A Guide to MATLAB This book is a short, focused introduction to MATLAB, a comprehensive software system for mathematics and technical computing. It will be useful to both beginning and experienced users. It contains concise explanations of essential MATLAB commands, as well as easily understood instructions for using MATLAB’s programming features, graphical capabilities, and desktop interface. It also includes an introduction to SIMULINK, a companion to MATLAB for system simulation. Written for MATLAB 6, this book can also be used with earlier (and later) versions of MATLAB. This book contains worked-out examples of applications of MATLAB to interesting problems in mathematics, engineering, economics, and physics. In addition, it contains explicit instructions for using MATLAB’s Microsoft Word interface to produce polished, integrated, interactive documents for reports, presentations, or online publishing. This book explains everything you need to know to begin using MATLAB to do all these things and more. Intermediate and advanced users will ﬁnd useful information here, especially if they are making the switch to MATLAB 6 from an earlier version. Brian R. Hunt is an Associate Professor of Mathematics at the University of Maryland. Professor Hunt has coauthored four books on mathematical software and more than 30 journal articles. He is currently involved in research on dynamical systems and fractal geometry. Ronald L. Lipsman is a Professor of Mathematics and Associate Dean of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland. Professor Lipsman has coauthored ﬁve books on mathematical software and more than 70 research articles. Professor Lipsman was the recipient of both the NATO and Fulbright Fellowships. Jonathan M. Rosenberg is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Maryland. Professor Rosenberg is the author of two books on mathematics (one of them coauthored by R. Lipsman and K. Coombes) and the coeditor of Novikov Conjectures, Index Theorems, and Rigidity, a two-volume set from the London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series (Cambridge University Press, 1995). A Guide to MATLAB for Beginners and Experienced Users Brian R. Hunt Ronald L. Lipsman Jonathan M. Rosenberg with Kevin R. Coombes, John E. Osborn, and Garrett J. Stuck Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge , United Kingdom Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521803809 © B. Hunt, R. Lipsman, J. Rosenberg, K. Coombes, J. Osborn, G. Stuck 2001 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2001 - - ---- eBook (NetLibrary) --- eBook (NetLibrary) - - ---- hardback --- hardback - - ---- paperback --- paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of s for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. MATLAB®, Simulink®, and Handle Graphics® are registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. Microsoft®, MS-DOS®, and Windows® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Many other proprietary names used in this book are registered trademarks. Portions of this book were adapted from “Differential Equations with MATLAB” by Kevin R. Coombes, Brian R. Hunt, Ronald L. Lipsman, John E. Osborn, and Garrett J. Stuck, copyright © 2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adapted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Contents at a Glance Preface page xiii 1 Getting Started 1 2 MATLAB Basics 8 3 Interacting with MATLAB 31 Practice Set A: Algebra and Arithmetic 48 4 Beyond the Basics 50 5 MATLAB Graphics 67 Practice Set B: Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra 86 6 M-Books 91 7 MATLAB Programming 101 8 SIMULINK and GUIs 121 9 Applications 136 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills 204 10 MATLAB and the Internet 214 11 Troubleshooting 218 Solutions to the Practice Sets 235 Glossary 299 Index 317 v Contents Preface 1 2 page xiii Getting Started Platforms and Versions Installation and Location Starting MATLAB Typing in the Command Window Online Help Interrupting Calculations MATLAB Windows Ending a Session 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 MATLAB Basics Input and Output Arithmetic Algebra Symbolic Expressions, Variable Precision, and Exact Arithmetic Managing Variables Errors in Input Online Help Variables and Assignments Solving Equations Vectors and Matrices Vectors Matrices Suppressing Output Functions 8 8 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 23 24 24 vii viii Contents Built-in Functions User-Deﬁned Functions 3 4 24 25 Graphics Graphing with ezplot Modifying Graphs Graphing with plot Plotting Multiple Curves 26 26 27 28 30 Interacting with MATLAB The MATLAB Interface The Desktop Menu and Tool Bars The Workspace The Working Directory Using the Command Window M-Files Script M-Files Function M-Files Loops Presenting Your Results Diary Files Presenting Graphics Pretty Printing A General Procedure Fine-Tuning Your M-Files 31 46 Practice Set A: Algebra and Arithmetic 48 Beyond the Basics Suppressing Output Data Classes String Manipulation Symbolic and Floating Point Numbers Functions and Expressions Substitution More about M-Files Variables in Script M-Files Variables in Function M-Files Structure of Function M-Files 50 31 31 33 33 34 35 36 37 39 41 41 42 43 45 45 50 51 53 53 54 56 56 56 57 57 Contents 5 6 ix Complex Arithmetic 58 More on Matrices Solving Linear Systems Calculating Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 59 60 60 Doing Calculus with MATLAB Differentiation Integration Limits Sums and Products Taylor Series 61 61 62 63 64 65 Default Variables 65 MATLAB Graphics Two-Dimensional Plots Parametric Plots Contour Plots and Implicit Plots Field Plots Three-Dimensional Plots Curves in Three-Dimensional Space Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space Special Effects Combining Figures in One Window Animations Customizing and Manipulating Graphics Change of Viewpoint Change of Plot Style Full-Fledged Customization Quick Plot Editing in the Figure Window Sound 67 67 67 69 71 72 72 73 75 76 77 78 80 80 82 84 85 Practice Set B: Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra 86 M-Books Enabling M-Books Starting M-Books Working with M-Books Editing Input The Notebook Menu 91 92 93 95 95 96 x Contents 7 8 9 M-Book Graphics 97 More Hints for Effective Use of M-Books 98 A Warning 99 MATLAB Programming Branching Branching with if Logical Expressions Branching with switch More about Loops Open-Ended Loops Breaking from a Loop Other Programming Commands Subfunctions Commands for Parsing Input and Output User Input and Screen Output Evaluation Debugging Interacting with the Operating System Calling External Programs File Input and Output SIMULINK and GUIs 101 101 102 104 108 109 110 111 112 112 112 114 116 117 118 118 119 121 SIMULINK 121 Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) GUI Layout and GUIDE Saving and Running a GUI GUI Callback Functions 127 127 130 132 Applications Illuminating a Room One 300-Watt Bulb Two 150-Watt Bulbs Three 100-Watt Bulbs Mortgage Payments Monte Carlo Simulation Population Dynamics Exponential Growth and Decay 136 137 137 138 143 145 149 156 157 Contents Logistic Growth Rerunning the Model with SIMULINK 168 Linear Programming 173 The 360 Pendulum Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation A Finite Difference Solution The Case of Variable Conductivity A SIMULINK Solution Solution with pdepe A Model of Trafﬁc Flow 11 159 166 Linear Economic Models ◦ 10 xi 180 184 185 189 191 194 196 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills 204 MATLAB and the Internet MATLAB Help on the Internet Posting MATLAB Programs and Output M-Files, M-Books, Reports, and HTML Files Conﬁguring Your Web Browser Microsoft Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator 214 Troubleshooting Common Problems Wrong or Unexpected Output Syntax Error Spelling Error Error Messages When Plotting A Previously Saved M-File Evaluates Differently Computer Won’t Respond The Most Common Mistakes Debugging Techniques Solutions to the Practice Sets 214 215 215 216 216 216 218 218 218 220 223 223 224 226 226 227 235 Practice Set A 235 Practice Set B 246 Practice Set C 266 xii Contents Glossary 299 MATLAB Operators 300 Built-in Constants 301 Built-in Functions 302 MATLAB Commands 303 Graphics Commands 309 MATLAB Programming 313 Index indicates an advanced chapter or section that can be skipped on a ﬁrst reading. 317 Preface MATLAB is an integrated technical computing environment that combines numeric computation, advanced graphics and visualization, and a highlevel programming language. – www.mathworks.com/products/matlab That statement encapsulates the view of The MathWorks, Inc., the developer of MATLAB . MATLAB 6 is an ambitious program. It contains hundreds of commands to do mathematics. You can use it to graph functions, solve equations, perform statistical tests, and do much more. It is a high-level programming language that can communicate with its cousins, e.g., FORTRAN and C. You can produce sound and animate graphics. You can do simulations and modeling (especially if you have access not just to basic MATLAB but also to its accessory SIMULINK ). You can prepare materials for export to the World Wide Web. In addition, you can use MATLAB, in conjunction with the word processing and desktop publishing features of Microsoft Word , to combine mathematical computations with text and graphics to produce a polished, integrated, and interactive document. A program this sophisticated contains many features and options. There are literally hundreds of useful commands at your disposal. The MATLAB help documentation contains thousands of entries. The standard references, whether the MathWorks User’s Guide for the product, or any of our competitors, contain myriad tables describing an endless stream of commands, options, and features that the user might be expected to learn or access. MATLAB is more than a fancy calculator; it is an extremely useful and versatile tool. Even if you only know a little about MATLAB, you can use it to accomplish wonderful things. The hard part, however, is ﬁguring out which of the hundreds of commands, scores of help pages, and thousands of items of documentation you need to look at to start using it quickly and effectively. That’s where we come in. xiii xiv Preface Why We Wrote This Book The goal of this book is to get you started using MATLAB successfully and quickly. We point out the parts of MATLAB you need to know without overwhelming you with details. We help you avoid the rough spots. We give you examples of real uses of MATLAB that you can refer to when you’re doing your own work. And we provide a handy reference to the most useful features of MATLAB. When you’re ﬁnished reading this book, you will be able to use MATLAB effectively. You’ll also be ready to explore more of MATLAB on your own. You might not be a MATLAB expert when you ﬁnish this book, but you will be prepared to become one — if that’s what you want. We ﬁgure you’re probably more interested in being an expert at your own specialty, whether that’s ﬁnance, physics, psychology, or engineering. You want to use MATLAB the way we do, as a tool. This book is designed to help you become a proﬁcient MATLAB user as quickly as possible, so you can get on with the business at hand. Who Should Read This Book This book will be useful to complete novices, occasional users who want to sharpen their skills, intermediate or experienced users who want to learn about the new features of MATLAB 6 or who want to learn how to use SIMULINK, and even experts who want to ﬁnd out whether we know anything they don’t. You can read through this guide to learn MATLAB on your own. If your employer (or your professor) has plopped you in front of a computer with MATLAB and told you to learn how to use it, then you’ll ﬁnd the book particularly useful. If you are teaching or taking a course in which you want to use MATLAB as a tool to explore another subject — whether in mathematics, science, engineering, business, or statistics — this book will make a perfect supplement. As mentioned, we wrote this guide for use with MATLAB 6. If you plan to continue using MATLAB 5, however, you can still proﬁt from this book. Virtually all of the material on MATLAB commands in this book applies to both versions. Only a small amount of material on the MATLAB interface, found mainly in Chapters 1, 3, and 8, is exclusive to MATLAB 6. Preface xv How This Book Is Organized In writing, we drew on our experience to provide important information as quickly as possible. The book contains a short, focused introduction to MATLAB. It contains practice problems (with complete solutions) so you can test your knowledge. There are several illuminating sample projects that show you how MATLAB can be used in real-world applications, and there is an entire chapter on troubleshooting. The core of this book consists of about 75 pages: Chapters 1–4 and the beginning of Chapter 5. Read that much and you’ll have a good grasp of the fundamentals of MATLAB. Read the rest — the remainder of the Graphics chapter as well as the chapters on M-Books, Programming, SIMULINK and GUIs, Applications, MATLAB and the Internet, Troubleshooting, and the Glossary — and you’ll know enough to do a great deal with MATLAB. Here is a detailed summary of the contents of the book. Chapter 1, Getting Started, describes how to start MATLAB on different platforms. It tells you how to enter commands, how to access online help, how to recognize the various MATLAB windows you will encounter, and how to exit the application. Chapter 2, MATLAB Basics, shows you how to do elementary mathematics using MATLAB. This chapter contains the most essential MATLAB commands. Chapter 3, Interacting with MATLAB, contains an introduction to the MATLAB Desktop interface. This chapter will introduce you to the basic window features of the application, to the small program ﬁles (M-ﬁles) that you will use to make most effective use of the software, and to a simple method (diary ﬁles) of documenting your MATLAB sessions. After completing this chapter, you’ll have a better appreciation of the breadth described in the quote that opens this preface. Practice Set A, Algebra and Arithmetic, contains some simple problems for practicing your newly acquired MATLAB skills. Solutions are presented at the end of the book. Chapter 4, Beyond the Basics, contains an explanation of the ﬁner points that are essential for using MATLAB effectively. Chapter 5, MATLAB Graphics, contains a more detailed look at many of the MATLAB commands for producing graphics. Practice Set B, Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra, gives you another chance to practice what you’ve just learned. As before, solutions are provided at the end of the book. xvi Preface Chapter 6, M-Books, contains an introduction to the word processing and desktop publishing features available when you combine MATLAB with Microsoft Word. Chapter 7, MATLAB Programming, introduces you to the programming features of MATLAB. This chapter is designed to be useful both to the novice programmer and to the experienced FORTRAN or C programmer. Chapter 8, SIMULINK and GUIs, consists of two parts. The ﬁrst part describes the MATLAB companion software SIMULINK, a graphically oriented package for modeling, simulating, and analyzing dynamical systems. Many of the calculations that can be done with MATLAB can be done equally well with SIMULINK. If you don’t have access to SIMULINK, skip this part of Chapter 8. The second part contains an introduction to the construction and deployment of graphical user interfaces, that is, GUIs, using MATLAB. Chapter 9, Applications, contains examples, from many different ﬁelds, of solutions of real-world problems using MATLAB and/or SIMULINK. Practice Set C, Developing Your MATLAB Skills, contains practice problems whose solutions use the methods and techniques you learned in Chapters 6–9. Chapter 10, MATLAB and the Internet, gives tips on how to post MATLAB output on the Web. Chapter 11, Troubleshooting, is the place to turn when anything goes wrong. Many common problems can be resolved by reading (and rereading) the advice in this chapter. Next, we have Solutions to the Practice Sets, which contains solutions to all the problems from the three practice sets. The Glossary contains short descriptions (with examples) of many MATLAB commands and objects. Though not a complete reference, it is a handy guide to the most important features of MATLAB. Finally, there is a complete Index. Conventions Used in This Book We use distinct fonts to distinguish various entities. When new terms are ﬁrst introduced, they are typeset in an italic font. Output from MATLAB is typeset in a monospaced typewriter font; commands that you type for interpretation by MATLAB are indicated by a boldface version of that font. These commands and responses are often displayed on separate lines as they would be in a MATLAB session, as in the following example: >> x = sqrt(2*pi + 1) x = 2.697 Preface xvii Selectable menu items (from the menu bars in the MATLAB Desktop, ﬁgure windows, etc.) are typeset in a boldface font. Submenu items are separated from menu items by a colon, as in File : Open.... Labels such as the names of windows and buttons are quoted, in a “regular” font. File and folder names, as well as Web addresses, are printed in a typewriter font. Finally, names of keys on your computer keyboard are set in a SMALL CAPS font. We use four special symbols throughout the book. Here they are together with their meanings. ☞ Paragraphs like this one contain cross-references to other parts of the book or suggestions of where you can skip ahead to another chapter. ➱ Paragraphs like this one contain important notes. Our favorite is “Save your work frequently.” Pay careful attention to these paragraphs. ✓ Paragraphs like this one contain useful tips or point out features of interest in the surrounding landscape. You might not need to think carefully about them on the ﬁrst reading, but they may draw your attention to some of the ﬁner points of MATLAB if you go back to them later. Paragraphs like this discuss features of MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox, used for symbolic (as opposed to numerical) calculations. If you are not using the Symbolic Math Toolbox, you can skip these sections. Incidentally, if you are a student and you have purchased the MATLAB Student Version, then the Symbolic Math Toolbox and SIMULINK are automatically included with your software, along with basic MATLAB. Caution: The Student Edition of MATLAB, a different product, does not come with SIMULINK. About the Authors We are mathematics professors at the University of Maryland, College Park. We have used MATLAB in our research, in our mathematics courses, for presentations and demonstrations, for production of graphics for books and for the Web, and even to help our kids do their homework. We hope that you’ll ﬁnd MATLAB as useful as we do and that this book will help you learn to use it quickly and effectively. Finally, we would like to thank our editor, Alan Harvey, for his personal attention and helpful suggestions. Chapter 1 Getting Started In this chapter, we will introduce you to the tools you need to begin using MATLAB effectively. These include: some relevant information on computer platforms and software versions; installation and location protocols; how to launch the program, enter commands, use online help, and recover from hangups; a roster of MATLAB’s various windows; and ﬁnally, how to quit the software. We know you are anxious to get started using MATLAB, so we will keep this chapter brief. After you complete it, you can go immediately to Chapter 2 to ﬁnd concrete and simple instructions for the use of MATLAB. We describe the MATLAB interface more elaborately in Chapter 3. Platforms and Versions It is likely that you will run MATLAB on a PC (running Windows or Linux) or on some form of UNIX operating system. (The developers of MATLAB, The MathWorks, Inc., are no longer supporting Macintosh. Earlier versions of MATLAB were available for Macintosh; if you are running one of those, you should ﬁnd that our instructions for Windows platforms will sufﬁce for your needs.) Unlike previous versions of MATLAB, version 6 looks virtually identical on Windows and UNIX platforms. For deﬁnitiveness, we shall assume the reader is using a PC in a Windows environment. In those very few instances where our instructions must be tailored differently for Linux or UNIX users, we shall point it out clearly. ➱ We use the word Windows to refer to all ﬂavors of the Windows operating system, that is, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Millennium Edition, and Windows NT. 1 2 Chapter 1: Getting Started This book is written to be compatible with the current version of MATLAB, namely version 6 (also known as Release 12). The vast majority of the MATLAB commands we describe, as well as many features of the MATLAB interface (M-ﬁles, diary ﬁles, M-books, etc.), are valid for version 5.3 (Release 11), and even earlier versions in some cases. We also note that the differences between the Professional Version and the Student Version (not the Student Edition) of MATLAB are rather minor and virtually unnoticeable to the new, or even mid-level, user. Again, in the few instances where we describe a MATLAB feature that is only available in the Professional Version, we highlight that fact clearly. Installation and Location If you intend to run MATLAB on a PC, especially the Student Version, it is quite possible that you will have to install it yourself. You can easily accomplish this using the product CDs. Follow the installation instructions as you would with any new software you install. At some point in the installation you may be asked which toolboxes you wish to include in your installation. Unless you have severe space limitations, we suggest that you install any that seem of interest to you or that you think you might use at some point in the future. We ask only that you be sure to include the Symbolic Math Toolbox among those you install. If possible, we also encourage you to install SIMULINK, which is described in Chapter 8. Depending on your version you may also be asked whether you want to specify certain directory (i.e., folder) locations associated with Microsoft Word. If you do, you will be able to run the M-book interface that is described in Chapter 6. If your computer has Microsoft Word, we strongly urge you to include these directory locations during installation. If you allow the default settings during installation, then MATLAB will likely be found in a directory with a name such as matlabR12 or matlab SR12 or MATLAB — you may have to hunt around to ﬁnd it. The subdirectory bin\win32, or perhaps the subdirectory bin, will contain the executable ﬁle matlab.exe that runs the program, while the current working directory will probably be set to matlabR12\work. Starting MATLAB You start MATLAB as you would any other software application. On a PC you access it via the Start menu, in Programs under a folder such as MatlabR12 Typing in the Command Window 3 or Student MATLAB. Alternatively, you may have an icon set up that enables you to start MATLAB with a simple double-click. On a UNIX machine, generally you need only type matlab in a terminal window, though you may ﬁrst have to ﬁnd the matlab/bin directory and add it to your path. Or you may have an icon or a special button on your desktop that achieves the task. ➱ On UNIX systems, you should not attempt to run MATLAB in the background by typing matlab &. This will fail in either the current or older versions. However you start MATLAB, you will brieﬂy see a window that displays the MATLAB logo as well as some MATLAB product information, and then a MATLAB Desktop window will launch. That window will contain a title bar, a menu bar, a tool bar, and ﬁve embedded windows, two of which are hidden. The largest and most important window is the Command Window on the right. We will go into more detail in Chapter 3 on the use and manipulation of the other four windows: the Launch Pad, the Workspace browser, the Command History window, and the Current Directory browser. For now we concentrate on the Command Window to get you started issuing MATLAB commands as quickly as possible. At the top of the Command Window, you may see some general information about MATLAB, perhaps some special instructions for getting started or accessing help, but most important of all, a line that contains a prompt. The prompt will likely be a double caret (>> or ). If the Command Window is “active”, its title bar will be dark, and the prompt will be followed by a cursor (a vertical line or box, usually blinking). That is the place where you will enter your MATLAB commands (see Chapter 2). If the Command Window is not active, just click in it anywhere. Figure 1-1 contains an example of a newly launched MATLAB Desktop. ➱ In older versions of MATLAB, for example 5.3, there is no integrated Desktop. Only the Command Window appears when you launch the application. (On UNIX systems, the terminal window from which you invoke MATLAB becomes the Command Window.) Commands that we instruct you to enter in the Command Window inside the Desktop for version 6 can be entered directly into the Command Window in version 5.3 and older versions. Typing in the Command Window Click in the Command Window to make it active. When a window becomes active, its titlebar darkens. It is also likely that your cursor will change from 4 Chapter 1: Getting Started Figure 1-1: A MATLAB Desktop. outline form to solid, or from light to dark, or it may simply appear. Now you can begin entering commands. Try typing 1+1; then press ENTER or RETURN. Next try factor(123456789), and ﬁnally sin(10). Your MATLAB Desktop should look like Figure 1-2. Online Help MATLAB has an extensive online help mechanism. In fact, using only this book and the online help, you should be able to become quite proﬁcient with MATLAB. You can access the online help in one of several ways. Typing help at the command prompt will reveal a long list of topics on which help is available. Just to illustrate, try typing help general. Now you see a long list of “general purpose” MATLAB commands. Finally, try help solve to learn about the command solve. In every instance above, more information than your screen can hold will scroll by. See the Online Help section in Chapter 2 for instructions to deal with this. There is a much more user-friendly way to access the online help, namely via the MATLAB Help Browser. You can activate it in several ways; for example, typing either helpwin or helpdesk at the command prompt brings it up. Interrupting Calculations 5 Figure 1-2: Some Simple Commands. Alternatively, it is available through the menu bar under either View or Help. Finally, the question mark button on the tool bar will also invoke the Help Browser. We will go into more detail on its features in Chapter 2 — sufﬁce it to say that as in any hypertext browser, you can, by clicking, browse through a host of command and interface information. Figure 1-3 depicts the MATLAB Help Browser. ➱ If you are working with MATLAB version 5.3 or earlier, then typing help, help general, or help solve at the command prompt will work as indicated above. But the entries helpwin or helpdesk call up more primitive, although still quite useful, forms of help windows than the robust Help Browser available with version 6. If you are patient, and not overly anxious to get to Chapter 2, you can type demo to try out MATLAB’s demonstration program for beginners. Interrupting Calculations If MATLAB is hung up in a calculation, or is just taking too long to perform an operation, you can usually abort it by typing CTRL+C (that is, hold down the key labeled CTRL, or CONTROL, and press C). 6 Chapter 1: Getting Started Figure 1-3: The MATLAB Help Browser. MATLAB Windows We have already described the MATLAB Command Window and the Help Browser, and have mentioned in passing the Command History window, Current Directory browser, Workspace browser, and Launch Pad. These, and several other windows you will encounter as you work with MATLAB, will allow you to: control ﬁles and folders that you and MATLAB will need to access; write and edit the small MATLAB programs (that is, M-ﬁles) that you will utilize to run MATLAB most effectively; keep track of the variables and functions that you deﬁne as you use MATLAB; and design graphical models to solve problems and simulate processes. Some of these windows launch separately, and some are embedded in the Desktop. You can dock some of those that launch separately inside the Desktop (through the View:Dock menu button), or you can separate windows inside your MATLAB Desktop out to your computer desktop by clicking on the curved arrow in the upper right. These features are described more thoroughly in Chapter 3. For now, we want to call your attention to the other main type of window you will encounter; namely graphics windows. Many of the commands you issue will generate graphics or pictures. These will appear in a separate window. MATLAB documentation refers to these as ﬁgure windows. In this book, we shall Ending a Session 7 also call them graphics windows. In Chapter 5, we will teach you how to generate and manipulate MATLAB graphics windows most effectively. ☞ See Figure 2-1 in Chapter 2 for a simple example of a graphics window. ➱ Graphics windows cannot be embedded into the MATLAB Desktop. Ending a Session The simplest way to conclude a MATLAB session is to type quit at the prompt. You can also click on the special symbol that closes your windows (usually an × in the upper left- or right-hand corner). Either of these may or may not close all the other MATLAB windows (which we talked about in the last section) that are open. You may have to close them separately. Indeed, it is our experience that leaving MATLAB-generated windows around after closing the MATLAB Desktop may be hazardous to your operating system. Still another way to exit is to use the Exit MATLAB option from the File menu of the Desktop. Before you exit MATLAB, you should be sure to save any variables, print any graphics or other ﬁles you need, and in general clean up after yourself. Some strategies for doing so are addressed in Chapter 3. Chapter 2 MATLAB Basics In this chapter, you will start learning how to use MATLAB to do mathematics. You should read this chapter at your computer, with MATLAB running. Try the commands in a MATLAB Command Window as you go along. Feel free to experiment with variants of the examples we present; the best way to ﬁnd out how MATLAB responds to a command is to try it. ☞ For further practice, you can work the problems in Practice Set A. The Glossary contains a synopsis of many MATLAB operators, constants, functions, commands, and programming instructions. Input and Output You input commands to MATLAB in the MATLAB Command Window. MATLAB returns output in two ways: Typically, text or numerical output is returned in the same Command Window, but graphical output appears in a separate graphics window. A sample screen, with both a MATLAB Desktop and a graphics window, labeled Figure No. 1, is shown in Figure 2–1. To generate this screen on your computer, ﬁrst type 1/2 + 1/3. Then type ezplot(’xˆ3 - x’). ✓ While MATLAB is working, it may display a “wait” symbol — for example, an hourglass appears on many operating systems. Or it may give no visual evidence until it is ﬁnished with its calculation. Arithmetic As we have just seen, you can use MATLAB to do arithmetic as you would a calculator. You can use “+” to add, “-” to subtract, “*” to multiply, “/” to divide, 8 Arithmetic 9 Figure 2-1: MATLAB Output. and “ˆ” to exponentiate. For example, >> 3ˆ2 - (5 + 4)/2 + 6*3 ans = 22.5000 MATLAB prints the answer and assigns the value to a variable called ans. If you want to perform further calculations with the answer, you can use the variable ans rather than retype the answer. For example, you can compute the sum of the square and the square root of the previous answer as follows: >> ansˆ2 + sqrt(ans) ans = 510.9934 Observe that MATLAB assigns a new value to ans with each calculation. To do more complex calculations, you can assign computed values to variables of your choosing. For example, >> u = cos(10) u = -0.8391 10 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics >> v = sin(10) v = -0.5440 >> uˆ2 + vˆ2 ans = 1 MATLAB uses double-precision ﬂoating point arithmetic, which is accurate to approximately 15 digits; however, MATLAB displays only 5 digits by default. To display more digits, type format long. Then all subsequent numerical output will have 15 digits displayed. Type format short to return to 5-digit display. MATLAB differs from a calculator in that it can do exact arithmetic. For example, it can add the fractions 1/2 and 1/3 symbolically to obtain the correct fraction 5/6. We discuss how to do this in the section Symbolic Expressions, Variable Precision, and Exact Arithmetic on the next page. Algebra Using MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox, you can carry out algebraic or symbolic calculations such as factoring polynomials or solving algebraic equations. Type help symbolic to make sure that the Symbolic Math Toolbox is installed on your system. To perform symbolic computations, you must use syms to declare the variables you plan to use to be symbolic variables. Consider the following series of commands: >> syms x y >> (x - y)*(x - y)ˆ2 ans = (x-y)^3 >> expand(ans) Algebra 11 ans = x^3-3*x^2*y+3*x*y^2-y^3 >> factor(ans) ans = (x-y)^3 ✓ Notice that symbolic output is left-justiﬁed, while numeric output is indented. This feature is often useful in distinguishing symbolic output from numerical output. Although MATLAB makes minor simpliﬁcations to the expressions you type, it does not make major changes unless you tell it to. The command expand told MATLAB to multiply out the expression, and factor forced MATLAB to restore it to factored form. MATLAB has a command called simplify, which you can sometimes use to express a formula as simply as possible. For example, >> simplify((xˆ3 - yˆ3)/(x - y)) ans = x^2+x*y+y^2 ✓ MATLAB has a more robust command, called simple, that sometimes does a better job than simplify. Try both commands on the trigonometric expression sin(x)*cos(y) + cos(x)*sin(y) to compare — you’ll have to read the online help for simple to completely understand the answer. Symbolic Expressions, Variable Precision, and Exact Arithmetic As we have noted, MATLAB uses ﬂoating point arithmetic for its calculations. Using the Symbolic Math Toolbox, you can also do exact arithmetic with symbolic expressions. Consider the following example: >> cos(pi/2) ans = 6.1232e-17 The answer is written in ﬂoating point format and means 6.1232 × 10−17 . However, we know that cos(π/2) is really equal to 0. The inaccuracy is due to the fact that typing pi in MATLAB gives an approximation to π accurate 12 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics to about 15 digits, not its exact value. To compute an exact answer, instead of an approximate answer, we must create an exact symbolic representation of π/2 by typing sym(’pi/2’). Now let’s take the cosine of the symbolic representation of π/2: >> cos(sym(’pi/2’)) ans = 0 This is the expected answer. The quotes around pi/2 in sym(’pi/2’) create a string consisting of the characters pi/2 and prevent MATLAB from evaluating pi/2 as a ﬂoating point number. The command sym converts the string to a symbolic expression. The commands sym and syms are closely related. In fact, syms x is equivalent to x = sym(’x’). The command syms has a lasting effect on its argument (it declares it to be symbolic from now on), while sym has only a temporary effect unless you assign the output to a variable, as in x = sym(’x’). Here is how to add 1/2 and 1/3 symbolically: >> sym(’1/2’) + sym(’1/3’) ans = 5/6 Finally, you can also √ do variable-precision arithmetic with vpa. For example, to print 50 digits of 2, type >> vpa(’sqrt(2)’, 50) ans = 1.4142135623730950488016887242096980785696718753769 ➱ You should be wary of using sym or vpa on an expression that MATLAB must evaluate before applying variable-precision arithmetic. To illustrate, enter the expressions 3ˆ45, vpa(3ˆ45), and vpa(’3ˆ45’). The ﬁrst gives a ﬂoating point approximation to the answer, the second — because MATLAB only carries 16-digit precision in its ﬂoating point evaluation of the exponentiation — gives an answer that is correct only in its ﬁrst 16 digits, and the third gives the exact answer. ☞ See the section Symbolic and Floating Point Numbers in Chapter 4 for details about how MATLAB converts between symbolic and ﬂoating point numbers. Managing Variables 13 Managing Variables We have now encountered three different classes of MATLAB data: ﬂoating point numbers, strings, and symbolic expressions. In a long MATLAB session it may be hard to remember the names and classes of all the variables you have deﬁned. You can type whos to see a summary of the names and types of your currently deﬁned variables. Here’s the output of whos for the MATLAB session displayed in this chapter: >> whos Name Size ans 1x1 u 1x1 v 1x1 x 1x1 y 1x1 Grand total is 58 Bytes Class 226 sym object 8 double array 8 double array 126 sym object 126 sym object elements using 494 bytes We see that there are currently ﬁve assigned variables in our MATLAB session. Three are of class “sym object”; that is, they are symbolic objects. The variables x and y are symbolic because we declared them to be so using syms, and ans is symbolic because it is the output of the last command we executed, which involved a symbolic expression. The other two variables, u and v, are of class “double array”. That means that they are arrays of double-precision numbers; in this case the arrays are of size 1 × 1 (that is, scalars). The “Bytes” column shows how much computer memory is allocated to each variable. Try assigning u = pi, v = ’pi’, and w = sym(’pi’), and then type whos to see how the different data types are described. The command whos shows information about all deﬁned variables, but it does not show the values of the variables. To see the value of a variable, simply type the name of the variable and press ENTER or RETURN. MATLAB commands expect particular classes of data as input, and it is important to know what class of data is expected by a given command; the help text for a command usually indicates the class or classes of input it expects. The wrong class of input usually produces an error message or unexpected output. For example, type sin(’pi’) to see how unexpected output can result from supplying a string to a function that isn’t designed to accept strings. To clear all deﬁned variables, type clear or clear all. You can also type, for example, clear x y to clear only x and y. You should generally clear variables before starting a new calculation. Otherwise values from a previous calculation can creep into the new 14 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics Figure 2-2: Desktop with the Workspace Browser. calculation by accident. Finally, we observe that the Workspace browser presents a graphical alternative to whos. You can activate it by clicking on the Workspace tab, by typing workspace at the command prompt, or through the View item on the menu bar. Figure 2-2 depicts a Desktop in which the Command Window and the Workspace browser contain the same information as displayed above. Errors in Input If you make an error in an input line, MATLAB will beep and print an error message. For example, here’s what happens when you try to evaluate 3uˆ2: >> 3uˆ2 ??? 3u^2 | Error: Missing operator, comma, or semicolon. The error is a missing multiplication operator *. The correct input would be 3*uˆ2. Note that MATLAB places a marker (a vertical line segment) at the place where it thinks the error might be; however, the actual error may have occurred earlier or later in the expression. Online Help 15 ➱ Missing multiplication operators and parentheses are among the most common errors. You can edit an input line by using the UP-ARROW key to redisplay the previous command, editing the command using the LEFT- and RIGHT-ARROW keys, and then pressing RETURN or ENTER. The UP- and DOWN-ARROW keys allow you to scroll back and forth through all the commands you’ve typed in a MATLAB session, and are very useful when you want to correct, modify, or reenter a previous command. Online Help There are several ways to get online help in MATLAB. To get help on a particular command, enter help followed by the name of the command. For example, help solve will display documentation for solve. Unless you have a large monitor, the output of help solve will not ﬁt in your MATLAB command window, and the beginning of the documentation will scroll quickly past the top of the screen. You can force MATLAB to display information one screenful at a time by typing more on. You press the space bar to display the next screenful, or ENTER to display the next line; type help more for details. Typing more on affects all subsequent commands, until you type more off. The command lookfor searches the ﬁrst line of every MATLAB help ﬁle for a speciﬁed string (use lookfor -all to search all lines). For example, if you wanted to see a list of all MATLAB commands that contain the word “factor” as part of the command name or brief description, then you would type lookfor factor. If the command you are looking for appears in the list, then you can use help on that command to learn more about it. The most robust online help in MATLAB 6 is provided through the vastly improved Help Browser. The Help Browser can be invoked in several ways: by typing helpdesk at the command prompt, under the View item in the menu bar, or through the question mark button on the tool bar. Upon its launch you will see a window with two panes: the ﬁrst, called the Help Navigator, used to ﬁnd documentation; and the second, called the display pane, for viewing documentation. The display pane works much like a normal web browser. It has an address window, buttons for moving forward and backward (among the windows you have visited), live links for moving around in the documentation, the capability of storing favorite sites, and other such tools. You use the Help Navigator to locate the documentation that you will explore in the display pane. The Help Navigator has four tabs that allow you to 16 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics arrange your search for documentation in different ways. The ﬁrst is the Contents tab that displays a tree view of all the documentation topics available. The extent of that tree will be determined by how much you (or your system administrator) included in the original MATLAB installation (how many toolboxes, etc.). The second tab is an Index that displays all the documentation available in index format. It responds to your key entry of likely items you want to investigate in the usual alphabetic reaction mode. The third tab provides the Search mechanism. You type in what you seek, either a function or some other descriptive term, and the search engine locates corresponding documentation that pertains to your entry. Finally, the fourth tab is a roster of your Favorites. Clicking on an item that appears in any of these tabs brings up the corresponding documentation in the display pane. The Help Browser has an excellent tutorial describing its own operation. To view it, open the Browser; if the display pane is not displaying the “Begin Here” page, then click on it in the Contents tab; scroll down to the “Using the Help Browser” link and click on it. The Help Browser is a powerful and easy-to-use aid in ﬁnding the information you need on various components of MATLAB. Like any such tool, the more you use it, the more adept you become at its use. ✓ If you type helpwin to launch the Help Browser, the display pane will contain the same roster that you see as the result of typing help at the command prompt, but the entries will be links. Variables and Assignments In MATLAB, you use the equal sign to assign values to a variable. For instance, >> x = 7 x = 7 will give the variable x the value 7 from now on. Henceforth, whenever MATLAB sees the letter x, it will substitute the value 7. For example, if y has been deﬁned as a symbolic variable, then >> xˆ2 - 2*x*y + y ans = 49-13*y Solving Equations ➱ To clear the value of the variable x, type clear 17 x. You can make very general assignments for symbolic variables and then manipulate them. For example, >> clear x; syms x y >> z = xˆ2 - 2*x*y + y z = x^2-2*x*y+y >> 5*y*z ans = 5*y*(x^2-2*x*y+y) A variable name or function name can be any string of letters, digits, and underscores, provided it begins with a letter (punctuation marks are not allowed). MATLAB distinguishes between uppercase and lowercase letters. You should choose distinctive names that are easy for you to remember, generally using lowercase letters. For example, you might use cubicsol as the name of the solution of a cubic equation. ➱ A common source of puzzling errors is the inadvertent reuse of previously deﬁned variables. MATLAB never forgets your deﬁnitions unless instructed to do so. You can check on the current value of a variable by simply typing its name. Solving Equations You can solve equations involving variables with solve or fzero. For example, to ﬁnd the solutions of the quadratic equation x 2 − 2x − 4 = 0, type >> solve(’xˆ2 - 2*x - 4 = 0’) ans = [ 5^(1/2)+1] [ 1-5^(1/2)] Note that the equation to be solved is speciﬁed as a string; that is, it is surrounded by single quotes. The answer consists of the exact (symbolic) solutions 18 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics √ 1 ± 5. To get numerical solutions, type double(ans), or vpa(ans) to display more digits. The command solve can solve higher-degree polynomial equations, as well as many other types of equations. It can also solve equations involving more than one variable. If there are fewer equations than variables, you should specify (as strings) which variable(s) to solve for. For example, type solve(’2*x log(y) = 1’, ’y’) to solve 2x − log y = 1 for y in terms of x. You can specify more than one equation as well. For example, >> [x, y] = solve(’xˆ2 - y = 2’, ’y - 2*x = 5’) x = [ 1+2*2^(1/2)] [ 1-2*2^(1/2)] y = [ 7+4*2^(1/2)] [ 7-4*2^(1/2)] This system of equations has two solutions. MATLAB reports the solution by giving the two x values and the two y values for those solutions. Thus the ﬁrst solution consists of the ﬁrst value of x together with the ﬁrst value of y. You can extract these values by typing x(1) and y(1): >> x(1) ans = 1+2*2^(1/2) >> y(1) ans = 7+4*2^(1/2) The second solution can be extracted with x(2) and y(2). Note that in the preceding solve command, we assigned the output to the vector [x, y]. If you use solve on a system of equations without assigning the output to a vector, then MATLAB does not automatically display the values of the solution: >> sol = solve(’xˆ2 - y = 2’, ’y - 2*x = 5’) Solving Equations 19 sol = x: [2x1 sym] y: [2x1 sym] To see the vectors of x and y values of the solution, type sol.x and sol.y. To see the individual values, type sol.x(1), sol.y(1), etc. Some equations cannot be solved symbolically, and in these cases solve tries to ﬁnd a numerical answer. For example, >> solve(’sin(x) = 2 - x’) ans = 1.1060601577062719106167372970301 Sometimes there is more than one solution, and you may not get what you expected. For example, >> solve(’exp(-x) = sin(x)’) ans = -2.0127756629315111633360706990971 +2.7030745115909622139316148044265*i The answer √ is a complex number; the i at the end of the answer stands for the number −1. Though it is a valid solution of the equation, there are also real number solutions. In fact, the graphs of exp(−x) and sin(x) are shown in Figure 2-3; each intersection of the two curves represents a solution of the equation e−x = sin(x). You can numerically ﬁnd the solutions shown on the graph with fzero, which looks for a zero of a given function near a speciﬁed value of x. A solution of the equation e−x = sin(x) is a zero of the function e−x − sin(x), so to ﬁnd the solution near x = 0.5 type >> fzero(inline(’exp(-x) - sin(x)’), 0.5) ans = 0.5885 Replace 0.5 with 3 to ﬁnd the next solution, and so forth. ☞ In the example above, the command inline, which we will discuss further in the section User-Deﬁned Functions below, converts its string argument to a 20 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics exp(-x) and sin(x) 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 2-3 function data class. This is the type of input fzero expects as its ﬁrst argument. ✓ In current versions of MATLAB, fzero also accepts a string expression with independent variable x, so that we could have run the command above without using inline, but this feature is no longer documented in the help text for fzero and may be removed in future versions. Vectors and Matrices MATLAB was written originally to allow mathematicians, scientists, and engineers to handle the mechanics of linear algebra — that is, vectors and matrices — as effortlessly as possible. In this section we introduce these concepts. Vectors and Matrices 21 Vectors A vector is an ordered list of numbers. You can enter a vector of any length in MATLAB by typing a list of numbers, separated by commas or spaces, inside square brackets. For example, >> Z = [2,4,6,8] Z = 2 4 6 8 >> Y = [4 -3 5 -2 8 1] Y = 4 -3 5 -2 8 1 Suppose you want to create a vector of values running from 1 to 9. Here’s how to do it without typing each number: >> X = 1:9 X = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The notation 1:9 is used to represent a vector of numbers running from 1 to 9 in increments of 1. The increment can be speciﬁed as the second of three arguments: >> X = 0:2:10 X = 0 2 4 6 8 10 You can also use fractional or negative increments, for example, 0:0.1:1 or 100:-1:0. The elements of the vector X can be extracted as X(1), X(2), etc. For example, >> X(3) ans = 4 22 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics To change the vector X from a row vector to a column vector, put a prime (’) after X: >> X’ ans = 0 2 4 6 8 10 You can perform mathematical operations on vectors. For example, to square the elements of the vector X, type >> X.ˆ2 ans = 0 4 16 36 64 100 The period in this expression is very important; it says that the numbers in X should be squared individually, or element-by-element. Typing Xˆ2 would tell MATLAB to use matrix multiplication to multiply X by itself and would produce an error message in this case. (We discuss matrices below and in Chapter 4.) Similarly, you must type .* or ./ if you want to multiply or divide vectors element-by-element. For example, to multiply the elements of the vector X by the corresponding elements of the vector Y, type >> X.*Y ans = 0 -6 20 -12 64 10 Most MATLAB operations are, by default, performed element-by-element. For example, you do not type a period for addition and subtraction, and you can type exp(X) to get the exponential of each number in X (the matrix exponential function is expm). One of the strengths of MATLAB is its ability to efﬁciently perform operations on vectors. Vectors and Matrices 23 Matrices A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. Row and column vectors, which we discussed above, are examples of matrices. Consider the 3 × 4 matrix 1 2 3 4 7 8 . A = 5 6 9 10 11 12 It can be entered in MATLAB with the command >> A = [1, 2, 3, 4; 5, 6, 7, 8; 9, 10, 11, 12] A = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Note that the matrix elements in any row are separated by commas, and the rows are separated by semicolons. The elements in a row can also be separated by spaces. If two matrices A and B are the same size, their (element-by-element) sum is obtained by typing A + B. You can also add a scalar (a single number) to a matrix; A + c adds c to each element in A. Likewise, A - B represents the difference of A and B, and A - c subtracts the number c from each element of A. If A and B are multiplicatively compatible (that is, if A is n × m and B is m × ), then their product A*B is n × . Recall that the element of A*B in the ith row and jth column is the sum of the products of the elements from the ith row of A times the elements from the jth column of B, that is, (A ∗ B)i j = m AikBkj , 1 ≤ i ≤ n, 1 ≤ j ≤ . k=1 The product of a number c and the matrix A is given by c*A, and A’ represents the conjugate transpose of A. (For more information, see the online help for ctranspose and transpose.) A simple illustration is given by the matrix product of the 3 × 4 matrix A above by the 4 × 1 column vector Z’: >> A*Z’ ans = 60 140 220 24 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics The result is a 3 × 1 matrix, in other words, a column vector. ☞ MATLAB has many commands for manipulating matrices. You can read about them in the section More about Matrices in Chapter 4 and in the online help; some of them are illustrated in the section Linear Economic Models in Chapter 9. Suppressing Output Typing a semicolon at the end of an input line suppresses printing of the output of the MATLAB command. The semicolon should generally be used when deﬁning large vectors or matrices (such as X = -1:0.1:2;). It can also be used in any other situation where the MATLAB output need not be displayed. Functions In MATLAB you will use both built-in functions as well as functions that you create yourself. Built-in Functions MATLAB has many built-in functions. These include sqrt, cos, sin, tan, log, exp, and atan (for arctan) as well as more specialized mathematical functions such as gamma, erf, and besselj. MATLAB also has several√ builtin constants, including pi (the number π ), i (the complex number i = −1), and Inf (∞). Here are some examples: >> log(exp(3)) ans = 3 The function log is the natural logarithm, called “ln” in many texts. Now consider >> sin(2*pi/3) ans = 0.8660 Functions 25 To get an exact answer, you need to use a symbolic argument: >> sin(sym(’2*pi/3’)) ans = 1/2*3^(1/2) User-Deﬁned Functions In this section we will show how to use inline to deﬁne your own functions. Here’s how to deﬁne the polynomial function f (x) = x 2 + x + 1: >> f = inline(’xˆ2 + x + 1’, ’x’) f = Inline function: f(x) = x^2 + x + 1 The ﬁrst argument to inline is a string containing the expression deﬁning the function. The second argument is a string specifying the independent variable. ☞ The second argument to inline can be omitted, in which case MATLAB will “guess” what it should be, using the rules about “Default Variables” to be discussed later at the end of Chapter 4. Once the function is deﬁned, you can evaluate it: >> f(4) ans = 21 MATLAB functions can operate on vectors as well as scalars. To make an inline function that can act on vectors, we use MATLAB’s vectorize function. Here is the vectorized version of f (x) = x 2 + x + 1: >> f1 = inline(vectorize(’xˆ2 + x + 1’), ’x’) f1 = Inline function: f1(x) = x.^2 + x + 1 26 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics Note that ^ has been replaced by .^. Now you can evaluate f1 on a vector: >> f1(1:5) ans = 3 7 13 21 31 You can plot f1, using MATLAB graphics, in several ways that we will explore in the next section. We conclude this section by remarking that one can also deﬁne functions of two or more variables: >> g = inline(’uˆ2 + vˆ2’, ’u’, ’v’) g = Inline function: g(u,v) = u^2+v^2 Graphics In this section, we introduce MATLAB’s two basic plotting commands and show how to use them. Graphing with ezplot The simplest way to graph a function of one variable is with ezplot, which expects a string or a symbolic expression representing the function to be plotted. For example, to graph x 2 + x + 1 on the interval −2 to 2 (using the string form of ezplot), type >> ezplot(’xˆ2 + x + 1’, [-2 2]) The plot will appear on the screen in a new window labeled “Figure No. 1”. We mentioned that ezplot accepts either a string argument or a symbolic expression. Using a symbolic expression, you can produce the plot in Figure 2-4 with the following input: >> syms x >> ezplot(xˆ2 + x + 1, [-2 2]) ✓ Graphs can be misleading if you do not pay attention to the axes. For example, the input ezplot(xˆ2 + x + 3, [-2 2]) produces a graph Graphics 27 2 x +x+1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 x 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 2-4 that looks identical to the previous one, except that the vertical axis has different tick marks (and MATLAB assigns the graph a different title). Modifying Graphs You can modify a graph in a number of ways. You can change the title above the graph in Figure 2-4 by typing (in the Command Window, not the ﬁgure window) >> title ’A Parabola’ You can add a label on the horizontal axis with xlabel or change the label on the vertical axis with ylabel. Also, you can change the horizontal and vertical ranges of the graph with axis. For example, to conﬁne the vertical range to the interval from 1 to 4, type >> axis([-2 2 1 4]) The ﬁrst two numbers are the range of the horizontal axis; both ranges must 28 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics be included, even if only one is changed. We’ll examine more options for manipulating graphs in Chapter 5. To close the graphics window select File : Close from its menu bar, type close in the Command Window, or kill the window the way you would close any other window on your computer screen. Graphing with plot The command plot works on vectors of numerical data. The basic syntax is plot(X, Y) where X and Y are vectors of the same length. For example, >> X = [1 2 3]; >> Y = [4 6 5]; >> plot(X, Y) The command plot(X, Y) considers the vectors X and Y to be lists of the x and y coordinates of successive points on a graph and joins the points with line segments. So, in Figure 2-5, MATLAB connects (1, 4) to (2, 6) to (3, 5). 