Word 2016 For Dummies
Word 2016 For Dummies®
Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 070305774, www.wiley.com
Copyright © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Published simultaneously in Canada
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108
of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of
the Publisher. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ
07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at
http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
Trademarks: Wiley, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, Dummies.com,
Making Everything Easier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered
trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and may not be used without written
permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this
book.
LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE
PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR
COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND
SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING
WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR
EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE
ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE
SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE
UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN
RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL
SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE
SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE
SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE
LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN
ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS
A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER
INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE
PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION
OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY
MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET
WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR
DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND
WHEN IT IS READ.
For general information on our other products and services, please contact our
Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at
317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. For technical support, please visit
www.wiley.com/techsupport.
Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-ondemand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not
be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as
a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may
download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more
information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015949749
ISBN 978-1-119-07689-6 (pbk); ISBN 978-1-119-07695-7 (ebk); ISBN 978-1119-07685-8 (ebk)
Word 2016 For Dummies®
Visit www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/word2016 to view
this book's cheat sheet.
Table of Contents
Cover
Introduction
About This Book
How to Use This Book
Foolish Assumptions
What’s Not Here
Icons Used in This Book
Where to Go from Here
Part I: Your Introduction to Word
Chapter 1: Hello, Word!
Start Your Word Day
Behold the Word Program
End Your Word-Processing Day
Chapter 2: The Typing Chapter
Input Devices Galore
Keyboard Dos and Don’ts
Stuff That Happens While You Type
Part II: Your Basic Word
Chapter 3: To and Fro in a Document
Document Scrolling
Move the Insertion Pointer
Go Back to Where You Once Edited
Go to Wherever with the Go To Command
Chapter 4: Text Editing
Remove Text You Don’t Want
Split and Join Paragraphs
Soft and Hard Returns
Undo Mistakes with Undo Haste
Chapter 5: Search for This, Replace It with That
Text Happily Found
Replace Found Text
Chapter 6: Blocks o’ Text
Meet Mr. Block
Mark a Block of Text
Manipulate the Block of Text
Chapter 7: Spell It Write
Check Your Spelling
AutoCorrect in Action
Grammar Be Good
All-at-Once Document Proofing
Spell Check and Grammar Settings
Chapter 8: Documents New, Saved, Opened, and
Closed
Some Terms to Get Out of the Way
Behold! A New Document
Save Your Stuff!
Open a Document
Close a Document
Recover a Draft
Chapter 9: Publish Your Document
Your Document on Paper
Electronically Publishing Your Document
Part III: Fun with Formatting
Chapter 10: Character Formatting
Text-Formatting Techniques
Basic Text Formats
Text Transcending Teensy to Titanic
More Colorful Text
Change Text Case
Clear Character Formatting
Behold the Font Dialog Box
Chapter 11: Paragraph Formatting
Paragraph-Formatting Rules and Regulations
Justification and Alignment
Make Room Before, After, or Inside Paragraphs
Paragraph Indentation Madness
Chapter 12: Tab Formatting
Once Upon a Tab
The Standard Left Tab Stop
The Center Tab Stop
The Right Tab Stop
The Decimal Tab
The Bar Tab
Fearless Leader Tabs
Tab Stop, Be Gone!
Chapter 13: Page Formatting
Describe That Page
Page Numbering
New Pages from Nowhere
Page Background Froufrou
Chapter 14: More Page Formatting
Slice Your Document into Sections
That First Page
Headers and Footers
Chapter 15: Style Formatting
The Big Style Overview
Make Your Own Styles
Style Tips and Tricks
Chapter 16: Template and Themes Formatting
Instant Documents with Templates
Templates of Your Own
The Theme of Things
Chapter 17: Sundry Formatting
Weird and Fun Text Effects
Steal This Format!
Automatic Formatting
Center a Page, Top to Bottom
Part IV: Spruce Up a Dull Document
Chapter 18: Borders and Lines
The Basics of Borders
The Borders and Shading Dialog Box
Chapter 19: Able Tables
Put a Table in Your Document
Text in Tables
Table Modification
Chapter 20: Columns of Text
All about Columns
Column Termination
Chapter 21: Lots of Lists
Lists with Bullets and Numbers
Document Content Lists
Footnotes and Endnotes
Chapter 22: Here Come the Graphics
Graphical Goobers in Your Text
Image Layout
Image Editing
Image Arrangement
Chapter 23: Insert Tab Insanity
Characters Foreign and Funky
Spice Up Your Document with a Text Box
Fun with Fields
The Date and Time
Part V: The Rest of Word
Chapter 24: Multiple Documents, Windows, and File
Formats
Multiple Document Mania
Many, Many Document Types
Chapter 25: Word for Writers
Organize Your Thoughts
Large Documents
Dan’s Writing Tips
Chapter 26: Let’s Work This Out
Comments on Your Text
The Yellow Highlighter
Look What They've Done to My Text, Ma
Collaborate on the Internet
Chapter 27: Mail Merge Mania
About Mail Merge
I. The Main Document
II. The Recipient List
III. Fold in the Fields
IV. Preview the Merged Documents
V. Mail Merge Ho!
Chapter 28: Labels and Envelopes
Labels Everywhere
Instant Envelope
Chapter 29: A More Custom Word
A Better Status Bar
The Quick Access Toolbar
Customize the Ribbon
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Chapter 30: The Ten Commandments of Word
Thou Shalt Remember to Save Thy Work
Thou Shalt Not Use Spaces Unnecessarily
Thou Shalt Not Abuse the Enter Key
Thou Shalt Not Neglect Keyboard Shortcuts
Thou Shalt Not Manually Number Thy Pages
Thou Shalt Not Force a New Page
Thou Shalt Not Forget Thy Undo Command
Honor Thy Printer
Thou Shalt Have Multiple Document Windows Before Thee
Neglecteth Not Windows
Chapter 31: Ten Cool Tricks
Automatic Save with AutoRecover
Accelerate the Ribbon
Ancient Word Keyboard Shortcuts
Build Your Own Fractions
Electronic Bookmarks
Lock Your Document
The Drop Cap
Map Your Document
Sort Your Text
Map Ctrl+F to the Advanced Find Command
Chapter 32: Ten Bizarre Things
Equations
Video in Your Document
Hidden Text
The Developer Tab
Hyphenation
Document Properties
Cross-References
Collect and Paste
Click-and-Type
Word and the Internet
Chapter 33: Ten Automatic Features Worthy of
Deactivation
Bye-Bye Start Screen
Restore the Traditional Open and Save Dialog Boxes
Turn Off the Mini Toolbar
Select Text by Letter
Disable Click-and-Type
Paste Plain Text Only
Disable AutoFormat Features (×4)
About the Author
Cheat Sheet
Connect with Dummies
End User License Agreement
Introduction
The only thing standing between you and your writing is your word processor.
Yeah, I know: It’s supposed to be helpful. Well, it tries. Computers can do only so
much. But you, as a smart person, are capable of so much more. I’m guessing
that’s why you opened this book.
Welcome to Word 2016 For Dummies, which removes the pain from using
Microsoft’s latest, greatest, most confusing word-processing software ever! This
book is your friendly, informative, and entertaining guide to the routine of
processing words that is Word 2016.
Be warned: I’m not out to make you love Word. This book won’t make you enjoy
the program. Use it, yes. Tolerate it, of course. The only promise I’m offering is to
ease the pain that most people feel from using Microsoft Word. Along the way, I
kick Word in the butt, and I hope you enjoy reading about it.
About This Book
I don’t intend for you to read this book from cover to cover. It’s not a novel, and if
it were, it would be a political space opera with an antihero and a princess
fighting elected officials who are in cahoots with a galactic urban renewal
development corporation. The ending would be extremely satisfying.
This book is a reference. Each chapter covers a specific topic or task you can
accomplish by using Word 2016. Within each chapter, you find self-contained
sections, each of which describes how to perform a specific task or get something
done. Sample topics you encounter in this book include
Moving a block
Checking your spelling
Saving your stuff!
Text-formatting techniques
Working with tables in Word
Plopping down a picture
Mail merge, ho!
I give you no keys to memorize, no secret codes, no tricks, no presentations to
sleep through, and no wall charts. Instead, each section explains a topic as though
it’s the first thing you read in this book. Nothing is assumed, and everything is
cross-referenced. Technical terms and topics, when they come up, are neatly
shoved to the side, where you can easily avoid reading them. The idea here isn’t
for you to master anything. This book’s philosophy is to help you look it up, figure
it out, and get back to work.
How to Use This Book
You hold in your hands an active book. The topics between this book's yellowand-black covers are all geared toward getting things done in Word 2016. All you
need to do is find the topic that interests you and then read.
Word uses the mouse and keyboard to get things done, but mostly the keyboard.
I use the word click to describe the action of clicking the mouse’s main (left)
button.
This is a keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+P. Press and hold down the Ctrl (Control) key
and type the letter P, just as you would press Shift+P to create a capital P.
Sometimes, you must press more than two keys at the same time, such as
Ctrl+Shift+T. Press Ctrl and Shift together and then press the T key. Release all
three keys.
Commands in Word 2016 exist as command buttons on the Ribbon interface. I
may refer to the tab, the command group, and then the button itself to help you
locate that command button.
Menu commands are listed like this: Table Insert Table. This direction tells
you to click the Table command button and then choose the Insert Table item from
the menu that appears.
Some of Word’s key commands are kept on the File screen. To access
that screen, click the File tab on the Ribbon. To return to your document, click the
Back button, found in the upper-left corner of the File screen and shown in the
margin. Or you can press the Esc key.
When I describe a message or something else you see onscreen, it looks like this:
Why should I bother to love Evelyn when robots will
eventually destroy the human race?
If you need further help in operating your computer, I can recommend my book
PCs For Dummies, 13th Edition (Wiley). It contains lots of useful information to
supplement what you find in this book.
Foolish Assumptions
Although this book was written with the beginner in mind, I still make a few
assumptions. Foremost, I assume that you're a human being, though you might also
be an alien from another planet. If so, welcome to Earth. When you conquer our
planet, please do Idaho last. Thanks.
Another foolish assumption I make is that you use Windows as the computer's
operating system. It could be Windows 7, Windows 8, or Windows 10. Windows
9 is not covered in this book. Differences between Windows versions are trivial
as far as Word is considered, but do keep in mind that this book isn’t about
Windows.
Your word processor is Microsoft Word 2016. It is not Microsoft Works. It is not
an earlier version of Word. It is not WordPerfect. It is not a version of Word that
runs on a Macintosh.
Throughout this book, I use the term Word to refer to the Microsoft Word
program. The program may also be called Word 2016 or even Microsoft Office
Word 2016. It’s all Word as far as this book is concerned. Word 2016 is part of
the Microsoft Office 2016 suite of programs. This book doesn’t cover any other
part of Microsoft Office, though I mention Excel and Outlook wherever they
encroach on Word’s turf.
What’s Not Here
Word is one heck of a program. Covering the entire thing would fill a book
several thousand pages long. (I kid you not.) My approach in this book is to cover
as much basic word processing as possible. For that reason, some advanced
features got pushed off the table of contents.
I give you some information about macros, though it’s super slim. Covering
macros without a technical description is difficult. If the publisher ever lets me
increase this book’s size to more than 408 pages, I’d be happy to add a macro
chapter; the publisher’s address is in this book’s front matter, in case you want to
lobby on my behalf.
Some of Word’s more esoteric features are touched on lightly here. For example, I
could spend about 70 pages detailing what can be done with graphics in Word,
but I limit myself to only a dozen pages.
Finally, this book doesn't cover using Word to make a blog post or create a web
page or how to use Word as your email program. Word does these things, but I
consider this a word-processing book rather than a Word-does-everything book.
Icons Used in This Book
This icon flags useful, helpful tips or shortcuts.
This icon marks a friendly reminder to do something.
This icon marks a friendly reminder not to do something.
This icon alerts you to overly nerdy information and technical discussions
of the topic at hand. The information is optional reading, but it may enhance
your reputation at cocktail parties if you repeat it.
Where to Go from Here
Start reading! Observe the table of contents and find something that interests you.
Or look up your puzzle in the index.
Read! Write! Let your brilliance shine!
My email address is [email protected] Yes, that’s my real address. I
reply to all email I receive, and you’ll get a quick reply if you keep your question
short and specific to this book or to Word itself. Although I enjoy saying “Hi,” I
cannot answer technical support questions or help you troubleshoot your
computer. Thanks for understanding.
You can also visit my web page for more information or as a diversion:
www.wambooli.com. This book’s specific support page can be found at
www.wambooli.com/help/word. I place errata and updates on that page, as well
as write frequent blog posts with Word information, tips, and tricks.
The publisher also maintains a support page, complete with updates and such.
You can visit their site here: www.dummies.com/go/word2016fdupdates. This
book’s online cheat sheet can be located here:
www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/word2016. And the web extras mentioned in
each chapter's introduction are hidden on this page:
www.dummies.com/extras/word2016.
Enjoy this book. And enjoy Word. Or at least tolerate it.
Part I
Your Introduction to Word
Visit
www.dummies.com
for great Dummies content online.
In this part …
Learn how to start Word 2016 and decipher the Word screen.
Familiarize yourself with how to quit and minimize Word 2016.
Get to know the PC keyboard and the touchscreen.
Learn how to read the status bar and discover secret symbols
representing special characters in your text.
Chapter 1
Hello, Word!
In This Chapter
Starting Word
Deciphering the Word screen
Understanding the Ribbon
Zooming in and out
Quitting Word
Minimizing Word
Life would be easier if you used a pencil to write text. You could grab a copy of
Pencils For Dummies and be on your way. That book is far thinner than this one
and has more illustrations, which some people find enriching. Your ambitions are
most likely higher, which is why you’ve chosen, or had the choice thrust upon you,
to use Microsoft Word as your text composition tool. That’s a good decision, but
Word remains a far, far more complex tool for composing text than a wooden
cylinder filled with graphite.
Start Your Word Day
As computer software, Microsoft Word dwells in the realm of Windows. To get
work done in Word, you must contend with the multitudinous ways available in
Windows to run the Word program. These methods can vary from the obvious to
the obnoxiously cryptic, so instead I present you with the three most common
ways to start your Word day.
Before you can use Word, your computer must be on and ready to work. So
turn on your PC, laptop, or tablet if it’s not already on and toasty. Log into
Windows.
Do not attempt to make toast in your computer.
Ensure that you sport a proper posture as you write. Your wrists
should be even with your elbows. Your head should tilt down only slightly,
although it’s best to look straight ahead. Keep your shoulders back and
relaxed. Have a minion gently massage your feet.
Starting Word the traditional way
Propriety demands that I show the traditional, boring way to start Word. Let me be
quick:
1. Press the Windows key on the keyboard.
The Windows key is adorned with the Windows logo icon, which I won’t
illustrate here because it’s changed over the years. The key is nestled between
the Ctrl and Alt keys to the left of the spacebar. A duplicate is found on the
right side of the spacebar. Use either key.
2. Look for Microsoft Word on the Start menu.
The item might be titled Word or Word 2016 or something similar.
If you don’t find Word right away in Windows 10, click the All Apps button to
hunt it down. In Windows 7, click the All Programs button.
Sometimes Word is found on a Microsoft Office or Office 2016 submenu.
3. Click the Word icon or button to start the program.
Watch in amazement as the program unfurls on the screen.
Starting Word the best way
The best way to start Word, and the way I do it every day, is to click the Word
icon on the taskbar. Word starts simply and quickly.
The issue, of course, is how to get the Word icon on the taskbar. Follow these
steps:
1. Find the Word icon on the Start button’s All Programs menu.
See the preceding section, Steps 1 and 2.
2. Right-click the Word icon.
3. Choose the command Pin to Taskbar.
The Word icon is pinned (permanently added) to the taskbar.
Starting Word in Windows 8 (for the few who
still use Windows 8)
One of the reasons Windows 8 was so aggressively unpopular was that it eschewed the traditional
Start button menu for a tile-based Start screen. If you’re still burdened with Windows 8, or you run
Windows 10 in Tablet mode, start Word by pressing the Windows key on the keyboard and then
clicking the Word 2016 tile on the Start screen.
You can stick the Word icon to the taskbar, as described in this chapter: Click the Word tile on the
Start screen and then choose the command Pin to Taskbar. (The Pin to Taskbar command is at the
bottom of the screen.)
Opening a document to start Word
You use the Word program to create documents, which are stored on your
computer in much the same way as people pile junk into boxes and store them in
their garages. To start Word, open a document. Follow these steps:
1. Locate the document icon.
Use your Windows kung fu to open the proper folders and hunt down
a Word document icon, similar to what’s shown in the margin.
2. Double-click the icon.
This step is a standard Word operation: Double-click an icon to open a
program. In this case, opening a Word document starts Word.
The document is opened and presented on the screen, ready for whatever.
You use Word to create documents. They’re saved to storage on your
computer or in the cloud. Details are offered in Chapter 8.
The document name is assigned when it’s originally saved. Use the name to
determine the document’s contents — providing that it was properly named
when first saved.
Document icons are managed by Windows. If you need to find a lost
document, rename it, or organize your documents into a folder, you use
Windows, not Word.
Behold the Word Program
Like all programs in Windows, Word offers its visage in a program window. It’s
the place where you get your word-processing work done.
Working the Word Start screen
After starting Word, the first thing you may see is something called the Word Start
screen, as shown in Figure 1-1. It’s friendlier than that ominous empty page that’s
intimidated writers since the dawn of paper. (The blank page comes later.)
Figure 1-1: The Word Start screen.
You can use the Start screen to open a previously opened document, start a new
document based on a template, or start with a blank document.
Previously opened documents are listed on the left side of the window, as
illustrated in Figure 1-1. Word’s templates are found under the heading Featured.
Templates you’ve created appear under the Personal link. Click a template
thumbnail to create a new document based on that template.
To start on a blank document, click the Blank Document template. Then you see
the ominous empty page, which I wrote about earlier.
Once you’ve made your choice, Word is ready for you to start writing. Word is
also equally content if you just stare at the screen and await inspiration.
The Word Start screen doesn't appear if you start Word by opening a
document. See the earlier section, “Opening a document to start Word.”
You can also disable the Start screen so that Word starts with a blank
document. See Chapter 33.
The Word Start screen appears only when you first start Word. It does
not appear if you start a new document while the Word program window is
already open.
Examining Word’s main screen
Writing is scary enough when you first see the blank page. With a computer, that
level of terror just isn’t good enough. Therefore, Word festoons its program
window with all kinds of controls. I recommend that you refer to Figure 1-2 to get
an idea of some basic terms. Ignore them at your peril.
Figure 1-2: Word's visage.
The details of how all the gizmos and whatnot in the Word window work are
covered throughout this book. They give you more control over your document,
although the basic task of typing text is pretty straightforward. See Chapter 2 to get
started.
To get the most from Word’s window, adjust the window size: Use
the mouse to drag the window’s edges outwards. You can also click the
window’s Maximize button (refer to Figure 1-2) to have the window fill the
screen.
The largest portion of Word’s screen is used to compose text. It's blank and
white, just like a fresh sheet of paper. If you choose to use a template to start a
new document, this area may contain some preset text.
Working the Ribbon
An important part of Word’s interface is the Ribbon. It's where a majority of
Word’s commands dwell and where settings are made. These items appear as
buttons, input boxes, and menus.
The Ribbon is divided into tabs, as shown in Figure 1-3. Each tab holds separate
groups. Within the groups, you find the command buttons that carry out various
word-processing duties.
Figure 1-3: The Ribbon.
To use the Ribbon, first click a tab. Then locate the command you need by
scanning the group names, and then hunting down the button. Click the button to
activate the command or to display a menu from which you can choose a
command.
Some items on the Ribbon let you input text or values, or make other settings.
Galleries on the Ribbon display a smattering of tiles. To see them all, click
the Show Gallery button in the lower-right corner of the gallery, as illustrated
in Figure 1-3.
Use the dialog box launcher icon in the lower-right corner of a group to open a
dialog box relevant to the group's function. Not every group features a dialog
box launcher.
The amazingly frustrating thing about the Ribbon is that it can change. Some
tabs may appear and disappear, depending on what you're doing in Word.
To ensure that you always see all the command buttons, adjust the
program’s window as wide as is practical.
Clicking the File tab replaces the contents of the Word window with a
screen full of commands and other information. To return to the Word
window, click the Back button (shown in the margin) or press the Esc key.
Showing and hiding the Ribbon
The good news is that you can hide the Ribbon if it bothers you. That way you see
more document and less junk. The bad news is that you might accidentally hide the
Ribbon when you don’t want to.
To control the Ribbon, use the Ribbon Display Options menu, located in the
upper-right part of the Word window and illustrated in Figure 1-3. Choose an
item to determine how to display the Ribbon. Your choices are
Auto-Hide Ribbon: The most annoying choice, the Ribbon appears only when
you hover the insertion pointer near the top of the document.
Show Tabs: With this choice, only the Ribbon’s tabs appear. Click a tab to
summon the rest of the Ribbon.
Show Tabs and Commands: This option shows the entire Ribbon — tabs and
commands — as illustrated in Figures 1-2 and 1-3.
To temporarily hide the Ribbon, click the Hide the Ribbon button, labeled in
Figure 1-3. To bring back the Ribbon, click a tab and then at the spot where the
Hide the Ribbon button appears. Click the pushpin icon to make the Ribbon stick.
I recommend that you keep the Ribbon visible as you discover the
wonders of Word.
Changing the document view
Just to keep you on your toes, Word offers multiple ways to view your document.
The blank area where you write, which should be full of text by now, can be
altered to present information in a different way. Why would you want to do that?
You don’t! But it helps to know the different ways so that you can change them
back.
The standard way to view a document is called Print Layout view. It’s the view
shown in this book and it’s how Word normally starts. A virtual page appears on
the screen, with four sides and text in the middle. What you see on the screen is
pretty much what you’ll see in the final results, whether printed or published as an
electronic document.
The other views are
Read Mode: Use this view to read a document like an eBook. The Ribbon
and pretty much the rest of Word is hidden while in Read mode.
Web Layout: This view presents your document as a web page. It’s available
should you undertake the dreadful possibility of using Word as a web page
editor.
Outline: This mode helps you organize your thoughts, as covered in Chapter
25.
Draft: The Draft view presents only basic text, not all the formatting and
fancy features such as graphics.
To switch between Read Mode, Print Layout, and Web Layout views, click one of
the View buttons, found in the lower-right corner of the Word program window
(refer to Figure 1-2).
To get to Outline and Draft views, as well as to see all View modes in one
location, click the Views tab and choose a command button from the Views group.
Making text larger or smaller
When the information in Word’s window just isn’t big enough, don’t enlarge the
font! Instead, whip out the equivalent of a digital magnifying glass, the Zoom
command. It helps you enlarge or reduce your document, making it easier to see or
giving you the Big Picture look.
Several methods are available to zoom text in Word. The most obvious is to use
the Zoom control found in the lower-right corner of the Word window on the
status bar. Adjust the slider right or left to make the text larger or smaller,
respectively.
To make the text appear on screen as close to actual size as possible, click the
100% button on the status bar.
Zooming doesn't affect how a document prints — only how it looks on
the screen.
For more specific zoom control, click the View tab and use the commands
found in the Zoom group.
If the mouse has a wheel button, you can zoom by pressing the Ctrl key
on your keyboard and rolling the wheel up or down. Rolling up zooms in;
rolling down zooms out.
Cajoling Word to help you
Like most Windows programs, a Help system is available in Word. You can summon it by pressing
the F1 key, which displays the Word Help window. There you can type a topic, a command name,
or even a question in the box to search for help.
The F1 key also works any time you’re deep in the bowels of Word and doing something specific.
The Help information that's displayed tends to be specific to whatever you’re doing in Word. Little
buttons that look like question marks also summon Word Help.
In the age of Google, Word also offers a Tell Me help box on the Ribbon, as illustrated in Figure 1-2.
Type a topic or question in the box and press the Enter key to see a quick list of commands or
suggestions, or to obtain online help.
End Your Word-Processing Day
It's the pinnacle of etiquette to know when and how to excuse oneself. For
example, the phrase “Well, I must be off,” works a lot better than growling,
“Something more interesting must be happening anywhere else” — especially at
Thanksgiving. The good news for Word is that’s completely acceptable to quit the
program without hurting its feelings.
Quitting Word
When you've finished word processing and you don't expect to return to it anytime
soon, you quit the Word program. Click the X button in the upper-right corner of
the Word program window (refer to Figure 1-2).
The catch? You have to close each and every Word document window that’s open
before you can proclaim that you’ve completely quit Word.
The other catch? Word won’t quit during that shameful circumstance when you
have unsaved documents. If so, you’re prompted to save the document, as shown
in Figure 1-4. My advice is to click the Save button to save your work; refer to
Chapter 8 for specifics on saving documents.
Figure 1-4: Better click that Save button!
If you click the Don’t Save button, your work isn’t saved and Word quits. If you
click the Cancel button, Word doesn’t quit and you can continue working.
You don't have to quit Word just to start editing another document. Refer to the
next couple of sections for helpful, timesaving information.
After quitting Word, you can continue to use Windows by starting any other
program, such as Spider Solitaire or perhaps something more relaxing, like
Call of Duty.
Closing a document without quitting Word
You don't always have to quit Word. For example, if you're merely stopping work
on one document to work on another, quitting Word is a waste of time. Instead,
you can close the document.
To close a document in Word and not quit, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
The File screen appears. Commands line the left side of the screen, as shown
in Figure 1-5.
2. Choose the Close command.
3. Save the document, if you’re prompted to do so.
The shame! Always save before closing. Tsk-tsk.
Figure 1-5: The File tab screen.
After it’s closed, you return to the main Word window, although a document isn’t
shown and many of the command buttons are dimmed (unavailable). At this point,
you can start working on a new document or open a document you previously
saved.
Bottom line: There’s no point in quitting Word when all you want to do is start
editing a new document.
There’s no urgency to close a document. I keep mine open all day,
even when I go off to do something un-work related like play a game or see
who’s being obnoxious on Facebook. To return to your document at any time,
click its button on the Windows taskbar.
The keyboard shortcut for the Close command is Ctrl+W. This command may
seem weird, but it’s used to close documents in many programs.
To swiftly start a new, blank document in Word, press Ctrl+N.
Setting Word aside
Don’t quit Word if you know that you will use it again soon. In fact, I've been
known to keep Word open and running on my computer for weeks at a time. The
secret is to use the Minimize button, found in the upper-right corner of the screen
(refer to Figure 1-2).
Clicking the Minimize button shrinks the Word window to a button on the taskbar.
With the Word window out of the way, you can do other things with your
computer. Then when you're ready to word-process again, click the Word button
on the taskbar to restore the Word window to the screen.
Chapter 2
The Typing Chapter
In This Chapter
Knowing the keyboard and mouse
Using the spacebar
Using the Enter key
Observing the status bar
Minding the space between pages
Showing and hiding hidden characters
Dealing with weird underlines
Word processing is about using a keyboard. It’s typing. That’s the way computers
were used for years, long before the mouse and all the fancy graphics became
popular. Yep — ask a grizzled old-timer and you’ll hear tales of ugly text screens
and keyboard commands that would tie your fingers in knots. Though things today
aren’t that bad, I highly recommend that you bone up on your keyboard skills to get
the most from your word-processing duties.
Input Devices Galore
When you process words, you’re typing: clickity-clack-clack. You use your
fingers and one thumb to manipulate the computer keyboard. It’s an important part
of getting text on a page, but also important is the mouse. No, you don’t type with
the mouse, but you’ll do some pointing and clicking in additional to clickityclack-clacking.
Using the PC keyboard
I’m sure you can easily recognize a computer keyboard, but do you know the
official terms that refer to its various keys?
Relax: No one does.
Rather than look at all 100+ keys as a marauding hoard, consider how the keys are
clustered into groups, as illustrated in Figure 2-1. To best use Word and
understand how the keyboard is referenced in this book, it helps to know the
general keyboard areas illustrated in the figure.
Figure 2-1: A typical PC keyboard.
Of all the keys, a few play important roles in the word-processing task. They are
Enter: Marked with the word Enter and sometimes a cryptic, bent-arrow
thing, this key is used to end a paragraph of text. See the later section,
“Pressing the Enter key.”
Spacebar: The only key with no symbol, it inserts a space between words and
sentences. Yes, just one space. See the later section, “Whacking the
spacebar.”
Tab: This key inserts the tab character, which shoves the next text you type
over to the next tab stop. Using this key properly is an art form. Chapter 12 is
dedicated to its use.
Backspace and Delete: Use these keys to back up and erase text. Yes,
erasing text isn’t a job always left to the editor. Read more about these keys in
Chapter 4.
Every character key you press on the keyboard produces a character on the screen,
on the blank part where you write. Typing those character keys over and over is
how you write text on a word processor.
A laptop keyboard’s layout is different from the desktop keyboard layout
shown in Figure 2-1. Primarily, laptop keyboards lack a numeric keypad. The
cursor keys are clustered tight around the typewriter keys in unusual and
creative patterns. The function keys might be accessed by pressing special key
combinations.
Keys on the numeric keypad can be number keys or cursor keys. The split
personality is evident on each key cap, which displays two symbols. When the
Num Lock key’s lamp is on, the keys generate numbers. When the lamp is off,
the keys serve as duplicate cursor keys.
Cursor keys control the cursor, which is officially known as the insertion
pointer in Microsoft Word. The cursor keys include the four arrow keys (up,
down, left, right), and also the keys Home, End, PgUp (or Page Up), PgDn (or
Page Down), Insert, and Delete.
Ctrl is pronounced “control.” It’s the control key.
The Delete key may also be labeled Del on the keyboard.
The modifier keys, Shift, Ctrl, and Alt, work in combination with other keys.
Understanding the mouse pointer
Though word processing is a keyboard thing, you will eventually lift your hand
from the keyboard to fondle the computer mouse. The mouse is used to choose
commands, move around the document, and select text. Specific information on
these tasks is found throughout this book. For now, it helps to understand how the
mouse pointer changes its look as you work in Word:
For editing text, the mouse pointer becomes the I-beam.
For choosing items, the standard 11 o’clock mouse pointer is used.
For selecting lines of text, a 1 o’clock mouse pointer is used.
The mouse pointer may change its appearance when click-and-type mode is
active: Teensy lines appear to the left, right, and below the I-beam mouse pointer.
Refer to Chapter 32 for information on click-and-type.
When you point the mouse at a command button or any icon on the Word
screen, you see a pop-up information bubble. The text in the bubble
describes the command and perhaps offers information on how the command
is used.
Keyboard Dos and Don’ts
You don’t need to know how to type to use a word processor. And if you don’t
know how to type, see the nearby sidebar, “Do I need to learn to type?,” although
I can tell you that the answer is “Yes.” It also helps to know a few typing dos and
don’ts that are particular to word processing.
“Do I need to learn to type?”
No one needs to learn to type to use a word processor, but you do yourself a favor when you learn.
My advice is to get a computer program that teaches you to type. I can recommend the Mavis
Beacon Teaches Typing program, even though I don’t get any money from her and none of her
children resemble me. I just like the name Mavis, I suppose.
Knowing how to type makes the word-processing chore a wee bit more enjoyable.
Following the insertion pointer
Text you compose in Word appears at the insertion pointer’s location. The
insertion pointer looks like a flashing vertical bar:
|
Characters appear before the insertion pointer, one at a time. After a character
appears, the insertion pointer hops to the right, making room for more text.
The insertion pointer moves as you type, but its location can be set to any
location in the document. Chapter 3 covers moving the insertion pointer
around in more detail.
Some documentation refers to the insertion pointer as a cursor. The
mouse pointer might also be referred to as a cursor. For clarity, this book
refers to the insertion pointer and mouse pointer without ever using the term
cursor.
Whacking the spacebar
Pressing the spacebar inserts a space character into the text. Spaces are important
between words and sentences. Withoutthemreadingwouldbedifficult.
The most important thing to remember about the spacebar is that you need
to whack it only once when word processing. Only one space needs to
appear between words and after punctuation. That's it!
I'm serious! Back in the dark ages, typing instructors directed students to use
two spaces between sentences. That extra space was necessary for readability
because typewriters used monospaced characters. On a computer, however,
the extra space does nothing and potentially leads to formatting woes down the
road.
Anytime you feel like using two or more spaces in a document, what you need
is a tab. Tabs are best for indenting text as well as for lining up text in
columns. See Chapter 12 for details.
Backing up and erasing
When you make a typo or another type of typing error, press the Backspace key on
the keyboard. The Backspace key moves the insertion pointer back one character
and erases that character. The Delete key also erases text, though it gobbles up
characters to the right of the insertion pointer.
See Chapter 4 for more information on deleting text.
Pressing the Enter key
In word processing, you press the Enter key only when you reach the end of a
paragraph. Do not press the Enter key at the end of a line.
When your text gets precariously close to the right margin, Word automatically
wraps the last word on the line down to the next line. This word wrap feature
eliminates the need to press Enter at the end of a line.
Don’t use the Enter key to double-space your text. Double-spacing is a
paragraph format in Word. See Chapter 11 for more information.
Don’t press the Enter key twice to add extra space between your paragraphs.
That extra space is added automatically, provided it’s part of the paragraph
format, also covered in Chapter 11.
If you want to indent a paragraph, press the Tab key after pressing Enter. As
with other word-processing rules and regulations, paragraphs can be indented
automatically, provided that format is applied, as covered in (you guessed it)
Chapter 11.
Stuff That Happens While You Type
As you madly compose your text, fingers energetically jabbing the buttons on the
keyboard, you may notice a few things happening on the screen. You might see
spots. You might see lines and boxes. You may even see lightning! All are side
effects of typing in Word. They’re normal, and they’re presented to help you.
Watching the status bar
The reason it's the status bar is that it shows you the status of your document,
updating information as you type. A collection of information appears starting at
the left end of the status bar and marching right, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2: Stuff that lurks on the status bar.
The status bar information is updated as your document changes. Use the
information to see, for example, which page and line you’re editing, the word
count, and so on.
The info tidbits on the status bar are customizable. Chapter 29 explains how to
control what information appears on the status bar.
Observing page breaks
As your document gains length, Word shows you where one page ends and another
page begins. This visual assistance helps you keep elements on the same page, but
also shows you how text flows between pages.
The visual clue for a new page is shown in Figure 2-3. In Print Layout view, the
page break appears graphically. Text above the ethereal void is on one page, and
text below the void is on the next page.
Figure 2-3: The page break in Print Layout view.
In Draft view, the page break appears as a line of dots from left to right across the
document. And in other views, the page break may not show up at all. In that case,
use the status bar to determine which page you're working on. For example, when
the page-number indicator changes from 6 to 7, you’ve started a new page.
You can change the gap between pages in Print Layout view. Point the
mouse at the gap. When the mouse pointer changes, as shown in the margin,
double-click to either close or open the gap.
Don’t force a page break by pressing the Enter key a gazillion times! Instead,
see Chapter 13 for information on inserting page breaks in Word.
The topic of page breaks brings up the concept of widows and
orphans, which refer to a single line of text at the page's top or bottom,
respectively. Word automatically moves such text to the next or previous page
to prevent widows and orphans from happening.
Working collapsible headers
You may see a tiny triangle to the left of various headings in your documents,
similar to what’s shown in the margin. These triangles allow you to expand or
collapse all text in the header’s section. Click once to collapse the text; click
again to expand it.
See Chapter 25 for a longer discussion of collapsible headers, as well as
information on Word’s outline mode.
Dealing with spots and clutter in the text
There’s no cause for alarm if you see spots — or dots — amid the text you type,
such as
This•can•be•very•annoying.¶
What you're seeing are nonprinting characters. Word uses various symbols to
represent things you normally don’t see: spaces, tabs, the Enter key, and more.
These jots and tittles appear only when you’ve activated the Show/Hide feature.
To use the Show Hide feature, follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide command button.
The button features a paragraph symbol as its icon, shown in the margin.
To hide the symbols again, click the command button a second time.
Why bother with showing the goobers? Sometimes, it's useful to check out
what's up with formatting, find stray tabs visually, or locate missing
paragraphs, for example.
WordPerfect users: The Show/Hide command is as close as you can get to
your beloved Reveal Codes command.
The keyboard shortcut for the Show/Hide command is Ctrl+Shift+8. Use the 8
on the typewriter area of the keyboard, not the numeric keypad.
Understanding colorful underlines
When Word underlines your text without permission, it’s drawing your attention to
something amiss. These special underlines are not text formats. Here are a few of
the underlines you may witness from time to time:
Red zigzag: Spelling errors in Word are underlined with red zigzags. See
Chapter 7.
Blue zigzag: Grammatical and word-choice errors are flagged with a blue
zigzag underline. Again, see Chapter 7.
Blue underlines: Word courteously highlights web page addresses by using
blue underlined text in your document. You can Ctrl+click the blue underlined
text to visit the web page.
Red lines: You may see red lines in the margin, underneath text, or through
text. If so, it means that you’re using Word’s Track Changes feature. See
Chapter 26.
Beyond these automatic underlines, you can apply the underline format to your
text, choosing the type of underline and its color. See Chapter 10.
Part II
Your Basic Word
See how to use Word on a tablet or a touchscreen PC at
www.dummies.com/extras/word2016.
In this part …
Discover how to use the scroll bars, move the insertion pointer, and
get around with keyboard shortcuts.
Find out how to delete characters, lines, sentences, paragraphs, and
pages. You'll also be introduced to the lifesaving Undo command.
Learn how to find and replace text in your documents.
Work with blocks of text and see how you can mark, select, copy,
move, and paste blocks.
Customize the spell checker and AutoCorrect settings.
Get familiar with how to preview and print your documents, both on
paper and electronically.
Chapter 3
To and Fro in a Document
In This Chapter
Using the scroll bars
Moving the insertion pointer
Getting around with keyboard shortcuts
Getting lost and getting back
Using the Go To command
A computer screen is only so big. Your Word document can be much larger,
perhaps requiring several monitors all stacked atop each other so that you could
view it all at once. That somehow seems impractical. Therefore, Word offers
techniques to let you hop, skip, and jump around your document, hither, thither,
and yon.
Document Scrolling
It’s ironic that the word scroll is used when referring to an electronic document.
The scroll was the first form of portable recorded text, existing long before bound
books. On a computer, scrolling is the process by which you view a little bit of a
big document in a tiny window.
Working the vertical scroll bar
The document portion of the Word program window features a vertical scroll bar,
illustrated in Figure 3-1. The scroll bar’s operation is similar to the scroll bar in
any Windows program. As a review, the figure illustrates the mouse’s effect on
parts of the scroll bar.
Figure 3-1: The vertical scroll bar.
A key feature in the scroll bar is the elevator button (refer to Figure 3-1). Use the
mouse to drag this button up or down to scroll the document. Its position in the
scroll bar reflects the location of the text you see. For example, when the elevator
button is at the top of the scroll bar, the window shows text at the start of the
document.
As you drag the elevator button up or down, you see a page number displayed,
as shown in Figure 3-1. When a document is formatted with heading styles,
you also see the heading title below the page number, as shown in the figure.
The vertical scroll bar may disappear at times; move the mouse pointer over
your text, and it shows up again.
When the elevator button doesn't show up, or is dimmed, the whole document
appears in the window. That means there’s nothing to scroll.
Because the elevator button’s size reflects how much of the document appears
in the window, the button grows smaller as your document grows longer.
Using the scroll bar to scroll through your document doesn’t move the
insertion pointer. If you start typing, don't be surprised when Word jumps back
to where the insertion pointer lurks.
Using the horizontal scroll bar
When your document is wider than can be displayed in the window, a horizontal
scroll bar appears. It shows up at the bottom of the document part of the window,
just above the status bar. Use the horizontal scroll bar to shift the page back and
forth, left and right.
Word automatically slides the document left and right as you type, but that
action can be jarring. Instead, try to adjust the horizontal scroll bar to display
as much of the text as possible. Or, if you can, make the document window
wider.
When the horizontal (left-to-right) shifting bugs you, consider using
Word's Zoom tool to adjust the size of your document on the screen. See
Chapter 1.
Scrolling with the mouse wheel
If your computer mouse sports a wheel button, you can use that button to scroll
through your document. Roll the wheel to scroll up or down; the direction is set in
Windows, so I can’t for certain tell you whether rolling the wheel up scrolls your
document up or down. Just try it to see how it works.
Some mice let you press the wheel button or tilt it from side to side. If so, press
and hold down the wheel button and drag the mouse forward or back to slowly
pan your document up or down. Tilt the wheel button from side to side to pan the
document left and right.
Unlike using the scroll bars, when you use the mouse wheel to scroll the
document, the insertion pointer stays on the page you’re viewing. Use the
Shift+F5 keyboard shortcut to return the insertion pointer to its previous spot.
See the section, “Go Back to Where You Once Edited.”
Move the Insertion Pointer
The beauty of a word processor is that you can edit any part of your document;
you don't always have to work at "the end." The key to pulling off this trick is to
know how to move the insertion pointer to the exact spot you want.
Moving the insertion pointer is important! Scientific studies have shown that
merely looking at the computer screen does no good.
New text appears only at the insertion pointer. Text is deleted at the insertion
pointer’s location. Text is pasted at the insertion pointer. Formatting
commands affect text where the insertion pointer lies blinking.
Commanding the insertion pointer
The easiest way to put the insertion pointer exactly where you want it is to click
the mouse at that spot in your text. Point. Click. The insertion pointer moves.
Moving in small increments
For short hops, nothing beats using the keyboard’s cursor keys to quickly move the
insertion pointer around a document. The four arrow keys move the insertion
pointer up, down, right, and left:
Press This Key To Move the Insertion Pointer
↑
Up to the preceding line of text
↓
Down to the next line of text
→
Right to the next character
←
Left to the preceding character
Moving the cursor doesn’t erase characters. See Chapter 4 for
information on deleting stuff.
If you press and hold down the Ctrl (Control) key and then press an arrow key, the
insertion pointer moves in larger increments. The invigorated insertion pointer
leaps desperately in all four directions:
Press This Key Combo To Move the Insertion Pointer
Ctrl+↑
Up to the start of the previous paragraph
Ctrl+↓
Down to the start of the next paragraph
Ctrl+→
Right to the start (first letter) of the next word
Ctrl+←
Left to the start (first letter) of the previous word
You can use either set of arrow keys on the computer keyboard, but when
using the numeric keypad, ensure that the Num Lock light is off, (If it's on,
press the Num Lock key.) If you don’t, you see numbers in your text rather
than the insertion pointer dancing all over — like444this.
Moving from beginning to end
The insertion pointer also bows to pressure from those cursor keys without
arrows on them. The first couple consists of End and Home, which move the
insertion pointer to the start or end of something, depending on how End and
Home are used:
Press This Key or Combination To Whisk the Insertion Pointer
End
To the end of a line of text
Home
To the start of a line of text
Ctrl+End
To the end of the document
Ctrl+Home
To the tippy-top of the document
The remaining cursor keys are the Page Up, or PgUp, key and the Page Down, or
PgDn, key. As you might suspect, using these keys doesn't move up or down a
page in your document. Nope. Instead, they slide through your document one
screen at a time. Here’s the roundup:
Press This Key or
Combination
To Whisk the Insertion Pointer
PgUp
Up one screen or to the tippy-top of your document if
you're near there
PgDn
Down one screen or to the end of the document if you're
near there
Ctrl+Alt+PgUp
To the top of the current screen
Ctrl+Alt+PgDn
To the bottom of the current screen
The key combinations to move to the top or bottom of the current screen
are Ctrl+Alt+PgUp and Ctrl+Alt+PgDn, respectively. That’s Ctrl+Alt, not
just the Ctrl key. And yes, few people use these commands.
What about Ctrl+PgUp and Ctrl+PgDn?
The Ctrl+PgUp and Ctrl+PgDn keyboard shortcuts are the Browse Previous and Browse Next
commands, respectively. Their function changes based on what you’ve recently done in Word.
For example, the Ctrl+PgDn keyboard shortcut repeats the Find Next command. It might also repeat
the Go To command, or a number of other Word commands that move the insertion pointer.
Because of their changing behavior, I don’t recommend using Ctrl+PgUp or Ctrl+PgDn as a
consistent way to move the insertion pointer.
Go Back to Where You Once Edited
Considering all the various commands for moving the insertion pointer, it's quite
possible to make a mistake and not know where you are in a document. Yea,
verily, the insertion pointer has gone where no insertion pointer has gone before.
Rather than click your heels together three times and try to get back the
wishful way, just remember this keyboard combination:
Shift+F5
Pressing the Shift+F5 keyboard shortcut forces Word to return you to the last spot
you edited. You can use this keyboard shortcut as many as three times before the
cycle repeats. But the first time should get you back to where you were before you
got lost.
Sadly, the Shift+F5 keyboard shortcut works only in Word; you can’t use
this command in real life.
Go to Wherever with the Go To
Command
Word's Go To command allows you to send the insertion pointer to a specific
page or line or to the location of a number of interesting items that Word can
potentially cram into your document. The Go To command is your wordprocessing teleporter to anywhere.
To use the Go To command, follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Editing group, choose the Go To command.
The Find and Replace dialog box appears with the Go To tab forward, as
shown in Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2: Telling Word to Go To you-know-where.
And now the shortcut: Press Ctrl+G to quickly summon the Find and Replace
dialog box's Go To tab.
To whisk the insertion pointer to a specific location, choose it from the Go to
What list. For example, choose Page to visit a specific page. Type the page
number in the Enter Page Number box, and then click the Go To button to go to
that page in your document.
The Enter Page Number box also accepts relative pages as input. For
example, to go three pages forward, type +3. To go 12 pages backward, type
-12 in the box.
The last item you chose from the Go to What list affects the behavior
of the Ctrl+PgUp and Ctrl+PgDn keyboard shortcuts. For example, if you
choose Page and click the Go To button, the Ctrl+PgUp and Ctrl+PgDn
keyboard shortcuts navigate through your document a page at a time.
Chapter 4
Text Editing
In This Chapter
Deleting characters
Deleting lines, sentences, and more
Splitting and joining paragraphs
Understanding hard and soft returns
Undoing your mistakes
Using the Redo (Undo-Undo) command
Writing is about creating text. Part of the process also includes reviewing and
editing your words. My advice is to concentrate first on writing. In fact, one of the
reasons people get stuck is that they spend more time editing than writing.
To accommodate your text-editing desires, Word comes with a host of commands
to chop, slice, stitch, and otherwise decimate your text. The commands are a
necessary part of the writing process, but they work best when you have oodles of
text to edit. So, again, write first and edit second.
Remove Text You Don’t Want
Credit the guy who put the eraser on the end of the pencil: It’s a given that human
beings make mistakes. The round, soft eraser counterbalances the sharp point of
the pencil in more ways than one.
In Word, you use the keyboard to both create and destroy text. The majority of
keys create text. Only two keys delete: Backspace and Delete. These keys gain
more power when used with other keys — and even the mouse — that help them
to delete great swaths of text.
As text is deleted, the remaining text in the line, in the paragraph, or on the
page scoots up to fill the void. Deleting text doesn’t leave a hole in your
document.
Document fields cannot be deleted like regular text. When you attempt
to remove a field, Word highlights the field’s text as a warning. To continue
and remove the field, press the Delete or Backspace key. See Chapter 23 for
more information on fields.
Deleting single characters
Use the Backspace and Delete keys to delete single characters:
Backspace deletes the character to the left of the insertion pointer.
Delete deletes the character to the right of the insertion pointer.
In the following example, the insertion pointer is flashing (okay, it would be
flashing on a monitor) between the v and the e in loved. Pressing the Backspace
key deletes the v; pressing the Delete key deletes the e:
Martin lov|ed Karen with all his heart; that
she didn’t know he existed was inconsequential.
You can press and hold down Backspace or Delete to machine-gun-delete
characters. Release the key to halt such wanton destruction, although I recommend
that you use other delete commands (covered in this chapter) rather than the
machine-gun approach.
Deleting a word
To gobble up an entire word, use the Ctrl key with the Backspace or Delete key:
Ctrl+Backspace deletes the word to the left of the insertion pointer.
Ctrl+Delete deletes the word to the right of the insertion pointer.
These keyboard shortcuts work best when the insertion pointer is at the start or
end of a word. When the pointer is in the middle of the word, these commands
delete only from that middle point to the start or end of the word.
When you use Ctrl+Backspace to delete a word to the left, the insertion pointer
sits at the end of the preceding word (or paragraph). When you use Ctrl+Delete to
remove a word, the cursor sits at the start of the next word. This positioning is
done to facilitate the rapid deletion of several words in a row.
No mere pencil eraser can match Ctrl+Delete or Ctrl+Backspace for sheer speed
and terror!
Deleting more than a word
To remove chunks of text larger than a character or a word, the keyboard must pal
up with the mouse. The process involves selecting a chunk of text and then
deleting that chunk. See Chapter 6 for more information on selecting text.
Delete a line of text
A line of text starts at one side of the page and goes to the other. It’s not really a
sentence or a paragraph, but the line can be removed. Follow these steps:
1.
Move the mouse pointer into the left margin next to the line of
text.
You know you've found the sweet spot when the mouse pointer changes into a
northeast-pointing arrow.
2. Click the mouse.
The line of text is selected and appears highlighted on the screen.
3. Press the Delete key to send that line into oblivion.
Delete a sentence
A sentence is a grammatical thing. You know: Start with a capital letter and end
with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point. You probably mastered
this concept in grammar school, which is why they call it grammar school anyway.
Making a sentence go bye-bye is cinchy:
1. Position the mouse pointer at the offending sentence.
2. Press and hold down the Ctrl key and click the mouse.
The Ctrl and mouse click combination selects a sentence of text.
You can release the Ctrl key.
3. Press the Delete key.
Delete a paragraph
A paragraph is one or more sentences, or a document heading, ending with a press
of the Enter key. Here's the fastest way to delete a full paragraph:
1. Click the mouse button thrice.
Thrice means “three times.” The triple click selects a complete paragraph of
text.
2. Press the Delete key.
Another way to select a paragraph is to click the mouse twice in the left margin
next to the paragraph.
Delete a page
A page of text includes everything on a page, top to bottom. To remove a page full
of text requires some legerdemain with multiple Word commands. Follow these
steps:
1. Press Ctrl+G.
The Find and Replace dialog box appears, with the Go To tab forward.
2. From the Go to What list, click to select Page.
3. Type the number of the page you want to delete.
4. Click the Go To button and then click the Close button.
The insertion pointer is positioned at the top of the page.
5. Press the F8 key.
Word enters extended selection mode.
6. Press Ctrl+PgDn.
PgDn is the Page Down key.
The entire page is now selected.
7. Press the Delete key.
All text is removed from the page.
If the page remains, but it’s blank, you might be dealing with a hard page
break. See Chapter 13.
If you’re trying to delete a blank page at the end of a document, see Chapter 9.
