Instruction Manual of Luminance and Spectral Radiance Calibrations

Instruction Manual of Luminance and Spectral Radiance Calibrations
Aalto University
School of Electrical Engineering
Metrology Research Institute
Jari Hovila
Pasi Manninen
Tuomas Poikonen
Petri Kärhä
Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
Version 2.6
07/12/2015
Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
1.
Page 2 (19)
Table of contents
Instruction Manual of Luminance and Spectral Radiance Calibrations ...................1
1. Table of contents.............................................................................................2
2. Definition ........................................................................................................3
2.1. Scope ..........................................................................................................3
2.2. Object and field of application ....................................................................3
2.3. Features ......................................................................................................3
3. Principle of the realization ...............................................................................4
3.1. Luminance ..................................................................................................4
3.2. Spectral radiance ........................................................................................4
4. Equipment ....................................................................................................... 5
4.1. Luminance ..................................................................................................5
4.2. Spectral radiance ........................................................................................6
4.3. Maintenance ...............................................................................................6
5. Measurement traceability ...............................................................................7
5.1. Traceability chain of luminance ...................................................................7
5.2. Traceability chain of spectral radiance ........................................................7
5.3. Uncertainty budget .....................................................................................8
6. Calibration methods and procedures ...............................................................9
6.1. L-1009 luminance meter calibration ............................................................10
6.1.1. Integrating sphere alignment and aperture selection .............................11
6.1.2. Alignment and measurement distance of the detectors .........................11
6.1.3. Spectroradiometer .................................................................................12
6.1.4. Baffles and shutter .................................................................................13
6.1.5. Lamps ..................................................................................................... 13
6.1.6. Measurement.........................................................................................14
6.1.7. Data analysis ..........................................................................................16
6.2. Spectral radiance calibration of the integrating sphere source ....................16
6.3. Calibration of the CS2000A radiance responsivity .......................................16
6.4. Customer calibrations .................................................................................17
6.4.1. Luminance .............................................................................................. 17
6.4.2. Spectral radiance ....................................................................................18
7. Laboratory accommodation and environment.................................................18
8. Records ...........................................................................................................19
9. Certificates ......................................................................................................19
Version: 2.6
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
2.
Definition
2.1.
Scope
Page 3 (19)
This instruction manual describes the principle and the operation of the equipment used
for detector-based luminance (cd×m-2) and spectral radiance (W×m-2×sr-1×nm-1) calibrations. The calibrated devices can be either sources or meters.
2.2.
Object and field of application
Reference photometer: Primary standard for luminance and spectral radiance calibrations. Used for calibrating the secondary standard luminance meter.
Luminance meter: Secondary standard for luminance and spectral radiance calibrations.
Used for customer calibrations.
Spectroradiometer: Used for measuring the spectrum of the spectral radiance source.
Integrating sphere: Uniform light source used in luminance / spectral radiance meter
calibrations.
2.3.
Features
a) Reference photometer
See Ref. [1].
b) Luminance meter
A commercially available luminance meter LMT L-1009 (manufacturer LMT Lichtmesstechnik GmbH, Berlin) is used in customer calibrations. The luminance meter is calibrated against the reference photometer using an integrating sphere with known output
aperture as a light source.
c) Spectroradiometer
See Ref. [2].
d) Integrating sphere
A commercially available integrating sphere light source (manufacturer Labsphere Inc.)
is used as a uniform light source in calibrations. The luminance / spectral radiance level
is adjusted with integrated iris diaphragms and different sets of lamps illuminating the
sphere.
[1]
Quality Manual of Luminous Intensity Laboratory
[2]
Quality Manual of Spectral Irradiance Measurements
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
3.
Page 4 (19)
Principle of the realization
The principles of the realization of luminance and spectral radiance have been described
thoroughly in Ref. [3]. Therefore only a brief description is given here.
3.1.
Luminance
The luminance of a light source (integrating sphere with known output aperture) is determined from the measurement geometry and the illuminance measured with a photometer [1]. The luminance of the light source is obtained as
Ev × D 2
,
Lv =
A
(1)
where Ev is the illuminance at the effective distance D between the aperture planes of
the source and the photometer, and A is the area of the source aperture. The effective
distance depends on the radius of the photometer aperture r1, the radius of the source
r2, and the physical distance d between the two apertures according to the relation
D 2 = r12 + r22 + d 2 .
(2)
Equation (2) is accurate within ± 0.01 % for distances which are more than one order of
magnitude greater than the radii of the two apertures [4].
3.2.
Spectral radiance
Spectral radiance Le(l) and luminance are linked by
830 nm
Lv = K m
ò L ( l ) V ( l ) dl ,
(3)
e
360 nm
where Km = 683 lm×W-1 is the maximum spectral luminous efficacy of radiation for photopic vision and V(l) is the spectral sensitivity of a human eye [5].
Spectral radiance is determined by measuring the luminance Lv,m and the relative spectral irradiance of the output of the integrating sphere source. A luminance value Lv,c is
calculated from Eq. 3 with the measured spectrum, and a normalization factor
k=
Lv , m
(4)
Lv , c
[3]
Toivanen P., Hovila J., Kärhä P., Ikonen E., “Realizations of the units of luminance and spectral radiance at the HUT”, Metrologia, 37, 527-530, (2000)
[4]
Kostkowski H. J., “Reliable spectroradiometry”, Spectroradiometry Consulting, (1997)
[5]
CIE Publication 18.2, “The basis of physical photometry”, (1983)
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
Page 5 (19)
is determined. The spectral radiance is then obtained by multiplying each spectral component by the normalization factor.
4.
Equipment
4.1.
Luminance
Equipment needed in luminance meter calibrations is presented in Table 1 andTable 2.
Table 1. Equipment needed in the calibration of the secondary standard luminance meter.
Description
A. Reference photometer
See Ref. [1].
B. Spectroradiometer
See Ref. [2]
C. Luminance meter
1. Luminance meter
D. Optical bench
1. Optical rail (1.0 m)
2. Calibrated length scale
3. Carriage for the photometer
4. Baffle frame
5. Electronic shutter with
adjustable aperture
6. Baffle adapter for shutter
7. Mechanical elevator
E. Light source
1. Halogen lamp
2. Integrating sphere
3. Satellite sphere
4. Output precision aperture
5. Lamp power supply
6. Standard resistor (100mW)
7. Digital voltmeter
F. Alignment system
1. Alignment laser
2. Auxiliary mirror
G. Control and data acquisition
1. Computer
2. Current-to-voltage converter
3. Digital voltmeter
4. GPIB-USB adapter
Version: 2.6
Quantity
Serial NR/Identification
1
UVFR-5, NFRA1, cdf9502
1
Konica Minolta CS2000A
1
LMT L-1009
1
1
1
1
INA LFS 52 NZZ / MLMR-1
MS 17.60
INA LFKL 136-130
Melles Griot 04-IES-213,
Æ 2–35 mm
BAS-2
1
1
1
4
1
2
4
1
1
1
50W,12V, MR16
Labsphere US-120-SF
Labsphere (Æ 10cm)
AL1, AL2, AL3, AL4
Heinzinger PTN55 125-10
Guildline 9230-15: 65852 / SR-00
HP3458A / HP34401A
1
1
OMTec
1
1
2
1
Hewlett Packard
Vinculum SP042
HP 3458A
NI GPIB-USB-HS
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
5. Software
2
Page 6 (19)
Luminance_TKK.vi
Table 2. Equipment needed in customer’s luminance meter calibration.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
4.2.
Description
Luminance meter
As in table 1
Spectroradiometer
As in table 1
Optical table
1. Magnetic base plate
2. Post holder
Light source
1.-7. as in table 1
8. Output limiting aperture
Alignment system
1. Alignment laser if needed
Control and data acquisitions
1. as in table 1
2. Software
Quantity
Identification
1
LMT L-1009
1
Konica Minolta CS2000A
1
2
5
1, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 in.
1
OMTec
1
Luminance_customer.vi
Spectral radiance
Equipment needed in customer’s spectral radiance calibrations is presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Equipment needed in customer’s spectral radiance calibration.
Description
A. Luminance meter
As in table 1
B. Spectroradiometer
As in table 1
C. Optical table
As in table 2
D. Alignment system
As in table 2
E. Control and data acquisition
Digital voltmeter
4.3.
Quantity
Identification
1
LMT L-1009
1
Konica Minolta CS2000A
HP 3458A / HP 34401A
Maintenance
To ensure accurate measurement results and traceability, the devices used in the calibrations must be calibrated often enough. Calibration schedule of the photometric
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Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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equipment is presented in Table 4. Other equipment is calibrated according to the calibration schedule of the Metrology Research Institute. Correlated colour temperature of
the integrating sphere light source is adjusted using a Konica Minolta CS2000A spectroradiometer during all luminance and spectral radiance calibrations.
Table 4. Calibration schedule of the photometric equipment.
Device to be calibrated
Calibration interval [years]
Reference photometer
1
Luminance meter
2
Spectroradiometer
See Ref. [2].
Precision apertures
4
5.
Measurement traceability
5.1.
Traceability chain of luminance
The unit of luminance is linked to the unit of luminous intensity via the photometer.
Therefore luminance is traceable to the national primary standards of optical power,
spectral transmittance and length. The traceability chain of the unit of luminance is presented in Figure 1.
cryogenic
radiometer
reference
spectrometer
trap detector
V(l)-filter
MIKES length scale
aperture
distance
luminous intensity standard
luminance standard
Figure 1. Traceability chain of the realization of the unit of luminance.
5.2.
Traceability chain of spectral radiance
The unit of spectral radiance is linked to the units of luminance (Figure 1) and spectral
irradiance via luminance meter and a spectroradiometer. Spectral irradiance is traceable
to the national standards of voltage, current and resistance [2].
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
5.3.
Page 8 (19)
Uncertainty budget
An uncertainty budget for the units of luminance and spectral radiance (for simplicity
only at a wavelength of 600 nm) is presented in Table 5. The wavelength-dependent
combined standard uncertainty of the spectral radiance is presented in Figure 2.
Table 5. Uncertainty budget of luminance and spectral radiance calibrations.
Source of uncertainty
100 x relative standard uncertainty
Illuminance / spectral radiance standard
Integrating sphere source
Aperture area (diameter 16 mm)
Spatial non-uniformity
Instability
Color temperature
Spectroradiometer
Wavelength scale
Spectral distortion
Spectral scattering
Drift of the photomultiplier tube
Noise of the photomultiplier tube
Calibration of the spectroradiometer
Temperature dependence of irradiance
Non-linearity of photometer
Photocurrent measurement
Alignment
Distance measurement (800 mm)
Diffraction
Combined standard uncertainty
Expanded uncertainty (k = 2)
Ly
Le (600 nm)
0.15
0.25
0.02
0.09
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.07
0.04
0.01
0.01
0.01*)
< 0.01
0.03
< 0.01
0.18
0.36
0.04
< 0.01
< 0.01
0.03
0.08
0.11
0.05
0.01
0.01
< 0.01
0.03
< 0.01
0.31
0.62
*) At low luminance or radiance levels, increased uncertainty in photocurrent measurement needs to be
accounted for.
More detailed information about the uncertainty budget is found in Ref [3]. Since comparison evidence of luminance and spectral radiance calibrations does not exist, the official uncertainty levels are higher:
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) approved calibration and measurement capability (CMC [6]) expanded uncertainties (k = 2) for luminance are 0.8 % (range
[6]
kcdb.bipm.fr/BIPM-KCDB/AppendixC/
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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1-10000 cd m-2) and 1.0 % (range 10000-40000 cd m -2) and for spectral radiance 3.31.4 % (range 360-430 nm), 1.4 % (range 430-700 nm) and 1.4-4.2 % (range 700-830 nm).
When calibrating the L-1009 luminance meter at small measurement angles, the increased inhomogeneity of the integrating sphere source and the noise in the signal of
the luminance meter at small measurement angles must be taken into account, particularly at low luminance levels.
Combined standard uncertainty [%]
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Wavelength [nm]
Figure 2. Combined standard uncertainty of the unit of
spectral radiance as a function of wavelength.
6.
Calibration methods and procedures
A typical luminance and spectral radiance measurement setup is presented schematically in Figure 3 and as a photograph in Figure 4. The reference photometer, luminance
meter and the spectroradiometer are placed on an optical table. The spectroradiometer
can be installed behind the luminance meter, at a distance of 1.0-1.2 m from the sphere
source.
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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Baffle
Integrating
sphere source
Alignment laser
Measuring head
Spectroradiometer
Photometer
Distance measurement unit
Figure 3. A typical luminance and spectral radiance measurement setup.
Figure 4. Photograph of the luminance measurement setup.
The current of the lamps illuminating the integrating sphere source is monitored by using a single value precision resistor and a digital voltmeter (DVM). The voltage of the
lamps can be checked with an additional pair of wires connected parallel to the current
terminals of the integrating sphere source. The photocurrent of the photometer is measured using a current-to-voltage converter (CVC) and another DVM. Analog output of the
L-1009 luminance meter is connected to this DVM also.
6.1.
L-1009 luminance meter calibration
The L-1009 luminance meter is calibrated once a year. The measurement programs Luminance_TKK.vi and Luminance_ TKK_low.vi are used in the calibrations of the scales
1e3–1e5 (luminance levels 200–40000 cd/m2) and the scales 1e0–1e2 (luminance levels
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Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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1–200 cd/m2) of the display unit and are found in the measurement computer (see Table
1) in directory:
C:\Calibrations\
6.1.1. Integrating sphere alignment and aperture selection
The sphere is supported by rigid, black-anodized aluminum structure. The supporting
structure is attached to the optical table with M6 screws. Two of these screws also hold
the black-anodized baffle frame, approximately 10 cm from the sphere opening.
The vertical tilt of the sphere is cancelled by using an adjustment screw under the
sphere. The fixed location of the integrating sphere determines the optical axis: 25 cm
above the surface of the table. The optical axis is visualized by using a two-beam alignment laser positioned between the detectors and the integrating sphere source. The
detectors are removed and the beam is directed along the table by aiming the beams to
the centre of the sphere output and to the marking on the opposite wall. A shielding cap
covering the sphere output has a small hole in the middle of it to make the alignment
easier. The cancellation of the sphere tilt can be verified by placing a mirror in front of
the aperture. The back reflection from the mirror should hit the output of the laser.
There are four precision apertures that can be used in HUT luminance meter calibration;
two with a diameter of 8 mm (AL1, AL3) and two with a diameter of 16 mm (AL2, AL4).
Detailed aperture characteristics are presented in Table 6. All apertures are mounted on
the sphere with the sharp edge facing the detectors. Usually the aperture AL2 is used in
luminance meter calibration.
Table 6. Aperture areas and uncertainties.
Aperture
AL1
AL2
AL3
AL4
Aperture area [mm2]
50.728
201.612
50.708
201.372
Uncertainty (k = 2)
0.10 %
0.03 %
0.15 %
0.08 %
Calibrated by MIKES
2002
2012
1999
1999
6.1.2. Alignment and measurement distance of the detectors
The magnetic measurement rail is set to the optical axis of the optical table of the sphere
laboratory by fixing it on the marked position on the table. The rail has a rail carrier for
whom the photometer is mounted using a magnetic base plate. Opto-mechanical components needed for alignment procedure are shown in Table 7.
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Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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Table 7. Mechanical components needed for alignment of the devices.
Detector
Components from down to up
Photometer
Magnetic base plate, 25-mm post holder, 40-mm
post, tilt stage, 30-mm post, and photometer itself.
Luminance meter
Specific fixed assembly including magnetic base
plate (see Figure 4), 75-mm post holder, 50-mm
post, and LMT L-1009.
Spectroradiometer
Mechanical elevator.
Alignment laser
Aluminum holder to the rail, 100-mm post holder,
100-mm post, small tilt stage, and laser itself.
The photometer is mounted at approximate distances of 20 cm and 80 cm from the
sphere. The photometer is aligned using the back-reflection of the V( ) filter when the
photometer is mounted on the base plate 80 cm from the sphere. The photometer is
aligned so that the laser beam goes through the centre of the aperture of the photometer and reflects from the filter back to the output of the laser.
The distance x between the front surfaces of the sphere and the photometer is measured mechanically. Overall distance S between the aperture planes is
S = x + 3.0 + 3.2 mm,
(5)
where 3.0 mm is the distance between the photometer front surface and the photometer aperture and 3.2 mm is the distance between the sphere front surface and the
sphere aperture.
The photometer is temporarily removed and the luminance meter is mounted without
magnetic base plate on the table behind the photometer. The luminance meter works
like a camera; the object to be measured can be seen by looking into the eyepiece of the
meter. The meter is focused on the aperture plane of the integrating sphere. The measurement area is indicated by a black circle, whose size can be changed by adjusting the
measurement solid angle. The distance setting of the luminance meter is selected so
that the measurement area with the 1° measurement angle is at least 20 % smaller than
the sphere aperture. This needs to be taken into account in all measurements, as the
effective measurement angle is always slightly larger than the measurement spot seen
through the objective lens.
6.1.3. Spectroradiometer
The CS2000A spectroradiometer is operated in the radiance measurement mode, and
its objective lens is focused on the aperture plane of the integrating sphere source in a
similar way as the luminance meter. The CS2000A is used for checking the correlated
colour temperature of the source, when adjusting its luminance level. At each luminance
level, the currents of the lamps and the settings of the iris diaphragms need to be adjusted as long as the CCT of the source is 2856 ± 2 K. With luminance levels below 10000
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Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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cd/m2, the 1 deg measurement angle can be used. Above 10000 cd/m2, a smaller measurement angle should be used to avoid saturation of the CS2000A meter.
6.1.4. Baffles and shutter
An electronic shutter with an adjustable iris (usually set in diameter 40 mm) is placed
between the integrating sphere and the detectors. The shutter is attached to a baffle
with special screw disk and a baffle is attached to the baffle frame with two M4 screws.
The electronic shutter is controlled via the serial bus. A baffle with a size of approximately 60 x 60 cm2 is used for covering the integrating sphere source, and its halogen
lamps. Yet another baffle is used for covering the meters. This baffle forms a box together with the baffle holding the shutter, and should be in place during all photocurrent
measurements.
6.1.5. Lamps
The sphere has four separate light sources utilizing MR16 halogen lamps with aluminum
reflectors [7]. Two of the light sources (marked as 1 and 2) are on opposite sides of the
sphere and equipped with opal glass discs to provide better luminance uniformity on
the sphere output. The luminance level is adjusted by using iris diaphragms within these
light sources. The other two light sources (marked as 3 and 4) are operated separately
and do not have opal glasses nor iris diaphragms. Four switches under the sphere are
used for lamp selection. The lowest luminance levels below 150 cd/m2 are produced
using one of the halogen lamps together with a small integrating sphere for attenuating
the light level. This so called “satellite sphere” is equipped with two adjustable iris diaphragms for fine-tuning of the luminance level. (Figure 1). With careful adjustment of
the currents and irises, it is possible to maintain the CCT of 2856 K even with the smallest
luminance levels.
[7] Philips Brilliantline Pro Alu 50W GU5.3 12V 36D
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Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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Figure 5. Satellite sphere mounted to port 1 for reaching the lowest luminance levels.
The luminance source characteristics with different amounts of light sources operated
are presented in Table 8. The correlated colour temperature of the source is affected by
the amount of lamps, size of the output aperture, and the openings of the irises.
Table 8. Characteristics of the integrating sphere source.
Number of light sources
Current [A]
Voltage [V]
Color temperature [K]
Luminance range8 [cd×m-2]
1
4.090
11.97
1 – 1000
2
4.140
22.38
2770 – 2835
140 – 12000
3
3.859
30.31
2840 – 2870
17000 - 26000
4
3.815
39.90
2845 – 2865
33000 - 41000
The lamps are connected in series, which means that the current is the same for each
lamp and the voltage is measured across all lamps.
CAUTION! When the number of light sources needs to be changed, the lamp current
must be turned down before switches are turned on or off. After that the current is
adjusted according to Table 8.
6.1.6. Measurement
The L-1009 luminance meter is calibrated across the whole luminance range of the integrating sphere by 18 calibration points, presented in Table 9. The correction for the reading of the L-1009 luminance meter is determined at three luminance levels for its each
8
Luminance range when using aperture AL2. Luminance depends on the size of the output aperture.
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Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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scale of the display unit. Since the repeatability of the iris diaphragm adjustment is poor,
the luminance values below are advisory.
Table 9. Calibration points of the L-1009 luminance meter.
Number of light
sources
Iris diaphragms
open
Calibration luminance
[cd m-2]
Scale of display of
luminance meter
4
100 %
0%
50 %
10 %
90 %
30 %
20 %
10 %
5%
100 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
40500
33000
22000
18000
10000
2200
1800
1000
250
180
100
40
18
10
4.0
1.8
1.5
1.0
200k
200k
200k
20k
20k
20k
3
2
1
2k
200
20
2
With both iris diaphragms open, all four lamps are operated and allowed to stabilize for
30 minutes. After the stabilization, the luminance is calibrated at the maximum luminance level*). The illuminance is measured with the photometer attached to the magnetic base plate on the rail carrier 80 cm from the sphere aperture. The first (absolute)
illuminance measurement includes 30 measurement samples (10 × dark current + 20 ×
illuminance current). The electronic shutter, which is controlled via the serial bus by the
LabVIEW program, is utilized for measuring the dark current.
Next, a relative illuminance value corresponding to the maximum luminance is measured by moving the photometer to the magnetic base plate close to the sphere. Dark
current measurements are no more necessary. After illuminance measurement, the
photometer is temporarily removed and the luminance is measured with the luminance
meter at measurement angles of 1°, 20’ and 6’. The luminance meter has a display for
measured luminance. However, higher accuracy is achieved by using an analog output
which gives voltage values that can be converted into luminance values. The voltages
are measured with the same DVM as the signal from the photometer, but from the other
(rear) terminal. One should take care during the calibration that the voltages are always
measured using the right terminal.
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Spectral Radiance Calibrations
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This procedure is repeated for 18 remaining luminance levels. The relative values are
turned into absolute values during data analysis by using the first absolute calibration
point as a reference.
*) To calibrate spectral radiance at the same time, the spectrum is measured first. See Section 6.2.
6.1.7. Data analysis
Calibration data is analyzed using the same LabVIEW –file as in the measurements.
6.2.
Spectral radiance calibration of the integrating sphere source
The absolute spectral radiance of the integrating sphere source is needed for calibration
of spectral radiance meters. Obtaining the spectral radiance of the integrating sphere
source is described in Section 3.2. First, the luminance of the sphere is measured using
the photometer during the luminance calibration or afterwards using the calibrated luminance meter. Then, the relative spectral irradiance is measured using a calibrated
spectroradiometer. If a scanning spectroradiometer with a separate diffuser head is
used, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved by positioning the diffuser head close to
the sphere opening, for example 20 cm from the sphere output. It is not recommended
to measure the spectrum at the aperture plane, as the measured spectrum may be sensitive to the measurement geometry.
Within the measurement range for luminance calibrations, the spectral radiance varies
between [5×10-4…5.25×100 W m-2 sr-1 nm-1]. CMC-approved spectral radiance measurement range of the Metrology Research Institute is 10-4 – 1 W m-2 sr-1 nm-1.
6.3.
Calibration of the CS2000A radiance responsivity
The CS2000A spectroradiometer can be used in irradiance and radiance measurement
modes. The absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of the device is calibrated using a
diffuser head that can be attached in front of the objective lens (see Ref. [2]). The calibration of the irradiance mode is transferred to the radiance mode using the L-1009
luminance meter and the integrating sphere source.
It is recommended to operate the integrating sphere source with the same output aperture as in the calibration of the L-1009 luminance meter, as its size is optimal for this
calibration. The L-1009 luminance meter and the CS2000A spectroradiometer should be
aligned on the optical axis of the setup at a distance of approximately 0.8 m from the
luminance source. Then, the 1° measurement angle can be used with both devices. Baffles should be used between the source and the CS2000A for straylight rejection, when
measuring in the irradiance mode. The luminance level of the sphere is first adjusted
close to 10000 cd/m2 and CCT of 2856 K. The sphere should let to stabilize for at least
1 hour before the measurements begin.
The luminance of the sphere output is measured using the luminance meter with the 1°
measurement angle. Then, the relative spectral irradiance is measured using the calibrated CS2000A with the diffuser head. The spectral radiance of the source is calculated
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Date: December 7, 2015
Last edited by: PK
Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
Page 17 (19)
from the measurement results as described in Section 3.2. Then, the diffuser of the
CS2000A is removed, and the device is focused in the centre of the sphere output using
the 1° measurement angle. The calculated radiance and measured non-corrected radiance of the source are used for calculating the calibration file for the CS2000A. More
information about the CS2000A calibration procedures can be found in Ref. [2]. The calibration file should be saved in the CS2000A with name “radiance”. It is then possible to
load the calibration of either irradiance or radiance mode without recalibration of the
device.
6.4.
Customer calibrations
Customer devices are either sources or meters. If the customer is not present during the
calibration, the sources should be used according to the given specifications, such as
operating current. Number of measurement points, typically 5 – 7, is agreed with the
customer.
An optical rail with meters mounted on rail carriers can be used in customer meter calibrations. The rail can be attached to the optical table either perpendicularly or parallel
to the optical axis, depending on the case.
6.4.1. Luminance
a) Luminance source
The luminance of the source is measured with the L-1009 luminance meter. The measurement angle of the luminance meter should be chosen close to the size of the output
aperture of the source, but about 20 % smaller. Typically the 1° measurement angle is
used. Measurement angles smaller than 1° should be avoided, because the calibration
becomes sensitive to the possible inhomogeneity of the luminance source.
b) Luminance meter
The luminance of the integrating sphere is measured with the L-1009 luminance meter
and compared against the customer’s luminance meter. The measurement program Luminance_customer.vi is in the measurement computer (see Table 1) in directory:
C:\Calibrations\Measurement programs\
The integrating sphere has a set of different-sized limiting apertures for luminance meters with different measurement angles. The luminance source characteristics with different amounts of light sources at five apertures operated are presented in Table 10.
The sphere aperture and distance from the device under calibration to the aperture
should be set so that the measurement area in the aperture is at least 20 % smaller than
the aperture itself.
Version: 2.6
Date: December 7, 2015
Last edited by: PK
Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
Page 18 (19)
Table 10. Luminance sphere characteristics.
Number of light sources
Current [A]
Color temperature [K]
Exit port configuration
AL2 aperture
10-cm opening
(without any aperture)
1
4.090
2
4.140
3
3.859
4
3.815
Luminance range [cd×m-2]
1 – 1000 140 – 12000 17000 – 26000
33000 – 41000
1 – 500
7.5-cm opening
6.25-cm opening
5-cm opening
60 – 5300
7500 – 11300
14700 – 18200
75 – 6600
85 – 7500
100 – 8400
9800 – 14000
11000 – 15700
12400 – 17600
18500 – 22300
20700 – 25000
23200 – 28000
6.4.2. Spectral radiance
a) Spectral radiance source
The spectral radiance of the customer’s source is measured with the L-1009 luminance
meter and the CS2000A spectroradiometer as described in Section 6.2. The CS2000A can
be used in the radiance mode, but the luminance level measured with the L-1009 is used
for determining the absolute value. If the wavelength range 380-780 nm of the CS2000A
is not sufficient, a scanning spectroradiometer should be used to cover the spectral
range required. With low spectral radiance levels, long integration times need to be
used. If a scanning spectroradiometer is used, spectral bandwidth of 5 nm is recommended. Averaging of a few measurements to improve the signal-to-noise ratio can be
used as well.
b) Spectral radiance meter
The spectral radiance of the integrating sphere source is measured with the L-1009 luminance meter and the CS2000A spectroradiometer and compared against the customer’s spectral radiance meter. The output aperture of the sphere should be chosen
as described in Section 6.4.1.
7.
Laboratory accommodation and environment
The Integrating Sphere Laboratory is the room I134B located in the basement of the
I-wing of the School of Electrical Engineering. This laboratory is one of the clean rooms,
where the dust level is kept as low as possible. Instructions for using the clean rooms
have been given in [9].
During luminance and spectral radiance calibrations:
·
[9]
The Clean Zone -aggregate should be on to filter the air from dust.
Clean room instructions / Puhdastilaohjeet
Version: 2.6
Date: December 7, 2015
Last edited by: PK
Instruction Manual of Luminance and
Spectral Radiance Calibrations
·
The temperature level should be monitored.
·
The humidity level should be monitored.
8.
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Records
The measurement data coming from the calibrations and development of equipment is
archived. To write down important parameters during the L-1009 luminance meter calibration, the comment text field in the LabVIEW program is utilized.
The measurement notes (date, set-up, raw data) are automatically written to a measurement data file during the measurements. The measurement data, both raw and analyzed, are stored in author’s computer. The names of the data files are written on the
measurement notes. The data is organized by creating an own folder for each customer.
9.
Certificates
Calibration certificates are handled according to [10]. Include in the calibration certificate:
·
Ambient temperature and relative humidity
·
Luminance and spectral radiance source: Source voltage and current, luminance /
spectral radiance values with specified settings, e.g. shutter positions, monitor detector readings etc.
·
Luminance and spectral radiance meter: Settings of the meter, reference and calibrated values with corresponding correction factors.
·
Measured spectral radiance values and calculated uncertainties as an attachment on
the certificate and/or computer disk.
[10] http://metrology.tkk.fi/quality/AnnexD.pdf (instructions for writing calibration certificates)
Version: 2.6
Date: December 7, 2015
Last edited by: PK
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