6 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2 5 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4 1 1.2 Figure 2-5 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 Graphics 29 To plot x 2 + x + 1 on the interval from −2 to 2 we ﬁrst make a list X of x values, and then type plot(X, X.ˆ2 + X + 1). We need to use enough x values to ensure that the resulting graph drawn by “connecting the dots” looks smooth. We’ll use an increment of 0.1. Thus a recipe for graphing the parabola is >> X = -2:0.1:2; >> plot(X, X.ˆ2 + X + 1) The result appears in Figure 2-6. Note that we used a semicolon to suppress printing of the 41-element vector X. Note also that the command >> plot(X, f1(X)) would produce the same results (f1 is deﬁned earlier in the section UserDeﬁned Functions). 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -2 -1.5 Figure 2-6 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 30 Chapter 2: MATLAB Basics ☞ We describe more of MATLAB’s graphics commands in Chapter 5. For now, we content ourselves with demonstrating how to plot a pair of expressions on the same graph. Plotting Multiple Curves Each time you execute a plotting command, MATLAB erases the old plot and draws a new one. If you want to overlay two or more plots, type hold on. This command instructs MATLAB to retain the old graphics and draw any new graphics on top of the old. It remains in effect until you type hold off. Here’s an example using ezplot: >> >> >> >> >> ezplot(’exp(-x)’, [0 10]) hold on ezplot(’sin(x)’, [0 10]) hold off title ’exp(-x) and sin(x)’ The result is shown in Figure 2-3 earlier in this chapter. The commands hold on and hold off work with all graphics commands. With plot, you can plot multiple curves directly. For example, >> X = 0:0.1:10; >> plot(X, exp(-X), X, sin(X)) Note that the vector of x coordinates must be speciﬁed once for each function being plotted. Chapter 3 Interacting with MATLAB In this chapter we describe an effective procedure for working with MATLAB, and for preparing and presenting the results of a MATLAB session. In particular we will discuss some features of the MATLAB interface and the use of script M-ﬁles, function M-ﬁles, and diary ﬁles. We also give some simple hints for debugging your M-ﬁles. The MATLAB Interface MATLAB 6 has a new interface called the MATLAB Desktop. Embedded inside it is the Command Window that we described in Chapter 2. If you are using MATLAB 5, then you will only see the Command Window. In that case you should skip the next subsection and proceed directly to the Menu and Tool Bars subsection below. The Desktop By default, the MATLAB Desktop (Figure 1-1 in Chapter 1) contains ﬁve windows inside it, the Command Window on the right, the Launch Pad and the Workspace browser in the upper left, and the Command History window and Current Directory browser in the lower left. Note that there are tabs for alternating between the Launch Pad and the Workspace browser, or between the Command History window and Current Directory browser. Which of the ﬁve windows are currently visible can be adjusted with the View : Desktop Layout menu at the top of the Desktop. (For example, with the Simple option, you see only the Command History and Command Window, side-by-side.) The sizes of the windows can be adjusted by dragging their edges with the mouse. 31 32 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB The Command Window is where you type the commands and instructions that cause MATLAB to evaluate, compute, draw, and perform all the other wonderful magic that we describe in this book. The Command History window contains a running history of the commands that you type into the Command Window. It is useful in two ways. First, it lets you see at a quick glance a record of the commands that you have entered previously. Second, it can save you some typing time. If you click on an entry in the Command History with the right mouse button, it becomes highlighted and a menu of options appears. You can, for example, select Copy, then click with the right mouse button in the Command Window and select Paste, whereupon the command you selected will appear at the command prompt and be ready for execution or editing. There are many other options that you can learn by experimenting; for instance, if you double-click on an entry in the Command History then it will be executed immediately in the Command Window. The Launch Pad window is basically a series of shortcuts that enable you to access various features of the MATLAB software with a double-click. You can use it to start SIMULINK, run demos of various toolboxes, use MATLAB web tools, open the Help Browser, and more. We recommend that you experiment with the entries in the Launch Pad to gain familiarity with its features. The Workspace browser and Current Directory browser will be described in separate subsections below. Each of the ﬁve windows in the Desktop contains two small buttons in the upper right corner. The × allows you to close the window, while the curved arrow will “undock” the window from the Desktop (you can return it to the Desktop by selecting Dock from the View menu of the undocked window). You can also customize which windows appear inside the Desktop using its View menu. ✓ While the Desktop provides some new features and a common interface for both the Windows and UNIX versions of MATLAB 6, it may also run more slowly than the MATLAB 5 Command Window interface, especially on older computers. You can run MATLAB 6 with the old interface by starting the program with the command matlab /nodesktop on a Windows system or matlab -nodesktop on a UNIX system. If you are a Windows user, you probably start MATLAB by double-clicking on an icon. If so, you can create an icon to start MATLAB without the Desktop feature as follows. First, click the right mouse button on the MATLAB icon and select Create Shortcut. A new, nearly identical icon will appear on your screen (possibly behind a window — you may need to hunt for it). Next, click the right mouse button on the new icon, and select Properties. In the panel that pops up, select the The MATLAB Interface 33 Shortcut tab, and in the “Target” box, add to the end of the executable ﬁle name a space followed by /nodesktop. (Notice that you can also change the default working directory in the “Start in” box.) Click OK, and your new icon is all set; you may want to rename it by clicking on it again with the right mouse button, selecting Rename, and typing the new name. Menu and Tool Bars The MATLAB Desktop includes a menu bar and a tool bar; the tool bar contains buttons that give quick access to some of the items you can select through the menu bar. On a Windows system, the MATLAB 5 Command Window has a menu bar and tool bar that are similar, but not identical, to those of MATLAB 6. For example, its menus are arranged differently and its tool bar has buttons that open the Workspace browser and Path Browser, described below. When referring to menu and tool bar items below, we will describe the MATLAB 6 Desktop interface. ➱ Many of the menu selections and tool bar buttons cause a new window to appear on your screen. If you are using a UNIX system, keep in mind the following caveats as you read the rest of this chapter. First, some of the pop-up windows that we describe are available on some UNIX systems but unavailable on others, depending (for instance) on the operating system. Second, we will often describe how to use both the command line and the menu and tool bars to perform certain tasks, though only the command line is available on some UNIX systems. The Workspace In Chapter 2, we introduced the commands clear and whos, which can be used to keep track of the variables you have deﬁned in your MATLAB session. The complete collection of deﬁned variables is referred to as the Workspace, which you can view using the Workspace browser. You can make the browser appear by typing workspace or, in the default layout of the MATLAB Desktop, by clicking on the Workspace tab in the Launch Pad window (in a MATLAB 5 Command Window select File:Show Workspace instead). The Workspace browser contains a list of the current variables and their sizes (but not their values). If you double-click on a variable, its contents will appear in a new window called the Array Editor, which you can use to edit individual entries in a vector or matrix. (The command openvar also will open the Array Editor.) 34 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB You can remove a variable from the Workspace by selecting it in the Workspace browser and choosing Edit:Delete. If you need to interrupt a session and don’t want to be forced to recompute everything later, then you can save the current Workspace with save. For example, typing save myfile saves the values of all currently deﬁned variables in a ﬁle called myfile.mat. To save only the values of the variables X and Y, type >> save myfile X Y When you start a new session and want to recover the values of those variables, use load. For example, typing load myfile restores the values of all the variables stored in the ﬁle myfile.mat. The Working Directory New ﬁles you create from within MATLAB will be stored in your current working directory. You may want to change this directory from its default location, or you may want to maintain different working directories for different projects. To create a new working directory you must use the standard procedure for creating a directory in your operating system. Then you can make this directory your current working directory in MATLAB by using cd, or by selecting this directory in the “Current Directory” box on the Desktop tool bar. For example, on a Windows computer, you could create a directory called C:\ProjectA. Then in MATLAB you would type >> cd C:\ProjectA to make it your current working directory. You will then be able to read and write ﬁles in this directory in your current MATLAB session. If you only need to be able to read ﬁles from a certain directory, an alternative to making it your working directory is to add it to the path of directories that MATLAB searches to ﬁnd ﬁles. The current working directory and the directories in your path are the only places MATLAB searches for ﬁles, unless you explicitly type the directory name as part of the ﬁle name. To add the directory C:\ProjectA to your path, type >> addpath C:\ProjectA When you add a directory to the path, the ﬁles it contains remain available for the rest of your session regardless of whether you subsequently add another The MATLAB Interface 35 directory to the path or change the working directory. The potential disadvantage of this approach is that you must be careful when naming ﬁles. When MATLAB searches for ﬁles, it uses the ﬁrst ﬁle with the correct name that it ﬁnds in the path list, starting with the current working directory. If you use the same name for different ﬁles in different directories in your path, you can run into problems. You can also control the MATLAB search path from the Path Browser. To open the Path Browser, type editpath or pathtool, or select File:Set Path.... The Path Browser consists of a panel, with a list of directories in the current path, and several buttons. To add a directory to the path list, click on Add Folder... or Add with Subfolders..., depending on whether or not you want subdirectories to be included as well. To remove a directory, click on Remove. The buttons Move Up and Move Down can be used to reorder the directories in the path. Note that you can use the Current Directory browser to examine the ﬁles in the working directory, and even to create subdirectories, move M-ﬁles around, etc. ✓ ✓ The information displayed in the main areas of the Path Browser can also be obtained from the command line. To see the current working directory, type pwd. To list the ﬁles in the working directory type either ls or dir. To see the current path list that MATLAB will search for ﬁles, type path. If you have many toolboxes installed, path searches can be slow, especially with lookfor. Removing the toolboxes you are not currently using from the MATLAB path is one way to speed up execution. Using the Command Window We have already described in Chapters 1 and 2 how to enter commands in the MATLAB Command Window. We continue that description here, presenting an example that will serve as an introduction to our discussion of M-ﬁles. Suppose you want to calculate the values of sin(0.1)/0.1, sin(0.01)/0.01, and sin(0.001)/0.001 to 15 digits. Such a simple problem can be worked directly in the Command Window. Here is a typical ﬁrst try at a solution, together with the response that MATLAB displays in the Command Window: >> x = [0.1, 0.01, 0.001]; >> y = sin(x)./x 36 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB y = 0.9983 1.0000 1.0000 After completing a calculation, you will often realize that the result is not what you intended. The commands above displayed only 5 digits, not 15. To display 15 digits, you need to type the command format long and then repeat the line that deﬁnes y. In this case you could simply retype the latter line, but in general retyping is time consuming and error prone, especially for complicated problems. How can you modify a sequence of commands without retyping them? For simple problems, you can take advantage of the command history feature of MATLAB. Use the UP- and DOWN-ARROW keys to scroll through the list of commands that you have used recently. When you locate the correct command line, you can use the LEFT- and RIGHT-ARROW keys to move around in the command line, deleting and inserting changes as necessary, and then press the ENTER key to tell MATLAB to evaluate the modiﬁed command. You can also copy and paste previous command lines from the Command Window, or in the MATLAB 6 Desktop from the Command History window as described earlier in this chapter. For more complicated problems, however, it is better to use M-ﬁles. M-Files For complicated problems, the simple editing tools provided by the Command Window and its history mechanism are insufﬁcient. A much better approach is to create an M-ﬁle. There are two different kinds of M-ﬁles: script M-ﬁles and function M-ﬁles. We shall illustrate the use of both types of M-ﬁles as we present different solutions to the problem described above. M-ﬁles are ordinary text ﬁles containing MATLAB commands. You can create and modify them using any text editor or word processor that is capable of saving ﬁles as plain ASCII text. (Such text editors include notepad in Windows or emacs, textedit, and vi in UNIX.) More conveniently, you can use the built-in Editor/Debugger, which you can start by typing edit, either by itself (to edit a new ﬁle) or followed by the name of an existing M-ﬁle in the current working directory. You can also use the File menu or the two leftmost buttons on the tool bar to start the Editor/Debugger, either to create a new ﬁle or to open an existing ﬁle. Double-clicking on an M-ﬁle in the Current Directory browser will also open it in the Editor/Debugger. M-Files 37 Script M-Files We now show how to construct a script M-ﬁle to solve the mathematical problem described earlier. Create a ﬁle containing the following lines: format long x = [0.1, 0.01, 0.001]; y = sin(x)./x We will assume that you have saved this ﬁle with the name task1.m in your working directory, or in some directory on your path. You can name the ﬁle any way you like (subject to the usual naming restrictions on your operating system), but the “.m” sufﬁx is mandatory. You can tell MATLAB to run (or execute) this script by typing task1 in the Command Window. (You must not type the “.m” extension here; MATLAB automatically adds it when searching for M-ﬁles.) The output — but not the commands that produce them — will be displayed in the Command Window. Now the sequence of commands can easily be changed by modifying the M-ﬁle task1.m. For example, if you also wish to calculate sin(0.0001)/0.0001, you can modify the M-ﬁle to read format long x = [0.1, 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001]; y = sin(x)./x and then run the modiﬁed script by typing task1. Be sure to save your changes to task1.m ﬁrst; otherwise, MATLAB will not recognize them. Any variables that are set by the running of a script M-ﬁle will persist exactly as if you had typed them into the Command Window directly. For example, the program above will cause all future numerical output to be displayed with 15 digits. To revert to 5-digit format, you would have to type format short. Echoing Commands. As mentioned above, the commands in a script M-ﬁle will not automatically be displayed in the Command Window. If you want the commands to be displayed along with the results, use echo: echo on format long x = [0.1, 0.01, 0.001]; y = sin(x)./x echo off 38 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB Adding Comments. It is worthwhile to include comments in a lengthly script M-ﬁle. These comments might explain what is being done in the calculation, or they might interpret the results of the calculation. Any line in a script M-ﬁle that begins with a percent sign is treated as a comment and is not executed by MATLAB. Here is our new version of task1.m with a few comments added: echo on % Turn on 15 digit display format long x = [0.1, 0.01, 0.001]; y = sin(x)./x % These values illustrate the fact that the limit of % sin(x)/x as x approaches 0 is 1. echo off When adding comments to a script M-ﬁle, remember to put a percent sign at the beginning of each line. This is particularly important if your editor starts a new line automatically while you are typing a comment. If you use echo on in a script M-ﬁle, then MATLAB will also echo the comments, so they will appear in the Command Window. Structuring Script M-Files. For the results of a script M-ﬁle to be reproducible, the script should be self-contained, unaffected by other variables that you might have deﬁned elsewhere in the MATLAB session, and uncorrupted by leftover graphics. With this in mind, you can type the line clear all at the beginning of the script, to ensure that previous deﬁnitions of variables do not affect the results. You can also include the close all command at the beginning of a script M-ﬁle that creates graphics, to close all graphics windows and start with a clean slate. Here is our example of a complete, careful, commented solution to the problem described above: % Remove old variable definitions clear all % Remove old graphics windows close all % Display the command lines in the command window echo on % Turn on 15 digit display format long M-Files 39 % Define the vector of values of the independent variable x = [0.1, 0.01, 0.001]; % y % % Compute the desired values = sin(x)./x These values illustrate the fact that the limit of sin(x)/x as x approaches 0 is equal to 1. echo off ✓ Sometimes you may need to type, either in the Command Window or in an M-ﬁle, a command that is too long to ﬁt on one line. If so, when you get near the end of a line you can type ... (that is, three successive periods) followed by ENTER, and continue the command on the next line. In the Command Window, you will not see a command prompt on the new line. Function M-Files You often need to repeat a process several times for different input values of a parameter. For example, you can provide different inputs to a built-in function to ﬁnd an output that meets a given criterion. As you have already seen, you can use inline to deﬁne your own functions. In many situations, however, it is more convenient to deﬁne a function using an M-ﬁle instead of an inline function. Let us return to the problem described above, where we computed some values of sin(x)/x with x = 10−b for several values of b. Suppose, in addition, that you want to ﬁnd the smallest value of b for which sin(10−b)/(10−b) and 1 agree to 15 digits. Here is a function M-ﬁle called sinelimit.m designed to solve that problem: function y = sinelimit(c) % SINELIMIT computes sin(x)/x for x = 10ˆ(-b), % where b = 1, ..., c. format long b = 1:c; x = 10.ˆ(-b); y = (sin(x)./x)’; Like a script M-ﬁle, a function M-ﬁle is a plain text ﬁle that should reside in your MATLAB working directory. The ﬁrst line of the ﬁle contains a function 40 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB statement, which identiﬁes the ﬁle as a function M-ﬁle. The ﬁrst line speciﬁes the name of the function and describes both its input arguments (or parameters) and its output values. In this example, the function is called sinelimit. The ﬁle name and the function name should match. The function sinelimit takes one input argument and returns one output value, called c and y (respectively) inside the M-ﬁle. When the function ﬁnishes executing, its output will be assigned to ans (by default) or to any other variable you choose, just as with a built-in function. The remaining lines of the M-ﬁle deﬁne the function. In this example, b is a row vector consisting of the integers from 1 to c. The vector y contains the results of computing sin(x)/x where x = 10−b; the prime makes y a column vector. Notice that the output of the lines deﬁning b, x, and y is suppressed with a semicolon. In general, the output of intermediate calculations in a function M-ﬁle should be suppressed. ✓ Of course, when we run the M-ﬁle above, we do want to see the results of the last line of the ﬁle, so a natural impulse would be to avoid putting a semicolon on this last line. But because this is a function M-ﬁle, running it will automatically display the contents of the designated output variable y. Thus if we did not put a semicolon at the end of the last line, we would see the same numbers twice when we run the function! ☞ Note that the variables used in a function M-ﬁle, such as b, x, and y in sinelimit.m, are local variables. This means that, unlike the variables that are deﬁned in a script M-ﬁle, these variables are completely unrelated to any variables with the same names that you may have used in the Command Window, and MATLAB does not remember their values after the function M-ﬁle is executed. For further information, see the section Variables in Function M-ﬁles in Chapter 4. Here is an example that shows how to use the function sinelimit: >> sinelimit(5) ans = 0.99833416646828 0.99998333341667 0.99999983333334 0.99999999833333 0.99999999998333 None of the values of b from 1 to 5 yields the desired answer, 1, to 15 digits. Presenting Your Results 41 Judging from the output, you can expect to ﬁnd the answer to the question we posed above by typing sinelimit(10). Try it! Loops A loop speciﬁes that a command or group of commands should be repeated several times. The easiest way to create a loop is to use a for statement. Here is a simple example that computes and displays 10! = 10 · 9 · 8 · · · 2 · 1: f = 1; for n = 2:10 f = f*n; end f The loop begins with the for statement and ends with the end statement. The command between those statements is executed a total of nine times, once for each value of n from 2 to 10. We used a semicolon to suppress intermediate output within the loop. To see the ﬁnal output, we then needed to type f after the end of the loop. Without the semicolon, MATLAB would display each of the intermediate values 2!, 3!, . . . . We have presented the loop above as you might type it into an M-ﬁle; indentation is not required by MATLAB, but it helps human readers distinguish the commands within the loop. If you type the commands above directly to the MATLAB prompt, you will not see a new prompt after entering the for statement. You should continue typing, and after you enter the end statement, MATLAB will evaluate the entire loop and display a new prompt. ✓ If you use a loop in a script M-ﬁle with echo on in effect, the commands will be echoed every time through the loop. You can avoid this by inserting the command echo off just before the end statement and inserting echo on just afterward; then each command in the loop (except end) will be echoed once. Presenting Your Results Sometimes you may want to show other people the results of a script M-ﬁle that you have created. For a polished presentation, you should use an M-book, as described in Chapter 6, or import your results into another program, such 42 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB as a word processor, or convert your results to HTML format, by the procedures described in Chapter 10. But to share your results more informally, you can give someone else your M-ﬁle, assuming that person has a copy of MATLAB on which to run it, or you can provide the output you obtained. Either way, you should remember that the reader is not nearly as familiar with the M-ﬁle as you are; it is your responsibility to provide guidance. ✓ You can greatly enhance the readability of your M-ﬁle by including frequent comments. Your comments should explain what is being calculated, so that the reader can understand your procedures and strategies. Once you’ve done the calculations, you can also add comments that interpret the results. If your audience is going to run your M-ﬁles, then you should make liberal use of the command pause. Each time MATLAB reaches a pause statement, it stops executing the M-ﬁle until the user presses a key. Pauses should be placed after important comments, after each graph, and after critical points where your script generates numerical output. These pauses allow the viewer to read and understand your results. Diary Files Here is an effective way to save the output of your M-ﬁle in a way that others (and you!) can later understand. At the beginning of a script M-ﬁle, such as task1.m, you can include the commands delete task1.txt diary task1.txt echo on The script M-ﬁle should then end with the commands echo off diary off The ﬁrst diary command causes all subsequent input to and output from the Command Window to be copied into the speciﬁed ﬁle — in this case, task1.txt. The diary ﬁle task1.txt is a plain text ﬁle that is suitable for printing or importing into another program. By using delete at the beginning of the M-ﬁle, you ensure that the ﬁle only contains the output of the current script. If you omit the delete command, then the diary command will add any new output to the end of an existing ﬁle, and the ﬁle task1.txt can end up containing the results of several runs of the M-ﬁle. (Putting the delete command in the script will lead to a harmless Presenting Your Results 43 warning message about a nonexistent ﬁle the ﬁrst time you run the script.) You can also get extraneous output in a diary ﬁle if you type CTRL+C to halt a script containing a diary command. If this happens, you should type diary off in the Command Window before running the script again. Presenting Graphics As indicated in Chapters 1 and 2, graphics appear in a separate window. You can print the current ﬁgure by selecting File : Print... in the graphics window. Alternatively, the command print (without any arguments) causes the ﬁgure in the current graphics window to be printed on your default printer. Since you probably don’t want to print the graphics every time you run a script, you should not include a bare print statement in an M-ﬁle. Instead, you should use a form of print that sends the output to a ﬁle. It is also helpful to give reasonable titles to your ﬁgures and to insert pause statements into your script so that viewers have a chance to see the ﬁgure before the rest of the script executes. For example, xx = 2*pi*(0:0.02:1); plot(xx, sin(xx)) % Put a title on the figure. title(’Figure A: Sine Curve’) pause % Store the graph in the file figureA.eps. print -deps figureA The form of print used in this script does not send anything to the printer. Instead, it causes the current ﬁgure to be written to a ﬁle in the current working directory called figureA.eps in Encapsulated PostScript format. This ﬁle can be printed later on a PostScript printer, or it can be imported into another program that recognizes the EPS format. Type help print to see how to save your graph in a variety of other formats that may be suitable for your particular printer or application. As a ﬁnal example involving graphics, let’s consider the problem of plotting the functions sin(x), sin(2x), and sin(3x) on the same set of axes. This is a typical example; we often want to plot several similar curves whose equations depend on a parameter. Here is a script M-ﬁle solution to the problem: echo on % Define the x values. x = 2*pi*(0:0.01:1); 44 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB % Remove old graphics, and get ready for several new ones. close all; axes; hold on % Run a loop to plot three sine curves. for c = 1:3 plot(x, sin(c*x)) echo off end echo on hold off % Put a title on the figure. title(’Several Sine Curves’) pause The result is shown in Figure 3-1. Several Sine Curves 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0 Figure 3-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Presenting Your Results 45 Let’s analyze this solution. We start by deﬁning the values to use on the x axis. The command close all removes all existing graphics windows; axes starts a fresh, empty graphics window; and hold on lets MATLAB know that we want to draw several curves on the same set of axes. The lines between for and end constitute a for loop, as described above. The important part of the loop is the plot command, which plots the desired sine curves. We inserted an echo off command so that we only see the loop commands once in the Command Window (or in a diary ﬁle). Finally, we turn echoing back on after exiting the loop, use hold off to tell MATLAB that the curves we just graphed should not be held over for the next graph that we make, title the ﬁgure, and instruct MATLAB to pause so that the viewer can see it. Pretty Printing If s is a symbolic expression, then typing pretty(s) displays s in pretty print format, which uses multiple lines on your screen to imitate written mathematics. The result is often more easily read than the default one-line output format. An important feature of pretty is that it wraps long expressions to ﬁt within the margins (80 characters wide) of a standard-sized window. If your symbolic output is long enough to extend past the right edge of your window, it probably will be truncated when you print your output, so you should use pretty to make the entire expression visible in your printed output. A General Procedure In this section, we summarize the general procedure we recommend for using the Command Window and the Editor/Debugger (or your own text editor) to make a calculation involving many commands. We have in mind here the case when you ultimately want to print your results or otherwise save them in a format you can share with others, but we ﬁnd that the ﬁrst steps of this procedure are useful even for exploratory calculations. 1. Create a script M-ﬁle in your current working directory to hold your commands. Include echo on near the top of the ﬁle so that you can see which commands are producing what output when you run the M-ﬁle. 2. Alternate between editing and running the M-ﬁle until you are satisﬁed that it contains the MATLAB commands that do what you want. Remember to save the M-ﬁle each time between editing and running! Also, see the debugging hints below. 46 Chapter 3: Interacting with MATLAB 3. Add comments to your M-ﬁle to explain the meaning of the intermediate calculations you do and to interpret the results. 4. If desired, insert the delete and diary statements into the M-ﬁle as described above. 5. If you are generating graphs, add print statements that will save the graphs to ﬁles. Use pause statements as appropriate. 6. If needed, run the M-ﬁle one more time to produce the ﬁnal output. Send the diary ﬁle and any graphics ﬁles to the printer or incorporate them into a document. 7. If you import your diary ﬁle into a word processing program, you can insert the graphics right after the commands that generated them. You can also change the fonts of text comments and input to make it easier to distinguish comments, input, and output. This sort of polishing is done automatically by the M-book interface; see Chapter 6. Fine-Tuning Your M-Files You can edit your M-ﬁle repeatedly until it produces the desired output. Generally, you will run the script each time you edit the ﬁle. If the program is long or involves complicated calculations or graphics, it could take a while each time. Then you need a strategy for debugging. Our experience indicates that there is no best paradigm for debugging M-ﬁles — what you do depends on the content of your ﬁle. ☞ We will discuss features of the Editor/Debugger and MATLAB debugging commands in the section Debugging in Chapter 7 and in the section Debugging Techniques in Chapter 11. For the moment, here are some general tips. r Include clear all and close all at the beginning of the M-ﬁle. r Use echo on early in your M-ﬁle so that you can see “cause” as well as “effect”. r If you are producing graphics, use hold on and hold off carefully. In general, you should put a pause statement after each hold off. Otherwise, the next graphics command will obliterate the current one, and you won’t see it. r Do not include bare print statements in your M-ﬁles. Instead, print to a ﬁle. r Make liberal use of pause. Fine-Tuning Your M-Files 47 r The command keyboard is an interactive version of pause. If you have the line keyboard in your M-ﬁle, then when MATLAB reaches it, execution of your program is interrupted, and a new prompt appears with the letter K before it. At this point you can type any normal MATLAB command. This is useful if you want to examine or reset some variables in the middle of a script run. To resume the execution of your script, type return; i.e., type the six letters r-e-t-u-r-n and press the ENTER key. r In some cases, you might prefer input. For example, if you include the line var = input(’Input var here: ’) in your script, when MATLAB gets to that point it will print “Input var here:” and pause while you type the value to be assigned to var. r Finally, remember that you can stop a running M-ﬁle by typing CTRL+C. This is useful if, at a pause or input statement, you realize that you want to stop execution completely. Practice Set A Algebra and Arithmetic Problems 3–8 require the Symbolic Math Toolbox. The others do not. 1. Compute: (a) 1111 − 345. (b) e14 and 382801π to 15 digits each. Which is bigger? (c) the fractions 2709/1024, 10583/4000, and 2024/765. Which of these √ is the best approximation to 7? 2. Compute to 15 digits: (a) cosh(0.1). (b) ln(2). (Hint: The natural logarithm in MATLAB is called log, not ln.) (c) arctan(1/2). (Hint: The inverse tangent function in MATLAB is called atan, not arctan.) 3. Solve (symbolically) the system of linear equations 3x + 4y + 5z = 2 2x − 3y + 7z = −1 x − 6y + z = 3. Check your answer using matrix multiplication. 4. Try to solve the system of linear equations 3x − 9y + 8z = 2 2x − 3y + 7z = −1 x − 6y + z = 3. What happens? Can you see why? Again check your answer using matrix multiplication. Is the answer “correct”? 5. Factor the polynomial x 4 − y4 . 48 Algebra and Arithmetic 49 6. Use simplify or simple to simplify the following expressions: (a) 1/(1 + 1/(1 + 1x )) (b) cos2 x − sin2 x 7. Compute 3301 , both as an approximate ﬂoating point number and as an exact integer (written in usual decimal notation). 8. Use either solve or fzero, as appropriate, to solve the following equations: (a) 8x + 3 = 0 (exact solution) (b) 8x + 3 = 0 (numerical solution to 15 places) (c) x 3 + px + q = 0 (Solve for x in terms of p and q) (d) e x = 8x − 4 (all real solutions). It helps to draw a picture ﬁrst. 9. Use plot and/or ezplot, as appropriate, to graph the following functions: (a) y = x 3 − x for −4 ≤ x ≤ 4. (b) y = sin(1/x 2 ) for −2 ≤ x ≤ 2. Try this one with both plot and ezplot. Are both results “correct”? (If you use plot, be sure to plot enough points.) (c) y = tan(x/2) for −π ≤ x ≤ π , −10 ≤ y ≤ 10 (Hint: First draw the plot; then use axis.) 2 (d) y = e−x and y = x 4 − x 2 for −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 (on the same set of axes). 10. Plot the functions x 4 and 2x on the same graph and determine how many times their graphs intersect. (Hint: You will probably have to make several plots, using intervals of various sizes, to ﬁnd all the intersection points.) Now ﬁnd the approximate values of the points of intersection using fzero. Chapter 4 Beyond the Basics In this chapter, we describe some of the ﬁner points of MATLAB and review in more detail some of the concepts introduced in Chapter 2. We explore enough of MATLAB’s internal structure to improve your ability to work with complicated functions, expressions, and commands. At the end of this chapter, we introduce some of the MATLAB commands for doing calculus. Suppressing Output Some MATLAB commands produce output that is superﬂuous. For example, when you assign a value to a variable, MATLAB echoes the value. You can suppress the output of a command by putting a semicolon after the command. Here is an example: >> syms x >> y = x + 7 y = x+7 >> z = x + 7; >> z z = x+7 The semicolon does not affect the way MATLAB processes the command internally, as you can see from its response to the command z. 50 Data Classes 51 You can also use semicolons to separate a string of commands when you are interested only in the output of the ﬁnal command (several examples appear later in the chapter). Commas can also be used to separate commands without suppressing output. If you use a semicolon after a graphics command, it will not suppress the graphic. ➱ The most common use of the semicolon is to suppress the printing of a long vector, as indicated in Chapter 2. Another object that you may want to suppress is MATLAB’s label for the output of a command. The command disp is designed to achieve that; typing disp(x) will print the value of the variable x without printing the label and the equal sign. So, >> x = 7; >> disp(x) 7 or >> disp(solve(’x + tan(y) = 5’, ’y’)) -atan(x-5) Data Classes Every variable you deﬁne in MATLAB, as well as every input to, and output from, a command, is an array of data belonging to a particular class. In this book we use primarily four types of data: ﬂoating point numbers, symbolic expressions, character strings, and inline functions. We introduced each of these types in Chapter 2. In Table 4–1, we list for each type of data its class (as given by whos ) and how you can create it. Type of data Class Created by Floating point Symbolic Character string Inline function double sym char inline typing a number using sym or syms typing a string inside single quotes using inline Table 4-1 You can think of an array as a two-dimensional grid of data. A single number (or symbolic expression, or inline function) is regarded by MATLAB as a 1 × 1 52 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics array, sometimes called a scalar. A 1 × n array is called a row vector, and an m × 1 array is called a column vector. (A string is actually a row vector of characters.) An m × n array of numbers is called a matrix; see More on Matrices below. You can see the class and array size of every variable you have deﬁned by looking in the Workspace browser or typing whos (see Managing Variables in Chapter 2). The set of variable deﬁnitions shown by whos is called your Workspace. To use MATLAB commands effectively, you must pay close attention to the class of data each command accepts as input and returns as output. The input to a command consists of one or more arguments separated by commas; some arguments are optional. Some commands, such as whos, do not require any input. When you type a pair of words, such as hold on, MATLAB interprets the second word as a string argument to the command given by the ﬁrst word; thus, hold on is equivalent to hold(’on’). The help text (see Online Help in Chapter 2) for each command usually tells what classes of inputs the command expects as well as what class of output it returns. Many commands allow more than one class of input, though sometimes only one data class is mentioned in the online help. This ﬂexibility can be a convenience in some cases and a pitfall in others. For example, the integration command, int, accepts strings as well as symbolic input, though its help text mentions only symbolic input. However, suppose that you have already deﬁned a = 10, b = 5, and now you attempt to factor the expression a2 − b2 , forgetting your previous deﬁnitions and that you have to declare the variables symbolic: >> factor(aˆ2 - bˆ2) ans = 3 5 5 The reason you don’t get an error message is that factor is the name of a command that factors integers into prime numbers as well as factoring expressions. Since a2 − b2 = 75 = 3 · 52 , the numerical version of factor is applied. This output is clearly not what you intended, but in the course of a complicated series of commands, you must be careful not to be fooled by such unintended output. ✓ Note that typing help factor only shows you the help text for the numerical version of the command, but it does give a cross-reference to the symbolic version at the bottom. If you want to see the help text for the symbolic version instead, type help sym/factor. Functions such as factor with more than one version are called overloaded. Data Classes 53 Sometimes you need to convert one data class into another to prepare the output of one command to serve as the input for another. For example, to use plot on a symbolic expression obtained from solve, it is convenient to use ﬁrst vectorize and then inline, because inline does not allow symbolic input and vectorize converts symbolic expressions to strings. You can make the same conversion without vectorizing the expression using char. Other useful conversion commands we have encountered are double (symbolic to numerical), sym (numerical or string to symbolic), and inline itself (string to inline function). Also, the commands num2str and str2num convert between numbers and strings. String Manipulation Often it is useful to concatenate two or more strings together. The simplest way to do this is to use MATLAB’s vector notation, keeping in mind that a string is a “row vector” of characters. For example, typing [string1, string2] combines string1 and string2 into one string. Here is a useful application of string concatenation. You may need to deﬁne a string variable containing an expression that takes more than one line to type. (In most circumstances you can continue your MATLAB input onto the next line by typing ... followed by ENTER or RETURN, but this is not allowed in the middle of a string.) The solution is to break the expression into smaller parts and concatenate them, as in: >> eqn = [’left hand side of equation = ’, ... ’right hand side of equation’] eqn = left hand side of equation = right hand side of equation Symbolic and Floating Point Numbers We mentioned above that you can convert between symbolic numbers and ﬂoating point numbers with double and sym. Numbers that you type are, by default, ﬂoating point. However, if you mix symbolic and ﬂoating point numbers in an arithmetic expression, the ﬂoating point numbers are automatically converted to symbolic. This explains why you can type syms x and then xˆ2 without having to convert 2 to a symbolic number. Here is another example: >> a = 1 54 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics a = 1 >> b = a/sym(2) b = 1/2 MATLAB was designed so that some ﬂoating point numbers are restored to their exact values when converted to symbolic. Integers, rational numbers with small numerators and denominators, square roots of small integers, the number π, and certain combinations of these numbers are so restored. For example, >> c = sqrt(3) c = 1.7321 >> sym(c) ans = sqrt(3) Since it is difﬁcult to predict when MATLAB will preserve exact values, it is best to suppress the ﬂoating point evaluation of a numeric argument to sym by enclosing it in single quotes to make it a string, e.g., sym(’1 + sqrt(3)’). We will see below another way in which single quotes suppress evaluation. Functions and Expressions We have used the terms expression and function without carefully making a distinction between the two. Strictly speaking, if we deﬁne f (x) = x 3 − 1, then f (written without any particular input) is a function while f (x) and x 3 − 1 are expressions involving the variable x. In mathematical discourse we often blur this distinction by calling f (x) or x 3 − 1 a function, but in MATLAB the difference between functions and expressions is important. In MATLAB, an expression can belong to either the string or symbolic class of data. Consider the following example: >> f = ’xˆ3 - 1’; >> f(7) ans 1 = Functions and Expressions 55 This result may be puzzling if you are expecting f to act like a function. Since f is a string, f(7) denotes the seventh character in f, which is 1 (the spaces count). Notice that like symbolic output, string output is not indented from the left margin. This is a clue that the answer above is a string (consisting of one character) and not a ﬂoating point number. Typing f(5) would yield a minus sign and f(-1) would produce an error message. You have learned two ways to deﬁne your own functions, using inline (see Chapter 2) and using an M-ﬁle (see Chapter 3). Inline functions are most useful for deﬁning simple functions that can be expressed in one line and for turning the output of a symbolic command into a function. Function M-ﬁles are useful for deﬁning functions that require several intermediate commands to compute the output. Most MATLAB commands are actually M-ﬁles, and you can peruse them for ideas to use in your own M-ﬁles — to see the M-ﬁle for, say, the command mean you can enter type mean. See also More about M-ﬁles below. Some commands, such as ode45 (a numerical ordinary differential equations solver), require their ﬁrst argument to be a function — to be precise, either an inline function (as in ode45(f, [0 2], 1)) or a function handle, that is, the name of a built-in function or a function M-ﬁle preceded by the special symbol @ (as in ode45(@func, [0 2], 1)). The @ syntax is new in MATLAB 6; in earlier versions of MATLAB, the substitute was to enclose the name of the function in single quotes to make it a string. But with or without quotes, typing a symbolic expression instead gives an error message. However, most symbolic commands require their ﬁrst argument to be either a string or a symbolic expression, and not a function. An important difference between strings and symbolic expressions is that MATLAB automatically substitutes user-deﬁned functions and variables into symbolic expressions, but not into strings. (This is another sense in which the single quotes you type around a string suppress evaluation.) For example, if you type >> h = inline(’t.ˆ3’, ’t’); >> int(’h(t)’, ’t’) ans = int(h(t),t) then the integral cannot be evaluated because within a string h is regarded as an unknown function. But if you type >> syms t >> int(h(t), t) ans = 1/4*t^4 56 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics then the previous deﬁnition of h is substituted into the symbolic expression h(t) before the integration is performed. Substitution In Chapter 2 we described how to create an inline function from an expression. You can then plug numbers into that function, to make a graph or table of values for instance. But you can also substitute numerical values directly into an expression with subs. For example, >> syms a x y; >> a = xˆ2 + yˆ2; >> subs(a, x, 2) ans = 4+y^2 >> subs(a, [x y], [3 4]) ans = 25 More about M-Files Files containing MATLAB statements are called M-ﬁles. There are two kinds of M-ﬁles: function M-ﬁles, which accept arguments and produce output, and script M-ﬁles, which execute a series of MATLAB statements. Earlier we created and used both types. In this section we present additional information on M-ﬁles. Variables in Script M-Files When you execute a script M-ﬁle, the variables you use and deﬁne belong to your Workspace; that is, they take on any values you assigned earlier in your MATLAB session, and they persist after the script ﬁnishes executing. Consider the following script M-ﬁle, called scriptex1.m: u = [1 2 3 4]; Typing scriptex1 assigns the given vector to u but displays no output. Now consider another script, called scriptex2.m: n = length(u) More about M-Files 57 If you have not previously deﬁned u, then typing scriptex2 will produce an error message. However, if you type scriptex2 after running scriptex1, then the deﬁnition of u from the ﬁrst script will be used in the second script and the output n = 4 will be displayed. If you don’t want the output of a script M-ﬁle to depend on any earlier computations in your MATLAB session, put the line clear all near the beginning of the M-ﬁle, as we suggested in Structuring Script M-ﬁles in Chapter 3. Variables in Function M-Files The variables used in a function M-ﬁle are local, meaning that they are unaffected by, and have no effect on, the variables in your Workspace. Consider the following function M-ﬁle, called sq.m: function z = sq(x) % sq(x) returns the square of x. z = x.ˆ2; Typing sq(3) produces the answer 9, whether or not x or z is already deﬁned in your Workspace, and neither deﬁnes them, nor changes their deﬁnitions, if they have been previously deﬁned. Structure of Function M-Files The ﬁrst line in a function M-ﬁle is called the function deﬁnition line; it deﬁnes the function name, as well as the number and order of input and output arguments. Following the function deﬁnition line, there can be several comment lines that begin with a percent sign (%). These lines are called help text and are displayed in response to the command help. In the M-ﬁle sq.m above, there is only one line of help text; it is displayed when you type help sq. The remaining lines constitute the function body; they contain the MATLAB statements that calculate the function values. In addition, there can be comment lines (lines beginning with %) anywhere in an M-ﬁle. All statements in a function M-ﬁle that normally produce output should end with a semicolon to suppress the output. Function M-ﬁles can have multiple input and output arguments. Here is an example, called polarcoordinates.m, with two input and two output arguments: function [r, theta] = polarcoordinates(x, y) % polarcoordinates(x, y) returns the polar coordinates % of the point with rectangular coordinates (x, y). 58 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics r = sqrt(xˆ2 + yˆ2); theta = atan2(y,x); If you type polarcoordinates(3,4), only the ﬁrst output argument is returned and stored in ans; in this case, the answer is 5. To see both outputs, you must assign them to variables enclosed in square brackets: >> [r, theta] = polarcoordinates(3,4) r = 5 theta = 0.9273 By typing r = polarcoordinates(3,4) you can assign the ﬁrst output argument to the variable r, but you cannot get only the second output argument; typing theta = polarcoordinates(3,4) will still assign the ﬁrst output, 5, to theta. Complex Arithmetic MATLAB does most of its computations √ using complex numbers, that is, numbers of the form a + bi, where i = −1 and a and b are real numbers. The complex number i is represented as i in MATLAB. Although you may never have occasion to enter a complex number in a MATLAB session, MATLAB often produces an answer involving a complex number. For example, many polynomials with real coefﬁcients have complex roots: >> solve(’xˆ2 + 2*x + 2 = 0’) ans = [ -1+i] [ -1-i] Both roots of this quadratic equation are complex numbers, expressed in terms of the number i. Some common functions also return complex values for certain values of the argument. For example, >> log(-1) ans = 0 + 3.1416i More on Matrices 59 You can use MATLAB to do computations involving complex numbers by entering numbers in the form a + b*i: >> (2 + 3*i)*(4 - i) ans = 11.0000 + 10.0000i Complex arithmetic is a powerful and valuable feature. Even if you don’t intend to use complex numbers, you should be alert to the possibility of complexvalued answers when evaluating MATLAB expressions. More on Matrices In addition to the usual algebraic methods of combining matrices (e.g., matrix multiplication), we can also combine them element-wise. Speciﬁcally, if A and B are the same size, then A.*B is the element-by-element product of A and B, that is, the matrix whose i, j element is the product of the i, j elements of A and B. Likewise, A./B is the element-by-element quotient of A and B, and A.ˆc is the matrix formed by raising each of the elements of A to the power c. More generally, if f is one of the built-in functions in MATLAB, or is a user-deﬁned function that accepts vector arguments, then f(A) is the matrix obtained by applying f element-by-element to A. See what happens when you type sqrt(A), where A is the matrix deﬁned at the beginning of the Matrices section of Chapter 2. Recall that x(3) is the third element of a vector x. Likewise, A(2,3) represents the 2, 3 element of A, that is, the element in the second row and third column. You can specify submatrices in a similar way. Typing A(2,[2 4]) yields the second and fourth elements of the second row of A. To select the second, third, and fourth elements of this row, type A(2,2:4). The submatrix consisting of the elements in rows 2 and 3 and in columns 2, 3, and 4 is generated by A(2:3,2:4). A colon by itself denotes an entire row or column. For example, A(:,2) denotes the second column of A, and A(3,:) yields the third row of A. MATLAB has several commands that generate special matrices. The commands zeros(n,m) and ones(n,m) produce n × mmatrices of zeros and ones, respectively. Also, eye(n) represents the n × n identity matrix. 60 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics Solving Linear Systems Suppose A is a nonsingular n × n matrix and b is a column vector of length n. Then typing x = A\b numerically computes the unique solution to A*x = b. Type help mldivide for more information. If either A or b is symbolic rather than numeric, then x = A\b computes the solution to A*x = b symbolically. To calculate a symbolic solution when both inputs are numeric, type x = sym(A)\b. Calculating Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors The eigenvalues of a square matrix A are calculated with eig(A). The command [U, R] = eig(A) calculates both the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The eigenvalues are the diagonal elements of the diagonal matrix R, and the columns of U are the eigenvectors. Here is an example illustrating the use of eig: >> A = [3 -2 0; 2 -2 0; 0 1 1]; >> eig (A) ans = 1 -1 2 >> [U, R] = eig(A) U = 0 -0.4082 -0.8165 0 -0.8165 -0.4082 1.0000 0.4082 -0.4082 R = 1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 2 The eigenvector in the ﬁrst column of U corresponds to the eigenvalue in the ﬁrst column of R, and so on. These are numerical values for the eigenpairs. To get symbolically calculated eigenpairs, type [U, R] = eig(sym(A)). Doing Calculus with MATLAB 61 Doing Calculus with MATLAB MATLAB has commands for most of the computations of basic calculus in its Symbolic Math Toolbox. This toolbox includes part of a separate program called Maple , which processes the symbolic calculations. Differentiation You can use diff to differentiate symbolic expressions, and also to approximate the derivative of a function given numerically (say by an M-ﬁle): >> syms x; diff(xˆ3) ans = 3*x^2 Here MATLAB has ﬁgured out that the variable is x. (See Default Variables at the end of the chapter.) Alternatively, >> f = inline(’xˆ3’, ’x’); diff(f(x)) ans = 3*x^2 The syntax for second derivatives is diff(f(x), 2), and for nth derivatives, diff(f(x), n). The command diff can also compute partial derivatives of expressions involving several variables, as in diff(xˆ2*y, y), but to do multiple partials with respect to mixed variables you must use diff repeatedly, as in diff(diff(sin(x*y/z), x), y). (Remember to declare y and z symbolic.) There is one instance where differentiation must be represented by the letter D, namely when you need to specify a differential equation as input to a command. For example, to use the symbolic ODE solver on the differential equation xy + 1 = y, you enter dsolve(’x*Dy + 1 = y’, ’x’) 62 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics Integration MATLAB can compute deﬁnite and indeﬁnite integrals. Here is an indeﬁnite integral: >> int (’xˆ2’, ’x’) ans = 1/3*x^3 As with diff, you can declare x to be symbolic and dispense with the character string quotes. Note that MATLAB does not include a constant of integration; the output is a single antiderivative of the integrand. Now here is a deﬁnite integral: >> syms x; int(asin(x), 0, 1) ans = 1/2*pi-1 You are undoubtedly aware that not every function that appears in calculus can be symbolically integrated, and so numerical integration is sometimes necessary. MATLAB has three commands for numerical integration of a function f (x): quad, quad8, and quadl (the latter is new in MATLAB 6). We recommend quadl, with quad8 as a second choice. Here’s an example: >> syms x; int(exp(-xˆ4), 0, 1) Warning: Explicit integral could not be found. > In /data/matlabr12/toolbox/symbolic/@sym/int.m at line 58 ans = int(exp(-x^4),x = 0 .. 