under the category of computer hardware.
A typical computer (Personal Computer, PC) contains in a desktop or tower
case the following parts:






Motherboard which holds the CPU, main memory and other parts, and
has slots for expansion cards
power supply - a case that holds a transformer, voltage control and fan
storage controllers, of IDE, SCSI or other type, that control hard disk ,
floppy disk, CD-ROM and other drives; the controllers sit directly on the
motherboard (on-board) or on expansion cards
graphics controller that produces the output for the monitor
the hard disk, floppy disk and other drives for mass storage
interface controllers (parallel, serial, USB, Firewire) to connect the
computer to external peripheral devices such as printers or scanners
1.4.2 Software
The software is the information that the computer uses to get the job done.
Software needs to be accessed before it can be used. There are many terms
used for process of accessing software including running, executing, starting
up, opening, and others.
Computer programs allow users to complete tasks. A program can also be
referred to as an application and the two words are used interchangeably.
Examples of software programs or applications would be the Operating
System (DOS, Windows 9x/Millenium/XP, O/S2, UNIX, MacOS 9.x/10.x and
various others), Word processor (typing letters), Spreadsheet (financial info),
Database (inventory control and address book), Graphics program, Internet
Browser, Email and many others.
As well any document that you create, graphic you design, sound you
compose, file you make, letter you write, email you send or anything that you
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create on your computer is referred to as software. All software is stored in
files.
Software is stored on a disk or tape whether that disk is a floppy, hard Disk,
CD, tape or one of the dozens of other storage devices available.
Software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and
applications software.
1.4.2.1
Application Software
The term application is a shorter form of application program.
An application program is a program designed to perform a
specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for
another application program. Applications software (also
called end-user programs) includes database programs, word
processors, and spreadsheets. Figuratively speaking,
applications software sits on top of systems software because
it is unable to run without the operating system and system
utilities.
1.4.2.2
System Software
System software is computer software designed to operate the
computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform
for running application software.
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The most basic types of system software are:




The computer BIOS and device firmware, which provide
basic functionality to operate and control the hardware
connected to or built into the computer.
The operating system (prominent examples being
Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux), which allows
the parts of a computer to work together by performing
tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or
rendering output onto a display device. It also provides a
platform to run high-level system software and
application software.
Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure,
optimize and maintain the computer.
In some publications, the term system software is also
used to designate software development tools (like a
compiler, linker or debugger)
Computer for - instead, it can be seen as the basics of a
computer which come built-in or pre-installed.
1.5
Concept of computing, data and Information
Concept of computing
Welcome to Absolute Beginners. This is the place to come when you're ready to take
the first steps with your computer. Perhaps you've bought your first PC and are
raring to go. Or maybe you've had one sitting on a desk for a while, but you've been
too intimidated to do anything more than switch it on. Perhaps you've advanced as
far as using a couple of programs, but find yourself reeling with all the new things
you need to learn before you'll feel competent.
Well, now's the time to take the plunge. But before you even flick that ON switch,
here are a few ground rules that will make you more comfortable while learning
about the electronic beast in front of you.
1.
Get some help for the hard parts
Get someone knowledgeable to help set up your computer for you. If you're a
complete newcomer to computing, setting up a PC is not the place to start.
So, let someone else deal with this part—either the company that provides
your computer or a knowledgeable relative or friend.
2.
Take the pressure off
While you're learning, don't work on anything important or urgent. The last
thing you need is the pressure of a deadline hanging over you or having
others dependent on the fruits of your labour. Choose something innocuous to
work on, such as a letter to a friend.
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3.
Save and save again
Get into the practice of saving your work at regular intervals. If you save
your work early and often it doesn't matter if you mess up.
4.
Make backups
A backup is a copy of your work. Just as saving ensures you don't lose
documents that you're currently working on, creating regular backups
ensures you don't lose any of the files you have stored on your computer in
case something goes wrong.
5.
Learn the lingo
One of the hardest things about learning computers is that you not only have
to learn many new techniques and processes, but you also have to learn an
enormous number of new concepts. It's those concepts that usually bring
people unstuck. Once you get them in place, you'll find everything else flows.
To fix those concepts in your brain, read and re-read information about them.
Data
Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics related to an object. Data can be
processed to create useful information. Data is a valuable asset for an organization.
Data can be used by the managers to perform effective and successful operations of
management. It provides a view of past activities related to the rise and fall of an
organization. It also enables the user to make better decision for future. Data is very
useful for generating reports, graphs and statistics.
Example
Students fill an admission form when they get admission in college. The form
consists of raw facts about the students. These raw facts are student's name, father
name, address etc. The purpose of collecting this data is to maintain the records of
the students during their study period in the college.
Information
The manipulated and processed form of data is called information. It is more
meaningful than data. It is used for making decisions. Data is used as input for
processing and information I output of this processing.
Example
Data collected from census is used to generate different type of information. The
government can use it to determine the literacy rate in the country. Government can
use the information in important decision to improve literacy rate.
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1.6
Applications of IECT
1.6.1 e-Governance
Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative
authority in the management of a country’s affairs, including citizens’
articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and
obligations.
E-governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via
the electronic medium in order to facilitate an efficient, speedy and
transparent process of disseminating information to the public, and other
agencies, and for performing government administration activities.
E-governance is generally considered as a wider concept than e-government,
since it can bring about a change in the way how citizens relate to
governments and to each other.
E-governance can bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of
citizen needs and responsibilities. Its objective is to engage, enable and
empower the citizen.
Why introduce e-governance?
The purpose of implementing e-governance is to enhance good governance.
Good governance is generally characterized by participation, transparency
and accountability. The recent advances in communication technologies and
the Internet provide opportunities to transform the relationship between
governments and citizens in a new way, thus contributing to the achievement
of good governance goals. The use of information technology can increase the
broad involvement of citizens in the process of governance at all levels by
providing the possibility of on-line discussion groups and by enhancing the
rapid development and effectiveness of pressure groups. Advantages for the
government involve that the government may provide better service in terms
of time, making governance more efficient and more effective. In addition, the
transaction costs can be lowered and government services become more
accessible.
The fields of implementation of e-governance are:



e-administration- refers to improving of government processes and of
the internal workings of the public sector with new ICT-executed
information processes.
e-services- refers to improved delivery of public services to citizens.
Some examples of interactive services are: requests for public documents,
requests for legal documents and certificates, issuing permits and
licenses.
e-democracy- implies greater and more active citizen participation and
involvement enabled by ICTs in the decision-making process
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1.6.2 Entertainment
The Use of Computers in Entertainment
In today’s electronic era computers have a hand in almost everything.
Entertainment is no exception, in fact with the coming of digital information
has made one of its greatest leaps. Movies, games, music, even books that
that are simple and easy as it is have been impacted greatly by computers.
What Entertainment Electronics Can I Run From My Computer?
When Microsoft released their Windows XP Media Center Edition, it was a
response to a growing trend in computers; more and more home computer
enthusiasts were hooking a computer up to all the electronic devices on their
entertainment center, recording shows directly to DVDs and using the
computer to monitor all their entertainment processes.
You can run almost anything you want using your computer as the
hub. For a good entertainment center, you should have at least the
following to start out:






Very good speakers; these speakers will play sound from everything else,
so you only need one set.
Your television (or projector, if you use projection TV)
Your VCR and DVD player
Your digital cable box and/or TiVO player
Your stereo system (and keep in mind that your CDs can be played on a
DVD player, so you don't need a separate CD player except for switching
CDs).
What Kind Of Computer Should I Buy?
Brand doesn't matter, but what's under the hood -- or inside the box - does. Look for the following specs as a minimum:









Processor speed of at least 3.2 GHz
Windows XP Media Center operating system
Built-in TV tuner with remote, dual tuner if you want to record and
watch two different channels simultaneously
533MHz DDR2SDRAM, expandable to 2 GB; if you're running a very nice
HDTV television or a projection TV, opt for more.
256MB DDR graphics card
Hard drive with as much space as possible, especially if you want to be
able to record shows to it; 7200 rpm.
PCI expansion slots -- three or more free ones is best.
DVD writer to record your own DVDs; get one that burns labels onto the
other side for the nicest experience
High quality sound card that can handle your home theater equipment -the salesperson should be able to direct you.
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
Flat screen monitor to allow you to close cabinet doors over the computer
while you're using it as an entertainment center.
How Can I Hook Up My Entertainment System?
When you've got your computer up and running, you should be able to run
everything through your cable box, using your computer as the hub. The
television tuner has out-ports that connect to your TV's in-ports, and you
should easily be able to hook your cable to it. You can also run your wireless
computer network through the entertainment computer for the ultimate in
compact connections.
Go through the tutorial included in your MS Windows XP system to use your
computer as an entertainment center. This will tell you how to do all the neat
things, like running all sound devices through a single set of home theater
speakers; recording movies at the same time you're watching other shows;
and using your computer's DVD-R/W to play movies and CDs from.
How Can I Build On My Starter System?
Home entertainment is shifting quickly toward computers. You'll find tons
of functionality in the present and future, including but not limited to:



1.7
Playing PC games, and perhaps one day playing integrated XBox and
Sony games as well
Monitoring your wireless home security from your computer
Using telephony systems to run your long-distance phone service through
your PC, cheaply or for free
Bringing computer to life
1.7.1 Connecting keyboard, mouse, monitor and printer to
CPU
Installing a PC computer keyboard

When connecting the PS/2 keyboard, ensure the computer is off; if the
keyboard is a USB keyboard the computer can be off or on during the
installation.
Connect cables
PS/2 Keyboard


Connect the keyboard to the PS/2 port on the back of the computer.
When looking at the back of the computer you'll notice two PS/2 ports
next to each other. Verify you're connecting the keyboard into the purple
connection as shown in the below pictures. If your PS/2 ports are not color
coded the keyboard will be the connection closest to the left edge of the
computer (when looking at it from the back). If the connections are
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
vertical and not horizontal as shown below the keyboard connection may
be either depending on the type of case and motherboard. Look for a
small symbol next to the port to identify which one is the keyboard.
If you are confused what PS/2 cable is what when under your desk,
generally the PS/2 cable is thicker than the PS/2 mouse cable.
USB Keyboard
Connect the USB keyboard to the USB ports on the back or front of your computer, or
if you are using a USB port hub, connect the mouse to to the hub. Additional
information about why a USB keyboard may not work in MS-DOS or in Safe Mode can
be found on document CH000298.
Install Software / Drivers
If your keyboard has any special features such as a built on touch pad or
special buttons or is wireless, for these features to work properly, the
software and/or drivers for the keyboard must be installed after the computer
keyboard has been connected to the computer.
Installing a PC computer mouse

Difficulty of installing computer mouse should be a 1 out of 5.
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
When connecting the PS/2 or Serial mouse, ensure the computer is off; if
the mouse is a USB mouse the computer can be off or on during the
installation.
Connect cables
PS/2 Mouse


Connect the mouse to the PS/2 port on the back of the computer. Today,
although many computers are still using PS/2 mice if you're using a USB
mouse skip to the next section.
When looking at the back of the computer you'll notice two PS/2 ports
next to each other. Verify you're connecting the mouse into the teal or
green connection as shown in the below pictures. If your PS/2 ports are
not color coded the mouse will be the connection furthest away from the
left edge of the computer (when looking at it from the back). If the
connections are vertical and not horizontal as shown below the mouse
connection may be either depending on the type of case and motherboard.
Look for a small symbol next to the port to identify which one is the
mouse.
Serial Mouse
Connect the mouse to the serial port on the back of the computer. If the
computer has serial devices currently connected to the computer and the
computer has two serial ports we recommend you use the first serial
connection if you encounter problems connecting the mouse. Once connected
depending on your computer setup you may need to configure the mouse in
CMOS setup as found in the next section.
USB Mouse
Connect the USB mouse to the USB ports on the back or front of your
computer or if you are using a USB port hub, connect the mouse to the hub.
Install Software / Drivers
Additional information about computer mouse drivers and software can be
found on document CH000548.
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Setup in CMOS setup
If you've connected a serial or USB mouse it may be necessary to setup the
ports in CMOS setup.
If the mouse you're using is a serial mouse and it's having issues being
detected verify that the serial ports or COM ports are enabled and assigned
properly in CMOS.
If the mouse was a USB mouse, ensure that USB is enabled and if available,
also ensure that the USB Legacy support is also enabled; this allows the
mouse to work in legacy mode, for example: DOS.
Additional information about getting into CMOS setup can be found on
document CH000192
Connecting Your Monitor
1. Turn off your computer and unplug the power cord.
2. Connect the white connector end of the DVI cable attached on the
monitor to the connectors on the computer.
3. Connect the USB cable that was included with your monitor to the
computer and the upstream USB connector on the monitor.
Once this cable is connected to the computer and the monitor, you can
use the USB downstream on the monitor.
4. Connect any USB devices.
5. Connect the power cord.
6. Turn on your monitor and computer. If you do not see an image, see
Troubleshooting Your Monitor.
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How to Connect a Printer to a Computer
Instructions
Things You'll Need:



Printers
Computers
IEEE 1284-compatible, bidirectional printer cables
1.
Position your printer. If you have a laser printer, allow a few inches of space on
all sides for ventilation. Ink-jet printers don't require ventilation.
2.
Buy a bidirectional, IEEE 1284-compliant parallel printer cable. (Printers rarely
come with cables. See "How to Buy a Printer Cable," under Related eHows, for
more information.)
3.
Shut down the computer, but leave it plugged into the surge suppressor.
4.
Compare the connectors at the opposite ends of the cable.
5.
Attach the 25-pin end of the cable to the parallel, or printer, port on the
computer. (The plug will go in only one way.)
6.
Tighten the hand screws securely.
7.
Connect the other end of the cable into the printer's socket.
8.
Latch the retaining clips (on most printer ports).
9.
Plug the power cord into the printer and into the surge suppressor.
10. Turn on the printer.
11. Install cartridges according to the printer manufacturer's instructions.
12. Turn on the computer.
13. Install printer driver software according to the manufacturer's instructions.
14. Add the printer to the list of printers your computer recognizes (see "How to Add
a Printer," under elated eHows). On a Macintosh, just select the new printer in
the Chooser.
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1.7.2 Checking power supply
To be able to test your computer's power supply, you can follow the
instructions below:
1. Turn off your power switch and plug it out from the power supply.
2. Remove the cable from the CPU and start unscrewing the power supply
section in order to remove the whole power supply (square metal box)
from the CPU.
3. Once done, locate for the main ATX connector and find the green wire.
4. Also locate for the black wire near the green wire and with the use of a
paper clip, connect and safely bond the two together with a piece of
isolating tape.
5. Put back all the power supply and switch the system on again and ensure
that your system ventilation is working.
6. To check whether the connection is correct, the Molex in between the
yellow and black wire should display at least 12 volts.
Summary







A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and
manipulates data or information, and provides output in a useful format.
The most basic collection of a computer includes a Computer CPU, a
Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) is also known as the “brain” of your
computer.
Some input devices are keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, barcode reader etc
Some output devices are VDU, speaker, printer digital camera etc.
There are different types of memory in a computer that are assigned a
task of storing several kinds of data. They are RAM, ROM, Flash memory
etc.
Computer hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and
related devices.
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



The software is the information that the computer uses to get the job
done.
Software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and
applications software.
Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics related to an object.
The manipulated and processed form of data is called information.
Model Answers
1.
What is a computer?
Ans:
A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores
and manipulates data or information, and provides output in a useful
format.
2.
What are the main components of a computer system?
Ans.
The main components of a computer system are as follows




CPU
Memory
Input Devices
Output devices
3.
What are application software and system software?
Ans.
The term application is a shorter form of application program. An
application program is a program designed to perform a specific
function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another
application program. Applications software (also called end-user
programs) includes database programs, word processors, and
spreadsheets.
System software is computer software designed to operate the
computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for
running application software.
4.
What are hardware and software?
Ans:
Computer hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and
related devices.
The software is the information that the computer uses to get the job
done. Software needs to be accessed before it can be used
5.
Write the steps for checking power supply in computer.
Ans.
To be able to test your computer's power supply, you can follow the
instructions below:
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1.
Turn off your power switch and plug it out from the power
supply.
2. Remove the cable from the CPU and start unscrewing the power
supply section in order to remove the whole power supply (square
metal box) from the CPU.
3. Once done, locate for the main ATX connector and find the green
wire.
4. Also locate for the black wire near the green wire and with the
use of a paper clip, connect and safely bond the two together with
a piece of isolating tape.
5. Put back all the power supply and switch the system on again
and ensure that your system ventilation is working.
6. To check whether the connection is correct, the Molex in between
the yellow and black wire should display at least 12 volts.
6.
What are the different types of system software?
Ans.
The most basic types of system software are:




The computer BIOS and device firmware, which provide basic
functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or
built into the computer.
The operating system (prominent examples being Microsoft
Windows, Mac OS X and Linux), which allows the parts of a
computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring
data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a
display device. It also provides a platform to run high-level
system software and application software.
Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure, optimize and
maintain the computer.
In some publications, the term system software is also used to
designate software development tools (like a compiler, linker or
debugger)
7.
What are the different components of a computer system?
Ans.
Just like the Human body, the computer is made up of different
components, all of which are very important for the overall effective
functioning of its system. The most basic collection includes a
Computer CPU, a Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.
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CHAPTER 2:
OPERATING COMPUTER USING GUI BASED
OPERATING SYSTEM
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Chapter 2:
2.0
Operating Computer Using GUI Based Operating
System
Introduction
An operating system (OS) is an interface between hardware and user, which is responsible
for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a
computer, that acts as a host for computing applications run on the machine.
Unlike a command line operating system like Unix or MS-DOS, GUI Operating Systems are
much easier for end-users to learn and use because commands do not need to be known or
memorized. Because of their ease of use, GUI Operating Systems have become the dominant
operating system used by end-users today.
Graphical User Interface, the GUI was first developed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Douglas
Engelbart, and a group of other researchers. A GUI uses windows, icons, and menus to carry
out commands such as opening files, deleting files, moving files, etc. and although many GUI
Operating Systems are operated by using a mouse, the keyboard can also be used by using
keyboard shortcuts or arrow keys.
2.1
Objectives
Every computer that receives some sort of human input needs a user interface, which
allows a person to interact with the computer. While devices like keyboards, mice
and touch screens make up the hardware end of this task, the user interface makes
up the software for it. The two most common forms of a user interface have
historically been the Command-line interface, where computer commands are typed
out line-by-line, and the Graphical user interface, where a visual environment (most
commonly with windows, buttons, and icons) is present.
2.2
Basics of popular operating system
Today most operating system perform the following important functions:
1. Processor management, that is, assignment of processor to different tasks being
performed by the computer system.
2. Memory management, that is, allocation of main memory and other storage areas
to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data.
3. Input/output management, that is, co-ordination and assignment of the different
output and input device while one or more programmes are being executed.
4. File management, that is, the storage of file of various storage devices to another.
It also allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text
editors or some other files manipulation routines.
5. Establishment and enforcement of a priority system. That is, it determines and
maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system.
6. Automatic transition from job to job as directed by special control statements.
7. Interpretation of commands and instructions.
8. Coordination and assignment of compilers, assemblers, utility programs, and other
software to the various user of the computer system.
9. Facilities easy communication between the computer system and the computer
operator (human). It also establishes data security and integrity.
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2.3
The user interface
The two most common forms of a user interface have historically been the Commandline interface, where computer commands are typed out line-by-line, and the
Graphical user interface, where a visual environment (most commonly with windows,
buttons, and icons) is present.
Status Bar
A status bar is an information area typically found at the bottom of windows in a
graphical user interface. A status bar is sometimes divided into sections, each of
which shows different information. Its job is primarily to display information about
the current state of its window.
2.3.1 Task Bar
In computing, a taskbar is a bar displayed on a full edge of a GUI desktop
that is used to launch and monitor running applications. Microsoft
incorporated a taskbar in Windows 95 and it has been a defining aspect of
Microsoft Windows's graphical user interface ever since. Some desktop
environments, such as KDE and GNOME, include a more configurable
taskbar. Other operating systems may use different methods for task
management or application launching such as a panel or a dock.
The default settings for the taskbar in Microsoft Windows place it at screen
bottom and includes from left to right the Start menu button, Quick Launch
bar, taskbar buttons, and notification area. The Quick Launch toolbar was
added with the Internet Explorer 4 shell update, and is not enabled by
default in Windows XP or Windows 7.
Taskbar elements


The Start menu, which is accessed by a button on the taskbar, contains
commands that can access programs, documents, and settings.
The Quick Launch bar, introduced with Internet Explorer 4, contains
shortcuts to applications. The Quick Launch bar is a list of shortcuts to
your favorite programs. You can use the Quick Launch bar to open
programs with a single click, without having to go through the Start
menu. Microsoft Windows XP displays the Quick Launch bar by default,
so it might already be part of your taskbar. Look for the Quick Launch
bar directly to the right of your Start button.
If you have disabled your Quick Launch bar, you can display it by rightclicking your taskbar, clicking Toolbars, and then clicking Quick
Launch.
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Figure-1
Windows XP displays the Quick Launch bar, which by default shows
shortcuts for opening Microsoft Internet Explorer and for displaying your
desktop. Other programs might add a shortcut to the Quick Launch bar, too.
To start a program, just click the shortcut.

