Play is Fun - Sector Connect

Play is Fun - Sector Connect
CAMPBELLTOWN FAMILY SUPPORT SERVICE
Play is Fun
A Guide for Instructors & Parents
By Natalie Albrecht, Hayley Fulton & Kathryn O’Farrell
2011
6 WARBY ST CAMPBELLTOWN 2560
Contents Page
Acknowledgements................................................................................................................2
Introduction...........................................................................................................................4
Cognitive Development..........................................................................................................5
- Books..........................................................................................................................6
- Peek-a-boo.................................................................................................................7
- Sorting Box.................................................................................................................8
- Puzzles........................................................................................................................9
- Hide and Seek.............................................................................................................10
- Kim’s Game.................................................................................................................11
- Find that colour!.........................................................................................................12
- Matching Game..........................................................................................................13
Motor Development...............................................................................................................15
- Tummy Time...............................................................................................................16
- Little Bitty Things........................................................................................................17
- Towers of Fun.............................................................................................................18
- Painting.......................................................................................................................19
- Ball Sports...................................................................................................................21
- Cutting and Pasting Collages......................................................................................22
- Fruit Loop Necklaces..................................................................................................24
- Chalk Tracks...............................................................................................................25
Sensory Development............................................................................................................26
- Raspberry Kisses.........................................................................................................27
- Shake, Rattle and Roll.................................................................................................28
- Water Play .................................................................................................................29
- Play Dough..................................................................................................................30
- Shaving Cream Finger Splat........................................................................................32
- Marco Polo..................................................................................................................33
- Sing-along...................................................................................................................34
Socio-Emotional Development...............................................................................................35
- Talking.........................................................................................................................36
- Encouraging Words.....................................................................................................37
- Drawing and Art..........................................................................................................38
- Dress Up’s and Dramatic Play.....................................................................................39
- Cubby House...............................................................................................................41
- Simon Says..................................................................................................................42
- Fruity Faces.................................................................................................................43
- Helping around the House..........................................................................................44
1
Acknowledgements
This folder was compiled by Natalie Albrecht, Hayley Fulton and Kathryn O’Farrell for
Campbelltown Family Support Service.
We would like to acknowledge the University of Western Sydney and all the staff at
Campbelltown Family Support Service for their help with this resource.
We hope this folder is useful to staff and parents on the benefits of play to a child’s
development.
Natalie Albrecht, Hayley Fulton & Kathryn O’Farrell
Bachelor of Early Childhood Studies
University of Western Sydney
2
Information Acknowledgments
The development knowledge displayed in this resource was collected from:
Baldwin, A.L (1967). Theories of child development. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Berk, L.E (2009). Child development (8th). USA: Pearson Education INC.
Miller, P.H (1989). Theories of developmental psychology (2nd). USA: W.H Freeman
Company.
White, F, Hayes, B & Livesey, D (2010). Developmental psychology: from infancy to
adulthood. Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.
The play activities displayed in this resource were collected from:
http://www.kdl.org/kids/go/pgr_develop
http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=360
http://www.pbs.org/parents/arthur/activities/development.html?cat=development
http://www.parents.com/toddlers-preschoolers/development/social/
Images were sourced from Google Images:
www.google.com.au/images
3
Why Play?
Play may seem like a waste of time or something that only children can do together
however it may surprise you that play is also an important part of early childhood
development.
A child’s play can have a key role in development of 4 areas which are included in this book;
cognition, motor skills, senses and emotions. Through play activities such as constructive
play, sensory play and cognitive play reinforce and broaden key developmental areas. Play is
essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and
emotional well-being of children. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage
fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and
parents, time for free play has been substantially reduced for some children. There are a
variety of factors that have led to the reduction of play, including a hurried lifestyle, changes
in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the
expense of free child-centred play.
Play is so important to optimal child development that it has been recognised by the United
Nations High Commission for Human Rights as a right of every child. This birthright is
challenged by some forces including child labour and exploitation practices, war and
neighbourhood violence, and the limited resources available to children living in poverty.
However, even those children who are fortunate enough to have abundant available
resources and who live in relative peace may not be receiving the full benefits of play. Many
of these children are being raised in an increasingly hurried and pressured style that may
limit the protective benefits they would gain from child-driven play. Because every child
deserves the opportunity to develop to their unique potential, we must consider all factors
that interfere with optimal development and look for circumstances that allow each child to
fully gain the advantages associated with play.
4
Cognitive
Development
5
Books
Age: In the womb+
Time: 1-20 minutes
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play:


Select an appropriate children’s book to read (simpler ones for babies and young
children)
Sit children next to you or on your lap, somewhere where the children can see the
pictures
Why this activity?
Books help to increase children’s literacy skills. If children read they listen and learn the
patterns of language and form the foundation to reading and writing. Children also gain the
knowledge of the layout of books and writing: the page opens and is read from right to left,
and the words are read one line after the other.
Safety tips
 Ensure small children are not left alone with pop-up books.
Variations