Chapter 3 offers more information on the Go To command.
The F8 key activates extended selection mode. See Chapter 6 for more F8 key
tricks.
Delete an odd-size chunk of text
Word lets you delete any old odd-size chunk of text anywhere in your document.
The key is to select that text as a block. After the block is marked, you can press
the Delete key to zap it to Kingdom Come. Refer to Chapter 6 for more
information on selecting blocks of text.
Split and Join Paragraphs
A paragraph is both a grammatical and formatting concept. It’s a collection of
sentences that collectively express some thought, idea, or theme. In Word, a
paragraph is a chunk of text that ends when you press the Enter key. While
grammarians and software engineers duke it out over the different meanings, you
can redefine a paragraph in a document by splitting or joining text.
Making two paragraphs from one
To split a single paragraph in twain, follow these steps:
1. Click the mouse at the point where you want the new paragraph to begin.
Ideally that point is at the start of a sentence.
2. Press the Enter key.
Word splits the paragraph in two; the text above the insertion pointer becomes
its own paragraph, and the text following it then becomes the next paragraph.
Depending on how the paragraph was torn asunder, you may need to delete an
extra space lingering at the end of the first paragraph or dawdling at the start of
the next.
Making one paragraph from two
To join two paragraphs and turn them into one, follow these steps:
1. Place the insertion pointer at the start of the second paragraph.
Use the keyboard to position the insertion pointer, or click the mouse.
2. Press the Backspace key.
The Enter character from the preceding paragraph is removed, which joins
two paragraphs into one.
Depending on how neatly the paragraphs were joined, you may need to add a
space between the sentences at the spot where the paragraphs were glued together.
Soft and Hard Returns
Word defines a paragraph as a chunk of text ending with a hard return. That hard
return character is produced by pressing the Enter key. The paragraph ends, and
then a new paragraph starts. And so it goes throughout the document.
You can end a line of text also by typing a soft return, also known as a manual line
break. To do so, press Shift+Enter. The current line of text stops and the insertion
pointer hops to the start of the next line. Keep typing at that point and, eventually,
press Enter to end the paragraph.
The soft return is used to split titles and headings. It’s also used to type
addresses. That way, you can keep the text together in a single paragraph.
For example:
Mr. President
1600 Pennsylvania Ave.
Washington, DC 20500
The text above is a single paragraph with soft returns separating each line.
To help you see hard returns and soft returns, use the Show/Hide command: Click
the Home tab, and in the Paragraph Group, click the Show/Hide command button.
The button is adorned with the paragraph symbol (¶).
When the Show/Hide command is active, the soft return appears as a right-angle
arrow, similar to what you see on the keyboard’s Enter key:
The hard return appears as the paragraph mark:¶
Figure 4-1 illustrates how these two characters appear in a document with the
Show/Hide command enabled.
Figure 4-1: Viewing the soft and hard return characters.
See Chapter 2 for additional details on the Show/Hide command and seeing
hidden characters in your text.
While soft returns keep text close, the text is still affected by the
paragraph's line spacing. See Chapter 11 for more information on paragraph
formatting.
Undo Mistakes with Undo Haste
That quaffing and drinking will undo you.
— Richard II, William Shakespeare
The Undo command undoes anything you do in Word, which includes formatting
text, moving blocks, typing and deleting text — the whole enchilada. You have
two handy ways to unleash the Undo command:
Press Ctrl+Z.
Click the Undo command button on the Quick Access toolbar.
I prefer using the Ctrl+Z key combination, but an advantage of the Undo
command button is that it sports a drop-down menu that helps you review the past
several things you've done, which can be undone.
Regrettably, you cannot pick and choose from the Undo command button's
drop-down menu; you can merely undo multiple instances of things all at one
time.
The Undo command works sporadically sometimes. Before this happens,
Word warns you. For example, you may see a message such as “There is not
enough memory to undo this operation, Continue?” Proceed at your own peril.
The Undo command doesn't work when there’s nothing to undo or if something
simply cannot be undone. For example, you cannot undo a document save.
Undoing the Undo command with Redo
If you undo something and — whoops! — you didn’t mean to, use the Redo
command to set things back to the way they were. For example, you may type
some text and then use Undo to “untype” the text. You can use the Redo command
to restore the typing. You have two choices:
Press Ctrl+Y.
Click the Redo command button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
The Redo command does exactly the opposite of whatever the Undo
command does. So, if you type text, Undo untypes the text and Redo recovers the
text. If you use Undo to recover deleted text, Redo deletes the text again.
Using the Repeat command
When the Redo command has nothing left to redo, it changes functions and
becomes the Repeat command. On the Quick Access toolbar, the command
changes as shown in the margin. The Repeat command’s duty is to repeat the last
thing you did in Word, whether it’s typing text, applying a format, or doing a
variety of other things.
Lamentably, you can’t use the Repeat command to ease your typing chores. That’s
because it repeats only the last single character you typed.
The keyboard shortcut for the Repeat command is Ctrl+Y, the same as the Redo
command.
Chapter 5
Search for This, Replace It with
That
In This Chapter
Finding text in your document
Using various Find command options
Searching for text that cannot be typed at the keyboard
Hunting down formatting codes
Replacing found text with other text
Fixing formatting with the Replace command
Little Bo Peep has lost her sheep. Too bad she doesn’t know about Word’s Find
and Replace commands. She could find the misplaced ruminants in a matter of
nanoseconds. Not only that, she could use search and replace to, say, replace all
the sheep with real estate. It’s all cinchy after you understand and use the various
Find and Replace commands. Sadly, it’s only words that are replaced. True, if
Word could search and replace real things, there’d be a lot less sheep in the
world.
Text Happily Found
Finding text is one of the most basic and ancient tools available in a word
processor. The only issue has been whether the command is called Find or
Search. The terms Relentlessly Hunt Down and Fiendishly Locate were never
considered.
In Word, finding duties are split between the traditional Find dialog box and the
Navigation pane.
Finding a tidbit o’ text
Don’t bother with the Ribbon! To find text in your document, press Ctrl+F, the
memorable keyboard shortcut for the Find command. You see the Navigation
pane, similar to what’s shown in Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1: The Navigation pane.
In the Search Document box, type the text you want to locate. As you type
instances of the text are highlighted in the document. In-context chunks of text
appear in the Navigation pane under the Results heading, as illustrated in Figure
5-1.
To peruse found text, use the up and down arrows in the Navigation pane, as
illustrated in Figure 5-1.
When text can’t be found, the Navigation pane explains that it can’t find the text. It
uses the pronoun we, which I find disturbing.
To clear text from the Search Document box, click the X button found at the
right end of the box.
Do not end the text with a period unless you want to find the period,
too. Word’s Find command is persnickety.
Word finds text only in the current document (the one you see in the window).
To find text in another document, switch to that document’s window and try
searching again. Or you can use the Find command in Windows, which is not
covered in this book.
Word does host the Find command on the Ribbon’s Home tab. Seriously,
press the Ctrl+F key. It’s faster.
Scouring your document with Advanced Find
The Navigation pane is a handy tool for locating text. In fact, I keep it open for all
my documents. When it comes to exercising some Find command muscle,
however, you must turn to a more specific tool. That’s the traditional Find dialog
box, called the Find and Replace dialog box, shown in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2: The Find and Replace dialog box.
Follow these steps to conjure forth the Find and Replace dialog box:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Editing group, choose Find Advanced Find.
The Find and Replace dialog box appears, with the Find tab forward. You
may see only the top part of the dialog box. So:
3. Click the More button to reveal the dialog box’s powerful bits.
What you see now appears just like Figure 5-2.
4. Type the search text in the Find What text box.
5. Use the dialog box’s controls to make further adjustments.
Examples for using the various controls are found throughout this chapter.
6. Click the Find Next button to locate the text.
Once the text is found, you can do whatever to it: Edit it, change it, or click the
Find Next button to continue looking for text.
After the Find command has scoured the entire document, you see an info box
explaining that the search is finished. Click OK, and then click the Cancel button
to dismiss the Find and Replace dialog box.
It’s possible to reassign the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F from the
Navigation pane to the Advanced Find dialog box. This bit of Word wizardry
is divulged in Chapter 31.
Options set in the Find and Replace dialog box remain set until
deactivated. When you can’t seem to locate text that you know is in your
document, review the dialog box’s settings. Turn off the ones you no longer
need.
Find case-sensitive text
When you want to find Pat in your document, the Find command needs to know the
difference between Pat and pat. One is a name, and the other is to lightly touch
something. To use the Find command to locate one and not the other, use the Find
and Replace dialog box (refer to Figure 5-2). Select the Match Case option under
Search Options. That way, Pat matches only words that start with an uppercase P
and have lowercase at in them.
Find a whole word
Word’s Advanced Find command can locate Pat and not pat, but it might also flag
the word Pattern at the start of a sentence. To avoid that situation, select the Find
Whole Words Only option.
Find word variations
Two options in the Find and Replace dialog box assist you with finding words
that may not be exactly what you’re looking for.
The Sounds Like (English) option allows you to search for homonyms, or words
that sound the same as the search word. These words include their and there,
deer and dear, and hear and here. The command doesn’t, however, locate
rhyming words.
The Find All Word Forms (English) option expands the search to include different
forms of the same word. With this option set, you can search for the word hop and
also find matches with hops, hopped, and hopping.
Search this way or that
The Find command searches from the insertion pointer’s position to the end of a
document and then back 'round the top again. To override its sense of direction,
use the Search drop-down list, as illustrated in Figure 5-2. You see three options:
Down: The Find command searches from the insertion pointer’s location to
the end of your document, and then it stops.
Up: The Find command searches from the insertion pointer’s location to the
start of your document. Then it stops.
All: The Find command searches the entire document, from the insertion
pointer's location down to the end of the document, back up to the beginning,
and then stops at the point where the search began.
You can use keyboard shortcuts to search up or down. The Ctrl+PgDn key
combination repeats the last search downward; the Ctrl+PgUp key
combination repeats the most recent search upward.
Finding stuff you can’t type
The Find command is brilliant enough to locate items in your document such as
tab characters or text colored red. The puzzle is how to input that type of
information in the Find and Replace dialog box. The secret is to use the Format
and Special buttons lurking near the bottom of the dialog box (refer to Figure 5-2).
Find special characters
To hunt down untypeable characters in your document, click the Special button in
the Advanced Find dialog box. Up pops a list of 22 items that Word can search
for but that you would have a dickens of a time typing.
Despite the exhaustive list, here are the few items you’ll eventually (if ever) use:
Any Character, Any Digit, and Any Letter are special characters that
represent, well, just about anything. These items can be used as wild cards for
matching lots of stuff.
Caret Character allows you to search for a caret (^) symbol, which may not
seem like a big deal, but it is: Word uses the ^ symbol in a special way for
finding text; see the next section.
Paragraph Mark (¶) is a special character that’s the same as the Enter
character — the one you press to end a paragraph.
Tab Character moves the insertion pointer to the next tab stop.
White Space is any number of blank characters: one or more spaces, tabs,
empty lines, or a combination thereof.
Choose an item from the list to search for that special character. When you do, a
special, funky shorthand representation for that character appears. The shorthand
involves the ^ character and then another character, such as ^t to search for the tab
character.
Find formatting
In its most powerful superhero mode, the Find command can scour your document
for text and formatting. You can search for the formatting information itself or use
it with text to locate specifically formatted text.
The secret to hunting down text formats is to use the Format button, found at the
bottom of the Find and Replace dialog box, as shown in Figure 5-2. Click that
button to view a menu full of formatting categories, such as Font, Paragraph, and
Tabs. Choose a category to pluck out a specific format.
For example, suppose that you want to find the text red herring in your document.
The text is italic and colored red. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Editing group, choose Find Advanced Find.
The Find and Replace dialog box appears.
3. Type the text you’re searching for.
In this example, that would be red herring.
4. Ensure that the dialog box details are displayed; click the More button if
necessary.
5. Click the No Formatting button to remove any previously applied
formatting.
The No Formatting button is available when you’ve previously searched for
format attributes.
6. Click the Format button and choose Font from the pop-up list.
The Find Font dialog box appears
7. Choose Italic as the font style.
8. Select Red from the Font Color menu.
Yes, many shades of red dwell on the menu. Pick the correct one.
9. Click OK.
The Find Font dialog box goes away and you return to the Find and Replace
dialog box. Below the Find What text box appears the search format. It lists
which attributes the Advanced Find command is looking for.
10. Click the Find Next button to locate the formatted text.
If you want to search only for a format, leave the Find What text box blank (refer
to Step 3). That way, you can search for formatting attributes without regard to
what the text reads.
The Find command remembers your formatting options! The next time you
want to search for plain text, click the No Formatting button (Step 5). Doing
so removes the formatting attributes and allows you to search for text in any
format.
Replace Found Text
The Find command is good only for finding stuff. When you want to find
something and replace it with something else, you use the Find and Replace
command. That will help Little Bo Peep establish her real estate empire.
Replacing one thing with another
To find a bit of text and then replace it with another bit of text, use the Replace
command. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Editing group, click the Replace command button.
When the Replace command button isn't visible in the Editing group, click the
Editing button, and then choose the Replace command button from the pop-up
group of command buttons that appears.
Choosing the Replace command button summons the Find and Replace dialog
box with the Replace tab forward, shown in Figure 5-3.
3. In the Find What box, type text you want to replace.
For example, if you're finding coffee and replacing it with tea, type coffee.
4. In the Replace With box, type the replacement text.
To continue from the example in Step 3, you type tea here.
5. Click the Find Next button.
At this step, the Replace command works just like the Find command: Word
scours your document for the text you typed in the Find What box. If the text is
found, proceed with Step 6. If nothing is found, start over again with Step 3 or
just abandon your efforts and close the dialog box.
6. Click the Replace button.
The found word, highlighted on the screen, is replaced.
Figure 5-3: The Replace tab in the Find and Replace dialog box.
After you click the Replace button, Word immediately searches for the next
instance of the text, at which point you repeat Step 6 until the entire document has
been searched.
The Replace command's dialog box also sports a More button, which can be
used exactly like the More button for the Find command. See the section
"Scouring your document with Advanced Find," earlier in this chapter.
Word may find and replace your text in the middle of another word, such as
use in causes. Oops! Click the More button and select the Find Whole Words
Only option to prevent such a thing from happening.
If you don’t type anything in the Replace With box, Word replaces
your text with nothing! It's wanton destruction!
Speaking of wanton destruction, the Undo command restores your
document to its preceding condition if you foul up the Replace operation. See
Chapter 4 for more information.
The keyboard shortcut for the Replace command is Ctrl+H. The only way I
can figure that one out is that Ctrl+F is the Find command and Ctrl+G is the
Go To command. F, G, and H are found together on the computer keyboard,
and Find, Replace, and Go To are found together in the Find and Replace
dialog box. Go figure.
Replacing it all at once
I confess that it’s tedious to use the Replace button when replacing text. Sure,
sometimes it’s handy, especially when you don’t want to replace everything. But
if you’ve changed your novel’s main character name from Xlaborded to
Zlaborded, you can probably and safely replace every instance all at once. That's
why the Replace command's dialog box sports the handy Replace All button.
The Replace All button directs the Replace command to find all instances of the
Find What text and — without question or pause — replace it with the Replace
With text.
Be doubly certain that you made the proper settings in the Find and
Replace dialog box before you click that Replace All button! You can still
undo any mistakes, but for a large document, a lot of text can be found and
replaced in a manner most merciless.
Finding and replacing formatting
Perhaps the trickiest thing to replace in a document is formatting. Say you work at
the DMV and you’ve been directed to change all underline text to italic. That trick
is possible, but it runs the risk of screwing up the document’s formatting.
The general steps for replacing a format are as follows:
1. Summon the Find and Replace dialog box (press Ctrl+H).
2. Clear all text and formatting from the Find What and Replace With text
boxes.
3. Click the Find What text box, and then click the Format button to choose
a format to find.
4. Click the Replace With text box, and then use the Format button to select
a replacement format.
For some font attributes, you must also remove the original text format, which
can be tricky.
5. Click the Replace or Replace All buttons.
Better than the preceding generic steps, consider a specific example. Follow these
steps to replace underline with italics:
1. Press Ctrl+H to summon the Find and Replace dialog box.
2. Click the More button, if necessary, to display the full dialog box.
3. Click the Find What text box and erase any text there.
4. If it’s available, click the No Formatting button.
You want to direct the Replace command to ignore any previous formatting
searches.
5. Click the Format button and choose Font.
The Find Font dialog box appears.
6. Choose the solid underline from the Underline Style menu.
It’s the third item in the menu, right above the double underline.
7. Click OK to close the Find Font dialog box.
The text Format: Underline appears below the Find What box.
8. Click the Replace With text box and erase any text.
9. Click the No Formatting button, if necessary, to remove any previous
formatting.
10. Choose Font from the Format button's pop-up list.
The Find Font dialog box appears.
11. From the Font Style list, choose Italic.
12. From the Underline Style list, choose (none).
If you just chose the Italic style, Word would simply underline italic text.
Instead, by choosing (none) as the underline style, Word removes any
previously applied underline format.
13. Click OK to close the Find Font dialog box.
The text Format: Font: Italic, No underline appears below the Replace With
box.
14. Cross your fingers
15. Click the Replace All button.
Word scours your document and replaces any italic text with underline.
16. Close the Find and Replace dialog box.
The key to replacing formatting is not only to replace one format with another but
also to peel off the existing format. To do so, you replace an underline style with
(none), or Italic with Not Italic, or Bold with Not Bold, and so on. That way, the
text formatting is replaced, not added to.
An easier way to update formatting in a document is to use and apply styles.
Refer to Chapter 15 for details.
Don't forget about the No Formatting button! You need to click it if
you want to change the formats or replace text without paying attention to
formats.
Chapter 6
Blocks o’ Text
In This Chapter
Understanding blocks of text
Marking a block with the keyboard
Selecting text with the mouse
Using the F8 key to mark text
Unblocking text
Copying and moving blocks of text
Pasting text in various ways
Writing is about blocks. From the moveable blocks used by the ancient Chinese
for printing to the inevitable writer’s block. In Word, blocks refer to selected
chunks of text in a document, which I believe you’ll find more useful than the other
types of blocks.
Meet Mr. Block
“Hello, Mr. Block! How do you do?”
“Well! I’m a block of text. I have a beginning and an end. I can be any size, from a
single character to the entire document.”
To create Mr. Block, you select text. You can use the keyboard. You can use the
mouse. You can use both at once, or employ some of Word’s more esoteric textselection commands.
A block of selected text appears highlighted in a document, similar to what’s
shown in Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-1: A block of text is selected.
Once a block of text is selected, you can perform certain actions that affect only
the text in that block. You can also copy, move, or delete the block.
To help format a selected block of text, the mini toolbar appears, as shown in
Figure 6-2.
Figure 6-2: The mini toolbar and block pop-up menu.
The mini toolbar hosts popular commands found on the Ribbon, allowing you to
quickly format the block of text. You can also right-click the selected text, in
which case you see both the mini toolbar as well as a shortcut menu, also shown
in Figure 6-2.
A block of text in Word includes text and the text formatting.
Graphics and other nontext elements can also be selected as a block. In fact,
you can select graphics along with text in the same block.
When the status bar is displaying a word count, the number of words selected
in the block of text is displayed, next to the total number of words in the
document. (Refer to Figure 6-1.)
When the Find command locates text, the found text is selected as a block.
Refer to Chapter 5 for more information on the Find command.
The mini toolbar disappears after a few moments of neglect. Refer to Chapter
33 for information on disabling the mini toolbar.
Selecting text also means selecting characters such as tabs and the
Enter character that marks the end of a paragraph. Word shows the Enter
character as an extra blank space at the end of a paragraph. When you select
that blank, you select the whole paragraph as a paragraph. To avoid selecting
the Enter character, don't select the blank space at the end of a paragraph.
Mark a Block of Text
Before you can work with a block of text, you must tell Word where the block
starts and where it ends. The process is known as marking a block of text or
selecting text.
Using the keyboard to select text
The keyboard’s cursor keys are used to select text, but only when you know the
secret: Press and hold down the Shift key as you move the cursor. When the Shift
key is down, Word’s standard cursor key commands not only move the insertion
pointer but also select chunks of text. Table 6-1 lists common key combinations.
Table 6-1 Keyboard Selection Wizardry
To Select This
Press This
A character at a time to the right of the insertion pointer
A character at a time to the left of the insertion pointer
Shift+→
Shift+←
A block of text from the insertion pointer to the end of the line
Shift+End
A block of text from the insertion pointer to the beginning of the line Shift+Home
A block of text from the insertion pointer to a line above
Shift+↑
A block of text from the insertion pointer to a line below
Shift+↓
Although you can use any keyboard cursor-movement command, including
some that move the insertion pointer a great distance, I recommend using this
Shift key technique for selecting only small chunks of text. Otherwise, you
may end up tying your fingers into knots.
See Chapter 3 for the full list of Word’s cursor key commands.
Either Shift key works, although I prefer to use the left Shift key and then work
the arrow keys on the right side of the keyboard.
Marking a block with the mouse
Mickey may rule a kingdom, but your computer’s mouse rules over text selection
in your computer.
Drag over text to select it
Position the mouse pointer at the start of the text block, and then drag the mouse
over the text you want to select. As you drag, the text becomes highlighted or
selected.
This technique works best when you use the mouse to drag over only
the text you can see on the screen. When you try to select text beyond what you
see on the screen, you have to select and scroll, which can be unwieldy.
Also see Chapter 33, which covers how to adjust Word so that you can use the
mouse to select individual letters instead of entire words at a time.
Click the mouse to select text
A speedy way to select specific sizes of chunks of text is to match the power of
the mouse with the dexterity of your index finger. Table 6-2 explains some
clicking-and-selecting techniques worth noting.
Table 6-2 Mouse-Selection Arcana
To Select
This
Chunk of
Text
Click the Mouse Thusly
A single
word
Double-click the word.
A line
Move the mouse pointer into the left margin beside the line you want to select. The mouse pointer
changes to an arrow pointing northeastward. Click the mouse to select a line of text. Drag the
mouse up or down to select several lines.
A sentence
Position the insertion pointer over the sentence and Ctrl+click. (Press the Ctrl key and click the
mouse.)
A paragraph Point the mouse somewhere in the paragraph’s midst and click thrice (triple-click).
Select text with the old poke-and-point
Here’s the best way to select a chunk of text of any size, especially when
that chunk of text is larger than what you can see on the screen at one time:
1. Click the mouse to set the insertion pointer wherever you want the block
to start.
I call this location the anchor point.
2. Scroll through your document.
You must use the scroll bar or the mouse wheel to scroll through your
document. If you use the cursor-movement keys, you reposition the insertion
pointer, which isn’t what you want.
3. Hold down the Shift key and click the mouse where you want the block to
end.
The text from the insertion pointer to wherever you clicked the mouse is
selected as a block.
Using the F8 key to mark a block
A relic from the old days, the F8 key is known as Word’s Extend
Selection command. Press that key to activate this feature: Word drops
anchor at the insertion pointer's location. Use either the mouse or the cursor
keys to select text. In fact, you cannot do anything but select text in extend
selection mode.
You exit extend selection mode by either doing something with the block of text or
pressing the Esc key.
To help you with the F8 key and extend selection mode, right-click the
status bar and choose the item Selection Mode. The text Extend Selection
appears on the status bar when this mode is active.
Not only can you use the cursor keys while in extend selection mode, any of
the character keys work as well; text is selected from the anchor point to the
character you type. Type an N, for example, and all text between the insertion
pointer and the next letter N is selected.
You can also use the Find command to locate a specific bit of text in extend
selection mode. Word marks all text between the anchor and the text that the
Find command locates.
Press the F8 key twice to select the current word.
Press the F8 key thrice (three times) to select the current sentence.
Press the F8 key four times to select the current paragraph as a block of text.
Press the F8 key five times to select the entire document, from top to bottom.
No matter how many times you press F8, be aware that it always drops
anchor. So pressing F8 once or five times means that Word is still in Extend
Selection mode. Do something with the block or press Esc to cancel that
mode.
Blocking the whole dang-doodle document
The biggest block you can mark is an entire document. Word has a specific
command to do it. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Editing group, choose Select
Select All.
The entire document is marked as a single block o’ text.
And now, the keyboard shortcut: Press Ctrl+A to select an entire document as a
block.
Deselecting a block
When you mark a block of text and change your mind, you must unmark, or
deselect, the text. Here are a few handy ways to do it:
Move the insertion pointer. It doesn't matter how you move the insertion
pointer, with the keyboard or with the mouse, but doing so deselects the block.
Press the Esc key and then the ← key. This method works to end Extend
Selection mode.
Press Shift+F5. The Shift+F5 key combo is the “go back” command (see
Chapter 3), but it also deselects a block of text and returns you to the text you
were editing before making the selection.
Manipulate the Block of Text
You can block punches, block hats, block and tackle, play with building blocks
and engine blocks, take nerve blocks, suffer from mental blocks, jog for blocks,
and, naturally, block text. But what can you do with those marked blocks of text?
Why, plenty of things! You can apply a format to all text in the block, copy a
block, move a block, search through a block, proof a block, print a block, and
even delete a block. The information in this section explains a few of those tricks.
Blocks must be selected before you can manipulate them. See the first half of
this chapter.
When a block of text is marked, various Word commands affect only
the text in that block.
To replace a block, type some text. The new text (actually, the initial
character) replaces the entire block.
To delete a block, press the Delete or Backspace key. Thwoop! The block is
gone.
Formatting commands can be applied to any marked block of text —
specifically, character and paragraph formatting. See Part III of this book.
Also see Chapter 32 for information on Word’s bizarre yet potentially useful
Collect and Paste feature.
Copying a block
After a block is marked, you can copy it to another part of your document to
duplicate the text. The original block remains untouched by this operation. Follow
these steps to copy a block of text from one place to another:
1. Mark the block.
Detailed instructions about doing this task are offered in the first part of this
chapter.
2. Click the Home tab.
3.
In the Clipboard group, click the Copy command button.
You get no visual clue that the text has been copied; it remains selected.
4. Click to set the insertion pointer at the position where you want to place
the block’s copy.
Don’t worry if there’s no room! Word inserts the block into your text.
5.
Click the Paste command button.
The block of text is inserted into your text just as though you had typed it there
by yourself.
The keyboard shortcuts for copy and paste are Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V, respectively.
You’ll probably use those keyboard shortcuts more than the command buttons in
the Home tab’s Clipboard group.
See the later section, "Setting the pasted text format," to find out what to do
about the wee li'l clipboard icon that appears by the pasted text.
The Paste command continues to paste the copied text, over and over
— that is, until new text is selected and copied (or cut). Pasting text again
simply pastes down a second copy of the block, spit-spot (as Mary Poppins
would say).
You can paste the block into another document you’re working on or even into
another application. This is a Windows trick that works in any program that
can accept text as input.
Moving a block
To move a block of text, you select the text and then cut and paste. This
process is almost the same as copying a block, described in the preceding section,
although in Step 3 you choose the Cut tool (shown in the margin) or press Ctrl+X
rather than choose the Copy tool. Otherwise, all steps are the same.
Don't be alarmed when the block of text vanishes! That's cutting in action; the
block of text is being moved, not copied. You see the block of text again when you
paste it.
If you screw up, the Ctrl+Z Undo shortcut undoes a block move.
Setting the pasted text format
When you paste text in Word, you see the Paste Options icon shown in the
margin. It appears near the pasted block of text. Don’t let it annoy you! That button
allows you to select formatting for the pasted block because occasionally the
block may contain formatting that, well, looks quite ugly after it's pasted.
To work the Paste Options button, click it with the mouse or press and release the
Ctrl key on the keyboard. You see a menu of options, illustrated in Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-3: Pasting options.
Table 6-3 summarizes the available paste options.
Table 6-3 Paste Option Options
Icon
Keyboard
Shortcut
Name
Description
K
Keep Source
Formatting
The formatting is okay; don’t do a thing.
M
Merge Formatting
Reformat the pasted block so that it matches the text it’s
being pasted into.
T
Keep Text Only
Just paste in the text — no formatting.
To keep only text with a copied or cut block (no formatting), press the Ctrl key
and then the T key after pasting. That’s two separate keys, not Ctrl+T.
Using the Paste Options icon is utterly optional. In fact, you can continue typing or
working in Word and the icon bows out, fading away like some nebbish who
boldly asked a power blonde to go out with him and she utterly failed to recognize
his existence. Like that.
Click the Set Default Paste text to direct Word to permanently deal with
pasted text. It’s a handy trick, especially when you find yourself repeatedly
choosing the same Paste Options format.
Copying or moving a blockwith the mouse
When you have to move a block only a short distance, you can use the mouse to
drag-move or drag-copy the block.
To move any selected block of text, hover the mouse pointer anywhere in
the blocked text, and then drag the block to its new location. As you drag the
block, the mouse pointer changes, as shown in the margin. That means you’re
moving a block of text.
To copy a block of text, point the mouse pointer at the block — just as if
you were going to move the block — but press and hold down the Ctrl key as you
drag. When you drag the block, the mouse pointer changes to resemble the icon
shown in the margin. That’s your clue that the block is being copied and not just
moved.
This trick works best when you’re moving or copying a block to a
location that you can see right on the screen. Otherwise, you’re scrolling
your document with the mouse while you're playing with blocks, which is
like trying to grab an angry snake.
When you drag a block of text with the mouse, you’re not copying or cutting it
to the Clipboard. You cannot use the Paste (Ctrl+V) command to paste in the
block again.
To create a linked copy of the block, drag the mouse and hold down
both the Shift and Ctrl keys. When you release the mouse button, the copied
block plops down into your document with a dark highlight. It's your clue that
the copy is linked to the original; changes in the original are reflected in the
copy and vice versa. If the linked copy doesn’t update, right-click the text and
choose the Update Link command.
Viewing the Clipboard
All text you copy or cut is stored in a location called the Clipboard. That’s the
standard cut/copy/paste holding bin for text, but in Word the Clipboard is more
powerful than in other Windows programs. Specifically, you can use the
Clipboard task pane to examine items cut or copied, and paste them again in your
document in any order.
To copy a chunk of text from the task pane to your document, heed these steps:
1. Place the insertion pointer in your document where you want the pasted
text to appear.
2. Click the Home tab.
3. In the Clipboard group, click the dialog box launcher.
You see the Clipboard task pane, along with all text cut or copied since
you’ve started the Word program, similar to what’s shown in Figure 6-4.
4. Position the mouse pointer at an item in the task pane.
A menu button appears to the right of the item.
5. Click the menu button and choose the Paste command.
The text is pasted into your document.
Figure 6-4: The Clipboard task pane.
Unlike using the Ctrl+V keyboard shortcut, or the Paste button on the Ribbon, you
can paste text from the Clipboard in any order, and even summon text you copied
or cut hours ago or text you copied or cut from other Microsoft Office programs.
Also see Chapter 32 for information on using the Collect and Paste feature, which
takes advantage of the Clipboard task pane.
Chapter 7
Spell It Write
In This Chapter
Dealing with typos and spelling errors
Adding or ignoring unknown words
Correcting words automatically
Checking AutoCorrect settings
Fixing grammatical boo-boos
Reviewing your document
Customizing proofing options
Spell checking is a feature forced upon Word, and I know who to blame.
Historically, the notion of proper English spelling wasn’t considered a necessity.
That was, until Noah Webster developed the dictionary. Thanks, pal.
Actually, I’m doing Webster a disservice. He fixed a lot of English spelling that
would truly drive you batty. So he’s not to blame. Regardless, Word offers kind
and subtle spell and grammar checking. Use it or suffer the consekwensis.
Check Your Spelling
Word’s spell-check feature works the second you start typing. Offending or
unknown words are immediately underlined with the red zigzag of shame. Leave
the word be, correct it, or add it to your own dictionary just to spite Mr. Webster.
Spell checking works thanks to a digital dictionary stocked with zillions of
words, all spelled correctly. Every time you type a word, it’s checked against
that dictionary. When the word isn’t found, it’s marked as suspect in your
document.
Don’t let the red zigzag of a failed elementary education perturb you.
My advice is to keep typing. Focus on getting your thoughts on the page. Go
back later to fix the inevitable typos.
The spell-check feature also flags repeated words by underlining them with a
red zigzag. Your choice is to either delete the repeated word or just ignore it.
Word doesn’t spell-check certain types of words, such as words with numbers
in them or words written in all capitals, which are usually abbreviations.
To disable automatic spell checking, see the section, “Spell-check and
grammar settings.”
An alternative to on-the-fly spell checking is to perform a manual spell check.
See the section, “All-at-Once Document Proofing.”
Fixing a misspelled word
Don’t let that red zigzag of shame vex you any longer! Follow these steps:
1. Right-click the misspelled word.
Up pops a shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 7-1.
2. Choose from the list the word you intended to type.
In Figure 7-1, the word laugh fits the bill. Click that word and it replaces the
spurious word.
Figure 7-1: Deal with that typo.
If the word you intended to type isn’t on the list, don’t fret: Just take another stab
at spelling the word phonetically and then correct it again. Or, what the hey: Use a
traditional dictionary (the paper kind).
Yew right grate
Word’s document-proofing tools are as technologically advanced as the programmers at Microsoft
can make them. As the title of this sidebar suggests, however, there’s something to be said about
context.
Just because your document appears to contain no errors doesn't mean that everything is perfect.
You have no better way to proof a document than to read it with human eyes.
Dealing with incorrectly flagged words
Occasionally, Word's spell checker bumps into a word it doesn't recognize, such
as your last name or perhaps your city. Word dutifully casts doubt on the word by
underlining it with the notorious red zigzag. Yes, this is one of those cases where
the computer is wrong.
To correct the incorrect spell check, right-click the word. Choose one of two
options on the shortcut menu (shown earlier in Figure 7-1):
Ignore All: Select this command when the word is properly spelled and you don’t
want Word to keep flagging it as misspelled in the current document.
Add to Dictionary: This command adds the word to a custom dictionary. The
word is no longer flagged as misspelled in the current document or any other
documents.
If the word is intentionally misspelled and you don’t want to ignore all instances
or add it to the custom dictionary, just leave it be.
See the section, “Undoing the Ignore All command,” later in this chapter, for
information on reversing your decision to ignore a spelling error.
For information on viewing or editing the custom dictionary, see the section,
“Customizing the custom dictionary.”
The 25 most frequently misspelled words
a lot
accidentally
acquire
amateur
argument
atheist
collectible
consensus
definite
embarrass
gauge
grammar
independent
kernel
liaison
maneuver
no one
occurrence
realize
receive
ridiculous
separate
supersede
their
weird
AutoCorrect in Action
Sometimes you may never see the embarrassing red zigzag. That's because Word
quickly fixes hundreds of common typos and spelling errors on-the-fly. The
AutoCorrect feature is responsible, and you have to be quick to see it.
For example, in Word you can’t type the word mispell (with only one s). That’s
because AutoCorrect fixes that typo the split second that you press the spacebar.
AutoCorrect also converts common text shortcuts into their proper characters. For
example, type (C) and AutoCorrect properly inserts the © copyright symbol. Ditto
for (TM) for the trademark. Typing - -> is translated into an arrow, and even :)
becomes a happy face.
Beyond spelling, AutoCorrect fixes common punctuation. It automatically
capitalizes the first letter of a sentence. AutoCorrect capitalizes I when you forget
to, properly capitalizes the names of days, fixes the iNVERSE cAPS lOCK
pROBLEM, plus other common typos.
Undoing an AutoCorrect correction
You can reverse AutoCorrect instant changes, but only when you're quick. The
secret is to press Ctrl+Z (the Undo command) immediately after AutoCorrect
makes its correction. The change is gone.
Even when you’re not quick with the Undo command, you can peruse AutoCorrect
changes. These are flagged by a blue rectangle that appears under the corrected
text’s first letter, as shown in Figure 7-2. Position the mouse pointer at that
rectangle, and click to see various AutoCorrect options, also illustrated in Figure
7-2.
Figure 7-2: Adjusting an AutoCorrection.
To restore the text to how it was typed originally, choose the option Change Back
to whatever, where whatever is the original text, such as :) shown in Figure 7-2.
To prevent AutoCorrect from ever making the change again, choose the option
Stop Automatically Correcting whatever. Although the text won’t be corrected, it
may still show up as a typo or a spelling error.
See the next section for information on the final option, Control AutoCorrect
Options.
Adjusting AutoCorrect settings
To control how AutoCorrect behaves, as well as review — or even add — words
it corrects, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
3. Click the Proofing category on the left side of the window.
4. Click the AutoCorrect Options button.
The AutoCorrect dialog box appears, with the AutoCorrect tab forward.
The AutoCorrect tab lists all problems that AutoCorrect fixes for you, plus
common typo corrections. That’s also where you can remove the AutoCorrect
entries you detest:
To remove an entry in the AutoCorrect list, scroll to find that item, such as :) for
the happy face. Click to select the entry, and then click the Delete button.
To add an entry, use the Replace and With text boxes. For example, to replace
kludge with kluge, type kludge in the Replace box and kluge in the With box.
Click the OK button when you’re done making adjustments, and then close the
Word Options dialog box.
Also see Chapter 33 for information on disabling various AutoCorrect and
AutoFormat features.
Grammar Be Good
Mark Twain once referred to English spelling as “drunken.” If that’s true, English
grammar must be a hallucination. To help you to detox, Word offers on-the-fly
grammar checking. It’s just like having your eighth-grade English teacher inside
your computer — only it’s all the time and not just during third period.
Word’s grammar checker works like the spell checker. The main difference is that
offenses are underlined with a blue zigzag, such as the one shown in Figure 7-3
(although the zigzag looks gray in this book). That’s your hint of Word’s sense of
grammatical justice. Even then, the offense is most likely mild and, given the
illusionary nature of English grammar, can probably be ignored.
Figure 7-3: A grammatical error is flagged.
To address a grammar issue, right-click the blue-underlined text, as shown in
Figure 7-3. Use the pop-up menu to discover what’s wrong or to choose an
alternative suggestion. You also have the option to ignore the error, which I find
myself using quite often.
The most common source of grammatical woe in English is verb agreement, or
matching the subject to the correct verb.
The grammar checker is excellent at spotting two spaces between words when
you need only one space. It’s not so good at spotting fragments.
You may see false grammar errors when using Word’s revision-tracking
feature while the No Markup setting is enabled. Reveal all the revision marks
to see what’s up. Refer to Chapter 26 for details.
You can customize or even turn off grammar checking. Refer to the sections
“Disabling automatic spell check” and “Curtailing grammar checking,” later in
this chapter.
All-at-Once Document Proofing
If you prefer to ignore the red zigzag underline of shame, or perhaps you’ve
disabled that feature, you can resort to performing a final document proof. It’s an
all-in-one spelling- and grammar-checking process, which is how spell check
worked before it became an on-the-fly feature.
To perform all-at-once document proofing, follow these steps:
1. Click the Review tab.
2. In the Proofing group, click the Spelling & Grammar button.
Errors are shown one at a time as they occur in your document. You must deal
with them sequentially.
3. Deal with the offense.
Depending on the offense, either the Spelling pane or Grammar pane appears.
Options presented let you deal with each offense:
Ignore: Click this button to ignore the error once. You will be
reminded of the same spelling error or similar grammatical errors
again.
Ignore All: Use this button to direct Word to merrily skip the spelling
error through the entire document.
Add: Use this button to thrust the word into the custom dictionary. It
won’t be flagged as incorrect ever again. Well, unless you edit the
dictionary, as described elsewhere in this chapter.
Change: For spelling boo-boos and grammatical flubs, click to select
a correct option from the list presented and then click the Change button
to replace the offending text.
Change All. For spelling errors only, click the correct word and then
click Change All to replace all instances of your spelling mistake.
4. Continue checking your document.
5. Click the OK button once the checking is done.
You can easily enter a trancelike state while you’re document proofing.
You might find yourself clicking the Ignore button too quickly. My advice:
Use the Undo command, Ctrl+Z. It lets you go back and change text that you
may not have paid attention to.
Another way to sequentially peruse spelling and grammar errors is to
use the Spelling and Grammar Check button on the status bar (shown in the
margin). To proof your document, click that button to hop from one spelling or
grammar error to the next.
Word disables its on-the-fly proofing when your document grows
larger than a certain size, say 100 pages. You’ll see a warning message when
this change happens. At that point, you must perform an all-at-once document
check, as described in this section.
Spell Check and Grammar Settings
Whether you adore or detest Word’s capability to ridicule your language abilities,
you have the final say-so. Plenty of settings and options are available to control
Word’s spelling- and grammar-checking tools.
Undoing the Ignore All command
Whoops! I’ve done it too: Clicked that Ignore All command when, in fact, Word
was correct and my spelling was all wrong. Now that horribly misspelled word
litters my document like the pox.
Fret not, gentle reader. You can undo the Ignore All spelling directive. Follow
these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose the Options command.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
3. Choose Proofing on the left side of the dialog box.
4. Click the Recheck Document button.
A warning dialog box appears, reminding you of what you're about to do.
5. Click the Yes button.
Everything you've told Word to ignore while proofing your document is now
ignored.
6. Click the OK button to close the Word Options dialog box and return to
your document.
The Ignore All command affects only the current document. If you’ve
accidentally added a word to the custom dictionary, see the next section.
Customizing the custom dictionary
You build the custom dictionary by adding properly spelled words that are
flagged as misspelled. You can also manually add words, remove words, or just
browse the dictionary to see whether or not you’re making old Noah Webster
jealous. Follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options to display the Word Options dialog box.
3. Choose Proofing.
4. Click the Custom Dictionaries button.
The Custom Dictionaries dialog box appears.
Word 2016 uses the RoamingCustom.dic file as the custom dictionary. You
may see other files in the list, especially if you’ve upgraded from older
versions of Microsoft Word.
5. Select the item RoamingCustom.dic (Default).
6. Click the button labeled Edit Word List.
You see a scrolling list of words you’ve added to the custom dictionary.
To add a word to the custom dictionary, type it in the Word(s) text box. Click the
Add button.
To remove a word from the custom dictionary, select the word from the scrolling
list. Click the Delete button.
Click the OK button when you’re done with the custom dictionary. Then click the
OK button to close the Word Options dialog box.
Disabling automatic spell check
To banish the red zigzag underline from your document, which effectively
disables on-the-fly spell checking, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab and choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
2. On the left side of the dialog box, choose Proofing.
3. Remove the check mark by the item Check Spelling as You Type.
4. Click the OK button.
If you also want to banish the blue zigzag of messed-up grammar, repeat these
steps but in Step 3 remove the check mark by the item Mark Grammar Errors as
You Type.
Curtailing grammar checking
I find Word’s grammar checker to be insistently incorrect. After all, English is
fluid. Especially if you’re writing poetry or you just know the rules and prefer to
bend them or toss them asunder, consider throttling back some of Word’s more
aggressive grammar flags.
To adjust grammar settings, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options to display the Word Options dialog box.
3. Choose Proofing.
4. By the Writing Style item, click the Settings button.
The Grammar Settings dialog box appears.
5. Uncheck those items you no longer desire Word to mark as offensive.
The categories are pretty general, which makes deselecting a rule difficult.
That’s because when Word flags a grammar error, you see a specific rule and
not the general ones listed in the Grammar Settings dialog box.
6. Click the OK button to dismiss the Grammar Settings dialog box.
7. Click OK to close the Word Options dialog box.
If you prefer to disable all the rules, instead deactivate grammar checking
altogether. See the preceding section.
Chapter 8
Documents New, Saved, Opened,
and Closed
In This Chapter
Understanding terms
Creating a new document
Saving documents
Updating (resaving) a document
Opening a document
Inserting one document inside another
Retrieving a lost document
I like the word document. It’s elegant. It’s much better than saying “a file” or “that
thing I created with my word processor.” A document could include everything
from a quick shopping list to a vast cycle of medieval fantasy novels you keep
reading despite knowing that your favorite protagonist will die a sudden, horrific
death.
Regardless of size or importance, a word-processing file is called a document.
It’s the end result of your efforts in Word. You create new documents, save them,
open up old documents, and close documents. That’s the document cycle.
Some Terms to Get Out of the Way
To best understand the document concept, you must escape the confines of
Word and wander into the larger dominion of computer storage. A basic
understanding of files and storage is necessary if you’re to get the most from
your word-processing efforts.
File: A Word document is a file. A file contains information stored for the long
term, which can be recalled again and shared with others. Windows manages files
and their storage, backup, copying, moving, and renaming.
Folder: Files dwell in containers called folders. A folder is nothing more than
storage for various files, although folders play a role in how files are organized.
Local storage: The file crated when you save a document must be kept
somewhere for the long term. When it’s saved on your computer’s hard drive, it’s
kept on local storage. Because some computers use a solid-state drive (SSD)
instead of a hard drive, the term local storage is used instead of hard drive or
disk drive.
Cloud storage: Also available for saving documents is storage available on the
Internet, commonly referred to as cloud storage. Specifically, Word is integrated
to use Microsoft’s OneDrive cloud storage. Files saved to cloud storage are
available to your computer and also to any computer connected to the Internet.
Yes, you need to log into the cloud storage; not just anyone can pilfer your files.
You can use other cloud storage services with Word, such as Dropbox or Google
Drive. These locations are accessed through their shadow copies on local storage.
Behold! A New Document
To summon a new document, click the Blank Document template thumbnail found
on the Word Start screen. Or if the Start screen has been disabled (per the
directions in Chapter 33), Word starts by displaying a blank document.
After Word has started, you can summon a new document by obeying these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
The File screen appears.
2. Choose the New command from the left side of the window.
The New screen lists the same templates that appear on the Start screen.
Category tabs are Featured and Personal for Word’s templates and your own
templates, respectively.
3. Click the Blank Document thumbnail.
A new Word window appears and you see a blank page, ready for typing.
Ah, the shortcut: Press Ctrl+N to quickly summon a new, blank document
in Word.
You can produce as many new documents as are needed. Word lets you work
with several documents at a time. See Chapter 24 for information on multipledocument mania.
Refer to Chapter 1 for information on the Word Start screen.
Refer to Chapter 16 for information on templates.
How long can a Word document be?
The quick answer is that no length limit is assigned to a Word document. If you like, your document
can be thousands of pages long. Even so, I don’t recommend putting that limit to the test.
The longer a document, the more apt Word is to screw up. For most documents, the length is fine.
For larger projects, however, I recommend splitting your work into chapter-sized chunks. Organize
those chapter documents in their own folder.
To stitch together several documents into a larger document, use Word’s master document feature,
as described in Chapter 25.
Save Your Stuff!
It doesn’t matter whether you’re writing the next Great American Novel or you’re
jotting down notes for tonight’s PTA meeting, the most important thing you can do
to a document is save it.
Save! Save! Save!
Saving creates a permanent copy of your document, encoding your text as a file on
the computer’s storage system. That way, you can work on the document again,
publish it electronically, or have a copy ready in case the power goes poof. All
these tasks require saving.
Saving a document the first time
Don’t think that you have to wait until you finish a document to save it. In fact, you
should save almost immediately — as soon as you have a few sentences or
paragraphs.
To save a document for the first time, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose the Save As command.
The Save As screen appears, similar to the one shown in Figure 8-1. This
screen is part of Word’s Backstage, which is an alternative to the traditional
Windows Save As dialog box.
3. Choose a location for the document.
To use local storage, choose This PC.
To use cloud storage on OneDrive, choose OneDrive.
A list of recent folders appears on the right side of the screen. Click a folder
to choose it as the storage location.
After choosing a location, the traditional Save As dialog box appears. Or you
can quickly summon that dialog box by clicking the Browse button, as
illustrated in Figure 8-1.
If the specific folder you need wasn’t shown on the Save As screen,
use the Save As dialog box to navigate to that folder — or create a folder by
clicking the New Folder button in that dialog box.
4. Type a name for your document in the File Name box.
Word automatically selects the first several words of your document as a
filename and places that text in the File Name box. If that’s okay, you can
move to Step 5. Otherwise, type a better name.
Be descriptive! The more concisely you name your document, the
easier it is to recognize it by that name in the future.
5. Click the Save button.
The file is now safely stored.
Figure 8-1: The Save As screen.
The document doesn’t close after you save. You don’t need to quit Word. You can
keep working.
As you work, continue to save. See the section “Saving or updating a
document.”
You can skip the File tab process by instead clicking the Save button on the
Quick Access toolbar. If the document hasn’t yet been saved, the Save As
screen appears.
Your clue that the document is saved successfully is that its filename appears
on the document’s title bar, top center of the Word window.
The Save As command can also be used to save a document with a new name,
to a different location, or in a different format. See Chapter 24.
Do not save a document to removable media, such as an optical disc
or a memory card. Instead, save the document to the computer’s main storage
device, the hard drive or SSD. If you save to removable media and that media
is accidentally removed, you may lose your document or the computer may
crash.
To place your document file on removable media, save and close the
document. Copy the file from the computer’s primary storage to the removable
storage. This operation is done in Windows, not Word.
As an alternative to using removable media, save your document to cloud
storage. Documents saved to OneDrive can be shared with others. See
Chapter 26 for collaboration information.
Dealing with document-save errors
Saving a document involves working with both Word and the Windows operating
system. This process doubles the chances of something going wrong, so it's high
time for an error message. One such error message is
The file whatever already exists
You have three choices:
Replace Existing File: Nope.
Save Changes with a Different Name: Yep.
Merge Changes into Existing File: Nope.
Choose the middle option and click OK. Type a different filename in the Save As
dialog box.
Another common problem occurs when a message that’s displayed reads
something like this:
The file name is not valid
That's Word's less-than-cheerful way of telling you that the filename contains a
boo-boo character. To be safe, use letters, numbers, and spaces when naming a
file. Check the nearby sidebar, “Trivial — but important — information about
filenames.”
Trivial — but important — information
about filenames
Be creative in your document, but also be creative when saving the document and christening it with
a name. These names must abide by the Windows rules and regulations for all filenames:
A filename can be longer than 200 ridiculous-something characters; even so, keep your
filenames short but descriptive.
A filename can include letters, numbers, and spaces, and can start with a letter or a
number.
A filename can contain periods, commas, hyphens, and even underlines.
A filename cannot contain any of these characters: \ / : * ? “ < > |.
Word automatically appends a filename extension to all documents you save — like a last name.
You may or may not see the filename extension, depending on how you've configured Windows.
Either way, don’t type the extension. Only concern yourself with giving the document a proper and
descriptive filename.
Saving or updating a document
As you continue to work on your document, you should save again. That way, any
changes you’ve made since the last time you saved are recorded on the computer’s
storage system. Saving a document multiple times keeps it fresh.
To resave a document that has already been saved, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose the Save command.
You get no feedback, and the Save As dialog box doesn't show up. That's
because you already gave the file a name; the Save command merely updates
the existing file.
