3ds Max 2017 Fundamentals
Autodesk
®
3ds Max 2017
Fundamentals
®
SDC
P U B L I C AT I O N S
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C o n t e n ts
Preface ............................................................................................................ ix
In this Guide ................................................................................................... xi
Practice Files ................................................................................................. xv
Chapter 1: Introduction to Autodesk 3ds Max ........................................... 1-1
1.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 1-2
1.2 Visualization Workflow ................................................................... 1-4
1.3 The Autodesk 3ds Max Interface ................................................... 1-6
Welcome Screen............................................................................... 1-6
Interface ............................................................................................ 1-8
1.4 Preferences.................................................................................... 1-27
1.5 Setting the Project Folder ............................................................ 1-30
1.6 Configure Paths ............................................................................ 1-31
1.7 Display Drivers .............................................................................. 1-34
1.8 Viewport Display and Labels ....................................................... 1-36
General Viewport ............................................................................ 1-36
Point Of View .................................................................................. 1-36
Shading Viewport ............................................................................ 1-38
Per-View Preference ....................................................................... 1-38
Practice 1a Organizing Folders and Working with the Interface ..... 1-41
Practice 1b Autodesk 3ds Max Quickstart......................................... 1-52
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 1-60
Command Summary ............................................................................. 1-61
Chapter 2: Autodesk 3ds Max Configuration............................................. 2-1
2.1 Viewport Navigation........................................................................ 2-2
Viewport Navigation Toolbar ............................................................. 2-2
Viewport Navigation Toolbar (Camera Viewport).............................. 2-4
Viewport Navigation using the ViewCube ......................................... 2-4
Viewport Navigation using the SteeringWheel .................................. 2-5
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2.2 Viewport Configuration and Settings............................................ 2-6
Viewport Configuration...................................................................... 2-6
Viewport Setting and Preferences..................................................... 2-9
Practice 2a Viewport Configuration and Navigation......................... 2-11
2.3 Object Selection Methods ............................................................ 2-16
Practice 2b Selection Methods ........................................................... 2-20
2.4 Units Setup .................................................................................... 2-26
Practice 2c Working with Units Setup................................................ 2-28
2.5 Layer and Object Properties ........................................................ 2-29
Layers Toolbar ................................................................................ 2-29
Layer Explorer................................................................................. 2-30
Layer Properties.............................................................................. 2-32
Object Properties ............................................................................ 2-32
Display Panel .................................................................................. 2-34
Practice 2d Layer and Object Properties ........................................... 2-35
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 2-40
Command Summary ............................................................................. 2-42
Chapter 3: Assembling Project Files .......................................................... 3-1
3.1 Data Linking and Importing............................................................ 3-2
Linking vs. Importing ......................................................................... 3-2
Editing Linked Data ........................................................................... 3-3
Importing ........................................................................................... 3-3
Merging Autodesk 3ds Max Scene Files........................................... 3-3
Practice 3a Ground Surfaces using Civil View.................................... 3-4
3.2 Linking Files .................................................................................. 3-10
Linking DWG Files .......................................................................... 3-10
Linking FBX and RVT Files ............................................................. 3-11
Manage Links Options .................................................................... 3-11
File Link Settings: DWG Files ......................................................... 3-13
File Link Settings: Revit Files (RVT or FBX) ................................... 3-19
Practice 3b Linking an AutoCAD DWG .............................................. 3-21
Practice 3c Linking and Reloading Autodesk Revit File .................. 3-27
3.3 References..................................................................................... 3-33
External References (XRef) ............................................................ 3-33
Data Management and Asset Tracking .......................................... 3-34
Practice 3d XRef and Merge Objects.................................................. 3-35
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 3-41
Command Summary ............................................................................. 3-42
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© 2016, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®
Contents
Chapter 4: Basic Modeling Techniques...................................................... 4-1
4.1 Model with Primitives ..................................................................... 4-2
Practice 4a Modeling with Primitives ................................................... 4-4
4.2 Modifiers and Transforms .............................................................. 4-8
Modifiers............................................................................................ 4-8
Transform Tools ................................................................................ 4-9
Practice 4b Modeling with Modifiers and Transforms ...................... 4-12
4.3 Sub-Object Mode........................................................................... 4-23
Working in Sub-Object Mode .......................................................... 4-23
Geometric Edits through Sub-objects ............................................. 4-24
Geometric Sub-Objects................................................................... 4-25
Smoothing ....................................................................................... 4-25
Practice 4c Modeling with Edit Poly in Sub-Object Mode ................ 4-27
4.4 Reference Coordinate Systems and Transform Centers .......... 4-32
Reference Coordinate Systems ...................................................... 4-32
Transform Centers .......................................................................... 4-34
4.5 Cloning and Grouping .................................................................. 4-35
Cloning ............................................................................................ 4-35
Grouping ......................................................................................... 4-36
Practice 4d Modeling with Coordinate Systems ............................... 4-38
Practice 4e Cloning and Grouping ..................................................... 4-40
4.6 Polygon Modeling Tools in the Ribbon....................................... 4-44
Practice 4f Poly Modeling Using the Ribbon (Optional) ................... 4-45
4.7 Statistics in Viewport.................................................................... 4-60
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 4-62
Command Summary ............................................................................. 4-64
Chapter 5: Modeling From 2D Objects ....................................................... 5-1
5.1 3D Modeling from 2D Objects ........................................................ 5-2
Practice 5a Drawing Lines..................................................................... 5-4
5.2 The Lathe Modifier ........................................................................ 5-10
Practice 5b Creating a Candlestick .................................................... 5-11
5.3 2D Booleans .................................................................................. 5-13
Practice 5c 2D Booleans...................................................................... 5-14
5.4 The Extrude Modifier .................................................................... 5-18
5.5 Boolean Operations ...................................................................... 5-21
Practice 5d Extrude Walls and Create Wall Openings...................... 5-25
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5.6 Using Snaps for Precision ........................................................... 5-33
Practice 5e Creating a Door with Snaps ............................................ 5-37
5.7 The Sweep Modifier ...................................................................... 5-43
Sweep Parameters.......................................................................... 5-44
Practice 5f Sweeping the Wall Baseboard ......................................... 5-46
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 5-52
Command Summary ............................................................................. 5-54
Chapter 6: Materials ..................................................................................... 6-1
6.1 Understanding Materials and Maps............................................... 6-2
Introduction to Materials.................................................................... 6-2
Material Components ........................................................................ 6-3
6.2 Managing Materials......................................................................... 6-6
Slate Material Editor Interface........................................................... 6-6
Practice 6a Introduction to Materials ................................................. 6-15
6.3 General Materials .......................................................................... 6-23
Physical Materials ........................................................................... 6-23
Multi/Sub- Object Materials ............................................................. 6-26
Additional Standard Materials ......................................................... 6-27
6.4 Scanline Materials......................................................................... 6-28
6.5 Material Shaders ........................................................................... 6-29
Shader (Specific) Basic Parameters ............................................... 6-31
6.6 Assigning Maps to Materials........................................................ 6-33
Practice 6b Working with Standard Materials and Maps.................. 6-36
Practice 6c Working with Multi/Sub-Object Materials....................... 6-46
6.7 Opacity, Bump, and Reflection Mapping .................................... 6-55
Opacity Mapping ............................................................................. 6-55
Bump Mapping ................................................................................ 6-56
Reflection Mapping ......................................................................... 6-56
Practice 6d Opacity and Bump Mapping............................................ 6-57
6.8 mental ray Materials...................................................................... 6-64
Arch & Design Materials.................................................................. 6-64
Autodesk Materials.......................................................................... 6-65
Car Paint Material ........................................................................... 6-66
Matte/Shadow/Reflection Material .................................................. 6-66
mental ray Material.......................................................................... 6-67
Subsurface Scattering (SSS) Materials........................................... 6-67
Practice 6e Working with mental ray Materials ................................. 6-68
6.9 The Material Explorer.................................................................... 6-76
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Contents
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 6-78
Command Summary ............................................................................. 6-80
