White Paper Intro to ISDN

White Paper Intro to ISDN
An Introduction to ISDN
TANDBERG
Application Notes
D10826 Rev 1.4
This document is not to be reproduced in whole or in
part without the permission in writing from
TANDBERG
TANDBERG
An Introduction to ISDN
Table of Contents
AN INTRODUCTION TO ISDN...........................................................................................................0
1. ISDN....................................................................................................................................................3
1.1. OVERVIEW .........................................................................................................................................3
2. THE D CHANNEL ............................................................................................................................3
2.1. LAYER 1.............................................................................................................................................3
2.2. LAYER 2.............................................................................................................................................4
2.3. LAYER 3.............................................................................................................................................4
3. THE B CHANNEL ............................................................................................................................4
4. THE NETWORK & CONNECTIVITY ..........................................................................................5
5. ISDN CABLING ................................................................................................................................7
5.1 HOW TO CONNECT THE VIDEO SYSTEM TO THE ISDN .........................................................................7
6. ISDN CAUSE CODES.......................................................................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 1 - UNALLOCATED (UNASSIGNED) NUMBER ...........................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 2 - NO ROUTE TO SPECIFIED TRANSIT NETWORK ...................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 3 - NO ROUTE TO DESTINATION .............................................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 4 - SEND SPECIAL INFORMATION TONE (FIVE ONE ZERO NT) ................................................8
CAUSE NO. 5 - MISDIALED TRUNK PREFIX ................................................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 6 - CHANNEL UNACCEPTABLE ................................................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 7 - CALL AWARDED, BEING DELIVERED IN AN ESTABLISHED CHANNEL....................................8
CAUSE NO. 8 - PREEMPTION......................................................................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 9 - PREEMPTION - CIRCUIT RESERVED FOR REUSE .................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 16 - NORMAL CALL CLEARING ...............................................................................................8
CAUSE NO. 16/4 OR 17 - USER BUSY ........................................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 16/3 OR 18 - NO USER RESPONDING.......................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 19 - NO ANSWER FROM USER (USER ALERTED) ....................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 20 - SUBSCRIBER ABSENT ......................................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 21 - CALL REJECTED ..............................................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 22 - NUMBER CHANGED .........................................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 26 - NON-SELECTED USER CLEARING ....................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 27 - DESTINATION OUT OF ORDER .........................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 28 - INVALID NUMBER FORMAT (ADDRESS INCOMPLETE)......................................................9
CAUSE NO. 29 - FACILITIES REJECTED ......................................................................................................9
CAUSE NO. 30 - RESPONSE TO STATUS INQUIRY ....................................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 31 - NORMAL, UNSPECIFIED .................................................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 34 - NO CIRCUIT/CHANNEL AVAILABLE ...............................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 35 - CALL QUEUED ...............................................................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 38 - NETWORK OUT OF ORDER ............................................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 39 - PERMANENT FRAME MODE CONNECTION OUT-OF-SERVICE.........................................10
CAUSE NO. 40 - PERMANENT FRAME MODE CONNECTION OPERATIONAL ..............................................10
CAUSE NO. 41 - TEMPORARY FAILURE ...................................................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 42 - SWITCHING EQUIPMENT CONGESTION ...........................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 43 - ACCESS INFORMATION DISCARDED ...............................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 44 - REQUESTED CIRCUIT/CHANNEL NOT AVAILABLE .........................................................10
CAUSE NO. 46 - PRECEDENCE CALL BLOCKED .......................................................................................10
CAUSE NO. 47 - RESOURCE UNAVAILABLE, UNSPECIFIED ......................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 49 - QUALITY OF SERVICE NOT AVAILABLE .........................................................................11
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CAUSE NO. 50 - REQUESTED FACILITY NOT SUBSCRIBED .........................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 52 - OUTGOING CALLS BARRED .............................................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 53 - OUTGOING CALLS BARRED WITHIN CUG .....................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 54 - INCOMING CALLS BARRED..............................................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 55 - INCOMING CALLS BARRED WITHIN CUG ......................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 57 - BEARER CAPABILITY NOT AUTHORIZED........................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 58 - BEARER CAPABILITY NOT PRESENTLY AVAILABLE .......................................................11
CAUSE NO. 62 - INCONSISTENCY IN OUTGOING INFORMATION ELEMENT ...............................................11
CAUSE NO. 63 - SERVICE OR OPTION NOT AVAILABLE, UNSPECIFIED ....................................................11
CAUSE NO. 65 - BEARER CAPABILITY NOT IMPLEMENTED .....................................................................11
CAUSE NO. 66 - CHANNEL TYPE NOT IMPLEMENTED .............................................................................12
CAUSE NO. 69 - REQUESTED FACILITY NOT IMPLEMENTED ....................................................................12
CAUSE NO. 70 - ONLY RESTRICTED DIGITAL INFORMATION BEARER CAPABILITY IS AVAILABLE...........12
CAUSE NO. 79 - SERVICE OR OPTION NOT IMPLEMENTED, UNSPECIFIED ...............................................12
CAUSE NO. 81 - INVALID CALL REFERENCE VALUE ................................................................................12
CAUSE NO. 82 - IDENTIFIED CHANNEL DOES NOT EXIST ........................................................................12
CAUSE NO. 83 - A SUSPENDED CALL EXISTS, BUT THIS CALL IDENTIFY DOES NOT ..............................12
CAUSE NO. 84 - CALL IDENTITY IN USE ..................................................................................................12
CAUSE NO. 85 - NO CALL SUSPENDED ....................................................................................................12
CAUSE NO. 86 - CALL HAVING THE REQUESTED CALL IDENTITY HAS BEEN CLEARED ..........................12
CAUSE NO. 87 - USER NOT A MEMBER OF CUG....................................................................................13
CAUSE NO. 88 - INCOMPATIBLE DESTINATION ........................................................................................13
CAUSE NO. 90 - NON-EXISTENT CUG.....................................................................................................13
CAUSE NO. 91 - INVALID TRANSIT NETWORK SELECTION.......................................................................13
CAUSE NO. 95 - INVALID MESSAGE, UNSPECIFIED ..................................................................................13
CAUSE NO, 96 - MANDATORY INFORMATION ELEMENT IS MISSING .......................................................13
CAUSE NO. 97 - MESSAGE TYPE NON-EXISTENT OR NOT IMPLEMENTED ...............................................13
CAUSE NO. 98 - MESSAGE NOT COMPATIBLE WITH CALL STATE OR MESSAGE TYPE NON-EXISTENT OR
NOT IMPLEMENTED .................................................................................................................................13
CAUSE NO. 99 - INFORMATION ELEMENT / PARAMETER NON-EXISTENT OR NOT IMPLEMENTED...........13
CAUSE NO. 100 - INVALID INFORMATION ELEMENT CONTENTS ..............................................................13
CAUSE NO. 101 - MESSAGE NOT COMPATIBLE WITH CALL STATE .........................................................14
CAUSE NO. 102 - RECOVERY ON TIMER EXPIRY ....................................................................................14
CAUSE NO. 103 - PARAMETER NON-EXISTENT OR NOT IMPLEMENTED - PASSED ON ............................14
CAUSE NO. 110 - MESSAGE WITH UNRECOGNIZED PARAMETER DISCARDED .........................................14
CAUSE NO. 111 - PROTOCOL ERROR, UNSPECIFIED ................................................................................14
CAUSE NO. 127 – INTERWORKING, UNSPECIFIED ....................................................................................14
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1. ISDN
1.1. Overview
ISDN is a digital communications network providing transmission rates in multiples of
64kbits per second. Typically described as 2B + D, Basic Rate ISDN (BRI) logically
uses 2 64 kbit/s data channels (B channels) and one 16 kbit/s signalling channel (D
channel). ISDN has yet to become a single global standard although within Europe
EURO-ISDN is used almost exclusively. Individual countries however, have their own
flavours of ISDN all of which are based to a varying degree around the ITUs ISDN
standard.
2. The D Channel
An ISDN conversation is controlled via the D channel, which supports a 3 layer
protocol. The three layers are as follows:
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Physical
Clock / Synchronisation
Basic Protocol Setup, Handshaking
Signalling
Initiation, Progress (all call handling)
Basically the D channel controls the call. It is possible to analyse the D channel with
an ISDN monitor which will provide a decoded display of the 3 layers. Such a monitor
is an integral part of TANDBERG’s products. It is also possible to send X.25 packet
data via the D channel although TANDBERG do not use this facility.
2.1. Layer 1
Layer 1 is the physical layer and ensures that a connection exists between the network
and the ISDN terminal (TE) e.g. TANDBERG products. Obviously as only 2 wires
exist over which to transfer data the channels cannot be physically separate. Instead the
channels are separated by time. Layer 1 uses frames to transport layer 2 and 3
information. A typical layer 1 frame might look like:
F
B1
.
.
B1
B2.
.
data
Framing bits
.
B2
D
E
B
Echo bit
Balancing bit
The Framing, Echo and Balancing information are used to help control the data on the
line and help in the control of Framing, Collision Detection and to avoid DC levels on
the line, respectively.
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2.2. Layer 2
Layer 2 is used to control the handshaking between the network and the TE.
Establishing a layer 2 connection requires that a TE has what is known as a tei
(terminal equipment identifier). This is assigned by the network and will be unique to
that TE and is used by the network to identify the TE on layer 2 at all times.
Whilst the network is trying to assign a tei, communication with a TE still needs to be
uniquely identified in some way. This is achieved by using a Ri or reference indicator.
Once a tei is assigned the Ri is no longer used.
Once a tei has been established the TE sends out a SABME (set asynchronous balanced
mode extended) this requests that the network be set for full duplex communication.
The network response is a UA (user acknowledge) indicating it accepts the SABME.
From this point forward the layer 2 information is generally just an I or a RR. I is
indicating that the TE or NT is sending an information frame (it is this frame that is the
layer 3 information). RR (reciever ready) indicates that the NT or TE is ready to recieve
information.
The TE and Network continue to handshake during an ISDN call and while the line is
idle to ensure both parties are present and available.
A disconnection is issued at layer 2 as well in the form of DISC to which the receiving
party responds with UA. If no layer 3 information is received after 10 seconds then the
network will automatically issue a DISC.
2.3. Layer 3
Layer 3 consists of:
1. Messages.
2. Information elements.
An information element must always be tagged to a message. Layer 3 messages are
used to control the content and progress of a call.
A typical Layer 3 conversation may look like that illustrated in figure 1 overleaf.
3. The B Channel
The transmission of data over ISDN is achieved via multiples of 64kbit/s B channels.
The protocol used to achieve successful digital communication within the B channels
(inband signalling) is up to the ISDN end user. TANDBERG use the ITU-T, H.320
standard. Whatever the inband signalling, the bearer capability requested by a
TANDBERG system when setting up a video call will be Unrestricted Digital
Information (UDI). Requesting UDI indicates to the network that it should provide a
full 64kbit/s bandwidth per channel and must not apply any compression /
decompression algorithm to the transmitted information.
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TE
C
h
a
n
1
NT
NT
TE
Setup
Setup
Setup ack
call proceeding
alerting
alerting
connect
connect
C
h
a
n
2
Setup
Setup
connect
connect
‘CONVERSATION’
C
h
a
n
2
C
h
a
n
1
disc
disc
rel
rel
rel complete
rel complete
disc
disc
rel
rel
rel complete
rel complete
Figure 1
Speech is typically compressed before sending long distance, multiplexed with other
speech channels and de-multiplexed and decompressed at the far end. To the human
ear the effect is inaudible but for a network provider, this technique allows far more
data to be transmitted using the same bandwidth. Such a technique is not suitable for
the transmission of data, hence the request for UDI.
4. The Network & Connectivity
Diagramatically the network can be illustrated as at Figure 2. The ISDN network is
represented by a cloud from which individual lines (2 wire copper), via interface
hardware, are run.
The 2 wires from the network are connected at the user site to a network terminating
device known as an NT1. The connection between the network and the NT1 is known
as the U Interface. Physically the U Interface is 2 wire copper and is known as ‘local
loop’. Essentially it is the same as that used for analogue phones. The maximum
length of a line for a U Interface is approximately 11km.
The NT1 links to the user's equipment (TE) via 8 wires, 2 Tx and 2 Rx as a balanced
pair, 2 power supplies (for low current devices) and 2 Grounds. Up to 8 TEs may be
connected to a single NT1 i.e each NT1 can support up to 8 separate MSNs with a TE
on each. The connection between the NT1 and the TEs is known as the S/T Interface.
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TANDBERG systems use a Co-incident S/T Interface. The cable between a TE and
the NT1 is a flat cable i.e. there is no cross over of Rx/Tx pairs.
It is also possible to obtain a 2MB link to the ISDN network. In this case the interface
at the user site is usually made via an Inverse Mulitplexer (IMUX) or a PBX. The
connection between the ISDN network and the IMUX is known as a Primary Rate
Interface.
Although referred to as 30B + D, a 2MB stream supports 32, 64kbit/s channels
comprised of:
30 B channels
1 D channel
1 Sync. channel
Each connection to the network at the user end will have a unique MSN. This is a
number allocated by the network provider to the user, which may be used to identify at
least one TE.
In addition to an MSN it is possible to set a SUB. This is a sub-address and is sent as a
suffix to an MSN. A SUB can be up to 4 digits long and enables separate TEs sharing
the same MSN to be addressed individually.
2 wire copper
NT1
i/f
ISDN
Basic Rate
or U
Interface
Tx+ Rx+
Tx- Rx-
S/T
Interface
2MB stream
Primary Rate
Interface
IMUX or
PBX
2B + D
30B + D + Sync
Figure 2.
Although all the 64kbit/s channels required may be provided by the same network for a
single conversation there is no guarantee that they will travel simultaneously. This can
result in significant delays between the separate channels. Usually these delays will
never exceed 1 second, nevertheless TANDBERG systems have buffers to allow for
delays of up to 1.2 seconds.
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5. ISDN Cabling
As mentioned earlier TANDBERG Systems connect to the S/T interface using an 8
core straight through cable. Such a cable has the following properties:
•
Each end is terminated with an RJ-45 jack.
•
Pins 1,2,7 & 8 are not used by TANDBERG Systems as they are used by ISDN to
provide a power source for low power consumption ISDN TEs such as ISDN
telephones
•
Pins 3,4,5 & 6 must be connected as they carry the Tx, Rx balanced pairs required
for data communication.
The ISDN standard determines that a 100Ω resistive load be used to terminate both
ends of the S/T interface, this is done to prevent reflections from the ends of the cable.
Such a load is usually present in an NT1 and is often found in ISDN wall sockets.
5.1 How to connect the video system to the ISDN
Here are some examples on how the videoconference system can be connected to the
ISDN line through the NT1.
•
NT1 and videoconference system in the same room. If the video system is the
only equipment that is connected to the NT1 and the distance between the NT1 and
the video system is less than 10 meters then the ISDN cable from the video system
can be connected directly into the NT1. The NT1 then needs to be terminated with
a 50Ω resistive load.
•
ISDN S0-bus use. If there is a need for more than one ISDN wall socket on the
particular ISDN line or if the distance between the video system and the NT1 is up
to 100 meters then the NT1 must have a S0-bus. The 100-meter distance on the S0bus is dependent on the quality on the cable used. It is possible to have up to 8
ISDN wall sockets connected to that particular NT1. The S0-bus must be
terminated in both ends with a 100Ω resistive load.
Please note that each Tx pair and Rx pair must be terminated with a resistive load
according to the above.
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6. ISDN Cause Codes
Cause No. 1 - Unallocated (Unassigned) Number
This cause indicates that the destination requested by the calling user cannot be reached because,
although the number is in a valid format, it is not currently assigned.
Cause No. 2 - No Route To Specified Transit Network
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a request to route the call through
a particular transit network, which it does not recognize. The equipment sending this cause does not
recognize the transit network either because the transit network does not exist or because that particular
transit network, while it does exist, does not serve the equipment, which is sending this cause.
Cause No. 3 - No Route To Destination
This cause indicates that the called party cannot be reached because the network through which the call
has been routed does not serve the destination desired. This cause is supported on a network dependent
basis.
Cause No. 4 - Send Special Information Tone (Five One Zero NT)
This cause indicates that the called party cannot be reached for reasons that are of a long term nature and
that the special information tone should be returned to the calling party.
Cause No. 5 - Misdialed Trunk Prefix
This cause indicates the erroneous inclusion of a trunk prefix in the called party number. This number is
supposed to be stripped from the dialed number being sent to the network by the customer premises
equipment.
Cause No. 6 - Channel Unacceptable
This cause indicates that the channel most recently identified is not acceptable to the sending party for
use in this call.
Cause No. 7 - call awarded, being delivered in an established channel
This cause indicates that the user has been awarded the incoming call, and that the incoming call is being
connected to a channel already established to that user for similar calls (e.g. packet-mode x.25 virtual
calls).
Cause No. 8 - Preemption
This cause indicates the call is being preempted.
Cause No. 9 - Preemption - Circuit Reserved For Reuse
This cause indicates that the call is being preempted and the circuit is reserved for reuse by the
preempting exchange.
Cause No. 16 - Normal Call Clearing
This cause indicates that the call is being cleared because one of the users involved in the call has
requested that the call be cleared.
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Cause No. 16/4 or 17 - User Busy
This cause is used when the called user has indicated the inability to accept another call. This cause may
code may be generated by the called user or by the network. Please note that the use equipment is
compatible with the call.
Cause No. 16/3 or 18 - No User Responding
This cause is used when a called party does not respond to a call establishment message with either an
alerting or connect indication within the prescribed period of time allocated (in Q.931 by the expiry of
either time T303 or T310).
Cause No. 19 - No Answer From User (User Alerted)
This cause is used when a user has provided an alerting indication but has not provided a connect
indication within a prescribed period of time. Note: This cause is not necessarily generated by the
customer premise equipment, but may be generated by internal network timers.
Cause No. 20 - Subscriber Absent
This cause value is used when a mobile station has logged off, radio contact is not obtained with a
mobile station or if a personal telecommunication user is temporarily not addressable at any user-network
interface.
Cause No. 21 - Call Rejected
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause does not wish to accept this call, although it
could have accepted the call because the equipment sending this cause is neither busy nor incompatible.
This cause may also be generated by the network, indicating that the call was cleared due to a
supplementary service constraint. The diagnostic field may contain additional information about the
supplementary service and reason for rejection.
Cause No. 22 - Number Changed
This cause is returned to a calling party when the called party number indicated by the calling party is no
longer assigned. The new called party number may optionally be included in the diagnostic field. If the
network does not support this cause, cause no: 1, unallocated (unassigned) will be used instead.
Cause No. 26 - Non-Selected User Clearing
This cause indicates that the user has not been awarded the incoming call.
Cause No. 27 - Destination Out Of Order
This cause indicates that the destination cannot be reached because the interface to the destination is not
functioning correctly. The signaling message was unable to be delivered de to a hardware failure.
Cause No. 28 - Invalid Number Format (Address Incomplete)
This cause indicates that the called party cannot be reached because the called party number is not in a
valid format or is not complete.
Cause No. 29 - Facilities Rejected
This cause is returned when a facility requested by the user cannot be provide by the network.
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Cause No. 30 - Response To Status Inquiry
This cause is included in the STATUS message when the reason for generating the STATUS message
was the prior receipt of a STATUS ENQUIRY.
Cause No. 31 - Normal, Unspecified
This cause is used to report a normal event only when no other cause in the normal class applies.
Cause No. 34 - No Circuit/Channel Available
This cause indicates that there is no appropriate circuit/channel presently available to handle the call.
Note: If you receive this call, try another data-service, such as dropping from a 64K to 56K data rate.
Cause No. 35 - Call Queued
This cause indicates that the call has been queued for service by the next available device.
Cause No. 38 - Network Out Of Order
This cause indicates that the network is not functioning correctly and that the conditions are likely to last
a relatively long period of time. A call that is attempted soon afterwards will most likely not connect
successfully.
Cause No. 39 - Permanent Frame Mode Connection Out-Of-Service
This cause is included in a STATUS message to indicate that a permanently established frame mode
connection is out-of-service (e.g. due to equipment or section failure) [see Annex A/Q.933]
Cause No. 40 - Permanent Frame Mode Connection Operational
This cause is included in a STATUS message to indicate that a permanently established frame mode
connection is operational and capable of carrying user information. [see Annex A/Q.933]
Cause No. 41 - Temporary Failure
This cause indicates that the network is not functioning correctly and that the condition is not likely to
last a very long period of time. A call that is attempted almost immediately afterwards will most likely
connect successfully.
Cause No. 42 - Switching Equipment Congestion
This cause indicates that the switching equipment generating this cause is experiencing a period of high
traffic.
Cause No. 43 - Access Information Discarded
This cause indicates that the network could not deliver access information, low layer compatibility, high
layer compatibility, or sub-address as indicated in the diagnostic.
Cause No. 44 - Requested Circuit/Channel Not Available
This cause is returned when the circuit or channel indicated by the requesting entity cannot be provided
by the other side of the interface.
Cause No. 46 - Precedence Call Blocked
This cause indicates that there are no preemptable circuits or that the called user is busy with a call of
equal or higher preemptable level.
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Cause No. 47 - Resource Unavailable, Unspecified
This cause is used to report a resource unavailable event only when no other cause in the resource
unavailable class applies.
Cause No. 49 - Quality Of Service Not Available
This cause is used to report that the requested Quality of Service cannot be provided (delay canít be
supported).
Cause No. 50 - requested facility not subscribed
This cause indicates that the requested supplementary service could not be provided due to user
oversight. This cause code is often caused by the CPE being configured for the wrong switch type.
Cause No. 52 - outgoing calls barred
This cause indicates that because of call screening provided by the network, the calling user is not
permitted to make a call.
Cause No. 53 - Outgoing Calls Barred Within CUG
This cause indicates that although the calling party is a member of the CUG for the outgoing CUG call,
outgoing calls are not allowed for this member of the CUG.
Cause No. 54 - incoming calls barred
This cause indicates that the called user will not accept the call delivered in the SETUP message.
Cause No. 55 - Incoming Calls Barred Within CUG
This cause indicates that although the calling party is a member of the CUG for the incoming CUG call,
incoming calls are not allowed for this member of the CUG.
Cause No. 57 - Bearer Capability Not Authorized
This cause indicates that the user has requested a bearer capability, which is implemented by their
equipment but the user is not authorized to use.
Cause No. 58 - Bearer Capability Not Presently Available
This cause indicates that the user has requested a bearer capability, which is implemented by the
equipment which generated this cause but which is not available at this time.
Cause No. 62 - Inconsistency In Outgoing Information Element
This cause indicates an inconsistency in the designated outgoing access information and subscriber class
Cause No. 63 - Service Or Option Not Available, Unspecified
This cause is used to report a service or option not available event only when no other cause in the
service or option not available class applies.
Cause No. 65 - Bearer Capability Not Implemented
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause does not support the bearer capability
requested.
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Cause No. 66 - Channel Type Not Implemented
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause does not support the channel type requested
Cause No. 69 - Requested Facility Not Implemented
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause does not support the requested supplemental
service.
Cause No. 70 - Only Restricted Digital Information Bearer Capability
Is Available
This cause indicates that on equipment has requested an unrestricted bearer service but that the
equipment sending the cause only supports the restricted version of the requested bearer capability.
Cause No. 79 - Service Or Option Not Implemented, Unspecified
This cause is used to report a service r option not implemented but only when no other cause in this class
applies.
Cause No. 81 - Invalid Call Reference Value
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a message with a call reference,
which is not currently in use on the user-network interface.
Cause No. 82 - Identified Channel Does Not Exist
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a request to use a channel not
activated on the interface for a call. For example, if the user only subscribed to channels 1 to 12 and
channel 13 through 23 is requested by either side, this cause is generated.
Cause No. 83 - A Suspended Call Exists, But This Call Identify Does
Not
This cause indicates that a call resume has been attempted with a call identity, which differs from that in
use for any presently suspended call(s).
Cause No. 84 - Call Identity In Use
This cause indicates that the network has received a call resume request. The call resume request
contained a call identity information element, which presently does not indicate any suspended call
within the domain of interfaces over which calls may be resumed.
Cause No. 85 - No Call Suspended
This cause indicates that the network has received a call resume request containing a Call identity
information element, which presently does not indicate any suspended call within the domain of
interfaces over which calls may be resumed.
Cause No. 86 - Call Having The Requested Call Identity Has Been
Cleared
This cause indicates that the network has received a call resume request. The request contained a call
identity information element which once indicated a suspended call, however, that the call was cleared
while suspended (either a network time-out or remote user).
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Cause No. 87 - User Not A Member Of CUG
This cause indicates that the called user for the incoming CUG call is not a member of the specified CUG
or that the calling user is an ordinary subscriber calling a CUG subscriber.
Cause No. 88 - Incompatible Destination
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a request to establish a call,
which has low layer compatibility, high layer compatibility, or other compatibility attributes (e.g. data
rate) which cannot be accommodated.
Cause No. 90 - Non-Existent CUG
This cause indicates that the specified CUG does not exist.
Cause No. 91 - Invalid Transit Network Selection
This cause indicates that a transit network identification was received which is of an incorrect format as
defined in Annex C/Q.931
Cause No. 95 - Invalid Message, Unspecified
This cause is used to report an invalid message event only when no other cause in the invalid class
applies.
Cause No, 96 - Mandatory Information Element Is Missing
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a message, which is missing an
information element which must be present in the message before that message can be processed.
Cause No. 97 - Message Type Non-Existent Or Not Implemented
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a message with a message type it
does not recognize either because this is a message not defined of defined but not implemented by the
equipment sending this cause.
Cause No. 98 - Message Not Compatible With Call State Or Message
Type Non-Existent Or Not Implemented
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a message such that the
procedures do not indicate that this is a permissible message to receive while in the call state, or a
STATUS message was received indicating an incompatible call state.
Cause No. 99 - Information Element / Parameter Non-Existent Or Not
Implemented
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a message which includes
information element(s)/parameter(s) not recognized because the information element(s)/parameter
name(s) are not defined or are defined but not implemented by the equipment sending the cause. This
cause indicates that the information element(s)/parameter(s) were discarded. However, the information
element is not required to be present in the message in order for the equipment sending the cause to
process the message.
Cause No. 100 - Invalid Information Element Contents
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received and information element which it
has implemented; however, one or more fields in the information elements are coded in such a way
which has not been implemented by the equipment sending this cause.
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TANDBERG
An Introduction to ISDN
Cause No. 101 - Message Not Compatible With Call State
This cause indicates that a message has been received which is incompatible with the call state.
Cause No. 102 - Recovery On Timer Expiry
This cause indicates that a procedure has been initiated by the expiry of a timer in association with Q.931
error handling procedures.
Cause No. 103 - Parameter Non-Existent Or Not Implemented Passed On
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received a message, which includes
parameters not recognized because the parameters are not defined or are defined but not implemented by
the equipment sending this cause.
Cause No. 110 - Message With Unrecognized Parameter Discarded
This cause indicates that the equipment sending this cause has discarded a received message, which
includes a parameter that is not recognized.
Cause No. 111 - Protocol Error, Unspecified
This cause is used to report a protocol error event only when no other cause in the protocol error class
applies.
Cause No. 127 – Interworking, Unspecified
This cause indicates that there has been interworking with a network which does not provide cause codes
for its actions. The precise cause for a message being sent is not known.
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