use audio processors - American Radio History

use audio processors - American Radio History
A MACTIER PUBLICATION
OCTOBER
'KO
BROADCAST MANAGEMENT I ENGIN.
CONTROL YOUR LOUDMOUTHS)
[USE AUDIO PROCESSORS:
www.americanradiohistory.com
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October, 1970 -BM /E
102 cn Reader Service
Card
3
OCTOBER 1970, VOLUME 6 NUMBER 10
6
8
Broadcast Industry News
Interpreting the FCC Rules and Regulations
Section 315 and the FCC Primer
SPECIAL SECTION:
16
BROADCAST
MANAGEMENT
18
ENGINEERING
24
Editor:
JAMES A. LIPPKE
Associate Editor:
THOMAS R. HASKE'IT
Assistant Editor:
THOMAS WHYATT
Art Director:
KAREN WEINSTEIN
26
28
29
30
Editorial Director:
GEORGE ROSTKY
Production Manager:
ARLINE G. JACOBS
Production Assistant:
ROSALIND LEIFER
Research and Circulation Manager:
IRENE CHERVIN
Marketing Services Manager:
LORRAINE DE CAMILLE
President:
RALPH E. RICHARDSON
This month's cover: The big mouth
drawn by artist Art Sudduth symbolizes an ever -present audio problem
shared by radio, TV, recording, and
cablecastmg- control of dynamic
range. Starting on page 18 you can
find out what's available in the field
of limiters, AGC amplifiers, and similar devices.
33
38
48
1)10
Add Sparkle to Your Audio
Get your audience by the ears -enhance your audio
signal. What with new color equipment for TV and
automation for radio, plenty of broadcasters are forgetting about the sound they make.
Audio Processing Amplifiers: Sound Magic for the 70s
The techniques and equipment you need to tailor the
dynamic range of your sound to your broadcasting.
Stereo Tape Recording: Problems and Solutions
Your equipment probably needs better care than it
gets -and you can probably gain better performance
from it than you get now. Here are some ways to make
the most of your professional gear.
The Four-Channel Scene: A Survey
Quad sound receives lots of exciting publicity, but what
do the people who count think about its prospects? Here
are the results from a scholar's survey of FM stations,
manufacturers and retailers.
Multiplex Sound for TV: Bilingual or Stereo
This is a compatible system developed in Japan that
could give U.S. a second audio channel tomorrow.
Electronic Sound: Can Your Station Make It?
Your jingles and IDs and other "image" sounds can be
fresh and easy to produce -synthesizers and sound modulators can add that little extra that separates you from
the next station on the dial.
CATV Terms for Broadcast Managers and Engineers
This is the start of a continuing series of definitions to
help broadcasters deal with cable terminology.
CM /E Supplement: A Magazine within a Magazine
Exclusively for readers in the cable industry we've
started a monthly supplement called Cable Management /Engineering- edited specifically for cable owners,
managers, engineers and senior technicians, as well as
broadcasters in cable and major cable users. Between
BM /E pages 32 and 33, our cable readers will find the
first edition of this new editorial service.
Broadcast Equipment
Sale of the Month
From the Editor
Stereo for Everyone
Mactier Publishing Corp.
820 Second Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017, 212 661 -0450
Also publishers of:
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT BUYERS GUIDE
EEE
ELECTRO- PROCUREMENT
IBA
BMIE, Broadcast Management /Engineering, is published monthly by
Mactier Publishing Corp. All notices pertaining to undeliverable mail
or subscriptions should be addressed to 820 Second Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10017.
BM /E is circulated without charge to those responsible for station
operation and for specifying and authorizing the purchase of equipment used in broadcast facilities. These facilities include AM, FM,
and TV broadcast stations; CATV systems; ETV stations, networks
and studios; audio and video recording studios; consultants, etc.
Subscription prices to others: $15.00 one year, $25.00 two years.
Copyright @ 1970 by Mactier Publishing Corp., New York City.
Controlled Circulation postage paid at Duluth, Minn.
October, 1970 -BM /E
4
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Ampex's Instavision (see story below) claims the smallest
cartridge-loading systems to date: 4.6 in. dia, 0.7 in. thick.
FCC new math:
Quantifying fairness
BROADCAST \DUSTRY
I
Newest video player unveiled
Early in September Ampex jumped
into the crowded arena of automatic video players for education and
industry, unleashing a prototype
fresh from two years R &D. The
Ampex answer to EVR, SelectaVision, Cartrivision, et al., is an
automatic videotape cartridge
player smaller than a portable
typewriter, which uses 1/2-in. tape
in a format compatible with the
Japanese EIA Type 1 helical
standard. Output is rf or video/
audio to any TV receiver. In the
New York demonstration, Richard
J. Elkus, Jr. (general manager of
Ampex educational /industrial division) played prerecorded color
tapes which had good color (no
smear), came up to speed nicely
(no roll), but had a few dropouts,
some noise and line jitter.
Elkus said Instavision is aimed
at the education and business
markets, but could become "a major factor in the home video player
market." Equipment will be fabricated by Toamco (joint Toshiba Ampex manufacturing project in
Japan), and deliveries will start in
mid -1971. Toshiba will market in
Japan, Ampex in U.S. Prices:
B &W player. $800; Color play/
B &W record, $900; color/
B&W play./ record, $1000. Elkus
hinted these prices might come
down later, if the market opens up.
He also showed a miniature
(five -lb) pistol -grip B &W camera
($400, including 4:1 zoom lens
and mike) which has a 1 -in. CRT
viewfinder displaying camera signal during record, tape signal during playback. B &W camera and
recorder are portable, rechargeable- battery operated. Recorder
plugs into recharge pack /ac supply/color section for stationary
operation. Blank cartridges (4.6
in.- diameter) will cost under $13,
can hold 30 minutes in Type 1
format, 60 minutes in "extended
play" format. In later models,
playing time will be extended up
to two hours. The demo tape was
standard gamma ferric oxide, but
Elkus said system will accommodate high- efficiency chromium -dioxide tape. Unlike other systems
we've heard of, Instavision records
NTSC color from camera, TV receiver, or other VTR. Fast forward and rewind are included, and
Auto -Search mode. Other features:
slow motion, stop action, elementary editing, second audio track.
Video resolution is 300 lines
B&W; SNR, 42 dB.
Elkus said Apex won't originate software, but will cooperate
with other firms who want to package programs in Instavision.
NBC's "Today Show" gave FCC
Chairman Dean Burch an opportunity (Sept. 9) to clarify the Commission's fairness doctrine as it
applies to the granting of air time
to critics and counter -critics of the
President's Vietnam policy.
It's too complicated to really explain, Burch admitted, in effect.
While fairness time definitely is tot
equal time as defined for political
candidates (Section 315), Burch
did leave the impression some numerical quantification is almost unavoidable when one major political
group or other feels itself aggrieved
by a station or network.
Senator John R. Pastore, also on
the program, offered Burch some
advice: "Stay away from such decisions -you only open up a can
of worms." But the Senator later
opted for Congress having access
to TV as does the President.
Fairness is related to issues, both
Burch and Pastore agreed; the Senator emphasized that it was the
broadcaster's job to decide on
which speakers to allow to discuss
the issue. Individuals can't insist
on time for themselves (nor can a
group) under the Fairness Rules.
If the FCC doesn't like the way
fairness is being handled, they
should issue better guidelines, Senator Pastore advised.
For clarification of the Equal
Time Rules and the Fairness Doctrine, see "Interpreting the FCC
Rules and Regulations," this issue
and in July and August, 1970,
BM/E.
Upcoming
Conventions
Oct. 4-9: 108th Technical
Conference and Equipment Exhibit, Society of Motion Picture
and Television Engineers, New
York Hilton
Oct. 12 -15: 39th Convention, Audio Engineering Society,
New Yorker Hotel
Nov. 8-11: 46th Annual Convention, National Association of
Educational Broadcasters, Sheraton Park, Washington
Nov. 10 -11: 1st National
Conference, National Industrial
Television Association, Washington Hilton
October.
6
www.americanradiohistory.com
1970-BM/E
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Circle
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Card
October, 1970 -BM /E
7
www.americanradiohistory.com
INTERPRETING THE
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Section 315 and
the FCC "Primer"
The FCC has recently released its
1970 revised "Primer" on Section
315, entitled "Use of Broadcast Facilities by Candidates for Public
Office." The purpose of this "Primer" is to inform licensees, as well
as candidates for public office, of
their responsibilities and rights under Section 315.
The "Primer" relates solely to
obligations of broadcast licensees
towards candidates for public office, under Section 315 of the
Communications Act. However, it
should be remembered that the
Commission l'as adopted rules to
make the provisions of Section 315
applicable to programs originated
on CATV systems.
After examining the basic provisions of Section. 315 of the Communications Act, this article will
explain each of the specific provisions of Section 315 -e.g., definitions of "use" or `legally qualified candidate" -both generally
and in light of the 1970 Primer's
pronouncements.
Section 315 in general
Section 315 of the Communications Act provides in part: "If any
licensee shall permit any person
who is a legally qualified candidate for any public office to use
a broadcasting station, he shall
afford equal opportunity to all
other such candidates for that office in the use of such broadcasting stations." Of course, the licensee has no power of censorship
over the material broadcast, and
no obligation is imposed on any
licensee to allow the use of its
station by any candidate.
With its August 1970 "Primer,"
the FCC updated the provisions of
Section 315 and provided a succinct guideline for broadcasters.
assure highest reliability.
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For complete details and new colorful
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105 on Reader Service
"Use" of broadcast facilities
In general any "use" of a broadcast facility by a legally qualified
candidate for public office imposes
an obligation on licensees to afford "equal opportunities" to all
other candidates for the same of-
fice.
Section 315 provides that appearances by legally qualified candidates on news -type programs are
not "uses" of broadcast facilities.
However, as to whether a partic-
ular program is a "news- type"
Card
Circle
106 on Reader Service
Card
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program, the basic question is:
Does the program meet the standard of a "bona fide" news program? To answer the question, the
licensee must consider: (1) the
format, nature and content of the
program; (2) any changes in the
format, nature, content or time of
scheduling of the program since
its inception; (3) the instigator,
producer, and person controlling
the programs; (4) length of time
that the program has been on the
air; (5) frequency and regularity
of the program.
Briefly, if a news program has
been regularly scheduled in the
same time slot for an extensive
period of time, with little or no
change in format, then authentic
news coverage of a candidate for
public office will generally not be
deemed a "use" of a broadcast facility.
To determine your understanding of the types of "uses" of a
broadcast station, test yourself on
the following questions:
I. Must you give equal time to a
Solid State Solid Service
WILKINSON
AM MONITORS
Shield Serve Save
candidate whose opponent aas
broadcast in some other capacity
than as a candidate? Yes. For
example, assume a weekly report
of a congressman to his constituents is a broadcast by a legally
qualified candidate for public office. As soon as the congressman
becomes a candidate for re -election, his opponent must be given
"equal opportunities" for time on
the air,
2. Suppose a candidate appears on
a variety program for a brief bow
or statement. Are his opponents
entitled to "equal opportunities" on
the basis of this brief appearance
alone? Yes. All appearances of a
candidate, no matter how brief or
perfunctory, other than in bona
fide news programs noted above,
are "uses" of a stations facilities.
3. Suppose you, as
station owner,
or one of your station advertisers,
or a person regularly employed as
a station announcer, were to make
appearances on your station after
having qualified as a candidate for
public office. Would this be a
"use"? Yes. However, consider the
amplification in question 4 below.
4. Suppose your television station
employs an announcer who, "off
camera" and unidentified, supplies
the audio portion of required station IDs, PSAs and commercial
announcements; however, he is not
authorized to make comments or
statements concerning political
matters, and has no control over
the format or content of any program material. Would his opponent
be entitled to equal opportunities?
No. The employee's appearance
for the purpose of making commercial, non-commercial, and station ID announcements would not
constitute a "use" where the anTAMF -1A AM Frequency Monitor FCC Approval 3 -158 Ultra
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107 on Reader Service
nouncer himself was neither shown
nor identified in any way.
Who is a legally qualified candidate?
A legally qualified candidate for
a particular public office is one that
meets the requirements set forth
in the law of his state. Generally,
however, a candidate is legally
qualified if (1) persons may vote
for him in the state or district in
which the election is being held;
and (2) if elected, the candidate is
eligible to serve in the office in
question. It should be remembered,
however, that a candidate need not
necessarily be on the ballot to be
legally qualified. If they are making a bona fide race for the office
involved and if their names may be
Card
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108 on
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The TEKTRONIX 144 \'1'SC TEST SIGNAL GENERA'T'OR is a source of high -quality television test
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written -in by voters to result in
their valid election, candidates not
listed on the ballot may be entitled
to equal itme under Section 315.
Again, test yourself on the following questions:
Suppose an incumbent county
clerk publicly announces his intention to run for renomination in
1.
forthcoming primary election.
He continues to broadcast sports
events and otherwise speaks on
radio. He has not filed his notification and declaration papers with
appropriate state officials. Is a
legally qualified candidate for the
a
The incomparable
new
same office entitled to equal opportunities in response to broadcasts by the incumbent? No. Generally, a person does not become a
legally qualified candidate until his
notification and declaration papers
have been received and accepted
by the applicable state official.
Since the candidate had not filed
these required papers. he was not a
legally qualified candidate. Again.
state law is determinative.
If your state's Secretary has
ruled that an individual has not
followed the procedures required
by state law for becoming a legally
2.
tong
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3. An individual seeking a U.S.
Senate scat requests time equal to
that afforded his opponents. The
individual's request is refused by
the station on the grounds that he
is not a bona fide candidate. The
candidate advises that he has been
informed by the local election
board that he possesses the necessary requirements to be a write -in
candidate. Is he entitled to equal
opportunities? No. In a similiar
situation, the Commission found
that the individual had not cornplied with the rules for establishing himself as a legally qualified
candidate. He had failed to submit any proof, other than his own
statements, showing he was eligible
under the applicable law for write in candidates.'
If there is a question as to the
candidate's legaI qualifications,
each licensee has the responsibility
to ascertain under his state's law
whether the person requesting
equal time has, in fact, become a
"legally qualified" candidate. In
situations where the licensee is unsure. counsel should be consulted.
What are "Equal Opportunities "?
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For complete details about SPOTMASTER cartridge units (stereo, delayed programming and
multiple cartridge models, too), write or call today. Remember, Broadcast Electronics is the No. 1 designer /producer of broadcast quality
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worldwide!
...
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
-- A Filmways
qualifed candidate for U.S. Senator, would you be required to
afford that individual "equal opportunities"? No. However, consider Question 3.
Generally, licensees may not
discriminate, between candidates
for a particular office, as to
charges, practices, regulations, facilities or services rendered. In
other words, the licensee is not
permitted to discriminate between
candidates in any manner. Of
course, the licensee may adopt any
policy it wishes regarding selling
time, or making time available
free, to all condidates. But it must
be remembered. whatever policy is
adopted, the licensee must treat all
candidates for the .same office
alike.
A station is required to keen a
public record of all requests for
time by or on behalf of political
candidates. together with a record
of the disposition and the charges
made, if any, for each broadcast.
In providing "equal opportunities," the station must consider
the desirability of the time segment
allotted as well as its length. While
there is no requirement that a
station afford Candidate X exactly
Continued on page 36
Company
8810 Brookville Road, Silver Spring. Maryland 20910
(301) 588 -4983
1.
Letter to Raymond Harold Smith, 40 FCC
430 (1964).
October.
12
www.americanradiohistory.com
1970-BM /E
Only Book on Market On Selling Radio Advertising!
BRAND NEW -A helpful guide for salesmen, sales managers and
SAVE $3.00
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station managers interested in increasing their ad schedules.
How to Sell
RADIO
ADVERTISING
By Si
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HOW TO SELL RADIO ADVERTISING
By Si Willing, Owner-Manager, KMAR Winnsboro, La.
and KNNN Friona, Texas
Tells how to ...
Start ... by knowning your product and the market
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Excel ... by using ideas developed by top salesmen
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The author also dwells on those detrimental
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Rates; Sales Messages; "Time" Buyers; The
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How to Overcome It; Creativity; How to
Right Mr. Wrong; Competition. LEAD Mannerisms; Handshakes; Appearance;
Strategy vs. Deception; How to Best A
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Bully; The False Objection; Combatting
Indecision; Enthusiasm; Time and Timing;
Personal Standards; Making the Best of
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Granted. EXCEL Why Radio Advertising is
Important; Sponsors Buy Ideas; Merchandising; The Advantages of Being a Salesman; Products and Services; Know Your
Ws; Sales Techniques; Keeping a Morgue;
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cf Mankind; Turning Points; Consideration;
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Extra Effort; Examples of How Not to Sell;
How to Sell a Newscast. SURPASS -Case
Histories from Leading Sales People in
Various Market Situations; How to Sidestep
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Dare to be Different; How to Satisfy the
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"How to Sell Radio Advertising" is published
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Order today at our risk for FREE Examination. SEND NO MONEY! Simply fill in and mail
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October, 1970-BM/E
13
www.americanradiohistory.com
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October, 1970-BM /E
IS
www.americanradiohistory.com
Add Sparkle to Your Audio
By Lamar P. Allison
Enhancing audio signals by frequency equalization is an old art that's lately been ignored
in broadcast control rooms. Because of recent heavy investments in color, many TV stations haven't updated their audio facilities. These tips will show you how to produce a more
pleasing audio signal in radio, TV or cablecasting.