The Windows shell places a taskbar button on the taskbar whenever an
application creates an unowned window: that is, a window that doesn't
have a parent and that is created according to normal Windows user
interface guidelines. Typically all Single Document Interface applications
have a single taskbar button for each open window, although modal
windows may also appear there.
At any given time, you might have several programs, folders, and documents
open on your desktop. The short name for "anything that's currently open on
your desktop" is task. That is, we can refer to each open item on your desktop
-- no matter what that item is, as a "task", short for "task-in-progress". The
Windows taskbar, which is roughly centered across the bottom of your screen,
as in Figure 1.
Figure-2
When you have lots of program windows open, they pile up on your Windows
desktop, just like sheets of paper can pile up on your real desktop. You can
use the taskbar to sort of "shuffle things around", so you're in control of what
is, and isn't visible at the moment. Here are some things you can do with the
taskbar along those lines:


If a program window is buried in the mess, click its taskbar button to
instantly bring it to the top of the stack.
You can also click a task's taskbar button to make it invisible (so it's not
taking up any space on the desktop), then click that same button again to
make it visible again.
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
You can also close any open task (thereby removing it from the desktop
and putting it back in the filing cabinet) by right-clicking its taskbar
button and choosing Close.
Collapsible Taskbar Buttons
As you open more and more items on your screen, all of the taskbar buttons
need to shrink a bit to make room for the new button. If you open lots of
items with the same program, those "many" taskbar buttons might
eventually collapse into a single taskbar button that shows a number.
For example, suppose you open a bunch of folders from the Start menu (My
Documents, My Music, My Pictures, My Computer). If the taskbar gets too
crowded, the taskbar buttons for those folders may collapse into a single
button labeled 4 Windows Explorer. The 4 stands for "four open folders".
Windows Explorer is the name of the program that lets you navigate around
in, and view the contents of, all folders on your computer.
Figure 3
Setting Taskbar Options
Like everything else in Windows XP, you can customize the taskbar to your
liking. To do so, right-click the Start button and choose Properties. In the
Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box that opens, click on the
Taskbar tab. The options shown in Figure below. Your options are
summarized below:
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Figure 4





Lock the taskbar: If selected, hides all sizing handles on the taskbar so
you can't accidentally move or resize it (as discussed below).
Auto-hide the taskbar: If you select this option, the taskbar will be hidden
most of the time so as to not take up any space on the screen. To make it
visible, move the mouse pointer to the very bottom of your screen.
Keep the taskbar on top of other windows: If selected, makes sure the
taskbar is visible at all times, even when large maximized program
windows are covering the rest of the screen.
Group similar taskbar buttons: If selected, allows multiple taskbar
buttons to collapse into a single button so the buttons don't become too
small to see on the taskbar.
Show Quick Launch: If selected, displayed the optional Quick Launch
toolbar to the right of the Start button.
You'll find articles on the Quick Launch toolbar and Notification area after
you finish this article and click Back to return to the precious page.
o
o
o
Windows XP introduced taskbar grouping, which can group the taskbar
buttons of several windows from the same application into a single
button. This button pops up a menu listing all the grouped windows when
clicked. This keeps the taskbar from being overcrowded when many
windows are open at once.
Windows Vista introduced window previews which show thumbnail views
of the application in real-time. This capability is provided by the Desktop
Window Manager.
Windows 7 introduced jump lists which are menus that provide shortcuts
to recently opened documents, or various options which apply to that
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specific program, that appear when the user right-clicks on an icon in the
taskbar or drags the icon upwards with the mouse left click.
o
Windows 7 introduced the ability to pin applications to the taskbar so
that buttons for launching them appear when they are not running.
Previously, the Quick launch was used to pin applications to the taskbar;
however, running programs appeared as a separate button.
o
Windows 7 removed several classic taskbar features.
2.3.2 Icons
A graphic symbol that denotes a program or a command or a data file or a
concept in a graphical user interface.
Figure 5
There are thousands of icons in windows Oprating system. Some important icons are
categorized into six groups and shown in the above figure.
File management icons are used for storing and retrieving files and folders within
the system.
Database management icons are used for accessing different types of databases.
Office Icons are used for accessing office application. Internet access icons are used
for upload and download files from the internet. Multimedia icons are used for
accessing audio and video files. Utility Icons are used for managing the system.
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2.3.3 Menu
To diversify the actions that can be performed on a computer, there are six
main categories of menus, each of which depends on the person who created
the menu:
Stand-Alone Items: The simplest menu item
displays a word or a group of words on its line. To
use this menu type, you can simply click it. What
happens depends on the program. Sometimes, it
would appear as if nothing happened, in which case
something could have happened behind the scenes.
Sometimes nothing at all would happen. Being
familiar with the program can give you more
information
Disabled Menu Items: If a menu appears gray, this
means that the menu is not available at this time.
Such a menu is referred to as disabled. Clicking a
disabled menu would not do anything, at all. most of
the time, such a menu would require a prerequisite
action in order to become available or enabled.
Ellipsis Menus: A menu with three periods
indicates that an intermediary action is required. To
use such a menu, click it. Once clicked, sometimes
another window would be displayed.
Check Menus: A menu that appears with a check
mark is used as a "witness" of a window object being
available or not. This means that, when the check
mark is set, the object the menu item refers to is
visible. If you click such a menu item, the check
mark disappears along with the item it refers to; the
menu item is still visible: only its check mark and
the item it refers to disappear.
Radio Menus: Some menu items appear in a group
of two or more (usually not more than 7). The group
is delimited by a horizontal line above the top menu
item and another horizontal line below the bottom
object.
At any time, one of the menu items has a big round
dot on its left side. This dot is called a radio button.
The item that is currently active has the radio button
and the other menu items don't. If you click an item
other than the one with the radio button, the dot
moves to the item you clicked and the previous item
looses the radio button.
This type of menu is used when the programmer
wants only one item of the group to indicate which
item of a category is active.
Arrow Menus: When a menu appears with an
arrow, this means that the menu item holds its own
list, called a submenu. Again, this design depends on
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the person who created the menu and is not subject
to any preconceived rule.
To access the menu item, simply position the mouse
cursor on the menu item that has the arrow. How the
submenu appears may depend on the section of the
screen from where the menu is being accessed. The
operating system decides how to display this
submenu based on the available room.
2.3.4 Running an Application
Running an application in GUI based operating system is easy enough. Just
double click on the icons of an application. If icon is not available in your
desktop then create shortcut in desktop. Otherwise you click on Start Menu
then click on Run and type the name of the application in the textbox and
press enter.
2.4
Operating System Simple Setting
2.4.1 Changing System Date and Time
Start Windows XP normally. Make sure you are logged in as an
administrator or as another user with privileges for changing settings.
Click on the time that is displayed in the task bar. This will bring up the
Date and Time Properties box. You can also right-click on the time by clicking
on the "Adjust Date and Time" menu option.
Highlight a portion of the time on the digital clock, beneath the graphic
representation of the time (it looks like a traditional round-faced clock), to
highlight it. Make sure you have highlighted the correct portion (hours for
hours, minutes for minutes).
Enter the time you wish to change and click "Apply."
Click one of the drop-down menus in the "Date" section of the window. This
will allow you to change the month and the year, either by typing them in or
selecting them from the menu.
Click on a particular day of the week to reset the calendar to that day.
Remember to click "Apply" whenever you change a property or multiple
properties. Your changes will not be confirmed until you do.
2.4.2 Changing Display Properties
To change the display property right click on the desktop then select properties
a new window will appear having tabs Theme,Desktop,Screen Saver,
Appearance, Settings. If you change the theme of the desktop click on the
dropdown list box as Shown in figure 6.If you change background scene click on
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Desktop tab choose from the list as shown in figure 7 and click on apply. If you want
to change the icons on the Desktop click on the Desktop tab and then click on the
Customize Desktop Button as shown in figure-8.If you want to change screen
Saver click on Screen Saver Tab. Choose screen saver from the drop down list as
shown in figure-9.For changing the style of windows and buttons click on the
Appearance tab and then click on the dropdown list as shown in figure 10.If you
want to change the Screen Resolution click on the tab Settings.
Figure 6
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Figure 7
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Figure-8
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Figure-9
Change
Appearance
Figure-10
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Change
Screen
Resolution
Figure-11
2.4.3 To add and remove a windows component
Click on Start Menu then Settings and click on Control Panel then double click
on Add or Remove Programs. A new window will appear in which there is option for
Add/Remove Windows Components as shown in figure 13.Then double click on
that and a new window will appear from where you can choose the windows
component as shown in figure 14.
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Add or
Remove
Programs
Figure-12
Add /Remove
Windows
Component
Figure-13
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Figure-14
2.4.4 Changing Mouse Properties
Click on Start Menu then click on the Settings then clicks on the Control Panel
then double click on the mouse symbol within the control panel. A new window will
appear Where you can change shape of the Pointer, Mouse Buttons configuration,
Pointer Options, etc.
Figure-15
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2.4.5 To Add or Removing printers
To print, you need to connect a printer directly to your computer (when it is
connected in this way, it's referred to as a local printer), or create a connection to a
network or shared printer.
To Add a Local Printer
First, connect the printer to your computer following the manufacturer's instructions.
Windows will attempt to automatically install the printer. If Windows can't
automatically install it, or if you've previously removed the printer and want to add it
again, follow these steps:
1. Open Printers by clicking the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking
Printers.
2. Click Add a printer.
3. In the Add Printer Wizard, select Add a local printer.
4. On the Choose a printer port page, make sure that the Use an existing port
option button and the recommended printer port are selected, and then click
Next.
5. On the Install the printer driver page, select the printer manufacturer and
model, and then click Next.
Remove a printer
1. Open Printers by clicking the Start button, clicking Control Panel, and then
clicking Printers.
2. Right-click the printer that you want to remove, and then click Delete.
If you can't delete the printer, right-click it again, click Run as administrator, and
then click Delete. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation,
type the password or provide confirmation.
2.5
File and Directory Management
2.5.1 Creating and renaming of files and directories
A file object provides a representation of a resource that can be managed by the I/O
system. Like other objects, they enable sharing of the resource, they have names,
they are protected by object-based security, and they support synchronization. The
I/O system also enables reading from or writing to the resource.
A directory is a hierarchical collection of directories and files. The only constraint on
the number of files that can be contained in a single directory is the physical size of
the disk on which the directory is located.
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Creating a new file or folders
As mentioned there are numerous ways to create a new folder in Win XP, we will
look at only one method here.
Open Windows Explorer, navigate to the drive or folder in which you want to create
your new folder. For our example we are going to create a new folder in our
unzipped folder.
The steps are:
1. Right click anywhere in the white space and hover the mouse over new
2. Then click on folder from the sub-menu that appears as shown in fig below.
3. You will then be prompted to name the folder, simply type in the name and then
press the enter (return) key.
Try and be as descriptive as you can when naming folders, and avoid using any
punctuation symbols in the names.
The same procedure may follow for creating file.
Figure 16
Renaming Files and folders
1. Right click on the folder or file which you want to rename
2. Then click on the sub-menu Rename
3. Then change the previous name of the file or folder
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Figure 17
2.6
Common Utilities
Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize
and maintain the computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or
tool.
Disk storage or disc storage is a general category of storage mechanisms, in which data
are digitally recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical methods on a
surface layer deposited of one or more planar, round and rotating platters.
Disk defragmenters can detect computer files whose contents are broken across several
locations on the hard disk, and move the fragments to one location to increase efficiency.
Backup utilities can make a copy of all information stored on a disk, and restore either the
entire disk (e.g. in an event of disk failure) or selected files (e.g. in an event of accidental
deletion).
Archive utilities output a stream or a single file when provided with a directory or a set of
files. Archive utilities, unlike archive suites, usually do not include compression or
encryption capabilities. Some archive utilities may even have a separate un-archive utility
for the reverse operation.
Disk compression utilities can transparently compress/uncompress the contents of a disk,
increasing the capacity of the disk.
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Summary
An operating system (OS) is a bridge between User and Hardware. An operating system
manages processor, hardware, software as well as input and output devices. There are two
types of user interfaces Command Line Interface and Graphical User Interface. A status bar
is an information area typically found at the bottom of windows in a graphical user interface.
A taskbar is a bar displayed on a full edge of a GUI desktop that is used to launch and
monitor running applications. A taskbar button places on the taskbar whenever an
application creates an unowned window: that is, a window that doesn't have a parent. As you
open more and more items on your screen, all of the taskbar buttons need to shrink a bit to
make room for the new button. A icon is a graphic symbol that denotes a program or a
command or a data file or a concept in a graphical user interface. Menus are used in
the GUI Operating System instead of commands. Running an application by double clicking
on the Icon. Change the system date and time from the control panel as specified in
2.4.1.Change the display property as specified in 2.4.2.Add and Remove windows component
as specified in section 2.4.3.Changing Mouse Properties as specified in section 2.4.4.Add and
remove printer as specified in section 2.4.5.File and Directory management
is specified in 2.5.Common utilities are specified in 2.6.
Model Question and Answer
1. What is operating system?
An operating system (OS) is an interface between hardware and user, which is responsible
for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a
computer.
2. What is the Basic Function of Operating System?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Process management
Memory Management
File management
Input & Output Device Management etc.
3. Why GUI is more popular than Command-line interface?
GUI is more popular than Command-line interface because in GUI there is no need to
remember the command syntax. Just click on the menu and submenu which replace the
Command in GUI.
4. What is the function of status bar?
Its job is primarily to display information about the current state of its window.
5. Where the task bar is located in the window and what its function is?
A taskbar is a bar displayed on a full edge of a GUI desktop that is used to launch and
monitor running applications.
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6. How to change the Screen Saver?
Right click on the desktop and choose properties then click on the Screen Saver tab
and choose screen saver from the drop down list.
7. How to change the Screen Resolution?
Right click on the desktop and choose properties then click on the Setting tab
and choose screen resolution.
8. How to set Date and Time?
Click on start menu then click on setting and then on control panel .Within the control
panel click on date and time icon.
9. How to rename a file or folder?
Right click on the name of the file and folder a pop up menu appear then select Rename
and type the new name.
10. What is defragmentation?
Disk defragmenters can detect computer files whose contents are broken across several
locations on the hard disk, and move the fragments to one location to increase efficiency.
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CHAPTER 3:
UNDERSTANDING WORD PROCESSING
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Chapter 3:
3.0
Understanding Word Processing
Introduction
This Word tutorial is just what you need to get up to speed using Word 2003 to create
professional looking documents. Whether you're creating a simple memo or note or a complex
and complicated multi column business document, Word is a powerful tool that will help get
the job done.
Guides and Tutorials help you create expert Word documents in minutes to impress your
family, friends, students, and co-workers. With Word 2003, we will show you how to create
and edit professional looking documents. These helpful pages will teach you how to put use
the basic features of Microsoft Word 2003.
3.1
Objectives
Learning Objectives:
 Start Word
 Set screen for good working conditions
 Understand the parts of the screen
 Create a document
 Format the document
 Save the document
 Print the document
3.2
Word Processing Basics
3.2.1 Opening Word Processing Package
There are mainly two ways of opening a Microsoft Word Package
1. On the PC, select Start, Programs, and Microsoft Word from the Start list.
2. Double-click on the icon of any Word document. Word documents can be
anywhere. Word opens with the selected document already loaded.
Microsoft Office Package
Microsoft Office Word 2003
Start Button
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Components of the Word Window
Besides the usual PC window components (close box, title bar, scroll bars, etc.), a
Word window has other elements, as shown in the following figure.
3.2.2 Menu Bar
There are 9 menus available in a menu Microsoft Word document.
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File menu
New - Opens a new document. If you use the keyboard
combination indicated on the right a blank document
opens immediately. Selecting the New menu item with
your cursor gives the opportunity to open a large
number of types of documents.
Open - Opens a previously saved document.
Close - Closes the active document but does not quit the
application.
Save - Saves the active document with its current file
name, location and format.
Save As - Saves by opening a window which gives the
opportunity to change the file name, location or format.
Page Setup - Sets margins, paper size, orientation and
other layout options.
Print Preview - Shows how the file will look when you
print it.
Print - Prints the active file, also gives the opportunity
to change print options
Exit - Closes Microsoft Word.
Edit menu
Undo - The actual entry of this item will depend on what
you did last. In my example I had cut text, so that was
displayed. This selection can be repeated several times.
Repeat - After an action has been undone, it can be
reinstated in the document.
Cut - Removes the selection from the active document and
places it on the clipboard.
Copy - Copies the selection to the clipboard
Paste - Inserts the contents of the clipboard at the
insertion point (cursor) or whatever is selected.
Clear - Deletes the selected object or text, but does not
place it on the clipboard.
Select All - Selects all text and graphics in the active
window.
Find - Searches for specified text in the active document
Replace - Searches for and replaces specified text and
formatting.
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View menu
Normal - The default document view for most word
processing tasks.
Page Layout - An editing view that displays your
document as it will look when printed. This view takes
more system memory and scrolling may be slow.
Toolbars - Displays or hides toolbars. The right
pointing arrow indicates a list of toolbars. To add one
slide down to the name of the toolbar and click to
select.
Ruler - Displays or hides horizontal and vertical rulers
at the top and left side of the document.
Header and Footer - Adds or changes the text that is
displayed at the top or bottom of every page of the
document
Full Screen - Hides most screen elements so you can
see more of your document
Zoom - Controls how large, or small, the current
document appears on the screen.
Insert menu
Page Break - Use this command to send your cursor
to the top of the next page even though the text does
not extend to the bottom of the previous page
Date and Time - Choose from seventeen formats for
displaying date, time, or date and time.
Auto Text - Insert any of several pre-set text lines, or
create your own.
Symbol - Insert a symbol from each of your symbol
fonts, or any standard font which includes symbols.
There are more than you might think!
Footnote - Place a footnote at the bottom of the page
or the end of the document.
Picture - Insert pictures from clip art or a file. You
can also insert auto shapes, word art, or a chart.
Text Box (Frame) - Use this to place captions near
tables or drawings, or to set off text at the beginning of
a page. Click and draw the box after making this
selection.
File - Insert a saved document into the active
document at the cursor.
Object - Insert an object such as clip art, word art, an
equation or much more.
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Hyperlink - An interesting use of hyperlinks is to
place a link to any document stored on your computer.
You can later open that document by clicking on the
link. Neat?
Format menu
Font - Change font style, size, color and a large
number of other features. You can also change
the spacing between letters here.
Paragraph - Indent a paragraph using either
margin or place some chosen amount of space
before or after the paragraph.
Bullets and Numbering - As promised in the
Insert menu, if you wish to change the bullet, it
can be done here. Your bullets can be literally
any symbol you wish them to be
Border - Create borders around blocks of text,
or around the entire document. On the Page
Border tab, under the Art pull down menu you
can find a huge selection of graphic borders;
hearts, stars, planets and much more.
Drop Cap - Make the first letter of a paragraph
or chapter large enough to span several lines.
Style - If you prefer not to use the Formatting
toolbar, document style can be changed here.
Background - Another task which can be
handled in the Formatting toolbar, you can
choose the color to highlight selected text in your
document.
Change Case - DO YOU EVER FORGET THE
CAPS LOCK? If so, some to this sub-menu and
change the case of the highlighted text. This is a
cool feature!
Bold, Italic, Underline - Format selected text;
Bold, Italic, or Underlined.
Object - Make changes to any selected object;
image, word art, auto shape or any other object
inserted into the document.
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Tools menu
Spelling and Grammar - Choose either submenu and the same window opens.
Questioned spelling is in red, grammar in
green.
Language/Thesaurus - Have you used the
word "like" too many times? Highlight the
word, select Thesaurus and get suggestions
like similar and analogous.
Word Count - Need to know how many
words are in your document? Select Word
Count and find out how many pages, words,
characters, paragraphs, and lines.
Auto Summarize - Exactly what it sounds
like, Word summarizes the document,
reducing the length of the document, keeping
the meaning.
Auto Correct - Word will automatically
correct some things. If this feature is
irritating to you, come here to change what is
corrected.
Customize- Opens the same window that
you get by going to the View menu and
selecting Toolbar/Customize.
Options - Modify Word settings here. Modify
print, editing, spelling and other options from
this sub-menu.
Window menu
New Window - This opens another window with a
copy of the active document.
Arrange All - Displays all open files in the window.
This makes dragging and dropping from one document
to another much easier.
Split - Splits the active window into panes.
Open Document List - There is no need to drag
windows to the side so you can see other documents
open in Word. Come to the bottom of this window for a
listing of all open documents. The active document has
a check mark beside it.
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Help menu
Microsoft Word Help - Open Word's
Assistant and get a search box to type in. Word
displays possible matches for you to read
about.
Contents and Index - See an index of all
topics available in Word's Help documentation.
Microsoft on the Web - That's right! It is
exactly what it sounds like. Select a link and a
Microsoft help page is opened in your browser.
If you are not online, Word will make the
connection and then display the page.
About Microsoft Word - Not sure which
version of Word you working with. Check here
for version information and for the produce ID
number.
3.2.3 Using The Help
If you need help while you work, you can use the following resources:
Type a question for help box
To quickly access Help, use the Type a question for help box on the menu bar. You
can type questions in this box to quickly find the answers you need. For example,
type how do I create a smart tag to learn about smart tags. The content returned is
shown in order of relevance where the most likely answer to your question appears
first.
3.2.4 Using the Icons Below the Menu Bar
This toolbar can be restored to its original position by clicking in the gray bar at the
top and dragging it back to the top of the screen. Push the top of the window up to the
bottom of the menu bar.
Function of commonly used buttons
Creates a new blank document
based on the default template
Opens or finds a file
Saves the active file with its
current file name, location and
file format
Prints the active file - for more
print options go to the File menu
and select Print
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3.3
Print preview - Shows how the
document will look when you
print it.
Spelling, grammar and writing
style checker
Cut - Removes the selection from
the document and places it on
the clipboard
Copy - Copies the selected item(s)
to the clipboard
Paste - Places the content of the
clipboard at the insertion point
Format painter - Copies the format
from a selected object or text and
applies to other objects or text
Undo - Reverses the last
command, use pull-down menu
to undo several steps
Redo - Reverses the action of the
Undo button, use the pull-down
menu to redo several steps
Displays the Tables and Borders
toolbar
Insert a table into the document,
or make a table of selected text
Insert an Excel spreadsheet into
the Word document
Columns - Changes the number of
columns in a document
Displays or hides the Drawing
toolbar
Zoom - Enlarge or reduce the
display of the active document
Opening and Closing Documents
3.3.1 Opening Word Documents
1. In your Microsoft Office program, click File, and then click Open.
2. In the Look in list, click the drive, folder, or Internet location that contains the
file you want to open.
3. In the folder list, locate and open the folder that contains the file.
4. Click the file, and then click Open.
3.3.2 Save and Save as
When you create a brand new document and
1. click on File on the menu and then
2. Save ,
You will be presented with the "Save As" dialog box because Word wants to know two
things, Where do you want to save it? And, what do you want to name it?
In a typical Save, you'll usually just answer the second question; that's the file name.
If you want to save the file to, say, an external drive, you'll change the answer to the
first question.
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3. Click the Save button and you're done.
If, in fact, you DO want to either put a copy in a new location, or create a new copy
with a new name, you must go to the
1. File menu and choose
2. Save As.
That will then display the Save dialog box, which you need to change the file name or
location information.
Windows will not allow you to have two files with the exact same name in the same
folder, so when you save a file to a location where that file already exists, Windows
will replace the existing file with your new one. So, if you do not want to overwrite
the existing file, but instead want to create another copy with a different name or in
a different location or as a different file type, you must go to the File menu and
choose Save As.
When you choose File then Save As, you can use the dropdown box at the top of the
Save As dialog box, which says Save In, to select the location where you want to put
your new copy. You can also change the name of your new copy in the File name box
and save it either in a new location or in the same location as the original (because
this new copy now has a different name).
Page Setup
Using page setup
1. Open the Page Setup menu. Scroll to the “File” tab and then click on “Page
Setup.”
2. Set the margins. Under the "Margins" tab you can specify the width of all of your
margins by entering in the desired width (in inches) into the corresponding field.
You can set the width of the left, right, bottom, top and gutter margins.
3. Set the orientation. Under the “Orientation” field you can determine if your page
prints vertically as a portrait or horizontally as a landscape by clicking the
desired radial button.
4. Set up how the pages print. Under the “Pages” field you can select how you wish
the pages to print by selecting the desired option from the drop-down menu to the
right.
5. Choose your paper selection. Under the “Paper” tab you can specify the paper size
and width by making the desired selections under the “Paper Size” field. Use the
drop-down menus and up and down arrows to modify the paper size and format.
Under the “Paper Source” field you can set what printer paper tray to use for the
document when printing.
6. Choose your layout. In of the "Layout" tab you can specify where sections start by
selecting an option from the “Sections” field drop-down menu.
7. Set the header and footer attributes. Under the “Header and Footer” field you can
select that headers and footers print on every page, or on every other odd or even
page, by choosing the desired options from the drop-down menu to the right. You
can also set the distance that headers and footers print from the edge of the
paper by entering in the desired width (in inches) under the “From Edge” field
menu inside of the “Header and Footer” field box.
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8. Set the page's vertical alignment. You can determine the vertical alignment of
the page underneath the “Page” field, by choosing the desired alignment from the
drop-down menu inside of the field box.
9. Save the changes. Click on the “Okay” button to save all of the page setup
changes that you just made.
Print Preview
As it's name suggests, Print Preview lets you to see what a document would look like
if it were printed out. This allows you to make changes and revisions to your
document, if you don't like the way it looks.
To bring up Print Preview, do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click File from the menu bar
From the drop down list, click Print Preview
You are taken out of your Print Layout view
You can now examine what your document will look like when it is printed out
When you're in Print Preview, the toolbar will change. It will look like this:
Zoom
If things look too small in Print Preview, there are two way to zoom in closer. You
can click the magnifier, which is the second of the two icons. Then click the page you
want to zoom in on with your left mouse button. To zoom out again, click your right
hand mouse button.
The second method is to click the black down-pointing arrow, just to the right of 25%.
You'll get a drop down list of values. Click one with your left mouse button:
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View Multiple Pages
Another handy icon on the Print Preview toolbar is the Multiple Pages icon, the
fourth one along. Click on the icon with your left mouse button to get the following:
There are six Multiple Page options to choose from. Click the second one to view two
pages at a time. "1 x 2 Pages" means one row, with 2 pages in the row.
But zoom in on your new Header and see what it looks like close up. When you have
finished viewing your work, click the "Close" button on your Print Preview toolbar.
You will be taken back to your Print Layout view.
Having seen what your Header looks like, we can now move on to inserting some
page numbers. We'll insert the page numbers into the Footer area of the Page.
Printing of Documents
You can print the active document by clicking Print
on the Standard toolbar.
The following are some additional ways to preview or print a document.
Display each page as it will look when printed
Preview a document


Click Print Preview on the Standard toolbar.
To exit print preview and return to the previous view of the document, click
Close.
Print all or part of a single document
Print a range of pages
1. On the File menu, click Print.
2. Under Page range, specify the portion of the document you want to print.
If you click Pages, you must also enter the page numbers or page ranges you want to
include, or both.
Note: You can also select the portion of the document you want to print. Click Print
on the File menu, and then click Selection.
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Print only odd or even pages
1. On the File menu, click Print.
2. In the Print box, click either Odd pages or Even pages.
Print specific pages and sections
You can print specific pages, one or more sections, or a range of pages in more than
one section.
1. On the File menu, click Print.
2. Under Page range, click Pages.
3. In the Pages box, type instructions to print one of the following:
Noncontiguous pages
Type the page numbers with commas between them. Type the range of pages with a
hyphen between the starting and ending numbers in the range.
For example, to print pages 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8, type 2, 4-6, 8
3.4.1 Document Creation
The first thing to do is create a new document. As you've already seen, Word opens with
a blank document already displayed, ready for editing. At this point, you have several
choices:


You can start working in the blank document that's already open, entering text and
other elements. When you're ready, you can save the file as either a Word document
or a Web page. (See the "Saving Your Documents" section, later in this chapter.)
You can start with one of Word's built-in templates, which may already contain
some of the text and much of the formatting you need.
Any time you want to create a new blank document, the quickest ways to do it are to
click the New button on the Standard toolbar or to use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+N.
These commands create a blank document based on Word's default Normal template. If
you use File, New instead, you can choose to create a document based on a different
template.
3.4.2 Editing Text
Editing documents in Word is just as simple as entering text in a blank document. By
clicking within the body of the document, you can add text. By default, Overwriting is
turned off, which means text to the right of the insertion point will be moved to the right.
It is important to note, however, that if you highlight part of your document and then
start typing, the highlighted portion will be deleted and the new text will appear in its
place; it doesn’t matter whether you have hard returns, images, tables, or text
highlighted, the results will be the same. In the event you accidentally delete part of your
document, you can use the Undo feature (ctrl+z) to undo up to 100 changes you have
made to your document.
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If you want to delete portions of your document, you can simply highlight the portion you
would like to delete and press the delete key; unless you’ve changed Word options, Word
will automatically correct the spacing at the point of the deletion. To delete individual
elements of your document, you have two options: The delete key will delete objects to
the right of the insertion point, while the backspace key will delete objects to the left of
the insertion point.
3.4.3 Text Selection
There are many quick shortcuts provided in MS-Word which helps you select text in your
word document.
-
General Selection Click on the start of selection holds down the left mouse button
while dragging the cursor over the text.
-
Single Word Double-click on the word
-
Line Move the cursor to the left, it will change to a right-pointing arrow, and then
click your mouse.
-
Sentence Hold down CTRL button, and then click on the sentence.
-
Paragraph Triple-click on the paragraph.
-
Block of Text Click on the start of selection, scroll the page, and hold down SHIFT
button while click on the end of your selection.
-
Vertical block of text Hold down ALT button while drag the cursor over the text
-
Whole Document Move the cursor to the left, it will change to a right-pointing
arrow, and then triple-click your mouse.
3.4.4 Cut, Copy and Paste
Cutting text
There are a number of ways to cut text, and you'll learn three techniques in this part:
using the menu, using the right click menus, and using the keyboard.
We're now going to chop out the unnecessary bits from the letter you downloaded above.
The first thing to cut out is the double use of "Dear" in the first line. To cut text, use one
of the following techniques:
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Technique 1 - Menu Cutting

Highlight the text you want to cut.

From the menu bar, click Edit > Cut

Your highlighted text has gone.
Technique 2 - Right Click Cutting

Highlight the text you want to cut:

Click on the highlighted text with the right mouse button to get the pop up menu

Choose "Delete Repeated Word", by clicking it with the left mouse button
Technique 3 - Keyboard Cutting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Highlight the word or words you want to cut
Hold down the Ctrl key on your keyboard
Keep the Ctrl key held down
Press the letter “X” on your keyboard
Your highlighted text is cut from your document
And that's all there is to cutting text. Keyboard cutting is often the quickest way, as it
means your fingers don't have to leave the keys when you're typing.
Copying Text
If you want to copy text or other objects in Microsoft Word, you can highlight the text or
object and use the shortcut menu to copy the it onto the clipboard. You can then move or
paste the subject into a different location or document.
Instructions
1. Start Microsoft Word. Open an existing file or start a new blank document from
which you want to copy highlighted text.
2. Click right before the first letter of the first word you want to copy.
3. Hold down your left mouse button and drag your mouse to cover the entire selection
of text that you want to copy. A highlight will cover the words that you select.
4. Release the mouse button when you finish highlighting.
5. Right-click anywhere on top of the selected text to bring up the shortcut menu.
6. Choose "Copy" from the menu to copy the highlighted text onto your clipboard.
7. Paste the copied text from your clipboard to another section of this document or
another Word document.
Tips


The keyboard shortcut of CTRL+C will also copy highlighted text onto the clipboard.
Use the menus to copy text by first highlighting the text, then choosing the "Edit"
menu and clicking on "Copy."
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
To copy highlighted text, you also can press down the CTRL key after you have
highlighted the selected text, drag the copied
Pasting Text
In all versions of Microsoft Word, you can paste copied text using ctrl-v or Edit > Paste.
You get more control if you choose Edit > Paste Special.
In Word 2003, you get yet another option. In Tools > Options > Edit you can tick Show
Paste Options buttons to give you even more control.
If you tick that option, when you paste (using ctrl-v or Edit > Paste), you see a little
clipboard thingy, which contains a drop down menu.
3.4.5 Spell Check
You can use the spell-check feature in Microsoft Word to check spelling and grammar in
your documents. You can spell check any selection (even just one word) or the whole
document.
Instructions
1. Select the text you want to spell check, or place the cursor anywhere in the text to
spell check the entire document.
2. Go to the Tools menu.
3. Select Spelling and Grammar. The Spelling and Grammar window opens, and Word
begins spell checking.
4. View any flagged words or phrases in the upper-left window. Just above this window,
you will see the reason Word has flagged this text.
5. Check the Suggestions window in the lower-left corner of the Spelling and Grammar
window for correction suggestions.
6. Click the Change button to make the suggested correction.
7. Click Change All if you want all instances of this error corrected within the text that
you are spell checking.
8. Enter your own change if you disagree with the suggested correction (or if there is no
suggestion) by placing your cursor in the flagged text window and correcting the text
as you would in any Word document.
9. Click the Change button to implement your correction.
10. Click Ignore if no correction is needed; click Ignore All to skip all further occurrences
of this "misspelling."
Tips



Click the Check Grammar checkbox in the lower-left corner of the Spelling and
Grammar window to have Word check both grammar and spelling at the same time.
Click Options in the Spelling and Grammar window to make the spelling and
grammar check more precise.
Ignore All is useful for proper names or other terms the Word dictionary doesn't
know
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3.4.6 Thesaurus
The Microsoft Word Thesaurus makes it possible to look up synonyms and antonyms to
words as you type with a few clicks of your mouse. Once you learn to use the thesaurus,
you'll be able to automatically replace words as you type to improve your writing.
Instructions
1. Open Microsoft Word and begin typing your document. When a word comes up you
would like to use the thesaurus for, select it.
2. Choose "Language" from the "Tools" menu and then "Thesaurus." You can also press
Shift and the F7 key simultaneously to activate the thesaurus. The thesaurus
window pops up.
3. Find the list of word meanings on the left side of the window. These are the possible
meanings of the word you selected. Select the meaning that most closely fits how you
intended to use the word. For additional help in selecting a meaning, Microsoft Word
will put the part of speech of the word in parenthesis. When you have selected your
meaning, hit the "Look Up" button.
4. Look on the right side of the window for a list of synonyms generated by the
thesaurus. Depending on the word, the thesaurus may also list a few antonyms.
These will be displayed with ("Antonym") behind the word.
5. Pick the synonym you'd like to use and hit the "Replace" button. The synonym
replaces the original word in your document. If you're unhappy with your list of
words, pick the one you like best and hit "Look Up" again. The Microsoft Word
thesaurus will then generate synonyms of the synonym.
Tips


3.5
Use the thesaurus by right-clicking on any word in a Microsoft Word document and
choosing "Synonyms." A list of potential replacements is listed as well as the option
to open up the thesaurus window.
Look up additional words in the thesaurus window at any time by typing the word
into the text box in the upper right hand corner
Formatting the Text
3.5.1 Font and Size selection
In Microsoft Word a user can change the properties of any text. For example,
changing the text's font, size, color, or making it bold, italic and/or underlining it.
Below is a graphic illustration of the Microsoft Format bar and a description of each
of the options on the toolbar. If you do not see a bar similar to the below example,
click View, Toolbars, and make sure Formatting has a check next to it.
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Changing font type
To change the font of text within a Microsoft Word document, follow the below steps.
1. Highlight the text you wish to change the font type of.
2. Click the down arrow next to the font on the format bar. Often, the default font is
Times New Roman, as shown in the above example. If you simply want to change
the font to bold, italic, or underlined, click on the B, I, or U on the format bar.
3. After clicking the down arrow for the font, you should be able to select from each
of the installed fonts on your computer. Click the font you wish to use and the
highlighted text will change.
4. If you do not have any text to highlight or wish to type text in a different font,
move the cursor to the location of where you want to new text, click the down
arrow on the font option on the formatting toolbar and select the font you wish to
use.
Changing font size
To change the font size of text within Microsoft Word, follow the below steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Highlight the text you wish to change the size of.
Click the down arrow next to the size on the format bar. Often, the default size is
12, as shown in the above example.
After clicking the down arrow for the font, you should have a selection of different
sizes to select from. Some fonts may not scale properly so some fonts may only
have a few size options and sometimes may only have one.
If you do not have any text to highlight or wish to type text in a different size,
move the cursor to the location of where you want to new text, click the down
arrow on the size option on the formatting toolbar and select the size you wish to
use.
3.5.2 Alignment of Text
Alignment
Microsoft Word gives you a choice of several types of alignment. Left-justified text is
aligned on the left side. It is the default setting.
Example -- Left-Justified
Sample Paragraph
This is a sample paragraph. It is used to illustrate alignment. Left-justified text is
aligned on the left. Right-justified text is aligned on the right. Centered text is centered
between the left and right margins. You can use Center to center your titles. Justified
text is flush on both sides. Right-justified text is aligned on the right side.
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Example -- Right-Justified
Sample Paragraph
This is a sample paragraph. It is used to illustrate alignment. Left-justified text is
aligned on the left. Right-justified text is aligned with on the right. Centered text is
centered between the left and right margins. You can use Center to center your titles.
Justified text is flush on both sides.
Centered text is centered between the left and right margins.
Example -- Centered
Sample Paragraph
This is a sample paragraph. It is used to illustrate alignment. Left-justified text is
aligned on the left. Right-justified text is aligned with on the right. Centered text is
centered between the left and right margins. You can use Center to center your titles.
Justified text is flush on both sides.
Justified text is flush on both sides.
Example -- Justified
Sample Paragraph
This is a sample paragraph. It is used to illustrate alignment. Left-justified text is
aligned on the left. Right-justified text is aligned with on the right. Centered text is
centered between the left and right margins. You can use Center to center your titles.
Justified text is flush on both sides.
The following exercises demonstrate how to justify text.
How to change alignment of text
Instructions
1. Select the text you want to realign.
2. Go to the Formatting toolbar.
3. Locate the four alignment buttons: Align Left, Center, Align Right, Justify.(These
buttons are to the right of the text attribute buttons: Bold, Italic, Underline.)
4. Click a button to change the text alignment.
3.5.3 Paragraph Indenting
Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right
margin. Within the margins, you can increase or decrease the indentation of a paragraph
or group of paragraphs. You can also create a negative indent (also known as an out
dent), which pulls the paragraph out toward the left margin. You can also create a
hanging indent, in which the first line of the paragraph is not indented, but subsequent
lines are.
Working with Indents
Rather than tabbing in the first line or every line of a paragraph, you can create an
indent, which is the amount of space between the text and the page margin. You can
adjust the indent for an individual paragraph, the indent for a group of paragraphs, or
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the margins for the entire document. If you are setting margins for the entire document,
refer to Adjusting Document Margins.
Word offers three types of indents: normal indents, first line indents, and hanging
indents. A normal indent inserts a specified amount of space between the page margin
and all the lines in a paragraph. A first line indent inserts space between the first line
and the page margin so it looks like you used a tab. A hanging indent uses a normal
indent for the first line and then moves subsequent lines farther to the right.
Paragraph indents can be set using the Paragraph dialog box or the Ruler.
Working with Indents: Dialog Box Option
1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph
HINT: If you are adjusting more than one paragraph, select all desired paragraphs.
2. From the Format menu, select Paragraph…
The Paragraph dialog box appears.
3. Select the Indents and Spacing tab
4. In the Indentation section, in the Left and Right text boxes, type the desired amount
of indenting (in inches)
5. To select a different indent for the first line, from the Special pull-down list, select
First line or Hanging
6. If you selected a first line or hanging indent, in the By text box, type the desired
amount of indenting (in inches)
7. Click OK
Working with Indents: Ruler Option
Instead of using the Paragraph dialog box, you can make indent adjustments using the
Ruler. Shown here is a graphic of the Ruler.
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To set the indent:
Type of Indent
Appearance of Ruler
Appearance of Text
Normal Indent
A Normal Indent
looks like this
Hanging Indent
A Hanging Indent
looks like this
First Line Indent
A First Line Indent
looks like this
1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph
HINT: If you are adjusting more than one paragraph, select all desired paragraphs.
2. Click and drag the appropriate indent button to the desired location on the Ruler
3.5.4 Bullets and Numbering
Bullets are used to set-off and emphasize sections of text and are symbols such as dots
or diamonds.
The numbering feature also acts like the bullets only that it use the number instead of
symbol to represent.
Why bullet and numbering is so critical to your document?
Break the long sentence into points form.
Enhance readability and credibility.
Grab attention and highlight important points.
Then, here I let you know how to apply bullet or numbering in Microsoft Word.
To apply default bullet formatting to a list
Select the list you wish to apply number of bullet formatting to.
Click on the Bullets icon on the Formatting toolbar.
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To apply alternate bullet formatting to a list
Select the text you want to add bullets to.
From the Format menu, click Bullets and Numbering.
From the Bullets and Numbering dialog box displayed, the Bulleted tab should be
displayed, if not, select it.
A list of different bulleted styles will appear, select a style that you like.
Click on the OK button or press Enter.
To remove bullet formatting from a list
Select the list to which the bullet formatting has been applied.
Click on the Bullets icon on the Formatting toolbar.
To add numbering to a list
Select the text you wish to re-format as a numbered list.
Click on the Numbering icon on the Formatting toolbar.
To add alternative numbering styles to a list
Select the text you wish to re-format as a numbered list.
From the Format menu, click Bullets and Numbering.
From the Bullets and Numbering dialog box displayed, click on the Numbered tab.
A list of different numbered styles displayed, select the numbering format that you
require.
Click on the OK button or press Enter.
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To remove numbering from a list
Select the list to which the bullet formatting has been applied.
Click on the Numbering icon on the Formatting toolbar.
3.5.5 Changing Case
Text can be typed in lowercase or small letters, uppercase or capital letters, or a mix of
the two cases. Have you found yourself wishing you could change the capitalization of a
section of text without having to retype the whole thing? You can, when you use the
Format | Change Case Command.
Proper nouns should be capitalized. The first word of sentences should be capitalized.
Titles should be capitalized. What if you forget? What if you capitalize where you
normally would not? You can change the case of all the text at once with a single
command -- a great timesaver!
To do so:
1. Highlight the text you want to change.
2. Choose Format | Change Case. This opens the dialog box that gives you the choice
between Sentence case, lower case, UPPER CASE, Title Case, and tOGGLE cASE.
Next, choose the type of formatting you want to use from the below choices and click OK.

Sentence case: capitalizes the first letter of the first word and puts the rest in
lowercase.