1) >> quadl(vectorize(exp(-xˆ4)), 0, 1) ans = 0.8448 ➱ The commands quad, quad8, and quadl will not accept Inf or -Inf as a limit of integration (though int will). The best way to handle a numerical improper integral over an inﬁnite interval is to evaluate it over a very large interval. Doing Calculus with MATLAB ✓ 63 You have another option. If you type double(int( )), then Maple’s numerical integration routine will evaluate the integral — even over an inﬁnite range. MATLAB can also do multiple integrals. The following command computes the double integral π sin x (x 2 + y2 ) dy dx : 0 0 >> syms x y; int(int(xˆ2 + yˆ1, y, 0, sin(x)), 0, pi) ans = pi^2-32/9 Note that MATLAB presumes that the variable of integration in int is x unless you prescribe otherwise. Note also that the order of integration is as in calculus, from the “inside out”. Finally, we observe that there is a numerical double integral command dblquad, whose properties and use we will allow you to discover from the online help. Limits You can use limit to compute right- and left-handed limits and limits at inﬁnity. For example, here is lim sin(x)/x: x→0 >> syms x; limit(sin(x)/x, x, 0) ans = 1 To compute one-sided limits, use the ’right’ and ’left’ options. For example, >> limit(abs(x)/x, x, 0, ’left’) ans = -1 Limits at inﬁnity can be computed using the symbol Inf: >> limit((xˆ4 + xˆ2 - 3)/(3*xˆ4 - log(x)), x, Inf) ans = 1/3 64 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics Sums and Products Finite numerical sums and products can be computed easily using the vector capabilities of MATLAB and the commands sum and prod. For example, >> X = 1:7; >> sum(X) ans = 28 >> prod(X) ans = 5040 You can do ﬁnite and inﬁnite symbolic sums using the command symsum. To illustrate, here is the telescoping sum n 1 1 − : k 1+k k=1 >> syms k n; symsum(1/k - 1/(k + 1), 1, n) ans = -1/(n+1)+1 And here is the well-known inﬁnite sum ∞ 1 : n2 n=1 >> symsum(1/nˆ2, 1, Inf) ans = 1/6*pi^2 Another familiar example is the sum of the inﬁnite geometric series: >> syms a k; symsum(aˆk, 0, Inf) ans = -1/(a-1) Note, however, that the answer is only valid for |a| < 1. Default Variables 65 Taylor Series You can use taylor to generate Taylor polynomial expansions of a speciﬁed order at a speciﬁed point. For example, to generate the Taylor polynomial up to order 10 at 0 of the function sin x, we enter >> syms x; taylor(sin(x), x, 10) ans = x-1/6*x^3+1/120*x^5-1/5040*x^7+1/362880*x^9 You can compute a Taylor polynomial at a point other than the origin. For example, >> taylor(exp(x), 4, 2) ans = exp(2)+exp(2)*(x-2)+1/2*exp(2)*(x-2)^2+1/6*exp(2)*(x-2)^3 computes a Taylor polynomial of e x centered at the point x = 2. The command taylor can also compute Taylor expansions at inﬁnity: >> taylor(exp(1/xˆ2), 6, Inf) ans = 1+1/x^2+1/2/x^4 Default Variables You can use any letters to denote variables in functions — either MATLAB’s or the ones you deﬁne. For example, there is nothing special about the use of t in the following, any letter will do as well: >> syms t; diff(sin(tˆ2)) ans = 2*cos(t^2)*t However, if there are multiple variables in an expression and you employ a MATLAB command that does not make explicit reference to one of them, then either you must make the reference explicit or MATLAB will use a built-in hierarchy to decide which variable is the “one in play”. For example, 66 Chapter 4: Beyond the Basics solve(’x + y = 3’) solves for x, not y. If you want to solve for y in this example, you need to enter solve(’x + y = 3’, ’y’). MATLAB’s default variable for solve is x. If there is no x in the equation(s), MATLAB looks for the letter nearest to x in alphabetical order (where y takes precedence over w, but w takes precedence over z, etc). Similarly for diff, int, and many other symbolic commands. Thus syms w z; diff w*z yields z as an answer. On occasion MATLAB assigns a different primary default variable — for example, the default independent variable for MATLAB’s symbolic ODE solver dsolve is t. This is mentioned clearly in the online help for dsolve. If you have doubt about the default variables for any MATLAB command, you should check the online help. Chapter 5 MATLAB Graphics In this chapter we describe more of MATLAB’s graphics commands and the most common ways of manipulating and customizing them. You can get a list of MATLAB graphics commands by typing help graphics (for general graphics commands), help graph2d (for two-dimensional graphing), help graph3d (for three-dimensional graphing), or help specgraph (for specialized graphing commands). We have already discussed the commands plot and ezplot in Chapter 2. We will begin this chapter by discussing more uses of these commands, as well as the other most commonly used plotting commands in two and three dimensions. Then we will discuss some techniques for customizing and manipulating graphics. Two-Dimensional Plots Often one wants to draw a curve in the x-y plane, but with y not given explicitly as a function of x. There are two main techniques for plotting such curves: parametric plotting and contour or implicit plotting. We discuss these in turn in the next two subsections. Parametric Plots Sometimes x and y are both given as functions of some parameter. For example, the circle of radius 1 centered at (0,0) can be expressed in parametric form as x = cos(2πt), y = sin(2πt) where t runs from 0 to 1. Though y is not expressed as a function of x, you can easily graph this curve with plot, as follows: >> T = 0:0.01:1; 67 68 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics >> plot(cos(2*pi*T), sin(2*pi*T)) >> axis square 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Figure 5-1 The output is shown in Figure 5.1. If you had used an increment of only 0.1 in the T vector, the result would have been a polygon with clearly visible corners, an indication that you should repeat the process with a smaller increment until you get a graph that looks smooth. If you have version 2.1 or higher of the Symbolic Math Toolbox (corresponding to MATLAB version 5.3 or higher), then parametric plotting is also possible with ezplot. Thus one can obtain almost the same picture as Figure 5-1 with the command >> ezplot(’cos(t)’, ’sin(t)’, [0 2*pi]); axis square Two-Dimensional Plots 69 Contour Plots and Implicit Plots A contour plot of a function of two variables is a plot of the level curves of the function, that is, sets of points in the x-y plane where the function assumes a constant value. For example, the level curves of x 2 + y2 are circles centered at the origin, and the levels are the squares of the radii of the circles. Contour plots are produced in MATLAB with meshgrid and contour. The command meshgrid produces a grid of points in a speciﬁed rectangular region, with a speciﬁed spacing. This grid is used by contour to produce a contour plot in the speciﬁed region. We can make a contour plot of x 2 + y2 as follows: >> [X Y] = meshgrid(-3:0.1:3, -3:0.1:3); >> contour(X, Y, X.ˆ2 + Y.ˆ2) >> axis square The plot is shown in Figure 5-2. We have used MATLAB’s vector notation to 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 Figure 5-2 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 70 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics produce a grid with spacing 0.1 in both directions. We have also used axis square to force the same scale on both axes. You can specify particular level sets by including an additional √ vector√argument to contour. For example, to plot the circles of radii 1, 2, and 3, type >> contour(X, Y, X.ˆ2 + Y.ˆ2, [1 2 3]) The vector argument must contain at least two elements, so if you want to plot a single level set, you must specify the same level twice. This is quite useful for implicit plotting of a curve given by an equation in x and y. For example, to plot the circle of radius 1 about the origin, type >> contour(X, Y, X.ˆ2 + Y.ˆ2, [1 1]) Or to plot the lemniscate x 2 − y2 = (x 2 + y2 )2 , rewrite the equation as (x 2 + y2 )2 − x 2 + y2 = 0 and type >> >> >> >> [X Y] = meshgrid(-1.1:0.01:1.1, -1.1:0.01:1.1); contour(X, Y, (X.ˆ2 + Y.ˆ2).ˆ2 - X.ˆ2 + Y.ˆ2, [0 0]) axis square title(’The lemniscate xˆ2-yˆ2=(xˆ2+yˆ2)ˆ2’) The command title labels the plot with the indicated string. (In the default string interpreter, ˆ is used for inserting an exponent and is used for subscripts.) The result is shown in Figure 5-3. If you have the Symbolic Math Toolbox, contour plotting can also be done with the command ezcontour, and implicit plotting of a curve f (x, y) = 0 can also be done with ezplot. One can obtain almost the same picture as Figure 5-2 with the command >> ezcontour(’xˆ2 + yˆ2’, [-3, 3], [-3, 3]); axis square and almost the same picture as Figure 5-3 with the command >> ezplot(’(xˆ2 + yˆ2)ˆ2 - xˆ2 + yˆ2’, ... [-1.1, 1.1], [-1.1, 1.1]); axis square Two-Dimensional Plots 2 2 2 71 2 2 The lemniscate x -y =(x +y ) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Figure 5-3 Field Plots The MATLAB routine quiver is used to plot vector ﬁelds or arrays of arrows. The arrows can be located at equally spaced points in the plane (if x and y coordinates are not given explicitly), or they can be placed at speciﬁed locations. Sometimes some ﬁddling is required to scale the arrows so that they don’t come out looking too big or too small. For this purpose, quiver takes an optional scale factor argument. The following code, for example, plots a vector ﬁeld with a “saddle point,” corresponding to a combination of an attractive force pointing toward the x axis and a repulsive force pointing away from the y axis: >> [x, y] = meshgrid(-1.1:.2:1.1, -1.1:.2:1.1); >> quiver(x, -y); axis equal; axis off The output is shown in Figure 5-4. 72 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics Figure 5-4 Three-Dimensional Plots MATLAB has several routines for producing three-dimensional plots. Curves in Three-Dimensional Space For plotting curves in 3-space, the basic command is plot3, and it works like plot, except that it takes three vectors instead of two, one for the x coordinates, one for the y coordinates, and one for the z coordinates. For example, we can plot a helix (see Figure 5-5) with >> T = -2:0.01:2; >> plot3(cos(2*pi*T), sin(2*pi*T), T) Again, if you have the Symbolic Math Toolbox, there is a shortcut using ezplot3; you can instead plot the helix with >> ezplot3(’cos(2*pi*t)’, ’sin(2*pi*t)’, ’t’, [-2, 2]) Three-Dimensional Plots 73 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 1 0.5 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -0.5 -1 -1 Figure 5-5 Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space There are two basic commands for plotting surfaces in 3-space: mesh and surf. The former produces a transparent “mesh” surface; the latter produces an opaque shaded one. There are two different ways of using each command, one for plotting surfaces in which the z coordinate is given as a function of x and y, and one for parametric surfaces in which x, y, and z are all given as functions of two other parameters. Let us illustrate the former with mesh and the latter with surf. To plot z = f (x, y), one begins with a meshgrid command as in the case of contour. For example, the “saddle surface” z = x 2 − y2 can be plotted with >> [X,Y] = meshgrid(-2:.1:2, -2:.1:2); >> Z = X.ˆ2 - Y.ˆ2; >> mesh(X, Y, Z) The result is shown in Figure 5-6, although it looks much better on the screen since MATLAB shades the surface with a color scheme depending on the z coordinate. We could have gotten an opaque surface instead by replacing mesh with surf. 74 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 2 2 1 1 0 0 -1 -1 -2 -2 Figure 5-6 With the Symbolic Math Toolbox, there is a shortcut command ezmesh, and you can obtain a result very similar to Figure 5-6 with >> ezmesh(’xˆ2 - yˆ2’, [-2, 2], [-2, 2]) If one wants to plot a surface that cannot be represented by an equation of the form z = f (x, y), for example the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 1, then it is better to parameterize the surface using a suitable coordinate system, in this case cylindrical or spherical coordinates. For example, we can take as parameters the vertical coordinate z and the polar coordinate θ in the x-y plane. If r denotes the distance √ to the z axis, then √the equation of the √ sphere becomes r 2 + z2 = 1, or r = 1 − z2 , and so x = 1 − z2 cos θ, y = 1 − z2 sin θ. Thus we can produce our plot with >> [theta, Z] = meshgrid((0:0.1:2)*pi, (-1:0.1:1)); >> X = sqrt(1 - Z.ˆ2).*cos(theta); Special Effects 75 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -0.5 -1 -1 Figure 5-7 >> Y = sqrt(1 - Z.ˆ2).*sin(theta); >> surf(X, Y, Z); axis square The result is shown in Figure 5-7. With the Symbolic Math Toolbox, parametric plotting of surfaces has been greatly simpliﬁed with the commands ezsurf and ezmesh, and you can obtain a result very similar to Figure 5-7 with >> ezsurf(’sqrt(1-sˆ2)*cos(t)’, ’sqrt(1-sˆ2)*sin(t)’, ... ’s’, [-1, 1, 0, 2*pi]); axis equal Special Effects So far we have only discussed graphics commands that produce or modify a single static ﬁgure window. But MATLAB is also capable of combining several 76 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics ﬁgures in one window, or of producing animated graphics that change with time. Combining Figures in One Window The command subplot divides the ﬁgure window into an array of smaller ﬁgures. The ﬁrst two arguments give the dimensions of the array of subplots, and the last argument gives the number of the subplot (counting left to right across the ﬁrst row, then left to right across the next row, and so on) in which to put the next ﬁgure. The following example, whose output appears as Figure 5-8, produces a 2 × 2 array of plots of the ﬁrst four Bessel functions Jn, 0 ≤ n ≤ 3: >> x = 0:0.05:40; >> for j = 1:4, subplot(2,2,j) plot(x, besselj(j*ones(size(x)), x)) end 1 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.5 0 10 20 30 40 -0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.2 -0.4 0 Figure 5-8 10 20 30 40 -0.4 0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40 Special Effects 77 Animations The simplest way to produce an animated picture is with comet, which produces a parametric plot of a curve (the way plot does), except that you can see the curve being traced out in time. For example, >> t = 0:0.01*pi:2*pi; >> figure; axis equal; axis([-1 1 -1 1]); hold on >> comet(cos(t), sin(t)) displays uniform circular motion. For more complicated animations, you can use getframe and movie. The command getframe captures the active ﬁgure window for one frame of the movie, and movie then plays back the result. For example, the following (in MATLAB 5.3 or later — earlier versions of the software used a slightly different syntax) produces a movie of a vibrating string: >> x = 0:0.01:1; >> for j = 0:50 plot(x, sin(j*pi/5)*sin(pi*x)), axis([0, 1, -2, 2]) M(j+1) = getframe; end >> movie(M) It is worth noting that the axis command here is important, to ensure that each frame of the movie is drawn with the same coordinate axes. (Otherwise the scale of the axes will be different in each frame and the resulting movie will be totally misleading.) The semicolon after the getframe command is also important; it prevents the spewing forth of a lot of numerical data with each frame of the movie. Finally, make sure that while MATLAB executes the loop that generates the frames, you do not cover the active ﬁgure window with another window (such as the Command Window). If you do, the contents of the other window will be stored in the frames of the movie. ✓ MATLAB 6 has a new command movieview that you can use in place of movie to view the animation in a separate window, with a button to replay the movie when it is done. 78 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics Customizing and Manipulating Graphics ☞ This is a more advanced topic; if you wish you can skip it on a ﬁrst reading. So far in this chapter, we have discussed the most commonly used MATLAB routines for generating plots. But often, to get the results one wants, one needs to customize or manipulate the graphics these commands produce. Knowing how to do this requires understanding a few basic principles concerning the way MATLAB stores and displays graphics. For most purposes, the discussion here will be sufﬁcient. But if you need more information, you might eventually want to consult one of the books devoted exclusively to MATLAB graphics, such as Using MATLAB Graphics, which comes free (in PDF format) with the software and can be accessed in the “MATLAB Manuals” subsection of the “Printable Documentation” section in the Help Browser (or under “Full Documentation Set” from the helpdesk in MATLAB 5.3 and earlier versions), or Graphics and GUIs with MATLAB, 2nd ed., by P. Marchand, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999. In a typical MATLAB session, one may have many ﬁgure windows open at once. However, only one of these can be “active” at any one time. One can ﬁnd out which ﬁgure is active with the command gcf, short for “get current ﬁgure,” and one can change the active ﬁgure to, say, ﬁgure number 5 with the command figure(5), or else by clicking on ﬁgure window 5 with the mouse. The command figure (with no arguments) creates a blank ﬁgure window. (This is sometimes useful if you want to avoid overwriting an existing plot.) Once a ﬁgure has been created and made active, there are two basic ways to manipulate it. The active ﬁgure can be modiﬁed by MATLAB commands in the command window, such as the commands title and axis square that we have already encountered. Or one can modify the ﬁgure by using the menus and/or tools in the ﬁgure window itself. Let’s consider a few examples. To insert labels or text into a plot, one may use the commands text, xlabel, ylabel, zlabel, and legend, in addition to title. As the names suggest, xlabel, ylabel, and zlabel add text next to the coordinate axes, legend puts a “legend” on the plot, and text adds text at a speciﬁc point. These commands take various optional arguments that can be used to change the font family and font size of the text. As an example, let’s illustrate how to modify our plot of the lemniscate (Figure 5-3) by adding and modifying text: >> figure(3) >> title(’The lemniscate xˆ2-yˆ2=(xˆ2+yˆ2)ˆ2’,... Customizing and Manipulating Graphics 2 2 2 79 2 2 The lemniscate x -y =(x +y ) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 y 0.2 ← a node, also an inflection 0 point for each branch -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 x 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Figure 5-9 ’FontSize’, 16, ’FontName’, ’Helvetica’,... ’FontWeight’, ’bold’) >> text(0, 0, ’\leftarrow a node, also an inflection’) >> text(0.2, -0.1, ’point for each branch’) >> xlabel(’x’); ylabel(’y’) The result is shown in Figure 5-9. Note that many symbols (an arrow pointing to the left in this case) can be inserted into a text string by calling them with names starting with \. (If you’ve used the scientiﬁc typesetting program TEX, you’ll recognize the convention here.) In most cases the names are selfexplanatory. For example, you get a Greek π by typing \pi, a summation sign by typing either \Sigma (for a capital sigma) or \sum, and arrows pointing in various directions with \leftarrow, \uparrow, and so on. For more details and a complete list of available symbols, see the listing for “Text Properties” in the Help Browser. An alternative is to make use of the tool bar at the top of the ﬁgure window. The button indicated by the letter “A” adds text to a ﬁgure, and the menu item 80 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics Text Properties... in the Tools menu (in MATLAB 5.3), or else the menu item Figure Properties... in the Edit menu (in MATLAB 6), can be used to change the font style and font size. Change of Viewpoint Another common and important way to vary a graphic is to change the viewpoint in 3-space. This can be done with the command view, and also (at least in MATLAB 5.3 and higher) by using the Rotate 3D option in the Tools menu at the top of the ﬁgure window. The command view(2) projects a ﬁgure into the x-y plane (by looking down on it from the positive z axis), and the command view(3) views it from the default direction in 3-space, which is in the direction looking toward the origin from a point far out on the ray z = 0.5t, x = −0.5272t, y = −0.3044t, t > 0. ➱ In MATLAB, any two-dimensional plot can be “viewed in 3D,” and any three-dimensional plot can be projected into the plane. Thus Figure 5-5 above (the helix), if followed by the command view(2), produces a circle. Change of Plot Style Another important way to change the style of graphics is to modify the color or line style in a plot or to change the scale on the axes. Within a plot command, one can change the color of a graph, or plot with a dashed or dotted line, or mark the plotted points with special symbols, simply by adding a string as a third argument for every x-y pair. Symbols for colors are ’y’ for yellow, ’m’ for magenta, ’c’ for cyan, ’r’ for red, ’g’ for green, ’b’ for blue, ’w’ for white, and ’k’ for black. Symbols for point markers include ’o’ for a circle, ’x’ for an X-mark, ’+’ for a plus sign, and ’*’ for a star. Symbols for line styles include ’-’ for a solid line, ’:’ for a dotted line, and ’--’ for a dashed line. If a point style is given but no line style, then the points are plotted but no curve is drawn connecting them. The same methods work with plot3 in place of plot. For example, one can produce a solid red sine curve along with a dotted blue cosine curve, marking all the local maximum points on each curve with a distinctive symbol of the same color as the plot, as follows: >> >> >> >> X = (-2:0.02:2)*pi; Y1 = sin(X); Y2 = cos(X); plot(X, Y1, ’r-’, X, Y2, ’b:’); hold on X1 = [-3*pi/2 pi/2]; Y3 = [1 1]; plot(X1, Y3, ’r+’) X2 = [-2*pi 0 2*pi]; Y4 = [1 1 1]; plot(X2, Y4, ’b*’) Customizing and Manipulating Graphics 81 Here we would probably want the tick marks on the x axis located at multiples of π . This can be done with the set command applied to the properties of the axes (and/or by selecting Edit : Axes Properties... in MATLAB 6, or Tools : Axes Properties... in MATLAB 5.3). The command set is used to change various properties of graphics. To apply it to “Axes”, it has to be combined with the command gca, which stands for “get current axes”. The code >> set(gca, ’XTick’, (-2:2)*pi, ’XTickLabel’,... ’-2pi|-pi|0|pi|2pi’) in combination with the code above gets the current axes, sets the ticks on the x axis to go from −2π to 2π in multiples of π , and then labels these ticks the way one would want (rather than in decimal notation, which is ugly here). The result is shown in Figure 5-10. Incidentally, you might wonder how to label the ticks as −2π , −π, etc., instead of -2pi, -pi, and so on. This is trickier but you can do it by typing 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -2pi Figure 5-10 -pi 0 pi 2pi 82 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics >> set(gca, ’FontName’, ’Symbol’) >> set(gca, ’XTickLabel’, ’-2p|-p|0|p|2p’) since in the Symbol font, π occupies the slot held by p in text fonts. Full-Fledged Customization What about changes to other aspects of a plot? The useful commands get and set can be used to obtain a complete list of the properties of a graphics window, and then to modify them. These properties are arranged in a hierarchical structure, identiﬁed by markers (which are simply numbers) called handles. If you type get(gcf), you will “get” a (rather long) list of properties of the current ﬁgure (whose number is returned by the function gcf). Some of these might read Color = [0.8 0.8 0.8] CurrentAxes = [72.0009] PaperSize = [8.5 11] Children = [72.0009] Here PaperSize is self-explanatory; Color gives the background color of the plot in RGB (red-green-blue) coordinates, where [0 0 0] is black and [1 1 1] is white. ([0.8 0.8 0.8] is light gray.) Note that CurrentAxes and Children in this example have the same value, the one-element vector containing the funny-looking number 72.0009. This number would also be returned by the command gca (“get current axes”); it is the handle to the axis properties of the plot. The fact that this also shows up under Children indicates that the axis properties are “children” of the ﬁgure, this is, they lie one level down in the hierarchical structure. Typing get(gca) or get(72.0009) would then give you a list of axis properties, including further Children such as Line objects, within which you would ﬁnd the XData and YData encoding the actual plot. Once you have located the properties you’re interested in, they can be changed with set. For example, >> set(gcf, ’Color’, [1 0 0]) changes the background color of the border of the ﬁgure window to red, and >> set(gca, ’Color’, [1 1 0]) changes the background color of the plot itself (a child of the ﬁgure window) to yellow (which in the RGB scheme is half red, half green). Customizing and Manipulating Graphics 83 This “one at a time” method for locating and modifying ﬁgure properties can be speeded up using the command findobj to locate the handles of all the descendents (the main ﬁgure window, its children, children of children, etc.) of the current ﬁgure. One can also limit the search to handles containing elements of a speciﬁc type. For example, findobj(’Type’, ’Line’) hunts for all handles of objects containing a Line element. Once one has located these, set can be used to change the LineStyle from solid to dashed, etc. In addition, the low-level graphics commands line, rectangle, fill, surface, and image can be used to create new graphics elements within a ﬁgure window. As an example of these techniques, the following code creates a chessboard on a white background, as shown in Figure 5-11: >> white = [1 1 1]; gray = 0.7*white; >> a = [0 1 1 0]; b = [0 0 1 1]; c = [1 1 1 1]; Figure 5-11 84 Chapter 5: MATLAB Graphics >> figure; hold on >> for k = 0:1, for j = 0:2:6 fill(a’*c + c’*(0:2:6) + k, b’*c + j + k, gray) end, end >> plot(8*a’, 8*b’, ’k’) >> set(gca, ’XTickLabel’, [], ’YTickLabel’, []) >> set(gcf, ’Color’, white); axis square Here white and gray are the RGB codings for white and gray. The double for loop draws the 32 dark squares on the chessboard, using fill, with j indexing the dark squares in a single vertical column, with k = 0 giving the odd-numbered rows, and with k = 1 giving the even-numbered rows. Note that fill here takes three arguments: a matrix, each of whose columns gives the x coordinates of the vertices of a polygon to be ﬁlled (in this case a square), a second matrix whose corresponding columns give the y coordinates of the vertices, and a color. We’ve constructed the matrices with four columns, one for each of the solid squares in a single horizontal row. The plot command draws the solid black line around the outside of the board. Finally, the ﬁrst set command removes the printed labels on the axes, and the second set command resets the background color to white. Quick Plot Editing in the Figure Window Almost all of the command-line changes one can make in a ﬁgure have counterparts that can be executed using the menus in the ﬁgure window. So why bother learning both techniques? The reason is that editing in the ﬁgure window is often more convenient, especially when one wishes to “experiment” with various changes, while editing a ﬁgure with MATLAB code is often required when writing M-ﬁles. So the true MATLAB expert uses both techniques. The ﬁgure window menus are a bit different in MATLAB 6 than in MATLAB 5.3. In MATLAB 6, you can zoom in and out and rotate the ﬁgure using the Tools menu, you can insert labels and text with the Insert menu, and you can view and edit the ﬁgure properties (just as you would with set) with the Edit menu. For example you can change the ticks and labels on the axes by selecting Edit : Edit Axes.... In MATLAB 5.3, editing of the ﬁgure properties is done with the Property Editor, located under the File menu of the ﬁgure window. By default this opens to the ﬁgure properties, and double-clicking on “Children” then enables you to access the axes properties, etc. Sound 85 Sound You can use sound to generate sound on your computer (provided that your computer is suitably equipped). Although, strictly speaking, sound is not a graphics command, we have placed it in this chapter since we think of “sight” and “sound” as being allied features. The command sound takes a vector, views it as the waveform of a sound, and “plays” it. The length of the vector, divided by 8192, is the length of the sound in seconds. A “sinusoidal” vector corresponds to a pure tone, and the frequency of the sinusoidal signal determines the pitch. Thus the following example plays the motto from Beethoven’s 5th Symphony: >> x=0:0.1*pi:250*pi; y=zeros(1,200); z=0:0.1*pi:1000*pi; >> sound([sin(x),y,sin(x),y,sin(x),y,sin(z*4/5),y,... sin(8/9*x),y,sin(8/9*x),y,sin(8/9*x),y,sin(z*3/4)]); Note that the zero vector y in this example creates a very short pause between successive notes. Practice Set B Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra Problems 2, 3, 5–7, and parts of 10–12 require the Symbolic Math Toolbox. The others do not. 1. Use contour to do the following: (a) Plot the level curves of the function f (x, y) = 3y + y3 − x 3 in the region where x and y are between −1 and 1 (to get an idea of what the curves look like near the origin), and in some larger regions (to get the big picture). (b) Plot the curve 3y + y3 − x 3 = 5. (c) Plot the level curve of the function f (x, y) = y ln x + x ln y that contains the point (1, 1). 2. Find the derivatives of the following functions. If possible, simplify each answer. (a) f (x) = 6x 3 − 5x 2 + 2x − 3. . (b) f (x) = 2x−1 x 2 +1 (c) f (x) = sin(3x 2 + 2). (d) f (x) = √ arcsin(2x + 3). (e) f (x) = 1 + x 4 . (f ) f (x) = xr . (g) f (x) = arctan(x 2 + 1). 3. See if MATLAB can do the following integrals symbolically. For the indefinite integrals, check the results by differentiating. π/2 (a) 0 cos x dx. ) dx. (b) x sin(x 2√ (c) sin(3x) 1 − cos(3x) dx. 86 Practice Set B: Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 87 √ (d) x 2 x + 4 dx. ∞ −x2 (e) −∞ e dx. Compute the following integrals numerically, using quad8 or quadl: π (a) 0 esin x dx. 1√ (b) 0 x 3 + 1 dx. ∞ 2 (c) −∞ e−x dx. In this case, also approximate the error in the numerical answer, by comparing with the exact answer found in Problem 3. Evaluate the following limits: (a) limx→0 sinx x . x . (b) limx→−π 1+cos x+π 2 −x (c) limx→∞ x e . 1 (d) limx→1− x−1 . (e) limx→0+ sin 1x . Compute following sums: n the 2 k. (a) k=1 n k r . (b) ∞ −t x−1 k=0 ∞ xk (c) dt, k=0 k! . You may need the gamma function (x) = 0 e t called gamma in MATLAB, which satisﬁes (k + 1) = k!. ∞ 1 (d) k=−∞ (z−k)2 . Find the Taylor polynomial of the indicated order n at the indicated point c for the following functions: (a) f (x) = e x , n = 7, c = 0. (b) f (x) = sin x, n = 5 and 6, c = 0. (c) f (x) = sin x, n = 6, c = 2. (d) f (x) = tan x, n = 7, c = 0. (e) f (x) = ln x, n = 5, c = 1. (f) f (x) = erf (x), n = 9, c = 0. Plot the following surfaces: (a) z = sin x sin y for −3π ≤ x ≤ 3π and −3π ≤ y ≤ 3π . (b) z = (x 2 + y2 ) cos(x 2 + y2 ) for −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1. Create a 17-frame movie,whose frames show ﬁlled red circles of radius 1/2 centered at the points 4 cos( jπ/8), 4 sin( jπ/8) , j = 0, 1, . . . , 16. Make sure all the circles are drawn on the same set of axes, and that they look like circles, not ellipses. In this problem we use the backslash operator, or “left-matrix-divide” operator introduced in the Solving Linear Systems section of Chapter 4. (a) Use the backslash operator to solve the system of linear equations in Problem 3 of Practice Set A. 88 Practice Set B: Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra (b) Now try the same method on Problem 4 of Practice Set A. MATLAB ﬁnds one, but not all, answer(s). Can you explain why? If not, see Problem 11 below, as well as part (d) of this problem. (c) Next try the method on this problem: w + 3x − 2y + 4z = 1 −2w + 3x + 4y − z = 1 −4w − 3x + y + 2z = 1 2w + 3x − 4y + z = 1. Check your answer by matrix multiplication. (d) Finally, try the matrix division method on: ax + by = u cx + dy = v. Don’t forget to declare the variables to be symbolic. Your answer should involve a fraction, and so will be valid only when its denominator is nonzero. Evaluate det on the coefﬁcient matrix of the system. Compare with the denominator. 11. We deal in this problem with 3 × 3 matrices, although the concepts are valid in any dimension. (a) Consider the rows of a square matrix A. They are vectors in 3-space and so span a subspace of dimension 3, 2, 1, or possibly 0 (if all the entries of A are zero). That number is called the rank of A. The MATLAB command rank computes the rank of a matrix. Try it on the four coefﬁcient matrices in each of the parts of Problem 10. Comment on MATLAB’s answer for the fourth one. (b) An n × n matrix is nonsingular if its rank is n. Which of the four matrices you computed in part (a) are nonsingular? (c) Another measure of nonsingularity is given by the determinant — a fundamental result in linear algebra is that a matrix is nonsingular precisely when its determinant is nonzero. In that case a unique matrix B exists that satisﬁes AB = BA = the identity matrix. We denote this inverse matrix by A−1 . MATLAB can compute inverses with inv. Compute det(A) for the four coefﬁcient matrices, and for the nonsingular ones, ﬁnd their inverses. Note: The matrix equation Ax = b has a unique solution, namely x = A−1 b = A\b, when A is nonsingular. 12. As explained in Chapter 4, when you compute [U, R] = eig(A), each column of U is an eigenvector of A associated to the eigenvalue that Practice Set B: Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra 89 appears in the corresponding column of the diagonal matrix R. This says exactly that AU = U R. (a) Verify the equality AU = U R for each of the coefﬁcient matrices in Problem 10. (b) In fact, rank(A) = rank(U), so when A is nonsingular, then U−1 AU = R. Thus if two diagonalizable matrices A and B have the same set of eigenvectors, then the fact that diagonal matrices commute implies the same for A and B. Verify these facts for the two matrices 5 2 −8 1 0 2 A = −1 0 4 , B = 3 6 −10 ; 3 3 −7 −1 −1 5 that is, show that the matrices of eigenvectors are the “same” — that is, the columns are the same up to scalar multiples — and verify that AB = BA. 13. This problem, having to do with genetic inheritance, is based on Chapter 12 in Applications of Linear Algebra, 3rd ed., by C. Rorres and H. Anton, John Wiley & Sons, 1984. In a typical inheritance model, a trait in the offspring is determined by the passing of a genotype from the parents, where there are two independent possibilities from each parent, say A and a, and each is equally likely. (A is the dominant gene, and a is recessive.) Then we have the following table of probabilities of the possible genotypes for the offspring for all possible combinations of the genotypes of the parents: Genotype of Offspring AA Aa aa AA-AA 1 0 0 Genotype of Parents AA-Aa AA-aa Aa-Aa 1/2 0 1/4 1/2 1 1/2 0 0 1/4 Aa-aa 0 1/2 1/2 aa-aa 0 0 1 Now suppose one has a population in which mating only occurs with one’s identical genotype. (That’s not far-fetched if we are considering controlled plant or vegetable populations.) Next suppose that x0 , y0 , and z0 denote the percentage of the population with genotype AA, Aa, and aa respectively at the outset of observation. We then denote by xn, yn, and zn the percentages in the nth generation. We are interested in knowing 90 Practice Set B: Calculus, Graphics, and Linear Algebra these numbers for large n and how they depend on the initial population. Clearly xn + yn + zn = 1, n ≥ 0. Now we can use the table to express a relationship between the nth and (n + 1)st generations. Because of our presumption on mating, only the ﬁrst, fourth, and sixth columns are relevant. Indeed a moment’s reﬂection reveals that we have 1 xn+1 = xn + yn 4 1 yn+1 = yn (*) 2 1 zn+1 = zn + yn. 4 (a) Write the equations (*) as a single matrix equation Xn+1 = MXn, n ≥ 0. Explain carefully what the entries of the column matrix Xn are and what the coefﬁcients of the square matrix M are. (b) Apply the matrix equation recursively to express Xn in terms of X0 and powers of M. (c) Next use MATLAB to compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of M. (d) From Problem 12 you know that MU = U R, where R is the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues of M. Solve that equation for M. Now it should be evident to you what R∞ = limn→∞ R n is. Use that and your expression of M in terms of R to compute M∞ = limn→∞ M n. (e) Describe the eventual population distribution by computing M∞ X0 . (f) Check your answer by directly computing M n for large speciﬁc values of M. (Hint: MATLAB can compute the powers of a matrix M by entering Mˆ10, for example.) (g) You can alter the fundamental presumption in this problem by assuming, alternatively, that all members of the nth generation must mate only with a parent whose genotype is purely dominant. Compute the eventual population distribution of that model. Chapters 12–14 in Rorres and Anton have other interesting models. Chapter 6 M-Books MATLAB is exceptionally strong in linear algebra, numerical methods, and graphical interpretation of data. It is easily programmed and relatively easy to learn to use. As such it has proven invaluable to engineers and scientists who are working on problems that rely on scientiﬁc techniques and methods at which MATLAB excels. Very often the individuals and groups that so employ MATLAB are primarily interested in the numbers and graphs that emerge from MATLAB commands, processes, and programs. Therefore, it is enough for them to work in a MATLAB Command Window, from which they can easily print or export their desired output. At most, the production technique described in Chapter 3 involving diary ﬁles is sufﬁcient for their presentation needs. However, other practitioners of mathematical software ﬁnd themselves with two additional requirements. They need a mathematical software package embedded in an interactive environment — one in which the output is not necessarily “linear”, that is, one that they can manipulate and massage without regard to chronology or geographical location. Second, they need a higher-level presentation mode, which affords graphics integrated with text, with different formats for input and output, and one that can communicate effortlessly with other software applications. Some of MATLAB’s competitors have focused on such needs in designing the interfaces (or front ends) behind which their mathematical software runs. MATLAB has decided to concentrate on the software rather than the interface — and for the reasons and purposes outlined above, that is clearly a wise decision. But for academic users (both faculty and especially students), for authors, and even for applied scientists who want to use MATLAB to generate slick presentations, the interface demands can become very important. For them, MATLAB has provided the M-book interface, which we describe in this chapter. 91 92 Chapter 6: M-Books The M-book interface allows the user to operate MATLAB from a special Microsoft Word document instead of from a MATLAB Command Window. In this mode, the user should think of Word as running in the foreground and MATLAB as running in the background. Lines that you enter into your Word document are passed to the MATLAB engine in the background and executed there, whereupon the output is returned to Word (through the intermediary of Visual Basic), and then both input and output are automatically formatted. One obtains a living document in the sense that one can edit the document as one normally edits a word processing document. So one can revisit input lines that need adjustment, change them, and reexecute on the spot — after which the old outdated output is automatically overwritten with new output. The graphical output that results from MATLAB graphics commands appear in the Word document, immediately after the commands that generated them. Erroneous input and output are easily expunged, enhanced formatting can be done in a way that is no more complicated than what one does in a word processor, and in the end the result of your MATLAB session can be an attractive, easily readable, and highly informative document. Of course, one can “cheat” by editing one’s output — we shall discuss that and other pitfalls and strengths in what follows. Enabling M-Books To run the M-book interface you must have Microsoft Word on your computer. It is possible to run the interface with earlier versions of Word, but we ﬁnd that it works best if you have Word 97. (In fact, we ﬁnd that it runs better in Word 97 than it does in Word 2000, though the difference is not usually signiﬁcant.) The interface is enabled when you install MATLAB. This is done in one of three ways depending on which version of MATLAB you have. In some instances, during installation, you will be prompted to enter the location of the Word executable ﬁle and the Word template directory. These are usually easily located; for example, on many PCs the former is in MSOffice\Office\Winword.exe, and the latter is in MSOffice\ Templates. You may also be asked to specify a template ﬁle — in that case, select normal.dot in the Templates directory. The installation program will create a new template called m-book.dot, which is the Word template ﬁle associated with M-book documents. ✓ If you don’t know where the Word ﬁles are located on your PC, go to Find from the Start menu on the Task Bar, and search your hard drive for the ﬁles Winword.exe and normal.dot. Starting M-Books 93 In other instances, you may not notice any prompt for Word information during installation. This can mean that your computer found the Word executable and template information and set up the associations automatically; or it can mean that it ignored the M-book conﬁguration completely. In either eventuality, it is best, after installation, to type notebook -setup from the Command Window. Follow the ensuing instructions, which will be essentially the same as in the ﬁrst possibility described in the last paragraph. Starting M-Books The most common way to start up the M-book interface is to type notebook at the Command Window prompt. This is the only way to start the M-book interface if it is your ﬁrst foray into the venue. After you type notebook, you will see Microsoft Word launch and a blank Word document will ﬁll your screen. We will refer to this document as an M-book. The difference between a blank M-book and a normal Word document is only apparent if you peruse the menu bar. There you will see an entry that is not present in a normal Word document — namely, the Notebook menu. Click on it and examine the menu items that appear. We will describe each of them and their functions in our discussion below. If this is not your ﬁrst experience with M-books, and you have already saved an M-book, say under the name Problem1.doc, then you can open it by typing notebook Problem1.doc at the Command Window prompt. Even though you may not see it, the MATLAB Command Window is alive, but it is hidden behind the M-book. ➱ On some systems, you may see a DOS command window appear after typing notebook, but before the M-book appears. We recommend that you close that window before working in the M-book. ✓ ✓ For M-books to work properly, you need to have “Macros Enabled” in your Word installation. If an M-book opens as a regular Word document, without M-book functionality, it probably means that macros have been disabled. To enable them, ﬁrst close the document (without saving changes), then go to Tools : Macro : Security... from the Word menu bar, and reset your security level to Medium or Low. Then reopen the M-book. An alternate, and on some systems (especially networked systems) a preferable, launch method is ﬁrst to open a previously saved M-book — either directly through File : Open... in Word or by double-clicking on the ﬁle name in Windows Explorer. Word recognizes that the document is an M-book, so automatically launches MATLAB if it is not already running. A 94 Chapter 6: M-Books word of caution: If you have more than one version of MATLAB installed, Word will launch the version you installed last. To override this, you can open the MATLAB version you want before you open the M-book. You can now type into the M-book in the usual way. In fact you could prepare a document in this screen in precisely the same manner that you would in a normal Word screen. The background features of MATLAB are only activated if you do one of two things: either access the items in the Notebook menu or press the key combination CTRL+ENTER. Type into your M-book the line 23/45 and press CTRL+ENTER. After a short delay you will see what you entered change font to bold New Courier, encased in brackets, and then the output ans = 0.5111 will appear below, also in New Courier font (but not bold). It is also likely that the input and output will be colored (the input in green, the output in blue). Your cursor should be on the line following the output, but if it is at the end of the output line, move it down a line and type solve(’xˆ2 - 5*x + 5 = 0’) followed by CTRL+ENTER. After some thought MATLAB feeds the answer to the M-book: ans= [5/2+1/2*5^(1/2)] [5/2-1/2*5^(1/2)] Finally, try typing ezplot(’xˆ3 - x’), then CTRL+ENTER, and watch the graph appear. At this point your M-book should look like Figure 6-1. You may note that your commands take a little longer to evaluate than they would inside a normal MATLAB Command Window. This is not surprising considering the amount of information that is passing back and forth between MATLAB and Word. Continue entering MATLAB commands that are familiar to you (always followed by CTRL+ENTER), and observe that you obtain the output you expect, except that it is formatted and integrated into your M-book. ✓ If you want to start a fresh M-book, click on File : New M-book in the Menu Bar, or File : New, and then click on m-book.dot. Working with M-Books 95 Figure 6-1: A Simple M-Book. Working with M-Books You interact with data in your M-book in two ways — via the keyboard or through the menu bar. Editing Input Place your cursor in the line containing the second command of the previous section — where we solved the quadratic equation x 2 − 5x + 5 = 0. Click to the left of the equal sign, hit BACKSPACE, type 6 (that is, replace the second 5 by a 6), and press CTRL+ENTER. You will see your output replaced by ans = [ 2] [ 3] By changing the quadratic equation we have altered its roots. You can edit any of the input lines in your M-book in this way, including the one that generated the graph. See what happens if you click in the ezplot command line, change the cubic expression, and press CTRL+ENTER. 96 Chapter 6: M-Books It is important to understand that your M-book can be handled in exactly the same way that you would any Word document. In particular, you can save the ﬁle, print the document, change fonts or margins, move or export a graphic, etc. This has the advantage of allowing you to present the results of your MATLAB session in an attractively formatted style. It also has the disadvantage of affording the user the opportunity to muck with MATLAB’s input or output and so to create input and output that may not truly correspond to each other. One must be very careful! ✓ Note that the help item on the menu bar is Word help, not MATLAB help. If you want to invoke MATLAB help, then either type help (with CTRL+ENTER of course) or bring the MATLAB Command Window to the foreground (see below) and use MATLAB help in the usual fashion. The Notebook Menu Next let’s examine the items in the Notebook menu. First comes Deﬁne Input Cell. If you put your cursor on any line and select Deﬁne Input Cell, then that line will become an input line. But to evaluate it, you still need to press CTRL+ENTER. The advantage to this item is apparent when you want to create an input cell containing more than one line. For example, type syms x y factor(xˆ2 - yˆ2) and then select both lines (by clicking and dragging over them) and choose Deﬁne Input Cell. CTRL+ENTER will then cause both lines to be evaluated. You can recognize that both lines are incorporated into one input cell by looking at the brackets, or Cell Markers. The menu item Hide Cell Markers will cause the Cell Markers to disappear; in fact that menu item is a toggle switch that turns the Markers on and off. If you have several input cells, you can convert them into one input cell by selecting them and choosing Group Cells. You can break them apart by choosing Ungroup Cells. If you click in an input cell and choose Undeﬁne Cells, that cell ceases to be an input cell; its formatting reverts to the default Word format, as does the corresponding output cell. If you “undeﬁne” an output cell, it loses its format, but the corresponding input cell remains unchanged. If you select some portion of your M-book (for example, the entire M-book by using Edit : Select All) and then choose Purge Output Cells, all output cells in the selection will be deleted. This is particularly useful if you wish to change some data on which the output in your selection depends, and then M-Book Graphics 97 reevaluate the entire selection by choosing Evaluate Cell. You can reevaluate the entire M-book at any time by choosing Evaluate M-book. If your M-book contains a loop, you can evaluate it by selecting it and choosing Evaluate Loop, or for that matter Evaluate Cell, provided the entire loop is inside a single input cell. It is often handy to purge all output from an M-book before saving, to economize on storage space or on time upon reopening, especially if there are complicated graphs in the document. If there are any input cells that you want to automatically evaluate upon opening of the M-book, select them and click on Deﬁne Auto Init Cell. The color of the text in those cells will change. If you want to separate out a series of commands, say for repeated evaluation, then select the cells and click on Deﬁne Calc Zone. The commands selected will be encased in a Word section (with section breaks before and after it). If you click in the section and select Evaluate Calc Zone from the Notebook menu, the commands in only that zone will be (re)evaluated. The last two buttons are also useful. The button Bring MATLAB to Front does exactly that; it reveals the MATLAB Command Window that has been hiding behind the M-book. You may want to enter a command directly into the Command Window (for example, a help entry) and not have it in your M-book. Finally, the last button, Notebook Options brings up a panel in which you can do some customization of your M-book: set the numerical format, establish the size of graphics ﬁgures, etc. We ﬁnd it most useful to decrease the default graphics size — the “factory setting” is generally too large. Decreasing the ﬁgure size with Notebook Options may not work with Word 2000, though it is still possible to change the size of ﬁgures one at a time, by right clicking on the ﬁgure and then choosing the “Size” tab from Format Object.... M-Book Graphics All MATLAB commands that generate graphics work in M-books. The ﬁgure produced by a graphics command appears immediately below that command. However, one must be a little careful in planning and executing graphics statements. For example, if in an attempt to reproduce Figure 5-3, you type ezcontour(’xˆ2 + yˆ2’, [-3 3], [-3 3]) and CTRL+ENTER, this will yield the level curves of x 2 + y2 , but they will appear elliptical because you forgot the command axis square. If you enter that command on the next line, you will get a second picture that will be correct. But a much better strategy — and one that we strongly recommend — is to return to the original input cell and edit it by adding a semicolon (or a carriage return) and the axis 98 Chapter 6: M-Books square statement. In general, as you reﬁne your graphics in an M-book, you will ﬁnd it is more desirable to modify the input cells that generated them, rather than to produce more pictures by repeating the command with new options. So when adding things such as xlabel, ylabel, legend, title, etc., it is usually best to just add them to the graphics input cell and reevaluate. As a result, input cells generating graphics in M-books often end up being several lines long. In instances where you really do want to generate a new picture, then you need to think about whether you want to have hold set to on or off. This feature works exactly as in a Command Window — if hold is set to on, whatever graphic results from your next command will be combined with whatever last graphic you produced; and if hold is off, then previous graphics will not inﬂuence any graphic you generate. Since there are no separate graphics windows, the command figure is of limited use in M-books; you probably should not use it. If you do, it will produce a blank graph. Similarly, there are other graphics commands that are not so suitable for use in M-books, for example close. ✓ There is one exception to this rule: Sometimes you might want to use a ﬁgure window along with an M-book, for example to rotate a plot with the mouse. If you type figure from the Command Window to open a ﬁgure window, then subsequent graphics from the M-book will appear simultaneously in the ﬁgure window and in the M-book itself. Finally, we note the button Toggle Graph Output for Cell, the only button on the Notebook menu not previously described. If you select a cell containing a graphics command and click on this button, no graphical output will result from the evaluation of this command. This can be useful when used in conjunction with hold on if you want to produce a single graphic using multiple command lines. More Hints for Effective Use of M-Books If an interactive mode and/or attractive output beyond what you can achieve with M-ﬁles and diary ﬁles is your goal, then you should get used to working in the M-book interface rather than in a Command Window. Even experienced MATLAB users will ﬁnd that in time they will get use to the environment. Here are a few more hints to smooth your transition. In Chapter 3 we outlined some strategies for effective use of M-ﬁles, especially in the realm of debugging. Many of the techniques we described are A Warning 99 unnecessary in the M-book mode. For example, the commands pause and keyboard serve no purpose. In addition the UP- and DOWN-ARROW keys on the keyboard cannot be used as they are in a Command Window. Those keys cause your cursor to travel in the Word screen rather than to scroll through previous input commands. For navigating in the M-book, you will likely ﬁnd the scroll bar and the mouse to be more useful than the arrow keys. You may want to run script or function M-ﬁles in an M-book. You still must take care of path business as you do in a Command Window. But assuming you have done so, M-ﬁles are executed in an M-book exactly as in a Command Window. You invoke them simply by typing their name and pressing CTRL+ENTER. The outputs they generate, both intermediate and ﬁnal, are determined as before. In particular, semicolons at ends of lines are important; the command echo works as before; and so do loops. One thing that does not work so well is the command more. We have found that, even if more on is executed, help commands that run on for more than a page do not come out staggered in an M-book. Thus you may want to bring MATLAB to the foreground and enter your help requests in the Command Window. Another standard MATLAB feature that does not work so well in M-books is the...construct for continuing a long command entry on a second line. Word automatically converts three dots into a single special ellipsis character and so confuses MATLAB. There are two ways around this difﬁculty. Either do not use ellipses (rather simply continue typing and allow Word to wrap as usual — the command will be interpreted properly when passed to MATLAB) or turn off the “Auto Correct” feature of Word that converts the three dots into an ellipsis. This is most easily done by typing CTRL+Z after the three dots. Alternatively, open Tools : Auto Correct... and change the settings that appear there. One ﬁnal comment is in order. Another reason to bring MATLAB to the foreground is if you want to use the Current Directory browser, Workspace browser, or Editor/Debugger. The relevant icons on the tool bar or buttons on the menu bar can only be found in the MATLAB Desktop, not in the Word screen. However, you can also type pathtool, workspace, or edit directly into the M-book, followed by CTRL+ENTER of course. A Warning The ellipsis difﬁculty described in the last section is not an isolated difﬁculty. The various kinds of automatic formatting that Word carries out can truly confuse MATLAB. Several such instances that we ﬁnd particularly annoying are: fractions (1/2 is converted to a single character 1/2 representing one-half); 100 Chapter 6: M-Books the character combination “:)”, a construct often used when specifying the rows .. and various dashes that of a matrix, which Word converts to a “smiley face” ; wreak havoc with MATLAB’s attempts to interpret an ordinary hyphen as a minus sign. Examine these in Tools : Auto Correct... and, if you use M-books regularly, consider turning them off. A more insidious problem is the following. If you cut and paste character strings into an input cell, the characters in the original font may be converted into something you don’t anticipate in the Courier input cell. Mysterious and unfathomable error messages upon execution are a tip-off to this problem. In general, you should not copy cells for evaluation unless it is from a cell that has already been evaluated successfully — it is safer to type in the line anew. Finally, we have seen instances in which a cell, for no discernible reason, fails to evaluate. If this happens, try typing CTRL+ENTER again. If that fails, you may have to delete and retype the cell. We have also occasionally experienced the following problem: Reevaluation of a cell causes its output to appear in an unpredictable place elsewhere in the M-book — sometimes even obliterating unrelated output in that locale. If that happens, click on the Undo button on the Word tool bar, retype the input cell before evaluating, and delete the old input cell. Chapter 7 MATLAB Programming Every time you create an M-ﬁle, you are writing a computer program using the MATLAB programming language. You can do quite a lot in MATLAB using no more than the most basic programming techniques that we have already introduced. In particular, we discussed simple loops (using for) and a rudimentary approach to debugging in Chapter 3. In this chapter, we will cover some further programming commands and techniques that are useful for attacking more complicated problems with MATLAB. If you are already familiar with another programming language, much of this material will be quite easy for you to pick up! ✓ Many MATLAB commands are themselves M-ﬁles, which you can examine using type or edit (for example, enter type isprime to see the M-ﬁle for the command isprime). You can learn a lot about MATLAB programming techniques by inspecting the built-in M-ﬁles. Branching For many user-deﬁned functions, you can use a function M-ﬁle that executes the same sequence of commands for each input. However, one often wants a function to perform a different sequence of commands in different cases, depending on the input. You can accomplish this with a branching command, and as in many other programming languages, branching in MATLAB is usually done with the command if, which we will discuss now. Later we will describe the other main branching command, switch. 