To
ENHANCE AN AUDIO SIGNAI., you need three
things:
A good car
Proper monitoring facilities
Enhancing equipment
The ear is your problem. but you probably
know your own sense of hearing. The speaker/
monitor system is critical, and if you're unsure of
it, use good quality headphones, such as Beyer
DT -48. Koss. or Permoflux. The monitoring sys-
Lamar Allison operates Audio Products, Alexandria, Va.
tem must he fully equalized for loudness, frequency response and room resonance.
Enhancement equipment
Audio enhancing means boosting or cutting
certain portions of the audio spectrum, and adding
reverb to the signal. Since the ears response is not
the same at all frequencies, boosting can emphasize certain instruments or voices.
A common and useful arrangement is shown
Audio Consoles: Custom or Standard?
Broadcast consoles used to be off -the -shelf
items to handle mikes, turntables, tape and net
inputs. Pretty routine stuff, contrasted with the
octopus -like monsters used in 16 -track recording studios. To get that kind of versatility, you
had to order a custom -built, expensive console.
Why not split the difference? That's RCA's approach in the BC -100 console series. The photo
shows a standard -custom model that WWL New
Orleans had assembled with a basic frame and
selected modules. The console has 12 input slide
attenuators, eight of which can be switched to
three mike inputs. Four connect to switches to
seven high -level inputs. Three output channels
are used. Other features: PA bridge, AGC, cueing
speaker and intercom.
There are several reasons for renewed interest
in console flexibility: In radio, stereo FM and
AM /FM combo /split operations can benefit from
multichannel consoles. In television, videotaped
commercials and programs often require special
audio effects such as echo, slating, foldback,
and submastering.
The RCA BC -100 can accommodate up to 20
mixer modules and four submaster modules.
Input modules can be low- or high -level signals.
Each mixer module consists of a vertical sealed
attenuator, an op -amp booster amplifier, echo
select and level control, submaster delegate
switches, cue and foldback select switch. Each
submaster module contains an echo -mix network, echo return and level control, attenuator,
program-output selectors, and a submaster monitor gain control. Multiple output feeds permit
simulcasting with breakaway capability for separate commercials.
From each submaster module there is a man-
ually controlled bridging feed which may be
used to feed a four -track tape recorder while
mixing down to one or two -channel feeds to
program lines or transmitters. Standard pre -hear
facilities are provided by a common monitor
amplifier fed from the cue position on the mixer
module.
All modules are plug -ins, and similar types
are directly interchangeable. Plug -in equalizers
are also available for each input channel.
Heart of the console line is the Iso -Mix amplifier. Its an op amp in an analog computer -adder
circuit, adapted for audio use. Iso -Mix mixes up
to 30 inputs at no loss, while isolating each t
more than 90 dB from all the others.
October, 1970-BM /E
16
www.americanradiohistory.com
FILTER
IN
FILTER
FRED
REVERB
UNIT
SHAPE
IN
NI
>-OCTAVE
> OUT
BA NOPASS
ENHANCER
Fig. I. A shape filter is used ahead of the reverb unit to
control frequency response of the de ayed audio.
OUT
A
.evu
600n
REVERSE
600 /600
0.006 pf
'
0.022H
0.022yF1
filter for reverb
frequency of 5300 Hz. Input is 600 ohms.
Fig. 2. Bandpass shape
OUT
100
k
MIN
o LOAD
channel has a
center
Incoming audio is split, with one path
going through a shape filter which has a center
frequency of 5300 Hz, and thence to a reverberation unit. Fig. 2 illustrates the shape filter, a modified bandpass type.
For the reverb unit, I use a Fisher K 10, which
has a dual spring delay system with a delay time of
33 ms and a decay time of two seconds maximum
at 300 Hz. Other suitable reverb units are made by
Fairchild Sound Equipment Corp. and EMT
in Fig. 1.
(Gotham Audio).
Referring back to Fig. 1, the incoming signal
is also fed to an octave bandpass enhancer. Representative commercial models are the Altec 62 -A,
Bruel & Kjaer 123, General Radio 1925, and
Langevin 252 -A. If you want to build your own,
as I did, refer to Fig. 3.
The input transformer has twin secondaries
which are connected to the switches so you can get
180° phase reversal at each filter input. All filters
arc bandpass types with approximately 18 dB per
octave attenuation from the center frequencies
shown. The exception is the first filter (18.8 Hz),
which is a low -pass type.
An attenuator follows each filter, and every
three channels are bussed into an amplifier
through isolating resistors. The outputs of the four
amplifiers are bussed into the master gain control
and another amplifier. Past the output transformer
there is a phase -reversal switch and a VU meter.
P
PAD
SWITCHES
Fig. 3. In this bandpass enhancer, connect input transformer
secondaries in opposite polarity to provide phase reversal.
How to use it
Don't try to enhance a poor -quality program
(like a telephone talk show or a remote on a bad
line). Enhancing is most effective on a program
with good quality which lacks sheen, brilliance,
luster, body, or balance. It makes no difference
whether the program is live or taped.
To begin, boost low frequencies to add body in
the first and second octaves (16-64 Hz). Be
careful not to boost room and wind noise in this
range. If you boost the third and fourth octaves
(64 -256 Hz) you'll get a boomy, barrel sound.
So in most cases you should leave the third
through seventh octaves alone.
Next, adjust for presence and clarity. Boost
from 3 to 8 dB the presence range -the eighth and
ninth octaves (3072-8192 Hz). Boosting the tenth
octave (8192 Hz to more than 15 kHz) adds brilliance and sparkle to music, and is useful in overcoming the deficiencies of some microphones.
Reverb
The final touch of audio richness is adding the
proper amount of shaped reverb. You'll have to
experiment with this, while riding the reverb pot.
I feed reverb into the bandpass enhancer on the
1610 -Hz input. Speech requires reverb of only
about 10 % -15% of program level, while music
requires from 50% up.
BM /E
October, 1970 -BM /E
17
www.americanradiohistory.com
Audio Processing Amplifiers:
Sound Magic for the 70s
You can process audio in several ways-volume limiting, compression, expansion; loudness control; frequency or presence enhancement. And people are using these techniques in every electronic medium-AM, FM, and TV broadcasting, CATV and CCTV 'casting, disc and film recording. Here's a roundup of the various devices available, how they work, and how you can best
use them.
YOUR EAR HAS A IN "NANIR. RANGE of nearly 120
dB -much more than any electronic system can
handle. At the other extreme, the subjective dynamic range of an AM-broadcast Top -40 single
record, heard by a listener on a car radio in a
noisy auto traveling at high speed on a gravel
road, is perhaps as little as 5 or 10 dB.
Each medium has its own dynamic range
limitation: magnetic tape, LP record, film sound
track (magnetic or optical), AM, FM, TV, cable casting. audio, and background -music SCA. One
size does not fit all, and processing amplifiers
must limit dynamic range to the extent required
by the medium.
Wide dynamic range is useful and pleasant in
the concert hall, or in the home via stereo FM.
But wide dynamic range is quite undesirable in a
background music system: The speaker volume is
never loud, and all the music has to be heard at
the same level. Hence the dynamic range should
be as small as possible.
Since the requirements of each medium are
different, various types of processing amplifiers
have been developed.
Convectional limiter
In its simplest form, a conventional limiter
looks like the block diagram in Fig. 1. A sample
Fig. I. An audio limiter prevents overmodulafion by using feed
back, with output controlling input.
COMPRESSION
RATIO 20 :1
LIMITING
THRESHOLD
dB OUTPUT
INCREASE
LINEAR
REGION
/
I
'
I
COMPRESSION SLOPE
-1
1
-20dß
T
I
INPUT INCREASE
I
INPUT de
IN
VA RIOLOSSER
OUT
of the amplifier output is rectified and the resulting dc used to control the loss (or sometimes
gain) of a variolosser element in the signal channel. As the output level increases, the control
voltage works in the opposite direction, to decrease the gain of the losser stage. Most limiters
work this way (backward acting). In some, input
controls output (forward acting).
The graph in Fig. 1 shows limiter action.
Below threshold, a limiter's output is linear. or
directly proportional to input. Above input, output is much reduced for input level increases. The
ratio between input and output level increases is
called compression ratio or slope, and is typically
greater than 10:1 (often 20:1) for a conventional
limiter.
A limiter is usually operated in its linear region so most program material isn't affected
only abnormal peaks are limited.
Limiter attack time is fast so that very little
of the offending peak gets through to overmodulate a transmitter or overload a disc cutter, etc.
Release time is another matter. Fast release is
useful with speech, while slow release is better
with music. Some limiters have two modes: Single
release means fast recovery after every limiting
action; dual release means fast recovery after fast
peak. but slow release after a series of peaks. Fast
limiting and release cause pumping or breathing
(rapid changes in gain which sound objectionable).
-
Assymetrical limiter
The maximum modulation permitted in AM
broadcasting is 100% on negative peaks, but
there's no limit on positive peaks. The assymetrical limiter clips negative peaks or inverts signal
polarity of a nonsymmetrical speech waveform to
put the higher peak on the positive side.
Fig. 2 illustrates assymetrical limiting, as done
in the Gates model 6543. The comparator automatically places the higher peaks on the positive
side of the output.
The Collins 26U -3 limits within 2 ms; any
peaks before that are hard -clipped by a circuit
with 15 µs attack time. This is an advantage since
fast, short peaks are merely clipped and gain isn't
reduced; if it were, a hole would be punched in
the program. The small amount of distortion
October,
18
www.americanradiohistory.com
1970
-BM /E
Audio Processing Amplifiers
Brand
C
tional Limiters
LA.IO (306)
Release
Time
Attack
Compression
Ratio
Model
Time
Fairchild
670 (307)
301-2:1
Ms
0.2.
0.4 ms
RCA
BA.43/46 (308)
40,1
200 os
0.4.3.0 s
g..0.1
,:50
0.5.
CCA
6.7:1
Assymetrical Limiters (for AM use)
Amalgamated
B1G-1 (309)
Wireless
Voliimax
CBS Labs
Colins
-
Gates
-
1
Other
Features
i
Attenuator
0.2-20 s
VT
0.325
VT
Limits
i
s
Price
L+Ror
i
i
/7is
L-R only
.774
MOSFET
VVR
.
,,i.s
1.
Infinite,
4000 (310)
26U-3 (311)
IC:1
6543 (312)
30,
7:1
I
<1 gs and/
or <2 ms
15 As clip
2 ms lim
0.15 s
Gain platform
Auto peak
<1.73 os
3-7 s
Diode
phasing
!
0.1.0.2
675
Diode
i
50, 75os
725
curves
1445
,
Matches disc
Peak clipper
765
limits
i
i
IC
--------
VT
HF Peak clipper.
!
stereo only
I
Oaf. amp.
Gates
,
Zeners.
1
HF Peak clipper
I
I-IF Peak
I
0.4
10 gs
s
MOSFET
VVR
(HF)
3.6 s (LF)
4:1
clipper
736
!
only
I
20:1, 12:1.
I
725
1445
l
1
Dual-Band Limiter
Altec
9473A (324)
Lansing
Compressors, Level Controllers
Altec
1591A (325)
Lansing
CBS Labs
Audimax
4440 (m) (327)
4450 (s) (328)
CCA
AGCD
-1
(329)
Collins
26.1.3 (330)
DuKane
2A8C (331)
Limiter-Compsssss rs (Rack mount)
Electrodyne
CA-700 (332)
-1
Philips
5752 (333)
Broadcast
5753 (334)
Spectra
Comolimiter
Sonics
610 (335)
Teletronix
LA-3A (336)
recording
Diode
.
1
-
765
Var. )(sir.
Frequency-Sensitive Limiters (for FM, TV, recording use)
i 0.01 s (HF)
FM Volurnax
.71 vs and/
CBS Labs
0.14 s (LF)
410 (mono) (314)
or <2 ms
411 'stereo) (315)
Recording
_..
Same as above
Volumax
I
420 (mono( (318)
421 ;stereo) (319
Collins
15 x.s clip
'
0.1-0.2 s
10:1
26U-3 (320)
2 ms lim
Fairchild
Conax
1-1-n-stantaneKis
6C2 (321)
0.2-10 s
6E31 (322)
140 gs
>50:1
RCA
BA-47 (323)
i
i.s
1 us
I
I
Peak clipper
IC
s
1-,141
AGC and
¡
2 s
51-
Dual band,
f = 250 Hz
1.
g
I
10:1, 51
0.5. 1.5
30 ms
i
s
Mike. line
I
Inputs
Gated gain
stabilization
I
1
10:1
¡
12
7,1
1
1571
!
13.1. 5,1
!
ins
-
512 s
711 ms
25 rgs
5
Diode
Gated
ms
I
0.5.3
s
50 pa
0.1.5
s
ms Iim
0.2 GIs comp
0.1.2.0 gs lim
0.1.1.2 gs comp
250 gs
-0.5 ms
0.1.3.2
<720 us
to 83O ,s
0.05-1.1 s
g
725
1295
';
I
I
I
-
VT
450
1
IC
Gain platform
Noise gate
!
I
30 os
252
;
i
-
-
725
¡
'
30:1. 2:1
201. 5:1,
3:1, 2:1
100:11.1:1
50:1, 3:1
7
.
!
I
!
_I
I
!
Universal
1176LN (337)
Audio
Limiter-Compressors (Mike channel)
Automated
525 (338)
2071. 12,1,
8-1, 4,1
I
i
1
Electrodyne
Fairchild
1
90 ns
50 ms-10 s
0.5-5 s
i
EL/LOR
15 As
CA.702 (339)
663 1340)
50
30:1, 2:1
2:1
¡s
I
!
I
3 ms
HF contour
I
adjust
I
692AGC (341)
1800 (342)
271
3
ms
¡
10»
20-1
I
0.1, 0.5.
2.0, 2.5 s
0.1-5 s
0.3-7 s
Lamp/LOR
0.3.7 s
0.1.5 s
Lamp/LDR
EL/LDR
---
De-esser,
20-1-1.2:1
I
EMT
De-esser
De-esser
available
Remote control
Rack-mount
accessory
I
ps
0.1.2.5
-
FET/VVR
s
350
!
299
:
248
i
!
1
,
1:1.5-
156 (344)
!
10
325
ceiling control
,
I
Melcor
CL-20 (343)
Expander-Limiter-Compressors
.
489
I
Fairchild
Gately
375
.
FET/VVR
i
I
,
585
:
I
;
I
I
FET/VVR
¡
20:1, 2:1
Processes
575
650
De-esser
Noise gate
PDM
s
112.5 exp
(Gotham)
Program
dependent
PDM
1.5-
i
Stereo
only
!
7.5 s exp
2990
i
I
i
:r.100:1 lim
1.5:14:1 comp
1:2 exp
50-1 lim
1:2.5 exp
i
EISECO
Limpander
Gates
LE-350B (345)
6629 (346)
i
100 As iim
0.25-2.5 s lim
1-4 vo
ns
0.5-
35s
camp
1
I
i
comp
75 ms lim
150 es Um
7.5-.35 s
I
4.10 s exp
VT
525
I
Diff. amp.
I
recovery
,
I
30:1 comp
RCA
¡
BA-43/45 (347)
1:2 exp
!
40:1 comp
Loudness Controllers
710 (mono) (348)
CBS Labs
711 (stereo)(349)
Presence Equalizers
CBS Labs
450 (350)
Fairchild
Dynalizer
673 (351)
100 gs33 ms comp
12-53 s comp
4 s exp
15 g.s comp
6 s exp
3 s
695 (M)
1430 (S)
Attack/
elup
timing
I
!
control
EL/LOP
!
f
comp
620
¡
!
Loudness
1
I
IOC ms
2.5 s
i
LDR
dependent
I
,
.
.
.
I
.
I
25 ms
1 s
See text
715
LOR
;
:
,
Note: Boldface numbers In parentheses which follow model number in second column are for Reader Service Cara
October, 1970-BM/E
860
1720
N
VARIABLE
>
0LT
GAIN
CONTROL
AUTO
PEAK
COMPARATOR
PHASING
t--
Fig. 2. Gates M -6543 limiter is used in AM, allows higher positive than negative modulation.
harmonic distortion, release time should be long.
Most limiters use a compromise time around 0.4
-0.8 second. That value is short enough to cause
distortion to low frequencies.
Another related problem is single-instrument
domination, where a solo horn reduces level of
all other program material.
Altec- Lansing's solution to both problems is
to split the incoming signal into two channels by
frequency, with 250 Hz as the crossover. Two
separate limiters are then used, with short release
in the high- frequency channel, and long release
in the low. Harmonic distortion is thus held to
1% for all frequencies down to 32 Hz.
Compressor
caused by hard clipping is a tradeoff for keeping
the level unchanged for short -duration pulses or
peaks.
Frequency- sensitive limiter
-in
Wherever a pre- emphasis curve is used
FM and TV broadcasting, and tape, disc and film
recording-you're faced with a level- control
dilemma: If you limit before pre- emphasis but
set post-limiting gain on midrange audio, high
frequencies will overmodulate or overload. On the
other hand, if you limit after pre- emphasis, high
frequencies will cause limiting and push midrange
audio down.
The first solution to this problem is the method
used in the Fairchild Conax and CBS Labs FM
Volumax and Recording Volumax. High -frequency response is dynamically controlled by high frequency signal level. For low -level signals, response is nearly flat. But as high- frequency signal
level rises, high- frequency rolloff comes into action. At the 100% modulation level, the frequency
response is the inverse of the pre- emphasis curve.
RCA's approach in the BA -47 is to pre -emphasize the audio and hard clip all peaks which
would cause overmodulation. Any distortion
caused by peak clipping is pushed down by the
following de-emphasis.
Collins goes one step further with the 26U-3
limiter. Fig. 3 is a simplified block diagram of
that model. As you can see, there is switchable
pre- and de- emphasis (the limiter can be used for
AM also), variable gain reduction (using a
MOSFET as a voltage -variable resistor) and hard
clipping. In operation the unit acts as a conventional variable -gain up to a preset level; at that
point, any further peaks are hard clipped.
The Gates model 6631 FM limiter also uses
variable gain up to a certain level, and hard clipping beyond that. In addition, the Gates model
allows you to switch -select the lowest frequency
at which clipping occurs on the pre- emphasis
curve: 10, 6, 4, 2, 1, or 0.4 kHz.
Also called an AGC amplifier, the compressor
much like a limiter; input signal -level
variations are minimized at the output. There are
several differences however, and Fig. 4 illustrates
the first: The compression ratio of a compressor
(say, 3:1) is typically smaller than that of a limiter (say, 10:1 or more). Attack time is longer
(milliseconds rather than microseconds). Finally,
a compressor is normally operated in the middle
of its compression curve, hence its name; it compresses the entire dynamic range. This action is
not what a limiter does, which is to limit only
the peaks.
A recent development in compressors is the
gain platform, used in the CBS Labs Audimax
and the Collins 26J -3 compressor. An ordinary
compressor brings up the background noise during
a pause in speech or music (pumping). The gain
platform is produced by an inhibiting circuit which
holds the gain constant during a short pause, allowing it to change for longer periods of relative
silence.
is very
Limiter- compressors
A compromise device, the limiter- compressor
usually has a variable compression curve (or slope)
so the user can select the amount of compression
or limiting he wants in a particular application.
The Electrodyne models have four switch- selected
compression slopes, and a de -esser with three positions which lets you use various amounts of high frequency rolloff to eliminate objectionable "s"
and "t" sounds. The feature is chiefly useful in
recording.
Spectra Sonics' Complimiter 610 has separate
Fig. 3. For FM use, Collins 26U -3 limiter has switchable pre and de- emphasis compensation.
OUT
Dual -band limiter
To minimize dynamic range distortion, limiter
release time should be short. But to minimize
October, 1970 -BM /E
20
www.americanradiohistory.com
limiting only. The RCA model
18
is a expander -com-
pressor.
COMPRESSION RATIO
:6 =3:1
T
COMPRESSION
THRESHOLD
6dB
OUTPUT
INCREASE
4.
Loudness controller
All of the preceding devices control what a
VU meter indicates- volume level, or the electria circuit. Limiters prevent electrical
overload. But beginning around 1962, the FCC
and others noted that some radio -TV commercials
sounded louder than surrounding program material. Loudness is not the same as volume level.
Loudness is what you hear; volume level, what
you measure. Three techniques determine loud-
cal power in
IB dB
INPUT INCREASE
INPUT dB
Fig. 4. Typical compressor or AGC amplifier is operated in
middle of its gradual compression slope.
ness:
and simultaneous limiting and compression action,
using the best time constants for each. The Teletronix LA -3A is apparently the only forward -acting compression or limiting device on the market.
The control -voltage sample is taken off the secondary or the input transformer before the photo resistor used as a variolosser. Thus gain correction is done ahead of any signal amplification.
in the Philips Broadcast models, a noise
gate attenuates the input 10 dB whenever the signal falls below a threshold level for more than 250
ms. When the signal reappears, the noise gate
removes the attenuation within l ms.
All the devices we've discussed so far mount
in 19 -inch racks, have power supplies, VU meters,
and work with input and output levels around
zero VU. That's fine for a limiter hung across the
console output or ahead of a transmitter or cutter head driver. But recording studios like AGC action in each mike channel, and the miniature types
built to satisfy that demand are about 11/2 in.
wide, require an outboard power supply, and accept slightly lower inputs (down to
VU or so).
Most have edge- mounted VU meters.
30
Expander- limiter- compressor
Shelf equalization, or rolling off lows and
boosting midrange audio.
Volume compression and limiting.
Echo or reverb, which seems to fill holes between peak sounds.
When program material is processed with all
three techniques, it sounds much louder, even
though a VU meter and an oscilloscope indicate
the same before and after.
Both CBS Labs and RCA have developed
automatic loudness controllers. (RCA's version,
however, is not on the market.) Their operation
is basically similar, and is illustrated by Fig. 6.
The human ear is more sensitive to midrange
audio than to lows and highs. Therefore the loudness controller curve in Fig. 6 is an approximation
of the average ear's sensitivity. That curve (with
minor variations) was developed separately and
empirically by RCA and CBS, by testing the hearing of groups of people.
In each device, a sample of the output signal
is split into frequency bands. As shown in Fig. 6,
RCA uses eight, while CBS Labs uses five. The
response of each band is different, and the over-
Fig. 5. Triple- action EMT 156 limits peaks, expands low -level.
_empresses medium -level signals.
A further refinement in dynamic range corn pression is the addition of expansion. Fig. 5 illustrates the actions of such a device, the EMT
156. The forward -acting expansion section processes low -level signals to distinguish them from
background noise. The backward- acting compression section processes high -level signals and corn presses the long - and short -term dynamic range.
The limiting section (also backward- acting) limits
only short -term peaks which exceed a predetermined level. In the manual mode, attack and
release times may be user -set to the values shown
in the table. In the automatic mode, however,
these times are determined by program content.
For example, in the compression section the program's peak -to- average loudness ratio controls
the release time. Thus the program's original dynamic range determines the amount of compression applied.
The ESECO and Gates devices operate somewhat similar to the EMT, but with expansion and
October, 1970-BM/E
21
{
t
_I-_
I
.
,,
"A-
Fhs
at simple!..
r[-
with the first
16mm
cassette loading
projector
for television
300
rn[OU[r
J
10,1
Fig. 6. Similar RCA and CBS bandpass approaches to loudness
control result in overall response shown.
all response of all the filters produces the curve
shown.
Following the filters. the various frequency band signals are summed and fed through a timeconstant network. The output is a dc control voltage which is fed to a variolosser network at the
input of the loudness controller.
The time -constant network is necessary because repetitive sound pulses have a cumulative
effect on hearing which enhances their loudness.
For example, CBS Labs presented listeners
with two pulses of 50 and 900 ms duration. The
50 ms pulse had to be reproduced at a sound
pressure level 6.3 dB greater than that of the 900
ms pulse to be judged equally loud. Hence the
shorter a pulse, the less its loudness. But repetitive
pulses sound about the same as a continuous tone.
In practice, the loudness controller is a peak limiting device which does not increase low -level
passages, yet which doesn't permit increase beyond a predetermined level. This is necessary because the loudness controller must be the last
link in the chain before the transmitter; any other
level- controlling devices after it would defeat its
purpose.
The loudness controller is a linear amplifier
up to threshold. Then it limits heavily for the
next 6 dB of input. Following that, it's linear
again. Thus very short sounds of high level are
allowed to pass, for emphasis.
Presence equalizer
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In speech, consonants in the range of 20004000 Hz supply most information, while vowels
(125 -500 Hz or so) supply most of the power.
In male speech, consonants are typically measured
20 dB below vowel level. In a wide-range high fidelity system, this is no problem.
But with tape recordings, incorrect bias or
head alignment, or dirt /oxide buildup, can all
cause consonant loss. Telephone talk shows, helicopter traffic reports, and poorly equalized remote lines can also cause consonant loss.
Presence equalizers were developed to correct
such degraded speech. Fig. 7 shows the action of
CBS Labs Model 450. The device works like this:
First a speech /music discriminator recognizes
speech by its staccato nature. (If music is present,
the presence equalizer is disabled.) An analyzer
circuit determines level in the 2000 -4000 Hz
range, comparing it with a reference. If there is
Card
October, 1970 -BM /E
22
www.americanradiohistory.com
insufficient presence, the equalizer boosts midrange audio (to a maximum of 10 dB at 3400
Hz). If there is too much presence. the equalizer
cuts midrange audio (again to a maximum of 10
dB at 3400 Hz). The result is more intelligible
speech.
Fairchild's Dynalizer 673 works differently.
boosting highs (maximum 10 dB) and lows (maxi-
7. Presence equalization by CBS Labs Model 450 can
brighten sonically dull speech material.
Fig.
a
FREQUENCY (Ntl
mum 14 dB). In effect it cuts midrange audio. It
is useful on music faded behind a narrator, where
it keeps the music sounding bright.
Other devices
While music waveforms are usually symmetrical, speech is heavily assymetrical. Improper
miking can worsen this nonsymmetry. Kahn's
Symmetra-Peak processes audio and provides
symmetrical output. The advantage is that you
can then modulate more heavily.
Another ingenious equipment is Kahn's Voice Line 67, which includes transmitting and receiving
units for use at both ends of a business -grade
telco line with 300 -3000 Hz response. The transmitter takes audio in the 100-300 Hz range and
inserts it into a notch at 2000 Hz. At the receiver
the audio is put back where it belongs. The loss
of 300 Hz chunk at 2000 Hz is small, but low -freq
BM /E
enhancement improves voice quality.
The gain -control stage
a limiter (or similar device) is
the variable -gain stage, which must rapidly attenuate (or not attenuate) the signal with the minimum distortion possible. That's a difficult task,
and three approaches have been used:
Variable -gain amplifier
VT: The variable -mu vacuum tube was the heart
of the earliest limiters. But tubes wear out, and
have serious problems with dc thump
sudden
shift in control voltage which causes an undesirable change in audio level.
IC, diff amp: An IC or differential amplifier is the
modern variable -gain stage, often using a FETI
VVR in the feedback loop to control gain. There's
no hum and little thump.
Shunt variolosser
(A device used as a variable resistance across the
signal circuit)
LDR: The resistance of a light- dependent resistor
(or photoresistor) varies with the amount of light
applied to it. In a Lamp /LDR the light source is
usually a neon lamp, which has thermal lag, causing delay and overshoot in limiting. The light
source in an EL /LDR is an electroluminescent
panel which has faster action.
BT: The bipolar transistor is very nonlinear as a
variable resistance, and is seldom used.
Achille's Heel of
-a
unijunction transistor is fairly linear,
but only over a narrow range which won't accommodate the wide signal swing needed in a limiter.
JFET /VVR: A junction FET used as a voltage.
variable resistance can accommodate a wide signal swing, but is noisy, nonlinear, and has non
svmmetrical distortion.
MOSFET/VVR: Because the MOSFET has an insulated gate, it is less noisy than the JFET. Using
the substrate as a separate terminal also helps.
Bias is applied between gate and substrate, while
the drain and source are connected as the variable resistance across the signal circuit, achieving very good dc isolation.
Pulse duration modulation
This is the newest method of gain control, and is
somewhat like SCR operation. An electronic
switch is opened and closed rapidly (250 kHz or
so) across the signal circuit, allowing either signal or no signal to pass. After the switch, a filter
removes the switching frequency and distortion.
The output is a replica of the input, but at reduced amplitude.
By the way, zeners and other diodes are often
used as peak clippers, but that action doesn't
constitute gain control. And hard clipping causes
distortion.
UJT: The
-
What about stereo limiting?
Unless otherwise noted, all limiters and similar
devices in the table are mono -that is, single
channel. Stereo limiters are available, but usually
you must buy two mono units and pair them. How
do you run them?
If each limiter works independently, each
channel will be held at its maximum modulation
level, but the L/R balance will be destroyed.
If an L+R mix is used to control limiting for
both channels, L +R balance will be preserved,
October, 1970 -BM /E
but a random overall shifting of output levels
will be produced.
Cross -coupling the dc control signals between
the L and R limiters seems best. The limiters
must be identical models and must track one an
other. The unit with the most gain reduction will
control both. L + R balance will be preserved,
and there will be few random shifts in output
level.
And then, there's quad stereo... .
21
Stereo Tape Recording:
Problems and Solutions
By Leon A. Wortman
Synchronous
multi-
channel recording has
its own vagaries which
aren't found in mono
work. Here are a few
tips on getting the most
out of
professional
equipment-
In phase or out of phase?
Like every other piece of stereo
equipment, a tape machine should
be checked for L/R phase. An out of -phase condition not only sounds
bad in stereo, but it's terrible in
mono, and the majority of stereo
FM listeners are still using mono
receivers. A quick phase check:
Terminate playback outputs with
resistive loads and VU meters. On
most professional machines, these
are inbuilt; on some you may have
to add outboard components. Put
a single -tone recorded tape on the
transport and start playback. Now
parallel the outputs and watch the
VU meters. If the reading increases, L and R are in phase; if
it decreases. L and R are out of
phase.
Why is reproduce head adjustment
necessary?
A reproduce head operates by
maintaining each gap in intimate
contact with the tape, collecting
the recorded flux as the tape
passes. If intimate contact is lost
or irregular, the head doesn't pick
up all the recorded frequencies. A
makeshift solution, which isn't recommended, is to use a frequency
equalizer to compensate for head -
contact losses. That solution
Leon Wortman is with Ampex Corp.,
Redwood City, Calif.
24
doesn't work, for several reasons:
A tape transport with faulty
head -tape contact or alignment is
usually unstable; response varies
with time.
The range and shape of the
equalizer response usually can't
compensate for system losses.
Head and amplifier noise may
remain constant, but signal losses
caused by loss of intimate contact
or incorrect gap orientation make
the signal-to -noise ratio worse.
How do you check the height of a
reproduce head?
In a full -track mono transport,
head height is not very critical, and
incorrect height worsens the SNR
only slightly. In a stereo or multitrack system, usable track width
(which determines SNR) is already
small, and a small height misadjustment can be serious. Such misalignment is first noted when high frequency response falls off. Other
results: incorrect level setting, frequency response, and equalizer adjustment. You can't align head
height with a full -track test tape.
Always use a test tape with a track
configuration matching the head
stack used on your transport.
Why is proper azimuth alignment
necessary?
If the reproduce head isn't precisely perpendicular to the direction of tape travel, high- frequency
losses will result. Play a test tape
through the azimuth -adjustment
portion and vary the azimuth adjustment of the reproduce head
while watching the VU meter at
the playback output. The high-frequency tone on the tape will vary
in output level as you adjust the
head azimuth. Adjust for a peak
in playback level.
What is zenith adjustment and why
is it required?
All tape guides, including the front
faces of all heads, must be parallel
to the reel axes, or perpendicular
to the top plate of the transport. If
this zenith alignment is incorrect,
tape can "bow" with the same result as azimuth misalignment,
namely loss of high frequencies.
Here's a simple way to check
zenith:
Paint the face of the head with
a dye. You can use a wax pencil.
Play a tape until the dye for
wax) has worn off the head face.
Observe the wear pattern of the
dye. If zenith adjustment is correct,
right and left edges of the wear
pattern will be parallel. If they
form a V shape, zenith is incorrect.
What causes wandering tape?
If the edge of the tape changes
position, the tape will "bow" and
high- frequency losses will increase.
If the tape guides are too wide.
tape will wander. If the guides or
heads have a slot worn in them, the
tape will wander in and out of the
slot. This will most certainly happen if heads are readjusted after
having been allowed to wear -in at
an incorrect zenith attitude.
Why is head cleaning necessary?
Increased head -to-tape spacing, or
less than intimate contact, causes
losses in high- frequency response.
Very small spacings cause large
losses; the slope is not 6 dB /octave, but exponential, increasing
with frequency. The loss in decibels
is 55 times the spacing in inches,
divided by the recorded wavelength. Dirt and tape oxide build
up on heads through normal tape
use, keeping the tape away from
the head, and eventually cause
October, 1970 -BM /E
serious loss of high frequencies.
How can incorrect holdback tension cause poor frequency response?
In a professional tape transport,
the tape is held in intimate contact
with the heads by wrapping it
around the heads in a parabolic
curve. The pressure which forces
the tape against the head is the
pulling force of the takeup reel
and the holdback tension on the
feed reel. If holdback tension isn't
set properly for the size of reel
used, the tape won't be held tightly
against the head. Short -wavelength
(high -frequency) signals are recorded on the surface of the tape
and don't penetrate very much.
Hence if holdback tension is too
slack, high- frequency losses occur.
Low -frequency (long -wavelength)
signals penetrate the tape sufficiently so that this isn't a problem.
Why is proper tape -to -reel winding
If Viscount Video's
new.generation routers
made sense for MOL-
t
maybe you should
take a look...
(after all, we designed them for you in the first place)
When Viso:_-it developed ru.iters incorporating
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First we fot.rd we could eliminate expensive plug -ins
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and one control wire
for each input bus and one for
necessary?
Everyone takes the tape reel for
granted, not realizing the effect an
improper reel has on the recorder's
performance. The prime function
of a reel is to protect the tape during storage or shipment. A reel isn't
designed to hold or control tape
pack. In fact, the reel flanges
should never contact the tape. The
tape pack derives its sole support
from the contact of the first layer
of tape on the hub. Thus it's very
critical to start tape winding properly and uniformly on the hub. All
professional tapes are handled and
transported during manufacturing
on flangeless hubs, and a properly
controlled tension pattern will hold
as much as 9200 feet of tape on
a flangeless hub.
Should any special In ec uxrion% hr
taken with commercial test tapes?
Absolutely. A test tape is something like a precisely calibrated
steel rule. for it's made under laboratory conditions to provide an
accurate reference with which to
calibrate professional recorder/
reproducers. Mechanical or magnetic damage will destroy this accuracy. The shorter wavelengths
(higher frequencies) are most easily damaged. Mechanical deformation will damage the tape edges,
causing uneven tracking and a
Continued on page 41
...
each
output
"At last,"
bus.
we said,
"we'll
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to offer every school ... every
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Guess who heErd aJout it before
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Southern Region: 32868 Covingtor Drive, Decatur, Ga., 30032 (404) 284.4102
.
(Dealerships estaolished in Europe and the Far East)
Circle
Ocfober, 1970-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
32
o
Reader Service Card
The Four -Channel Scene:
A Survey
Broadcasters: FM -only operations will
lead the way.
Manufacturers: Mild interest, quiet research.
Retailers: Wary, doubtful, but ready to
leap on the bandwagon if one comes
along.
Needed: Tape and disc hard- and soft ware.
WORKING ON AN MBA at Pace College, New York
City, William T. Davies, Jr. surveyed portions of
the audio and broadcast fields in June, 1970
about four-channel stereo. These are excerpts
from his thesis, "Four- Channel Stereo FM Broadcasting: Prospects for Profitability."
Davies surveyed members of five groups:
transmitting equipment manufacturers, receiving
equipment manufacturers, FM stations, retailers,
and consumers. Most interesting is the response
he got from FM broadcasters.
Questionnaires went to 260 member stations
of NAFMB (about '/3 of the commercial FM stations in the US). Response was 173 stations (67%
of those queried). Davies comments that membership in NAFMB implies greater- than -typical interest and activity in FM broadcasting, and therefore nonmember quad activity will probably trail
that of NAFMB members.
Key question in the survey: Is your station
likely to convert to quad once equipment and
programs become available? Davies suggested it
would cost $10,000 to convert two channels to
four. Sixteen percent of the stations thought
they'd be leaders in converting to four channels;
53% thought their involvement would be influenced by the industry itself; and 29.5% said
their conversion was unlikely.
Program formats
Davies found a tie between present and future
stereo. All stations anticipating leadership in converting to quad are already broadcasting stereo.
Referring to the entire sample, about 83% (143
stations) are now broadcasting in stereo. In contrast to NAFMB membership, only about 35% of
all US commercial FM stations currently broadcast stereo. according to Quentin Proctor of the
FCC.
Power and antenna
To determine if low power would be a deter-
rent to four -channel conversion, Davies arranged
answers to the key question by station power/
height class. About 1/6 of both low-power As
and high power Bs and Cs expected to be fourchannel leaders. Interestingly, about 80% of the
reporting Class A stations are currently broadcasting in stereo. He found no correlation between antenna polarization and the likelihood of
conversion.
Davies also found that SCA operation affects
a station's viewpoint toward quad. Of the anticipated surround -stereo leaders, 75% don't handle
SCA. For the sample as a whole, 40% transmit
SCA. This compares with 35 %, which is the portion of US FM stations Quentin Proctor says are
transmitting SCA.
Crossownership of TV and /or AM may also
affect readiness to convert to quad, Davies found.
He asked stations if they were FM only, or sister
operations with AM and /or TV; their responses
he sorted by interest in quad. FM-only operations
constitute the largest number of those firms anticipating four-channel leadership. Of the FM stations reporting unlikely quad conversion, the majority have AM sisters. Davies concluded that
multiple owners tend to promote TV first, AM
second, and FM third. But FM-only operations
have no competition within the corporation and
thus can promote FM aggressively.
Station comments
Some broadcasters felt that public acceptance
of four channels would be necessary before stations would find it practical to convert, and this
might take as long as 10 or 20 years. It was mentioned that quad would cause degradation of the
FM signal, just as two -channel stereo has done,
compared to mono.
Several broadcasters cited only a limited num-
ber of potential four-channel listeners, despite the
medium's technical triumph. Others conceded no
such triumph. One respondent mentioned the
fully researched and orderly introduction of two channel stereo once the broadcast system had
been approved, as contrasted with current quad
activities, which he considered premature and exploitative. Another mentioned that four -channel
is being promoted by manufacturers needing a
gimmick to sell additional equipment.
Transmitting equipment
Of the 33 broadcast equipment firms queried
by Davies, 13 (39%) responded. Two are presently researching quad, two more contemplate
Continued on page 42
Circle
26
www.americanradiohistory.com
133 on
Reader Service Card -4
Our new krypton-halogen rieplacement
for the PS52 fits the same fiiture,
lasts twice as long and maintains
constant color temperature for life.
New DiSF 1500 -watt
kryptor- happai studio lamp.
PS52 :500-watt
incandescent s:udio lamp.
When you replace a PS52 studio
lamp you can replace it with something better.
The somethicg Fetter is Sylvania'.
DSF krypton -halogen lamp, which
fits the same fixture as the PS52.
Its average rated life is 250 hours.
More than twice the life of the PS52.
And that's useful life, because the
DSF is as bright at the end of its life
as it was at tl-e beginning. There's
no darkening with age as in the
PS52.
And its 3200° K color temperature is there right from the beginning. And it's still there 250 hours
later. Constant.
The DSF has low -noise construction. There are no loose parts to resonate when used with SCR dimmers.
www.americanradiohistory.com
With all these advantages, the
DSF is more than a replacement.
It's a major improvement.
Sylvcnia Elecuic Products Inc.,
100 Endico:t St.. Daw.vers, Massachusetts 01923
SYLVAN I.1
GENERAL TELEPHONE & ELECTRONCS
Multiplex Sound for TV:
Bilingual or Stereo
The clever Japanese have quietly introduced a second audio
channel in their television system, making possible stereo or
bilingual TV broadcasting. The system is compatible and seems
useful.
WHEN EXPO 70 OPENED RECENTLY in Tokyo, foreign visitors found they could switch hotel TV sets
to either Japanese or English language audio. (See
news item, page 10, BM /E, May, 1970). Today
the No. 1 channel of NHK (Japan Broadcasting
Co.) carries many bilingual broadcasts, enhancing
30
± 25
Tokyo's cosmopolitan aura. TV stereocasts are
featured occasionally and recently Toshiba introduced two color-TV sets capable of picking up the
stereo and bilingual broadcasts.
kH:
*20 kHz (STEREO)
r-
oMi
*15 kHz ( BILINGUAL)
I
MAIN
How it works
CHANNEL
0
CHANNEL
*1.5 kHz
SUBCHANNEL
0
15
31.5
16.5
MODULATION
SIGNAL FREQUENCY
46
55.125
5
(kHz)
The various signals pres:nted fo the modulator stage
Fig.
of the TV aural transmitter at NHK Tokyo.
I
MAIN
OR L
PRE
EMP
1:112
AIR IX
MOM
SUR
OR R
A
C
HORIZ
SYNC
1.
MOLT
MIX
TO
X2
1022 .H
1024IH
10241.
3 51H
XMTP
DIV.
DET
rH
IH
Fig. 2. Stereo or bilingual signals are formed in this generator
See -he text for explanation.
You'll recall that Japan uses US television
standards of 525 lines and NTSC color. Thus their
sound channel is identical, with 100% modulation
defined as deviation of ±25 kHz. Fig. 1 shows the
spectrum of a two-channel TV sound broadcast.
In the monaural mode, only the main carrier is
deviated. For simultaneous bilingual broadcasting,
a second audio program modulates an FM subcarrier whose frequency is twice the horizontal scanning frequency, (15,750 Hz for B &W, 15,734.264
Hz for color).
For stereo sound, L and R are summed and
fed to the main channel, providing compatible
audio for mono viewers. L-R information is fed
to the subchannel. There's no need for a pilot signal, as horizontal sync performs that service.
Subchannel injection (deviation of the main
carrier caused by the 31.5 kHz subcarrier) is -!-20
kHz for stereo, but backed off to ±15 kHz for
separate programming, for a better crosstalk figure. Subcarrier deviation is x-10 kHz with audio
response of 15 kHz.
You'll notice a Q channel in Fig. 1. That's a
control signal with ±-1.5 kHz injection at a frequency of 3.5 times the horizontal sync frequency.
The Q signal is used to switch the receiver circuits
between mono, stereo, and separate modes. When
the Q channel is unmodulated, the receiver operates in the mono mode. When the Q channel is
modulated with AM at 922.5 Hz, the receiver operates in the different or bilingual mode. And
when the Q channel is modulated with AM at
982.5 Hz, the receiver operates in the stereo mode.
Continued on page 44
Ocfober, 1970-BM/E
28
www.americanradiohistory.com
ELECTRONIC
SOUND:
Can your station
make it
Maybe your station can use something unusual -why stick with the sounds we've
all heard for years?
You SAY YOU'VE MODERNIZED your studio and
updated your programming; your promotion is
styled to the Seventies and now you want to know
what's next?
Electronic sounds -for your station IDs, news
intro's, anywhere you might need something unusual. The sound behind NBC's peacock may
have been the first regular use of the Moog Synthesizer. But since then electronic sounds have
begun to work their way into more and more
radio and TV programming formats.
Where do the sounds come from? The most
publicized electronic sound instrument is the
Moog, of course. But there are other synthesizers
around
Swiss model, the Bukkula, the Arp,
the Putney. and the Electro Comp, to name a
few. Also there are instruments like Innovex's
Condor brand modulators, which modulate sounds
fed into them -such as an electric guitar output
modulated to sound like a sitar or harpsichord.
Many production studios have begun to include one or an other of these pieces of equipment
in their catalog of available services. Sound City
(Van Nuys, Calif.), for example, has recently
invested $10,000 in a Moog system which it uses
to simulate musical instruments, to create sound
effects and "electronic" music and to process
existing sounds.
Sound City, equipped with an Ampex MM1000 master recorder, has been capable of producing four-channel recordings for more than two
years, charges $35 an hour for its Moog-which
typically provides a few tracks of organ -like back-
-a
The Moog Synthesizer, named after its developer,
Robert Mcog, generates raw sound which it then
modulates into different tones by control of
vibrato, volume, attack and decay rate. Voltage controlled instruments (oscillators, filters and
amplifiers) produce and process the signals
which can come out as "Electronic" music or
as simulations of conventiona; instruments. The
Beatles have used a Moog, "Switched -on Bach"
featured it, and many sound studios have made
it part o' their equipment. Sound City Recording
Studio (Van Nuys, California) programs its Moog
synthesizer to simulate conventional musical instruments, as well as to produce "electronic"
sound and to process signals fed into it-such
as cleaning up a distorted bass guitar track.
Shown above is a musician at Sound City playing
what may sound like an organ, a guitar or
whatever else he has programmed the Moog to
synthesize.
up.
Seattle West Recording uses the Innovex
sound modulators -especially for country western
Continued on page 44
For more information on these synthesizers or
modulators, circle on the Reader Service Card
the numbers in parenthesis after the company:
Arp Synthesizer (301); Putney (302); Electro
Comp (303); Moog (304); Innovex (305). And
read "The Electronic Musical Instrumental Manual," by Alan Douglas
Tab Book, Blue Ridge
Summit, Pa. 17214.
-a
tt7
04.
The Condor RSM (reed sound modulator) sells
for around $550, the GSM (guitar sound modulator) for around $700. The instrument, according to Irnovex, "takes the cultured signal from
the reed instrument, extracts frequency and amplitude information, then redefines and converts
it to an all- harmonic series wave form." Plug in
a microphone and, so they say, you can scat
sing tuba. Or do your station ID in English horn.
29
www.americanradiohistory.com
CATV Terms for Broadcast
Managers and Engineers
By Larry F. Roeshot
WHEN BROADCASTING PERSONNEL get involved with cable television they
often discover unfamiliar terms, many of which are unique to the CATV
industry. The transition is simplified once the terminology is understood.
Techniques are somewhat different. For example, the broadcast engineer
may be familiar with rf circuits at high power. However, the relatively
low-power, broadband CATV distribution equipment introduces some
special problems. Individuals with recently obtained FCC licenses have a
similiar limitation. FCC examinations require little understanding of how
a cable system operates.
The purpose of this series is to describe some of the more common
CATV terms in not -too -technical language. While these encyclopedia descriptions are not intended to be a complete course in cable television,
they should provide a broadened understanding of CATS' for broadcast
engineers and technically oriented managers.
Active: Any circuit or system component that requires power for operation. The most common active
CATV system component is an amplifier. cable -powered from a 30 or
60 Vac source. The definition also
includes nonamplifying devices such
as diode switches, oscillators. varactor -tuned filters, etc. A cable system
also employs a number of nonactive
or passive circuits and components
such as filters, combiners (often erroneously called mixers), splitters,
directional couplers and taps.
the source of interference with some
sacrifice in signal pickup. However,
maximum signal -to -noise ratio can
be obtained by this method.
Antenna Preamplifier: A low -noise
amplifier usually located near the
antenna terminals on the mast. The
loss from the antenna load -in adds
to the noise figure of the system. By
eliminating the cable loss using a
preamplifier, the overall noise figure
is improved. This improvement is
determined by the following expression.
Antenna Array: A stack or combination of antennas to obtain a desired
or rejection pattern. The
the most popular single channel antenna. Stacking is usually
limited to four antennas in modern
systems. Use is often made of the
sharp milling characteristic (direction of minimum signal) of CATV
antennas. The null is pointed toward
is
DESIRED SIGNAL
INTERFERENCE
Larry Roeshot is president of Spectra
Inc., CATV consultants in State
College. Penna.. and is technical director of the National Cable Television
Center at Pennsylvania State University
in University Park.
I
= F, +
F
=
F1
= NF of preamplifier
F2
= NF of receiver + cable
G,
= Preamplifier
pickup
Yagi
F2G,
Fn
Overall NF
attenuation
gain
Coaxial cable is usually used for
downleads in CATV systems. It has
more than twice the loss of ordinary
300 -ohm twin lead. At uhf the large
loss makes the use of preamplifiers
even more important. Single -channel
preamplifiers contain an input filter
before the first transistor stage, to
reduce interference from other signals. Most modern preamplifiers use
FETs to further reduce the distortion otherwise generated in the preamplifier.
When all -hand, loe- periodic antennas arc used. input filters are less
effective. and FETs cannot he used
over such a wide frequency range.
Bipolar multichannel preamplifiers
are available but give greater distortion. Thus multiple- channel preamplifiers are effective only when there
is no excessively strong signal at the
input. Traps can be used to reduce
the level of a strong signal, hut the
insertion loss of a trap at other desired frequencies can be prohibitive
A different antenna configu -ation is
usually the preferred solution.
Atenuators: Circuits used to reduce
the signal level. Cable TV systems
use rf attenuators as audio attenuators are used in broadcasting. Rf
attenuators used in CATV provide
uniform response up to about 300
MHz. Because of the difficulty in
maintaining flat response over a
wide frequency hand. continuously
variable attenuators are limited to a
6 -dB range. Signal distribution
equipment makes use of fixed plug in attenuators to maintain signal levels within prescribed limits throughout the system. Minor changes in
the average signal level are corrected
by the system AGC amplifier.
AFC (automatic frequency control):
Slight correction to the converter
oscillator frequency. usually accomplished with varactors. CATV converters occasionally use crystal oscillators. but never oven-controlled.
When you consider that 12 or more
channels are converted. oscillator
control h :comes a significant circuit
and cost factor.
Continued on page 40
October, 1970-BM /E
30
www.americanradiohistory.com
Can a tough,
little,
low- priced
microphone
make the
big time?
(A success story.)
.
A good little microphone, the E-V
635A. But just how good? After
all, it was intended to replace the "workhorse" Model 635... a dynamic microphone that had earned its title under
fire in studios and on remotes all around
the world.
So when we introduced the 635A we
put it to a critical test. A major recording
studio was loaned a dozen 635A's and
asked to test them. The engineers weren't
told the price, but they got the idea that
it was somewhere near $300.00.
They were so delighted with the sound
that they cut several big band recordings
with nothing but 635A's. "Best $300.00
microphone we've got." Then we told
them the price. They were shocked.
They couldn't believe their ears.
Meanwhile, 635A's were beginning to
appear in force on music and variety
shows on every TV network. Mostly hand
held. Something to do with ruggedness
and good balance... but mostly because
of the sound. Especially during ultra close miking.
The rest is history. Radio and TV
newsmen quickly adopted the 635A as
high fidelity systems and speakers tuners, amplifiers, receivers public address loudspea ?sers
microphones phono cartridges and stylii aerospace and defense electronics
their new "workhorse ". After all, news
only happens once, and the 635A was
their best insurance against bad sound.
To most professional sound engineers,
the E -V 635A is already an old friend, although it's only been around since 1965.
At the price, they can afford to use it
almost everywhere. And they do. (We
told you it was a success story.)
ELECTRO- VOICE, INC., Dept. 1001EM
614 Cecil Street, Buchanan, Michigan 49107
MODEL 635A Omnidirectional dynamic. Response 80- 11000 Hr.
Output -55db. Balanced low impedance. Includes Model 3104
stand clamp and layette, neck cord. Fawn beige Miconalte finish.
$88.00 list, less normal trade discounts
OfeereleCs
a
Circle
112 on Reader Service
Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
GULTON subsidiary
LEARNING TO OPERATE
A CONVENTIONAL COLOR VIDEO CAMERA
TAKES THREE MONTHS.
LEARNING TO OPERATE OURS
TAKES THREE MINUTES.
The reason for this astounding d screpancy lies largely
d'ffering number of operating cortrols to oe mastered. The conventional color video carrera has thirty or
m:re. Offs-the new Sony DXC -5000 -has just three.
What s missing is all :he contro s associated with the
erdless setup procedures and readjustments called for
by changes in light levels and color temperature_ For the
D <C -5000 has completely automatic gain con-rol and
co o- temperature compensation. Even apart from these
au:o-nat c features, the CXC -5000 is a marvel of simplicity.
Thus it uses two tubes instead of four to produce a highin the
quality picture: one tube for luninarce the other to generate all three color signals. red, creen, and blue. And
because the camera has relatively tew parts, it's reasonably priced, extremely compact, and weighs a mere
29 pounds.
And what are tf-e Dr(C- 5COC's -hree controls? Vertical
rEg stration, horizonta registration, and electronic focus irg. As many contro s it so happers, as it takes minutes
tc learn to operate the camera.
We suggest you to =e the fJl three- minute course at
your Sony color v dec came -a dealer.
...the better one
SONY CORPORATIOff OF AMERICA
47 -47 Van Dam St., Long Island City, New York 111C1
Circle
113 on Read
'r Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Samplings
Cunfuzz, a conductive, silver-impregnated nylon tape, eliminates static
electricity buildup on moving or rotating surfaces such as magnetic tape;
acts as grounding path, with light
3hysical contact; comes in six widths,
0.125 to 2 in.; operating temp -650
to +300 °F. TECHNICAL WIRE PROD-
Model 24 -10 vertical interval
production switcher accepts
comp or non -comp signals on
any input, automatically adding
sync to non-comp signals; inbuilt automatic synchronous non-synchonous detection with
mix -effects lockout; easily adjustable delays. Shown here is
first production model, sold for
$22,640 to KBTV (Denver). Custom features include 24 input,
seven output capacity; special
effects; chroma- keyer. VISUAL
production
switcher
V -I
..owc
.0
-....ear
ftir
ti
ur
369
UCTS.
CATV return loss bridge, model 63F,
has 40 dB directivity over range 101000 MHz, inbuilt reference termination, uses F -type connectors, costs
$140. Precision 75 -ohm calibration
termination costs $40. WILTRON. 370
Circle 366
on Reader Service
Card
ELECTRONICS.
BROADCAST
E QUIPMEXT
TV program origination system is
small remote portable by car or station wagon. Includes two B &W cameras, switcher- monitor, audio and
sync facilities, carrying trunks, lighting. AV SYSTEMS.
371
Color helical VTR has both insert
and assemble editing, using vertical
interval switching. Uses capstan
servo for precise timing, two audio
tracks, four motors, fast lockup.
Video bandwidth 5 MHz, video S/N
44 dB, horizontal resolution 400
lines, -in. tape. IVC -870 color costs
$8000; B &W cost $7500. IVC. 372
Digital freq counter
Model 616 measures freq up to
MHz, with direct digital
readout; range extends to 1.3 or
3.3 GHz with optional converter
modules; also can measure time
intervals to one µs; well- designed
for cable systems checking operations under new FCC stand225
ards (see CM/E supplement,
page 6) ; $1975. TELECTRIC.
Circle 36, on Reader Service Card
1
Helical VTR uses Japan Type 1 format for half-inch machines. Model
PVR 707 has pushbutton control of
Quad sound panner
LIl transport modes, will operate in
both vertical and horizontal positions,
by local or remote control. Has inbuilt two-input switcher, optional
electronic editing, auto. video /audio
level control, AUDIOTRONICS.
373
/IICß5I3
itlt.
AtliOp,ATn
Model 480 "joystick" four -channel stereo panner moves phantom location of sound source in
360° range with infinite (stepless) resolution; position of stick
indicates audio "source" location; splits signal into four separate outputs via multiple -finger
contacts wiping on conductive
plastic panning elements; tracking acc -!- 0.5 dB (5° of indicated position); insertion loss
dB max. Two channel stereo applications include sequewaying
between stereo programs, between dry and reverb or other
sound combinations (two input,
four output use); $190. Auro1
For more information circle
product's boldfaced number
on the Reader Service Card.
Circle 368
on Reader Service
Cord
MATED PROCESSES.
('ontinued on page 34
Cctober, 1970-BM/E
33
www.americanradiohistory.com
Audio equipment
all systems
Jo'
Microphone is dynamic, shock -isolated for hand-held use. RE50 has
freq resp of 80- 13,000 Hz, output
55 dB, has integral windscreen and
blast filter. With stand adapter, cost
is $120. ELECTRO -VOICE.
287
Stereo preamp has an S/N ratio of
125 dB on phono input, freq resp of
+0,
dB from 5 Hz to 100 kHz,
uses straightline volume, balance,
tone controls. Model 33 drives both
high- and low -Z headphones from
front-panel jack, with separate headphone level control. Six back -panel
ac receptacles. $395. MARANTZ. 288
1
The cumbersome
four or more piece
FM
Mono console has eight mix channels, 22 inputs, 10 -W monitor amp.
cue and audition facilities. Type
QRK -8 console: $1695. QRK. 286
moritoring
systems are going.
Belar Monitors do a
more accurate job,
as totally integrated
one, two or three -
piece systems.
The FM Frequency
and Modulation
Monitor measures
both frequency
deviation and
modulation functions
-the only unit to do
both. The Stereo
Frequency and
Modulation Monitor
has everything
Microphone has ball head and cardioid pickup with 25 -dB front -back
rejection ratio and inbuilt on -off
switch. Model 850s dynamic -designed for close-talking work, with
freq. resp 40- 15,000 Hz, output 50
289
dB. ASTATIC.
Tape gear
Automatic repeating cassette works
with any audio cassette player, uses
Mirocron lubricated tape. AUTO297
MATED LEARNING.
built in -phase
discriminator,
exclusive 19 kHz
frequency meter,
and test functions.
The SCA Frequency
and Modulation
Monitor is the only
one that monitors
four separate
Stereo recorder /reproducer handles
both reel -to -reel and cassette material. Model 330 includes deck, electronics, detachable five -in. speakers,
two F -25 cardioid dynamic mikes,
stereo patch cord for dubbing from
subcarriers.
All systems go!
Buy Belar!
Write to:
B ELAR
BELAR ELECTRONICS LA'3ORATORY, INC., DEPT.
BOX 83, UPPER DARBY, PA. 19084 (215) 789 -0550
No. 100
Circle
34
I
4 on Reader Service
cassette to reel or vice versa. Price
298
$339. SONY SUPERSCOPE.
BM
100
Audio cassette recorder /reproducer
uses Dolby noise- reduction system.
Model V -2 has automatic stop which
frees all pushbuttons to normal at
Card
October, 1970-BM /E
end of tape. VIvITna.
299
Broadcast cartridge tape machine,
Cuemaster series 750, has synchronous drive with capstan speed trim;
instant start and stop; automatic cart
loading; NAB equalization; plug-in
PC boards; remote control. Available
in mono or stereo. Made in Australia
by Consolidated Electronics; imported by TELEVISION EQUIPMENT
ASSOCIATES.
300
Rf equipment
Solid -state uhf translator has 10 -W
peak output power, can tune any
channel from 14 to 83. Low power
drain makes it choice for use with
thermoelectric generators at remote
locations. RoDELCO.
360
Uhf TV transmitter, type 250 -A,
has
accepted by FCC for
NTSC color on channels 14 through
been
type
n
G
D
Puts a border around your
keyed in lettering or any artwork to make them stand out
against the lightest background.
Just compare the top screen
with the one below it. The increase in readability heightens
viewer enjoyment and dramatizes. Sports News Commer
cials can become more interest
holding. Get them read!
83. Can be used at low -power station
or as driver for 2, 5, and 10 kW
transmitters. TELDEx.
361
MATV amplifier covers all vhf and
uhf channels. Model 4330 has switch selected input allowing choice of
single channel or separate vhf and
uhf inputs. Resp ± 1.5 dB through
all 82 channels. FM trap included.
Price $120. JERROLD.
362
AM BC transmitters have low distortion. BTA -10L rated at 10 kW,
BTA -5L at 5 kW. Both use Ampliphase transformerless modulation
system, capable of 100% modulation at 30 Hz with less than 2% HD.
Both use solid -state exciters. BTA 10L uses six tubes, costs $22,995;
BTA -5L uses four tubes, costs $21,000. RCA.
363
Dummy load line, Termaline types,
are 31/2 in. water -cooled, include
models rated at 15, 25, 50 kW continuous dissipation. All exhibit low
VSWR of 1.1:1. Model 8742, 15 kW,
costs $1400; model 8762, 50 kW,
costs $2600; both are vhf. BIRD. 364
,
.,......
._..
.:
!it
r
Gc::ìi,.
1;P
; !e
urÓ
i
..
.
.
.
I
--
T
G-
i
iw
h
R
I
BORDERLINE AVAILABLE FOR FREE TRIAL
Borderline has been on the market
for little more than a year, but as far
as the more successful broadcaster is
concerned it has become established
as an essential piece of equipment.
A survey of the many units sold indicates that the majority have been
fíluittauc "hOClada.
purchased by the stations leading in
their market areas.
Broadcasters can now obtain without
obligation a Borderline for a trial period of 30 days, by just filling out the
card and mailing it In.
7ut 'Mou 7to
tic
elm 7lopanuniic9
The International Standards Converter Company
A ANDERSEN
1260 Blue
Circle
A..,enue
LABORATORIES
Bioomheld,
115 on Reeder Service
October, 1970-BM /E
Conn.
06002
Card
35
www.americanradiohistory.com
PATCH IN ON BIGGER SAVINGS
FCC Rules
and Regulations
Continued from page 12
PCS-241A
IMMEDIATE DELIVERY
the same time of day on exactly
the same day of the week as Candidate Z, the time segments offered
must be comparable as to desirability.
AUDIO PATCHING EQUIPMENT
BAYS
CORDS
PLUGS
JACKS
Two conductor shielded patch cords manufactured to Western Electric specifications. with
a braided grey nylon jacket and woven braid tinned copper shield connected at one end only.
Delivery: maximum two weeks; F.O.B. Los Angeles.
PCS -310A
1
(single 3 c.onductor plug each end)
ft.
PCS310A -12
$5.85 ea.
2
3
ft.
ft.
4 ft.
6.05 ea.
6.40 ea.
6.65 ea.
Limitations on use of facilities
by candidates
PCS -241A
2
(double 2 conductor plug each end)
ft.
PCS-241A -24
$8.05 ea.
ft.
8.40 ea.
PCS-241A -36
PCS- 310A -24
3
PCS- 310A -36
4 ft.
PCS-310A -48
OTHER. LENGTHS 6 COLORS ON
8.65 ea.
PCS- 241A -48
REQUEST
All items fully Guaranteed
"
(_' Ll
u:
It'll(..
7218
THE
Teleciric
Co.
Circle
Venice Boulevard
Los Angeles. California 90006
213
748 -2281
Cable: TELECTRIC
Reader Service Card
116 on
Broadcasters may not delete
what they believe is libelous material from a broadcast under Section 315. Nor may broadcasters
require a candidate to submit an
advance script of his program for
the puropses of censorship. For
the purpose of planning broadcast
continuity, however, a broadcaster
may require submission of the candidate's script in advance. Therefore, if a candidate secures time
he need not use it to talk about a
subject directly relating to his candidacy. The candidate may use the
time as he deems best.
Moreover, if a legally qualified
candidate broadcasts libelous or
slanderous remarks, the station
generally cannot be held liable.
What rates may be charged?
Section 315 provides that
charges made for the use of a station by a candidate shall not
exceed the charges made for comparable use of that station for
other purposes.
Therefore, a political candidate
may be entitled to receive regular
PERFECT YOUR CCTV SYSTEM
WITH
COSMICAR
LENSES
Easy -to- operate, optically and mechanically superb lenses for CCTV
and VTR cameras. That is exactly what Cosmicar is ceaselessly
researching and endeavoring to make and is producing today.
A complete range from 8.5mm up to 1,000mm Cosmicar lenses.
Plus zoom lenses. Including some motor-driven lenses. Noted for
superb resolving power and edge -to -edge sharpness.
Be sure to get tie finest image recording results with quality Cos
micar lenses.
-
COSMICAR OPTICAL CO., LTD.
568, Shimoochiai, 2chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Circle
117 on
Cable Address: "MOVIEKINO TOKYO''
discounts that would ordinarily be
allowed to advertisers other than
candidates for public office, and
the like. Similarly, a station with
both "national" and "local" rates
may not charge a candidate for
local office the rates published on
its "national" rate card.
Consider this situation: A licensee makes "packages" of ROS
(run-of- schedule) spot announcements available to commercial advertisers at a reduced rate. The
ROS spots are carried at the convenience and discretion of the
broadcaster and are subject to preemption by fixed -position commercials. The broadcaster refuses
to sell ROS spots to political candidates. His reason is that if one
Reader Service Card
October, 1970-BM/E
36
www.americanradiohistory.com
candidate, by luck, has ROS spots
scheduled in prime time, his opponents could demand that their
ROS spots also be broadcast during prime time. The result would
be that some candidates would
obtain fixed rates spots at ROS
spot prices. However, under Section 315, is the broadcaster justified in refusing to sell ROS spots
to candidates? No. Since ROS
spots are available to commercial
advertisers, the broadcaster must
make ROS spots available to
political candidates on the saine
basis. However, if one candidate
purchases ROS spots, the licensee
does not have to sell the candidates'
opponents fixed position spots, for
the same time periods, at ROS spot
rates. If ROS spots are chosen by
the other candidates, the licensee
is required to act in good faith and
scrupulously follow normal procedures in the allotment of time
for these commercial announcements. In sum, once a broadcaster
decides to sell spot announcements
to political candidates, he must
make all spot "packages" and rates
available to commercial advertisers available to political candidates;
this includes "ROS packages,"
"package discount rates" and the
Never let it be said:
°
°svLOVa
wouldn't give you
the time of day!"
Never! Because with
a Bulova T-O -D System you can have a
primary frequency standard, and a secondary standard for backup,
plus automatic emergency switchover to power line frequency,
or additional automatic switchover to battery power in the event of
power line failure. You buy as much or as little of this optional
backup as you require, and you can expand the emergency system
in the future.
like.
Finally, suppose you decided to
increase your advertising rates by
25% on December 1. If some
legally qualified candidates had
purchased time before the rate
change, for use in the month of
December, would you be allowed
to charge the increased rate for
time purchased by legally qualified
candidates after December 1? No.
The rate charged an opposing candidate must be the rate charged
his political opponent.
Conclusion
Each broadcaster should obtain
copy of the Commission's latest
1970 "Section 315 Primer" and
study it carefully. Section 315
continues to be one of the most
troublesome areas for broadcasters. With its recent applicability to
CATV, similar problem areas are
likely to arise for CATV program origination. Whenever doubtful
situations arise, your counsel
should be consulted.
BM/E
a
Flexibility is the keynote.
Your modular frequency stabilized system can
be designed to control from one to 500 clocks.
You can add digital or synchronous clocks
as your needs grow.
The frequency standards, correction electronics, power supplies and clocks are all put
together for you by the skilled Bulova team,
using experience gained in over twenty years of
aerospace technology and almost 100 years
of providing accurate timekeeping, culminating
in the Accutron®. Experience that provides you a standard
stability of plus or minus one second per year!
Learn more about how a Bulova T -O -D System can keep your
air time accurate. It can save time and money, avoid late cues and
costly make -goods.
One more point. Will it last? All Bulova T -O -D Systems have an
anticipated trouble -free life of 20 years!
Write for comp ete information and specifications
This section, providing broad interpretation of
FCC rules and policies, does not substitute for
competent legal counsel. Legal advice on any
given problem is predicated on the particular
facts of each case. Therefore, when specific
problems arise, you would be well advised to
consult your own legal counsel.
BULOYA
aTp
BULOVA
-
AMERICAN TIME PRODOCTS
Electronics Division of the Bulova Watch Company, Inc.
61 -20 Woodside Ave., Woodside, N. Y. 11377 (212) 335 -6000
Circle
I
IB on Reader Service Card
Oc +obey, 1970 -BM /E
37
www.americanradiohistory.com
Be an ad agency
not just
a
-
broadcaster
Robert
1. Kimel
WWSR Radio
St. Albans, Vermont
OF THE MONTH
The Challenge: In a small market
such as ours (city population 8500)
few businesses can afford advertising agencies. As a result most
stores "are sold" advertising instead of "buying" it. Ad budgets
tends to fluctuate tremendously
month to month. Many local merchants question the value of ad
expenditures and prefer to operate
Who knows? What's blue or red
or green to you one day may not look
the same to you the next.
Now the new Minolta TV Color
Analyzer eliminates all doubt. Because it measures color more accurately than any human eye.
The Minolta TV Color Analyzer
provides accurate electronic readings that let you adjust primary
color values in perfect balance with
an objectively measured white standard. You can make individual
measurements of one color. Or simultaneous but independent readouts of primary colors with no color
influencing the others.
And the Minolta TV Color Analyzer
has an exclusive memory module. It
never forgets. Once the characteristics of an individual monitor are
registered in the module, they are
infinitely repeatable. So you can be
sure that what's blue, red or green
one day is the same blue, red or
green the next.
For more detailed information
about the electronic way to analyze
color, write for our free brochure:
Minolta Corp., Industrial Sales Division, 200 Park Avenue South, New
York, N.Y. 10003
How blue is blue?
t
Circle
119 on Reader Service
without a budget-simply buying
what sounds good and refusing
what doesn't appeal on that particular day. What we needed was a
way to bolster these hesistant merchants' interest in advertising on
our radio.
The Solution: We decided to "become" an ad agency. We have
prepared forms and already have
held lengthy meetings with some
merchants. A jewelry store owner
met with us for eight hours, for
example. We reviewed his past
year's sales and anticipated the
coming year's sales; we did the
same with his past and future ad
budget and with many merchandising phases of his operation. We
proposed a budget with a base
schedule plus added expenditures
in heavy months. Now, his advertising pattern follows his sales: If
he does 6.7% of his year's business in January, that's the percentage of his ad budget he spends for
that month. We also worked out
an image for each advertiser, and
we feature that business image in
all commercial copy. Station staff
have met with store clerks to give
information on selling to customers and to point out that increased
store sales can eventually mean
increased pay checks for them.
Our presentation offers an overall plan for the merchants -(1)
planned advertising in all media,
(2) a distinctive individual approach to be used in ad copy, and
(3) backup at the place of business
by informed clerks with adequate
merchandise advertised at the right
time. The result: We have more
than 200 52-week advertisers on
our books -an excellent base for
station billings. It also assures us
that we will get good results for
our advertisers, since their expenditures are well planned and
backed up.
Card
YOU ARE LOOKING
AT THE BEST REASON
TO BUY A TAPECASTER*
We need your help
However, looks don't tell everything
only
TIME will prove the TAPECASTER CARTRIDGE
MACHINE. Exclusive in all TAPECASTER CARTRIDGE MACHINES is the new SUPER -TORQUE
hysteresis synchronous motor plus a design that
promises far better performance with years of
trouble -free operation.
mazi
-
TAPEc
Boa 662
-,-
F7'
of the Month. It's that simple.
You'll get ten dollars and a
handsome certificate. Everyone
else will get a good sales idea.
TCM, INC.
12326 Wilkins Avenue, Rockville, Maryland 20851
Phone: 942-6666
Area code 301
Circle
48
-
And so does everyone who's in
the business of selling local
market radio and TV ads. Send
us your sales tips and we'll run
as many as we can in our Sale
120 on Reader Service
Card
Ocfober, 1970-BM/E
NEW
LIT
FOR ARV BROADCAST
TAPE RECORDERS
For copies of these literature offerings, circle numbers for appropriate
iteins on Reader Service Card.
Professional video products, the full
200
line from Ampex in 24 pages.
Model 100 professional tape recorder
and reproducer in Tape -Athon fourpager.
201
Complete CCTV test signal generator, Signal Source 204 and others, in
spec -sheet packet from Visual Information.
202
CCTV use in underground pipe inspection, in Cohu four -pager. 203
ANTENNAS
REED...CAhh SPARTA!!
... SPARTA- MATIDN...TURNTABLES .. .
... COMPLETE AUDIO CONTROL SYSTEMS ...
STUDIO CONSOLES
MICROPHONES
... CARTRIDGE SYSTEMS ...
...
AMPLIFIERS /SPEAKERS
...
AND BAUER AM /FMI TRANSMITTERS.
The set -up of a broadcast "turn key" package or a
complete CATV audio facility, including financing, service
and delivery can now be handled by one company,
Sparta Electronic Corporation. Any Sparta representative
can give you full information on the complete line.
Lamp catalog with Sylvania line of
incandescent, fluorescent, tungsten halogen and mercury lamps.
204
Communication components from
ADC, 13 pages of plugs, patch cords,
etc., 400 stocked and almost 3000
available.
205
Slide 'n Switch brochure from Sea lectro describing random -access circuit selector guaranteed for 250,000
operations per contact at 250 mA
switching and 2 A static.
206
Measurements
in communications
spectrum, audio to microwave, covered in quarterly periodical named
"WILTRON Technical Review,"
available free to qualified engineers
in microwave, audio /video and telephone fields.
207
An Alphabetical Guide to Motion
Picture, Television, and Videotape
Production, by Eli L. Levitan. A
book like this hasn't been available
for years. It does for motion pictures,
television, and videotape, what the
NAB Engineering Handbook does
for broadcasting. An encyclopedia of
industry practice, technical terms,
and trade jargon, this book contains
historical notes ( "The first photographs taken from above ground
level were . . . in 1858 from the
swaying gondola of a captive balloon
") and explanations of such
technical processes as videotape recording and film camera troubleshooting. There are many interesting
and pertinent pictures and diagrams.
There are reference tables and charts
(22 pages on camera filters alone!)
and explanatory diagrams (three on
holography). A useful reference for
anyone in film or videotape work.
Hard cover; 797 pages including subject guide to entries; 1970. Price
$24.50. McGraw -Hill Book Co., 330
West 42 St., New York, N.Y. 10036.
SPARTA- MATION Model SS -232
Flexible, versatile. dependable and
profitable. This is a glorious total sound system for network affiliates.
Lots of commercial and music capacity plus time checks and even local
news and weather
2.5KW FM TRANSMITTER
Model 602
Revolutionary stripline final amplifier and solid state exciter gives 25 °k
more power than competitive models. Requires only single phase
power and has swing -out front panel
for easy accessibility.
...
SAkTA
Electronic Corporation
5851 Florin- Perkins Road
A
DIVISION OF COMPUTER EQUIPMENT CORPORATION
Circle
October, 1970 -BM /E
(916-383-5353)
Sacramento, California 95828
121
on Reader Service Card
39
CATV terms
Continued from page 30
uhf
zig
ACC (automatic gain control): Automatic control of amplifier gain so
IPROli
your broadcast equipment
against lightning surges
with WILKINSON
AC lINE SURGI
PROIICIIIRS
Excessive voltage surges caused by lightning, transformer arcing and induced transients are everyday occurances that cause heavy
damage to valuable broadcast equipment.
Now through the use of WILKINSON voltage
sensitive Line Surge. Protectors you can protect your equipment from line surges that may
exceed even twenty times the normal line
voltage.
A WILKINSON pulse compensated Line Surge
Varister, is placed across a line of its rated
voltage. Should a surge or increase of voltage
occur, the resistance of the varister decreases
at log scale as the voltage increases, thus acting as a momentary load or short circuit to the
surge. WILKINSON Line Surge Protectors draw
little or no current and are capacitor compensated for microsecond surges, thus damping
all line disturbances as well as excessive voltage increase.
A small investment in WILKINSON Line Surge
Protectors is your assurance that your valuable broadcast equipment will not be damaged
due to line surges
that the output signal level is virtually constant for varying input signal
levels. Seasonal and daily temperature variations cause changes in the
attenuation characteristics of coaxial
cable. Typical cable attenuation increases 10% for a 60 °F temperature
rise. Cable systems normally use an
AGC amplifier at every third location, or 60 dB of cable attenuation.
Early CATV systems used a composite signal AGC system. In this
type of system a quasi -peak detector
is used to measure the average synctip level for all TV signals in the
band. This system is similar to conventional TV receiver AGC.
11011
offers greater
flexibility
and lower cost!
Another AGC method controls
gain in proportion to the temperature
measured at each amplifier location.
Thermistors are mounted on the
amplifier case. This method assumes
that temperatures are relatively uniform throughout the system. Amplifiers in direct sunlight may overcompensate for cable located in
cooler shaded areas. Amplifier gain
changes resulting from aging or low
voltages are not corrected by thermal
AGC systems.
The most popular AGC systems in
use today have one or two pilot
carriers. The signals are inserted at
the headend, usually at 73.5 and
220 MHz. Narrow -band circuits in
each AGC amplifier measure the
level of each pilot signal, and correct
amplifier gain at both ends of the
band. This change in amplifier slope
has given rise to the term automatic
slope control. A simplified block
diagram of an amplifier using automatic level control (lo frequency)
and automatic slope control (hi frequency) is shown below.
Model SIA -1 110 V. Single phase $125.00
Model SIA -2 220 V. Single phase $225.00
Model SIA -3 220 V. Three phase $325.00
Model SIA -4 44C V. Three phase $425.00
For complete details write to
Television Antenna
ZIG
ZAG
offers more pattern & gain peu dollar
than any other uhf antenr:a.
gains are available with
High
many computerized vertical patterns.
Omnidirectional and cardioid patterns
are avañable which will provide power
gains from 8 to 56 and directional
gains as high as 215! Power capabilities of 60 or 120 KW.
Fiberglass radomes are available.
The
per
Write for complete catalog and prices.
w
_
s..TY
DO M
ELECTRONICS, INC.
1937 MacDADE B-40.
TELEPHONE V151 87445736 874 5237
Circle I.'
40
ANTENNAICOMPANY
W00DLYN, PA. 19094
6939 PONER INN ROAD
CONTINUED NEXT MONTH
A
SACRAMENTO :AEIFORNIA
DIVISION OF COMPUTER F]UIPMENT CORPORATION
Circle
123 on
Reader Service Card
October
1
970-BM/E
'
l'ape problems
Continued from page 25
constantly changing relative azimuth of the recorded test tone. If
the tape pack contacts the reel
flange, the tape edge may be damaged. Physical distortion is aggravated by high temperatures
and by temperature and humidity
cycling. Follow these precautions
to safeguard a test tape:
Run it through a transport in
the play mode only (never fast
forward or rewind) and don't stop
it -let it play all the way out. That
way you won't stretch the tape,
and you'll get an even wind on
the hub. When it plays out, reverse feed and takcup reels and
rewind the tape by putting the
transport into the play mode.
Store the tape in a cool, dry
place away from magnetic fields
(loudspeakers, meters, motors and
microphones).
Before using the tape on a
transport, clean and demagnetize
all heads and tape guides. Dirty
or magnetized heads or guides will
ruin a test tape.
If you want a
tube distributor
who knows your business,
give it to him.
Does a test tape wear out?
Definitely. A test tape has both
useful life and shelf life. If carefully handled and played 50 times,
such a tape will have a loss of 0.5
to 2 dB at a half-mil wavelength
(15 kHz at 7.5 in /s). For 100
plays, the loss may be as high as
3.5 dB. The loss rapidly approaches 5 dB beyond 100 plays.
Unknown to many is the shelf
life of a test tape. Even when a
tape is carefully stored, the short
wavelengths fall off after a time.
Thus test tapes must be periodically replaced.
Can a single test tape be used to
calibrate a tape machine at several
speeds?
Not with accuracy. It is sometimes
assumed that, since the NAB
equalization curve is identical for
both 19- and 38 -cm /s tape speeds
(7.5 and 15 in /s), an adjustment
at one or the other speed is adequate for both. On the contrary,
accurate response measurements
require the use of separate tapes
for each speed.
BM /E
He's your RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor.
Noi in tubes for all broadcasting applications.
What made him No. 1? Emergency service is one reason. It's
like money in the bank.
For example:
You're on the air. It's late, a tube
fails. You're low on replacements
Too low for comfort. So you cal
your RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor. To keep you on the air, he'll
get out of bed to fill your order!
There are more reasons.
Experience. He talks your language, knows your needs. Some of
our distributors have been in the
business of supplying
broadcasters for as long
as we have -40 years!
Engineering service.
In power tubes, for example, Drand
preference studies by leading electronic publications have listed RCA
as the first choice of professional
designers year after year!
Inventory. The widest. Power
tubes, rectifiers, vidicons, image
orthicons. Think of his establishment as your tube warehouse. For
all practical purposes, that's what
it is!
Need more reasons? Call your
local RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor. For starters, ask him for the
new 1970 Guide to RCA
Industrial Tube Products,
or write: RCA Electronic
Components, Commercial Engineering, Dept.
He has a "hot line" to
RCA's Field Engineers.
Call him any time you
need their services. Call
21J,
Indust. al
even if you need help in
Ti. be
servicing our competi-
tor's equipment!
Quality. You know the
story. He stocks the finest.
Harrison,
N.
J.
07029.
o
Products
P.S. Your RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor is
also the man to call for
RCA Starmaker Microphones.
RCI1
Ocfobor, 1970-BM/E
41
www.americanradiohistory.com
line, but five companies (which are currently doing quad research) anticipated a quad boom.
Some 75% of the companies had received either
a few or no inquiries about quad from customers.
Yet a majority of the sample firms feel the future
holds at least moderate consumer interest in fcur
Four- channel Survey
Continued from page 26
such research and eight are doing neither. Three
companies felt they would become leaders in quad
production, and four said the industry would ultimately determine whether or not they made
quad; three said quad wasn't for them. Four outfits reported receiving a few queries from stations
about quad equipment. Davies concluded that
since there's no FCC-approved quad stereo FM
systems yet, it's too early to crystal -ball the transmitting gear market.
channel.
Manufacturers' comments concerned software: Quad tapes are here, need some refinement,
but can stimulate public acceptance of the medium, while FM systems are still experimental.
Another thought the only way to sell quad is for
recording companies to produce material which
both the public and FM stations can play. This
will provide the low -cost programming which stations must have to survive.
Davies found some tie -in with quad tape gear
which he interpreted as indicating spillover into
FM receiving equipment. This would account for
the optimism of the majority of the hi -fi firms
surveyed.
Davies also surveyed "16 manufacturers of
radio and stereo equipment of lesser price and
whose products are
quality than high fidelity
adequate for the general consumer." Only one
company responded; it had total lack of interest
in quad.
Receiving equipment
The survey included 45 manufacturing members of IHF; 32 firms (51%) responded. Nearly
half are either conducting or contemplating research in quad. Most respondents estimated the
consumer cost of a four-channel receiving adaptor
for present FM stereo tuners at $50-$100. If a
present stereo tuner were redesigned and modified on the assembly line for quad, what would
the additional consumer cost be? Most answers
were less than $50. When the same question was
asked about a stereo receiver, the answers clustered largely in the range of 40 % -59% additional cost. Most firms thought the industry would
determine whether they included quad in their
...
Retailers
Davies sampled 113 retail members of IHF,
getting 54 replies. The personal reaction by nearly
METROTECH
PROFESSIONAL
RECORDERS
Meets or exceeds all NAB specifications, and offers
substantial savings in either mono or stereo models.
in
Metrotech Recorders, Reproducers and Loggers
networks and major stations everywhere. Write for
-
F
l'
-
complete information.
OMetrotech
670 National Avenue
Mountain View, California 94040
A Division Of Dictaphone
Circle
42
124 on Reader Service
Card
October, 1970 -BM /E
40% of the respondents was either neutral, or
that quad wasn't worth the expense. But more
than 25% noted at least some audio improvement. More than /s of those responding hadn't
heard quad. Approximately 4/5 of the retailers
replying, who were geographically well dispersed
around the nation, had received inquiries from
customers about quad.
Cost aside, 50% foresaw extensive objections
to four speakers in a room, and another 40% expected moderate objection. The objections were
on both technical and decorative grounds. 52%
foresaw little eventual interest in quad; 46% saw
moderate or strong interest. More than half the
sample felt $25 -$50 a consumer-acceptable retail price for a quad adaptor. A $50 increment in
tuner price, and a 30 % -50% increase in receiver
price, were picked as appropriate for quad conversion.
The large majority of the comments, however,
objected to the total overall cost of conversion to
four, chiefly the speakers and power amplifiers.
To those who required or admired quad, price
seemed no factor.
Since more than half the retail members of
IHF didn't respond, and more than half of those
who did foresaw little future demand for quad.
Davies infers that the hi -fi industry isn't ready to
embark on quad promotion. However, he feels
that if software and hardware are produced for
consumers and FM stations, retailers could be ex-
COOKE ENGINEERING
r
COTERM
pected to get into sales promotion quickly.
Conclusions
Davies says: "The consumer with conventional stereo cannot be expected to acquire an
additional stereo amplifier and two additional
loudspeakers exclusively for initially limited fourchannel programs on FM radio. A substantial
amount of interest in four -channel tapes and /or
records and the associated required equipment
will also need to be generated before four-channel
stereo FM can likely become profitable." He reasons that quad would be an added expense for an
FM station, and it wouldn't inherently increase
revenue or profit. Only when four channels are
promoted and listeners are convinced to listen to
the new sound, will the station be able to increase
revenue, by increasing rates. At that point, other
stations may also convert to quad, to avoid losing
listeners to the leader or pioneer.
Davies pointed out that extensive promotion
of quad on FM is impossible until the FCC adopts
an official system. This may take years, but Davies sees the interim bringing benefits: Development, perfection, and successful introduction of
four-channel tape and disc systems; providing
software for FM stations, and getting two more
amplifiers and speakers into homes. With both
the chicken and the egg on the scene, FM stations
could then cash in on four channels.
BM/E
..... QUALITY IN COMMUNICATIONS
MULTI- CIRCUIT JACK
& COPATCH®
-
The Multi -Circuit Jack
MCJ -12 is
12- circuit self -normalling jack.
ii
If high -density is what you need
a
patchfield, COTERM' and /or COPATCH" will
meet the most critical demands.
COTERM' 22T is a reliable normal through switching and 'Me terminating jack.
COPATCH" 2 -2A will handle two
stand -by source circuits in their proper
impedance. It is a non -normalling
terminating coaxial patch jack.
L
It eliminates costly circuit duplication.
Transfers are made by means of a
12-circuit patchcord.
16 jacks may be mounted in a standard
31/2" x 19" panel.
Patch -cord is completely shielded.
Entire jack may be unplugged from its
cover without disturbing external wiring.
Ask for complete technical information.
Complete technical information available.
COOKE ENGINEERING
a
ALSO AVAILABLE IN 6- CIRCUIT NORMAL -THROUGH COAXIAL
Rep. Inquiries Invited.
90O Slaters Lane
A
Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (703) 548 -3889
Dynatech Company
Circle
125 on
Reader Service Card
October, 1970 -BM /E
43
www.americanradiohistory.com
Multiplex Sound
Electronic Sound
Continued from page 28
Continued from page 29
Transmitter adaptor
radio promos. Marketed under the name Condor,
two modulators are available which go to work
on the sound from a conventional musical instrument. The Condor RSM (reed sound modulator)
processes the sound from woodwind and brass
instruments, picking it up from the mouthpieces.
Output includes added voices below and above
that of the instrument, vibrato and simulation of
other instruments including bassoon and cello.
Many voices can be mixed at once
a cancel
bar can cut out as many as you want in an instant.
The result is not the "electronic" sound put out
by Moog's device, but it creates electronic enhancement and transformation of non -electronic
sound.
The Condor GSM (guitar sound modulator)
operates much like the RSM, picking up the six
strings individually at the bridge and processing
each signal separately. The result can be a blend
of sax, oboe, sitar and other instrumental sounds
at the flick of so many switches. Condor models
rent for $20 to $40 a day and can be brought
into a station's own studios -although adaptors
are needed for mouthpiece pick -ups. Musicians
can usually "play" the Innovex instruments after
a twenty-minute warm up, developing more imaginative uses for them quickly. It shouldn't take
broadcasting stations any longer to think up their
own ideas for electronic sound.
BM /E
In Fig. 2 you see a simplified diagram of the
circuit used to transmit two-channel TV sound.
Frequency control begins with a crystal oscillator
operating at 1022 times the horizontal frequency.
Incoming horizontal sync is compared with a divided -down version of the oscillator signal, and
the modulator is part of a feedback loop which
keeps it at exactly two times fH.
In the mono mode, only line B (in the figure)
is activated into the mixer. For stereo, line B carries the L +R signal, and line C the LR signal,
while line D provides Q. For different or bilingual
operation, the same lines are activated, but with
different programs (the matrix is disabled).
-or
Video compensation
When the video signal amplitude modulates
the visual carrier, a small amount of phase modulation occurs. In the conventional intercarrier receiver, this residual PM is detected along with the
FM sound, causing the familiar sync buzz.
In the two -channel sound system, sync buzz
degrades the subchannel too much. The remedy
devised by Toshiba is negative phase modulation
ahead of the modulated stage, thereby cancelling
most of the buzz.
BM/E
new
LSC
CF=
VEDETTE
ULTRASONIC
CLEANER
16mm and 35mm PROFESSIONAL PROJECTORS
for MOTION PICTURE FILM
for last, safe, high speed viewing and
nspection of motion picture film
MAGNETIC TAPE
MICROFILM
Presented The Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences Award of Ment
for Outstanding Technical Achievement.
Ultrasonic energy is the most effective and economical way to
completely clean motion picture
film, microfilm and tape without
mechanical scrubbing and wiping.
Ultrasonic energy performs the
entire cleaning operation.
Restores clarity and sound to
maximum quality.
Enhances the entertainment
value of motion picture film and
improves commercials.
The ideal machine for film quality
control, timing and correction, and
release print inspection. Handles
negatives, fine grains and prints.
Visual inspection of both picture
and optical sound track. Solid state
amplifier for simultaneous
monitoring of picture and sound.
Efficient revolving prism shutter
and sharp optics produce bright.
clear images without overheating
film.
Smooth, gentle film handling at up
to 400 ft./min., without intermittent
movement of usual claw or Geneva
gear drive. Stable, positive focus.
2.000 foot film capacity.
Assures static free film with color
balance undisturbed.
Cuts projector maintenance
costs ... no dirt or dust
carried into gates and orifices
less breakdowns.
..
.
Completely automatic ..
requires only loading and
unloading.
Write for LSC vedette literature
or request a "no obligation"
demonstration
LIPSNER -SMITH CORPORATION
1334 No Clark St
,
Chicago. III.60626
312
- 338 -3040
Costs only 1/20 of a penny per
running foot to operate.
Used by every major motion
picture lab in the world.
Descnptrve brochure
Ii be sent on request
10041
Circle
126 on
Reader Service Card
October, 1970-BM¡E
44
www.americanradiohistory.com
BM / E CLASSIFIED MARKETPLACE
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES
DISPLAY CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING: $22.50 per inch lx; $22.00 per inch 3x; $21.00 per inch 6x; $20.00
per inch 12x. ALL OTHER CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 254 per word; minimum $3.00. BLIND BOX NUMBER:
PAYABLE IN ADVANCE; send
No extra charge. Replies sent to address below will be forwarded ta you.
check with order. CLOSING DATE: 5th of 2nd month preceding issue date.
BM /E, Monterey and Pinola
HELP
WANTED
CIRCUIT /PRODUCT
DESIGN ENGINEERS
engineers we seek will
include their talents in Video,
The
Audio and Computer related
circuitry designing products
for the Television Broadcasting Equipment market. Send
resume to the personnel manager. Vital Industries, Inc.,
3614 S.W. Archer Road,
Gainesville, Florida 32601.
SENIOR TELEVISION ENGINEER -Mus.
have strong maintenance background with the
latest solid state broadcast color television
equipment. Send resume to Ronald Lask, Chief
Broadcasting Engineer, Television Section, University of Illinois, Medical Center, P.O. Box
6998, Chicago, III. 60680.
POSITIONS WANTED
Currently employed Ist phone needs job near
law school. BS. Political Science. 4 yrs. exp. in
medium market TV. Engineering thin editorial
composition. Box 1070 -1, Blue Ridge Summit.
Pa.
17214.
Struggling dj not a pro, but trying. Seeking
announcing position in southeast. Doug Galliher, 3907 Angol Place, Jacksonville, Fla. 32210.
Phone 904 -771 -7386.
Announcer, disc jockey, control board operatormale-22, single. Damon Joe Formen, 2458 No.
Platt, Wichita, Kans. 67214. Tel. Area Code 316265 -8846.
film, write and edit news. Will
work anywhere. 8 yrs. photography. 2 yrs. news
experience. Gerard Klein, 74 St. Munn, East
Can investigate,
Orange, N.J.
Earnestly seeking progressive rock. 3rd. endorsed. Box 92, Mahe (who could imagine) Ks.
67101.
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
Transmitter BT -50 -A1
complete with associated equipment
including cabling, 3 ea. 280 ft. and
2 ea. 160 ft. guyed towers, transmitter shack, etc. To be offered for
sale by public bid. Available late
1970 for disassembly and removal
GE
50
kw
from location near Sacramento.
Arrangements to inspect the facility,
currently operating, and to request
copies of the Bid form, contact
immediately B. N. Brown, Sacramento Municipal Utility District.
P.O. Box 15830, Sacramento, California, 95813. (916) 452-3211, ext.
576.
October, 1970 -BM /E
Avenues, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. 17214
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE (con'()
SCULLY 'PAPE RECORDERS: Mono., 2, 4, s,
12, & 16 track models plus 270 automatic players. Some models in stock now. W.A.L. custom
audio control consoles & console moduler.
buy and
Solid state 120 Watt power
AUDIO
Scully lathes.
ORATORIES, INC. 3402 Windsor Road, Wall,
N.J. 07719. Phone 201 /681 -6443.
GE color film island complete with Eastman
multiplexer and Spindler -Sauppe dual side
projector, excellent condition, used less than
loo hours, has not been in service for last 9
months. Contact Howard Zuckerman, National
Teleproductions, 5261 No. Tacoma Ave.,
Indianapolis, 317 -257 -1581.
Jack Panels and patch cords Audio and Video
new and used. Precision video coax cable and
connectors (Belden 8281)- Write for catalog.
Gulf Electro-Sales, Inc. 6325 Beverly Hill,
Houston, Texas 77027. Phone 713 -781 -3066.
AMERICA'S LARGEST STOCK AND CONSIGNMENT LISTING of new and used broadcast and recording equipment. We trade -sell and
buy. THE MAZE CORPORATION, P.O. Box
6636. Birmingham. Ala. 35210.
GENERAL Electric Vidicon camera-slide chain.
CONRAC AV12E. New G.P.L. 350 camera.
Sync generator, process Amp, Marconi -Ampex
3500 Vidicon camera, zoom lens, Ampex 660B.
Capt. Bill, WIMS RADIO -Michigan City, Ind.
TR -22 Videotape machine-RCA. Low band,
color, air bearings, good condition. Includes
three headwheel panels. Contact Chief Engineer, WIIC TV, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15214. Phone
(414) 321 -8700.
Color videotape recorders for sales. Font' IVE
Model 860. Almost new, excellent condition.
Cost, $7,800 each. Make a reasonable offer.
Phone
PROGRAM SERVICES (con't)
-A
Deejay Manual
collection of one -liner comedy pieces for sparkling DJ's $3.00. Write for
free "Broadcast Comedy" catalog. Show -Biz
Comedy Service (Dept. R) 1735 East 26 Street,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11229.
D.J. one liners! Write for free samples, and
also receive details on: California Aircheck
Tapes, Voice Drop -ins, D.J. Source Guide, and
much more! Command Productions, Box
26348 -A, San Francisco 94126.
DEEJAYS! 11,000 classified gag lines, $10.00.
Unconditionally guaranteed! Comedy catalog
free. Edmund Orrin, Boyer Road, Mariposa,
Calif. 95338.
MISCELLANEOUS FOR SALE
DECALS, TRADEMARKS & LETTERING
made for sales aids. All kinds since 1944.
Write for idea catalog. Mathews Co., 827 S.
Harvey, Oak Park, III. 60304.
CONSULTANTS
JANSKY & BAILEY
BROADCAST -TELEVISION DEPARTMENT
Atlantic Research Corporation
A
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Phone 904 -354-2806.
bearings, $22.50 net. VIF INTERNATIONAL,
Box 1555, Mtn. View, Ca. 94040.
RCA TX-30 and TIC-31 image orthicon cameras; RCA TR -2 and TR -5 videotape recorders,
plus many incidentals. Television Facilities, Inc,
Box 396, Montgomeryville, Pa. 18936, Tel. 215855 -0970.
RCA headwheel panels-unused RCA highbarrd
and low -band headwheel panels priced to sell.
Contact WHDH-TV. 50 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, Mass. 02125. Ph. (617) 288 -5000.
The complete and reliable source for new and
used broadcast equipment. Request our free
listings, Broadcast Equipment and Supply Co.,
Box 3141. Bristol, Tennessee 37620.
Any type tower erection finance. Bill Angle
Tel. 919 -752-3040. Box 55, Greenville, N.C.
-
27834.
WANT TO BUY
Television transmitters wanted: We need used
high and low band television transmitters, any
power. Must be in excellent condition. Contact
Bruno Schwebel, Telesistema Mexicano. S.A;
Av. Chapultepec 18, Mexico, 1, D.F., Phone:
Mexico City 5- 18- 56-74.
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
FIELD SALES REPRESENTATIVES
-If
you
are making regular calls on customers in a:1
areas of television broadcasting, and are interested in selling a complete, well established,
line of video patchfields and accessories, please
write or call: MR. JESS F. LANCASTTER,
Broadcast
Marketing
Manager,
Products,
COOKE ENGINEERING CO.. 900 Slaters Ln ,
Alexandria. Va. 22314 703 -5483889.
PROGRAM SERVICES
TAPES FOR AUTOMA -ION
THE
CnB
STUDIOS
Specializing in Custom Services
3415 RERESFORD AVENUE
BELMONT, CALIFORNIA 94002
4
1
5
/
5 9 2 -
6:
4 9
Division of
The Susquehanna Corporation
1812 K Street N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Member AFCCE
(202) 296 -6400
CAPSTAN
IDLERS for AMPEX 300, 350,
440 Series, self aligning with replaceable ball
717/794 -2191
VIDEO TAPE RECORDER
AUDIO HEAD ASSEMBLY SERVICE
Precision relapping of all heads and supporting posts, includes cleaning and testing.
AMPEX VTR audio assembly
.
$75.00
complete. Brand new shelf stock replacement heads of our manufacture available
when relapping not advisable. LIPPS, Inc.,
1630 Euclid St., Santa Monica, Calif. 90404
(213)
EX
3-0449.
INSTRUCTIONS
Are you interested in a professional announcing
career in radio? Then enter America's most
unique and practical Broadcasting School
The SCHOOL OF BROADCASTING TRAINING in Artesia, New Mexico. Three months
training on two commercial radio stations . .
KSVP AM and KSVP FM Stereo gives you
three months actual commercial broadcasting
experience that really counts when you apply
for your first full time radio job. Third class
radio-telephone license with Broadcast endorsement included . . . needed at many radio stations for employent as a disc jockey. Room
and Board available and placement assistance
after graduation. Class is limited to 12 only.
BONDED! Approved by the New Mexico
State Board of Educational Classes begin January 2, 1971 and June 2, 1971 and Sept. 2,
1971. Also six weeks course for First Class FCC
license theory and laboratory training beginning
September 2, 1970. Enroll Now! Write .
Dave Button, Manager
School of BroadTraining, 317 West Quay, Artesia, New
Mexico.
88210 Telephone
505- 746-2751 for
reservations!
cast
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF RADIO offers
the nation's finest quality course for your
first class License in three to four weeks.
Individual instruction. Classes start every Monday. Tuition $300.00.
A. I. R. in FLORIDA Koger Building- Boulevard Center -3986 Beach Boulevard. PO Box
16652,
Jacksonville, Florida.
A. I. R. in TENNESSEE 2622 Old Lebanon
Road, Nashville, Tennessee 37214. 615- 889-0469.
"1970 Tests Answers" for FCC First Class License,
Plus Command's "Self-Study Ability
Test." Proven! $5.00. Command Productions,
Box 26348 -A, San Francisco 94126.
45
INSTRUCTIONS (con't)
Replace
.,y
Mercury
Vapor
r..
Tubes
First phone through tape recorded lessons at
home plus one week personal instruction in
Washington. D.C., Atlanta, Boston. Detroit,
New Orleans. Minneapolis, Seattle, Denver,
Portland. Los Angeles. Proven results. Our 17th
year teaching FCC license courses. Bob Johnson
Broadcast License Training, 1060D Duncan,
Manhattan Beach. Calif
4461.
Phone 213 -379-
FCC License and Associate Degree in Elec:ronics earned mostly by correspondence. Free
catalog. Grantham Electronics School. 1505 N.
Western, Hollywood, Calif. 90027.
MODEL 700 -RP
USE
BM /E's CLASSIFIED
SUPER -TORQUE
MARKETPLACE TO
REACH OVER
Directly
with
90266.
HYSTERESIS SYNCHRONOUS
26,000
A LONG WORD WITH A
BROADCASTERS!
GIGANTIC MEANING
Please
run the ad below
in
BM /E's
CLASSIFIED MARKETPLACE in your next:
Hysteresis Synchronous is
SUPER -TORQUE
the
TAPECASTER cartridge machines. Its function is to provide you with a
cartridge machine to last an estimated three
new standard
in all
times longer than competitive units. It s only
one of many good reasons for purchasing a
TAPECASTER cartridge machine. Write today and
find out why TAPECASTER is No. I. TAPECASTER
the last word in cartridge machines.
AJ
Silicon Rectifier
Stacks!
Because...
*[TIC1MI
TAPE =CASTE F7' TCNt, INC.
Box 662
-
12326 Wilkins Avenue. Rockville, Maryland 20851
Phone: 942 -6666
Only non -encapsulated WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers can be repaired in seconds with low -cost
replacement diodes!
Exclusive "GO, NO GO" indicator
automatically warns when the reverse leakage of any diode is in
excess of 50 microamps.
Only WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers are available in a complete
tube replacement range of from
Circle
Area code 301
128 on Reader Service
Card
Tape
Cartridges
866 to 857B.
WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers
function in ambient temperatures
of from
85 F to +158 F.
No more filament heat and consequent filament burnout ... lower
t'
.z
-
power cost and reduced hum, too.
No warm up time is necessary...
instantaneous operation!
Just plug in WILKINSON Silicon
Rectifiers... no re- wiring is
necessary.
Only WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers are Cully guaranteed and have
a safety margin well in excess of
tube ratinc.
For complete details write today to:
12 issues
3
issues
in a space of
6 issues
1
issue
inches
words under the Classification of:
ELECTRONICS, INC.
1937 MACDADE BLVD. WOODLYN, PA. 19094
TELEPHONE 121 SI 874 -5236 874 -5237
Circle
127 on Reader Service
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
600
600
1200
Name
Station or Co.
WILKINSON
Series
Type
300
Check enclosed
Time at 71/2 ips
20
sec. (13')
40
sec. (25')
70
sec. (44')
100
sec. (63')
140
sec. (88')
31/2 min. (132')
5% min. (207')
81 min. (320')
101/2 min. (394')
empty cart.
16
min. (600')
empty cart.
31
min. (1163')
Unit
Price
$ 2.00
2.05
2.10
2.25
2.35
2.50
2.90
3.70
3.90
-
.60
6.25
2.80
10.45
Also: DL cartridges (for Spotmaster
delay machines), bulk tape, tape-tags
and other accessories.
Address
City
-
,..it
All lengths and sizes stocked-fast
service
highest quality
State
Classified Advertising Department, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. 17214.
711 /794.2191.
BM /E,
ANY ASSORTMENT-NO MINIMUM ORDER
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
A Filmware Company
8810 Brookville Rd., Silver Spring, Md. 20910
Card
October, 1970 -BM /E
46
www.americanradiohistory.com
IIL1II/1
Anaconda Electronics, a Division of
Anaconda Wire & Cable Co.
ADVERTISERS' INDEX
THE
Lipsner -Smith Corp.
44
Melrotech
42
Minolta Corp., Industrial Sales Div.
38
14, 15
Andersen Laboratories
LEADE
35
Belar Electronics Laboratory, Inc.
IN
34
Power Optics, Inc.
7
12, 46
Broadcast Electronics. Inc.
CM /E -16
Pruzan
Bulova, Electronics Division of the
Bulova Watch Company, Inc.
37
.
41, CM /E -4, 5
RCA Corporation
43
Cooke Engineering Company
Sony Corp. of America
32
.
36
Cosmicar Optical Co., Ltd.
Sparta Electronic Corp.
Dynair Electronics, Inc.
39
Cover 3
Superior Continental Company
3
31
Electro -Voice Inc.
Sylvania Electric
Fairchild Sound Equipment Corp.
8
Fort Worth Tower Co., Inc.
47
Products, Inc. ..
TAB Books
"Quality-Service
27
13
_.
Tape -Athon Corp.
9
Yes, quality, service and price
on CATV systems are the reasons for Forth Worth Tower's position as the industry's leading
supplier. Experience gained as
a pioneer supplier of CATV enables Fort Worth Tower to provide you with a quality product
at a price that is reasonable
and attractive.
Gauss Electrophysics, An
MCA Tech. Division
Tapecaster TCM, Inc.
38, 46
Cover 4
Tektronix Inc..
Grass Valley Group, Inc., The
11, CM /E -9
5
Telectric Company
Jampro Antenna Co.
..
36
40
TeleMation, Inc.
Jerrold,
a
General Instrument
Co.
Take advantage of our experience. For assistance in systems
planning, engineering and complete systems quotations . . .
Cover
?
CALL OR WRITE TODAY
?act ?Vold
7oeuet
COMPANY, INCORPORATED
CM/E-11
CM /E -13
Valentino, Inc., Thomas J.
Kaiser CATV, Division of Kaiser Aerospace & Electronics Corp. _.... _.CM /E -2
Viscount Video Systems Ltd.
Listec Television Equipment Corp.
Wilkinson Electronics, Inc..
NORTHEAST
22
25
10, 40, 46
ADVERTISING SALES OFFICES
820 Second Avenue
New York, New York 10017
212- 661 -0450
H. R. Shanton Granger
SOUTHEAST
Ken Fairleigh Associates
P.O. Box 3956
Charlotte, North Carolina 28203
704 -366 -1434
Kenneth F. Fairleigh
MACTIER PUBLISHING CORP.
820 Second Avenue
New York 10017
212-661 -0450
Sally Ann Morley
Sales
Administrator
MIDWEST
612 North Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60611
312-642 -3774
Thomas F. X. Carter
Box 8597, Fort Worth, Texas
(817) JE 6 -5676
Associated Companies
Tommy Moore, Inc.
Big State Engineering, Inc.
Tower Construction Finance, Inc.
P. O.
-
Circle
-
129 on Reader Service
WEST COAST
1245 East Walnut
Card
Street
Pasadena, California 91106
213 -795 -1528
213- 684-0590 (Los Angeles)
Lawrence C. Papp
Burt Underwood
Thompson & Healey Inc.
1111 Hearst Building
San Francisco, California 94103
415- 362 -8547
William J. Healey
JAPAN
Nippon Keisoku Inc.
P.O. Box 410
Central Tokyo, Japan
Yoshi Yamamoto
October, 1970-BM /E
47
www.americanradiohistory.com
PRODUCT INDEX
FROM THE
EDITOR
quick reference W products mentioned editorially
in advertisements. Page number is listed first
light face type) followed by reader service number
(bold face.)
A
AUDIO
Stereo for Everyone
38/120
35/300
In the realm of technological advances, we think the FCC
should be permissive rather than restrictive. What is the harm
in allowing any broadcaster-AM, FM, or TV
program
compatible stereo at will?
Leonard Kahn has demonstrated a compatible AM stereo
system which has been on the air in Mexico since May 2.
(See page 8 of our June issue.) It doesn't degrade the signal
received by mono listeners, and anyone with two receivers
can get instant stereo by tuning them slightly off -channel in
34/297
opposite directions.
In many parts of this country, you can't get listenable FM
stereo. Why must listeners on farms and in autos be condemned to mono? Furthermore, lots of people already have
stereo amplifiers, tape recorders, and phonographs. All they'd
have to shell out for AM stereo would be the small cost of a
new AM tuner.
The argument that AM is inherently low -fi doesn't hold
water. Nearly all transmitters are capable of 12,000-Hz response, and wi.w Cincinnati has even used a private microwave STL with a custom-built rig to achieve system response
to 21,000 Hz! The bottleneck in AM fidelity is the conventional cheap receiver with narrow i-f bandpass and consequent
5000 -Hz audio response. H. H. Scott has recently introduced
three AM -FM chassis with 9000-Hz AM frequency response.
Thus an AM stereo tuner could have good audio.
In a similar vein, Toshiba and NHK have developed a
TV stereo system which is on the air in Tokyo. (See page 28
of this issue.) If you heard a recent Metromedia special called
"Midsummer Rock," you have an idea of what TV stereo is
like. The program was a color-TV, stereo -FM simulcast, and
was very entertaining. The Toshiba system is compatible and,
if permitted in the U.S., would make no receivers obsolete.
New receivers, or adaptors for old ones, could be built to
utilize the two-channel audio.
In 1958, both RCA and Philco separately proposed AM
stereo. In the early 1960s, GE proposed TV stereo. The FCC
rejected all those proposals, and it's our impression they did
so to give FM stereo a break. While that may have been a
laudable effort ten years ago, we don't think FM needs that
kind of a break anymore.
Actually, FM stations could still be one jump ahead of
their sister media, with four -channel stereo. (See page 26
of this issue.) A compatible quad FM system was demonstrated by Jim Gabbert and Lou Dorren at last May's
NAFMB Convention. (See page 38 of our May issue.) Both
mono and two -channel listeners get all the program material,
some of which is already available in the form of four -channel
tapes. More will probably be forthcoming shortly, as at least
three quad disc systems have been demonstrated.
Along similar lines, several packaged video playback
systems are outfitted for stereo sound.
We think manufacturers and stations should ask the FCC
to revise its rules to permit transmission of compatible two channel stereo on AM and TV, and compatible four -channel
stereo on FM.
Thomas R. Haskett, Associate Editor
42/124
-to
34/299
34/289
34/287
31/112
8/105
10/107
34/114
34/286
33/368
C4/131
9/106
34/298
34/288
Cartridge tape machine /Tapecaster
Cartridge tape machine /Television
Equipment Associates
Cassette, automatic repeating/Automated
Learning
Cassette recorder- reproducer /Vivitar
Electronics
Microphones /Astatic
Microphones /Electro -Voice
Microphones /Electro-Voice
Module system /Fairchild Recording
Monitors, a -m /Wilkinson
Monitors, fm frequency & modulation/
Belar
Mono console /QRK
Quad sound panner /Automated Processes
Recorder- reproducer /Gauss
Recorder- reproducer /TapeAthon
Recorder -reproducer, stereo /Sony
Superscope
Recorders, reproducers & loggers/
Metrotech
Stereo preamp /Marantz
TELEVISION CONTROL & STUDIO EQUIPMENT
35/115
32/113
7/104
44/126
25/132
11/108
33/371
5/103
33/372
33/373
"Borderline" /Andersen Labs
Camera, color /Sony
Camera heads /Power Optics
Projectors, 16 and 35 mm/Lipsner.Smith
Routing switcher /Viscount
Signal generator /Tektronix
origination system /AV
TV program
Systems
Video switching system /Grass Valley
Group
VTR, color helical /IVC
VTR, helical /Audiotronics
TRANSMITTER EQUIPMENT
35/358
35/363
35/361
Translator, solid -state uhf /Rodelco
Transmitters, a-m /RCA
Transmitters, uhf /Teldex
CATV (See also: COMPONENTS, WIRE & CABLE)
Appears
14/110
C3/130
in CM /E (CATV supplement) only
Amplifiers/Anaconda
Demodulator/Dynair
11/153 Head -end, 14 channel fm /Jerrold
35/362 MATV amplifier /Jerrold
13/154 Music & sound effects library/Valentino
4/151
9/152
16/155
33/370
2/150
C2/101
47/129
39/121
33/366
Origination systems/RCA
Oscilloscopes /Tektronix
Passive devices /Pruzan
Return loss bridge /Wiltron
Systems / Ka ise r
Terminal equipment /TeleMation
Towers /Fort Worth Tower
Turnkey package/Sparta
V -i
production switcher /Visual Electronics
CCTV
36/117
Lenses /Cosmicar
TEST EQUIPMENT
33/367
35/364
38/119
Digital frequency counter /Telectric
Dummy load line /Bird
TV color analyzer /Minolta
PHOTOGRAPHIC & LIGHTING EQUIPMENT
27/133
22/111
44/126
Krypton- halogen studio lamp /Sylvania
Projector, 16 mm cassette loading/Listec
Ultrasonic film cleaner /Lipsner -Smith
COMPONENTS, WIRE & CABLE
36/116
3/102
43/125
Audio patching equipment /Telectric
Coaxial cable /Comm /Scope
Connectors /Cooke
ANTENNAS, TOWERS & TRANSMISSION LINES
40/123
47/129
Antenna, zig zag, uhf/Jarnpro
Towers /Fort Worth Tower
MISCELLANEOUS
13/109
46/127
33/369
40/122
37/118
Books /Tab Books
Silicon rectifier stacks /Wilkinson
Static discharge tape /Technical Wire
Products
Surge protectors /Wilkinson
Time -of-day system /Bulova
October, 1970 -3M /E
48
www.americanradiohistory.com
Proof
that
DYNA-TUNE
can cure
many of
I
. ;ode:'
l
DVNA-TUNE
10-
your head -end headache.
Now you can have high- fidelity
off- the -air color from your head -end.
Utilizing completely new filtering and
signal -restoration concepts. the DYNA TUNE provides superior adjacent -channel color performance in either microwave -fed or demod -mod systems. These
important developments allow t he
DYNA -TUNE to actually improve the
color signals in many critical areas over
that produced by the broadcast RF
transmission system.
You can also forget the problems inherent in outdated tube -type tuners ...
the DYNA -TUNE uses a field- effect
front end and the latest in integrated
circuits to provide performance and reliability previously unattainable in this
type of equipment. A completely new
for
approach to off-the -air color
only S13 0( fixed -t uned model C 385 ).
.
I
_ '
4v'Q
_
`
.
1
'Q-.
titititi::
.
,
,
_-CO
.
COMPARATIVE TESTS
The unique color compensation
function of the DYNA -TUNE is evident in waveforms I through 4. The
test set -up for these waveforms consisted of an off- the -shelf DYNA -MOD
the multiburst generator. Waveforms
2 through 4 are the demodulated outputs of the DYNA -TUNE with (2)
proper compensation, (3) no compensation (note the inherent roll -off in the
higher frequencies) and (4) overcompensation, such as might be desirable
to compensate for remodulation. All
waveform photographs were taken with
the tuner oscillator set for maximum
aural rejection.
Waveforms 5 through 7 show the
results of a conventional CATV demodulator tuned for the best overall
picture (note the roll -off in the color
region). Waveform 6 was taken with
the demodulator tuned for the best
4.2 -MHz response (note overall distortion. including degradation of sync
pedestal) and waveform 7 was taken
with the demodulator tuned for best
overall sync. Remodulation of this
output would result in even further
degradation_
Another significant indication of
the superior overall frequency-response
characteristics of the DYNA-TUNE can
be seen in waveforms 8 through 10. In
this test set -up, the multiburst signal
was replaced with a 500 -kHz square wave. Waveform 8 was taken at the
output of the DYNA- MOD /DYNATUNE combination and waveform 9
was taken at the output of a conventional CATV demodulator driven by
the same DYNA -MOD. Waveform 10
is the squarewave source. (Note the
overall improvement in ringing and
overshoot in waveform 8.) No external
envelope -delay correction equipment
or filters were used when performing
any of the above tests.
,.
v
v v
-o
Mail the coupon today for complete information on this important
product
. better
yet -place your
order today for fast delivery.
DYNAIR Electronics, Inc.
6360 Federal Blvd., San Diego, Calif.
ZIP 92114
Phone (714) 582 -9211
Please send me complete information on
the RX-4B DYNA -TUNE Demodulator.
Name
Title
Company
Address
City
modulator supplying a modulated 42MHz multiburst signal to the DYNA TUNE. Waveform I is the output of
State
Circle
130 on Reader Service
Card
Q
O..d
*"'e
Zip
Gauss research and development has created two
technolcgical masterpieces. The 1620 Recorder/
Reproducer with 5 heads,features an ingeniously
designed capstan and guidance assembly that
completely eliminates transport plate warpage and
attendart guidance problems. This rugged dualcapstan transport puts greater strength and accuracy richt up iront where the action is, reducing
scrape flutter and maintaining tape accuracies at
all speeds. Gauss' 1630 is a reproduce -only transport incorporating all identical design advances of
the 1620. Both transports can be mounted in any
position or any surface, function equally well in a
bi- directional mode and offer constant tape tension
regardless of size, position or location of reels. We
can safely say the new Gauss 1600 Series heralds
a new era in the broadcasting and tape recording/
dupl icatinc state of the art. But hearing is believing.
Anotne- precision product ... by Gauss.
Gauss ElectroFhysics
An MCA Tech. Div sion
.
.
"DI
-
I.
Los Angeles, California 90064
(213) 473 -0261
Circle
131 on
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