The fastest, and most common, way to save or update a document is to
press the Ctrl+S keyboard shortcut. You can also click the Save button on the
Quick Access toolbar.
I save my documents dozens of times a day — usually when the phone rings,
when I need to step away and the cat is lurking too closely to the keyboard, or
often when I'm just bored.
If you haven’t yet saved a document, using the Save command, Ctrl+S, or the
Save button on the Quick Access toolbar brings up the Save As screen, as
described earlier in this chapter.
Forgetting to save before you quit
When you’re done writing in Word, you close the document, close the window, or
quit Word outright. No matter how you call it quits, when your document hasn't yet
been saved, or was changed since the last save, you're asked to save one last time
before leaving.
The warning dialog box that appears when you attempt to leave before saving
features three options:
Save: Click this button to save the document and close. If you've been bad and
haven't yet saved the document, the Save As screen appears.
Don’t Save: When you click this button, the document is closed without saving. It
might still be available for later recovery. See the later section, “Recover a
Draft.”
Cancel: Click this button to forget about saving and return to the document for
more editing and stuff.
I recommend that you choose the Save option.
Open a Document
Saving a document means nothing unless you have a way to retrieve that document
later. As you might suspect, Word offers multiple ways to open a document either
on local storage or on cloud storage.
Using the Open command
Open is the standard computer command used to fetch an existing document. Once
you find and open the document, it appears in Word's window as though it had
always been there.
To open a document in Word, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose the Open command.
The Open screen materializes, similar to what’s shown in Figure 8-2.
3. Choose a location where the document may lurk.
Your choices are Recent Documents, which is shown in Figure 8-2, cloud
storage such as OneDrive, or local storage titled This PC.
If you spy the desired document lurking in the Recent list, click it. The
document opens on the screen. Congratulations — you’re done.
4. Choose a recent folder from the list.
5. Click a document when you find it.
The document opens, ready for editing.
6. If you can’t find the document, or you just yearn to use the traditional
Open dialog box, click the Browse button.
The traditional Open dialog box appears, which you can use to locate the file
you want to open: Click to select the file, and then click the Open button.
Figure 8-2: The Open screen.
The file you open appears in the Word window. Word may highlight the last
location where you were writing or editing, along with a Welcome back message.
After the document is open, you can edit it, look at it, print it, or do whatever you
want.
The shortcut key to access the Open screen is Ctrl+O. Also, an Open
command button appears on the Quick Access toolbar.
You can open a document also by locating its icon in a folder window, which
happens in Windows, not in Word. Double-click the icon to open the
document. See Chapter 1 for information.
To access recently opened documents, right-click the Word icon on
the taskbar. Choose a document from the pop-up list (called the jump list) to
open it.
Opening a document doesn’t erase it from storage. In fact, the file stays on the
storage system until you use the Save command to save and update the
document with any changes.
When you position the mouse pointer at a recently opened document
on the Open screen, you see a pushpin icon, similar to what’s shown in the
margin. Click that icon to make the document “stick” to the Open screen. That
way, it’s always available for quick access later.
To remove a document from the Recent list, right-click the document’s entry.
Choose the command Remove from List.
Avoid opening a file on any removable media, such as a digital
memory card or an optical disc. Although it's possible, doing so can lead to
headaches later should you remove the media before Word is done with the
document. Because of that, I recommend that you use Windows to copy the
document from the removable media to the computer’s main storage device.
Then open it in Word.
Opening one document inside another
It’s possible in Word to open one document inside another. Doing so isn’t as odd
as you’d think. For example, you may have your biography, résumé, or curriculum
vitae document and want to add that information to the end of a letter begging for a
new job. If so, or in any other circumstances that I can’t think of right now, follow
these steps:
1. Position the insertion pointer where you want the other document’s text
to appear.
The text is inserted at that spot.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3.
From the Text group, click the Object button.
The Object button is shown in the margin. After clicking the button, you see a
menu.
4. Choose the menu item Text from File.
The Insert File dialog box appears. It’s similar to the Open dialog box.
5. Locate and select the document you want to insert.
Browse through the various folders to find the document icon. Click to select
that icon.
6. Click the Insert button.
The document’s text is inserted into the current document, just as if you had typed
and formatted it yourself.
The resulting combined document still has the same name as the first
document; the document you inserted remains unchanged.
You can insert any number of documents into another document, one at a time.
There’s no limit.
Inserting text from one document into another is often called boilerplating.
For example, you can save a commonly used piece of text in a document and
then insert it into other documents as necessary. This process is also the way
that sleazy romance novels are written.
Biography. Résumé. Curriculum vitae. The more important you think you are,
the more alien the language used to describe what you’ve done.
Close a Document
When you've finished writing a document, you need to do the electronic equivalent
of putting it away. That electronic equivalent is the Close command: Press
Ctrl+W.
Because closing a document may also quit Word, more information on this
topic is found in Chapter 1, which covers quitting Word.
If you haven't saved your document, you’ll be prompted to do so. See the early
section, “Forgetting to save before you quit.”
Recover a Draft
When you forget to save a document, or the computer crashed, or the power went
out, you can recover some — but perhaps not all — of an unsaved document.
Valiantly make this attempt:
1. Press Ctrl+O to summon the Open screen.
2. Ensure that Recent is chosen as the file location.
3. Click the Recover Unsaved Documents button, found at the bottom of the
list of recent files.
You may have to scroll the list of recent files a bit to locate the button
The Open dialog box appears, listing the contents of a special folder,
UnsavedFiles. It’s Word’s graveyard of sorts. Actually, it's more like a
morgue in a county with a lousy EMS.
4. Click to select a document to recover.
The document may have an unusual name, especially when it has never been
saved.
5. Click the Open button to open and recover the document.
The document you recover might not be the one you wanted it to be. If so, try again
and choose another document.
You might also find that the recovered document doesn’t contain all the text you
typed or thought would be there. You can’t do anything about it, other than
remembering to save everything in the first place!
The recovery of drafts is possible because of Word’s AutoRecover
feature. Refer to Chapter 31 for more information on AutoRecover.
Chapter 9
Publish Your Document
In This Chapter
Previewing your document before printing
Printing a specific part of a document
Printing multiple copies of a document
Canceling a print job
Making a document compatible for sharing
Sending a document as an attachment
Exporting a document as a PDF
After writing, editing, formatting, and proofing (with lots of document saving
along the way), the final step in document preparation is publishing. Don’t get all
excited: Publishing in Word has nothing to do with seeing your book on the New
York Times bestseller list (although it could). Publishing is a general topic that
includes printing a document to paper but also generating an electronic document
you can share online. Times have changed.
Your Document on Paper
The word processor, the best writing tool ever invented. It’s also the first writing
tool that avoids paper until your document is complete. At that point, if you desire,
you can generate a dead-tree version of the document, also called a printout or a
hard copy.
Configuring the printer is done in Windows, not Word. Use the Control Panel
or Settings app to control the printer.
I assume that your computer has a printer attached or available on a network
and that everything is set up just peachy. That setup includes stocking the
printer with ink or toner and plenty of paper.
Previewing before printing
Before you print, preview the look of the final document. Yeah, even
though your document is supposed to look the same on the screen as it does
on paper, you may still see surprises: missing page numbers, blank pages,
screwy headers, and other jaw-dropping blunders, for example.
Fortunately, a print preview of your document appears as part of the Print screen,
as shown in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1: The Print screen.
To preview your document, follow these steps:
1. Save your document.
Yep — always save. Saving before printing is a good idea.
2. Click the File tab.
3. Chose the Print item from the left side of the File screen.
The Print screen appears, similar to what’s shown in Figure 9-1.
4. Use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to page through your
document.
You can use the Zoom control (refer to Figure 9-1) to enlarge or reduce the
image. Look at the margins. If you’re using footnotes, headers, or footers, look
at how they lay out. The idea is to spot anything that’s dreadfully wrong
before you print.
When you’re ready, you can print the document. Details are offered in the next
section, but basically you click the big Print button, labeled in Figure 9-1. Or
when things need to be repaired, click the Back button to return to your document.
Printing the whole document
Printing the document is easy:
1. Make sure that the printer is on and ready to print.
Printing works fastest when the printer is on.
2. Save your document.
Click the little Save button on the Quick Access toolbar for a quickie save.
3. Click the File tab.
4. Choose the Print command from the File tab’s window.
The Print screen appears (refer to Figure 9-1).
5. Click the big Print button.
The Print screen closes, and the document spews forth from the printer.
Printing speed depends on the complexity of the document and how dumb the
printer is. Fortunately, you can continue working while the document prints.
The keyboard shortcut to display the Print screen (Steps 3 and 4) is Ctrl+P.
Obligatory Ctrl+P joke goes here.
If nothing prints, don’t use the Print command again! Most likely
nothing is awry; the computer is still thinking or sending information to the
printer. If you don’t see an error message, everything will probably print,
eventually.
The computer prints one copy of your document for every Print command you
incant. If the printer is just being slow and you impatiently click the Print
button ten times, you'll end up printing ten copies of your document. (See the
section “Canceling a print job,” later in this chapter.)
When the document format specifies a unique paper size, the printer prompts
you to load that paper size. Stand by to produce and load the proper paper
when the printer prompts you.
Delete that extra blank page at the end of a
document
Occasionally, you may be surprised when your document prints one extra page — a blank page.
And you're not only bothered because you forgot to preview before printing (which I recommend in
this chapter) but also vexed because you cannot get rid of it! Until now.
To remove the ugly, blank page that often roots at the end of your document, press Ctrl+End. With
the insertion pointer at the end of your document, press the Backspace key repeatedly until the extra
page is gone. How can you tell? Keep an eye on the total page count on the status bar. When the
page count decreases by one, you know that the extra page is gone.
Printing a specific page
Follow these steps to print only one page of your document:
1. Move the insertion pointer so that it’s sitting somewhere on the page you
want to print.
Check the page number on the status bar to ensure that you’re on the
correct page.
2. Press Ctrl+P.
3. Click the Print Range button below the Settings heading.
Refer to Figure 9-2 for the button’s location.
4. Choose Print Current Page from the menu.
5. Click the Print button.
Figure 9-2: Specific buttons on the Print screen.
The single page prints with all the formatting you applied, including footnotes and
page numbers and everything else, just as though you plucked that page from a
complete printing of the entire document.
Printing a single page in this manner is useful when the printer goofs up
one page in a document and you need to reprint only that page.
Printing a range of pages
Word enables you to print a range of pages, odd pages, even pages, or a
hodgepodge combination of random pages from within your document. To print a
range or group of pages, summon the Print screen: Press Ctrl+P.
On the Print screen, look for the Pages text box, illustrated in Figure 9-2. Here are
some suggestions for what to type in that text box:
To print pages 3 through 5, type 3-5.
To print pages 1 through 7, type 1-7.
To print pages 2 and 6, type 2,6.
To print page 3, pages 5 through 9, pages 15 through 17, and page 19 (boy,
that coffee went everywhere, didn’t it?), type 3, 5-9, 15-17, 19.
Click the big Print button when you’re ready to print. Only the pages you specify
churn from the printer.
Leave the Pages box blank to print all pages in the document.
Printing on both sides of the page
If your printer is capable of duplex printing, you can direct Word to print your
document on both sides of a sheet of paper. If your printer is so blessed, follow
these steps:
1. Press Ctrl+P when you’re ready to print the document.
I’ll assume that the document has just been saved.
2. Click the Duplex Printing button on the Print screen.
Refer to Figure 9-2 for the button’s location.
3. Choose Print on Both Sides, Flip Pages on Long Sides.
Don’t bother with the Short Sides option unless you plan on binding your
document that way.
If you don’t see the Print on Both Sides options, you have to manually print.
See the next section.
4. Make other settings as necessary on the Print screen.
5. Click the big Print button to print your document.
Both sides of the page are printed.
I’ve discovered that Word (Windows actually) isn’t that smart when it comes to
knowing which printers are duplex and which aren’t. Alas, when Windows
doesn’t recognize your duplex printer as such, there’s little you can do.
Printing odd and even pages
Say you have a printer that doesn’t print on both sides of the page. If so, print all
the odd pages in your document. Flip the paper and reinsert it in the printer. Then
print all the even pages. The end result is printing on both sides of the page.
To print all odd pages or all even pages, follow these steps:
1. Press Ctrl+P to summon the Print screen.
2. Click the Print Range button below the Settings heading.
Refer to Figure 9-2 for the button’s location.
3. Choose Only Print Odd Pages from the menu.
4. Click the Print button to print odd pages in your document.
To print even pages, repeat these steps, but in Step 3 choose Only Print Even
Pages.
Remove the Document Properties sheet
A printing problem that can potentially annoy you is finding the Document Properties sheet printing
with your document. This extra sheet of paper prints first, listing information about the document.
The Document Properties sheet isn’t printed unless its option is set, and for some reason the option
gets set on some folks’ computers.
To prevent the Document Properties sheet from printing, click the File tab and choose the Options
command. In the Word Options dialog box, click the Display item on the left side of the window. In
the Printing Options area on the Display screen, remove the check mark by the item Print
Document Properties. Click OK.
Printing a block
After you mark a block of text in your document, you can beg the Print command to
print only that block. Here’s how:
1. Mark the block of text you want to print.
See Chapter 6 for all the block-marking instructions in the world.
2. Press Ctrl+P to summon the Print screen.
3. Click the Print Range button below the Settings heading.
4. From the menu, choose the item Print Selection.
The Print Selection item is available only when a block is selected in your
document.
5. Click the Print button.
The block you selected prints at the same position, with the same formatting
(headers and footers) as though you had printed the entire document.
Printing more than one copy of something
When it comes time to provide a copy of your report to all five members of the
cult and the photocopier is broken, just print multiple copies. Here's how:
1. Press Ctrl+P on the keyboard to summon the Print screen.
2. Enter the number of copies in the Copies text box.
To print five copies, for example, click the box and type 5.
3. Click the big Print button to print your copies.
Under normal circumstances, Word prints each copy of the document one after the
other. This process is known as collating. However, if you’re printing five copies
of a document and you want Word to print seven copies of page 1 and then seven
copies of page 2 (and so on), choose the option Uncollated from the Collated
menu button, found under the Settings heading on the Print screen.
Choosing another printer
When the computer has more than one printer available, ensure that you’re using
the proper one. Or perhaps you want to use another printer, such as that fancy
color printer that is available on the network even though Ed has hidden it in his
office. Either way, follow these steps:
1. Press Ctrl+P to summon the Print screen.
2. Click the Select Printer button below the Printer heading.
The button shows the name of the currently selected printer, which is usually
the one set by Windows as the default.
3. Choose another printer from the list.
4. Click the Print button to print your document on the selected printer.
Unfortunately, not every printer features a clear and descriptive name.
Also, not every printer listed is a physical printer. Some are document printers,
such as Microsoft Print to PDF, which is covered later in this chapter.
Adding and managing printers falls under the domain of Windows, not
Word. To add printers, rename them, or set the default printer, use Windows.
Canceling a print job
The fastest, easiest way to cancel a print job is to rush up to the printer and set it
on fire. Lamentably, this method is frequently met with frowns by local fire
officials.
If your printer features a Cancel button, use it to stop a print job run amok. The
Cancel button typically features an X, often colored red. Touch that button, and the
printer stops — maybe not at once, but the button cancels the rest of the document
from printing.
For slow printers, or those without a Cancel button, you can attempt to use
Windows to halt a print job run amok. Obey these steps
1.
Look on the far right end of the taskbar for the li’l printer icon.
If you don’t see the li’l printer icon, it’s too late to cancel the print job.
Otherwise, you see the printer’s control window, which lists any queued
printing jobs.
2. Click the name of your Word document job in the list.
3. Choose either the Document
Cancel Printing command.
Cancel command or the Document
4. Click Yes or OK to terminate the job.
5. Close the printer’s control window.
This method frequently meets with failure simply because the printer is fast and
working these steps takes time. Still, it’s worth a try, especially when the printer
lacks a Cancel button.
It may take a while for the printer to stop printing. That’s because printers
have their own memory, and a few pages of the document may be stored and
continue to print even after you tell the printer to stop.
Stopping a print job is a Windows task, not one that Word has control over.
Electronically Publishing Your
Document
Not every document needs to hit paper. For example, I never print my books.
They’re sent electronically to the publisher and even edited right on the screen.
eBooks don’t need to be printed. And sometimes documents can be more
effectively distributed by email than any other means. It’s all part of electronically
publishing your document.
Preparing a document for sharing
Lots of interesting things can be put in your Word document that you don’t want
published. These items include comments, revision marks, hidden text, and other
items useful to you or your collaborators, which would mess up a document you
share with others. The solution is to use Word’s Check for Issues tool, like this:
1. Ensure that your document is finished, finalized, and saved.
2. Click the File tab.
On the File screen, the Info area should be selected. If not, click the word Info.
3. Click the Check for Issues button.
4. Choose Inspect Document.
The Document Inspector window shows up. All items are selected.
5. Click the Inspect button.
After a few moments, the Document Inspector window shows up again, listing
any issues with your document. The issues shown are explained, which allows
you to cancel the Document Inspector to fix individual items.
6. (Optional) Click the Remove All button next to any issues you want to
clear up.
Now that you know what the issues are, you can always click the Close button
and return to your document to manually inspect them.
7. Click the Close button, or click Reinspect to give your document another
once-over.
You can go forward with publishing your document or continue working.
Sending a Word document via email
Emailing your Word document is a snap — as long as you’re using Microsoft
Outlook as your email program. If not, you need to save your document as you
normally would, and then use your email program (which isn’t Outlook) to create
a new message with the document chosen as a file attachment.
If you do use Outlook as your email program, and it’s all set up and actually
works, follow these steps in Word to send a document via email:
1. Save your document one more time.
2. Click the File tab.
3. Choose the Share command.
4. Choose the E-Mail item found under the Share heading.
5. Click the Send As Attachment button.
At this point, Outlook takes over and you compose your email message. When
you send the message, your Word document is sent along as well.
Documents saved to your OneDrive cloud storage can be shared with
others on the Internet. See chapter 26 for details.
Making a PDF
Word document files are considered a standard. Therefore, it’s perfectly
acceptable to send one of your document files as an email attachment or make it
available for sharing on cloud storage.
It’s also possible to save your document in the Adobe Acrobat document format,
also known as a PDF file. This type of electronic publishing is secretly a form of
printing your document. Obey these steps:
1. Finish your document.
Yes, that includes saving it one last time.
2. Press Ctrl+P to summon the Print screen.
3. Click the Printer button.
A list of available printers appears.
4. Choose Microsoft Print to PDF.
5. Click the Print button.
Nothing is printed on paper, but the document is “printed” to a new PDF file.
That requires the use of the special Save Print Output As dialog box.
6. Choose a location for the PDF file.
Use the dialog box’s controls to locate the proper folder.
7. Type a filename.
8. Click the Save button.
The PDF file is created. The original document remains in the Word window,
unchanged by the print-to-PDF operation.
You need a copy of the Adobe Reader program to view PDF files. Don’t worry:
It’s free. Go to get.adobe.com/reader.
Exporting your document
Beyond the Word document format and PDF, you can export your document into
other, common file formats. These formats allow for easy document sharing,
although they’re not as common as they once were.
To export your document into another file format, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Export from the items on the left side of the screen.
3. Choose Change File Type.
A list of available file types appears on the right side of the screen. These
types include Word formats and other file types such as Plain Text, Rich Text
Format (RTF), and web page (HTML).
4. Click to select a file type.
5. Click the Save As icon.
You may have to scroll down the list to find the Save As icon.
The Save As dialog box appears. It’s the same Save As dialog box as covered
in Chapter 8, although the Save As Type menu lists the file type you selected
in Step 3.
6. Work the dialog box to set a folder or other location for the file, or to
change its name.
7. Click the Save button to export the document by using the alien file type.
It may look like the document hasn’t changed, but it has! The title bar
now specifies that you’re working on the exported document, not the original
Word document.
8. Close the document.
Press Ctrl+W or otherwise dismiss the document.
By closing the document, you ensure that any changes you make aren’t made to the
exported copy. To continue working on the original document, open it again in
Word.
Part III
Fun with Formatting
Discover how to add your own styles to the Word 2016 Style Gallery
at www.dummies.com/extras/word2016.
In this part …
Learn how to format your characters by choosing a font, text size, and
color.
Apply paragraph formats, including line spacing, space before and
after, and indenting.
Get to know the ruler and all the ways you can use tabs to align your
text.
Find out how to change page size, orientation, and margins.
Get familiar with adding headers, footers, and cover pages.
Learn all you need to know about creating and applying styles and
using templates.
Chapter 10
Character Formatting
In This Chapter
Applying a text format
Selecting a font
Setting basic text formats
Changing text size
Adding color to your words
Changing text case
Removing text formatting
Exploring the Font dialog box
At the atomic level, the most basic element you can format in a document is text
— the letters, numbers, and characters you type. You can format text to be bold,
underlined, italicized, small or large, in different fonts or colors, and all sorts of
pretty and distracting attributes. Word gives you a magnificent amount of control
over the appearance of your text.
Text-Formatting Techniques
You can format text in a document in two ways:
Use text-formatting commands as you type, turning them on or off.
Type the text first. Go back and select the text to format. Apply the format.
Either method works, although I recommend you concentrate on your writing first
and return to format later.
As an example, suppose you wanted to write and format the following sentence:
His toe was really swollen.
The first way to format is to type the sentence until the word really. Press Ctrl+I
to apply the italic format. Type the word. Press Ctrl+I again to turn off the format.
Continue typing.
The way I formatted the sentence was to type the entire thing first. Once done, I
double-clicked the word really to select it, and then pressed Ctrl+I to apply the
italic format.
See Chapter 6 for more information on marking blocks of text.
Basic Text Formats
Word stores the most common text-formatting commands on the Home tab, in the
Font group, as shown in Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1: Text-formatting commands in the Font group.
The Font group’s gizmos not only control the text format but also describe the
format for currently selected text. So in Figure 10-1, the text format uses the font
Calibri, the text size is 11 points, and the Bold attribute is set.
In addition to the Home tab’s Font group, text-formatting commands are available
on the mini toolbar. It appears whenever text is selected, as described in Chapter
6.
Choosing a font
The base attribute of text is its typeface, or font. The font sets the way your text
looks and its overall style. Although choosing the best font can be agonizing (and,
indeed, many graphic artists are paid well to choose just the right font), the
process isn’t too difficult. It generally goes like this:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Font group, click the down arrow by the Font item.
A list of fonts appears, similar to what’s shown on the right in Figure 10-1.
3. Select a font.
As you point the mouse pointer at a font, text in the document changes to
preview the font. Click to choose the font and change the text format.
The Font menu is organized to help you locate the font you need. The top part of
the menu lists fonts associated with the document theme. The next section contains
fonts you've chosen recently, which is handy for reusing fonts. The rest of the list,
which can be quite long, shows all fonts available to Word. The fonts appear in
alphabetical order and are displayed as they would appear in the document.
To quickly scroll to a specific part of the Font menu, type the first
letter of the font you need. For example, type T to find Times New Roman.
If you know the exact font name, you can type it in the Font text box, which
seems like a horrifically nerdy thing to do.
When a font name doesn’t appear the Font group (the text box is blank), it
means that more than one font is selected in the document.
Refer to Chapter 16 for more information on document themes.
Fonts are the responsibility of Windows, not Word. Thousands of fonts are
available for Windows, and they work in all Windows applications.
Graphic designers prefer to use two fonts in a document — one for the
text and one for titles. Word is configured this way as well. The Body font is
set for text. The Heading font is set for titles. These two fonts are set as part of
the document theme.
Applying character formats
On the lower left side of the Font group you find some of the most common
character formats. These formats enhance the selected font or typeface.
To make text bold, press Ctrl+B or click the Bold command button.
Use bold to make text stand out on a page — for titles and captions or when you're
uncontrollably angry.
To make text italic, press Ctrl+I or click the Italic command button.
Italic has replaced underlining as the preferred text-emphasis format. Italicized
text is light and wispy, poetic, and free.
Underline text by pressing Ctrl+U or clicking the Underline command button.
You can click the down arrow next to the Underline command button to choose
from a variety of underline styles or set an underline color.
The double-underline format is available from the Underline command button’s
menu, but it does have a keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+D.
Also available is word-underlining format. Word underlining looks like this. The
keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+W.
Strike through text by clicking the Strikethrough command button. (A
keyboard shortcut is unavailable.)
I don't know why strikethrough text made it to the Font group. If I were king of
Microsoft, I would have put small caps up there instead. But who am I?
Strikethrough is commonly used in legal documents, when you mean to say
something but then change your mind think of something better to say.
Click the Subscript command button to make text subscript. The keyboard
shortcut is Ctrl+= (equal sign).
Subscript text appears below the baseline, such as the 2 in H2O.
To make text superscript, click the Superscript command button. The
keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+= (equal sign), which is the shifted version of the
subscript keyboard shortcut.
Superscript text appears above the line, such as the 10 in 210.
Another popular format, but apparently not popular enough to sport a command
button in the Fonts group, is small caps. The small caps keyboard shortcut is
Ctrl+Shift+K.
Small caps formatting is ideal for headings. I use it for character names when I
write a script or play:
BILL. That’s a clever way to smuggle a live grenade into prison.
The All Caps text format sets the text to uppercase letters only. As with small
caps, this format doesn’t feature a command button, although it has a shortcut key:
Ctrl+Shift+A.
To find all these text formats and more, open the Font dialog box. Refer to the
section “Behold the Font Dialog Box,” later in this chapter.
All character formats work like a toggle switch. Use the command to
apply a text format. Use the same command again to remove that format.
Text-formatting commands affect text as you type. They can also be applied to
a block of text.
More than one character format can be applied at a time to any text. For
example, use Ctrl+B and then Ctrl+I to apply bold and italic formats.
The best way to use superscript or subscript is to write text first and
then apply the superscript or subscript format to selected text. So 42 becomes
42 and CnH2n+1OH becomes CnH2n+1OH. If you apply superscript or
subscript as you type, the text tends to be difficult to edit.
When will the Underline text attribute die? I'm baffled. Honestly, I
think we're waiting for the last typewriter-clutching librarian from the 1950s
to pass on before underlining is officially gone as a text attribute. And please
don't fall prey to the old rule about underlining book titles. It's Crime and
Punishment, not Crime and Punishment.
Text Transcending Teensy to Titanic
Text size is set in your document based on the ancient typesetter measurement
known as points. One point is equal to inch. Although that value is mysterious and
fun, don’t bother committing it to memory. Instead, here are some point pointers:
The bigger the point size, the larger the text.
Most printed text is either 10 or 12 points tall.
Headings are typically 14 to 24 points tall.
In Word, fonts can be sized from 1 point to 1,638 points. Point sizes smaller
than 6 are generally too small for a human to read.
A 1-inch-high letter is roughly 72 points.
The point size of text is a measure from the bottom of the descender to
the top of the ascender, such as from the bottom of the lowercase p to the top
of the capital E. So the typical letter in a font is smaller than its given point
size. In fact, depending on the font design, text formatted at the same size but
with different fonts (typefaces) doesn't appear to be the same size. It's just one
of those typesetting oddities that causes regular computer users to start binge
drinking.
Setting the text size
To set the size of text you’re about to type, or text in a selected block, heed these
steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Font group, click the down arrow next to the Font Size box.
A menu of font sizes appears, as shown in the center in Figure 10-1.
3. Choose a font size.
As you point the mouse pointer at various values, text in the document (an
individual word or a selected block) changes to reflect the size. Click to set
the size.
The Size menu lists only common text sizes. To set the text size to a specific
value, type the value in the box. For example, to set the font size to 11.5, click in
the Size box and type 11.5.
Nudging text size
Rare is the student who hasn't fudged the length of a term paper by inching up the
text size a notch or two. To accommodate those students, or anyone else trying to
set text size visually, Word offers two command buttons in the Home tab’s Font
group.
To increase the font size, click the Increase Font Size command button. The
keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+>.
The Increase Font Size command nudges the font size up to the next value as listed
on the Size menu (refer to Figure 10-1). So if the text is 12 points, the command
increases its size to 14 points.
To decrease the font size, click the Decrease Font Size command button. Its
keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+<.
The Decrease Font Size command works in the opposite direction of the Increase
Font Size command: It reduces text size to the next-lower value displayed on the
Size menu (refer to Figure 10-1).
To remember the text size keyboard shortcuts, think of the less-than and
greater-than symbols. To make the text size greater than the current size, use
the Ctrl+Shift+> shortcut. To make the text size less than its current size, use
Ctrl+Shift+<.
To increase or decrease the font size by smaller increments, use these shortcut
keys:
Ctrl+] Makes text one point size larger
Ctrl+[ Makes text one point size smaller
More Colorful Text
Adding color to your text doesn’t make your writing more colorful. All it does is
make you wish that you had more color ink when it’s time to print your document.
Regardless, you can splash color on your text, without the need to place a drop
cloth below the computer.
Coloring the text
To change the color of text in a document, follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Font group, click the Font Color command button.
The current word, any selected text, or any new text you type is assigned the
button’s color.
The Font Color button shows which color it assigns to text. To change the color,
click the menu triangle to the button’s left and choose a color from the menu
displayed.
To restore the font color, choose Automatic from the Font Color menu. The
Automatic color is set by the text style. See Chapter 15 for details on styles.
Theme colors are associated with the document theme. Refer to Chapter 16.
To craft your own, custom colors, select the More Colors item from the Font
Color menu to display the Colors dialog box.
The printer companies would love it if you’d use more colored text in
your documents. Remember: Colored text works only on a color printer, so
buy more ink!
Avoid using faint colors for a font, which can make text extremely difficult to
read.
Don’t confuse the Font Color command button with the Text Highlight
Color command button, to its left. Text highlighting is used for document
markup, as described in Chapter 26.
Shading the background
To set the text background color, use the Shading command. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Paragraph group, click the Shading command button.
The color shown on the button shades the current word or selected block, or
sets the background color for new text typed.
To switch colors, click the menu button to the right of the Shading command
button. Select a color from the list, or choose More Colors to create a custom
color.
If you want to remove the background color, choose No Color from
the Shading command’s menu.
The Shading command is used also to shade other objects on the page, such as
cells in a table. That’s why it dwells in the Paragraph group and not the Font
group.
To create white-on-black text, first select the text. Change the text color to
white, and then change the background (shading) to black.
If you need to apply a background color to an entire page, use the Page Color
command. See Chapter 13.
Change Text Case
Text case isn’t really a font format, but it’s historically related to fonts: Back in
the days of mechanical type, a font came in a case, like a briefcase. The upper part
of the case held the capital letters. The lower part held the noncapital letters.
That’s where the terms uppercase and lowercase originated.
To change the case of text in Word, well, you could just type it the proper way in
the first place. Even I forget to do that. Although Word’s AutoCorrect and
AutoFormat features can automatically capitalize text for you, another command is
available. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Font group, click the Change Case command button.
3. Choose the proper case from the menu.
The list of menu items reflects how the case is changed, as shown in Figure
10-2.
Figure 10-2: Options for changing text case.
The Change Case command is not really a formatting command; its effect doesn’t
stick with the text you type.
The keyboard shortcut for the Change Case command is Shift+F3. Press
this key combination to cycle between three case options: ALL CAPS,
lowercase, and Capitalize Each Word.
Clear Character Formatting
So many Word formatting commands are available that it's possible for your text
to look more like a pile of runes than modern text. Word understands this problem,
so it offers the Clear Formatting command. Use this command to peel away all
formats from your text, just like you peel the skin from a banana.
To remove text formatting, follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Font group, click the Clear Formatting command button.
Text formats are removed from selected text or from all new text typed.
The formatting isn’t removed as much as it’s restored: After issuing the Clear
Formatting command, text is altered to represent the defined style. That style
includes font, size, and other attributes.
The keyboard shortcut for the Clear Formatting command is Ctrl+spacebar.
The Clear Formatting command removes the ALL CAPS text format but
doesn’t otherwise change the text case.
You cannot use the Clear Formatting command to remove text highlighting.
See Chapter 26.
Although you can use the Clear Formatting command to change text color, it
doesn’t reset the background color. See the section, “Shading the
background,” earlier in this chapter.
Behold the Font Dialog Box
Word features a single location where all your font-formatting dreams can come
true. It’s the Font dialog box, shown in Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-3: The neatly organized Font dialog box.
To summon the Font dialog box, obey these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Fonts group, click the dialog box launcher button.
The button is found in the lower-right corner of the Font group (refer to Figure
10-1).
The Font dialog box contains all the commands for formatting text, including quite
a few that didn't find their way into the Font group on the Ribbon. As with all text
formatting, the commands you choose in the Font dialog box affect any new text
you type or any selected text in your document.
When you've finished setting up your font stuff, click the OK button. Or click
Cancel if you’re just visiting.
Use the Ctrl+D keyboard shortcut to quickly summon the Font dialog box.
The best benefit of the Font dialog box is its Preview window, at the
bottom. This window shows you exactly how your choices affect text in your
document.
The Font names +Body and +Heading refer to the fonts selected by the current
document theme. This is done so that you can use Word's theme commands to
quickly change body and heading fonts for an entire document all at one time.
Click the Font dialog box’s Text Effects button to access interesting text
attributes such as Shadow, Outline, Emboss, and Engrave. See Chapter 17 for
information on this button.
The Font dialog box’s Advanced tab hosts options for changing the size and
position of text on a line.
The Set as Default button in the Font dialog box is used to change the
font that Word uses for a new document. If you prefer to use a specific font for
all your documents, choose the font (plus other text attributes) in the Font
dialog box, and then click the Set as Default button. In the dialog box that
appears, choose the option All Documents Based on the Normal Template,
and then click the OK button. Afterward, all documents start with the font
options you selected.
Chapter 11
Paragraph Formatting
In This Chapter
Understanding paragraph formatting
Finding paragraph-formatting commands
Aligning paragraphs left, center, right, and full
Changing line spacing
Adding room between paragraphs
Indenting a paragraph
Making a hanging indent
Double-indenting a paragraph
Using the ruler
If you’re after formatting fun, a standard paragraph of text presents you with the
most opportunities. Word’s paragraph-formatting commands are vast, mostly
because so many aspects of a typical paragraph can be adjusted and customized to
present text just the way you like.
Paragraph-Formatting Rules and
Regulations
Word’s paragraph-level formatting commands affect paragraphs in a document.
That makes complete sense, but what is a paragraph?
Officially, a paragraph is any chunk of text that ends when you press the Enter
key. So a single character, a word, a sentence, or a document full of sentences is a
paragraph, so long as you press the Enter key.
The paragraph symbol (¶) appears in a document to mark the end of a
paragraph. Normally this character is hidden, but you can order Word to
display it for you. Follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose the Options command.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
3. Click Display.
4. Place a check mark by Paragraph Marks.
5. Click OK.
Now, every time you press the Enter key, the ¶ symbol appears, marking the end
of a paragraph.
Also see Chapter 2 for information on the Show/Hide command, which also
displays paragraph symbols in a document (as well as other hidden text).
Formatting a paragraph
You can format a paragraph in several ways:
Change an existing paragraph. With the insertion pointer in a paragraph, use a
paragraph-formatting command. Only the current paragraph format is changed.
Change a block of paragraphs. Select one or more paragraphs and then use the
formatting command to affect the lot.
Just start typing. Choose a paragraph-formatting command, and then type a
paragraph. The chosen format is applied to the new text.
To format all paragraphs in a document, press Ctrl+A to select all text
in the document and then apply the format.
If your desire is to format several paragraphs in the same manner, consider
creating a new style. See Chapter 15.
Locating the paragraph-formatting commands
In a vain effort to confuse you, Word uses not one but two locations on the Ribbon
to house paragraph-formatting commands. The first Paragraph group is found on
the Home tab. The second is located on the Layout tab. Both groups are illustrated
in Figure 11-1.
Figure 11-1: Paragraph groups.
But wait! There’s more.
The Paragraph dialog box, shown in Figure 11-2, can be conjured up by clicking
the dialog box launcher button in either of the Paragraph groups (refer to Figure
11-1). In it, you find controls and settings not offered by the command buttons on
the Ribbon.
Figure 11-2: The Paragraph dialog box.
The obnoxious keyboard shortcut to summon the Paragraph dialog box is Alt+H,
P, G. Don’t mock it! You will save time by memorizing this keyboard shortcut.
A smattering of paragraph-formatting commands are found on the mini
toolbar, which shows up after you select text. Refer to Chapter 6 for
information on the mini toolbar.
Justification and Alignment
Paragraph alignment has nothing to do with politics, and justification has little to
do with the reasons behind putting text in a paragraph. Instead, both terms refer to
how the left and right edges of the paragraph look on a page. The four options are
Left, Center, Right, and Fully Justified, each covered in this section.
All alignment-formatting command buttons are found on the Home tab, in the
Paragraph group.
The left and right sides of a paragraph are set according to a page’s margins.
See Chapter 13 for information on setting page margins.
Line up on the left!
Left alignment is considered standard, probably thanks to the mechanical
typewriter and, before that, generations of grammar school teachers who preferred
text lined up on the left side of a page. The right side of the page? Who cares!
To left-align a paragraph, press Ctrl+L or click the Align Left command
button.
This type of alignment is also known as ragged right.
Left-aligning a paragraph is how you undo the other types of
alignment.
Everyone center!
Centering a paragraph places each line in that paragraph in the middle of the page,
with an equal amount of space to the line's right and left.
To center a paragraph, press Ctrl+E or use the Center command button.
Centering is ideal for titles and single lines of text. It's ugly for longer
paragraphs and makes reading your text more difficult.
You can center a single word in the middle of a line by using the center tab.
Refer to Chapter 12 for the details.
Line up on the right!
The mirror image of left alignment, right alignment keeps the right edge of a
paragraph even. The left margin, however, is jagged. When do you use this type of
formatting? I have no idea, but it sure feels funky typing a right-aligned paragraph.
To flush text along the right side of the page, press Ctrl+R or click the
Align Right command button.
This type of alignment is also known as ragged left or flush right.
You can right-justify text on a single line by using a right-align tab. Refer to
Chapter 12 for more info.
Line up on both sides!
Lining up both sides of a paragraph is full justification: Both the left and right
sides of a paragraph are neat and tidy, flush with the margins.
To give your paragraph full justification, press Ctrl+J or click the Justify
command button.
Fully-justified paragraph formatting is often used in newspapers and
magazines, which makes the narrow columns of text easier to read.
Word makes each side of the paragraph line up by inserting tiny slivers of
extra space between words in a paragraph.
To line up text even better, activate Word’s Hyphenation feature:
Click the Layout tab. Click the Hyphenation button and choose Automatic.
Word splits long words near the right margin for better text presentation.
Make Room Before, After, or Inside
Paragraphs
Sentences in a paragraph can stack as tight as a palette of plywood. Alternatively,
you could choose to keep paragraphs all light and airy, like a soft, fluffy cake.
Space can cushion above or below the paragraph. These paragraph air settings are
illustrated in Figure 11-3.
Figure 11-3: Spacing in and around a paragraph.
Commands to control paragraph spacing include the traditional line-spacing
commands, as well as the Space Before and Space After commands. These
commands are found in the Paragraph groups on both the Home and Layout tabs.
Setting the line spacing
To set the space between all lines in a paragraph, follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Paragraph group, click the Line Spacing command button.
A menu appears.
3. Choose a new line spacing value.
The line spacing is set for the current paragraph or all selected paragraphs. Word
adds the extra space below each line of text.
Three keyboard shortcuts are available for the most common line spacing
values:
To single-space, press Ctrl+1. Use this command to remove other line-spacing
styles.
To double-space, press Ctrl+2. This setting formats the paragraph with one
blank line below each line of text.
To use 1½-space lines, press Ctrl+5. Yes, this keyboard shortcut is for 1.5
lines not 5 lines. Use the 5 key in the typewriter area of the computer
keyboard. Pressing the 5 key on the numeric keypad activates the Select All
command.
The Ctrl+0 (zero) keyboard shortcut applies Word’s default line spacing, which is
1.15. According to experts in white lab coats, that extra 0.15-sized chunk of space
below each line adds to readability.
When you want text to stack up one line atop another line, such as when
typing a return address, use the soft return at the end of a line: Press
Shift+Enter. See the section in Chapter 4 about soft and hard returns.
Persnickety line-spacing options
For seriously precise line spacing, turn to the Paragraph dialog box: Click the Home tab, and in the
lower-right corner of the Paragraph group, click the launcher icon.
In the Paragraph dialog box, the Line Spacing drop-down list features three specific items: At Least,
Exactly, and Multiple. These items are used with the At box to indicate line spacing as follows:
At least: The line spacing is set to a minimum value. Word can disobey that value and add more
space whenever necessary to make room for larger type, different fonts, or graphics on the same
line of text.
Exactly: Word uses the specified line spacing and doesn’t adjust the spacing to accommodate
larger text or graphics.
Multiple: Use this option to enter line-spacing values other than those specified in the Line Spacing
drop-down list. For example, to set the line spacing to 4, choose Multiple from the Line Spacing
drop-down list and type 4 in the At box.
Click the OK button to confirm your settings and close the Paragraph dialog box.
Making space between paragraphs
To help separate one paragraph from another, you add space either before or after
the paragraph. What you don’t do is to press Enter twice to end a paragraph.
That’s extremely unprofessional and will cause rooms full of people to frown at
you.
To add space before or after a paragraph, follow these steps:
1. Click the Layout tab.
2. In the Paragraph group, use the Before gizmo to add space before a
paragraph of text or use the After gizmo to add space after the
paragraph.
Measurements are made in points, the same measurement used for font size.
To create the effect of pressing the Enter key twice to end a paragraph, set the
After value to a point size about two-thirds the size of the current font. As an
example, for a 12-point font, an After value of 8 looks good.
The space you add before or after a paragraph becomes part of the paragraph
format. Like other formats, it sticks with subsequent paragraphs you type or
can be applied to a block of paragraphs.
Most of the time, space is added after a paragraph. You can add space before
a paragraph, for example, to further separate text from a document heading or
subhead
Graphics designers prefer to insert more space between paragraphs
when the first line of a paragraph isn’t indented, as in this book. When you
indent the first line, it’s okay to have less spacing between paragraphs. See the
next section.
Paragraph Indentation Madness
Paragraphs fill the page’s margin from side to side, as dictated by the justification
or alignment. Exceptions to this rule can be made. A paragraph’s first line can be
indented, the rest of the lines can be indented, and the left and right sides can be
indented. It’s paragraph indentation madness!
Adjusting a paragraph’s indentation doesn’t affect the paragraph's alignment.
Paragraphs are indented relative to the page’s margins. Refer to Chapter 13
for information on page margins.
Indenting the first line of a paragraph
Back in the old days, it was common to start each paragraph with a tab. The tab
would indent the first line, helping the reader identify the new paragraph. Word
can save you tab-typing energy by automatically formatting each paragraph with
an indent on the first line. Here’s how:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Paragraph group, click the dialog box launcher.
The Paragraph dialog box appears.
3. Click the Special drop-down list and choose First Line.
4. Confirm that the By box lists the value 0.5”.
The By box shows half an inch, which is the standard tab stop and a goodly
distance to indent the first line of text.
5. Click OK.
The first line of the current paragraph or all paragraphs in a selected block are
indented per the amount specified in the By box.
To remove the first-line indent from a paragraph, repeat these steps but select
(none) from the drop-down list in Step 3.
Word's AutoCorrect feature can automatically indent the first line of a
paragraph, which is handy but also annoying. What AutoCorrect does is to convert
the tab character into the first-line indent format, which may not be what you want.
If so, click the AutoCorrect icon (shown in the margin), and choose the command
Convert Back to Tab. I recommend using the steps in this section and not
AutoCorrect to format first-line indents.
If you choose to indent the first line of your paragraphs, you don’t really
need to add space after your paragraphs. See the earlier section, “Making
space between paragraphs.”
Making a hanging indent (an outdent)
A hanging indent isn’t in imminent peril. No, it’s a paragraph in which the first
line breaks the left margin or, from another perspective, in which all lines but the
first are indented. Here’s an example:
Angry Hydrant: Keep the dogs off your lawn with this
faux firefighting fixture. It looks like the real
thing, but should rover wander too close, he’s met
with an annoying but legally safe electric shock.
Also available in mailman shape.
The simple way to create such a beast is to press Ctrl+T, the Hanging Indent
keyboard shortcut. The command affects the current paragraph or all selected
paragraphs.
The not-so-simple way to hang an indent is to use the Paragraph dialog box: In the
Indentation area, click the Special menu and choose Hanging. Use the By text box
to set the indent depth.
Every time you press Ctrl+T, the paragraph is indented by another half inch.
To undo a hanging indent, press Ctrl+Shift+T. That’s the unhang key
combination, and it puts the paragraph’s neck back in shape.
Indenting a whole paragraph
To draw attention to a paragraph, its left side can be sucked in a notch. This
presentation is often used for quoted material in a longer expanse of text.
To indent a paragraph, heed these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Paragraph group, click the Increase Indent command
button.
The paragraph’s left edge hops over one tab stop (half an inch).
To unindent an indented paragraph, click the Decrease Indent command
button in Step 2.
When you want to get specific with indents, as well as indent the paragraph’s right
side, click the Layout tab and use the Indent Left and Indent Right controls to set
specific indentation values. Set both controls to the same value to set off a block
quote or a nested paragraph.
The keyboard shortcut to indent a paragraph is Ctrl+M. The shortcut to unindent a paragraph is Shift+Ctrl+M.
To undo any paragraph indenting, click the Layout tab and in the Paragraph
group set both Left and Right indent values to 0.
Indent only one paragraph or a small group of paragraphs. This format isn’t
intended for long stretches of text.
Do not try to mix left and right indenting with a first-line indent or a
hanging indent while drowsy or while operating heavy equipment.
Using the ruler to adjust indents
The most visual way to adjust a paragraph’s indents is to use the ruler. That tip is
helpful only when the ruler is visible, which it normally isn’t in Word. To unhide
the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Click the View tab.
2. In the Show area, ensure that the Ruler option is active.
Click to place a check mark by the Ruler option if it isn’t active.
The ruler appears above the document text. In Print Layout view, a vertical ruler
also appears on the left side of the window.
On the ruler, you see the page margins left and right, and to the far left is
something I call the tab gizmo (covered in Chapter 12). Figure 11-4 illustrates the
important parts of the ruler with regards to paragraph formatting.
Figure 11-4: The ruler.
Four doojobbies on the ruler reflect the current paragraph indents. Use these
controls to adjust the paragraph indents in a visual manner.
Drag the Left Indent control left or right to adjust a paragraph’s left margin.
Moving this gizmo does not affect the hanging indent.
Drag the Hanging Indent control left or right to set the first-line indent
independently of the left margin.
Drag the Both control to adjust both the left indent and hanging indent
together.
Drag the Right Indent control right or left to adjust the paragraph's right
margin.
As you drag controls on the ruler, a vertical guide drops down into the document.
Use that guide to help adjust indents for the current paragraph or any selected
paragraphs.
The ruler doesn’t appear in Read Mode or Outline view. In Draft and Web
Layout view, the vertical ruler (on the left side of the window) does not
appear.
The ruler measures from the page’s left margin, not from the left edge of the
page. The page’s left margin is set when you format a page of text. See
Chapter 13.
For more precise setting of indents, use the Paragraph dialog box.
Paragraph-formatting survival guide
This table contains all the paragraph-formatting commands you can summon by holding down the
Ctrl key and pressing a letter or number. By no means should you memorize this list.
Format
Key Combination Command Button
Center
Ctrl+E
Fully justify
Ctrl+J
Left align (flush left)
Ctrl+L
Right align (flush right) Ctrl+R
Indent
Ctrl+M
Unindent
Ctrl+Shift+M
Hanging indent
Ctrl+T
n/a
Unhanging indent
Ctrl+Shift+T
n/a
Line spacing
Alt+H, K
n/a
Single-space lines
Ctrl+1
n/a
1.15 line spacing
Ctrl+0
n/a
Double-space lines
Ctrl+2
n/a
1.5-space lines
Ctrl+5
n/a
Chapter 12
Tab Formatting
In This Chapter
Revealing tab stops and characters
Viewing the ruler
Working in the Tabs dialog box
Setting left tab stops
Using right, center, and decimal tabs
Decorating with the bar tab
Setting leader tabs
Removing tabs and tab stops
On my ancient Underwood typewriter, the Tab key is located on the right side of
the keyboard. It’s named Tabular Key. On other old typewriters, I've seen it
named Tabulator. The root for these words is the same as the root for table, which
is the Latin word tabula, meaning list.
In Word, tabs are used to make lists or indent text. That sounds simple, but for
some reason tabs remain one of the most complex formatting topics.
Once Upon a Tab
Like other keys on the keyboard, pressing the Tab key inserts a tab character into
your document. The tab character works like the spacebar, although the character
inserted has a variable width. The width is set at a predefined location marked
across a page. That location is called the tab stop.
It's the tab stop that makes the tab character work: Press the Tab key, and the
insertion pointer hops over to the next tab stop. That way, you can precisely line
up text on multiple lines. Using a tab is definitely neater than whacking the
spacebar multiple times to line up columns of text.
Word presets tab stops at every half-inch position across the page. And, of
course, you can create your own.
Anytime you press the spacebar more than once, you need a tab.
Believe me, your documents will look prettier and you'll be happier once you
understand and use tabs instead of spaces to line up your text.
The tab character’s behavior is determined by the type of tab stop. In Word,
multiple tab stop types help you format a line of text in many ways.
As with any other characters, you use the Backspace or Delete keys to remove
a tab character.
Tabs work best for a single line of text or for only the first line of a paragraph.
For more complex lists, use Word's Table command. See Chapter 19.
The diet beverage Tab was named for people who like to keep a tab
on how much they consume.
Seeing tab characters
Tab characters are normally hidden; they look like blank spaces, which is
probably why too many Word users use spaces to create those blanks.
It’s not necessary to see tab characters to use them, although if you’re having
trouble setting tab stops and using tabs, viewing the tab characters is helpful.
Use the Show/Hide command to quickly view tabs in a document. When
Show/Hide is active, tab characters appear in your text as a left-pointing arrow,
similar to what’s shown in the margin.
To activate the Show/Hide command, click the Home tab and in the Paragraph
group, click the Show/Hide command button, which looks like the paragraph
symbol (¶). Click the button again to deactivate the command.
To direct Word to show tab characters at all times, whether or not the Show/Hide
command is active, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options.
The Word Options window appears.
3. Click the Display item on the left side of the window.
4. Put a check mark by the Tab Characters option.
5. Click OK.
With the Tab Characters option set, tabs always appear in a document. They don’t
print that way, but viewing them in your text may help you solve some formatting
puzzles.
Seeing tab stops
Tab stops are invisible; you can’t see them in your document, but they exist. The
best way to view the tab stops, as well as to set new ones, is to summon the ruler.