Chapter 7: Mapping Coordinates and Scale .............................................. 7-1
7.1 Mapping Coordinates ..................................................................... 7-2
Mapping Controls in Slate Material Editor......................................... 7-3
MapScaler Modifier ........................................................................... 7-4
UVW Map Modifier ............................................................................ 7-5
Practice 7a Applying Mapping Coordinates ........................................ 7-6
Practice 7b Mapping a Large Scale Image........................................... 7-9
7.2 Mapping Scale ............................................................................... 7-13
Explicit Map Scaling ........................................................................ 7-13
Continuous Map Scaling ................................................................. 7-14
Practice 7c Assigning Map Scales ..................................................... 7-16
7.3 Spline Mapping.............................................................................. 7-22
Practice 7d Spline Mapping................................................................. 7-23
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 7-29
Chapter 8: Introduction to Lighting ............................................................ 8-1
8.1 Local vs. Global Illumination ......................................................... 8-2
Default Illumination............................................................................ 8-2
Local Illumination .............................................................................. 8-2
Global Illumination............................................................................. 8-3
Types of Lights.................................................................................. 8-5
8.2 Standard Lighting ........................................................................... 8-6
Common Parameters ........................................................................ 8-7
8.3 Types of Standard Lights ............................................................... 8-9
Omni Lights ....................................................................................... 8-9
Spotlights ........................................................................................ 8-10
Directional Lights............................................................................. 8-11
Fill Lights ......................................................................................... 8-12
Skylight and mr Sky ........................................................................ 8-13
mental ray (mr) Area Omni Light and mental ray (mr) Area
Spotlight .......................................................................................... 8-13
Practice 8a Standard Lighting for an Interior Scene......................... 8-14
8.4 Shadow Types ............................................................................... 8-26
Common Shadow Parameters ........................................................ 8-28
Shadow Map Parameters................................................................ 8-29
Ray Traced Shadows...................................................................... 8-30
Advanced Ray-Traced Shadows..................................................... 8-31
mental ray Shadow Maps................................................................ 8-32
Practice 8b Working with Shadow Parameters ................................. 8-33
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Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 8-36
Command Summary ............................................................................. 8-38
Chapter 9: Lighting and Rendering............................................................. 9-1
9.1 Photometric Light Objects ............................................................. 9-2
Photometric Light Types ................................................................... 9-2
Templates Rollout ............................................................................. 9-3
General Parameters Rollout.............................................................. 9-3
Distribution (Photometric Web) Rollout ............................................. 9-4
Shape/Area Shadows Rollout ........................................................... 9-6
Intensity/Color/Attenuation Rollout.................................................... 9-8
Practice 9a Working with Photometric Lights ................................... 9-10
Practice 9b Materials that Create Lighting......................................... 9-18
9.2 Exposure Control .......................................................................... 9-21
Exposure Control Methods.............................................................. 9-21
Logarithmic Exposure Control Parameters ..................................... 9-23
mr Photographic Exposure Control Parameters ............................. 9-24
Practice 9c Working with Exposure Control...................................... 9-26
9.3 Daytime Lighting ........................................................................... 9-31
Sunlight and Skylight System.......................................................... 9-32
Sun Positioner Daylight System...................................................... 9-35
Image Based Lighting ..................................................................... 9-36
Exterior Daylight with mental ray..................................................... 9-37
Practice 9d Image Based Lighting...................................................... 9-38
Practice 9e Lighting for an Exterior Scene with mental ray
Daylight ................................................................................................. 9-42
Practice 9f Viewport Lighting and Shadows...................................... 9-47
Chapter Review Questions................................................................... 9-50
Command Summary ............................................................................. 9-52
Chapter 10: mental ray Rendering ............................................................ 10-1
10.1 Fundamentals of mental ray ........................................................ 10-2
mental ray Rendering...................................................................... 10-3
10.2 mental ray Interior Rendering ...................................................... 10-4
Photon Mapping .............................................................................. 10-5
Final Gather .................................................................................... 10-9
Exposure Control .......................................................................... 10-12
Sampling Quality ........................................................................... 10-14
Ambient Occlusion (A0) ............................................................... 10-16
Practice 10a Improving mental ray Speed, Quality, and using
Material Overrides .............................................................................. 10-18
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Contents
Practice 10b Adding a Sky Portal for Interior Lighting from
Daylight ............................................................................................... 10-28
10.3 mental ray Proxies ...................................................................... 10-32
Practice 10c mental ray Proxies ....................................................... 10-33
Chapter Review Questions................................................................. 10-37
Command Summary ........................................................................... 10-38
Chapter 11: Rendering and Cameras........................................................ 11-1
11.1 Rendering Options........................................................................ 11-2
Common Options ............................................................................ 11-3
Common Tab .................................................................................. 11-4
Renderer Tab .................................................................................. 11-5
11.2 NVIDIA iray Renderer.................................................................... 11-6
11.3 Scanline Renderer......................................................................... 11-8
11.4 ART Renderer .............................................................................. 11-11
Practice 11a Working with Scanline Rendering Options................ 11-13
11.5 Single vs. Double-Sided Rendering .......................................... 11-18
Surface Faces and Rendering Modes........................................... 11-18
Surface Normals ........................................................................... 11-18
Steps to Resolve Face-Normal Issues.......................................... 11-20
Enabling Double-Sided Mode ....................................................... 11-21
Practice 11b Double-Sided Rendering Mode................................... 11-22
11.6 State Sets..................................................................................... 11-25
11.7 Cameras ....................................................................................... 11-29
Target and Free Camera Parameters ........................................... 11-29
Physical Camera ........................................................................... 11-33
11.8 Background Images.................................................................... 11-34
Aspect Ratio.................................................................................. 11-36
Safe Frames.................................................................................. 11-37
Practice 11c Cameras and Background Images ............................. 11-40
11.9 The Print Size Wizard.................................................................. 11-49
Practice 11d Using the Print Size Wizard......................................... 11-50
Chapter Review Questions................................................................. 11-52
Command Summary ........................................................................... 11-54
Chapter 12: Animation ............................................................................... 12-1
12.1 Animation and Time Controls ...................................................... 12-2
Time Configuration.......................................................................... 12-6
Progressive Display and Adaptive Degradation.............................. 12-9
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12.2 Walkthrough Animation.............................................................. 12-13
Practice 12a Creating a Turntable Animation.................................. 12-15
Practice 12b Keyframing a Camera Animation................................ 12-23
Practice 12c Creating a Walkthrough Animation ............................ 12-29
12.3 Animation Output........................................................................ 12-34
Practice 12d Creating Animation Output ......................................... 12-37
Chapter Review Questions................................................................. 12-42
Command Summary ........................................................................... 12-44
Appendix A: Optional Topics ......................................................................A-1
A.1 Getting Help with Autodesk 3ds Max ............................................A-2
A.2 Compact Material Editor.................................................................A-4
A.3 Architectural Materials ...................................................................A-6
A.4 Object Substitution .........................................................................A-8
Practice A1 Substituting the Parking Lot Light Poles ........................ A-9
A.5 Lighting Analysis ..........................................................................A-12
Practice A2 Conduct a Lighting Analysis .......................................... A-18
A.6 Creating Hierarchies .....................................................................A-23
Practice A3 Create Hierarchies ........................................................... A-24
Practice A4 Create an Assembly Animation...................................... A-26
A.7 Customizing the User Interface ...................................................A-28
Practice A5 Customizing the User Interface...................................... A-30
Command Summary .............................................................................A-32
Appendix B: Optional Practices ..................................................................B-1
Practice B1 Create Additional Extrusions ........................................... B-2
Practice B2 Making a Chair Base by Lofting Objects ......................... B-5
Practice B3 Using the mental ray Multi/Sub-Map Shader................. B-11
Practice B4 Shadow Study Animation ............................................... B-21
Practice B5 Assigning the Renderable Spline Modifier.................... B-24
Practice B6 Using Script for Converting Materials ........................... B-27
Appendix C: Autodesk 3ds Max Certification Exam Objectives ..............C-1
Index ...................................................................................................... Index-1
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