Lower

Title case: capitalizes the first letter of every word. Toggle case changes capital
letters to lowercase and vice versa. (You don't use this choice much anymore because
if you make a mistake such at typing tOGGLE, using the Shift key while Caps lock is
on, Word automatically corrects it and turns off the Caps lock.) Alternatively, press
the Shift+F3 shortcut key repeatedly to cycle through three formats: UPPER CASE,
lowercase and Title Case.
case:
changes
everything
to
lowercase,
with
nothing
capitalized.
Capitalization is under your control, even for large amounts of text.
When you use Title Case, you'll most likely have to go back and make a few corrections.
In titles, small words (such as: articles, coordinate conjunctions, and prepositions, such
as "the," "and," "in," "on," "for," etc.) should not be capitalized unless they are the first
word in the title.
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3.6
Table Manipulation
3.6.1 Draw Table
To draw your own table from scratch, go to the menu bar and select
Table >> Draw Table.
Once this option is selected, the "Tables and Borders" toolbar will pop up (we will
cover this toolbar more in-depth in a little bit).
Click on the first icon on this toolbar, the "Draw Table" tool (looks like a pencil
drawing a line), to begin drawing a table. Then, navigate to the location in your
document where you want to draw your table. Using the "Draw Table" tool, click and
drag to form the outside border of the table, determining its width. When you are
finished, let go of the mouse button so that the outside border of the table can be
rendered.
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You can draw rows and columns by using the "Draw Table" tool to draw vertical lines
to create columns, and horizontal lines to form rows. Continue to draw your table as
you see fit.
Now that you have the initial table inserted into your Word document (either by
using the "Insert Table" or "Draw Table" method), you can begin to modify your table
as needed.
3.6.2 Changing cell width and height
In your table, click in the column whose width you want to change. Click the
"Cell height and width" button you just created, and it will pop up a dialog
box to let you change the column width. Specify the column width you want
and click OK. You can do so by clicking and dragging the borders of rows or columns.
Drag the borders until you create the desired amount of space between rows or
columns.
By default, Microsoft Word aligns text in a table (table: One or more rows of cells
commonly used to display numbers and other items for quick reference and analysis.
Items in a table are organized into rows and columns.) to the upper left of a cell (cell:
A box formed by the intersection of a row and column in a worksheet or a table, in
which you enter information.). You can change the alignment of text in a cell — both
the vertical alignment (top, center, or bottom) and the horizontal alignment (left,
center, or right).
3.6.3 Click the cell that contains text you want to align.
On the Tables and Borders toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you
use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, press ALT and then SHIFT+F10.),
select the option for the horizontal and vertical alignment you want — for example,
Align Bottom Center
or Align Top Right
.
3.6.4 Delete/Insertion of row and column
To insert a cell, row, or column to a table
1. On the Table menu, point to Insert, and then click an option.
Tips



To quickly add a row at the end of a table, click the last cell of the last row, and
then press the TAB or ENTER key.
To add a column to the right of the last column in a table, click in the last
column. On the Table menu, point to Insert, and then click Columns to the
Right.
You can also use the Draw Table tool to draw the row or column where you
want.
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Delete a cell, row, or column from a table
1. Select the cells, rows, or columns you want to delete.
2. On the Table menu, point to Delete, and then click Columns, Rows, or Cells.
3.6.5 Border and shading
Applying borders and shading are two ways that you can enhance the appearance of
your tables. Using shading for individual cells can help emphasize the information
contained in it or differentiate headings from content.


Adding Borders and Shading: Toolbar Option
Adding Borders and Shading: Dialog Box Option
Adding Borders and Shading: Toolbar Option
In order to use the toolbar option, the Tables and Borders toolbar must be displayed.
To display the Tables and Borders toolbar:
1. From the View menu, select Toolbars » Tables and Borders
The Tables and Borders toolbar appears.
Adding Borders: Drawing Option
1. Access the Tables and Borders toolbar
2. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, from the Line Style pull-down list, select the
desired line style
Your pointer turns into a pencil.
3. From the Line Weight pull-down list, select the desired line weight
4. Click the on BORDER COLOR
» select the desired border color
5. In your table, click individual cell borders or drag along borders to apply the new
style.
The border is applied to your table.
6. To turn off the drawing pencil, double click the table
Adding Borders: Button Option
1. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the border
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2. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, from the Line Style pull-down list, select the
desired line style
Your insertion point turns into a pencil.
3. From the Line Weight pull-down list, select the desired line weight
4. Click the on BORDER COLOR
5. Click the on OUTSIDE BORDER
The border is applied to your table.
» select the desired border color
» select the desired border placement
Adding Shading
1. Click within or select the cells in your table to which you want to apply the
shading
HINT: You can apply both borders and shading to cells within a table.
2. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, click the on SHADING COLOR
the appropriate option
The shading is applied to your table.
» select
Adding Borders and Shading: Dialog Box Option
The Borders and Shading tabs in the Borders and Shading dialog box allow you to
add borders and shading to an individual cell or the whole table.
Adding Borders
1. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the border
2. From the Format menu, select Borders and Shading...
The Borders and Shading dialog box appears.
3. Select the Borders tab
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4. In the Setting, Style, Color, and Width sections, select the desired border options
5. OPTIONAL: To apply custom border settings, in the Preview diagram, click the
lines or buttons
6. Click OK
Adding Shading
1. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the shading
2. From the Format menu, select Borders and Shading...
The Borders and Shading dialog box appears.
3. Select the Shading tab
4. Under Fill, select the desired shading option
5. From the Apply to pull-down list, verify the selection
6. OPTIONAL: Under Patterns, from the Style pull-down list, select the desired
shading pattern
7. Click OK
Summary




To open ms-word select Start, Programs, and Microsoft Word from the Start list.
There are 9 menus available in a menu Microsoft Word document.
To quickly access Help, use the Type a question for help box on the menu bar.
The keyboard shortcut of CTRL+C will also copy highlighted text onto the
clipboard
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






In all versions of Microsoft Word, you can paste copied text using ctrl-v or Edit >
Paste.
You can use the spell-check feature in Microsoft Word to check spelling and
grammar in your documents.
The Microsoft Word Thesaurus makes it possible to look up synonyms and
antonyms to words as you type with a few clicks of your mouse.
Left-justified text is aligned on the left side. It is the default setting.
Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the
right margin
Bullets are used to set-off and emphasize sections of text and are symbols such
as dots or diamonds.
The numbering feature also acts like the bullets only that it use the number
instead of symbol to represent.
Model Answers
1.
Why do you indent text? What are the various indentation available
in Word?
Ans.
Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or
the right margin. Within the margins, you can increase or decrease the
indentation of a paragraph or group of paragraphs.
There are three types of indentation:
Normal Indent
Hanging Indent
First Line Indent
2.
You have typed a document and you want to check the spelling
mistakes. What would you do?
Ans.
You can use the spell-check feature in Microsoft Word to check spelling and
grammar in your documents. You can spell check any selection (even just one
word) or the whole document.
You have to follow the following steps
1. Select the text you want to spell check, or place the cursor anywhere in
the ext to spell check the entire document.
2. Go to the Tools menu.
3. Select Spelling and Grammar. The Spelling and Grammar window opens,
and Word begins spell checking.
4. View any flagged words or phrases in the upper-left window. Just above
this window, you will see the reason Word has flagged this text.
5. Check the Suggestions window in the lower-left corner of the Spelling and
Grammar window for correction suggestions.
6. Click the Change button to make the suggested correction.
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7. Click Change All if you want all instances of this error corrected within
the text that you are spell checking.
8. Enter your own change if you disagree with the suggested correction (or if
there is no suggestion) by placing your cursor in the flagged text window
and correcting the text as you would in any Word document.
9. Click the Change button to implement your correction.
10. Click Ignore if no correction is needed; click Ignore All to skip all further
occurrences of this "misspelling."
3.
How to insert rows and columns in a table?
Ans.
On the Table menu, point to Insert, and then click an option.
Tips



4.
To quickly add a row at the end of a table, click the last cell of the last
row, and then press the TAB or ENTER key.
To add a column to the right of the last column in a table, click in the last
column. On the Table menu, point to Insert, and then click Columns to
the Right.
You can also use the Draw Table tool to draw the row or column where
you want.
What are the steps in adding borders and shading to a table?
Adding Borders
1. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the border
2. From the Format menu, select Borders and Shading...
The Borders and Shading dialog box appears.
3. Select the Borders tab
4. In the Setting, Style, Color, and Width sections, select the desired border
options
5. OPTIONAL: To apply custom border settings, in the Preview diagram,
click the lines or buttons
6. Click OK
Adding Shading
1. Click within or select the cells to which you want to apply the shading
2. From the Format menu, select Borders and Shading...
The Borders and Shading dialog box appears.
3. Select the Shading tab
4. Under Fill, select the desired shading option
5. From the Apply to pull-down list, verify the selection
6. OPTIONAL: Under Patterns, from the Style pull-down list, select the
desired shading pattern
7. Click OK
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5.
What are the basic steps for printing a document?
Ans.
Basic steps for printing
1. On the File menu, click Print.
2. Under Page range, specify the portion of the document you want to
print.
3. O.K.
6.
How to change the font size in word document?
Ans.
To change the font size of text within Microsoft Word,
follow the below steps.
1. Highlight the text you wish to change the size of.
2. Click the down arrow next to the size on the format bar. Often, the
default size is 12, as shown in the above example.
3. After clicking the down arrow for the font, you should have a selection of
different sizes to select from. Some fonts may not scale properly so some
fonts may only have a few size options and sometimes may only have one.
4. If you do not have any text to highlight or wish to type text in a different
size, move the cursor to the location of where you want to new text, click
the down arrow on the size option on the formatting toolbar and select
the size you wish to use.
7.
How to change case in a word document?
Ans.
To change the case in a word document we have to follow the following steps:
1. Highlight the text you want to change.
2. Choose Format | Change Case. This opens the dialog box that gives you
the choice between Sentence case, lower case, UPPER CASE, Title Case,
and tOGGLE cASE.
8.
What is the use of thesaurus in Microsoft word?
Ans.
The Microsoft Word Thesaurus makes it possible to look up synonyms and
antonyms to words as you type with a few clicks of your mouse. Once you
learn to use the thesaurus, you'll be able to automatically replace words as
you type to improve your writing.
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CHAPTER 4:
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USING SPREADSHEET
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Chapter 4:
4.0
Using Spreadsheet
Introduction of Excel
Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet program. You might have heard the terms
"spreadsheet" and "worksheet". People generally use them interchangeably. To remain
consistent with Microsoft and other publishers the term worksheet refers to the row-andcolumn matrix sheet on which you work upon and the term spreadsheet refers to this type
of computer application. In addition, the term workbook will refer to the book of pages that
is the standard Excel document. The workbook can contain worksheets, chart sheets, or
macro modules.
Most of the Excel screen is devoted to the display of the workbook. The workbook consists of
grids and columns. The intersection of a row and column is a rectangular area called a cell.
4.1
Objectives
Microsoft Excel, a part of the Microsoft Office Suite, is a spreadsheet application that
allows users to store, manipulate and graph data. It includes formulas, lets users
make their own formulas and even uses programming (Visual Basic) to personalize
every bit of the program. While other software programs may be able to do some
similar things, Microsoft Excel has some benefits you will want to consider.
4.2
Elements of Electronic Spreadsheet
Most of the Excel screen is devoted to the display of the spreadsheet. The
spreadsheet consists of grids and columns. The intersection of a row and column is a
rectangular area called a cell.
Spreadsheet
Cell
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Cells
The workbook is made up of cells. There is a cell at the intersection of each row and
column. A cell can contain a value, a formula, or a text entry. A text entry is used to
label or explain the contents of the workbook. A value entry can either be a constant
or the value of a formula. The value of a formula will change when the components
(arguments) of the formula change. The appeal of spreadsheet programs is the
ability to change one value and watch all other values that depend on that first value
automatically change when the spreadsheet is recalculated.
Rows, Columns, and Sheets
The Excel worksheet contains 16,384 rows that extend down the worksheet,
numbered 1 through 16384. The Excel worksheet contains 256 columns that extend
across the worksheet, lettered A through Z, AA through AZ, BA through BZ, and
continuing to IA through IZ. The Excel worksheet can contain as many as 256
sheets, labeled Sheet1 through Sheet256. The initial number of sheets in a
workbook,which can be changed by the user is 16.
4.2.1 Opening Spreadsheet

Excel displays a new workbook when it is opened. . All the cells are empty
in default spreadsheet of this new workbook. A cell is active when the
border is highlighted in blue.
When you enter information, the information is stored in the active cell.
Let's learn how to enter information into a workbook.

If you want to create another new workbook the steps are described in
below :
File -> New -> Blank workbook.
Now display a blank workbook. All the cells are empty in default spreadsheet
of this new workbook.
4.2.2 Addressing of Cells
Cell Address are the combination of column letter and row number. For
example, the upper-left cell of a spreadsheet is A1. When you select any cell
into spreadsheet, cell address display into address box.
Cell Address
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4.2.3 Printing of Spreadsheet
4.2.3.1 Print All Pages
Choose Print from the File menu or click on the Print option and
appear a ‘Print’ dialogue box. Click ‘All’ from ‘Print Range’ and
Click ‘Active Sheet’ radio. Now click ‘OK’ Button.
4.2.3.2 Print Selected Pages
Choose Print from the File menu or click on the Print option and
appear a ‘Print’ dialogue box. Click ‘Pages’ and type start page
number into ‘From’ and ‘To’ box from ‘Print Range’ and Click
‘Active Sheet’ radio. Now click ‘OK’ Button.
4.2.4 Saving Workbook
Choose Save from the File menu or click on the Save button and appear a
‘Save’ dialogue box. Type filename into ‘File Name’ box then click on ‘Save’
button.
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4.3
Manipulation of Cells
4.3.1 Entering Text, Numbers and Dates
Click on the Excel window, select a cell by clicking on it, and enter: ‘Excel is
fun’. Observe the following:
Observe that your text is displayed in two areas. Text is displayed in the
active cell within the workbook and it is also displayed in the formula bar.
The formula bar is activated as soon as you begin typing in a cell. At the far
left is the reference section, which will show the reference of the active cell.
Entering Number
Click on the Excel window, select a cell by clicking on it, and enter: 789.
Observe that your number is displayed in two areas. Number is displayed in
the active cell within the workbook and it is also displayed in the formula
bar. The formula bar is activated as soon as you begin typing in a cell. At the
far left is the reference section, which will show the reference of the active
cell.
Entering Date value
Click on the Excel window, select a cell by clicking on it, and enter:
29/09/2010 using format dd/mm/yyyy.The default date format is mm/dd/yyyy.
Observe that your date is displayed in two areas. Date is displayed in the
active cell within the workbook and it is also displayed in the formula bar.
The formula bar is activated as soon as you begin typing in a cell. At the far
left is the reference section, which will show the reference of the active cell.
4.3.2 Creating Text, Number and Date Series
Creating Text Series
Select any blank cell from worksheet and Type alphanumeric value. Choose ‘Fill’
option from Edit menu. Choose Series from Fill sub menu and appear ‘Series’
dialogue box. Type step value of series into ‘Step Value’ box and type last value of
list into ‘Stop Value’ box.
Click on ‘OK’ button.
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Creating Number Series
Select any blank cell from worksheet and Type number. Choose ‘Fill’ option from
Edit menu. Choose Series from Fill sub menu and appear ‘Series’ dialogue box.
Type step value of series into ‘Step Value’ box and type last value of list into ‘Stop
Value’ box.
Click on ‘OK’ button.
Creating Date Series
Select any blank cell from worksheet and Type date. Choose ‘Fill’ option from Edit
menu. Choose Series from Fill sub menu and appear ‘Series’ dialogue box. Type step
value of series into ‘Step Value’ box and type last date of list into ‘Stop Value’ box.
Click on ‘OK’ button.
4.3.3 Editing Worksheet Data
If you want to edit the data you entered into a cell, select desired cell and double click
on cell. Now type changed data and Click on the Enter button.
4.3.4 Insert and Deleting Rows and Column
Inserting Column
Highlight column A by clicking in the column heading. Observe:
Choose Columns from the Insert menu.
Column A should be a blank column now.
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Inserting Row
Highlight 1 by clicking in the Row number. Observe:
Choose Rows from the Insert menu.
Column 1 should be a blank row now.
Deleting Column
Highlight column A by clicking in the column heading. Observe:
Choose Delete from the Edit menu.
Column A should be remove now and Column B changed to A .
Deleting Rows
Highlight Row3 by clicking in the Row number. Observe:
Choose Delete from the Edit menu.
Row2 should be remove now and Row3 changed to Row2 .
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4.3.5 Changing Column Widths
 Position the pointer between the column headings for column D and column E.
 The pointer should change shape to show a double arrow as you position the
pointer between the two column headings. When the pointer changes shape, you
can change the width of the column by dragging to the right or left.
 Press the mouse button and drag to the right until the width of column D will fix
the text.
4.4
Formulas and Functions
4.4.1 Using Formulas
Functions are used to form all or part of a formula. Excel provides two general types
of mathematical functions: those that are used in business applications and those
that are oriented to higher mathematics. In this tutorial we will focus on the
business applications formulas.
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The AutoSum button (
) located in the Standard toolbar.
Whenever you click the AutoSum button, Excel inserts a SUM() function in the
active cell. Not only will the SUM() function write the sum formula, but it will make
a guess at what range of cells you desire to sum, and will leave you in edit mode so
that you can correct the sum range.
 Select cell B11d and click on the AutoSum button located in the Standard
toolbar.
Your worksheet should look as follows:
 Within the formula bar highlight B2:B10.
 Click on the Enter button or press the Return key to enter the formula.
4.4.2 Functions
The Sum function is one of the many functions Excel provides. Excel also provides
many statistical functions in particular the Average function. Excel provides two
ways for entering function names. You can type the name of the function in if you
know it or you can use the Function Wizard.
Using The Function Wizard
 To use the Function Wizard you can choose Function from the Insert menu or
you can click on the Function Wizard button (
) located on the Standard
toolbar.
 Select cell C12 and open the Function Wizard dialog box by either method
described above.
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Observe:
We want to use the AVERAGE function. The AVERAGE function will take the
average of all the numbers you list in the parentheses. The Function Wizard will take
you through setting up the formula step by step.

Within the Function Wizard dialog box highlight the Function Category: Most
Recently Used and highlight the Function Name: AVERAGE then click on the
OK button.
The following dialog box should appear:
 Enter the range B2:B10 and then
 click on the OK button.
 Click on the Enter button or press the Return key to enter the formula.
Your workbook should look as follows:
Now that you know how to enter formulas using operators and functions, you can
practice on your "checks" workbook.
Close previous workbook and don't save the file.
Open the "checks" workbook.
 Select cell F3 and enter the following formula:
This formula will computer your balance
after check 100 has been written.
 Select cell F4 and enter the following formula:
This formula will computer your balance
after check 101 has been written.
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 Select cell F5 and enter the following
formula:
This formula will computer your balance after check 102 has been written plus
the $900 dollar deposit has been accounted for.
 Select cell F6 and enter the forumla that would compute the balance after 103
has been written.
Your "checks" workbook should look as follows:
If something is incorrect in your "checks" workbook, go
back and check over your formulas.
 Save your changes.
Starting in cell B3, build the following table:
Formatting The Appearance of a Workbook
You will learn how to format an Excel workbook in this part of the tutorial.
Open your "checks" workbook if it isn't already opened.
Select the first row of the "checks" workbook, by clicking in the cell containing the
bold face 1. Observe:
You have just selected what Excel describes as a range.
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4.5
4.6
Summery

Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet program. Excel worksheet contains 16,384
rows, 256 columns. First cell address of Excel spreadsheet is A1 and last cell is IV65535.

There is a cell at the intersection of each row and column A cell can contain a value, a
formula, or a text entry. To store value in sheet, select cell then type value of any data
type.

Excel Workbook consists with File, Edit View, Insert, Format, Data, Windows Menu. To
Save, Print data in excel, we can use option from File menu.

To type series of data, used Fill option from Edit menu.

Excel can calculate data using different Formula and Function. To calculate data using
formula, type ‘=’ in cell then type formula.

Excel functions are available from ‘Insert’ menu.
Model Question - Answer
1.
How many Columns and Rows are available in Excel?
Ans.
256 columns and 65,536 rows are available in Excel.
2.
How can you save data in Excel.?
Ans.
Choose Save from the File menu or click on the Save button and appear a ‘Save’
dialogue box. Type filename into ‘File Name’ box then click on ‘Save’ button.
3.
How can change column width in Excel?



4.
Position the pointer between the column two headings.
The pointer should change shape to show a double arrow as you position the
pointer between the two column headings. When the pointer changes shape, you
can change the width of the column by dragging to the right or left.
Press the mouse button and drag to the right until the width of column will fix
the text.
How can you calculate summetion of list of data in Excel.?
Ans.

Select blank cell, below the list of data and click on the AutoSum button located
in the Standard toolbar.