Keep children engaged by asking questions and talking about the pictures (eg “do
you think harry is being nice to his friend?” and “look at the kangaroo, he is big and
brown”)
6
Peek-a-Boo
Age: Birth-12 months
Time: 20 seconds-3 minutes
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play:




Stand in front of your child
Get a cloth or object (such as handbag or toy)
Place cloth or object in front of your face
Lift the object up or down to reveal you face saying “Peek-a-boo!”
Why this activity?
Peek-a-boo is fun and interactive game that helps with object permanence and
communication skills. By playing Peek-a-boo with your child, they will begin to learn that
just because your face is behind the cloth and they can’t see you, it doesn’t mean that they
don’t exist. They learn that even when you are not around, you do exist and will come back.
It also helps with communication skills when the child ‘babbles’ at you, helping their verbal
literacy.
Variations

Peek-a-boo is very versatile and can be played anywhere from in a highchair to
waiting in line at the supermarket.
7
Sorting Box
Age: 8+ months
Time: 5-20minutes
Indoor play
How to Play:



A sorting box looks like the picture below and has different shaped holes in it
The child is given a range of shapes such as circles, triangles and stars
The aim is for children to manipulate the shapes to in their corresponding holes (eg
the square fits in the square hole)
Why this activity?
Sorting box helps with cognitive development by fostering shape recognition and
recollection. By playing with the sorting box, children will learn to recognise and recall
different shapes by categorising and identifying various attributes of similar shapes (eg a
square is similar to a rectangle).
Safety tips
 Ensure small objects are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard.
8
Puzzles
Age: 12+ months
Time: 1-10 minutes
Indoor play
How to Play:



Place the puzzle on the table or on the floor.
Talk to the child and give him/her directions on how to complete the puzzle (for
example “why don’t you take all the pieces out” and “look at this green star, where
do you think it goes”.
Younger children should be given simpler puzzles and may need assistance with
placing the pieces in the appropriate places. Older children can be given more
complex puzzles and need little assistance. It should however be noted that each
child is different and therefore their puzzle ability may not match others of their age.
Why this activity?
Puzzles provide children with a chance to practice categorisation and manipulation. By
cognitively linking and categorising shapes with each other, children become aware of the
different shapes around them. Children also learn to categorise things/objects for example
children can learn that everything around them that is
this shape is a star and could
potentially fit into the star shape in the puzzle. Puzzles also help children to manipulate
objects to try to fit them in the puzzle shapes.
Safety tips
 Ensure small pieces are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard
9
Hide and Seek
Age: 2+ years
Time: 5-20 minutes
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play:


Explain and run through the rules of the game with the children before you start the
game:
“I am going to stand here and close my eyes. I am going to count to 10. You need to
find somewhere to hide so I won’t be able to find you. When I have finished counting
I will try and find you”
Why this activity?
Playing Hide and Seek and other games with rules promote socio-cognitive learning. The
games help children learn numbers and counting patters by hearing and reciting numbers.
By participating in cooperative play your child will get the opportunity to learn to follow
both the rules of the game and the social rules/interactions with adults as well as other
children that may also be playing. Hide and Seek gives children the chance to work on their
problem-solving skills. For example, a small child looking to hide in a bookshelf tries to fit in
but soon works out he is too big to fit in the hole in the bookshelf. He then gets out and
looks at the hole and finds something bigger to hide in.
Safety tips
 Ensure small objects are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard.
 Clear the area of any glass or sharp objects
 Warn children of any dangerous objects such as hot ovens
 Tell children of inappropriate places to hide (such as in the fridge or in mummy
and/or daddy’s cupboard).
Variations
Counting to higher or lower numbers depending on the age (e.g. for a two year old count to
5 slowly and for five year count to 25 fast). You can also vary the play area (eg a 2 year old
can play indoors in 1 or 2 rooms and a 5 year old can play both inside and outside to allow
for more opportunities to hide.
10
Kim’s Game
Age: 3+ years
Time: 5-20 minutes
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play:







Collect 10 random objects from around the house (such as toys, cooking utensils,
pegs, buttons etc)
Place all of the objects one at a time, saying the name and explaining what they are
when you put them down
Place them in a small space and tell children to look at the objects for a minute and
try to remember all of them
After one minute, cover all the items up with a large towel and tell children to turn
around and close their eyes
Take an item away and hide it in a separate bag, then tell children to turn back
around
Take the cover off and ask the children id they can remember what is missing
Repeat by taking away different items
Why this activity?
Kim’s Game helps children to improve memory and they learn to be aware of their
surroundings. By playing this game, children learn the processes involved in studying and
remembering objects. Children also learn to recognise these objects within their everyday
surroundings. It also teaches categorisation (for example the spoon and the cup belong in
the kitchen whereas the leaf and the bark belong outside)
Safety tips
 Ensure small objects are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard.
Variations
You may like to take away more than one at a time if the children are older. Also, for young
children you may prefer to use fewer items to begin with and with older children have more
items.
11
Find that Colour!
Age: 3+ years
Time: 4-10 minutes
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play:




Assign the area where the game will be played (eg in a certain room or in the
backyard)
Adults call out things for children to find, for example “find something red”
Children then walk around the designated area trying for find something of that
colour. Once they have found it they touch it and wait for all the children playing the
game to find something and for the adult to call out the next instruction
Keep calling out different colours until children appear to be losing interest
Why this activity?
By playing find that colour!, children are working on their memory and learning their basic
colours. Children form a cognitive link between the word and the visual (seeing the object
and knowing that colour is ‘red’). They are also learning to observe and take notice of their
surroundings.
Safety tips
 Ensure small objects are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard.
 Clear the area of any glass or sharp objects
 Warn children of any dangerous objects such as hot ovens
Variations
Instead of calling out colours you may like to call out textures and shapes (such as “find
something smooth/rough” or “find something circle/triangle”). For older children you may
like to instruct them to find things beginning with certain letters (like “find something
beginning with the letter S”) as this will help with school readiness.
12
Matching Game
Age: 3+ years
Time: 5-20minutes
Indoor play
How to Play:





Cut out the templates provided and lay them face down on the floor, evenly spread
apart
Player 1 to choose two cards and turn them over one at a time
If the pictures on them match, then the player 1 picks them up and keeps them in a
pile in front of them. If they don’t match then they need to be turned back over face
down in the same position
Player 2 then turns over 2 cards and repeats
Any other players have their go and then repeat in the same order until all the pairs
are gone
Why this activity?
The memory game improves cognitive ability and the development of memory. Memory is
an important developmental skill that, when fostered, can lead to improved recollection
strategies and recall.
Safety tips
 Ensure small objects are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard.
Using the template below, cut out the individual cards and sit down with your child letting
them draw a picture in the blank spaces. This will give them a sense of ownership having
been a part of making the game. Afterwards turn them over and start to play!
13
Motor
Development
14
Tummy time
Age: Birth to 6 months
Time: 1 - 5mins
Indoor and outdoor play
How to play:



Roll up a towel or small blanket
Lay your baby on their tummy with their arms and shoulders resting on the towel or
blanket
Lie on the floor in front of your baby and interact with them through talking, singing
and making noises
Why this activity?
Daily doses of “tummy time” allow your child to strengthen and develop their neck and
shoulder muscles. This development is important for learning to roll and sit up in the coming
months. Eye contact is another aspect of this activity; this helps your baby’s eye muscles to
develop as well as encouraging attachment building. Making sounds, facial expressions and
singing songs will encourage your child to mimic you, the first steps to speech.
Safety tip
 Do not leave your child alone when doing tummy time
Variations


Move yourself from left to right to encourage your baby to follow your movements
Use brightly coloured toys or a small mirror to encourage your baby to reach out
their hands
This is a gross motor activity which develops the large muscles in the body.
15
Little Bitty Things
Age: 9 to 12 months
Time: 1-10 mins
Indoor play at meal time
How to play:


Once your baby is eating cooked solids, give them small pieces to pick up using their
fingers
Foods you can use include;
 cooked peas
 cooked carrot
 cubes of cheese
 cooked pasta (macaroni)
Why this activity?
Allowing your baby to use their fingers to pick up small pieces of food helps to develop their
hand and finger muscles as well as hand eye coordination. It makes meal time fun and will
allow your child to engage in other activities like counting and sorting all the while
developing their pincer grip for writing later in life
This is a fine motor activity which develops the small muscles in the body.
16
Towers of Fun
Age: 1+ years
Time: 3 - 5 mins
Indoor play
How to play:


Sit on the floor with your child with a variety of plastic cups and bowls.
Encourage them to build a tower or different structures with these kitchen materials
Why this activity?
This activity allows the child to use their upper body strength to manoeuvre the items and
create towers. The use of the fingers in manoeuvring the cups and bowls enhances their
hand eye coordination and strengthen the muscles in their fingers and hands. Building
towers and knocking them over again also encourages a child’s understanding of cause and
effect
Variations



Include a spoon in the collection of items for your child to put in out of the cups and
spoons or tap with
Sort the materials in size, colour and texture as you stack them
Blocks can also be used in this activity
This activity develops both the gross motor and fine motor skills of the large and small
muscles.
17
Painting
Age: 1+ years
Time: 10 – 15mins
Indoor and Outdoor Play
How to play