101 102 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming Branching with if For a simple illustration of branching with if, consider the following function M-ﬁle absval.m, which computes the absolute value of a real number: function y = absval(x) if x >= 0 y = x; else y = -x; end The ﬁrst line of this M-ﬁle states that the function has a single input x and a single output y. If the input x is nonnegative, the if statement is determined by MATLAB to be true. Then the command between the if and the else statements is executed to set y equal to x, while MATLAB skips the command between the else and end statements. However, if x is negative, then MATLAB skips to the else statement and executes the succeeding command, setting y equal to -x. As with a for loop, the indentation of commands above is optional; it is helpful to the human reader and is done automatically by MATLAB’s built-in Editor/Debugger. ✓ Most of the examples in this chapter will give peculiar results if their input is of a different type than intended. The M-ﬁle absval.m is designed only for scalar real inputs x, not for complex numbers or vectors. If x is complex for instance, then x >= 0 checks only if the real part of x is nonnegative, and the output y will be complex in either case. MATLAB has a built-in function abs that works correctly for vectors of complex numbers. In general, if must be followed on the same line by an expression that MATLAB will test to be true or false; see the section below on Logical Expressions for a discussion of allowable expressions and how they are evaluated. After some intervening commands, there must be (as with for) a corresponding end statement. In between, there may be one or more elseif statements (see below) and/or an else statement (as above). If the test is true, MATLAB executes all commands between the if statement and the ﬁrst elseif, else, or end statement and then skips all other commands until after the end statement. If the test is false, MATLAB skips to the ﬁrst elseif, else, or end statement and proceeds from there, making a new test in the case of an elseif statement. In the example below, we reformulate absval.m so that no commands are necessary if the test is false, eliminating the need for an else statement. Branching 103 function y = absval(x) y = x; if y < 0 y = -y; end The elseif statement is useful if there are more than two alternatives and they can be distinguished by a sequence of true/false tests. It is essentially equivalent to an else statement followed immediately by a nested if statement. In the example below, we use elseif in an M-ﬁle signum.m, which evaluates the mathematical function 1 0 sgn(x) = −1 x > 0, x = 0, x < 0. (Again, MATLAB has a built-in function sign that performs this function for more general inputs than we consider here.) function y = signum(x) if x > 0 y = 1; elseif x == 0 y = 0; else y = -1; end Here if the input x is positive, then the output y is set to 1 and all commands from the elseif statement to the end statement are skipped. (In particular, the test in the elseif statement is not performed.) If x is not positive, then MATLAB skips to the elseif statement and tests to see if x equals 0. If so, y is set to 0; otherwise y is set to -1. Notice that MATLAB requires a double equal sign == to test for equality; a single equal sign is reserved for the assignment of values to variables. ✓ Like for and the other programming commands you will encounter, if and its associated commands can be used in the Command Window. Doing so can be useful for practice with these commands, but they are intended mainly for use in M-ﬁles. In our discussion of branching, we consider primarily the case of function M-ﬁles; branching is less often used in script M-ﬁles. 104 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming Logical Expressions In the examples above, we used relational operators such as >=, >, and == to form a logical expression, and we instructed MATLAB to choose between different commands according to whether the expression is true or false. Type help relop to see all of the available relational operators. Some of these operators, such as & (AND) and | (OR), can be used to form logical expressions that are more complicated than those that simply compare two numbers. For example, the expression (x > 0) | (y > 0) will be true if x or y (or both) is positive, and false if neither is positive. In this particular example, the parentheses are not necessary, but generally compound logical expressions like this are both easier to read and less prone to errors if parentheses are used to avoid ambiguities. Thus far in our discussion of branching, we have only considered expressions that can be evaluated as true or false. While such expressions are sufﬁcient for many purposes, you can also follow if or elseif with any expression that MATLAB can evaluate numerically. In fact, MATLAB makes almost no distinction between logical expressions and ordinary numerical expressions. Consider what happens if you type a logical expression by itself in the Command Window: >> 2 > 3 ans = 0 When evaluating a logical expression, MATLAB assigns it a value of 0 (for FALSE) or 1 (for TRUE). Thus if you type 2 < 3, the answer is 1. The relational operators are treated by MATLAB like arithmetic operators, inasmuch as their output is numeric. ✓ MATLAB makes a subtle distinction between the output of relational operators and ordinary numbers. For example, if you type whos after the command above, you will see that ans is a logical array. We will give an example of how this feature can be used shortly. Type help logical for more information. Here is another example: >> 2 | 3 ans = 1 Branching 105 The OR operator | gives the answer 0 if both operands are zero and 1 otherwise. Thus while the output of relational operators is always 0 or 1, any nonzero input to operators such as & (AND), | (OR), and ~ (NOT) is regarded by MATLAB to be true, while only 0 is regarded to be false. If the inputs to a relational operator are vectors or matrices rather than scalars, then as for arithmetic operations such as + and .*, the operation is done term-by-term and the output is an array of zeros and ones. Here are some examples: >> [2 3] < [3 2] ans = 1 0 >> x = -2:2; x >= 0 ans = 0 0 1 1 1 In the second case, x is compared term-by-term to the scalar 0. Type help relop or more information. You can use the fact that the output of a relational operator is a logical array to select the elements of an array that meet a certain condition. For example, the expression x(x >= 0) yields a vector consisting of only the nonnegative elements of x (or more precisely, those with nonzero real part). So, if x = -2:2 as above, >> x(x >= 0) ans = 0 1 2 If a logical array is used to choose elements from another array, the two arrays must have the same size. The elements corresponding to the ones in the logical array are selected while the elements corresponding to the zeros are not. In the example above, the result is the same as if we had typed x(3:5), but in this case 3:5 is an ordinary numerical array specifying the numerical indices of the elements to choose. Next, we discuss how if and elseif decide whether an expression is true or false. For an expression that evaluates to a scalar real number, the criterion is the same as described above — namely, a nonzero number is treated as true while 0 is treated as false. However, for complex numbers only the real part is considered. Thus, in an if or elseif statement, any number with nonzero 106 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming real part is treated as true, while numbers with zero real part are treated as false. Furthermore, if the expression evaluates to a vector or matrix, an if or elseif statement must still result in a single true-or-false decision. The convention MATLAB uses is that all elements must be true (i.e., all elements must have nonzero real part) for an expression to be treated as true. If any element has zero real part, then the expression is treated as false. You can manipulate the way branching is done with vector input by inverting tests with ~ and using the commands any and all. For example, the statements if x == 0; ...; end will execute a block of commands (represented here by · · ·) when all the elements of x are zero; if you would like to execute a block of commands when any of the elements of x is zero you could use the form if x ~= 0; else; ...; end. Here ~= is the relational operator for “does not equal”, so the test fails when any element of x is zero, and execution skips past the else statement. You can achieve the same effect in a more straightforward manner using any, which outputs true when any element of an array is nonzero: if any(x == 0); ...; end (remember that if any element of x is zero, the corresponding element of x == 0 is nonzero). Likewise all outputs true when all elements of an array are nonzero. Here is a series of examples to illustrate some of the features of logical expressions and branching that we have just described. Suppose you want to create a function M-ﬁle that computes the following function: sin(x)/x x = 0, f (x) = 1 x = 0. You could construct the M-ﬁle as follows: function y = f(x) if x == 0 y = 1; else y = sin(x)/x; end This will work ﬁne if the input x is a scalar, but not if x is a vector or matrix. Of course you could change / to ./ in the second deﬁnition of y, and change the ﬁrst deﬁnition to make y the same size as x. But if x has both zero and nonzero elements, then MATLAB will declare the if statement to be false and use the second deﬁnition. Then some of the entries in the output array y will be NaN, “not a number,” because 0/0 is an indeterminate form. Branching 107 One way to make this M-ﬁle work for vectors and matrices is to use a loop to evaluate the function element-by-element, with an if statement inside the loop: function y = f(x) y = ones(size(x)); for n = 1:prod(size(x)) if x(n) ~= 0 y(n) = sin(x(n))/x(n); end end In the M-ﬁle above, we ﬁrst create the eventual output y as an array of ones with the same size as the input x. Here we use size(x) to determine the number of rows and columns of x; recall that MATLAB treats a scalar or a vector as an array with one row and/or one column. Then prod(size(x)) yields the number of elements in x. So in the for statement n varies from 1 to this number. For each element x(n), we check to see if it is nonzero, and if so we redeﬁne the corresponding element y(n) accordingly. (If x(n) equals 0, there is no need to redeﬁne y(n) since we deﬁned it initially to be 1.) ✓ We just used an important but subtle feature of MATLAB, namely that each element of a matrix can be referred to with a single index; for example, if x is a 3 × 2 array then its elements can be enumerated as x(1), x(2), . . . , x(6). In this way, we avoided using a loop within a loop. Similarly, we could use length(x(:)) in place of prod(size(x)) to count the total number of entries in x. However, one has to be careful. If we had not predeﬁned y to have the same size as x, but rather used an else statement inside the loop to let y(n) be 1 when x(n) is 0, then y would have ended up a 1 × 6 array rather than a 3 × 2 array. We then could have used the command y = reshape(y, size(x)) at the end of the M-ﬁle to make y have the same shape as x. However, even if the shape of the output array is not important, it is generally best to predeﬁne an array of the appropriate size before computing it element-by-element in a loop, because the loop will then run faster. Next, consider the following modiﬁcation of the M-ﬁle above: function y = f(x) if x ~= 0 y = sin(x)./x; return end 108 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming y = ones(size(x)); for n = 1:prod(size(x)) if x(n) ~= 0 y(n) = sin(x(n))/x(n); end end Above the loop we added a block of four lines whose purpose is to make the M-ﬁle run faster if all the elements of the input x are nonzero. The difference in running time can be signiﬁcant (more than a factor of 10) if x has a large number of elements. Here is how the new block of four lines works. The ﬁrst if statement will be true provided all the elements of x are nonzero. In this case, we deﬁne the output y using MATLAB’s vector operations, which are generally much more efﬁcient than running a loop. Then we use the command return to stop execution of the M-ﬁle without running any further commands. (The use of return here is a matter of style; we could instead have indented all of the remaining commands and put them between else and end statements.) If, however, x has some zero elements, then the if statement is false and the M-ﬁle skips ahead to the commands after the next end statement. Often you can avoid the use of loops and branching commands entirely by using logical arrays. Here is another function M-ﬁle that performs the same task as in the previous examples; it has the advantage of being more concise and more efﬁcient to run than the previous M-ﬁles, since it avoids a loop in all cases: function y = f(x) y = ones(size(x)); n = (x ~= 0); y(n) = sin(x(n))./x(n); Here n is a logical array of the same size as x with a 1 in each place where x has a nonzero element and zeros elsewhere. Thus the line that deﬁnes y(n) only redeﬁnes the elements of y corresponding to nonzero values of x and leaves the other elements equal to 1. If you try each of these M-ﬁles with an array of about 100,000 elements, you will see the advantage of avoiding a loop! Branching with switch The other main branching command is switch. It allows you to branch among several cases just as easily as between two cases, though the cases must be described through equalities rather than inequalities. Here is a simple example, which distinguishes between three cases for the input: More about Loops 109 function y = count(x) switch x case 1 y = ’one’; case 2 y = ’two’; otherwise y = ’many’; end Here the switch statement evaluates the input x and then execution of the M-ﬁle skips to whichever case statement has the same value. Thus if the input x equals 1, then the output y is set to be the string ’one’, while if x is 2, then y is set to ’two’. In each case, once MATLAB encounters another case statement or since an otherwise statement, it skips to the end statement, so that at most one case is executed. If no match is found among the case statements, then MATLAB skips to the (optional) otherwise statement, or else to the end statement. In the example above, because of the otherwise statement, the output is ’many’ if the input is not 1 or 2. Unlike if, the command switch does not allow vector expressions, but it does allow strings. Type help switch to see an example using strings. This feature can be useful if you want to design a function M-ﬁle that uses a string input argument to select among several different variants of a program you write. ✓ Though strings cannot be compared with relational operators such as == (unless they happen to have the same length), you can compare strings in an if or elseif statement by using the command strcmp. Type help strcmp to see how this command works; for an example of its use in conjunction with if and elseif, enter type hold. More about Loops In Chapter 3 we introduced the command for, which begins a loop — a sequence of commands to be executed multiple times. When you use for, you effectively specify the number of times to run the loop in advance (though this number may depend for instance on the input to a function M-ﬁle). Sometimes you may want to keep running the commands in a loop until a certain condition is met, without deciding in advance on the number of iterations. In MATLAB, the command that allows you to do so is while. 110 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming ➱ Using while, one can easily end up accidentally creating an “inﬁnite loop”, one that will keep running indeﬁnitely because the condition you set is never met. Remember that you can generally interrupt the execution of such a loop by typing CTRL+C; otherwise, you may have to shut down MATLAB. Open-Ended Loops Here is a simple example of a script M-ﬁle that uses while to numerically sum the inﬁnite series 1/14 + 1/24 + 1/34 + · · ·, stopping only when the terms become so small (compared to the machine precision) that the numerical sum stops changing: n = 1; oldsum = -1; newsum = 0; while newsum > oldsum oldsum = newsum; newsum = newsum + nˆ(-4); n = n + 1; end newsum Here we initialize newsum to 0 and n to 1, and in the loop we successively add nˆ(-4) to newsum, add 1 to n, and repeat. The purpose of the variable oldsum is to keep track of how much newsum changes from one iteration to the next. Each time MATLAB reaches the end of the loop, it starts over again at the while statement. If newsum exceeds oldsum, the expression in the while statement is true, and the loop is executed again. But the ﬁrst time the expression is false, which will happen when newsum and oldsum are equal, MATLAB skips to the end statement and executes the next line, which displays the ﬁnal value of newsum (the result is 1.0823 to ﬁve signiﬁcant digits). The initial value of -1 that we gave to oldsum is somewhat arbitrary, but it must be negative so that the ﬁrst time the while statement is executed, the expression therein is true; if we set oldsum to 0 initially, then MATLAB would skip to the end statement without ever running the commands in the loop. ✓ Even though you can construct an M-ﬁle like the one above without deciding exactly how many times to run the loop, it may be useful to consider roughly how many times it will need to run. Since the ﬂoating point computations on More about Loops 111 most computers are accurate to about 16 decimal digits, the loop above should run until nˆ(-4) is about 10ˆ(-16), that is, until n is about 10ˆ4. Thus the computation will take very little time on most computers. However, if the exponent were 2 and not 4, the computation would take about 10ˆ8 operations, which would take a long time on most (current) computers — long enough to make it wiser for you to ﬁnd a more efﬁcient way to sum the series, for example using symsum if you have the Symbolic Math Toolbox! ☞ Though we have classiﬁed it here as a looping command, while also has features of a branching command. Indeed, the types of expressions allowed and the method of evaluation for a while statement are exactly the same as for an if statement. See the section Logical Expressions above for a discussion of the possible expressions you can put in a while statement. Breaking from a Loop Sometimes you may want MATLAB to jump out of a for loop prematurely, for example if a certain condition is met. Or, in a while loop, there may be an auxiliary condition that you want to check in addition to the main condition in the while statement. Inside either type of loop, you can use the command break to tell MATLAB to stop running the loop and skip to the next line after the end of the loop. The command break is generally used in conjunction with an if statement. The following script M-ﬁle computes the same sum as in the previous example, except that it places an explicit upper limit on the number of iterations: newsum = 0; for n = 1:100000 oldsum = newsum; newsum = newsum + nˆ(-4); if newsum == oldsum break end end newsum In this example, the loop stops after n reaches 100000 or when the variable newsum stops changing, whichever comes ﬁrst. Notice that break ignores the end statement associated with if and skips ahead past the nearest end statement associated with a loop command, in this case for. 112 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming Other Programming Commands In this section we describe several more advanced programming commands and techniques. Subfunctions In addition to appearing on the ﬁrst line of a function M-ﬁle, the command function can be used later in the M-ﬁle to deﬁne an auxiliary function, or subfunction, which can be used anywhere within the M-ﬁle but will not be accessible directly from the command line. For example, the following M-ﬁle sums the cube roots of a vector x of real numbers: function y = sumcuberoots(x) y = sum(cuberoot(x)); % ---- Subfunction starts here. function z = cuberoot(x) z = sign(x).*abs(x).ˆ(1/3); Here the subfunction cuberoot takes the cube root of x element-by-element, but it cannot be used from the command line unless placed in a separate M-ﬁle. You can only use subfunctions in a function M-ﬁle, not in a script M-ﬁle. For examples of the use of subfunctions, you can examine many of MATLAB’s builtin function M-ﬁles. For example, type ezplot will display three different subfunctions. Commands for Parsing Input and Output You may have noticed that many MATLAB functions allow you to vary the type and/or the number of arguments you give as input to the function. You can use the commands nargin, nargout, varargin, and varargout in your own M-ﬁles to handle variable numbers of input and/or output arguments, whereas to treat different types of input arguments differently you can use commands such as isnumeric and ischar. When a function M-ﬁle is executed, the functions nargin and nargout report respectively the number of input and output arguments that were speciﬁed on the command line. To illustrate the use of nargin, consider the following M-ﬁle add.m that adds either 2 or 3 inputs: function s = add(x, y, z) if nargin < 2 Other Programming Commands 113 error(’At least two input arguments are required.’) end if nargin == 2 s = x + y; else s = x + y + z; end First the M-ﬁle checks to see if fewer than 2 input arguments were given, and if so it prints an error message and quits. (See the next section for more about error and related commands.) Since MATLAB automatically checks to see if there are more arguments than speciﬁed on the ﬁrst line of the M-ﬁle, there is no need to do so within the M-ﬁle. If the M-ﬁle reaches the second if statement in the M-ﬁle above, we know there are either 2 or 3 input arguments; the if statement selects the proper course of action in either case. If you type, for instance, add(4,5) at the command line, then within the M-ﬁle, x is set to 4, y is set to 5, and z is left undeﬁned; thus it is important to use nargin to avoid referring to z in cases where it is undeﬁned. To allow a greater number of possible inputs to add.m, we could add additional arguments on the ﬁrst line of the M-ﬁle and add more cases for nargin. A better way to do this is to use the specially named input argument varargin: function s = add(varargin) s = sum([varargin{:}]); In this example, all of the input arguments are assigned to the cell array varargin. The expression varargin{:} returns a comma-separated list of the input arguments. In the example above, we convert this list to a vector by enclosing it in square brackets, forming suitable input for sum. The sample M-ﬁles above assume their input arguments are numeric and will attempt to add them even if they are not. This may be desirable in some cases; for instance, both M-ﬁles above will correctly add a mixture of numeric and symbolic inputs. However, if some of the input arguments are strings, the result will be either an essentially meaningless numerical answer or an error message that may be difﬁcult to decipher. MATLAB has a number of test functions that you can use to make an M-ﬁle treat different types of input arguments differently — either to perform different calculations or to produce a helpful error message if an input is of an unexpected type. For a list of some of these test functions, look up the commands beginning with is in the Programming Commands section of the Glossary. 114 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming As an example, here we use isnumeric in the M-ﬁle add.m to print an error message if any of the inputs are not numeric: function s = add(varargin) if ~isnumeric([varargin{:}]) error(’Inputs must be floating point numbers.’) end s = sum([varargin{:}]); When a function M-ﬁle allows multiple output arguments, then if fewer output arguments are speciﬁed when the function is called, the remaining outputs are simply not assigned. Recall that if no output arguments are explicitly speciﬁed on the command line, then a single output is returned and assigned to the variable ans. For example, consider the following M-ﬁle rectangular.m that changes coordinates from polar to rectangular: function [x, y] = rectangular(r, theta) x = r.*cos(theta); y = r.*sin(theta); If you type rectangular(2, 1) at the command line, then the answer will be just the x coordinate of the point with polar coordinates (2, 1). The following modiﬁcation to rectangular.m adjusts the output in this case to be a complex number x + iy containing both coordinates: function [x, y] = rectangular(r, theta) x = r.*cos(theta); y = r.*sin(theta); if nargout < 2 x = x + i*y; end See the online help for varargout and the functions described above for additional information and examples. User Input and Screen Output In the previous section we used error to print a message to the screen and then terminate execution of an M-ﬁle. You can also print messages to the screen without stopping execution of the M-ﬁle with disp or warning. Not surprisingly, warning is intended to be used for warning messages, when the M-ﬁle detects a problem that might affect the validity of its result but is not necessarily serious. You can suppress warning messages, either from the Other Programming Commands 115 command prompt or within an M-ﬁle, with the command warning off. There are several other options for how MATLAB should handle warning messages; type help warning for details. In Chapter 4 we used disp to display the output of a command without printing the “ans =” line. You can also use disp to display informational messages on the screen while an M-ﬁle is running, or to combine numerical output with a message on the same line. For example, the commands x = 2 + 2; disp([’The answer is ’ num2str(x) ’.’]) will set x equal to 4 and then print The answer is 4. MATLAB also has several commands to solicit input from the user running an M-ﬁle. At the end of Chapter 3 we discussed three of them: pause, keyboard, and input. Brieﬂy, pause simply pauses execution of an M-ﬁle until the user hits a key, while keyboard both pauses and gives the user a prompt to use like the regular command line. Typing return continues executing the M-ﬁle. Lastly, input displays a message and allows the user to enter input for the program on a single line. For example, in a program that makes successive approximations to an answer until some accuracy goal is met, you could add the following lines to be executed after a large number of steps have been taken: answer = input([’Algorithm is converging slowly; ’, ... ’continue (yes/no)? ’], ’s’); if ~isequal(answer, ’yes’) return end Here the second argument ’s’ to input directs MATLAB not to evaluate the answer typed by the user, just to assign it as a character string to the variable answer. We use isequal to compare the answer to the string ’yes’ because == can only be used to compare arrays (in this case strings) of the same length. In this case we decided that if the user types anything but the full word yes, the M-ﬁle should terminate. Other approaches would be to only compare the ﬁrst letter answer(1) to ’y’, to stop only if the answer is ’no’, etc. If a ﬁgure window is open, you can use ginput to get the coordinates of a point that the user selects with the mouse. As an example, the following M-ﬁle prints an “X” where the user clicks: function xmarksthespot if isempty(get(0, ’CurrentFigure’)) 116 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming error(’No current figure.’) end flag = ~ishold; if flag hold on end disp(’Click on the point where you want to plot an X.’) [x, y] = ginput(1); plot(x, y, ’xk’) if flag hold off end First the M-ﬁle checks to see if there is a current ﬁgure window. If so, it proceeds to set the variable flag to 1 if hold off is in effect and 0 if hold on is in effect. The reason for this is that we need hold on in effect to plot an “X” without erasing the ﬁgure, but afterward we want to restore the ﬁgure window to whichever state it was in before the M-ﬁle was executed. The M-ﬁle then displays a message telling the user what to do, gets the coordinates of the point selected with ginput(1), and plots a black “X” at those coordinates. The argument 1 to ginput means to get the coordinates of a single point; using ginput with no input argument would collect coordinates of several points, stopping only when the user presses the ENTER key. In the next chapter we describe how to create a GUI (Graphical User Interface) within MATLAB to allow more sophisticated user interaction. Evaluation The commands eval and feval allow you to run a command that is stored in a string as if you had typed the string on the command line. If the entire command you want to run is contained in a string str, then you can execute it with eval(str). For example, typing eval(’cos(1)’) will produce the same result as typing cos(1). Generally eval is used in an M-ﬁle that uses variables to form a string containing a command; see the online help for examples. You can use feval on a function handle or on a string containing the name of a function you want to execute. For example, typing feval(’atan2’, 1, 0) or feval(@atan2, 1, 0) is equivalent to typing atan2(1, 0). Often feval is used to allow the user of an M-ﬁle to input the name of a function to use in a computation. The following M-ﬁle iterate.m takes the name of a Other Programming Commands 117 function and an initial value and iterates the function a speciﬁed number of times: function final = iterate(func, init, num) final = init; for k = 1:num final = feval(func, final); end Typing iterate(’cos’, 1, 2) yields the numerical value of cos(cos(1)), while iterate(’cos’, 1, 100) yields an approximation to the real number x for which cos(x) = x. (Think about it!) Most MATLAB commands that take a function name argument use feval, and as with all these commands, if you give the name of an inline function to feval, you should not enclose it in quotes. Debugging In Chapter 3 we discussed some rudimentary debugging procedures. One suggestion was to insert the command keyboard into an M-ﬁle, for instance right before the line where an error occurs, so that you can examine the Workspace of the M-ﬁle at that point in its execution. A more effective and ﬂexible way to do this kind of debugging is to use dbstop and related commands. With dbstop you can set a breakpoint in an M-ﬁle in a number of ways, for example, at a speciﬁc line number, or whenever an error occurs. Type help dbstop for a list of available options. When a breakpoint is reached, a prompt beginning with the letter K will appear in the Command Window, just as if keyboard were inserted in the M-ﬁle at the breakpoint. In addition, the location of the breakpoint is highlighted with an arrow in the Editor/Debugger (which is opened automatically if you were not already editing the M-ﬁle). At this point you can examine in the Command Window the variables used in the M-ﬁle, set another breakpoint with dbstop, clear breakpoints with dbclear, etc. If you are ready to continue running the M-ﬁle, type dbcont to continue or dbstep to step through the ﬁle line-by-line. You can also stop execution of the M-ﬁle and return immediately to the usual command prompt with dbquit. ☞ You can also perform all the command-line functions that we described in this section with the mouse and/or keyboard shortcuts in the Editor/Debugger. See the section Debugging Techniques in Chapter 11 for more about debugging commands and features of the Editor/Debugger. 118 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming Interacting with the Operating System ☞ This section is somewhat advanced, as is the following chapter. On a ﬁrst reading, you might want to skip ahead to Chapter 9. Calling External Programs MATLAB allows you to run other programs on your computer from its command line. If you want to enter UNIX or DOS ﬁle manipulation commands, you can use this feature as a convenience to avoid opening a separate window. Or you may want to use MATLAB to graph the output of a program written in a language such as FORTRAN or C. For large-scale computations, you may wish to combine routines written in another programming language with routines you write in MATLAB. The simplest way to run an external program is to type an exclamation point at the beginning of a line, followed by the operating system command you want to run. For example, typing !dir on a Windows system or !ls -l on a UNIX system will generate a more detailed listing of the ﬁles in the current working directory than the MATLAB command dir. In Chapter 3 we described dir and other MATLAB commands, such as cd, delete, pwd, and type, that mimic similar commands from the operating system. However, for certain operations (such as renaming a ﬁle) you may need to run an appropriate command from the operating system. ✓ If you use the operating system interface in an M-ﬁle that you want to run on either a Windows or UNIX system, you should use the test functions ispc and/or isunix to set off the appropriate commands for each type of system, for example, if isunix; ...; else; ...; end. If you need to distinguish between different versions of UNIX (Linux, Solaris, etc.), you can use computer instead of isunix. The output from an operating system command preceded by ! can only be displayed to the screen. To assign the output of an operating system command to a variable, you must use dos or unix. Though each is only documented to work for its respective operating system, in current versions of MATLAB they work interchangeably. For example, if you type [stat, data]= dos(’myprog 0.5 1000’), the program myprog will be run with command line arguments 0.5 and 1000 and its “standard output” (which would normally appear on the screen) will be saved as a string in the variable data. (The variable stat will contain the exit status of the program you run, normally 0 Interacting with the Operating System 119 if the program runs without error.) If the output of your program consists only of numbers, then str2num(data) will yield a row vector containing those numbers. You can also use sscanf to extract numbers from the string data; type help sscanf for details. ➱ A program you run with !, dos, or unix must be in the current directory or elsewhere in the path your system searches for executable ﬁles; the MATLAB path will not be searched. If you are creating a program that will require extensive communication between MATLAB and an external FORTRAN or C program, then compiling the external program as a MEX ﬁle will be more efﬁcient than using dos or unix. To do so, you must write some special instructions into the external program and compile the program from within MATLAB using the command mex. This will result in a ﬁle with the extension .mex that you can run from within MATLAB just as you would run an M-ﬁle. The advantage is that a compiled program will generally run much faster than an M-ﬁle, especially when loops are involved. The instructions you need to write into your program to compile it with mex are described in MATLAB : Using MATLAB : External Interfaces/API in the Help Browser and in the “MEX, API, & Compilers” section of the web site http://www.mathworks.com/support/tech-notes Look for the page entitled “Is there a tutorial for creating MEX-ﬁles with emphasis on C MEX-ﬁles?” The instructions depend to some extent on whether your program is written in FORTRAN or C, but they are not hard to learn if you already know one of these languages. MATLAB version 6 also provides the MATLAB Java Interface, which enables you to create and access Java objects from within MATLAB. File Input and Output In Chapter 3 we discussed how to use save and load to transfer variables between the Workspace and a disk ﬁle. By default the variables are written and read in MATLAB’s own binary format, which is signiﬁed by the ﬁle extension .mat. You can also read and write text ﬁles, which can be useful for sharing data with other programs. With save you type -ascii at the end of the line to save numbers as text rounded to 8 digits, or -ascii -double for 16-digit accuracy. With load the data are assumed to be in text format if the ﬁle name does not end in .mat. This provides an alternative to importing data with dos 120 Chapter 7: MATLAB Programming or unix in case you have previously run an external program and saved the results in a ﬁle. ✓ MATLAB 6 also offers an interactive tool called the Import Wizard to read data from ﬁles (or the system clipboard) in different formats; to start it type uiimport (optionally followed by a ﬁle name) or select File : Import Data.... For more control over ﬁle input and output — for example to annotate numeric output with text — you can use fopen, fprintf, and related commands. MATLAB also has commands to read and write graphics and sound ﬁles. Type help iofun for an overview of input and output functions. Chapter 8 SIMULINK and GUIs In this chapter we describe SIMULINK, a MATLAB accessory for simulating dynamical processes, and GUIDE, a built-in tool for creating your own graphical user interfaces. These brief introductions are not comprehensive, but together with the online documentation they should be enough to get you started. SIMULINK If you want to learn about SIMULINK in depth, you can read the massive PDF document SIMULINK: Dynamic System Simulation for MATLAB that comes with the software. Here we give a brief introduction for the casual user who wants to get going with SIMULINK quickly. You start SIMULINK by doubleclicking on SIMULINK in the Launch Pad, by clicking on the SIMULINK button on the MATLAB Desktop tool bar, or simply by typing simulink in the Command Window. This opens the SIMULINK library window, which is shown for UNIX systems in Figure 8-1. On Windows systems, you see instead the SIMULINK Library Browser, shown in Figure 8-2. To begin to use SIMULINK, click New : Model from the File menu. This opens a blank model window. You create a SIMULINK model by copying units, called blocks, from the various SIMULINK libraries into the model window. We will explain how to use this procedure to model the homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation u + 2u + 5u = 0, which represents a damped harmonic oscillator. First we have to ﬁgure out how to represent the equation in a way that SIMULINK can understand. One way to do this is as follows. Since the time variable is continuous, we start by opening the “Continuous” library, in UNIX 121 122 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs Figure 8-1: The SIMULINK Library in UNIX. Figure 8-2: The SIMULINK Library Browser. SIMULINK 123 Figure 8-3: The Continuous Library. by double-clicking on the third icon from the left in Figure 8-1, or in Windows either by clicking on the to the left of the “Continuous” icon at the top right of Figure 8-2, or else by clicking on the small icon to the left of the word “Continuous” in the left panel of the SIMULINK Library Browser. When opened, the “Continuous” library looks like Figure 8-3. Notice that u and u are obtained from u and u (respectively) by integrating. Therefore, drag two copies of the Integrator block into the model window, and line them up with the mouse. Relabel them (by positioning the mouse at the end of the text under the block, hitting the BACKSPACE key a few times to erase what you don’t want, and typing something new in its place) to read u and u. Note that each Integrator block has an input port and an output port. Align the output port of the u Integrator with the input port of the u Integrator and join them with an arrow, using the left button on the mouse. Your model window should now look like this: 1 s 1 s u’ u This models the fact that u is obtained by integration from u . Now the differential equation can be rewritten u = −(5u + 2u ), and u is obtained by integration from u . So we want to add other blocks to implement these relationships. For this purpose we add three Gain blocks, which implement 124 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs multiplication by a constant, and one Sum block, used for addition. These are all chosen from the “Math” library (fourth from the right in Figure 8-1, or fourth from the top in Figure 8-2). Hooking them up the same way we did with the Integrator blocks gives a model window that looks something like this: 1 s 1 s 1 u’ u Gain 1 Gain1 1 Gain2 We need to go back and edit the properties of the Gain blocks, to change the constants by which they multiply from the default of 1 to 5 (in “Gain”), −1 (in “Gain1”), and 2 (in “Gain2”). To do this, double-click on each Gain block in turn. A Block Parameters box will open in which you can change the Gain parameter to whatever you need. Next, we need to send u , the output of the ﬁrst Integrator block, to the input port of block “Gain2”. This presents a problem, since an Integrator block only has one output port and it’s already connected to the next Integrator block. So we need to introduce a branch line. Position the mouse in the middle of the arrow connecting the two Integrators, hold down the CTRL key with one hand, simultaneously push down the left mouse button with the other hand, and drag the mouse around to the input port of the block entitled “Gain2”. At this point we’re almost done; we just need a block for viewing the output. Open up the “Sinks” library and drag a copy of the Scope block into the model window. Hook this up with a branch line (again using the CTRL key) to the line connecting the second Integrator and the Gain block. At this point you might want to relabel some more of the blocks (by editing the text under each block), and also label some of the arrows (by double-clicking on the arrow shaft to open a little box in which you can type a label). We end up with the model shown in Figure 8-4. Now we’re ready to run our simulation. First, it might be a good idea to save the model, using Save as... from the File menu. One might choose to give it the name li e OD . (MATLAB automatically adds the ﬁle extension . l.) To see what is happening during the simulation, double-click on the Scope block to open an “oscilloscope” that will plot u as a function of t. Of course one needs to set initial conditions also; this can be done by double-clicking on SIMULINK 125 Figure 8-4: A Finished SIMULINK Model. the Integrator blocks and changing the line of the Block Parameters box that reads “Initial condition”. For example, suppose we set the initial condition for u (in the ﬁrst Integrator block) to 5 and the condition for u (in the second Integrator block) to 1. In other words, we are solving the system u + 2u + 5u = 0, u(0) = 1, u (0) = 5, which happens to have the exact solution u(t) = 3e−t sin(2t) + e−t cos(2t). ✓ Your ﬁrst instinct might be to rely on the Derivative block, rather than the Integrator block, in simulating differential equations. But this has two drawbacks: It is harder to put in the initial conditions, and also numerical differentiation is much less stable than numerical integration. Now go to the Simulation menu and hit Start. You should see in the Scope window something like Figure 8-5. This of course is simply the graph of the function 3e−t sin(2t) + e−t cos(2t). (By the way, you might need to change the scale on the vertical axis of the Scope window. Clicking on the “binoculars” icon does an “automatic” rescale, and right-clicking on the vertical axis opens an Axes Properties... menu that enables you to manually select the minimum and maximum values of the dependent variable.) It is easy to go back and change some of the parameters and rerun the simulation again. Finally, suppose one now wants to study the inhomogeneous equation for “forced oscillations,” u + 2u + 5u = g(t), where g is a speciﬁed “forcing” term. 126 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs Figure 8-5: Scope Output. For this, all we have to do is add another block to the model from the “Sources” library. Click on the shaft of the arrow at the top of the model going into the ﬁrst Integrator and use Cut from the Edit menu to remove it. Then drag in another “Sum” block before the ﬁrst Integrator and input a suitable source to one input port of the “Sum” block. For example, if g(t) is to represent “noise,” drag the Band-Limited White Noise block from the “Sources” library into the model and hook everything up as shown in Figure 8-6. The output from this revised model (with the default values of 0.1 for the noise power and 0.1 for the noise sample time) looks like Figure 8-7. The effect of noise on the system is clearly visible from the simulation. Figure 8-6: Model for the Inhomogeneous Equation. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) 127 Figure 8-7: Scope Output for the Inhomogeneous Equation. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) With MATLAB you can create your own Graphical User Interface, or GUI, which consists of a Figure window containing menus, buttons, text, graphics, etc., that a user can manipulate interactively with the mouse and keyboard. There are two main steps in creating a GUI: One is designing its layout, and the other is writing callback functions that perform the desired operations when the user selects different features. GUI Layout and GUIDE Specifying the location and properties of different objects in a GUI can be done with commands such as uicontrol, uimenu, and uicontextmenu in an Mﬁle. MATLAB also provides an interactive tool (a GUI itself !) called GUIDE that greatly simpliﬁes the task of building a GUI. We will describe here how to get started writing GUIs with the MATLAB 6 version of GUIDE, which has been signiﬁcantly enhanced over previous versions. ✓ One possible drawback of GUIDE is that it equips your GUI with commands that are new in MATLAB 6 and it saves the layout of the GUI in a binary . i ﬁle. If your goal is to create a robust GUI that many different users can 128 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs use with different versions of MATLAB, you may still be better off writing the GUI from scratch as an M-ﬁle. To open GUIDE, select File:New:GUI from the Desktop menu bar or type guide in the Command Window. If this is the ﬁrst time you have run GUIDE, you will next see a window that encourages you to click on “View GUIDE Application Options dialog”. We recommend that you do so to see what your options are, but leave the settings as is for now. After you click “OK”, the Layout Editor will appear, containing a large white area with a grid. As with most MATLAB windows, the Layout Editor has a tool bar with shortcuts to many of the menu functions we describe below. You can start building a GUI by clicking on one of the buttons to the left of the grid, then moving to a desired location in the grid, and clicking again to place an object on the grid. To see what type of object each button corresponds to, move the mouse over the button but don’t click; soon a yellow box with the name of the button will appear. Once you have placed an object on the grid, you can click and drag (hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse) on the middle of the object to move it or click and drag on a corner to resize the object. After you have placed several objects, you can select multiple objects by clicking and dragging on the background grid to enclose them with a rectangle. Then you can move the objects as a block with the mouse, or align them by selecting Align Objects from the Layout menu. To change properties of an object such as its color, the text within it, etc., you must open the Property Inspector window. To do so, you can double-click on an object, or choose Property Inspector from the Tools menu and then select the object you want to alter with the left mouse button. You can leave the Property Inspector open throughout your GUIDE session and go back and forth between it and the Layout Editor. Let’s consider an example that illustrates several of the more important properties. Figure 8-8 shows an example of what the Layout Editor window looks like after several objects have been placed and their properties adjusted. The purpose of this sample GUI is to allow the user to type a MATLAB plotting command, see the result appear in the same window, and modify the graph in a few ways. Let us describe how we created the objects that make up the GUI. The boxes on the top row, as well as the one labeled “Set axis scaling:”, are Static Text boxes, which the user of the GUI will not be allowed to manipulate. To create each of them, we ﬁrst clicked on the “Static Text” button — the one to the right of the grid labeled “TXT” — and then clicked in the grid where we wanted to add the text. Next, to set the text for the box we opened the Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) 129 Figure 8-8: The Layout Editor Window. Property Inspector and clicked on the square button next to “String”, which opens a new window in which to change the default text. Finally, we resized each box according to the length of its text. The buttons labeled “Plot it!”, “Change axis limits”, and “Clear Figure” are all Push Button objects, created using the button to the left of the grid labeled “OK”. To make these buttons all the same size, we ﬁrst created one of them and then after sizing it, we duplicated it (twice) by clicking the right mouse button on the existing object and selecting Duplicate. We then moved each new Push Button to a different position and changed its text in the same way as we did for the Static Text boxes. The blank box near the top of the grid is an Edit Text box, which allows the user to enter text. We created it with the button to the left of the grid labeled “EDIT” and then cleared its default text in the same way that we changed text before. Below the Edit Text box is a large Axes box, created with the button containing a small graph, and in the lower right the button labeled “Hold is OFF” is a Toggle Button, created with the button labeled “TGL”. For toggling 130 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs (on–off) commands you could also use a Radio Button or a Checkbox, denoted respectively by the buttons with a dot and a check mark in them. Finally, the box on the right that says “equal” is a Popup Menu — we’ll let you ﬁnd its button in the Layout Editor since it is hard to describe! Popup Menus and Listbox objects allow you to let the user choose among several options. We moved, resized, and in most cases changed the properties of each object similarly to the way we described above. In the case of the Popup Menu, after we selected the “String” button in the Property Inspector, we entered into the window that appeared three words on three separate lines: equal, normal, and square. Using multiple lines is necessary to give the user multiple choices in a Popup Menu or Listbox object. ✓ In addition to populating your GUI with the objects we described above, you can create a menu bar for it using the Menu Editor, which you can open by selecting Edit Menubar from the Layout menu. You can also use the Menu Editor to create a context menu for an object; this is a menu that appears when you click the right mouse button on the object. See the online documentation for GUIDE to learn how to use the Menu Editor. We also gave our GUI a title, which will appear in the titlebar of its window, as follows. We clicked on the grid in the Layout Editor to select the entire GUI (as opposed to an object within it) and went to the Property Inspector. There we changed the text to the right of “Name” from “Untitled” to “Simple Plot GUI”. Saving and Running a GUI To save a GUI, select Save As... from the File menu. Type a ﬁle name for your GUI without any extension; for the GUI described above we chose lo i. Saving creates two ﬁles, an M-ﬁle and a binary ﬁle with extension . i , so in our case the resulting ﬁles were named lo i. and lo i. i . When you save a GUI for the ﬁrst time, the M-ﬁle for the GUI will appear in a separate Editor/Debugger window. We will describe how and why to modify this M-ﬁle in the next section. ➱ The instructions in this and the following section assume the default settings of the Application Options, which you may have inspected upon starting GUIDE, as described above. Otherwise, you can access them from the Tools menu. We assume in particular that “Generate .ﬁg ﬁle and .m ﬁle”, “Generate callback function prototypes”, and “Application allows only one instance to run” are selected. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) 131 Figure 8-9: A Simple GUI. Once saved, you can run the GUI from the Command Window by typing its name, in our case plotgui, whether or not GUIDE is running. Both the . i ﬁle and the . ﬁle must be in your current directory or MATLAB path. You can also run it from the Layout Editor by typing CTRL+T or selecting Activate Figure from the Tools menu. A copy of the GUI will appear in a separate window, without all the surrounding menus and buttons of the Layout Editor. (If you have added new objects since the last time you saved or activated the GUI, the M-ﬁle associated to the GUI will also be brought to the front.) Figure 8-9 shows how the GUI we created above looks when activated. Notice that the appearance of the GUI is slightly different than in the GUIDE window; in particular, the font size may differ. For this reason you may have to go back to the GUIDE window after activating a GUI and resize some objects accordingly. The changes you make will not immediately appear in the active GUI; to see their effect you must activate the GUI again. The objects you create in the Layout Editor are inert within that window — you can’t type text in the Edit Text box, you can’t see the additional options by clicking on the Popup Menu, etc. But in an activated GUI window, objects such as Toggle Buttons and Popup Menus will respond to mouse clicks. However, they will not actually perform any functions until you write a callback function for each of them. 132 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs GUI Callback Functions When you are ready to create a callback function for a given object, click the right mouse button on the object and select Edit Callback. The M-ﬁle associated with the GUI will be brought to the front in an Editor/Debugger window, with the cursor in a block of lines like the ones below. (If you haven’t yet saved the GUI, you will be prompted to do so ﬁrst, so that GUIDE knows what name to give the M-ﬁle.) function varargout = pushbutton1 Callback(h, eventdata, handles, varargin) % Stub for Callback of the uicontrol handles.pushbutton1. disp(’pushbutton1 Callback not implemented yet.’) % ------------------- end pushbutton1 Callback ----------------------- In this case we have assumed that the object you selected was the ﬁrst Push Button that you created in the Layout Editor; the string “pushbutton1” above is its default tag. (Another way to ﬁnd the tag for a given object is to select it and look next to “Tag” in the Property Inspector.) All you need to do now to bring this Push Button to life is to replace the disp command line in the template shown above with the commands that you want performed when the user clicks on the button. Of course you also need to save the M-ﬁle, which you can do in the usual way from the Editor/Debugger, or by activating the GUI from the Layout Editor. Each time you save or activate a GUI, a block of four lines like the ones above is automatically added to the GUI’s M-ﬁle for any new objects or menu items that you have added to the GUI and that should have callback functions. In the example plotgui from the previous section, there is one case where we used an existing MATLAB command as a callback function. For the Push Button labeled “Change axis limits”, we simply entered axlimdlg into its callback function in lo i. . This command opens a dialog box that allows a user to type new values for the ranges of the x and y axes. MATLAB has a number of dialog boxes that you can use either as callback functions or in an ordinary M-ﬁle. For example, you can use inputdlg in place of input. Type help uitools for information on the available dialog boxes. For the Popup Menu on the right side of the GUI, we put the following lines into its callback function template: switch get(h, ’Value’) case 1 axis equal case 2 axis normal Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) 133 case 3 axis square end Each time the user of the GUI selects an item from a Popup Menu, MATLAB sets the “Value” property of the object to the line number selected and runs the associated callback function. As we described in Chapter 5, you can use get to retrieve the current setting of a property of a graphics object. When you use the callback templates provided by GUIDE as we have described, the variable h will contain the handle (the required ﬁrst argument of get and set) for the associated object. (If you are using another method to write callback functions, you can use the MATLAB command gcbo in place of h.) For our sample GUI, line 1 of the Popup Menu says “equal”, and if the user selects line 1, the callback function above runs axis equal; line 2 says “normal”; etc. ✓ You may have noticed that in Figure 8-9 the Popup Menu says “normal” rather than “equal” as in Figure 8-8; that’s because we set its “Value” property to 2 when we created the GUI, using the Property Inspector. In this way you can make the default selection something other than the ﬁrst item in a Popup Menu or Listbox. For the Push Button labeled “Plot it!”, we wrote the following callback function: set(handles.figure1, ’HandleVisibility’, ’callback’) eval(get(handles.edit1, ’String’)) Here handles.figure1 and handles.edit1 are the handles for the entire GUI window and for the Edit Text box, respectively. Again these variables are provided by the callback templates in GUIDE, and if you do not use this feature you can generate the appropriate handles with gcbf and findobj(gcbf, ’Tag’, ’edit1’), respectively. The second line of the callback function above uses get to ﬁnd the text in the Edit Text box and then runs the corresponding command with eval. The ﬁrst line uses set to make the GUI window accessible to graphics commands used within callback functions; if we did not do this, a plotting command run by the second line would open a separate ﬁgure window. ✓ Another way to enable plotting within a GUI window is to select Application Options from the Tools menu in the Layout Editor, and within the window that appears change “Command-line accessibility” to “On”. This has the possible drawback of allowing plotting commands the 134 Chapter 8: SIMULINK and GUIs user types in the Command Window to affect the GUI window. A safer approach is to set “Command-line accessibility” to “User-speciﬁed”, click on the grid in the Layout Editor to select the entire GUI, go to the Property Inspector, and change “HandleVisibility” to “callback”. This would eliminate the need to select this property with set in each of the callback functions above and below that run graphics commands. Here is our callback function for the Push Button labeled “Clear ﬁgure”: set(handles.edit1, ’String’, ’’) set(handles.figure1, ’HandleVisibility’, ’callback’) cla reset The ﬁrst line clears the text in the Edit Text box and the last line clears the Axes box in the GUI window. (If your GUI contains more than one Axes box, you can use axes to select the one you want to manipulate in each of your callback functions.) We used the following callback function for the Toggle Button labeled “Hold is OFF”: set(handles.figure1, ’HandleVisibility’, ’callback’) if get(h, ’Value’) hold on set(h, ’String’, ’Hold is ON’); else hold off set(h, ’String’, ’Hold is OFF’); end We get the “Value” property of the Toggle Button in the same way as in the the Popup Menu callback function above, but for a Toggle Button this value is either 0 if the button is “out” (the default) or 1 if the button is pressed “in”. (Radio Buttons and Checkboxes also have a “Value” property of either 0 or 1.) When the user ﬁrst presses the Toggle Button, the callback function above runs hold on and resets the string displayed on the Toggle Button to reﬂect the change. The next time the user presses the button, these operations are reversed. ✓ We can also associate a callback function with the Edit Text box; this function will be run each time the user presses the ENTER key after typing text in the box. The callback function eval(get(h, ’String’)) will run the command just typed, providing an alternative to (or making superﬂuous) the “Plot it!” button. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) 135 Finally, if you create a GUI with an Axes box like we did, you may notice that GUIDE puts in the GUI’s M-ﬁle a template like a callback template but labeled “ButtondownFcn” instead. When the user clicks in an Axes object, this type of function is called rather than a callback function, but within the template you can write the function just as you would write a callback function. You can also associate such a function with an object that already has a callback function by clicking the right mouse button on the object in the Layout Editor and selecting Edit ButtondownFcn. This function will be run when the user clicks the right mouse button (as opposed to the left mouse button for the callback function). You can associate functions with several other types of user events as well; to learn more, see the online documentation, or experiment by clicking the right mouse button on various objects and on the grid behind them in the Layout Editor. Chapter 9 Applications In this chapter, we present examples showing you how to apply MATLAB to problems in several different disciplines. Each example is presented as a MATLAB M-book. These M-books are illustrations of the kinds of polished, integrated, interactive documents that you can create with MATLAB, as augmented by the Word interface. The M-books are: r r r r r r r r r Illuminating a Room Mortgage Payments Monte Carlo Simulation Population Dynamics Linear Economic Models Linear Programming The 360◦ Pendulum Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation A Model of Trafﬁc Flow We have not explained all the MATLAB commands that we use; you can learn about the new commands from the online help. SIMULINK is used in A Model of Trafﬁc Flow and as an optional accessory in Population Dynamics and Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation. Running the M-book on Linear Programming also requires an M-ﬁle found (in slightly different forms) in the SIMULINK and Optimization toolboxes. The M-books require different levels of mathematical background and expertise in other subjects. Illuminating a Room, Mortgage Payments, and Population Dynamics use only high school mathematics. Monte Carlo Simulation uses some probability and statistics; Linear Economic Models and Linear Programming, some linear algebra; The 360◦ Pendulum, some ordinary differential equations; Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation, some partial 136 Illuminating a Room 137 differential equations; and A Model of Trafﬁc Flow, differential equations, linear algebra, and familiarity with the function e z for z a complex number. Even if you don’t have the background for a particular example, you should be able to learn something about MATLAB from the M-book. Illuminating a Room Suppose we need to decide where to put light ﬁxtures on the ceiling of a room, measuring 10 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters high, in order to best illuminate it. For aesthetic reasons, we are asked to use a small number of incandescent bulbs. We want the bulbs to total a maximum of 300 watts. For a given number of bulbs, how should they be placed to maximize the intensity of the light in the darkest part of the room? We also would like to see how much improvement there is in going from one 300-watt bulb to two 150-watt bulbs to three 100-watt bulbs, and so on. To keep things simple, we assume that there is no furniture in the room and that the light reﬂected from the walls is insigniﬁcant compared with the direct light from the bulbs. One 300-Watt Bulb If there is only one bulb, then we want to put the bulb in the center of the ceiling. Let’s picture how well the ﬂoor is illuminated. We introduce coordinates x running from 0 to 10 in the long direction of the room and y running from 0 to 4 in the short direction. The intensity at a given point, measured in watts per square meter, is the power of the bulb, 300, divided by 4π times the square of the distance from the bulb. Since the bulb is 3 meters above the point (5, 2) on the ﬂoor, we can express the intensity at a point (x, y) on the ﬂoor as follows: syms x y; illum = 300/(4*pi*((x - 5)ˆ2 + (y - 2)ˆ2 + 3ˆ2)) illum = 75/pi/((x-5)ˆ2+(y-2)ˆ2+9) We can use ezcontourf to plot this expression over the entire ﬂoor. We use colormap to arrange for a color gradation that helps us to see the 138 Chapter 9: Applications illumination. (See the online help for graph3d for more colormap options.) ezcontourf(illum,[0 10 0 4]); colormap(gray); axis equal tight 75/π/((x−5)2+(y−2)2+9) 4 3.5 3 y 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 6 7 8 9 10 The darkest parts of the ﬂoor are the corners. Let us ﬁnd the intensity of the light at the corners, and at the center of the room. subs(illum, {x, y}, {0, 0}) subs(illum, {x, y}, {5, 2}) ans = 0.6282 ans = 2.6526 The center of the room, at ﬂoor level, is about 4 times as bright as the corners when there is only one bulb on the ceiling. Our objective is to light the room more uniformly using more bulbs with the same total amount of power. Before proceeding to deal with multiple bulbs, we observe that the use of ezcontourf is somewhat conﬁning, as it does not allow us to control the number of contours in our pictures. Such control will be helpful in seeing the light intensity; therefore we shall plot numerically rather than symbolically; that is, we shall use contourf instead of ezcontourf. Two 150-Watt Bulbs In this case we need to decide where to put the two bulbs. Common sense tells us to arrange the bulbs symmetrically along a line down the center of Illuminating a Room 139 the room in the long direction, that is, along the line y = 2. Deﬁne a function that gives the intensity of light at a point (x, y) on the ﬂoor due to a 150-watt bulb at a position (d, 2) on the ceiling. light2 = inline(vectorize(’150/(4*pi*((x - d)ˆ2 + (y - 2)ˆ2 + 3ˆ2))’), ’x’, ’y’, ’d’) light2 = Inline function: light2(x,y,d) = 150./(4.*pi.*((x - d).ˆ2 + (y - 2).ˆ2 + 3.ˆ2)) Let’s get an idea of the illumination pattern if we put one light at d = 3 and the other at d = 7. We specify the drawing of 20 contours in this and the following plots. [X,Y] = meshgrid(0:0.1:10, 0:0.1:4); contourf(light2(X, Y, 3) + light2(X, Y, 7), 20); axis equal tight 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 The ﬂoor is more evenly lit than with one bulb, but it looks as if the bulbs are closer together than they should be. If we move the bulbs further apart, the center of the room will get dimmer but the corners will get brigher. Let’s try changing the location of the lights to d = 2 and d = 8. contourf(light2(X, Y, 2) + light2(X, Y, 8), 20); axis equal tight 140 Chapter 9: Applications 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 This is an improvement. The corners are still the darkest spots of the room, though the light intensity along the walls toward the middle of the room (near x = 5) is diminishing as we move the bulbs further apart. To better illuminate the darkest spots we should keep moving the bulbs apart. Let’s try lights at d = 1 and d = 9. contourf(light2(X, Y, 1) + light2(X, Y, 9), 20); axis equal tight 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Looking along the long walls, the room is now darker toward the middle than at the corners. This indicates that we have spread the lights too far apart. We could proceed with further contour plots, but instead let’s be systematic about ﬁnding the best position for the lights. In general, we can put one light at x = d and the other symmetrically at x = 10 − d for d between 0 and 5. Judging from the examples above, the darkest spots will be Illuminating a Room 141 either at the corners or at the midpoints of the two long walls. By symmetry, the intensity will be the same at all four corners, so let’s graph the intensity at one of the corners (0, 0) as a function of d. d = 0:0.1:5; plot(d, light2(0, 0, d) + light2(0, 0, 10 - d)) 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 As expected, the smaller d is, the brighter the corners are. In contrast, the graph for the intensity at the midpoint (5, 0) of a long wall (again by symmetry it does not matter which of the two long walls we choose) should grow as d increases toward 5. plot(d, light2(5, 0, d) + light2(5, 0, 10 - d)) 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 We are after the value of d for which the lower of the two numbers on the above graphs (corresponding to the darkest spot in the room) is as high as possible. We can ﬁnd this value by showing both curves on one graph. 142 Chapter 9: Applications hold on; plot(d, light2(0, 0, d) + light2(0, 0, 10 - d)); hold off 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 The optimal value of d is at the point of intersection, near 1.4, with minimum intensity a little under 1. To get the optimum value of d, we ﬁnd exactly where the two curves intersect. syms d; eqn = inline(char(light2(0, 0, d) + light2(0, 0, 10 d) - light2(5, 0, d) - light2(5, 0, 10 - d))) eqn = Inline function: eqn(d) = 75/2/pi/(dˆ2+13)+75/2/pi/((-10+d)ˆ2+13)75/2/pi/((5-d)ˆ2+13)-75/2/pi/((-5+d)ˆ2+13) fzero(eqn, [0 5]) ans = 1.4410 So the lights should be placed about 1.44 meters from the short walls. For this conﬁguration, the approximate intensity at the darkest spots on the ﬂoor is as follows: light2(0, 0, 1.441) + light2(0, 0, 10 - 1.441) ans = 0.9301 Illuminating a Room 143 The darkest spots in the room have intensity around 0.93, as opposed to 0.63 for a single bulb. This represents an improvement of about 50%. Three 100-Watt Bulbs We redeﬁne the intensity function for 100-watt bulbs: light3 = inline(vectorize(’100/(4*pi*((x - d)ˆ2 + (y - 2)ˆ2 + 3ˆ2))’), ’x’, ’y’, ’d’) light3 = Inline function: light3(x,y,d) = 100./(4.*pi.*((x - d).ˆ2 + (y - 2).ˆ2 + 3.ˆ2)) Assume we put one bulb at the center of the room and place the other two symmetrically as before. Here we show the illumination of the ﬂoor when the off-center bulbs are one meter from the short walls. [X,Y] = meshgrid(0:0.1:10, 0:0.1:4); contourf(light3(X, Y, 1) + light3(X, Y, 5) + light3(X, Y, 9), 20); axis equal tight 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 It appears that we should put the bulbs even closer to the walls. (This may not please everyone’s aesthetics!) Let d be the distance of the bulbs from the short walls. We deﬁne a function giving the intensity at position x along a long wall and then graph the intensity as a function of d for several values of x. 144 Chapter 9: Applications d = 0:0.1:5; for x = 0:0.5:5 plot(d, light3(x, 0, d) + light3(x, 0, 5) + ... light3(x, 0, 10 - d)) hold on end hold off 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 We know that for d near 5, the intensity will be increasing as x increases from 0 to 5, so the bottom curve corresponds to x = 0 and the top curve to x = 5. Notice that the x = 0 curve is the lowest one for all d, and it rises as d decreases. Thus d = 0 maximizes the intensity of the darkest spots in the room, which are the corners (corresponding to x = 0). There the intensity is as follows: light3(0, 0, 0) + light3(0, 0, 5) + light3(0, 0, 10) ans = 0.8920 This is surprising; we do worse than with two bulbs. In going from two bulbs to three, with a decrease in wattage per bulb, we are forced to move wattage away from the ends of the room and bring it back to the center. We could probably improve on the two-bulb scenario if we used brighter bulbs at the ends of the room and a dimmer bulb in the center, or if we used four 75-watt bulbs. But our results so far indicate that the amount to be gained in going to more than two bulbs is likely to be small compared with the amount we gained by going from one bulb to two. Mortgage Payments 145 Mortgage Payments We want to understand the relationships among the mortgage payment rate of a ﬁxed rate mortgage, the principal (the amount borrowed), the annual interest rate, and the period of the loan. We are going to assume (as is usually the case in the United States) that payments are made monthly, even though the interest rate is given as an annual rate. Let’s deﬁne peryear = 1/12; percent = 1/100; So the number of payments on a 30-year loan is 30*12 ans = 360 and an annual percentage rate of 8% comes out to a monthly rate of 8*percent*peryear ans = 0.0067 Now consider what happens with each monthly payment. Some of the payment is applied to interest on the outstanding principal amount, P, and some of the payment is applied to reduce the principal owed. The total amount, R, of the monthly payment remains constant over the life of the loan. So if J denotes the monthly interest rate, we have R = J ∗ P + (amount applied to principal), and the new principal after the payment is applied is P + J ∗ P − R = P ∗ (1 + J) − R = P ∗ m − R, where m = 1 + J. So a table of the amount of the principal still outstanding after n payments is tabulated as follows for a loan of initial amount A, for n from 0 to 6: syms m J P R A P = A; for n = 0:6, disp([n, P]), P = simplify(-R + P*m); end 146 Chapter 9: Applications [ 0, A] [ 1, -R+A*m] [ 2, -R-m*R+A*mˆ2] [ 3, -R-m*R-mˆ2*R+A*mˆ3] [ 4, -R-m*R-mˆ2*R-mˆ3*R+A*mˆ4] [ 5, -R-m*R-mˆ2*R-mˆ3*Rmˆ4*R+A*mˆ5] [ 6, -R-m*R-mˆ2*R-mˆ3*Rmˆ4*R-mˆ5*R+A*mˆ6] We can write this in a simpler way by noticing that P = A ∗ mn+ (terms divisible by R). For example, with n = 7 we have factor(p - A*mˆ7) ans = -R*(1+m+mˆ2+mˆ3+mˆ4+mˆ5+mˆ6) But the quantity inside the parentheses is the sum of a geometric series n−1 k=1 mk = mn − 1 . m− 1 So we see that the principal after n payments can be written as P = A ∗ mn − R ∗ (mn − 1)/(m − 1). Now we can solve for the monthly payment amount R under the assumption that the loan is paid off in N installments, that is, P is reduced to 0 after N payments: syms N; solve(A*mˆN - R*(mˆN - 1)/(m - 1), R) ans = A*mˆN*(m-1)/(mˆN-1) R = subs(ans, m, J + 1) R= A*(J+1)ˆN*J/((J+1)ˆN-1) For example, with an initial loan amount A = $150,000 and a loan lifetime of 30 years (360 payments), we get the following table of payment amounts as a function of annual interest rate: Mortgage Payments 147 format bank; disp(’ Interest Rate Payment’) for rate = 1:10, disp([rate, double(subs(R, [A, N, J], [150000, 360,... rate*percent*peryear]))]) end Interest Rate 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 Payment 482.46 554.43 632.41 716.12 805.23 899.33 997.95 1100.65 1206.93 1316.36 Note the use of format bank to write the ﬂoating point numbers with two digits after the decimal point. There’s another way to understand these calculations that’s a little slicker and that uses MATLAB’s linear algebra capability. Namely, we can write the fundamental equation Pnew = Pold ∗ m − R in matrix from as vnew = Bvold , where v is the column vector ( P1 ) and B is the square matrix m −R . 0 1 We can check this using matrix multiplication: syms R P; B = [m -R; 0 1]; v = [P; 1]; B*v ans = [ m*P-R] [ 1] 148 Chapter 9: Applications which agrees with the formula we had above. (Note the use of syms to reset R and P to undeﬁned symbolic quantities.) Thus the column vector [P; 1] resulting after n payments can be computed by left-multiplying the starting vector [ A; 1] by the matrix B n. Assuming m > 1, that is, a positive rate of interest, the calculation [eigenvectors, diagonalform] = eig(B) eigenvectors = [ 1, 1] [ 0, (m-1)/R] diagonalform = [ m, 0] [ 0, 1] shows us that the matrix B has eigenvalues m and 1, and corresponding eigenvectors [1; 0] and [1; (m − 1)/R] = [1; J/R]. Now we can write the vector [A; 1] as a linear combination of the eigenvectors: [ A; 1] = x[1; 0] + y[1; J/R]. We can solve for the coefﬁcients: [x, y] = solve(’A = x*1 + y*1’, ’1 = x*0 + y*J/R’) x = (A*J-R)/J y = R/J and so [ A; 1] = (A − (R/J )) ∗ [1; 0] + (R/J) ∗ [1; J/R] and B n · [ A; 1] = (A − (R/J)) ∗ mn ∗ [1; 0] + (R/J) ∗ [1; J/R]. Therefore the principal remaining after n payments is P = ((A ∗ J − R) ∗ mn + R)/J = A ∗ mn − R ∗ (mn − 1)/J. This is the same result we obtained earlier. To conclude, let’s determine the amount of money A one can afford to borrow as a function of what one can afford to pay as the monthly payment R. We simply solve for A in the equation that P = 0 after N payments. Monte Carlo Simulation 149 solve(A*mˆN - R*(mˆN - 1)/(m - 1), A) ans = R*(mˆN-1)/(mˆN)/(m-1) For example, if one is shopping for a house and can afford to pay $1500 per month for a 30-year ﬁxed-rate mortgage, the maximum loan amount as a function of the interest rate is given by disp(’ Interest Rate Loan Amt.’) for rate = 1:10, disp([rate, double(subs(ans, [R, N, m], [1500, 360,... 1 + rate*percent*peryear]))]) end Interest Rate 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 Loan Amt. 466360.60 405822.77 355784.07 314191.86 279422.43 250187.42 225461.35 204425.24 186422.80 170926.23 Monte Carlo Simulation In order to make statistical predictions about the long-term results of a random process, it is often useful to do a simulation based on one’s understanding of the underlying probabilities. This procedure is referred to as the Monte Carlo method. As an example, consider a casino game in which a player bets against the house and the house wins 51% of the time. The question is: How many games have to be played before the house is reasonably sure of coming out ahead? This scenario is common enough that mathematicians long ago ﬁgured out very precisely what the statistics are, but here we want to illustrate how to get a good idea of what can happen in practice without having to absorb a lot of mathematics. 150 Chapter 9: Applications First we construct an expression that computes the net revenue to the house for a single game, based on a random number chosen between 0 and 1 by the MATLAB function rand. If the random number is less than or equal to 0.51, the house wins one betting unit, whereas if the number exceeds 0.51, the house loses one unit. (In a high-stakes game, each bet may be worth $1000 or more. Thus it is important for the casino to know how bad a losing streak it may have to weather to turn a proﬁt — so that it doesn’t go bankrupt ﬁrst!) Here is an expression that returns 1 if the output of rand is less than 0.51 and −1 if the output of rand is greater than 0.51 (it will also return 0 if the output of rand is exactly 0.51, but this is extremely unlikely): revenue = sign(0.51 - rand) revenue = -1 In the game simulated above, the house lost. To simulate several games at once, say 10 games, we can generate a vector of 10 random numbers with the command rand(1, 10) and then apply the same operation. revenues = sign(0.51 - rand(1, 10)) revenues = 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 In this case the house won 5 times and lost 5 times, for a net proﬁt of 0 units. For a larger number of games, say 100, we can let MATLAB sum the revenue from the individual bets as follows: profit = sum(sign(0.51 - rand (1, 100))) profit = -4 For this trial, the house had a net loss of 4 units after 100 games. On average, every 100 games the house should win 51 times and the player(s) should win 49 times, so the house should make a proﬁt of 2 units (on average). Let’s see what happens in a few trial runs. profits = sum(sign(0.51 - rand(100, 10))) profits = 14 -12 6 2 -4 0 -10 12 0 12 Monte Carlo Simulation 151 We see that the net proﬁt can ﬂuctuate signiﬁcantly from one set of 100 games to the next, and there is a sizable probability that the house has lost money after 100 games. To get an idea of how the net proﬁt is likely to be distributed in general, we can repeat the experiment a large number of times and make a histogram of the results. The following function computes the net proﬁts for k different trials of n games each: profits = inline(’sum(sign(0.51 - rand(n, k)))’, ’n’, ’k’) profits = Inline function: profits(n,k) = sum(sign(0.51 - rand(n, k))) What this function does is to generate an n × k matrix of random numbers and then perform the same operations as above on each entry of the matrix to obtain a matrix with entries 1 for bets the house won and −1 for bets it lost. Finally it sums the columns of the matrix to obtain a row vector of k elements, each of which represents the total proﬁt from a column of n bets. Now we make a histogram of the output of profits using n = 100 and k = 100. Theoretically the house could win or lose up to 100 units, but in practice we ﬁnd that the outcomes are almost always within 30 or so of 0. Thus we let the bins of the histogram range from −40 to 40 in increments of 2 (since the net proﬁt is always even after 100 bets). hist(profits(100, 100), -40:2:40); axis tight 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 152 Chapter 9: Applications The histogram conﬁrms our impression that there is a wide variation in the outcomes after 100 games. The house is about as likely to have lost money as to have proﬁted. However, the distribution shown above is irregular enough to indicate that we really should run more trials to see a better approximation to the actual distribution. Let’s try 1000 trials. hist(profits(100, 1000), -40:2:40); axis tight 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 According to the Central Limit Theorem, when both n and k are large, the histogram should be shaped like a “bell curve”, and we begin to see this shape emerging above. Let’s move on to 10,000 trials. hist(profits(100, 10000), -40:2:40); axis tight 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 −40 −30 −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 Monte Carlo Simulation 153 Here we see very clearly the shape of a bell curve. Though we haven’t gained that much in terms of knowing how likely the house is to be behind after 100 games, and how large its net loss is likely to be in that case, we do gain conﬁdence that our results after 1000 trials are a good depiction of the distribution of possible outcomes. Now we consider the net proﬁt after 1000 games. We expect on average the house to win 510 games and the player(s) to win 490, for a net proﬁt of 20 units. Again we start with just 100 trials. hist(profits(1000, 100), -100:10:150); axis tight 15 10 5 0 −100 −50 0 50 100 150 Though the range of observed values for the proﬁt after 1000 games is larger than the range for 100 games, the range of possible values is 10 times as large, so that relatively speaking the outcomes are closer together than before. This reﬂects the theoretical principle (also a consequence of the Central Limit Theorem) that the average “spread” of outcomes after a large number of trials should be proportional to the square root of n, the number of games played in each trial. This is important for the casino, since if the spread were proportional to n, then the casino could never be too sure of making a proﬁt. When√ we increase n by a factor of 10, the spread should only increase by a factor of 10, or a little more than 3. Note that after 1000 games, the house is deﬁnitely more likely to be ahead than behind. However, the chances of being behind are still sizable. Let’s repeat with 1000 trials to be more certain of our results. hist(profits(1000, 1000), -100:10:150); axis tight 154 Chapter 9: Applications 150 100 50 0 −100 −50 0 50 100 150 We see the bell curve shape emerging again. Though it is unlikely, the chances are not insigniﬁcant that the house is behind by more than 50 units after 1000 games. If each unit is worth $1000, then we might advise the casino to have at least $100,000 cash on hand to be prepared for this possibility. Maybe even that is not enough — to see we would have to experiment further. Finally, let’s see what happens after 10,000 games. We expect on average the house to be ahead by 200 units at this point, and based on our earlier discussion the range of values we use to make the histogram need only go up by a factor of 3 or so from the previous case. Even 100 trials will take a while to run now, but we have to start somewhere. hist(profits(10000, 100), -200:25:600); axis tight 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 −200 −100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Monte Carlo Simulation 155 It seems that turning a proﬁt after 10,000 games is highly likely, although with only 100 trials we do not get such a good idea of the worst-case scenario. Though it will take a good bit of time, we should certainly do 1000 trials or more if we are considering putting our money into such a venture. hist(profits(10000, 1000), -200:25:600); axis tight ??? Error using ==> inlineeval Error in inline expression ==> sum(sign(0.51 - rand(n, k))) ??? Error using ==> Out of memory. Type HELP MEMORY for your options. Error in ==> C:\\MATLABR12\\toolbox\\matlab\\funfun\\@inline\\subsref.m On line 25 ==> INLINE OUT = inlineeval(INLINE INPUTS , INLINE OBJ .inputExpr, INLINE OBJ .expr); This error message illustrates a potential hazard in using MATLAB’s vector and matrix operations in place of a loop: In this case the matrix rand(n,k) generated within the profits function must ﬁt in the memory of the computer. Since n is 10,000 and k is 1000 in our most recent attempt to run this function, we requested a matrix of 10,000,000 random numbers. Each ﬂoating point number in MATLAB takes up 8 bytes of memory, so the matrix would have required 80MB to store, which is too much for some computers. Since k represents a number of trials that can be done independently, a solution to the memory problem is to break the 1000 trials into 10 groups of 100, using a loop to run 100 trials 10 times and assemble the results. profitvec = []; for i = 1:10 profitvec = [profitvec profits(10000, 100)]; end hist(profitvec, -200:25:600); axis tight 156 Chapter 9: Applications 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 −200 −100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Though the chances of a loss after 10,000 games is quite small, the possibility cannot be ignored, and we might judge that the house should not rule out being behind at some point by 100 or more units. However, the overall upward trend seems clear, and we may expect that after 100,000 games the casino is overwhelmingly likely to have made a proﬁt. Based on our previous observations of the growth of the spread of outcomes, we expect that most of the time the net proﬁt will be within 1000 of the expected value of 2000. We show the results of 10 trials of 100,000 games below. profits(100000, 10) ans = Columns 1 through 2294 2078 Columns 7 through 1984 6 1946 2652 2630 10 1552 2138 1852 1872 Population Dynamics We are going to look at two models for population growth of a species. The ﬁrst is a standard exponential growth and decay model that describes quite well the population of a species becoming extinct, or the short-term behavior of a population growing in an unchecked fashion. The second, more realistic Population Dynamics 157 model, describes the growth of a species subject to constraints of space, food supply, competitors, and predators. Exponential Growth and Decay We assume that the species starts with an initial population P0 . The population after n times units is denoted Pn. Suppose that in each time interval, the population increases or decreases by a ﬁxed proportion of its value at the begining of the interval. Thus Pn = Pn−1 + r Pn−1 , n ≥ 1. The constant r represents the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. The population increases if r is positive, decreases if r is negative, and remains ﬁxed if r = 0. Here is a simple M-ﬁle that will compute the population at stage n, given the population at the previous stage and the rate r: function X = itseq(f, Xinit, n, r) % computing an iterative sequence of values X = zeros(n + 1, 1); X(1) = Xinit; for i = 1:n X(i + 1) = f(X(i), r); end In fact, this is a simple program for computing iteratively the values of a sequence an = f (an−1 ), n ≥ 1, provided you have previously entered the formula for the function f and the initial value of the sequence a0 . Note the extra parameter r built into the algorithm. Now let’s use the program to compute two populations at ﬁve-year intervals for different values of r: r = 0.1; Xinit = 100; f = inline(’x*(1 + r)’, ’x’, ’r’); X = itseq(f, Xinit, 100, r); format long; X(1:5:101) ans = 1.0e+006 * 0.00010000000000 0.00016105100000 0.00025937424601 0.00041772481694 158 Chapter 9: Applications 0.00067274999493 0.00108347059434 0.00174494022689 0.00281024368481 0.00452592555682 0.00728904836851 0.01173908528797 0.01890591424713 0.03044816395414 0.04903707252979 0.07897469567994 0.12718953713951 0.20484002145855 0.32989690295921 0.53130226118483 0.85566760466078 1.37806123398224 r = -0.1; X = itseq(f, Xinit, 100, r); X(1:5:101) ans = 1.0e+002 * 1.00000000000000 0.59049000000000 0.34867844010000 0.20589113209465 0.12157665459057 0.07178979876919 0.04239115827522 0.02503155504993 0.01478088294143 0.00872796356809 0.00515377520732 0.00304325272217 0.00179701029991 0.00106111661200 0.00062657874822 0.00036998848504 0.00021847450053 Population Dynamics 159 0.00012900700782 0.00007617734805 0.00004498196225 0.00002656139889 In the ﬁrst case, the population is growing rapidly; in the second, it is decaying rapidly. In fact, it is clear from the model that, for any n, the quotient Pn+1 /Pn = (1 + r), and therefore it follows that Pn = P0 (1 + r)n, n ≥ 0. This accounts for the expression exponential growth and decay. The model predicts a population growth without bound (for growing populations) and is therefore not realistic. Our next model allows for a check on the population caused by limited space, limited food supply, competitors and predators. Logistic Growth The previous model assumes that the relative change in population is constant, that is, (Pn+1 − Pn)/Pn = r. Now let’s build in a term that holds down the growth, namely (Pn+1 − Pn)/Pn = r − uPn. We shall simplify matters by assuming that u = 1 + r, so that our recursion relation becomes Pn+1 = uPn(1 − Pn), where u is a positive constant. In this model, the population P is constrained to lie between 0 and 1, and should be interpreted as a percentage of a maximum possible population in the environment in question. So let us set up the function we will use in the iterative procedure: clear f; f = inline(’u*x*(1 - x)’, ’x’, ’u’); Now let’s compute a few examples; and use plot to display the results. u = 0.5; Xinit = 0.5; X = itseq(f, Xinit, 20, u); plot(X) 160 Chapter 9: Applications 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 u = 1; X = itseq(f, Xinit, 20, u); plot(X) 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 u = 1.5; X = itseq(f, Xinit, 20, u); plot(X) 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.4 0.38 0.36 0.34 0.32 0 5 10 15 20 25 Population Dynamics 161 u = 3.4; X = itseq(f, Xinit, 20, u); plot(X) 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 In the ﬁrst computation, we have used our iterative program to compute the population density for 20 time intervals, assuming a logistic growth constant u = 0.5 and an initial population density of 50%. The population seems to be dying out. In the remaining examples, we kept the initial population density at 50%; the only thing we varied was the logistic growth constant. In the second example, with a growth constant u = 1, once again the population is dying out — although more slowly. In the third example, with a growth constant of 1.5 the population seems to be stabilizing at 33.3...%. Finally, in the last example, with a constant of 3.4 the population seems to oscillate between densities of approximately 45% and 84%. These examples illustrate the remarkable features of the logistic population dynamics model. This model has been studied for more than 150 years, with its origins lying in an analysis by the Belgian mathematician Pierre Verhulst. Here are some of the facts associated with this model. We will corroborate some of them with MATLAB. In particular, we shall use bar as well as plot to display some of the data. (1) The Logistic Constant Cannot Be Larger Than 4 For the model to work, the output at any point must be between 0 and 1. But the parabola ux(1 − x), for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, has its maximum height when x = 1/2, where its value is u/4. To keep that number between 0 and 1, we must restrict u to be at most 4. Here is what happens if u is bigger than 4: 162 Chapter 9: Applications u = 4.5; Xinit = 0.9; X = itseq(f, Xinit, 10, u) X = 1.0e+072 * 0.00000000000000 0.00000000000000 0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -3.49103403458070 (2) If 0 ≤ u ≤ 1, the Population Density Tends to Zero for Any Initial Conﬁguration X = itseq(f, 0.99, 100, 0.8); X(101) ans = 1.939524024691387e-012 X = itseq(f, 0.75, 20, 1); bar(X) 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Population Dynamics 163 (3) If 1 < u ≤ 3, the Population Will Stabilize at Density 1−1/u for Any Initial Density Other Than Zero The third of the original four examples corroborates the assertion (with u = 1.5 and 1 − 1/u = 1/3). In the following examples, we set u = 2, 2.5, and 3, so that 1 − 1/u equals 0.5, 0.6, and 0.666..., respectively. The convergence in the last computation is rather slow (as one might expect from a boundary case — or bifurcation point). X = itseq(f, 0.25, 100, 2); X(101) ans = 0.50000000000000 X = itseq(f, 0.75, 100, 2); X(101) ans = 0.50000000000000 X = itseq(f, 0.5, 20, 2.5); plot(X) 0.64 0.62 0.6 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.5 0 5 10 X = itseq(f, 0.75, 100, 3); bar(X); axis([0 100 0 0.8]) 15 20 25 164 Chapter 9: Applications 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (4) If 3 < u < 3.56994 . . . , Then There Is a Periodic Cycle The theory is quite subtle. For a fuller explanation, the reader may consult Encounters with Chaos, by Denny Gulick, McGraw-Hill, 1992, Section 1.5. In fact there is a sequence √ u0 = 3 < u1 = 1 + 6 < u2 < u3 < . . . < 4, such that between u0 and u1 there is a cycle of period 2, between u1 and u2 there is a cycle of period 4, and in general, between uk and uk+1 there is a cycle of period 2k+1 . One also knows that, at least for small k, one has the approximation uk+1 ≈ 1 + 3 + uk. So u1 = 1 + sqrt(6) u1 = 3.44948974278318 u2approx = 1 + sqrt(3 + u1) u2approx = 3.53958456106175 This explains the oscillatory behavior we saw in the last of the original four examples (with u0 < u = 3.4 < u1 ). Here is the behavior for u1 < u = 3.5 < u2 . The command bar is particularly effective here for spotting the cycle of order 4. X = itseq(f, 0.75, 100, 3.5); bar(X); axis([0 100 0 0.9]) Population Dynamics 165 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (5) There Is a Value u < 4 Beyond Which Chaos Ensues It is possible to prove that the sequence uk tends to a limit u∞ . The value of u∞ , sometimes called the Feigenbaum parameter, is aproximately 3.56994... . Let’s see what happens if we use a value of u between the Feigenbaum parameter and 4. X = itseq(f, 0.75, 100, 3.7); plot(X) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 This is an example of what mathematicians call a chaotic phenomenon! It is not random — the sequence was generated by a precise, ﬁxed mathematical procedure — but the results manifest no predictible pattern. Chaotic phenomena are unpredictable, but with modern methods (including computer analysis), mathematicians have been able to identify certain patterns of behavior in chaotic phenomena. For example, the last ﬁgure 166 Chapter 9: Applications suggests the possibility of unstable periodic cycles and other recurring phenomena. Indeed a great deal of information is known. The aforementioned book by Gulick is a ﬁne reference, as well as the source of an excellent bibliography on the subject. Rerunning the Model with SIMULINK The logistic growth model that we have been exploring lends itself particularly well to simulation using SIMULINK. Here is a simple SIMULINK model that corresponds to the above calculations: 1 1−x z Product 1 1 x u 3.7 Scope Unit Delay Logistic Constant x Discrete Pulse Generator Let’s brieﬂy explain how this works. If you ignore the Discrete Pulse Generator block and the Sum block in the lower left for a moment, this model implements the equation x at next time = ux(1 − x) at old time, which is the equation for the logistic model. The Scope block displays a plot of x as a function of (discrete) time. However, we need somehow to build in the initial condition for x. The simplest way to do this is as illustrated here: We add to the right-hand side a discrete pulse that is the initial value of x at time t = 0 and is 0 thereafter. Since the model is discrete, you can achieve this by setting the period of the Discrete Pulse Generator block to something longer than the length of the simulation, and setting the width of the pulse Population Dynamics 167 to 1 and the amplitude of the pulse to the initial value of x. The outputs from the model in the two interesting cases of u = 3.4 and u = 3.7 are shown here: In the ﬁrst case of u = 3.4, the periodic behavior is clearly visible. However, when u = 3.7, we get chaotic behavior. 168 Chapter 9: Applications Linear Economic Models MATLAB’s linear algebra capabilities make it a good vehicle for studying linear economic models, sometimes called Leontief models (after their primary developer, Nobel Prize-winning economist Wassily Leontief) or input-output models. We will give a few examples. The simplest such model is the linear exchange model or closed Leontief model of an economy. This model supposes that an economy is divided into, say, n sectors, such as agriculture, manufacturing, service, consumers, etc. Each sector receives input from the various sectors (including itself) and produces an output, which is divided among the various sectors. (For example, agriculture produces food for home consumption and for export, but also seeds and new livestock, which are reinvested in the agricultural sector, as well as chemicals that may be used by the manufacturing sector, and so on.) The meaning of a closed model is that total production is equal to total consumption. The economy is in equilibrium when each sector of the economy (at least) breaks even. For this to happen, the prices of the various outputs have to be adjusted by market forces. Let ai j denote the fraction of the output of the jth sector consumed by the ith sector. Then the ai j are the entries of a square matrix, called the exchange matrix A, each of whose columns sums to 1. Let pi be the price of the output of the ith sector of the economy. Since each sector is to at least break even, pi cannot be smaller than the value of the inputs consumed by the ith sector, or in other words, ai j p j . pi ≥ j But summing over i and using the fact that i ai j = 1, we see that both sides must be equal. In matrix language, that means that (I − A) p = 0, where p is the column vector of prices. Thus p is an eigenvector of A for the eigenvalue 1, and the theory of stochastic matrices implies (assuming that A is irreducible, meaning that there is no proper subset E of the sectors of the economy such that outputs from E all stay inside E) that p is uniquely determined up to a scalar factor. In other words, a closed irreducible linear economy has an essentially unique equilibrium state. For example, if we have A = [.3, .1, .05, .2; .1, .2, .3, .3; .3, .5, .2, .3; .3, .2, .45, .2] Linear Economic Models A 169 = 0.3000 0.1000 0.3000 0.3000 0.1000 0.2000 0.5000 0.2000 0.0500 0.3000 0.2000 0.4500 0.2000 0.3000 0.3000 0.2000 then as required, sum(A) ans = 1 1 1 1 That is, all the columns sum to 1, and [V, D] = eig(A); D(1, 1) p = V(:, 1) ans = 1.0000 p = 0.2739 0.4768 0.6133 0.5669 shows that 1 is an eigenvalue of A with price eigenvector p as shown. Somewhat more realistic is the (static, linear) open Leontief model of an economy, which takes labor, consumption, etc., into account. Let’s illustrate with an example. The following cell inputs an actual input-output transactions table for the economy of the United Kingdom in 1963. (This table is taken from Input-Output Analysis and its Applications by R. O’Connor and E. W. Henry, Hafner Press, New York, 1975.) Tables such as this one can be obtained from ofﬁcial government statistics. The table T is a 10 × 9 matrix. Units are millions of British pounds. The rows represent respectively, agriculture, industry, services, total inter-industry, imports, sales by ﬁnal buyers, indirect taxes, wages and proﬁts, total primary inputs, and total inputs. The columns represent, respectively, agriculture, industry, services, total inter-industry, consumption, capital formation, exports, total ﬁnal demand, and output. Thus outputs from each sector can be read off along a row, and inputs into a sector can be read off along a column. 170 Chapter 9: Applications T = [277, 444, 14, 735, 1123, 35, 51, 1209, 1944; ... 587, 11148, 1884, 13619, 8174, 4497, 3934, 16605, 30224; ... 236, 2915, 1572, 4723, 11657, 430, 1452, 13539, 18262; ... 1100, 14507, 3470, 19077, 20954, 4962, 5437, 31353, 50430; ... 133, 2844, 676, 3653, 1770, 250, 273, 2293, 5946; ... 3, 134, 42, 179, -90, -177, 88, -179, 0; ... -246, 499, 442, 695, 2675, 100, 17, 2792, 3487; ... 954, 12240, 13632, 26826, 0, 0, 0, 0, 26826; ... 844, 15717, 14792, 31353, 4355, 173, 378, 4906, 36259; ... 1944, 30224, 18262, 50430, 25309, 5135, 5815, 36259, 86689]; A few features of this matrix are apparent from the following: T(4, :) - T(1, :) - T(2, :) - T(3, :) T(9, :) - T(5, :) - T(6, :) - T(7, :) - T(8, :) T(10, :) - T(4, :) - T(9, :) T(10, 1:4) - T(1:4, 9)’ ans = 0 ans = 0 ans = 0 ans = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Thus the 4th row, which summarizes inter-industry inputs, is the sum of the ﬁrst three rows; the 9th row, which summarizes “primary inputs,” is the sum of rows 5 through 8; the 10th row, total inputs, is the sum of rows 4 and 9, and the ﬁrst four entries of the last row agree with the ﬁrst four entries of the last column (meaning that all output from the industrial sectors is accounted for). Also we have (T(:, 4) - T(:, 1) - T(:, 2) - T(:, 3))’ (T(:, 8) - T(:, 5) - T(:, 6) - T(:, 7))’ (T(:, 9) - T(:, 4) - T(:, 8))’ Linear Economic Models ans = ans = ans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 171 = So the 4th column, representing total inter-industry output, is the sum of columns 1 through 3; the 8th column, representing total “ﬁnal demand,” is the sum of columns 5 through 7; and the 9th column, representing total output, is the sum of columns 4 and 8. The matrix A of inter-industry technical coefﬁcients is obtained by dividing the columns of T corresponding to industrial sectors (in our case there are three of these) by the corresponding total inputs. Thus we have A = [T(:, 1)/T(10, 1), T(:, 2)/T(10, 2), T(:, 3)/T(10, 3)] A = 0.1425 0.3020 0.1214 0.5658 0.0684 0.0015 -0.1265 0.4907 0.4342 1.0000 0.0147 0.3688 0.0964 0.4800 0.0941 0.0044 0.0165 0.4050 0.5200 1.0000 0.0008 0.1032 0.0861 0.1900 0.0370 0.0023 0.0242 0.7465 0.8100 1.0000 Here the square upper block (the ﬁrst three rows) is most important, so we make the replacement A = A(1:3, :) A = 0.1425 0.3020 0.1214 0.0147 0.3688 0.0964 0.0008 0.1032 0.0861 If the vector Y represents total ﬁnal demand for the various industrial sectors, and the vector X represents total outputs for these sectors, then the 172 Chapter 9: Applications fact that the last column of T is the sum of columns 4 (total inter-industry outputs) and 8 (total ﬁnal demand) translates into the matrix equation X = AX + Y, or Y = (1 − A)X. Let’s check this: Y = T(1:3, 8); X = T(1:3, 9); Y - (eye(3) - A)*X ans = 0 0 0 Now one can do various numerical experiments. For example, what would be the effect on output of an increase of £10 billion (10,000 in the units of our problem) in ﬁnal demand for industrial output, with no corresponding increase in demand for services or for agricultural products? Since the economy is assumed to be linear, the change X in X is obtained by solving the linear equation Y = (1 − A)X, and deltaX = (eye(3) - A) \ [0; 10000; 0] deltaX = 1.0e+004 * 0.0280 1.6265 0.1754 Thus agricultural output would increase by £280 million, industrial output would increase by £16.265 billion, and service output would increase by £1.754 billion. We can illustrate the result of doing this for similar increases in demand for the other sectors with the following pie charts: deltaX1 = (eye(3) - A) \ [10000; 0; 0]; deltaX2 = (eye(3) - A) \ [0; 0; 10000]; subplot(1, 3, 1), pie(deltaX1, {’Agr.’, ’Ind.’, ’Serv.’}), subplot(1, 3, 2), pie(deltaX, {’Agr.’, ’Ind.’, ’Serv.’}), title(’Effect of increases in demand for each of the 3 sectors’, ’FontSize’,18), subplot(1, 3, 3), pie(deltaX2, {’Agr.’, ’Ind.’, ’Serv.’}); Linear Programming 173 Effect of increases in demand for each of the 3 sectors Agr. Serv. Serv. Ind. Agr. Ind. Agr. Ind. Serv. Linear Programming MATLAB is ideally suited to handle linear programming problems. These are problems in which you have a quantity, depending linearly on several variables, that you want to maximize or minimize subject to several constraints that are expressed as linear inequalities in the same variables. If the number of variables and the number of constraints are small, then there are numerous mathematical techniques for solving a linear programming problem — indeed these techniques are often taught in high school or university courses in ﬁnite mathematics. But sometimes these numbers are high, or even if low, the constants in the linear inequalities or the object expression for the quantity to be optimized may be numerically complicated — in which case a software package like MATLAB is required to effect a solution. We shall illustrate the method of linear programming by means of a simple example, giving a combination graphical-numerical solution, and then solve both a slightly and a substantially more complicated problem. Suppose a farmer has 75 acres on which to plant two crops: wheat and barley. To produce these crops, it costs the farmer (for seed, fertilizer, etc.) $120 per acre for the wheat and $210 per acre for the barley. The farmer has $15,000 available for expenses. But after the harvest, the farmer must store the crops while awaiting favorable market conditions. The farmer has 174 Chapter 9: Applications storage space for 4,000 bushels. Each acre yields an average of 110 bushels of wheat or 30 bushels of barley. If the net proﬁt per bushel of wheat (after all expenses have been subtracted) is $1.30 and for barley is $2.00, how should the farmer plant the 75 acres to maximize proﬁt? We begin by formulating the problem mathematically. First we express the objective, that is, the proﬁt, and the constraints algebraically, then we graph them, and lastly we arrive at the solution by graphical inspection and a minor arithmetic calculation. Let x denote the number of acres allotted to wheat and y the number of acres allotted to barley. Then the expression to be maximized, that is, the proﬁt, is clearly P = (110)(1.30)x + (30)(2.00)y = 143x + 60y. There are three constraint inequalities, speciﬁed by the limits on expenses, storage, and acreage. They are respectively 120x + 210y ≤ 15,000 110x + 30y ≤ 4,000 x + y ≤ 75. Strictly speaking there are two more constraint inequalities forced by the fact that the farmer cannot plant a negative number of acres, namely, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0. Next we graph the regions speciﬁed by the constraints. The last two say that we only need to consider the ﬁrst quadrant in the x-y plane. Here’s a graph delineating the triangular region in the ﬁrst quadrant determined by the ﬁrst inequality. X = 0:125; Y1 = (15000 - 120.*X)./210; area(X, Y1) Linear Programming 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Now let’s put in the other two constraint inequalities. Y2 = max((4000 - 110.*X)./30, 0); Y3 = max(75 - X, 0); Ytop = min([Y1; Y2; Y3]); area(X, Ytop) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 It’s a little hard to see the polygonal boundary of the region clearly. Let’s hone in a bit. area(X, Ytop); axis([0 40 40 75]) 175 176 Chapter 9: Applications 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Now let’s superimpose on top of this picture a contour plot of the objective function P. hold on [U V] = meshgrid(0:40, 40:75); contour(U, V, 143.*U + 60.*V); hold off 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 It seems apparent that the maximum value of P will occur on the level curve (that is, level line) that passes through the vertex of the polygon that lies near (23, 53). In fact we can compute [x, y] = solve(’x + y = 75’, ’110*x + 30*y = 4000’) x = 175/8 Linear Programming 177 y = 425/8 double([x, y]) ans = 21.8750 53.1250 The acreage that results in the maximum proﬁt is 21.875 for wheat and 53.125 for barley. In that case the proﬁt is P = 143*x + 60*y P= 50525/8 format bank; double(P) ans = 6315.63 that is, $6,315.63. This problem illustrates and is governed by the Fundamental Theorem of Linear Programming, stated here in two variables: A linear expression ax + by, deﬁned over a closed bounded convex set S whose sides are line segments, takes on its maximum value at a vertex of S and its minimum value at a vertex of S. If S is unbounded, there may or may not be an optimum value, but if there is, it occurs at a vertex. (A convex set is one for which any line segment joining two points of the set lies entirely inside the set.) In fact the SIMULINK toolbox has a built-in function, simlp, that implements the solution of a linear programming problem. The optimization toolbox has an almost identical function called linprog. You can learn about either one from the online help. We will use simlp on the above problem. After that we will use it to solve two more complicated problems involving more variables and constraints. Here is the beginning of the output from help simlp: SIMLP Helper function for GETXO; solves linear programming problem. 178 Chapter 9: Applications X=SIMLP(f,A,b) solves the linear programming problem: min f’x x subject to: Ax <= b So f = [-143 -60]; A = [120 210; 110 30; 1 1; -1 0; 0 -1]; b = [15000; 4000; 75; 0; 0]; format short; simlp(f, A, b) ans = 21.8750 53.1250 This is the same answer we obtained before. Note that we entered the negative of the coefﬁcient vector for the objective function P because simlp searches for a minimum rather than a maximum. Note also that the nonnegativity constraints are accounted for in the last two rows of A and b. Well, we could have done this problem by hand. But suppose that the farmer is dealing with a third crop, say corn, and that the corresponding data are cost per acre yield per acre proﬁt per bushel $150.75 125 bushels $1.56. If we denote the number of acres allotted to corn by z, then the objective function becomes P = (110)(1.30)x + (30)(2.00)y + (125)(1.56) = 143x + 60y + 195z, and the constraint inequalities are 120x + 210y + 150.75z ≤ 15,000 110x + 30y + 125z ≤ 4,000 x + y + z ≤ 75 x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, z ≥ 0. The problem is solved with simlp as follows: clear f A b; f = [-143 -60 -195]; A = [120 210 150.75; 110 30 125; 1 1 1;... Linear Programming 179 -1 0 0; 0 -1 0; 0 0 -1]; b = [15000; 4000; 75; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) ans = 0.0000 56.5789 18.4211 So the farmer should ditch the wheat and plant 56.5789 acres of barley and 18.4211 acres of corn. There is no practical limit on the number of variables and constraints that MATLAB can handle — certainly none that the relatively unsophisticated user will encounter. Indeed, in many true applications of the technique of linear programming, one needs to deal with many variables and constraints. The solution of such a problem by hand is not feasible, and software such as MATLAB is crucial to success. For example, in the farming problem with which we have been working, one could have more than two or three crops. (Think agribusiness instead of family farmer.) And one could have constraints that arise from other things besides expenses, storage, and acreage limitations, for example: r Availability of seed. This might lead to constraint inequalities such as x j ≤ k. r Personal preferences. Thus the farmer’s spouse might have a preference for one variety or group of varieties over another, and insist on a corresponding planting, thus leading to constraint inequalities such as xi ≤ x j or x1 + x2 ≥ x3 . r Government subsidies. It may take a moment’s reﬂection on the reader’s part, but this could lead to inequalities such as x j ≥ k. Below is a sequence of commands that solves exactly such a problem. You should be able to recognize the objective expression and the constraints from the data that are entered. But as an aid, you might answer the following questions: r How many crops are under consideration? r What are the corresponding expenses? How much money is available for expenses? r What are the yields in each case? What is the storage capacity? r How many acres are available? 180 Chapter 9: Applications r What crops are constrained by seed limitations? To what extent? r What about preferences? r What are the minimum acreages for each crop? clear f A b f = [-110*1.3 -30*2.0 -125*1.56 -75*1.8 -95*.95 -100*2.25 50*1.35]; A = [120 210 150.75 115 186 140 85; 110 30 125 75 95 100 50; 1 1 1 1 1 1 1; 1 0 0 0 0 0 0; 0 0 1 0 0 0 0; 0 0 0 0 0 1 0; 1 -1 0 0 0 0 0; 0 0 1 0 -2 0 0; 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 1; -1 0 0 0 0 0 0; 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0; 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0; 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0; 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0; 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0; 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1]; b = [55000;40000;400;100;50;250;0;0;0;-10;-10;-10; -10;-20;-20;-20]; simlp(f, A, b) ans = 10.0000 10.0000 40.0000 45.6522 20.0000 250.0000 20.0000 Note that despite the complexity of the problem, MATLAB solves it almost instantaneously. It seems the farmer should bet the farm on crop number 6. We suggest you alter the expense and/or the storage limit in the problem and see what effect that has on the answer. The 360 Pendulum ˚ Normally we think of a pendulum as a weight suspended by a ﬂexible string or cable, so that it may swing back and forth. Another type of pendulum consists of a weight attached by a light (but inﬂexible) rod to an axle, so that The 360˚ Pendulum 181 it can swing through larger angles, even making a 360◦ rotation if given enough velocity. Though it is not precisely correct in practice, we often assume that the magnitude of the frictional forces that eventually slow the pendulum to a halt is proportional to the velocity of the pendulum. Assume also that the length of the pendulum is 1 meter, the weight at the end of the pendulum has mass 1 kg, and the coefﬁcient of friction is 0.5. In that case, the equations of motion for the pendulum are x (t) = y(t), y (t) = −0.5y(t) − 9.81 sin(x(t)), where t represents time in seconds, x represents the angle of the pendulum from the vertical in radians (so that x = 0 is the rest position), y represents the velocity of the pendulum in radians per second, and 9.81 is approximately the acceleration due to gravity in meters per second squared. Here is a phase portrait of the solution with initial position x(0) = 0 and initial velocity y(0) = 5. This is a graph of x versus y as a function of t, on the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 20. g = inline(’[x(2); -0.5*x(2) - 9.81*sin(x(1))]’, ’t’, ’x’); [t, xa] = ode45(g, [0 20], [0 5]); plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Recall that the x coordinate corresponds to the angle of the pendulum and the y coordinate corresponds to its velocity. Starting at (0, 5), as t increases we follow the curve as it spirals clockwise toward (0, 0). The angle oscillates back and forth, but with each swing it gets smaller until the pendulum is virtually at rest by the time t = 20. Meanwhile the velocity oscillates as well, taking its maximum value during each oscillation when the pendulum is in 182 Chapter 9: Applications the middle of its swing (the angle is near zero) and crossing zero when the pendulum is at the end of its swing. Next we increase the initial velocity to 10. [t, xa] = ode45(g, [0 20], [0 10]); plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) 10 5 0 −5 0 5 10 15 This time the angle increases to over 14 radians before the curve spirals in to a point near (12.5, 0). More precisely, it spirals toward (4π , 0), because 4π radians represents the same position for the pendulum as 0 radians does. The pendulum has swung overhead and made two complete revolutions before beginning its damped oscillation toward its rest position. The velocity at ﬁrst decreases but then rises after the angle passes through π , as the pendulum passes the upright position and gains momentum. The pendulum has just enough momentum to swing through the upright position once more at the angle 3π. Now suppose we want to ﬁnd, to within 0.1, the minimum initial velocity required to make the pendulum, starting from its rest position, swing overhead once. It will be useful to be able to see the solutions corresponding to several different initial velocities on one graph. First we consider the integer velocities 5 to 10. hold on for a = 5:10 [t, xa] = ode45(g, [0 20], [0 a]); plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) end hold off The 360˚ Pendulum 183 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Initial velocities 5, 6, 7 are not large enough for the angle to increase past π , but initial velocities 8, 9, 10 are enough to make the pendulum swing overhead. Let’s see what happens between 7 and 8. hold on for a = 7.0:0.2:8.0 [t, xa] = ode45(g, [0 20], [0 a]); plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) end hold off 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 We see that the cutoff is somewhere between 7.2 and 7.4. Let’s make one more reﬁnement. hold on for a = 7.2:0.05:7.4 [t, xa] = ode45(g, [0 20], [0 a]); 184 Chapter 9: Applications plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) end hold off 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 We conclude that the minimum velocity needed is somewhere between 7.25 and 7.3. Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation In this section we will use MATLAB to numerically solve the heat equation (also known as the diffusion equation), a partial differential equation that describes many physical processes including conductive heat ﬂow or the diffusion of an impurity in a motionless ﬂuid. You can picture the process of diffusion as a drop of dye spreading in a glass of water. (To a certain extent you could also picture cream in a cup of coffee, but in that case the mixing is generally complicated by the ﬂuid motion caused by pouring the cream into the coffee and is further accelerated by stirring the coffee.) The dye consists of a large number of individual particles, each of which repeatedly bounces off of the surrounding water molecules, following an essentially random path. There are so many dye particles that their individual random motions form an essentially deterministic overall pattern as the dye spreads evenly in all directions (we ignore here the possible effect of gravity). In a similar way, you can imagine heat energy spreading through random interactions of nearby particles. In a three-dimensional medium, the heat equation is 2 ∂ u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂u =k + + . ∂t ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ∂z2 Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation 185 Here u is a function of t, x, y, and z that represents the temperature, or concentration of impurity in the case of diffusion, at time t at position (x, y, z) in the medium. The constant k depends on the materials involved; it is called the thermal conductivity in the case of heat ﬂow and the diffusion coefﬁcient in the case of diffusion. To simplify matters, let us assume that the medium is instead one-dimensional. This could represent diffusion in a thin water-ﬁlled tube or heat ﬂow in a thin insulated rod or wire; let us think primarily of the case of heat ﬂow. Then the partial differential equation becomes ∂ 2u ∂u = k 2, ∂t ∂x where u(x, t) is the temperature at time t a distance x along the wire. A Finite Difference Solution To solve this partial differential equation we need both initial conditions of the form u(x, 0) = f (x), where f (x) gives the temperature distribution in the wire at time 0, and boundary conditions at the endpoints of the wire; call them x = a and x = b. We choose so-called Dirichlet boundary conditions u(a, t) = Ta and u(b, t) = Tb, which correspond to the temperature being held steady at values Ta and Tb at the two endpoints. Though an exact solution is available in this scenario, let us instead illustrate the numerical method of ﬁnite differences. To begin with, on the computer we can only keep track of the temperature u at a discrete set of times and a discrete set of positions x. Let the times be 0,t, 2t, . . . , Nt, and let the positions be a, a + x, . . . , a + Jx = b, and let unj = u(a + jt, nt). Rewriting the partial differential equation in terms of ﬁnite-difference approximations to the derivatives, we get − unj un+1 j t =k unj+1 − 2unj + unj−1 x 2 . (These are the simplest approximations we can use for the derivatives, and this method can be reﬁned by using more accurate approximations, especially for the t derivative.) Thus if for a particular n, we know the values for each j: of u jn for all j, we can solve the equation above to ﬁnd un+1 j = unj + un+1 j kt n u j+1 − 2unj + unj−1 = s unj+1 + unj−1 + (1 − 2s)unj, 2 x where s = kt/(x)2 . In other words, this equation tells us how to ﬁnd the temperature distribution at time step n + 1 given the temperature 186 Chapter 9: Applications distribution at time step n. (At the endpoints j = 0 and j = J, this equation refers to temperatures outside the prescribed range for x, but at these points we will ignore the equation above and apply the boundary conditions instead.) We can interpret this equation as saying that the temperature at a given location at the next time step is a weighted average of its temperature and the temperatures of its neighbors at the current time step. In other words, in time t, a given section of the wire of length x transfers to each of its neighbors a portion s of its heat energy and keeps the remaining portion 1 − 2s of its heat energy. Thus our numerical implementation of the heat equation is a discretized version of the microscopic description of diffusion we gave initially, that heat energy spreads due to random interactions between nearby particles. The following M-ﬁle, which we have named heat.m, iterates the procedure described above: function u = heat(k, x, t, init, bdry) % solve the 1D heat equation on the rectangle described by % vectors x and t with u(x, t(1)) = init and Dirichlet % boundary conditions % u(x(1), t) = bdry(1), u(x(end), t) = bdry(2). J = length(x); N = length(t); dx = mean(diff(x)); dt = mean(diff(t)); s = k*dt/dxˆ2; u = zeros(N,J); u(1, :) = init; for n = 1:N-1 u(n+1, 2:J-1) = s*(u(n, 3:J) + u(n, 1:J-2)) +... (1 - 2*s)*u(n, 2:J-1); u(n+1, 1) = bdry(1); u(n+1, J) = bdry(2); end The function heat takes as inputs the value of k, vectors of t and x values, a vector init of initial values (which is assumed to have the same length as x), and a vector bdry containing a pair of boundary values. Its output is a matrix of u values. Notice that since indices of arrays in MATLAB must start at 1, not 0, we have deviated slightly from our earlier notation by letting n=1 Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation 187 represent the initial time and j=1 represent the left endpoint. Notice also that in the ﬁrst line following the for statement, we compute an entire row of u, except for the ﬁrst and last values, in one line; each term is a vector of length J-2, with the index j increased by 1 in the term u(n,3:J) and decreased by 1 in the term u(n,1:J-2). Let’s use the M-ﬁle above to solve the one-dimensional heat equation with k = 2 on the interval −5 ≤ x ≤ 5 from time 0 to time 4, using boundary temperatures 15 and 25, and initial temperature distribution of 15 for x < 0 and 25 for x > 0. You can imagine that two separate wires of length 5 with different temperatures are joined at time 0 at position x = 0, and each of their far ends remains in an environment that holds it at its initial temperature. We must choose values for t and x; let’s try t = 0.1 and x = 0.5, so that there are 41 values of t ranging from 0 to 4 and 21 values of x ranging from −5 to 5. tvals = linspace(0, 4, 41); xvals = linspace(-5, 5, 21); init = 20 + 5*sign(xvals); uvals = heat(2, xvals, tvals, init, [15 25]); surf(xvals, tvals, uvals) xlabel x; ylabel t; zlabel u 12 x 10 1 u 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 4 5 3 2 0 1 t 0 −5 x Chapter 9: Applications Here we used surf to show the entire solution u(x, t). The output is clearly unrealistic; notice the scale on the u axis! The numerical solution of partial differential equations is fraught with dangers, and instability like that seen above is a common problem with ﬁnite difference schemes. For many partial differential equations a ﬁnite difference scheme will not work at all, but for the heat equation and similar equations it will work well with proper choice of t and x. One might be inclined to think that since our choice of x was larger, it should be reduced, but in fact this would only make matters worse. Ultimately the only parameter in the iteration we’re using is the constant s, and one drawback of doing all the computations in an M-ﬁle as we did above is that we do not automatically see the intermediate quantities it computes. In this case we can easily calculate that s = 2(0.1)/(0.5)2 = 0.8. Notice that this implies that the coefﬁcient 1 − 2s of unj in the iteration above is negative. Thus the “weighted average” we described before in our interpretation of the iterative step is not a true average; each section of wire is transferring more energy than it has at each time step! The solution to the problem above is thus to reduce the time step t; for instance, if we cut it in half, then s = 0.4, and all coefﬁcients in the iteration are positive. tvals = linspace(0, 4, 81); uvals = heat(2, xvals, tvals, init, [15 25]); surf(xvals, tvals, uvals) xlabel x; ylabel t; zlabel u 25 u 188 20 15 4 5 3 2 0 1 t 0 −5 x Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation 189 This looks much better! As time increases, the temperature distribution seems to approach a linear function of x. Indeed u(x, t) = 20 + x is the limiting “steady state” for this problem; it satisﬁes the boundary conditions and it yields 0 on both sides of the partial differential equation. Generally speaking, it is best to understand some of the theory of partial differential equations before attempting a numerical solution like we have done here. However, for this particular case at least, the simple rule of thumb of keeping the coefﬁcients of the iteration positive yields realistic results. A theoretical examination of the stability of this ﬁnite difference scheme for the one-dimensional heat equation shows that indeed any value of s between 0 and 0.5 will work, and it suggests that the best value of t to use for a given x is the one that makes s = 0.25. (See Partial Differential Equations: An Introduction, by Walter A. Strauss, John Wiley and Sons, 1992.) Notice that while we can get more accurate results in this case by reducing x, if we reduce it by a factor of 10 we must reduce t by a factor of 100 to compensate, making the computation take 1000 times as long and use 1000 times the memory! The Case of Variable Conductivity Earlier we mentioned that the problem we solved numerically could also be solved analytically. The value of the numerical method is that it can be applied to similar partial differential equations for which an exact solution is not possible or at least not known. For example, consider the one-dimensional heat equation with a variable coefﬁcient, representing an inhomogeneous material with varying thermal conductivity k(x), ∂ ∂u ∂ 2u ∂u ∂u = k(x) = k(x) 2 + k (x) . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x For the ﬁrst derivatives on the right-hand side, we use a symmetric ﬁnite difference approximation, so that our discrete approximation to the partial differential equations becomes − unj un+1 j t = kj unj+1 − 2unj + unj−1 x 2 + n n kj+1 − kj−1 u j+1 − u j−1 , 2x 2x where kj = k(a + jx). Then the time iteration for this method is = s j unj+1 + unj−1 + (1 − 2s j ) unj + 0.25 (s j+1 − s j−1 ) unj+1 − unj−1 , un+1 j 190 Chapter 9: Applications where s j = kj t/(x)2 . In the following M-ﬁle, which we called heatvc.m, we modify our previous M-ﬁle to incorporate this iteration. function u = heatvc(k, x, t, init, bdry) % Solve the 1D heat equation with variable coefficient k on % the rectangle described by vectors x and t with % u(x, t(1)) = init and Dirichlet boundary conditions % u(x(1), t) = bdry(1), u(x(end), t) = bdry(2). J = length(x); N = length(t); dx = mean(diff(x)); dt = mean(diff(t)); s = k*dt/dxˆ2; u = zeros(N,J); u(1,:) = init; for n = 1:N-1 u(n+1, 2:J-1) = s(2:J-1).*(u(n, 3:J) + u(n, 1:J-2)) + ... (1 - 2*s(2:J-1)).*u(n,2:J-1) + ... 0.25*(s(3:J) - s(1:J-2)).*(u(n, 3:J) - u(n, 1:J-2)); u(n+1, 1) = bdry(1); u(n+1, J) = bdry(2); end Notice that k is now assumed to be a vector with the same length as x and that as a result so is s. This in turn requires that we use vectorized multiplication in the main iteration, which we have now split into three lines. Let’s use this M-ﬁle to solve the one-dimensional variable-coefﬁcient heat equation with the same boundary and initial conditions as before, using k(x) = 1 + (x/5)2 . Since the maximum value of k is 2, we can use the same values of t and x as before. kvals = 1 + (xvals/5).ˆ2; uvals = heatvc(kvals, xvals, tvals, init, [15 25]); surf(xvals, tvals, uvals) xlabel x; ylabel t; zlabel u Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation 191 u 25 20 15 4 5 3 2 0 1 t 0 −5 x In this case the limiting temperature distribution is not linear; it has a steeper temperature gradient in the middle, where the thermal conductivity is lower. Again one could ﬁnd the exact form of this limiting distribution, u(x, t) = 20(1 + (1/π)arctan(x/5)), by setting the t derivative to zero in the original equation and solving the resulting ordinary differential equation. You can use the method of ﬁnite differences to solve the heat equation in two or three space dimensions as well. For this and other partial differential equations with time and two space dimensions, you can also use the PDE Toolbox, which implements the more sophisticated ﬁnite element method. A SIMULINK Solution We can also solve the heat equation using SIMULINK. To do this we continue to approximate the x derivatives with ﬁnite differences, but we think of the equation as a vector-valued ordinary differential equation, with t as the independent variable. SIMULINK solves the model using MATLAB’s ODE solver, ode45. To illustrate how to do this, let’s take the same example we started with, the case where k = 2 on the interval −5 ≤ x ≤ 5 from time 0 to time 4, using boundary temperatures 15 and 25, and initial temperature distribution of 15 for x < 0 and 25 for x > 0. We replace u(x, t) for ﬁxed t by the vector u of values of u(x, t), with, say, x = -5:5. Here there are 11 192 Chapter 9: Applications values of x at which we are sampling u, but since u(x, t) is pre-determined at the endpoints, we can take u to be a 9-dimensional vector, and we just tack on the values at the endpoints when we’re done. Since we’re replacing ∂ 2 u/∂ x 2 by its ﬁnite difference approximation and we’ve taken x = 1 for simplicity, our equation becomes the vector-valued ODE ∂u = k(Au + c). ∂t Here the right-hand side represents our approximation to k(∂ 2 u/∂ x 2 ). The matrix A is −2 1 ··· 0 .. 1 −2 . . . . , A= . . . . . . . . . 1 0 · · · 1 −2 since we are replacing ∂ 2 u/∂ x 2 at (n, t) with u(n − 1, t) − 2u(n, t) + u(n + 1, t). We represent this matrix in MATLAB’s notation by -2*eye(9) + [zeros(8,1),eye(8);zeros(1,9)] +... [zeros(8,1),eye(8);zeros(1,9)]’ The vector c comes from the boundary conditions, and has 15 in its ﬁrst entry, 25 in its last entry, and 0s in between. We represent it in MATLAB’s notation as [15;zeros(7,1);25] The formula for c comes from the fact that u(1) represents u(−4, t), and ∂ 2 u/∂ x 2 at this point is approximated by u(−5, t) − 2u(−4, t) + u(−3, t) = 15 − 2 u(1) + u(2), and similarly at the other endpoint. Here’s a SIMULINK model representing this equation: 1 s Integrator Scope K*u 2 Gain k –C– boundary conditions Note that one needs to specify the initial conditions for u as Block Parameters for the Integrator block, and that in the Block Parameters dialog Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation 193 box for the Gain block, one needs to set the multiplication type to “Matrix”. Since u(1) through u(4) represent u(x, t) at x = −4 through −1, and u(6) through u(9) represent u(x, t) at x = 1 through 4, we take the initial value of u to be [15*ones(4,1);20;25*ones(4,1)]. (The value 20 is a compromise at x = 0, since this is right in the middle of the regions where u is 15 and 25.) The output from the model is displayed in the Scope block in the form of graphs of the various entries of u as functions of t, but it’s more useful to save the output to the MATLAB Workspace and then plot it with surf. To do this, go to the menu item Simulation Parameters... in the Simulation menu of the model. Under the Solver tab, set the stop time to 4.0 (since we are only going out to t = 4), and under the Workspace I/O tab, check the “States” box under “Save to workspace”, like this: After you run the model, you will ﬁnd in your Workspace a 53 × 1 vector tout, plus a 53 × 9 matrix uout. Each row of these arrays corresponds to a single time step, and each column of uout corresponds to one value of x. But remember that we have to add in the values of u at the endpoints as additional columns in u. So we plot the data as follows: u = [15*ones(length(tout),1), uout, 25*ones(length(tout),1)]; x = -5:5; surf(x, tout, u) xlabel(’x’), ylabel(’t’), zlabel(’u’) title(’solution to heat equation in a rod’) 194 Chapter 9: Applications solution to heat equation in a rod u 25 20 15 20 5 15 10 0 5 t 0 −5 x Note how similar this is to the picture obtained before. We leave it to the reader to modify the model for the case of variable heat conductivity. Solution with pdepe A new feature of MATLAB 6.0 is a built-in solver for partial differential equations in one space dimension (as well as time t). To ﬁnd out more about it, read the online help on pdepe. The instructions for use of pdepe are quite explicit but somewhat complicated. The method it uses is somewhat similar to that used in the SIMULINK solution above; that is, it uses an ODE solver in t and ﬁnite differences in x. The following M-ﬁle solves the second problem above, the one with variable conductivity. Note the use of function handles and subfunctions. function heateqex2 % Solves a sample Dirichlet problem for the heat equation in a % rod, this time with variable conductivity, 21 mesh points m = 0; %This simply means geometry is linear. x = linspace(-5,5,21); t = linspace(0,4,81); sol = pdepe(m,@pdex,@pdexic,@pdexbc,x,t); % Extract the first solution component as u. u = sol(:,:,1); % A surface plot is often a good way to study a solution. Numerical Solution of the Heat Equation 195 surf(x,t,u); title([’Numerical solution’,... ’computed with 21 mesh points in x.’]) xlabel(’x’), ylabel(’t’), zlabel(’u’) % A solution profile can also be illuminating. figure plot(x,u(end,:)) title(’Solution at t = 4’) xlabel(’x’), ylabel(’u(x,4)’) %---------------------------------------------------------function [c,f,s] = pdex(x,t,u,DuDx) c = 1; f = (1 + (x/5).ˆ2)*DuDx; % flux is variable conductivity times u x s = 0; % --------------------------------------------------------function u0 = pdexic(x) % initial condition at t = 0 u0 = 20+5*sign(x); % --------------------------------------------------------function [pl,ql,pr,qr] = pdexbc(xl,ul,xr,ur,t) % q’s are zero since we have Dirichlet conditions % pl = 0 at the left, pr = 0 at the right endpoint pl = ul-15; ql = 0; pr = ur-25; qr = 0; Running it gives heateqex2 Numerical solution computed with 21 mesh points in x. u 25 20 15 4 5 3 2 0 1 t 0 –5 x 196 Chapter 9: Applications Solution at t = 4 25 24 23 22 u(x,4) 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 Again the results are very similar to those obtained before. A Model of Traffic Flow Everyone has had the experience of sitting in a trafﬁc jam, or of seeing cars bunch up on a road for no apparent good reason. MATLAB and SIMULINK are good tools for studying models of such behavior. Our analysis here will be based on “follow-the-leader” theories of trafﬁc ﬂow, about which you can read more in Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Trafﬁc, by Ilya Prigogine and Robert Herman, Elsevier, New York, 1971 or in The Theory of Road Trafﬁc Flow, by Winifred Ashton, Methuen, London, 1966. We will analyze here an extremely simple model that already exhibits quite complicated behavior. We consider a one-lane, one-way, circular road with a number of cars on it (a very primitive model of, say, the Inner Loop of the Capital Beltway around Washington, DC, since in very dense trafﬁc, it is hard to change lanes and each lane behaves like a one-lane road). Each driver slows down or speeds up on the basis of his or her own speed, the speed of the car directly ahead, and the distance to the car ahead. But human drivers have a ﬁnite reaction time. In other words, it takes them a certain amount of time (usually about a second) to observe what is going on around them and to press the gas pedal or the brake, as appropriate. The standard “follow-the-leader” theory supposes that ün(t + T) = λ(u̇n−1 (t) − u̇n(t)), (∗ ) where t is time; T is the reaction time; un is the position of the nth car; and A Model of Trafﬁc Flow 197 the “sensitivity coefﬁcient” λ may depend on un−1 (t) − un(t), the spacing between cars, and/or u̇n(t), the speed of the nth car. The idea behind this equation is this. Drivers will tend to decelerate if they are going faster than the car in front of them, or if they are close to the car in front of them, and will tend to accelerate if they are going slower than the car in front of them. In addition, drivers (especially in light trafﬁc) may tend to speed up or slow down depending on whether they are going slower or faster (respectively) than a “reasonable” speed for the road (often, but not always, equal to the posted speed limit). Since our road is circular, in this equation u0 is interpreted as uN, where N is the total number of cars. The simplest version of the model is the one where the “sensitivity coefﬁcient” λ is a (positive) constant. Then we have a homogeneous linear differential-difference equation with constant coefﬁcients for the velocities u̇n(t). Obviously there is a “steady state” solution when all the velocities are equal and constant (i.e., trafﬁc is ﬂowing at a uniform speed), but what we are interested in is the stability of the ﬂow, or the question of what effect is produced by small differences in the velocities of the cars. The solution of (*) will be a superposition of exponential solutions of the form u̇n(t) = exp(αt)vn, where the vns and α are (complex) constants, and the system will be unstable if the velocities are unbounded; that is, there are any solutions where the real part of α is positive. Using vector notation, we have u̇(t) = exp(α t)v, ü(t + T) = α exp(α T) exp(α t)v. Substituting back in (*), we get the equation α exp(α T) exp(α t)v = λ(S − I) exp(α t)v, where 0 1 0 S= · · · · · · 0 1 0 · · · 0 1 · · · · · · · · · · · 1 0 · · · 0 1 0 is the “shift” matrix that, when it multiplies a vector on the left, cyclically permutes the entries of the vector. We can cancel the exp(α t) on each side to get α exp(α T)v = λ(S − I)v, or {S − [1 + (α/λ) exp(α T )]I }v = 0, (∗∗ ) Chapter 9: Applications which says that v is an eigenvector for S with eigenvalue 1 + (α/λ)eαT . Since the eigenvalues of S are the Nth roots of unity, which are evenly spaced around the unit circle in the complex plane, and closely spaced together for large N, there is potential instability whenever 1 + (α/λ)eαT has absolute value 1 for some α with positive real part: that is, whenever (αT/λT)eαT can be of the form eiθ − 1 for some αT with positive real part. Whether instability occurs or not depends on the value of the product λT. We can see this by plotting values of z exp(z) for z = αT = iy a complex number on the critical line Re z = 0, and comparing with plots of λT(eiθ − 1) for various values of the parameter λT. syms y; expand(i*y*(cos(y) + i*sin(y))) ans = i*y*cos(y)-y*sin(y) ezplot(-y*sin(y), y*cos(y), [-2*pi, 2*pi]); hold on theta = 0:0.05*pi:2*pi; plot((1/2)*(cos(theta) - 1), (1/2)*sin(theta), ’-’); plot(cos(theta) - 1, sin(theta), ’:’) plot(2*(cos(theta) - 1), 2*sin(theta), ’--’); title(’iyeˆ{iy} and circles \lambda T(eˆ{i\theta}-1)’); hold off iy iθ iye and circles λ T(e –1) 6 4 2 y 198 0 –2 –4 –6 –6 –4 –2 0 2 x 4 6 8 A Model of Trafﬁc Flow 199 Here the small solid circle corresponds to λT = 1/2, and we are just at the limit of stability, since this circle does not cross the spiral produced by z exp(z) for z a complex number on the critical line Re z = 0, though it “hugs” the spiral closely. The dotted and dashed circles, corresponding to λT = 1 or 2, do cross the spiral, so they correspond to unstable trafﬁc ﬂow. We can check these theoretical predictions with a simulation using SIMULINK. We’ll give a picture of the SIMULINK model and then explain it. In1 Out1 5 5 5 –C– 1 xo s 5 5 5 5 5 Integrate u" to get u' initial velocities .8 sensitivity parameter Subsystem: computes velocity differences Reaction–time Delay car speeds 5 5 5 1 xo s 5 5 relative car positions 5 Integrate u' to get u 5 Ramp 5 –C– 5 carpositions To Workspace initial car positions Here the subsystem, which corresponds to multiplication by S − I, looks like this: 5 5 4 1 In1 5 5 1 Out1 5 5 em 4 Here are some words of explanation. First, we are showing the model using the options Wide nonscalar lines and Signal dimensions in the Format 200 Chapter 9: Applications menu of the SIMULINK model, to distinguish quantities that are vectors from those that are scalars. The dimension 5 on most of the lines is the value of N, the number of cars. Most of the model is like the example in Chapter 8, except that our unknown function (called u), representing the car positions, is vector-valued and not scalar-valued. The major exceptions are these: 1. We need to incorporate the reaction-time delay, so we’ve inserted a Transport Delay block from the Continuous block library. 2. The parameter λ shows up as the value of the gain in the sensitivity parameter Gain block in the upper right. 3. Plotting car positions by themselves is not terribly useful, since only the relative positions matter. So before outputting the car positions to the Scope block labeled “relative car positions,” we’ve subtracted off a constant linear function (corresponding to uniform motion at the average car speed) created by the Ramp block from the Sources block library. 4. We’ve made use of the option in the Integrator blocks to input the initial conditions, instead of having them built into the block. This makes the logical structure a little clearer. 5. We’ve used the subsystem feature of SIMULINK. If you enclose a bunch of blocks with the mouse and then click on “Create subsystem” in the model’s Edit menu, SIMULINK will package them as a subsystem. This is helpful if your model is large or if there is some combination of blocks that you expect to use more than once. Our subsystem sends a vector v to (S − I)v = Sv − v. A Sum block (with one of the signs changed to a −) is used for vector subtraction. To model the action of S, we’ve used the Demux and Mux blocks from the Signals and Systems block library. The Demux block, with “number of outputs” parameter set to [4, 1], splits a ﬁve-dimensional vector into a pair consisting of a four-dimensional vector and a scalar (corresponding to the last car). Then we reverse the order and put them back together with the Mux block, with “number of inputs” parameter set to [1, 4]. Once the model is assembled, it can be run with various inputs. The following pictures show the two scope windows with a set of conditions corresponding to stable ﬂow (though, to be honest, we’ve let two cars cross through each other brieﬂy!): A Model of Trafﬁc Flow 201 As you can see, the speeds ﬂuctuate but eventually converge to a single value, and the separations between cars eventually stabilize. In contrast, if λ is increased by changing the “sensitivity parameter” in the Gain block in the upper right, say from 0.8 to 2.0, one gets this sort of output, typical of instability: 202 Chapter 9: Applications We encourage you to go back and tinker with the model (for instance using a sensitivity parameter that is also inversely proportional to the spacing between cars) and study the results. We should mention that the To Workspace block in the lower right has been put in to make it possible to create a movie of the moving cars. This block sends the car positions to a variable called carpositions. This variable is what is called a structure array. To make use of it, you can create a movie with the following script M-ﬁle: theta = 0:0.025*pi:2*pi; for j = 1:length(tout) plot(cos(carpositions.signals.values(j, :)*2*pi), ... sin(carpositions.signals.values(j, :)*2*pi), ’o’); axis([-1, 1, -1, 1]); hold on; plot(cos(theta), sin(theta), ’r’); hold off; axis equal; M(j) = getframe; end The idea here is that we have taken the circular road to have radius 1 (in suitable units), so that the command plot(cos(theta),sin(theta),’r’) draws a red circle (representing the road) in each frame of the movie, and on top of that the cars are shown with moving little circles. The vector tout is a list of all the values of t at which the model computes the values of the vector A Model of Trafﬁc Flow 203 u(t), and at the jth time, the car positions are stored in the jth row of the matrix carpositions.signals.values. Try the program! We should mention here one ﬁne point needed to create a realistic movie. Namely, we need the values of tout to be equally spaced — otherwise the cars will appear to be moving faster when the time steps are large and will appear to be moving slower when the time steps are small. In its default mode of operation, SIMULINK uses a variable-step differential equation solver based on MATLAB’s command ode45, and so the entries of tout will not be equally spaced. To ﬁx this, open the Simulation Parameters... dialog box using the Edit menu in the model window, choose the Solver tab, and change the Output options box to read: Produce specified output only, chosen to be something such as [0:0.5:20]. Then the model will output the car positions only at multiples of t = 0.5, and the MATLAB program above will produce a 41-frame movie. Practice Set C Developing Your MATLAB Skills Remarks. Problem 7 is a bit more advanced than the others. Problem 11a requires the Symbolic Math Toolbox; the others do not. SIMULINK is needed for Problems 12 and 13. 1. Captain Picard is hiding in a square arena, 50 meters on a side, which is protected by a level-5 force ﬁeld. Unfortunately, the Cardassians, who are ﬁring on the arena, have a death ray that can penetrate the force ﬁeld. The point of impact of the death ray is exposed to 10,000 illumatons of lethal radiation. It requires only 50 illumatons to dispatch the Captain; anything less has no effect. The amount of illumatons that arrive at point (x, y) when the death ray strikes one meter above ground at point (x0 , y0 ) is governed by an inverse square law, namely 10,000 . 4π((x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 + 1) The Cardassian sensors cannot locate Picard’s exact position, so they ﬁre at a random point in the arena. (a) Use contour to display the arena after ﬁve random bursts of the death ray. The half-life of the radiation is very short, so one can assume it disappears almost immediately; only its initial burst has any effect. Nevertheless include all ﬁve bursts in your picture, like a time-lapse photo. Where in the arena do you think Captain Picard should hide? (b) Suppose Picard stands in the center of the arena. Moreover, suppose the Cardassians ﬁre the death ray 100 times, each shot landing at a random point in the arena. Is Picard killed? (c) Rerun the “experiment” in part (b) 100 times, and approximate the probability that Captain Picard can survive an attack of 100 shots. 204 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills 205 (d) Redo part (c) but place the Captain halfway to one side (that is, at x = 37.5, y = 25 if the coordinates of the arena are 0 ≤ x ≤ 50, 0 ≤ y ≤ 50). (e) Redo the simulation with the Captain completely to one side, and ﬁnally in a corner. What self-evident fact is reinforced for you? 2. Consider an account that has M dollars in it and pays monthly interest J. Suppose beginning at a certain point an amount S is deposited monthly and no withdrawals are made. (a) Assume ﬁrst that S = 0. Using the Mortgage Payments application in Chapter 9 as a model, derive an equation relating J, M, the number n of months elapsed, and the total T in the account after n months. Assume that the interest is credited on the last day of the month and that the total T is computed on the last day after the interest is credited. (b) Now assume that M = 0, that S is deposited on the ﬁrst day of the month, that as before interest is credited on the last day of the month, and that the total T is computed on the last day after the interest is credited. Once again, using the mortgage application as a model, derive an equation relating J, S, the number n of months elapsed, and the total T in the account after n months. (c) By combining the last two models derive an equation relating all of M, S, J, n, and T, now of course assuming there is an initial amount in the account (M) as well as a monthly deposit (S). (d) If the annual interest rate is 5%, and no monthly deposits are made, how many years does it take to double your initial stash of money? What if the annual interest rate is 10%? (e) In this and the next part, there is no initial stash. Assume an annual interest rate of 8%. How much do you have to deposit monthly to be a millionaire in 35 years (a career)? (f) If the interest rate remains as in (e) and you can only afford to deposit $300 each month, how long do you have to work to retire a millionaire? (g) You hit the lottery and win $100,000. You have two choices: Take the money, pay the taxes, and invest what’s left; or receive $100,000/ 240 monthly for 20 years, depositing what’s left after taxes. Assume a $100,000 windfall costs you $35,000 in federal and state taxes, but that the smaller monthly payoff only causes a 20% tax liability. In which way are you better off 20 years later? Assume a 5% annual interest rate here. (h) Banks pay roughly 5%, the stock market returns 8% on average over 206 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills a 10-year period. So parts (e) and (f) relate more to investing than to saving. But suppose the market in a 5-year period returns 13%, 15%, −3%, 5%, and 10% in ﬁve successive years, and then repeats the cycle. (Note that the [arithmetic] average is 8%, though a geometric mean would be more relevant here.) Assume $50,000 is invested at the start of a 5-year market period. How much does it grow to in 5 years? Now recompute four more times, assuming you enter the cycle at the beginning of the second year, the third year, etc. Which choice yields the best/worst results? Can you explain why? Compare the results with a bank account paying 8%. Assume simple annual interest. Redo the ﬁve investment computations, assuming $10,000 is invested at the start of each year. Again analyze the results. 3. In the late 1990s, Tony Gwynn had a lifetime batting average of .339. This means that for every 1000 at bats he had 339 hits. (For this exercise, we shall ignore walks, hit batsmen, sacriﬁces, and other plate appearances that do not result in an ofﬁcial at bat.) In an average year he amassed 500 ofﬁcial at bats. (a) Design a Monte Carlo simulation of a year in Tony’s career. Run it. What is his batting average? (b) Now simulate a 20-year career. Assume 500 ofﬁcial at bats every year. What is his best batting average in his career? What is his worst? What is his lifetime average? (c) Now run the 20-year career simulation four more times. Answer the questions in part (b) for each of the four simulations. (d) Compute the average of the ﬁve lifetime averages you computed in parts (b) and (c). What do you think would happen if you ran the 20-year simulation 100 times and took the average of the lifetime averages for all 100 simulations? The next four problems illustrate some basic MATLAB programming skills. 4. For a positive integer n, let A(n) be the n × n matrix with entries ai j = 1/(i + j − 1). For example, 1 12 31 A(3) = 12 31 41 . 1 3 1 4 1 5 The eigenvalues of A(n) are all real numbers. Write a script M-ﬁle that prints the largest eigenvalue of A(500), without any extraneous output. (Hint: The M-ﬁle may take a while to run if you use a loop within a loop to deﬁne A. Try to avoid this!) Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills 207 5. Write a script M-ﬁle that draws a bulls-eye pattern with a central circle colored red, surrounded by alternating circular strips (annuli) of white and black, say ten of each. Make sure the ﬁnal display shows circles, not ellipses. (Hint: One way to color the region between two circles black is to color the entire inside of the outer circle black and then color the inside of the inner circle white.) 6. MATLAB has a function lcm that ﬁnds the least common multiple of two numbers. Write a function M-ﬁle mylcm.m that ﬁnds the least common multiple of an arbitrary number of positive integers, which may be given as separate arguments or in a vector. For example, mylcm(4, 5, 6) and mylcm([4 5 6]) should both produce the answer 60. The program should produce a helpful error message if any of the inputs are not positive integers. (Hint: For three numbers you could use lcm to ﬁnd the least common multiple m of the ﬁrst two numbers and then use lcm again to ﬁnd the least common multiple of m and the third number. Your M-ﬁle can generalize this approach.) 7. Write a function M-ﬁle that takes as input a string containing the name of a text ﬁle and produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each letter from A to Z in the ﬁle. Try to label the ﬁgure and axes as usefully as you can. 8. Consider the following linear programming problem. Jane Doe is running for County Commissioner. She wants to personally canvass voters in the four main cities in the county: Gotham, Metropolis, Oz, and River City. She needs to ﬁgure out how many residences (private homes, apartments, etc.) to visit in each city. The constraints are as follows: (i) She intends to leave a campaign pamphlet at each residence; she only has 50,000 available. (ii) The travel costs she incurs for each residence are: $0.50 in each of Gotham and Metropolis, $1 in Oz, and $2 in River City; she has $40,000 available. (iii) The number of minutes (on average) that her visits to each residence require are: 2 minutes in Gotham, 3 minutes in Metropolis, 1 minute in Oz, and 4 minutes in River City; she has 300 hours available. (iv) Because of political proﬁles Jane knows that she should not visit any more residences in Gotham than she does in Metropolis and that however many residences she visits in Metropolis and Oz, the total of the two should not exceed the number she visits in River City; (v) Jane expects to receive, during her visits, on average, campaign contributions of: one dollar from each residence in Gotham, a 208 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills quarter from those in Metropolis, a half-dollar from the Oz residents, and three bucks from the folks in River City. She must raise at least $10,000 from her entire canvass. Jane’s goal is to maximize the number of supporters (those likely to vote for her). She estimates that for each residence she visits in Gotham the odds are 0.6 that she picks up a supporter, and the corresponding probabilities in Metropolis, Oz, and River City are, respectively, 0.6, 0.5, and 0.3. (a) How many residences should she visit in each of the four cities? (b) Suppose she can double the time she can allot to visits. Now what is the proﬁle for visits? (c) But suppose that the extra time (in part (b)) also mandates that she double the contributions she receives. What is the proﬁle now? 9. Consider the following linear programming problem. The famous football coach Nerv Turnip is trying to decide how many hours to spend with each component of his offensive unit during the coming week — that is, the quarterback, the running backs, the receivers, and the linemen. The constraints are as follows: (i) The number of hours available to Nerv during the week is 50. (ii) Nerv ﬁgures he needs 20 points to win the next game. He estimates that for each hour he spends with the quarterback, he can expect a point return of 0.5. The corresponding numbers for the running backs, receivers, and linemen are 0.3, 0.4, and 0.1, respectively. (iii) In spite of their enormous size, the players have a relatively thin skin. Each hour with the quarterback is likely to require Nerv to criticize him once. The corresponding number of criticisms per hour for the other three groups are 2 for running backs, 3 for receivers, and 0.5 for linemen. Nerv ﬁgures he can only bleat out 75 criticisms in a week before he loses control. (iv) Finally, the players are prima donnas who engage in rivalries. Because of that, he must spend the exact same number of hours with the running backs as he does with the receivers, at least as many hours with the quarterback as he does with the runners and receivers combined, and at least as many hours with the receivers as with the linemen. Nerv ﬁgures he’s going to be ﬁred at the end of the season regardless of the outcome of the game, so his goal is to maximize his pleasure during the week. (The team’s owner should only know.) He estimates that, on a sliding scale from 0 to 1, he gets 0.2 units of personal satisfaction for each Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills i 209 R resistor V 0 battery diode Figure C-1: A Nonlinear Electrical Circuit hour with the quarterback. The corresponding numbers for the runners, receivers and linemen are 0.4, 0.3, and 0.6, respectively. (a) How many hours should Nerv spend with each group? (b) Suppose he only needs 15 points to win; then how many? (c) Finally suppose, despite needing only 15 points, that the troops are getting restless and he can only dish out 70 criticisms this week. Is Nerv getting the most out of his week? 10. This problem, suggested to us by our colleague Tom Antonsen, concerns an electrical circuit, one of whose components does not behave linearly. Consider the circuit in Figure C-1. Unlike the resistor, the diode is a nonlinear element — it does not obey Ohm’s Law. In fact its behavior is speciﬁed by the formula i = I0 exp(VD /VT ), (1) where i is the current in the diode (which is the same as in the resistor by Kirchhoff’s Current Law), VD is the voltage across the diode, I0 is the leakage current of the diode, and VT = kT/e, where k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is the temperature of the diode, and e is the electrical charge. By Ohm’s Law applied to the resistor, we also know that VR = i R, where VR is the voltage across the resistor and R is its resistance. But by Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, we also have VR = V0 − VD . This gives a second 210 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills equation relating the diode current and voltage, namely i = (V0 − VD )/R. (2) Note now that (2) says that i is a decreasing linear function of VD with value V0 /R when VD is zero. At the same time (1) says that i is an exponentially growing function of VD starting out at I0 . Since typically, RI0 < V0 , the two resulting curves (for i as a function of VD ) must cross once. Eliminating i from the two equations, we see that the voltage in the diode must satisfy the transcendental equation (V0 − VD )/R = I0 exp(VD /VT ), or VD = V0 − RI0 exp(VD /VT ). (a) Reasonable values for the electrical constants are: V0 = 1.5 volts, R = 1000 ohms, I0 = 10−5 amperes, and VT = .0025 volts. Use fzero to ﬁnd the voltage VD and current i in the circuit. (b) In the remainder of the problem, we assume the voltage in the battery V0 and the resistance of the resistor R are unchanged. But suppose we have some freedom to alter the electrical characteristics of the diode. For example, suppose that I0 is halved. What happens to the voltage? (c) Suppose instead of halving I0 , we halve VT . Then what is the effect on VD ? (d) Suppose both I0 and VT are cut in half. What then? (e) Finally, we want to examine the behavior of the voltage if both I0 and VT are decreased toward zero. For deﬁnitiveness, assume that we set I0 = 10−5 u and VT = .0025u, and let u → 0. Speciﬁcally, compute the solution for u = 10− j , j = 0, . . . , 5. Then, display a loglog plot of the solution values, for the voltage as a function of I0 . What do you conclude? 11. This problem is based on both the Population Dynamics and 360˚ Pendulum applications from Chapter 9. The growth of a species was modeled in the former by a difference equation. In this problem we will model population growth by a differential equation, akin to the second application mentioned above. In fact we can give a differential equation model for the logistic growth of a population x as a function of time t by the equation ẋ = x(1 − x) = x − x 2 , (3) Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills 211 where ẋ denotes the derivative of x with respect to t. We think of x as a fraction of some maximal possible population. One advantage of this continuous model over the discrete model in Chapter 9 is that we can get a “reading” of the population at any point in time (not just on integer intervals). (a) The differential equation (3) is solved in any beginning course in ordinary differential equations, but you can do it easily with the MATLAB command dsolve. (Look up the syntax via online help.) (b) Now ﬁnd the solution assuming an initial value x0 = x(0) of x. Use the values x0 = 0, 0.25, . . . , 2.0. Graph the solutions and use your picture to justify the statement: “Regardless of x0 > 0, the solution of (3) tends to the constant solution x(t) ≡ 1 in the long term.” The logistic model presumes two underlying features of population growth: (i) that ideally the population expands at a rate proportional to its current total (that is, exponential growth — this corresponds to the x term on the right side of (3)) and (ii) because of interactions between members of the species and natural limits to growth, unfettered exponential growth is held in check by the logistic term, given by the −x 2 expression in (3). Now assume there are two species x(t) and y(t), competing for the same resources to survive. Then there will be another negative term in the differential equation that reﬂects the interaction between the species. The usual model presumes it to be proportional to the product of the two populations, and the larger the constant of proportionality, the more severe the interaction, as well as the resulting check on population growth. (c) Here is a typical pair of differential equations that model the growth in population of two competing species x(t) and y(t): ẋ(t) = x − x 2 − 0.5xy ẏ(t) = y − y2 − 0.5xy. (4) The command dsolve can solve many pairs of ordinary differential equations — especially linear ones. But the mixture of quadratic terms in (4) makes it unsolvable symbolically, and so we need to use a numerical ODE solver as we did in the pendulum application. Using the commands in that application as a template, graph numerical 212 Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills solution curves to the system (4) for initial data x(0) = 0 : 1/12 : 13/12 y(0) = 0 : 1/12 : 13/12. (Hint: Use axis to limit your view to the square 0 ≤ x, y ≤ 13/12.) (d) The picture you drew is called a phase portrait of the system. Interpret it. Explain the long-term behavior of any population distribution that starts with only one species present. Relate it to part (b). What happens in the long term if both populations are present initially? Is there an initial population distribution that remains undisturbed? What is it? Relate those numbers to the model (4). (e) Now replace 0.5 in the model by 2; that is, consider the new model ẋ(t) = x − x 2 − 2xy ẏ(t) = y − y2 − 2xy. (5) Draw the phase portrait. (Use the same initial data and viewing square.) Answer the same questions as in part (d). Do you see a special solution trajectory that emanates from near the origin and proceeds to the special ﬁxed point? And another trajectory from the upper right to the ﬁxed point? What happens to all population distributions that do not start on these trajectories? (f) Explain why model (4) is called “peaceful coexistence” and model (5) is called “doomsday.” Now explain heuristically why the coefﬁcient change from 0.5 to 2 converts coexistence into doomsday. 12. Build a SIMULINK model corresponding to the pendulum equation ẍ(t) = −0.5ẋ(t) − 9.81 sin(x(t)) (6) from The 360˚ Pendulum in Chapter 9. You will need the Trigonometric Function block from the Math library. Use your model to redraw some of the phase portraits. 13. As you know, Galileo and Newton discovered that all bodies near the earth’s surface fall with the same acceleration g due to gravity, approximately 32.2 ft/sec2 . However, real bodies are also subjected to forces due to air resistance. If we take both gravity and air resistance into account, a moving ball can be modeled by the differential equation ẍ = [0, −g] − c ẋ ẋ. (7) Here x, a function of the time t, is the vector giving the position of the ball (the ﬁrst coordinate is measured horizontally, the second one vertically), ẋ is the velocity vector of the ball, ẍ is the acceleration of the ball, ẋ Practice Set C: Developing Your MATLAB Skills 213 is the magnitude of the velocity, that is, the speed, and c is a constant depending on the shape and mass of the ball and the density of the air. (We are neglecting the lift force that comes from the ball’s rotation, which can also play a major role in some situations, for instance in analyzing the path of a curve ball, as well as forces due to wind currents.) For a baseball, the constant c turns out to be approximately 0.0017, assuming distances are measured in feet and time is measured in seconds. (See, for example, Chapter 18, “Balls and Strikes and Home Runs,” in Towing Icebergs, Falling Dominoes, and Other Adventures in Applied Mathematics, by Robert Banks, Princeton University Press, 1998.) Build a SIMULINK model corresponding to Equation (7), and use it to study the trajectory of a batted baseball. Here are a few hints. Represent ẍ, ẋ, and x as vector signals, joined by two Integrator blocks. The quantity ẍ, according to (7), should be computed from a Sum block with two vector inputs. One should be a Constant block with the vector value [0, −32.2], representing gravity, and the other should represent the drag term on the right of Equation (7), computed from the value of ẋ. You should be able to change one of the parameters to study what happens both with and without air resistance (the cases of c = 0.0017 and c = 0, respectively). Attach the output to an XY Graph block, with the parameters x-min = 0, y-min = 0, x-max = 500, y-max = 150, so that you can see the path of the ball out to a distance of 500 feet from home plate and up to a height of 150 feet. (a) Let x(0) = [0, 4], ẋ(0) = [80, 80]. (This corresponds to the ball starting at t = 0 from home plate, 4 feet off the ground, with the horizontal and vertical components of its velocity both equal to 80 ft/sec. This corresponds to a speed off the bat of about 77 mph, which is not unrealistic.) How far (approximately — you can read this off your XY Graph output) will the ball travel before it hits the ground, both with and without air resistance? About how long will it take the ball to hit the ground, and how fast will the ball be traveling at that time (again, both with and without air resistance)? (The last parts of the question are relevant for outﬁelders.) (b) Suppose a game is played in Denver, Colorado, where because of thinning of the atmosphere due to the high altitude, c is only 0.0014. How far will the ball travel now (given the same initial velocity as in (a))? (c) (This is not a MATLAB problem.) Estimate from a comparison of your answers to (a) and (b) what effect altitude might have on the team batting average of the Colorado Rockies. Chapter 10 MATLAB and the Internet In this chapter, we discuss a number of interrelated subjects: how to use the Internet to get additional help with MATLAB and to ﬁnd MATLAB programs for certain speciﬁc applications, how to disseminate MATLAB programs over the Internet, and how to use MATLAB to prepare documents for posting on the World Wide Web. MATLAB Help on the Internet For answers to a variety of questions about MATLAB, it pays to visit the web site for The MathWorks, http://www.mathworks.com (In MATLAB 6, the Web menu on the Desktop menu bar can take you there automatically.) Since ﬁles on this site are moved around periodically, we won’t tell you precisely what is located where, but we will point out a few things to look for. First, you can ﬁnd complete documentation sets for MATLAB and all the toolboxes. This is particularly useful if you didn’t install all the documentation locally in order to save space. Second, there are lists of frequently asked questions about MATLAB, bug reports and bug ﬁxes, etc. Third, there is an index of MATLAB-based books (including this one), with descriptions and ordering information. And ﬁnally, there are libraries of M-ﬁles, developed both by The MathWorks and by various MATLAB users, which you can download for free. These are especially useful if you need to do a standard sort of calculation for which there are established algorithms but for which MATLAB has no built-in M-ﬁle; in all probability, someone has written an M-ﬁle for it and made it available. You can also ﬁnd M-ﬁles and MATLAB help elsewhere on the Internet; a search on “MATLAB” will turn up dozens of MATLAB tutorials 214 Posting MATLAB Programs and Output 215 and help pages at all levels, many based at various universities. One of these is the web site associated with this book, http://www.math.umd.edu/schol/matlab where you can ﬁnd nearly all of the MATLAB code used in this book. Posting MATLAB Programs and Output To post your own MATLAB programs or output on the Web, you have a number of options, each with different advantages and disadvantages. M-Files, M-Books, Reports, and HTML Files First, since M-ﬁles (either script M-ﬁles or function M-ﬁles) are simply plain text ﬁles, you can post them, as is, on a web site, for interested parties to download. This is the simplest option, and if you’ve written a MATLAB program that you’d like to share with the world, this is the way to do it. It’s more likely, however, that you want to incorporate MATLAB graphics into a web page. If this is the case, there are basically three options: 1. You can prepare your document as an M-book in Microsoft Word. After debugging and executing your M-book, you have two options. You can simply post the M-book on your web site, allowing viewers with a Word installation to read it, and allowing viewers with both a Word and a MATLAB installation to execute it. Or you can click on File : Save As..., and when the dialog box appears, under “Save as type”, select “Web Page (∗.htm, ∗.html)”. This will store your entire document in HTML (HyperText Markup Language) format for posting on the web, and will automatically convert all of the graphics to the correct format. Once your web document is created, you can modify it with any HTML editor (including Word itself). 2. If you’ve installed the MATLAB Report Generator, it can take your MATLAB programs and convert them into an HTML report with embedded graphics. 3. Finally, you can create your web document with your favorite HTML editor and add links to your MATLAB graphics. For this to work, you need to save your graphics in a convenient format. The simplest way to do this is to select File : Export... in your ﬁgure window. Under “Save as type” in the dialog box that appears, you can for instance select “JPEG images (∗.jpg)”, and the resulting JPEG ﬁle can be incorporated into the document with a 216 Chapter 10: MATLAB and the Internet tag such as <img src=sphere.jpg>. If you are not happy with the size of the resulting image, you can modify it with any image editor. (Almost C , any PC these days comes with one; in UNIX you can use ImageMagick C xv , or many other programs.) If you are planning to modify the image before posting it, it may be preferable to have MATLAB store the ﬁgure in TIFF format instead; that way no resolution is lost before you begin the editing process. ✓ If you are an advanced MATLAB user and you want to use MATLAB as an engine to power an interactive web site, then you might want to purchase the MATLAB Web Server, which is designed exactly for this purpose. You can see samples of what it can do at http://www.mathworks.com/products/demos/webserver/ Configuring Your Web Browser In this section, we explain how to conﬁgure the most popular Web browsers to display M-ﬁles in the M-ﬁle editor or to launch M-books automatically. Microsoft Internet Explorer If MATLAB and Word are installed on your Windows computer then Internet Explorer should automatically know how to open M-books. With M-ﬁles, it may give you a choice of downloading the ﬁle or “opening” it; if you choose the latter, it will appear in the M-ﬁle editor, a slightly stripped-down version of the Editor/Debugger. Netscape Navigator The situation with Netscape Navigator is slightly more complicated. If you click on an M-ﬁle (with the .m extension), it will probably appear as a plain text ﬁle. You can save the ﬁle and then open it if you wish with the M-ﬁle editor. On a PC (but not in UNIX) you can open the M-ﬁle editor without launching MATLAB; look for it in the MATLAB group under Start : Programs, or else look for the executable ﬁle meditor.exe (in MATLAB 5.3 and earlier, Medit.exe). If you click on an M-book (with the .doc extension), your browser will probably offer you a choice of opening it or saving it, unless you have preconﬁgured Netscape to open it without prompting. (This depends also on your security settings.) What program Netscape uses to open Configuring Your Web Browser 217 Figure 10-1: The Netscape Preferences Panel. a ﬁle is controlled by your Preferences. To make changes, select Edit : Preferences in the Netscape menu bar, ﬁnd the Navigator section, and look for the “Applications” subsection. You will see a panel that looks something like Figure 10-1. (Its exact appearance depends on what version of Netscape you are using and your operating system.) Look for the “Microsoft Word Document” ﬁle type (with ﬁle extension .doc) and, if necessary, change the program used to open such ﬁles. Typical choices would be Word or Wordpad in Windows and StarOfﬁce or PC File Viewer in UNIX. Choices other than Word will only allow you to view, not to execute, M-books. Chapter 11 Troubleshooting In this chapter, we offer advice for dealing with some common problems that you may encounter. We also list and describe the most common mistakes that MATLAB users make. Finally, we offer some simple but useful techniques for debugging your M-ﬁles. Common Problems Problems manifest themselves in various ways: Totally unexpected or plainly wrong output appears; MATLAB produces an error message (or at least a warning); MATLAB refuses to process an input line; something that worked earlier stops working; or, worst of all, the computer freezes. Fortunately, these problems are often caused by several easily identiﬁable and correctable mistakes. What follows is a description of some common problems, together with a presentation of likely causes, suggested solutions, and illustrative examples. We also refer to places in the book where related issues are discussed. Here is a list of the problems: r r r r r r wrong or unexpected output, syntax error, spelling error, error messages when plotting, a previously saved M-ﬁle evaluates differently, and computer won’t respond. Wrong or Unexpected Output There are many possible causes for this problem, but they are likely to be among the following: 218 Common Problems 219 CAUSE: Forgetting to clear or reset variables. SOLUTION: Clear or initialize variables before using them, especially in a long session. ☞ See Variables and Assignments in Chapter 2. CAUSE: Conﬂicting deﬁnitions. SOLUTION: Do not use the same name for two different functions or variables, and in particular, try not to overwrite the names of any of MATLAB’s built-in functions. You can accidentally mask one of MATLAB’s built-in M-ﬁles either with your own M-ﬁle of the same name or with a variable (including, perhaps, an inline function). When unexpected output occurs and you think this might be the cause, it helps to use which to ﬁnd out what M-ﬁle is actually being referenced. Here is perhaps an extreme example. EXAMPLE: >> plot = gcf; >> x = -2:0.1:2; >> plot(x, x.ˆ2) Warning: Subscript indices must be integer values. ??? Index into matrix is negative or zero. See release notes on changes to logical indices. What’s wrong, of course, is that plot has been masked by a variable with the same name. You could detect this with >> which plot plot is a variable. If you type clear plot and execute the plot command again, the problem will go away and you’ll get a picture of the desired parabola. A more subtle example could occur if you did this on purpose, not thinking you would use plot, and then called some other graphics script M-ﬁle that uses it indirectly. CAUSE: Not keeping track of ans. SOLUTION: Assign variable names to any output that you intend to use. If you decide at some point in a session that you wish to refer to prior output that was unnamed, then give the output a name, and execute the command 220 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting again. (The UP-ARROW key or Command History window is useful for recalling the command to edit it.) Do not rely on ans as it is likely to be overwritten before you execute the command that references the prior output. CAUSE: Improper use of built-in functions. SOLUTION: Always use the names of built-in functions exactly as MATLAB speciﬁes them; always enclose inputs in parentheses, not brackets and not braces; always list the inputs in the required order. ☞ See Managing Variables and Online Help in Chapter 2. CAUSE: Inattention to precedence of arithmetic operations. SOLUTION: Use parentheses liberally and correctly when entering arithmetic or algebraic expressions. EXAMPLE: MATLAB, like any calculator, ﬁrst exponentiates, then divides and multiplies, and ﬁnally adds and subtracts, unless a different order is speciﬁed by using parentheses. So if you attempt to compute 52/3 − 25/(2 ∗ 3) by typing >> 5ˆ2/3 - 25/2*3 ans = -29.1667 the answer MATLAB produces is not what you intended because 5 is raised to the power 2 before the division by 3, and 25 is divided by 2 before the multiplication by 3. Here is the correct calculation: >> 5ˆ(2/3) - 25/(2*3) ans = -1.2426 Syntax Error CAUSE: Mismatched parentheses, quote marks, braces, or brackets. SOLUTION: Look carefully at the input line to ﬁnd a missing or an extra delimiter. MATLAB usually catches this kind of mistake. In addition, the MATLAB 6 Desktop automatically highlights matching delimiters as you type and color-codes strings (expressions enclosed in single quotes) so that you can see Common Problems 221 where they begin and end. In the Command Window of MATLAB 5 and earlier versions, however, you have to hunt for matching delimiters by hand. CAUSE: Wrong delimiters: Using parentheses in place of brackets, or vice versa, and so on. SOLUTION: Remember the basic rules about delimiters in MATLAB. Parentheses are used both for grouping arithmetic expressions and for enclosing inputs to a MATLAB command, an M-ﬁle, or an inline function. They are also used for referring to an entry in a matrix. Square brackets are used for deﬁning vectors or matrices. Single quote marks are used for deﬁning strings. EXAMPLE: The following illustrates what can happen if you don’t follow these rules: >> X = -1:.01:1; >> X[1] ??? X[1] | Error: Missing operator, comma, or semicolon. >> A=(0,1,2) ??? A=(0,1,2) | Error: Error: ")" expected, "," found. These examples are fairly straightforward to understand; in the ﬁrst case, X(1) was intended, and in the second case, A=[0,1,2] was intended. But here’s a trickier example: >> sin 3 ans = 0.6702 Here there’s no error message, but if one looks closely, one discovers that MATLAB has printed out the sine of 51 radians, not of 3 radians!! The explanation is as follows: Any time a MATLAB command is followed by a space and then an argument to the command (as in the construct clear x), the argument is always interpreted as a string. Thus MATLAB has interpreted 3 not as the number 3, but as the string ’3’! And sure enough, one discovers: 222 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting >> char(51) ans = 3 In other words, in MATLAB’s encoding scheme, the string ’3’ is stored as the number 51, which is why sin 3 (or also sin(’3’)) produces as output the sine of 51 radians. Braces or curly brackets are used less often than either parentheses or square brackets and are usually not needed by beginners. Their main use is with cell arrays. One example to keep in mind is that if you want an M-ﬁle to take a variable number of inputs or produce a variable number of outputs, then these are stored in the cell arrays varargin and varargout, and braces are used to refer to the cells of these arrays. Similarly, case is sometimes used with braces in the middle of a switch construct. If you want to construct a vector of strings, then it has to be done with braces, since brackets when applied to strings are interpreted as concatenation. EXAMPLE: >> {’a’, ’b’} ans = ’a’ ’b’ >> [’a’, ’b’] ans = ab CAUSE: Improper use of arithmetic symbols. SOLUTION: When you encounter a syntax error, review your input line carefully for mistakes in typing. EXAMPLE: If the user, intending to compute 2 times −4, inadvertently switches the symbols, the result is >> 2 - * 4 ??? 2 - * 4 | Error: Expected a variable, function, or constant, found "*". Common Problems 223 Here the vertical bar highlights the place where MATLAB believes the error is located. In this case, the actual error is earlier in the input line. Spelling Error CAUSE: Using uppercase instead of lowercase letters in MATLAB commands, or misspelling the command. SOLUTION: Fix the spelling. For example, the UNIX version of MATLAB does not recognize Fzero or FZERO (in spite of the convention that the help lines in MATLAB’s M-ﬁles always refer to capitalized function names); the correct command is fzero. EXAMPLE: >> Fzero(inline(’xˆ2 - 3’), 1) ??? Undefined function or variable ,Fzero,. >> FZERO(inline(’xˆ2 - 3’), 1) ??? Undefined function or variable ,FZERO,. >> text = help(’fzero’); text(1:38) ans = FZERO Scalar nonlinear zero finding. >> fzero(inline(’xˆ2 - 3’), 1) ans = 1.7321 Error Messages When Plotting CAUSE: There are several possible explanations, but usually the problem is the wrong type of input for the plotting command chosen. SOLUTION: Carefully follow the examples in the help lines of the plotting command, and pay attention to the error messages. EXAMPLE: >> [X,Y] = meshgrid(-1:.1:1, -1:.1:1); >> mesh(X, Y, sqrt(1 - X.ˆ2 - Y.ˆ2)) ??? Error using ==> surface X, Y, Z, and C cannot be complex. 224 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting Error in ==> /usr/matlabr12/toolbox/matlab/graph3d/mesh.m On line 68 ==> hh = surface(x,,FaceColor,,fc,,EdgeColor,, ,flat,, ,FaceLighting,, ,none,, ,EdgeLighting,, ,flat,); 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Figure 11-1 These error messages indicate that you have tried to plot the wrong kind of object, and that’s why the ﬁgure window (Figure 11-1) is blank. What’s wrong in this case is evident from the ﬁrst error message. While you might think you can plot the hemisphere z = 1 − x 2 − y2 this way, there are points in the domain −1 ≤ x, y ≤ 1 where 1 − x 2 − y2 is negative and thus the square root is imaginary. But mesh can’t handle complex inputs; the coordinates need to be real. One can get around this by redeﬁning the function at the points where it’s not real, like this: >> [X,Y] = meshgrid(-1:.1:1, -1:.1:1); >> mesh(X, Y, sqrt(max(1 - X.ˆ2 - Y.ˆ2, 0))) The output is shown in Figure 11-2. A Previously Saved M-File Evaluates Differently One of the most frustrating problems you may encounter occurs when a previously saved M-ﬁle, one that you are sure is in good shape, won’t evaluate or evaluates incorrectly, when opened in a new session. Common Problems 225 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -0.5 -1 -1 Figure 11-2 CAUSE: Change in the sequence of evaluation, or failure to clear variables. CAUSE: Differences between the Professional and Student Versions EXAMPLE: Some commands that work correctly in the Professional Version of MATLAB may not work in the Student Version. Here is an example from MATLAB Release 11: >> syms p t >> ezsurf(sin(p)*cos(t), sin(p)*sin(t), cos(p), ... [0, pi, 0, 2*pi]); axis equal This correctly plots a sphere (using spherical coordinates) in the Professional Version, but in the Student Version you get strange error messages such as ??? The ,maple, function is restricted in the Student Edition. Error in ==> C:\MATLAB SR11\toolbox\symbolic\maplemex.dll Error in ==> C:\MATLAB SR11\toolbox\symbolic\maple.m On line 116 ==> [result,status] = maplemex(statement); Error in ==> C:\MATLAB SR11\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\ezsurf.m (symfind) On line 104 ==> vars = maple([ vars , minus , ,pi, ]); 226 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting Error in ==> C:\MATLAB SR11\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\ezsurf.m (makeinline) On line 73 ==> vars = symfind(f); Error in ==> C:\MATLAB SR11\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\ezsurf.m On line 60 ==> F = makeinline(f); since ezsurf in the Student Version is not equipped to accept symbolic inputs; it requires string inputs instead. You can easily ﬁx this by typing >> ezsurf(’sin(p)*cos(t)’, ’sin(p)*sin(t)’, ’cos(p)’, ... [0, pi, 0, 2*pi]); axis equal or else by using char to convert symbolic expressions to strings. Computer Won’t Respond CAUSE: MATLAB is caught in a very large calculation, or some other calamity has occurred that has caused it to fail to respond. Perhaps you are using an array that is too large for your computer memory to handle. SOLUTION: Abort the calculation with CTRL+C. If overuse of computer memory is the problem, try to redo your calculation using smaller arrays, for example, by using fewer grid points in a 3D plot, or by breaking a large vectorized calculation into smaller pieces using a loop. Clearing large arrays from your Workspace may help too. EXAMPLE: You’ll know it when you see it! The Most Common Mistakes The most common mistakes are all accounted for in the causes of the problems described earlier. But to help you prevent these mistakes, we compile them here in a single list to which you can refer periodically. Doing so will help you to establish “good MATLAB habits”. The most common mistakes are r r r r r r forgetting to clear values, improperly using built-in functions, not paying attention to the order of precedence of arithmetic operations, improperly using arithmetic symbols, mismatching delimiters, using the wrong delimiters, Debugging Techniques 227 r plotting the wrong kind of object, and r using uppercase instead of lowercase letters in MATLAB commands, or misspelling commands. Debugging Techniques Now that we have discussed the most common mistakes, it’s time to discuss how to debug your M-ﬁles, and how to locate and ﬁx those pesky problems that don’t ﬁt into the neat categories above. If one of your M-ﬁles is not working the way you expected, perhaps the easiest thing you can do to debug it is to insert the command keyboard somewhere in the middle. This temporarily suspends (but does not stop) execution and returns command to the keyboard, where you are given a special prompt with a K in it. You can execute whatever commands you want at this point (for instance, to examine some of the variables). To return to execution of the M-ﬁle, type return or dbcont, short for “debug continue.” A more systematic way to debug M-ﬁles is to use the MATLAB M-ﬁle debugger to insert “breakpoints” in the ﬁle. Usually you would do this with the Breakpoints menu or with the “Set/clear breakpoint” icon at the top of the Editor/Debugger window, but you can also do this from the command line with the command dbstop. Once a breakpoint is inserted in the M-ﬁle, you will see a little red dot next to the appropriate line in the Editor/Debugger. (An example is illustrated in Figure 11-8 below.) Then when you call the M-ﬁle, execution will stop at the breakpoint, and just as in the case of keyboard, control will return to the Command Window, where you will be given a special prompt with a K in it. Again, when you are ready to resume execution of the M-ﬁle, type dbcont. When you are done with the debugging process, dbclear “clears” the breakpoint from the M-ﬁle. Let’s illustrate these techniques with a real example. Suppose you want to construct a function M-ﬁle that takes as input two expressions f and g (given either as symbolic expressions or as strings) and two numbers a and b, plots the functions f and g between x = a and x = b, and shades the region in between them. As a ﬁrst try, you might start with the nine-line function M-ﬁle shadecurves.m given as follows: function shadecurves(f, g, a, b) %SHADECURVES Draws the region between two curves % SHADECURVES(f, g, a, b) takes strings or expressions f % and g, interprets them as functions, plots them between % x = a and x = b, and shades the region in between. 228 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 11-3 % Example: shadecurves(’sin(x)’, ’-sin(x)’, 0, pi) ffun = inline(vectorize(f)); gfun = inline(vectorize(g)); xvals = a:(b - a)/50:b; plot([xvals, xvals], [ffun(xvals), gfun(xvals)]) Trying this M-ﬁle out with the example speciﬁed in the help lines, that is, executing >> shadecurves(’sin(x)’, ’-sin(x)’, 0, pi) or >> syms x; shadecurves(sin(x), -sin(x), 0, pi) gives the output shown in Figure 11-3. This is not really what we wanted; the ﬁgure we seek is shown in Figure 11-4. To begin to determine what went wrong, let’s try a different example, say >> shadecurves(’xˆ2’, ’sqrt(x)’, 0, 1) >> axis square or >> syms x; shadecurves(xˆ2, sqrt(x), 0, 1) >> axis square Now we get the output shown in Figure 11-5. Debugging Techniques 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 11-4 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 Figure 11-5 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 229 230 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting It’s not too hard to ﬁgure out why our regions aren’t shaded; that’s because we used plot (which plots curves) instead of patch (which plots ﬁlled patches). So that suggests we should try changing the last line of the M-ﬁle to patch([xvals, xvals], [ffun(xvals), gfun(xvals)]) That gives the error message ??? Error using ==> patch Not enough input arguments. Error in ==> shadecurves.m On line 9 ==> patch([xvals, xvals], [ffun(xvals), gfun(xvals)]) So we go back and try >> help patch to see if we can get the syntax right. The help lines indicate that patch requires a third argument, the color (in RGB coordinates) with which our patch is to be ﬁlled. So we change our ﬁnal line to, for instance, patch([xvals,xvals], [ffun(xvals),gfun(xvals)], [.2,0,.8]) That gives us now as output to shadecurves(xˆ2, sqrt(x), 0, 1); axis square the picture shown in Figure 11-6. That’s better, but still not quite right, because we can see a mysterious diagonal line down the middle. Not only that, but if we try >> syms x; shadecurves(xˆ2, xˆ4, -1.5, 1.5) we now get the bizarre picture shown in Figure 11-7. There aren’t a lot of lines in the M-ﬁle, and lines 7 and 8 seem OK, so the problem must be with the last line. We need to reread the online help for patch. It indicates that patch draws a ﬁlled 2D polygon deﬁned by the vectors X and Y, which are its ﬁrst two inputs. A way to see how this is working is to change the “50” in line 9 of the M-ﬁle to something much smaller, say 5, and then insert a breakpoint in the M-ﬁle before line 9. At this point, our M-ﬁle in the Editor/Debugger window now looks like Figure 11-8. Note the large dot to the left of the last line, indicating the breakpoint. When we run the M-ﬁle with the same input, we now obtain in the Command Window a K>> prompt. At this point, it is logical to try to list the coordinates of the points that are the vertices of our ﬁlled polygon, so we try Debugging Techniques 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Figure 11-6 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1. 5 Figure 11-7 -1 -0. 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 231 232 Chapter 11: Troubleshooting Figure 11-8: The Editor/Debugger. K>> [[xvals, xvals]’, [ffun(xvals), gfun(xvals)]’] ans = -1.5000 2.2500 -0.9000 0.8100 -0.3000 0.0900 0.3000 0.0900 0.9000 0.8100 1.5000 2.2500 -1.5000 5.0625 -0.9000 0.6561 -0.3000 0.0081 0.3000 0.0081 0.9000 0.6561 1.5000 5.0625 If we now type K>> dbcont we see in the ﬁgure window what is shown in Figure 11-9 below. Finally we can understand what is going on; MATLAB has “connected the dots” using the points whose coordinates were just printed out, in the order it encountered them. In particular, MATLAB has drawn a line from the point (1.5, 2.25) to the point (−1.5, 5.0625). This is not what we wanted; we wanted MATLAB to join the point (1.5, 2.25) on the curve y = x 2 to the point (1.5, 5.0625) on the curve y = x 4 . We can ﬁx this by reversing the order of the Debugging Techniques 233 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1. 5 -1 -0. 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 Figure 11-9 x coordinates at which we evaluate the second function g. So letting slavx denote xvals reversed, we correct our M-ﬁle to read function shadecurves(f, g, a, b) %SHADECURVES Draws the region between two curves % SHADECURVES(f, g, a, b) takes strings or expressions f % and g, interprets them as functions, plots them between % x = a and x = b, and shades the region in between. % Example: shadecurves(’sin(x)’, ’-sin(x)’, 0, pi) ffun = inline(vectorize(f)); gfun = inline(vectorize(g)); xvals = a:(b - a)/50:b; slavx = b:(a - b)/50:a; patch([xvals,slavx], [ffun(xvals),gfun(slavx)], [.2,0,.8]) Now it works properly. Sample output from this M-ﬁle is shown in Figure 11-4. Try it out on the other examples we have discussed, or on others of your choice. Solutions to the Practice Sets Practice Set A Problem 1 (a) 1111 - 345 ans = 766 (b) format long; [exp(14), 382801*pi] ans = 1.0e+006 * 1.20260428416478 1.20260480938683 The second number is bigger. (c) [2709/1024, 10583/4000, 2024/765, sqrt(7)] ans = 2.64550781250000 2.64575131106459 2.64575000000000 2.64575163398693 The third, that is, 2024/765, is the best approximation. 235 236 Solutions to the Practice Sets Problem 2 (a) cosh(0.1) ans = 1.00500416805580 (b) log(2) ans = 0.69314718055995 (c) atan(1/2) ans = 0.46364760900081 format short Problem 3 [x, y, z] = solve(’3*x + 4*y + 5*z = 2’, ’2*x - 3*y + 7*z = 1’, ’x - 6*y + z = 3’, ’x’, ’y’, ’z’) x = 241/92 y = -21/92 z = -91/92 Now we’ll check the answer. A = [3, 4, 5; 2, -3, 7; 1, -6, 1]; A*[x; y; z] ans = [ 2] Practice Set A 237 [ -1] [ 3] It checks! Problem 4 [x, y, z] = solve(’3*x - 9*y + 8*z = 2’, ’2*x - 3*y + 7*z = 1’, ’x - 6*y + z = 3’, ’x’, ’y’, ’z’) x = 39/5*y+22/5 y = y z = -9/5*y-7/5 We get a one-parameter family of answers depending on the variable y. In fact the three planes determined by the three linear equations are not independent, because the ﬁrst equation is the sum of the second and third. The locus of points that satisfy the three equations is not a point, the intersection of three independent planes, but rather a line, the intersection of two distinct planes. Once again we check. B = [3, -9, 8; 2, -3, 7; 1, -6, 1]; B*[x; y; z] ans = [ 2] [ -1] [ 3] Problem 5 syms x y; factor(xˆ4 - yˆ4) ans = (x-y)*(x+y)*(x^2+y^2) 238 Solutions to the Practice Sets Problem 6 (a) simplify(1/(1 + 1/(1 + 1/x))) ans = (x+1)/(2*x+1) (b) simplify(cos(x)ˆ2 - sin(x)ˆ2) ans = 2*cos(x)^2-1 Let’s try simple instead. [better, how] = simple(cos(x)ˆ2 - sin(x)ˆ2) better = cos(2*x) how = combine Problem 7 3ˆ301 ans = 4.1067e+143 sym(’3’)ˆ301 ans = 4106744371757651279739780821462649478993910868760123094144405 7023510699153249722978140061846706682416475145332179398212844 0538198297087323698003 But note the following: sym(’3ˆ301’) Practice Set A ans = 3^301 This does not work because sym, by itself, does not cause an evaluation. Problem 8 (a) solve(’8*x + 3 = 0’, ’x’) ans = -3/8 (b) vpa(ans, 15) ans = -.375000000000000 (c) syms p q; solve(’xˆ3 + p*x + q = 0’, ’x’) ans = [ 1/6*(-108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)-2*p/(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)] [ -1/12*(-108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+p/(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+1/2*i*3^(1/2)*(1/6*(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+2*p/(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3))] [ -1/12*(-108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+p/(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)-1/2*i*3^(1/2)*(1/6*(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3)+2*p/(108*q+12*(12*p^3+81*q^2)^(1/2))^(1/3))] (d) ezplot(’exp(x)’); hold on; ezplot(’8*x - 4’); hold off 239 240 Solutions to the Practice Sets 8 x−4 40 20 0 –20 –40 –60 –6 –4 –2 0 x 2 4 6 fzero(inline(’exp(x) - 8*x + 4’), 1) ans = 0.7700 fzero(inline(’exp(x) - 8*x + 4’), 3) ans = 2.9929 Problem 9 (a) ezplot(’xˆ3 - x’, [-4 4]) 3 x −x 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 –60 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 x 1 2 3 4 Practice Set A 241 (b) ezplot(’sin(1/xˆ2)’, [-2 2]) 2 sin(1/x ) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 –0.2 –0.4 –0.6 –0.8 –1 –2 –1.5 –1 –0.5 0 x 0.5 1 1.5 2 X = -2:0.1:2; plot(X, sin(1./X.ˆ2)) Warning: Divide by zero. 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 –0.2 –0.4 –0.6 –0.8 –1 –2 –1.5 –1 –0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 This picture is incomplete. Let’s see what happens if we reﬁne the mesh. X = -2:0.01:2; plot(X, sin(1./X.ˆ2)) Warning: Divide by zero. 242 Solutions to the Practice Sets 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 –0.2 –0.4 –0.6 –0.8 –1 –2 –1.5 –1 –0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Because of the wild oscillation near x = 0, neither plot nor ezplot gives a totally accurate graph of the function. (c) ezplot(’tan(x/2)’, [-pi pi]); axis([-pi, pi, -10, 10]) tan(x/2) 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –3 –2 –1 0 x 1 (d) X = -2:0.05:2; plot(X, exp(-X.ˆ2), X, X.ˆ4 - X.ˆ2) 2 3 Practice Set A 243 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –2 –1.5 –1 –0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Problem 10 Let’s plot 2x and x 4 and look for points of intersection. We plot them ﬁrst with ezplot just to get a feel for the graph. ezplot(’xˆ4’); hold on; ezplot(’2ˆx’); hold off 2x 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 −6 −4 −2 0 x 2 4 6 Note the large vertical range. We learn from the plot that there are no points of intersection between 2 and 6 or −6 and −2; but there are apparently two points of intersection between −2 and 2. Let’s change to plot now and focus on the interval between −2 and 2. We’ll plot the monomial dashed. X = -2:0.1:2; plot(X, 2.ˆX); hold on; plot(X, X.ˆ4, ’--’); hold off 244 Solutions to the Practice Sets 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 We see that there are points of intersection near −0.9 and 1.2. Are there any other points of intersection? To the left of 0, 2x is always less than 1, whereas x 4 goes to inﬁnity as x goes to −∞. However, both x 4 and 2x go to inﬁnity as x goes to ∞, so the graphs may cross again to the right of 6. Let’s check. X = 6:0.1:20; plot(X, 2.ˆX); hold on; plot(X, X.ˆ4, ’--’); hold off 5 12 x 10 10 8 6 4 2 0 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 We see that they do cross again, near x = 16. If you know a little calculus, you can show that the graphs never cross again (by taking logarithms, for example), so we have found all the points of intersection. Now let’s use fzero to ﬁnd these points of intersection numerically. This command looks for a solution near a given starting point. To ﬁnd the three different points of Practice Set A 245 intersection we will have to use three different starting points. The graphical analysis above suggests appropriate starting points. r1 = fzero(inline(’2ˆx - xˆ4’), -0.9) r2 = fzero(inline(’2ˆx - xˆ4’), 1.2) r3 = fzero(inline(’2ˆx - xˆ4’), 16) r1 = -0.8613 r2 = 1.2396 r3 = 16 Let’s check that these “solutions” satisfy the equation. subs(’2ˆx - xˆ4’, ’x’, r1) subs(’2ˆx - xˆ4’, ’x’, r2) subs(’2ˆx - xˆ4’, ’x’, r3) ans = 2.2204e-016 ans = -8.8818e-016 ans = 0 So r1 and r2 very nearly satisfy the equation, and r3 satisﬁes it exactly. It is easily seen that 16 is a solution. It is also interesting to try solve on this equation. symroots = solve(’2ˆx - xˆ4 = 0’) symroots = [ -4*lambertw(-1/4*log(2))/log(2)] [ 16] [ -4*lambertw(-1/4*i*log(2))/log(2)] 246 Solutions to the Practice Sets [ [ -4*lambertw(1/4*log(2))/log(2)] -4*lambertw(1/4*i*log(2))/log(2)] In fact we get the three real solutions already found and two complex solutions. double(symroots) ans = 1.2396 16.0000 -0.1609 + 0.9591i -0.8613 -0.1609 - 0.9591i Only the real solutions correspond to points where the graphs intersect. Practice Set B Problem 1 (a) [X, Y] = meshgrid(-1:0.1:1, -1:0.1:1); contour(X, Y, 3*Y + Y.ˆ3 - X.ˆ3, ’k’) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 −0.2 −0.4 −0.6 −0.8 −1 −1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 [X, Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.1:10, -10:0.1:10); contour(X, Y, 3*Y + Y.ˆ3 - X.ˆ3, ’k’) Practice Set B 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −8 −10 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Here is a plot with more level curves. [X, Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.1:10, -10:0.1:10); contour(X, Y, 3*Y + Y.ˆ3 - X.ˆ3, 30, ’k’) 10 8 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −8 −10 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 (b) Now we plot the level curve through 5. [X, Y] = meshgrid(-5:0.1:5, -5:0.1:5); contour(X, Y, 3.*Y + Y.ˆ3 - X.ˆ3, [5 5], ’k’) 247 248 Solutions to the Practice Sets 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (c) We note that f (1, 1) = 0, so the appropriate command to plot the level curve of f through the point (1, 1) is [X, Y] = meshgrid(0:0.1:2, 0:0.1:2); contour(X, Y, Y.*log(X) + X.*log(Y), [0 0], ’k’) Warning: Log of zero. Warning: Log of zero. 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Problem 2 We ﬁnd the derivatives of the given functions: syms x r 1.6 1.8 2 Practice Set B (a) diff(6*xˆ3 - 5*xˆ2 + 2*x - 3, x) ans = 18*x^2-10*x+2 (b) diff((2*x - 1)/(xˆ2 + 1), x) ans = 2/(x^2+1)-2*(2*x-1)/(x^2+1)^2*x simplify(ans) ans = -2*(x^2-1-x)/(x^2+1)^2 (c) diff(sin(3*xˆ2 + 2), x) ans = 6*cos(3*x^2+2)*x (d) diff(asin(2*x + 3), x) ans = 1/(-2-x^2-3*x)^(1/2) (e) diff(sqrt(1 + xˆ4), x) ans = 2/(1+x^4)^(1/2)*x^3 (f) diff(xˆr, x) ans = x^r*r/x (g) diff(atan(xˆ2 + 1), x) 249 250 Solutions to the Practice Sets ans = 2*x/(1+(x^2+1)^2) Problem 3 We compute the following integrals. (a) int(cos(x), x, 0, pi/2) ans = 1 (b) int(x*sin(xˆ2), x) ans = -1/2*cos(x^2) To check the indeﬁnite integral, we just differentiate. diff(-cos(xˆ2)/2, x) ans = x*sin(x^2) (c) int(sin(3*x)*sqrt(1 - cos(3*x)), x) ans = 2/9*(1-cos(3*x))^(3/2) diff(ans, x) ans = sin(3*x)*(1-cos(3*x))^(1/2) (d) int(xˆ2*sqrt(x + 4), x) ans = 2/7*(x+4)^(7/2)-16/5*(x+4)^(5/2)+32/3*(x+4)^(3/2) Practice Set B 251 diff(ans, x) ans = (x+4)^(5/2)-8*(x+4)^(3/2)+16*(x+4)^(1/2) simplify(ans) ans = x^2*(x+4)^(1/2) (e) int(exp(-xˆ2), x, -Inf, Inf) ans = pi^(1/2) Problem 4 (a) int(exp(sin(x)), x, 0, pi) Warning: Explicit integral could not be found. > In C:\MATLABR12\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\int.m at line 58 ans = int(exp(sin(x)),x = 0 .. pi) format long; quadl(’exp(sin(x))’, 0, pi) ans = 6.2087580358484585 (b) quadl(’sqrt(x.ˆ3 + 1)’, 0, 1) ans = 1.11144798484585 (c) MATLAB integrated this one exactly in 4(e) above; let’s integrate it numerically and compare answers. Unfortunately, the range is inﬁnite, so to use quadl we have to approximate the interval. Note that for 252 Solutions to the Practice Sets |x| > 35, the integrand is much smaller than exp(-35) ans = 6.305116760146989e-016 which is close to the standard ﬂoating point accuracy, so: quadl(’exp(-x.ˆ2)’, -35, 35) ans = 1.77245385102263 sqrt(pi) ans = 1.77245385090552 The answers agree to 9 digits. Problem 5 (a) limit(sin(x)/x, x, 0) ans = 1 (b) limit((1 + cos(x))/(x + pi), x, -pi) ans = 0 (c) limit(xˆ2*exp(-x), x, Inf) ans = 0 Practice Set B 253 (d) limit(1/(x - 1), x, 1, ’left’) ans = -inf (e) limit(sin(1/x), x, 0, ’right’) ans = -1 .. 1 This means that every real number in the interval between −1 and +1 is a “limit point” of sin(1/x) as x tends to zero. You can see why if you plot sin(1/x) on the interval (0, 1]. ezplot(sin(1/x), [0 1]) sin(1/x) 1 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x 0.6 Problem 6 (a) syms k n r x z symsum(kˆ2, k, 0, n) ans = 1/3*(n+1)^3-1/2*(n+1)^2+1/6*n+1/6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 254 Solutions to the Practice Sets simplify(ans) ans = 1/3*n^3+1/2*n^2+1/6*n (b) symsum(rˆk, k, 0, n) ans = r^(n+1)/(r-1)-1/(r-1) pretty(ans) (n + 1) r 1 -------- - ----r - 1 r - 1 (c) symsum(xˆk/factorial(k), k, 0, Inf) ??? Error using ==> fix Function ’fix’ not defined for variables of class ’sym’. Error in ==> C:\MATLABR12\toolbox\matlab\specfun\factorial.m On line 14 ==> if (length(n)~=1) | (fix(n)~= n) | (n < 0) Here are two ways around this difﬁculty. The second method will not work with the Student Version. symsum(xˆk/gamma(k + 1), k, 0, Inf) ans = exp(x) symsum(xˆk/maple(’factorial’, k), k, 0, Inf) ans = exp(x) (d) symsum(1/(z - k)ˆ2, k, -Inf, Inf) Practice Set B ans = pi^2+pi^2*cot(pi*z)^2 Problem 7 (a) taylor(exp(x), 7, 0) ans = 1+x+1/2*x^2+1/6*x^3+1/24*x^4+1/120*x^5+1/720*x^6 (b) taylor(sin(x), 5, 0) ans = x-1/6*x^3 taylor(sin(x), 6, 0) ans = x-1/6*x^3+1/120*x^5 (c) taylor(sin(x), 6, 2) ans = sin(2)+cos(2)*(x-2)-1/2*sin(2)*(x-2)^2-1/6*cos(2)*(x2)^3+1/24*sin(2)*(x-2)^4+1/120*cos(2)*(x-2)^5 (d) taylor(tan(x), 7, 0) ans = x+1/3*x^3+2/15*x^5 (e) taylor(log(x), 5, 1) ans = x-1-1/2*(x-1)^2+1/3*(x-1)^3-1/4*(x-1)^4 (f) taylor(erf(x), 9, 0) 255 256 Solutions to the Practice Sets ans = 2/pi^(1/2)*x-2/3/pi^(1/2)*x^3+1/5/pi^(1/2)*x^51/21/pi^(1/2)*x^7 Problem 8 (a) syms x y; ezsurf(sin(x)*sin(y), [-3*pi 3*pi -3*pi 3*pi]) sin(x) sin(y) 1 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 5 5 0 0 −5 −5 y x (b) ezsurf((xˆ2 + yˆ2)*cos(xˆ2 + yˆ2), [-1 1 -1 1]) 2 2 2 2 (x +y ) cos(x +y ) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 −0.2 −0.4 −0.6 −0.8 −1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0 −0.5 y −0.5 −1 −1 x Problem 9 You can’t do animations in an M-book. But from the Command Window, you can type: Practice Set B T = 0:0.01:1; for j = 0:16 fill(4*cos(j*pi/8) + (1/2)*cos(2*pi*T), ... 4*sin(j*pi/8) + (1/2)*sin(2*pi*T), ’r’); axis equal; axis([-5 5 -5 5]); M(j + 1) = getframe; end movie(M) Problem 10 (a) A1 = [3 4 5; 2 -3 7; 1 -6 1]; b = [2; -1; 3]; format short; x = A1\b x = 2.6196 -0.2283 -0.9891 A1*x ans = 2.0000 -1.0000 3.0000 (b) A2 = [3 -9 8; 2 -3 7; 1 -6 1]; b = [2; -1; 3]; x = A2\b Warning: Matrix is close to singular or badly scaled. Results may be inaccurate. RCOND = 4.189521e-018. x = -6.000 -1.333 1.000 257 258 Solutions to the Practice Sets The matrix A2 is singular. In fact det(A2) ans = 0 (c) A3 = [1 3 -2 4; -2 3 4 -1; -4 -3 1 2; 2 3 -4 1]; b3 = [1; 1; 1; 1]; x = A3\b3 x = -0.5714 0.3333 -0.2857 -0.0000 A3*x ans = 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 (d) syms a b c d x y u v; A4 = [a b; c d]; A4\[u; v] ans = [ -(b*v-u*d)/(a*d-c*b)] [ (a*v-c*u)/(a*d-c*b)] det(A4) ans = a*d-c*b The determinant of the coefﬁcient matrix is the denominator in the answer. So the answer is valid only if the coefﬁcient matrix is non singular. Practice Set B Problem 11 (a) rank(A1) ans = 3 rank(A2) ans = 2 rank(A3) ans = 4 rank(A4) ans = 2 MATLAB implicitly assumes ad − bc = 0 here. (b) Only the second one computed is singular. (c) det(A1) inv(A1) ans = 92 ans = 0.4239 0.0543 -0.0978 det(A2) -0.3696 -0.0217 0.2391 0.4674 -0.1196 -0.1848 259 260 Solutions to the Practice Sets ans = 0 The matrix A2 does not have an inverse. det(A3) inv(A3) ans = 294 ans = 0.1837 0.0000 0.1633 0.2857 -0.1531 0.1667 0.0306 -0.0714 -0.2857 -0.0000 -0.1429 0 -0.3163 0.1667 -0.3367 -0.2143 det(A4) inv(A4) ans = a*d-c*b ans = [ d/(a*d-c*b), -b/(a*d-c*b)] [ -c/(a*d-c*b), a/(a*d-c*b)] Problem 12 (a) [U1, R1] = eig(A1) U1 = -0.9749 -0.2003 0.0977 R1 = 3.3206 0 0 0.6036 0.0624 + 0.5401i -0.5522 + 0.1877i 0.6036 0.0624 - 0.5401i -0.5522 - 0.1877i 0 -1.1603 + 5.1342i 0 0 0 -1.1603 - 5.1342i Practice Set B A1*U1 - U1*R1 ans = 1.0e-014 * 0.3109 -0.0333 -0.0833 0.2554 - 0.3553i -0.1776 - 0.3220i -0.1721 - 0.0444i 0.2554 + 0.3553i -0.1776 + 0.3220i -0.1721 + 0.0444i This is essentially zero. Notice the "e-014". [U2, R2] = eig(A2) U2 = 0.9669 0.1240 -0.2231 R2 = -0.0000 0 0 0.7405 0.4574 - 0.2848i 0.2831 + 0.2848i 0.7405 0.4574 + 0.2848i 0.2831 - 0.2848i 0 0.5000 + 6.5383i 0 0 0 0.5000 - 6.5383i A2*U2 - U2*R2 ans = 1.0e-014 * -0.3154 -0.2423 -0.1140 -0.3331 - 0.4441i 0.0888 + 0.3109i -0.0222 + 0.2665i -0.3331 + 0.4441i 0.0888 - 0.3109i -0.0222 - 0.2665i This is essentially zero as well. [U3, R3] = eig(A3) U3 = -0.2446 - 0.4647i -0.2446 + 0.4647i 0.5621 - 0.1062i 0.5621 + 0.1062i 0.6254 0.6254 -0.1982 - 0.0654i 0.1982 + 0.0654i 0.0025 + 0.3017i 0.0025 - 0.3017i 0.5833 261 262 Solutions to the Practice Sets 0.5833 -0.1736 - 0.4603i -0.1736 + 0.4603i 0.2215 + 0.4898i 0.2215 - 0.4898i R3 = 4.0755 + 4.1517i 0 0 0 0 4.0755 - 4.1517i 0 0 0 0 -1.0755 + 2.7440i 0 0 0 0 1.0755 - 2.7440i A3*U3 - U3*R3 ans = 1.0e-014 * -0.2998 - 0.4885i -0.2998 + 0.4885i 0.0944 0.0944 - 0.3553i 0.1776 + 0.3109i 0.1776 - 0.3109i 0.0111 0.0111 + 0.1055i 0.0444 + 0.0888i 0.0444 - 0.0888i -0.0666 0.0666 + 0.0666i -0.1110 - 0.3109i -0.1110 + 0.3109i -0.1776 0.1776 - 0.2970i + 0.3553i - 0.1055i - 0.0666i + 0.2970i - Again, with the e-014 term this is essentially zero. [U4, R4] = eig(A4) U4 = [ 1, 1] [ -(-1/2*d+1/2*a-1/2*(d^2-2*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))/b, -(1/2*d+1/2*a+1/2*(d^2-2*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))/b] R4 = [ 1/2*d+1/2*a+1/2*(d^2-2*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2), 0] Practice Set B [ 1/2*(d^2-2*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2)] 0, 1/2*d+1/2*a- A4*U4 - U4*R4 ans = [ 0, 0] [c-d*(-1/2*d+1/2*a-1/2*(d^2-2*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))/b+(1/2*d+1/2*a-1/2*(d^22*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))/b*(1/2*d+1/2*a+1/2*(d^22*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2)), c-d*(-1/2*d+1/2*a+1/2*(d^22*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))/b+(-1/2*d+1/2*a+1/2*(d^22*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))/b*(1/2*d+1/2*a-1/2*(d^22*a*d+a^2+4*c*b)^(1/2))] simplify(ans) ans = [ 0, 0] [ 0, 0] (b) A = [1 0 2; -1 0 4; -1 -1 5]; clear U1 U2 R1 R2 [U1, R1] = eig(A) U1 = -0.8165 -0.4082 -0.4082 R1 = 2.0000 0 0 0.5774 0.5774 0.5774 0.7071 -0.7071 0.0000 0 3.0000 0 0 0 1.0000 B = [5 2 -8; 3 6 -10; 3 3 -7]; [U2, R2] = eig(B) 263 264 Solutions to the Practice Sets U2 = 0.8165 0.4082 0.4082 -0.5774 -0.5774 -0.5774 0.7071 -0.7071 -0.0000 2.0000 0 0 0 -1.0000 0 0 0 3.0000 R2 = We observe that the columns of U1 are negatives of the corresponding columns of U2. Finally, A*B - B*A ans = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Problem 13 (a) If we set Xn to be the column matrix with entries xn, yn, zn, and M the square matrix with entries 1, 1/4, 0; 0, 1/2, 0; 0, 1/4, 1 then Xn+1 = MXn. (b) We have Xn = MXn−1 = M 2 Xn−2 = . . . = M n X0 . (c) M = [1, 1/4, 0; 0, 1/2, 0; 0, 1/4, 1]; [U,R] = eig(M) U = 1.0000 0 0 0 0 1.0000 -0.4082 0.8165 -0.4082 1.0000 0 0 0 1.0000 0 0 0 0.5000 R = Practice Set B 265 (d) M should be U RU−1 . Let’s check: M - U*R*inv(U) ans = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 It is evident that R∞ is the diagonal matrix with entries 1, 1, 0. Since M∞ = U R∞ U −1 , we have: Minf = U*diag([1, 1, 0])*inv(U) Minf = 1.0000 0 0 0.5000 0 0.5000 0 0 1.0000 (e) syms x0 y0 z0; X0 = [x0; y0; z0]; Minf*X0 ans = [ x0+1/2*y0] [ 0] [ 1/2*y0+z0] Half of the mixed genotype migrates to the dominant genotype and the other half of the mixed genotype migrates to the recessive genotype. These are added to the two original pure types, whose proportions are preserved. (f) Mˆ5*X0 ans = [ x0+31/64*y0] [ 1/32*y0] [ 31/64*y0+z0] 266 Solutions to the Practice Sets Mˆ10*X0 ans = [ x0+1023/2048*y0] [ 1/1024*y0] [ 1023/2048*y0+z0] (g) If you use the suggested alternate model, then only the ﬁrst three columns of the table are relevant, the transition matrix M becomes M = [1 1/2 0; 0 1/2 1; 0 0 0], and we leave it to you to compute that the eventual population distribution is [1; 0; 0], independent of the initial population. Practice Set C Problem 1 (a) radiation = inline(vectorize(’10000/(4*pi*((x - x0)ˆ2 + (y y0)ˆ2 + 1))’), ’x’, ’y’, ’x0’, ’y0’) radiation = Inline function: radiation(x,y,x0,y0) = 10000./(4.*pi.*((x-x0).^2 + (yy0).^2 + 1)) x = zeros(1, 5); y = zeros(1, 5); for j = 1:5 x(j) = 50*rand; y(j) = 50*rand; end [X, Y] = meshgrid(0:0.1:50, 0:0.1:50); contourf(X, Y, radiation(X, Y, x(1), y(1)) + radiation(X, Y, x(2), y(2)) + radiation(X, Y, x(3), y(3)) + radiation(X, Y, x(4), y(4)) + radiation(X, Y, x(5), y(5)), 20); colormap(’gray’) Practice Set C 267 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 It is not so clear from the picture where to hide, although it looks like the Captain has a pretty good chance of surviving a small number of shots. But 100 shots may be enough to ﬁnd him. Intuition says he ought to stay close to the boundary. (b) Below is a series of commands that places Picard at the center of the arena, ﬁres the death ray 100 times, and then determines the health of Picard. It uses the function lifeordeath, which computes the fate of the Captain after a single shot. function r = lifeordeath(x1, y1, x0, y0) %This file computes the number of illumatons. %that arrive at the point (x1, y1), assuming the death, %ray strikes 1 meter above the point (x0, y0). %If that number exceeds 50, a ‘‘1” is returned in the %variable ‘‘r”; otherwise a ‘‘0” is returned for ‘‘r”. dosage = 10000/(4*pi*((x1 - x0)ˆ2 + (y1 - y0)ˆ2 + 1)); if dosage > 50 r = 1; 268 Solutions to the Practice Sets else r = 0; end Here is the series of commands to test the Captain’s survival possibilities: x1 = 25; y1 = 25; h = 0; for n = 1:100 x0 = 50*rand; y0 = 50*rand; r = lifeordeath(x1, y1, x0, y0); h = h + r; end if h > 0 disp(’The Captain is dead!’) else disp(’Picard lives!’) end The Captain is dead! In fact if you run this sequence of commands multiple times, you will see the Captain die far more often than he lives. (c) So let’s do a Monte Carlo simulation to see what his odds are: x1 = 25; y1 = 25; c = 0; for k = 1:100 h = 0; for n = 1:100 x0 = 50*rand; y0 = 50*rand; r = lifeordeath(x1, y1, x0, y0); h = h + r; end if h > 0 c = c; Practice Set C 269 else c = c + 1; end end disp([’The chances of Picard surviving are = ’, ... num2str(c/100)]) The chances of Picard surviving are = 0.16 We ran this a few times and saw survival chances ranging from 9 to 16%. (d) x1 = 37.5; y1 = 25; c = 0; for k = 1:100 h = 0; for n = 1:100 x0 = 50*rand; y0 = 50*rand; r = lifeordeath(x1, y1, x0, y0); h = h + r; end if h > 0 c = c; else c = c + 1; end end disp([’The chances of Picard surviving are = ’,... num2str(c/100)]) The chances of Picard surviving are = 0.17 This time the numbers were between 10 and 18%. Let’s keep moving him toward the periphery. (e) x1 = 50; y1 = 25; c = 0; for k = 1:100 h = 0; 270 Solutions to the Practice Sets for n = 1:100 x0 = 50*rand; y0 = 50*rand; r = lifeordeath(x1, y1, x0, y0); h = h + r; end if h > 0 c = c; else c = c + 1; end end disp([’The chances of Picard surviving are = ’,... num2str(c/100)]) The chances of Picard surviving are = 0.44 The numbers now hover between 36 and 47% upon multiple runnings of this scenario; so ﬁnally, suppose he cowers in the corner. x1 = 50; y1 = 50; c = 0; for k = 1:100 h = 0; for n = 1:100 x0 = 50*rand; y0 = 50*rand; r = lifeordeath(x1, y1, x0, y0); h = h + r; end if h > 0 c = c; else c = c + 1; end end disp([’The chances of Picard surviving are = ’,... num2str(c/100)]) The chances of Picard surviving are = 0.64 We saw numbers between 56 and 64%. Practice Set C 271 They say a brave man dies but a single time, but a coward dies a thousand deaths. But the person who said that probably never encountered a Cardassian. Long live Picard! Problem 2 (a) Consider the status of the account on the last day of each month. At the end of the ﬁrst month, the account has M + M × J = M(1 + J ) dollars. Then at the end of the second month the account contains [M(1 + J )](1 + J ) = M(1 + J )2 dollars. Similarly, at the end of n months, the account will hold M(1 + J )n dollars. Therefore, our formula is T = M(1 + J )n. (b) Now we take M = 0 and S dollars deposited monthly. At the end of the ﬁrst month the account has S + S × J = S(1 + J ) dollars. S dollars are added to that sum the next day, and then at the end of the second month the account contains [S(1 + J ) + S](1 + J ) = S[(1 + J )2 + (1 + J )] dollars. Similarly, at the end of n months, the account will hold S[(1 + J )n + · · · + (1 + J )] dollars. We recognize the geometric series — with the constant term “1” missing, so the amount T in the account after n months will equal T = S[((1 + J )n+1 − 1)/((1 + J ) − 1) − 1] = S[((1 + J )n+1 − 1)/J − 1]. (c) By combining the two models it is clear that in an account with an initial balance M and monthly deposits S, the amount of money T after n months is given by T = M (1 + J )n + S[((1 + J )n+1 − 1)/J − 1]. (d) We are asked to solve the equation (1 + J )n = 2 with the values J = 0.05/12 and J = 0.1/12. 272 Solutions to the Practice Sets months = solve(’(1 + (0.05)/12)ˆn = 2’) years = months/12 months = 166.70165674865177999568182581405 years = 13.891804729054314999640152151171 months = solve(’(1 + (0.1)/12)ˆn = 2’) years = months/12 months = 83.523755900375880189555262964714 years = 6.9603129916979900157962719137262 If you double the interest rate, you roughly halve the time to achieve the goal. (e) solve(’1000000 = S*((((1 + (0.08/12))ˆ(35*12 + 1) 1)/(0.08/12)) - 1)’) ans = 433.05508895308253849797798306477 You need to deposit $433.06 every month. (f) solve(’1000000 = 300*((((1 + (0.08/12))ˆ(n + 1) 1)/(0.08/12)) - 1)’) ans = 472.38046393034711345013989217261 ans/12 ans = 39.365038660862259454178324347717 Practice Set C 273 You have to work nearly 5 more years. (g) First, taking the whole bundle at once, after 20 years the $65,000 left after taxes generates format bank; option1 = 65000*(1 + (.05/12))ˆ(12*20) option1 = 176321.62 The stash grows to about $176,322. The second option yields S = .8*(100000/240) S = 333.33 option2 = S*((1/(.05/12))*(((1 + (.05/12))ˆ241) - 1) - 1) option2 = 137582.10 You only accumulate $137,582 this way. Taking the lump sum up front is clearly the better strategy. (h) rates = [.13, .15, -.03, .05, .10, .13, .15, -.03, .05]; clear T for k = 0:4 T = 50000; for j = 1:5 T = T*(1 + rates(k + j)); end disp([k + 1,T]) end 1.00 2.00 72794.74 72794.74 274 Solutions to the Practice Sets 3.00 4.00 5.00 72794.74 72794.74 72794.74 The results are all the same; you wind up with $72,795 regardless of where you enter in the cycle, because the product 1≤ j≤5 (1 + rates( j)) is independent of the order in which you place the factors. If you put the $50,000 in a bank account paying 8%, you get 50000*(1.08)ˆ5 ans = 73466.40 that is, $73,466 — better than the market. The market’s volatility hurts you compared to the bank’s stability. But of course that assumes you can ﬁnd a bank that will pay 8%. Now let’s see what happens with no stash, but an annual investment instead. The analysis is more subtle here. Set S = 10, 000 (which now represents a yearly deposit). At the end of one year, the account contains S (1 + r1 ); then at the end of the second year (S (1 + r1 ) + S)(1 + r2 ), where we have written r j for rates( j). So at the end of 5 years, the amount in the account will be the product of S and the number j≥1 (1 + r j ) + j≥2 (1 + r j ) + j≥3 (1 + r j ) + j≥4 (1 + r j ) + (1 + r5 ). If you enter at a different year in the business cycle the terms get cycled appropriately. So now we can compute format short for k = 0:4 T = ones(1, 5); for j = 1:5 TT = 1; for m = j:5 TT = TT*(1 + rates(k + m)); end T(j) = TT; end Practice Set C 275 disp([k + 1, sum(T)]) end 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 5.0000 6.1196 6.4000 6.8358 6.1885 6.0192 Multiplying each of these by $10,000 gives the portfolio amounts for the ﬁve scenarios. Not surprisingly, all are less than what one obtains by investing the original $50,000 all at once. But in this model it matters where you enter the business cycle. It’s clearly best to start your investment program when a recession is in force and end in a boom. Incidentally, the bank model yields in this case (1/.08)*(((1.08)ˆ6) - 1) - 1 ans = 6.3359 which is better than the results of some of the previous investment models and worse than others. Problem 3 (a) First we deﬁne an expression that computes whether Tony gets a hit or not during a single at bat, based on a random number chosen between 0 and 1. If the random number is less than or equal to 0.339, Tony is credited with a hit, whereas if the number exceeds 0.339, he is retired by the opposition. Here is an M-ﬁle, called atbat.m, which computes the outcome of a single at bat: %This file simulates a single at bat. %The variable r contains a ‘‘1” if Tony gets a hit, %that is, if rand <= 0.339; and it contains a ‘‘0” %if Tony fails to hit safely, that is, if rand > 0.339. s = rand; 276 Solutions to the Practice Sets if s <= 0.339 r = 1; else r = 0; end We can simulate a year in Tony’s career by evaluating the script M-ﬁle atbat 500 times. The following program does exactly that. Then it computes his average by adding up the number of hits and dividing by the number of at bats, that is, 500. We build in a variable that allows for a varying number of at bats in a year, although we shall only use 500. function y = yearbattingaverage(n) %This function file computes Tony’s batting average for %a single year, by simulating n at bats, adding up the %number of hits, and then dividing by n. X = zeros(1, n); for i = 1:n atbat; X(i) = r; end y = sum(X)/n; yearbattingaverage(500) ans = 0.3200 (b) Now let’s write a function M-ﬁle that simulates a 20-year career. As with the number of at bats in a year, we’ll allow for a varying length career. function y = career(n,k) %This function file computes the batting average for each %year in a k-year career, asuming n at bats in each year. %Then it lists the maximum, minimum, and lifetime average. Y = zeros(1, k); for j = 1:k Y(j) = yearbattingaverage(n); end Practice Set C disp([’Best avg: ’, num2str(max(Y))]) disp([’Worst average: ’, num2str(min(Y))]) disp([’Lifetime avg: ’, num2str(sum(Y)/k)]) career(500, 20) Best avg: 0.376 Worst average: 0.316 Lifetime avg: 0.3439 (c) Now we run the simulation four more times: career(500, 20) Best avg: 0.366 Worst average: 0.31 Lifetime avg: 0.3393 career(500, 20) Best avg: 0.38 Worst average: 0.288 Lifetime avg: 0.3381 career(500, 20) Best avg: 0.378 Worst average: 0.312 Lifetime avg: 0.3428 career(500, 20) Best avg: 0.364 Worst average: 0.284 Lifetime avg: 0.3311 (d) The average for the ﬁve different 20-year careers is: 277 278 Solutions to the Practice Sets (.3439 + .3393 + .3381 + .3428 + .3311)/5 ans = 0.33904000000000 How about that! If we ran the simulation 100 times and took the average it would likely be extremely close to .339 — even closer than the previous number. Problem 4 Our solution and its output are below. First we set n to 500 to save typing in the following lines and make it easier to change this value later. Then we set up a row vector j and a zero matrix A of the appropriate sizes and begin a loop that successively deﬁnes each row of the matrix. Notice that on the line deﬁning A(i,j), i is a scalar and j is a vector. Finally, we extract the maximum value from the list of eigenvalues of A. n = 500; j = 1:n; A = zeros(n); for i = 1:n A(i,j) = 1./(i + j - 1); end max(eig(A)) ans = 2.3769 Problem 5 Again we display below our solution and its output. First we deﬁne a vector t of values between 0 and 2π, in order to later represent circles parametrically as x = r cos t, y = r sin t. Then we clear any previous ﬁgure that might exist and prepare to create the ﬁgure in several steps. Let’s say the red circle will have radius 1; then the ﬁrst black ring should have inner radius 2 and outer radius 3, and thus the tenth black ring should have inner radius 20 and outer radius 21. We start drawing from the outside in because Practice Set C 279 the idea is to ﬁll the largest circle in black, then ﬁll the next largest circle in white leaving only a ring of black, then ﬁll the next largest circle in black leaving a ring of white, etc. The if statement tests true when r is odd and false when it is even. We stop the alternation of black and white at a radius of 2 to make the last circle red instead of black; then we adjust the axes to make the circles appear round. t = cla for if linspace(0, 2*pi, 100); reset; hold on r = 21:-1:2 mod(r, 2) fill(r*cos(t), r*sin(t), ’k’) else fill(r*cos(t), r*sin(t), ’w’) end end fill(cos(t), sin(t), ’r’) axis equal; hold off 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −20 −15 −10 −5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Problem 6 Here are the contents of our solution M-ﬁle: function m = mylcm(varargin) nums = [varargin{:}]; if ~isnumeric(nums) any(nums ~= round(real(nums))) any(nums <= 0) ... 280 Solutions to the Practice Sets error(’Arguments must be positive integers.’) end for k = 2:length(nums); nums(k) = lcm(nums(k), nums(k - 1)); end m = nums(end); Here are some examples: mylcm([4 5 6]) ans = 60 mylcm(6, 7, 12, 15) ans = 420 mylcm(4.5, 6) ??? Error using ==> mylcm Arguments must be positive integers. mylcm(’a’, ’b’, ’c’) ??? Error using ==> mylcm Arguments must be positive integers. Problem 7 Here is our solution M-ﬁle: function letcount(file) if isunix [stat, str] = unix([’cat ’ file]); else [stat, str] = dos([’type ’ file]); end Practice Set C 281 letters = ’abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz’; caps = ’ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ’; for n = 1:26 count(n) = sum(str == letters(n)) + sum(str == caps(n)); end bar(count) ylabel ’Number of occurrences’ title([’Letter frequencies in ’ file]) set(gca, ’XLim’, [0 27], ’XTick’, 1:26, ’XTickLabel’, ... letters’) Here is the result of running this M-ﬁle on itself: letcount(’letcount.m’) Letter frequencies in letcount.m 30 25 Number of occurrences 20 15 10 5 0 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Problem 8 We let w, x, y, and z, denote the number of residences canvassed in the four cities Gotham, Metropolis, Oz, and River City, respectively. Then the linear inequalities speciﬁed by the given data are as follows: Nonnegative data: w ≥ 0, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, z ≥ 0; Pamphlets: w + x + y + z ≤ 50,000; Travel cost: 0.5w + 0.5x + y + 2z ≤ 40,000; Time available: 2w + 3x + y + 4z ≤ 18,000; Preferences: w ≤ x, x + y ≤ z; 282 Solutions to the Practice Sets Contributions: w + 0.25x + 0.5y + 3z ≥ 10,000. The quantity to be maximized is: Voter support: 0.6w + 0.6x + 0.5y + 0.3z. (a) This enables us to set up and solve the linear programming problem in MATLAB as follows: f = [-0.6 -0.6 -0.5 -0.3]; A = [1 1 1 1; 0.5 0.5 1 2; 2 3 1 4; 1 -1 0 0; 0 1 1 -1; -1 0.25 -0.5 -3; -1 0 0 0; 0 -1 0 0; 0 0 -1 0; 0 0 0 -1]; b = [50000; 40000; 18000; 0; 0; -10000; 0; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) Optimization terminated successfully. ans = 1.0e+003 * 1.2683 1.2683 1.3171 2.5854 Jane should canvass 1268 residences in each of Gothan and Metropolis, 1317 residences in Oz, and 2585 residences in River City. (b) If the allotment for time doubles then b = [50000; 40000; 36000; 0; 0; -10000; 0; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) Optimization terminated successfully. ans = 1.0e+003 * 4.0000 4.0000 0.0000 4.0000 Practice Set C 283 Jane should canvass 4000 residences in each of Gotham, Metropolis, and River City and ignore Oz. (c) Finally, if in addition she needs to raise $20,000 in contributions, then b = [50000; 40000; 36000; 0; 0; -20000; 0; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) Optimization terminated successfully. ans = 1.0e+003 * 2.5366 2.5366 2.6341 5.1707 Jane needs to canvass 2537 residences in each of Gotham and Metropolis, 2634 residences in Oz, and 5171 in River City. Problem 9 We let w, x, y, and z, denote the number of hours that Nerv spends with the quarterback, the running backs, the receivers, and the linemen, respectively. Then the linear inequalities speciﬁed by the given data are as follows: Nonnegative data: w ≥ 0, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, z ≥ 0; Time available: w + x + y + z ≤ 50; Point production: 0.5w + 0.3x + 0.4y + 0.1z ≥ 20; Criticisms: w + 2x + 3y + 0.5z ≤ 75; Prima Donna status: x = y, w ≥ x + y, x ≥ z. The quantity to be maximized is: Personal satisfaction: 0.2w + 0.4x + 0.3y + 0.6z. (a) This enables us to set up and solve the linear programming problem in MATLAB as follows: f = [-0.2 -0.4 -0.3 -0.6]; A = [1 1 1 1; -0.5 -0.3 -0.4 -0.1; 1 2 3 0.5; 0 -1 1 0; ... 284 Solutions to the Practice Sets 0 1 -1 0; -1 1 1 0; 0 -1 0 1; -1 0 0 0; 0 -1 0 0; ... 0 0 -1 0; 0 0 0 -1]; b = [50; -20; 75; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) Optimization terminated successfully. ans = 25.9259 9.2593 9.2593 5.5556 Nerv should spend 7.5 hours each with the running backs and receivers; 6.9 hours with the linemen; and the majority of his time, 28.1 hours, with the quarterback. (b) If the team only needs 15 points to win, then b = [50; -15; 75; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) Optimization terminated successfully. ans = 20.0000 10.0000 10.0000 10.0000 Nerv can spread his time more evenly, 10 hours each with the running backs, receivers, and linemen; but still the biggest chunk of his time, 20 hours, should be spent with the quarterback. (c) Finally if in addition the number of criticisms is reduced to 70, then b = [50; -15; 70; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0]; simlp(f, A, b) Practice Set C 285 Optimization terminated successfully. ans = 18.6667 9.3333 9.3333 9.3333 Nerv must spend 18 23 hours with the quarterback and 9 13 hours with each of the other three groups. Note that the total is less than 50, leaving Nerv some free time to look for a job for next year. Problem 10 syms V0 R I0 VT x f = x - V0 + R*I0*exp(x/VT) f = x-V0+R*I0*exp(x/VT) (a) VD = fzero(char(subs(f, [V0, R, I0, VT], [1.5, 1000, 10ˆ(-5), .0025])), [0, 1.5]) VD = 0.0125 That’s the voltage; the current is therefore I = (1.5 - VD)/1000 I = 0.0015 (b) g = subs(f, [V0, R], [1.5, 1000]) g = x-3/2+1000*I0*exp(x/VT) 286 Solutions to the Practice Sets fzero(char(subs(g, [I0, VT], [(1/2)*10ˆ(-5), .0025])), [0, 1.5]) ans = 0.0142 Not surprisingly, the voltage goes up slightly. (c) fzero(char(subs(g, [I0, VT], [10ˆ(-5), .0025/2])), [0, 1.5]) ??? Error using ==> fzero Function values at interval endpoints must be finite and real. The problem is that the values of the exponential are too big at the right-hand endpoint of the test interval. We have to specify an interval big enough to catch the solution, but small enough to prevent the exponential from blowing up too drastically at the right endpoint. This will be the case even more dramatically in part (e) below. fzero(char(subs(g, [I0, VT], [10ˆ(-5), .0025/2])), [0, 0.5]) ans = 0.0063 This time the voltage goes down. (d) Next we halve both: fzero(char(subs(g, [I0, VT], [(1/2)*10ˆ(-5), .0025/2])), [0, 0.5]) ans = 0.0071 The voltage is less than in part (b) but more than in part (c). (e) syms u h = subs(g, [I0, VT], [10ˆ(-5)*u, 0.0025*u]) Practice Set C h = x-3/2+1/100*u*exp(400*x/u) X = zeros(6); I = zeros(6); for j = 0:5 X(j + 1) = fzero(char(subs(h, u, 10ˆ(-j))), ... [0, 10ˆ(-j-1)]); I(j + 1) = 10ˆ(-j-5); end loglog(I, X) −1 10 −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 10 −6 10 −7 10 −10 10 −9 10 −8 10 −7 10 −6 10 −5 10 The loglog plot has a slope of approximately 1, reﬂecting a linear dependence. Problem 11 (a) dsolve(’Dx = x - xˆ2’) ans = 1/(1+exp(-t)*C1) syms x0; sol = dsolve(’Dx = x - xˆ2’, ’x(0) = x0’) 287 Solutions to the Practice Sets sol = 1/(1-exp(-t)*(-1+x0)/x0) Note that this includes the zero solution; indeed bettersol = simplify(sol) bettersol = -x0/(-x0-exp(-t)+exp(-t)*x0) subs(bettersol, x0, 0) ans = 0 (b) T = 0:0.1:5; hold on solcurves = inline(vectorize(bettersol), ’t’, ’x0’); for initval = 0:0.25:2.0 plot(T, solcurves(T, initval)) end axis tight title ’Solutions of Dx = x - xˆ2, with x(0) = 0, 0.25,..., 2’ xlabel ’t’ ylabel ’x’ hold off 2 Solutions of Dx = x − x , with x(0) = 0, 0.25, ..., 2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 x 288 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 t 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Practice Set C 289 The graphical evidence suggests that: The solution that starts at zero stays there; all the others tend toward the constant solution 1. (c) clear all; close all; hold on f = inline(’[x(1) - x(1)ˆ2 - 0.5*x(1)*x(2); x(2) - x(2)ˆ2 0.5*x(1)*x(2)]’, ’t’, ’x’); for a = 0:1/12:13/12 for b = 0:1/12:13/12 [t, xa] = ode45(f, [0 3], [a,b]); plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) echo off end end axis([0 13/12 0 13/12]) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 (d) The endpoints on the curves are the start points. So clearly any curve that starts out inside the ﬁrst quadrant, that is, one that corresponds to a situation in which both populations are present at the outset, tends toward a unique point — which from the graph appears to be about (2/3,2/3). In fact if x = y = 2/3, then the right sides of both equations in (4) vanish, so the derivatives are zero and the values of x(t) and y(t) remain constant — they don’t depend on t. If only one species is present at the outset, that is, you start out on one of the axes, then the solution 290 Solutions to the Practice Sets tends toward either (1,0) or (0,1) depending on whether x or y is the species present. That is precisely the behavior we saw in part (b). (e) close all; hold on f = inline(’[x(1) - x(1)ˆ2 - 2*x(1)*x(2); x(2) - x(2)ˆ2 2*x(1)*x(2)]’, ’t’, ’x’); for a = 0:1/12:13/12 for b = 0:1/12:13/12 [t, xa] = ode45(f, [0 3], [a,b]); plot(xa(:, 1), xa(:, 2)) echo off end end axis([0 13/12 0 13/12]) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 This time most of the curves seem to be tending toward one of the points (1,0) or (0,1) — in particular, any solution curve that starts on one of the axes (corresponding to no initial poulation for the other species) does so. It seems that whichever species has a greater population at the outset will eventually take over all the population — the other will die out. But there is a delicate balance in the middle — it appears that if the two populations are about equal at the outset, then they tend to the unique population distribution at which, if you start there, nothing happens. That value looks like (1/3,1/3). In fact this is the value that renders both sides of (5) zero and its role is analogous to that played by (2/3,2/3) in part (d). Practice Set C 291 (f) It makes sense to refer to the model (4) as “peaceful coexistence”, since whatever initial populations you have — provided both are present — you wind up with equal populations eventually. “Doomsday” is an appropriate name for model (5), since if you start out with unequal populations, then the smaller group becomes extinct. The lower coefﬁcient 0.5 means relatively small interaction between the species, allowing for coexistence. The larger coefﬁcient 2 means stronger interaction and competition, precluding the survival of both. Problem 12 Here is a SIMULINK model for redoing the pendulum application from Chapter 9: With the initial conditions x(0) = 0, ẋ(0) = 10, the XY Graph block shows the following phase portrait: 292 Solutions to the Practice Sets Meanwhile, the Scope block gives the following graph of x as a function of t: Problem 13 Here is a SIMULINK model for studying the equation of motion of a baseball: Practice Set C 1 xo s 1 s em Integrate x’ to get x Integrate x’’ to get x’ [80,80] initial velocity XY Graph sqrt Dot Product Gain 293 Math Function y vs. t |x’| magnitude of velocity K Compute acceleration due to drag C Gravity The way this works is fairly straightforward. The Integrator block in the upper left integrates the acceleration (a vector quantity) to get the velocity (also a vector — we have chosen the option, from the Format menu, of indicating vector quantities with thicker arrows). This block requires the initial value of the velocity as an initial condition; we deﬁne it in the “initial velocity” Constant block. Output from the ﬁrst Integrator goes into the second Integrator, which integrates the velocity to get the position (also a vector). The initial condition for the position, [0, 4], is stored in the parameters of this second Integrator. The position vector is fed into a Demux block, which splits off the horizontal and vertical components of the position. These are fed into the XY Graph block, and also the vertical component is fed into a scope block so that we can see the height of the ball as a function of time. The hardest part is the computation of the acceleration: ẍ = [0, −g] − cẋẋ. This is computed by adding the two terms on the right with the Sum block near the lower left. The value of [0, −g] is stored in the “gravity” Constant block. The second term on the right is computed in the Product block labeled “Compute acceleration due to drag”, which multiplies the velocity (a vector) by −c times the speed (a scalar). We compute the speed by taking the dot 294 Solutions to the Practice Sets product of the velocity with itself and then taking the square root; then we multiply by −c in the Gain block in the middle bottom of the model. The Scope block in the lower right plots the ball’s speed as a function of time. (a) With c set to 0 (no air resistance) and the initial velocity set to [80, 80], the ball follows a familiar parabolic trajectory, as seen in the following picture: Note that the ball travels about 400 feet before hitting the ground, and so the trajectory is just about what is required for a home run in most ballparks. We can read off the ﬂight time and ﬁnal speed from the other two scopes: Practice Set C 295 Thus the ball stays in the air about 5 seconds and is traveling about 115 ft/sec when it hits the ground. Now let’s see what happens when we factor in air resistance, again with the initial velocity set to [80, 80]. First we take c = 0.0017. The trajectory now looks like this: Note the enormous difference air resistance makes; the ball only travels about 270 feet. We can also investigate the ﬂight time and speed with the other two scopes: 296 Solutions to the Practice Sets So the ball is about 80 feet high at its peak, and hits the ground in about 4 12 seconds. Its ﬁnal speed can be read off from the picture: So the ﬁnal speed is only about 80 ft/sec, which is much gentler on the hands of the outﬁelder than in the no-air-resistance case. (b) Let’s now redo exactly the same calculation with c = 0.0014 (corresponding to playing in Denver). The ball’s trajectory is now: Practice Set C 297 The ball goes about 285 feet, or about 15 feet further than when playing at sea level. This particular ball is probably an easy play, but with some hard-hit balls, those extra 15 feet could mean the difference between an out and a home run. If we look at the height scope for the Denver calculation, we see: So there is a very small increase in the ﬂight time. Similarly, if we look at the speed scope for the Denver calculation, we see: 298 Solutions to the Practice Sets and so the ﬁnal speed is a bit faster, about 83 ft/sec. (c) One would expect that batting averages would be higher in Denver, as indeed is the case according to Major League Baseball statistics. Glossary We present here the most commonly used MATLAB objects in six categories: operators, built-in constants, built-in functions, commands, graphics commands, and MATLAB programming constructs. Though MATLAB does not distinguish between commands and functions, it is convenient to think of a MATLAB function as we normally think of mathematical functions. A MATLAB function is something that can be evaluated or plotted; a command is something that manipulates data or expressions or that initiates a process. We list each operator, function, and command together with a short description of its effect, followed by one or more examples. Many MATLAB commands can appear in a number of different forms, because you can apply them to different kinds of objects. In our examples, we have illustrated the most commonly used forms of the commands. Many commands also have numerous optional arguments; in this glossary, we have only included some very common options. You can ﬁnd a full description of all forms of a command, and get a more complete accounting of all the optional arguments available for it, by reading the help text — which you can access either by typing help <commandname> or by invoking the Help Browser, shown in Figure G-1. This glossary does not contain a comprehensive list of MATLAB commands. We have selected the commands that we feel are most important. You can ﬁnd a comprehensive list in the Help Browser. The Help Browser is accessible from the Command Window by typing helpdesk or helpwin, or from the Launch Pad window in your Desktop under MATLAB : Help. Exactly what commands are covered in your documentation depends on your installation, in particular which toolboxes and what parts of the overall documentation ﬁles you installed. ☞ See Online Help in Chapter 2 for a detailed description of the Help Browser. 299 300 Glossary Figure G-1: The Help Browser, Opened to “Graphics”. MATLAB Operators \ Left matrix division. X = A\B is the solution of the equation A*X = B. Type help slash for more information. A = [1 0; 2 1]; B = [3; 5]; A \B / Ordinary scalar division, or right matrix division. For matrices, A/B is essentially equivalent to A*inv(B). Type help slash for more information. * Scalar or matrix multiplication. See the online help for mtimes. . Not a true MATLAB operator. Used in conjunction with arithmetic operators to force element-by-element operations on arrays. Also used to access ﬁelds of a structure array. a = [1 2 3]; b = [4 -6 8]; a.*b syms x y; solve(x + y - 2, x - y); ans.x .* Element-by-element multiplication of arrays. See the previous entry and the online help for times. ˆ Scalar or matrix powers. See the online help for mpower. .ˆ Element-by-element powers. See the online help for power. Glossary 301 : Range operator, used for deﬁning vectors and matrices. Type help colon for more information. ’ Complex conjugate transpose of a matrix. See ctranspose. Also delimits the beginning and end of a string. ; Suppresses output of a MATLAB command, and can be used to separate commands on a command line. Also used to separate the rows of a matrix or column vector. X = 0:0.1:30; [1; 2; 3] , Separates elements of a row of a matrix, or arguments to a command. Can also be used to separate commands on a command line. .’ Transpose of a matrix. See transpose. ... Line continuation operator. Cannot be used inside quoted strings. Type help punct for more information. 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 ... + 13 + 15 + 17 [’This is a way to create very long strings ’, ... ’that span more than one line. Note the square brackets.’] ! Run command from operating system. !C:\Programs\program.bat % Comment. MATLAB will ignore the rest of the same line. @ Creates a function handle. fminbnd(@cos, 0, 2*pi) Built-in Constants eps Roughly the size of the computer’s ﬂoating point round-off error; on most computers it is around 2 × 10−16 . exp(1) e = 2.71828 . . . . Note that e has no special meaning. √ i i = −1. This assignment can be overridden, for example, if you want to use i as an index in a for loop. In that case j can be used for the imaginary unit. Inf ∞. Also inf (in lower-case letters). NaN Not a number. Used for indeterminate expressions such as 0/0. pi π = 3.14159 . . . . 302 Glossary Built-in Functions abs |x|. acos arccos x. asin arcsin x. atan arctan x. Use atan2 instead if you want the angular coordinate θ of the point (x, y). bessel Bessel functions; besselj(n, x) and bessely(n, x) are linearly independent solutions of Bessel’s equation of order n. conj Gives the complex conjugate of a complex number. conj(1 - 5*i) cos cos x. cosh cosh x. cot cot x. √ x 2 erf The error function erf(x) = (2/ π ) 0 e−t dt. exp e x . expm Matrix exponential. ∞ gamma The gamma function (x) = 0 e−t t x−1 dt (when Re x > 0). The property (k + 1) = k!, for nonnegative integers k, is sometimes useful. imag imag(z), the imaginary part of a complex number. log The natural logarithm ln x = loge x. real real(z), the real part of a complex number. sec sec x. sech sech x. sign Returns −1, 0, or 1, depending on whether the argument is negative, zero, or positive. sin sin x. sinh sinh x. √ x. sqrt tan tan x. tanh tanh x. Glossary 303 MATLAB Commands addpath Adds the speciﬁed directory to MATLAB’s ﬁle search path. addpath C:\my-- mfiles ans A variable holding the value of the most recent unassigned output. cd Makes the speciﬁed directory the current (working) directory. cd C:\mydocs\mfiles char Converts a symbolic expression to a string. Useful for deﬁning inline functions. syms x y f = inline(char(sin(x)*sin(y))) clear Clears values and deﬁnitions for variables and functions. If you specify one or more variables, then only those variables are cleared. clear clear f g collect Collects coefﬁcients of powers of the speciﬁed symbolic variable in a given symbolic expression. syms x y collect(xˆ2 - 2*xˆ2 + 3*x + x*y, x) compose Composition of functions. syms x y; f = exp(x); g = sin(y); h = compose(f, g) ctranspose Conjugate transpose of a matrix. Usually invoked with the ’ operator. Equivalent to transpose for real matrices. A = [1 3 i] A’ D Not a true MATLAB command. Used in dsolve to denote differentiation. See diff. dsolve(’x*Dy + y = sin(x)’, ’x’) delete Deletes a ﬁle. delete <filename> det The determinant of a matrix. det([1 3; 4 5]) diag Gives a square matrix with a prescribed diagonal vector, or picks out the diagonal in a square matrix. V = [2 3 4 5]; diag(V) X = [2 3; 4 5]; diag(X) 304 Glossary diary Writes a transcript of a MATLAB session to a ﬁle. diary <filename> diary off diff Symbolic differentiation operator (also difference operator). syms x; diff(xˆ3) diff(’x*yˆ2’, ’y’) dir Lists the ﬁles in the current working directory. Similar to ls. disp Displays output without ﬁrst giving its name. x = 5.6; disp(x) syms x; disp(xˆ2) disp(’This will print without quotes.’) double Gives a double-precision value for either a numeric or symbolic quantity. Applied to a string, double returns a vector of ASCII codes for the characters in the string. z = sym(’pi’); double(z) double(’think’) dsolve Symbolic ODE solver. By default, the independent variable is t, but a different variable can be speciﬁed as the last argument. dsolve(’D2y - x*y = 0’, ’x’) dsolve(’Dy + yˆ2 = 0’, ’y(0) = 1’, ’x’) [x, y] = dsolve(’Dx = 2x + y’, ’Dy = - x’) echo Turns on or off the echoing of commands inside script M-ﬁles. edit Opens the speciﬁed M-ﬁle in the Editor/Debugger. edit mymfile eig Computes eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrix. eig([2, 3; 4, 5]) [e, v] = eig([1, 0, 0; 1, 1, 1; 1, 2, 4]) end Last entry of a vector. Also a programming command. v(end) v(3:end) eval Used for evaluating strings as MATLAB expressions. Useful in M-ﬁles. eval(’cos(x)’) expand Expands an algebraic expression. syms x y; expand((x - y)ˆ2) Glossary 305 eye The identity matrix of the speciﬁed size. eye(5) factor Factors a polynomial. syms x y; factor(xˆ4 - yˆ4) feval Evaluates a function speciﬁed by a string. Useful in function M-ﬁles. feval(’exp’, 1) find Finds the indices of nonzero elements of a vector or matrix. X = [2 0 5]; find(X) fminbnd Finds the smallest (approximate) value of a function over an interval. fminbnd(’xˆ4 - xˆ2 + 1’, 0, 1) f = inline(’xˆ3 - 7*xˆ2 - 5*x + 2’, ’x’); fminbnd(f, 4, 6) format Speciﬁes the output format for numerical variables. format long fzero Tries to ﬁnd a zero of the speciﬁed function near a given starting point or on a speciﬁed interval. fzero(inline(’cos(x) - x’), 1) fzero(@cos, [-pi 0]) guide Opens the GUI Design Environment. guide mygui help Asks for documentation for a MATLAB command. See also lookfor. help factor inline Constructs a MATLAB inline function from a string expression. f = inline(’xˆ5 - x’); f(3) sol = dsolve(’Dy = xˆ2 + y’, ’y(0) = 2’, ’x’); fsol = inline(vectorize(sol), ’x’) int Integration operator for both deﬁnite and indeﬁnite integrals. int(’1/(1 + xˆ2)’, ’x’) syms x; int(exp(-x), x, 0, Inf) inv Inverse of a square matrix. inv([1 2; 3 5]) jacobian Computes the Jacobian matrix, or for a scalar function, the symbolic gradient. syms x y; f = xˆ2*yˆ3; jacobian(f) 306 Glossary length Returns the number of elements in a vector or string. length(’abcde’) limit Finds a two-sided limit, if it exists. Use ’right’ or ’left’ for one-sided limits. syms x; limit(sin(x)/x, x, 0) syms x; limit(1/x, x, Inf, ’left’) linspace Generates a vector of linearly spaced points. linspace(0, 2*pi, 30) load Loads Workspace variables from a disk ﬁle. load filename lookfor Searches for a speciﬁed string in the ﬁrst line of all M-ﬁles found in the MATLAB path. lookfor ode ls Lists ﬁles in the current working directory. Similar to dir. maple String access to the Maple kernel; generally is used in the form maple(’function’, ’arg’). Not available in the Student Version. maple(’help’, ’csgn’) max Computes the arithmetic maximum of the entries of a vector. X = [3 5 1 -6 23 -56 100]; max(X) mean Computes the arithmetic average of the entries of a vector. X = [3 5 1 -6 23 -56 100]; mean(X) syms x y z; X = [x y z]; mean(X) median Computes the arithmetic median of the entries of a vector. X = [3 5 1 -6 23 -56 100]; median(X) min Computes the arithmetic minimum of the entries of a vector. X = [3 5 1 -6 23 -56 100]; min(X) more Turns on (or off) page-by-page scrolling of MATLAB output. Use the SPACE BAR to advance to the next page, the RETURN key to advance line-by-line, and Q to abort the output. more on more off notebook Opens an M-book (Windows only). notebook problem1.doc notebook -setup Glossary 307 num2str Converts a number to a string. Useful in programming. constant = [’a’ num2str(1)] ode45 Numerical ODE solver for ﬁrst-order equations. See MATLAB’s online help for ode45 for a list of other MATLAB ODE solvers. f = inline(’tˆ2 + y’, ’t’, ’y’) [x, y] = ode45(f, [0 10], 1); plot(x, y) ones Creates a matrix of ones. ones(3) ones(3, 1) open Opens a ﬁle. The way this is done depends on the ﬁlename extension. open myfigure.fig path Without an argument, displays the search path. With an argument, sets the search path. Type help path for details. pretty Displays a symbolic expression in a more readable format. syms x y; expr = x/(x - 3)/(x + 2/y) pretty(expr) prod Computes the product of the entries of a vector. X = [3 5 1 -6 23 -56 100]; prod(X) pwd Shows the name of the current (working) directory. quadl Numerical integration command. In MATLAB 5.3 or earlier, use quad8 instead. format long; quadl(’sin(exp(x))’, 0, 1) g = inline(’sin(exp(x))’); quad8(g, 0, 1) quit Terminates a MATLAB session. rand Random number generator; gives a random number between 0 and 1. rank Gives the rank of a matrix. A = [2 3 5; 4 6 8]; rank(A) roots Finds the roots of a polynomial whose coefﬁcients are given by the elements of the vector argument of roots. roots([1 2 2]) round Rounds a number to the nearest integer. save Saves Workspace variables to a speciﬁed ﬁle. See also diary and load. save filename 308 Glossary sim Runs a SIMULINK model. sim(’model’) simple Attempts to simplify an expression using multiple methods. syms x y;[expression, how] = simple(sin(x)*cos(y) + cos(x)*sin(y)) simplify Attempts to simplify an expression symbolically. syms x; simplify(1/(1 + x)ˆ2 - 1/(1 - x)ˆ2) simulink Opens the SIMULINK library. size Returns the number of rows and the number of columns in a matrix. A = [1 3 2; 4 1 5] [r, c] = size(A) solve Solves an equation or set of equations. If the right-hand side of the equation is omitted, ‘0’ is assumed. solve(’2*xˆ2 - 3*x + 6’) [x, y] = solve(’x + 3*y = 4’, ’-x - 5*y = 3’, ’x’, ’y’) sound Plays a vector through the computer speakers. sound(sin(0:0.1*pi:1000*pi)) strcat Concatenates two or more strings. strcat(’This ’, ’is ’, ’a ’, ’long ’, ’string.’) str2num Converts a string to a number. Useful in programming. constant = ’a7’ index = str2num(constant(2)) subs Substitutes for parts of an expression. subs(’xˆ3 - 4*x + 1’, ’x’, 2) subs(’sin(x)ˆ2 + cos(x)’, ’sin(x)’, ’z’) sum Sums a vector, or sums the columns of a matrix. k = 1:10; sum(k) sym Creates a symbolic variable or number. sym pi x = sym(’x’) constant = sym(’1/2’) syms Shortcut for creating symbolic variables. The command syms x is equivalent to x = sym(’x’). syms x y z Glossary 309 symsum Performs a symbolic summation of a vector, possibly with inﬁnitely many entries. syms x k n; symsum(xˆk, k, 0, n) syms n; symsum(nˆ(-2), n, 1, Inf) taylor Gives a Taylor polynomial approximation of a speciﬁed order (the default is 5) at a speciﬁed point (default is 0). syms x; taylor(cos(x), 8, 0) taylor(exp(1/x), 10, Inf) transpose Transpose of a matrix (compare ctranspose). Converts a column vector to a row vector, and vice versa. Usually invoked with the .’ operator. A = [1 3 4] A.’ type Displays the contents of a speciﬁed ﬁle. type myfile.m vectorize Vectorizes a symbolic expression. Useful in deﬁning inline functions. f = inline(vectorize(’xˆ2 - 1/x’)) vpa Evaluates an expression to the speciﬁed degree of accuracy using variable precision arithmetic. vpa(’1/3’, 20) whos Lists current information on all the variables in the Workspace. zeros Creates a matrix of zeros. zeros(10) zeros(3, 1) Graphics Commands area Produces a shaded graph of the area between the x axis and a curve. X = 0:0.1:4*pi; Y = sin(X); area(X, Y) axes Creates an empty ﬁgure window. axis Sets axis scaling and appearance. axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) — sets ranges for the axes. axis tight — sets the axis limits to the full range of the data. axis equal — makes the horizontal and vertical scales equal. axis square — makes the axis box square. axis off — hides the axes and tick marks. 310 Glossary bar Draws a bar graph. bar([2, 7, 1.5, 6]) cla Clear axes. close Closes the current ﬁgure window; close all closes all ﬁgure windows. colormap Sets the colormap features of the current ﬁgure; type help graph3d to see examples of colormaps. X = 0:0.1:4*pi; Y = sin(X); colormap cool comet Displays an animated parametric plot. t = 0:0.1:4*pi; comet(t.*cos(t), t.*sin(t)) contour Plots the level curves of a function of two variables; usually used with meshgrid. [X, Y] = meshgrid(-3:0.1:3, -3:0.1:3); contour(X, Y, X.ˆ2 - Y.ˆ2) contourf Filled contour plot. Often used with colormap. [X,Y] = meshgrid(-2:0.1:2, -2:0.1:2); contourf(X, Y, X.ˆ2 - Y.ˆ3); colormap autumn ezcontour Easy plot command for contour or level curves. ezcontour(’xˆ2 - yˆ2’) syms x y; ezcontour(x - yˆ2) ezmesh Easy plot command for mesh view of surfaces. ezmesh(’xˆ2 + yˆ2’) syms x y; ezmesh(x*y) ezplot Easy plot command for symbolic expressions. ezplot(’exp(-xˆ2)’, [-5, 5]) syms x; ezplot(sin(x)) ezplot3 Easy plot command for 3D parametric curves. ezplot3(’cos(t)’, ’sin(t)’, ’t’) syms t; ezplot3(1 - cos(t), t - sin(t), t, [0 4*pi]) ezsurf Easy plot command for standard shaded view of surfaces. ezsurf(’(xˆ2 + yˆ2)*exp(-(xˆ2 + yˆ2))’) syms x y; ezsurf(sin(x*y), [-pi pi -pi pi]) figure Creates a new ﬁgure window. fill Creates a ﬁlled polygon. See also patch. fill([0 1 1 0], [0 0 1 1], ’b’); axis equal tight Glossary 311 findobj Finds graphics objects with speciﬁed property values. findobj(’Type’, ’Line’) gca Gets current axes. gcf Gets current ﬁgure. get Gets properties of a ﬁgure. get(gcf) getframe Command to get the frames of a movie or animation. T = 0:0.1:2*pi; for j = 1:12 plot(5*cos(j*pi/6) + cos(T), 5*sin(j*pi/6) + sin(T)); axis([-6 6 -6 6]); M(j) = getframe; end movie(M) ginput Gathers coordinates from a ﬁgure using the mouse (press the RETURN key to ﬁnish). [X, Y] = ginput grid Puts a grid on a ﬁgure. gtext Places a text label using the mouse. gtext(’Region of instability’) hist Draws a histogram. for j = 1:100 Y(j) = rand; end hist(Y) hold Holds the current graph. Superimposes any new graphics generated by MATLAB on top of the current ﬁgure. hold on hold off legend Creates a legend for a ﬁgure. t = 0:0.1:2*pi; plot(t, cos(t), t, sin(t)) legend(’cos(t)’, ’sin(t)’) loglog Creates a log-log plot. x = 0.0001:0.1:12; loglog(x, x.ˆ5) 312 Glossary mesh Draws a mesh surface. [X,Y] = meshgrid(-2:.1:2, -2:.1:2); mesh(X, Y, sin(pi*X).*cos(pi*Y)) meshgrid Creates a vector array that can be used as input to a graphics command, for example, contour, quiver, or surf. [X, Y] = meshgrid(0:0.1:1, 0:0.1:2) contour(X, Y, X.ˆ2 + Y.ˆ2) movie Plays back a movie. See the entry for getframe. patch Creates a ﬁlled polygon or colored surface patch. See also fill. t = (0:1:5)*2*pi/5; patch(cos(t), sin(t), ’r’); axis equal pie Draws a pie plot of the data in the input vector. Z = [34 5 32 6]; pie(Z) plot Plots vectors of data. X = [0:0.1:2]; plot(X, X.ˆ3) plot3 Plots curves in 3D space. t = [0:0.1:30]; plot3(t, t.*cos(t), t.*sin(t)) polar Polar coordinate plot command. theta = 0:0.1:2*pi; rho = theta; polar(theta, rho) print Sends the contents of the current ﬁgure window to the printer or to a ﬁle. print print -deps picture.eps quiver Plots a (numerical) vector ﬁeld in the plane. [x, y] = meshgrid(-4:0.5:4, -4:0.5:4); quiver(x, y, x.*(y - 2), y.*x); axis tight semilogy Creates a semilog plot, with logarithmic scale along the vertical axis. x = 0:0.1:12; semilogy(x, exp(x)) set Set properties of a ﬁgure. set(gcf, ’Color’, [0, 0.8, 0.8]) subplot Breaks the ﬁgure window into a grid of smaller plots. subplot(2, 2, 1), ezplot(’xˆ2’) subplot(2, 2, 2), ezplot(’xˆ3’) Glossary 313 subplot(2, 2, 3), ezplot(’xˆ4’) subplot(2, 2, 4), ezplot(’xˆ5’) surf Draws a solid surface. [X,Y] = meshgrid(-2:.1:2, -2:.1:2); surf(X, Y, sin(pi*X).*cos(pi*Y)) text Annotates a ﬁgure, by placing text at speciﬁed coordinates. text(x, y, ’string’) title Assigns a title to the current ﬁgure window. title ’Nice Picture’ xlabel Assigns a label to the horizontal coordinate axis. xlabel(’Year’) ylabel Assigns a label to the vertical coordinate axis. ylabel(’Population’) view Speciﬁes a point from which to view a 3D graph. ezsurf(’(xˆ2 + yˆ2)*exp(-(xˆ2 + yˆ2))’); view([0 0 1]) syms x y; ezmesh(x*y); view([1 0 0]) zoom Rescales a ﬁgure by a speciﬁed factor; zoom by itself enables use of the mouse for zooming in or out. zoom zoom(4) MATLAB Programming any True if any element of an array is nonzero. if any(imag(x) ˜= 0); error(’Inputs must be real.’); end all True if all the elements of an array are nonzero. break Breaks out of a for or while loop. case Used to delimit cases after a switch statement. computer Outputs the type of computer on which MATLAB is running. dbclear Clears breakpoints from a ﬁle. dbclear all dbcont Returns to an M-ﬁle after stopping at a breakpoint. dbquit Terminates an M-ﬁle after stopping at a breakpoint. 314 Glossary dbstep Executes an M-ﬁle line-by-line after stopping at a breakpoint. dbstop Insert a breakpoint in a ﬁle. dbstop in <filename> at <linenumber> dos Runs a command from the operating system, saving the result in a variable. Similar to unix. end Terminates an if, for, while, or switch statement. else Alternative in a conditional statement. See if. elseif Nested alternative in a conditional statement. See the online help for if. error Displays an error message and aborts execution of an M-ﬁle. find Reports indices of nonzero elements of an array. n = find(isspace(mystring)); if ˜isempty(n) firstword = mystring(1:n(1)-1); restofstring = mystring(n(1)+1:end); end for Repeats a block of commands a speciﬁed number of times. Must be terminated by end. close; axes; hold on t = -1:0.05:1; for k = 0:10 plot(t, t.ˆk) end function Used on the ﬁrst line of an M-ﬁle to make it a function M-ﬁle. function y = myfunction(x) if Allows conditional execution of MATLAB statements. Must be terminated by end. if (x >= 0) sqrt(x) else error(’Invalid input.’) end input Prompts for user input. answer = input(’Please enter [x, y] coordinates: ’) isa Checks whether an object is of a given class (double, sym, etc.). isa(x, ’sym’) ischar True if an array is a character string. Glossary 315 isempty True if an array is empty. isfinite Checks whether elements of an array are ﬁnite. isfinite(1./[-1 0 1]) ishold True if hold on is in effect. isinf Checks whether elements of an array are inﬁnite. isletter Checks whether elements of a string are letters of the alphabet. str = ’remove my spaces’; str(isletter(str)) isnan Checks whether elements of an array are “not-a-number” (which results from indeterminate forms such as 0/0). isnan([-1 0 1]/0) isnumeric True if an object is of a numeric class. ispc True if MATLAB is running on a Windows computer. isreal True if an array consists only of real numbers. isspace Checks whether elements of a string are spaces, tabs, etc. isunix True if MATLAB is running on a UNIX computer. keyboard Returns control from an M-ﬁle to the keyboard. Useful for debugging M-ﬁles. mex Compiles a MEX program. nargin Returns the number of input arguments passed to a function M-ﬁle. if (nargin < 2); error(’Wrong number of arguments’); end nargout Returns the number of output arguments requested from a function M-ﬁle. otherwise Used to delimit an alternative case after a switch statement. pause Suspends execution of an M-ﬁle until the user presses a key. return Terminates execution of an M-ﬁle early or returns to an M-ﬁle after a keyboard command. if abs(err) < tol; return; end switch Alternative to if that allows branching to more than two cases. Must be terminated by end. switch num case 1 disp(’Yes.’) case 0 316 Glossary disp(’No.’) otherwise disp(’Maybe.’) end unix Runs a command from the operating system, saving the result in a variable. Similar to dos. varargin Used in a function M-ﬁle to handle a variable number of inputs. varargout Used in a function M-ﬁle to allow a variable number of outputs. warning Displays a warning message. warning(’Taking the square root of negative number.’) while Repeats a block of commands until a condition fails to be met. Must be terminated by end. mysum = 0; x = 1; while x > eps mysum = mysum + x; x = x/2; end mysum Index The index uses the same conventions for fonts that are used throughout the book. MATLAB commands, such as dsolve, are printed in a boldface typewriter font. Menu options, such as File, are printed in boldface. Names of keys, such as ENTER, are printed in small caps. Everything else is printed in a standard font. !, 118–119, 301 %, 38, 57, 301 &, 104–105 ’, 22–23, 301 ’*’, 80 ’+’, 80 ’-’, 80 ’--’, 80 ’:’, 80 *, 14, 300 ,, 51, 301 ., 19, 22, 26, 300 .’, 301 .*, 22, 59, 300 ..., 39, 53, 99, 301 ./, 22, 59 .ˆ, 22, 59, 300 /, 300 :, 21, 59, 107, 114, 171, 195, 279, 289–290, 301 ;, 23–24, 29, 50, 301 =, 16 ==, 103–104, 109, 115 ?, 5, 15 @, 55, 116, 194, 301 \, 60, 79, 88, 172, 257–258, 300 ˆ, 70, 300 |, 104–105, 279 ~, 105–106 ~=, 106 aborting calculations, 5 abs, 102, 302 accuracy, ﬂoating point, 110 acos, 302 activate, 131 Activate Figure, 131 Add Folder..., 35 Add with Subfolders..., 35 addition, 9 addpath, 34, 303 air resistance, 212–213, 294–296 Align Objects, 128 all, 106, 313 amperes, 210 animation, 77, 256, 311 ans, 9, 13, 40, 58, 114, 219, 303 any, 106, 279, 313 Application Options, 130, 133 area, 174–175, 309 317 318 Index argument, 40, 52, 57–58, 112–114 arithmetic, 8 arithmetic operations, 220, 226 arithmetic symbols, 222, 226 arithmetic, complex, 58–59 arithmetic, exact, 10–11 arithmetic, ﬂoating point, 11 arithmetic, variable precision, 11 array, 13, 23, 51 Array Editor, 33 asin, 63, 302 assignment, 16–17, 103, 219 asterisk, 8 atan, 24, 48, 302 atan2, 58, 116, 302 Auto Correct..., 99–100 axes, 26, 81 axes, 43, 45, 309 Axes Properties..., 81, 125 axes, scale, 80 axis, 27, 49, 69–70, 77–78, 212, 242, 309 axlimdlg, 132 background, 3 backslash, 60, 87, 257–258 Band-Limited White Noise, 126 bar, 161, 164, 281, 310 baseball, 213, 292 batting average, 206, 213, 298 Beethoven, 85 bell curve, 152, 154 bessel, 302 besselj, 24, 76, 302 bessely, 302 bifurcation, 163 Block Parameters, 124–125, 192 blocks, 121 Boltzmann’s constant, 209 border, 82 boundary condition, 185 braces, 113, 220, 222 brackets, 113, 220–222 brackets, curly, 222 branch line, 124 branching, 101, 103, 106, 111 break, 111, 313 breakpoint, 117, 227, 230 Breakpoints, 227 Bring MATLAB to Front, 97 bug ﬁxes, 214 bug reports, 214 built-in constant, 24 built-in function, 24, 226 bulls-eye, 207 Bytes, 13 C, xiii, xvi, 118–119 calculus, 61 callback function, 131–132, 134–135 Captain Picard, 204 Cardassian, 204, 271 case, 109, 222, 313 casino, 149, 153–154 cd, 34, 118, 303 cell array, 113, 222 Cell Markers, 96 cell, corrupted, 100 Central Limit Theorem, 152–153 chaotic behavior, 165, 167 char, 53, 226, 285–287, 303 Checkbox, 130, 134 chessboard, 83 Children, 82 circuit, electrical, 209 cla, 279, 310 class, 13, 51 clear, 13, 17, 33, 38, 46, 57, 303 clear values, 17, 226 clear variables, 225 close, 38, 43, 45–46, 98, 310 Close, 28 closed Leontief model, 168 collect, 303 colon, xvii, 21, 59, 107, 171, 301 color, 80 Color, 82 color, background, 82 color, RGB, 82, 230 colormap, 137, 266, 310 column, 59 column vector, 22–23, 40, 52 comet, 77, 310 comma, 51, 301 command history, 15, 36 Index Command History window, 3, 31, 220 Command Window, 3, 8, 14, 31–33, 35–36, 39, 43, 45, 91, 93, 96, 98–99, 103, 299 comment, 38, 42, 46 common mistakes, 226 competing species, 211 complex arithmetic, 58–59 complex number, 19, 24, 58–59, 102, 105, 114, 224, 246 compose, 303 computer, 118, 313 computer won’t respond, 218, 226 concatenation, 53 conductivity, 189 conj, 302 Constant, 213, 293 constant, built-in, 24 constraint, 173–175, 177–179 Continuous library, 121, 200 continuous model, 211 contour, 69–70, 73, 86, 176, 204, 246–247, 310 contour plot, 69 contourf, 138–139, 266, 310 CONTROL key, 5 Copy, 32 cos, 24, 302 cosh, 302 cot, 302 Create Shortcut, 32 Create subsystem, 200 ctranspose, 22–23, 303 CRTL+C, 5, 43, 47, 226 CRTL+ENTER, 94, 96, 100 current, 209 Current Directory, 34 Current Directory browser, 3, 31–32, 35–36, 99 CurrentAxes, 82 curve, 86 curve, level, 69 Cut, 126 cylindrical coordinates, 74 D, 61, 303 damped harmonic oscillator, 121 dashed line, 80, 243 319 data class, 13, 20, 51–52, 54 dbclear, 117, 227, 313 dbcont, 117, 227, 313 dblquad, 63 dbquit, 117, 313 dbstep, 117, 314 dbstop, 117, 227, 314 debug, 46, 227 debugger, 36, 45, 227 debugging, 117 default variables, 65 Deﬁne Auto Init Cell, 97 Deﬁne Calc Zone, 97 Deﬁne Input Cell, 96 deﬁnite integral, 62 deﬁnitions, conﬂicting, 219 delete, 42, 46, 118, 303 Delete, 34 delimiters, 220–221, 226 delimiters, mismatched, 220 demand, 171–172 demo, 5 Demux, 200, 293 Denver, Colorado, 213, 296–298 derivative, 61, 86 Derivative, 125 descendents, 83 Desktop, xv, 3–4, 6–8, 14, 31–33, 99, 121, 214, 220, 299 Desktop Layout, 31 det, 88, 258–260, 303 determinant, 88 diag, 265, 303 dialog box, 132 diary, 42–43, 46, 304 diary ﬁle, xv, 31, 42, 45–46, 98 diff, 61, 186, 190, 249, 304 difference equation, 210 differential equation, 121, 125, 191, 210 differential/difference equation, 197 differentiation, 61 diffusion equation, 184 digit, 17, 48 dingbats, xvii diode, 209 dir, 35, 118, 304 Dirichlet boundary condition, 185 320 Index discrete model, 211 Discrete Pulse Generator, 166 disp, 51, 114–115, 145, 147, 149, 268–270, 277, 304 display pane, 15 division, 9, 220 Dock, 6, 32 documentation, 16, 214 documentation, online, 15 doomsday, 212, 291 DOS, 118 dos, 119, 280, 314 dotted line, 80 double, 18, 53, 246, 304 double array, 13 double precision, 10, 13 down-arrow key, 15, 36 dsolve, 66, 211, 287, 304 Duplicate, 129 e, 301 echo, 37–38, 41–43, 45–46, 99, 304 edit, 36, 101, 304 Edit, 34, 80–81, 84, 96, 126, 200, 217 Edit Axes..., 84 Edit ButtondownFcn, 135 Edit Callback, 132 Edit Menubar, 130 Edit Text, 129, 131, 133–134 editing, 36 editing input, 15 Editor/Debugger, 36, 45–46, 99, 102, 117, 130, 132, 227, 230, 232 editpath, 35 eig, 60, 88, 148, 169, 261–264, 278, 304 eigenpair, 60 eigenvalue, 60, 88, 90, 148, 168–169, 198, 206, 278 eigenvector, 60, 88, 90, 148, 168–169, 198 element, 23, 59 element-by-element, 22–23, 59 else, 102–103, 106, 268, 279–280, 314 elseif, 102, 105, 109, 314 emacs, 36 end, 41, 45, 102–103, 106, 109, 111, 186, 190, 304, 314 ENTER, 4, 13, 15, 36, 39, 47, 53, 116, 134 eps, 301 EPS (Encapsulated PostScript), 43 equal sign, 16–17, 50 equilibrium, 168 erf, 24, 255, 302 error, 17 error, 113–114, 116, 280, 314 error function, 302 error message, 14, 224 error message, plotting, 223 error messages, multiple, 223 error, syntax, 14 errors, common, 15 eval, 116, 133, 304 Evaluate Calc Zone, 97 Evaluate Cell, 97 Evaluate Loop, 97 Evaluate M-book, 97 evaluation, 116 evaluation, suppressing, 54–55 exact arithmetic, 10–11 execute, 37 Exit MATLAB, 7 exp, 11, 22, 24, 302 exp(1), 301 expand, 11, 304 expm, 22, 302 exponential decay, 156, 159 exponential function, 22 exponential function, matrix, 22 exponential growth, 156, 159, 211 Export..., 215 expression, 54 External Interfaces/API, 119 external program, 118 eye, 59, 172, 192, 305 ezcontour, 70, 310 ezcontourf, 137–138 ezmesh, 74–75, 310 ezplot, 26, 30, 49, 67–68, 70, 112, 310 ezplot3, 72, 310 ezsurf, 75, 226, 256, 310 factor, 4, 11, 52, 237, 305 factorial, 41 factorial, 254 Feigenbaum parameter, 165 Index feval, 116, 305 ﬁeld, vector, 71 ﬁgure, 77 figure, 78, 98, 310 Figure Properties..., 80 ﬁgure window, 6 File, xvii, 7, 28, 33, 35–36, 43, 84, 93–94, 120–121, 124, 128, 130, 215 ﬁle extension, 34, 37, 124, 127, 130, 307 fill, 83–84, 257, 279, 310 find, 305, 314 Find, 92 findobj, 83, 133, 311 ﬁnite difference scheme, 185, 188, 194 ﬁnite difference scheme, stability of, 188–189 ﬁnite element method, 191 ﬂoating point arithmetic, 10–11 ﬂoating point number, 51, 53 fminbnd, 305 follow-the-leader, 196 FontName, 82 football coach, 208 fopen, 120 for, 41, 45, 84, 101, 103, 109, 111, 278–279, 281, 314 for loop, 41, 45 forced oscillations, 125 format, 10, 36–38, 146–147, 177, 235, 305 Format, 199, 293 Format Object..., 97 FORTRAN, xiii, xvi, 118–119 fprintf, 120 fraction, 10 frequency, 85 friction, 181 front end, 91 function, 54 function, 39, 112, 314 function handle, 55, 116, 194, 301 function M-ﬁle, 31, 36, 39–40, 55, 57, 101, 112 function names, capitalized, 223 function, built-in, 24 function, user-deﬁned, 25 Fundamental Theorem of Linear Programming, 177 321 fzero, 17, 19–20, 49, 142, 210, 223, 240, 244, 285–287, 305 Gain, 123–124, 193, 200–201 Gain, matrix, 193 Galileo, 212 gamma, 24, 87, 254, 302 gamma function, 87, 302 gca, 81–82, 281, 311 gcbf, 133 gcbo, 133 gcf, 78, 82, 311 genotype, 89–90, 265 geometric series, 64, 146, 271 get, 82, 133, 311 getframe, 77, 202, 257, 311 ginput, 115–116, 311 gradient, 305 graph, 49 graph2d, 67 graph3d, 67, 137 Graphical User Interface, xvi graphics, 26, 43, 67 graphics window, 7 graphics, customizing, 82 graphics, editing, 216 graphics, exporting, 215 graphics, M-book, 97 gravity, 212 Greek letters, 79 grid, 311 Group Cells, 96 gtext, 311 GUI, xvi, 127–128, 130–135 GUI, 127 GUIDE, 127–128, 130–133, 135 guide, 305 Gwynn, Tony, 206 half-life, 204 handle, 82, 133 HandleVisibility, 133 heat equation, 136, 184, 187 helix, 72 help, 4 help, 10, 15–16, 43, 57, 223, 305 Help, 5, 299 322 Index Help Browser, 4–5, 15–16, 32, 78–79, 119, 299 Help Navigator, 15 help text, 52, 57 helpdesk, 4–5, 15, 78, 299 helpwin, 4, 16, 299 Hide Cell Markers, 96 hist, 151–155, 311 histogram, 151, 207 history, command, 15, 36 hold, 30, 44–46, 98, 116, 311 homogeneous equation, 121 HTML, 42, 215 i, 19, 24, 58, 301 if, 101–106, 109, 111, 113, 268, 279–280, 314 illumatons, 204 illumination, 136 imag, 302 image, 83 imaginary number, 59 implicit plot, 70 Import Data..., 120 Import Wizard, 120 improper integral, 62 increment, 21 increment, fractional, 21 increment, negative, 21 indeﬁnite integral, 62 indeterminate form, 106 Inf, 24, 63, 251–252, 254, 301 inﬁnite loop, 110 inhomogeneous equation, 125 initial condition, 125, 185, 195, 200 initial value, 211, 293 inline, 19, 25–26, 39, 51, 53, 55, 305 inline function, 51, 55, 117 input, 8, 40, 57, 112–113 input, 47, 115, 132, 314 input, editing, 15 input-output model, 168–169 inputdlg, 132 Insert, 84 installation, 2 int, 52, 55, 62–63, 250, 305 integral, 86 integral, deﬁnite, 62 integral, improper, 62 integral, indeﬁnite, 62 integral, multiple, 63 Integrator, 125, 192, 213, 293 intensity, 137, 139–140, 142–144 interest, 145, 149, 205 interface, 91 Internet, 214 Internet Explorer, 216 interrupting calculations, 5, 226 intersection point, 49 inv, 88, 259–260, 265, 305 isa, 314 ischar, 112, 314 isempty, 115, 315 isequal, 115 isfinite, 315 ishold, 116, 315 isinf, 315 isletter, 315 isnan, 315 isnumeric, 112, 114, 279, 315 ispc, 118, 280, 315 isreal, 315 isspace, 315 isunix, 118, 280, 315 j, 301 jacobian, 305 Java, 119 JPEG, 215 keyboard, 47, 99, 115, 117, 227, 315 Kirchhoff’s Current Law, 209 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, 209 label, 27 Launch Pad, 3, 31–33, 121, 299 Layout, 128, 130 Layout Editor, 128–135 lcm, 207, 280 least common multiple, 207 left, 306 left-arrow key, 15, 36 left-matrix-divide, 87 legend, 78, 98, 311 Index lemniscate, 70, 78 length, 56, 107, 280, 306 Leontief, Wassily, 168 level curve, 69, 86 light ﬁxtures, 137 limit, 63 limit, 63, 252, 306 limit point, 253 limit, one-sided, 63 line, 83 Line, 82 line style, 80 line, dashed, 80 line, dotted, 80 line, solid, 80 linear algebra, 20, 88 linear economic models, 136 linear exchange model, 168 linear programming, 136, 173, 207–208, 282–284 LineStyle, 83 linprog, 177 linspace, 187, 195, 279, 306 Linux, 1 Listbox, 130 ln, 24 load, 34, 119, 306 local variable, 40, 57 location of MATLAB, 2 log, 11, 24, 48, 58, 63, 302 logical array, 104–105 logical expression, 104, 106 logistic growth, 159, 161 loglog, 210, 287, 311 lookfor, 15, 35, 306 loop, 41, 45, 84, 101, 109–111, 119, 278 loops, avoiding, 107–108, 155, 206 lowercase, 17, 223, 227 ls, 35, 306 M-book, 2, 41, 46, 91, 93, 99, 136, 215 m-book.dot, 92, 94 M-ﬁle, xv, 31, 36, 41, 43, 46, 55–57, 98–99, 101, 112, 115, 117, 127, 132, 135, 214, 219 M-ﬁle editor, 216 M-ﬁle, function, 31, 36, 39–40, 55, 57 323 M-ﬁle, script, 31, 36–38, 41, 45, 56–57 M-ﬁles, problems with, 218 Macintosh, 1 Macro, 93 Maple, 61–63, 306 maple, 254, 306 Math library, 124, 212 mating, 89 MATLAB, 119, 299 MATLAB Desktop, 3 MATLAB Java Interface, 119 MATLAB Manuals, 78 matrix, 23, 52, 59–60 matrix multiplication, 22 max, 224, 277–278, 306 mean, 186, 190, 306 median, 306 memory, managing, 155, 226 menu bar, 5, 33, 95, 130 Menu Editor, 130 menu items, xvii mesh, 73, 224, 312 meshgrid, 69–70, 73, 139, 176, 246–247, 312 mex, 119, 315 MEX ﬁle, 119 Microsoft Word, xiii, xvi, 2, 92–93, 215 millionaire, 205 min, 277, 306 minus sign, 100 mismatched delimiters, 220, 226 mistake, 218 mldivide, 60 mod, 279 Model, 121 model window, 121 Monte Carlo simulation, 136, 149, 206 monthly payment, 145–148 more, 15, 99, 306 mortgage, 136, 145, 149 Move Down, 35 Move Up, 35 movie, 87, 202–203, 311 movie, 77, 257, 312 movieview, 77 multiple curves, 30 multiple error messages, 218 324 Index multiple integral, 63 multiplication, 9 Mux, 200 NaN, 106, 301 nargin, 112, 315 nargout, 112, 114, 315 Navigator, 217 Netscape Navigator, 216 New, 94, 121, 128 New Courier, 94 New M-book, 94 Newton, 212 nodesktop, 32 nonsingular, 88 notebook, 306 Notebook, 94, 96–98 Notebook Options, 97 notepad, 36 num2str, 53, 115, 269–270, 277, 307 numerical differentiation, 125 numerical integration, 62, 125 numerical ODE solver, 194, 211 numerical output, 11 ode45, 55, 181–183, 191, 203, 289–290, 307 Ohm’s Law, 209 ohms, 210 OK, 33 ones, 59, 76, 107, 193, 307 online help, 4, 15, 52, 136 open, 307 open Leontief model, 169 Open..., xvii, 93 openvar, 33 order of integration, 63 otherwise, 109, 315 Out of memory, 155 output, 8, 40, 57, 112, 114 Output options, 203 output, numeric, 11 output, suppressing, 24 output, symbolic, 11 output, unexpected, 218 output, wrong, 218 overloaded, 52 PaperSize, 82 parameter, 39, 67 parametric plot, 67 parametric surface, 73 parentheses, 104, 220, 221 parsing, 112 partial derivative, 61 partial differential equation, 184, 194 Paste, 32 patch, 230, 312 path, 34 path, 35, 307 Path Browser, 33, 35 pathtool, 35 pause, 42–43, 46–47, 99, 115, 315 PC, 1 PC File Viewer, 217 PDE Toolbox, 191 pdepe, 194 PDF, 78, 121 peaceful coexistence, 291 pendulum, 136, 180, 182, 212 percent sign, 38, 57 period, 22 periodic behavior, 164, 167 phase portrait, 181 pi, 11–12, 24, 301 pie, 172, 312 pitch, of sound, 85 platform, 1 plot, 28–30, 43, 45, 49, 53, 67, 72, 77, 80, 84, 181, 219, 230, 243, 312 plot style, 80 plot, 2-dimensional, 67 plot, 3-dimensional, 72 plot, contour, 69 plot, log–log, 311 plot, parametric, 67 plot, semilog, 312 plot3, 72, 80, 312 plotting several functions, 30 polar, 312 polar coordinates, 57, 74, 114 polynomial, 48 population dynamics, 136 population growth, 210 Popup Menu, 130–131, 133 Index PostScript, 43 precedence, 220, 226 Preferences, 217 pretty, 45, 254, 307 pretty print, 45 previously saved M-ﬁle, 224 prima donnas, 208 prime numbers, 52 principal, 145 print, 43, 46, 312 Print..., 43 Printable Documentation, 78 printing, suppressing, 24 problems, 218 prod, 64, 107, 307 Product, 293 product, element-by-element, 59 Professional Version, 2, 225 Programs, 216 Properties, 32 Property Editor, 84 Property Inspector, 128–130, 132–134 punct, 301 Purge Output Cells, 96 Push Button, 129, 132 pwd, 35, 118, 307 quad, 62 quad8, 62, 307 quadl, 62, 251, 307 quit, 307 quit MATLAB, 7 quiver, 71, 312 quote marks, 221 Radio Button, 130, 134 Ramp, 200 rand, 150, 266, 268–270, 275, 307 range, 27 rank, 88 rank, 88, 259, 307 real, 302 rectangle, 83 relational operator, 104–106, 109 release, 2 relop, 104–105 Remove, 35 Rename, 33 Report Generator, 215 rescale, 313 reshape, 107 resistor, 209 return, 47, 107–108, 227, 315 RETURN, 4, 13, 15, 53, 306 RGB, 82, 230 right, 306 right-arrow key, 15, 36 roots, 307 Rotate 3D, 80 round, 307 round-off error, 301 row, 59 row vector, 22–23, 40, 52 saddle point, 71 saddle surface, 73 save, 34, 119, 307 Save as..., 124 Save As..., 130, 215 save states to Workspace, 193 scalar, 13, 23, 52 scale factor, 71 scale, axes, 80 Scope, 124–125, 166, 193, 200, 292 Scope window, rescaling axes, 125 script M-ﬁle, 31, 36–38, 40–41, 45, 56–57, 202 sec, 302 sech, 302 Security..., 93 Select All, 96 semicolon, 23–24, 29, 50–51, 77, 301 semilogy, 312 sensitivity coefﬁcient, 197 sensitivity parameter, 200–201 sequence of evaluation, 225 set, 81–84, 133–134, 281, 312 Set Path..., 35 shift, 197 Shortcut, 33 Show Workspace, 33 sign, 103, 302 Signal dimensions, 199 Signals and Systems library, 200 325 326 Index sim, 277, 308 simlp, 177–178, 180, 282–284 simple, 11, 49, 238, 308 Simple, 31 simplify, 11, 49, 238, 308 simulation, 136 Simulation, 125, 193, 203 Simulation Parameters..., 193, 203 SIMULINK, xiii, xvi, 32, 121, 136, 166, 177, 191–192, 199, 213 simulink, 121, 308 SIMULINK Library Browser, 121 SIMULINK library window, 121 sin, 4, 13, 24, 61, 302 sinh, 302 Sinks library, 124 size, 76, 107, 308 slash, 59 smiley face, 100 Solaris, 118 solve, 17–19, 49, 53, 58, 66, 236, 239, 245, 308 Solver, 193, 203 solving equations, 17 sound, 85 sound, 85, 308 Sources library, 126, 200 space bar, 15 space, in argument of command, 221 specgraph, 67 spelling error, 218, 223 sphere, 74 spherical coordinates, 74 spiral, 199 sqrt, 9, 24, 59, 302 square, 69–70 sscanf, 119 stability, 188, 197, 199 StarOfﬁce, 217 Start, 92, 125, 216 starting MATLAB, 2 Static Text, 128 stock market, 205 str2num, 53, 119, 308 strcat, 308 strcmp, 109 string, 12, 17, 51–53, 55, 80, 220–221, 226, 301 structure array, 202, 300 Student Edition, xvii, 2 Student Version, xvii, 2, 225–226, 254, 306 style, line, 80 subfunction, 112, 194–195 submatrix, 59 submenu items, xvii subplot, 76, 172, 312 subs, 56, 146, 149, 245, 285–287, 308 substitution, 56 subsystem, 199 subtraction, 9 Sum, 124, 166, 200, 213 sum, 64, 169, 276–277, 281, 308 sum, symbolic, 64 summation sign, 79 suppressing output, 50 surf, 73, 188, 193, 313 surface, 83 switch, 101, 108–109, 222, 315 sym, 12, 51, 53, 60, 238, 308 sym object, 13 symbol, 79 Symbol font, 82 symbolic expression, 11, 13, 26, 51–53, 55 Symbolic Math Toolbox, xvii, 2, 10–11, 48, 61, 86, 111, 204 symbolic output, 11 symbolic variable, 13 syms, 10, 12–13, 26, 51, 53, 308 symsum, 64, 111, 253–254, 309 syntax error, 218, 220, 222 tag, 132 tan, 24, 302 tanh, 302 Task Bar, 92 taylor, 65, 255, 309 Taylor polynomial, 65, 87 technical coefﬁcients, 171 template, 92 TEX, 79 text, 78–79, 313 Text Properties..., 80 textedit, 36 TIFF, 216 time-lapse photo, 204 title, 27, 30, 43, 70, 78, 98, 172, 281, 313 Index To Workspace, 202 Toggle Button, 129, 134 Toggle Graph Output for Cell, 98 tool bar, 5, 33, 36 toolboxes, 2, 16, 32, 35, 136, 177, 299 Tools, 80–81, 84, 93, 99–100, 128, 130, 131, 133 trafﬁc ﬂow, stability of, 197 trafﬁc ﬂow, vehicular, 136, 196 Transport Delay, 200 transpose, 22–23 transpose, 23, 309 Trigonometric Function, 212 type, 55, 101, 112, 118, 309 Type, 83 uicontextmenu, 127 uicontrol, 127 uiimport, 120 uimenu, 127 Undeﬁne Cells, 96 underscore, 17, 70 Undo, 100 Ungroup Cells, 96 UNIX, 1, 118, 315 unix, 118–120, 280, 316 up-arrow key, 15, 36 uppercase, 17, 223, 227 user-deﬁned function, 25 Using MATLAB, 119 valid name, 17 varargin, 112–114, 222, 279, 316 varargout, 112, 114, 222, 316 variable, 9–10, 17 variable precision arithmetic, 11–12 variable, symbolic, 10 variables, clearing, 219 variables, default, 65 vector, 18, 21, 25, 28, 59 vector ﬁeld, 71 vector, column, 23, 52 vector, element of, 59 vector, row, 23, 52 vectorize, 25, 53, 62, 309 Verhulst, Pierre, 161 version, 1 vertical range, 27 327 vi, 36 view, 80, 313 View, 5–6, 14–15, 31–32 viewpoint, 80 Visual Basic, 92 voltage, 209 volts, 210 vpa, 12, 239, 309 warning, 114, 316 Web, 214 Web Server, MATLAB, 216 web site, for this book, 215 web site, The MathWorks, 214 which, 219 while, 109–111, 316 whos, 13, 33, 51–52, 104, 309 Wide nonscalar lines, 199 Windows, 1, 118, 315 Windows 2000, 1 Windows 95, 1 Windows 98, 1 Windows Explorer, 93 Windows NT, 1 Word 2000, 92, 97 Word 97, 92 word processor, 92 working directory, 2, 33–36, 39, 43, 45 Workspace, 34, 52, 56–57, 119, 193, 226 workspace, 14, 33 Workspace, 33 Workspace browser, 3, 14, 31–34, 52, 99 Workspace I/O, 193 wrap, 45 wrong output, 218 XData, 82 xlabel, 27, 78, 98, 187, 189–190, 194, 313 XTick, 81, 281 XTickLabel, 81, 281 XY Graph, 213, 291, 293 YData, 82 ylabel, 27, 78, 98, 187, 189–190, 194, 281, 289, 313 zeros, 59, 157, 186, 190, 192, 276, 278, 309 zlabel, 78, 187, 189–190, 194 zoom, 313

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