Click on the Enter button or press the Return key to enter the formula.
5.
How to quit from Excel?
Ans.
Choose ‘Exit’ from ‘File’ menu. Click ‘Yes’ button into ‘save’ prompt box.
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CHAPTER 5:
COMMUNICATION USING THE INTERNET
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Chapter 5:
5.0
Communication Using the Internet
Introduction
In 1969, the US Department of Defense started a project to allow researchers and military
personnel to communicate with each other in an emergency. The project was called
ARPAnet and it is the foundation of the Internet.
Throughout the 1970's, what would later become the Internet was developed. While mostly
military personnel and scientists used it in its early days, the advent of the World Wide
Web in the early 1990's changed all that.
Today, the Internet is not owned or operated by any one entity. This worldwide computer
network allows people to communicate and exchange information in new ways.
5.1
Objectives
The Internet can be defined as a network of globally connected computers that is
decentralized by design. This definition can be broken down into three parts. Let’s
understand each part of the definition in isolation.
Is a network. A network is a collection of computers. The Internet can also be
referred to as a network because it is a collection of millions of computers.
Globally connected computers. This means that you can be connected to the
Internet, regardless of your location. The Internet has brought people in the world
closer by connecting computers located in the remotest of locations.
Decentralized design. The Internet has a decentralized design. That is, there is no
centralized body that controls the way in which the Internet functions. The Internet
does provide online services that are centrally administered, but as a whole, it would
not be incorrect to say that the Internet has a decentralized design. Each computer
connected to the Internet is called a host. The operator/ user of a particular host can
choose from the millions of available Internet services
and can also make services available through the Internet.
5.2
Basic of Computer Networks
Types of Network:1) Local Area Network (LAN)
2) Wide Area Network (WAN)
5.2.1 Local Area Network (LAN)
It connects network devices over a relatively short distance like in a single
building or campus. LANs are typically owned, controlled and managed by a
single person and organization.
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5.2.2 Wide Area Network (WAN)
A WAN provides long distance transmission of data, voice, image and video
information over large geographical areas that may comprise a country,
continent, or even the whole world.
5.3
Internet
5.3.1 Concept of Internet
The Internet is a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks.
The computers and computer networks exchange information using TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite to communicate with
each other. The computers are connected via the telecommunications
networks, and the Internet can be used for e- mailing, transferring files and
accessing information on the World Wide Web.
5.3.1.1 Internetworking
The TCP/IP protocol suite is so named for two of its most important
protocols:
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP).
In networking, the communication language used by computer
devices and communication devices is called the protocol. Protocols –
the set of rules that must be followed in order for two devices to
communicate. These rules must be followed exactly in order for any
communication to take place
The main design goal of TCP/IP was to build an interconnection of
networks, referred to as an internet work, or internet, that provided
universal communication services over heterogeneous physical
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networks. The clear benefit of such an internet work is the enabling of
communication between hosts on different networks, perhaps
separated by a large geographical area.
The words internet work and internet are simply a contraction of the
phrase interconnected network. However, when written with a capital
“I”, the Internet refers to the worldwide set of interconnected
networks. Therefore, the Internet is an internet, but the reverse does
not apply. The Internet is sometimes called the connected Internet.
5.3.1.2 TCP/IP Protocol Layers
Like most networking software, TCP/IP is modeled in layers. This
layered representation leads to the term protocol stack, which refers
to the stack of layers in the protocol suite.
By dividing the communication software into layers, the protocol
stack allows in ease of implementation and code testing, and the
ability to develop alternative layer implementations. Layers
communicate with those above and below via concise interfaces. In
this regard, a layer provides a service for the layer directly above it
and makes use of services provided by the layer directly below it.
These layers include:
Application Layer: - The application layer is provided by the
program that uses TCP/IP for communication. An application is a
user process cooperating with another process usually on a different
host. Examples of applications include Telnet and the File Transfer
Protocol (FTP).
Transport Layer:- The transport layer provides the end-to-end data
transfer by delivering data from an application to its remote peer.
Multiple applications can be supported simultaneously. The mostused transport layer protocol is the Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), which provides connection-oriented reliable data delivery.
Internetwork Layer: - The internetwork layer also called the
internet layer or the network layer provides the “virtual network”
image of an internet (this layer shields the higher levels from the
physical network). Internet Protocol (IP) is the most important
protocol in this layer. IP provides a routing function that attempts to
deliver transmitted messages to their destination. A message unit in
an IP network is called an IP datagram. This is the basic unit of
information transmitted across TCP/IP networks.
Network Interface Layer:- The network interface layer, also called
the link layer or the data-link layer, is the interface to the actual
network hardware In fact, TCP/IP does not specify any protocol here,
but can use almost any network interface available, which illustrates
the flexibility of the IP layer.
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5.3.2 Applications of Internet
Examples of information networks connected by the Internet include those of
Libraries, Hospitals, Research Centres, Government Departments and
Universities. It is possible to connect to Local Organizations as well as those
on National and International networks.
5.3.2.1 Searching Information
The Internet contains a vast amount of information covering a wide
variety of topics. It hosts Library Catalogues, Articles, News Items,
Reports, Multimedia, Reference Information, Company Information
and Personal Opinions.
The information is created from many different sources including
Academic
Institutions,
Government
Agencies,
Professional
Organizations, Commercial Information and Individuals.
A Search Engine is a useful tool for locating information on the web.
The Search
Engine program identifies and visits web pages on the
World Wide Web (A system of Internet Servers that use HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to transfer documents formatted in
HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language)). It gathers information and
automatically indexes the site. Any words found on the web pages
visited by the Search Engine are stored in the Search Engine
Database for future references.
5.3.2.2 TCP/IP Applications
The highest-level protocols within the TCP/IP protocol stack are
Application Protocols. They communicate with applications on other
internet hosts and are the user-visible interface to the TCP/IP
protocol suite.
All application protocols have some characteristics in common:

They can be user-written applications or applications
standardized and shipped with the TCP/IP product. Indeed, the
TCP/IP protocol suite includes application protocols such as:


Telnet for interactive terminal access to remote internet hosts
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for high-speed disk-to-disk file
transfers
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) as an internet mailing
system

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Most applications use Client / Server model of interaction.
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The Client/Server Model
A Server is an application that offers a service to internet users. A
Client is a requester of a service. An application consists of both a
Server and a Client part, which can run on the same or on different
systems. Users usually invoke the Client part of the Application,
which builds a request for a particular Service and sends it to the
Server part of the Application using TCP/IP as a transport vehicle.
The Server is a program that receives a request, performs the
required Service, and sends back the results in a reply. A Server can
usually deal with multiple requests and multiple requesting Clients
at the same time.
5.3.3 Connecting to the Internet
The Internet is a global network of computers that allows rapid, worldwide
communication. There are currently more than 250 million people connected
to the Internet. The purpose of the Internet is to communicate and share
information.
5.3.3.1 Connecting from Home
There are four main components to getting connected to the Internet:
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1.
Computer:- For PC access, a 400 Mhz or faster Processor is
recommended. With Windows 95/98 at least 48 MB of RAM
and more will help increase the computer’s speed for faster
Internet cruising. A Sound Card and Speakers also are
recommended so one can hear the audio information on the
Internet.
2.
Modem: - A modem allows digital data to be transmitted to
and from computer over phone lines. A modem (from
Modulate and Demodulate) is a device that modulates an
analog carrier signal to encode digital information. The goal is
to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and
decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can
be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from
driven diodes to radio. Modern modems run at 56,000 bps
(bits per second). This is commonly referred to as a 56K
modem.
3.
Internet Service Provider (ISP):- ISPs (Internet Service
Providers) are Organizations that allow users to dial into ISP
computers (for a fee) to connect to the ISP’s Internet link.
ISPs generally provide an Internet connection and an e-mail
address.
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4.
Software: - A Web Browser or Internet Browser is a
software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing
information resources on the World Wide Web. An
information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or
other piece of content. Although browsers are primarily
intended to access the World Wide Web, they can also be used
to access information provided by Web Servers in private
networks or files in file systems.
5.3.3.2 Basic Internet and Network Set Up
People use the Internet everyday to communicate with friends and
family, gather information, find entertainment and do much more.
There are several different ways to connect with your Internet
Service provider. In most cases, connection is set up using a Dial-Up
Connection, DSL or Cable.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a family of technologies that provide
digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network.
5.3.3.3 Connecting to the Internet using Broadband
Broadband connections to the Internet have become more popular
and affordable than ever. DSL and Cable offer higher speed
connections than Dial-Up, and also allows to connect to the Internet
without tying up with the Telephone Line, or getting a second line
just for Internet access.
5.3.3.4 Accessing the Internet through a Dial Up Account
Using a Dial-Up account is a good and inexpensive way to connect to
the Internet if you primarily just check email and do some light web
browsing. Dial-Up accounts are also great if you travel a lot, since
most ISPs have access numbers throughout the country.
5.3.4 Troubleshooting
Losing access to one’s e-mail and favorite Web sites can be as frustrating as
picking up a dead telephone receiver. Although the problem may lie with the
ISP, it's worth knowing how to troubleshoot user’s own end of the line, too.
5.3.4.1 Instructions
5.3.4.1.1
Modem not getting an answer from ISP
1.
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Make sure that the cable is correctly
connected to both a phone line and user’s
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2.
5.3.4.1.2
Connection Refusal by ISP
1.
2.
5.3.4.1.3
Making sure regarding correctness of
username and password. These are usually
entered through a connection program ISP
provided.
Check whether the host name and domain
name information are correctly entered in the
TCP/IP settings. This information will be
supplied by ISP.
Problems in Loading Web Pages or Sending E-mail
1.
2.
5.4
modem and that, when user is using an
external modem, it's connected to the PC.
If modem is internal, skip this step. Unplug
the power cord from modem and shut down
user’s computer. Plug the modem back in and
restart the computer.
Call ISP's support number to find out if the
user has been affected by a service outage.
Unplug the power from modem for at least 10
seconds, shut down the computer, plug the
modem back in and restart the computer.
Summary
Communication is the most popular use of the Internet, with email topping the list of
all the technologies used. Other technologies, including video and audio conferencing
are also available on the Internet. They require more multimedia capabilities of
computer systems and are more taxing of network resources than the others. They
also are adaptations of other technologies to the Internet.
Most of the technologies that are unique to the Internet require communication to be
done in text. Communicating effectively involves taking the time. When replying to a
message includes the pertinent parts of the message and use an appropriate and
interesting subject header in any case.
During communication on the Internet special care is required to be taken of not to
give out personal information to strangers and to treat others with respect. Be aware
of the risks involved in communicating with unknown persons since the
communicating message is not private.
Several issues related to ethical and legal considerations arise from using the
Internet for communication. The manner in which communication is implemented on
the Internet makes it susceptible to monitoring.
Another area of concern is dealing with abusive or offensive communications.
Unsolicited email or other forms of communication is called spam. It definitely is an
annoyance, but also quite costly to the people who receive the junk email or other
communications.
5.5
Model Answers
1.
What is Network?
Network is a collection of Computers
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2.
What is Internet?
The Internet is a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks
which are globally connected and decentralized in design. Since the
Computers are globally connected so one can access Internet from any
location and also there is no centralized body that controls the way in which
the Internet functions.
3.
What are the types of the Networks?
Networks are classified into two types: i. Local Area Network (LAN) and
ii. Wide Area Network (WAN)
4.
What is LAN?
It connects network devices over a relatively short distance like in a single
building or campus.
5.
What is WAN?
A WAN provides long distance transmission of data, voice, image and video
information over large geographical areas that may comprise a country,
continent, or even the whole world
6.
What is Protocol?
A Protocol is the set of rules that must be followed by two devices for
communication between them.
7.
What is TCP/IP Protocol suite?
The computers and computer networks exchange information using TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite to communicate with
each other.
8.
What are the Layers available in TCP/IP Protocol suite?
The following Layers are available in TCP/IP Protocol suite:
a.
b.
c.
d.
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Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internetwork Layer
Network Interface layer
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9.
What is a Modem?
A Modem (from Modulate and Demodulate) is a device that modulates an
analog carrier signal to encode digital information.
10.
What is an Internet Service Provider (ISP)?
ISPs (Internet Service Providers) are Organizations that allow users to dial
into ISP computers (for a fee) to connect to the ISP’s Internet link.
11.
What is Web Browser or Internet Browser?
A Web Browser or Internet Browser is a software application for
retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World
Wide Web
12.
What is World Wide Web?
A system of Internet Servers that use HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
to transfer documents formatted in HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language)
13.
What is Search Engine?
A Search Engine is a useful tool for locating information on the web.
14.
What is Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)?
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a family of technologies that provide digital
data transmission over the wires of a local telephone
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CHAPTER 6:
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WWW AND WEB BROWSER
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Chapter 6:
6.0
WWW and Web Browser
Introduction
WWW is a huge collection of hypertext pages on the Internet. The concept of www was
developed in Switzerland at the European Particle Research Center (CERN) in the year
1989.The first text-based prototype was operational in 1991.In the month of December,
1991,a public demonstration was given at Hypertext ’91’ conference in San Antonio, Texas
(USA). In the year 1993, the first graphical interface software package called Mosaic was
released.
The Mosaic became so popular that a year later the author of Mosaic Marc Andressen left the
National Center for supercomputing applications, where Mosaic was developed forming a
company called Netscape Communications Corporation. This company developed the clients,
servers and other web s/w.
In the year 1994, CERN and MIT of USA signed an agreement setting up the www
Consortium, an organization devoted to further developing the web, standardizing protocols
and interoperability between sites. Since this time hundreds of universities and companies
have joined the consortium.
In the first year after Mosaic was released, the number of www servers grew from 100 to
7000.The growth is expected to be exponential in the years to come and will probably be the
force driving the technology and use of the Internet into every walk of life of human being.
To access the web server we use client s/w called a browser program. With a browser, we can
choose an element on the web page, which can then cross-link us to a computer animation or
play sound or show another web page
6.1
Objectives
The chapter wills focuses on
1. Basic concept of World Wide Web
2. Basic features of World Wide Web
3. Understanding web browsing software and functions of some popular web browser
4. Familiarization of search engine and the process of search engine
5. Accessing web browser and handling Favorites folder
6. Process of downloading and printing web pages
7. Understanding URL, Domain name and IP address
8. Concept of e-governance website
6.2
World Wide Web (WWW)
The web is the most popular Internet service next to e-mail, but it accesses a larger quantity
and greater variety of data than any other service on the Internet.
The World Wide Web or the web in short is an Internet based global information system. It
makes available multimedia information from over 4 million computers around the world.
The web offers video, interactive multimedia and live audio, in addition to more basic data
types, such as text documents and still photographs.
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6.2.1 Important elements of the Web:
Web Sites Vs Web Pages:
Web site is a place on Internet where information about an organization has been
stored. Information can be a single page or multiple pages. Pages are linked in such a
way that by clicking you can move to another page.
A Web pages is a part of a complete Web site. A novel in a English literature is a
good analogy: think of the difference between a single page and the entire novel and
you can begin to understand the relationship between a Web page and a Web site.
 A novel in its totality is analogous to the Web site.
 An individual page is analogous to the Web page.
Web sites can consist of only a few Web pages or many hundreds of web pages. For
example, Microsoft’s Web site currently offers over 250,000 Web pages.
Dynamic and Static web sites
In computation technology, dynamic means energetic, capable of action and/or
change, or forceful, while static means stationary or fixed. Both terms can be applied
to a number of different types of things, such as programming languages (or
components), web pages, and application programs.
When a web page is requested, the server where the page is stored returns the
HTML document to the user’s computer and the browser displays it. On a static web
page, this is all that happens. The user may interact with the document through
clicking available links, or a small program may be activated, but the document has
no capacity to return information that is not pre-formatting. On a dynamic web page,
the user can make requests for data contained in a database on the server that will
be assembled on the fly accordingly to what is requested. For example the user might
want to find out information about a theoretical performance, such as theater
locations and ticket availability for particular dates. When the user selects these
options, the request is delayed to the server using an intermediary, such as an Active
Server Page(ASP) script embedded in the page’s HTML. The intermediary tells the
server what information to return. Such a web page is said to be dynamic.
Hypertext
Hypertext is a system of organizing, navigating, distributing and publishing
information electronically. Hypertext information is organized into an interconnected
web of linked text and image. Hypertext documents (called web pages) contain
navigational anchors (commonly known as hyperlinks) that allow you to navigate to
another part of the same document. It is also used for accessing information on the
Internet.
 Hypertext makes extremely large volumes of information from a wide variety of
sources available via a single medium (the web).
 Hypertext makes the information relatively easy to navigate using a universal
software application called a web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer
and Netscape Navigator.
The most common example of the hypertext is the help system available in windows
98 and other windows-based applications like Excel, Word, etc.
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Non – linear information
The basis of the hypertext system that differentiates it from any other information
system is its nonlinear format. All hypertext information systems, including the web
provide you with the ability to randomly access a vast amount of information by
clicking on special “hot spots” called hyperlinks, in the text that you browse.
Linear vs. Non-linear information
Information in a book or magazine article is given in a linear sequence, and the
information is intended to be understood in a specific, predefined order. If
information is not assimilated one after the other or if that order is disturbed, linear
publications lose their meaning and cannot be easily understood by a reader. On the
other hand hypertext non-linear systems not only allow you to navigate the path of
your choice – but also allow you to do so into the whole body of information.
Software tools such as web browsers allow you to navigate hypertext information
systems, and quickly revisit previously seen documents, web pages, etc.
Hyperlinks
A hyperlink or link is a navigational element in a hypertext document (such as web
page) which provides access to another hypertext document or multimedia file that
you may wish to visit. Web browsers, distinguish text hyperlinks by blue color or
underlined text blocks. When clicked with mouse, a hyperlink downloads and display:
 A different location in the current hypertext document or
 A different hypertext document
Hyperlinks often direct you to a related or more detailed information regarding the
desired subject matter. Rather than listing detailed information about each subject,
this page provides hyperlinks which would allow you to visit and view only the
information you desire.
Web Browser:
A Web browser is a software application program that resides on your PC and can
display text, images, and multimedia data found on different Web pages. It allows
you to specify a Web page, navigate using links, and “bookmark” your favourite Web
pages. The commonly used web browsers are Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator
and Mozilla Firefox.
6.2.2 Basic Features of Web
The web is one of the most flexible and exciting tools for surfing the Internet. Using
Mosaic viewer, the www made it possible for a site to set up a number of pages of
information containing text, picture, sound and even video with embedded links to
other pages. By clicking on a link, the user is moved to the page pointed to by that
link. For example a company can get a home page with entries pointing to other
pages for product information, price lists, sales, technical support, communication
with employees, stockholder information etc.
a)
Hypertext Information System
The idea behind hypertext is that instead of reading text in a rigid, linear
structure (such as book), you can skip easily from one point to another. You
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can get more information, go back, jump to other topics, and navigate
through the text based on what interests you at a time in the WWW.
If the information does not take up much disk space, then it is freely
available and you could get it reasonably quickly anytime you wanted.
b)
Graphical and easy to Navigate
One of the best features of the web is its ability to display both text and
graphics in full color on the same page. Before the web, using the Internet
involved simple text-only connections or complicated interfaces or encoding to
view graphic.
The web now provides capabilities for graphics, sound, and video to be
incorporated with the text. Newer web browsers include capabilities for
multimedia and embedded applications. More importantly the interface to all
this is easily navigable – just jump from link to link, from page to page,
across sites and servers.
c)
Cross-platform
Cross platform means that you can access web information equally well from
any computer h/w running any operating system using any type of display. If
you can access the Internet, you can access the WWW regardless of machine.
d)
The web is Distributed
The web is successful in providing so much information because that
information is distributed globally across thousands of web sites, each of
which contributes the space for the information it publishes. You as a
consumer of that information, go to that site to view the information. When
you are done you go somewhere else, and your system reclaims the disk
space. You do not have to install it, or change disks, or do anything other
than point your browser at that site.
e)
The web is Dynamic
Because information on the web is contained on the site that published it, the
people who published it in the first place can update it at any time. If you are
browsing that information you do not have to install a new version of the help
system, buy another book, or call technical support to get updated
information. Just point your browser and check out what is up there.
f)
Accessing many forms of Internet Information
There are dozens of different ways of getting the information on the Net
namely, FTP, Usenet news, Telnet and email. Before the web became as
popular as it is now, to get to these different kinds of information you had to
use different tools for each one, all of which had to be installed and all of
which used different commands. The web browsers namely IE, Netscape
Navigator have changed all this.
Although the web itself has its own information system, with its own protocol
(HTTP), web browsers can also read files from other Internet services and
you can create links to information on those systems just as you would crate
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links to information on web pages. To use your browser to get different types
of information on the Internet, you use different kinds of URLs. Most URLs
start with http:; which indicates a file at an actual web site. To get to a file on
the web using FTP, you would use a URL that looks:
ftp://name_of_site/directory/f1_name
g)
The web is Interactive
Interactivity is the ability to “talk back” to the web server. Unlike television,
the web is interactive. It means the act of selecting a link and jumping to
another web page to go somewhere else on the web. In addition to this simple
interactivity, the web also enables you to communicate with the publisher of
the pages you are surfing. For example pages can be designed that contain
interactive forms which reader can fill out. Forms can contain text-entry
areas, radio buttons, or simple menus of items. When the form is submitted
the information you typed is sent back to server where the pages originated.
You use forms for the following purposes:
 To get feedback about your pages
 To get information from your readers
 To provide online order forms for products or services available on the
web.
 To create guest books and conferencing systems that enables your
readers to post their own information on your pages.
In addition to forms, advanced features of web development provide more
facilities. For example Java enables you to include entire programs and
games inside web pages. Development of 3D world enables you and your
readers to browse the web as if they were wandering through real 3D rooms
and meeting other people
6.3
Web Browsing Software
A web browser is a program you use to view pages on Net and navigate the www. Browsers
are sometimes referred to as web clients. A wide range of web browsers is available for every
type of systems you can imagine, including GUI and text-only for dial-up UNIX connections.
Most browsers are freeware. All you have to do is to get a browser downloaded from the
Internet. A web browser does the following two types of services:
 Given a URL address, it should be able to access that information. For hypertext web
documents, this means that the browser must be able to communicate with the web
server using the HTTP protocol.
 Because the web can also manage information contained on FTP, in Usenet news
posting, in e-mail, and so on, browsers can often communicate with those servers or
protocols as well.
Different browsers may format and display the same file differently, depending on the
capabilities of the h/w and the default layout options for the browser itself. Retrieving
documents from the web and formatting them for your system are the two tasks that make
up the core of a browser’s functionality. However depending on the browser you use and the
features it includes you may also be able to play multimedia files, view and interact with
Java applets, read your mails or use other advanced features that a particular browser
offers.
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6.3.1 Popular Web Browsing Software
ncSA Mosaic: Few years ago, Mosaic had Netscape’s place on the web as the most
popular browser. As a matter of fact Mosaic was the first full-color graphical browser
and is the instrumental in making the web as popular as it is today. Mosaic was
developed by ncSA at the University of Illinois, with several supported commercial
versions available from companies such as Spry and Spyglass.ncSA Mosaic is free for
personal use and comes in versions for Windows, Macintosh and UNIX (the X
window system). Each version is called WinMosaic, MacMosaic and Xmosaic
respectively.
Lynx: If the only connection you have to the Internet is through a dial-up text-only
UNIX or other account, you are limited to using text-only browsers such as Lynx. You
will not be able to view documents in color or view graphics online. Lynx was
originally developed by the University of Kansas and now by Foteos Macrides at the
Worcester Foundation for Biological Research. It is an excellent browser for text only
Internet connection such as dial-up UNIX account. It requires VT100 terminal
emulation, which most terminal emulation programs should support. You can use
arrow keys to select links in web pages. Because Lynx runs on systems that lack the
ability to display graphics, viewing web pages using Lynx gives you nothing but the
text and the links. Designing pages that work equally well in Lynx and in graphical
browsers is one of the more interesting challenges of web page design.
Netscape Navigator: It is also known as Netscape and is available for Windows,
Macintosh, and for many different versions of UNIX running the X windows system.
It is well supported and provides up to the minute features including an integrated
news and mail reader, support for Java applets, and the ability to handle “plug-ins”
for more new and interesting features yet to be developed.
Microsoft Internet Explorer: New on the scene but expected to make a significant
impact in the coming months is Microsoft’s new browser Internet Explorer, usually
just called Explorer. Explorer runs on all versions of Windows OS, and Macintosh,
and
it
is
free
for
downloading
from
Microsoft’s
Web
site
(http://www.microsoft.com/ie/)
Mozilla Firefox: It is a fast, full-featured web browser that makes browsing very
efficient. Firefox includes pop-up blocking, tab browsing, integrated google searching,
simplified privacy controls that let you cover your tracks more effectively. A
streamlined browser window that shows you more of the page than any other
browser and a number of additional features that work with you to help you get the
most out of your time online. This is also available free.
6.4
Search Engine
A search engine is a program which looks through its database for information that matches
your request. Information in the database are about websites and their contents. Examples
of search engines are Alta Vista, Yahoo, Hot Java Excite, Infoseek, HotBot etc. Some Indian
search engines are Jadoo, Khoj, I love India, 123 India etc.
The effectiveness of search engine can be measured by two main parameters:
 Indexing exhaustivity
 Term specificity
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Indexing is the processing of a document representation by assigning content descriptions or
terms to the document. In Indexing the web documents are characterized by recall ( ratio of
the number of relevant documents retrieved to the total number of documents retrieved).
This function can be performed either manually or automatically. But many of websites
render manual indexing quite impractical.
Automatic indexing includes single term indexing, statistical methods, as well as information
theoretical and probabilistic methods. In addition to this automatic indexing uses linguistic
and multi-term or phrase indexing.
Since the Internet is a vast collection of information, it is difficult to find specific information
you actually need. Therefore the search feature in a web browser such as the Internet
Explorer provides an easy access to a special facility called search engine. Search engines
scan the Internet for the words or topics you are looking for. Web crawler is a program that
crawls through the web and collects information regarding the web sites. These information
are put into the database of a search engine worms, spider, or robots are the types of the
crawlers.
6.4.1 Popular Search Engines/Search for content
There are many search engines available on the web. Most of the search engines
provide website reviews and homepage services, in addition to key-word searches.
Some of the popular search engines are:
a. Yahoo! And Alta Vista
b. HotBot
c. WebCrawler
d. Excite
e. Lycos
f. Magellan
g. Google
a)
Yahoo!
It is basically a search directory. It is hierarchically organized with subject
catalogue or directory of the web which is browsable and searchable. Links to
various services are accomplished in two ways:
a. By user’s submissions
b. Through robots that retrieve new links from known pages
Yahoo! indexes web pages, Usenet and e-mail addresses. This search engine
has 14 categories listed on its homepage. Each of these categories is divided
into several subcategories. A search box is provided for user search in all
these options. You can search Yahoo! in two modes:
a. Yahoo! search page
b. Yahoo! search options
Yahoo! search page uses operators such as (+) inclusive and (-) exclusive etc.
Yahoo! search options are meant to get switches for fine-tunning yahoo
search. These switches use relevancy ranking in obtaining the query output.
The query output is a list of documents and related Yahoo! categories, along
with the first few lines of the document.
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If the search request fails in Yahoo!, it is automatically routed to Alta Vista
for more search. Yahoo! offers a lot of extra services like free email accounts,
region specific sites, searches to locate people, site reviews and a
customizable news page.
b)
AltaVista
This has been created by the research facility of Digital Electronics
Corporation(DEC) of USA. This search engine has a spider called scooter that
traverses the web and Usenet newsgroups.
Indexing is based on the full text of a document and the first few lines are
used as an abstract. AltaVista search supports full Boolean, phrase and case
sensitive searches. The engine has two modes of search types namely, simple
and advanced search.
In simple search AltaVista will attempt to find pages that include as many of
your search words as possible, and rank those pages highest to lowest in the
result. In advanced search the page uses the same syntax rules as the basic
search, but it adds Boolean operators to make searches much more flexible.
The operators include &(AND), |(OR), and !(NOT).
The advanced search ranks results on the basis of giving a higher score to
documents that contain the query terms in the first few words or the
documents in which the query terms are found close to each other.
c)
HotBot
This engine retrieves and indexes web documents using a robot called Slurp
and a parallel network of workstations. HotBot comes in two types:
Like(ordinary HTML) and ActiveX. HotBot offers simple keyword as well as
Boolean searches. This search engine is most suitable for searching specific
words or phrases. The HotBot search contains a text box for the users to
enter their query string, and a list box to choose the appropriate rule, like all
words, any words, or exact phrases. HotBot is primarily used for fine-tunning
your search. You can select whether the target page must or must not contain
the words or exact phrases.
d)
WebCrawler
WebCrawler has a powerful search customization and a good selection of site
reviews. It has a Web robot called a Webbot that creates a daily index of
keywords from documents all over the web. The robot starts with a known set
of HTML documents and uses the URLs in them to retrieve new documents.
The search engine directs the navigation in a modified breadth-first mode. It
indexes both the title and the full text of HTML documents. Terms are
weighted by their frequency of occurrences in the document.
WebCrawler also features a WebRoulette, which suggests randomly selected
sites for you to visit. It has another option called Surf the Web Backwards,
which allows you to enter an URL and get a list of all the sites which link
directly to it.
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e)
Excite
It uses a spider and indexer for the full text search of documents. The spider
retrieves only web and Usenet newsgroup documents. Users can submit
URLs for indexing. The indexer generates index terms and a short document
summary. The Excite index consists of about 50 million URLs.
This engine is a full-featured search engine. It offers services like searches
that are case sensitive. The Boolean operators used by Excite are AND, NOT
and OR.
f)
InfoSeek
It is a popular search engine with a robot that retrieves HTML and PDF
documents. It indexes full text and generates a short summary of each
document. InfoSeek allows searches in the web, Usenet groups, and web
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). This offers indexed site searches and
divides the web into a number of convenient baskets. Unlike Yahoo! InfoSeek
aims to have catalogued more websites than virtually any other search
engine on the Internet.
g)
Lycos
It contains 66 million pages in its database. This search engine has a robot
that uses heuristics to navigate the web and build a searchable index. For
each document indexed, the robot keeps the outgoing links in a queue and
selects a URL from it. One heuristics for example may force the robot to
select a URL that points to a web server’s homepage. Users can submit URLs
for indexing. Lycos indexes titles, headings, and subheadings of HTML, FTP
and Gopher documents. It also offers a lot of content like news, site review,
links a people finder, etc. It also has the ability to search for images and
sounds.
h)
Google
Google is an interesting search engine having many unique features. For
example you want search company information. It is useful for company
searches because of the unusual way it ranks web sites. Type
http://www.google.com in the address bar and press Enter to go to the Google
home page. When you are there type the company name in the search box
and click the Google search button. Google is so good at finding the best
matching web sites in a search, it offers a feature to automatically look for
the best possible match and load it. To use this feature, type a company’s
name in the search box and click.
i)
Other search engines
There are other many search engines on the web such as InfoMarket,
MetaCrawler, IndiaInfo.com, All4one and Highways61.com. choosing the
right search engine will need patience and experience. If you use Meta search
engines, then they minimize your effort to search to a great extent. A search
engine is evolving everyday to improve web retrieval efficiency.
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6.4.1.1 Searching criterion
a)
Search Tools
The search tools have two ways to find specific information:
 Directories
 Spiders
The problem with directories, which store knowledge in some
structure, is that classification is labour-intensive activity, and there
are far more publishers of directories than classifiers on the web. And
if the information you are looking for is not reflected by the
classification structure, then you are out of luck and this happens
very often.
An alternative to this is intensive automation that involves a spider
or robot that explores the web and helps to find web pages. Spiders
(also known as the crawler, robot or bot) have the ability to test
databases against queries and order the resulting matches. They
have a user interface for obtaining and presenting results. A spider
strips away many other markup features so that it simply sees the
pure HTML source. However a spider is blind to information
contained in images and audio or video clips.
b)
Search services
Search services broadcast user queries to several search engines and
various other information sources simultaneously. They then merge
the results submitted by these different sources, check for duplicates,
and present them to the users as an HTML page with clickable URLs.
Search sites are basically of the following two types:
a. search directories
b. search engines
Search Directories : Search directories contain a list of websites
organized hierarchically into categories and sub-categories.
Search Engine: A search engine continuously sends out the socalled spiders, which start on a homepage of a server and pursue all
links stepwise. Word indices are created from individual pages and
the database is updated.
To eliminate the need for looking up several search engines, log on to
Meta search sites. They take your requests to various search engines
and help you with a better coverage. Meta search sites do not have
search capabilities of their own.
How to do search using search engines?
Using a search engine is pretty simple. Just type in the data to be
searched, the space provided at the search engine’s current page, and
click search. The result will be displayed with information
corresponding to the search in the form of clickable URLs leading to
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the pages you seek. In some search engines, the data is related only
after editorial processing.
6.4.2 Accessing Web Browser
To access a web browser you need to do the following:
1. Install a web browser software like Internet Explorer, Mozila Firefox on any
other in your machine.
2. Double click that particular icon. To open the browser
3. Provide an address of a page which you want to see in the address bar and press
Enter
6.4.3 Using Favorites Folder
If you want to save a site that you enjoy to come back to later, and you use web
browser for example Microsoft Internet Explorer, then you need to learn how to use
your Internet Explorer Favorites. Internet Explorer Favorites, also known as
bookmarks, are simply a way of saving a site that you like so you can find it later
without going on the Web to search for it. It's also a great system for organizing your
search efforts in manageable folders. If you don't have Internet Explorer and would
like to try it out, download Internet Explorer from Microsoft's Internet Explorer site.
How To Create A Favorite in Internet Explorer
1. Find a site you enjoy in your web search travels, and would like to save for future
reference.
2. Click on the "Favorites" icon in the Internet Explorer toolbar.
3. You'll see either a drop down menu or a left side screen window pop up;
depending on which Favorites icon or button you selected (there are two). Select
"Add", and click OK.
4. In my own experience, it's best to organize your Internet Explorer Favorites as
you add them by collecting them in folders. Otherwise you'll have a unwieldy
mess that is more trouble than it's worth.
Using Your Internet Explorer Favorites
Remember that Favorites icon in the Internet Explorer toolbar? Click on it again,
and then find the Favorite you'd like to visit. Of course, your Favorites are organized
neatly (in a perfect world, that is!) so this should be an easy task.
Deleting Your Internet Explorer Favorites
Sometimes you'll come across a Favorite that you have no use for, and can't really
figure out why you added it in the first place. This is where the Delete key comes in
handy.
1. Click on the Internet Explorer Favorites icon, and select Organize Favorites.
2. Select the Favorite you want to delete, and click on the Delete button.
3. You'll be asked if you are sure you want to delete this; click Yes.
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Organizing Your Internet Explorer Favorites
Seriously, do this as soon as you add a Favorite and your life will be much easier. I
have at least 300 stray Favorites from my time spent searching the Web that I need
to organize right now and I'm not looking forward to it! So, do as I say, not as I do.
Organizing your Favorites in folders is easy:
1. Click on the Favorites icon, then on the Organize Favorites button.
2. Select the New Folder button. Pick an intuitive name, such as "Favorite Blogs",
and click Ok.
3. Now, select the Favorite you want to organize, and click on the Move button.
4. Select the folder you want to move this Internet Explorer Favorite to, and click
Ok.
5. The best way to keep your Favorites useable is to move the Favorite to a folder as
soon as you want to add it.
Another Way To Organize Your Internet Explorer Favorites
Another way to organize your Favorites is:
1. Right-click on the Start option in your toolbar; then select Explore.
2. Select your Favorites folder from your hard drive. Mine was under Documents
and Settings.
3. And get to organizing. It is MUCH faster than doing it through Internet
Explorer's semi-hokey method. You can organize folders, add new folders, and
delete en masse.
6.4.4 Downloading Web Pages
To download a web page you need to do the following:
1. Type the address of any search engine ( i.e like http://www.google.com for
Google) in the address bar and press Enter to go to the search engine’s home page
( here Google home page).
2. When you are there type the keyword you want to search( like company name) in
the search box and click the search button.
3. search engine is so good at finding the best matching web sites in a search, it
offers a feature to automatically look for the best possible match and load it.
4. Then you select any particular web sites from the matching list
5. Next you go to the File -> Save Page As to download and save that page in a
particular location of your machine
You can also download any particular file or program from the web page. In that case
you just click the Download button to download that file or program which is situated
in the particular web page .
6.4.5 Printing Web Pages
Printing web pages is easy. However, that being said, you probably don't want
graphics intensive ads all over your information. Here's how to do it without the
extra junk:
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1. Select your text. You can do this by holding your mouse button down and
moving it over the text, or you hit Ctrl A. However, if there are graphics on the
page, Ctrl A will get the graphics as well.
2. Print. Once you have your text selected, press Ctrl, then P. It is strongly
suggested that you do NOT hit the Print button. You will not be able to
narrow down your selection. Instead, if you punch in Ctrl P, you'll be able to
select the radio button that says "Print Selection." You'll only print out what you
have selected this way. (The Ctrl button is located on the bottom left of your
keyboard. Press on Ctrl, then P, to print.)
6.5
Understanding URL
URL or Uniform Resource Locator refers to address on the Internet. Files can be accessed on
Internet through their URLs. The URL contains the following information:
 The Internet name of the site containing resource
 The type of service the resource is served by(HTTP,FTP,etc)
 The Internet port number of the service.If this is omitted the browser assumes a
commonly accepted default value
 The location of the resource in the directory structure of the server
Structure of URL

Common form of a URL is
http://www.address.edu:1234/path/subdir/file.htm
Service: First part of URL is the service that Identifies both the protocol and server
Address and Port number: The 2nd part is the Internet address of the server, indicated by
//. This address can also contain optional port number. The full name is specified by
//www.address.edu:1234/, where :1234 means port number. One can leave this part and write
as //www.address.edu/. Normally web server’s name starts with www for world wide web.The
.edu indicates that address is a school or university
Resource Location: The location of the resource is specified after the host name. The
resource in the server is specified by path/subdir/file.htm
There are two types of URL, Absolute URL and Relative URL.
URL that specifies the location of a resource that resides on the Internet is called absolute
URL. It is complete path including the domain and file name. Example:
http://www.yahoo.com/images/logo.gif specifies an image file(logo.gif) located in the image
directory in the www.yahoo.com domain.
A partially qualified URL is the one that specifies a resource on the Internet whose location
is relative to a starting point specified by an absolute URL. In fact the concatenated absolute
and relative URLs constitute a complete URL. After going to the absolute URL one can use
relative URL to point to another file in the same directory by just using other document’s
filename as the relative URL.The additional information like service, hostname, port,
directory name will be assumed based on the URL used to reach the first document
6.5.1 IP Address and Domain name:
An Internet is a network of networks. It basically consists of network nodes like
computers. All these devices are interconnected to communicate with each other.
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Each device in a network must have a unique address to be identified. this address
makes this device unique on that network and any other computer or device can
communicate with it by using this specific address. There are two major types of
addressing schemes that are used in the Internet: IP addressing and DNS addressing
In the IP addressing scheme IP stands for Internet protocols. IP is a number or value
that is used to uniquely identify a computer on the Internet. It is a 32 bit value and
this number can be divided into four different sections separated by period. As each
section is of 8 bits thus, it can represent a value in the range of 0 to 255.Each section
is known as an octet. Each time a computer is connected to the Internet, it is
assigned a specific IP address dynamically by the ISP.In IP addressing scheme
Internet Service Provider(ISP) assign a unique id to each computer. This IP address
is not static as every time you will get a new id from ISP.
DNS is known as Domain Name Server, system or service. Its purpose is to translate
domain names into IP addresses. Whenever we use a domain name, then a service is
used for translating domain names into IP address and is known as DNS. For exam
the domain name www.computer-games.com might translate to 192.111.221.2. If one
DNS server does not know how to translate the particular domain name it asks
another DNS server and this process continues until the correct IP address is
returned.
DNS uses alphabets and easier to remember but actually each domain name has an
address and DNS scheme is used to convert this domain name into its corresponding
address.In the Internet,the domain name space is divided into three different
sections
a)Generic domains
b)Country domains
c)Inverse domains
The generic domains define registered hosts according to their generic behavior.
Each node in the tree defines a domain, which is an index to the domain name space
database. The first level in the generic domain section allows seven possible threecharacter labels like com,edu,etc
The country domain section follows the same format as the generic domains but
uses two-character country abbreviations.
The inverse domain is used to map an address to a name. This may happen for
example when a server has received a request from a client to do a task. whereas the
server has a file that contains a list of authorized clients,the server lists only the IP
address of the client (extracted from the received IP packet). To determine if the
client is on the authorized list, it can send a query to the DNS server and ask for a
mapping of address to name.
Today DNS is the standard for resolving names to addresses. DNS is a client/server
system in which the resolvers query name servers to find an address record for a
domain name. The query process begins with the root name servers. If the root name
server does not know the answer, it returns the address of a name server that knows
more details about the domain name. The resolver then queries the new name server.
This iterative process continues until a name server responds with the address for
the domain name.
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6.6
Surfing the web
Surfing the Internet is usually seen as very useful, fun, dangerous, or a tremendous waste of
time, depending on who you ask. All of the above is true, but what is also true is that the
Internet is a necessity for today's computer users. It is, in one sense, the world's largest
encyclopedia (don't know something? look it up on the Net), but it's also the world's largest
data and software repository. Looking for printer drivers? better word processor than
Notepad? a good antivirus package? a walkthrough on installing a second hard drive? advice
on how to handle a balky Windows install? the new plug-in for your copy of Diablo XII?
Whatever you need, you can find it and download it over the Internet, often for free.
6.6.1 Using e-governance website
e-Government (short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital
government, online government, or connected government) is creating a
comfortable, transparent, and cheap interaction between government and citizens
(G2C – government to citizens), government and business enterprises (G2B –
government to business enterprises) and relationship between governments (G2G –
inter-agency relationship). There are four domains of e-government namely,
governance, information and communication technology(ICT), business process reengineering(BPR)and e-citizen.
The primary delivery models of e-Government can be divided into:




Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Consumer (G2C)
Government-to-Business (G2B)
Government-to-Government (G2G)
Government-to-Employees (G2E)
Within each of these interaction domains, four kinds of activities take place:




Pushing information over the Internet, e.g.: regulatory services, general holidays,
public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc.
Two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or
another government agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with
agencies and post problems, comments, or requests to the agency.
conducting transactions, e.g.: lodging tax returns, applying for services and
grants.
Governance, e.g.: online polling, voting, and campaigning.
6.6.1.1 Non-internet e-Government
While e-government is often thought of as "online government" or "Internetbased government," many non-Internet "electronic government" technologies
can be used in this context. Some non-Internet forms include telephone, fax,
PDA, SMS text messaging, MMS, wireless networks and services, Bluetooth,
CCTV, tracking systems, RFID, biometric identification, road traffic
management and regulatory enforcement, identity cards, smart cards and
other Near Field Communication applications; polling station technology
(where non-online e-voting is being considered), TV and radio-based delivery
of government services, email, online community facilities, newsgroups and
electronic mailing lists, online chat, and instant messaging technologies.
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6.7
Summary
Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (aka. the Web) interchangeably,
but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. The Internet and the Web are two separate
but related things.
The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects
millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can
communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.
Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as
protocols. Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are the two
important protocol used in the Internet.
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of
the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web
uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit
data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to
exchange business logic, use the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers,
such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are
linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and
video.
The Web is just one of the ways that information can be disseminated over the Internet. The
Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups,
instant messaging and FTP. So the Web is just a portion of the Internet, although a large
portion, but the two terms are not synonymous and should not be confused.
6.8
Model Answers
1.
What is www?
Ans:
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the
medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the
Internet.
2.
What is Web Browser
Ans:
A web browser is a program you use to view pages on Net and navigate the www.
Browsers are sometimes referred to as web clients.
3.
What is search engine
Ans:
A search engine is a program which looks through its database for information that
matches your request. Information in the database are about websites and their
contents.
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4.
What is URL?
Ans:
URL or Uniform Resource Locator refers to address of the site containing resource
5.
What is Domain name?
Ans:
DNS is known as Domain Name Server, system or service. Its purpose is to translate
domain names into IP addresses. Whenever we use a domain name, then a service is
used for translating domain names into IP address and is known as DNS. For exam
the domain name www.computer-games.com might translate to 192.111.221.2.
6.
What is IP address?
Ans:
IP stands for Internet protocols. IP is a number or value that is used to uniquely
identify a computer on the Internet. It is a 32-bit value and this number can be
divided into four different sections separated by period. As each section is of 8 bits
thus, it can represent a value in the range of 0 to 255.Each section is known as an
octet
7.
What is e-governance?
Ans:
e-Government is creating a comfortable, transparent, and cheap interaction
between government and citizens, government and business enterprises and
relationship between governments
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CHAPTER 7:
COMMUNICATION AND COLLABORATION
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Chapter 7:
7.0
Communication and Collaboration
Introduction
To communicate is the essence of being human. Effective communication is an essential
skill needed to thrive in the world. Beyond mastering subject area content, our students
need to be able to express themselves in a variety of methods. They must also understand
and come to value that effective communication is nearly always a two-way process. And yet
without effective communication, true collaboration is impossible; Today's world is much
different, yet the need for communication and collaboration is just as important, if not more.
Even though our choices for how we express ourselves digitally are growing every day
(through voice and video-chats, and even avatars in immersive virtual worlds), the
facial gestures and body language that clarifies the meaning of spoken words are absent from
these communications.
The collaborative efforts to construct vessels and shelters are now replaced by collaborative
efforts to solve the unique problems faced in a rapidly changing world, where a person is
measured not by what she knows, but by how well she can solve problems. Thus we need to
learn the new ways of communicating, new ways of collaborating, and new ways of teaching
and learning.
7.1
Objectives
"Communities are not built of friends, or of groups of people with similar styles and
tastes, or even of people who like and understand each other. They are built of people
who feel they are a part of something bigger than themselves." Suzanne Goldsmith


To communicate effectively, proactively, responsively and collaboratively to
produce learning and teaching activities enhanced by communication tools on the
Internet.
To learn how to build sustainable online communities.
7.1.1 Email • Blackboard Messaging • Chat
Keep everyone connected using a suite of familiar communication tools. All
course members can email one another from within the course. Email
messages are sent and received by the user’s personal email account and are
not part of the course record. Email accounts may be set up at an
institutional level and populated in the course with other student
information. Email addresses are hidden within the course; an email author
is simply presented with a list of course members. The Personal Information
Tool allows users to edit their email address, if permitted by the institution.
Similar to email, Blackboard messaging sends secure messages from within
the course, but without relying on email. Users must be logged into a course
to retrieve their messages. By using Blackboard Massaging instead of Email,
instructors can drive students to log in more frequently to receive
communication. Blackboard Messages do become a part of the course record.
Communicating instantly using the Chat tool provides a platform for
brainstorming, fast feedback, and social interaction. Chat sessions can be
scheduled in advance or occur spontaneously. The session moderator can
decide to record a session, creating an archive that can be released to -others.
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Chat archives are fully searchable and can contain bookmarks for easy
navigation during review. Chat is also part of the Virtual Classroom.
7.2
Basics of Email
7.2.1 What is email?
An email stands for electronic mail it consists of two components, the
message header, and the message body, which is the email's content. The
message header contains control information, including, minimally, an
originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually
additional information is added, such as a subject header field.
Internet e-mail messages consist of two major sections:


Header — Structured into fields such as summary, sender, receiver, and
other information about the e-mail.
Body — The message itself as unstructured text; sometimes containing a
signature block at the end. This is exactly the same as the body of a
regular letter.
The header is separated from the body by a blank line.
From: The e-mail address, and optionally
the name of the author(s). In many e-mail
client setting is not changeable except through
changing account settings.
To: The e-mail addresses, and optionally
name(s) of the message's recipient(s).
Indicates- primary recipients (multiple
allowed), for secondary recipients use Cc: and
Bcc.
Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy; addresses added
to the SMTP delivery list but not (usually)
listed in the message data, remaining
invisible to other recipients.
Cc: Carbon copy; many e-mail clients will
mark e-mail in your inbox differently
depending on whether you are in the To: or
Cc: list.
Subject: A brief summary of the topic of the
message. Certain abbreviations are commonly
used in the subject, including "RE:" and "FW:"
Date: The local time and date when the message was written. Like the From: field, many email
clients fill this in automatically when sending. The recipient's client may then display the time in the
format and time zone local to him/her
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7.2.2 Email address
The process of sending an e-mail message can be explained in 5 basic steps.
Let's say you have an e-mail address [email protected] and you
need to send a mail message to us at [email protected] This is the
route which your mail travels until it is delivered:
1.
First you need to open your email client program and compose the
message. The message composition can include typing the text
message in the text field, attaching files and photos and filling the
"To…" field with the e-mail address which you want to send the mail
to. Also, with some e-mail client programs, or when you have more
than one email address set up, you will need to specify the e-mail
address from which you will send the mail in the "From" field.
When the message is composed you need to send it by pressing the
"Send" button of your mail client software. The email software will
automatically format the mail message in an e-mail format and send
it to your pre-configured SMTP server, typically set at port 25.
The next major step proceeds in your mailbox's SMTP server. The
SMTP server is the server application which is responsible for
sending messages over the SMTP protocol. It is a service commonly
provided by your ISP. You can also use the SMTP server of your mail
service provider instead. Once the message is sent from the mail
client, the SMTP server receives it over the network and reads the
email address set in the "To" field. Then it asks for the MX record
corresponding to the recipient’s e-mail address. For example, if we
send a message to [email protected], the SMTP server
asks the DNS Zone server for a MX record for the domain my-ntcdomain.com.
Once the DNS server responds with the MX DNS record of the
recipient’s e-mail address, the SMTP server connects to it and
delivers the message to the opposite mail server.
Once the e-mail message is delivered to the mailbox on the recipient’s
mail server, the recipient can start his/her mail client software
application and receive the message by downloading it from the
server using the POP3 protocol. Also, the mail can be read on the
server by using an IMAP protocol connection.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Email address such as [email protected], have two parts. The part before
the @ sign is the local-part of the address, often the username of the recipient
(kb.12), and the part after the @ sign is a domain name to which the e-mail
message will be sent (example.com). The local-part is case sensitive; therefore
[email protected] and [email protected] specify different mailboxes.
7.2.2.1 Benefits
The benefits of e-mail are huge in number.


Easy to use: E-mail frees us from the tedious task of managing data of
daily use. It helps us to manage our contacts, send mails quickly,
maintain our mail history, store the required information, etc.
Speed: The e-mail is delivered instantly, anywhere across the globe. No
other service matches the e-mail in terms of speed.
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






Easy to prioritize: Since the mails have subject lines, it is easy to
prioritize them and ignore unwanted mails.
Reliable and secure: Constant efforts are being taken to improve the
security in electronic mails. Thus making it one of the secured ways of
communication.
Informal and conversational: The language used in e-mails is generally
simple and thus makes the communication informal. Sending and
receiving e-mails takes less time, so it can be used as a tool for
interaction.
Easier for reference: When one needs to reply to a mail, there is a
provision in the mailing system to attach the previous mails as
references. This refreshes the recipient's knowledge, on what he is
reading.
Automated e-mails: It is possible to send automated e-mails using special
programs like the auto responders. The auto responders reply back to the
sender with generalized pre-written text messages.
Environment friendly: Postal mails use paper as a medium to send
letters. Electronic mail thus, saves a lot of trees from being axed. It also
saves fuel needed in transportation.
Use of graphics: Colorful greeting cards and interesting pictures can be
sent through e-mails. This adds value to the e-mail service.
Advertising tool: Many individuals and companies are using e-mails to
advertise their products, services, etc.
7.3
Working with email
7.3.1 Opening an email account
If you do not have your own email address, here are web sites which provide
free email in return for your reading advertising every time you sign on
Google
yahoo
msn
http://mail.google.com/
http://www.mail.yahoo.com/
http://mail.msn.com/
Click on Sign up for Gmail
Click on Sign up for yahoo
Click on Sign up for msn
Each free email site has its own sign-on procedures.
You have to answer all the questions, but you don’t have to tell the absolute
truth. I like to say that my income is really large -- even if it is only for a
moment.
When you are done you will have an instant email account, you should check
your mail. The first message is usually a welcome from the mail service.
Assignment: Send your instructor your first message at: [email protected]
Don't forget to write down and keep the username and password you select.
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7.3.1.1 Stimulating Collaboration
Groups • Discussion Board • Portfolios
Blackboard makes it easier for students to collaborate online sharing
materials, projects, assignments and study sessions. Collaboration
can be open to the entire class as well as for specific groups of
students working on a common task or project. Break down the class
into collaborative units to support group work on the Control Panel,
under User Management > Manage Groups. Some types of
collaboration may involve all course users, such as “Peer-to-Peer
Help”. Create a group that includes all the students to incorporate
such an environment. Groups can be set up any time during the
course and can be managed dynamically throughout the course by
adding, removing and modifying them. Groups can be given access to
different tools such as Chat and Discussion Board so that each group
can have its own areas to work in.
Group projects, study sessions, peer review and round table dialogue
are some examples of how the Discussion Board can be used to
encourage collaboration. This threaded message board organizes
postings under topic headings or Forums. Creating student centered
forums on topics relevant to the course allows students to read and
consider what others have posted before composing a response.
Links to items on the Discussion Board can be embedded anywhere in
the course to generate continuous feedback. To maintain high quality
content, allow students to rate each other’s postings. Discussion
boards can also be moderated by any designated user to ensure
appropriate and relevant content. Forums are added to a course using
the Control Panel > Discussion Board > Add Forum.
Forum settings include rating, moderation, editing, attachments,
grading and many more.
Students can create a continuous assemblage of their work using
Portfolios. Portfolios can display work from various classes and other
sources in one place, located within the Content Collection. An
example of an individual portfolio for a Journalism student might
contain their articles from the school newspaper, images from a
photography course, and essays from writing classes. A cohort of
graduate students might assemble a portfolio that contained each
person’s thesis, a departmental bibliography and examples of
research techniques.
Faculty can use portfolios to share information about themselves with
students and other departments. Faculty can also use portfolios to
assemble information and work in support of seeking tenure.
Portfolios are searchable, and can be shared with other Blackboard
users or with anyone who does not have a Blackboard account.
Comments collected from viewers can be shared or kept private.
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7.3.2 Mail Box: Inbox and Out-Box
The "in box" contains the mail sent to you, available now to read, answer,
store, or delete. The out box (or sent box) shows mail you already sent.
7.3.3 Creating and Sending New email
1. In the To box, type the
e-mail address of at least one
recipient. If you're sending
the message to multiple
recipients, type a semicolon
(;) between e-mail addresses.
To attach a file to the message, click the
Attach File to Message button on the
toolbar (located just below the menu
bar). Locate the file, select it, and then
click Open. The file now appears in the
Attach box in the message header.
In the Cc box, you can type
the e-mail addresses of any
secondary recipients—people
who should know about the
message but don't need to
act on it. They'll receive the
same message as the people
in the To box. If there are no
secondary recipients, leave
this box blank.
2. In the Subject box, type a
title for your message.
3. In the large blank area, type
your message.
File attached to an e-mail message
You're done! To send the message, click
the Send button. It zips through the
Internet to your recipients.
Note: - To change the style, font, size, or color of the text, select the text, and then
click one of the buttons on the formatting bar (located just above the message area).
7.3.4 Replying to an email messages
The part where you write the answer can be done in different ways, however.
Of course, there is no "proper" way to do that. At the same time there are
many proper ways. Everything that works for you (and the recipient) is great.
This is why I'll show you what works for me. Maybe it does for you, too.
7.3.5 Email forwarding
Email forwarding generically refers to the operation of re-sending an email
message delivered to one email address on to a possibly different email
address. The term forwarding has no specific technical meaning. Users and
administrators of email systems use the same term when speaking of both
server-based and client-based forwarding.
Email forwarding can also redirect mail going to one address and send it to
one or several other addresses. Vice versa, email items going to several
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different addresses can converge via forwarding to end up in a single address
in-box.
7.3.6 Sorting and Searching mails (say in Gmail)
To find messages from a specific sender:
1. Type from:[email protected] or even from: name1 into the search bar.
Search.
2. [Alternate method] Open Contacts, find the sender in your Contacts, select
them, and select Show recent conversations.
3. BEFORE YOU DELETE ANYTHING from Gmail, make sure you
understand how deletion works with conversations.
To find messages to a specific recipient:
1. Type to:[email protected] or even to: name1 into the search bar. If you
just want mails that you have sent, type from: me as well. Example: "from:
me to: name1"
2. [Alternate method] Open Contacts, find the recipient in your Contacts,
select them, and select Show recent conversations.
3. BEFORE YOU DELETE ANYTHING from Gmail, make sure you
understand how deletion works with conversations.
TO SORT YOUR MESSAGES (outside of Gmail):
1. Install an email client such as Outlook, Apple Mail or Thunderbird onto
your computer.
2. Configure it with IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).
3. Sort the messages in the email client, take whatever actions you want.
4. The changes will be reflected in Gmail as well.
7.4
Document collaboration
Collaboration of documents is very crucial in a business or any institution since it
allows people within the establishment to communicate with one another by means of
using the different documents in the system. On the other hand, the relay of the
messages through the documents also enables key personnel within the institution to
make sound business decisions. For this reason, it is extremely important to have a
good document collaboration system.
So what else do you need to know about document collaboration? It is simply
creating a pool of written works by multiple people which is overseen by an editor or
another team. It involves file exchange through removable media or by email,
through file server, information portals or SharePoint and Wikis.
With document collaboration, the contributors have the ability to add, edit and even
remove the text in the system if deemed appropriate. On the other hand, the writing
process can be changed from time to time as well depending on the goal of the
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system. For this reason, it is important that the stakeholders, the editors and the
writers agree on a specific goal when it comes to document collaboration.
7.5
Instant Messaging and Collaboration and Use of Instant
Messaging
7.5.1 Instant messaging (IM)
Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication between two or more
people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers connected
over a network such as the Internet.
Instant messaging requires an instant messaging client that connects to an
instant messaging service. Instant messaging differs from e-mail in that
conversations happen in real-time. A multiprotocol instant messaging
application allows one client to connect to multiple IM networks.
Instant messaging services owe many ideas to an older and still popular
online chat medium named Internet Relay Chat (IRC). In early instant
messaging programs, each letter appeared when it was typed, and when
letters were deleted to correct typos this was also seen in real time. This
made it more like a telephone conversation than exchanging letters. In
modern instant messaging programs, the other party in the conversation
generally only sees each line of text right after a new line is started. Most
instant messaging applications also include the ability to set a status
message. This is similar to the message on a telephone answering machine. It
shows whether or not people are available to chat.
Instant messaging allows instantaneous communication between a numbers
of parties simultaneously, by transmitting information quickly and
efficiently, featuring immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply. In
certain cases IM involves additional features, which make it even more
popular, i.e. to see the other party, e.g. by using ((web-cams)), or to talk
directly for free over the internet.
7.5.2 Instant messaging providers
Some of the popular Instant Messengers are Yahoo Messenger, MSN
Messenger, RediffBol, Google Talk, Skype, and many others. Some of these
popular Instant Messengers must be elucidated in detail.
7.5.3 Netiquettes
Etiquette is the practice of good manners - being polite and helpful, being
kind and not aggressive, and being mindful of the fact that others may see
things differently than one.
Netiquette is etiquette for the Internet. Netiquette is primarily concerned
with matters of courtesy in communications that is being polite to others. It
is all the more important on the internet because there are no facial clues or
body-language to help us understand another person, as in case of face to face
meetings. Netiquette can have different rules like according to some rule it
may be considered okay to be rude, as long as you are creative in your
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rudeness; on the other hand you may expected to be polite and to talk sense
according to some other rules of Netiquette. Any rules can be implied, as long
as there is a consensus about the rules.
7.5.4 Collaborative project management tools & Collaborative
management tools
Collaborative project management tools
 HR and equipment management
 Time and cost management
 Online chat
 Instant messaging
 Telephony
 Videoconferencing
 Web conferencing
 Data conferencing
 Application sharing
 Electronic meeting systems (EMS)
 Synchronous conferencing
 E-mail
 Faxing
 voice mail
 Wikis
 Web publishing
 Revision control
 Charting
7.6
Collaborative management tools









Electronic calendars
Project management systems
Workflow systems
Knowledge management
Prediction markets
Extranet systems
Social software
Online spreadsheets
Online artwork proofing, feedback,
review and approval tool
Summary
It’s a simple fact that in today’s world, you’ll go farther – faster – if you have
outstanding collaborative skills. No matter what your job is, you need the ability to
work effectively with others. And, if you are also able to bring out the best in
everyone you work with, the sky’s the limit for your success. Discover How to Break
Down Barriers and Work Through Differences. Learn how to work with people more
effectively in all kinds of circumstances: one-on-one situations … temporary work
groups … or even long-term project teams. You’ll discover how to identify diverse
and difficult behaviors in both yourself and others – and use that information to get
your work done more efficiently! You’ll eliminate all your unnecessary stress and
frustration and achieve more success than you can ever imagine.
7.7
Model Questions
1.
What is Communication and Collaboration?
Ans.
Communication is the act of transmitting or exchanging information,
signals, or messages as by talk, gestures, or writing the information, signals,
or message. It involves the sharing of ideas and information.
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Collaboration is a working practice whereby individuals work together to a
Common purpose to achieve business benefit. Without effective
communication, true collaboration is impossible; the two go hand in hand.
2.
What is effective communication?
Ans.
Effective communication is a process through which the sender conveys a
message that the receiver readily receives and understands. It is a two-way
process instead of a one-way process.
3.
Why we use email?
Ans.






Easy to use
Speed
Easy to prioritize
Reliable and
secure
Informal and
conversational
Easier for
reference




Automated e-mails
Environment friendly
Use of graphics
Advertising tool
4.
Explain the components of an email?
Ans.
Subject Line:- The subject line is the first thing seen when your email
arrives in the inbox. It will also be the biggest factor in determining whether
your email will be opened. Subject lines should be clear and compelling.
"From" Field: This is equally important in determining whether your email
will be opened. The "From" field should be consistent and credible.
“To” Field: This field describes the account name from which the email has
been sent. When ever a user creates a new email this field gets automatically
copied from the account name.
“Cc” Field: Cc field includes people who should know about the message but
don't need to act on it. They'll receive the same
Body: Message body contains the actual email message
5.
How you send a message through email?
Ans.
1. Sign in at your account
2. Click on New Email message or compose mail link.
3. Type the email address of the recipient in to Field
4. Enter the Subject line in Subject Field
5. Enter your message in message body section.
6. Click on the send button on the panel to send the email
6.
How you can open an email account?
Ans.
Each free email site (like Yahoo, Google, and MSN) has its own sign-on
procedures. You have to answer all the questions. When you are done you will
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have an instant email account, you should check your mail. The first message
is usually a welcome from the mail service.
7.
What do you mean by an instant messaging?
Ans.
Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based
communication between two or more people using personal computers or
other devices, along with shared software clients. The user's text is conveyed
over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging
software clients also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as live
voice or video calling.
8.
What is email addressing?
Ans.
An email address identifies an email mailbox to which email messages may
be delivered. For example the format of an email address is [email protected]
which is read as kb at example dot com. The process of identifying an email
address is known as email addressing.
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CHAPTER 8:
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MAKING SMALL PRESENTATION
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Chapter 8:
8.0
Making Small Presentation
Introduction
PowerPoint is the powerful and ubiquitous presentation program from Microsoft. It gives you
the facility to create stunning presentations that incorporate video and PowerPoint
animations.
PowerPoint uses a graphical approach to presentations in the form of slide shows that
accompany the oral delivery of the topic. This program is widely used in business and
classrooms and is an effective tool when used for training purposes.
It is easy to customize presentations with your company logo and to dazzle your audience by
using one of the many design templates that come with the programs. Many more free addins and templates are available online from Microsoft and a host of other websites. In
addition to an on screen slide show, PowerPoint has printing options that allow the presenter
to provide handouts and outlines for the audience as well as notes pages for the speaker to
refer to during the presentation.
All in all, PowerPoint is a "one-stop-shop" to create successful presentations for the business
world, the classroom or just for your own personal use.
8.1
Objectives
The objective is to make you an expert in creating a presentation on any desired topic
and present slide show to the audience.
8.2
Basics
8.2.1 Using PowerPoint
Double click on the PowerPoint 2000 icon on the Windows
desktop (see right), or click-on the Start button in the lower
left corner of the screen, then click-on Programs ->
Microsoft Office and then on Microsoft PowerPoint.
In the PowerPoint menu window below, click-in the small
“circle” to the left of Blank presentation, and then click-on OK.
In this tutorial, whenever we indicate that you need to click the mouse, it
will mean to click the left mouse button – unless we indicate that you
should click the right mouse button. So, always “click left” unless we tell you
otherwise.
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8.2.2 Opening A PowerPoint Presentation
To open an existing PowerPoint Presentation, click on the File Menu, then
choose the Open option from the drop down list. A Menu Screen appears
from where you have to choose the name of the file that you want to open.
After selecting the file, click on OK button.
8.2.3 Saving A Presentation
Point to and click-on File in the Menu bar. Next, click-on Save in the Drop
down Menu that appears. You will now see a Menu Screen like the one on
the below. In the upper left corner of the Menu Screen that appears, you
will see a Save in:. Click-on the small triangle on the right and it will
show you the various disk drives available on which you can save. Point to
the one you want, and click-on it. If you choose the C:, choose the folder in
which you want to save by double clicking on the folder.
Now click in the box to the right of File name: and delete everything in the
box. Then type in pbj and click-on Save.
Since PowerPoint 2000 does not have an auto-save feature we think it’s a
good idea to save your PowerPoint presentation after each slide.
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.
8.3
Creation of Presentation
8.3.1 Creating a Presentation Using a Template
PowerPoint calls its built-in color schemes Design Templates. Design
Template can only be applied to all slides of 136a presentation. To make
design changes in certain slides only, see section on customizing background.


From the Format menu, choose Apply Design Template
Clicking the various presentation options shows thumbnail views of their
designs. Click "OK" to choose one.
Design Templates
Design Templates will convert ALL of our slides into a theme. Each
slide will have the same color scheme and the formatting will change to a
special look.
You can be in any View (Normal View, Slide View and Slide Sorter View
are preferable) to select Design Templates. Click-on Format in the Menu
Bar, and then Click-on Apply Design Template.
Click on the choices on the left side of the window (see arrow below). On
the right side a special template will appear with its own formatting.
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Pick a Design Template you like and then click on Apply. Be sure to scroll
up and down and to click on additional choices. Note: with Designs, they
are automatically applied to all of the slides. You may choose additional
effects for the Designs by using the Background and Slide Color Scheme
selections.
8.3.2 Creating a Blank Presentation
To create a Blank Presentation Click on File -> New. A message Box
appears at the right side of the screen. Select Blank Presentation and click
on OK.
8.3.3 Entering and Editing Text
The most common way to add text to a slide is to type it directly into any
placeholder on the slide. However, if you are using a blank slide (without
placeholders) or if you want to enter text outside placeholders, you can use a
text box.
Adding text to a placeholder
As soon as you select a slide layout the new slide appears with dummy text
(such as "Click to add title") in the placeholders. When you click inside a
placeholder, the dummy text disappears, the cursor becomes a blinking line
(|) and you can start typing.
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Adding text to a text box



To add text anywhere on a slide (outside placeholders), click on the Insert
menu --> Text Box, or on the text box icon
on the drawing toolbar.
Click and hold down the left mouse button while you drag the mouse.
When l the box is the size you want it, release the mouse button.
Click inside the text box and start typing.
Note: if you click outside the text box before typing in it, the box disappears.
However, it is still there, but invisible. As this may cause problems later, we
suggest that if you 'lose' your text box, undo the box (Click on the Edit menu,
then Undo) and start over.
Resizing a text box

You can reposition the text box anywhere in the slide by moving the

mouse pointer over the gray border until it becomes a four-way arrow
(a hand in Macintosh), and then clicking and holding down the mouse
button while dragging the box to the desired location.
In order to resize the text box proportionally you need to select the box
first by click on the four-way arrow (you know that the text box is
selected when you see the gray border around it). Then position the
pointer over one of the four square "handles" on the text box's corners
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
until the pointer becomes a diagonal, two-directional arrow
. Then
click and drag the border to resize the box.
You can also change just the height or the width of the text box by
selecting it and positioning the pointer over the handles on the sides until
the pointer becomes a vertical or horizontal two-directional arrow
.
Then click and drag the border to change the height or width of the text
box.
The same technique is used for resizing images. Note: using the side
handles to resize an image will distort the image, so use with caution. To
preserve the proportions of the image drag the corners of the image as
discribed above.
Formatting a text box




If the text box is not already selected, select it by moving the cursor over
it until the cursor becomes a four-way arrow and clicking on it until you
see the text box border highlighted.
Right-click on the text box and select Format Text Box or select Format
menu > Text Box. On the Format Text Box dialog you can use the tabs on
the top to make your selections.
On the Colors and Lines tab you can select a fill color (if you choose a
dark fill color it is a good idea to check the Semitransparent box to
make your text more visible) and a line color and style for the text box
border.
On the Text Box tab you can choose a particular vertical alignment for
the text, word wrap, automatic resizing or rotation of the text.
For example, the following selections
will have the following effect:
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
You can also rotate a text box: select the text box and click on the rotate icon
. Click on green handles and drag as much as you want it to rotate.
8.3.4 Inserting And Deleting Slides in a Presentation
Inserting slides in PowerPoint
Auto Layout
After you have opened a new presentation, PowerPoint displays the New
Slide dialog box containing several Auto Layouts. Auto Layouts provide a
pre-determined layout for each specific type of slide, such as bulleted lists,
graphs, and/or images. Click on each thumbnail image and a description will
be printed in the message box. Highlight the layout you want and click OK.
New Slides
The same dialog will appear every time you insert a slide. You can insert a
slide through the Insert menu --> New slide, or by clicking on the New Slide
icon
on the toolbar.
The new slide will be added after the current one. If you are in Outline view,
you can click on the outline to highlight the slide after which you want to add
the new slide and follow the steps for inserting slides.
* You can change a slide's layout at any time. Just click on the Format menu
--> Slide Layout to see the Layout Dialog.
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Deleting Slides in PowerPoint
From Normal View, Right Click on the slide which you want to delete and
select Delete slide. The selected slide will be deleted.
8.4
Preparation of Slides
8.4.1 Inserting Word Table or An Excel Worksheet
To insert Word Table Select the Menu Insert and Click on the option
Object. Then Select the Option Word Document and click on OK.
To insert Excel Worksheet Select the Menu Insert and Click on the option
Object. Then Select the Option Insert Excel Worksheet and click on OK.
Importing and linking data from Excel into PowerPoint
Importing data
The truth be told, there is nothing better than the good ol' Copy & Paste
method when it comes to transferring data. PowerPoint, however, does allow
you to transfer a whole Excel datasheet or a range of data into a
presentation.
1. Create a new chart slide or click on an existing one.
2. Double-click on the chart to open the datasheet.
3. Click the cell located in the upper-left corner.
4.
5.
6.
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Select Edit menu > Import File.
Find and double-click on the Excel file that you want to import data
from.
On the Import Data Options dialog, choose a sheet or a range of data
cells to import.
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7.
Click OK to import.
Linking data
When you can create a link between Excel and PowerPoint Graph,
everytime you change a cell in Excel, the corresponding cell in the
PowerPoint datasheet will update automatically.
CAUTION: This is a one-way link. Changes made in Excel are updated in
PowerPoint, but changes made in PowerPoint's Graph do not update the original
Excel Spreadsheet.
When you link to data in another program, all existing data from the Microsoft
Graph datasheet is deleted.
1.
In Excel select the range of data you want to link to PowerPoint.
2. From the Excel Edit menu, choose Copy
3. Switch to the PowerPoint datasheet and double-click on the graph to
open the datasheet.
4. Select Edit menu > Paste Link.
8.4.2 Adding Clip Art Pictures
To Insert Picture from Clip Art, Click on the Menu Insert -> Picture > Clip Art.Notice at the top of the Clip Art screen an area similar to the
one below.
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Notice that there is an arrow in the Search for clips: area pointing to
Type one or more words…
Click-in the Search for clips: area on Type one or more words… and you
will see all of the words turn blue. When you see this, type in the word:
sandwich and then tap the Enter key. You’ll now see a lot of clip art that
shows images associated with sandwiches in some manner. If you see an
image that you like even better than the one you selected choose it and
attempt to insert this image.
Notice the graphic below. We clicked on the image you see to the right,
then clicked the top button and got the error message below. (If you or
someone else who installed the clip art on your computer did not install all
of the clip art images on your hard drive then you would get an error
message indicating the clip art that was not installed on your hard drive?
We’ll, this is the error message you get.)
If you get this message you can click on Cancel, or continue trying until you
are able to insert an image.
Another “WOW” feature in Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 –
Animated Images!
In PowerPoint 2000 you can now have images that “move!” These are called
animated images. On any slide you can insert a Clip Art image. You can
do as you did above, and the image will “fill” the area where you doubleclicked. Most of the time, however, when you get comfortable with
PowerPoint, you’ll want to insert an image and then move and size the image
as you desire. To do this you’ll need to click-on Insert in the Menu Bar,
and then on Picture in the drop down menu, and them move over Clip Art
and click on Clip Art. Your screen should look like the one below.
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A menu screen similar to the one we just used will appear, but it has two
additional features, as you’ll see below.
We’ll “get into” sounds later, but now is a good time to learn about Motion
Clips. Click-on the Motion Clips “tab” and you’ll see your Insert ClipArt
screen change slightly. The Category buttons don’t look any different, but
you’ll notice that the Motion Clips tab is now “on top.” We’ll click-on the
Animals Category again – so our screen will look like the one below.
The images you see on your screen are really animated; you just
can’t see the movement until you do something neat. Lightly
click the left mouse button on one of the images. We’re going
to choose the dinosaur. When we click on the dinosaur we’ll
see the button menu appear (just like it did when we
worked with clip art a little while ago). Except that
there is a big difference in the second button. You’ll
notice the second button down (arrow on left)
indicates - Play Clip. If you click on this button you will see
a small screen appear in which you can see the dinosaur
chewing its peanut butter sandwich and a lump, as it
swallows the sandwich, going down its long neck. This is an
animation. If you desire to insert this image you simply click on
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the top button as you did before. You won’t see this animation
when you insert this image into your slide. You will only see
the animation when you “run” your slide show. We’ll be
running the slide show in a little while.
Click-on several animations and then click the Play Clip button to see
the animation. Have some fun and insert several if you wish.
8.4.3 Insert Other Objects
Other Objects can be inserted from the Insert Menu. Choose Insert ->
Object. A number of objects are available, like:
 Adobe Acrobat Document
 Bitmap Image
 Microsoft Excel Chart
 Microsoft Excel Worksheet
 Microsoft Word Document
And many more.
Any of these can be selected and click on OK.
8.4.4 Resizing And Scaling An Object
Drawing
Unlike most other PowerPoint functions, some drawing functions are
accessible only via the Drawing toolbar on the bottom of the PowerPoint
screen. If you don't see the Drawing toolbar, activate it by selecting View
menu < Toolbars < Drawing.
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Drawing in PowerPoint is particularly easy due to the wide selection of
AutoShapes that the program provides for your convenience. Pull up the
AutoShapes menu by clicking on the arrow (1). From the pull-up menu,
choose the desired shape:
For your convenience, some of the most commonly used shapes (lines, arrows,
squares and cirlces) can be accessed directly from the toolbar as well (2).
As soon as you have selected a shape, your cursor will become a crosshair (+)
when you it over the slide. Press and drag the cursor until the object reaches
the desired size (you can always format the size later).
Tip: hold down the SHIFT key to draw perfectly straight lines, squares and
circles.
Formatting a drawing
Click on the drawing to select it (until you see the 'handles' around it) and
then use either the Format menu < AutoShape dialog to format it (a rightclick on the object will also work in PC), or the drawing toolbar.

Resize and move a drawing by clicking on its"handles", in the same
way used to format text boxes and images.
Tip: hold down the SHIFT key to move objects across a straight line.

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Click on the arrow next to the paintbucket tool
to change the
drawing's fill color. Experiment with the 'Fill Effects' options on the
paintbucket menu to create artistic color combinations
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Examples:
1)
+
=
2)
+
=

Click on the line color icon
(5) to change the color of the object's border,
and on the three style icons (3) to change the style of the border and/or the
arrows.
Examples:
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8.5
Presentation of Slides
8.5.1 Viewing A Presentation
Running a slide show
There are at least three ways to start a slide show:
a. Select View menu < Slide Show
b. Click the projector button on the lower left part of the screen
Note: clicking the projector button is the ONLY way to start the slide show
from a slide other than the title slide. All other methods start the
presentation always from the first slide.
c.
Hit the F5 Key
Of these three methods, the best is the last one. It is generally recommended
that you use the keyboard shortcuts instead of the mouse to navigate through
the show while you present, the reason being that this method is faster
and makes you look comfortable and knowledgeable as a presenter
and thus you make a better impression to your audience.
For this reason, even though you can use the mouse to access the Show
Controls Menu (the Show Controls button appears on the lower left corner of
the screen when you move the mouse while in slide show mode -- see image
below), it is best to use the following keyboard shortcuts:






Go to the next slide: press the SPACE BAR, ENTER, PAGE DOWN, or
right arrow key.
Go to the previous slide: press BACKSPACE, PAGE UP, or the left
arrow key.
Exit slide show (at anytime): hit Esc
Access the pen tool (in order to draw in the screen): CTRL + P
Erase pen: hit E
Hide pointer: hit A
For a longer list of shortcuts, click here.
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mouse menu (in slide show mode)
8.5.2 Choosing a Set Up for Presentation
To Choose a Set Up for a Presentation Select Slide Show -> Set Up
Show.
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From Here the various Options available are:



Show Type
Show Options
Show Slides
From the Show Slides options, we can select only those slides which we want
to show in the slide Show.
8.5.3 Printing Slides and Handouts
Printing your presentation
PowerPoint allows you to print your presentation as slides, notes, handouts, or even
outlines. Choose File > Print... from the menu bar. This will bring up the "Print"
dialog box. Select File menu > Print... . This will bring up the "Print" dialog box.


In the "Print what" pull-down menu, choose the item you would like to print.
If you choose "print slides", what you will get is one slide per page. Obviously, this
is not the most efficient way (in terms of paper and ink) to print your
presentation. However, it is useful if you wish to print transparencies of your
slides as a backup in case of a system failure.
CAUTION! If you are printing transparencies for an overhead projector, be sure
you have the correct type of transparency film for your printer. Some types of
transparency film will melt during the printing process and may damage the
printer.
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

8.6
If you choose "print handouts", you have the option to choose the number of slides
you want to print on each page. The "3 slides per page" option is particularly
useful because it displays small versions of your slides on the left half of the page,
and leaves space for your students to write on notes on the right side of the page.
If you choose "print outline view" you will get only the text of your slides (as it
appears in outline view) but none of the graphics or animation.
Slide Show
8.6.1 Running A Slide Show
Running a slide show
There are at least three ways to start a slide show:
a. Select View menu < Slide Show
b. Click the projector button on the lower left part of the screen
Note: clicking the projector button is the ONLY way to start the slide show
from a slide other than the title slide. All other methods start the
presentation always from the first slide.
c. Hit the F5 Key
Of these three methods, the best is the last one. It is generally recommended
that you use the keyboard shortcuts instead of the mouse to navigate through
the show while you present, the reason being that this method is faster
and makes you look comfortable and knowledgeable as a presenter
and thus you make a better impression to your audience.
For this reason, even though you can use the mouse to access the Show
Controls Menu (the Show Controls button appears on the lower left corner of
the screen when you move the mouse while in slide show mode -- see image
below), it is best to use the following keyboard shortcuts:


Go to the next slide: press the SPACE BAR, ENTER, PAGE DOWN, or
right arrow key.
Go to the previous slide: press BACKSPACE, PAGE UP, or the left
arrow key.
Exit slide show (at anytime): hit Esc
Access the pen tool (in order to draw in the screen): CTRL + P
Erase pen: hit E



 Hide pointer: hit A
For a longer list of shortcuts, click here.
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mouse menu (in slide show mode)
8.6.2 Transition And Slide Timings
Animating text and objects
There are two ways to animate text and objects: Preset Animation and Custom
Animation. Although Preset Animation is relatively simpler, we strongly recommend
Custom Animation because it allows more control over animation. The instructions
below pertain to Custom Animation only.
1. Click on the slide that you wish to animate and select Slide Show < Custom
Animation (You must be in Normal, Outline, or Slide View.
2. In the Custom Animation dialog box, each object is identified in the Check to
animate slide objects list.
(If you don't remember what a particular object is, click the object's name in
the list; that object appears selected in the preview window.
Click in the object's checkbox to animate that object.
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3. On the Effects tab make your entry animation and sound selections.
You may also choose to dim an object after animation (this effect is
particularly useful for emphasizing individual points on bulleted lists).
4. On the Order and Timing tab arrange the objects in the order that you want
them to appear.
You may also choose the objects to appear on mouse click or automatically.
Do not use the automatic option unless absolutely necessary, as it is easier to
lose control during the presentation.
Use animation sparingly! Too many effects will distract your audience. Use
animation effects to make a point, not to show off.
Slide transitions
Transitions determine the effects applied when you move from one slide to another
during an on-screen presentation.
1.
To choose a transition effect, select Slide Show < Slide Transition...
2.
3.
Select a transition effect from the drop down menu
Choose the desired transition speed (Fast is always recommended in order
not to lose the audience's attention)
Choose a sound to accompany the transition (optional and NOT
recommended)
Advance determines when the current slide proceeds to the next.
o
On mouse click advances the presentation to the next slide, or displays
the next bullet point, only when you click the mouse. (You can also use
the keyboard arrow keys or the spacebar.)
o
Automatically after xx seconds, makes the transition xx
4.
5.
seconds after the preceding transition ended. NOTE: Make
sure that if you select automatically, that you remove the
check in on mouse click.
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TIP: Use automatic advance only if you are very well rehearsed and certain
that there will be no interruptions whatsoever during your presentation (such
asquestions from the audience or unexpected problems)
6.
Choose Apply or Apply to All
TIP: Don't use a different transition on each slide because your audience's
attention should remain focused on you and the content, not the effects. If
you want to use multiple transitions, a good rule of thumb is to apply a
unique transition to each slide in a specific module of the presentation.
8.6.3 Automating A Slide Show
Select Slide Show -> Slide Transition.
Select the text box automatically after and provide the time.
8.7
Summary
PowerPoint is one of the simplest computer programs to learn. It is the number 1 program
used worldwide for presentations. Anyone can create stunning presentations that look like
they were designed by a professional.
PowerPoint presentations can be made into photo albums, complete with music or
narrations, to distribute on CDs or DVDs. If you are in the sales field, it involves just a few
simple clicks to add an illustrative chart of data or an organizational chart of your company's
structure. Make your presentation into a web page for emailing purposes or as a promotion
displayed on your company's website.
It is often said that style is a personal issue, however, in the case of presentations; legibility
comes always first and should never be sacrificed for the sake of the presenter's
artistic fantasies.
Below are a few basic stylistic suggestions:
DO:


Save your work frequently
(Ctrl+S)
Backup your work frequently
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DON'T:

rely on the program's
Autosave feature.
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







(every day, if possible)
Store each presentation and
its associated files in its
proper folder
be brief (no more than 6
bullets/points per slide)
use appropriate fonts: big
(min. 28pts) and clear (sansserif). If possible, test your
slides: run the slide show and
see if you can read your slides
from the last row of the room
where you will be presenting.
use appropriate colors: not
too bright, high contrast,
consistent. Remember that
what looks good on your monitor
does not necessarily look good on
the big screen.
create contrast using font
size, colors
use the powerful UNDO
command (CTRL+Z) to
experiment and learn to use
the software
ask for help when you need it
maintain a good relationship
with someone who knows
more about PowerPoint than
you do
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






put everything you
present on the slides.
Remember that slides are
just a visual aid -- if you
overload them, the audience
will end up trying to read the
slides and not paying
attention to you.
use different colors / fonts
on every single slide.
use bright background
colors that will strain
your audience's eyes
use too many animation
effects! They are VERY
distracting for the
audience and make you
look like a show-off. Use
animation only to make a
point and not to make
your presentation more
interesting (use content
to do that!).
run experiments at the
last minute.
run experiments before
you save a separate copy
of your file.
panic and start banging
your head on the monitor.
It won't help (personal
experience talking!)
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8.8
Model Answers
1.
What kind of Package is PowerPoint?
Ans.
PowerPoint is a Presentation Package. It can be used to create Slides which can be
presented as a Slide Show.
2.
What are the different types of views available in PowerPoint?
Ans.
The different Views available are:





Normal
Slide Sorter
Slide Show
Master
Notes Page
3.
How can you insert Picture in PowerPoint?
Ans.
Picture can be inserted in PowerPoint in two ways:


From Clip Art
From File
4.
How can you animate a Slide?
Ans.
A Slide can be animated using Custom Animation and Slide Transition. Custom
Animation is used to animate the different objects inserted in the Slide, and, Slide
Transition is used to animate the whole Slide.
5.
Explain the Print Option.
Ans.
Print Option is available in the File Menu. From this option the various Slides of the
PowerPoint Presentation can be printed as well as Handouts can also be printed.
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