Set up paints in pots
Set up paper and different types of brushes
Let your child’s imagination take over!
Why this activity?
This activity is a great pre-writing exercise. It allows your child to develop what is called the
pincer grip, the grip using the thumb and forefinger. This is important for fine motor
development in the small muscles of the fingers and wrist. Using different sized brush
handles will help your child to adjust to using their finger differently according to the
activity.
Safety Tip
 If you have store bought paint it is important to not let your child consume great
amounts of it as the ingredients aren’t always clear. However if you use the recipe
over the page which is for edible paint then this shouldn’t be a concern
 For the safety of other people’s belongings it is recommended that you supervise the
whole time to avoid the painting of other objects
Variations

There are plenty of household objects which can be used to paint and create
different patterns and textures on the paper. Some of these items can include potato
mashers, plastic forks & spoons; pastry brushes sponges, sticks, leaves and even
fingers!
18
Home Made Non-Toxic Paint
Ingredients





1 cup of flour
2 tablespoons of salt
1 ½ cups of cold water
1 ¼ cups of hot water
food colouring
Method
1. Place your flour and water in a saucepan. Beat with an egg whisk until smooth. The
cold water will allow all the lumps of flour to be worked out to give you a smooth
consistency.
2. Add the hot water and boil on the stove until your paint thickens.
3. Whisk again until smooth
4. Add drops of food colouring until you get the colour you want.
5. Store covered in the fridge.
This paint is safe to eat so don’t be too concerned if your little one decides to try some!
19
Ball Sports
Age: 18mnths+
Time: 10 – 30mins
Outdoor Play
How to play:


Collect a variety of balls e.g.; tennis ball, soccer ball, netball, basketball etc.
Encourage your child to kick these different balls around the yard with you or at a
local park
Why this activity?
For older toddlers and older children gross motor skills, development of the large muscles, is
crucial. After just beginning to walk most children’s large muscles are still weak and not fully
formed, using activities such as ball sports allow your child to experiment using their legs
and body in different ways to manipulate the ball strengthening their torso, upper and
lower leg and ankles.
Safety tip
 Make sure the area your using is not near a road and that there aren’t any sharp
objects which could cause your child harm
Variations

Set up goals to play a ruled game with other family members or children in the
neighbourhood
This is a gross motor activity which develops the large muscles in the body
20
Cutting and Paste Collages
Age: 2+ years
Time: 10 – 15mins
Indoor play
How to play:


Collect old magazines, newspapers, aluminium foil and scrap paper
Using scissors, glue and a large piece of paper encourage your child to pick out
pictures, words and different types of paper to cut into shapes and glue on the large
paper.
Why this activity?
Using scissors is a really simple activity that develops finger muscles and produces artwork
your child can be proud of. It is an opportunity for the child to express their imagination and
creativity. If it’s possible to purchase scissors with different edges so that when your child is
cutting and creating there are different shapes and patterns that can be made. This activity
could also be used a way to introduce school activities like cutting shapes for older toddlers
and pre-school children.
Safety Tips
 Never leave your child alone with scissors
 Try to purchase child safe scissors which don’t expose the blade, these are around $2
at department stores, i.e. Kmart.
Variations

If your child is really creative and enjoys making things, this activity could be use to
create presents or birthday cards for friends and family.
21
Home Made Non-Toxic Glue
Ingredients:




1 cup plain flour
1 ½ cups water
1/3 cup sugar
1 tsp of white vinegar
Method:
1.
2.
3.
4.
In a saucepan mix 1 cup of flour with 1/3 cup of sugar.
Add half of the water required and mix into a thick paste without clumps.
Pour in the rest of the water and combine till the paste is smooth.
Pour a teaspoon of vinegar and put on medium heat until the mixture starts to
thicken.
5. Cool and transfer to jar or an airtight plastic container.
6. Store in the fridge
This glue is safe to eat so don’t be too concerned if your little one decides to try some!
22
Fruit Loop Necklaces
Age: 2+ years
Time: 5 – 10mins
Indoor Play
How to Play:




Purchase some string and fruit loops. A healthier alternative to use would be
cheerios or natural fruit rings.
Cut a length of string long enough to go over your childs head loosely.
Tie a knot in the end and show your child how to thread the string through the cereal
loops until the string has filled up.
You can then wear the fruit loop jewellery or eat them as a snack!
Why this activity?
Threading string into anything is great way to help your child develop their fine motor skills,
building strength in their fingers. This is necessary for writing, typing and will help your child
to be able to use things like buttons and zippers on their clothing. Encourage your child to
count the loops and name the colours to enhance the activity even further.
Safety Tip
 Do not play this activity with a child who is not eating solids or has food allergies
 Make sure all the string is throw away after the loops have been eating to avoid a
choking hazard
Variations

As your child becomes more confident with this activity you might want to give them
some thinner string and buttons to give them a challenge and increase the learning
experience
23
Chalk Tracks
Age: 2+ years
Time: 5 mins+
Indoor and Outdoor Play
How to Play:
 Using chalk (or string for inside) draw a long straight line and show your child how to
walk along it, like a tightrope
 You might want to start by putting two lines parallel to each other to make a thin
road for your young child to get them practicing
 When they seem to have mastered the wider track then just use a single line of chalk
and encourage them to walk along it
Why this activity?
Balance is a key component of motor development, once your child has mastered walking it
is a good idea to encourage them to do activity to improve their balance particularly if they
didn’t call for very long. This activity will also help your to develop control and coordination
of their body and large muscles, strengthening for things such as sport as they get older.
While this activity focuses mostly on the large muscles in the body, toning and
strengthening them, it can be a great opportunity to do some fine motor development.
While the chalk is out allow your child to draw pictures on the concrete, they will enjoy
using something new to create with on an unusual surface while their pincer grip and fine
muscles in the finger are strengthened and developing.
Safety Tip
 If your child is unsteady on their feet to begin with then it is important to walk
alongside them to lessen the impact of a fall, particularly outside on a hard surface
like concrete
 Try to buy non-toxic chalk from a department store however if this isn’t possible
then make sure your child does not eat the chalk
Variations
 As your child gets more confident with this activity you might want to change the
“chalk track”. Try drawing out winding tracks or a straight track with a loop at the
end.
24
Sensory
Development
25
Raspberry Kisses
Age: Birth+
Time: 1-3 Minutes
Indoor/Outdoor play
How to Play:






Kiss your baby
Gently stroke your baby
Say your baby’ name
Talk and sing to your baby
Make funny faces
Always appear happy and relaxed
Why this activity?
Despite the inexpensiveness and lack of difficulties in the game, this game is excellent at
helping your child reach a number of developmental milestones. The major developmental
milestone being met here is sensory development. Your child will further explore the sense
of touch and improve on their understanding on what they like and dislike.
Safety Tip:
 When child is on a nappy table during the game it is important to always stay as
close to the child as possible and always have a least one hand on your child at all
times.
Variations:



Sit on a chair; lay your baby securely on your knees; gently sway your legs
from side to side; sing a song or nursery rhyme.
Play ‘Buzzing Bee’: ‘The buzzing bee is coming to buzz you….HERE (foot,
tummy, face etc.)!’
Play hand clapping games such as: Patty-cake, patty-cake baker’s man; bake
me a cake as fast as you can!
26
Shake, Rattle and Roll
Age: Birth +
Time: 1-20 minutes
Indoor/Outdoor Play
How to Play:




Play music to your child while in the womb and also during play time in infancy
Shake a rattle or bells in front of your child and watch for her reaction.
Allow your child to move the instrument by kicking it, pushing it and shaking it.
Provide you child the opportunity to mimic the noise you are producing and learn
about action reaction in sound production (e.g. ringing a bell 4 times)
Why this activity?
From a very early age children are interested in listening and making music. Research has
shown that music played to your child while still in the womb has a beneficial effect on his
brain and helps to lay the foundation of later learning, music ability and language
development Toddlers seem to be natural musicians. Banging on pots and pans, singing
loudly, and stomping on the floor all bring that wonderful sense of “I did it!” to your
developing toddler. Remember the classics from your childhood and some new songs from
the many rock-bands-turned-children’s-bands, and be prepared to sing or play them over
and over. Toddlers love repetition, so don’t be surprised if you can’t get “Five Green and
Speckled Frogs” out of your head for days on end.
Safety Tips:
 It is highly important to use caution when choosing the instrument (like all toys) that
will be in the child’s reach. Make sure the instrument is free from all loose items or
has the potential to break easily and be chocked on or can be heavy if it was to fall
on them.
Variations:

The instruments don’t have to be expensive, simple everyday items such as pots and
pans make great instruments.
27
Water Play
Age: 12 months+
Time: 20 minutes to an hour
Indoor/Outdoor
How to Play:


Water play can be played anywhere, all you need is water. These places can include
the bath, sink and paddling pool.
Everyday items can be included in water play such as blocks, cups and bath toys
Why this activity?
Through water play the sense of touch is developed. Children learn firsthand on how to
differentiate between warm (less than 40C) and cold water. According early developmental
theorist’s children learn about their world through a variety of sensory information from
their environment. By allowing the child access to the sense of touch through water play the
child is learning about water safety and uncomfortable experiences while supervised by an
adult.
Safety Tips:
 Children can drown in as little as 5 centimetres of water. It is important that children
are supervised at all times when around water.
 Throw out any water sources, as unsupervised bodies of water can turn in a
drowning hazard.
 Water play areas such as baths, pools and buckets must not have walls higher than
50cms. Containers of water with walls higher than 50cms are difficult for your young
child to climb out of if they fall in.
 When left out in the sun, the hose can come out hot. Always run the water until cold
before providing it to the child.
Variations

Food dye can be added to the water to experiment with colours and colour mixture.
Just make sure the food dye is washable.
28
Play dough
Age: 18 months+
Time: 10 minutes- 1 hour
Indoor/Outdoor however, the surface must be hard, clean and washable.
How to Play:



On how to make your own play dough please see attachment at the back of this
folder.
Playing is simple, just roll, squish and flatten the play dough to make shapes, animals
and people.
Simple everyday objects such as small rolling pins and spoons can be used to help
mould shapes.
Why this activity?
Play dough improves senses through visual stimulation, smell and touch. By including
different colours into the play dough, this helps children recognise colours and shapes. The
sense of smell can be developed by including vanilla essence to the mixture to allow your
child to explore through scent. Finally, play dough helps the child differentiate between soft
and hard and allows the child to be able to combine appearance of a soft object to who it
feels. Overall, play dough is resourceful in fostering sensory development.
Safety Tips:
 Play dough, especially when scented, can be tempting for a young child to eat. It is
important to supervise their play and inform them of the chocking danger.
Variations:

Glitter, sequins and food scents can be added to the mixture to heighten sensory
development.
29
Play dough Recipe
Cooked play dough







Ingredients:
1 cup salt
2 cups flour
4 teaspoons cream of tartar
2 tablespoons cooking oil
2 cups water
Powder paint or food colouring
Saucepan
Method
 Mix ingredients in saucepan. Add colouring.
 Cook on medium heat for 3-5 minutes, stirring constantly until it becomes stiff.
 Store in an airtight container in refrigerator. It will last for a quite a while and
has the consistency of commercially prepared play dough. Additionally colour
may be worked into dough. (Place any sequins and essence after the play dough
is cooked)
Uncooked play dough
Ingredients
 2 cups flour
 1 cup salt
 1 tablespoon cooking oil
 1 cup water
 Powder paint or food colouring
 Bowl
 Spoons
Method
 Mix powder paint with flour and salt.
 Add oil and water. Knead.
 Children will like to use rollers, biscuit cutters and toothpicks with dough. Store
dough in plastic bags. If it becomes sticky, add more flour. Dough will keep for
more than a week, even longer if it’s kept in a refrigerator but it has a tendency
to crumble. Small shapes of this mixture can be baked in a 350o oven for 45
mins to make them hard.
Makes enough for six children.
30
Shaving Cream Finger Splat
Age: 18 months+
Time: 15 minutes to 45 minutes
Indoor/ Outdoor
How to Play:



There are a variety of methods on how to play this game. However the best method
is to make small piles of shaving cream on either side of the container and place two
washable paints to make two different colours.
Place the children in aprons or old clothes and allow them to use their fingers to mix
the colours together.
Add marbles to the mix so that children learn to manipulate container to the marbles
around the container to make swirling patterns in the shaving cream.
Why this activity?
This activity links with the sensory development through the senses of touch and sight.
Through this inexpensive activity children learn to experience touch and feelings in an
enjoyable manner while learning about how colours are combined to make new colours.
Fine and gross motor as well as are also developed in a fun manner through the
manipulation of the container and marbles.
Safety Tips
 It is important that children are not left with the can of shaving cream
 Children should also be supervised while playing as shaving cream is toxic and should
not be eaten.
31
Marco Polo
Ages: 4 years+
Time: 10 minutes to one hour
Outdoor/or large open plan indoor area free from break able items.
How to Play:


Marco Polo is a cost-free game that is played with at least two players and provides a
great opportunity to bond as a family.
One person is blind-folded and has to call out Marco to which the person replies
with Polo while they move around the room or garden.
Why this activity?
The child has to use their listening skills to track where the ‘Polo’ sounds are coming from in
order to catch the person. Marco Polo is used to improve the sensory developmental mode
of hearing. The child is given the opportunity to search for and respond to audio cues. The
game also provides the opportunity for children to use their heighten senses of touch and
hearing once one of the senses has been taken away.
Safety Tip:
 Remove all dangerous items such as items that could fall when bumped into,
anything that is at head height such as tables or anything if fallen into could cause
such as glass tables.
Variations
 As your child gets older and get recognise specific sounds try to use different cues
instead of words, for example animal noises or whistling.
32
Sing-along
Age: In the womb +
Time: 1 – 10 mins
Indoor/Outdoor
How to Play

Spend time singing to your child. Sing the same song more than once so that
your child learns the song and can sing along with you.

Visit your local libraries stock a variety of childhood CD’s that you child may like.
Why this activity?
Studies have revealed that 24 weeks after conception children can hear and become
familiar to the infant directed speech of their parents. After birth infants can hear and
become more preference to not only their parent’s voice but also with the specific
sound pattern of the familiar song. In regards to sensory development in early childhood
the sensory development associated with hearing a long and then repeating it also has
links with memory and cognition.
Variations

There are a lot of resources available now for children to do activities in
languages other than the one spoken at home perhaps try to encourage this
through singing.
33
Socio-Emotional
Development
34
Talking
Age: In the womb +
Time: 5 minutesIndoor/outdoor
How to Play



Talking with your child can be done at anytime in any situation, although
despite its simplicity it is often not given the credit it deserves. Simply finding
time while waiting in a queue or sitting in the car is a great opportunity to
bond with; and comfort your child.
Talking doesn’t necessarily mean holding a conversation, simply talking to
your infant while changing him feeding him and even while in the womb has
been proven beneficial.
Talking not only provides a way to discuss emotions, it also provides a
medium to discuss a child’s culture and identity. Teach your child’s caregivers
the words your family uses for important people mother, father,
grandparents) and things (bottle, blanket, pacifier, etc.) as a way of
incorporating culture and/or language into everyday activities.
Why this activity?
Studies on parents who communicate with their child while still in the womb and in the
months of infancy before the development of speech have found that these children are
emotional bonded and are found to be more easily comforted by their parents voice when
in distress. Instead of getting angry and punishing your child for throwing a tantrum, sit
down or get down to your child’s eye level and ask your child what is wrong and
demonstrating your opinion. By showing them that a solution can be met through simply
conversing, you are teaching your child conflict management skills as well as giving them a
voice and a sense of importance and respect. By discussing the importance of cultural and
racial identity with your child, you can help empower and deconstruct the stereotypes to
help build your child’s self- esteem and identity.
35
Encouraging Words
Age: Birth +
Time: No time limit
Indoor and Outdoor Play
How to Play



This activity may not seem like play or a specifically structured activity but makes a
really positive impact on your child’s development emotionally and socially. This is all
about teaching your child to be secure in themselves, their environment and you.
All this activity requires is you, your child and everyday activities. The aim is to praise
your child and give them words of affirmation every time they do something well.
However it is important for newborn as well as toddlers, babies may not understand
the words you speak yet but they do understand the feeling behind what you’re
saying which is why it is so important to take every opportunity to praise them and
encourage them when they do the right thing or achieve something no matter how
small it might seem.
Some examples of these every day activities might include praising your baby for
holding their head up during tummy time, or encouraging your toddler when they
learn a new word or being engaged in a puppet show your pre-schooler has created
for you
Why this activity?
From birth children are able to understand emotions and feel the message you’re trying to
portray even if they don’t understand the words. As your child gets older and begins to
understand both the words and emotions, negativity can really affect them. It is important
to use encouragement and positive affirmation as often as possible to help your child build a
strong sense of self and confidence which is essential in building relationships and being
able to express their own emotions.
Please Note: This activity does not mean that it isn’t important to discipline your child when
they have done the wrong thing as that is an important lesson about responsibility as well as
cause and effect. You might like to use these times as opportunities to explain to your child
what they should have done instead and the next time they do it, praise them
36
Drawing and Art
Age: 1 year +
Time: 10 minutesIndoor/outdoor
How to Play

Drawing is a simple and fun activity that can provide hours of fun with just a $3
box of pencils and some paper.

Don’t pass up on the opportunity to join your child and provoke emotional
expression through questions like, how does the person/animal in the picture
feel and why do they feel that way?
Why this activity?
Often drawing is seen as an activity that is cost effective and provides quiet time however it
can be utilised to uncover hidden emotions and provides a chance to bond with your child.
Drawing is often used by art therapists as art is seen as a language and viewed as self-talk,
that encourages children to express their inner thoughts and feelings through the creative
process. Of course if your child expressed upset emotions or draws pictures that depict a
troubling situation it is important to sit down and quietly discuss the images and if need be
contact an early childhood professional for further assistance.
Safety Tips
 Never leave your young child alone with the drawing materials as they could choke
Variations
 Using different types of drawing materials like pencils, crayons and textas, even
stamps will help your child to convey what they are trying to tell you in a more
detailed way.
37
Dress Up’s or Dramatic Play
Age: 18 months – 5 years
Time: 10-15 mins
Indoor and Outdoor Play
How to play:




If your child has ‘dress up’ items such as wings, hats, superhero costume etc then
these can be used to play with however if not then different items of clothing, old
handbags, glasses and household items can be used as well.
Gather together these items and encourage your child to pick what they would like
to wear or use
Then ask them questions to help them create a pretend environment. For example:
 Who are you today?
 Where are we?
 Where are we going?
 Who am I today?
Continue to create different situations with different pieces of clothing and
household items
Please Note: It is really important that you engage in this play with your child by acting out
the environment they create as well as adding your own ideas into it
Why this activity?
Children who engage in dramatic play are able to use this time to learn about other people
around them and themselves. It can be a comfortable environment for a child to express
their creativity or show that they are shy and just like to follow rather than lead. This type of
play can also be a great opportunity for children to express how they are feeling by
pretending to be someone else; this is much less intimidating for them but should be taken
seriously by you. Children who have the opportunity to play this with other children also
learn to negotiate and resolve conflicts which are very important aspects of emotional and
social development.
Safety tip
 Ensure all household items given to the child for play are not sharp and do not have
the ability to harm them
38
Variations

When your child has other children around you may like to bring out the same
materials and encourage them to engage in dramatic play together, this will help
your child to learn the same concepts with children their own age. As toddlers grow
they need to become aware that others have feelings and ideas just like them and
that they need to be respected. Dramatic play with other children is a great way for
them to develop this basic empathy.
39
Cubby House
Age: 2+ years
Time: 10 minutes – 1 hour
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play




Get some old sheets or towels and find a suitable place to start constructing the
cubby house (this may be under a table or under a tree)
Place the sheets so it looks like a room with four walls (and maybe even a door!)
This may be dome using pegs or heavy objects to make sure the sheets don fall down
Enjoy your new little house!
Why this activity?
Building a cubby house promotes teamwork and helps children to learn to share and take
turns. They learn communication skills while interacting with adults and other children as
well as learning to see things from other people’s point of shoes. By assessing their
surroundings and where to put the sheets children are learning problem solving skills. They
are learning social problem solving skills to work out any issues they may have with their
playmates. They also learn to accept compromise. Building cubby houses also helps children
express a sense of individuality.
Safety tips
 Ensure small objects are kept away from small children as they are a choking hazard
 Clear the area of any glass or sharp objects
Variations
Once built, your cubby house can be transformed to have blankets for beds and some
plastic plates and spoons to put in the ‘kitchen’. They may also have baby dolls as the
‘babies’ or other stuffed animals so your child can role play.
40
Simon Says
Age: 2+ years
Time: 1-10 minutes
Indoor and outdoor play
How to Play







One person is selected as ‘Simon’ and stands out the front, facing the rest of the
players
‘Simon’ chooses an action and starts doing it (this can be any action such as clapping,
stomping, jumping, patting your head or simply walking around with everybody
following)
The rest of the group follow the actions, taking note when the leader changes the
action
‘Simon’ will begin each action with “Simon says...” (eg “Simon says clap your hands”
or “Simon says touch your toes”)’
‘Simon’ will say the majority of actions starting with “Simon says...”, however once in
a while ‘Simon’ will simply state the action “eg “clap your hands” or “touch your
toes”
If ‘Simon’ says an action without saying “Simon says...” the players are NOT to follow
the new action but continue the old one (eg when ‘Simon’ says “Simon says clap your
hands” players clap their hands, however when ‘Simon’ next says “touch your toes”
players must not touch their toes because ‘Simon did not say ‘Simon says’. Players
must continue clapping hands)
Anyone who does the wrong actions is out and sits or stands on the edge of the play
area
Why this activity?
Simon Says promotes communication skills by following the same actions as the leader. By
playing this game, children learn how to follow rules and play cooperate as part of a team.
When your child has a turn being ‘Simon’ they get the opportunity to express their
individuality.
Safety tips
 Clear the area of any glass or sharp objects
41
Fruity Faces
Age: 2+ years
Time: 1-10 minutes
Indoor play
How to Play

Have an adult cut up different types of fruit into small pieces (eg banana, apple,
strawberry, watermelon, oranges)
 Instruct the child to make a face out of the fruit
 you may like them to make a specific face (eg happy, sad, excited) or maybe the way
they feeling at the moment
 Prompt children to talk about the emotion they have made (“When have you felt like
this? How did it feel?”)
 After they have played around with the faces they are able to eat it
Why this activity?
By playing fruity faces your child not only learns about healthy eating, but they also learn
about the many different types of emotions. They are able to recognise and recreate
familiar emotions. Fruity faces encourage children to make the link between what they are
feeling and the name of the emotion. They get the opportunity to express their individuality.
Safety tips
 Ensure knives and sharp objects are kept out of children’s reach
42
Helping around the house
Age: 2+ years
Time: No time limit
Indoor and Outdoor Play
How to Play:



This play involves using everyday household activity as a way to interact with your
child and help them learn while also achieving your own goals for the day
Use inside activities such as cleaning. For example; vacuuming, sweeping, mopping,
washing up and dusting
Use outside activities such as gardening and clothes washing
Why this activity?
Although these activities might not seem like play to adults for a child it can be fun to have
the opportunity to do something different and to feel like a ‘big girl’ or a ‘big boy’. By
allowing your child to help around the house, they development a sense of responsibility
and independence. Combine this with positive language and encouragement from you and
your child will come back time and time again to help. In terms of their emotional
development this is utterly crucial, without this sense of independence and responsibility
many children struggle with learning at school as they are unable to self-direct their
learning.
Safety Tip
 Never allow your child to use household chemicals
 Never leave your child alone with water
Variations
 As your child grows and gains more confidence they can be left to do some of these
household activities by themselves such as packing away their toys or cleaning their
room. This will give them a sense of pride knowing they can do a good job at
something by themselves.
43
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement