18169-00_ATMOS41_Manual Pages

18169-00_ATMOS41_Manual Pages
18169-00
7.18.2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction.............................................................................................. 1
2. Operation ................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Installation ................................................................................................ 3
2.2 Connecting the ATMOS 41 .......................................................................... 5
2.2.1 Safety Precautions .......................................................................... 5
2.2.2 Cable Problems ................................................................................ 5
2.3 Connecting to a ZENTRA or EM60 Family Data Logger ............................... 6
2.4 Connecting to a Non-METER Logger .......................................................... 6
2.5 Pigtail End Wiring....................................................................................... 6
2.6 Communication ......................................................................................... 7
3. System......................................................................................................... 9
3.1 Specifications ............................................................................................ 9
3.2 Pyranometer ............................................................................................ 12
3.3 Anemometer ............................................................................................ 13
3.4 Vapor Pressure Sensor ............................................................................. 14
3.5 Rain Gauge ............................................................................................... 15
3.6 Temperature Sensor................................................................................. 16
3.7 Lightning Sensor ...................................................................................... 17
3.8 Compass .................................................................................................. 17
3.9 Configuring the Compass and Lightning Sensor Using ProCheck ............. 18
3.9.1 Compass Configuration.................................................................. 18
3.9.2 Lightning Strike Reject Level Configuration ................................... 18
3.10 Barometric Sensor ................................................................................. 19
3.11 Tilt Sensor.............................................................................................. 19
i
3.12 Theory .................................................................................................... 19
3.12.1 Wind Speed and Direction ............................................................ 19
3.12.2 Temperature Sensor ..................................................................... 21
3.13 Limitations............................................................................................. 23
3.13.1 Snow and Ice Accumulation ......................................................... 23
3.13.2 Heavy Rain and Strong Wind ........................................................ 23
4. Service....................................................................................................... 25
4.1 Calibration ............................................................................................... 25
4.2 Cleaning and Maintenance....................................................................... 25
4.3 Troubleshooting ....................................................................................... 27
4.4 Customer Support.................................................................................... 29
4.5 Terms and Conditions .............................................................................. 30
References .................................................................................................... 33
Index ................................................................................................................. 35
ii
INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION
Wind direction 13, 19–21
Wind gust 13
Wind speed 13, 19–21
Troubleshooting
ATMOS 41 not responding 27
No pyranometer reading 29
No temperature reading 28
Not reading any rain 28
No wind speed 28
Precipitation measurements in
frozen conditions 23
Water not flowing through rain gauge 28
Wind speed and direction errors during
heavy rain and strong wind 23
Thank you for choosing the ATMOS 41 Compact Weather Station from METER Group, Inc.
The ATMOS 41 Compact Weather Station is designed for continuous monitoring of
environmental variables, including all standard weather measurements (see Measurement
Specifications on page 9). The ATMOS 41 measures the following:
• solar radiation
• precipitation
• precipitation max intensity
• air temperature
• barometric pressure
• vapor pressure
Z
• relative humidity
ZENTRA
ZENTRA Cloud 6
ZENTRA Utility 6
• wind speed
• wind direction
• maximum wind gust
• lightning strikes
• lightning distance
• tilt
• compass orientation
WEATHER STATIONS REIMAGINED
All sensors are integrated into a single, small form-factor unit, requiring minimal installation
effort. A robust, no moving parts design that prevents errors because of wear or fouling make
the weather station ideal for long term, remote installations.
Applications of the ATMOS 41 are listed below:
• weather monitoring
• microenvironment monitoring
• spatially-distributed environmental monitoring
• crop weather monitoring
• fire danger monitoring/mapping
• weather networks
Additional advantages include its low-power design that supports battery-operated data
loggers, and the SDI-12 three-wire interface. A tilt sensor warns the user of out-of-level
condition, and no configurations are necessary.
36
1
INDEX
A
Precipitation max intensity 1, 9
Relative humidity 1, 9
Solar radiation 1, 9, 12
Tilt 1, 10, 19
Vapor pressure 1, 9, 14
Wind direction 1, 10, 13
Wind gust 1, 10, 13
Wind speed 1, 10, 13
Applications 1
C
Calibration and configuration 18
Configuring the compass 18
Lightning strike reject
level configuration 18
Sensor calibration scheduler 25
Cleaning 25
Components 20
Connecting the ATMOS 41 5
Connecting to non-METER logger 6
Connections 5
Customer support 29
R
References 31
S
Limitations 23
Sensors
Anemometer 13
Barometric pressure 19
Compass 17
Lightning sensor 17
Pyranometer 12
Rain gauge 15
Temperature sensor 16
Tilt 19
Vapor pressure sensor 14
Settings 19
Specifications 9–12
Cable length 11
Compliance 12
Dimensions 11
Electrical and timing characteristics 11
Measurement specifications 9
M
T
Maintenance 25
Rain gauge 15
Measurements 1, 9–11
Air temperature 1, 9, 16
Barometric pressure 1, 10, 19
Compass orientation 1, 10, 17
Humidity sensor temperature 9
Lightning distance 1, 11
Lightning strikes 1, 10
Precipitation 1, 9
Terms and conditions 30
Theory
Air temperature 16–17, 21–22
Lightning distance 17
Lightning strikes 17
Precipitation 15–16
Precipitation max intensity 15–16
Relative humidity 14
Solar radiation 12
Temperature sensor 16
Vapor pressure 14
D
Data acquisition system 4
See also Installation, Connecting
the ATMOS 41
I
Installation 3
Connecting the ATMOS 41 5–7
Mounting 4
Tools required 3
L
35
2. OPERATION
Please read all instructions before operating the ATMOS 41 to ensure it performs to its
full potential.
2.1 INSTALLATION
Follow the steps listed in Table 1 to set up the ATMOS 41 and start collecting data.
Table 1 Installation
Wrench 13 mm (1/2 inch)
Secure mounting location
Mount
(if using ATMOS 41 compass-corrected wind direction, mount on nonferrous pipe)
Tools Needed
• meteorological stand
• pole in cement
• tripod
Diameter: 31.8 to 50.8 mm, 1.25 to 2.0 inch
NOTE: Smaller mounts are compatible if washers are added to the V-bolt (not included).
Standard pipe sizes that are compatible are 1.0-, 1.25-, and 1.5-in diameter pipes. Square
tubing with a width of 1.25 to 2.0 in or T-posts can also work as mounting options.
Consider the Surroundings
Avoid obstructions.
Ensure that site selection is far from wind obstruction.
Make sure surrounding objects will not shade the solar radiation sensor.
Preparation
Conduct System Check
Verify all sensors read within expected ranges (see Section 3 on page 9).
Adjust Pole Height
Many installations require the ATMOS 41 to be mounted 2 m above ground, but
this can be adjusted based on the specific application.
3
OPERATION
Table 1 Installation (continued)
REFERENCES
Install on Mounting Pole
The ATMOS 41 is fitted with a V-bolt, allowing it to be mounted on top of most
posts, poles, tripods, etc.
Campbell, G.S. and M.H. Unsworth (1979) An inexpensive sonic anemometer for eddy
correlation. J. Appl. Meteor. 18:1072–1077.
Mount Toward True North
If mounting the ATMOS 41 on a ferrous metal post or the compass-corrected
wind direction is OFF, the ATMOS 41 must be oriented correctly for accurate
wind direction measurements. An N engraved on the side of the instrument
should be oriented to point true north (not magnetic north).
Buck, A.L. (1981) New equations for computing vapor pressure and enhancement factor. J.
Appl. Meteor. 20:1527–1432.
NOTE: All ATMOS 41 units are shipped with the compass-corrected
wind direction set to OFF.
Mounting
If mounting on a plastic post, the compass-corrected wind direction can be
turned ON (uses an internal compass; can be turned ON using a ProCheck
(see Section 3.9 on page 18 or SDI-12 command; see the ATMOS 41
Integrator’s Guide).
Level the System
Use the bubble level underneath the ATMOS 41 or a ProCheck display to level
the weather station. The angle of the mounting pole may need to be adjusted
or shims added to the ATMOS 41 pole interface to achieve level. The ATMOS 41
must be within approximately ±2 degrees of dead level in both the X and Y
directions to accurately measure rainfall and solar radiation.
Secure the System
Use a wrench to tighten the bolts, securing the ATMOS 41 flat and tight against
the top of the stand.
Plug Sensor into Data Acquisition System
• Connect the 3.5 mm plug into a ZENTRA or EM60 family of data loggers.
• Configure it to read the ATMOS 41 (refer to Section 3 on page 9).
Connecting
Verify
• Use the SCAN function in the software to show a list of ATMOS 41 readings.
• Verify that these readings are within expected ranges.
Third Party Data Loggers
To connect to a non-METER data logger, see the ATMOS 41 Integrator’s Guide.
NOTE: ATMOS 41 will not work with legacy Decagon data loggers (EM50 Series and EM5B) because the ATMOS 41
outputs contain too many parameters.
4
33
ATMOS 41
2.2 CONNECTING THE ATMOS 41
The ATMOS 41 Compact Weather Station works most efficiently with a ZENTRA or EM60 data
loggers. This system will not work with legacy data loggers (Decagon EM5, EM5b, EM50,
EM50R, EM50G) because the ATMOS 41 has too many output parameters (previously limited
to three). The standard station with a 3.5 mm stereo connector (Figure 1) connects to and is
configured with a ZENTRA or EM60 data logger.
Ground
Data
Power
Figure 1 3.5 mm stereo plug wiring
The ATMOS 41 is also compatible with third party loggers and may be purchased with
stripped and tinned wires (pigtail) for terminal connections. For extensive directions on
how to integrate the weather station into third-party loggers, visit https://www.metergroup.
com/environment/products/atmos-41-weather-station/#support to reference the
ATMOS 41 Integrator‘s Guide.
The ATMOS 41 comes standard with a 5-m cable. It may be purchased with custom cable
lengths for an additional fee (on a per-meter fee basis). METER has successfully tested
digital communication on cable lengths up to 1,000 m (3,200 ft). This option eliminates the
need for splicing the cable (a possible failure point). However, the maximum recommended
length is 75 m.
2.2.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
METER sensors are built to the highest standards, but misuse, improper protection, or
improper installation may damage the sensor and possibly void the manufacturer’s warranty.
Before integrating ATMOS 41 or other METER sensors into a system, make sure to follow
the recommended installation instructions and have the proper protections in place to
safeguard sensors from damage.
2.2.2 CABLE PROBLEMS
Improperly protected cables can lead to severed cables or disconnected sensors. Cabling
issues can be caused by many factors, including rodent damage, driving over sensor cables,
tripping over the cable, not leaving enough cable slack during installation, or poor sensor
wiring connections. To relieve strain on the connections and prevent loose cabling from being
inadvertently snagged, gather and secure the cable travelling between the ATMOS 41 and the
data acquisition device to the mounting mast in one or more places. Install cables in conduit
or plastic cladding when near the ground to avoid rodent damage. Tie excess cable to the
data logger mast to ensure cable weight does not cause sensor to unplug.
5
OPERATION
ATMOS 41
2.3 CONNECTING TO A ZENTRA OR EM60 FAMILY DATA LOGGER
The ATMOS 41 works seamlessly with ZENTRA or EM60 data loggers. Plug the 3.5 mm stereo
plug connector into one of the six sensor ports.
Once the ATMOS 41 has been connected to a ZENTRA or EM60 data logger, configure the
logger port for the ATMOS 41, and set the measurement interval. Logger configuration may be
done using either ZENTRA Utility (desktop and mobile) or ZENTRA Cloud (for cell-enabled
ZENTRA data loggers).
To download ATMOS 41 data from a ZENTRA or EM60 logger, use use ZENTRA Utility or
ZENTRA Cloud.
NOTE: The ATMOS 41 draws more current than most other METER sensors because it makes frequent measurements
of wind speed and precipitation. As a result, plugging multiple ATMOS 41 stations into a single ZENTRA or Em60 data
loggers may have significant impact on battery life. At times or in regions with plentiful sunshine, the solar
panel should provide ample charge and this should not be an issue. But, during the winter or periods of extended
heavy clouds, the solar panel may not provide enough charging current to keep the system running with multiple
ATMOS 41 units. METER recommends using only one ATMOS 41 per ZENTRA or Em60 data logger.
2.4 CONNECTING TO A NON-METER LOGGER
The ATMOS 41 weather station may be purchased for use with non-METER data loggers.
These sensors typically come configured with stripped and tinned (pigtail) lead wires for
use with screw terminals. Refer to the third-party logger manual for details on wiring.
The ATMOS 41 Integrator’s Guide gives detailed instructions on connecting the weather
station to non-METER loggers. Visit https://www.metergroup.com/environment/products/
atmos-41-weather-station/#support to reference the ATMOS 41 Integrator’s Guide.
2.5 PIGTAIL END WIRING
Connect the weather station wires to the data logger as illustrated in Figure 2, with the
power supply wire (Brown) connected to the excitation, the digital out wire (Orange) to a
digital input, and the bare ground wire to ground.
Power (Brown)
Ground (Bare)
Data (Orange)
Figure 2
WARRANTIES. The Seller warrants all equipment manufactured by it to be free from
defects in parts and labor for a period of one year from the date of shipment from factory.
The liability of the Seller applies solely to repairing, replacing, or issuing credit (at the
Seller’s sole discretion) for any equipment manufactured by the Seller and returned by the
Buyer during the warranty period. SELLER MAKES NO SEPARATE OR OTHER WARRANTY
OF ANY NATURE WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. There shall be no other obligations
either expressed or implied.
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. Seller will not be liable to the Buyer or any other person or entity
for indirect special, incidental, consequential, punitive, or exemplary damages in connection
with this transaction or any acts or omissions associated therewith or relating to the sale
or use of any goods, whether such claim is based on breach of warranty, contract, tort, or
other legal theory and regardless of the causes of such loss or damages or whether any other
remedy provided herein fails. In no event will the Seller’s total liability under this contract
exceed an amount equal to the total amount paid for the goods purchased hereunder.
WAIVER. In the event of any default under or breach of the contract by the Buyer, the Seller
has the right to refuse to make further shipments. The Seller’s failure to enforce at any time
or for any period of time the provisions of this contract will not constitute a waiver of such
provisions or the right of the Seller to enforce each and every provision.
GOVERNING LAW. The validity, construction, and performance of the contract and the
transactions to which it relates will be governed by the laws of the United States of America.
All actions, claims, or legal proceedings in any way pertaining to this contract will be
commenced and maintained in the courts of Whitman County, State of Washington, and the
parties hereto each agree to submit themselves to the jurisdiction of such court.
SEVERABILITY. If any of the Terms and Conditions set out in this contact are declared
to be invalid by a court, agency, commission, or other entity having jurisdiction over the
interpretation and enforcement of this contract, the applications of such provisions to
parties or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid or unenforceable
will not be affected. Each term not so declared invalid or unenforceable will be valid and
enforced to the fullest extent permitted by law and the rights and obligations of the parties
will be construed and enforced as though a valid commercially reasonable term consistent
with the undertaking of the parties under the order has been substituted in place of the
invalid provision.
SET-OFF. The Buyer may not set-off any amount owing from the Seller to the Buyer against
any amount payable by the Buyer to the Seller whether or not related to this contract.
Pigtail wiring
NOTE: Some early ATMOS 41 units may have the older Decagon wiring scheme where the power supply is white, the
digital out is red, and the bare wire is ground.
6
31
SERVICE
ATMOS 41
4.5 TERMS AND CONDITIONS
(brown)
(orange)
Data
Ground
Switched
3.6–15 VDC
Digital
In
G
Power
CONTRACT FORMATION. All requests for goods and/or services by METER Group, Inc. USA
(METER) are subject to the customer’s acceptance of these Terms and Conditions. The
Buyer will be deemed to have irrevocably accepted these Terms and Conditions of Sale
upon the first to occur of the Buyer’s issuance of a purchase order or request for goods or
services. Unless expressly assented to in writing by METER, terms and conditions different
are expressly rejected. No course of dealing between the parties hereto shall be deemed to
affect or to modify, amend, or discharge any provisions of this agreement.
PRICES AND PAYMENT. Invoice prices will be based upon METER prices as quoted or at
METER list price in effect at the time an order is received by the Seller. Prices do not include
any state or federal taxes, duties, fees, or charges now or hereafter enacted applicable to the
goods or to this transaction, all of which are the responsibility of the Buyer. Unless otherwise
specified on the invoice, all accounts are due and payable 30 days from the date of invoice.
Unpaid accounts extending beyond 30 days will be subject to a service charge of 2% per
month (24% per annum). Should Seller initiate any legal action or proceeding to collect on
any unpaid invoice, Seller shall be entitled to recover from Buyer all costs and expenses
incurred in connection therewith, including court costs and reasonable attorney’s fees.
RISK OF LOSS AND DELIVERY TITLE. Liability for loss or damage passes to the Buyer when
the Seller delivers the goods on the Seller’s dock or to the transporting agent, whichever
occurs first. The Seller has the right to deliver the goods in installments. Shipping and
delivery dates communicated by the Seller to the Buyer are approximate only.
(bare)
Data Logger
Figure 3
Wiring diagram
NOTE: The acceptable range of excitation voltages is from 3.6 to 15 VDC. To read the ATMOS 41 with Campbell
Scientific data loggers, power the sensors off a 12 V port or switched 12 V port.
If the ATMOS 41 has a standard 3.5-mm plug and will be connected to a non-METER data
logger, please use one of the following two options when connecting to a non-METER
data logger.
Option 1
1. Clip off the plug on the sensor cable.
SHIPMENT. In the absence of specific shipping instructions, the Seller, if and as requested
by the Buyer, will ship the goods by the method the Seller deems most advantageous. Where
the Seller ships the goods, the Buyer will pay all transportation charges that are payable on
delivery or, if transportation charges are prepaid by the Seller, the Buyer will reimburse the
Seller upon receipt of an invoice from the Seller. The Buyer is obligated to obtain insurance
against damage to the goods being shipped. Unless otherwise specified, the goods will be
shipped in the standard Seller commercial packaging. When special packing is required or, in
the opinion of the Seller, required under the circumstances, the cost of the special packaging
shall be the responsibility of the Buyer.
2. Strip and tin the wires.
INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE. Goods will be conclusively deemed accepted by the Buyer
unless a written notice setting out reasonable particulars of the rejected goods and the
reason for the rejection is sent by the Buyer to the Seller within 10 days of delivery of
the goods. The Buyer will place rejected goods in safe storage at a reasonably accessible
location for inspection by the Seller.
The adapter cable has a connector for the stereo jack on one end and three wires (or pigtail
adapter) on the other end for connection to a data logger. Both the stripped and tinned
adapter cable wires have the same termination as in Figure 3; the brown wire is excitation,
the orange is output, and the bare wire is ground.
CUSTOM GOODS. There is no refund or return for custom or nonstandard goods.
3. Wire it directly into the data logger.
This option has the advantage of creating a direct connection with no chance of the sensor
becoming unplugged. However, it then cannot be easily used in the future with a METER
readout unit or data logger.
Option 2
Obtain an adapter cable from METER.
2.6 COMMUNICATION
The ATMOS 41 weather station communicates using the SDI-12 communication protocol. To
obtain detailed instructions, refer to the ATMOS 41 Integrator’s Guide.
30
7
ATMOS 41
Table 4 Troubleshooting the ATMOS 41 (continued)
Problem
Possible Solutions
Carefully remove the rain funnel as described in Section 3.5
on page 15.
No pyranometer reading
BE CAREFUL TO UNPLUG THE PYRANOMETER CONNECTOR INSIDE THE
FUNNEL BEFORE FULLY REMOVING THE FUNNEL.
Make sure the pyranometer plug (Figure 14) is plugged in.
4.4 CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Customer service representatives are available for questions, problems, or feedback Monday
through Friday, 8 am–5 pm Pacific time.
Email:
[email protected]
[email protected]
Phone:
+1.509.332.5600
Fax:
+1.509.332.5158
Website: www.metergroup.com
If contacting METER by email or fax, please include the following information:
Name
Address
Phone
Fax number
Instrument serial number
Description of the problem
NOTE: For ATMOS 41 weather stations purchased through a distributor, please contact the distributor directly
for assistance.
29
SERVICE
Table 4 Troubleshooting the ATMOS 41 (continued)
Problem
Check and remove any debris from rain gauge funnel. The ATMOS 41
must be within approximately ±2 degrees of dead level in both the
X and Y directions to accurately measure rainfall. If not within this
range, drops from the flared hole can miss the gold electrodes
entirely. Use the internal level measurements that are available in
the ATMOS 41 data stream to confirm that the ATMOS 41 is level.
Gently twist the top of the weather station and remove the rain
gauge funnel.
BE CAREFUL TO UNPLUG THE PYRANOMETER CONNECTOR INSIDE THE
FUNNEL BEFORE REMOVING THE FUNNEL COMPLETELY.
Check to make sure that there are no obvious problems and that the
gold electrodes are aligned correctly Figure 15.
Not reading any rain
Pyranometer
3. SYSTEM
This section describes the compact weather station system.
Possible Solutions
Gold electrodes
3.1 SPECIFICATIONS
MEASUREMENT SPECIFICATIONS
Solar Radiation
Range:
0 to 1750 W/m2
Resolution:
1 W/m2
Accuracy:
±5% of measurement typical
Precipitation
Range:
0 to 125 mm/h
Resolution:
0.017 mm
Accuracy:
±5% of measurement from 0 to 50 mm/h
Vapor Pressure
Figure 14 Pyranometer
Water not flowing
through rain gauge
Figure 15 Gold electrodes
Check all screens and the outflow to ensure there is no lodged debris.
Check anemometer pathway to make sure there is no debris
blocking the path of the sonic transducer measurement (between
transducers and polished metal on base).
No wind speed
Check the sonic transducers to make sure that there is no water
build-up; if there is moisture, take a dry cloth and dab it away.
Check to see that the acoustic mirror Figure 4 is not dirty. Clean
by flushing with water and dry with a dry cloth (see Section 4.2
on page 25).
Be sure the ATMOS 41 is level.
No temperature reading
Range:
0 to 47 kPa
Resolution:
0.01 kPa
Accuracy:
Varies with temperature and humidity,
±0.2 kPa typical below 40 °C
Relative Humidity
Range:
0 to 100%
Resolution:
0.1%
Accuracy:
Varies with temperature and humidity, ±3% RH typical
Air Temperature
Range:
–40 to 50 °C
Resolution:
0.1 °C
Accuracy:
±0.6 °C
Humidity Sensor Temperature
Check the temperature needle to be sure it is not pushed
in (pushing in the temperature sensor will break the thermistor
wires and stop measurement).
Range:
–40 to 50 °C
Resolution:
0.1 °C
Try not to abuse the temperature needle when cleaning, as its very
delicate lead wires can be damaged.
Accuracy:
±1.0 °C
28
9
SYSTEM
ATMOS 41
Rain funnel
Barometric Pressure
Range:
50 to 110 kPa
Resolution:
0.01 kPa
Accuracy:
±0.1 kPa
Down spout
Horizontal Wind Speed
Range:
0 to 40 m/s
Resolution:
0.01 m/s
Accuracy:
The greater of 0.3 m/s or 3% of measurement
Teflon screen
Wind Gust
Range:
0 to 40 m/s
Resolution:
0.01 m/s
Accuracy:
The greater of 0.3 m/s or 3% of measurement
Figure 11 Down spout
Wind Direction
Range:
0 to 359°
Resolution:
1°
Accuracy:
±5°
0 to 359°
Resolution:
1°
Accuracy:
±5°
0 to 180°
Resolution:
0.1°
Accuracy:
±1°
Rain funnel
Table 4 Troubleshooting the ATMOS 41
Problem
Possible Solutions
Check power to the sensor.
Check sensor cable and 3.5-mm plug integrity.
ATMOS 41 not responding
Check data logger wiring to ensure the following connections:
• Brown—3.6 V to 15 V power supply
• Orange—digital out
• Bare—ground
If sensor does not respond, use the ProCheck to make sure it is
working satisfactorily.
Tilt
Range:
Figure 13
4.3 TROUBLESHOOTING
Compass Heading
Range:
Figure 12 Teflon screen
Lightning Strike Count
Range:
0 to 65,535 strikes
Resolution:
1 strike
Accuracy:
Variable with distance, >25% detection at <10 km typical
10
27
SERVICE
ATMOS 41
c. Clean around posts and between crevices using a dry brush.
Lightning Average Distance
DO NOT immerse the sensor in water.
DO NOT touch the temperature sensor needle (Figure 10).
Range:
0 to 40 km
Avoid more than light pressure on the sonic transducers (Figure 10).
Resolution:
3 km
Accuracy:
Variable
Dimensions
10 cm diameter x 34 cm height (includes rain guage filter)
Cable Length
5 m (custom cable lengths are available for an additional cost)
Electrical and Timing Characteristics
Supply Voltage (VCC) to GND
Sonic
transducers
Sonic
transducers
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Temperature needle
Figure 10 Temperature needle and sonic transducers
NOTE: Do not allow water to enter the ultrasonic sensors (Figure 10). Water may corrode the metal parts inside the
sensors and ruin them. Do not touch the temperature sensor when cleaning because it is very delicate and can be
damaged if pushed into the ATMOS 41 body.
3. Make sure nothing is obscuring the temperature sensor or the sonic transducers shown in
Figure 10 (cobwebs, leaves, wasp nests, etc.).
4. Check the downspout (Figure 11) for debris.
5. Observe the Teflon screen (Figure 12) to see if it is dirty.
3.6 V
15.0 V
Digital Input Voltage (logic high)
Minimum
2.8 V
Typical
3.0 V
Maximum
15.0 V
Digital Input Voltage (logic low)
Minimum
–0.3 V
Typical
0.0 V
Maximum
0.8 V
Power Line Slew Rate
If the screen is dirty, it is best to replace it.
Contact METER support at [email protected] for a replacement.
Minimum
1.0 V/ms
Typical
Maximum
Current Drain (during measurement)
Minimum
0.2 mA
Typical
8.0 mA
Maximum
26
16.0 mA
11
SYSTEM
4. SERVICE
Current Drain (while asleep)
Minimum
0.2 mA
Typical
0.3 mA
Maximum
0.4 mA
This section contains contact information, calibration frequencies, and troubleshooting guidelines.
4.1 CALIBRATION
Table 3 lists the recommended sensor calibration frequencies.
Operating Temperature Range
Minimum
Table 3 Calibration Frequencies
–40 °C
Sensor Function
Typical
Calibration Frequency
Solar Radiation
Every 2 yearsa
Rain Gauge
Not needed
Lightning
Not needed
Minimum
Wind
Not needed
Typical
Barometric Pressure
Every 1–2 yearsb
Relative Humidity (RH)
Every 1–2 yearsb
Compass
Not Needed
Maximum
50 °C
Power Up Time (SDI Ready)—aRx! Commands
10 s
Maximum
Power Up Time (SDI Ready)—Other Commands
a
Contact Apogee Instruments for details on sending the pyranometer in for calibration:
[email protected] +1.877.727.6433.
b
METER offers a service to calibrate barometric pressure and RH sensors (contact METER Support at
[email protected] for more information).
Minimum
Typical
800 ms
Maximum
4.2 CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE
Measurement Duration
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
1. Check the following areas to make sure they are clear of miscellaneous environmental,
animal (specifically bird droppings), or insect debris:
a. Rain funnel
110 ms
3000 ms
b. Solar radiation sensor
Compliance
c. Anemometer opening
Manufactured under ISO 9001:2015
Do not remove the sensor from its mount to remove debris.
EM ISO/IEC 17050:2010 (CE Mark)
Be sure the sensor is still level after cleaning.
d. Sintered glass reflection plate
2. Clean the ATMOS 41
a. Scrub with light to medium pressure using a warm, damp cloth.
3.2 PYRANOMETER
Solar radiation is measured by a pyranometer that is integrated into the lip of the rain gauge
funnel at the top of the ATMOS 41. Designed, manufactured, and calibrated by experts at
Apogee Instruments, the miniature pyranometer uses a silicon-cell sensor to measure the
total incoming (direct and diffuse) solar radiation. A carefully developed cosine-correcting
head ensures accurate readings regardless of sun angle, while the painstakingly researched
optical filter material balances cost and performance to ensure the silicon-cell provides
12
b. Completely dry the sensor by removing excess water using a dry cloth.
25
ATMOS 41
good accuracy regardless of temperature or sensor age. Silicon-cell sensors have excellent
response time to changing radiation conditions and acceptable sensitivity across the solar
spectrum, which make them perfect for use on the ATMOS 41.
Leveling the ATMOS 41 is particularly important for accurate solar radiation measurements.
Out of level, the pyranometer will overestimate some portions of the day while underestimating others. Ensure accurate solar radiation measurements by carefully leveling the
ATMOS 41 at installation. Bird droppings and other soiling of the domed sensor surface will
cause serious errors in pyranometer measurements. Regularly check the sensor to make
sure it is clean and check data often to identify possible problems. Isopropyl (rubbing)
alcohol and a Q-tip work well for cleaning the sensor area. Do NOT use an abrasive cloth on
the sensor surface, as it will scratch. Microfiber bags work well too.
The pyranometer is factory calibrated and the sensor-specific calibration value can be found
on the interior of the rain funnel. This factor has already been added into the ATMOS 41 so
there is no need to do anything with it. But, in the event that this value is needed, it can be
found by taking the funnel off the base and checking underneath.
3.3 ANEMOMETER
The space underneath the rain gauge is where the ATMOS 41 measures wind speed.
Ultrasonic signals emitted from transducers at right angles to each other bounce off
the porous sintered glass plate (Figure 4) and back up to the opposite sensor. The
speed of sound is affected by the wind, and the wind speed is calculated by measuring
differences in the time it takes for sound to travel back and forth between sensors
(see Section 3.12.1 on page 19).
Figure 4 Anemometer
13
ATMOS 41
SYSTEM
3.4 VAPOR PRESSURE SENSOR
3.13 LIMITATIONS
The vapor pressure sensor (Figure 5) on the ATMOS 41 is located behind the circular Teflon™
membrane in the same housing as the sonic transducers. The Teflon protects the sensor
from liquid water and dust while allowing water vapor to freely pass to the sensor and
equilibrate with air vapor pressure. The sensor measures relative humidity and temperature
and computes vapor pressure as the saturation vapor pressure at sensor temperature
multiplied by the relative humidity.
The ATMOS 41 is engineered to be a robust device with minimal downtime. However, it does
have limitations that will affect its measurements under some conditions.
3.13.1 SNOW AND ICE ACCUMULATION
The ATMOS 41 is not heated, so it will not measure frozen precipitation until snow and
ice that have accumulated in the funnel melt. In locations with heavy snowfall and/
or long periods below freezing, it is almost certain that snow accumulation will fill the
funnel and no longer accumulate, leading to inaccurate precipitation measurements
even when the precipitation melts. Accumulation of snow, ice, or frost will also adversely
affect the accuracy of the solar radiation measurement and can compromise the wind
measurements if accumulation occurs in the anemometer acoustic pathway or on the
acoustic mirror (see Section 2.2.1 on page 5).
3.13.2 HEAVY RAIN AND STRONG WIND
Vapor pressure sensor
Teflon screen
Figure 5 Vapor Pressure Sensor
If the relative humidity of the air is desired, it can be computed using Equation 1.
RHr,air =
ea
es (Tair)
Equation 1
During strong storm events, water can splash off of the horizontal bottom plate of the
anemometer envelope and interrupt the signal passing between the sonic transducers. The
spikes on the bottom plate help dissipate the energy of rainwater to minimize splashing
and reduce the likelihood that the wind measurements are interrupted. Additionally, porous
polyethylene membranes protect the ultrasonic transducers from direct splashing and the
sintered (porous) glass construction draws water from the upper surface of the acoustic
mirror to keep a constant sound path length. Despite these features heavy rain and strong
wind can still cause water to reach the membranes and also cause temporary water buildup
on the acoustic mirror. The hydrophobic nature of the transducer protective membranes
and the quick-draining ability of the acoustic mirror should limit wind measurement
interruptions to heavy rain events and should bring wind measurement back online soon
after extreme conditions abate.
where ea is the vapor pressure of the air, from the ATMOS 41, and es(Tair) is saturation vapor
pressure at the air temperature given by the ATMOS 41.
The saturation vapor pressure is calculated using the Magnus-Tetens equation (Equation 2)
with the following coefficients described by Buck (1981).
bT
o
es Tair = a exp e c + air
T
Equation 2
air
Water
Ice
a = 0.611 kPa
b = 17.502
c = 240.97 °C
Tair = NA
a = NA
b = 21.87
c = 265.5 °C
Tair = Temperature in °C
14
23
SYSTEM
ATMOS 41
Unlike relative humidity, vapor pressure does not depend on temperature, and is generally
conservative over time and space. The vapor pressure of the atmosphere near the relative
humidity sensor is the same as the vapor pressure at the relative humidity sensor, even if the
relative humidity sensor is not at the same temperature as the atmosphere. Additionally, it
is the vapor pressure of the atmosphere (not RH) that controls the rate of vapor phase water
transport (e.g., evaporation, transpiration, and distribution of water vapor). Therefore, vapor
pressure is a much more useful measure of atmospheric moisture than relative humidity.
3.5 RAIN GAUGE
Figure 9 Corrected air temperature comparison with the aspirated
radiation shield using 1-minute measurement intervals
Figure 9 shows the results from the temperature correction compared to the aspirated
temperature, which shows data sampled at 1 min and not averaged over time. The estimated
accuracy of the air temperature measurement, based on two standard deviations (95%
confidence interval), is 0.42 °C. To provide an idea of how comparable the data are, a
concurrently tested temperature sensor in a radiation shield (typical measurement
approach) showed an accuracy of 0.66 °C, also based on a two-standard deviation estimate.
Thus, the temperature correction of the ATMOS 41 appears to give a better estimate of actual
air temperature than the generally accepted radiation shield technique.
The ATMOS 41 contains a 9.31 cm diameter rain gauge. During rain events, the flared hole
(Figure 6) forms the rain into drops that pass by the drip counter. The spring (Figure 6) acts
as a filter to keep out large particles but still allows enough flow so water does not back
up. Gold pins (Figure 6) measure each drop of rain. Because the flared hole forms a drop of
a known size, the ATMOS 41 counts the drops and calculate the water volume. As the rain
intensity increases, the drops become smaller, but the ATMOS 41 firmware contains an
algorithm to automatically compensate for drop size as the rain increases.
IMPORTANT: The ATMOS 41 must be within approximately ±2 degrees of dead level in both the X and Y directions to
accurately measure rainfall. If not within this range, drops from the flared hole can miss the gold electrodes entirely.
Spring
NOTE: Without wind correction, the accuracy of the temperature measurement is ±2 °C.
Flared hole
Gold
electrodes
Figure 6 Rain gauge
22
15
ATMOS 41
SYSTEM
The rain gauge locks in place using two pegs on the side of the rain gauge funnel. Follow the
steps below to get inside the rain gauge.
1. Press down against the spring and turn counter clockwise slightly.
Look for the graphic on the side of the rain gauge.
ATTENTION: BE CAREFUL TO UNPLUG THE PYRANOMETER CONNECTOR INSIDE THE FUNNEL BEFORE FULLY
REMOVING THE FUNNEL.
2. Before replacing the cover, be sure to reattach the pyranometer connector as follows:
a. Insert the white female connector into the black male plug (check plug direction).
b. Check to be sure the downspout screen is in place on the water exit.
The wind measurement requires 42 ms to complete. An additional 60 ms are required for
the computations to determine phase differences. The anemometer samples every 10 s (or
more often if requested). The gust speed reported is the highest instantaneous wind speed
measured during the selected averaging interval (must be >20 s or gusts will equal speed).
NOTE: Cup anemometers average over a much longer interval than 42 ms, so the gusts measured with a sonic
anemometer will have a larger peak-to-mean ratio than one would see with a cup anemometer.
3.12.2 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The ATMOS 41 uses an energy balance correction to adjust measured temperature to actual
air temperature according to Equation 11
This keeps bugs out of the interior of the sensor.
Tcorr = Tuncorr - f
3.6 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The ATMOS 41 temperature measurement (Figure 7) is in the center of the anemometer
area where a small stainless steel needle containing a tiny temperature sensor (thermistor)
extends from the middle of the four sonic transducers. Unlike most air temperature
measurements, the weather station sensor is not covered with louvered plates to protect
from solar heating. Instead, it sits in open air, susceptible to solar heating of the instrument
body. However, the ATMOS 41 calculates the air temperature accurately because solar
radiation and the wind speed are known. These are the two main parameters that determine
the error between measured air temperature and the actual air temperature. Therefore, it is
possible to solve the energy balance to get what the actual temperature should be based on
the solar load of the body and the convective cooling of that temperature sensor.
as St
cP k
up
d
Equation 11
where:
αs = the absorptivity of the surface to solar radiation
St = the total solar radiation measured
cp = 29.3 J mol-1 C-1, k is a constant
u = the wind speed
d = the characteristic dimension
Although these values can be assumed, some (αs and k) were optimized using a Levenberg
Marquardt Least Squares analysis. Optimal air temperature was obtained using an Apogee
TS-100 Aspirated Radiation Shield. Data were collected over several weeks and final values
are shown in Table 2.
NOTE: A maximum value optimization for St was added because radiation values higher than that cause the corrected
temperature to deviate from actual values more than when a maximum St was used.
Table 2 Optimized values for air temperature correction
αs
d (m)
k
cp (J mol-1 K–1)
Max St (W/m2)
0.295
0.00083
0.0984
29.3
352.3
Temperature sensor
Figure 7 Temperature sensor
16
21
SYSTEM
ATMOS 41
3.7 LIGHTNING SENSOR
For a given sound path length, d (m), the number of wavelengths, n, in still air is
determined with Equation 4.
vd
n= c
Equation 4
Here v is the frequency of the sound (Hz). When the air is moving, the sound speed is the sum
of the wind speed and the speed of sound in still air. The anemometer transmits a sound
pulse in a forward direction, then a similar pulse in the reverse direction. The difference in n
between the two points is computed. If the vector magnitude of the wind in the direction of
the sound is u (m/s), then
vd
n - Dn+ = c + u
Equation 5
vd
n - Dn- = c - u
Equation 6
for sound traveling with and against the wind. Subtracting the result of Equation 5 from the
results of Equation 6 creates Equation 7.
Dn = Dn- + Dn+ =
2vdu
c2 - u2
Equation 7
Even at the maximum wind speeds for the anemometer, u2 is only about 1% of c2, so the
equation can be simplified as shown in Equation 8.
c2
x , 2vd Dn
Equation 8
This is the basic equation for the anemometer. Delta (∆) n is proportional to the phase
difference between the forward and reverse sound pulses. The sound comes from a
40 kHz ultrasonic transducer in the head of the anemometer. A sound pulse is transmitted
diagonally across the anemometer, bouncing off a sintered glass disk in the center. The
sound pulse is then received by another transducer in the anemometer head that is
opposite the first. Once the sound pulse is received, the receiver becomes the transmitter
and the process is repeated. Two more sensors, mounted at 90 degrees from the first
two, give the other horizontal component of the wind. The sound travels a total distance
of about 72 mm from transmitter to receiver, but d in the equations is just the horizontal
distance, which is 40 mm.
The lightning sensor acts much like an AM radio. During a thunderstorm, the crack of the
lightning disrupts the AM signal. The integrated circuit inside the sensor listens for this
crackle, and when the sensor detects a disturbance, it registers the time of and distance
(intensity of signal) to the strike. The sensor outputs the total number of strikes and average
distance to these strikes in the measurement period. The sensitivity of the lightning sensor
can be adjusted using the ProCheck (see Section 3.9 on page 18).
3.8 COMPASS
The ATMOS 41 has an internal digital compass that is used primarily as a diagnostic tool to
determine if the ATMOS 41 has been inadvertently rotated after installation. It can also be
used to correct the wind direction measurement, but only if the ATMOS 41 is mounted on a
nonferrous mounting pole, as ferrous metal interferes with the digital compass accuracy.
All ATMOS 41 units are shipped with the compass-corrected wind direction turned OFF, so
the typical installation requires that the N on the side of the weather station be oriented to
north (true north, not magnetic north) for accurate wind direction measurements.
If the ATMOS 41 is mounted on a nonferrous pole, the wind direction compass correction can
be turned ON (see Section 3.9 on page 18) and the ATMOS 41 does not need to be oriented
towards north for accurate wind direction measurements.
NOTE: The compass-corrected wind direction will orient to magnetic north, so a correction will have to be applied to
account for magnetic declination.
Even if the compass correction is turned OFF, the compass orientation will still be
included in ATMOS 41 output, even if a ferrous metal post is affecting the accuracy of
the measurement. These orientation data are still useful as a diagnostic tool to identify
unintended rotation of the ATMOS 41, which would affect the accuracy of the wind
direction measurement.
If u is the magnitude of the wind vector in the east-west direction (east +) and v is the magnitude
in the north-south direction (north +), then wind speed is computed with Equation 9.
S = u2 + v2
Equation 9
Where the overbar indicates an average of the values sampled every 10 seconds, wind speed
is computed with Equation 10.
i = tan -1 ( v / u )
20
Equation 10
17
SYSTEM
ATMOS 41
3.9 CONFIGURING THE COMPASS AND LIGHTNING SENSOR
USING PROCHECK
To set the Strike Reject Lvl follow the steps below:
A ProCheck can be used to configure the ATMOS 41 compass and lightning sensor for optimal
performance. To make these modifications, the weather station must be plugged into the
ProCheck via the stereo port.
2. Press the UP and DOWN arrows to select the new level.
1. Press Enter to begin changing the Strike Reject Lvl.
3. Press Enter or SAVE to save the new Strike Reject Lvl to the sensor.
4. Check the settings.
5. Follow the directions on the screen.
a. Change screens.
b. Recheck the saved settings.
3.10 BAROMETRIC SENSOR
Figure 8 ATMOS 41 configuration screen
3.9.1 COMPASS CONFIGURATION
When the compass is set to ON, the onboard compass automatically corrects wind direction.
If the compass is set to OFF, the wind direction is relative to the N (North) indicator on the
side of the weather station. Since the compass is extremely sensitive to magnetic fields,
it may be desirable to recalibrate the compass or even turn the compass correction OFF
depending on the installation location and mounting.
Follow the steps below to turn the compass correction ON or OFF.
1. Highlight the compass setting
2. Press Enter to toggle the setting
The barometric pressure sensor is located behind the teflon screen next to the relative
humidity sensor. It measures the atmospheric pressure of the environment in which the
ATMOS 41 is deployed. With a range from 50 to 101 kPa, it is suitable for measurement
across a wide range of elevations, but keep in mind that the magnitude of sensor output will
depend chiefly on the installation altitude with subtle changes caused by weather.
3.11 TILT SENSOR
The ATMOS 41 is also equipped with a tilt sensor similar to those found in smartphones.
Although this sensor may be used to level the instrument, it is much easier to use the small
bubble level on the bottom of the anemometer plate. The primary use of the tilt sensor data
will be to ensure the ATMOS 41 remains level at all times. Regularly check x and y tilt data
to ensure the ATMOS 41 is level; if it has tilted, return to the site and level again. Even a few
degrees off level can cause errors in the rain and solar radiation measurements.
Follow the steps below to perform a compass calibration.
3.12 THEORY
1. Turn the compass correction to ON.
The following sections explain the theory of wind speed, wind direction, and air
temperature measurements.
2. Highlight the compass calibration option
3. Press Enter to begin the calibration.
3.12.1 WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION
4. Follow the directions on the ProCheck screen.
The theory behind the anemometer comes from Campbell and Unsworth (1979). The speed
c (m/s) of sound in still air depends on air temperature T (K), vapor pressure e (kPa), and
atmospheric pressure, p (kPa), as shown in Equation 3.
3.9.2 LIGHTNING STRIKE REJECT LEVEL CONFIGURATION
The Strike Reject Lvl adjusts the lightning sensor threshold used to differentiate
between man-made electrical noise and lightning strikes. The higher the value, the less
likely man-made electrical noise will cause a false lightning strike, but the more likely
lightning strike events from far away will be filtered out and missed. A value between
0 to 15 can be used. Generally, a small deviation of one or two from the default value is
sufficient to tune the level to the installation environment.
18
em
c = 20.067 T c 1 + 0.32
P
19
Equation 3
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