Follow these steps:
1. Click the View tab.
2. In the Show area, ensure that the check box by the Ruler item has a
check in it.
If not, click to set the check mark.
The ruler appears just above the document. Figure 12-1 illustrates how the ruler
might look when various tab stops are set. It also shows the location of the Tab
gizmo, which is a handy tool you can use to access different tab stop types.
Figure 12-1: Tab stops on the ruler.
If tab stops are not visible on the ruler, Word is using its default setting of one tab
stop every half inch. Those tab stops don’t appear on the ruler.
When several paragraphs are selected, you may spot a light gray, or phantom,
tab stop on the ruler. The ghostly appearance indicates that a tab stop is set in
one paragraph but not in all. To apply the tab stop to all selected paragraphs,
click the phantom tab stop once.
See the later section, “Tab Stop, Be Gone!” for information on using the ruler
to remove, or unset, a tab stop.
Using the ruler to set tab stops
The visual and quick way to set a tab stop is to use the ruler. Assuming that the
ruler is visible (see the preceding section), the process involves two steps:
1. Click the Tab gizmo until the desired tab stop type appears.
Later sections in this chapter discuss when and how to set each of the five
types of tab stops.
The Tab gizmo also shows paragraph indent controls. These items are
covered in Chapter 11 and don’t relate to setting tabs.
2. Click the ruler at the exact spot where you want the tab stop set.
For example, click the number 2 to set a tab stop at the 2-inch mark, which is
2 inches in from the page’s left margin.
The tab stop icon appears on the ruler, marking the tab stop position. You can
further adjust the tab by dragging left or right with the mouse. If a tab character
already sits in the current paragraph, its format updates as you drag the top stop
hither and thither.
Tab stops are a paragraph-level format. The tab stop you set applies to
the current paragraph or any selected paragraphs. Refer to Chapter 6 for
information on selected text.
Using the Tabs dialog box to set tabs
For precisely setting tabs, bring up the Tabs dialog box. It’s also the only way to
get at certain types of tabs, such as dot leader tabs, which are covered elsewhere
in this chapter.
Keep in mind that the Tabs dialog box doesn’t work like a typical Word dialog
box: You must set the tab position and type first and then click the Set button.
Click the OK button only when you’re done setting tabs. Generally speaking, the
process works like this:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the lower-right corner of the Paragraph group, click the dialog box
launcher.
The Paragraph dialog box appears. Tabs are, after all, a paragraph-level
format.
3. Click the Tabs button.
The Tabs dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 12-2.
Figure 12-2: The Tabs (tab stop) dialog box.
4. Enter the tab stop position in the Tab Stop Position box.
You can be precise, if you like.
5. Choose the type of tab stop from the Alignment area.
Word’s five tab stop types are covered elsewhere in this chapter.
6. Click the Set button.
The tab stop is added to the Tab Stop Position list.
7. Continue setting tab stops.
Repeat Steps 2 through 6 for as many tab stops as you need to set.
8. Click OK.
You must click the Set button to set a tab stop! I don’t know how many
times I click OK instead, thinking that the tab stop is set when it isn't.
The tab stops you set affect the current paragraph or a selected group of
paragraphs.
If the ruler is visible, you can quickly summon the Tabs dialog box:
Double-click any existing tab stop.
Reset Word’s default tab stops
When you don’t set tab stops, Word does it for you. They’re called default tab stops, and Word
places one every half-inch all across the page. When you press the Tab key, it dutifully hops to the
next preset tab stop.
To remove the default tab stops, simply set your own tab stop. All the default tab stops to the left of
that new stop are gone.
You can’t undo all the default tab stops, but you can change their spacing. In the Tabs dialog box,
type a new interval value in the Default Tab Stops box. For example, to set default tab stops to oneinch intervals, type 1 in the box and then click the OK button.
The Standard Left Tab Stop
The left tab stop is the traditional type of tab stop. When you press the Tab key,
the insertion pointer advances to the left tab stop position, where you can continue
to type text. This type of tab stop works best for typing lists, organizing
information in single-line paragraphs, or indenting the first line of a multiline
paragraph.
Creating a basic tabbed list
A common use for the left tab stop is to create a simple two-column list, as shown
in Figure 12-3.
Figure 12-3: Two-column list.
Follow these steps to create this type of list:
1. On a new line, press Tab.
2. Type the item for the first column.
This item should be short — two or three words, max.
3. Press Tab.
4. Type the item for the second column.
Again, make it short.
5. Press Enter to end that line and start a new line.
Yes, your list looks horrible! Don't worry. Type first, then format.
6. Repeat Steps 2 through 5 for each line in the list.
After the list is finished, use the ruler to visually set the tab stops.
Refer to the previous section “Using the ruler to set tab stops” for information
on summoning the ruler, if it’s not currently visible.
7. Select all lines of text that you want to organize in a two-column tabbed
list.
8.
Choose a left tab stop from the Tab gizmo on the ruler.
If necessary, click the Tab gizmo until the Left Tab Stop icon shows up, as
shown in the margin.
9. Click the ruler to set the first tab stop.
If the text doesn’t line up right, drag the tab stop left or right.
10. Click to set the second tab stop.
Drag the tab stop left or right, if necessary, to help line up text.
Although you could add a third column to the list, things start to get crowded. In
fact, any time you need more than a single word or two in a tabbed list, consider
cobbling a table instead. See Chapter 19.
You need only one tab between items in a column list. That's because the
tab stop lines up your text, not the tab character.
Creating a two-tab paragraph thing
You can create a descriptive list by using the power of tabs coupled with a
paragraph’s hanging indent format. Such a thing is difficult to describe, so refer to
Figure 12-4 to see what’s up.
Figure 12-4: A tab-tab-paragraph format for text.
Follow these steps to create a list similar to the one shown in Figure 12-4:
1. On a new line, type the first item.
The shorter, the better. This item sits at the left margin, so don’t type a tab to
start the line.
2. Press Tab.
3. Type the second item and press Tab.
This step is optional; you can create a simpler tab-paragraph list, which looks
just like the one shown in Figure 12-4, but without the Dish column (and
spaced accordingly).
4. Type the paragraph text.
Unlike with the first two items, you're free to type more text here. That's
because this final paragraph column wraps, as shown in Figure 12-4.
5. Press Enter to end the line.
Don't let the ugly look of your text deceive you at this point. The text beautifies
itself when you add the tab stops.
6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for each item in the tab-tab-paragraph list
thing.
When you're done, you can set the tab stops.
7. Select all the lines of text you want to organize into a tab-tab-paragraph
list.
8. Bid the ruler appear, if need be.
Directions for beckoning forth the ruler are found earlier in this chapter.
9.
Ensure that the left tab stop is chosen on the Tab gizmo.
The margin shows the Left Tab Stop symbol.
10. Set a left tab stop to mark the first item in the list.
The second column snaps into place.
11.
Slide the paragraph’s left margin to the start of the text item.
The Left Indent triangle is shown in the margin. It sets the left margin for all
text in a paragraph, save the first line. (See Chapter 11 for details.) Slide the
triangle to the right until it’s past items in the second column, as shown in
Figure 12-4.
12. Adjust the tab stop and left margin as necessary.
Make the adjustments while text is selected, which provides visual feedback
for the paragraphs.
As with formatting any complex list, it’s perfectly okay to give up. See Chapter 19
for information on adding a table to your document. You might find a table better
to work with than all this paragraph-formatting nonsense.
The Center Tab Stop
The center tab is a unique critter with a special purpose: Text placed at a center
tab is centered on a line. Unlike centering a paragraph, only text placed at the
center tab stop is centered. This feature is ideal for centering text in a header or
footer, which is about the only time you need the center tab stop.
Figure 12-5 shows an example of a center tab. The text on the left is at the start of
the paragraph, which is left-justified. But the text typed after the tab is centered on
the line.
Figure 12-5: Center tab in action.
Here's how to make that happen:
1. Start a new paragraph, one containing text that you want to center.
Center tabs inhabit one-line paragraphs.
2.
Click the Tab gizmo on the ruler until the center tab stop shows up.
The Center Tab Stop icon is shown in the margin.
Refer to the section, “Using the ruler to set tab stops,” earlier in this chapter,
for information on displaying the ruler and using the Tab gizmo.
3. Click the ruler to set the center tab stop’s position.
Generally speaking, the center tab stop dwells in the middle of the page. That
location could be the 3-inch mark or the 3¼-inch mark.
4. Type any text to start the line.
In Figure 12-5, the text A Trip to Uranus appears at the start of the line.
Typing such text is optional, depending on what you’re formatting.
5. Press the Tab key.
The insertion pointer hops over to the center tab stop.
6. Type the text you want to center.
As you type, the text is centered on the line. Don't type too much; the center tab
is a single-line thing.
7. Press Enter to end the line of text.
Center tab stops are used primarily in a document header or footer, or when
typing a title. See Chapter 14 for information on headers and footers.
When you need only centered text on a line, use the center paragraph
format instead of a center tab stop. See Chapter 11.
The Right Tab Stop
A right tab stop isn’t the opposite of the left tab stop. Instead, it’s a special
creature that right-justifies text on a single line. You've probably seen such a thing
in action many times, but never thought you could easily create such formatted
text.
As with the other unusual tab stop types, the right tab stop works best on a
single line of text. It’s also commonly used in a document header or footer,
as described in Chapter 14.
Making a right-stop, left-stop list
A clever way to format a two-column list is to employ both a right tab stop and a
left tab stop. The list lines up on a centerline, as shown in Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-6: Right tab stops are used to center-align this list.
To build such a list, follow these steps:
1. Start out on a blank line, the line you want to format.
2.
Click the Tab gizmo until the right tab stop shows up.
The Right Tab Stop icon appears in the margin.
See the section, “Using the ruler to set tab stops” for information on displaying
the ruler.
3. Click near the center of the ruler to place the right tab stop.
4.
Click the Tab gizmo until the left tab stop appears.
Click, click, click until you see the Left Tab Stop icon, as shown in the
margin.
5. Click to place the left tab stop just to the right side of the right tab stop
on the ruler.
Use Figure 12-6 as your guide.
Now it’s time to type the text. Don’t worry about getting the tab stops correct
at this point in the process; you can adjust them later.
6. Press the Tab key.
The insertion pointer hops over to the right tab stop’s position.
7. Type text for the first, right-justified column.
8. Press the Tab key.
9. Type your text for the second, left-justified column.
10. Press Enter to end the line of text.
11. Repeat Steps 6 through 10 for each line in the list.
If further adjustments are necessary after you’re finished, select all the lines and
use the mouse to adjust the tab stops’ positions on the ruler as necessary.
Building a two-column right-stop list
The right tab stop can be used on the second column of a two-column list. The
presentation appears commonly in programs, similar to what’s shown in Figure
12-7.
Figure 12-7: Right tab stops right-align the second column of this list.
Here's how to concoct such a thing:
1. Start on a blank line of text.
2.
Click the Tab gizmo until the right tab stop appears.
The Right Tab Stop icon is shown in the margin.
Refer to the earlier section, “Using the ruler to set tab stops,” for information
on displaying the ruler and finding the Tab gizmo.
3. Place the right tab stop on the far right side of the ruler.
The position is just a guess at this point. Later, you can adjust the right tab stop
position to something more visually appealing.
4. Type the first column text.
The text is left-justified, as it is normally.
5. Press the Tab key.
The insertion pointer hops to the right tab stop.
6. Type the second column text.
The text you type is right-justified, pushing to the left as you type.
7. Press Enter to end the line of text.
8. Repeat Steps 4 through 7 for every line in the list.
Afterward, you can adjust the list’s appearance: Select all the text as a block and
then drag the right tab stop back and forth on the ruler.
The Decimal Tab
Use the decimal tab to line up columns of numbers. Although you can use a right
tab for this job, the decimal tab is a better choice. Rather than right-align text, as
the right tab does (see the preceding section), the decimal tab aligns numbers by
their decimal — the period in the number, as shown in Figure 12-8.
Figure 12-8: Using the decimal tab to line up numbers.
Here's how to work with such a beast:
1. Start a blank line of text.
2.
On the ruler, click the Tab gizmo until the decimal tab stop
appears.
The Decimal Tab Stop icon is shown in the margin.
3. Click the ruler to set the decimal tab stop.
You can adjust the position later.
4. Type the first column text.
This step is optional, although in Figure 12-8 you see the first column as a list
of items.
5. Press the Tab key.
6. Type the number.
The number is right-justified until you press the period key. After that, the rest
of the number is left-justified.
7. End that line of text by pressing Enter.
8. Repeat Steps 4 through 7 for each line in the list.
You can make adjustments after the list is complete: Select all the lines in the list
and then drag the decimal tab stop left or right.
When a line doesn’t feature a period, text typed at a decimal tab stop is rightjustified, as shown by the word Free in Figure 12-8.
This tab stop is used inside a table cell or column to align values. See Chapter
19 for information on Word’s table commands.
The Bar Tab
Aside from being a most excellent pun, the bar tab isn’t a true tab stop in Word.
Instead, consider it a text decoration. Setting a bar tab merely inserts a vertical
bar in a line of text, as shown in Figure 12-9. Using a bar tab is much better than
using the pipe (|) character on the keyboard to create a vertical line in a
multicolumn list.
Figure 12-9: The mysterious bar tab.
To set a bar tab stop, follow these steps:
1.
Click the Tab gizmo until the bar tab stop appears.
The Bar Tab Stop icon is shown in the margin.
2. Click the ruler to place the bar tab stop.
At each position, a vertical bar appears in the text. The bar appears whether
or not the current line contains any tab characters.
To best use the bar tab stop, mix in a few other tab stops. For example, in Figure
12-9, left tab stops are set to the side of each bar tab stop. The effect is that text is
organized into columns, but the bar tab serves only to decorate the text. It has no
effect otherwise.
Fearless Leader Tabs
Press the Tab key and the insertion pointer hops over to the next tab stop. The
space added is empty, but it doesn’t have to be. Word lets you apply different
styles to the empty space, which help create something called a leader tab.
A leader tab shows a series of dots or other characters where the tab appears on
the page. Three styles are available: dot, dash, and underline, as illustrated in
Figure 12-10.
Figure 12-10: Leader tab styles.
You can apply a leader to any tab stop in Word other than the bar tab. To do so,
follow these steps:
1. Create the tab-formatted list.
Refer to sections elsewhere in this chapter for information on creating a list of
items.
2. Select the text as a block.
3. Bring forth the Tabs dialog box.
The quick shortcut is to double-click a tab on the ruler. Also see the section,
“Using the Tabs dialog box to set tabs.”
4. Select the tab stop from the Tab Stop Position list.
5. In the Leader area, choose the leader style.
6. Click the Set button.
Don't click OK before you set the tab stop to add the leader. This step
is the one you'll screw up most often.
7. Click OK.
The leader is applied.
Use the underline leader tab to create fill-in-the-blank forms. In the Tabs
dialog box, set a left tab stop at the far right margin (usually, 6.0 inches).
Choose the underline leader style (number 4). Click Set and then click OK.
Back in your document, type a tab to create a fill-in-the-blank line, such a:
Your name: _______________________________________________________
This format is far better than typing a zillion underlines.
Tab Stop, Be Gone!
To unset or clear a tab stop, follow these steps:
1. Select the paragraph(s) with the offending tab stop.
2. Drag the tab stop from the ruler.
Drag downward. The tab stop is removed from the paragraph(s).
Even though you’ve removed the tab stop, the tab character may still lurk
in the paragraph. Remember that Word places automatic tab stops on every
line of text.
For complex tab stop removal, such as when tab stops are close to each other or
to the paragraph indent controls on the ruler, use the Tabs dialog box: Click to
select the tab in the Tab Stop Position list, and then click the Clear button. Click
OK to exit the Tabs dialog box.
Clicking the Clear All button in the Tabs dialog box removes all tab stops
from the current paragraph or selected paragraphs in one drastic sweep.
To delete a tab character, use the Backspace key.
Chapter 13
Page Formatting
In This Chapter
Choosing the page size
Switching the page orientation
Setting margins
Automatically numbering your pages
Changing page numbers
Creating a new page
Coloring the page background
Including a watermark
Word is only mildly interested in the concept of a page. Unlike the real world,
where a page is a physical sheet of paper, Word conjures new pages when
needed, pulling them in from the electronic ether. That makes the concept of a
page ethereal. To root things in reality, Word lets you define the page format,
which includes the page size, orientation, margins, as well as other page formats
and attributes.
Describe That Page
Word begins its page-formatting adventure by defining exactly what a page looks
like. That includes the page’s physical dimensions and which portion of the page
contains text.
Setting page size
You probably assume that each new document starts with a page size reflecting a
typical sheet of paper.
Such foolishness.
Word’s Normal template does specify a page size equivalent to a standard sheet
of paper. In the US, that’s 8½-by-11 inches. In Europe, the A4 size is used.
You’re not stuck with either size, because the page size is part of the page format,
and you can change it. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Layout tab on the Ribbon.
2.
In the Page Setup group, click the Size button.
The Size button icon is shown in the margin.
3. Choose a page size from the list.
For example, if you want to print on that tall, legal-size paper, choose Legal
from the list.
Your entire document is updated to reflect the new page size, from first page to
last.
To select a size not shown on the menu (refer to Step 3), choose the More
Paper Sizes menu item. The Page Setup dialog box appears. Use the controls
on the Paper tab to manually specify the paper size.
Page size can be changed at any time, whether the document is empty or full of
text. Obviously page size affects layout, so such a major change is probably
something you don’t want to do at the last minute.
Your document can sport multiple page sizes. To do so, split the document
into sections and apply the page size to one section at a time. See Chapter 14
for information on sections. Applying page formats one section at a time is
done in the Page Setup dialog box, as described later in this chapter.
Page size definitely plays a role when a document is printed. Despite
your zeal to choose an oddball page size, unless the printer can handle that
size paper, the document can‘t be printed. It can, however, be published
electronically. That process is covered in Chapter 9.
Changing orientation (landscape or portrait)
An aspect of page size is whether the page is oriented vertically or horizontally.
(I’m assuming it’s no longer the fashion to print on square paper.) Page orientation
could be set by adjusting the page size, but it’s much easier to change the page
orientation. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Layout tab.
2.
Click the Orientation button.
The Orientation button is illustrated in the margin. It has two items on its
menu: Portrait and Landscape.
3. Choose Portrait to set the page vertically or Landscape to set the page
horizontally.
Word shifts the orientation for every page in your document. This doesn't mean
that the text is sideways, but rather that the text prints wide on a page (though I
suppose you could look at it as printing sideways).
Make the decision to have your document in landscape orientation
before you do any extensive formatting. This orientation affects paragraph
formatting, which may require you to adjust the document’s margins; see the
next section.
Page-orientation changes affect the entire document unless you split your
document into sections. In this case, the change applies to only the current
section. Read Chapter 14 for details on sections, including directions on how
to stick a single landscape page into a document that’s otherwise portrait
oriented.
Scientists who study such things have determined that human reading speed
slows drastically when people must scan a long line of text, which happens
when you use landscape orientation. Reserve landscape orientation for
printing lists, graphics, and tables for which portrait page orientation is too
narrow.
Landscape printing is ideal for using multiple columns of text. See Chapter 20.
If you just want sideways text without turning the page, use a text box. See
Chapter 23 for information on text boxes.
Setting the page margins
Margins create the text area on a page, left, right, top, and bottom. They provide
room between the text and the page’s edge, which keeps the text from leaking out
of a document and all over the computer.
Word automatically sets page margins at 1 inch from every page edge. Most
English teachers and book editors want margins of this size because these people
love to scribble in margins. (They even write that way on blank paper.)
To adjust page margins in Word, obey these steps:
1. Click the Layout tab.
2.
Click the Margins button.
It’s found in the Page Setup group and shown in the margin.
Clicking the Margins button displays a menu full of common margin options.
3. Pluck a proper margin setting from the menu.
The new margins affect all pages in your document — unless you split your
document into sections, in which case the changes apply to only the current
section. See Chapter 14 for information on sections.
The choices available on the Margins menu list settings for the top, left, bottom,
and right margins. Yes, all four margins are set at one time. When you want to set
specific margins, choose the Custom Margins item from the bottom of the menu,
and then use the Margins tab in the Page Setup dialog box to set each margin.
Refer to the next section for more information.
The Layout tab’s Margins button sets page margins. To set margins for one or
more paragraphs, refer to Chapter 11.
The orange stars appearing on the Margins menu's icons represent popular or
recent margin choices you've made.
Many printers cannot print on the outside half inch of a piece of paper,
usually on one side — top, bottom, left, or right. This space is an absolute
margin; although you can tell Word to set a margin of 0 inches, text may not
print there. Instead, choose a minimum of 0.5 inches for all margins.
Using the Page Setup dialog box
When you want more control over page formatting, you must beckon forth the Page
Setup dialog box, as shown in Figure 13-1. Specifically, you use the Margins tab
in that dialog box, which is shown in the figure.
Figure 13-1: The Margins tab in the Page Setup dialog box.
To use the Page Setup dialog box to specifically set page margins, obey these
steps:
1. Click the Layout tab.
2. Click the dialog box launcher in the lower-right corner of the Page Setup
group.
The Page Setup dialog box appears, Margins tab forward.
3. Type the margin offsets in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes.
Or you can use the spinner gizmo to set the values.
Use the Preview to check the margins as they relate to page size.
4. Ensure that Whole Document is chosen from the Apply To menu button.
You can reset margins for only a section or selected text if you instead choose
those options from the menu. See Chapter 14 for information on sections.
5. Click the OK button to confirm your new settings and close the Page
Setup dialog box.
The Gutter settings help set margins when you need extra space on one edge of the
page for binding. For example, if you plan on using a 3-hole punch on the left side
of a page, choose Left from the Gutter Position menu. Then increase the Gutter
margin to accommodate for the three holes in the page without affecting the left
margin setting.
The keyboard shortcut to summon the Page Setup dialog box is Alt+P, S, P.
The Page Setup dialog box sports three tabs: Margins, for setting margins,
Paper, for selecting the page size, and Layout, for dealing with other pageformatting issues.
Nutty multiple page options
In the Page Setup dialog box, nestled on the Margins tab, is the Pages area (refer to Figure 13-1).
The Multiple Pages drop-down list tells Word how to use a single sheet of paper for printing complex
documents. This is something you can avoid at all costs, yet I’m compelled by the Computer Book
Writers Union to describe the various settings:
Normal means one page per sheet of paper. You can't get more normal than that.
Mirror Margins is used when the printer is smart enough to print on both sides of a sheet of paper.
That way, every other page is flip-flopped so that their margins always line up. For example, the
gutter may be on the left side of one page but on the right for the page's back side.
2 Pages per Sheet splits the paper right down the center and forces Word to print two “pages” per
sheet of paper. Note that this option works best when the pages are in landscape orientation.
Book Fold is Word's attempt to create a multiple-page booklet by printing the proper pages on both
sides of a sheet of paper. The Sheets Per Booklet option that appears tells Word how long your
booklet is.
Despite these options, Word is a poor bookbinding program. If you're into document publishing,
consider getting a desktop-publishing program, such as Adobe InDesign or Microsoft Publisher,
which are far better equipped to deal with this topic.
Page Numbering
I remain puzzled by people who manually number their pages in Word. Such a
thing is silly beyond belief. That’s because
Your word processor numbers your pages for you!
Memorize it. Live it. Be it.
Adding an automatic page number
Word can not only automatically number your pages, but it also lets you place the
page number just about anywhere on the page and in a variety of fun and useful
formats. Heed these directions:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Header & Footer area, click the Page Number command button.
A menu drops down, showing various page-numbering options. The first three
are locations: Top of Page, Bottom of Page, and Page Margins (the sides of
the page).
3. Choose where to place the page numbers.
I want my page numbers on the bottom of the page, so I regularly choose the
Bottom of Page option.
4. Pluck a page-numbering style from the list.
You see oodles of samples, so don't cut yourself short by not scrolling through
the menu. You can even choose those famous page X of Y formats.
Dutifully, Word numbers each page in your document, starting with 1 on the first
page, up to however many pages long the thing grows.
Here’s the good part: If you delete a page, Word renumbers everything for you.
Insert a page? Word renumbers everything for you again, automatically. As long
as you insert the page number as described in this section, Word handles
everything.
To change the page number format, simply choose a new one from the Page
Number menu.
If you merely need to reference the current page number in your document’s
text, choose the Current Position item in Step 3. Word inserts the current page
number at the insertion pointer’s location.
The page numbers are placed in the document’s header or footer. See Chapter
14 for information on headers and footers.
Page numbers can be removed just as easily: See the section “Removing page
numbers,” later in this chapter.
See Chapter 23 for information on inserting a page number in your document’s
text, as opposed to in a header or footer.
Starting with a different page number
You and I know that the first page of a document is page 1, but Word doesn't care.
It lets you start numbering your document at whichever page number you want. If
you want to start numbering your document at page 42, you can do so, if you
follow these instructions:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Header & Footer area, choose Page Number
Format Page
Numbers.
The Page Number Format dialog box materializes, as shown in Figure 13-2.
Figure 13-2: Gain more control over page numbers.
3. Click the Start At radio button.
4. Type the starting page number in the box.
5. Click OK.
Word starts numbering your document at the specified page number. So if you
enter 42 in Step 4, the first page of the document is now page 42, the next page is
43, and so on.
Of course, this trick works best when page numbers are already set for your
document, as described in the preceding section.
For more page number control, split your document into sections.
Different page-numbering styles or sequences can be set for individual
sections. You can even suppress page numbers for a section, such as not
numbering the first (cover) page of a document. See Chapter 14 for more
information on sections.
If you are working on a novel, don’t worry about setting page numbers for
each chapter. That’s insane. Instead, use Word’s Master Document feature to
set page numbering when you’re finished. See Chapter 25.
Numbering with Roman numerals
When the urge hits you to regress a few centuries and use Roman numerals to tally
a document's pages, Word is happy to oblige. Sic facite:
1. Set the location for page numbers in your document.
Refer to the section “Adding an automatic page number.” Once page numbers
are established, you can set a different format.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. Click the Page Number command button and choose Format Page
Numbers.
The Page Number Format dialog box appears.
4. Choose a style from the Number Format menu.
Two Roman numeral styles are available, lowercase and uppercase.
5. Click OK.
Hail Caesar!
Removing page numbers
To banish automatic page numbers from above, below, or anywhere around your
text, follow these steps:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. Click the Page Number command button.
3. Choose Remove Page Numbers.
And they’re gone.
These steps remove only the page numbers set by using the Page Number
command button, as described earlier in this chapter. Page numbers you’ve
inserted in the text are unaffected, as are any page numbers you’ve manually
added to a document’s header or footer.
To remove a manually inserted page number, use the Backspace key. Such page
numbers are actually document fields. See Chapter 23 for information on fields.
New Pages from Nowhere
With Word, you’ll never have the excuse “I need more pages” when writing text.
That’s because Word adds new, blank pages as needed. These pages are
appended to the end of the document, so even if you're typing in the midst of a
chapter, the extra pages keep appearing so that no text is lost and nothing falls off
the edge. That's refreshing, but it’s not the end of Word’s capability to add new
pages into your document.
Starting text on a new page
You have two choices when it comes to starting text at the top of a page in the
middle of a document.
The first choice is to keep whacking the Enter key until that new page shows up.
This approach is horribly wrong. It works, but it leads to trouble later as you edit
your document.
The second, and preferred, choice is to insert a hard page break:
1. Position the insertion pointer where you want one page to end and the
next page to start.
I recommend splitting the page at the start of a new paragraph.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. In the Pages group, click the Page Break command button.
Text before the insertion pointer is on the previous page, and text after the
insertion pointer is on the next page.
The hard page break stays with your text. No matter how you edit or add text, the
split between pages remains.
The keyboard shortcut to split pages is Ctrl+Enter.
To remove a hard page break, position the insertion pointer at the top of the
page just after the break. Press the Backspace key. If you goof up, use Ctrl+Z
to undo.
Use the Show/Hide command to view the hard page-break character.
See Chapter 2 for information on the Show/Hide command
The hard page break is easier to see in Draft view.
Inserting a blank page
Suddenly, you need a blank page in the middle of a document. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Pages group, click the Blank Page command button.
A new blank page appears at the insertion pointer’s position.
Any text before the insertion pointer appears before the blank page. Any text after
the insertion pointer appears after the new page.
The Blank Page command inserts two hard page breaks in the document.
Be mindful of the material you place on the new, blank page. Because
two hard page breaks produce the page, its best suited for single-page items,
such as graphics or a table. Anything longer than a page makes the rest of the
document formatting look funky.
You don’t need to use this command to add a new page at the end of your
document. Just keep typing.
Page Background Froufrou
A page is also a canvas, a background upon which your document rests. That
background sports a few formatting options of its own, items that dwell outside a
document but remain part of the page formatting.
Coloring pages
The simple way to print colored pages is to choose color paper. When the price
of printer ink isn’t an option, you can direct Word to format each page in a
document with a different background color. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Design tab.
2. In the Page Background group, click the Page color button.
You see a menu full of colors.
3. Choose a color from the palette.
Or choose the More Colors menu item to pluck out your own favorite page
background color.
The color chosen in Step 3 is applied to the document’s pages.
To remove the color, choose the item No Color in Step 3.
The colors displayed in the Page Color menu are based on the document
theme. See Chapter 16 for information on document themes.
Page color is independent of text foreground and background color. See
Chapter 10.
Unlike page size, orientation, and numbering, page background color is
unaffected by document sections. The color is applied to every page in every
section. See Chapter 14 for more information on document sections.
Choose the Fill Effects menu item in Step 3 to view the Fill Effects dialog
box. Click the Gradient tab to set gradients, or multiple colors, as the page
background. Use the Picture tab to apply an image to each page’s background.
Printing colored pages
Viewing a colored page on the screen is one thing. Seeing it printed is another. In
Word, you must direct the printer to print page background color by following
these steps:
1. Click the File tab and choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
2. Choose Display from the left side of the Word Options dialog box.
3. In the Printing Options area, put a check mark by the item labeled Print
Background Colors and Images.
4. Click OK.
The page background color now appears when the document is printed —
well, assuming that you have a color printer.
Because the color isn’t part of the paper, it doesn’t cover the entire
printed page. That's because your printer cannot mechanically access the
outside edge of a page, so a white border (or whatever other color the paper
is) appears around your colored page. At this point, ask yourself whether it's
easier to use colored paper rather than all that expensive printer ink or toner.
Adding a watermark
When fine paper is held up to the light, it shows a watermark — an image
embedded into the paper. The image is impressive but faint. Word lets you fake a
watermark by inserting faint text or graphics behind every page in your document.
Here's how:
1. Click the Design tab.
2. In the Page Background group, click the Watermark button.
A menu plops down with a host of predefined watermarks that you can safely
duck behind the text on your document's pages.
3. Choose a watermark from the menu.
The watermark is applied to every page in your document.
To rid your document's pages of the watermark, choose the Remove Watermark
command in Step 3.
To customize the watermark, choose the Custom Watermark command from
the Watermark menu. Use the Printed Watermark dialog box to create your
own watermark text, or import an image, such as your company logo.
The watermark appears on all pages in a document. It’s unaffected by section
breaks. See Chapter 14 for information on section breaks.
If the watermark doesn't show up in the printed document, you may need to
enable the Print Background Colors and Images setting. Refer to the preceding
section.
Chapter 14
More Page Formatting
In This Chapter
Using sections
Placing a cover page on your document
Adding a header or footer
Creating unique headers and footers
Suppressing the header and footer on the first page
Working with headers and footers in sections
Deleting a header or footer
Rare is the Hollywood sequel that’s better than the original. Most of them present
rehashed material, obviously just to make a buck. More common these days is for
a complex storyline to be split between several films. Again, the motive is to
make a buck, but at least the plot holds through the sequels.
When it comes to this book, a sequel isn’t necessary. No, I just took the complex
storyline associated with page formatting and split it between two chapters. This
chapter continues the saga of Page Format and his adventures in Documentland.
Villains abound and peril lies on every page, but the resolution is solid and
satisfying.
Slice Your Document into Sections
Many Word page formats apply to an entire document, from “once upon a time” to
“happily ever after.” Change a format for one page, and it’s reflected on every
page. That is, unless the document is sliced into larger format chunks called
sections.
Understanding sections
A section is a part of a document that contains its own page formatting. It can be a
single page or a range of pages. A document can sport one or many sections. Each
section can sport its own page format, independent of the other sections.
All Word documents have one section. And if you don’t plan on changing the page
format for the entire document, one section is all you'll ever need. If you plan on
changing page numbers, page orientation, paper size, headers and footers, or
similar page formats, the document needs more sections.
Figure 14-1 lists three examples of documents sliced up into sections.
Figure 14-1: How sections control page formatting.
In Example 1, a single document contains two sections. The first section uses
Roman numeral page numbers. The second section uses human numerals.
In Example 2, the document also contains two sections. The first section is a
cover page that has no page numbering. The second section — all the remaining
pages — uses page numbering. Also, see how the second page in the document is
numbered as page 1? Again, that’s because the page numbering applies only to
section 2.
In Example 3, the document has three sections. The first and third sections sport
the same formatting; the second section was created so that page 6 could be
presented in landscape orientation.
In all three examples, the document’s text and paragraph formats remain
unaffected by sections. Even page-level formatting can be unaffected: The new
page format must be applied specifically to the current section. More information
about that process is presented in this chapter as well as in Chapter 13.
Creating a section
If you’re new to the concept of sections, think of a new section as similar to a
page break. The difference is that the new page starts a new section.
To start a new section in your document, heed these steps:
1. Position the toothpick cursor where you want the new section to start.
Click the mouse where you need to begin a new section, similar to creating a
new page break.
2. Click the Layout tab on the Ribbon.
3. In the Page Setup area, click the Breaks button.
A menu appears, listing several items. The last four items are various section
breaks.
4. Choose Next Page from the Breaks button menu.
A page break is inserted in your document; a new section has started.
When using Print Layout view, the section break looks like a page break. It works
like one too: Text stops on the page before the section break and then starts at the
top of the next page. Each page, however, is in a different document section.
After the section is created, you can modify the page layout and format of each
section in your document.
Choose Continuous in Step 4 to place a more flexible form of section break
into your document. Depending on which page formats are changed between
sections, the Continuous section break may start a new page or it may not.
The Even Page and Odd Page section breaks work just like the Next Page
section break, but they happen only on even pages or odd pages, respectively.
These section breaks are designed for documents that use odd and even
headers or sport unique margins for binding purposes.
When working with sections, I recommend placing the Section item on
the status bar: Right-click the status bar and choose Section from the menu.
The Section item lists the current section by number as you work through your
document.
Using sections
Sections come into play when using a page-formatting command. You have two
options.
The first option is to place the insertion pointer into a specific section and then
issue the page-formatting command. For example, in Figure 14-1, Example 1, with
the insertion pointer in section 2, change the page number format as described in
Chapter 13. The change applies only to that section.
In Figure 14-1, example 3, the insertion pointer is placed in section 2, and then the
page orientation is changed. That change doesn’t affect sections 1 or 3.
The Page Setup dialog box features a special menu for applying changes made to
only the current section. Use the Apply To drop-down menu, shown in Figure 142, to choose the item titled This Section. Click OK and the changes made in the
dialog box apply only to the current section.
Figure 14-2: Applying page formatting to one section only.
Deleting a section break
A section break sits in your document just like any other character, although it’s
invisible. To best delete it, you need to see it. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Paragraph group, click the Show/Hide command button.
Hidden codes and characters are revealed in the document.
3. Position the insertion pointer to the start (left end) of the double-dashed
lines that say Section Break.
4. Press the Delete key.
The section break is gone.
5. Click the Show/Hide command button again to hide the codes.
After the section break vanishes, the page formatting may change, adopting the
format from the previous section. That’s to be expected, but it may alter things you
can’t see, such as page numbering and headers and footers.
If you regret your decision to remove the page number, press Ctrl+Z to undo.
That First Page
Even when you’re blessed with a superior knowledge of paragraph formatting and
you fully understand the magic of the section break, formatting that first page can
be a bother. The kids at Microsoft are aware of your frustration, so they concocted
some special first-page formatting features for Word.
Adding a cover page
The sneakiest way to slap down a cover page on your document is to use Word’s
Cover Page command. Here's how it works:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Pages group, click the Cover Page button.
If you don’t see the Pages group or Cover Page button, click the Pages button
and then click the Cover Page icon.
The Cover Page button displays a fat, fun menu full of various cover-page
layouts.
3. Choose a cover-page layout that titillates you.
The cover page is immediately inserted as the first page in your document.
Many preset cover pages feature replaceable text, such as [COMPANY NAME].
Click that text and type something appropriate, such as your actual company name.
Do so for all bracketed text on the inserted cover page.
You can change a cover page at any time by choosing a new one from the
Cover Page menu. The new cover page retains any replacement text you typed.
To remove a cover page, summon the Cover Page menu and choose the item
Remove Current Cover Page.
The cover page you add is followed by a hard page break. It is not a section
break. Even so, it’s treated differently from certain page-formatting commands
applied to the rest of the document. That means if you add page numbers or a
header or footer to your document, the formatting applies to only the second
and later pages, not to the cover page.
Inserting a cover page manually
When you’re unsatisfied with Word’s Cover Page designs, you can craft your own
document cover page. All the formatting tools and document tricks presented in
this book are at your disposal. You just need to insert the page at the start of the
document.
Here are the general steps to take:
1. Before writing the cover page, position the toothpick cursor at the tippytop of the document.
This step applies whether you’ve written the document or not. If you’ve
already written the cover page, position the toothpick cursor at the end of the
page. And if you’ve put in a hard page break after the cover page, delete it.
2. Click the Layout tab.
3. Choose Breaks
Next Page.
A section break splits the first page from the rest of the document as its own
section.
4. Create the cover page.
Add a title, additional text, graphics, and various document froufrou.
As the first (cover) page is now its own section, the page formatting it sports can
be separated from the rest of the document. If you apply page numbering, do so on
the second page (in section 2), and ensure that the numbering applies only to that
section. The end result is shown in Figure 14-1, Example 2.
Headers and Footers
To best understand headers and footers, it helps to know the difference between a
header and a heading and between a footer and a footnote. Specifically, what’s a
header and what’s a footer?
A header is text that appears at the top of every page in a document. A heading is
a text style used to break up a long document, to introduce new concepts, and to
help organize the text.
A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page in a document. A footnote
is a tiny bit of text that appears at the bottom of a page, usually a reference to
some text on that page.
Typical headers and footers contain page numbers, your name, the document
name, the date, and other information that's handy to have on every page.
Headers and footers dwell in special, exclusive areas outside the realm of
regular text. These areas are found in all Word documents, but unless you
place some text or other items inside those areas, they remain invisible.
See Chapter 15 for more information on headings.
For details on footnotes, see Chapter 21.
Headers can also be called eyebrows. Weird, huh?
Using a preset header or footer
Most documents use typical headers and footers, placing common information into
one or both areas. To accommodate your hurried desires, you can quickly shove
such a preset header or footer into your document. Heed these steps:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. From the Header & Footer group, choose the Header button.
The Header menu shows a list of preformatted headers.
3. Choose a template.
The header is added to the document, saved as part of the page format. Also,
the Header & Footers Tools Design tab appears on the Ribbon.
4. Change any [Type here] text in the header.
Click the bracketed text and type to personalize your header.
5. Use the commands on the Header & Footer Tools Design tab, Insert
group to add specific items in the header.
Examples are offered in the sections that follow.
6.
When you’re done working on the header, click the Close Header
and Footer button.
The button is found on the far-right end of the Header & Footer Tools Design
tab.
To add a footer, choose the Footer button in Step 2 and think of the word footer
whenever you see the word header in the preceding steps.
After you exit from the header or footer, you can see its text at the top or bottom of
your document. It appears ghostly, to let you know that it’s there but not part of the
document. To edit the header or footer, double-click that ghostly text.
Creating a custom header or footer
When one of the preset header/footer designs doesn’t cut it, consider creating your
own. The secret is to double-click the space at the top or bottom of the page. The
header or footer area, respectively, becomes active.
You can place text or any other item, including graphics, in a header or footer.
Common and useful commands appear on the Header & Footer Tools Design tab,
but you can use any tab on the Ribbon to create and customize a header or footer.
To switch between the header and footer when editing, click the Go to
Footer button. To switch back, click Go to Header. These buttons are found
on the Header & Footer Tools Design tab in the Navigation group.
Type text
Any text you type in a header or footer becomes part of the header or footer. It
doesn’t have to be fancy text, just whatever text you want appearing at the top or
bottom of every page in the document.
The standard format for lines in a header or footer includes two tab stops: A
center tab stop in the middle of the page and a right tab stop aligned with the right
margin. Use these tab stops, as illustrated in Figure 14-3, to create useful header
text.
Figure 14-3: Text in a header and a footer.
Add a page number
It’s tempting, and it seems like the obvious choice, but don’t use the Page Number
command on the Header & Footer Tools Design toolbar. If you need a page
number in a header or footer, add a document page-number field. Follow these
steps.
1. Position the insertion pointer where you want the page number to appear.
2. Click the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
3. In the Insert group, click the Document Info button and choose Field.
The Field dialog box appears. It’s a busy place, covered in full detail in
Chapter 23.
4. From the Categories menu, choose Numbering.
5. In the Field names list, click to select Page.
6. Choose a Format.
For example, choose the item 1, 2, 3, … to use that numbering style.
7. Click the OK button.
The Page field is inserted in the header. It reflects the current page number for
every page printed in the document.
You don’t have to go to page 1 to insert a page number in a header.
Word is smart enough to place the proper number on the proper page, no
matter where you’re editing the header in your document.
If you want one of those “Page 3 of 45” things in a header or footer,
you need two fields: The Page field as described in this section and the
NumPages field. To add that field, repeat the steps in this section, but in Step
4 choose Document Information and in Step 5 choose NumPages.
Add the date and time
To place the current date or time or an updating time field in a header or footer,
follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion pointer where you want the date or time to appear.
2. Click the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
3. In the Insert group, click the Date & Time command button.
The Date and Time dialog box appears.
4. Choose a format for the date, or the time, or both.
5. To keep the date and time information current, place a check mark by the
option Update Automatically.
6. Click OK.
Also see Chapter 23 for information on the PrintDate field.
Working with multiple headers and footers
As your document grows more complex, so does the need for headers and footers
to accommodate it. As an example, this book uses different headers for its odd and
even pages. Or maybe you have a document where you don’t want the header on
the first page. All of that is possible.
Odd and even headers and footers
To spice up your document with a different header and footer on the odd (left) and
even (right) pages, obey these steps:
1. Create a header or footer, as described elsewhere in this chapter.
You don’t have to create a header — just double-click the header or footer
area. As long as you see the Header & Footer Tools Design tab, you’re in
business.
2. Click the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
3. Click the Different Odd & Even Pages check box.
With this feature active, Word sets up headers and footers for odd and even
pages. The Header and Footer tags in the document reflect the change as well,
saying Odd Page Footer or Even Page Footer. The tag tells you which header
or footer you're editing.
4. Create the header and footer for the odd pages.
Follow the suggestions listed in this chapter.
5. In the Navigation group, click the Next button.
Word displays the even page header or footer, allowing you to create or edit
its contents. The Header or Footer tag changes to reflect which header you're
editing.
If clicking the Next button does nothing, your document has only one page.
Add a page to enable the even headers and footers.
To return to the odd header or footer, click the Previous button.
6. Close the header or footer when you’re done.
To return to using only one header and footer for a document, repeat these steps
but in Step 3 remove the check mark. Any even header and footer you’ve set is
removed, leaving only the odd header and footer.
No header or footer on the first page
Most people don't want the header or footer on the first page, which is usually the
title page or a cover page. Suppressing the header for that page is easy, if you
follow these steps:
1. Edit the document’s header or footer.
2. Click the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
3. In the Options group, place a check mark by Different First Page.
That’s it.
The Header or Footer tag on the first page changes to read First Page Header or
First Page Footer. It's your visual clue that the first page of the document sports a
different header from the ones in the rest of the document. If you don’t want
anything to appear there, leave it blank.
Headers, footers, and sections
As a document format, headers and footers can be unique to the different sections
in your document. Unless you direct Word otherwise, all sections use the same
headers and footers. To break the link between all the sections and set a new
header and footer for a specific section, follow these steps:
1. Edit the document’s header or footer.
I’m assuming that the document has multiple pages, at least two sections, and
that the Header & Footer Tools Design tab is displayed.
2. Click the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
3. In the Navigation Group, click the Next button to locate the start of the
next section’s header or footer.
The Header or Footer tag is updated to reflect the current section, as shown in
Figure 14-4. You also see the text Same as Previous, which is the clue that the
header is identical to the header in the previous section. For example, if you
change something in the first section’s header, the change is reflected in all
linked headers.
Figure 14-4: A header in Section 2, linked to Section 1.
4. In the Navigation group, click the button Link to Previous.
The link is broken. The tag Same as Previous disappears. The header or footer
doesn’t change — yet.
5. Edit the section’s header or footer.
Changes made apply only to the current section.
The link is what confuses a lot of people. They know about sections, but when
they change the header or footer in one section, the text isn’t updated. That’s
because the link hasn’t been broken, as described in these steps.
To restore the link, return to the given section’s header or footer and repeat the
steps in this section. Clicking the Link to Previous button a second time
reestablishes the link.
This trick may not work if your document uses different headers and footers on
odd and even pages, as described earlier in this chapter.
The Different First Page option, described earlier in this chapter,
doesn’t link the header or footer between the first page and the rest of the
document.
Removing a header or a footer
You can’t destroy the header or footer area in a document, but you can remove all
text and other stuff: Edit the header or footer, press Ctrl+A to select everything,
and press the Delete key. Poof!
The more official way to remove a header or footer is to follow these steps:
1. Edit the document’s header or footer.
2. Click the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
3. In the Header & Footer group, click the Header button.
4. Choose Remove Header.
The header is gone.
5. Click the Footer button and choose Remove Footer.
The footer is gone.
Chapter 15
Style Formatting
In This Chapter
Understanding styles
Finding where Word hides styles
Applying styles
Removing styles
Creating your own styles
Modifying styles
Assigning a style shortcut key
If all of Word’s formatting commands are ingredients, a style is a recipe. It’s a
single command that applies a virtual stew of formatting commands, all at once.
Even better, when you update or change a style, all text formatting using that style
changes as well. In the end, you save time — and your documents look fabulous.
The Big Style Overview
A style is a collection of text and paragraph formats. These formats are saved as a
collection, given a name, and applied to text just like any other format. The
difference is that when you apply a style, you’re applying all the formats stored in
that style. For heavy-duty formatting, styles save time.
Styles are available in all documents, whether or not you choose to use them. In
fact, any text you type has a style automatically applied; it can’t be avoided. All
text in a blank document uses the Normal style, Word’s primary (or default) text
style.
The Normal style is defined with the following formats: Calibri font, 11 points
tall, left-justified paragraphs, multiple line spacing at 1.08 lines, no indenting,
zero margins, and 8 points of space after every paragraph.
Word’s Style names give you a clue to how to use the style, such as Heading 1 for
the document’s top-level heading, or Caption, used for figure and table captions.
Styles are also categorized by which part of the document they affect. Five style
types are available:
Paragraph: The paragraph style contains both paragraph- and textformatting attributes: indents, tabs, font, text size — you name it. It’s the most
common type of style.
Character: The character style applies to characters, not paragraphs.
This type of style uses the character-formatting commands, which are
mentioned in Chapter 10.
Linked: The linked style can be applied to both paragraphs and
individual characters. The difference depends on which text is selected when
the style is applied.
Table: The table style is applied to tables, to add lines and shading to
the table cells' contents. Refer to Chapter 19 for more information on tables in
Word.
List: The list style is customized for presenting lists of information. The
styles can include bullets, numbers, indentation, and other formats typical for
the parts of a document that present lists of information. See Chapter 21 for
info on lists.
These types come into play when you create your own styles, as well as when
you’re perusing styles to apply to your text.
Finding the styles
Styles dwell on the Home tab, in the aptly named Styles group, as shown in Figure
15-1. What you see on the Ribbon is the Style Gallery, which can be expanded
into a full menu of style choices, as illustrated in the figure.
Figure 15-1: Where Word styles lurk.
Click the dialog box launcher in the lower-right corner of the Styles group to view
the Styles pane, also shown in Figure 15-1. To dismiss the Styles pane, click the
X (Close) button in its upper-right corner.
The Styles pane lists more styles than the Style Gallery, including styles
you’ve created.
To preview the styles in the Styles pane, put a check in the box by the Show
Preview option, found at the bottom of the Styles pane.
You can see more information about a style by simply hovering the mouse
pointer over the style’s name in the Styles pane.
To view all available styles in the Styles pane, click the Options link (in the
lower-right corner). In the Styles Pane Options dialog box, choose All Styles
from the Select Styles to Show menu. Click OK.
Word’s predefined styles are specified in the Style Gallery, though you can
customize the list to replace Word’s styles with your own. See the section
“Customizing the Style Gallery,” later in this chapter.
Using a style
Styles are applied to text just like any other formatting: Select a block of text and
then apply the style or choose the style and start typing. The big difference
between a style and an individual format is that the style contains multiple
formats, applied all at once.
As you hover the mouse pointer over a style in the Style Gallery, text in the
document is updated with a style preview.
Some styles are assigned a keyboard shortcut. For example, the shortcut for
the Normal style is Ctrl+Shift+N. Use the keyboard shortcut to apply the style.
Heading styles play a special role in Word. They’re used for
document navigation, outlining, as well as creating a table of contents. See the
later section “Creating heading styles” for details.
As with any other formatting, applying a style replaces the text’s previously
applied style.
Also see the later section “Removing style formatting.”
Discovering the current style
To determine which style is currently in use, refer to the Style Gallery. The style
of any selected text, or text where the insertion pointer blinks, appears
highlighted. The current style is also highlighted if the Styles pane is visible.
To specifically examine the style for any text, use the Style Inspector. Follow
these steps:
1. Place the insertion pointer in a specific chunk of text.
2. Click the Home tab.
3. Click the launcher icon in the lower-right corner of the Styles group.
The Styles pane appears.
4.
Click the Style Inspector button.
The Style Inspector icon is shown in the margin.
Upon success, you see the Style Inspector window, similar to what’s shown in
Figure 15-2. The Style Inspector discloses the text’s formatting based on the style
plus any additional formatting applied to the style.
Figure 15-2: Style Inspector.
To see even more details, such as the specific formats used, click the Reveal
Formatting button, as illustrated in Figure 15-2. Use the Reveal Formatting pane to
examine all details for the style.
The shortcut key to summon the Reveal Formatting pane is Shift+F1.
The Reveal Formatting pane shows the exact formatting applied to your
document’s text. Click any jot or tittle to expose the specifics. Choose a link in
the pane to summon the proper dialog box to alter or remove a formatting
tidbit.
Removing style formatting
You don’t remove style formatting from text as much as you reapply another style.
The only official way to remove a style is to replace it with the Normal style.
Because many Word users don’t understand styles, Word comes with Clear
Formatting commands. You can see such commands referenced in Figure 15-2,
which illustrates the Style Inspector. Clicking those buttons simply replaces the
given style with the Normal style.
See the section, “Updating the Normal style,” for more details on setting
default formatting.
Also see Chapter 10 for information on using the Clear Formatting command,
which applies to font formats.
Make Your Own Styles
To convince you why styles are important, consider this: You create a custom
format for your document’s headings. You pick the right font, size, and color, and
add just enough space after the heading. Then you decide to change the font. If
you’d created a style, you'd make only one change and all the document’s headers
would be updated. Otherwise, you must change each individual heading. And that
sucks.
Creating a style
The easiest way to make up a new style is to format a single paragraph just the
way you like. Once you’ve set text and paragraph formatting, follow these steps to
create the new style:
1. Select the text you’ve formatted.
2. Click the Home tab.
3. In the Styles group, display the full Quick Styles Gallery.
Click the down-pointing arrow in the lower-right corner of the Gallery.
4. Choose the command Create a Style.
The Create New Style from Formatting dialog box appears.
5. In the Name box, type a short and descriptive name for your style.
For example, proposal body for the main text of a proposal or dialog for a
character’s lines in a play.
6. Click the OK button to create the style.
The style is created and applied to the selected text.
The style you create appears on the Ribbon, in the Style Gallery.
Styles you create are saved with the document, along with the text and other
document info.
To make the style available to other documents, build a template, as described
in Chapter 16. Styles in a template are available to all documents created by
using that template.
You may have to tweak some settings in your style. See the section
“Modifying a style,” later in this chapter.
Using the Create New Style from Formatting dialog box
A more detailed way to build a style is to summon the Create New Style from
Formatting dialog box. Beyond having a tediously long name, the Create New
Style from Formatting dialog box lists all Word’s formatting settings and options
in one place. If you’re familiar with Word’s formatting commands, you can use the
dialog box to create new styles. Follow these steps:
1. Summon the Styles pane.
The keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+Alt+S, If you don’t want to tie your
fingers in a knot, see the earlier section “Finding the styles” for the long way
to bring up the Styles pane.
2.
Click the New Style button.
The button is shown in the margin. Click it to see the Create New Style from
Formatting dialog box, as shown in Figure 15-3.
3. Type a short, descriptive name for the new style.
4. Ensure that Paragraph is chosen for the style type.
If the format is a character style, choose Character. An example of a character
style is blue, bold, Courier, 12-point — the one that I use in my documents for
filenames.
5. Choose an existing style as a base from the Style Based On drop-down
list.
Use this step to save time. If the style you’re creating features a lot of the same
formatting as an existing style, choose that style from the list. The formats from
that style are copied over, letting you build upon them or reuse them in a
different way.
6. Use the controls in the dialog box to set the style’s format.
The Create New Style from Formatting dialog box is brimming with style
command buttons.
Use the Format button in the dialog box’s lower-left corner to apply specific
formatting commands. Choose a category from the button’s menu to see a
dialog box specific to one of Word’s formatting categories.
7. Click the OK button when you’re done.
Figure 15-3: The Create New Style from Formatting dialog box.
The new style is created.
The follow-me style
A great shortcut for applying styles is the Style for Following Paragraph menu, found at the top of the
Create New Style from Formatting dialog box. When you choose a style from this item’s menu,
Word switches automatically to that style after using the current style. It’s what I call the follow-me
style.
For example, suppose your Document Title style is followed by the First Paragraph style. After
typing the Document Title text, Word switches to the First Paragraph style for you. That type of
formatting control can save you time.
Modifying a style
Styles change. Who knows? Maybe blow-dried hair and wide lapels will creep
back into vogue someday.
When you change your mind about a style and want to update some specific
element, heed these steps:
1. Summon the Styles pane.
Keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Alt+S.
2. Position the mouse pointer over the style you want to change.
Don’t click, which selects the style. Instead, hover the pointer in the style’s
entry and a menu button appears on the right.
3. Click the menu button.
The style’s menu appears.
4. Choose Modify.
The Modify Style dialog box appears, although it's the same Create New Style
from Formatting dialog box (refer to Figure 15-3), just with a shorter name.
5. Change the style’s formatting.
Use the Format button to alter specific styles: font, paragraph, tabs, and so on.
You can even add new formatting options or assign a shortcut key (covered in
the next section).
6. Click OK when you’re done.
Modifying the style affects updates text with that style applied. For example, if
you change the font for your Figure Caption style, all figure caption text changes at
once. That’s the power of using styles.
Assigning a shortcut key to your style
With a keyboard-centric program such as Word, it’s handy to use shortcut keys.
When you find yourself applying the same styles over and over, why not assign
them a special shortcut key combination? Follow these steps:
1. Press the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Shift+Alt+S to summon the Styles pane.
2. In the Styles pane, click a style’s menu button.
Position the mouse pointer over the style you want to change and the menu
button appears.
3. Choose Modify.
The Modify Style dialog box appears.
4. Click the Format button and choose Shortcut Key from the menu.
The Customize Keyboard dialog box appears. The two items you must pay
attention to are the Press New Shortcut key box and the area just below the
Current Key list.
5. Press your shortcut key combination.
Use at least two of the shift keys — Shift, Alt, or Ctrl — when
pressing your shortcut key combination. Most of the Ctrl+Alt key
combinations are unassigned in Word.
The keys you press are named in the Press New Shortcut Key box.
If you make a mistake, press the Backspace key and then choose another key
combination.
6. Confirm that the key combination you chose isn't already in use.
Look below the Current Keys list. The text there explains which Word
command uses the key combination you’ve pressed. When you see
[unassigned], it means that your key combination is good to go.
7. Click the Assign button.
8. Click the Close button.
The Customize Keyboard dialog box skulks away.
9. Click the OK button to dismiss the Modify Style dialog box.
Try out your shortcut: Position the insertion pointer in a block of text and press the
key combination. The style is applied instantly.
I’ll be honest: All the good shortcut keys are taken. Word uses most of
them for its important commands. That leaves you with some Shift+Alt and
Ctrl+Alt key combinations. They’re better than nothing.
Deleting a style
To peel away any style you’ve created, follow these steps:
1. Display the Styles pane.
The keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+Alt+S.
2. Right-click the style you want to obliterate.
3. Choose the Delete item.
The Delete item is followed by the style’s name.
4. Click the Yes button to confirm.
The style is removed from the document.
You cannot delete the Normal or Heading style or any other standard
Word style.
Style Tips and Tricks
Awash in a sea of styles, it’s easy to overlook some of the more subtle aspects of
Word’s styles. For example, the Normal style need not be stuck the way Word
presets things. And those heading styles offer more power than you may suspect.
Updating the Normal style
All documents sport the Normal style, which is the standard text and paragraph
style and probably the style upon which all your personal styles are based. Like
just about anything in Word, the Normal style can be changed — but I urge caution
if you do so.
To alter the Normal styles font or paragraph format, summon the Font or
Paragraph dialog boxes. Refer to specific steps in Chapters 10 and 11 for details.
In both dialog boxes, you find a Set as Default button. To update the Normal style
with changes made in either dialog box, click that button.
For example, to reset the Normal style’s font to Times New Roman, follow these
steps:
1. Apply the Normal style to the current paragraph.
2. Press Ctrl+D to summon the Font dialog box.
3. Choose Times New Roman as the font.
4. Click the Set as Default button.
A dialog box appears.
5. Choose the All Documents option to update the Normal template and
change the Normal style for all documents.
If you choose the This Document Only option, the style is updated only for the
current document.
6. Click OK.
I don’t recommend making this choice unless you’re determined to alter the
Normal style. Mostly, people get into trouble when they accidentally change the
Normal style and then want to change it back. If so, follow the steps in this section
to restore the Normal style. A description of Word 2016’s Normal style can be
found in the earlier section, “The Big Style Overview.”
Creating heading styles
Word’s heading styles are numbered Heading 1, Heading 2, on down to Heading
9. You use them to identify different parts of a document, but they also take
advantage of other Word features.
For example, text formatted with a heading style appears whenever you use the
vertical scroll bar to skim a document. Headings can be expanded or collapsed,
as part of Word’s Outline feature, as described in Chapter 25. Headings appear in
the Navigation pane when you search for text. They can be used when creating a
table of contents.
You’re not stuck with using Word’s preset heading styles; you can create
your own. The key is to set your own heading style’s outline level: In the
Paragraph dialog box, use the Outline Level menu to set the heading level:
Set Level 1 from the Outline Level menu for top-level headings. For the next
heading level (subheading), choose Level 2, and so on. These paragraph
formats are used by Word’s document organization tools, such as the
Navigation pane and table of contents command.
Follow the steps in the earlier section “Using the Create New Style from
Formatting dialog box” to update your heading styles to reflect the proper Outline
Level paragraph format.
Heading text is typically only one line long. Larger font sizes are usually
selected. The Space After paragraph format is frequently applied.
Word’s predefined Title style isn’t a heading style.
Customizing the Style Gallery
To ensure that the styles you use most appear in the Style Gallery, follow these
steps:
1. Summon the Styles pane.
Press the ungainly Ctrl+Shift+Alt+S key combination.
2. Right-click the style you want to add to the Style Gallery.
3. Choose the command Add to Style Gallery.
To remove a style from the Style Gallery, right-click the style and choose the
command Remove from Style Gallery from the shortcut menu that appears.
Although this trick can be useful, the Style Gallery shows only a pittance
of the styles available to a document. When you find yourself using more than
a half-dozen or so styles (or however many show up on the Ribbon), use the
Styles pane instead.
Chapter 16
Template and Themes Formatting
In This Chapter
Understanding templates
Using templates
Attaching a template to a document
Creating a document template
Changing a template
Understanding themes
Formatting a document with a theme
Creating your own themes
You can exert great effort on the formatting task, getting your text to look just so.
Given that the computer is supposed to save you time, obviously a better way must
exist. That way is to use a template or a theme. These tools format your prose
easily and rapidly. You can choose form a preset template or theme, or you can
craft your own templates to preserve previous formatting efforts. Either way, the
goal is to automate the document-formatting chore.
Instant Documents with Templates
A template is a timesaver. It lets you create documents that use the same styles and
formatting without your having to re-create all that work and effort. Basically, the
template saves time.
Choosing a specific template for a document is optional.
When you don’t choose a template and elect to start a blank document, you’re
using the Normal template.
Every document in Word is based on a template. Some Word users
refer to templates as being attached to documents.
Word’s templates are divided into two categories: Featured and Personal. The
Featured templates are those supplied by Microsoft and made available over
the Internet. The Personal templates are those you create.
Just because you use a template, and formatting and other items might be done
for you, you must still save your work.
Word uses three filename extensions for its document templates: dot,
dotx, and dotm. Older Word templates use the dot extension. Word 2007 and
later uses the dotx extension, with macro-enabled templates using the dotm
extension. Filename extensions are not normally visible in Windows, although
you may see them referenced when choosing a file type in the Open dialog
box.
Starting a new document by using a template
To create a new, blank document in Word, press the Ctrl+N key combination.
What you see is a new document based on the Normal template. To choose
another template, either one supplied by Microsoft or one you’ve created, follow
these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
The File screen appears.
2. Choose New from the left side of the File screen.
You see a list of template thumbnails. The list is divided into two categories,
Featured and Personal, as illustrated in Figure 16-1.
Figure 16-1: Choosing a template from the New screen.
3. To peruse your own templates, click the Personal heading; otherwise,
browse those available in the Featured list.
When you choose Personal, the screen shows only the templates that you
crafted yourself.
4. Click a template.
5. If prompted, click the Create button.
The button appears when you use one of Word’s predefined templates.
6. Start working on the new document.
Text, graphics, headers, and footers appear in the document — providing such
things were supplied with the template. You also have access to all the styles
and formatting preset in the template.
Save your work! Even though you used a template to start the document,
you still must save: Use the Save command and give your document a proper
name as soon as possible.
Using a template to create a new document doesn’t change the template. To
change or modify a template, see the section “Modifying a template,” later in
this chapter.
Refer to the section “Templates of Your Own” for information on making your
own templates.
It’s possible to pin your personal templates to the Featured screen:
Click the pushpin icon, as illustrated in Figure 16-1. That way you can skip
Step 3 (in the preceding list) and choose one of your own templates to quickly
start a new document.
Changing a document’s associated template
Documents, including blank documents that use the Normal template, are
associated with a template. If you choose the wrong template or suddenly desire
to change or reassign a document’s template, follow these steps:
1. Open the document that needs a new template attached.
2. Click the File tab.
3. On the File screen, choose the Options command.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
4. Choose Add-Ins from the left side of the Word Options dialog box.
5. Choose Templates from the Manage drop-down list.
You find the Manage drop-down list near the bottom of the dialog box.
6. Click the Go button.
The Templates and Add-ins dialog box appears. You should see which
template is attached to the document, such as Normal.
7. Click the Attach button.
Word displays the Attach Template dialog box, which looks and works like
the Open dialog box.
8. Select the template you want to attach.
The templates listed are stored on your computer, so you don’t see the full
range of templates that you would find on the New screen.
9. Click the Open button.
The template is attached to your document.
10. Ensure that the option Automatically Update Document Styles is selected.
Updating styles means that your document's current styles are changed to
reflect those of the new template, which is probably what you want.
11. Click OK.
The styles stored in that template are now available to your document, and the
document is now attached to the template.
Note that attaching a template doesn’t merge any text or graphics stored in that
template. Only the styles (plus custom toolbar and macros) are merged into your
document.
You can also follow these steps to un-attach a template. Do that by selecting
Normal (normal.dotm) as the template to attach.
Templates of Your Own
If you enjoy the thrill and excitement of templates, you’ll eventually have the
desire to create your own. Over time, you’ll build up a collection. Your own
custom templates greatly help expedite your document production duties.
Creating a template based on a document you already
have
The easiest way to create a new template, the way I do it about 90 percent of the
time, is to base the template on an existing document — for example, a document
you’ve already written and formatted to perfection. The template retains the
document’s formatting and styles so that you can instantly create a new document
with those same settings.
To make a template based on a document you've already created, follow these
steps:
1. Open or create the document, one that has styles or formats or text that
you plan to use repeatedly.
2. Strip out any text that doesn’t need to be in every document.
For example, my play-writing template has all my play-writing styles in it, but
the text includes only placeholders — just to get me started.
3. Click the File tab.
4. On the File screen, choose the Save As command.
Don’t worry about choosing the document’s location. All Word templates are
saved in a predefined folder, and Word automatically chooses that location
for you.
5. Click the Browse button.
The Save As dialog box appears. It’s the same Save As dialog box that Word
uses for saving everything. Refer to Chapter 8 for a refresher.
6. Type a name for the template.
Type the name in the File Name box. Be descriptive.
You don’t need to use the word template when naming the file.
7. From the Save As Type drop-down list, choose Word Template.
Ah-ha! This is the secret. The document must be saved in a document template
format. That’s what makes a template superior over a typical, boring Word
document.
8. Click the Save button.
Your efforts are saved as a document template, nestled in the proper storage
location where Word keeps all its document templates.
9. Close the template.
The reason for closing it is that any changes you make from now on are saved
to the template. If you want to use the template to start a new document, you
choose that template from the New window, as described earlier in this
chapter.
Refer to the later section, “Modifying a template,” for information on updating or
changing a template.
Making a new template from scratch
It’s okay to create a template from scratch, primarily for very basic templates.
Otherwise, I recommend you first build a document to experiment, which is
covered in the preceding section.
When you’re bold enough to build a template from scratch, start by adding any
common text. Then create the styles and any text formatting you plan on using in
the template.
Once everything is set, use the Save As dialog box to save the document as a
template, as described in the preceding section.
The biggest drawback to this approach is that your template probably isn't
complete. As you start creating new documents based on the template, you find
that you need to modify existing styles as well as add new ones. That just means
more template editing, which is covered in the next section.
Modifying a template
You have two options for changing a template. The first is to start a new document
by using the template. Make the changes you want. Then save the document as a
template file, overwriting the original file.
The second way is to open the template file directly. This way is more difficult
because Word keeps the template files in a special folder that may not be that easy
for you to find. The good news is that with Word 2016, the folder is named
Custom Office Templates, and it’s found in the My Documents folder. Use the
Open dialog box to open a template file held in that location.
If you don’t see any templates located in the Custom Office Templates folder,
choose Word Template from the menu button in the Open dialog box.
Changing a template has a widespread effect. When you update or
modify a template, you’re changing all documents that use the template.
Although such a thing can be beneficial, and one of the best reasons for using a
template, be mindful of your changes!
The Theme of Things
Themes apply decorative styles, such as fonts and colors, to your document,
giving your written efforts a professionally formatted feel with minimal fuss or
talent. It's like having a graphics designer assist you but without having to suffer
through her lamentable complaints about how her boyfriend pays no attention to
her and never takes her anywhere.
A theme consists of three elements:
Colors: A set of colors is chosen to format the text foreground and
background, any graphics or design elements in the theme, plus hyperlinks.
Fonts: Two fonts are chosen as part of the theme — one for the heading styles
and a second for the body text.
Graphical effects: These effects are applied to any graphics or design
elements in your document. The effects can include 3-D, shading, gradation,
drop shadows, and other design subtleties.
Each of these elements is organized into a theme, given a name, and placed on the
Design tab’s Themes menu for easy application in your document.
A professionally licensed, certified mentally stable graphics designer creates
a theme’s fonts, colors, and design effects so that they look good and work
well together.
A theme doesn’t overrule styles chosen for a document. Instead, it accents
those styles. The theme may add color information, choose different fonts, or
present various graphical elements. Beyond that, it doesn't change any styles
applied to the text.
The graphical effects of a theme are only applied to any graphics in your
document; the theme doesn’t insert graphics into your text. See Chapter 22 for
information on graphics in Word.
Choosing a theme affects your entire document all at once. To affect
individual paragraphs or bits of text, apply a style or format manually. Refer
to Chapter 15.
Applying a document theme
You choose a theme by using the Themes button found on the Design tab. Built-in
themes are listed along with any custom themes you've created.
Each built-in theme controls all three major theme elements (colors, fonts,
graphical effects), changing your document's contents accordingly. Hovering the
mouse pointer over a theme changes your document visually, which is a way to
preview the themes. Click a theme to choose it.
Because a document can use only one theme at a time, choosing a new theme
replaces the current theme.
To unapply a theme from your document, choose the Office theme or the menu
command Reset to Theme from Template.
If you would rather change only one part of a theme, such as a
document's fonts, use the Colors, Fonts, or Effects command button on the
Design tab.
Modifying or creating a theme
You can't create your own themes from scratch, but you can modify existing
themes to make your own custom theme. You start by modifying existing theme
colors and fonts:
To create a custom color theme, choose Colors
Customize Colors. Use
the Create New Theme Colors dialog box to pick and choose which colors
apply to text or various graphical elements in your document.
To create a custom font theme, choose Fonts
Customize Fonts. Use the
Create New Theme Fonts dialog box to select fonts — one for the headings
and another for the body text.
In each case, give the new theme a name and save it. You can then choose that
theme from the Custom area of either the Colors or Fonts menu.
When you’ve added elements to your document and are using a set of theme
colors, fonts, and graphics styles — even if you didn’t create them yourself but,
rather, used them merely to organize your document — you can use those items
collectively as a theme. Choose Save Current Theme from the Theme menu, and
use the dialog box to give your theme a proper descriptive name and save it. The
theme you create then appears in the Custom area of the Themes menu.
To remove a custom theme, right-click it on the Themes menu and choose the
Delete command. Click the Yes button to remove the theme.
Chapter 17
Sundry Formatting
In This Chapter
Using fancy text formatting
Swiping text formats
Formatting quotes, fractions, and stuff
Creating automatic lists and borders
Centering a title page
Everyone has one, even neat people who proudly profess to be organized. It’s the
random stuff drawer. Maybe it’s in the kitchen, or perhaps you have several such
storage locations around the home or office. While everything else is organized
neat and tidy, you still need a location for stuff that just doesn’t fit anywhere else.
Word features various formatting commands that just don’t fit well with other
formatting categories. I wouldn’t call them “random,” although sundry seems to be
a good term. It refers to useful items but also those not important enough to be
mentioned individually.
Weird and Fun Text Effects
On the Home tab, in the Font group, you find a button adorned with a fuzzy
A, as shown in the margin. It’s the Text Effects and Typography button. Click that
button to view the Text Effects menu, as shown on the far left in Figure 17-1. This
menu lists special text formats, well beyond the standard text decorations shown
in Chapter 10. Choose an effect from the menu to apply it to your text.
Figure 17-1: Text effects galore.
If the effects on the menu aren’t exactly what you want, you can create your own.
You can choose custom effects from the submenus on the Text Effects and
Typography menu, or you can use the Format Text Effects dialog box, shown on
the center and right in Figure 17-1.
To access the Format Text Effects dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Press Ctrl+D.
This keyboard shortcut brings up the Font dialog box.
2. Click the Text Effects button.
The Format Text Effects dialog box appears. It features two categories: Text
Fill & Outline and Text Effects, shown on the center and right in Figure 17-1,
respectively.
3. Manipulate the controls in the dialog box to customize text effects.
Choose a category, then click a triangle to expand items in a subcategory.
Controls appear, as illustrated in Figure 17-1, which let you customize the
effect. Sadly, the dialog box lacks a preview window, so you’ll have to make
your best guess as to the results.
4. Click the OK button to dismiss the Format Text Effects dialog box.
5. Click the OK button to close the Font dialog box.
The font effects you select affect any selected text in the document or any text you
type from that point onward.
Font effects are best used for document headings and other decorative text.
The Text Effect button appears dimmed (Step 2) on older Word
documents or if an older Word template was used to create the document. See
Chapter 24 for information on converting older Word documents. If the
document is based on an older template, you need to update the template and
then re-attach the document to that template. See Chapter 16.
Steal This Format!
It’s not a whisk broom, and it’s definitely not a shaving brush. No, it’s a
paintbrush. Not only that, but it’s also a special paintbrush — one that steals text
and paragraph formatting by borrowing it from one place in your document and
splashing it down in another. It’s the Format Painter, and here’s how it’s used:
1. Place the insertion pointer in the midst of the text that has the formatting
you want to copy.
Think of this step as dipping a brush into a bucket of paint.
2. Click the Home tab.
3.
4.
In the Clipboard group, click the Format Painter command button.
The mouse pointer changes to a paintbrush/I-beam, as depicted in the margin.
It’s used to select and reformat text.
Hunt for the text you want to change.
5. Select the text.
Drag over the text you want to change — to “paint” it.
Voilà! The text is changed.
The Format Painter works with character and paragraph formatting, not with
page formatting.
To change the formatting of multiple bits of text, double-click the
Format Painter. That way, the Format Painter mouse pointer stays active,
ready to paint lots of text. Press the Esc key to cancel your Dutch Boy frenzy.
If you tire of the mouse, you can use the Ctrl+Shift+C key combination
to copy the character format from one location to another. Use the
Ctrl+Shift+V key combination to paste the character format.
You can sorta kinda remember to use Ctrl+Shift+C to copy character
formatting and use Ctrl+Shift+V to paste, because Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V are the
copy-and-paste shortcut keys. Sorta kinda.
Don’t confuse the Format Painter with the highlighting tool, found in the Font
group. See Chapter 26.
Automatic Formatting
Part of Word’s AutoCorrect function (covered in Chapter 7) is a feature named
AutoFormat. Whereas AutoCorrect fixes typos and common spelling boo-boos,
AutoFormat fixes formatting fumbles.
Enjoying automagical text
AutoFormat controls some minor text formatting as you type. All its settings are
visible in the AutoCorrect dialog box's AutoFormat as You Type tab, as shown in
Figure 17-2.
Figure 17-2: AutoFormat As You Type settings.
To display that dialog box, heed these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
3. Select Proofing from the left side of the window.
4. Click the button labeled AutoCorrect Options.
The AutoCorrect dialog box appears.
5. Click the AutoFormat as You Type tab.
The part of the dialog box you see is where all the AutoFormat options dwell.
(Well, aside from the AutoFormat tab, which is redundant.) Turning an option
off or on is as easy as removing or adding a check mark.
The best way to demonstrate the AutoFormat-as-you-type concept is to have a
Word document on the screen and then type the examples in the following
sections. Note that these samples demonstrate only a few of the things AutoFormat
can do.
Smart quotes
The quote characters on the keyboard are tick marks: " and ' . AutoFormat
converts them into the more stylish open and closed curly quotes. Type hither:
He said, “Yes, I'm being honest. I really do love
you, but the monster is coming and you broke your
ankle, so I figured that you'd understand.”
Both the single and double quotes are converted.
Real fractions
You can format a fraction by typing the first value in superscript, the slash mark,
and then the second value in subscript. Or you can let AutoFormat do it for you.
Here’s an example:
I spend twice the time doing ½ the work.
The characters 1/2 are converted into the single character ½. This trick works for
some, but not all, common fractions. When it doesn't work, use the
superscript/subscript trick described in Chapter 31, in the section about building
your own fractions.
Hyperlinks
Word can underline and activate hyperlinks that are typed in your document, such
as
I've been to http://www.hell.com and back.
The website http://www.hell.com is automatically underlined, colored, and turned
into an active web page link for you. (To follow the link, Ctrl+click the text.)
Ordinals
You're guessing wrong if you think that ordinals are a baseball team or a group of
religious leaders. They're numbers that end in the letters st, nd, or rd, as this line
demonstrates:
There were two of us in the race; I came in 1st
and Oglethorpe came in 3rd.
Word’s AutoFormat feature automatically superscripts ordinal numbers, making
them look oh-so-spiffy.
Em dashes
An em dash is the official typesetting term for a long dash, longer than the hyphen
(or its evil twin, the en dash). Most people type two hyphens to emulate the em
dash. Word fixes that problem:
A red one is a slug bug—not a punch buggy.
As you type the - - (dash dash), AutoFormat replaces it with the official em dash
character.
The keyboard shortcut for typing an em dash is Ctrl+Alt+minus sign, where
the minus sign is the minus key on the numeric keypad.
The keyboard shortcut for typing an en dash is Ctrl+minus sign.
The en dash is approximately the width of the letter N. Likewise, the
em dash is the width of the letter M.
Formatting tricks for paragraphs
At the paragraph level, AutoFormat helps you quickly handle some otherwise
irksome formatting issues. Some folks enjoy this feature, some despise it. The
following sections provide a few examples of what AutoFormat is capable of.
Numbered lists
Anytime you start a paragraph with a number, Word assumes (through
AutoFormat) that you need all your paragraphs numbered. Here's the proof:
Things to do today:
1. Get new treads for the tank.
Immediately after typing 1., you probably saw the infamous AutoFormat
lightning bolt icon and noticed your text being reformatted. Darn, this thing is
quick! That's AutoFormat guessing that you're about to type a list. Go ahead and
finish typing the line; after you press Enter, you see the next line begin with the
number 2.
Keep typing until the list ends or you get angry, whichever comes first. To end the
list, press the Enter key twice. That erases the final number and restores the
paragraph formatting to Normal.
This trick works also for letters (and Roman numerals). Just start
something with a letter and a period, and Word picks up on the next line by
suggesting the next letter in the alphabet and another period.
Bulleted lists can also be created in this way: Start a line by typing an asterisk
(*) and a space to see what happens.
See Chapter 21 for more information on Word’s numbering and bulleted list
formats.
Although you don’t press the Enter key twice to end a typical
paragraph in a document, pressing Enter twice to terminate an AutoFormat list
is completely acceptable. Doing so doesn’t add a blank paragraph to your
document.
Borders (lines)
A line above or below a paragraph in Word is a border. Most folks call them
lines, but they're borders in Word. Here's how to use AutoFormat to whip out a
border:
---
Type three hyphens and press the Enter key. Word instantly transmutes the three
little hyphens into a solid line that touches the left and right paragraph margins.
To create a double line, type three equal signs and press Enter.
To create a bold line, type three underlines and press Enter.
Refer to Chapter 18 for details on borders and boxes around your text.
Undoing an AutoFormat
You have two quick ways to undo autoformatting. The first, obviously, is to press
Ctrl+Z on the keyboard, which is the Undo command. That's easy.
You can also use the Lightning Bolt icon to undo autoformatting. Clicking the icon
displays a drop-down menu, shown in Figure 17-3. Use the options displayed to
control the AutoFormat options as you type.
Figure 17-3: AutoFormat options.
The first option (refer to Figure 17-3) simply undoes what’s been done, the same
as pressing Ctrl+Z on the keyboard. The second option disables the feature so that
it never happens again. Lots of people like that option. The final option displays
the AutoCorrect dialog box's AutoFormat as You Type tab, which was shown
earlier in Figure 17-2.
Also see Chapter 33 for more details on disabling AutoFormat features.
Center a Page, Top to Bottom
Nothing makes a document title nice and crisp as having it sit squat in the center of
a page, as shown in Figure 17-4. The title is centered left to right, which is a
paragraph formatting trick, but how can it be centered top to bottom on the page?
Figure 17-4: A title centered on a page.
If you’re thinking about whacking the Enter key 17 times in a row to center a title
top to bottom, stop! Let Word do the math to make the title perfectly centered.
Here’s how:
1. Press the Ctrl+Home key combination.
The insertion pointer moves to the start of the document.
2. Type and format the document’s title.
It can be on a single line or on several lines.
To center the title, apply center paragraph justification: Press Ctrl+E. Apply
any additional font or paragraph formatting as necessary.
Avoid the temptation to press the Enter key to add space above or
below the title. Such space isn’t needed, and would wreck Word’s automatic
centering powers.
3. Position the mouse pointer at the end of your title.
Press the End on the last line of the title, or the author line (refer to Figure 174).
4. Click the Layout tab.
5. In the Page Setup group, choose Breaks
Next Page.
A new page section break is inserted into the document. The title now sits on
its own page as its own section.
6. Click the document’s first page.
You need to be on the page you want to format.
7. Click the Layout tab.
8. Click the dialog box launcher in the lower-right corner of the Page Setup
area.
The Page Setup dialog box appears.
9. Click the Layout tab.
10. Click the Vertical Alignment drop-down list and choose Center.
11. Confirm that the Apply To drop-down list shows This Section.
12. Click OK.
The first page of the document is centered from top to bottom. Because that page
is its own section, the top-to-bottom centering applies only to that page and not the
rest of the document.
Review Chapter 14 for more information on document sections.
Part IV
Spruce Up a Dull Document
See how to assign a shortcut key to a symbol at
www.dummies.com/extras/word2016.
In this part …
Learn how to use borders, draw lines, and add color to a document's
background.
Use tables in your documents.
Split your text into multiple columns.
Discover how to make several types of lists, including bulleted lists,
numbered lists, and indexes.
Learn how you can insert images and captions into a document.
Chapter 18
Borders and Lines
In This Chapter
Understanding borders
Drawing lines around paragraphs
Inserting a horizontal line
Putting paragraphs in boxes
Creating a fancy document title
Adding a box around words
Putting a border around a page
Seriously: Alarms sound at Microsoft headquarters when you attempt to use the
hyphen or underline characters to draw a line in your document. It’s just wrong.
Despite the array of interesting keys festooning the PC keyboard, avoid the
temptation to use those characters to draw boxes, lines, or otherwise decorate
your text. To sate that desire, I recommend exploring Word’s broad basket of
border commands.
The Basics of Borders
When it comes to understanding lines in Word, your topmost goal is to keep from
pulling out your hair. To keep your luscious locks (or what’s left of them), know
two keys:
Borders are a paragraph-level format.
Borders and lines are two different things in Word.
When you apply a border to a paragraph — top, bottom, left, right, or all sides —
that format sticks to the paragraph. It’s echoed in subsequent paragraphs you type,
just like any other paragraph-level format. (See Chapter 11 for paragraph format
options.)
Unlike a border, a line is a drawing object. To add lines to your document, use the
drawing tools described in Chapter 22. These objects are graphics, not text
formats.
To set borders for a paragraph, click the Home tab. In the Paragraph
group look for the Borders button.
The Borders button shows the paragraph’s current border format, such as Bottom
Border, shown in the margin. Click that button to apply the format, or click the
triangle next to the button to display the Borders menu to choose another format.
The Borders menu is shown in Figure 18-1.
Figure 18-1: The Border and Shading menus.
The last item in the Borders menu displays the Borders and Shading dialog box,
covered in the later section, “The Borders and Shading Dialog Box.” Use that
dialog box to get more flexibility when formatting paragraph borders.
Other sections in this chapter describe how to use the Borders button to apply
borders (lines) to paragraphs in a document.
A line around a paragraph is a border. It’s a style applied to the
paragraph and it sticks to any subsequent paragraphs you type.
Another way to call out text on a page is to create a text box. Unlike a border,
which is a paragraph style, a text box is a graphical element. See Chapter 23.
Not all lines in Word are borders. For example, an underline is a
character-level format. Red and blue underlines indicate spelling and
grammatical errors. A vertical red line in the left margin, as well as solid red
underlines, are used by Word’s Revision Marks commands.
Putting borders around a paragraph
To apply a border to any or all sides of a paragraph, follow these steps:
1. Place the insertion pointer in a paragraph.
2. Click the Home tab.
3. In the Paragraphs group, click the triangle next to the Borders command
button.
The Borders menu appears.
4. Choose a border style from the menu.
For example, to place a line atop the paragraph, choose Top Border.
Its icon is shown in the margin.
The border is applied using the line style, thickness, and color set in the Borders
and Shading dialog box. See the later section, “The Borders and Shading Dialog
Box,” for details.
To apply multiple lines, choose both border styles sequentially. For
example, to add rules to a paragraph (a line above and below), first choose
the Top Border command, and then click the Borders command again and
choose Bottom Border.
Horizontal borders stretch between the paragraph’s left and right margins.
These margins are different from the page margins. See Chapter 11 for
information on setting a paragraph’s left and right margins.
A common use of paragraph borders is to set off a document title or heading.
See the later section, “Creating a fancy title,” for formatting tips.
When multiple paragraphs are selected, the border is applied to all
paragraphs as a group. Therefore, a top or bottom border appears on only the
first or last paragraph in the selected block.
To place lines between paragraphs, see the section, “Boxing multiple
paragraphs.”
If you press Enter to end the paragraph, the border formatting is
applied to the following paragraph. For top and bottom borders, the effect is
that only the first or last paragraph displays the border line.
Drawing a thick line between paragraphs
A handy border tool to break up paragraphs of text is the Horizontal Line. It’s not
a paragraph format, so unlike a border it doesn’t stick to a paragraph. Instead, it
works like a quasi-graphical element inserted into the text.
To add a horizontal line between paragraphs, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion pointer at the start or end of a paragraph, where
you want the horizontal line to appear.
2. Click the Home tab.
3. In the Paragraph Group, click the Borders button.
4. Choose Horizontal Line.
Word inserts a line stretching from the left to right margins.
Click the line to adjust its size. Use the mouse to drag one of the six handles (top
and bottom and the four corners) to set the line's width or thickness.
To format the horizontal line, double-click it. Use the Format Horizontal Line
dialog box to set the width (as a percentage), height, color, and alignment.
To remove the horizontal line, click once to select it and then press the Delete
key.
Boxing multiple paragraphs
To stick a box around a paragraph, use the Outside Borders command,
found on the Borders menu and shown in the margin. When multiple paragraphs
are selected, the box wraps around the group.
If you desire to box several paragraphs in a row and keep lines between
the paragraphs, use the All Borders command instead of Outside Borders. The All
Borders icon is shown in the margin.
More and fancy options for boxing paragraphs can be found in the Borders and
Shading dialog box. See the section, “The Borders and Shading Dialog Box.”
Before you go paragraph-boxing crazy, what you might need in your document
is really a table. See Chapter 19 for information on tables.
Removing borders
To peel away the border format from one or more paragraphs of text,
apply the No Border format: Select the paragraph(s), click the Borders button, and
then choose No Border, as shown in the margin.
To remove specific parts of a border, use the Borders and Shading dialog
box, as covered next in this chapter.
The Borders and Shading Dialog Box
To fully flex Word’s border bravado, summon the Borders and Shading dialog
box:
1. Click the Home tab.
2. In the Paragraph group, click the triangle by the Borders button to display
the Borders menu.
3. Choose the Borders and Shading command.
The Borders and Shading dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 18-2.
Figure 18-2: The Borders and Shading dialog box.
Unlike the Border menu, additional and custom border-setting options are
available in the Borders and Shading dialog box. Most notably, you can set the
border line style, thickness, and color.
The Borders and Shading dialog box also allows you to place a border around
a page, which is covered in the section, “Applying a page border.”
You can use the commands in the Borders and Shading dialog box to format a
table. See Chapter 19 for information on tables in Word.
Creating a fancy title
To create custom titles for newsletters, documents, or anything you want to
pretend is super important, click to select a paragraph and then go nuts in the
Borders and Shading dialog box. You may end up with results similar to what’s
shown in Figure 18-3.
Figure 18-3: Fancy borders.
To properly apply a special border, follow these general steps in the Borders and
Shading dialog box:
1. Choose a line style in the Style list.
Scroll the list to view the full variety of styles (refer to Figure 18-2).
2. Set the color in the Color list.
The Automatic color uses black, or the standard color as set by the
document’s theme (usually black).
3. Choose a width in the Width list.
4. Click in the Preview part of the dialog box to place the line: top, bottom,
right, or left.
To remove a line, click it in the Preview window.
To start out quickly, select a preset design from the list of icons on the
right side of the dialog box (refer to Figure 18-2).
Click the OK button to apply the customized border to your document’s text.
Boxing text
Although applying a border is a paragraph-level format, you can also wrap
borders around tiny tidbits of text. To do so, follow these steps:
1. Select the text.
2. Summon the Borders and Shading dialog box.
Directions are found earlier in this chapter.
3. Set the border style you desire.
Only the Box and Shadow options are available, although you can set the
color and line thickness.
4. Ensure that the Apply To menu shows Text and not Paragraph.
5. Click OK.
Also see Chapter 10 for information on shading text. From a design point of view,
I believe shading text is a better option than wrapping it in a box.
Applying a page border
One gem hidden in the Borders and Shading dialog box is the tool required to
place a border around an entire page of text. The border sits at the page’s margins,
and is in addition to any paragraph borders you might apply.
Here’s how to set a page border:
1. Put the insertion pointer on the page you want to border.
For example, you might put it on the first page in your document.
2. Summon the Borders and Shading dialog box.
3. Click the Page Border tab.
4. Set the border style.
Choose a preset style, line style, color, thickness.
Use the Art drop-down list to choose a funky pattern for the border.
5. Click the Apply To menu button to select which pages you want bordered.
Choose Whole Document to put borders on every page. To select the first
page, choose the This Section–First Page Only item. Other options let you
choose other pages and groups, as shown in the drop-down list.
And now, the secret:
6. Click the Options button.
The Border and Shading Options dialog box appears.
7. In the Measure From drop-down list, choose the Text option.
The Edge of Page option just doesn't work with most printers. Text does.
To add more “air” between your text and the border, increase the
values in the Margin area.
8. Click OK.
9. Click OK to close the Borders and Shading dialog box.
To remove the page border, choose None under Settings in Step 4 and then click
OK.
A page border is a page-level format. If you desire borders to sit on only certain
pages, split your document into sections. Use the Apply To drop-down menu (Step
5) to select the current section for your page borders. See Chapter 14 for more
information on section formatting.
Chapter 19
Able Tables
In This Chapter
Understanding tables in Word
Building a table
Converting between text and a table
Selecting items in a table
Setting text alignment
Adding or inserting rows and columns
Applying table quick styles
Putting a caption on the table
Writing is a linear task. Characters flow into words, which flow into sentences,
which form paragraphs. You start reading here and end up there. That’s how it
works, up until the information you’re trying to organize is best presented in a
grid. That’s when you need to summon a table.
Put a Table in Your Document
A table presents information organized into rows and columns — a grid. You can
use the Tab key to build such a thing, setting various and clever tab stops and
formatting your text accordingly. That works, but it’s not the best solution.
The best way to add a table in your document is to use one of Word’s table
creation commands. The commands build a custom grid of rows and columns.
Within the gird are cells, into which you can place text or graphics. You can
format each cell with its own margins, spacing, or paragraph style. Lines and
background colors format the table itself. These feats are beyond the capabilities
of the silly old Tab key.
The Tab key gets its name from the same root as the word table. Its
original purpose was to format tabular data. In fact, on some early
typewriters, the Tab key was named Tabulator.
Working with tables in Word
To begin your table-making journey, click the Ribbon’s Insert tab. In the Tablets
group, the only item is the Table button. Click that button to see the Table menu, as
illustrated in Figure 19-1.
Figure 19-1: The Table menu.
The Table menu features multiple ways to slap down a table in your document,
each of which is illustrated in the following sections.
Once the table is created, start filling it in. See the later section, “Typing text in a
table” for details. Or, if you already used the Tab key to create the text, see the
section, “Convert tab-formatted text into a table.”
When a table is selected, or the toothpick cursor blinks inside the table, two new
tabs appear on the Ribbon: Table Tools Design and Table Tools Layout. These
tabs contain the specific commands to format and modify the table. Details are
offered later in this chapter.
Creating a table
Word offers multiple ways to create a table, from right brain to left brain to
options between. The choices allow for more flexibility, but also make this
chapter longer than it would be otherwise.
I recommend placing the table on a blank line by itself. Furthermore,
add a second blank line after the table. That makes it easier to continue typing
text below the table.
Don’t fret if you’ve already used tab stops to create a table. Word deftly
converts tab-formatted text into a table, which is described in the section
“Convert tab-formatted text into a table,” later in this chapter.
Don’t worry about getting the table dimensions wrong. You can easily
add rows or columns to or remove them from a table. See the later section,
“Adding or removing rows or columns.”
The quick way to create a table
The best way to make a table in Word is to use the grid on the Table button’s
menu, as shown in Figure 19-1. Follow these steps:
1. Click where you want the table in your document.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. Click the Table button.
4. Drag through the grid to set the desired number of rows and columns.
You don’t need to be precise; you can always add or remove rows or columns
later; see the later section, “Adding or removing rows or columns.”
In Figure 19-2, a four-column-by-three-row table is created. As you drag the
mouse pointer on the menu, the table's grid magically appears in the document.
5. Release the mouse button to begin working on the table.
Figure 19-2: Creating a four-by-three table.
See the later section, “Text in Tables,” to continue your table task.
The right-brain way to create a table
When dialog boxes make more sense than using menus and graphical goobers,
follow these steps:
1. On the Insert tab, click the Table button.
2. From the Table menu, choose the Insert Table command.
The Insert Table dialog box appears.
3. Enter the number of rows and columns.
4. Click the OK button to plop down your table.
The left-brain way to create a table
Free your mind from the constraints of conventionalism, clutch a crystal, and use
the mouse to draw a table inside your document:
1. Click the Table button and choose Draw Table.
The mouse pointer changes to a pencil, as shown in the margin.
2. Drag to draw the table’s outline in your document.
Start in the upper-left corner and drag to the lower-right corner, which tells
Word where to insert the table. You see an outline of the table as you drag
down and to the right, as shown in Figure 19-3.
Figure 19-3: Drawing a table in a document.
3. Draw horizontal lines to create rows; draw vertical lines to create
columns.
Refer to Figure 19-3 (on the right) for an example of drawing a row.
As long as the mouse pointer looks like a pencil, you can use it to draw the
rows and columns in your table.
4. Press the Esc key when you’ve finished drawing the table.
Convert tab-formatted text into a table
If you’ve used the Tab key to create rows and columns of text, you can quickly
snap that part of your document into an official Word table. Follow these steps:
1. Select the tab-formatted text.
If columns are separated by tabs, great. If not, each paragraph you select
becomes a row in a single-column table.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. Choose Table
Convert Text to Table.
4. Confirm the guesses made in the Convert Text to Table dialog box.
Ensure that the values for columns and rows are correct. If the columns are
separated by tabs, ensure that Tabs is chosen at the bottom of the dialog box.
Generally speaking, Word does a good job of guessing the conversion
settings.
Drag around the Convert Text to Table dialog box so that you can
better see the text in your document.
5. Click OK.
A table is born.
See the later section, “Table Modification” for information on fixing the freshlycreated table.
The “I can’t do anything — please help” approach to creating a
table
Word comes with an assortment of spiffy predefined tables. Plopping one down in
your document is as easy as using the Quick Tables submenu: Click the Table
button and from the menu choose Quick Tables. Select a table type from the
submenu.
Once the table is inserted, you can add or edit the existing text, add more rows or
columns, or otherwise modify the table. Refer to directions elsewhere in this
Chapter for specifics.
Un-creating a table
At some point, you may surrender the notion of needing a table, and desire the text
to be freed from the table’s confines. To perform such a jailbreak, you convert the
table back into plain text or even tab-formatted text. Obey these steps:
1. Click inside the table you want to convert.
Don’t select anything — just click the mouse.
2. Click the Table Tools Layout tab.
3. From the Table group, choose Select
Select Table.
4. From the Data group, choose Convert to Text.
The Convert to Text dialog box appears. It guesses how you want the table
converted, such as using tabs or paragraphs.
5. Click OK.
Bye-bye, table. Hello, ugly text.
Some post-table-destruction cleanup might be necessary, but generally the
conversion goes well. The only issue you may have is when a cell contains
multiple paragraphs of text. In that case, undo the operation (press Ctrl+Z) and
choose Paragraph Marks from the Convert to Text dialog box (before Step 5).
Deleting a table
To utterly remove the table from your document, text and all, heed these
destruction directions:
1. Click inside the table.
2. Click the Table Tools Layout tab.
3. In the Rows & Columns group, choose Delete
The table is blown to smithereens.
Delete Table.
Deleting the table deletes its contents as well. If you need to save the contents, I
recommend converting the table instead of deleting it. See the preceding section.
Text in Tables
Text fills a table on a cell-by-cell basis. A cell can be empty or contain anything
from a single letter to multiple paragraphs. The cell changes size to accommodate
larger quantities of text.
Within a cell, text is formatted just as it is elsewhere in Word, including
margins and tabs.
Although a single cell can deftly handle vast quantities of text, graphic artists
don’t put a lot of text into a single cell. Consider another way to present such
information.
I don’t recommend formatting text inside a cell with first-line indents.
Although it’s possible, such formatting can be a pain to manipulate.
Show the ruler when you work with formatting text in a table: Click
the View tab, and in the Show group, place a check mark by the Ruler item.
Typing text in a table
Text appears in whichever cell the insertion pointer is blinking. Type your text
and it wraps to fill the cell. Don’t worry if it doesn’t look right; you can adjust the
cell size after you type the text, as described in the later section, “Adjusting row
and column size.”
To move to the next cell, press the Tab key.
To move back one cell, press Shift+Tab.
Pressing Tab at the end of a row moves the insertion pointer to the first cell in
the next row.
Pressing the Tab key while the insertion pointer is in the table’s
bottom-right cell adds a new row to the table.
To produce a tab character within a cell, press Ctrl+Tab. Even so:
I don’t recommend putting tabs into table cells. It makes the cell formatting all
funky.
When you press the Enter key in a cell, you create a new paragraph in the cell,
which probably isn’t what you want.
The Shift+Enter key combination (a soft return) can be used break up long
lines of text in a cell.
Selecting in a table
Two things you can select in a table are the text inside the cells or the cells
themselves. You can also select rows, columns, or the entire table. Here are my
suggestions:
Triple-click in a cell to select all text in that cell.
Select a single cell by positioning the mouse pointer in the cell's lowerleft corner. The pointer changes to a northeastward-pointing arrow, as shown
in the margin. Click to select the cell, which includes the cell’s text but
primarily the cell itself.
Move the mouse pointer into the left margin and click to select a row of cells.
Move the mouse pointer above a column, and click to select that column.
When the pointer is in the sweet spot, it changes to a downward-pointing
arrow (shown in the margin).
Clicking the table’s handle selects the entire table. The handle is visible
whenever the mouse points at the table or when the insertion pointer is placed
inside the table.
If you have trouble selecting any part of a cell, click the Table Tools Layout tab.
In the Table group, the Select button’s menu provides commands to select the
entire table, a row, a column, or a single cell.
Aligning text in a cell
Text in a cell sports some special, table-specific alignment options. To adjust the
position of text in a cell, follow these steps:
1. Click in the cell’s text.
2. Click the Table Tools Layout tab.
3. In the Alignment group, click an icon representing the desired alignment.
The nine icons represent all alignment combinations: left, center, and right, with
top, middle, and bottom.
Click the Alignment group’s Text Direction button (shown in the margin)
to change the way text reads in a cell. Keep clicking the button to reset the
orientation.
Doing math in a table
Just to keep the Excel program on its toes, Word lets you insert formulas into a table cell. These
formulas aren’t as sophisticated as those used in Excel, which some would consider a blessing.
To insert a formula into a table, click in a given cell. Click the Table Tools Layout tab. In the Data
group, click the Formula button. (You may have to choose Data
Formula, depending on the size
of Word’s window.) You see the Formula dialog box, along with a suggested calculation in the
Formula text box.
The problem at this point is that Word offers no help on how to use the functions, what they do, or
how to reference cells in a table. My advice is to use Excel to create such complex tables, and then
copy and paste that part of the Excel worksheet into your Word document.
Table Modification
No table is perfect. You may need to add or remove a row or column, adjust the
width or height, or otherwise fine tune and format the table. The tools to help you
are found on two special tabs on the Ribbon: Table Tools Design and Table
Tools Layout. To summon these tabs, click anywhere in a table. Then start making
your adjustments.
The best time to format and fix a table is after you’ve added its text.
Adding or removing rows or columns
Not only can you add rows and columns to any of a table’s four sides, you can
squeeze new rows and columns inside a table. The secret is to click the Table
Tools Layout tab. In the Rows & Columns group, use the Insert buttons to add new
rows and columns.
To remove a row or column, click to position the mouse, and then click the Table
Tools Layout tab. In the Rows & Columns group, choose the proper command
from the Delete button menu.
Rows and columns are added relative to the insertion pointer’s position: First
click to select a cell, and then choose the proper Insert command to add a row
or column relative to that cell.
Refer to the earlier section, “Selecting in a table,” for information on selecting
a row or column. Make that selection before choosing a Delete command to
ensure that the proper row or column is removed.
When you choose the Delete
Delete Cells command, you see a dialog box
asking what to do with the other cells in the row or column: Move them up or
to the left. Also see the later sections, “Merging cells” and “Splitting cells.”
A mousey way to add a new row is to position the mouse pointer
outside the table’s left edge. A + (plus) button appears, as shown in the
margin. Click that button to insert a new row.
Likewise, if you position the mouse pointer at the table’s top edge, click
the + (plus) button, shown in the margin, to insert a new column.
Adjusting row and column size
After text is in the table, you should adjust row height and column width to best
present the information. This process works best after you’ve added text.
To automatically adjust the column width, position the mouse pointer at
the left side of the column, just on the vertical border. The mouse pointer changes
to the icon shown in the margin. Double-click and the column width is adjusted.
To adjust all column widths, put the mouse pointer at the far left vertical
border in the table. Double-click.
To evenly distribute row and column sizes, click the Table Tools Layout tab. In
the Cell Size group, click the Distribute Rows and Distribute Columns command
buttons.
To oddly distribute row and column sizes, click the Auto Fit button, also found in
the Cell Size group on the Table Tools Layout tab. Use the commands on the Auto
Fit menu to choose how to adjust a table’s row and column size.
The most common way to adjust rows and columns in a table is to use the mouse:
Position the mouse pointer at the vertical or horizontal border within a table.
When the pointer changes to a left-right or up-down pointy thing, drag left, right,
up, or down to change the border’s position.
Merging cells
The completely rational way to combine two cells into one or to split one cell into
two is to use the table drawing tools. Heaven have mercy on you should you
decide to merge or split cells in any other fashion.
To combine two cells, erase the line that separates them. Follow these steps:
1. Click the Table Tools Layout tab.
2. In the Draw group, click the Eraser tool.
The mouse pointer changes to a bar of soap, shown in the margin, but it's
supposed to be an eraser.
3. Click the line between the two cells.
The line is gone.
4. Click the Eraser tool again to quit merging.
5. Or you can tap the Esc key.
To merge a clutch of cells, select them and click the Merge Cells button.
That button is found on the Table Tools Layout tab, in the Merge group.
Splitting cells
The easy way to turn one cell into two is to draw a line separating the cell.
Follow these steps:
1. Click the Table Tools Layout tab.
2. In the Draw group, click the Draw Table button.
The mouse pointer changes to the pencil pointer.
3. Draw a line in the table to split a cell.
You can draw horizontally or vertically.
4. Click the Draw Table button again when you’re done.
Any text in the cell you split goes to one side of the drawn line.
You can split cells also by selecting a single cell, and then choosing the Split
Cells command from the Table Tools Layout tab’s Merge group. Use the Split
Cells dialog box to determine how to best mince up the cell.
Making the table pretty
Unless you want your table to look like it was designed using hog wire, I
recommend applying some table formatting. You can set the line's thickness,
color, and style, and apply color to the various rows and columns. The commands
necessary are found on the Table Tools Design tab; click anywhere with a table to
summon that tab on the Ribbon.
Rather than get bogged down with details, you should know that the
spiffiest way to spruce up a table is to choose a preset format from the Table
Styles gallery: Click inside the table, and then position the mouse pointer at a
thumbnail in the gallery to see a preview. Click the thumbnail to apply that
format to your table.
More thumbnails are available in the Table Styles gallery than are shown on
the Ribbon: Scroll through the list or click the down-pointing arrow (below
the scroll bar on the left) to view the lot.
If you’d rather format your table in a more painful manner, use the Shading
button as well as the commands located in the Borders group.
To remove the table's gridlines, select the table and choose No
Border from the Borders menu. If you choose that format, I recommend that
you still show the tablet’s gridlines, which aren’t printed. To do that, select
the table and choose the View Gridlines command from the Borders menu.
Adding a table caption
The best way to stick a title or caption on your table is to use Word’s Insert
Caption command. Don’t bother trying to find that command on any of the Table
Tools tabs. Instead, follow these steps:
1. Click in the table you want to caption.
2. Click the References tab.
3. Click the Insert Caption button.
The Caption dialog box appears.
4. Type the table’s caption in the Caption text box.
Don’t worry about the text Figure 1, not yet.
5. Click the Label menu and choose Table.
The text in the Caption box changes from Figure 1 (or whatever number) to
Table 1. You might need to edit the caption to add some space between the
number and your text.
6. Click the Position menu and choose whether to place the caption above or
below the table.
7. If you prefer a reference other than Table 1, click the new Label button
and type the desired format.
Word supplies a sequential caption number after whatever text you type. The
change is reflected in the Caption text box.
8. Click OK to set the caption.
An advantage of using Word's Insert Caption command is that you can easily
create a list of tables for your document. See Chapter 21 for details on building
such a list.
Chapter 20
Columns of Text
In This Chapter
Understanding columns
Breaking your text into columns
Creating a three-column brochure
Returning to one-column text
Switching column layouts in a document
Breaking up a column on a page
If someone asks about columns and you immediately think of something written in
a magazine or newspaper, you’re a writer. If you think Doric, Ionic, and
Corinthian, you’re a history nerd. And if you think of rows of marching soldiers or
rolling tanks, you’re a military buff. What you probably don’t think of are columns
of text in a document, despite Word sporting such a clever formatting tool.
All about Columns
You probably don’t think of a document’s text as a column. No, it’s just text on a
page, margin to margin. Secretly, however, Word looks at such text as a single
column. So whether you use columns or not, Word has already formatted your
document that way.
To set the number of text columns on a page, you use Word’s Columns command:
Click the Layout tab, and in the Page Setup group, click the Columns button. A
menu appears, listing common column-formatting options, as shown on the left in
Figure 20-1.
Figure 20-1: The Columns menu and dialog box.
To be more specific with column layout, choose the More Columns command, at
the bottom of the Columns menu. The Columns dialog box appears, as shown on
the right in Figure 20-1.
The Columns dialog box helps you to create and design multiple columns not
available on the Columns menu: Use the Number of Columns box to set the
quantity of columns desired. Use the Preview window to determine how the page
is formatted. Click the OK button to apply the column format to the text.
Click the mouse to best position the insertion pointer on a page when
working with multiple text columns. That’s because the keyboard’s cursormovement keys don’t operate in a predictable manner when a document uses
more than one column of text.
Columns are a document-level format. Choosing a column format from the
Columns button menu affects the entire document, reformatting every page to
the number of columns specified.
If you need to set different column formats on different pages, split the
document into sections. In that case, the column type you chose affects only the
current section. See Chapter 14 for more information on sections in Word.
When you're working with columns and notice that Word starts acting
slow and fussy, save your work!
Maximum number of columns per page? That depends on the size of the page.
Word’s minimum column width is half an inch, so a typical sheet of paper can
have up to 12 columns — not that such a layout would be appealing or
anything.
Making two-column text
When you desire to impress someone with your text, I suggest putting two columns
on your page. Any more columns, and the text width would be too skinny and
difficult to read. Two columns, however, is a great way to get fancy and remain
legible.
1. Start up a new document.
Or if you have an existing document, move the toothpick cursor to the
document’s tippy-top by pressing Ctrl+Home.
2. Click the Layout tab.
3. Click the Columns button and choose Two.
You’re done.
The entire document flows into two columns. As you type, you’ll see text flow
down the left side of the page, and then hop up to the top right to start a new
column.
To restore the document to one column, repeat the steps in this section, but in
Step 3, choose One.
Columns look best when full justification is applied to all paragraphs. The
keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+J. See Chapter 11 for more information on
paragraph alignment.
You can make specific column adjustments in the Width and Spacing
area of the Columns dialog box (refer to Figure 20-1).
If you want an attractive line to appear between the columns of text, visit the
Columns dialog box and put a check mark in the Line Between box.
The space between columns is the gutter. Word sets the width of the
gutter at 0.5” (half an inch). This amount of white space is pleasing to the eye
without being too much of a good thing.
Building a trifold brochure
The three-column text format works nicely on paper in landscape mode. This
method is how most trifold brochures are created. Obey these steps:
1. Start a new document, or work with an existing document — if you’re so
bold.
2. Click the Layout tab.
3. Choose Orientation
Landscape.
The document’s pages appear in landscape orientation, which is best for three
columns of text and traditional for trifold brochures, programs, and
documents.
4. Click the Columns button and choose Three.
Your trifold brochure is effectively formatted. Three columns are evenly
spaced across the page, as illustrated in Figure 20-2.
Figure 20-2: A trifold brochure in Word.
For more sprucing up, summon the Columns dialog box; click the Columns button
and choose More Columns. That way, you can adjust the spacing between
columns, add a line between, and perform other magic.
See Chapter 22 for information on sticking graphics into a document, like those in
Figure 20-2.
Giving up on columns
Converting a multicolumn document into a “normal” document merely involves
switching the format back to one column:
1. Click the Layout tab.
2. Click the Columns button and choose One.
The document is restored.
When these steps don’t work, summon the Columns dialog box (refer to Figure
20-1) and choose One from the list of presets. Ensure that Whole Document is
chosen from the Apply To menu and then click the OK button. The columns are
gone.
In Word, you don’t remove column formatting as much as you choose the
standard column format, One.
Removing columns from a document doesn’t remove sections or
section breaks. See Chapter 14 for information on deleting section breaks.
Column Termination
You can stop the multicolumn format in one of several ways. For a newspaper
column, the newspaper can go bankrupt. For Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
columns, civilization can collapse. For a military column, use a nuke. For a
column of text, however, Word offers a number of tricks, none of which involves
bankruptcy, revolution, or radiation.
Changing column formats
Your whole document doesn't have to sport just one column format. You can split
things up so that part of the document is in one column and another part is in two
columns and then maybe another part goes back to only one column.
To change column formats at a specific spot in the text, follow these steps:
1. Click to place the insertion pointer at the spot where you need the
columns to change.
2. Click the Layout tab.
3. Click the Columns button and choose More Columns.
The Columns dialog box appears.
4. Choose the new column format.
Click one of the presets or use the clicker thing to set a specific number of
columns.
5. From the Apply To drop-down list, choose This Point Forward.
6. Click OK.
The text is broken at a specific point in your document (set in Step 1). Above that
point, one column format is used; after that point, the format chosen in Step 4 is
used.
To pull off this feat, Word inserts a continuous section break in your
document.
If you really know section breaks, it’s easier to add the section break
first, and then switch column formats. In the Columns dialog box, choose This
Section from the Apply To drop-down list to apply the column format to the
document’s current section.
Refer to Chapter 14 for more information on section breaks.
Placing a column break
To help lay out more than two columns on a page, it helps to use a column break.
Like a page break, the column break ends a column. Text after the break starts at
the top of the next column, either on the same page or the next page, depending on
where you place the column break.
In Figure 20-3, you see an example of a column break. The column break is
inserted in the column on the left. That column break stops the left side column
and continues the text at the top of the right column.
Figure 20-3: A column break.
To break a column, heed these steps:
1. Click to place the insertion pointer in your document.
The insertion pointer’s location becomes the start of the next column.
2. Click the Layout tab.
3. In the Page Setup group, click the Breaks button.
A menu appears.
4. Choose Column.
The text hops to the top of the next column.
Column breaks don't end columns; they merely split a column, ending text
at a certain point on a page and starting the rest of the text at the top of the
next column.
Use the Show/Hide command in the Home group (the Paragraph Mark
button) to know where exactly to place the column break. You might want to
insert the column break after a paragraph mark ( ) to have the columns line
up at the top of the page.
To remove a column break, switch to Draft view: Click the View tab and choose
Draft. The column break appears in the text as a line by itself. Delete that line.
Switch back to Print Layout view to examine your document’s columns.
Chapter 21
Lots of Lists
In This Chapter
Automatically bulleting or numbering text
Building a multilevel list
Numbering lines on a page
Adding a TOC to your document
Creating an index
Using footnotes and endnotes
Lists can be simple, such as a list of the various diets you’ve tried over the past
years. Lists can be complex, such as a table of contents, an index, and other more
professional listy things. In Word, you can type such lists manually, but it’s better
to use the proper tools. That way, a list of anything can be formatted automatically
and updated as necessary. Add that tip to your list of timesavers.
Lists with Bullets and Numbers
Whenever you have more than two items to describe in your document, consider
using one of Word’s automatic list-formatting commands. These tools format the
list in a way that draws attention, calling it out from the rest of your text.
Word’s list commands are found on the Home tab, in the Paragraph group.
You might find Word overly eager to format a list for you. The feature
is called AutoFormat. See Chapter 33 for information on disabling this
potentially annoying feature.
Making a bulleted list
In typesetting, a bullet is a graphical element, such as a ball or a dot, which
highlights items in a list. The word bullet comes from the French word boulette,
which has more to do with food than with round pieces of lead quickly exiting a
firearm, like this:
Bang!
Bang!
Bang!
To apply bullets to your text, highlight the paragraphs you want to shoot and
click the Bullets button, shown in the margin. Instantly, your text is not only
formatted with bullets but also indented and made all neat and tidy.
To choose a different bullet style, click the menu triangle next to the
Bullets command. Select a new bullet graphic from the list, or use the Define
New Bullet command to concoct a unique bullet style.
Bullets are a paragraph format. As such, the bullets stick to the paragraphs you
type until you remove that format. To do so, click the Bullet command button
again and the bullets are removed from the paragraph format.
Numbering a list
For a list of numbered items, just write the text. Don’t write the numbers at
the start of each paragraph. Then, after the list is complete, select the paragraphs
as a block and click the Numbering command button, shown in the margin. The
Numbering command assigns a number to each paragraph, plus it formats the
paragraphs with a hanging indent, which looks nice.
The paragraph numbering continues (it’s a format) until you turn it off. To do so,
either press the Enter key twice or click the Numbering command button again.
As a bonus, if you insert or rearrange paragraphs in the list, Word automatically
renumbers everything. That makes this feature better than trying to manually
number and format the paragraphs.
To choose another numbering format, click the menu triangle next to the
Numbering command button. You can choose letters or Roman numerals, or
you can concoct a numbering scheme by choosing the command Define New
Number Format.
The None number format removes numbering from a paragraph.
You can break and resume paragraph numbering: First, apply the
numbering to all paragraphs. To un-number a paragraph, click at the start of
the first word and press the Backspace key. The numbering for that paragraph
is removed, and the remaining paragraphs are renumbered.
Creating a multilevel numbered list
A multilevel list consists of items and subitems all properly indented, similar to
those presented in Figure 21-1. Word automatically formats such a list, but it’s a
tricky thing to do. Pay attention!
Figure 21-1: A multilevel list.
To format a multilevel list, click the Multilevel List button, shown in the
margin. Start typing the list. Press the Tab key to indent and create a sublevel.
Press Shift+Tab to unindent and promote an item to a higher level.
You can also write the entire list in advance, select it, and then click the
Multilevel List button to format it. As long as you use Tab and Shfit+Tab to
organize the topics, you won’t break the format and the list stays intact.
If you’re creating a complex, hierarchical list, use Word’s Outline view
instead of the multilevel list format. See Chapter 25.
Numbering lines on a page
Word lets you slap down numbers for every line on a page, a popular feature with
those in the legal profession. Here's how it goes:
1. Click the Layout tab.
2. In the Page Setup group, click the Line Numbers command button to
display its menu.
3. Choose a numbering format.
For example, to number lines on each page 1 through whatever, chose the
Restart Each Page option. Or to number all lines on all pages cumulatively,
choose Continuous.
To remove the line numbers, choose None from the Line Numbers command
button. Or choose Suppress for Current Paragraph if you don’t want the selected
paragraph numbered.
Line numbering is a page-level formatting command. It sticks to each page
in your document. If you prefer to number only one page, set aside that page
as its own section. See Chapter 14 for more information on sections.
Document Content Lists
Word helps you build lists of items in your document, lists that would otherwise
be brutally cumbersome to create and monstrous to maintain. These lists include a
table of contents and an index.
Creating a table of contents
The trick to creating a tablet of contents, or TOC, for your document is to use
Word’s Heading styles. Use Heading 1 for main heads, Heading 2 for subheads,
and Heading 3 for lower-level heads and titles. Word’s Table of Contents
command uses those formats to build a table of contents field, which reflects the
heading names and their page numbers.
Providing that you’ve used the Heading (or equivalent) styles in your document,
follow these steps to create a table of contents:
1. Create a separate page for the TOC.
Word places the TOC field at the insertion pointer’s location, though I prefer
to have the thing on its own page. Refer to Chapter 13 for information on
creating pages; a blank page near the start of your document is ideal for a
TOC.
2. Click the mouse to place the insertion pointer on the blank page.
The TOC field is inserted at that point.
3. Click the References tab.
4. In the Table of Contents group, click the Table of Contents button.
The Table of Contents menu appears.
5. Choose a format.
The TOC is created and placed in your document, page numbers and all.
Above the TOC, you may also want to add a title — something clever, such as
Table of Contents. Do not format that title as a heading unless you want it
included in the table of contents.
When the steps in this section don't produce the effect you intended, it usually
means that your document doesn’t use the Heading styles.
If your document uses your own heading styles, ensure that the paragraph
format specifies the proper outline level. See Chapter 15 for more
information.
The TOC field is static, so it won’t reflect further edits in your
document. To update the field, click once to select it. On the References tab,
click the Update Table button. Use the Update Table of Contents dialog box to
choose what to update. Click OK.
Cool people in publishing refer to a table of contents as a TOC, pronounced
“tee-o-see” or “tock.”)
See Chapter 23 for more information about fields in your document.
Building an index
An index is yet another document reference or list Word can build and format,
providing that you know the trick: You must mark text in a document for inclusion
in the index. Once the words are marked, an index field is inserted, which
displays the index.
Select index entries
To flag a bit of text for inclusion in an index, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to reference.
The text can be a word or a phrase or any old bit of text.
2. On the References tab in the Index group, click the Mark Entry button.
The selected text appears in the Mark Entry dialog box.
3. If the entry needs a subentry, type that text in the Mark Index Entry
dialog box.
The subentry further clarifies the main entry. For example, the word you select
(the main entry) might be boredom and you type In a waiting room as the
subentry.
4. Click one of the buttons, either Mark or Mark All.
Click the Mark button to mark only the selected text. Click the Mark All button
to direct Word to include all matching instances of the text in your document.
When you mark an index entry, Word activates the Show/Hide
command, where characters such as spaces, paragraph marks, and tabs appear
in your document. Don’t let it freak you out.
Because Show/Hide is on, the Index code appears in the document. It looks
something like this: {@@[email protected]@dms”boredom”@@dms}.
5. Continue scrolling your document and looking for items to place in the
index.
The Mark Index Entry dialog box remains open as you continue to build the
index.
6. Click the Close button when you’re done, or just tired, to banish the
Mark Index Entry dialog box.
7. Press Ctrl+Shift+8 to cancel the Show/Hide command.
Use the 8 key on the keyboard, not on the numeric keypad.
Place the index in the document
After marking bits and pieces of text for inclusion in the index, the next step is to
build and place the index. Do this:
1. Position the insertion pointer where you want the index to appear.
If you want the index to start on a new page, create a new page in
Word (see Chapter 13). I also recommend putting the index at the end of your
document, which is what the reader expects.
2. Click the References tab.
3. In the Index group, click the Insert Index button.
The Index dialog box appears. Here are my recommendations:
The Print Preview window is misleading. It shows how your index
might look but doesn’t use your actual index contents.
Use the Formats drop-down list to select a style for your index. Just
about any choice from this list is better than the From Template
example.
The Columns setting tells Word how many columns wide to
make the index. The standard is two columns. I usually choose one
column, which looks better on the page, especially for shorter
documents.
I prefer to use the Right Align Page Numbers option.
4. Click the OK button to insert the index into your document.
What you see is an index field, displayed using the information culled
from the document. See Chapter 23 for more information on fields.
Review your index. Do it now. If you dislike the layout, press Ctrl+Z to undo and
start over. Otherwise, you’re done.
If you modify your document, update the index: Click the index field. Then choose
the Update Index command button from the Index group. Word updates the index to
reference any new page numbers and includes freshly marked index entries.
Feel free to add a heading for the index because Word doesn't do it for you.
Use a Heading style for the index header so that it’s included in your
document’s table of contents. See the section, “Creating a table of contents.”
Word uses continuous section breaks to place the index field in its
own document section. Refer to Chapter 14 for more information on sections.
Adding a list of figures
The References tab’s groups help you insert other document lists, but only if
you’ve created the list appropriately.
For example, you can create a table of figures, providing you’ve used the
References tab’s Caption button. (See Chapter 22 for details.) To build the table
of figures, click the Insert Table of Figures button. The process works similarly to
inserting a table of contents or an index, but it works only when you’ve properly
inserted the captions.
Footnotes and Endnotes
Both footnotes and endnotes contain bonus information, a clarification, or an aside
to supplement text on a page. Each is marked by a superscripted number or letter
in the text1.
The difference between a footnote and an endnote is in the placement: A footnote
appears on the bottom of the page and an endnote appears at the end of a
document. Otherwise, both references are created in a similar way:
1. Click the mouse so that the insertion pointer is to the immediate right of a
word or text that you want the footnote or endnote to reference.
There’s no need to type the note's number; it's done automatically.
2. Click the References tab.
3. From the Footnotes group, choose either the Insert Footnote or Insert
Endnote command button.
A superscripted number is inserted into the text, and you're instantly whisked
to the bottom of the page (footnote) or the end of the document (endnote).
4. Type the footnote or endnote.
5. To return to where you were in the document, press Shift+F5.
The Shift+F5 keyboard shortcut returns to the previous spot in your document
where you were editing.
Here are some footnote endnote notes:
The keyboard shortcut for inserting a footnote is Alt+Ctrl+F.
The keyboard shortcut for inserting an endnote is Atl+Ctrl+D.
If you’re curious, you'll want to know that the keyboard shortcut
Alt+Ctrl+E enables and disables Word’s Revision Marks feature, covered in
Chapter 26.
The footnote and endnote numbers are updated automatically so that all
footnotes and endnotes are sequential in your document.
To browse footnotes and endnotes, click the References tab. In the Footnotes
group, use the Next Footnote button's menu to browse between footnote and
endnote references.
You can preview a footnote’s or endnote's contents by hovering the mouse
pointer at the superscripted number in the document's text.
Use the Show Notes button (References tab, Footnotes group) to examine
footnotes or endnotes as they appear on the page.
To delete a footnote or an endnote, highlight its reference number in the text
and press the Delete key. Word magically renumbers any remaining footnotes
or endnotes.
To convert a footnote to an endnote, right-click the footnote’s text at
the bottom of the page. Choose the command Convert to Endnote. Likewise,
you can convert endnotes to footnotes by right-clicking the endnote text and
choosing the command Convert to Footnote.
For additional control over footnotes and endnotes, click the dialog box
launcher button in the Footnotes group. Use the Footnote and Endnote dialog
box to customize the reference text location, format, starting number, and other
options.
1
See? It works!
Chapter 22
Here Come the Graphics
In This Chapter
Inserting a graphic or an image into a document
Playing with WordArt
Adding an image caption
Removing images
Making text wrap around an image
Changing the size of an image
Cropping an image
Modifying an image’s appearance
Working with multiple images
It’s sacrilege, of course. Word processing is about words. Images and words mix
and mingle in the software realm of desktop publishing. Regardless, the mighty
Microsoft Word allows you to slap down a picture, insert an object, edit images,
and otherwise pretend it’s some sort of graphics program. This trick might just
save you 1,000 words, providing that you know how it works.
Graphical Goobers in Your Text
The door to Word’s graphical closet is found on the Insert tab. The command
buttons nestled in the Illustrations group place various graphical goobers into your
text. Here’s how the process works for pictures in the text:
1. Click the mouse at the spot in your text where you desire the image to
appear.
You don’t need to be precise because you can always move the image later.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. Use one of the command buttons to choose which type of image to add.
4. You can also paste a previously copied image, as described in the next
section.
Figure 22-1 illustrates how a freshly added image looks, highlighting some of its
features.
Figure 22-1: An image in a document.
While the image is selected, a new tab appears on the Ribbon. For pictures, it’s
the Picture Tools Format tab; for other types of graphics, the Drawing Tools
Format tab appears. Both tabs offer tools that help you perfect the recently
inserted graphic. Later sections in this chapter cover using those tools, as well as
the controls illustrated in Figure 22-1.
Some images, specifically shapes, are drawn on the page. In that case, they appear
in front of or behind your text. Refer to the “Image Layout” section for information
on precise image placement.
To remove an image, click to select it and then tap the Delete key. If the
graphical object, such as a shape, contains text, ensure that you’ve clicked the
object’s border before you tap the Delete key.
The more graphics you add in Word, the more sluggish it becomes.
My advice: Write first. Add graphics last. Save frequently.
Copying and pasting an image
One of the simplest ways to stick an image into your document is to copy an image
from elsewhere: Select the image, press Ctrl+C to copy it, and then switch to
Word and press Ctrl+V to paste the image into your document.
The image you copy can come from any other program in Windows.
Some image formats might not be allowed in Word. If you’re unable to use the
Paste button (found on the Home tab in the Clipboard group), or pressing
Ctrl+V doesn’t work, the image format is incompatible.
Images found on web pages are the easiest type of image to copy and
paste into your document. While dutifully remaining aware of various
copyright laws around the world, right-click the image and choose the Copy
Image (or similar) command from the pop-up menu. Switch to your
document’s window and press Ctrl+V to paste.
Plopping down a picture
Your computer is most likely littered with picture files. No matter how the image
was created, as long as it’s found somewhere on your PC, you can stick it into
your document. Follow these steps:
1. Click the mouse in your text where you want the image to appear.
2. Click the Insert tab; in the Illustrations group, click the Pictures button.
The Insert Picture dialog box appears.
3. Locate the image file on your PC’s storage system.
4. Click to select the image.
5. Click the Insert button.
The image is slapped down in your document.
A nifty picture to stick at the end of a letter is your signature. Use a
desktop scanner to digitize your John Hancock. Save your signature as an
image file on your computer, and then follow the steps in this section to
insert that signature picture in the proper place in your document.
Stealing images from the Internet
It’s easy to obtain an image from the web by copying and pasting that image, as
covered in the earlier section, “Copying and pasting an image.” To perform a web
image search from Word, click the Insert tab and then click the Online Pictures
button in the Illustrations group. The Insert Pictures window appears.
Use options in the Insert Pictures window to help locate an online image. For
example, click the text box next to Bing Image Search and type a description of the
image you want. Press the Enter key and then choose an image. Click the Insert
button to download the image from the Internet and thrust it into your document.
Refer to the later section “Image Layout” for information on properly positioning
the image. If the image needed to be adjusted, see the “Image Editing” section.
Slapping down a shape
Word comes with a library of common shapes ready to insert in your document.
These include basic shapes, such as squares, circles, geometric figures, lines, and
arrows, plus popular symbols. Graphics professionals call these types of images
line art.
To place some line art into your document, follow these steps:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Illustrations group, click the Shapes button.
The button is a menu, which lists shapes organized by type.
3. Choose a predefined shape.
The mouse pointer changes to a plus sign (+).
4. Drag to create the shape.
The shape is placed into the document, floating on top of the text.
At this point you can adjust the shape: Change its size, location, or colors. Use the
Drawing Tools Format tab, conveniently shown on the Ribbon while the shape is
selected, to affect those changes.
Drag the image to another location. See the “Image Layout” section for
specifics on image placement and text-wrapping options.
Instantly change the image by using the Shape Styles group on the Ribbon’s
Drawing Tools Format tab. Choose a new style from the Shape Gallery. Styles
are related to the document’s theme; see Chapter 16 for information on themes.
To set the shape’s color style, click the Shape Fill button.
Use the Shape Outline button to set the shape’s outline color.
To set the shape’s outline thickness, click the Shape Outline button and choose
a thickness from the Weight submenu.
The Shape Effects button lets you quickly apply 3D effects, shadows, and
other fancy formatting to the shape.
To more effectively format a shape, click the Launcher in the lowerright corner of the Shape Styles group. Use the Format Shape pane to
manipulate settings for any selected shape in your document.
Sticking things into a shape
Shapes need not be clunky, colorful distractions. You can use a shape to hold text
or a picture, which makes them one of the more flexible items to add to a
document.
To add to a shape a smidgen of text, which the graphic layout artists refer to as a
callout, right-click the shape and choose Add Text. The blinking toothpick cursor
appears in the shape. Type and format the text.
To stick a picture into a shape, click to select the shape. Click the Drawing Tools
Format tab. Click the Shape Fill button and choose the Picture menu item. Use the
Insert Pictures window to hunt down an image to place in the shape.
Yes, it’s possible to have both a picture and text inside a shape.
To further deal with text in a shape, click the shape, and then click the
Drawing Tools Format tab on the Ribbon. The Text group contains buttons that
manipulate the text.
To remove text from a shape, select and delete the text.
To remove a picture, select a solid color from the Shape Fill menu.
Also see Chapter 23 for information on text boxes, which are similar to
shapes with text inserted.
Using WordArt
Perhaps the most overused graphic that’s stuck into any Word document is
WordArt. This feature is almost too popular. If you haven’t used it yourself,
you’ve probably seen it in a thousand documents, fliers, and international treaties.
Here’s how it works:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2.
In the Text group, click the WordArt button to display the WordArt
menu.
The Word Art button is shown in the margin.
3. Choose a style from the WordArt gallery.
A WordArt graphic placeholder appears in your document.
4. Type the (short and sweet) text that you want WordArt-ified.
Use the Word Art Styles group on the Drawing Tools Format tab to
customize the WordArt appearance. If you don’t see the Drawing Tools
Format tab, first click the WordArt graphic.
Adding a caption
Some images work best when they have a caption. For example, that picture of the
exploding watermelon is far more significant with the caption, “Never buy fruit
from a guy who also sells ammunition.”
In Word, captions aren’t attached to an image. Instead, the caption is its own
image, a separate graphical element on the page. As such, it helps to align and
group the image with its caption. Follow these steps:
1. Click to select the graphic.
The graphic you want to caption must already be in the document. It’s also
best to choose an image layout for the graphic, as described in the later
section, “Wrapping text around an image.”
2. Click the References tab.
3. In the Captions group, click the Insert Caption button.
The Captions dialog box appears.
4. Type the caption’s text in the Caption text box.
Windows supplies the figure number as a suggestion. You cannot remove that
preset text, but you can place a check mark in the Exclude Label from Caption
box to reduce the text to just a number.
5. Choose a position for the caption from the Position drop-down list.
The caption position is relative to the figure. Most commonly, captions appear
below the selected item.
6. Click the OK button.
The caption is applied to the figure. The caption uses the same text wrapping
and horizontal dimensions as the figure.
7. Press and hold down the Shift key and click the image.
The caption is already selected. When you Shift+Click its image, both the
image and caption are selected.
8. Click the Drawing Tools Format tab.
9. In the Arrange group, click the Group button and choose Group.
The Group icon is shown in the margin. Refer to the later section,
“Grouping images,” for more information on what the icon does.
Both the image and its caption are now placed in your document. Because you
grouped them, they will work as a single unit.
To change the caption, click the caption text. Type or edit something new.
To remove the caption, ungroup it from its image. Refer to the later section,
“Grouping images,” for details. Once ungrouped, click the caption to select it.
Press the Delete key.
An advantage to applying captions this way is that you can create a
list of captions or figures for your document, summarizing them along with
their page references. To do so, click the References tab and then click the
Insert Table of Figures button in the Captions group. Also see Chapter 21 for
information on automatic lists and references.
Image Layout
Graphics in a Word document must cohabit well with the text. To keep both
happy, you must understand Word’s image layout options. These options fall into
three general categories:
Inline: The image is inserted directly into the text, just like a large, single
character. It stays with the text, so you can press Enter to place it on a line by
itself or press Tab to indent the image, for example.
Wrapped: Text flows around the graphic, avoiding the image like all the girls
at a high school dance avoid the guys from the chess club.
Floating: The image appears in front of or behind the text. Shapes (or line art)
inserted in the document originally appear floating in front of the text.
When set properly, these layout options allow you to place images into your
document in a clean, professional manner.
To set image layout options, click to select an image and then click the
Layout Options button, as shown in the margin. The Layout Options menu lists
various layout settings, as illustrated in Table 22-1.
Table 22-1 Image Layout Options
Icon
Setting
What It Does
Inline
The image acts like a character in the text, moving with other text on the page.
Square
Text flows around the image in a square pattern, regardless of the image's shape.
Tight
Text flows around the image and hugs its shape.
Through
Text flows around the image but also inside the image (depending on the image’s
shape).
Top and
Bottom
Text stops at the top of the image and continues below the image.
Behind Text
The image floats behind the text, looking almost like the image is part of the paper.
In Front of
Text
The image floats on top of your text, like a photograph dropped on the paper.
Wrapping text around an image
For smaller images, or images that otherwise break up a document in an inelegant
manner, choose one of the text-wrapping layout options. Heed these steps:
1. Click to select the image.
A selected image appears with eight handles, as shown earlier, in Figure 221.
2. Click the Layout Options button.
Word features four text-wrapping options, found in the With Text Wrapping
area of the Layout Options menu. These options are Square, Tight, Through,
and Top and Bottom, described in Table 22-1.
3. Choose a text-wrapping option.
Examine your image and the text to see whether it wraps the way you like. If it
doesn’t, repeat these steps and choose another setting in Step 3.
To remove text wrapping, choose the Inline option from Step 3.
Floating an image
When you want an image to be placed in your document independently of the text,
you float the image. The image can be in front of the text, like some little kid
pasted a sticker on the page, or behind the text, as if the image were part of the
paper.
To float an image, select it and then click the Layout Options button, as
shown in the margin. Choose Behind Text or In Front of Text. Refer to Table 22-1
for the appropriate icons.
After choosing either Behind Text or In Front of Text, you see the image released
from the confines of the text. The image floats freely, either behind or in front of
your text.
See the next section for information on moving a floating image.
Also see the later section, “Keeping an image with text,” if you want the
floating picture to stay close to a specific paragraph in the document.
Keeping an image with text
Inline images always stay with the text that surrounds them. For images with other
layout options, you can choose where the image attaches to the text or whether it
attaches at all.
To keep an image associated with a specific paragraph of text, use the
Anchor icon, as shown in the margin. Drag that icon to the paragraph that
references the image. That way, if the paragraph moves to another page, the image
moves with it.
To keep an image pasted to the same spot on a page, select the image and then
click the Layout Options button. Choose the setting Fix Position on Page. The
image becomes stuck on the page at a specific location regardless of how the text
flows around it.
Image Editing
Word is not an image-editing program. It does feature a handful of commands that
let you manipulate pictures and images in a document but only in a simple way.
For anything else, you need an image-editing program, such as Photoshop or one
of its less-expensive relatives.
Use Word’s Undo command, Ctrl+Z, to undo any image editing boo-boos.
When you're using a document theme, theme effects are automatically
applied to any graphic inserted into your document. Refer to Chapter 16 for
more information on themes.
Resizing an image
To make an image larger or smaller, heed these steps:
1. Select the image.
The image grows handles, as shown earlier in Figure 22-1.
2. Drag one of the image's four corner handles inward or outward to make
the image smaller or larger, respectively.
If you hold down the Shift key as you drag, the image is proportionally
resized.
You can use the buttons in the Picture Tools Format tab’s Size area to nudge the
image size vertically or horizontally or to type specific values for the image’s
size.
Cropping an image
In graphics lingo, cropping works like taking a pair of scissors to the image: You
make the image smaller, but by doing so, you eliminate some content, just as an
angry, sullen teen would use shears to remove his cheating scumbag former
girlfriend from a prom picture. Figure 22-2 shows an example.
Figure 22-2: Cropping an image.
To crop, click the image once to select it. Click the Picture Tools Format
tab, and then click the Crop button in the Size group. Adjust the image by dragging
one of the crop handles in or out. Press the Enter key to crop the image.
I use the edge (left, right, top, or bottom) handles to crop. The corner
handles never crop quite the way I want them to.
Rotating an image
You have two handy ways to rotate an image, neither of which involves turning
the computer’s monitor or craning your neck to the point of chiropractic necessity.
To freely rotate an image, use the mouse to grab the rotation handle at the top of
the image. (Refer to Figure 22-1.) Drag the mouse to orient the image to any angle.
For more precise rotation, click the Picture Tools Format tab and in the
Arrange group use the Rotate command button. From its menu, you can choose to
rotate the image 90 degrees to the left or right or to flip the image horizontally or
vertically.
Changing an image’s appearance
To manipulate an image, click the Picture Tools Format tab, and use the tools in
the Adjust group. Specifically, use the tools Corrections, Color, and Artistic
Effects. As a bonus, each tool’s button shows a menu full of options previewing
how the image will be affected. To make the change, simply choose an option
from the appropriate button’s menu. Here are some suggestions:
Brightness and contrast settings are made from the Corrections button menu.
To wash out a picture you placed behind your text, click the Color button and
choose the Washout color from the Recolor area.
To convert a color image to monochrome (black and white), click the Color
button and choose the first item in the menu, Saturation 0%.
A slew of interesting, artistic brushstrokes and other effects are found on the
aptly named Artistic Effects button menu.
Image Arrangement
Word’s image arrangement commands help you manage multiple images on a
page. Using these commands, you can group similar shapes or an image and its
caption. You can also line up shapes to keep them even, or place one image in
front of or behind another.
To arrange images, click a graphic to summon the Picture Tools or Drawing
Tools Format tab. For either tab, the tools you need are located in the Arrange
group.
To select multiple images, press and hold down the Shift key as you
click each one.
Moving an image hither and thither
To relocate an image to a better spot, point the mouse at the image. The
mouse pointer changes to a four-way arrow, similar to what’s shown in the
margin. Now you can drag the image nigh and yon.
Point the mouse at the center of the image to drag. If you accidentally point at
one of the image’s handles, you resize the image.
How the graphic sits with your text (covered elsewhere in this
chapter) determines where and how you can move it. When an image floats
behind your text, you may need to open up a spot so that you can grab the
image. To do so, position the mouse pointer by or on the same line as the
image, and then whack the Enter key a few times. After moving the image,
delete the extra blank paragraphs you created when you pressed the Enter key.
Aligning graphics
Image alignment is necessary to keep two or more graphical objects looking neat
and tidy on the page. Especially when the images use a floating or wrapped
layout, you want to ensure that they line up by the top edges, side-to-side, or
centered.
To align graphics, follow these steps:
1. Click the first image to select it.
2. Hold down the Shift key and click the rest of the images.
3.
On the Picture Tools Format tab, in the Arrange group, click the
Align Object button.
The button is shown in the margin. Click that button to display a menu of
alignment choices.
4. Choose an alignment command.
For example, choose Align Top to ensure that the top edge of both pictures
will be aligned on the page.
If you’d rather eyeball the arrangement, activate Grid: Click the Align Object
button, and choose View Gridlines from the menu. Instantly, the page looks like
it’s a sheet of graph paper. Use the grid to help you position multiple images.
Choose the View Gridlines command again to hide the grid.
The Distribute commands on the Align Object menu help you organize
multiple images evenly across a page. For example, if you have three images
left-to-right and want to space them evenly, first align the images by choosing
Align Middle. Then choose Distribute Horizontally to evenly space the
images.
Shuffling images front or back
Graphics are plunked down on a page one atop the other. This arrangement is
difficult to notice unless two images overlap, as shown in Figure 22-3. To change
the order, and shuffle images in front of or behind each other, click the Picture
Tools Format tab, and in the Arrange group, use the Bring Forward or Send
Backward commands.
Figure 22-3: Working with multiple images.
To move one image in front of another, first click that image. Choose Bring
Forward
Bring Forward to shuffle that image forward one position. To bring
the image in front of all other images, choose Bring Forward
Bring to Front.
Likewise, use the Send Backward
Send Backward or Send Backward
Send to Back commands to shuffle an image to the background.
Grouping images
When you cobble together a complex image using smaller shapes, or when you
arrange an image and its caption, use the Group command to keep those items
together. That way, you can move them as a single unit, copy and paste them, and
apply image effects to the entire group.
To group two or more graphical objects in your document, select the
images. Click the Picture Tools Format tab, and in the Arrange Group, click the
Group button and choose the Group command. The images are then treated as a
unit, such as the face shown in Figure 22-3, which is a collection of individual
shapes.
To ungroup, click the grouped images and then choose the Ungroup command from
the Group menu.
Chapter 23
Insert Tab Insanity
In This Chapter
Typing nonbreaking spaces and hyphens
Inserting foreign language characters
Getting at special symbols
Breaking up text with a text box
Creating dynamic text with fields
Inserting the date and time into your text
Aside from formatting, pretty much anything you put into a Word document is
inserted. That makes me curious as to why the magicians at Microsoft sought to
dedicate a tab on the Ribbon to the topic of Insert. What weird, wonderful, and
wanted buttons could crowd that tab’s various groups — especially those items
not covered elsewhere in this book.
Characters Foreign and Funky
The computer’s keyboard lets you type all 26 letters of the alphabet — plus
numbers, a smattering of symbols, and punctuation thingies. That’s a lot to type,
and some authors spend their entire lives weaving those characters into a tapestry
of text heretofore unseen in literary history. As if that weren’t enough, you can
sprinkle even more characters into your document, spicing it up like garlic in a
salad. Foreign language letters, symbols — all sorts of fun stuff is covered in this
section.
Nonbreaking spaces and hyphens
The space and the hyphen characters are special because Word uses either of them
to wrap a line of text: The space splits a line between two words, and the hyphen
(using hyphenation) splits a line between a word’s syllables.
Sometimes, however, you don’t want a line to be split by a space or a hyphen. For
example, splitting a phone number is bad because you want the number to stay
intact. And you may desire to have two words that are separated by a space to be
stuck together like glue. For those times, you need unbreakable characters.
To prevent the hyphen character from breaking a line, press Ctrl+Shift+ (hyphen).
To prevent the space character from breaking a line, press
Ctrl+Shift+spacebar.
Both commands insert a nonbreaking character into the text. Word utterly refuses
to use an unbreakable hyphen or space to split a line of text.
Typing characters such as Ü, Ç, and Ñ
You can be boring and type deja vu or be all fancy and type déjà vu or café or
résumé. Such tricks make your readers think that you know your stuff, but what
you really know is how to use Word's diacritical mark keys.
Diacritical is not an urgent medical situation involving elimination. Instead, it’s a
term that refers to symbols appearing over certain letters. Foreign languages and
words use diacritical marks, such as the examples used in the preceding
paragraph.
To create a diacritical mark in Word, you press a special Control-key
combination. The key combination you press somewhat represents the diacritical
mark you need, such as Ctrl+’ to produce the ’ diacritical mark. The Ctrl-key
combination is followed by the character that needs the new “hat,” as shown in
Table 23-1.
Table 23-1 Those Pesky Foreign Language Characters
Prefix Key Characters Produced
Ctrl+’
áéíóú
Ctrl+`
àèìòù
Ctrl+,
ç
[email protected]
å
Ctrl+:
äëïöü
Ctrl+^
âêîôû
Ctrl+~
ãõñ
Ctrl+/
ø
For example, to insert an é into your document, press Ctrl+’ and then type the
letter E. Uppercase E gives you É, and lowercase e gives you é. It makes sense
because the’ (apostrophe) is essentially the diacritical mark you’re adding to the
vowel.
Be sure to note the difference between the apostrophe (or tick) and the accent
grave (or back tick). The apostrophe (’) is next to your keyboard’s Enter key. The
accent grave (`) is below the Esc key.
For the [email protected], Ctrl+:, Ctrl+^, and Ctrl+~ key combinations, you also
need to press the Shift key, which is required anyway to produce the @, :, ^,
or ~ symbols on the keyboard. Therefore, Ctrl+~ is really Ctrl+Shift+`. Keep
that in mind.
Word's AutoCorrect feature has been trained to know some special characters.
For example, when you’re typing café, Word automatically sticks that whooptydoop over the e.
Inserting special characters and symbols
On the far right of the Insert tab dwells the Symbols group. Two items are found in
that group: Equation and Symbol. (If the window is too narrow, you see the
Symbols button, from which you can choose Equation or Symbol.) Click the
Symbol button see some popular or recently used symbols. Choose a symbol from
the menu to insert the special symbol directly into your text.
To see a hoard of symbols and characters, click the Symbol button and choose the
More Symbols command. The Symbol dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 231. Choose a decorative font, such as Wingdings, from the Font menu to see strange
and unusual characters. To see the gamut of what's possible with normal text,
choose (normal text) from the Font drop-down list. Use the Subset drop-down list
to see specific symbols and such.
Figure 23-1: The Symbol dialog box.
To stick a character into your document from the Symbol dialog box, select the
symbol and click the Insert button.
You need to click the Cancel button when you're done using the Symbol
dialog box.
Click the Insert button once for each symbol you want to insert. For example,
when you’re putting three Σ (sigma) symbols into your document, you must
locate that symbol on the grid and then click the Insert button three times.
Some symbols have shortcut keys. They appear at the bottom of the Symbol
dialog box (refer to Figure 23-1). For example, the shortcut for the degree
symbol (°) is [email protected], spacebar — press [email protected] (actually, Ctrl+Shift+2) and
then type a space.
You can insert symbols by typing the symbol’s character code and
then pressing the Alt+X key combination. For example, the character code for
Σ (sigma) is 2211: Type 2211 in your document and then press Alt+X. The
number 2211 is magically transformed into the Σ character.
Spice Up Your Document with a Text
Box
A text box is a graphical element that contains — hold your breath, wait for it,
wait — text. The text is used as a decorative element (commonly called a pull
quote or callout) to highlight a passage of text on the page, or it can be simply an
information box or an aside, such as those elements that litter the pages of USA
Today. The primary purpose of the text box is to prevent your document from
becoming what graphic designers refer to as the dreaded Great Wall of Text.
To shove a text box into a document, follow these steps:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Text group, choose Text Box.
3. Choose a preformatted text box from the list.
The text box is splashed onto the current page in your document.
4. Rewrite the text in the box.
La-di-da.
Even though it contains text, a text box is a graphical element. As such, when it
first appears in your document, or any time it’s selected, the Drawing Tools
Format tab appears on the Ribbon. This tab hosts a garrison of text box formatting
and style commands.
Other text in your document wraps around the text box. As such, you can drag the
text box (by its edge) to any position on the page. You can set the layout options
for the text box just as you would for any picture or graphical goober in your
document. These options are covered in Chapter 22, which also covers formatting
commands available on the Drawing Tools Format tab.
It’s common to copy and paste text from the document into the box,
which is how pull quotes work.
To change text orientation within the text box, click the box, and then click the
Drawing Tools Format tab. In the Text group, click the Text Direction button
to peruse orientation options.
To delete a text box, click its edge and press the Delete key.
Fun with Fields
The phrase “carved in stone” refers to text that doesn’t change. What you write in
Word isn’t carved in stone — well, unless you have a cool printer I’ve not heard
of. Still, the text you scribble remains static until you change it or until the
computer screws up.
To liven things up a tad, Word lets you add dynamic elements to a document.
Unlike the text you normally compose, dynamic text changes to reflect a number of
factors. To add these dynamic elements to a document, you use a Word feature
called fields.
Understanding fields
Word’s dynamic field feature is part of the Quick Parts tools. To add a
field to a document, click the Insert tab and in the Text group, click the Quick
Parts button, shown in the margin. Choose the Field command from the Quick
Parts menu to behold the Field dialog box, shown in Figure 23-2.
Figure 23-2: The Field dialog box.
The scrolling list on the left side of the Field dialog box shows field categories.
These represent various dynamic nuggets you can insert in a document. Choose a
specific category to narrow the list of Field Names.
The center and right part of the dialog box contain formats, options, and other
details for a selected field.
To insert the field, click the OK button. The field appears just like other text,
complete with formatting and such, but the information displayed changes to
reflect whatever the field represents. For example, a page number field always
shows the current page.
When the insertion pointer is placed inside a field, the text is highlighted
with a dark gray background. That’s your clue that the text is a field and not
plain text. Also see the later section, “Deleting fields.”
Adding some useful fields
Word offers an abundance of fields you can thrust into a document. Of the lot, you
might use only a smattering. My favorites are listed in this section.
These subsections assume that the Fields dialog box is open, as described in the
preceding section.
Page numbers
To ensure that the document accurately reflects the current page number, insert a
current page number field:
1. In the Field dialog box, select Numbering from the Categories drop-down
list.
2. Select Page from the Field Names list.
3. In the Field Properties section of the Field dialog box, select a format for
the page number.
4. Click OK.
The current page number dynamically appears in your document. No matter how
you edit or modify the document, that number reflects the current page number.
Total number of pages
To insert the total number of pages in your document, heed these directions:
1. Select Document Information from the Categories drop-down list.
2. Select NumPages from the Field Names list.
3. Select a format.
4. Click OK.
Word count
Getting paid by the word? Stick an automatic word count at the end of your
document:
1. From the Categories list, select Document Information.
2. Select NumWords from the Field Names list.
3. Click OK.
Document filename
Many organizations place the document’s filename into a document header or
footer. Rather than guess, why not use a field that contains the document’s exact
name? Do this:
1. From the Categories list, select Document Information.
2. Select FileName from the Field Names list.
3. In the field properties list, choose a text case format.
4. Optionally (though recommended), put a check mark by the option Add
Path to Filename.
5. Click OK.
The FileName field always reflects the name of the file, even when you change it.
Updating a field
Just because a field contains dynamic text doesn’t mean that the field is always
accurate. Occasionally, fields need updating.
Many fields are updated automatically when you open a document. Printing fields
update when you print the document. For fields that don’t update, right-click the
field in your document and choose the Update Field command. The field’s text is
refreshed.
Changing a field
Although you can’t edit a file, you can modify the way it displays information. To
do so, right-click the field and choose Edit Field from the pop-up menu. The Field
dialog box is displayed, allowing you to make whatever modifications you deem
necessary.
Just as those mutants at the end of Beneath the Planet of the Apes
removed their human masks, you can remove a field's mask by right-clicking
it and choosing the Toggle Field Codes command. For example, the FileSize
field looks like this:
{ FILESIZE \* MERGEFORMAT }
To restore the field to human-readable form, right-click it again and choose the
Toggle Field Codes command. All praise be to the bomb.
Deleting fields
Removing a field works almost like deleting text. Almost. The main difference is
that you have to press the Delete or Backspace key twice.
For example, when you press Backspace to erase a field, the entire field is
highlighted. That’s your clue that you're about to erase a field, not regular text.
Press Backspace again to remove the field.
The mystery of content controls
Word’s fields aren’t the only dynamic text gizmos you can stick into a document. Another changing
goober is the content control. It’s not really a field, though it can be inserted and updated in a similar
manner. The primary difference is how a content control looks, which is something like this:
Content controls are usually inserted by Word commands, such as those that automatically create
headers or footers or insert page numbers. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, you can choose
Quick Parts
Document Property to insert a property control. The Equation menu, found in the
Insert tab’s Symbols group, also inserts content controls.
As with a field, you might not be able to edit text in a content control, although some controls are
designed that way.
To update a time-sensitive content control, press the F9 key. Some Date content controls have a
pick-the-date button, displaying a tiny calendar from which you can set the property's date.
The Date and Time
With few exceptions, time travelers are the only ones who bother asking for the
current year. Otherwise, people merely want to know the month and day or just the
day of the week. Word understands those people (but not time travelers), so it
offers a slate of tools and tricks to insert date and time information into a
document.
Adding the current date or time
Instead of looking at a calendar and typing a date, follow these steps:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Text group, click the Date and Time button.
The button may say Date & Time or you may see only the icon, shown
in the margin.
3. Use the Date and Time dialog box to choose a format.
4. If desired, click the Update Automatically option so that the date-andtime text remains current with the document.
Setting the Update Automatically option inserts a content control into the text,
which is updated when you open or print the document.
5. Click the OK button to insert the current date or time into your
document.
The keyboard shortcut to insert the current date is Alt+Shift+D. To insert the
current time, press Alt+Shift+T. The date is inserted as a content control; the time
is inserted as a field.
See the nearby sidebar “The mystery of content controls” for information on
content controls.
Using the PrintDate field
The date field I use most often is PrintDate. This field reflects the current date
(and time, if you like) that a document is printed. It’s marvelous for including in a
letterhead template or other document you reuse or print frequently. Here’s how
it’s done:
1. Click the Insert tab.
2. In the Text group, click Quick Parts
Field.
The Field dialog box, which is covered earlier in this chapter, appears.
3. Select Date and Time from the Categories drop-down list.
4. Select PrintDate from the Field Names list.
5. Choose a date-and-time format from the Field Properties area.
6. Click OK.
The field looks gross until you print the document, which makes sense. Also, the
field reflects the last day you printed the document. It’s updated once you print
again.
Part V
The Rest of Word
Discover how to create labels that include graphics at
www.dummies.com/extras/word2016.
In this part …
Find out how to work with multiple documents at one time.
Use writing tools such as Outline view and the master document
feature.
Insert comments in your documents and exchange ideas with others.
Find out how to use mail merge.
Learn about how to use and print labels.
Chapter 24
Multiple Documents, Windows, and
File Formats
In This Chapter
Working with more than one document at a time
Comparing documents side by side
Seeing one document in two windows
Splitting the screen
Opening a non-Word document
Converting older Word documents
You need not limit your word processor usage to toiling with one document in a
single window. Oh, no! You can open multiple documents, working on the lot and
moving from window to window at your whim. You could even split a single
document into two views in a single window, or open one document in two
windows. Word does it all, plus it lets you work with documents in strange and
alien non-Word formats.
Multiple Document Mania
It’s not a question of whether Word can work on more than one document at a
time. No, it’s a question of how you open those documents. Let me count the ways:
Just keep using the Open command to open documents. (See Chapter 8.)
No official limit exists on the number of documents Word can have open,
though I would avoid having more than nine or so open because they slow
down your computer.
In the Open dialog box, select multiple documents to open. Press and hold
down the Ctrl key as you click to select documents. Click the Open button, and
all the documents open, each in its own window.
From any folder window, select multiple Word document icons. Lasso them
with the mouse, or Ctrl+click to select multiple documents. Press the Enter
key to open the lot.
Each document dwells in its own Word program window. To switch between
them, click a window or choose a window by clicking the Word icon on the
Windows taskbar.
To switch windows in Word, follow these steps:
1. Click the View tab.
2. In the Window group, click the Switch Windows button.
3. Choose a document from the menu.
If you’re insane enough to have more than nine documents open at a time, the last
command on the Switch Windows menu is More Windows. Choose this item to
view the Activate dialog box, which lists all open document windows. Select a
document from the window and click OK to switch to it.
Should you spy any document in the list named Document1, Document2,
or similar, immediate switch to that window! Save the document before it’s
too late! Refer to Chapter 8.
Arranging open document windows
To see two or more documents displayed on the screen at the same time, select the
View tab and click the Arrange All button. Immediately, Word organizes all its
windows. They’re arranged like the pieces of fabric in a quilt.
The Arrange All command works best when only a few documents are open.
Otherwise, the document windows are too small to be useful.
Word doesn't arrange minimized windows.
Although you can see more than one document at a time, you can work on only
one at a time. The document with the highlighted title bar is the one “on top.”
Comparing two documents side by side
A quick and handy way to review two documents is to arrange them side by side.
Both documents are visible on the screen and their scrolling is locked so that you
can peruse both in parallel. Here's how to accomplish this trick:
1. Open both documents.
2. On the View tab, in the Window group, click the View Side by Side
button.
Word instantly arranges both documents in vertical windows, with the current
document on the left and the other on the right.
3. Scroll either document.
Scrolling one document also scrolls the other. In this mode, you can compare
two different or similar documents.
You can disable synchronous scrolling by clicking the Synchronous
Scrolling button, found in the Window group.
4. When you're done, choose View Side by Side again.
Also see Chapter 26, which covers reviewing changes made to a document.
Viewing one document in multiple windows
A handy document-viewing trick — especially for long documents — is to open a
single document in two windows. This trick makes writing and editing easier than
hopping back and forth within the same document window and potentially losing
your place.
To open a second window on a single document, obey these steps:
1. Click the View tab.
2. In the Window group, click the New Window button.
A second window opens, showing the current document.
To confirm that the same document is open in two windows, check the title bar:
The first window's filename is followed by :1, and the second window's filename
is followed by :2.
When you no longer need the second window, simply close it. You can close
either window :1 or :2; it doesn't matter. Closing the second window merely
removes that view. The document is still open and available for editing in the
other window.
Even though two windows are open, you’re still working on only one
document. The changes you make in one window are updated in the second.
This feature is useful for cutting and pasting text or graphics between sections
of a long document.
You can even open a third window by choosing the New Window command
again, but that’s just nuts.
Using the old split-screen trick
Splitting the screen allows you to view two parts of your document in the same
window. No need to bother with extra windows here: The top part of the window
shows one part of the document; the bottom part, another. Each half of the screen
scrolls individually, so you can peruse different parts of the same document
without switching windows.
To split a window, heed these directions:
1. Click the View tab.
2. In the Window group, click the Split Window button.
A line bisects the document, splitting it from side to side, as shown in Figure
24-1. If the ruler is visible, a second copy appears below the line, as shown in
the figure.
Figure 24-1: Splitting a document window.
You can scroll the top or bottom part of your document independently. That way,
you can peruse or edit different parts of the document in the same window.
To undo the split, choose the Remote Split command from the Window group. Or
you can double-click the line separating the document.
The line splitting your document is adjustable. To change the size of the
top or bottom part of the split, drag the line up or down.
Many, Many Document Types
Word begrudgingly recognizes that it’s not the only word processor and that its
documents are not the only type of document file. As such, the program
condescends to allow for the accommodation of lesser, mortal document formats.
This feature allows you to read and edit non-Word documents as well as share
your documents with non-Word users, who will be blessed with Word’s
beneficence.
Understanding document formats
When you save a document, Word places the document's text, formatting, and
other information in a file. To keep the information organized, Word uses a
specific file format. The file format makes a Word document unique and different
from other types of files languishing on your computer’s storage system.
Although Word’s document format is popular, it's not the only word-processing
document format available. Other word processors, as well as document utilities
such as Adobe Acrobat, use their own formats. Word permits you to open
documents saved in those formats as well as save your Word documents in the
alien formats. I’m not certain whether the software is pleased to do so, but it’s
capable.
Basic document opening and saving information is found in Chapter 8.
The best way to save a file in another format is to use the Export command,
discussed in Chapter 9.
The standard Word document format uses the docx filename
extension. This extension is applied automatically to all Word documents you
save, although it may not be visible when viewing files in a folder. The older
Word document format used the doc filename extension. See the section,
“Updating an older Word document.”
Opening a non-Word document
Word can magically open and display a host of weird, non-Word documents.
Here’s how it works:
1. Press Ctrl+F12 to summon the traditional Open dialog box.
It’s possible, but not simple, to display the Open dialog box by using the Open
screen. When you must open a non-Word document, it makes more sense to
use the weirdo Ctrl+F12 keyboard shortcut and call it good.
2. Choose a file format from the menu button.
The menu button has no label, though it might say All Word Documents, as
shown in Figure 24-2.
When you choose a specific file format, Word narrows the number of files
displayed in the Open dialog box; only files matching the specific file format
are shown.
If you don’t know the format, choose All Files from the drop-down
list. Word then makes its best guess.
3. Click to select the file.
Or work the controls in the dialog box to find another storage media or folder
that contains the file.
4. Click the Open button.
Figure 24-2: Change file types in the Open dialog box.
The alien file appears onscreen, ready for editing, just like any other Word
document — or not. Word tries its best to open other file formats, but it may not
get everything 100 percent okeydoke.
For some document types, Word displays a file-conversion dialog box. Use
the controls to preview the document, although clicking the OK button is
usually your best bet.
The Recover Text from Any File option is useful for peering into unknown
files, especially from antique and obscure word-processing file formats.
Word remembers the file type! When you use the Open dialog box
again, the same file type is already chosen from the Files of Type drop-down
list. That means your regular Word document may be opened as a plain text
document, which looks truly ugly. Remember to check the Files of Type dropdown list if such a thing happens to you.
Accordingly, when you want to open a Word document after opening
an HTML document, or especially when using the Recover Text from Any File
option, you must choose Word Documents from the list. Otherwise, Word may
open documents in a manner that seems strange to you.
You may see a warning when opening a document downloaded from the
Internet. Word is just being safe; the document is placed into Protected View.
You can preview the document, but to edit it, you need to click the Enable
Editing button.
Don’t blame yourself when Word is unable to open a document. Many, many
file formats are unknown to Word. When someone is sending you this type of
document, ask the person to resend it using a common file format, such as
HTML or RTF.
Updating an older Word document
Microsoft Word has been around for ages. It’s used the same doc file format since
the early days, back when Word ran on steam-powered computers that took three
people to hoist onto a table.
In 2007, Word changed its document file format. Gone was the doc format,
replaced by the docx format. Because a lot of people still use older versions of
Word, and given the abundance of older doc files still used and available, it
became necessary to work with and convert those older documents.
Working with an older Word document is cinchy: Simply open the document. You
see the text [Compatibility Mode] after the filename at the top of the window.
This text is a big clue that you’re using an older Word document. Another clue is
that a lot of Word’s features, such as the capability to preview format changes and
document themes, don’t work when you edit an older document.
To update an older document, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. On the Info screen, click the Convert button.
A descriptive dialog box appears. If not, skip to Step 5.
3. In the Microsoft Word dialog box, click to place a check mark by the item
Do Not Ask Me Again about Converting Documents.
4. Click the OK button.
5. Click the Save button to save your document.
Use the Save As dialog box as covered in Chapter 8. If you’re paying
attention, you’ll see that the chosen file format is Word Document (*.docx).
The document is updated.
The older document isn’t removed when you follow these steps. It lingers,
although you can freely delete it.
See Chapter 8 if you desire to save a current document in the older Word file
format.
Chapter 25
Word for Writers
In This Chapter
Creating an outline in Word
Adding topics, subtopics, and text topics
Rearranging topics in an outline
Demoting and promoting topics
Printing an outline
Making a master document
Using the thesaurus
Pulling a word count
The word processor is the best tool for writers since the ghostwriter. Of course,
cobbling together words in a word processor doesn’t make you a writer any more
than working with numbers in a spreadsheet makes you an accountant. Even so,
beyond its basic word-processing capabilities, Word comes with an armada of
tools for making a writer’s job easier. Whether you’re writing your first guest
piece for the church newsletter or crafting your 74th horror-thriller, you’ll enjoy
Word’s features for writers.
Organize Your Thoughts
Good writers use an outline to organize their thoughts. Back in the old days, an
outline would dwell on a stack of 3-by-5 cards. Today, an outline is a Word
document. That makes it easier not to confuse your outline with grandma’s
recipes.
Word’s Outline view presents your document in a unique way. By using Word’s
header styles, you can group and organize thoughts, ideas, or a plotline in a
hierarchical fashion. Outline view makes it easy to shuffle around topics, make
subtopics, and mix in text to help get your thoughts organized. Even if you’re not a
writer, you can use Word’s Outline mode to create lists, work on projects, or look
busy when the boss comes around.
Entering Outline view
To enter Outline view, click the View tab, and in the Views group, click the
Outline button. The document’s presentation changes to show Outline view, and
the Outlining tab appears on the Ribbon, as shown in Figure 25-1.
Figure 25-1: A typical outline.
To exit Outline view, click the View tab and choose another document view. You
can also click the big, honkin’ Close Outline View button (labeled in Figure 251).
A squat, horizontal bar marks the end of your outline. You cannot delete that
bar.
All basic Word commands work in Outline view. You can use the cursor keys,
delete text, check spelling, save, insert oddball characters, print, and so on.
Don't worry about the text format in Outline view. Format your text later.
Word uses the Heading 1 through Heading 9 styles for your outline’s topics.
Main topics are formatted in Heading 1, subtopics in Heading 2, and so on.
Use the Body or Normal style to make notes or add text to the outline. See the
section “Adding a text topic,” later in this chapter.
An outline isn’t a special type of document. It’s just another Word
document, presented with Outline view active.
Typing topics in the outline
Outlines are composed of topics and subtopics. Topics are your main ideas;
subtopics describe the details. Subtopics can contain their own subtopics going
down to several levels of detail. The amount of detail you use depends on how
organized you want to be.
To create a topic, type the text. Word automatically formats the topic using a
specific Heading style based on the topic level, as shown in Figure 25-2.
Figure 25-2: Topics in an outline.
Keep your main topic levels short and descriptive. Deeper topics can go into
more detail. Press the Enter key when you’re done typing one topic and want to
start another.
Use the Enter key to split a topic. For example, to split the topic Pots and
Pans, delete the word and, and then with the insertion pointer placed between
the two words, press the Enter key.
To join two topics, press the End key to send the insertion pointer to the end
of the first topic. Then press the Delete key. (This method works just like
joining two paragraphs in a regular document.)
Don’t worry about organizing your outline when you first create it. In
Word’s Outline view, you can rearrange topics as your ideas solidify. My
advice is to start writing things down now and concentrate on organization
later.
Rearranging topics
As you organize an outline, things change. In Outline view, you can reset a topic’s
priority, moving it up or down in the list. You can also promote and demote
topics, moving subtopics to main topics and vice-versa.
To help your topics flow in a logical progression, change their order up or down
as follows:
Click the Move Up button (or press Alt+Shift+↑) to move a topic up a
line.
Click the Move Down button (or press Alt+Shift+↓) to move a topic
down a line.
You can also drag a topic up or down: Point the mouse pointer at the
circle to the topic’s left. When the mouse is positioned just right, the mouse
pointer changes to a four-way arrow (see the margin). I recommend using this
trick only when you’re moving topics a short distance; dragging beyond the
current screen can prove unwieldy.
If you need to move a topic and all its subtopics, first collapse the topic.
When the topic is expanded (open), only that line is moved. See the later
section, “Expanding and collapsing topics.”
Demoting and promoting topics
Outline organization also includes demoting topics that are really subtopics and
promoting subtopics to a higher level. Making such adjustments is a natural part of
working in Outline view.
To demote a topic into a subtopic, place the insertion pointer in the
topic’s text. Then on the Outlining tab, in the Outline Tools group, click the
Demote button, shown in the margin.
To promote a subtopic, place the insertion pointer in the topic's text and
click the Promote command button, shown in the margin.
You can continue creating subtopics by typing them and then pressing the Enter
key at the end of each subtopic. Word keeps giving you subtopics, one for each
press of the Enter key.
The keyboard shortcut to demote a topic is Alt+Shift+→.
The keyboard shortcut to promote a topic is Alt+Shift+←.
To instantly make any topic a main-level topic, click the Promote to
Heading 1 button.
You can use the mouse to promote or demote topics: Drag the topic’s circle
left or right. I admit that this move can be tricky, which is why I use the
keyboard shortcuts or buttons on the Ribbon to promote or demote topics.
You don’t really create subtopics in Word as much as you demote
higher-level topics.
Promoting or demoting a topic changes the text format. For example, demoting
a top-level topic changes the style from Heading 1 to Heading 2. The subtopic
also appears indented on the screen. (Refer to Figures 25-1 and 25-2.)
The Level item in the Outlining tab’s Outline Tools group changes to reflect
the current topic level. You can also use this item’s drop-down list to promote
or demote the topic to any specific level in the outline
Unlike main topics, you can get wordy with your subtopics. After all,
the idea here is to expand on the main topic.
According to Those Who Know Such Things, there must be at least
two subtopics for them to qualify as subtopics. When you have only one
subtopic, either you have a second main topic or you’ve created a text topic.
See the later section, “Adding a text topic,” for information.
Expanding and collapsing topics
A detailed outline is wonderful, the perfect tool to help you write that novel,
organize a meeting, or set your priorities. To help you pull back from the detail
and see the Big Picture, you can collapse all or part of an outline. Even when
you’re organizing, sometimes it helps to collapse a topic to help keep it in
perspective.
Any topic with subtopics shows a plus sign in its circle. To collapse the topic and
temporarily hide its subtopics, you have several choices:
Click the Collapse button on the Outlining toolbar (shown in the
margin).
Press the Alt+Shift+_ (underline) keyboard shortcut.
Double-click the plus sign to the topic’s left.
When a topic is collapsed, it features a fuzzy underline, in addition to a plus sign
in the icon to the topic’s left. To expand a collapsed topic, you have several
choices:
Click the Expand button on the Outlining toolbar (shown in the
margin).
Press Alt+Shift++ (plus sign).
Click the topic’s plus sign.
The joy of collapsible headers
You may have seen a side effect of Word’s Outline view when using the Heading styles in your
document: A tiny triangle button appears next to a Heading-style paragraph when a document is
shown in Print Layout view. Click that button to expand or collapse the heading and all its contents
— including any subheadings. Using this trick is a great way to collapse parts of a document without
having to switch to Outline view.
The fastest way to display an outline at a specific topic level is to choose
that level from the Show Level drop-down list. To find that command, look
on the Outlining toolbar, in the Outline Tools group.
For example, to show only Level 1 and Level 2 topics, choose Level 2 from the
Show Level button’s menu. Levels 3 and higher topics remain collapsed.
To see the entire outline, choose Show All Levels from the Show Level menu.
When some of your subtopics get wordy, place a check mark by the Show First
Line Only option. (Look on the Outlining tab in the Outline Tools group for this
setting.) When active, Word displays only the first topic line of text in any topic.
Adding a text topic
Outline view doesn’t prevent you from actually writing text. When the
mood hits you, write! Rather than write prose as a topic, use the Demote to
Body Text command. Here’s how:
1. Press the Enter key to start a new topic.
2.
On the Outlining tab, in the Outline Tools group, click the Demote
to Body Text button (shown in the margin).
The keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Shift+N, which is also the keyboard shortcut for
the Normal style.
These steps change the text style to Body Text. That way, you can write text for
your speech, some instructions in a list, or a chunk of dialogue from your novel,
and not have it appear as a topic or subtopic.
Outline manipulation shortcut keys
I prefer using Word’s shortcut keys whenever possible. Especially when working an outline, when
I’m typing more than mousing, it helps to know these outline manipulate shortcut keys:
Key Combo
What It Does
Alt+Shift+→
Demotes a topic
Alt+Shift+←
Promotes a topic
Alt+Shift+↑
Moves a topic up one line
Alt+Shift+↓
Moves a topic down one line
Ctrl+Shift+N
Demotes a topic to body text
Alt+Shift+1
Displays only top topics
Alt+Shift+2
Displays first- and second-level topics
Alt+Shift+n
Displays all topics up to level n, such as Alt+Shift+4 for the
fourth level
Alt+Shift+A
Displays all topics
Alt+Shift++ (plus
sign)
Displays all subtopics in the current topic
Alt+Shift+_
(underline)
Hides all subtopics in the current topic
Printing an outline
Printing an outline works just like printing any other document in Word but with
one big difference: Only visible topics are printed.
To control visible topics, use the Show Level menu, as discussed earlier in the
“Expanding and collapsing topics” section. For example, to print the entire
outline, choose All Levels from the Show Level menu and then print.
To print only the first two levels of your outline, choose Level 2 from the Show
Level drop-down list and then print.
Word uses the Heading styles when it prints the outline, although it does not
indent topics.
See Chapter 9 for more information on printing documents in Word.
Large Documents
The first novel I wrote (and never published, of course) was several hundred
pages long. It was saved as a single document. Although Word documents can be
any length, putting everything into one document that way is impractical. Editing,
copying and pasting, searching and replacing, and all other word-processing
operations become less efficient the larger the document.
A better solution for long documents is to keep each chapter, or large chunk, as its
own file. You can then take advantage of Word’s Master Document feature to put
everything together when it comes time to print or publish.
The master document stitches together all individual documents, or
subdocuments, even continuing page numbers, headers, footers, and other
ongoing elements. The end result is a large document that you can print or
publish.
What qualifies as a large document? Anything over 100 pages qualifies, as far
as I’m concerned.
When writing a novel, create each chapter as its own document. Keep
all those chapter documents in their own folder. Further, use document
filenames to help with organization. For example, I name chapters by using
numbers: The first chapter is 01, the second is 02, and so on.
This book is comprised of several dozen individual Word documents — one
for each chapter, each part introduction, the front matter, the index, and so on.
Creating a master document
Word’s Master Document feature helps you collect and coordinate individual
documents — called subdocuments — and cobble them into one large document.
When you have a master document, you can assign continuous page numbers to
your work, apply headers and footers throughout the entire project, and take
advantage of Word’s Table of Contents, Index, and other list-generating features.
To create a big, whopping document from many smaller documents — to create a
master document — obey these steps:
1. Start a new, blank document in Word.
Press Ctrl+N to quickly summon a new, blank document.
2. Save the document.
Yeah, I know — you haven’t yet written anything. Don’t worry: By saving
now, you get ahead of the game and avoid some weird error messages.
3. Switch to Outline view.
Click the View tab, and then click the Outline button.
4. On the Outlining tab in the Master Document group, click the Show
Document button.
The Master Document group is instantly repopulated with more buttons. One
of these is the Insert button, used to build the master document.
5. Click the Insert button.
6. Use the Insert Subdocument dialog box to hunt down the first document to
insert in the master document.
The documents must be inserted in order. I hope you used a clever documentnaming scheme, as recommended in the preceding section.
7. Click the Open button to stick the document in the master document.
The document appears in the window, but it’s ugly because Outline view is
active. Don’t worry: It won’t be ugly when it is printed!
If you’re asked a question about conflicting styles, click the Yes to All button.
It keeps all subdocument styles consistent with the master document.
(Although it’s best when all documents use the same document template.)
Word sets itself up for you to insert the next document:
8. Repeat Steps 5 through 7 to build the master document.
9. Save the master document when you’ve finished inserting all
subdocuments.
At this point, the master document is created. It’s what you’ll use to print or save
the entire, larger document.
You can still edit and work on the individual documents. Any changes you make
are reflected in the master document. In fact, the only time you really need to work
in the master document is when you choose to edit the headers and footers, create
a table of contents, or work on other items that affect the entire document.
When you’re ready, you can publish the master document just as you publish
any individual document. See Chapter 9 for information on publishing a
document.
Use the Collapse Subdocuments button to hide all subdocument text.
For example, if you need to create a table of contents or work on the master
document’s headers and footers, collapsing the subdocuments makes the
process easier.
See Chapter 21 for more information on creating a table of contents and an
index for your document.
Splitting a document
Splitting a document isn’t a part of creating a master document, but it might be the
way you start. If you mistakenly wrote your novel as one long document, I
recommend that you split it into smaller documents. A simple shortcut doesn’t
exist; instead you have to cut and paste to create smaller documents out of a huge
one.
Here’s how to split a document:
1. Select half the document — the portion you want to split into a new
document.
Or if you’re splitting a document into several pieces, select the first chunk that
you want to plop into a new document. For example, split the document at the
chapter breaks or a main heading break.
2. Cut the selected block.
Press Ctrl+X to cut the block.
3. Summon a new, blank document.
Ctrl+N does the trick. Or, if you’re using a template (and you should be), start
a new document with that template. See Chapter 16.
4. Paste the document portion.
Press Ctrl+V to paste. If the text doesn’t paste in with the proper
formatting, click the Home tab, and in the Clipboard group, click the Paste
Options button. Choose the command button Keep Source Formatting (shown
in the margin).
5. Save the new document.
Continue splitting the larger document by repeating these steps. After you’ve
finished splitting the larger document, you can safely delete it.
Dan’s Writing Tips
Nothing beats advice from someone who has been there and done that. As a
professional writer, I’m excited to pass along my tips, tricks, and suggestions to
any budding scrivener. That’s why I wrote this section.
Choosing the best word
When two words share the same meaning, they're said to be synonyms — for
example, big and large. Synonyms are helpful in that they allow you to find better,
more descriptive words and, especially, to avoid using the same tired old words
over and over. Obviously, knowing synonyms is a handy skill for any writer.
To find a word’s synonym, right-click the word in your document. From
the pop-up menu, choose the Synonyms submenu to see a list of words that
have a similar meaning. Choose a word from the menu and it replaces the
word in your document.
To see more word alternatives, right-click a word and choose Synonyms
Thesaurus. The Thesaurus pane appears, listing multitudinous alternative
words.
To use a word from the Thesaurus pane, right-click the word and
choose the Insert command. The word is placed in your document at the
toothpick cursor’s location.
Antonyms, or words that mean the opposite of the selected word, might also
appear on the Synonyms submenu.
For more research on a specific word, right-click and choose the Smart
Lookup command. The Insights pane appears, which lists sources from online
references to help you determine whether or not you’re using the best word.
Counting every word
You pay the butcher by the pound. The dairyman is paid by the gallon.
Salespeople keep a percentage of their sales. Writers? They’re paid by the word.
If you’re lucky enough to be paid for your writing, you know that word count is
king. Magazine editors demand articles based on word length. “I need 350
hilarious words on tech-support phone calls,” an editor once told me. And novel
writers typically boast about how many words are in their latest efforts. “My next
book is 350,000 words,” they say in stuffy, nasal voices. How do they know how
many words they wrote?
The best way to see how many words dwell in your document is to view the status
bar. The word count appears by the Words label, and the count is updated as you
type.
If you don’t see the word count at the bottom of the window, right-click the status
bar and choose Word Count.
To obtain more than a word count, click the Review tab. In the Proofing
group, click the Word Count button (shown in the margin). The detailed Word
Count dialog box appears, listing all sorts of word-counting trivia.
Also see Chapter 23 for information on inserting a Word Count field in your
document.
Writing for writers
Here’s a smattering of tips for any writer using Word:
You’ll notice that, thanks to AutoFormat, Word fixes ellipses for you. When
you type three periods in a row, Word inserts the ellipsis character (…).
Don’t correct it! Word is being proper. When you don’t use the ellipsis
character, be sure to separate the three periods with spaces.
You can format paragraphs by separating them with a space or by indenting
the first line of each paragraph. Use one or the other, not both.
Keep the proper heading formats: Heading 1, Heading 2, and so on. Or create
your own heading styles that properly use the Outline Level format. That way,
you can easily create a table of contents as well as use other Word features
that display headings in your documents.
Use Outline view to collect your thoughts. Keep working on the outline and
organizing your thoughts. When you find yourself writing text-level topics,
you’re ready to write.
Use the soft return (Shift+Enter) to split text into single lines. I use the soft
return to break up titles and write return addresses, and I use it at other times
when text must appear one line at a time.
Word is configured to select text one word at a time. This option isn’t always
best for writers, where it sometimes pays to select text by character, not by
word. To fix that setting, from the File tab menu, choose Options. In the
Options dialog box, click the Advanced item. Remove the check mark by the
When Selecting, Automatically Select Entire Word item. Click OK.
Chapter 26
Let’s Work This Out
In This Chapter
Sticking comments in a document
Highlighting text
Finding changes in a document
Tracking changes in a document
Reviewing document changes
Sharing by using online collaboration
Writing isn’t a team sport, but it can be. Eventually, writers encounter
collaboration, welcome or not. Often it comes in the form of an editor, but
occasionally others chime in. To assist in that task, Word gives you some work-itout-together tools. They help you share ideas, point out issues that need attention,
and even see who has done exactly what to your precious text.
Comments on Your Text
You can write a note to yourself, or those reading your document can jot a note.
They can do so right in the text, which is très gauche, coloring the text in another
font, or using ALL CAPS, or surrounding it with triple curly brackets or some
other such nonsense.
The better way to insert comments in a document is to use Word’s Comment
feature, found on the Review tab.
Adding a comment
To adroitly thrust a comment into your document, follow these steps:
1. Select the chunk of text on which you want to comment.
Be specific. Although you may be tempted to select the entire document, only
the first few words of a longer chunk are necessary.
2. Click the Review tab.
3.
In the Comments group, click the New Comment button.
The New Comment button is shown in the margin. Click it to see a Comments
box to the right of the current page, similar to the one shown in Figure 26-1.
The side of the page where the comment appears is called the markup area.
4. Type your comment.
Jot down your thoughts. I’m not sure how long a comment can be, although you
probably don’t want to write more than a few lines. If you desire, you can
apply text formats to the comment.
5. Press the Esc key when you’ve finished typing the comment.
Or you can click in the document’s text.
Figure 26-1: Comments on a text passage.
To comment on a comment, click the Add Comment button, shown in Figure 26-1.
Type your reply to the earlier comment in the box. Click in the text when you’re
done.
Displaying or hiding comments
Add a comment to your document and the markup area appears on the right side of
the page. The markup area appears whenever a document features comments, but
its appearance is controlled by settings on the Review tab.
To hide the markup area, click the Review tab. In the Tracking group,
click the Display for Review button, shown in the margin. The four available
options set how comments, as well as other document revisions (covered
elsewhere in this chapter), are displayed:
Simple Markup: Chose this item to display the markup area and view
comments and revisions.
All Markup: Choose this item to display the markup area. Any comments or
revisions are shown, along with lines referencing their locations in the text.
No Markup: Choose this item to hide the markup area. Comments don’t
appear, and any revisions are hidden in the text.
Original: Choose this item to hide the markup area as well as any revisions
made to the document. With regards to comments, this item is identical to No
Markup.
The markup area appears best when viewing the document in Print Layout view.
Web Layout view (not my favorite) also shows the markup area on the right side
of the window.
If you choose Draft view, the comments appear as bracketed initials highlighted
with a specific background color. For example, my comments look like [DG1],
where DG are my initials and the 1 represents comment one. Position the mouse
pointer at that text to view the comment in a pop-up bubble.
When Word is in Read Mode view, comments appear as cartoon bubbles
to the right of the text. Click a bubble, similar to what’s shown in the margin, to
view the comment.
See Chapter 1 for more information on Word’s different document views.
To view all comments, no matter which document view is chosen,
summon the Reviewing pane: Click the Review tab, and in the Tracking group,
click the Reviewing Pane button. Choose either the horizontal or vertical
display to summon the Reviewing pane and peruse comments as well as text
revisions.
See the later section, “Tracking changes as they're made,” for information on
revisions.
Reviewing comments one at a time
Rather than randomly scroll through your document to hunt down a comment, use
the Next Comment and Previous Comment buttons. These buttons are found on the
Review tab, in the Comments group.
Click the Next Comment button to jump to the next comment in the
document.
Click the Previous Comment button to jump to the previous comment in
the document.
Clicking either the Next Comment or Previous Comment button activates All
Markup view, as covered in the preceding section.
Printing comments (or not)
I’ll bet you were surprised! You went to print your document and, lo, there on the
page along with all your wonderful formatted text were those silly comments.
That’s probably not what you intended.
To control whether a document’s comments appear when printed, follow these
steps:
1. Press Ctrl+P.
The Print screen appears.
2. Click the Print All Pages button.
A menu pops up, which I call the “print what” menu.
At the bottom of the menu, you see a set of options, the first of which is Print
Markup. This setting controls whether comments, as well as other text markup
covered in this chapter, print with the rest of the document.
3. Choose the Print Markup command.
When this command has a check mark by it, the comments print. When no
check mark appears, you’re directing Word not to print comments (and other
types of text markup).
Use the Print Preview window to confirm whether comments will
print.
4. Make any other settings in the Print window as needed.
5. Click the big Print button to print the document.
The change made by completing these steps isn’t permanent. You must
follow these steps every time you print the document or else the comments
print as well.
See Chapter 9 for more information on printing documents in Word.
Deleting comments
To delete a comment, work these steps:
1. Click the Review tab.
2. Click the Next Comment button to locate the offending comment.
Or you can click the Previous Comment button, depending on where the
insertion pointer blinks inside the document.
Upon success, the comment is highlighted in the markup area.
3. In the Comments area, choose Delete
Delete.
The Delete button is shown in the margin. It’s one of those menu
button icon things that you must click to access the commands.
4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 to remove additional comments.
Or just keep repeating Step 2 until you find a comment worthy of obliteration.
To delete all comments from a document in one single act of massive retaliation,
use the Delete Comment button's menu: Choose Delete
Delete All Comments
in Document.
The Yellow Highlighter
Word comes with a digital highlighter pen that lets you mark up and colorize the
text in your document without damaging the computer’s monitor. To highlight text,
abide by these steps:
1. Click the Home tab.
2.
In the Font group, click the Text Highlight button.
The mouse pointer changes to a — well, I don't know what it is, but the point
is that Word is now in Highlighting mode.
3. Drag the mouse over the text you want to highlight.
The text becomes highlighted — just as if you used a highlighter on regular
paper but far neater.
4. Click the Text Highlight button again to return the mouse to normal
operation.
Or press the Esc key to exit Highlighting mode.
The highlight doesn’t necessarily need to be yellow. Click the menu button to the
right of the Text Highlight button, and choose a different highlighter color from the
palette displayed.
To remove highlighting from your text, highlight it again in the same color. If that
doesn’t work, choose None as the highlight color and then drag the mouse over
any color of highlighted text to remove the highlight.
To highlight multiple chunks of text, double-click the Text Highlight button.
The mouse pointer stays in highlighting mode until you click the Text Highlight
button again or press the Esc key.
To highlight a block of text, mark the block and then click the Highlight button
that appears on the mini toolbar.
Highlighting isn’t the background color. See Chapter 10 for information on
setting the text background color.
The highlighted text prints, so be careful with it. If you don’t have a
color printer, highlighted text prints in black or gray on hard copy.
Look What They've Done to My Text,
Ma
I enjoy feedback. All good writers do. Still, I’d like to know what’s been done to
my text, not only to see the effect but sometimes to learn something. Word’s
revision-tracking tools make such a review possible.
Comparing two versions of a document
You have the original copy of your document — the stuff you wrote. You also
have the copy that Brianne, the vixen from the legal department, has worked over.
Your job is to compare them to see exactly what’s been changed from the original.
Here’s what to do:
1. Click the Review tab.
2. In the Compare group, choose Compare
Compare.
The Compare Documents dialog box shows up.
3. Choose the original document from the Original Document drop-down list.
The list shows recently opened or saved documents. Choose one, or use the
Browse item to summon the Open dialog box and hunt down the document.
4. Choose the edited document from the Revised Document drop-down list.
Choose the document from the list, or use the Browse item to locate the
changed, altered, or mangled document.
5. Click OK.
Word compares the two documents. The changes are displayed in a quadruplesplit window, as shown in Figure 26-2. This presentation is actually a third
document titled Compare Result.
Figure 26-2: The shameful changes show up here.
Look it over! Peruse the changes made to your pristine prose by the barbarian
interlopers: Scrolling is synchronized between all three documents: original,
edited, and compared. Click a change in the Reviewing pane (shown on the left in
Figure 26-2) to quickly see which part of your document was folded, spindled, or
mutilated.
Changed text is highlighted in two ways: Added text is underlined. Removed
text is shown in strikethrough style.
You can confirm or reject the changes in the Compare Result document just as
you would when tracking changes manually. See the upcoming section,
“Reviewing changes.”
Tracking changes as they’re made
To be a kind and gentle collaborator, activate Word’s Tracking feature
before you being making changes to someone else’s text: Click the Review tab,
and in the Tracking group, click the Track Changes button, shown in the margin.
From that point on, any changes made to the document are color-coded based on
who is making the changes and what level of markup is displayed:
For Simple Markup, a color-coded bar appears to the left of a paragraph,
indicating that some change was made.
For All Markup, new text appears in a specific color, depending on who made
the changes. Added text appears with a color-coded underline and deleted text
appears with color-coded strikethrough. These text highlights are called
revision marks.
For No Markup, the changes are tracked but not displayed in the document.
This is a great setting to choose for the least amount of distraction. (The
revision marks can be seen by choosing All Markup instead of No Markup.)
Refer to the earlier section, “Displaying or hiding comments,” for information on
the Simple Markup, All Markup, and No Markup settings.
Word continues to track changes and edits in your document until you turn off
Track Changes. To do so, click the Track Changes button again.
Although the Track Changes button appears highlighted while the feature
is active, a better way to check — and use — this feature is to activate the
Track Settings option on the status bar. To set this option, right-click the
status bar and choose Track Changes. As a bonus, you can click this item on
the status bar to activate or deactivate revision marks in your document.
Reviewing changes
After your poor, limp document is returned to you, the best way to review the
damage inflicted is to use the commands on the Review tab, located in the
Changes group. These commands are illustrated in Figure 26-3; depending on the
window size, you may or may not see text explaining what each one does.
Figure 26-3: Buttons for reviewing changes.
To review changes throughout your document, click the Next or Previous buttons.
Click a button to hop from one change in the text to the next change.
Click the Accept button if you can tolerate the change. To reject a change, click
the Reject button. After clicking either button, you instantly see the next change in
the document, until all the changes are dealt with.
The Accept and Reject buttons are actually menus. They sport commands that
accept or reject all the changes in your document in one fell swoop. The only
thing missing is the “swoop!” sound when you use those commands.
You can view a summary of changes by summoning the Revisions pane: On
the Review tab, in the Tracking group, click the Reviewing Pane button. The
Revisions pane doesn’t show the changes in context, but it lists each one.
Click an item in the Revisions pane to hop to each change in your document.
To see the changes in your text, ensure that you chose the All Markup
command from the Display for Review menu button.
When you goof while approving or rejecting a change, press Ctrl+Z to undo.
You can also right-click any revision mark to accept or reject it.
Collaborate on the Internet
Most document changes are made sequentially: You write something, save, and
then someone else works on the document. If that chaos isn’t enough for you,
Word allows you to invite people to edit a document while you’re working on it.
This collaboration feature is called Sharing, probably because a better name
wasn’t available or Microsoft was pressed for time.
To make document sharing work, save your document to the cloud, or Internet
storage. Specifically, the document must be saved to Microsoft’s One Drive
storage. See Chapter 8 for more information.
Sharing a document
After saving your document to OneDrive online storage, follow these steps to
make it available for collaboration:
1. Click the Share button.
This button is found above the Ribbon, near the top-right part of the
document’s window.
Upon success, the Share pane appears.
2. Fill in information about your collaborator(s).
Type in the Invite People box the email address of the person or people with
whom you want to share the document. If you use Outlook as your computer’s
address book, click the Address icon to the right of the Invite People box to
automatically add people.
3. Choose whether or not the collaborators can edit.
Choose Can View from the menu and the people you invite can read the
document. Choose Can Edit and they can make changes.
4. Type a message in the Include a Message box.
5. Click the Share button.
The invites are sent.
Eventually, the recipients receive the email invite. To access the shared
document, they click the link in the email address. Their web browser program
opens and displays the document. If they want to edit the document, they click the
link Edit in Browser button. At that point, their web browser displays the
document as it appears in Word, complete with a customized version of the
Ribbon. Hack away.
Checking updates
To determine whether someone has edited your shared document, or even if he's
editing it right now, open the shared document and click the Share button found
near the upper-right corner of the document window. The Share pane lists all
collaborators and whether or not they’re currently editing.
If any collaborators have changed the document, save your copy to view the
updates: Click the Save icon on the Quick Access toolbar, or press Ctrl+S. Any
changed content appears in the document with a colored overlay, similar to how
revision marks are displayed, as covered earlier in this chapter.
To check to see whether updates are pending, click the File tab, and on
the Info screen look for and click the button titled Document Updates
Available.
Chapter 27
Mail Merge Mania
In This Chapter
Understanding mail merge
Building the main document
Conjuring up a recipient list
Making a recipient list
Inserting fields into the main document
Previewing the results
Merging (the final act)
Here’s a little quiz: What do these things have in common? Rocket science.
Quantum mechanics. Brain surgery. Levitation. The answer: They’re all a lot
easier to accomplish than attempting mail merge in Word.
I’m not saying that mastering mail merge is impossible. True, it’s an ancient
word-processing tradition — something that just about everyone toys with at one
time or another. Yet the way Word handles mail merge has been consistently
frustrating. That’s why I wrote this chapter.
About Mail Merge
The term mail merge is given to the process of opening a single document, stirring
in a list of names and other information, and then combining (merging) everything.
The result is a sheaf of personalized documents. Sounds useful, right? Peruse this
section before attempting the process on your own.
Understanding Word’s mail merge jargon
Although you may have your own delightful, descriptive terms for the steps
required and pieces necessary to complete a mail merge, Word's terms are
different. Before taking the mail merge plunge, I recommend that you review the
terms Word uses:
Main document: This document is just like any other document in Word,
complete with formatting, layout, and all the fancy stuff that goes into a document.
The document also contains various fill-in-the-blank items, which is what makes
it the main document.
Recipient list: This list contains the information that creates the customized
documents. It’s a type of database, with rows and columns of information used to
fill in the form letters.
Field: Each of these fill-in-the-blanks items inside the main document is a
placeholder that will be filled in by information from the recipient list. Fields are
what make the mail merge possible.
Getting these three elements to work together is the essence of mail merge. All the
commands necessary are located on the Mailings tab. In fact, the command groups
are organized left-to-right in the order you use them. The remainder of this chapter
describes the details.
Mail merge document types
In addition to a form letter, the main document in a mail merge can be an email message, an
envelope, a set of labels, or anything else that can be mass-produced. Here are the official Word
mail merge document types:
Letter: The traditional mail merge document is a letter, a document in Word.
Email messages: Word can produce customized email messages, which are sent electronically
rather than printed.
Envelopes: You can use mail merge to create a batch of customized envelopes, each printed with
its own address.
Labels: Word lets you print sheets of labels, each of which is customized with specific information
from the mail merge. See Chapter 28 for specifics.
Directory: A directory is a list of information, such as a catalog or an address book.
The key to mail merging is the recipient list. If you plan to create a
mail merge as part of your regular routine, build a recipient list that you can
use again and again.
A mail merge document can have as many fields as it needs. In fact, any item
you want to change can be a field: the greeting, a banal pleasantry, gossip,
whatever.
Fields are also known as merge fields.
You can use information from the Outlook program, also a part of
Microsoft Office, as a recipient list for a mail merge in Word. This trick
works best, however, when you’re in a computer environment that features
Microsoft Exchange Server. Otherwise, making Outlook and Word cooperate
can be a frustrating endeavor.
Reviewing the mail merge process
The typical mail merge involves five steps. These steps are presented in more
detail throughout this chapter:
I. Build the main document.
Choose the document type, usually a letter, although other document types are
listed in the nearby sidebar, “Mail merge document types.” As you create the
document, you decide which fields are needed. That way, you can build a
recipient list.
II. Create the recipient list — the data for the mail merge.
The recipient list is a table, consisting of rows and columns. Each column is a
field, a fill-in-the-blanks part of the document. Each row is like a record in a
database, representing a person who receives his own, custom copy of the
document.
III. Insert fields into the main document.
The fields are placeholders for information that is eventually supplied from
the recipient list.
IV. Preview the merge results.
You don’t just merge; first you must preview how the documents will look.
That way, you can clean up any formatting, check for errors, and do other
corrections.
V. Merge the information from the recipient list into the main document.
VI. The final mail merge process creates the customized documents. They can then
be saved, printed, emailed, or dealt with however you like.
The rest of this chapter covers the specifics.
Using the Mail Merge Wizard
If all this mail merge malarkey is just too intense for you, consider an alternative:
Word offers the Mail Merge Wizard, which guides you through the entire ordeal
one step at a time.
To run the wizard, click the Mailings tab, and choose Start Mail Merge Stepby-Step Mail Merge Wizard. You see the Mail Merge pane on the right side of the
document’s window. Answer the questions, choose options, and click the Next
link to proceed.
The rest of this chapter assumes that you’re crazy enough to do mail merge the
macho way.
I. The Main Document
Mail merge begins with a document, or what I call the main document. It’s the
prototype for all the individualized documents you eventually create, so it
contains only common elements.
The following sections discuss different types of main documents. Read the
section that relates to the type of mail merge you’re attempting, and then proceed
with the section, “II. The Recipient List.”
Creating a mail merge form letter
The most common thing to mail merge is the standard, annoying form letter.
Here’s how you start that journey:
1. Start a new, blank document.
Press Ctrl+N.
2. Click the Mailings tab.
3. In the Start Mail Merge group, choose Start Mail Merge
Letters.
4. Type the letter.
You’re typing only the common parts of the letter, the text that doesn’t
change for each copy you print.
5. Type the fields you need in ALL CAPS.
This step is my idea, not Word’s. For text that changes for each letter, type in
ALL CAPS. For example, FIRST NAME or HAT SIZE. Use short, descriptive
terms. Figure 27-1 shows an example.
6. Save the main document.
If you already saved the document as you were writing it, give yourself a
cookie.
Figure 27-1: A mail-merge main document.
After you create your letter, the next step is to create or use a recipient list.
Continue with the section “II. The Recipient List,” a little later in this chapter.
Creating mail merge email messages
Word lets you spew out custom email messages by using the E-Mail option for
mail merge. This option works only when you configure the Microsoft Outlook
program on your computer. After that’s done, you start the main document for your
email merge by obeying these steps:
1. Press Ctrl+N to create a fresh document.
2. On the Mailings tab, choose Start Mail Merge
E-Mail Messages.
Word changes to Web Layout view, used for creating Internet documents in
Word.
3. Create your mail message.
4. If you anticipate inserting fields in the message, type them in ALL CAPS.
Normally, an email mail merge doesn’t have fields in the document. Instead,
email addresses are used to send out multiple copies of the message. Even so,
you can insert fields just as you would for a form letter. See Step 5 in the
preceding section for details.
5. Save your document.
The primary field you use when merging an email document is the recipient’s
email address. You can’t email-merge without it. Continue your mail merge
adventure in the later section, “II. The Recipient List.”
Creating mail merge envelopes
To create a stack of mail merge envelopes, which is far classier than using peeland-stick mailing labels, abide by these steps:
1. Start a new document.
2. On the Mailings tab, choose Start Mail Merge
Envelopes.
The Envelope Options dialog box appears. You can set the envelope size and
font options, if necessary.
3. Click OK.
Word’s window changes to reflect a typical envelope, a size specified in the
Envelope Options dialog box (Step 2).
4. Type the return address.
Normally, an envelope mail merge doesn’t use different return addresses for
each envelope. So type the return address where the insertion pointer is
blinking in the upper-left corner of the envelope.
Press Shift+Enter to place a soft return at the end of a line in the return
address. The soft return keeps the lines in the return address tightly together.
5. Save the envelope.
That’s pretty much it for a mail merge envelope. Word has placed a text box at the
center, lower portion of the envelope. That’s where fields for the recipient’s name
are inserted. You could type text in that box, but it’s not really necessary.
Your next task is to use the recipient list to gather the information for your
mailing. Keep reading in the next section.
II. The Recipient List
To make mail merge work, you need a list of items to merge, rows and columns as
in a database. This information, called the recipient list, contains the items used to
create the individual documents, email messages, envelopes, and so on.
Your options including building a new, custom recipient list, as covered in the
next section. Once created, you can use a recipient list again. You can also pull in
information from the Outlook program.
Building a new recipient list
Unless you already have recipient lists built and saved, you need to make one
from scratch. This process involves setting up the list by adding fields you want
and discarding fields you don’t need. Once that chore is over, you fill in the data.
Because creating the recipient list can be involved, I’ve divided the task into four
subsections.
Create the new recipient list
Before you can create a new recipient list, you must have created and saved the
main document. Specific steps are provided in the earlier section, “I. The Main
Document.” Creating the recipient list works the same no matter which mail merge
document type you created.
1. Click the Mailings tab.
2. In the Start Mail Merge group, choose Select Recipients
List.
You see the New Address List dialog box.
Type a New
Add any new fields you need
The New Address List dialog box comes pre-stocked with fields. If you can use
some, great! Otherwise, you must add fields not already present.
Follow these steps in the New Address List dialog box:
1. Click the Add button.
The teeny Add Field dialog box pops into view.
2. Type the field name and click the OK button.
Follow these rules for naming fields:
Name the field to reflect the kind of information in it; for example,
Snake Bite Location.
No two fields can have the same name.
Field names can contain spaces but cannot start with a space.
Field names can be quite long, though shorter is best.
The following characters are forbidden in a field name: . ! ` [ ].
3. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for each new field you need in the main document.
The list of fields should match with the list of ALL CAPS text in the main
document (if you chose to create them). Don’t worry if it doesn’t — you can
add fields later, though it takes more time.
4. Click OK.
You now see customized fields as column headings in the New Address List
dialog box.
Remove any fields you don’t need
Removing unnecessary fields is optional, but I include it out of spite: The New
Address List dialog box comes with a basic assortment of fields. If you don’t need
them, remove them. Or you can skip ahead to the next subsection, “Add recipient
data.”
To remove extra fields from the New Address list dialog box, heed these steps:
1. Click the Customize Columns button.
The Customize Address List dialog box appears, displaying fields that Word
assumes you need. Such foolishness cannot be tolerated.
2. Click to select a field that you do not need.
When you’re merging an email message, you need the Email_Address
field, whether it appears in the message body or not Word uses this field so
that it knows where to send the message. Don’t delete the field!
3. Click the Delete button.
4. Click Yes in the confirmation dialog box.
The keyboard shortcut for the Yes button is the Y key.
5. Repeat Steps 2 through 4 for each field you don’t need.
Be careful not to remove any fields you added!
When you’re done, the New Address List dialog box should contain only those
fields you need.
Rather than delete all fields, you can rename some fields to match what
you need: Select a field and click the Rename button. For example, I renamed
First Name to First; Last Name to Last; and so on.
Add recipient data
After customizing the fields, your final job is to fill in the recipient list. You need
to input records, one for each document you plan to create:
1. Type the first record’s data.
Type the information that’s appropriate to each field shown in the New
Address List dialog box: name, title, evil nickname, planet of origin, and so
on.
2. Press Tab to enter the next field.
After filling in the last field, you’ll probably want to add another record:
3. To add a new record, press the Tab key after typing in the last field.
When you press the Tab key in the last field in a record, a new record is
automatically created and added on the next line. Keep filling in data!
4. Review your work when you're done.
Figure 27-2 shows a completed recipient list.
You can edit any field in any record by selecting it
If you accidentally add a blank record at the end of the list, click to
select it and then click the Delete Entry button. You do this because blank
records are still processed in a mail merge, which can result in wasted paper.
5. Click OK.
The Save Address List dialog box pops up, allowing you to save the recipient
list.
The recipient lists dwell in the folder named My Data Sources, found
in the Documents or My Documents folder. Word automatically chooses (or
creates) this folder.
6. Type a name for the address list.
Descriptive names are best. After all, you might use the same recipient list
again.
7. Click the Save button.
You return to the document.
Figure 27-2: Making a recipient list.
The next step in your mail merge agony is to stir the fields from the recipient list
into the main document. Refer to the section “III. Fold in the Fields,” later in this
chapter.
Making a recipient list document
Here’s a secret: You can create a document in Word and use it as a data source for a mail merge.
The document contains a single element: a table. The table must have a header row, formatted in
bold text, which identifies all the fields. Every row after that becomes a record in the recipient list
database.
Using a table as a recipient list provides an easy way to import information into Word and use it for a
mail merge. For example, you can copy information from the Internet or a PDF file and then paste
that information into Word. Edit the information into a typical Word table, add a table heading row,
and save the thing — and then you have a recipient list.
Follow the steps outlined in the nearby section, “Using an already created recipient list,” to use
the table document as your recipient list. Also see Chapter 19 for more information on tables in
Word.
Using an already created recipient list
To use an existing recipient list for your mail merge, follow these steps after
creating the main document:
1. From the Mailings tab, choose Select Recipients
Use an Existing List.
The Select Data Source dialog box appears. It works like the Open dialog
box, though it’s designed to display recipient lists that Word can use or that
you previously created and saved.
Look for recipient lists in the My Documents folder, My Data Sources
subfolder.
2. Choose an existing recipient list from the displayed files.
I hope you used a descriptive name when you first saved the recipient list,
which I recommend in the preceding section.
3. Click the Open button.
That’s it: The recipient list is now associated with the main document.
Refer to the later section, “III. Fold in the Fields,” for information on inserting
fields into your document, which is the next step in the mail merge nightmare.
You can tell when a recipient list is associated with the main document
because the Insert Merge Field button is available. Look on the Mailings tab
in the Write & Insert Fields group for that button.
Grabbing a recipient list from Outlook
Assuming that you use Microsoft Outlook, and further that you have access to
Exchange Server, you can follow these steps to create a recipient list:
1. On the Mailings tab, in the Start Mail Merge group, choose Select
Recipients
Choose from Outlook Contacts.
2. If necessary, select your profile from the Choose Profile dialog box.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Select Contacts dialog box, choose a contact folder.
Contact folders are created in Outlook, not in Word.
5. Click OK.
6. Use the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box to filter the recipient list.
If the list isn’t too long, remove the check marks by the names of the
individuals you don’t want in the list. You can also click the Filter link in the
dialog box to do more advanced filtering, which I’m loathe to describe right
now.
7. Click OK when you’re done culling the recipient list.
The next step in the painful experience known as Word mail merge is to insert
fields into the master document. Keep reading in the later section, “III. Fold in the
Fields.”
Editing a recipient list
Although you can’t add or remove fields from a recipient list, you can add or
remove records. To do so, follow these steps:
1. On the Mailing tab, in the Start Mail Merge group, click the Edit
Recipient List button.
The button isn’t available unless you’re working on a main document and it
has been associated with a recipient list.
2. Select the data source.
In the lower-left corner of the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box, click the
data source filename.
3. Click the Edit button.
You can now use the Data Form dialog box to edit each record in the recipient
list or to add or remove fields and perform other chaos:
Click the Delete button to remove the current record.
Click the Add New button to create a new record.
4. Click the Close button when you’re done editing.
5. Click the OK button to dismiss the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box.
If you need to add fields, you must edit the recipient list directly. The files
are saved in the Microsoft Access file format, so if you don’t have Access or
software that can read that format, you’re out of luck — unless you created
your own recipients list as a table in Word document. In that case, you can
edit the fields by adding new columns to the table.
III. Fold in the Fields
To make a mail merge work, the main document must be peppered with fields.
The fields are placeholders, into which data from the recipient list is pulled and
placed. Before this process takes place, ensure that you’ve created the main
document and assigned a recipient list, as described earlier in this chapter.
If you’ve followed my advice in the section, “I. The Main Document,” you can
easily add fields by replacing the ALL CAPS text with the proper fields. Here’s
how it works:
1. Position the mouse pointer where you want the field to appear in the main
document.
If you followed my advice from the earlier section, “Creating a mail merge
form letter,” select a placeholder, such as FIRST NAME.
2. On the Mailings tab, click the Insert Merge Field button.
3. Choose the field to add to the main document.
For example, choose the First Name field to stick it into the document.
After the field is inserted, you see its name hugged by angle brackets, such as
<<First Name>>.
4. Repeat Steps 1 through 3 to add fields to the document.
When adding fields to an address, press Shift+Enter to end each line.
5. Save the main document.
Always save! Save! Save! Save!
The next step in your journey is to preview the results and fix any mistakes. Keep
reading and continue with the next section.
When the Insert Merge Field button isn’t available, a recipient list isn’t
associated with the document. See the earlier section, “II. The Recipient List.”
To delete an unwanted field, select it with the mouse and press the Delete key.
IV. Preview the Merged Documents
Rather than just plow ahead with the merge, take advantage of the buttons in the
Mailing tab’s Preview Results group. That way, you can peruse the merged
documents without wasting a lot of paper.
To preview, click the Mailings tab, and in the Preview Results group, click the
Preview Results command button. The fields in the main document vanish!
They’re replaced by information from the first record in the recipient list. What
you see on the screen is how the first customized mail-merge document appears. I
hope everything looks spiffy.
Use the left and right triangles in the Preview Results group to page through each
document. As you page, look for these problems:
Formatting mistakes, such as text that obviously looks pasted in or not part of
the surrounding text
Punctuation errors and missing commas or periods
Missing spaces between or around fields
Double fields or unwanted fields, which happen when you believe that you’ve
deleted a field but haven't
Awkward text layouts, strange line breaks, or margins caused by missing or
long fields
To fix any boo-boos, leave Preview mode: Click the Preview Results button
again. Edit the main document to correct any mistakes. Then repeat the preview
process.
Once everything looks up to part, you’re ready to perform the merge, covered in
the next section.
V. Mail Merge Ho!
The final step in the mail merge nightmare is to create personalized documents.
The gizmo that handles this task is the Finish & Merge command button, the sole
item in the Finish group on the Mailings tab. This section describes how to use
that button to complete the mail merge.
Merging to a new set of documents
When you want to save merged documents and print them, follow these steps:
1. Choose Finish & Merge
Edit Individual Documents.
The Merge to New Document dialog box appears.
2. Ensure that the All option is selected.
3. Click OK.
Word creates a new document — a huge one that contains all merged
documents, one after the other. Each document copy is separated by a Next
Page section break. (See Chapter 14 for more information on section breaks.)
4. Save the document.
At this point, you can print the document, close it and edit it later, or do anything
else you like.
Merging to the printer
The most common destination for merged documents is the printer. Here’s how it
works:
1. Choose Finish & Merge
Print Documents.
A dialog box appears, from which you can choose records to print.
2. Choose All from the Merge to Printer dialog box to print the entire
document.
Or specify which records to print.
3. Click OK.
The traditional Print dialog box appears.
4. Click the OK button to print your documents.
5. Save and close the main document.
See Chapter 9 for more information on printing documents in Word.
When merging and printing envelopes, use the printer’s envelope slot or
other special feeding mechanism. You may have to monitor the printer to
insert the envelopes.
Merging to email
To send out multiple email messages, abide by these steps:
1. Choose Finish & Merge
Send Email Messages.
The Merge to E-mail dialog box appears.
2. Choose the e-mail address field from the To drop-down list.
Your document’s recipient list must include an email address field, whether
the field is used in the document or not. If not, go back and edit the recipient
list to include the address.
3. Type a message subject line.
4. Fill in any other fields in the Merge to E-mail dialog box.
5. Click OK.
It looks like nothing has happened, but the messages have been placed in the
Outlook outbox.
6. Open Outlook.
After you open Outlook, the queued messages are sent, or they sit ready to be
sent when you give the command. (Whether the messages are sent right away
depends on how you configured Outlook.)
Yes, this trick works only with Outlook, not with any other email programs.
Unsolicited email is considered spam. Sending spam may violate the
terms of your Internet service provider’s agreement and they can terminate
your account. Send mass email only to people who have cheerfully agreed to
receive such things from you.
Chapter 28
Labels and Envelopes
In This Chapter
Printing a sheet of identical labels
Merging an address list onto mail labels
Printing a single envelope
Stretching the notion of what a word processor is capable of doing, Word features
commands that let you print labels and envelopes. After all, a sheet of labels or an
envelope is simply a different type of paper. Rather than conjure a hack to
perform the task, Word offers ready-made label- and envelope-printing
commands.
Labels Everywhere
Word’s label powers include printing sheets of identical labels or creating
individual labels for a mass mailing. This process works because the labels are,
at their core, merely cells in a table. So to create a batch of labels in Word, you
use special commands to muster a specially formatted table, and then print that
document on a sheet of sticky labels.
Label printer paper can be found wherever office supplies are sold. Avery is
considered the top brand. Other brands use the Avery numbering scheme to
describe different types of labels (size, rows, and columns).
Buy label paper that’s compatible with your printer. Laser printers need
special laser printer labels. Some inkjet printers require special, high-quality
paper to soak up the ink.
Printing sheets of identical labels
It might seem impractical to print a sheet of identical labels, yet I use such a sheet
for my return address. This peel-and-stick trick comes in handy for other types of
labels as well. Word deftly handles the chore. Just follow these steps:
1. Click the Mailings tab.
2. In the Create group, click the Labels button.
The Envelopes and Labels dialog box appears, with the Labels tab ready for
action, as shown in Figure 28-1.
3. In the Address box, type the text you want printed on the label.
Press the Enter key at the end of each line.
You can apply some simple formatting at this stage: Ctrl+B for bold, Ctrl+I
for italic, or Ctrl+U for underline, for example. If you right-click in the
Address box, you can choose Font or Paragraph from the pop-up menu to
further format the label.
4. Click the Full Page of the Same Label radio button.
5. To choose a new label type, click in the Label area.
Use the Label Options dialog box to choose a label vendor, such as Avery,
and then the proper stock number. For example, Avery US Letter 5160 (shown
in Figure 28-1) is the standard address sticky label most folks use.
6. Click the New Document button.
By placing the labels in a new document, you can further edit them, if you like.
Save the document so that you can print the same batch of labels
again.
7. Print the labels.
Ensure that the sheet of label paper is loaded into your printer, proper side up.
Use the Ctrl+P command to print the labels as you do for any document. See
Chapter 9 for details on printing in Word.
Figure 28-1: The Labels side of the Envelopes and Labels dialog box.
On my PC I have a folder full of label documents I print from time to time. For
example, one document holds my return address, one is for the IRS, and another
has my lawyer’s address. They all come in quite handy.
Printing an address list
To print a sheet of different labels, such as an address list, you encroach upon the
terrifying territory of mail merge. That topic is covered in Chapter 27, so refer to
that chapter for specific information. This section deals specifically with printing
different labels.
Before getting started, you must have available a recipient list file. Refer to
Chapter 27 for information on creating a recipient list. If you’re fortunate enough
to use the Outlook program as your digital address book, you can use it instead.
To print a list of names on a sheet of labels, follow these steps:
1. Start a new document in Word.
2. Click the Mailings tab.
All commands and buttons mentioned in the remaining steps are found on the
Mailings tab.
3. Click the Start Mail Merge button, and from the menu, choose Labels.
The Label Options dialog box appears.
4. Choose the label vendor and product number representing the sheet of
labels on which you're printing.
For example, to print on a sheet of standard Avery address labels, use Avery
catalog number 5160.
5. Click OK.
Word builds a table in your document, one with cells perfectly aligned to
match the labels on the sheet you selected. (The gridlines may be hidden, but
the table is still there.)
Do not edit or format the table! It's perfect.
6. Click the Select Recipients button and choose Use an Existing List.
If you don’t have such a list, you must build one. Refer to Chapter 27.
7. Use the Select Data Source dialog box to choose the list.
8. Click OK.
The document is updated with all cells filled in except the first. The remaining
cells feature the field titled <<Next Record>>. Your job is to create the first
record, which sets the pattern for all the labels.
The mouse pointer should be blinking in the first cell. If not, click that cell.
9. Click the Insert Merge Field button.
10. Choose a field to place into the document.
For example, choose the First Name field to set the placeholder for the label’s
first name.
11. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 to continue adding fields.
You can type text as well: Type a space to separate the First Name and Last
Name fields. Press Shift+Enter to start a new line. Type a comma to separate
the city and state.
When you’re finished adding fields, the document should look similar to
what’s shown in Figure 28-2.
12. In the Write & Insert Fields group, click the Update Labels button.
Word populates the remaining cells in the table with the same fields and text
placed into the first cell.
If you made a mistake, press Ctrl+Z to undo. Fix the first cell. Repeat
Step 12.
13. Ensure that the proper label sheet is in the printer.
And that you have enough of them.
14. Click the Finish & Merge button and choose Print Documents.
15. Ensure that the All radio button is chosen in the Merge to Printer dialog
box.
16. Click the OK button.
The traditional Print dialog box appears. Check that you have enough of the
proper label paper in the printer, and that the labels are correctly oriented.
17. Click the OK button in the Print dialog box.
The address labels print.
Figure 28-2: The first label dictates how other labels are formatted.
I recommend saving the document when you’re done. That way, you can more
easily preform the merge again or use the same document over to print a fresh
batch of labels.
Instant Envelope
Suddenly you need an envelope! Don’t revert to the last century and use your fist
to scribble text on that envelope. Join the digital realm and let Word do the task
for you. Obey these steps:
1. Click the Mailings tab.
2. Click the Envelopes button.
The Envelopes and Labels dialog box appears with the Envelopes tab
forward, as shown in Figure 28-3.
3. Type the recipient’s address in the Delivery Address box.
Press Enter to separate the lines in the address. Word stacks each line atop the
other, so don’t fret over weird line spacing on the envelope.
If you use Outlook as your computer’s address book, click the
Address Book button to fetch the delivery address info.
4. Ensure that an envelope is queued and ready to print.
Most printers prompt you to manually enter envelopes. A guide on the
printer’s paper feed mechanism describes how to orient and insert the
envelope.
5. Click the Print button.
You might have to press the printer’s OK or Ready button to print, although
some printers may instantly gobble up the envelope.
Figure 28-3: The Envelopes side of the Envelopes and Labels dialog box.
If you think you'll want to print the envelope again, save it: Before Step 5, click
the Add to Document button. Word inserts a new first page into your document,
which is the formatted letter. (The page size is specific to the type of envelope.)
Once that’s done, you can save the document so that you can reuse the envelope.
The Add to Document button’s official purpose is to add an envelope to a
letter. If you haven’t written a letter in Word, you don’t need the second
(blank) page. To delete it, click on that page and press the Backspace key.
The page is removed, leaving only the envelope.
The return address is supplied by Word. If the field is blank, type your
address. Word asks if you want to save the return address when the Envelopes
and Letters dialog box closes. Click Yes.
If the delivery address is already typed in your document, select it.
When you summon the Envelopes and Labels dialog box, that selected text is
automatically supplied as the delivery address.
If you have trouble remembering which way the envelope feeds into your
printer, draw a picture of the proper way and tape it to the top of your printer
for reference.
In the US, Size 10 is the common envelope paper size.
To change the envelope size, click the envelope icon in the Preview area of
the Envelopes and Labels dialog box. (Refer to Figure 28-3.) Use the
Envelope Options dialog box to choose the proper envelope size.
The Envelopes button merely creates a special Word document (or a
single page). The paper size is set to an envelope. A text box is placed in the
center of the page, into which you type the delivery address. The return
address is text typed at the start of the page. You can use various Word
commands to create such a page, but the Envelopes command saves you that
trouble.
Chapter 29
A More Custom Word
In This Chapter
Configuring the status bar
Customizing the Quick Access toolbar
Finding special commands for the toolbar
Adding tabs and groups to the Ribbon
I’m not one to customize things. Despite available options, I survive with the
stock Windows desktop and background. I don’t modify my phone’s appearance.
And I’ve only ever put only one bumper sticker on my car. Still, I’m all in favor of
having the ability to modify things if I so choose. Customization seems to be a part
of everything, and Word is no exception.
A Better Status Bar
Lurking at the bottom of the Word window is an extremely useful gizmo, the status
bar. Chapter 1 introduces the status bar but only hints at its potential. Now it's
time to reveal all: Right-clicking the status bar produces the helpful Customize
Status Bar menu, shown in Figure 29-1.
Figure 29-1: The Customize Status Bar menu.
The Customize Status Bar menu does two things: First, it controls what you see on
the status bar (informational tidbits as well as certain controls). Second, it lets
you turn on or off certain Word features.
From Figure 29-1, as well as on your screen, you can see the current status for
many optional settings. A check mark indicates that an item is either visible or
appears when necessary. To add an item, choose it. To remove a check marked
item, choose it.
Here are my thoughts:
Choosing an item from the menu doesn't cause the menu to disappear, which is
handy. To make the menu go away, click the mouse elsewhere in the Word
window.
The topmost items on the menu display information about your document. To
have that information displayed on the status bar, chose one or more of those
items.
The Selection Mode option directs Word to display the text Extend Selection
on the status bar when you press the F8 key to select text. See Chapter 6 for
more information on selecting text.
The Overtype item places the Insert/Overtype button on the status bar. You can
click this button to easily switch between Insert and Overtype modes.
However, most Word users prefer to use Insert mode all the time.
The last three items on the menu control whether the View buttons or Zoom
shortcuts appear on the status bar.
The Quick Access Toolbar
Back in the old days, you could seriously mess with how the Word window
looked. You could add toolbars, remove toolbars, modify toolbars, create your
own toolbars, and generally use the word toolbars over and over again until it
lost its meaning. Today, Word isn’t quite as flexible as it once was, but you’re
still allowed to customize a toolbar.
The Quick Access toolbar is illustrated in Figure 29-2. It’s found at the top-left
corner of the window.
Figure 29-2: The Quick Access toolbar.
Click a wee icon on the Quick Access toolbar to activate a feature. You can
customize the toolbar by removing icons you don’t use and adding icons you need.
When the Quick Access toolbar grows too many custom buttons and
begins to crowd into the document’s title, place it below the Ribbon: Choose
the command Show Below the Ribbon from the toolbar menu (refer to Figure
29-2). To move the Quick Access toolbar back atop the Ribbon, choose the
command Show Above the Ribbon.
Word is configured to show three buttons on the Quick Access toolbar: Save,
Undo, and Redo. If you have a touchscreen PC, a fourth button appears,
Touch/Mouse Mode.
Adding buttons to the Quick Access toolbar
When you enjoy using a Word command, and find yourself using it so much that
the mouse is wearing a track in the program window, consider adding the
command to the Quick Access toolbar.
Common commands are kept on the toolbar’s menu. Refer to Figure 29-2 for the
lot. To add one of those common commands, such as the Quick Print command,
choose it from the menu.
To add any Word command to the Quick Access toolbar, locate its
command button on the Ribbon. Right-click the command and choose Add to
Quick Access toolbar from the shortcut menu that pops up.
Word remembers the Quick Action toolbar’s commands. They show up again
the next time you start Word, in every document window.
Some commands place buttons on the toolbar, and others place drop-down
menus or text boxes.
Editing the Quick Access toolbar
To keep the Quick Access toolbar from getting out of hand, you can make
adjustments beyond adding commands already on the menu. To do so, choose
More Commands from the Quick Access toolbar’s menu. You see the Word
Options dialog box with the Quick Access Toolbar area shown, as illustrated in
Figure 29-3.
Figure 29-3: Adjusting the Quick Access toolbar.
Use the list on the left to choose a new command to add to the Quick Access
toolbar.
The list on the right shows items currently on the toolbar. You can use that list to
rearrange or remove Quick Access toolbar items.
Click the OK button when you’re finished editing.
Choose the All Commands item from the Choose Commands From menu (refer
to Figure 29-3) to view every possible command in Word. Sometimes, a
missing command that you think could be elsewhere ends up being available
in the All Commands list — for example, the popular Save All command or
the Tabs command, which quickly displays the Tabs dialog box.
When your command list grows long, consider organizing it. Group
similar commands by using the <Separator> item, which will appear as a
vertical bar on the Quick Access toolbar.
Yes, some commands lack specific graphics on their buttons; they show up as
green dots on the toolbar.
To return the Quick Access toolbar to the way Word originally had it, choose
Reset
Reset Only Quick Access toolbar from the Word Options window
(refer to the bottom right in Figure 29-3).
Removing items from the Quick Access toolbar
To remove a command from the Quick Access toolbar, right-click its command
button and choose Remove from Quick Access toolbar.
Likewise, you can choose a command with a check mark from the Customize
Quick Access Toolbar menu. Or you can use the Word Options dialog box, as
described in the preceding section, to remove items.
Customize the Ribbon
Word doesn’t let you alter the basic tabs and groups on the Ribbon, which is
probably a good thing for the sake of consistency. What Word will let you do,
however, is create your own tab on the Ribbon or a new group on an existing tab.
Although this type of customization is popular and can be fun, I consider it
an advanced topic. The task is not difficult to perform, but it can potentially
mess things up. Proceed with caution.
Here’s how that operation works:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options.
3. In the Word Options window, choose Customize Ribbon.
The Word Options window changes its appearance. Tabs on the Ribbon are
listed on the right, and Word commands are shown on the left. The Ribbon is
your oyster.
To add a new group to an existing tab, click the tab on the right side of the
window, and then click the New Group button. Click the Rename button to assign
the group a name other than New Group and to add a symbol (if Word lets you).
To add commands to a custom group, click to select the group you created. Locate
the command on the left side of the window, and then click the Add button to stick
it into the new group.
If you want to go whole hog and add your own tab to the Ribbon, click the New
Tab button. The new tab is created along with a new group; right-click both items
to rename them. Then add commands to the custom tab’s custom group as
described earlier.
In Figure 29-4, you see the Dan Tab that I added to the Ribbon, along with two
groups, A commands and Z commands.
Figure 29-4: A custom tab and groups on the Ribbon.
The changes you make to the Ribbon hold for every Word document you open.
They aren’t tied to a specific template.
The tabs and groups on the Ribbon are shown on the right side of the Word
Options window, using a hierarchical menu system: Click [+] to expand a tab
or group; click [-] to collapse it.
Use the Up and Down arrows to the right side of the Tabs list (in the Word
Options dialog box) to shuffle the tabs, groups, and commands. You can
rearrange the Ribbon any way you like, but keep in mind that in this book I
assume that you haven’t messed with anything.
If you’d rather not see your custom tab or group, summon the Word Options
dialog box (follow the steps in this section) and remove the check mark by
your new tab or group. That action doesn’t delete the item; it just prevents it
from showing up.
To restore the Ribbon to normal, click the Reset button found in the lowerright corner of the Customize window. Choose the command Reset All
Customizations.
Part VI
The Part of Tens
Enjoy an additional Part of Tens chapter online at:
www.dummies.com/extras/word2016.
In this part …
Obey the ten commandments of Word.
Discover some handy and useful tricks.
Investigate some highly unusual Word features.
Deactivate things that really bug you.
Chapter 30
The Ten Commandments of Word
In This Chapter
Thou shalt remember to save thy work
Thou shalt not use spaces unnecessarily
Thou shalt not abuse the Enter key
Thou shalt not neglect keyboard shortcuts
Thou shalt not manually number thy pages
Thou shalt not force a new page
Thou shalt not forget thy Undo command
Honor thy printer
Thou shalt have multiple document windows before thee
Neglecteth not Windows
I admit that I look nothing like Charlton Heston. Though I’m only guessing, I
probably look nothing like Moses, either. Still, I feel compelled to return from
Mount Sinai with some basic codes for word processing. I call them my Ten
Commandments of Word.
Thou Shalt Remember to Save Thy
Work
Save! Save! Save! Always save your stuff. Whenever your mind wanders, have
your fingers dart over to the Ctrl+S keyboard shortcut. Savest thy work.
Thou Shalt Not Use Spaces
Unnecessarily
Generally speaking, you should never find more than one space anywhere in a
Word document. The appearance of two or more spaces in a row is a desperate
cry for a tab. Use single spaces to separate words and sentences. Use tabs to
indent or to align text on a tab stop. To organize information into neat rows and
columns, use a table.
Refer to Chapter 12 on setting tabs.
Refer to Chapter 19 for creating tables.
Thou Shalt Not Abuse the Enter Key
Word wraps text. As you type and your text approaches the right margin, the
words automatically advance to the next line. Therefore, there’s no need to press
the Enter key, unless you want to start a new paragraph. An exception is a one-line
paragraph, in which case pressing the Enter key at the end of the line is okay.
If you’re pressing the Enter key to add more “air” after a paragraph, you really
need to choose another paragraph format. Refer to Chapter 11 for information on
the Space After format.
When you don’t want to start a new paragraph but you need to start a new
line, such as when typing a return address, press Shift+Enter, the soft return
command.
Thou Shalt Not Neglect Keyboard
Shortcuts
When you type text in a word processor, you’re fingers are over the keyboard. As
such, it pays to use keyboard shortcuts instead of pausing to grab the mouse.
Word is rife with handy and memorable keyboard shortcuts. For example, stab the
Ctrl+S key combo to quickly save a document. Press Ctrl+P to print or Ctrl+O to
open a document. You don’t have to know all the keyboard commands, but
remembering a few helps.
Also see Chapter 31 for information on keyboard accelerators to speed up
access to the Ribbon.
Refer to this book’s online Cheat Sheet for a full-on list of keyboard
shortcuts mentioned in this book. You can find the Cheat Sheet here:
www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/word2016
Thou Shalt Not Manually Number Thy
Pages
Word has an automatic page-numbering command. Refer to Chapter 13 for details
on how to use it.
Thou Shalt Not Force a New Page
When you need to start text at the top of a new page, you use the manual pagebreak command. Its keyboard shortcut is Ctrl+Enter. That's the best and most
proper way to start a new page. Also see Chapter 13.
The worst way to start a new page is to brazenly press the Enter key a couple of
dozen times. Although the result may look okay, this strategy doesn't guarantee
anything; as you continue to edit your document, the page break moves back and
forth and ends up looking butt-ugly.
Thou Shalt Not Forget Thy Undo
Command
Undo any unwanted change to your document by pressing Ctrl+Z, the Undo
command. A shortcut is also found roosting on the Quick Access toolbar.
Honor Thy Printer
Before you print anything, verify that the printer is on, healthy, stocked with ink
and paper, and ready to print before you direct Word to print something.
Using the Print command a second time when it fails the first doesn’t fix
the problem. Instead, Word continues trying to print the document, despite
whatever issues are preventing the printer from working.
Thou Shalt Have Multiple Document
Windows Before Thee
In Word, as in most Windows applications, you can work on more than one
document at a time. In fact, you can have as many document windows open as you
can stand. Word even lets you view a single document in multiple windows. Refer
to Chapter 24 to see how to do these things.
You don’t have to close one document to open and view another
document.
You don't have to quit Word to run another program, either. In Windows, you
can run multiple programs at a time. You shouldn't quit Word when you plan
to start it again in just a little while.
Neglecteth Not Windows
Word is a program. Windows is an operating system. Word is designed for
productivity; it’s word-processing software. Windows is designed to control a
computer and to drive human beings crazy. Word and Windows are two different
things.
Word creates document files. Windows manages those files. If you need to rename
a file, copy the file to a thumb drive, move the file to another folder, or recover
the file from the Recycle Bin, you use Windows, not Word. They work together.
Verily I tell ye, know both Word and Windows and he shalt be truly rewarded.
Chapter 31
Ten Cool Tricks
In This Chapter
Saving automatically
Accessing Ribbon commands
Exploring old keyboard shortcuts
Creating fractions
Setting electronic bookmarks
Restricting document access
Creating a drop cap
Seeing the document map
Sorting paragraphs
Mapping Ctrl+F to Advanced Find
When it comes down to it, just about everything Word does can be considered a
cool trick. I still marvel at how word-wrap works and how you can change
margins after a document is written and all the text instantly jiggles into place.
Everything in this book can be considered a cool trick, but when it came down to
the wire, I found ten cool tricks barely (or not) mentioned anywhere else and then
listed them here.
Automatic Save with AutoRecover
Someday you will sing the praises of Word's AutoRecover feature. What it does
is periodically save your document, even when you neglect to do so. That way, in
the event of a computer crash, Word recovers your document from a safety copy
that it has secretly made for you. That's very kind of Word, don’t you think?
Ensure that AutoRecover is active. Heed these directions:
1. Click the File tab.
2. On the File screen, choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
3. Choose Save.
4. On the right side of the dialog box, ensure that a check mark appears by
the item Save AutoRecover Information Every 10 Minutes.
You can change the time, although 10 minutes seems good.
5. Click OK to close the window.
Whew! You're safe.
Most of the time, you never notice AutoRecover. On that rare, frightening
occasion when the computer crashes, go ahead and start Word. If any unsaved
documents can be recovered, you’ll see them listed in the Document Recovery
pane. To recover a document, point the mouse pointer at its name. Use the menu
button that appears to open and recover the document.
The best way to avoid accidentally losing your stuff is to save now and
save often!
Accelerate the Ribbon
Word has always been a mouse-based program, even when it ran in text mode on
old DOS PCs. Still, the keyboard remains a fast and effective way to access
commands, especially given that in a word processor you’re fingers are hovering
over the keyboard most of the time.
If you’re willing to learn, eschew the mouse and instead use some keyboard
accelerators to access commands on the Ribbon.
The secret is to use the Alt key: Tap Alt and you see letters in boxes appear on the
Ribbon, like tiny square freckles. Within each box are one or two letters, which
are the accelerator keys. Tap a letter or the two letters in sequence to “click” a
specific part of the Ribbon.
For example, to change the page orientation to landscape mode, you press Alt, P,
O to display the Orientation menu. Press the down-arrow key to choose
Landscape. Press Enter to choose that menu item.
If you accidentally tap the Alt key, press it again to exit accelerator mode.
You can also press the F10 key to access the Ribbon accelerators.
Ancient Word Keyboard Shortcuts
While on the topic of keyboard shortcuts, Word once relied upon keyboard
commands before the Ribbon rode into town, and even before the first “Word for
Windows” version appeared decades ago. These ancient Word keyboard
shortcuts used the function keys to carry out their duties, and they still work in
Word today.
F4. The F4 key is the Repeat key, exactly the same as Ctrl+Y, the Repeat key.
Shift+F4. Another repeat key, but this one is the Repeat Find command. It works
whether or not the Find dialog box (or Navigation pane) is visible.
Shift+F5. This key combo is the Go Back command, which returns to the spot you
last edited. See Chapter 3 for details.
Shift+F8. The Shrink Selection key is the opposite of the Selection key, F8. I
cover F8 in detail in Chapter 6. The Shift+F8 key is the opposite: When the entire
document is selected, press Shift+F8 to select only the current paragraph. Press
Shift+F8 again to select only the current sentence. Press it again to select only the
current word. Press Shift+F8 one more time to unselect the word.
F12. Tap this key to quickly summon the Save As dialog box. I use this key a lot
because it’s quicker than wading through the Backstage to summon the Save As
dialog box.
Ctrl+F12. This key does for the Open dialog box what F12 does for the Save As
dialog box. It’s not redundant to the Ctrl+O command, which conjures the
Backstage. Ctrl+F12 always brings up the familiar, friendly Open dialog box.
Build Your Own Fractions
Word's AutoCorrect feature can build common fractions for you. Actually, it
doesn't build them as much as it pulls them from a set of existing fraction
characters. Sadly, Word has only a few of these fraction characters. When you
need your own specific fraction, such as , you can create it this way:
1. Press Ctrl+Shift+= (the equal sign).
This keyboard is the shortcut for the superscript command.
2. Type the numerator — the top part of the fraction.
For example, type 3 for .
3. Press Ctrl+Shift+= again to turn off superscripting.
4. Type the slash character ( / ).
5. Press Ctrl+= to turn on subscripting.
6. Type the denominator — the bottom part of the fraction.
For example, type 64 for
.
7. Press Ctrl+= to turn off subscripting.
There’s your fraction.
Electronic Bookmarks
They sure do make those LCD monitors tough! Try as you might, you can’t dog-ear
the corner of your document. When you have to find your place in a document, you
can write text like WORK HERE or you can take advantage of Word’s Bookmark
command.
To set a bookmark in your document, follow these steps:
1. Place the insertion pointer where you want to insert the bookmark.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. In the Links group, click the Bookmark button.
The Bookmarks dialog box appears.
4. Type a name for the bookmark in the Bookmark dialog box.
Try to keep the bookmark name to one word, letters only.
5. Click the Add button.
The bookmark is created — but it’s invisible. You don’t see any sign of it in
your document.
To visit bookmarks in a document, use the Go To command: Press Ctrl+G. You
see the Find and Replace dialog box, Go To tab forward. Choose Bookmark from
the Go To What list. Select the bookmark name from the list on the right side of
the dialog box. Click the Go To button to visit that bookmark's location. Click the
Close button to dismiss the dialog box.
Lock Your Document
When you really, really don’t want anyone messing with your document, you can
lock the document. Several levels of protection are available, but you start the
journey by following these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Info.
3. Click the Protect Document button.
Of the several choices, I recommend these options:
Mark as Final: The document is flagged as final, which means that further
editing is disabled. Still, you can easily override it by clicking the Edit
Anyway button that appears.
Encrypt with Password: The document is encrypted and a password is
applied. To open the document in Word, you must enter the password. You
cannot remove a password after it’s applied.
Restrict Editing: You can limit whether a user can edit a document or
whether all changes are tracked or restrict that person to make only comments.
4. Choose an option and answer the questions in the dialog boxes that
appear.
5. Click OK.
The document protection you’ve chosen is applied.
Locking your document is a serious decision! I cannot help, nor can
anyone else, if you forget a password or are otherwise unable to remove the
restrictions you’ve applied to your document.
The Drop Cap
A drop cap is the first letter of a report, an article, a chapter, or a story that
appears in a larger and more interesting font than the other characters. Figure 31-1
shows an example.
Figure 31-1: A drop cap.
To add a drop cap to your document, follow these steps:
1. Select the first character of the first word at the start of your text.
For example, select the O in Once upon a time, as shown in Figure 31-1.
2. Click the Insert tab.
3. In the Text group, click the Drop Cap button.
4. Choose a drop cap style.
And there’s your drop cap.
It helps if the drop cap’s paragraph is left justified and not indented with a tab or
any of the tricky formatting operations discussed in Part III.
You can undo a drop cap by repeating the steps in this section, but choose
None in Step 4.
Map Your Document
The Navigation pane can not only find text in your document but also help you see
the big picture. Follow these steps:
1. Click the View tab.
2. In the Show group, click to put a check mark by the Navigation Pane
item.
You see a document summary listed by heading style, as shown in Figure 312.
Figure 31-2: The Navigation pane document map.
Click a heading inside the map to instantly jump to that part of your
document.
To close the Navigation pane, click its X close button.
The Navigation pane replaces a popular but now gone Word feature
called the Document Map.
Sort Your Text
Sorting is one of Word’s better tricks, although it’s surprising how few people
know about it. You can use the Sort command to arrange text alphabetically or
numerically. You can sort paragraphs, table rows and columns, and more.
Save your document before sorting. It's just a good idea.
Sorting isn’t difficult. First, arrange whatever needs to be sorted into several
rows of text, such as:
Lemon
Banana cream
Apple
Cherry
Rhubarb
Tortilla
After you know what you’re going to sort, follow these steps:
1. Select the lines of text (or parts of a table) as a block.
2. Click the Home tab.
3.
In the Paragraph group, click the Sort button.
The Sort Text dialog box appears. It’s most useful when sorting multicolumn
items, which is where the Then By parts of the dialog box are most useful.
4. Choose Ascending or Descending to sort your text A-to-Z or Z-to-A,
respectively.
5. Click the OK button.
As if by magic, the selected text is sorted.
Map Ctrl+F to the Advanced Find
Command
If you’re like me, and you demand that the Ctrl+F keyboard shortcut bring up the
traditional Find and Replace dialog box and not that silly Navigation pane, you
can correct Word’s heinous mistake. Follow these steps to reassign the Ctrl+F
keyboard shortcut:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options to bring up the Word Options dialog box.
3. Choose the Customize Ribbon item.
The Customize Ribbon item is found on the left side of the dialog box.
4. Click the Customize button, found at the bottom of the dialog box.
The Customize Keyboard dialog box appears.
5. From the list of Categories, choose Home Tab.
6. From the list of Commands, choose EditFind.
7. Click the mouse in the Press New Shortcut Key text box.
8. Press the Ctrl+F key combination on the computer’s keyboard.
You may notice that Ctr+F is already assigned to the NavPaneSearch
command. That assignment is about to change.
9. Click the Assign button.
10. Click OK.
Go ahead: Press Ctrl+F. You see the Find and Replace dialog box with the Find
tab upfront. Congratulations!
The Navigation pane can still be accessed as described earlier in the section,
“Map Your Document.”
Chapter 32
Ten Bizarre Things
In This Chapter
Inserting pretty equations
Inserting video
Hiding text
Beholding the Developer tab
Hyphenating text
Setting document properties (or not)
Making a cross-reference
Using Collect and Paste
Disabling click-and-type
Keeping Word separate from the Internet
If Word were only about word processing, this book would end at Chapter 17.
Fully half the book talks about things I consider to be along the lines of desktop
publishing or even graphics, tasks that can be done far better by using other
software. Beyond those capabilities exist things I consider even more strange and
unusual. Welcome to the Twilight Zone, Word edition.
Equations
Here's a feature that everyone demands, as long as everyone graduated from
college with a degree in astrophysics or quantum mechanics. It's Word's Equation
tools, which you need whenever you're desperate to stick a polynomial equation
in your document and don't want to endure the tedium of building the thing
yourself.
You can pluck a premade equation from the Insert tab's Equation button menu, as
long as the equation you need appears there. Otherwise, just click the button by
itself (not the menu triangle) and two things happen: An equation content control
is inserted in your document at the insertion pointer’s location, and the Equation
Tools Design tab appears on the Ribbon. Creating equations was never easier!
Well, creating them is easy, but knowing what they mean is a different story
altogether.
No, Word won't solve the equation.
Video in Your Document
For some reason, the video-in-a-document feature was showcased in an older
release of Word. I can see why! So many people were demanding it.
Not really.
Obviously, the Online Video feature isn’t intended for anything you plan to print.
No it’s an electronic publishing thing, which is why the topic dwells in this
chapter listing Bizarre Things.
To insert a video, click the Insert tab’s Online Video button. Search for a video by
using Microsoft Bing (of course) or YouTube or by pasting a video link.
Eventually, after little toil, the video appears as a large graphical object in your
document. You can play it right there on the screen. Apparently, people have been
demanding such a word-processing feature since the Electric Pencil program
debuted back in 1976.
Videos are best viewed when a Word document is presented in Read
mode — which in itself is yet another bizarre thing. To enter Read mode, click the
Read Mode button on the status bar (shown in the margin) or click the Read Mode
button on the View tab.
Hidden Text
What’s the point of writing when you can’t see it? I don’t have a clue as to why,
but Word does let you apply the hidden format to random bits of text in your
document. The text doesn’t show up as blank lines either, it just doesn’t show up.
To apply the hidden text format, select the text and press Ctrl+Shift+H. The same
keyboard shortcut deactivates this format. The following text is hidden:
To show hidden text, click the Show/Hide command button (in the Paragraph
group on the Home tab) as described in Chapter 2, in the section about dealing
with spots and clutter in the text. The hidden text shows up in the document with a
dotted underline.
The Developer Tab
Word's advanced, cryptic features lie on a tab that's normally hidden from view:
the Developer tab. To display the Developer tab, obey these steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose the Options command to display the Word Options dialog box.
3. Choose the Customize Ribbon item on the left side of the dialog box.
4. Under the Customize Ribbon list on the right side of the dialog box, place
a check mark by the Developer item.
5. Click OK.
The Developer tab is aptly named; it's best suited for people who either use Word
to develop applications, special documents, and online forms or are hellbent on
customizing Word by using macros. Scary stuff.
Hyphenation
Hyphenation is an automatic feature that splits a long word at the end of a line to
make the text fit better on the page. Most people leave this feature turned off
because hyphenated words tend to slow down the pace at which people read.
However, if you want to hyphenate a document, click the Page Layout tab and then
the Page Setup group, and choose Hyphenation
Automatic.
Hyphenation works best with paragraph formatting set to full justification.
Document Properties
When your company (or government agency) grows too big, there’s a need for too
much information. Word happily obliges by providing you with a sheet full of fillin-the-blanks goodness to tell you all about your document and divulge whatever
information you care to know about who worked on what and for how long. These
tidbits are the document properties.
To eagerly fill in any document’s properties, click the File tab and choose the Info
item. Document properties are listed on the far-right side of the window. Some
information cannot be changed, but when you click the lighter-colored text, you
can type your own stuff.
Cross-References
The References tab sports a bunch of features that I don’t touch on in this book,
not the least of which is the Cross-Reference button in the Captions group. The
Cross-Reference command allows you to insert instructions such as Refer to
Chapter 99, Section Z in your document. This feature works because you
absorbed excess energy from the universe during a freak lightning storm and now
have an IQ that would make Mr. Spock envious. Anyway, the Cross-Reference
dialog box, summoned by the Cross-Reference command, is the place where
cross-referencing happens. Page 653 has more information about this feature.
Collect and Paste
I hope the word-processing concept of copy and paste is simple for you. What’s
not simple is taking it to the next level by using Word’s Collect and Paste feature.
Collect and Paste allows you to copy multiple chunks of text and paste them in any
order or all at once. The secret is to click the dialog box launcher in the lowerright corner of the Clipboard group on the Home tab, right next to the word
Clipboard. The Clipboard pane appears on the screen.
With the Clipboard pane visible, you can use the Copy command multiple times in
a row to collect text. To paste the text, simply click the mouse on that chunk of text
in the Clipboard pane. Or you can use the Paste All button to paste into your
document every item you collected.
Even more bizarre: You can actually select multiple separate chunks of text in
your document. To do so, select the first chunk, and then, holding down the Ctrl
key, drag over additional text. As long as the Ctrl key is held down, you can drag
to select multiple chunks of text in different locations. The various selected chunks
work as a block, which you can cut, copy, delete, or to which you can apply
formatting.
Click-and-Type
A feature introduced in Word 2002, and one that I don't believe anyone ever uses,
is click-and-type. In a blank document, you can use it to click the mouse pointer
anywhere on the page and type information at that spot. Bam!
I fail to see any value in click-and-type, especially when it's easier just to learn
basic formatting. But click-and-type may bother you when you see any of its
specialized mouse pointers displayed; thus:
That's click-and-type in action, with the mouse pointer trying to indicate the
paragraph format to be applied when you click the mouse.
See Chapter 33 for information on disabling this feature.
Word and the Internet
Microsoft went kind of kooky in the 1990s when Bill Gates suddenly realized that
his company was behind the curve on the Internet. In response, many Microsoft
programs, including Word, suddenly started to bud various Internet features,
whether the features were relevant to the software's original intent or not. For
example, Word has — even to this day — the capability to create web pages or
post to a blog.
Word is an excellent word processor. Word is a lousy web-page editor. Though
you can write a blog post, the steps involved to configure that process are
complex and rarely meet with success. (And, yes, I tried and tried to get it to
work.) Therefore, I cover none of that stuff in this book.
This book is about word processing. If you want software for email, making web
pages, using an Internet fax, creating a blog, or using the Internet to find pictures of
famous celebrities in compromising poses, you must look elsewhere.
Chapter 33
Ten Automatic Features Worthy of
Deactivation
In This Chapter
Disabling the Start screen
Avoiding the Backstage
Banishing the mini toolbar
Changing how text is selected
Turning off Click-and-Type
Setting Paste command formats
Disabling automatic bulleted lists
Avoiding automatic numbers
Stopping automatic borders
Disabling list formats
You really don’t have to put up with it. You know what I’m referring to: those
annoying things that Word does. Those features you might dislike but tolerate
simply because no one has told you how to turn them off. Until now.
Bye-Bye Start Screen
I prefer to see a blank page when I start Word, not a screen full of options. That
screen, the Word Start screen, can easily be disabled. Follow these blessed steps:
1. Click the File tab.
2. Choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
3. Choose the General category.
4. Remove the check mark by the item Show the Start Screen When This
Application Starts.
5. Click OK.
After completing these steps, Word starts with a blank document, or whichever
document you’ve opened.
Restore the Traditional Open and Save
Dialog Boxes
When you use the Ctrl+O or Ctrl+S commands, you’re thrust into the Open or
Save As screens, respectively. These screens are referred to as the Backstage,
and I find them one more annoying step in a process that eventually ends up at the
traditional Open and Save dialog boxes.
To dismiss the Backstage, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab and choose Options to bring up the Word Options dialog
box.
2. Choose the Save category.
3. Place a check by the item Don’t Show the Backstage When Opening or
Saving Files.
4. Click OK.
One advantage of the Backstage is that it does show recent files. It also
lets you pin popular files so that they’re easy to find. See Chapter 8.
Turn Off the Mini Toolbar
When you use the mouse to select text, Word displays the mini toolbar, which
looks like Figure 33-1. You may find its assortment of commands useful, or you
may just want to set the thing on fire. If the latter, you can disable the mini toolbar
by following these steps:
Figure 33-1: The mini toolbar.
1. Click the File tab and choose Options.
2. Choose General.
3. Remove the check mark by the item Show Mini Toolbar on Selection.
4. Click OK.
If you would rather not eternally banish the mini toolbar, note that it hides itself
whenever you move the mouse pointer beyond the selected chunk of text.
Select Text by Letter
When you’re selecting more than a single word, the mouse tends to grab text a full
word at a time. If you want Word to select text by characters rather than by words
(which is what I prefer), follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab and choose Options to display the Word Options dialog
box.
2. Choose Advanced.
3. Under the Editing Options heading, remove the check mark by the item
labeled When Selecting Automatically Select Entire Word.
4. Click OK.
You can still select text a word at a time: Double-click to select a word,
but keep the mouse button down. As you drag, text is selected one word at a
time.
Disable Click-and-Type
Click-and-Type is that feature where you can click anywhere in a document and
start typing. The feature is evident by lines around the insertion pointer, as
covered in Chapter 32. To mercifully disable this feature, follow these steps:
1. Click the File tab menu and choose Options.
The Word Options dialog box appears.
2. Choose Advanced.
3. Under the Editing Options header, remove the check mark by Enable
Click and Type.
4. Click the OK button.
Seriously: Who uses this feature? Send me an email if you do.
Paste Plain Text Only
When you copy and paste text from one part of a document to another, the format
is retained. Similarly, the format is kept when you paste text copied or cut from
another document. If you like, you can direct Word to paste only plain text or
attempt to paste formatted text. Heed these directions:
1. Click the File tab and choose Options.
2. In the Word Options dialog box, choose Advanced.
The four pasting options are listed under the Cut, Copy, and Paste heading.
The options tell you how text is pasted based on its source.
3. Change the paste settings according to how you prefer text to be pasted.
In most cases, keeping the source formatting is what you want. I prefer to
choose the option Keep Text Only because it doesn’t mess up my document’s
formatting.
4. Click OK.
You can use the Paste Special command at any time to override your
decision: Click the Home tab and, in the Clipboard group, click the Paste
button to choose whether or not to keep the formats. See Chapter 6 for
details.
Disable AutoFormat Features (×4)
The final four items in the list of ten items worthy of deactivation fall under the
domain of the AutoCorrect dialog box. Specifically, the overeager AutoFormat
feature, which aggressively interrupts your writing with jarring suggestions you
probably don’t want to see.
Start your disabling binge by summoning the AutoCorrect dialog box. Follow
these steps:
1. Click the File tab and choose Options.
2. In the Word Options dialog box, click the Proofing category.
3. Click the AutoCorrect Options button.
The AutoCorrect dialog box shows up.
4. Click the AutoFormat as You Type tab.
You’ve arrived.
Here are four annoying features you can disable:
Automatic Bulleted Lists: This feature assumes that whenever you start a
paragraph with an asterisk (*) you really want a bulleted list, so it changes the
format.
Automatic Numbered Lists: This feature works like Automatic Bullet Lists,
but does the same annoying thing for any paragraph you start numbering.
Border Lines: Type three dashes in a row and you see this feature activated.
Use the Borders paragraph format instead. See Chapter 18.
Format Beginning of List Item Like the One Before It: This feature
assumes that just because the first word of the preceding paragraph is in bold
or italics that you desire all other paragraphs to start that way as well.
Deselect each of these items. Oh, and while you’re at it, look for other things to
disable in the AutoCorrect dialog box. Some of those features may bother you
more than they bother me.
About the Author
Dan Gookin has been writing about technology for over 25 years. He combines
his love of writing with his gizmo fascination to create books that are informative,
entertaining, and not boring. Having written over 130 titles with 12 million copies
in print translated into over 30 languages, Dan can attest that his method of
crafting computer tomes seems to work.
Perhaps his most famous title is the original DOS For Dummies, published in
1991. It became the world's fastest-selling computer book, at one time moving
more copies per week than the New York Times number-one bestseller (though, as
a reference, it could not be listed on the Times’ Best Sellers list). That book
spawned the entire line of For Dummies books, which remains a publishing
phenomenon to this day.
Dan's most popular titles include PCs For Dummies, Laptops For Dummies, and
Android Phones For Dummies. He also maintains the vast and helpful website
www.wambooli.com.
Dan holds a degree in Communications/Visual Arts from the University of
California, San Diego. He lives in the Pacific Northwest, where he enjoys
spending time with his sons playing video games indoors while they enjoy the
gentle woods of Idaho.
Publisher’s Acknowledgments
Acquisitions Editor: Katie Mohr
Project Editor: Susan Pink
Copy Editor: Susan Pink
Editorial Assistant: Claire Brock
Sr. Editorial Assistant: Cherie Case
Project Coordinator: Kumar Chellapan
Cover Image: balein/Shutterstock
To access the cheat sheet specifically for this book, go to
www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/word2016.
Find out "HOW" at Dummies.com
Take Dummies with you everywhere
you go!
Go to our Website
Like us on Facebook
Follow us on Twitter
Watch us on YouTube
Join us on LinkedIn
Pin us on Pinterest
Circle us on google+
Subscribe to our newsletter
Create your own Dummies book cover
Shop Online
WILEY END USER LICENSE
AGREEMENT
Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley’s ebook EULA.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement