V8.3.0
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Technical Specification
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS);
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRAN);
Overall description;
Stage 2
(3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8)
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
1
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Reference
RTS/TSGR-0236300v830
Keywords
UMTS
ETSI
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© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2008.
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ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
2
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Intellectual Property Rights
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pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found
in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in
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Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee
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Foreword
This Technical Specification (TS) has been produced by ETSI 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
The present document may refer to technical specifications or reports using their 3GPP identities, UMTS identities or
GSM identities. These should be interpreted as being references to the corresponding ETSI deliverables.
The cross reference between GSM, UMTS, 3GPP and ETSI identities can be found under
http://webapp.etsi.org/key/queryform.asp.
ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
3
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Contents
Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................2
Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................2
Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................9
1
Scope ......................................................................................................................................................10
2
References ..............................................................................................................................................10
3
Definitions, symbols and abbreviations .................................................................................................11
3.1
3.2
4
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.4
4.5
5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.7.1
5.1.7.2
5.1.7.3
5.1.8
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.2.7.1
5.2.7.2
5.2.7.3
5.3
5.3.1
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.2.1
Definitions........................................................................................................................................................11
Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................................11
Overall architecture ................................................................................................................................13
Functional Split ................................................................................................................................................14
Interfaces ..........................................................................................................................................................16
S1 Interface.................................................................................................................................................16
X2 Interface ................................................................................................................................................16
Radio Protocol architecture ..............................................................................................................................16
User plane ...................................................................................................................................................16
Control plane ..............................................................................................................................................17
Synchronization................................................................................................................................................18
IP fragmentation ...............................................................................................................................................18
Physical Layer for E-UTRA...................................................................................................................18
Downlink Transmission Scheme ......................................................................................................................20
Basic transmission scheme based on OFDM ..............................................................................................20
Physical-layer processing ..........................................................................................................................20
Physical downlink control channel .............................................................................................................20
Downlink Reference signal.........................................................................................................................21
Downlink multi-antenna transmission ........................................................................................................21
MBSFN transmission..................................................................................................................................21
Physical layer procedure.............................................................................................................................21
Link adaptation .....................................................................................................................................21
Power Control .......................................................................................................................................22
Cell search.............................................................................................................................................22
Physical layer measurements definition......................................................................................................22
Uplink Transmission Scheme...........................................................................................................................22
Basic transmission scheme .........................................................................................................................22
Physical-layer processing ..........................................................................................................................23
Physical uplink control channel ..................................................................................................................23
Uplink Reference signal..............................................................................................................................23
Random access preamble............................................................................................................................24
Uplink multi-antenna transmission .............................................................................................................24
Physical channel procedure.........................................................................................................................24
Link adaptation .....................................................................................................................................24
Uplink Power control ............................................................................................................................24
Uplink timing control............................................................................................................................24
Transport Channels...........................................................................................................................................24
Mapping between transport channels and physical channels......................................................................26
E-UTRA physical layer model .........................................................................................................................26
Void ............................................................................................................................................................26
Void ............................................................................................................................................................26
Layer 2....................................................................................................................................................26
MAC Sublayer..................................................................................................................................................27
Services and Functions ...............................................................................................................................28
Logical Channels ........................................................................................................................................28
Control Channels .............................................................................................................................28
ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
6.1.2.2
6.1.3
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.4
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
8
8.1
8.2
9
4
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Traffic Channels....................................................................................................................................29
Mapping between logical channels and transport channels ........................................................................29
Mapping in Uplink ................................................................................................................................29
Mapping in Downlink ...........................................................................................................................29
RLC Sublayer ...................................................................................................................................................30
Services and Functions ...............................................................................................................................30
PDU Structure.............................................................................................................................................30
PDCP Sublayer.................................................................................................................................................31
Services and Functions ...............................................................................................................................31
PDU Structure.............................................................................................................................................32
Data flows through Layer 2..............................................................................................................................32
RRC........................................................................................................................................................32
Services and Functions .....................................................................................................................................32
RRC protocol states & state transitions ............................................................................................................33
Transport of NAS messages .............................................................................................................................33
System Information ..........................................................................................................................................33
RRC Procedures ...............................................................................................................................................35
E-UTRAN identities...............................................................................................................................35
E-UTRAN related UE identities.......................................................................................................................35
Network entity related Identities ......................................................................................................................35
ARQ and HARQ ....................................................................................................................................36
9.1
9.2
9.3
HARQ principles..............................................................................................................................................36
ARQ principles.................................................................................................................................................36
HARQ/ARQ interactions .................................................................................................................................37
10
Mobility..................................................................................................................................................37
10.1
Intra E-UTRAN................................................................................................................................................37
10.1.1
Mobility Management in EMM-IDLE........................................................................................................37
10.1.1.1
Cell selection.........................................................................................................................................37
10.1.1.2
Cell reselection......................................................................................................................................38
10.1.1.3
Handling in eNB ...................................................................................................................................39
10.1.1.4
Handling above eNB .............................................................................................................................39
10.1.1.5
Mobility Management Entity (MME) ...................................................................................................39
10.1.2
Mobility Management in EMM-CONNECTED.........................................................................................39
10.1.2.1
Handover...............................................................................................................................................39
10.1.2.1.1
C-plane handling .............................................................................................................................40
10.1.2.1.2
U-plane handling .............................................................................................................................42
10.1.2.2
Path Switch ...........................................................................................................................................43
10.1.2.3
Data forwarding ....................................................................................................................................43
10.1.2.3.1
For RLC-AM bearers ......................................................................................................................43
10.1.2.3.2
For RLC-UM bearers ......................................................................................................................44
10.1.2.4
Handling in eNB ...................................................................................................................................44
10.1.2.5
Handling above eNB .............................................................................................................................44
10.1.2.6
Mobility Management Entity (MME) ...................................................................................................44
10.1.2.7
Timing Advance....................................................................................................................................44
10.1.3
Measurements .............................................................................................................................................45
10.1.3.1
Intra-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements....................................................................................46
10.1.3.2
Inter-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements....................................................................................46
10.1.4
Paging and C-plane establishment ..............................................................................................................46
10.1.5
Random Access Procedure .........................................................................................................................46
10.1.5.1
Contention based random access procedure..........................................................................................47
10.1.5.2
Non-contention based random access procedure ..................................................................................48
10.1.5.3
Interaction model between L1 and L2/3 for Random Access Procedure ..............................................49
10.1.6
Radio Link Failure ......................................................................................................................................50
10.1.7
Radio Access Network Sharing ..................................................................................................................51
10.1.8
Handling of Roaming and Area Restrictions for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED.........................................51
10.2
Inter RAT .........................................................................................................................................................52
10.2.1
Cell reselection ...........................................................................................................................................52
10.2.2
Handover ....................................................................................................................................................52
10.2.2a
Inter-RAT cell change order to GERAN with NACC ................................................................................53
ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
5
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
10.2.3
Measurements .............................................................................................................................................53
10.2.3.1
Inter-RAT handovers from E-UTRAN .................................................................................................53
10.2.3.2
Inter-RAT handovers to E-UTRAN ......................................................................................................53
10.2.3.3
Inter-RAT cell reselection from E-UTRAN..........................................................................................54
10.2.3.4
Limiting measurement load at UE ........................................................................................................54
10.2.4
Network Aspects.........................................................................................................................................54
10.3
Mobility between E-UTRAN and Non-3GPP radio technologies....................................................................54
10.3.1
UE Capability Configuration ......................................................................................................................54
10.3.2
Mobility between E-UTRAN and cdma2000 network ...............................................................................54
10.3.2.1
Tunneling of cdma2000 Messages over E-UTRAN between UE and cdma2000 Access Nodes .........54
10.3.2.2
Mobility between E-UTRAN and HRPD..............................................................................................56
10.3.2.2.1
Mobility from E-UTRAN to HRPD ................................................................................................56
10.3.2.2.1.1
HRPD System Information Transmission in E-UTRAN ...........................................................56
10.3.2.2.1.2
Measuring HRPD from E-UTRAN............................................................................................56
10.3.2.2.1.2.1
Idle Mode Measurement Control .........................................................................................56
10.3.2.2.1.2.2
Active Mode Measurement Control .....................................................................................56
10.3.2.2.1.2.3
Active Mode Measurement ..................................................................................................57
10.3.2.2.1.3
Pre-registration to HRPD Procedure..........................................................................................57
10.3.2.2.1.4
E-UTRAN to HRPD Cell Re-selection......................................................................................57
10.3.2.2.1.5
E-UTRAN to HRPD Handover..................................................................................................57
10.3.2.2.2
Mobility from HRPD to E-UTRAN ................................................................................................57
10.3.2.3
Mobility between E-UTRAN and cdma2000 1xRTT ...........................................................................57
10.3.2.3.1
Mobility from E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT..............................................................................57
10.3.2.3.1.1
cdma2000 1xRTT System Information Transmission in E-UTRAN.........................................57
10.3.2.3.1.2
Measuring cdma2000 1xRTT from E-UTRAN .........................................................................58
10.3.2.3.1.2.1
Idle Mode Measurement Control ...............................................................................................58
10.3.2.3.1.2.2
Active Mode Measurement Control...........................................................................................58
10.3.2.3.1.2.3
Active Mode Measurement........................................................................................................58
10.3.2.3.1.3
E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT Cell Re-selection....................................................................58
10.3.2.3.1.4
E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT Handover ...............................................................................58
10.3.2.3.2
Mobility from cdma2000 1xRTT to E-UTRAN..............................................................................59
10.4
Area Restrictions ..............................................................................................................................................59
10.5
Mobility to and from CSG cells .......................................................................................................................59
10.5.1
Inbound mobility to CSG cells ...................................................................................................................59
10.5.1.1
RRC_IDLE............................................................................................................................................59
10.5.1.2
RRC_CONNECTED.............................................................................................................................59
10.5.2
Outbound mobility from CSG cells ............................................................................................................60
10.5.2.1
RRC_IDLE............................................................................................................................................60
10.5.2.2
RRC_CONNECTED.............................................................................................................................60
11
11.1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.4.1
11.4.2
11.5
Scheduling and Rate Control..................................................................................................................60
Basic Scheduler Operation ...............................................................................................................................60
Downlink Scheduling .................................................................................................................................60
Uplink Scheduling ......................................................................................................................................60
Void..................................................................................................................................................................61
Measurements to Support Scheduler Operation ...............................................................................................61
Rate Control of GBR, MBR, and AMBR.........................................................................................................61
Downlink ....................................................................................................................................................61
Uplink .........................................................................................................................................................61
CQI reporting for Scheduling...........................................................................................................................62
12
DRX in RRC_CONNECTED ................................................................................................................62
13
QoS.........................................................................................................................................................63
13.1
13.2
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.3.1
14.3.2
QoS concept and bearer service architecture....................................................................................................63
Resource establishment and QoS signalling.....................................................................................................64
Security...................................................................................................................................................64
Overview and Principles ..................................................................................................................................64
Security termination points...............................................................................................................................66
State Transitions and Mobility .........................................................................................................................67
RRC_IDLE to RRC_CONNECTED ..........................................................................................................67
RRC_CONNECTED to RRC_IDLE ..........................................................................................................67
ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
14.3.3
14.4
14.5
15
15.1
15.1.1
15.1.2
15.2
15.2.1
15.2.2
15.3
15.3.1
15.3.2
15.3.3
15.3.4
15.3.5
15.4
15.5
15.6
16
16.1
16.1.1
16.1.2
16.1.3
16.1.4
16.1.5
16.1.6
16.1.7
16.2
16.2.1
16.2.2
16.2.3
17
17.1
6
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Intra E-UTRAN Mobility ...........................................................................................................................67
AS Key Change in RRC_CONNECTED.........................................................................................................67
Security Interworking.......................................................................................................................................67
MBMS....................................................................................................................................................68
General .............................................................................................................................................................68
E-MBMS Logical Architecture...................................................................................................................68
E-MBMS User Plane Protocol Architecture ...............................................................................................70
MBMS Cells.....................................................................................................................................................71
MBMS-dedicated cell .................................................................................................................................71
MBMS/Unicast-mixed cell .........................................................................................................................71
MBMS Transmission........................................................................................................................................71
General........................................................................................................................................................71
Single-cell transmission ..............................................................................................................................71
Multi-cell transmission ...............................................................................................................................72
MBMS Reception States.............................................................................................................................73
MCCH Structure .........................................................................................................................................73
Service Continuity............................................................................................................................................73
Network sharing ...............................................................................................................................................74
Network Functions for Support of Multiplexing ..............................................................................................74
Radio Resource Management aspects ....................................................................................................74
RRM functions .................................................................................................................................................74
Radio Bearer Control (RBC) ......................................................................................................................74
Radio Admission Control (RAC)................................................................................................................74
Connection Mobility Control (CMC) .........................................................................................................75
Dynamic Resource Allocation (DRA) - Packet Scheduling (PS) ...............................................................75
Inter-cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) ................................................................................................75
Load Balancing (LB) ..................................................................................................................................75
Inter-RAT Radio Resource Management ...................................................................................................75
RRM architecture .............................................................................................................................................76
Centralised Handling of certain RRM Functions........................................................................................76
De-Centralised RRM ..................................................................................................................................76
Load balancing control ...............................................................................................................................76
RF aspects ..............................................................................................................................................76
Spectrum deployments .....................................................................................................................................76
18
UE capabilities .......................................................................................................................................76
19
S1 Interface ............................................................................................................................................76
19.1
S1 User plane ...................................................................................................................................................76
19.2
S1 Control Plane...............................................................................................................................................77
19.2.1
S1 Interface Functions ................................................................................................................................78
19.2.1.1
S1 Paging function ................................................................................................................................78
19.2.1.2
S1 UE Context Management function...................................................................................................78
19.2.1.3
Initial Context Setup Function ..............................................................................................................78
19.2.1.4
Mobility Functions for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED...........................................................................78
19.2.1.4.1
Intra-LTE Handover ........................................................................................................................78
19.2.1.4.2
Inter-3GPP-RAT Handover .............................................................................................................79
19.2.1.5
EPS Bearer Service Management function ...........................................................................................79
19.2.1.6
NAS Signalling Transport function.......................................................................................................79
19.2.1.7
NAS Node Selection Function ..............................................................................................................79
19.2.1.8
S1-interface management functions ......................................................................................................79
19.2.2
S1 Interface Signalling Procedures .............................................................................................................79
19.2.2.1
Paging procedure...................................................................................................................................80
19.2.2.2
S1 UE Context Release procedure ........................................................................................................80
19.2.2.2.1
S1 UE Context Release (EPC triggered) .........................................................................................81
19.2.2.2.2
S1 UE Context Release Request (eNB triggered)............................................................................81
19.2.2.3
Initial Context Setup procedure.............................................................................................................81
19.2.2.4
EPS Bearer signalling procedures .........................................................................................................82
19.2.2.4.1
EPS Bearer Setup procedure............................................................................................................82
19.2.2.4.2
EPS Bearer Modification procedure................................................................................................83
19.2.2.4.3
EPS Bearer Release procedure (MME initiated) .............................................................................84
ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
19.2.2.4.4
19.2.2.5
19.2.2.5.1
19.2.2.5.2
19.2.2.5.3
19.2.2.5.4
19.2.2.5.5
19.2.2.6
19.2.2.7
19.2.2.7.1
19.2.2.7.1a
19.2.2.7.1b
19.2.2.7.2
19.2.2.7.2a
19.2.2.7.2b
20
23.1
23.2
User Plane ........................................................................................................................................................91
Control Plane....................................................................................................................................................91
X2-CP Functions ........................................................................................................................................92
X2-CP Procedures ......................................................................................................................................92
Handover Preparation procedure...........................................................................................................92
Handover Cancellation procedure .........................................................................................................93
Inter-cell Load Management.......................................................................................................................94
Overall System complexity ..............................................................................................................................94
Physical layer complexity ................................................................................................................................94
UE complexity..................................................................................................................................................94
Support for self-configuration and self-optimisation .............................................................................94
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.3.1
22.3.1.1
22.3.1.2
22.3.1.3
23
EPS Bearer Release procedure (eNB initiated) ...............................................................................84
Handover signalling procedures............................................................................................................85
Handover Preparation procedure .....................................................................................................85
Handover Resource Allocation procedure.......................................................................................85
Handover Notification procedure ....................................................................................................86
Handover Cancellation ....................................................................................................................86
Path Switch procedure.....................................................................................................................87
NAS transport procedures .....................................................................................................................87
S1 interface Management procedures ...................................................................................................89
Reset procedure ...............................................................................................................................89
eNB initiated Reset procedure.........................................................................................................89
MME initiated Reset procedure.......................................................................................................89
Error Indication functions and procedures.......................................................................................90
eNB initiated error indication ..........................................................................................................90
MME initiated error indication........................................................................................................90
System and Terminal complexity...........................................................................................................94
21.1
21.2
21.3
22
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
X2 Interface............................................................................................................................................91
20.1
20.2
20.2.1
20.2.2
20.2.2.1
20.2.2.2
20.2.3
21
7
Definitions........................................................................................................................................................94
UE Support for self-configuration and self-optimisation .................................................................................95
Self-configuration.............................................................................................................................................96
Dynamic configuration of the S1-MME interface ......................................................................................96
Prerequisites ..........................................................................................................................................96
SCTP initialization ................................................................................................................................96
Application layer initialization..............................................................................................................96
Others .....................................................................................................................................................97
Support for real time IMS services...................................................................................................................97
Subscriber and equipment trace........................................................................................................................97
Annex A (informative):
NAS Overview ................................................................................................98
A.1
Services and Functions...........................................................................................................................98
A.2
NAS protocol states & state transitions..................................................................................................98
Annex B (informative):
MAC and RRC Control ................................................................................99
B.1
Difference between MAC and RRC control ..........................................................................................99
B.2
Classification of MAC and RRC control functions................................................................................99
Annex C (informative):
C.1
C.1.1
C.1.2
C.1.3
C.1.4
C.1.5
C.1.6
C.2
System Information .....................................................................................100
SI classification ....................................................................................................................................100
Information valid across multiple cells ..........................................................................................................100
Information needed at cell/PLMN search.......................................................................................................100
Information needed prior to cell camping ......................................................................................................101
Information needed prior to cell access ..........................................................................................................101
Information needed while camping on a cell..................................................................................................102
Thoughts about category division...................................................................................................................103
Division of SI between static and flexible parts...................................................................................103
ETSI
3GPP TS 36.300 version 8.3.0 Release 8
C.2.1
C.2.2
C.2.3
C.2.4
Drivers for Mobility Control ......................................................................110
Drivers............................................................................................................................................................110
Best radio condition ..................................................................................................................................111
Camp load balancing ................................................................................................................................111
Traffic load balancing ...............................................................................................................................111
UE capability ............................................................................................................................................111
Hierarchical cell structures .......................................................................................................................111
Network sharing........................................................................................................................................112
Private networks/home cells .....................................................................................................................112
Subscription based mobility control .........................................................................................................112
Service based mobility control..................................................................................................................112
MBMS ......................................................................................................................................................112
Limitations for mobility control .....................................................................................................................112
UE battery saving .....................................................................................................................................112
Network signalling/processing load..........................................................................................................113
U-plane interruption and data loss ............................................................................................................113
OAM complexity ......................................................................................................................................113
Inter-frequency/RAT drivers ..........................................................................................................................113
Mobility control during IDLE mode.........................................................................................................113
Mobility control upon IDLE to ACTIVE transition .................................................................................114
Mobility control during ACTIVE mode ...................................................................................................115
Mobility control upon ACTIVE to IDLE transition .................................................................................115
Annex F (informative):
F.1
F.2
MBMS...........................................................................................................106
MBMS control & functions............................................................................................................................106
MBMS transmission.......................................................................................................................................106
Deployment Scenarios....................................................................................................................................107
MCCH Information ........................................................................................................................................108
Annex E (informative):
E.1
E.1.1
E.1.2
E.1.3
E.1.4
E.1.5
E.1.6
E.1.7
E.1.8
E.1.9
E.1.10
E.2
E.2.1
E.2.2
E.2.3
E.2.4
E.3
E.3.1
E.3.2
E.3.3
E.3.4
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Static part........................................................................................................................................................103
Flexible part....................................................................................................................................................104
Information whose location is FFS.................................................................................................................105
Dedicated part ................................................................................................................................................105
Annex D (informative):
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4
8
Mobility and Access Control Requirements associated with Closed
Subscriber Group (CSG) Cells ...................................................................117
Access Control ...............................................................................................................................................117
Mobility..........................................................................................................................................................117
Annex G (informative):
Guideline for E-UTRAN UE capabilities...................................................119
Annex H (informative):
L1/L2 Control Signalling Performance .....................................................121
Annex I (informative):
Change history .............................................................................................122
History ............................................................................................................................................................124
ETSI
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Foreword
This Technical Specification has been produced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
The contents of the present document are subject to continuing work within the TSG and may change following formal
TSG approval. Should the TSG modify the contents of the present document, it will be re-released by the TSG with an
identifying change of release date and an increase in version number as follows:
Version x.y.z
where:
x the first digit:
1 presented to TSG for information;
2 presented to TSG for approval;
3 or greater indicates TSG approved document under change control.
y the second digit is incremented for all changes of substance, i.e. technical enhancements, corrections,
updates, etc.
z the third digit is incremented when editorial only changes have been incorporated in the document.
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ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Scope
The present document provides an overview and overall description of the E-UTRAN radio interface protocol
architecture. Details of the radio interface protocols will be specified in companion specifications of the 36 series.
2
References
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present
document.
• References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or
non-specific.
• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
• For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including
a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same
Release as the present document.
[1]
3GPP TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications"
[2]
3GPP TR 25.913: "Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)"
[3]
3GPP TS 36.201: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer; General
description".
[4]
3GPP TS 36.211:"Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical Channels and
Modulation "
[5]
3GPP TS 36.212: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Multiplexing and channel
coding"
[6]
3GPP TS 36.213: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures"
[7]
3GPP TS 36.214: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer; Measurements"
[8]
IETF RFC 2960 (10/2000): "Stream Control Transmission Protocol"
[9]
3GPP TS 36.302: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Services provided by the physical
layer"
[11]
3GPP TS 36.304: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) procedures
in idle mode"
[12]
3GPP TS 36.306: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio
access capabilities"
[13]
3GPP TS 36.321: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Acces Control (MAC)
protocol specification"
[14]
3GPP TS 36.322: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Link Control (RLC)
protocol specification"
[15]
3GPP TS 36.323: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Packet Data Convergence
Protocol (PDCP) specification"
[16]
3GPP TS 36.331: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control (RRC)
protocol specification".
[17]
3GPP TS 23.401: "Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; GPRS enhancements for EUTRAN access".
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[18]
3GPP TR 24.801: "3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE); CT WG1 aspects".
[19]
3GPP TS 23.402: "3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Architecture Enhancements for non-3GPP
accesses".
3
Definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1
Definitions
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply.
Carrier frequency: center frequency of the cell.
MBMS-dedicated cell: cell dedicated to MBMS transmission.
Frequency layer: set of cells with the same carrier frequency.
Handover: procedure that changes the serving cell of a UE in RRC_CONNECTED.
Unicast/MBMS-mixed cell: cell supporting both unicast and MBMS transmissions.
3.2
Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 [1] and the following apply. An
abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in
TR 21.905 [1].
ACK
ACLR
AM
AMBR
ARQ
AS
BCCH
BCH
BSR
C/I
CAZAC
CMC
CP
C-plane
CQI
CRC
DCCH
DL
DFTS
DRX
DTCH
DTX
EMM
eNB
EPC
EPS
E-UTRA
E-UTRAN
FDD
FDM
GERAN
GNSS
Acknowledgement
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
Acknowledge Mode
Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate
Automatic Repeat Request
Access Stratum
Broadcast Control Channel
Broadcast Channel
Buffer Status Reports
Carrier-to-Interference Power Ratio
Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation
Connection Mobility Control
Cyclic Prefix
Control Plane
Channel Quality Indicator
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Dedicated Control Channel
Downlink
DFT Spread OFDM
Discontinuous Reception
Dedicated Traffic Channel
Discontinuous Transmission
EPS Mobility Management
E-UTRAN NodeB
Evolved Packet Core
Evolved Packet System
Evolved UTRA
Evolved UTRAN
Frequency Division Duplex
Frequency Division Multiplexing
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network
Global Navigation Satellite System
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GSM
GBR
HARQ
HO
HRPD
HSDPA
ICIC
IP
LB
LCR
LTE
MAC
MBMS
MBR
MBSFN
MCCH
MCE
MCH
MCS
MIMO
MME
MTCH
MSAP
NACK
NAS
NCL
OFDM
OFDMA
P-GW
PA
PAPR
PBCH
PBR
PCCH
PCFICH
PDCCH
PDSCH
PDCP
PDU
PHICH
PHY
PLMN
PMCH
PRACH
PRB
PSC
PUCCH
PUSCH
QAM
QoS
RAC
RACH
RAT
RB
RBC
RBG
RF
RLC
RNC
RNL
ROHC
RRC
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Global System for Mobile communication
Guaranteed Bit Rate
Hybrid ARQ
Handover
High Rate Packet Data
High Speed Downlink Packet Access
Inter-Cell Interference Coordination
Internet Protocol
Load Balancing
Low Chip Rate
Long Term Evolution
Medium Access Control
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
Maximum Bit Rate
Multimedia Broadcast multicast service Single Frequency Network
Multicast Control Channel
Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity
Multicast Channel
Modulation and Coding Scheme
Multiple Input Multiple Output
Mobility Management Entity
MBMS Traffic Channel
MCH Subframe Allocation Pattern
Negative Acknowledgement
Non-Access Stratum
Neighbour Cell List
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
PDN Gateway
Power Amplifier
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
Physical Broadcast CHannel
Prioritised Bit Rate
Paging Control Channel
Physical Control Format Indicator CHannel
Physical Downlink Control CHannel
Physical Downlink Shared CHannel
Packet Data Convergence Protocol
Protocol Data Unit
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator CHannel
Physical layer
Public Land Mobile Network
Physical Multicast CHannel
Physical Random Access CHannel
Physical Resource Block
Packet Scheduling
Physical Uplink Control CHannel
Physical Uplink Shared CHannel
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Quality of Service
Radio Admission Control
Random Access Channel
Radio Access Technology
Radio Bearer
Radio Bearer Control
Radio Bearer Group
Radio Frequency
Radio Link Control
Radio Network Controller
Radio Network Layer
Robust Header Compression
Radio Resource Control
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RRM
RU
SDF
S-GW
S1-MME
S1-U
SAE
SAP
SC-FDMA
SCH
SDMA
SDU
SFN
SR
SU
TA
TB
TCP
TDD
TFT
TM
TNL
TTI
UE
UL
UM
UMTS
U-plane
UTRA
UTRAN
VRB
X2-C
X2-U
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Radio Resource Management
Resource Unit
Service Data Flow
Serving Gateway
S1 for the control plane
S1 for the user plane
System Architecture Evolution
Service Access Point
Single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access
Synchronization Channel
Spatial Division Multiple Access
Service Data Unit
Single Frequency Network
Scheduling Request
Scheduling Unit
Tracking Area
Transport Block
Transmission Control Protocol
Time Division Duplex
Traffic Flow Template
Transparent Mode
Transport Network Layer
Transmission Time Interval
User Equipment
Uplink
Un-acknowledge Mode
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
User plane
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Virtual Resource Block
X2-Control plane
X2-User plane
Overall architecture
The E-UTRAN consists of eNBs, providing the E-UTRA user plane (PDCP/RLC/MAC/PHY) and control plane (RRC)
protocol terminations towards the UE. The eNBs are interconnected with each other by means of the X2 interface. The
eNBs are also connected by means of the S1 interface to the EPC (Evolved Packet Core), more specifically to the MME
(Mobility Management Entity) by means of the S1-MME and to the Serving Gateway (S-GW) by means of the S1-U.
The S1 interface supports a many-to-many relation between MMEs / Serving Gateways and eNBs.
The E-UTRAN architecture is illustrated in Figure 4 below.
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S
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S
1
S
1
1
S
X2
X2
Figure 4: Overall Architecture
4.1
Functional Split
The eNB hosts the following functions:
-
Functions for Radio Resource Management: Radio Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection
Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink (scheduling);
-
IP header compression and encryption of user data stream;
-
Selection of an MME at UE attachment when no routing to an MME can be determined from the information
provided by the UE;
-
Routing of User Plane data towards Serving Gateway;
-
Scheduling and transmission of paging messages (originated from the MME);
-
Scheduling and transmission of broadcast information (originated from the MME or O&M);
-
Measurement and measurement reporting configuration for mobility and scheduling.
The MME hosts the following functions (see 3GPP TS 23.401 [17]):
-
NAS signalling;
-
NAS signalling security;
-
Inter CN node signalling for mobility between 3GPP access networks;
-
Idle mode UE Reachability (including control and execution of paging retransmission);
-
Tracking Area list management (for UE in idle and active mode);
-
PDN GW and Serving GW selection;
-
MME selection for handovers with MME change;
-
SGSN selection for handovers to 2G or 3G 3GPP access networks;
-
Roaming;
-
Authentication;
-
Bearer management functions including dedicated bearer establishment.
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The Serving Gateway (S-GW) hosts the following functions (see 3GPP TS 23.401 [17]):
-
The local Mobility Anchor point for inter-eNB handover;
-
Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP mobility;
-
E-UTRAN idle mode downlink packet buffering and initiation of network triggered service request procedure;
-
Lawful Interception;
-
Packet routeing and forwarding;
-
Transport level packet marking in the uplink and the downlink;
-
Accounting on user and QCI granularity for inter-operator charging;
-
UL and DL charging per UE, PDN, and QCI.
The PDN Gateway (P-GW) hosts the following functions (see 3GPP TS 23.401 [17]):
-
Per-user based packet filtering (by e.g. deep packet inspection);
-
Lawful Interception;
-
UE IP address allocation;
-
Transport level packet marking in the downlink;
-
UL and DL service level charging, gating and rate enforcement;
-
DL rate enforcement based on AMBR;
This is summarized on the figure below where yellow boxes depict the logical nodes, white boxes depict the functional
entities of the control plane and blue boxes depict the radio protocol layers.
NOTE:
it is assumed that no other logical E-UTRAN node than the eNB is needed for RRM purposes. Moreover,
due to the different usage of inter-cell RRM functionalities, each inter-cell RRM functionality should be
considered separately in order to assess whether it should be handled in a centralised manner or in a
distributed manner.
NOTE:
MBMS related functions in E-UTRAN are described separately in subclause 15.
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Figure 4.1: Functional Split between E-UTRAN and EPC
4.2
Interfaces
4.2.1
S1 Interface
4.2.2
X2 Interface
4.3
Radio Protocol architecture
In this subclause, the radio protocol architecture of E-UTRAN is given for the user plane and the control plane.
4.3.1
User plane
The figure below shows the protocol stack for the user-plane, where PDCP, RLC and MAC sublayers (terminated in
eNB on the network side) perform the functions listed for the user plane in subclause 6, e.g. header compression,
ciphering, scheduling, ARQ and HARQ;
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Figure 4.3.1: User-plane protocol stack
4.3.2
Control plane
The figure below shows the protocol stack for the control-plane, where:
-
PDCP sublayer (terminated in eNB on the network side) performs the functions listed for the control plane in
subclause 6, e.g. ciphering and integrity protection;
-
RLC and MAC sublayers (terminated in eNB on the network side) perform the same functions as for the user
plane;
-
RRC (terminated in eNB on the network side) performs the functions listed in subclause 7, e.g.:
-
-
Broadcast;
-
Paging;
-
RRC connection management;
-
RB control;
-
Mobility functions;
-
UE measurement reporting and control.
NAS control protocol (terminated in MME on the network side) performs among other things:
-
EPS bearer management;
-
Authentication;
-
EMM-IDLE mobility handling;
-
Paging origination in EMM-IDLE;
-
Security control.
NOTE:
the NAS control protocol is not covered by the scope of this TS and is only mentioned for information.
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Figure 4.3.2: Control-plane protocol stack
4.4
Synchronization
Diverse methods and techniques are preferred depending on synchronization requirements. As no single method can
cover all E-UTRAN applications a logical port at eNB may be used for reception of timing and/or frequency and/or
phase inputs pending to the synchronization method chosen.
4.5
IP fragmentation
Fragmentation function in IP layer on S1 and X2 shall be supported.
Configuration of S1-U (X2-U) link MTU in the eNB/ S-GW according to the MTU of the network domain the node
belongs to shall be considered as a choice at network deployment. The network may employ various methods to handle
IP fragmentation, but the specific methods to use are implementation dependant.
At the establishment/modification of an EPS bearer, the network may signal a value that is to be used as MTU by the
UE IP stack (it is FFS how the requirement on the UE should be formulated). It is also FFS if the MTU is signaled by
the MME or the eNB.
5
Physical Layer for E-UTRA
The generic frame structure is illustrated in Figure 5.1-1. Each 10 ms radio frame is divided into ten equally sized subframes. Each sub-frame consists of two equally sized slots. Each sub-frame can be assigned for either downlink or
uplink transmission [there are certain restrictions in the assignment as the first and sixth sub-frame of each frame
include the downlink synchronization signals]
Figure 5.1-1: Generic frame structure
In addition, for coexistence with LCR-TDD, an alternative frame structure illustrated in Figure 5.1-2 is also supported
when operating E-UTRA in TDD mode.
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Figure 5.1-2: alternative frame structure
The physical channels of E-UTRA are:
Physical broadcast channel (PBCH)
-
The coded BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes within a 40 ms interval;
-
40 ms timing is blindly detected, i.e. there is no explicit signaling indicating 40 ms timing;
-
Each subframe is assumed to be self-decodable, i.e the BCH can be decoded from a single reception,
assuming sufficiently good channel conditions.
Physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH)
-
Informs the UE about the number of OFDM symbols used for the PDCCHs;
-
Transmitted in every subframe.
Physical downlink control channel (PDCCH)
-
Informs the UE about the resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH, and Hybrid ARQ information related to
DL-SCH;
-
Carries the uplink scheduling grant.
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
-
Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs in response to uplink transmissions.
Physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH)
-
Carries the DL-SCH and PCH.
Physical multicast channel (PMCH)
-
Carries the MCH.
Physical uplink control channel (PUCCH)
-
Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs in response to downlink transmission;
-
Carries Scheduling Request (SR);
-
Carries CQI reports.
Physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH)
-
Carries the UL-SCH.
Physical random access channel (PRACH)
-
Carries the random access preamble.
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5.1
Downlink Transmission Scheme
5.1.1
Basic transmission scheme based on OFDM
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
The downlink transmission scheme is based on conventional OFDM using a cyclic prefix. The OFDM sub-carrier
spacing is Δf = 15 kHz. 12 consecutive sub-carriers during one slot correspond to one downlink resource block. In the
frequency domain, the number of resource blocks, NRB, can range from NRB-min = 6 to NRB-max = [110].
In addition there is also a reduced sub-carrier spacingΔflow = 7.5 kHz, only for MBMS-dedicated cell.
In the case of 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing there are two cyclic-prefix lengths, corresponding to seven and six OFDM
symbols per slot respectively.
-
Normal cyclic prefix: TCP = 160×Ts (OFDM symbol #0) , TCP = 144×Ts (OFDM symbol #1 to #6)
-
Extended cyclic prefix: TCP-e = 512×Ts (OFDM symbol #0 to OFDM symbol #5)
where Ts = 1/ (2048 × Δf)
In case of 7.5 kHz sub-carrier spacing, there is only a single cyclic prefix length TCP-low = 1024×Ts, corresponding to 3
OFDM symbols per slot.
In case of FDD, operation with half duplex from UE point of view is supported.
For operation in unpaired spectrum with generic frame structure, DL/UL switching points are generated by not
transmitting in certain symbols while idle periods, required by the Node B at UL/DL switching points are created using
time advance mechanism. For the alternative frame structure, the cyclic prefix length, in case of 15 kHz sub-carrier
spacing, is
-
Normal cyclic prefix: TCP = 224×Ts (OFDM symbol #0 to #8)
-
Extended cyclic prefix: TCP-e = 512×Ts (OFDM symbol #0 to #7)
5.1.2
Physical-layer processing
The downlink physical-layer processing of transport channels consists of the following steps:
-
CRC insertion: 24 bit CRC is the baseline for PDSCH;
-
Channel coding: Turbo coding based on QPP inner interleaving with trellis termination;
-
Physical-layer hybrid-ARQ processing;
-
Channel interleaving;
-
Scrambling: transport-channel specific scrambling on DL-SCH, BCH, and PCH. Common MCH scrambling for
all cells involved in a specific MBSFN transmission;
-
Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM;
-
Layer mapping and pre-coding;
-
Mapping to assigned resources and antenna ports.
5.1.3
Physical downlink control channel
The downlink control signalling (PDCCH) is located in the first n OFDM symbols where n ≤ 3 and consists of:
-
Transport format, resource allocation, and hybrid-ARQ information related to DL-SCH, and PCH;
-
Transport format, resource allocation, and hybrid-ARQ information related to UL-SCH;
Transmission of control signalling from these groups is mutually independent.
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Multiple physical downlink control channels are supported and a UE monitors a set of control channels.
Control channels are formed by aggregation of control channel elements, each control channel element consisting of a
set of resource elements. Different code rates for the control channels are realized by aggregating different numbers of
control channel elements.
QPSK modulation is used for all control channels.
Each separate control channel has its own set of x-RNTI.
There is an implicit relation between the uplink resources used for dynamically scheduled data transmission, or the DL
control channel used for assignment, and the downlink ACK/NAK resource used for feedback
5.1.4
Downlink Reference signal
The downlink reference signals consist of known reference symbols inserted in the first and third last OFDM symbol of
each slot. There is one reference signal transmitted per downlink antenna port. The number of downlink antenna ports
equals 1, 2, or 4. The two-dimensional reference signal sequence is generated as the symbol-by-symbol product of a
two-dimensional orthogonal sequence and a two-dimensional pseudo-random sequence. There are 3 different twodimensional orthogonal sequences and 170 different two-dimensional pseudo-random sequences. Each cell identity
corresponds to a unique combination of one orthogonal sequence and one pseudo-random sequence, thus allowing for
510 unique cell identities 170 cell identity groups with 3 cell identities in each group).
Frequency hopping can be applied to the downlink reference signals. The frequency hopping pattern has a period of one
frame (10 ms). Each frequency hopping pattern corresponds to one cell identity group.
The downlink MBSFN reference signals consist of known reference symbols inserted every other sub-carrier in the 3rd,
7th and 11th OFDM symbol of sub-frame in case of 15kHz sub-carrier spacing and extended cyclic prefix
5.1.5
Downlink multi-antenna transmission
Multi-antenna transmission with 2 and 4 transmit antennas is supported. The maximum number of codeword is two
irrespective to the number of antennas with fixed mapping between code words to layers.
Spatial division multiplexing (SDM) of multiple modulation symbol streams to a single UE using the same timefrequency (-code) resource, also referred to as Single-User MIMO (SU-MIMO) is supported. When a MIMO channel is
solely assigned to a single UE, it is known as SU-MIMO. Spatial division multiplexing of modulation symbol streams
to different UEs using the same time-frequency resource, also referred to as MU-MIMO, is also supported. There is
semi-static switching between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO per UE.
In addition, the following techniques are supported:
-
Code-book-based pre-coding with a single pre-coding feedback per full system bandwidth when the system
bandwidth (or subset of resource blocks) is smaller or equal to12RB and per 5 adjacent resource blocks or the
full system bandwidth (or subset of resource blocks) when the system bandwidth is larger than 12RB.
-
Rank adaptation with single rank feedback referring to full system bandwidth. Node B can override rank report.
5.1.6
MBSFN transmission
MBSFN is supported for the MCH transport channel. Multiplexing of transport channels using MBSFN and nonMBSFN transmission is done on a per-sub-frame basis. Additional reference symbols, transmitted using MBSFN are
transmitted within MBSFN subframes.
5.1.7
5.1.7.1
Physical layer procedure
Link adaptation
Link adaptation (AMC: adaptive modulation and coding) with various modulation schemes and channel coding rates is
applied to the shared data channel. The same coding and modulation is applied to all groups of resource blocks
belonging to the same L2 PDU scheduled to one user within one TTI and within a single stream.
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Power Control
Downlink power control can be used.
5.1.7.3
Cell search
Cell search is the procedure by which a UE acquires time and frequency synchronization with a cell and detects the Cell
ID of that cell. E-UTRA cell search supports a scalable overall transmission bandwidth corresponding to 72 sub-carriers
and upwards.
E-UTRA cell search is based on following signals transmitted in the downlink: the primary and secondary
synchronization signals, the downlink reference signals.
The primary and secondary synchronization signals are transmitted over the centre 72 sub-carriers in the first and sixth
subframe of each frame.
Neighbour-cell search is based on the same downlink signals as initial cell search.
5.1.8
Physical layer measurements definition
The physical layer measurements to support mobility are classified as:
-
within E-UTRAN (intra-frequency, inter-frequency);
-
between E-UTRAN and GERAN/UTRAN (inter-RAT);
-
between E-UTRAN and non-3GPP RAT (Inter 3GPP access system mobility).
For measurements within E-UTRAN at least two basic UE measurement quantities shall be supported:
-
Reference symbol received power (RSRP);
-
E-UTRA carrier received signal strength indicator (RSSI).
5.2
Uplink Transmission Scheme
5.2.1
Basic transmission scheme
For both FDD and TDD, the uplink transmission scheme is based on single-carrier FDMA, more specifically DFTSOFDM.
Figure 5.2.1: Transmitter scheme of SC-FDMA
The uplink sub-carrier spacing Δf = 15 kHz. The sub-carriers are grouped into sets of 12 consecutive sub-carriers,
corresponding to the uplink resource blocks. 12 consecutive sub-carriers during one slot correspond to one uplink
resource block. In the frequency domain, the number of resource blocks, NRB, can range from NRB-min = 6 to NRB-max =
[110].
There are two cyclic-prefix lengths defined: Normal cyclic prefix and extended cyclic prefix corresponding to seven
and six SC-FDMA symbol per slot respectively.
-
Normal cyclic prefix: TCP = 160×Ts (SC-FDMA symbol #0) , TCP = 144×Ts (SC-FDMA symbol #1 to #6)
-
Extended cyclic prefix: TCP-e = 512×Ts (SC-FDMA symbol #0 to SC-FDMA symbol #5)
Correspondingly, for the alternative frame structure, the cyclic prefix length is listed in table 5.2
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Table 5.2: Cyclic prefix length for alternative frame structure
Normal cyclic prefix
l
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
5.2.2
UL
N BW
≤ 300
300 <
Extended cyclic prefix
UL
N BW
UL
N BW
≤ 300
UL
300 < N BW
N CP ,l
Nd
N CP ,l
Nd
N CP ,l
Nd
N CP ,l
Nd
320
2048
1024
224
2048
1024
560
2048
1024
472
2048
1024
2048
423
192
2048
204
1024
2048
1024
2048
2048
1024
2048
456
2048
1024
2048
Physical-layer processing
The uplink physical layer processing of transport channels consists of the following steps:
-
CRC insertion: 24 bit CRC is the baseline for PUSCH;
-
Channel coding: turbo coding based on QPP inner interleaving with trellis termination;
-
Physical-layer hybrid-ARQ processing;
-
Scrambling: UE-specific scrambling;
-
Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM (64 QAM optional in UE);
-
Mapping to assigned resources [and antennas].
5.2.3
Physical uplink control channel
The PUCCH shall be mapped to a control channel resource in the uplink. A control channel resource is defined by a
code and two resource blocks, consecutive in time, with hopping at the slot boundary.
Depending on presence or absence of uplink timing synchronization, the uplink physical control signalling can differ.
In the case of time synchronization being present, the outband control signalling consists of:
-
CQI;
-
ACK/NAK;
-
Scheduling Request (SR).
The CQI informs the scheduler about the current channel conditions as seen by the UE. If MIMO transmission is used,
the CQI includes necessary MIMO-related feedback.
The HARQ feedback in response to downlink data transmission consists of a single ACK/NAK bit per HARQ process.
PUCCH resources for SR and CQI reporting are assigned and can be revoked through RRC signalling. An SR is not
necessarily assigned to UEs aquiring synchronization through the RACH (i.e. synchronised UEs may or may not have a
dedicated SR channel). PUCCH resources for SR and CQI are lost when the UE is no longer synchronized.
5.2.4
Uplink Reference signal
Uplink reference signals [for channel estimation for coherent demodulation] are transmitted in the 4-th block of the slot
[assumed normal CP]. The uplink reference signals sequence length equals the size (number of sub-carriers) of the
assigned resource.
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The uplink reference signals are based on [prime-length] Zadoff-chu sequences that are either truncated or cyclically
extended to the desired length
Multiple reference signals can be created:
-
Based on different Zadoff-Chu sequence from the same set of Zadoff-Chu sequences;
-
Different shifts of the same sequence.
5.2.5
Random access preamble
The physical layer random access burst consists of a cyclic prefix, a preamble, and a guard time during which nothing is
transmitted.
The random access preambles are generated from Zadoff-Chu sequences with zero correlation zone, ZC-ZCZ,
generated from one or several root Zadoff-Chu sequences.
5.2.6
Uplink multi-antenna transmission
The baseline antenna configuration for uplink MIMO is MU-MIMO. To allow for MU-MIMO reception at the Node B,
allocation of the same time and frequency resource to several UEs, each of which transmitting on a single antenna, is
supported.
Closed loop type adaptive antenna selection transmit diversity shall be supported for FDD (optional in UE).
5.2.7
5.2.7.1
Physical channel procedure
Link adaptation
Uplink link adaptation is used in order to guarantee the required minimum transmission performance of each UE such
as the user data rate, packet error rate, and latency, while maximizing the system throughput.
Three types of link adaptation are performed according to the channel conditions, the UE capability such as the
maximum transmission power and maximum transmission bandwidth etc., and the required QoS such as the data rate,
latency, and packet error rate etc. Three link adaptation methods are as follows.
-
Adaptive transmission bandwidth;
-
Transmission power control;
-
Adaptive modulation and channel coding rate.
5.2.7.2
Uplink Power control
Intra-cell power control: the power spectral density of the uplink transmissions can be influenced by the eNB.
5.2.7.3
Uplink timing control
The timing advance is derived from the UL received timing and sent by the eNB to the UE which the UE uses to
advance/delay its timings of transmissions to the eNB so as to compensate for propagation delay and thus time align the
transmissions from different UEs with the receiver window of the eNB.
The timing advance command is on a per need basis with a granularity in the step size of 0.52 μs (16×Ts).
5.3
Transport Channels
The physical layer offers information transfer services to MAC and higher layers. The physical layer transport services
are described by how and with what characteristics data are transferred over the radio interface. An adequate term for
this is 'Transport Channel'.
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This should be clearly separated from the classification of what is transported, which relates to the
concept of logical channels at MAC sublayer.
Downlink transport channel types are:
1. Broadcast Channel (BCH) characterised by:
-
fixed, pre-defined transport format;
-
requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell.
2. Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) characterised by:
-
support for HARQ;
-
support for dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power;
-
possibility to be broadcast in the entire cell;
-
possibility to use beamforming;
-
support for both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation;
-
support for UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving;
-
support for MBMS transmission.
NOTE:
the possibility to use slow power control depends on the physical layer.
3. Paging Channel (PCH) characterised by:
-
support for UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving (DRX cycle is indicated by the
network to the UE);
-
requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell;
-
mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for traffic/other control channels.
4. Multicast Channel (MCH) characterised by:
-
requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell;
-
support for MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells;
-
support for semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a long cyclic prefix.
Uplink transport channel types are:
1. Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) characterised by:
-
possibility to use beamforming; (likely no impact on specifications)
-
support for dynamic link adaptation by varying the transmit power and potentially modulation and coding;
-
support for HARQ;
-
support for both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation.
NOTE:
the possibility to use uplink synchronisation and timing advance depend on the physical layer.
2. Random Access Channel(s) (RACH) characterised by:
-
limited control information;
-
collision risk;
NOTE:
the possibility to use open loop power control depends on the physical layer solution.
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Mapping between transport channels and physical channels
The figures below depict the mapping between transport and physical channels:
Figure 5.3.1-1: Mapping between downlink transport channels and downlink physical channels
Figure 5.3.1-2: Mapping between uplink transport channels and uplink physical channels
5.4
E-UTRA physical layer model
The E-UTRAN physical layer model is captured in TS 36.302 [9].
5.4.1
Void
5.4.2
Void
6
Layer 2
Layer 2 is split into the following sublayers: Medium Access Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC) and Packet
Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP).
This subclause gives a high level description of the Layer 2 sub-layers in terms of services and functions. The two
figures below depict the PDCP/RLC/MAC architecture for downlink and uplink, where:
-
Service Access Points (SAP) for peer-to-peer communication are marked with circles at the interface between
sublayers. The SAP between the physical layer and the MAC sublayer provides the transport channels. The
SAPs between the MAC sublayer and the RLC sublayer provide the logical channels.
-
The multiplexing of several logical channels (i.e. radio bearers) on the same transport channel (i.e. transport
block) is performed by the MAC sublayer;
-
In both uplink and downlink, only one transport block is generated per TTI in the non-MIMO case.
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Figure 6-1: Layer 2 Structure for DL
Radio Bearers
PDCP
ROHC
ROHC
Security
Security
Segm.
ARQ etc
RLC
Segm.
ARQ etc
...
Logical Channels
Scheduling / Priority Handling
MAC
Multiplexing
HARQ
Transport Channels
Figure 6-2: Layer 2 Structure for UL
6.1
MAC Sublayer
This subclause provides an overview on services and functions provided by the MAC sublayer.
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Services and Functions
The main services and functions of the MAC sublayer include:
-
Mapping between logical channels and transport channels;
-
Multiplexing/demultiplexing of RLC PDUs belonging to one or different radio bearers into/from transport blocks
(TB) delivered to/from the physical layer on transport channels;
-
Traffic volume measurement reporting;
-
Error correction through HARQ;
-
Priority handling between logical channels of one UE;
-
Priority handling between UEs by means of dynamic scheduling;
-
Transport format selection;
-
Padding.
6.1.2
Logical Channels
Different kinds of data transfer services as offered by MAC. Each logical channel type is defined by what type of
information is transferred.
A general classification of logical channels is into two groups:
-
Control Channels (for the transfer of control plane information);
-
Traffic Channels (for the transfer of user plane information).
There is one MAC entity per cell. MAC generally consists of several function blocks (transmission scheduling
functions, per UE functions, MBMS functions, MAC control functions, transport block generation…). Transparent
Mode is only applied to BCCH, CCCH and PCCH.
6.1.2.1
Control Channels
Control channels are used for transfer of control plane information only. The control channels offered by MAC are:
-
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information.
-
Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
A downlink channel that transfers paging information. This channel is used when the network does not know the
location cell of the UE.
-
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
Channel for transmitting control information between UEs and network. This channel is used by the UEs having
no RRC connection with the network.
-
Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
A point-to-multipoint downlink channel used for transmitting MBMS control information from the network to
the UE, for one or several MTCHs. This channel is only used by UEs that receive MBMS.
NOTE:
-
It is FFS how MBMS scheduling is transmitted by either L2/3 signalling on MCCH or L1 signalling.
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the
network. Used by UEs having an RRC connection.
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Traffic Channels
Traffic channels are used for the transfer of user plane information only. The traffic channels offered by MAC are:
-
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
A Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) is a point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user
information. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink.
-
Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
A point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transmitting traffic data from the network to the UE. This channel is
only used by UEs that receive MBMS.
6.1.3
Mapping between logical channels and transport channels
6.1.3.1
Mapping in Uplink
The figure below depicts the mapping between uplink logical channels and uplink transport channels:
CCCH
DCCH
DTCH
Uplink
Logical channels
Uplink
RACH
UL-SCH
Transport channels
Figure 6.1.3.1: Mapping between uplink logical channels and uplink transport channels
In Uplink, the following connections between logical channels and transport channels exist:
-
CCCH can be mapped to UL-SCH;
-
DCCH can be mapped to UL- SCH;
-
DTCH can be mapped to UL-SCH.
6.1.3.2
Mapping in Downlink
The figure below depicts the mapping between downlink logical channels and downlink transport channels:
Figure 6.1.3.2: Mapping between downlink logical channels and downlink transport channels
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In Downlink, the following connections between logical channels and transport channels exist:
-
BCCH can be mapped to BCH;
-
BCCH can be mapped to DL-SCH;
-
PCCH can be mapped to PCH;
-
CCCH can be mapped to DL-SCH;
-
DCCH can be mapped to DL-SCH;
-
DTCH can be mapped to DL-SCH;
-
MTCH can be mapped to DL-SCH;
-
MTCH can be mapped to MCH;
-
MCCH can be mapped to DL-SCH;
-
MCCH can be mapped to MCH.
6.2
RLC Sublayer
This subclause provides an overview on services, functions and PDU structure provided by the RLC sublayer. Note
that:
-
The reliability of RLC is configurable: some radio bearers may tolerate rare losses (e.g. TCP traffic);
-
Radio Bearers are not characterized by a fixed sized data unit (e.g. a fixed sized RLC PDU).
6.2.1
Services and Functions
The main services and functions of the RLC sublayer include:
-
Transfer of upper layer PDUs supporting AM or UM;
-
TM data transfer;
-
Error Correction through ARQ (CRC check provided by the physical layer, in other words no CRC needed at
RLC level);
-
Segmentation according to the size of the TB: only if an RLC SDU does not fit entirely into the TB then the
RLC SDU is segmented into variable sized RLC PDUs, which do not include any padding;
-
Re-segmentation of PDUs that need to be retransmitted: if a retransmitted PDU does not fit entirely into the new
TB used for retransmission then the RLC PDU is re-segmented;
-
The number of re-segmentations is not limited;
-
Concatenation of SDUs for the same radio bearer;
-
In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs except at HO;
-
Duplicate Detection;
-
Protocol error detection and recovery;
-
SDU discard;
-
Reset.
6.2.2
PDU Structure
Figure 6.2.2 below depicts the RLC PDU structure where:
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-
The PDU sequence number carried by the RLC header is independent of the SDU sequence number (i.e. PDCP
sequence number);
-
A red dotted line indicates the occurrence of segmentation;
-
Because segmentation only occurs when needed and concatenation is done in sequence, the content of an RLC
PDU can generally be described by the following relations:
-
{0; 1} last segment of SDUi + [0; n] complete SDUs + {0; 1} first segment of SDUi+n+1 ; or
-
1 segment of SDUi .
Figure 6.2.2: RLC PDU Structure
6.3
PDCP Sublayer
This subclause provides an overview on services, functions and PDU structure provided by the PDCP sublayer.
6.3.1
Services and Functions
The main services and functions of the PDCP sublayer for the user plane include:
-
Header compression and decompression: ROHC only;
-
Transfer of user data: transmission of user data means that PDCP receives PDCP SDU from the NAS and
forwards it to the RLC layer and vice versa;
-
In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at HO for RLC AM;
-
Duplicate detection of lower layer SDUs;
-
Retransmission of PDCP SDUs at handover;
-
Ciphering;
-
Timer-based SDU discard in uplink.
NOTE:
When compared to UTRAN, the lossless DL RLC PDU size change is not required.
The main services and functions of the PDCP for the control plane include:
-
Ciphering and Integrity Protection;
-
Transfer of control plane data: transmission of control plane data means that PDCP receives PDCP SDUs from
RRC and forwards it to the RLC layer and vice versa.
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PDU Structure
Figure 6.3.2 below depicts the PDCP PDU structure where:
-
PDCP PDU and PDCP header are octet-aligned;
-
PDCP header can be either 1 or 2 bytes long.
Figure 6.3.2: PDCP PDU Structure
6.4
Data flows through Layer 2
7
RRC
This subclause provides an overview on services and functions provided by the RRC sublayer.
7.1
Services and Functions
The main services and functions of the RRC sublayer include:
-
Broadcast of System Information related to the non-access stratum (NAS);
-
Broadcast of System Information related to the access stratum (AS);
-
Paging;
-
Establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and E-UTRAN including:
-
Allocation of temporary identifiers between UE and E-UTRAN;
-
Configuration of signalling radio bearer(s) for RRC connection:
-
Low priority SRB and high priority SRB.
-
Security functions including key management;
-
Establishment, configuration, maintenance and release of point to point Radio Bearers;
-
Mobility functions including:
-
UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting for inter-cell and inter-RAT mobility;
-
Inter-cell handover;
-
UE cell selection and reselection and control of cell selection and reselection;
-
Context transfer between eNBs.
-
Notification for MBMS services;
-
Establishment, configuration, maintenance and release of Radio Bearers for MBMS services;
-
QoS management functions;
-
UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting;
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NAS direct message transfer to/from NAS from/to UE.
7.2
RRC protocol states & state transitions
RRC uses the following states:
-
-
RRC_IDLE:
-
PLMN selection;
-
DRX configured by NAS (Option to have UE specific DRX is FFS);
-
Broadcast of system information;
-
Paging;
-
Cell re-selection mobility;
-
The UE shall have been allocated an id which uniquely identifies the UE in a tracking area;
-
No RRC context stored in the eNB.
RRC_CONNECTED:
-
UE has an E-UTRAN-RRC connection;
-
UE has context in E-UTRAN;
-
E-UTRAN knows the cell which the UE belongs to;
-
Network can transmit and/or receive data to/from UE;
-
Network controlled mobility (handover and inter-RAT cell change order to GERAN with NACC);
-
Neighbour cell measurements;
-
At PDCP/RLC/MAC level:
-
UE can transmit and/or receive data to/from network;
-
UE monitors control signalling channel for shared data channel to see if any transmission over the shared
data channel has been allocated to the UE;
-
UE also reports channel quality information and feedback information to eNB;
-
DRX period can be configured according to UE activity level for UE power saving and efficient resource
utilization. This is under control of the eNB.
7.3
Transport of NAS messages
In E-UTRAN, NAS messages are either concatenated with RRC messages or carried in RRC without concatenation.
Initial Direct Transfer is not used in E-UTRAN and no NAS message is concatenated with RRC connection request.
NOTE:
7.4
NAS messages are integrity protected and ciphered by PDCP, in addition to the integrity protection and
ciphering performed by NAS.
System Information
Scheduling information (indicating starting times) is provided for a group of system information blocks (SIBs) that have
the same scheduling requirements (i.e. periodicity). RRC concatenates such a group of SIBs into a Scheduling Unit
(SU) message. It is expected that typically 3 or 4 SUs will be used. The mapping of SIBs on to SUs may be
configurable or fixed in the specification (FFS). When multiple SUs are sent in the same TTI, they are mapped on the
same downlink transport block.
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The following system information is carried on the BCH:
-
Physical layer parameters:
-
Downlink system bandwidth [4 bits];
-
Number of transmit antennas [1..2 bits];
-
Reference-Signal transmit power [0..6 bits];
-
System Frame Number (SFN [10 bits], unless provided otherwise);
-
Scheduling information of the most frequently repeated Scheduling Unit (SU-1) (FFS) [1 bit];
The system information carried on BCH is contained in a System Information Block called the Master Information
Block (MIB).
All system information other than contained in the MIB is carried on DL-SCH. The following system information is
carried within the most frequently repeated Scheduling Unit (SU-1):
-
One or more PLMN identities;
-
Tracking Area Code;
-
Cell identity;
-
One bit for 'cell barring' common for all sharing PLMNs;
-
One bit for 'cell reserved for operator use' per sharing PLMN (up to 6);
-
One bit for 'cell reservation extension' common for all sharing PLMNs;
-
Value_tag (Common for all SUs);
-
Scheduling information i.e. the periodicity of the other Scheduling Units (other than SU-1);
-
SIB mapping information i.e. indication in which SU the SIB is included (FFS).
The scheduling information, as contained within SU-1, is carried in a System Information Block called the Scheduling
Block (SB). Besides this SB, SU-1 includes one or more other SIBs. SU-1 should include all access restriction related
parameters. SU-1 is carried on the DL-SCH and uses a fixed schedule with a periodicity of 80 ms.
In the case of TDD, BCCH indicates the frame configuration.
SU-1 is scheduled in the subframe #5 for frame structure Type 1 (FDD and TDD). For frame structure Type 2, SU-1 is
scheduled in subframe #0 of the second half frame. Different frame structure types are described in TS 36.211 [4]. It is
FFS if further SUs are scheduled in subsequent consecutive subframes. The eNB may schedule DL-SCH transmissions
concerning logical channels other than BCCH in the same subframe as used for BCCH. The minimum UE capability
restricts the BCCH mapped to DL-SCH e.g. regarding the maximum rate. It is FFS if the eNB may schedule more than
one SU in a subframe.
During RRC_IDLE state, the UE can identify changes in system information through paging message, so that the UE is
not required to do any additional reception activites except from time instansts when the UE receives paging channel.
During RRC_CONNECTED state, the UEs checks periodically to identify changes in system information. Whenever a
change is detected, all SUs that are relevant to the UE are refreshed.
For very dynamic SI change handling (e.g. similar to SIB7 of UTRAN) UE timer based approach is used.
System information may also be provided to the UE by means of dedicated signalling e.g. upon handover.
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7.5
RRC Procedures
8
E-UTRAN identities
8.1
E-UTRAN related UE identities
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
The following E-UTRAN related UE identities are used:
a) C-RNTI:
-
The C-RNTI provides a unique UE identification at the cell level identifying RRC Connection;
-
It is assumed that this identity is used for scheduling unless the cost would turn out to be too high and the
introduction of a separate MAC identity would be required.
b) Random value for contention resolution:
-
8.2
During some transient states, the UE is temporarily identified with a random value for contention resolution
purposes.
Network entity related Identities
The following identities are used in E-UTRAN for identifying a specific network entity:
a) MME identity:
-
a UE in EMM-IDLE establishing an RRC connection has to provide a unique identification of its current
MME to the eNB in order for the eNB to fetch the UE context from the MME;
-
Within the S-TMSI, one field contains the identifier of the MME that allocated the S-TMSI. The identifier of
MME is needed to ensure that the S-TMSI remains unique in a tracking area shared by multiple MMEs.
b) eNB identity or cell identity (FFS):
-
The signalling sequence to be followed in case a UE in EMM-CONNECTED accesses a cell in which no UE
context has been established yet (kind of 'cell update') is currently not agreed. Identified options are:
1) In order to obtain the UE context/data from the old eNB, the new eNB directly contacts the old eNB
without consulting the MME;
2) In order to obtain the UE context/data from the old eNB, the new eNB consults the MME to obtain the
identity of the old eNB;
3) In order to obtain a UE context, the new eNB contacts the MME.
-
If it is required for the new eNB to be able to contact the old eNB without involving the MME (case 1
above), the UE has to provide a network entity related identification that enables the new eNB to contact the
old eNB, and that enables the old eNB to uniquely identify the UE for retrieving the correct UE context. For
this purpose either an eNB identity or cell identity could be used.
c) Tracking Area identity (TAI):
-
This is the identity used to identify tracking areas. The Tracking Area Identity is constructed from the MCC
(Mobile Country Code), MNC (Mobile Network Code) and TAC (Tracking Area Code).
The following identities are broadcast in every E-UTRAN cell:
a) Cell identity:
-
Uniquely identifying the cell in the area (size of area is FFS).
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b) Tracking Area identity:
-
Tracking Area this cell belongs to.
c) One or more PLMNs:
-
PLMN (s) for which this cell is providing radio access.
9
ARQ and HARQ
E-UTRAN provides ARQ and HARQ functionalities. The ARQ functionality provides error correction by
retransmissions in acknowledged mode at Layer 2. The HARQ functionality ensures delivery between peer entities at
Layer 1.
9.1
HARQ principles
The HARQ within the MAC sublayer has the following characteristics:
-
N-process Stop-And-Wait;
-
HARQ transmits and retransmits transport blocks;
-
In the downlink:
-
-
-
Asynchronous adaptive HARQ;
-
Uplink ACK/NAKs in response to downlink (re)transmissions are sent on PUCCH or PUSCH;
-
PDCCH signals the HARQ process number and if it is a transmission or retransmission;
-
Retransmissions are always scheduled through PDCCH.
In the uplink:
-
Synchronous HARQ;
-
Maximum number of retransmissions configured per UE (as opposed to per radio bearer);
-
Downlink ACK/NAKs in response to uplink (re)transmissions are sent on PHICH;
-
Non-adaptive retransmissions (compared to the previous (re)transmission) are triggered by a NACK on
PHICH only, while adaptive retransmissions are scheduled through PDCCH;
Measurement gaps are of higher priority than HARQ retransmissions: whenever an HARQ retransmission
collides with a measurement gap, the HARQ retransmission does not take place.
9.2
ARQ principles
The ARQ within the RLC sublayer has the following characteristics:
-
ARQ retransmits RLC PDUs or RLC PDU segments;
-
ARQ retransmissions are based on:
-
RLC status reports;
-
HARQ/ARQ interactions (see subclause 9.3).
-
Polling for RLC status report is used when needed by RLC;
-
Status reports can be triggered by upper layers.
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HARQ/ARQ interactions
In HARQ assisted ARQ operation, ARQ uses knowledge obtained from the HARQ about the transmission status of a
TB: if the HARQ transmitter detects a failed delivery of a TB due to e.g. maximum retransmission limit is reached, the
relevant transmitting ARQ entities are notified and potential retransmissions and re-segmentation can be initiated. If the
HARQ receiver is able to detect TB transmission failure it is FFS if the receiving ARQ entities are notified.
10
Mobility
Load balancing is achieved in E-UTRAN with redirection mechanisms (upon RRC establishment, in
RRC_CONNECTED and upon RRC release) and through the usage of inter-frequency and inter-RAT Qoffset.
Measurements to be performed by a UE for mobility are classified in at least three measurement types:
-
Intra-frequency E-UTRAN measurements;
-
Inter-frequency E-UTRAN measurements;
-
Inter-RAT measurements for UTRAN and GERAN.
For each measurement type a measurement identity is used by E-UTRAN when configuring measurements as well as by
the UE when reporting results of the measurements. Measurement quantities and reporting events are considered
separately for each measurement type. Measurement commands are used by E-UTRAN to order the UE to start
measurements, modify measurements or stop measurements. Three reporting criteria are used: event triggered reporting,
periodic reporting and event triggered periodic reporting.
10.1
Intra E-UTRAN
In E-UTRAN RRC_CONNECTED state, network-controlled UE-assisted handovers are performed and various DRX
cycles are supported.
In E-UTRAN RRC_IDLE state, cell reselections are performed and DRX is supported.
10.1.1
Mobility Management in EMM-IDLE
10.1.1.1
Cell selection
The principles of PLMN selection in E-UTRA are based on the 3GPP PLMN selection principles. Cell selection is
required on transition from MME_DETACHED to EMM-IDLE or EMM-CONNECTED.
Cell selection:
-
The UE NAS identifies a selected PLMN and equivalent PLMNs;
-
The UE searches the E-UTRA frequency bands and for each carrier frequency identifies the strongest cell. It
reads cell system information broadcast to identify its PLMN(s):
-
-
The UE may search each carrier in turn ('initial cell selection') or make use of stored information to shorten
the search ('stored information cell selection').
The UE seeks to identify a suitable cell; if it is not able to identify a suitable cell it seeks to identify an
acceptable cell. When a suitable cell is found or if only an acceptable cell is found it camps on that cell and
commence the cell reselection procedure:
-
A suitable cell is one for which the measured cell attributes satisfy the cell selection criteria; the cell PLMN
is the selected PLMN, registered or an equivalent PLMN; the cell is not barred or reserved and the cell is not
part of a tracking area which is in the list of 'forbidden tracking areas for roaming';
-
An acceptable cell is one for which the measured cell attributes satisfy the cell selection criteria and the cell
is not barred;
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Transition to RRC_IDLE:
On transition from RRC_CONNECTED to RRC_IDLE, a UE should camp on the last cell for which it was in
RRC_CONNECTED or a cell/any cell of set of cells or frequency be assigned by RRC in the state transition
message.
Recovery from out of coverage:
The UE should attempt to find a suitable cell in the manner described for stored information or initial cell
selection above. If no suitable cell is found on any frequency or RAT the UE should attempt to find an
acceptable cell.
10.1.1.2
Cell reselection
UE in RRC_IDLE performs cell reselection. The principles of the procedure are the following:
-
-
The UE makes measurements of attributes of the serving and neighbour cells to enable the reselection process:
-
There is no need to indicate neighbouring cell in the serving cell system information to enable the UE to
search and measure a cell i.e. E-UTRAN relies on the UE to detect the neighbouring cells;
-
For the search and measurement of inter-frequency neighbouring cells, only the carrier frequencies need to be
indicated;
-
Measurements may be omitted if the serving cell attribute fulfils particular search or measurement criteria.
Cell reselection identifies the cell that the UE should camp on. It is based on cell reselection criteria which
involves measurements of the serving and neighbour cells:
-
Intra-frequency reselection is based on ranking of cells;
-
Inter-frequency reselection is based on absolute priorities where UE tries to camp on highest priority
frequency available. Absolute priorities for reselection are provided only by the RPLMN and valid only
within the RPLMN; priorities are given by the system information and valid for all UEs in a cell, specific
priorities per UE can be signalled in the RRC Connection Release message. A validity time can be associated
with UE specific priorities.
-
For inter-frequency neighbouring cells, it is possible to indicate layer-specific cell reselection parameters
(e.g., layer specific offset). These parameters are common to all neighbouring cells on a frequency;
-
An NCL can optionally be provided by the serving cell to handle specific cases for intra- and inter-frequency
neighbouring cells. This NCL can contain cell specific cell reselection parameters (e.g., cell specific offset)
for specific neighbouring cells;
-
It should be possible to prevent the UE from reselecting to specific detected neighbouring cells;
-
Cell reselection can be speed dependent (speed detection based on UTRAN solution);
-
Cell reselection parameters are applicable for all UEs in a cell, but it is possible to configure specific
reselection parameters per UE group or per UE.
Cell access restrictions apply as for UTRAN, which consist of access class (AC) barring and cell reservation (e.g. for
cells "reserved for operator use") applicable for mobiles in RRC_IDLE mode.
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10.1.1.3
Handling in eNB
10.1.1.4
Handling above eNB
10.1.1.5
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
10.1.2
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Mobility Management in EMM-CONNECTED
The Intra-E-UTRAN-Access Mobility Support for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED handles all necessary steps for
relocation/handover procedures, like processes that precede the final HO decision on the source network side (control
and evaluation of UE and eNB measurements taking into account certain UE specific area restrictions), preparation of
resources on the target network side, commanding the UE to the new radio resources and finally releasing resources on
the (old) source network side. It contains mechanisms to transfer context data between evolved nodes, and to update
node relations on C-plane and U-plane.
In E-UTRAN RRC_CONNECTED state, network-controlled UE-assisted handovers are performed and various DRX
cycles are supported:
The UE makes measurements of attributes of the serving and neighbour cells to enable the process:
-
There is no need to indicate neighbouring cell to enable the UE to search and measure a cell i.e. E-UTRAN relies
on the UE to detect the neighbouring cells;
-
For the search and measurement of inter-frequency neighbouring cells, only the carrier frequencies need to be
indicated (other information FFS);
-
Network signals reporting criteria for event-triggered and periodical reporting;
-
An NCL can optionally be provided by the serving cell to handle specific cases. This NCL can contain cell
specific cell reselection parameters (e.g. cell specific offset) for specific neighbouring cells.
Depending on whether the UE needs transmission/reception gaps to perform the relevant measurements, measurements
are classified as gap assisted or non-gap assisted. A non-gap assisted measurement is a measurement on a cell that does
not require transmission/reception gaps to allow the measurement to be performed. A gap assisted measurement is a
measurement on a cell that does require transmission/reception gaps to allow the measurement to be performed. Gap
patterns (as opposed to individual gaps) are configured and activated by RRC.
10.1.2.1
Handover
The intra E-UTRAN HO in RRC_CONNECTED state is UE assisted NW controlled HO, with HO preparation
signalling in E-UTRAN:
-
Part of the HO command comes from the target eNB and is transparently forwarded to the UE by the source
eNB;
-
The QoS profiles in use by the UE (EPS bearer attributes) are sent to the target eNB by the source eNB, and it is
FFS if also the currently used AS configuration is sent (intra-MME case);
-
Both the source eNB and UE keep some context (e.g. C-RNTI) to enable the return of the UE in case of HO
failure;
-
UE accesses the target cell via RACH following a contention-free procedure using a dedicated RACH preamble
or following a contention-based procedure if dedicated RACH preambles are not available:
-
-
If an end-time is associated to the dedicated preamble, the UE follows a contention-based procedure after
reaching the end time;
No ROHC context is transferred during inter eNB mobility.
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C-plane handling
The HO procedure is performed without EPC involvement, i.e. preparation messages are directly exchanged between
the eNBs. The release of the resources at the source side during the HO completion phase is triggered by the eNB. The
figure below depicts the basic handover scenario where neither MME nor Serving Gateway changes:
UE
Source eNB
Target eNB
Serving
MME
0. Area Restriction Provided
1. Measurement Control
packet data
packet data
Legend
UL allocation
2.
Gateway
L3 signalling
Measurement Reports
L1/L2 signalling
3. HO decision
4.
User Data
Handover Request
5. Admission Control
6. Handover Request Ack
DL allocation
7. Handover Command
Detach from old cell
synchronize
and to new
cell
Deliver buffered and in transit
packets to target eNB
8.
no
it
uc
ex
Er
ev
od
na
H
SN Status Transfer
DL Data Forwarding
9.
10.
Buffer packets from
Source eNB
Synchronisation
no
it
raa
pe
rP
re
ovd
na
H
UL allocation + TA for UE
11. Handover Confirm
12. Path Switch Request
13. User Plane update
request
14. Switch DL path
17. Release Resource
16.Path Switch Request Ack
15.User Plane update
response
Flush DL buffer, continue
delivering in -transit packets
DL Data Forwarding
18. Release
Resources
packet data
packet data
Figure 10.1.2.1: Intra-MME/Serving Gateway HO
Below is a more detailed description of the intra-MME/Serving Gateway HO procedure:
0 The UE context within the source eNB contains information regarding roaming restrictions which where
provided either at connection establishment or at the last TA update.
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1 The source eNB configures the UE measurement procedures according to the area restriction information.
Measurements provided by the source eNB may assist the function controlling the UE's connection mobility.
2 UE is triggered to send MEASUREMENT REPORT by the rules set by i.e. system information, specification
etc.
3 Source eNB makes decision based on MEASUREMENT REPORT and RRM information to hand off UE.
4 The source eNB issues a HANDOVER REQUEST message to the target eNB passing necessary information to
prepare the HO at the target side (UE X2 signalling context reference at source eNB, UE S1 EPC signalling
context reference, target cell ID, KeNB*, RRC context including the C-RNTI of the UE in the source eNB, ASconfiguration (excluding physical layer configuration), EPS bearer context and physical layer ID of the source
cell + MAC for possible RLF recovery). UE X2 / UE S1 signalling references enable the target eNB to address
the source eNB and the EPC. The EPS bearer context includes necessary RNL and TNL addressing information,
and QoS profiles of the EPS bearers.
5 Admission Control may be performed by the target eNB dependent on the received EPS bearer QoS information
to increase the likelihood of a successful HO, if the resources can be granted by target eNB. The target eNB
configures the required resources according to the received EPS bearer QoS information and reserves a C-RNTI
and optionally a RACH preamble. The AS-configuration to be used in the target cell can either be specified
independently (i.e. an "establishment") or as a delta compared to the AS-configuration used in the source cell (ie.
a "reconfiguration").
6 Target eNB prepares HO with L1/L2 and sends the HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE to the source
eNB. The HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE message includes a transparent container to be sent to
the UE as part of the Handover Command. The container may include a new C-RNTI, target eNB security
algorithm identifiers for the selected security algorithms, a dedicated RACH preamble, indication of the expiry
time of the dedicated RACH preamble, and possibly some other parameters i.e. access parameters, SIBs, etc. The
HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE message may also include RNL/TNL information for the
forwarding tunnels, if necessary.
NOTE:
As soon as the source eNB receives the HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE, or as soon as the
transmission of the handover command is initiated in the downlink, data forwarding may be initiated.
Steps 7 to 16 provide means to avoid data loss during HO and are further detailed in 10.1.2.1.2 and 10.1.2.3.
7 The source eNB generates the HANDOVER COMMAND (RRC message) towards the UE. The HANDOVER
COMMAND includes the transparent container, which has been received from the target eNB. The source
eNodeB performs the necessary integrity protection and ciphering of the message. The UE receives the
HANDOVER COMMAND with necessary parameters (i.e. new C-RNTI, target eNB security algorithm
identifiers, dedicated RACH preamble, possible expiry time of the dedicated RACH preamble, target eNB SIBs
etc) and is commanded by the source eNB to perform the HO. The UE does not need to delay the handover
execution for delivering the HARQ/ARQ responses to source eNB.
8 The source eNB sends the SN STATUS TRANSFER message to the target eNB to convey the uplink PDCP SN
receiver status and the downlink PDCP SN transmitter status of SAE bearers for which PDCP status preservation
applies. The uplink PDCP SN receiver status includes at least the PDCP SN of the next expected in-sequence UL
SDU (upper window edge) and may include a list of the PDCP SN of the out of sequence missing (FFS) UL
SDUs that the UE needs to retransmit in the target cell, if there are any such SDUs. The downlink PDCP SN
transmitter status indicates the next PDCP SN that the target eNB shall assign to new SDUs, not having a PDCP
SN yet. The source eNB may omit sending this message if none of the SAE bearers of the UE shall be treated
with PDCP status preservation.
9 After receiving the HANDOVER COMMAND, UE performs synchronisation to target eNB and accesses the
target cell via RACH following a contention-free procedure if a dedicated RACH preamble was allocated in
HANDOVER COMMAND or following a contention-based procedure if no dedicated preamble was allocated.
UE derives target eNB specific keys and configures the selected security algorithms to be used in the target cell.
10 Network responds with UL allocation and timing advance.
11 When the UE has successfully accessed the target cell, the UE sends the HANDOVER CONFIRM message (CRNTI) along with an uplink Buffer Status Report when required to the target eNB to indicate that the handover
procedure is completed for the UE. The target eNB verifies the C-RNTI sent in the HANDOVER CONFIRM
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message. The target eNB can now begin sending data to the UE. Based on further optimizations, the downlink
data transmission can begin as early as after step 8.
12 The target eNB sends a PATH SWITCH message to MME to inform that the UE has changed cell.
13 The MME sends a USER PLANE UPDATE REQUEST message to the Serving Gateway.
14 The Serving Gateway switches the downlink data path to the target side and can release any U-plane/TNL
resources towards the source eNB.
15 Serving Gateway sends a USER PLANE UPDATE RESPONSE message to MME.
16 The MME confirms the PATH SWITCH message with the PATH SWITCH ACK message.
17 By sending RELEASE RESOURCE the target eNB informs success of HO to source eNB and triggers the
release of resources. The timing for the target eNB to send this message between steps 10 and 15 is FFS.
18 Upon reception of the RELEASE RESOURCE message, the source eNB can release radio and C-plane related
resources associated to the UE context.
NOTE:
Details on updating of roaming/area restriction information within E-UTRAN in the course of the HO
procedure are FFS
With respect to SRBs, the following principles apply:
-
No forwarding or retransmissions of RRC messages in the target;
-
The PDCP SN and HFN are reset in the target eNB.
10.1.2.1.2
U-plane handling
The U-plane handling during the Intra-E-UTRAN-Access mobility activity for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED takes the
following principles into account to avoid data loss during HO:
-
During HO preparation U-plane tunnels can be established between the source eNB and the target eNB. There is
one tunnel established for uplink data forwarding and another one for downlink data forwarding for each SAE
bearer for which data forwarding is applied.
-
During HO execution, user data can be forwarded from the source eNB to the target eNB. The forwarding may
take place in a service and deployment dependent and implementation specific way.
-
-
Forwarding of downlink user data from the source to the target eNB should take place in order as long as
packets are received at the source eNB from the EPC or the source eNB buffer has not been emptied (an
implementation dependent mechanism decides that data forwarding can be stopped).
During HO completion:
-
The target eNB sends a PATH SWITCH message to MME to inform that the UE has gained access and
MME sends a USER PLANE UPDATE REQUEST message to the Serving Gateway, the U-plane path is
switched by the Serving Gateway from the source eNB to the target eNB.
-
The source eNB should continue forwarding of U-plane data as long as packets are received at the source
eNB from the Serving Gateway or the source eNB buffer has not been emptied (an implementation
dependent mechanism decides that data forwarding can be stopped).
For RLC-AM bearers:
-
For in-sequence delivery and duplication avoidance, PDCP SN is maintained on a bearer basis and the source
eNB informs the target eNB about the next DL PDCP SN to allocate to a packet which does not have a PDCP
sequence number yet (either from source eNB or from the Serving Gateway).
-
For security synchronisation, HFN is also maintained and the source eNB provides to the target one reference
HFN for the UL and one for the DL i.e. HFN and corresponding SN.
-
In both the UE and the target eNB, a window-based mechanism is needed for duplication detection.
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-
The occurrence of duplicates over the air interface in the target eNB is minimised by means of PDCP SN based
reporting at the target eNB by the UE. In uplink, the reporting is optionally configured on a bearer basis by the
eNB and the UE should first start by transmitting those reports when granted resources in the target eNB. In
downlink, the eNB is free to to decide when and for which bearers a report is sent and the UE does not wait for
the report to resume uplink transmission.
-
The target eNB re-transmits and prioritizes all downlink PDCP SDUs forwarded by the source eNB (i.e. the
target eNB should send data with PDCP SNs from X2 before sending data from S1), with the exception of PDCP
SDUs of which the reception was acknowledged through PDCP SN based reporting by the UE.
-
The UE re-transmits in the target eNB all uplink PDCP SDUs starting from the first PDCP SDU following the
last consecutively confirmed PDCP SDU i.e. the oldest PDCP SDU that has not been acknowledged at RLC in
the source, excluding the PDCP SDUs of which the reception was acknowledged through PDCP SN based
reporting by the target.
For RLC-UM bearers:
-
The PDCP SN and HFN are reset in the target eNB.
-
No PDCP SDUs are retransmitted in the target eNB.
-
The target eNB prioritize all downlink PDCP SDUs forwarded by the source eNB if any (i.e. the target eNB
should send data with PDCP SNs from X2 before sending data from S1),.
-
The UE PDCP entity does not attempt to retransmit any PDCP SDU in the target cell for which transmission had
been completed in the source cell. Instead UE PDCP entity starts the transmission with other PDCP SDUs.
10.1.2.2
Path Switch
After the downlink path is switched at the Serving GW downlink packets on the forwarding path and on the new direct
path may arrive interchanged at the target eNB. The target eNodeB should first deliver all forwarded packets to the UE
before delivering any of the packets received on the new direct path. The method employed in the target eNB to enforce
the correct delivery order of packets is outside the scope of the standard.
In order to assist the reordering function in the target eNB, the Serving GW shall send one or more "end marker"
packets on the old path immediately after switching the path for each SAE bearer of the UE. The "end marker" packet
shall not contain user data. The "end marker" is indicated in the GTP header. After completing the sending of the tagged
packets the GW shall not send any further user data packets via the old path. Upon receiving the "end marker" packets,
the source eNB shall forward the packet toward the target eNB.
10.1.2.3
10.1.2.3.1
Data forwarding
For RLC-AM bearers
Upon handover, the source eNB forwards in order to the target eNB all downlink PDCP SDUs with their SN that have
not been acknowledged by the UE. In addition, the source eNB may forward without a PDCP SN fresh data arriving
over S1 to the target eNB. In addition, the source eNB may forward fresh data arriving over S1 to the target eNB.
NOTE:
Target eNB does not have to wait for the completion of forwarding from the source eNB before it begins
transmitting packets to the UE.
The source eNB discards any remaining downlink RLC PDUs. Correspondingly, the source eNB does not forward the
downlink RLC context to the target eNB.
NOTE:
Source eNB does not need to abort on going RLC transmissions with the UE as it starts data forwarding
to the target eNB.
Upon handover, the source eNB forwards uplink PDCP SDUs successfully received in-sequence to the Serving
Gateway, may forward uplink PDCP SDUs with their SN received out-of-sequence to the target eNB and shall discard
any remaining uplink RLC PDUs. Correspondingly, the source eNB does not forward the uplink RLC context to the
target eNB.
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The PDCP SN of forwarded SDUs is carried in the "PDCP PDU number" field of the GTP-U extension header. The
target eNB shall use the PDCP SN if it is available in the forwarded GTP-U packet.
In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs during handover is based on a continuous PDCP SN and is provided by the
re-ordering function at the PDCP layer, which can be activated at least during inter-eNB mobility:
-
in the downlink, the re-ordering function at the UE PDCP layer guarantees in-sequence delivery of downlink
PDCP SDUs;
-
in the uplink, the re-ordering function at the target eNB PDCP layer guarantees in-sequence delivery of uplink
PDCP SDUs.
After handover, when the UE receives a PDCP SDU from the target eNB, it can deliver it to higher layer together with
all PDCP SDUs with a lower SNs regardless of possible gaps.
10.1.2.3.2
For RLC-UM bearers
Upon handover, the source eNB does not forward to the target eNB downlink PDCP SDUs for which transmission had
been completed in the source cell. PDCP SDUs that have not been transmitted may be forwarded. In addition, the
source eNB may forward fresh data arriving over S1 to the target eNB. The source eNB discards any remaining
downlink RLC PDUs. Correspondingly, the source eNB does not forward the downlink RLC context to the target eNB.
Upon handover, the source eNB forwards all uplink PDCP SDUs successfully received to the Serving Gateway and
discards any remaining uplink RLC PDUs. Correspondingly, the source eNB does not forward the uplink RLC context
to the target eNB.
10.1.2.4
Handling in eNB
10.1.2.5
Handling above eNB
10.1.2.6
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
10.1.2.7
Timing Advance
In RRC_CONNECTED, the eNB is responsible for maintaining the timing advance. In some cases (e.g. during DRX),
the timing advance is not necessarily always maintained and the MAC sublayer knows if the L1 is synchronised and
which procedure to use to start transmitting in the uplink:
-
as long as the L1 is non-synchronised, uplink transmission can only take place on PRACH.
For one UE, cases where the UL synchronisation status moves from "synchronised" to "non-synchronised" include:
-
Expiration of a timer;
-
Non-synchronised handover;
-
Explicit request by MAC or RRC in the eNB (FFS);
The value of the timer is either UE specific and managed through dedicated signalling between the UE and the eNB, or
cell specific and indicated via broadcast information. In both cases, the timer is always restarted whenever a new timing
advance is given by the eNB:
-
restarted to a UE specific value if any; or
-
restarted to a cell specific value otherwise.
Upon DL data arrival, dedicated signature on PRACH can be allocated by the eNB to UE. When a dedicated signature
on PRACH is allocated, the UE shall perform the corresponding random access procedure regardless of its L1
synchronisation status.
TA updates are signalled by the eNB to the UE in MAC PDUs addressed via C-RNTI, and embedded with user data or
alone.
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Measurements
Measurements to be performed by a UE for intra/inter-frequency mobility can be controlled by E-UTRAN, using
broadcast or dedicated control. In RRC_IDLE state, a UE shall follow the measurement parameters defined for cell
reselection specified by the E-UTRAN broadcast (as in UTRAN SIB). The use of dedicated measurement control for
RRC_IDLE state is FFS. In RRC_CONNECTED state, a UE shall follow the measurement configurations specified by
RRC directed from the E-UTRAN (e.g. as in UTRAN MEASUREMENT_CONTROL).
Intra-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements and inter-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements are defined as
follows:
-
Intra-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements: Neighbour cell measurements performed by the UE are intrafrequency measurements when the current and target cell operates on the same carrier frequency. The UE shall
be able to carry out such measurements without measurement gaps.
-
Inter-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements: Neighbour cell measurements performed by the UE are interfrequency measurements when the neighbour cell operates on a different carrier frequency, compared to the
current cell. The UE should not be assumed to be able to carry out such measurements without measurement
gaps.
Whether a measurement is non gap assisted or gap assisted depends on the UE's capability and current operating
frequency. The UE determines whether a particular cell measurement needs to be performed in a transmission/reception
gap and the scheduler needs to know whether gaps are needed:
-
Same carrier frequency and cell bandwidths (Scenario A): an intra-frequency scenario; not measurement gap
assisted.
-
Same carrier frequency, bandwidth of the target cell smaller than the bandwidth of the current cell (Scenario B):
an intra-frequency scenario; not measurement gap assisted.
-
Same carrier frequency, bandwidth of the target cell larger than the bandwidth of the current cell (Scenario C):
FFS.
-
Different carrier frequencies, bandwidth of the target cell smaller than the bandwidth of the current cell and
bandwidth of the target cell within bandwidth of the current cell (Scenario D): an inter-frequency scenario;
measurement gap-assisted scenario.
-
Different carrier frequencies, bandwidth of the target cell larger than the bandwidth of the current cell and
bandwidth of the current cell within bandwidth of the target cell (Scenario E): an inter-frequency scenario;
measurement gap-assisted scenario.
-
Different carrier frequencies and non-overlapping bandwidth, (Scenario F): an inter-frequency scenario;
measurement gap-assisted scenario.
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Scenario E
UE
target cell
fc
current cell
Scenario F
UE
target cell
fc
fc
current cell
UE
target cell
fc
fc
Figure 10.1.3-1: Inter and Intra-frequency measurements scenarios
Measurement gaps patterns are configured and activated by RRC. Measurement gaps are of higher priority than HARQ
retransmissions i.e. if an HARQ retransmissions collides with a measurement gap, the HARQ retransmission does not
take place.
10.1.3.1
Intra-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements
In a system with frequency reuse = 1, mobility within the same frequency layer (i.e. between cells with the same carrier
frequency) is predominant. Good neighbour cell measurements are needed for cells that have the same carrier frequency
as the serving cell in order to ensure good mobility support and easy network deployment. Search for neighbour cells
with the same carrier frequency as the serving cell, and measurements of the relevant quantities for identified cells are
needed.
NOTE:
10.1.3.2
To avoid UE activity outside the DRX cycle, the reporting criteria for neighbour cell measurements
should match the used DRX cycle.
Inter-frequency neighbour (cell) measurements
Regarding mobility between different frequency layers (i.e. between cells with a different carrier frequency), UE may
need to perform neighbour cell measurements during DL/UL idle periods that are provided by DRX or packet
scheduling (i.e. gap assisted measurements).
10.1.4
Paging and C-plane establishment
Paging groups (where multiple UEs can be addressed) are used on L1/L2 signalling channel:
-
Precise UE identity is found on PCH;
-
DRX configurable via BCCH (UE specific DRX is FFS);
-
Only one subframe allocated per paging interval per UE;
-
The network may divide UEs to different paging occasions in time;
-
There is no grouping within paging occasion;
-
One paging RNTI for PCH.
10.1.5
Random Access Procedure
The random access procedure is characterized by:
-
Common procedure for FDD and TDD;
-
One procedure irrespective of cell size;
The random access procedure is performed for the following five events:
-
Initial access from RRC_IDLE;
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-
Initial access after radio link failure;
-
Handover requiring random access procedure;
-
DL data arrival during RRC_CONNECTED requiring random access procedure;
-
-
E.g. when UL synchronisation status is 'non-synchronised';
UL data arrival during RRC_CONNECTED requiring random access procedure;
-
E.g. when UL synchronisation status is "non-synchronised" or there are no PUCCH resources for SR
available.
Furthermore, the random access procedure takes two distinct forms:
-
Contention based (applicable to all five events);
-
Non-contention based (applicable to only handover and DL data arrival).
Normal DL/UL transmission can take place after the random access procedure.
10.1.5.1
Contention based random access procedure
The contention based random access procedure is outlined on Figure 10.1.5.1-1 below:
UE
1
eNB
Random Access Preamble
Random Access Response
3
2
Scheduled Transmission
Contention Resolution
4
Figure 10.1.5.1-1: Contention based Random Access Procedure
The four steps of the contention based random access procedures are:
1) Random Access Preamble on RACH in uplink:
-
6 bits to carry: a 5 bit random ID, and 1 bit to indicate information on size of message 3 or requested resource
blocks (FFS) limited by radio conditions. The groups of signatures that are used for indicating the 1 bit
information, as well as necessary thresholds are broadcast on system information.
NOTE:
the total number of bits is 5 for TDD Frame Structure Type II.
2) Random Access Response generated by MAC on DL-SCH:
-
Semi-synchronous (within a flexible window of which the size is one or more TTI) with message 1;
-
No HARQ;
-
Addressed to RA-RNTI on L1/L2 control channel;
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-
Conveys at least RA-preamble identifier, Timing Alignment information, initial UL grant and assignment of
Temporary C-RNTI (which may or may not be made permanent upon RRC Contention Resolution);
-
Intended for a variable number of UEs in one DL-SCH message.
3) First scheduled UL transmission on UL-SCH:
-
Uses HARQ;
-
Size of the transport blocks depends on the UL grant conveyed in step 2 and is at least [72] bits.
-
For initial access:
-
-
-
-
Conveys the RRC Connection Request generated by the RRC layer and transmitted via CCCH;
-
Conveys at least NAS UE identifier but no NAS message;
-
RLC TM: no segmentation (if RLC is involved);
After radio link failure:
-
Conveys the RRC Connection Re-establishment Request generated by the RRC layer and transmitted via
CCCH;
-
RLC TM: no segmentation (if RLC is involved);
-
Does not contain any NAS message.
After handover, in the target cell:
-
Conveys the ciphered and integrity protected RRC Handover Confirm generated by the RRC layer and
transmitted via DCCH;
-
Conveys the C-RNTI of the UE (which was allocated via the Handover Command);
-
Includes an uplink Buffer Status Report when required.
For other events:
-
Conveys at least the C-RNTI of the UE.
4) Contention Resolution on DL-SCH:
-
Early contention resolution shall be used i.e. eNB does not wait for NAS reply before resolving contention
-
Not synchronised with message 3;
-
HARQ is supported;
-
Addressed to:
-
-
The Temporary C-RNTI on L1/L2 control channel for initial access and after radio link failure;
-
The C-RNTI for UE in RRC_CONNECTED;
HARQ feedback is transmitted only by the UE which detects its own UE identity, as provided in message 3,
echoed in the RRC Contention Resolution message.
The Temporary C-RNTI is promoted to C-RNTI for a UE which detects RA success and does not already have a CRNTI; it is dropped by others. A UE which detects RA success and already has a C-RNTI, resumes using its C-RNTI.
10.1.5.2
Non-contention based random access procedure
The non-contention based random access procedure is outlined on Figure 10.1.5.2-1 below:
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UE
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eNB
RA Preamble assignment
Random Access Preamble
2
1
Random Access Response
Figure 10.1.5.2-1: Non-contention based Random Access Procedure
The three steps of the non-contention based random access procedures are:
0) Random Access Preamble assignment via dedicated signalling in DL:
-
eNB assigns to UE a non-contention Random Access Preamble (a Random Access Preamble not within the
set broadcasted on BCH).
-
Signalled via:
-
HO command generated by target eNB and sent via source eNB for handover;
-
MAC signalling (L1/L2 control channel or MAC control PDU is FFS) in case of DL data arrival.
1) Random Access Preamble on RACH in uplink:
-
UE transmits the assigned non-contention Random Access Preamble.
2) Random Access Response on DL-SCH:
-
Semi-synchronous (within a flexible window of which the size is one or more TTI) with message 1;
-
No HARQ;
-
Addressed to RA-RNTI on L1/L2 control channel;
-
Conveys at least:
-
Timing Alignment information and initial UL grant for handover;
-
Timing Alignment information for DL data arrival;
-
RA-preamble identifier.
-
Intended for one or multiple UEs in one DL-SCH message.
10.1.5.3
Interaction model between L1 and L2/3 for Random Access Procedure
Random access procedure described above is modelled in Figure 10.1.5.3-1 below from L1 and L2/3 interaction point
of view. L2/L3 receives indication from L1 whether ACK is received or DTX is detected after indication of Random
Access Preamble transmission to L1. L2/3 indicates L1 to transmit first scheduled UL transmission (RRC Connection
Request in case of initial access) if necessary or Random Access Preamble based on the indication from L1.
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Figure 10.1.5.3-1: Interaction model between L1 and L2/3 for Random Access Procedure
10.1.6
Radio Link Failure
Two phases governs the behaviour associated to radio link failure as shown on Figure 10.1.6:
-
-
First phase:
-
started upon radio problem detection;
-
leads to radio link failure detection;
-
no UE-based mobility;
-
based on timer or other (e.g. counting) criteria (T1).
Second Phase:
-
started upon radio link failure detection;
-
leads to RRC_IDLE;
-
UE-based mobility;
-
Timer based (T2).
Figure 10.1.6: Radio Link Failure
Table 10.1.6 below describes how mobility is handled with respect to radio link failure:
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Table 10.1.6: Mobility and Radio Link Failure
Cases
First Phase
UE returns to the same cell Continue as if no radio
problems occurred
UE selects a different cell
from the same eNB
N/A
UE selects a cell of a
prepared eNB (NOTE)
N/A
Second Phase
T2 expired
Activity is resumed by means
of explicit signalling between
UE and eNB
Activity is resumed by means
of explicit signalling between
UE and eNB
Activity is resumed by means
of explicit signalling between
UE and eNB
Go via RRC_IDLE (FFS)
Go via RRC_IDLE
Go via RRC_IDLE
Go via RRC_IDLE
UE selects a cell of a
N/A
Go via RRC_IDLE
different eNB that is not
prepared (NOTE)
NOTE:
a prepared eNB is an eNB which has admitted the UE during an earlier executed HO preparation phase.
In the Second Phase, in order to resume activity and avoid going via RRC_IDLE when the UE returns to the same cell
or when the UE selects a different cell from the same eNB, or when the UE selects a cell from a different eNB, the
following procedure applies:
-
The UE stays in RRC_CONNECTED;
-
The UE accesses the cell through the random access procedure;
-
The UE identifier used in the random access procedure for contention resolution (i.e. C-RNTI of the UE in the
cell where the RLF occurred + physical layer identity of that cell + MAC based on the keys of that cell) is used
by the selected eNB to authenticate the UE and check whether it has a context stored for that UE:
-
If the eNB finds a context that matches the identity of the UE, it indicates to the UE that its connection can be
resumed;
-
If the context is not found, RRC connection is released and UE initiates procedure to establish new RRC
connection. In this case UE may be required to go via RRC_IDLE (FFS).
10.1.7
Radio Access Network Sharing
E-UTRAN shall support radio access network sharing based on support for multi-to-multi relationship between EUTRAN nodes and EPC nodes (S1-flex).
If the E-UTRAN is shared by multiple operators, the system information broadcasted in each shared cell contains the
PLMN-id of each operator (up to 6) and a single tracking area code (TAC) valid within all the PLMNs sharing the radio
access network resources.
The UE shall be able to read up to 6 PLMN-ids, to select one of the PLMN-ids at initial attachment and to indicate this
PLMN-id to the E-UTRAN in subsequent instances of the Random Access procedures (e.g. as defined in subclause
10.1.5). The E-UTRAN shall select an appropriate MME for the PLMN indicated by the UE. Once attached to an
MME, the UE shall be able to indicate the allocated MME in subsequent instances of the Random Access procedures.
Whether the indication of the selected PLMN or the allocated MME is contained in the temporary UE identity or
signalled separately is FFS.
Handling of area restrictions for UE in EMM-CONNECTED shall follow the principles specified in sub-clause 10.4.
10.1.8
Handling of Roaming and Area Restrictions for UEs in EMMCONNECTED
Handling of roaming/area restrictions and handling of subscription specific preferences in EMM-CONNECTED is
performed in the eNB based on information provided by the EPC over the S1 interface.
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Inter RAT
Service-based redirection from UTRAN to E-UTRAN is supported. This should not require inter-RAT reporting in
RRC CONNECTION REQUEST.
10.2.1
Cell reselection
A UE in RRC_IDLE performs cell reselection. The principles of this procedure are as follows:
-
-
The UE makes measurements of attributes of the serving and neighbour cells to enable the reselection process:
-
For a UE to search and measure neighbouring GERAN cells, the ARFCNs of the BCCH carriers need to be
indicated in the serving cell system information (i.e., an NCL). The NCL does not contain BSICs or cell
specific offsets and Qrxlevmin is given per frequency band.
-
For a UE to search and measure neighbouring UTRAN cells, the serving cell can indicate an NCL containing
a list of carrier frequencies and scrambling codes.
-
Measurements may be omitted if the serving cell attribute fulfils particular search or measurement criteria.
Cell reselection identifies the cell that the UE should camp on. It is based on cell reselection criteria which
involves measurements of the serving and neighbour cells:
-
Inter-RAT reselection is based on absolute priorities where UE tries to camp on highest priority RAT
available. Absolute priorities for inter-RAT reselection are provided only by the RPLMN and valid only
within the RPLMN; priorities are given by the system information and valid for all UEs in a cell, specific
priorities per UE can be signalled in the RRC Connection Release message. A validity time can be associated
with UE specific priorities.
-
It should be possible to prevent the UE from reselecting to specific detected neighbouring cells;
-
The UE is allowed to "leave" the source E-UTRAN cell to read the target GERAN cell broadcast, in order to
determine its "suitability", prior to completing the cell reselection;
-
Cell reselection can be speed dependent (speed detection based on UTRAN solution);
Cell access restrictions apply as for UTRAN, which consist of access class (AC) barring and cell reservation (e.g. for
cells "reserved for operator use") applicable for mobiles in RRC_IDLE mode.
When performing cell reselection while the UE is camped on another RAT, the principles of this procedure are as
follows:
-
The UE measures attributes of the E-UTRA neighbouring cells:
-
-
Only the carrier frequencies need to be indicated to enable the UE to search and measure E-UTRA
neighbouring cells;
Cell reselection identifies the cell that the UE should camp on. It is based on cell reselection criteria which
involves measurements of the serving and neighbour cells:
-
For E-UTRA neighbouring cells, there is no need to indicate cell-specific cell reselection parameters i.e.
these parameters are common to all neighbouring cells on an E-UTRA frequency;
-
Cell reselection parameters are applicable to all UEs in a cell, but it is possible to configure specific reselection
parameters per UE group or per UE.
-
It should be possible to prevent the UE from reselecting to specific detected neighbouring cells.
10.2.2
Handover
Inter RAT HO is designed so that changes to GERAN and UTRAN are minimised. This can be done by following the
principles specified for GERAN to/from UTRAN intersystem HO. In particular the following principles are applied to
E-UTRAN Inter RAT HO design:
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1. Inter RAT HO is network controlled through source access system. The source access system decides about
starting the preparation and provides the necessary information to the target system in the format required by the
target system. That is, the source system adapts to the target system. The actual handover execution is decided in
the source system.
2. Inter RAT HO is backwards handover, i.e. radio resources are prepared in the target 3GPP access system before
the UE is commanded by the source 3GPP access system to change to the target 3GPP access system.
3. To enable backwards handover, and while RAN level interfaces are not available, a control interface exists in
CN level. In Inter RAT HO involving E-UTRAN access, this interface is between 2G/3G SGSN and
corresponding MME/Serving Gateway.
4. The target access system will be responsible for giving exact guidance for the UE on how to make the radio
access there (this includes radio resource configuration, target cell system information etc.). This information is
given during the handover preparation and should be transported completely transparently through the source
access system to the UE.
5. Mechanisms for avoiding or mitigating the loss of user data (i.e. forwarding) can be used until the 3GPP Anchor
determines that it can send DL U-plane data directly to the target system.
6. The handover procedure should not require any UE to CN signalling in order for data to start to flow in the target
system. This requires that the security context, UE capability context and QoS context is transferred (or
translated) within the network between source and target system.
7. Similar handover procedure should apply for handovers of both real time and non-real time services.
8. Similar handover procedure should apply for both Inter RAT Handover and intra-LTE Handover with EPC node
change.
9. Network controlled mobility is supported even if no prior UE measurements have been performed on the target
cell and/or frequency i.e. 'blind HO' is supported.
10.2.2a Inter-RAT cell change order to GERAN with NACC
For interworking towards GERAN, inter-RAT cell change order with NACC is supported even if no prior UE
measurements have been performed on the system i.e. 'blind NACC' is supported.
10.2.3
10.2.3.1
Measurements
Inter-RAT handovers from E-UTRAN
Measurements to be performed by a UE for inter-RAT mobility can be controlled by E-UTRAN, using broadcast or
dedicated control. In RRC_CONNECTED state, a UE shall follow the measurement parameters specified by RRC or
MAC commands (FFS) directed from the E-UTRAN (e.g. as in UTRAN MEASUREMENT_CONTROL).
UE performs inter-RAT neighbour cell measurements during DL/UL idle periods that are provided by the network
through suitable DRX/DTX period or packet scheduling if necessary.
10.2.3.2
Inter-RAT handovers to E-UTRAN
From UTRAN, UE performs E-UTRAN measurements by using idle periods created by compressed mode
(CELL_DCH), FACH measurement occasions (CELL_FACH - FFS), or DRX (other states).
From GERAN, E-UTRAN measurements are performed in the same way as WCDMA measurements for handover to
UTRAN: E-UTRAN measurements are performed in GSM idle frames in a time multiplexed manner. However, it
should be discussed with GERAN how to ensure that inter-RAT measurements do not take too much measurement
time, while the requested 3GPP inter-RAT measurements can be performed well enough.
Design constraints of 3GPP inter-RAT measurements should be considered when L1 details of E-UTRAN concept are
defined.
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Inter-RAT cell reselection from E-UTRAN
In RRC_IDLE state, a UE shall follow the measurement parameters specified by the E-UTRAN broadcast (as in
UTRAN SIB). The use of dedicated measurement control is FFS.
10.2.3.4
Limiting measurement load at UE
Introduction of E-UTRA implies co-existence of various UE capabilities. Each UE may support different combinations
of RATs, e.g., E-UTRA, UTRA, GSM, and non-3GPP RATs, and different combinations of frequency bands, e.g., 800
MHz, 1.7 GHz, 2 GHZ, etc. Moreover, some UEs may support the full E-UTRA spectrum bandwidth of 20 MHz,
whereas some UEs may support only a part of 20 MHz. Despite such heterogeneous environment, the measurement
load at UE should be minimised. To limit the measurement load and the associated control load:
-
E-UTRAN can configure the RATs to be measured by UE;
-
The number of measurement criteria (event and periodic reporting criteria) should be limited (as in TS 25.133
subclause 8.3.2 [7]);
-
E-UTRAN should be aware of the UE capabilities for efficient measurement control, to prevent unnecessary
waking up of the measurement entity;
-
The UE capabilities should be categorised to prevent diversion of capabilities and conformance test scenarios,
FFS;
-
Support for blind HO (i.e., HO without measurement reports from UE) is FFS.
10.2.4
Network Aspects
10.3
Mobility between E-UTRAN and Non-3GPP radio
technologies
10.3.1
UE Capability Configuration
A UE shall be able to communicate with the E-UTRAN about its radio access capability, such as the system (including
the release and frequency band) it supports and it"s receive and transmit capabilities (single/dual radio, dual receiver).
UE shall transfer its capability about other radio technologies over E-UTRAN using the same procedure used to carry
its E-UTRAN radio capability.
10.3.2
Mobility between E-UTRAN and cdma2000 network
This section describes the E-UTRAN mechanisms to support idle and active mode mobility between E-UTRAN and
cdma2000 HRPD or 1xRTT. The overall system is described in [17].
10.3.2.1
Tunneling of cdma2000 Messages over E-UTRAN between UE and
cdma2000 Access Nodes
In order to efficiently support handover procedures when on E-UTRAN with a cdma2000 target system, cdma2000
messages are sent transparently to the target system over the E-UTRAN, with the eNB and MME acting as relay points.
To support the MME in its selection of the correct target system node to which it should route an Uplink tunneled
message and to provide the target system with information that is needed to resolve technology-specific measurement
information (RouteUpdate and pilot strength measurements) that are delivered to the cdma2000 system each eNB cell is
associated with a cdma2000 HRPD SectorID and/or with a cdma2000 1xRTT SectorID (generically referred to as
cdma2000 reference cellid). This cdma2000 reference cellid is provided by the eNB to the MME using the cdma2000
message transfer capability over S1-AP and forwarded to the target system via the S101 interface and corresponding
interface to the cdma2000 1xRTT system.
Tunneling is achieved over the E-UTRAN radio interface by encapsulating tunneled cdma2000 messages in the UL
Information Transfer and DL Information Transfer RRC messages (e.g., similar to UMTS Uplink/Downlink Direct
Transfer). A specific IE in these RRC messages is used to identify the type of information contained in the message
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(e.g., NAS, TunneledMsg). Additionally if the message is carrying a tunneled message, an additional IE is included to
carry RRC Tunneling Procedure Information.
RRC Tunneling Procedure Information in the UL direction will include:
-
RAT type (1xRTT encapsulated, HRPD encapsulated);
-
cdma2000 message type (e.g. pre-registration or handover initiation).
RRC Tunneling Procedure Information in the DL direction will include:
-
RAT type (1xRTT encapsulated, HRPD encapsulated).
AS level security will be applied for these UL Information Transfer and DL Information Transfer RRC messages as
normal but there is no NAS level security for these tunneled cdma2000 messages.
Figure 10.3.2.1-1: Downlink Direct Transfer
Figure 10.3.2.1-2: Uplink Direct Transfer
Tunneling to the MME is achieved over the S1-MME interface by encapsulating the tunneled cdma2000 message in a
new S1-MME S1 Information Transfer message. These S1-MME messages carry S1 Tunneling Procedure Information
as well as the tunneled message.
S1 Tunneling Procedure Information in the UL direction will include:
-
cdma2000 Reference Cell Id;
-
RAT type (1xRTT encapsulated, HRPD encapsulated);
-
cdma2000 message type (e.g. pre-registration or handover initiation).
S1 Tunneling Procedure Information in the DL direction will include:
-
RAT type (1xRTT encapsulated, HRPD encapsulated);
-
cdma2000 message type (e.g. pre-registration or handover completion);
-
Data forwarding information if required.
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Mobility between E-UTRAN and HRPD
Mobility from E-UTRAN to HRPD
HRPD System Information Transmission in E-UTRAN
The HRPD system information block (SIB) shall be sent on the E-UTRAN BCCH. The UE shall monitor the EUTRAN BCCH during the RRC_IDLE and RRC_CONNECTED modes to retrieve the HRPD system information for
the preparation of cell reselection or handover from the E-UTRAN to HRPD system. HRPD system information may
also be provided to the UE by means of dedicated signalling. The following HRPD system information is transmitted on
E-UTRAN BCCH:
-
HRPD pre-registration allowed;
-
HRPD Pre-registration Zone;
-
HRPD Neighbor Bandclass;
-
HRPD Neighbor Frequency;
-
HRPD Neighbor PN Sequence Offset;
-
HRPD Pilot PN sequence offset index increment;
-
HRPD Timing Reference;
-
HRPD Searching Window Size;
-
Number of HRPD Neighbor Bandclass;
-
Number of HRPD Neighbor Frequency;
-
Number of HRPD Neighbor PN Sequence Offset;
-
HRPD Start Measuring E-UTRAN Signal Quality Threshold;
-
HRPD Start Measuring E-UTRAN Rx Power Strength Threshold.
10.3.2.2.1.2
Measuring HRPD from E-UTRAN
Measurement events and parameters for HRPD measurements are to be aligned with those defined in section 10.2.3.
10.3.2.2.1.2.1
Idle Mode Measurement Control
UE shall be able to make measurements on the HRPD cells in RRC_IDLE mode to perform cell re-selection.
The intra-3GPP inter-RAT idle mode measurement control is re-used to control the idle mode measurements on HRPD.
The UE performs measurement on HRPD when the signal quality from E-UTRAN serving cell falls below a given
threshold.
10.3.2.2.1.2.2
Active Mode Measurement Control
In RRC_CONNECTED mode, the UE shall perform radio measurements on the HRPD network when directed by the
E-UTRAN network. The network provides the required HRPD neighbor cell list information and measurement controls
to the UE through dedicated RRC signaling. When needed the eNB is responsible for configuring and activating the
HRPD measurements on the UE via the dedicated RRC signaling message. Periodic and event-triggered measurements
are supported.
For single-radio terminals, measurement gaps are needed to allow the UE to switch into the HRPD network and do
radio measurements. These measurement gaps are network-controlled. The eNB is responsible for configuring the gap
pattern and providing it to the UE through RRC dedicated signaling. Terminals with a dual receiver perform
measurements on HRPD neighbor cells without tuning away from the E-UTRAN network. No DL gap patterns will be
required for UEs which are capable of simultaneous reception on the involved frequency bands. No UL gap patterns
will be required for UEs which are capable simultaneous transmission in one access and measuring on another access.
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Active Mode Measurement
In RRC_CONNECTED mode, the UE measures the strengths of each of the HRPD neighbor cells and reports them in
an RRC message.
10.3.2.2.1.3
Pre-registration to HRPD Procedure
Pre-registration allows a UE to establish a presence with an HRPD system in advance of a cell re-selection or handover.
E-UTRAN network instructs the UE whether the pre-registration is needed over broadcast channel and in a dedicated
RRC message.
E-UTRAN does not need to know whether a specific UE is pre-registered or not.The procedure is transparent to EUTRAN network. In the pre-registration to HRPD, messages shall be tunnelled inside RRC and S1-AP messages
between the UE and MME and in a generic "transfer" message between source MME and target RNC0.
The UE is responsible for maintaining the HRPD context e.g. by performing periodic re-registrations if needed. The UE
will use "HRPD Pre-registration Zone" to decide whether a re-registration shall be performed. A dual-receiver UE can
ignore the parameter. E-UTRAN will provide the "HRPD Pre-registration Zone" parameter on the E-UTRAN system
information broadcast channel or dedicated RRC signalling (unless it is determined that the UE will read the E-UTRAN
system information broadcast channel in RRC_CONNECTED). Re-registrations are only allowed in areas where preregistration is requested.
10.3.2.2.1.4
E-UTRAN to HRPD Cell Re-selection
The pre-condition for cell re-selection from E-UTRAN to HRPD is that the UE has previously established a presence in
the target HRPD network, either through the pre-registration procedure or previous HRPD attachment. The UE
performs Cell re-selection to HRPD while in RRC_IDLE.
Cell reselection from E-UTRAN to HRPD should be aligned with 3GPP inter RAT cell reselection mechanism. . .
10.3.2.2.1.5
E-UTRAN to HRPD Handover
The pre-condition for the E-UTRAN to HRPD Handover procedure is that the UE is attached in the E-UTRAN network
in E-UTRAN_ACTIVE state and has pre-registered with the HRPD network. Based on measurement reports received
from the UE the eNB initiates a handover by sending an RRC message to the UE to indicate to the UE that it should
begin the handover procedure. This message shall include the specified target type and any cdma2000 specific HRPD
parameters needed by the UE to create the appropriate HRPD messages needed to request a connection. These HRPD
parameters are transparent to E-UTRAN. The set of the required HRPD parameters are are out of scope of this
specification.
The UE can continue to send and receive data on the E-UTRAN radio until it receives the 'handover command'. After
the "handover command" is received by the UE, the UE shall leave the E-UTRAN radio and start acquiring the HRPD
traffic channel. The HRPD handover signalling is tunnelled between the UE and HRPD network. The HRPD network
sends the high level progress of the ongoing HRPD signalling (e.g. Handover Success, Handover Failure) to E-UTRAN.
10.3.2.2.2
Mobility from HRPD to E-UTRAN
Mobility from HRPD to E-UTRAN has no impact on the E-UTRAN.
10.3.2.3
10.3.2.3.1
10.3.2.3.1.1
Mobility between E-UTRAN and cdma2000 1xRTT
Mobility from E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT
cdma2000 1xRTT System Information Transmission in E-UTRAN
The cdma2000 1xRTT system information block (SIB) shall be sent on E-UTRAN BCCH. The UE shall monitor the
E-UTRAN BCCH during the LTE_IDLE and RRC_CONNECTED modes to retrieve the 1xRTT system information
for the preparation of handover from the E-UTRAN to cdma 2000 1xRTT system. 1xRTT system information may also
be provided to the UE by means of dedicated signaling. The following cdma2000 1xRTT system information shall be
carried on E-UTRAN BCCH:
-
cdma2000 1X Neighbor Bandclass;
-
cdma2000 1X Neighbor Frequency;
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-
cdma2000 1X Neighbor PN Sequence Offset;
-
cdma2000 1X Pilot PN sequence offset index increment;
-
cdma2000 1X Timing Reference;
-
cdma2000 1x Searching Window Size;
-
Number of cdma2000 1X Neighbor Bandclass;
-
Number of cdma2000 1X Neighbor Frequency;
-
Number of cdma2000 1X Neighbor PN Sequence Offset;
-
cdma2000 1X Start Measuring E-UTRAN Signal Quality Threshold;
-
cdma2000 1X Start Measuring E-UTRAN Rx Power Strength Threshold.
10.3.2.3.1.2
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Measuring cdma2000 1xRTT from E-UTRAN
Measurement events and parameters for 1xRTT measurements are to be aligned with those defined in section 10.2.3.
10.3.2.3.1.2.1
Idle Mode Measurement Control
UE shall be able to make measurements on the 1xRTT system cells in LTE_IDLE mode to perform cell re-selection.
UE shall perform cdma2000 1xRTT neighbor cell measurements during DRX periods, between paging occasions.
The intra-3GPP inter-RAT idle mode measurement control is re-used to control the idle mode measurements on
cdma2000 1xRTT. The UE performs measurement on cdma2000 1xRTT when the signal quality from E-UTRAN
serving cell falls below a given threshold.
10.3.2.3.1.2.2
Active Mode Measurement Control
In the E-UTRAN network, in RRC_CONNECTED mode, the UE shall perform radio measurements on the cdma2000
1xRTT network when directed by the E-UTRAN network. The network provides the required cdma2000 1xRTT
neighbor cell list information and measurement controls to the UE through dedicated RRC signaling. When needed the
eNB is responsible for configuring and activating the cdma2000 1xRTT measurements on the UE via the dedicated
RRC signaling message. As for intra-3GPP inter-RAT measurement reporting, periodic and event-triggered
measurements are supported.
For single-radio terminals, measurement gaps are needed to allow the UE to switch into the cdma2000 1xRTT network
and do radio measurements. These Measurement gaps are network-controlled. The eNB is responsible for configuring
the gap pattern and providing it to the UE through RRC dedicated signaling. Terminals with a dual receiver perform
measurements on cdma2000 1xRTT neighbor cells without tuning away from the E-UTRAN network. No DL gap
patterns will be required for UEs which are capable of simultaneous reception on the involved frequency bands. No UL
gap patterns will be required for UEs which are capable simultaneous transmission in one access and measuring on
another access.
10.3.2.3.1.2.3
Active Mode Measurement
In RRC_CONNECTED mode, the UE measures the strengths of each of the cdma2000 1xRTT neighbor cells and
reports them in an RRC Message.
10.3.2.3.1.3
E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT Cell Re-selection
UE performs Cell re-selection to cdma2000 1xRTT while in RRC_IDLE.
Cell reselection from E-UTRAN to 1xRTT should be aligned with 3GPP inter RAT cell reselection mechanism.
10.3.2.3.1.4
E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT Handover
In the high level procedure for handover from E-UTRAN to cdma2000 1xRTT, registration and handover is performed
directly after the handover decision has been made. Based on measurement reports received from the UE the eNB
initiates a handover by sending a RRC message to the UE to indicate to the UE that it should begin the handover
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procedure. This message shall include the specified target type and any cdma2000 specific 1xRTT access parameters
needed by the UE to create the appropriate 1xRTT Origination Request message . The 1xRTT access parameters are
transparent to E-UTRAN. The set of the required 1xRTT access parameters are out of scope of this specification.
10.3.2.3.2
Mobility from cdma2000 1xRTT to E-UTRAN
Mobility from cdma2000 1xRTT has no impact on E-UTRAN.
10.4
Area Restrictions
Information on which area restrictions to be applied during EMM-CONNECTED state is provided by the MME at
context setup over the S1 interface.
The eNB shall store the UE restriction information and use it to determine whether the UE has access to radio resources
in the E-UTRAN. The source eNB should apply restriction handling when selecting a target eNB.
The available UE restriction information shall be propagated by the source eNB over X2 at intra E-UTRAN handover.
10.5
Mobility to and from CSG cells
10.5.1
Inbound mobility to CSG cells
10.5.1.1
RRC_IDLE
Cell selection/reselection to CSG cells is based on a UE autonomous search function. The search function determines
itself when/where to search.
It is FFS whether specific UE procedures or performance requirements will be specified.
UE checks the suitability of CSG cells (identified by the 1 bit indicator) based on the CSG whitelist in the UE (provided
by upper layers). A CSG cell is only suitable for a UE if it belongs to its whitelist.
The automated searching for the CSG cells by the UE shall be disabled by the search function, if the CSG whitelist
configured in the UE is empty.
In addition, manual selection of CSG cells is supported.
Cell selection/reselection to CSG cells does not require the network to provide neighbour cell information to the UE.
The neighbour cell information can be provided to help the UE in specific cases, e.g. where the network wishes to
trigger the UE to search for CSG cells.
10.5.1.2
RRC_CONNECTED
UE autonomously searches for CSG cells and can indicate the need for measurement gaps to the network (e.g. to check
the suitability of the CSG cell). Upon network decision measurement gaps might be granted.
The automated searching for the CSG cells by the UE shall be disabled by the search function, if the CSG whitelist
configured in the UE is empty.
UE checks the suitability of CSG cells (identified by the 1 bit indicator) based on the CSG whitelist in the UE (provided
by upper layers). The UE shall report suitable CSG cells and/or any CSG cells including an indication that particular
CSG cells are suitable to the serving cell.
Measurement reporting of CSG cells does not require the network to provide neighbour cell information to the UE. The
neighbour cell information can be provided to help the UE in specific cases, e.g. where the network wishes to trigger the
UE to search for CSG cells.
NOTE:
in some case it might require that appropriate gaps are given to the UE.
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Outbound mobility from CSG cells
RRC_IDLE
For a UE leaving a CSG cell in idle mode normal cell reselection based on configuration from the BCCH of the CSG
cell applies.
10.5.2.2
RRC_CONNECTED
For a UE leaving a CSG cell in active mode normal network controlled mobility applies.
11
Scheduling and Rate Control
In order to utilise the SCH resources efficiently, a scheduling function is used in MAC. In this subclause, an overview
of the scheduler is given in terms of scheduler operation, signalling of scheduler decisions, and measurements to
support scheduler operation.
11.1
Basic Scheduler Operation
MAC in eNB includes dynamic resource schedulers that allocate physical layer resources for the DL-SCH and UL-SCH
transport channels. Different schedulers operate for the DL-SCH and UL-SCH.
The scheduler should take account of the traffic volume and the QoS requirements of each UE and associated radio
bearers, when sharing resources between UEs. Only 'per UE' grants are used to grant the right to transmit on the ULSCH (i.e. there are no 'per UE per RB' grants).
Schedulers may assign resources taking account the radio conditions at the UE identified through measurements made
at the eNB and/or reported by the UE.
Radio resource allocations can be valid for one or multiple TTIs.
Resource assignment consists of physical resource blocks (PRB) and MCS. Allocations for time periods longer than one
TTI might also require additional information (allocation time, allocation repetition factor…).
11.1.1
Downlink Scheduling
In the downlink, E-UTRAN can dynamically allocate resources (PRBs and MCS) to UEs at each TTI via the C-RNTI
on L1/L2 control channel(s). A UE always monitors the L1/L2 control channel(s) in order to find possible allocation
when its downlink reception is enabled (activity governed by DRX).
In addition, E-UTRAN can allocate predefined downlink resources for the first HARQ transmissions to UEs. When
required, retransmissions are explicitly signalled via the L1/L2 control channel(s). In the sub-frames where the UE has
been pre-assigned resources, if the UE cannot find its C-RNTI on the L1/L2 control channel(s), a downlink transmission
according to any pre-defined allocation that the UE has been assigned in the TTI is assumed. As a result, the UE
performs blind decoding of the pre-defined resources (the subset of pre-defined resources shall be set in accordance to
UE"s capability). Otherwise, in the sub-frames where the UE has been pre-assigned resources, if the UE finds its CRNTI on the L1/L2 control channel(s), the L1/L2 control channel allocation overrides the pre-defined allocation for that
TTI and the UE does not perform blind decoding of the pre-defined resources.
11.1.2
Uplink Scheduling
In the uplink, E-UTRAN can dynamically allocate resources (PRBs and MCS) to UEs at each TTI via the C-RNTI on
L1/L2 control channel(s). A UE always monitors the L1/L2 control channel(s) in order to find possible allocation for
uplink transmission when its downlink reception is enabled (activity governed by DRX).
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In addition, E-UTRAN can allocate a predefined uplink resource for the first HARQ transmissions and potentially
retransmissions to UEs. In the sub-frames where the UE has been pre-assigned resource, if the UE cannot find its CRNTI on the L1/L2 control channel(s), an uplink transmission according to the pre-defined allocation that the UE has
been assigned in the TTI can be made. The network performs decoding of the pre-defined PRBs according to the predefined MCS. Otherwise, in the sub-frames where the UE has been pre-assigned resource, if the UE finds its C-RNTI
on the L1/L2 control channel(s), the L1/L2 control channel allocation overrides the pre-defined allocation for that TTI
and the UE"s transmission follows the L1/L2 control, not the pre-defined allocation. Retransmissions are either
implicitly allocated in which case the UE uses the pre-defined allocation, or explicitly allocated via L1/L2 control
channel(s) in which case the UE does not follow the pre-defined allocation.
NOTE:
there is no blind decoding in uplink and when the UE does not have enough data to fill the allocated
resource, padding is used.
11.2
Void
11.3
Measurements to Support Scheduler Operation
Measurement reports are required to enable the scheduler to operate in both uplink and downlink. These include
transport volume and measurements of a UEs radio environment.
Uplink buffer status reports (BSR) are needed to provide support for QoS-aware packet scheduling. In E-UTRAN
uplink buffer status reports refer to the data that is buffered in for a group of radio bearer (RBG) in the UE. Four RBGs
and two formats are used for reporting in uplink:
-
A short format for which only one BSR (of one RBG) is reported;
-
A long format for which all four BSRs (of all four RBGs) are reported.
Uplink buffer status reports are transmitted using MAC signalling.
11.4
Rate Control of GBR, MBR, and AMBR
11.4.1
Downlink
The eNB enforces the downlink MBR associated with a GBR bearer and the downlink AMBR associated with a group
of Non-GBR bearers.
11.4.2
Uplink
The UE has an uplink rate control function which manages the sharing of uplink resources between radio bearers. RRC
controls the uplink rate control function by giving each bearer a priority and a prioritised bit rate (PBR). In addition, an
MBR per GBR bearer is also provided. The values signalled may not be related to the ones signalled via S1 to the eNB.
The uplink rate control function ensures that the UE serves its radio bearer(s) in the following sequence:
1. All the radio bearer(s) in decreasing priority order up to their PBR;
2. All the radio bearer(s) in decreasing priority order for the remaining resources assigned by the grant and the
function ensures that the MBR is not exceeded.
NOTE1: In case the PBRs are all set to zero, the first step is skipped and the radio bearer(s) are served in strict
priority order: the UE maximises the transmission of higher priority data.
NOTE2: By limiting the total grant to the UE, the eNB can ensure that the AMBR is not exceeded.
If more than one radio bearer has the same priority, the UE shall serve these radio bearers equally.
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CQI reporting for Scheduling
The time and frequency resources used by the UE to report CQI are under the control of the eNB. CQI reporting can be
either periodic or aperiodic. A UE can be configured to have both periodic and aperiodic reporting at the same time. In
case both periodic and aperiodic reporting occurs in the same subframe, only the aperiodic report is transmitted in that
subframe.
For efficient support of localized, distributed and MIMO transmissions, E-UTRA supports three types of CQI reporting:
-
Wideband type: providing channel quality information of entire system bandwidth of the cell;
-
Multi-band type: providing channel quality information of some subset(s) of system bandwidth of the cell;
-
MIMO type: FFS.
Periodic CQI reporting is defined by the following characteristics:
-
When the UE is allocated PUSCH resources in a subframe where a periodic CQI report is configured to be sent,
the periodic CQI report is transmitted together with uplink data on the PUSCH. Otherwise, the periodic CQI
reports are sent on the PUCCH.
Aperiodic CQI reporting is defined by the following characteristics:
-
The report is scheduled by the eNB via the PDCCH;
-
Transmitted together with uplink data on PUSCH.
When a CQI report is transmitted together with uplink data on PUSCH, it is multiplexed with the transport block by L1
(i.e. the CQI report is not part of the uplink the transport block).
The eNB configures a set of sizes and formats of the reports. Size and format of the report depends on whether it is
transmitted over PUCCH or PUSCH and whether it is a periodic or aperiodic CQI report.
12
DRX in RRC_CONNECTED
In order to enable reasonable UE battery consumption, DRX in E-UTRAN is characterised by the following:
-
Per UE mechanism (as opposed to per radio bearer);
-
No RRC or MAC substate to distinguish between different levels of DRX;
-
Available DRX values are controlled by the network and start from non-DRX up to x seconds. Value x may be as
long as the paging DRX used inEMM-IDLE;
-
Measurement requirement and reporting criteria can differ according to the length of the DRX interval i.e. long
DRX intervals may experience more relaxed requirements;
-
The UE may omit measurements of neighbouring cells when the DRX interval is above a threshold and if the
radio quality of the serving cell is above another threshold. To configure this behaviour in the UE, the two
thresholds may be indicated by the eNB;
-
Irrespective of DRX, UE may use first available RACH opportunity to send an UL measurement report;
-
Immediately after sending a measurement report, the UE may change its DRX. This mechanism would be preconfigured by the eNB;
-
HARQ operation related to data transmission is independent of DRX operation and the UE wakes up to read the
PDCCH for possible retransmissions and/or ACK/NAK signalling regardless of DRX In the downlink, a timer is
used to limit the time the UE stays awake awaiting for a retransmission;
-
When DRX is configured, the UE may be further configured with an "on-duration" during which time the UE
monitors the L1/L2 control channels for possible allocations;
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-
When DRX is configured, periodic CQI reports can only be sent by the UE during the 'on-duration';
-
A timer in the UE is used to detect need for obtaining timing advance.
The following definitions apply to DRX in E-UTRAN:
-
on-duration: duration in TTIs that the UE waits for, after waking up from DRX, to receive PDCCHs. If the UE
successfully decodes a PDCCH, the UE stays awake and starts the inactivity timer;
-
inactivity-timer: duration in TTIs (during wake time) that the UE waits to successfully decode a PDCCH, from
the last successful decoding of a PDCCH, failing which it re-enters DRX. The UE shall restart the inactivity
timer following a single successful decoding of a PDCCH for a first transmission only (i.e. not for
retransmissions).
-
active-time: total duration that the UE is awake. This includes the 'on-duration' of the DRX cycle and the time
UE is performing continuous reception while the inactivity timer has not expired. Based on the above the
minimum active time is of length equal to on-duration, and the maximum is undefined (infinite);
Of the above parameters the on-duration and inactivity-timer are of fixed lengths, while the active-time is of varying
lengths based on scheduling decision and UE decoding success. Only on-duration and inactivity-timer duration are
signalled to the UE by the eNB:
-
There is only one DRX configuration applied in the UE at any time;
-
UE shall apply an on-duration on wake-up from DRX sleep;
NOTE:
this is also applicable for the case where the UE has only one service (e.g. Real Time) that is being
handled through the allocation of predefined resources; this allows for other signalling such as RRC to be
sent during the remaining portion of the active time.
-
New transmissions can only take place during the active-time.
-
If PDCCH has not been successfully decoded during the on-duration, the UE shall follow the DRX configuration
(i.e the UE can enter DRX sleep if allowed by the DRX configuration):
-
-
This applies also for the sub-frames where the UE has been allocated predefined resources.
If it successfully decodes a PDCCH for a first transmission, the UE shall stay awake and start the inactivity timer
(even if a PDCCH is successfully decoded in the sub-frames where the UE has also been allocated predefined
resouces):
-
Until a MAC header/control message tells the UE to re-enter DRX, with a cycle explicitely indicated in the
MAC payload; or
-
The UE autonomously re-enters DRX with a predefined cycle at expiry of the inactivity timer. The
predefined DRX cycle may be shorter than the initial one. And if it is, a longer period of inactivity will bring
the UE back to the initial DRX cycle directly.
13
QoS
13.1
QoS concept and bearer service architecture
The EPS bearer service layered architecture is depicted in Figure 13.1 below, where:
-
An UL TFT in the UE binds an SDF to an EPS bearer in the uplink direction. Multiple SDFs can be multiplexed
onto the same EPS bearer by including multiple uplink packet filters in the UL TFT.
-
A DL TFT in the PDN GW binds an SDF to an EPS bearer in the downlink direction. Multiple SDFs can be
multiplexed onto the same EPS bearer by including multiple downlink packet filters in the DL TFT.
-
A radio bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a UE and an eNB. There is a one-to-one mapping
between an EPS bearer and a radio bearer.
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-
An S1 bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between an eNodeB and a Serving GW.
-
An S5/S8 bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a Serving GW and a PDN GW.
-
A UE stores a mapping between an uplink packet filter and a radio bearer to create the binding between an SDF
and a radio bearer in the uplink.
-
A PDN GW stores a mapping between a downlink packet filter and an S5/S8a bearer to create the binding
between an SDF and an S5/S8a bearer in the downlink.
-
An eNB stores a one-to-one mapping between a radio bearer and an S1 to create the binding between a radio
bearer and an S1 bearer in both the uplink and downlink.
-
A Serving GW stores a one-to-one mapping between an S1 bearer and an S5/S8a bearer to create the binding
between an S1 bearer and an S5/S8a bearer in both the uplink and downlink.
Figure 13.1: EPS Bearer Service Architecture
13.2
Resource establishment and QoS signalling
14
Security
14.1
Overview and Principles
The following principles apply to E-UTRAN security:
-
The keys used for NAS and AS protection shall be dependent on the algorithm with which they are used;
-
The eNB keys are cryptographically separated from the EPC keys used for NAS protection (making it
impossible to use the eNB key to figure out an EPC key).
-
The AS (RRC and UP) and NAS keys are derived in the EPC/UE from key material that was generated by a
NAS (EPC/UE) level AKA procedure (KASME) and identified with a key identifier (KSIASME).
-
The eNB key (KeNB) is sent from the EPC to the eNB when the UE is entering EMM-CONNECTED state (i.e.
during RRC connection or S1 context setup).
-
Separate AS and NAS level security mode command procedures are used. AS level security mode command
procedure configures AS security (RRC and user plane) and NAS level security mode command procedure
configures NAS security. Both integrity protection and ciphering for RRC are activated within the same AS
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SMC procedure, but not necessarily within the same message. User plane ciphering is activated at the same time
as RRC ciphering.
-
Keys stored inside eNBs shall never leave a secure environment within the eNB (except when done in
accordance with this or other 3GPP specifications), and user plane data ciphering/deciphering shall take place
inside the secure environment where the related keys are stored.
-
Key material for the eNB keys is sent between the eNBs during EMM-CONNECTED intra-E-UTRAN mobility.
-
A sequence number is used as input to the ciphering and integrity protection. A given sequence number must
only be used once for a given eNB key (except for identical re-transmission). The same sequence number can be
used for both ciphering and integrity protection.
-
A hyper frame number (HFN) (i.e. an overflow counter mechanism) is used in the eNB and UE in order to limit
the actual number of sequence number bits that is needed to be sent over the radio. The HFN needs to be
synchronized between the UE and eNB.
-
If corruption of keys is detected, UE has to restart radio level attachment procedure (e.g. similar radio level
procedure to idle-to-connected mode transition or initial attachment).
-
No integrity protection initialisation number (FRESH).
The MME invokes the AKA procedures by requesting authentication vectors to the HE (Home environment). The HE
sends an authentication response back to the MME that contains a fresh authentication vector, including a base-key
named KASME. Thus, as a result of an AKA run, the EPC and the UE share K_ASME. From K_ASME, the NAS, (and
indirectly) K_eNB keys are derived. The K_ASME never leaves the EPC, but the K_eNB key is transported to the eNB
from the EPC when the UE transitions to EMM-CONNECTED. From the K_eNB, the eNB and UE can derive the UP
and RRC keys. When the UE goes into EMM-IDLE or EMM-NULL, the K_eNB, UP and RRC keys are deleted from
the eNB. The key hierarchy is depicted on Figure 14.1-1 below, where:
-
KNASint is a key, which shall only be used for the protection of NAS traffic with a particular integrity algorithm
This key is derived by UE and MME from KASME , as well as an identifier for the integrity algorithm.
-
KNASenc is a key, which shall only be used for the protection of NAS traffic with a particular encryption
algorithm. This key is derived by UE and MME from KASME, as well as an identifier for the encryption algorithm.
-
KeNB is a key derived by UE and MME from KASME. KeNB shall only be used for the derivation of keys for RRC
traffic and the derivation of keys for UP traffic.
-
KeNB* is a key derived by UE and source eNB from KeNB. KeNB* shall only be used by UE and target eNB at
handover for the derivation of a new KeNB for RRC and UP traffic;
-
KUPenc is a key, which shall only be used for the protection of UP traffic with a particular encryption algorithm.
This key is derived by UE and eNB from KeNB, as well as an identifier for the encryption algorithm.
-
KRRCint is a key, which shall only be used for the protection of RRC traffic with a particular integrity algorithm.
KRRCint is derived by UE and eNB from KeNB, as well as an identifier for the integrity algorithm.
-
KRRCenc is a key, which shall only be used for the protection of RRC traffic with a particular encryption
algorithm. KRRCenc is derived by UE and eNB from KeNB as well as an identifier for the encryption algorithm.
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K
CK, IK
UE / HSS
KASME
UE / ASME
KNAS enc
KNAS int
KeNB
UE / MME
KeNB-UP-enc
KeNB-RRC- int
KeNB-RRC-enc
UE / eNB
Figure 14.1-1: Key Hierarchy
COUNT-C reusing avoidance for the same radio bearer identity in RRC_CONNECTED mode without KeNB change is
left to eNB implementation e.g. by using intra-cell handover, smart management of radio bearer identities or triggering
a transition to RRC_IDLE.
In case of HFN desynchronisation in RRC_CONNECTED mode between the UE and eNB, the UE is pushed to IDLE.
14.2
Security termination points
The table below describes the security termination points.
Table 14.2 Security Termination Points
Ciphering
Integrity Protection
NAS Signalling
Required and terminated in MME
Required and terminated in MME
U-Plane Data
Required and terminated in eNB
Not Required
(NOTE 1)
RRC Signalling (AS)
Required and terminated in eNB
Required and terminated in eNB
MAC Signalling (AS)
Not required (NOTE 2)
Not required (NOTE 2)
NOTE 1: Integrity protection for U-Plane is not required and thus it is not supported between UE and Serving
Gateway or for the transport of user plane data between eNB and Serving Gateway on S1 interface.
NOTE 2: SA3 needs to further study on whether buffer status reports from UEs to the eNBs in MAC layer need to
be protected.
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14.3
State Transitions and Mobility
14.3.1
RRC_IDLE to RRC_CONNECTED
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
As a general principle, on RRC_IDLE to RRC_CONNECTED transitions, RRC protection keys and UP protection keys
shall be generated while keys for NAS protection as well as higher layer keys are assumed to be already available in the
MME. These higher layer keys may have been established in the MME as a result of an AKA run, or as a result of a
transfer from another MME during handover or idle mode mobility.
14.3.2
RRC_CONNECTED to RRC_IDLE
On RRC_CONNECTED to RRC_IDLE transitions, eNBs shall delete the keys they store such that state for idle mode
UEs only has to be maintained in MME. It is also assumed that eNB does no longer store state information about the
corresponding UE and deletes the current keys from its memory. In particular, on connected to idle transitions:
-
The eNB deletes KeNB , KRRCenc , KRRCint and KUPenc
-
MME keeps KASME stored.
14.3.3
Intra E-UTRAN Mobility
The key hierarchy does not allow, as is, explicit key updates, but RRC and UP keys are derived based on the algorithm
identifiers, KeNB, and certain dynamic parameters (e.g. C-RNTI), which result as new RRC and UP keys at every
handover (FFS for intra-eNB):.
-
Source eNB and UE independently create KeNB* from the current KeNB;
-
KeNB* is given to Target eNB during the HO preparation phase;
-
Both Target eNB and UE derive the new KeNB based on KeNB* and C-RNTI allocated to UE.
The handling of HFN and PDCP SN at handover depends on the type of radio bearer:
-
SRB: HFN and PDCP SN are reset.
-
RLC-UM bearers: HFN and PDCP SN are reset.
-
RLC-AM bearers: PDCP SN and HFN are maintained (10.1.2.3).
NOTE:
14.4
COUNT-C reusing avoidance is left to network implementation.
AS Key Change in RRC_CONNECTED
If AS Keys (KUPenc , KRRCint and KRRCenc) need to be changed in RRC_CONNECTED, something along the line of an
intra-cell handover is used (FFS).
14.5
Security Interworking
If user plane ciphering is activated in the source RAN, it shall remain activated in the target RAN.
For E-UTRAN to UTRAN/GERAN mobility, the MME shall derive and transfer to the SGSN a confidentially key and
an integrity key from KASME. Based on this information, the SGSN can in turn derive appropriate keys to be used in the
target RAN.
Similarly for UTRAN/GERAN to E-UTRAN mobility, the SGSN shall derive and transfer to the MME a confidentially
key and an integrity key. Based on this information, the MME can in turn derive KASME.
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MBMS
For MBMS, the following definitions are introduced:
MBSFN Synchronization Area: an area of the network where all NodeBs/eNodeBs can be synchronized and perform
MBSFN transmissions. MBSFN Synchronization Areas are capable of supporting one or more MBSFN Areas. On a
given frequency layer, a NodeB/eNodeB can only belong to one MBSFN Synchronization Area. MBSFN
Synchronization Areas are independent from the definition of MBMS Service Areas
MBSFN Transmission or a transmission in MBSFN mode: a simulcast transmission technique realised by
transmission of identical waveforms at the same time from multiple cells. An MBSFN Transmission from multiple cells
within the MBSFN Area is seen as a single transmission by a UE.
MBSFN Area: a MBSFN Area consists of a group of cells within an MBSFN Synchronization Area of a network,
which are co-ordinated to achieve a MBSFN Transmission. A cell within an MBSFN Synchronization Area may form
part of multiple MBSFN Areas, each characterized by different transmitted content and participating set of cells.
Figure 15-1: MBMS Definitions
MBSFN Area Transmitting and Advertising Cell: A cell within a MBSFN Area which is contributing to the MBSFN
Transmission and advertises within the cell the availability of the MBSFN Transmission.
MBSFN Area Transmitting-Only Cell: A cell within a MBSFN Area which is contributing to the MBSFN
Transmission but does not advertise within the cell the availability of the MBSFN Transmission. The need for this type
of cell is FFS.
MBSFN Area Reserved Cell: A cell within a MBSFN Area which does not contribute to the MBSFN Transmission.
The cell may be allowed to transmit for other services but at restricted power on the resource allocated for the MBSFN
transmission e.g. PTP for users at the centre of the cell.
15.1
General
In E-UTRAN, MBMS can be provided on a frequency layer dedicated to MBMS (set of cells dedicated to MBMS
transmission i.e. set of "MBMS dedicated cells") and/or on a frequency layer shared with non-MBMS services (set of
cells supporting both unicast and MBMS transmissions i.e. set of "Unicast/MBMS mixed cells"). In both cases, single
frequency network mode of operation is possible for MBMS transmission (MBSFN).
MBMS reception is possible for UEs in RRC_CONNECTED or RRC_IDLE states. Whenever receiving MBMS
services, a user shall be notified of an incoming call, and originating calls shall be possible.
15.1.1
E-MBMS Logical Architecture
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MBMS
GW
|
M3
MBMS Gateway
Multi-Cell/Multicast Coordination Entity
MBMS GW:
MCE:
M1
MCE
M1:
M2:
M3:
|
user plane interface
E-UTRAN internal control plane interface
control plane interface between E-UTRAN and EPC
M2
eNB
Figure 15.1.1-1: E-MBMS Logical Architecture
Figure 15.1.1-1 depicts the E-MBMS Logical Architecture.
NOTE:
Additional horizontal interfaces eg MCE to MCE is FFS.
Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity (MCE)
The MCE is a logical entity – this does not preclude the possibility that it may be part of another network element –
whose functions are the allocation of the radio resources used by all eNBs in the MBSFN area for multi-cell MBMS
transmissions using MBSFN operation. Besides allocation of the time/ frequency radio resources this also includes
deciding the further details of the radio configuration e.g. the modulation and coding scheme. The MCE is involved in
MBMS Session Control Signalling. The MCE does not perform UE - MCE signaling.
E-MBMS Gateway (MBMS GW)
The MBMS GW is a logical entity – this does not preclude the possibility that it may be part of another network
element – that is present between the BMSC and eNBs whose principal functions is the sending/broadcasting of MBMS
packets with the SYNC protocol to each eNB transmitting the service. The MBMS GW will use IP Multicast as the
means of forwarding MBMS user data to the eNB. The MBMS GW performs MBMS Session Control Signalling
(Session start/stop) towards the eUTRAN.
Control Plane Interfaces
'M3' Interface: MCE – MBMS GW
An Application Part is defined for this interface between E-MBMS Gateway and MCE. This application part allows for
MBMS Session Control Signalling on EPS bearer level (i.e. does not convey radio configuration data). The procedures
comprise e.g. MBMS Session Start and Stop. SCTP is used as signaling transport i.e. Point-to-Point signaling is applied.
'M2' Interface: MCE – eNB
An Application Part is defined for this interface, which conveys at least radio configuration data for the multi-cell
transmission mode eNBs and Session Control Signaling. SCTP is used as signaling transport i.e. Point-to-Point
signaling is applied.
User Plane Interface
'M1' Interface: MBMS GW – eNB
This interface is a pure user plane interface. Consequently no Control Plane Application Part is defined for this
interface. IP Multicast is used for point-to-multipoint delivery of user packets for both single cell and multi-cell
transmission.
Deployment consideration
It is not precluded that M3 interface can be terminated in eNBs. In this case MCE is considered as being part of eNB.
Therefore M2 does not exist in this scenario. This is depicted in Figure 15.1.1-2 which depicts two envisaged
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deployment alternatives. In the scenario depicted on the left MCE is deployed in a separate node. In the scenario on the
right MCE is part of the eNBs. These eMBMS architecture deployment alternatives shall be applicable to both multicell and single cell transmission mode.
.
Contents
Provider
PDN
Gateway
Contents
Provider
PDN
Gateway
eBMSC
SGmb
MBMS
CP
eBMSC
SGimb
MBMS
UP
E- MBMS
SGmb
SGimb
MBMS
CP
MBMS
UP
M3
MCE
F4
M1
M1
M3
F2
M2
eNB
MCE
eNB
MCE
eNB
eNB
Figure 15.1.1-2: eMBMS Architecture deployment alternatives
15.1.2
E-MBMS User Plane Protocol Architecture
The overall U-plane architecture of content synchronization is shown in Figure 15.1-1. This architecture is based on the
functional allocation for Unicast and the SYNC protocol layer is defined additionally on transport network layer to
support content synchronization mechanism.
UE
eNB
eBM-SC
E-MBMS
Gateway
MBMS
packet
RLC
RLC
MAC
MAC
PHY
PHY
SYNC
SYNC
TNL
TNL
MBMS
packet
TNL
M1
SYNC: Protocol to synchronise
data used to generate a certain
radio frame
Figure 15.1.2-1: The overall u-plane architecture of the MBMS content synchronization
The SYNC protocol is defined as a protocol to carry additional information that enable eNBs to identify the timing for
radio frame transmission and detect packet loss. The SYNC protocol is applicable to DL and may be specified as a part
of GTP-U, or as an independent protocol.
If PDCP (Header Compression) is used, it is located in the E-MBMS GW for both multi-cell and single-cell
transmission.
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Complying with the content synchronization mechanism is required for an eNB distributing a MBMS service for MultiCell transmission. An eNB transmitting a service in single cell only should not be required to comply with the stringent
timing requirements indicated by SYNC protocol.
15.2
MBMS Cells
An E-UTRAN cell supporting MBMS is either an MBMS-dedicated cell or an MBMS/Unicast-mixed cell.
15.2.1
MBMS-dedicated cell
When a cell belongs to a frequency layer dedicated to MBMS transmission:
-
MTCH and MCCH are mapped on MCH or DL-SCH (FFS) for p-t-m transmission;
-
No uplink;
-
No counting mechanism in another (unicast) cell supported;
-
No support for unicast data transfer in the cell;
-
The occurrence of paging messages on the frequency layer dedicated to MBMS transmission is FFS:
-
15.2.2
If paging messages were allowed, the UE could answer in a non-E-UTRA cell e.g. UTRA cell (FFS);
MBMS/Unicast-mixed cell
When a cell does not belong to a frequency layer dedicated to MBMS transmission:
-
MTCH and MCCH are mapped on MCH or DL-SCH for p-t-m transmission;
-
Transmission of both unicast and MBMS in the cell is done in a co-ordinated manner.
15.3
MBMS Transmission
15.3.1
General
Transmission of MBMS in E-UTRAN is either a single-cell transmission or a multi-cell transmission. In both cases,
MCCH terminates at the eNB.
15.3.2
Single-cell transmission
Single-cell transmission of MBMS is characterized by:
-
MBMS is transmitted only on the coverage of a specific cell;
-
Combining of MBMS transmission from multiple cells is not supported;
-
MTCH and MCCH are mapped on DL-SCH for p-t-m transmission;
-
Scheduling is done by the eNB;
-
Multiple UEs can be allocated dedicated uplink feedback channels identical to those used in unicast
transmission, which enables them to report HARQ Ack/Nack and CQI. Where such a feedback mechanism is
configured, AMC is applied, and HARQ retransmissions are made on DL-SCH using a group (service specific)
RNTI in a time frame that is co-ordinated with the original MTCH transmission. All UEs are able to receive the
retransmissions and combine them with the original transmissions at the HARQ level.
-
UEs that are allocated a dedicated uplink feedback channel are in RRC_CONNECTED state.
-
To avoid unnecessary MBMS transmission on MTCH in a cell where there is no MBMS user, MCCH may
announce only the availability of MBMS service(s) and the network can detect the presence in a cell of at least
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one MBMS user interested in the MBMS service (e.g. by polling or through UE service request) before starting
the transmission on MTCH. It is FFS whether or not it is needed to count to a greater granularity the number of
UEs in a cell interested in an MBMS service.
For single-cell transmission, an eNB is not required to comply with the stringent timing requirements indicated by
SYNC protocol. The following principles still applies for the single transmission:
1. An E-MBMS GW sends/broadcasts MBMS packet with the SYNC protocol to each eNB transmitting the
service.
2. The SYNC protocol provides additional information so that the eNBs identify the transmission radio frame(s).
The E-MBMS GW does not need accurate knowledge of radio resource allocation in terms of exact time division
(e.g. exact start time of the radio frame transmission).
3. The segmentation/concatenation is needed for MBMS packets and should be totally up to the RLC/MAC layer in
eNB, without taking into account any indication in the SYNC protocol.
15.3.3
Multi-cell transmission
Multi-cell transmission of MBMS is characterized by:
-
Synchronous transmission of MBMS within its MBSFN Area;
-
Combining of MBMS transmission from multiple cells is supported;
-
MTCH and MCCH are mapped on MCH for p-t-m transmission;
-
The MBSFN Synchronization Area, the MBSFN Area, and the MBSFN Transmitting, Advertising, and Reserved
cells are semi-statically configured e.g. by O&M.
-
Scheduling of each MCH is done by the MCE.
-
AMC based on non-AS level feedback is FFS.
A carrier frequency may support more than one MCH, where the physical resource allocation to a specific MCH is
made by specifying a pattern of subframes, not necessarily adjacent in time, to that MCH. This pattern is called a MCH
Subframe Allocation Pattern (MSAP). Multiple MBMS services can be mapped to the same MCH and one MCH
contains data belonging to only one MBSFN Area. Whether there is a 1-to-1 mapping between MCH and MBSFN Area
is FFS. The MSAP for every MCH carrying MTCH is signalled on MCCH. At such an MSAP occasion:
-
The eNB applies MAC multiplexing of different MTCH's to be transmitted on this MCH;
-
Dynamic scheduling information can be provided in the MSAP occasion to assist the UE in choosing which
subframes it needs to receive. It is FFS whether a separate scheduling channel (MSCH) is specified for this
purpose.
The content synchronization for multi-cell transmission is provided by the following principles:
1. All eNBs in a given MBSFN Synchronization Area have a synchronised radio frame timing such that the radio
frames are transmitted at the same time.
2. All eNBs have the same configuration of RLC/MAC/PHY for each MBMS service, and identical information
(e.g. time information, transmission order/priority information) such that synchronized dynamic scheduling in
the eNBs is ensured.. These are indicated in advance by the MCE.
3. An E-MBMS GW sends/broadcasts MBMS packet with the SYNC protocol to each eNB transmitting the
service.
4. The SYNC protocol provides additional information so that the eNBs identify the transmission radio frame(s).
The E-MBMS GW does not need accurate knowledge of radio resource allocation in terms of exact time division
(e.g. exact start time of the radio frame transmission).
5. eNB buffers MBMS packet and waits for the transmission timing indicated in the SYNC protocol.
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6. The segmentation/concatenation is needed for MBMS packets and should be totally up to the RLC/MAC layer in
eNB.
7. The SYNC protocol provides means to detect packet loss(es) and supports a recovery mechanism robust against
loss of consecutive PDU packets (MBMS Packets with SYNC Header).
8. For the packet loss case the transmission of radio blocks potentially impacted by the lost packet should be muted.
9. The mechanism supports indication or detection of MBMS data burst termination (e.g. to identify and alternately
use available spare resources related to pauses in the MBMS PDU data flow).
15.3.4
MBMS Reception States
UEs that are receiving MTCH transmissions and are taking part in at least one MBMS feedback scheme will be in
RRC_CONNECTED state. UEs receiving MTCH transmissions without taking part in an MBMS feedback mechanism
can be in RRC_IDLE or RRC_CONNECTED state.
For the reception of single-cell transmission of MTCH, an eNB can require a UE to be in RRC_CONNECTED state.
The signalling by which a UE is triggered to move to RRC_CONNECTED state solely for single-cell reception
purposes is carried on MCCH.
15.3.5
MCCH Structure
The following principles govern the MCCH structure:
-
BCCH indicates the scheduling of one or two Primary MCCH (one for single cell transmission on DL-SCH, one
for multi-cell transmission on MCH) where the Primary MCCH on MCH can also point to additional Secondary
MCCH(s) on MCH if any.
NOTE:
the need for Secondary MCCH(s) when the Primary MCCH is mapped on DL-SCH is FFS.
-
BCCH only points to the resources where the Primary MCCH(s) can be found i.e. it does not indicate the
availability of the services.
-
The primary MCCH is sent on DL-SCH for single cell transmission and on MCH for multi-cell transmission on
an MBSFN area.
-
Multiple overlapping MTCH-MBSFN areas can result in multiple MCCHs, for which using different MBSFN
areas should be possible (using Secondary MCCHs).
-
The MCCH-MBSFN area is not necessarily the same as the MTCH-MBSFN area i.e. MCCH can be either on a
different MCH than the MCH carrying 'advertised' MTCH, or multiplexed on the same MCH as the one carrying
'advertised' MTCH.
15.4
Service Continuity
As combinations of the possible MBMS cell types and transmission modes, various deployment scenarios come into
question. Among them, E-UTRAN provides the necessary optimization mechanisms to support seamless MBMS
continuity between:
1) MBSFN and single-cell transmission on a shared frequency layer;
2) MBSFN on a dedicated frequency layer and single-cell transmission on a shared frequency layer;
3) Cells providing single-cell transmission on a shared frequency layer.
For the reception of single-cell transmission of MTCH, UEs that are receiving MBMS service(s) in
RRC_CONNECTED state (either directed to the state to receive the MBMS service or in the state already for other
reasons and the eNB is aware that the UE is receiving the particular MBMS service(s)), can be provided with target cell
MTCH information for these services via the handover related signalling. The serving eNB will trigger the target eNB
to prepare for the handover e.g. to obtain the MBMS service if necessary.
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UEs that are receiving MBMS service(s) in RRC_IDLE state performing cell reselection or are in RRC_CONNECTED
state and which do not receive target cell information as part of handover signalling, should obtain target cell MTCH
information from the target cell MCCH or, if supported, serving cell MCCH information (FFS). If the UE was in
RRC_CONNECTED state and the source eNB was aware that it is receiving the particular MBMS service(s) the
serving eNB could trigger the target eNB to prepare for the handover e.g. to obtain the MBMS service if necessary.
15.5
Network sharing
Network sharing of MBMS resources among multiple operators of the same country is supported, with focus on, but not
limited to, sharing of a dedicated-carrier MBSFN. MBMS network sharing shall not require unicast network sharing.
Unicast mobility shall not be affected by the sharing of MBMS resources by operators.
NOTE:
15.6
it is FFS whether this is based on dual-receiver solutions.
Network Functions for Support of Multiplexing
Considerable gain in radio resource efficiency can be achieved by multiplexing several E-MBMS services on a single
MCH. The services that share the resources are called E-MBMS Service Multiplex. The amount of common radio
resources allocated to such a E-MBMS Service Multiplex can be smaller than the sum of radio resources, which would
need to be allocate for the individual services without multiplexing. This represents the statistical multiplexing gain.
The entity managing the E-MBMS Service Multiplex e.g. deciding which services are to be multiplexed is FFS. The
duration of each E-MBMS service may be different, so there is may be a need to manage the Service Multiplex
dynamically, i.e. addition or removal of services into/from the E-MBMS Service Multiplex. The MCE allocates the
optimal amount of resources to multiplexed services, using service related information. MBSFN transmission is ensured
by identical multiplexing of the services within the MBMS-GW or different eNBs. The location of the multiplexing
function is FFS.
These functions are supported by respective signalling and by the SYNC protocol on M1, the details are FFS.
16
Radio Resource Management aspects
The purpose of radio resource management (RRM) is to ensure the efficient use the available radio resources and to
provide mechanisms that enable E-UTRAN to meet radio resource related requirements identified in sub-clause 10 of
3GPP TR 25.913 [2]. In particular, RRM in E-UTRAN provides means to manage (e.g. assign, re-assign and release)
radio resources taking into account single and multi-cell aspects.
16.1
RRM functions
16.1.1
Radio Bearer Control (RBC)
The establishment, maintenance and release of Radio Bearers involve the configuration of radio resources associated
with them. When setting up a radio bearer for a service, radio bearer control (RBC) takes into account the overall
resource situation in E-UTRAN, the QoS requirements of in-progress sessions and the QoS requirement for the new
service. RBC is also concerned with the maintenance of radio bearers of in-progress sessions at the change of the radio
resource situation due to mobility or other reasons. RBC is involved in the release of radio resources associated with
radio bearers at session termination, handover or at other occasions.
RBC is located in the eNB.
16.1.2
Radio Admission Control (RAC)
The task of radio admission control (RAC) is to admit or reject the establishment requests for new radio bearers. In
order to do this, RAC takes into account the overall resource situation in E-UTRAN, the QoS requirements, the priority
levels and the provided QoS of in-progress sessions and the QoS requirement of the new radio bearer request. The goal
of RAC is to ensure high radio resource utilization (by accepting radio bearer requests as long as radio resources
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available) and at the same time to ensure proper QoS for in-progress sessions (by rejecting radio bearer requests when
they cannot be accommodated).
RAC is located in the eNB.
16.1.3
Connection Mobility Control (CMC)
Connection mobility control (CMC) is concerned with the management of radio resources in connection with idle or
connected mode mobility. In idle mode, the cell reselection algorithms are controlled by setting of parameters
(thresholds and hysteresis values) that define the best cell and/or determine when the UE should select a new cell. Also,
E-UTRAN broadcasts parameters that configure the UE measurement and reporting procedures. In connected mode, the
mobility of radio connections has to be supported. Handover decisions may be based on UE and eNB measurements. In
addition, handover decisions may take other inputs, such as neighbour cell load, traffic distribution, transport and
hardware resources and Operator defined policies into account.
CMC is located in the eNB.
16.1.4
Dynamic Resource Allocation (DRA) - Packet Scheduling (PS)
The task of dynamic resource allocation (DRA) or packet scheduling (PS) is to allocate and de-allocate resources
(including buffer and processing resources and resource blocks (i.e. chunks)) to user and control plane packets. DRA
involves several sub-tasks, including the selection of radio bearers whose packets are to be scheduled and managing the
necessary resources (e.g. the power levels or the specific resource blocks used). PS typically takes into account the QoS
requirements associated with the radio bearers, the channel quality information for UEs, buffer status, interference
situation, etc. DRA may also take into account restrictions or preferences on some of the available resource blocks or
resource block sets due to inter-cell interference coordination considerations.
DRA is located in the eNB.
16.1.5
Inter-cell Interference Coordination (ICIC)
Inter-cell interference coordination has the task to manage radio resources (notably the radio resource blocks) such that
inter-cell interference is kept under control. ICIC is inherently a multi-cell RRM function that needs to take into account
information (e.g. the resource usage status and traffic load situation) from multiple cells. The preferred ICIC method
may be different in the uplink and downlink.
ICIC is located in the eNB.
16.1.6
Load Balancing (LB)
Load balancing has the task to handle uneven distribution of the traffic load over multiple cells. The purpose of LB is
thus to influence the load distribution in such a manner that radio resources remain highly utilized and the QoS of inprogress sessions are maintained to the extent possible and call dropping probabilities are kept sufficiently small. LB
algorithms may result in hand-over or cell reselection decisions with the purpose of redistribute traffic from highly
loaded cells to underutilized cells.
LB is located in the eNB.
16.1.7
Inter-RAT Radio Resource Management
Inter-RAT RRM is primarily concerned with the management of radio resources in connection with inter-RAT
mobility, notably inter-RAT handover. At inter-RAT handover, the handover decision may take into account the
involved RATs resource situation as well as UE capabilities and Operator policies. The importance of Inter-RAT RRM
may depend on the specific scenario in which E-UTRAN is deployed. Inter-RAT RRM may also include functionality
for inter-RAT load balancing for idle and connected mode UEs.
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16.2
RRM architecture
16.2.1
Centralised Handling of certain RRM Functions
16.2.2
De-Centralised RRM
Historical information about the UE is transferred between the eNBs over the X2 interface during the handover
preparation procedure. For instance, an activity level description of the UE in the source eNB is transferred to the target
eNB.
16.2.3
Load balancing control
17
RF aspects
17.1
Spectrum deployments
18
UE capabilities
RRC signalling carries RRC capability and NAS signalling carries NAS capability. Some capability information may be
stored in the EPC. In the uplink, some capability information may be sent early in e.g.
RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST. In the downlink, inquiry procedure of the UE capability may be supported.
For emergency services, a minimum MBMS UE capabilityis defined. Whether such a minimum capability should be a
mandatory UE capability is FFS.
19
S1 Interface
19.1
S1 User plane
The S1 user plane interface (S1-U) is defined between the eNB and the S-GW. The S1-U interface provides non
guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs between the eNB and the S-GW. The user plane protocol stack on the S1
interface is shown in Figure 19.1. The transport network layer is built on IP transport and GTP-U is used on top of
UDP/IP to carry the user plane PDUs between the eNB and the S-GW.
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User plane PDUs
GTP-U
UDP
IP
Data link layer
Physical layer
Figure 19.1: S1 Interface User Plane (eNB - S-GW)
19.2
S1 Control Plane
The S1 control plane interface (S1-MME) is defined between the eNB and the MME. The control plane protocol stack
of the S1 interface is shown on Figure 19.2. The transport network layer is built on IP transport, similarly to the user
plane but for the reliable transport of signalling messages SCTP is added on top of IP. The application layer signalling
protocol is referred to as S1-AP (S1 Application Protocol).
S1-AP
SCTP
IP
Data link layer
Physical layer
Figure 19.2: S1 Interface Control Plane (eNB-MME)
The SCTP layer provides the guaranteed delivery of application layer messages.
In the transport IP layer point-to-point transmission is used to deliver the signalling PDUs.
A single SCTP association per S1-MME interface instance shall be used with one pair of stream identifiers for S1MME common procedures. Only a few pairs of stream identifiers should be used for S1-MME dedicated procedures.
The upper limit for the number of stream identifiers for dedicated procedures is FFS and will be decided during the
stage 3 work.
MME communication context identifiers that are assigned by the MME for S1-MME dedicated procedures and eNB
communication context identifiers that are assigned by the eNB for S1-MME dedicated procedures shall be used to
distinguish UE specific S1-MME signalling transport bearers. The communication context identifiers are conveyed in
the respective S1-AP messages.
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19.2.1
The following list of S1 functions reflects the status of agreements in RAN3, might be extended in
forthcoming meetings.
EPS Bearer Service Management function:
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S1 Interface Functions
Note:
-
78
Setup, Modify, release.
Mobility Functions for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED:
-
Intra-LTE Handover;
-
Inter-3GPP-RAT Handover.
-
S1 Paging function:
-
NAS Signalling Transport function;
-
S1-interface management functions:
-
Error indication;
-
Reset.
-
Network Sharing Function;
-
Roaming and Area Restriction Support function;
-
NAS Node Selection Function;
-
Initial Context Setup Function.
19.2.1.1
S1 Paging function
The paging function supports the sending of paging requests to all cells of the TA(s) the UE is registered.
Paging requests are sent to the relevant eNBs according to the mobility information kept in the UE"s MM context in the
serving MME.
19.2.1.2
S1 UE Context Management function
In order to support UEs in EMM-CONNECTED, UE contexts need to be managed, i.e. established and released in the
eNodeB and in the EPC to support user individual signalling on S1.
19.2.1.3
Initial Context Setup Function
The Initial Context Setup function supports the establishment of the necessary overall initial UE Context including EPS
Bearer context, Security context, roaming restriction, UE capability information, 'subscriber type' identification, UE S1
signalling connection ID, etc. in the eNB to enable fast Idle-to-Active transition.
In addition to the setup of overall initial UE Contexts, Initial Context Setup function also supports the piggy-backing of
the corresponding NAS messages. Initial Context Setup is initiated by the MME.
19.2.1.4
19.2.1.4.1
Mobility Functions for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED
Intra-LTE Handover
The Intra-LTE-Handover function supports mobility for UEs in EMM-CONNECTED and comprises the preparation,
execution and completion of handover via the X2 and S1 interfaces.
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Inter-3GPP-RAT Handover
The Inter-3GPP-RAT Handover function supports mobility to and from other 3GPP-RATs for UEs in EMMCONNECTED and comprises the preparation, execution and completion of handover via the S1 interface.
19.2.1.5
EPS Bearer Service Management function
The EPS Bearer Service management function is responsible for establishing, modifying and releasing E-UTRAN
resources for user data transport once a UE context is available in the eNB. The establishment and modification of EUTRAN resources is triggered by the MME and requires respective QoS information to be provided to the eNB. The
release of E-UTRAN resources is triggered by the MME either directly or following a request received from the eNB
(optional).
NOTE:
19.2.1.6
Whether EPS bearer related NAS messages are included in S1AP EPS Bearer Management procedures
piggybacking or if NAS messages are sent with S1-AP Direct Transfer is FFS:
NAS Signalling Transport function
The NAS Signalling Transport function provides means to transport a NAS message (e.g. for NAS mobility
management) for a specific UE on the S1 interface.
19.2.1.7
NAS Node Selection Function
The interconnection of eNBs to multiple MME/Serving S-GWs is supported in the LTE/SAE architecture. Therefore a
NAS node selection function is located in the eNB to determine the MME association of the UE, based on the UE"s
temporary identifier, which was assigned to the UE by the MME.
This functionality is located in the eNB only and enables proper routing via the S1 interface. On S1, no specific
procedure corresponds to the NAS Node Selection Function.
19.2.1.8
S1-interface management functions
The S1-interface management functions provide
-
means to ensure a defined start of S1-interface operation (reset)
-
means to handle different versions of application part implementations and protocol errors (error indication)
19.2.2
Note:
-
-
-
S1 Interface Signalling Procedures
The following list of S1 procedures reflects the status of agreements in RAN3, might be extended in
forthcoming meetings.
EPS Bearer signalling procedures:
-
EPS Bearer Setup procedure;
-
EPS Bearer Modification procedure;
-
EPS Bearer Release procedure (MME initiated);
-
EPS Bearer Release procedure (eNB initiated).
Handover signalling procedures;
-
Handover Preparation procedure;
-
Handover Resource Allocation procedure;
-
Handover Completion procedure;
-
Handover Cancellation procedure.
Paging procedure;
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NAS transport procedure:
-
UL direction (Initial UE Message);
-
UL direction (Uplink NAS transport);
-
DL direction (Downlink NAS transport).
Error Indication procedure:
-
eNB initiated error indication procedure;
-
MME initiated error indication procedure.
Reset procedure:
-
eNB initiated Reset procedure;
-
MME initiated Reset procedure.
Initial Context Setup procedure.
19.2.2.1
Paging procedure
eNB
MME
[S1AP] PAGING
Paging Response (NAS means)
Figure 19.2.2.1: Paging procedure
The MME initiates the paging procedure by sending the PAGING message to each eNB with cells belonging to the
tracking area(s) in which the UE is registered. Each eNB can contain cells belonging to different tracking areas,
whereas each cell can only belong to one TA.
The paging response back to the MME is initiated on NAS layer and is sent by the eNB based on NAS-level routing
information.
19.2.2.2
S1 UE Context Release procedure
The S1 UE Context Release procedure causes the eNB to remove all UE individual signalling resources and the related
user data transport resources. This procedure is initiated by the EPC and may be triggered on request of the serving
eNB.
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S1 UE Context Release (EPC triggered)
eNB
EPC
[S1AP] S1 UE Context Release Command
[S1AP] S1 UE Context Release Complete
Figure 19.2.2.2.1: S1 UE Context Release procedure (EPC triggered)
-
The EPC initiates the UE Context Release procedure by sending the S1 UE Context Release Command towards
the E-UTRAN. The eNodeB releases all related signalling and user data transport resources.
-
The eNB confirms the S1 UE Context Release activity with the S1 UE Context Release Complete message.
-
In the course of this procedure the EPC releases all related resources as well, except context resources in the
EPC for mobility management and the default EPS Bearer configuration.
19.2.2.2.2
S1 UE Context Release Request (eNB triggered)
The S1 UE Context Release Request procedure is initiated for E-UTRAN internal reasons and comprises the following
steps:
-
The eNB sends the S1 UE Context Release Request message to the EPC.
-
The EPC triggers the EPC initiated UE context release procedure.
eNB
EPC
[S1AP] S1 UE Context Release Request
[S1AP] S1 UE Context Release Command
[S1AP] EPC initiated
[S1AP] S1 UE Context Release Complete
Figure 19.2.2.2.2: S1 UE Context Release Request procedure (eNB triggered)
and subsequent S1 UE Context Release procedure (EPC triggered)
19.2.2.3
Initial Context Setup procedure
The Initial Context Setup procedure establishes the necessary overall initial UE context in the eNB in case of an Idle-to
Active transition. The Initial Context Setup procedure is initiated by the MME.
The Initial Context Setup procedure comprises the following steps:
-
The MME initiates the Initial Context Setup procedure by sending INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST to
the eNB. This message may include general UE Context (e.g. security context, roaming restrictions, UE
capability information, UE S1 signalling connection ID, etc.), EPS bearer context (Serving GW TEID, QoS
information), and may be piggy-backed with the corresponding NAS message.
-
Upon receipt of INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST, the eNB setup the context of the associated UE, and
perform the necessary RRC signalling towards the UE, e.g. Radio Bearer Setup procedure.
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The eNB responds with INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP COMPLETE to inform a successful operation, and with
INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP FAILURE to inform an unsuccessful operation.
Figure 19.2.2.3: Initial Context Setup procedure (highlighted in blue) in Idle-to-Active procedure
19.2.2.4
EPS Bearer signalling procedures
19.2.2.4.1
EPS Bearer Setup procedure
UE
MME
eNB
S1-AP: SAE BEARER SETUP REQUEST
RRC: Radio Bearer Setup
SAE Bearer Setup List: SAE Bearer ID, QoS, TEID
Serving SAE GW
S1-AP: SAE BEARER SETUP RESPONSE
SAE Bearer Setup List: SAE Bearer ID, TEID eNB
SAE Beaer Failed to Setup List: SAE Bearer ID
Figure 19.2.2.4.1-1: EPS Bearer Setup procedure
The EPS Bearer Setup procedure is initiated by the MME to support:
-
Assignment of resources to a dedicated EPS bearer.
-
Assignment of resources for a default EPS bearer (FFS)
- Setup of S1 Bearer (on S1) and Radio Bearer (on Uu)
The EPS Bearer Setup procedure comprises the following steps:
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The EPS BEARER SETUP REQUEST is sent by the MME to the eNB to setup resources on S1 and Uu for one
or several EPS Bearer(s). The EPS BEARER SETUP REQUEST message contains the Serving GW TEID and
QoS indicator(s) per EPS bearer within the EPS Bearer Setup List.
-
Upon receipt of the EPS BEARER SETUP REQUEST the eNB establishes the Radio Bearer(s) (RRC: Radio
Bearer Setup) and resources for S1 Bearers.
-
The eNB responds with a EPS BEARER SETUP RESPONSE messages to inform whether the setup of resources
and establishment of an EPS Bearer was successful or unsuccessful, with the EPS bearer Setup (EPS Bearer ID ,
eNB TEID) and the EPS Bearer Failed to Setup list (EPS bearer ID). The eNB also creates the binding between
the S1 bearer(s) (DL/UL TEID) and the Radio Bearer(s).
19.2.2.4.2
EPS Bearer Modification procedure
UE
MME
eNB
S1-AP: SAE BEARER MODIFY REQUEST
RRC: Radio Modify Setup
SAE Bearer Modify List: SAE Bearer ID, QoS, Serving
SAE GW TEID
S1-AP: SAE BEARER MODIFY RESPONSE
SAE Bearer Modify List: SAE Bearer ID, eNB TEID
SAE Beaer Failed to Modify List: SAE Bearer ID
Figure 19.2.2.4.2-1: EPS Bearer Modification procedure
The EPS Bearer Modification procedure is initiated by the MME to support the modification of already established EPS
Bearer configurations:
-
Modify of S1 Bearer (on S1) and Radio Bearer (on Uu)
The EPS Bearer Modification procedure comprises the following steps:
-
The EPS BEARER MODIFY REQUEST is sent by the MME to the eNB to modify one or several EPS
Bearer(s). The EPS BEARER MODIFY REQUEST message contains the QoS indicator(s) and Serving GW
TEID per EPS bearer in the EPS Bearer Modify List.
-
Upon receipt of the EPS BEARER MODIFY REQUEST the eNB modifies the Radio Bearer configuration
(RRC procedure to modify the Radio bearer).
-
The eNB responds with a EPS BEARER MODIFY RESPONSE message to inform whether the EPS Bearer
modification has succeeded or not indicating with the EPS bearer Modify list and EPS bearer Failed to Modify
list. With EPS Bearer ID(s) in the EPS Bearer Modify List the eNB identifies the EPS bearer(s) successfully
modified or failed to modify.
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EPS Bearer Release procedure (MME initiated)
UE
MME
eNB
S1-AP: SAE BEARER RELEASE COMMAND
RRC: Radio Bearer Release
SAE Bearer Release List: SAE Bearer ID
S1-AP: SAE BEARER RELEASE COMPLETE
SAE Bearer Release List: SAE Bearer ID
SAE Bearer Failed to Release List: SAE Bearer ID
Figure 19.2.2.4.3-1: EPS Bearer Release procedure (MME initiated)
The EPS Bearer Release procedure is initiated by the MME to release resources for the the indicated EPS Bearers.
The EPS Bearer Release procedure comprises the following steps:
-
The EPS BEARER RELEASE COMMAND is sent by the MME to the eNB to release resources on S1 and Uu
for one or several EPS Bearer(s). With the EPS Bearer ID(s) in the EPS bearer Release List contained in EPS
BEARER RELEASE COMMAND the MME identifies, the EPS Access Bearer(s) to be released.
-
Upon receipt of the EPS BEARER RELEASE COMMAND the eNB releases the Radio Bearers (RRC: Radio
bearer relese) and S1 Bearers.
-
The eNB responds with a EPS BEARER RELEASE COMPLETE message containing EPS bearer Release list
and EPS bearer Failed to Release list. With the EPS Bearer IDs in the EPS Bearer Release List/EPS Bearer
Failed to Release List the eNB identifies the EPS bearer(s) successfully released or failed to release.
19.2.2.4.4
EPS Bearer Release procedure (eNB initiated)
UE
MME
eNB
S1-AP: SAE BEARER RELEASE REQUEST
SAE Bearer Release List: SAE Bearer ID
S1-AP: SAE BEARER RELEASE COMMAND
RRC: Radio Bearer Release
SAE Bearer Relase List: SAE Bearer ID
S1-AP: SAE BEARER RELEASE COMPLETE
SAE Bearer Release List: SAE Bearer ID
SAE Bearer Failed to Release List: SAE Bearer ID
Figure 19.2.2.4.4-1: EPS Bearer Release (eNB initiated) procedure
The EPS Bearer Release function enables the E-UTRAN to request the release of resources for one or several EPS
Bearers. The eNB initiated EPS Bearer Release procedure comprises the following steps:
-
The eNB initiates the EPS Bearer Release procedure by sending the EPS BEARER RELEASE REQUEST
message to the MME in order to release of one or more EPS Bearer(s). With the EPS Bearer ID(s) in the EPS
Bearer Relase List the eNB identifies the EPS bearer(s) requested to be released. The EPS BEARER RELEASE
REQUEST message shall include the reason to release the resources for the EPS bearer, for example user
inactivity.
-
Upon receipt the MME initiates the EPS Bearer Release procedure (EPS BEARER RELEASE COMMAND/
EPS BEARER RELEASE COMPLETE) to request release of resources for the EPS Bearer(s).
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Handover signalling procedures
Handover signalling procedures support both, inter-eNB handover and inter-RAT handover.
Inter-RAT handovers shall be initiated via the S1 interface.
Inter-eNB handovers shall be initiated via the X2 interface except if any of the following conditions are true:
-
there is no X2 between source and target eNB.
-
the source eNB has been configured to initiate handover to the particular target eNB via S1 interface in order to
enable the change of an EPC node (MME and/or Serving GW).
-
the source eNB has attempted to start the inter-eNB HO via X2 but receives a negative reply from the target eNB
with a specific cause value.
NOTE:
Handling of cases where the target eNB does not reply is FFS.
Inter-eNB handovers shall be initiated via the S1 interface, if one of the above conditions applies.
NOTE:
Affects on Home eNBs should be looked at.
It is foreseen to re-use Handover principles from the Iu interface for inter-eNB handovers which are initiated via the S1
interface.
19.2.2.5.1
Handover Preparation procedure
The Handover preparation procedure is initiated by the source eNB if it determines the necessity to initiate the handover
via the S1 interface.
UE
Source eNB
MME
S1-AP: HANDOVER REQUIRED
RRC: HANDOVER COMMAND
S1-AP: HANDOVER COMMAND
S1-AP: HANDOVER
PREPARATION FAILURE
Figure 19.2.2.5.1-1: Handover preparation procedure
The handover preparation comprises the following steps:
-
The HANDOVER REQUIRED message is sent to the MME.
-
The handover preparation phase is finished upon the reception of the HANDOVER COMMAND in the source
eNB, which includes at least radio interface related information (HO Command for the UE), successfully
established EPS Bearer(s) and EPS bearer(s) which failed to setup.
-
In case the handover resource allocation is not successful (e.g. no resources are available on the target side) the
MME responds with the HANDOVER PREPARATION FAILURE message instead of the HANDOVER
COMMAND message.
19.2.2.5.2
Handover Resource Allocation procedure
The handover resource allocation comprises the following steps:
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Target eNB
MME
S1-AP: HANDOVER REQUEST
S1-AP: HANDOVER REQUEST ACK
S1-AP: HANDOVER FAILURE
Figure 19.2.2.5.2-1: Handover resource allocation procedure
-
The MME sends the HANDOVER REQUEST message including the EPS Bearer(s) which needs to be setup by
the target eNB.
-
The target eNB responds with the HANDOVER REQUEST ACK message after the required resources for all
accepted EPS Bearers are allocated. The HANDOVER REQUEST ACK message contains successfully
established EPS bearer(s), EPS Bearer(s) which failed to setup and radio interface related information (HO
Command for the UE), which is later sent transparently via the EPC/CN from the target RAT to the source RAT.
If no resources are available on the target side, the target eNB responds with the HANDOVER FAILURE
message instead of the HANDOVER REQUEST ACK message.
19.2.2.5.3
Handover Notification procedure
The Handover Completion for S1 initiated handovers comprises the following steps:
-
The HANDOVER NOTIFY message is sent by the target eNB to the MME when the UE has successfully been
transferred to the target cell.
UE
MME
Target eNB
RRC: HANDOVER CONFIRM
S1-AP: HANDOVER NOTIFY
Figure 19.2.2.5.3-1: Handover completion procedure
19.2.2.5.4
Handover Cancellation
This functionality is located in the source eNB to allow a final decision regarding the outcome of the handover, i.e.
either to proceed or to cancel the handover procedure.
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MME
Source eNB
S1-AP: HANDOVER CANCEL
S1-AP: HANDOVER CANCEL ACK
Figure 19.2.2.5.4-1: Handover cancellation procedure
-
The source eNB sends a HANDOVER CANCEL message to the MME indicating the reason for the handover
cancellation.
-
The MME confirms the reception of the HANDOVER CANCEL message by returning the HANDOVER
CANCEL ACK message.
19.2.2.5.5
Path Switch procedure
The handover completion phase for X2 initiated handovers comprise the following steps:
-
The PATH SWITCH message is sent by the target eNB to the MME when the UE has successfully been
transferred to the target cell. The PATH SWITCH message includes the outcome of the resource allocation:
successfully established EPS Bearer(s).
-
The MME responds with the PATH SWITCH ACK message which is sent to the eNB.
-
The MME responds with the PATH SWITCH FAILURE message in case a failure occurs in the EPC.
UE
Target eNB
RRC: HANDOVER CONFIRM
MME
S1-AP: PATH SWITCH
S1-AP: PATH SWITCH ACK
S1-AP: PATCH SWITCH FAlLURE
Figure 19.2.2.5.5-1: Path Switch procedure
19.2.2.6
NAS transport procedures
A NAS signalling message is transferred on the S1 interface in both directions. The procedures providing this
functionality are
-
Initial UE Message procedure (eNB initiated)
-
Uplink NAS transport procedure (eNB initiated)
-
Downlink NAS transport procedure (MME initiated)
-
Downlink NAS non delivery indication procedure
i) Initial UE Message procedure
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MME
S1-AP: INITIAL UE MESSAGE
Figure 19.2.2.6-1: Initial UE Message procedure
-
The INITIAL UE MESSAGE procedure is initiated by the eNB by sending the INITIAL UE MESSAGE
message to the MME. The INITIAL UE MESSAGE contains a NAS message (e.g. Service Request), the UE
signalling reference ID and other S1 addressing information.
ii) NAS Transport procedure (eNB initiated).
eNB
MME
S1-AP: UPLINK NAS TRANSPORT
Figure 19.2.2.6-2: Uplink NAS Transport procedure
-
The Uplink NAS Transport procedure is initiated by the eNB by sending the UPLINK NAS TRANSPORT
message to the MME. The UPLINK NAS TRANSPORT message contains a NAS message, UE identification
and other S1 related addressing information.
iii) NAS Transport procedure (MME initiated)
eNB
MME
S1-AP: DOWNLINK NAS TRANSPORT
Figure 19.2.2.6-3: Downlink NAS Transport procedure
-
The Downlink NAS Transport procedure is initiated by the MME by sending the DOWNLINK NAS
TRANSPORT message to the eNB. The DOWNLINK NAS TRANSPORT contains a NAS message, UE
identification and other S1 related addressing information.
iv) Downlink NAS non delivery procedure
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MME
S1-AP: DOWNLINK NAS NON DELIV ERY
INDICATION
Figure 19.2.2.6-4: Downlink NAS Non Delivery Indication procedure
-
When the eNB decides to not start the delivery of a NAS message that has been received from MME, it shall
report the non-delivery of this NAS message by sending a DOWNLINK NAS NON DELIVERY INDICATION
message to the MME including the non-delivered NAS message and an appropriate cause value.
19.2.2.7
19.2.2.7.1
S1 interface Management procedures
Reset procedure
The purpose of the Reset procedure is to initialize the peer entity after node setup and after a failure event occured. This
procedure is initiated by both the eNB and MME.
19.2.2.7.1a
eNB initiated Reset procedure
eNB
MME
S1-AP: RESET
S1-AP: RESET ACK
Figure 19.2.2.7.1a-1: eNB initiated Reset procedure
-
The eNB triggers the RESET message to indicate that an initialisation in the MME is required. The MME
releases the corresponding references and resources.
-
Afterwards the MME sends the RESET ACK message to confirm that the resources and references are cleared.
19.2.2.7.1b
MME initiated Reset procedure
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S1-AP: RESET
S1-AP: RESET ACK
Figure 19.2.2.7.1b-1: MME initiated Reset procedure
-
The MME triggers the RESET message to indicate that an initialisation in the eNB is required. The eNB releases
the corresponding references and resources.
-
Afterwards the eNB sends the RESET ACK message to confirm that the resources and references are cleared.
19.2.2.7.2
Error Indication functions and procedures
The Error Indication procedure is initiated by the eNB and the MME, to report detected errors in one incoming
message, if an appropriate failure message cannot be reported to the sending entity.
19.2.2.7.2a
eNB initiated error indication
eNB
MME
S1-AP: ERROR INDICATION
Figure 19.2.2.7.2a-1: eNB initiated Error Indication procedure
-
The eNB sends the ERROR INDICATION message to report the peer entity which kind of error occurs.
19.2.2.7.2b
MME initiated error indication
eNB
MME
S1-AP: ERROR INDICATION
Figure 19.2.2.7.2b-1: MME initiated Error Indication procedure
-
The MME sends the ERROR INDICATION message to report the peer entity which kind of error occurs.
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X2 Interface
20.1
User Plane
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The X2 user plane interface (X2-U) is defined between eNBs. The X2-U interface provides non guaranteed delivery of
user plane PDUs. The user plane protocol stack on the X2 interface is shown in Figure X. The transport network layer is
built on IP transport and GTP-U is used on top of UDP/IP to carry the user plane PDUs.
The X2-UP interface protocol stack is identical to the S1-UP protocol stack.
User plane PDUs
GTP-U
UDP
IP
Data link layer
Physical layer
Figure 20.1-1: X2 Interface User Plane (eNB-eNB)
20.2
Control Plane
The X2 control plane interface (X2-CP) is defined between two neighbour eNBs. The control plane protocol stack of
the X2 interface is shown on Figure 20.2 below. The transport network layer is built on SCTP on top of IP. The
application layer signalling protocol is referred to as X2-AP (X2 Application Protocol).
X2-AP
SCTP
IP
Data link layer
Physical layer
Figure 20.2: X2 Interface Control Plane
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A single SCTP association per X2-C interface instance shall be used with one pair of stream identifiers for X2-C
common procedures. Only a few pairs of stream identifiers should be used for X2-C dedicated procedures. The upper
limit for the number of stream identifiers for dedicated procedures is FFS and will be decided during the stage 3 work.
Source-eNB communication context identifiers that are assigned by the source-eNB for X2-C dedicated procedures, and
target-eNB communication context identifiers that are assigned by the target-eNB for X2-C dedicated procedures, shall
be used to distinguish UE specific X2-C signalling transport bearers. The communication context identifiers are
conveyed in the respective X2AP messages.
20.2.1
X2-CP Functions
The X2AP protocol supports the following functions:
-
Intra LTE-Access-System Mobility Support for UE in EMM-CONNECTED:
-
Context transfer from source eNB to target eNB;
-
Control of user plane tunnels between source eNB and target eNB;
-
Handover cancellation.
-
Uplink Load Management;
-
General X2 management and error handling functions:
-
Error indication.
20.2.2
X2-CP Procedures
The elementary procedures supported by the X2AP protocol are listed in Table 20.2.2 below:
Table 20.2.2: X2-CP Procedures
Elementary
Procedure
Initiating
Message
Response Message of
Successful Outcome
Response Message of
Unsuccessful Outcome
Handover
Preparation
HANDOVER
REQUEST
HANDOVER
REQUEST
ACKNOWLEDGE
HANDOVER
PREPARATION
FAILURE
Handover
Cancellation
HANDOVER
CANCEL
Release
Resource
RELEASE
RESOURCE
-
-
Used by the target eNB to signal to
source eNB that control plane
resources for the handed over UE
context can be released.
Error
Indication
ERROR
INDICATION
-
-
Used by the eNB to report errors in
a received message provided they
cannot be reported by an
appropriate response message.
Load
Management
LOAD
INDICATOR
-
-
Used by the eNB to report its load
conditions to its neighbour eNBs.
Note:
20.2.2.1
Description & comments
Used by source eNB to request a
handover to the target eNB
Used by the source eNB to cancel a
previously requested handover in a
target eNB
this initial list might be extended.
Handover Preparation procedure
The Handover preparation procedure is initiated by the source eNB if it determines the necessity to initiate the handover
via the X2 interface.
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Target eNB
Source eNB
X2-AP: HANDOVER REQUEST
RRC: HANDOVER COMMAND
X2-AP: HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE
X2-AP: HANDOVER PREPARATION FAILURE
Figure 20.2.2.1-1: Handover Preparation procedure
The source eNB sends a HANDOVER REQUEST to the target eNB including the bearers to be setup by the target
ENB.
The handover preparation phase is finished upon the reception of the HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE in
the source eNB, which includes at least radio interface related information (HO Command for the UE), successfully
established EPS Bearer(s) and failed established EPS Bearer(s).
In case the handover resource allocation is not successful (e.g. no resources are available on the target side) the target
eNB responds with the HANDOVER PREPARATION FAILURE message instead of the HANDOVER REQUEST
ACKNOWLEDGE message.
If eNB received NAS message from MME during X2 handover procedure, it shall be acted as specified in subclause
19.2.2.6.
20.2.2.2
Handover Cancellation procedure
This functionality is located in the source eNB to allow cancellation of the handover procedure.
UE
Target eNB
Source eNB
X2-AP: HANDOVER CANCEL
Figure 20.2.2.2-1: Handover Cancellation procedure
The source eNB sends a HANDOVER CANCEL message to the target eNB indicating the reason for the handover
cancellation.
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Inter-cell Load Management
Inter-cell load management in E-UTRAN is performed through the X2 interface. In case of variation in the load
condition, the eNodeB signals the new load condition to its neighbor eNodeBs e.g. the neighbor eNodeBs for which an
X2 interface is configured due to mobility reasons.
The LOAD INDICATOR message is used to signal the load conditions between eNodeBs.
eNB
eNB
[X2 AP] LOAD INDICATOR
Figure 20.2.3-1: LOAD INDICATOR message over X2
21
System and Terminal complexity
21.1
Overall System complexity
21.2
Physical layer complexity
21.3
UE complexity
22
Support for self-configuration and self-optimisation
22.1
Definitions
This concept includes several different functions from eNB activation to radio parameter tuning. Figure 22.1-1 is a basic
framework for all self-configuration /self-optimization functions.
Self-configuration process is defined as the process where newly deployed nodes are configured by automatic
installation procedures to get the necessary basic configuration for system operation.
This process works in pre-operational state. Pre-operational state is understood as the state from when the eNB is
powered up and has backbone connectivity until the RF transmitter is switched on.
As described in Figure 21.1, functions handled in the pre-operational state like:
-
Basic Setup and
-
Initial Radio Configuration
are covered by the Self Configuration process.
NOTE:
depending on the final chosen functional distribution in RAN, the feasibility of following items should be
studied e.g.:
-
To obtain the necessary interface configuration;
-
Automatic registration of nodes in the system can be provided by the network;
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-
Alternative possibilities for nodes to obtain a valid configuration;
-
The required standardization scope.
Self-optimization process is defined as the process where UE & eNB measurements and performance measurements
are used to auto-tune the network.
This process works in operational state. Operational state is understood as the state where the RF interface is
additionally switched on.
As described in Figure 21.1, functions handled in the operational state like:
-
Optimization / Adaptation
are covered by the Self Optimization process.
NOTE:
depending on the final chosen functional distribution in RAN the feasibility of following items should be
studied e.g.:
-
The distribution of data and measurements over interfaces relevant to RAN3;
-
Functions/entities/nodes in charge of data aggregation for optimization purpose;
-
Dependencies with O&M and O&M interfaces, in the self optimization process;
-
The required standardization scope.
The architecture of logical self-configuration/optimization functionality is FFS.
eNB power on
(or cable connected)
(A) Basic Setup
a-1 : configuration of IP address
and detection of OAM
a-2 : authentication of eNB/NW
a-3 : association to aGW
Self-Configuration
(pre-operational state)
a-4 : downloading of eNB software
(and operational parameters)
(B) Initial Radio
Configuration
b-1 : neighbour list configuration
(C) Optimization /
Adaptation
c-1 : neighbour list optimisation
b-2 : coverage/capacity related
parameter configuration
Self-Optimisation
(operational state)
c-2 : coverage and capacity control
Figure 22.1-1: Ramifications of Self-Configuration /Self-Optimization functionality
22.2
UE Support for self-configuration and self-optimisation
UE shall support measurements and procedures which can be used for self-configuration and self-optimisation of the EUTRAN system.
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UE shall support measurements and measurement reporting to support self-optimisation of the E-UTRAN
system. Measurements and reports used for the normal system operation, should be used as input for the selfoptimisation process as far as possible.
NOTE: the UE impact should be carefully investigated and taken into account.
-
The network is able to configure the measurements and the reporting for self-optimisation support by RRC
signalling messages.
-
It shall be possible to associate measurements for self-optimisation purpose with location information depending
on UE capability (details are [FFS]).
22.3
Self-configuration
22.3.1
Dynamic configuration of the S1-MME interface
22.3.1.1
Prerequisites
The following prerequisites are assumed:
-
An initial remote IP end point to be used for SCTP initialisation is provided to the eNB for each MME in the pre
operational state.
How the eNB gets the remote IP end point(s) and its own IP adress are FFS.
-
Other relevant information from/to eNB to/from MME to self-configure S1-MME are FFS
22.3.1.2
-
SCTP initialization
For each MME the eNodeB tries to initialize a SCTP association as described in RFC2960 [8], using a known
initial remote IP Endpoint as the starting point, until SCTP connectivity is established.
22.3.1.3
Application layer initialization
Once SCTP connectivity has been established, the eNodeB and MME are in a position to exchange application level
configuration data over the S1-MME application protocol needed for the two nodes to interwork correctly on the S1
interface. The details of the information exchange outlined below are FFS, and dependent on the further standardization
of the S1 interface.
-
The eNodeB provides the relevant information to the MME , which may include node ID, list of supported
TA(s), etc. Details of the relevant information needed to setup the S1-MME interface is subject to stage3
discussion and is left FFS.
-
The MME provides the relevant information to the eNodeB, which may include node ID, PLMN ID, etc. Details
of the relevant information needed to setup the S1-MME interface is subject to stage3 discussion and is left FFS.
-
When the application layer initialization is successfully concluded, and has been mutually acknowledged by the
two peer nodes, the dynamic configuration procedure is completed, and the S1-MME interface is operational.
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Others
23.1
Support for real time IMS services
23.2
Subscriber and equipment trace
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Support for subscriber and equipment trace for LTE and SAE shall be as specified in 3GPP specifications 32.421, 32.
422, 32.423 and 3GPP Trace IRP 32.441, 32.442 and 32.443.
All traces are initiated by the core network, even if the trace shall be carried out in the radio network.
The following functionality is needed on the S1 and X2 interface:
-
Support for inclusion of subscriber and equipment trace information in INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST
and EPS BEARER SETUP REQUEST messages over the S1 interface.
-
Support for inclusion of subscriber and equipment trace information in the HANDOVER REQUEST message
over the X2 interface.
A trace setup in the radio network will be propagated on the X2 interface at handover and on the S1 interface if the
handover is carried out between MME"s.
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Annex A (informative):
NAS Overview
This subclause provides for information an overview on services and functions provided by the NAS control protocol..
A.1
Services and Functions
The main services and functions of the NAS sublayer include:
-
EPS Bearer control (see 3GPP TR 23.401 [17]);
-
EMM-IDLE mobility handling;
-
Paging origination;
-
Configuration and control of Security.
A.2
NAS protocol states & state transitions
The NAS state model for EPS mobility management in the UE is based on a two-dimensional model which consists of
seven main states (EMM-NULL, EMM-DEREGISTERED, EMM-REGISTERED and four additional transient states),
and two "connection modes" EMM-IDLE and EMM-CONNECTED (see TR 24.801 [x]).
NOTE:
When the UE is in EMM-CONNECTED mode this does not imply that the user plane (radio and S1
bearers) is established.
The relation between NAS and AS states is characterised by the following principles:
-
-
-
EMM-DEREGISTERED & EMM-IDLE
⇒ RRC_IDLE:
-
Mobility: PLMN selection:
-
UE Position: not known by the network.
EMM-REGISTERED & EMM-IDLE
⇒ RRC_IDLE:
-
Mobility: cell reselection;
-
UE Position: known by the network at tracking area level.
EMM-REGISTERED & EMM-CONNECTED with radio bearers established
-
Mobility: handover;
-
UE Position: known by the network at cell level.
ETSI
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Annex B (informative):
MAC and RRC Control
The E-UTRA supports control signalling in terms of MAC control signalling (L1/L2 control channel and MAC control
PDU) and RRC control signalling (RRC message).
B.1
Difference between MAC and RRC control
The different characteristics of MAC and RRC control are summarized in the table below.
Table B.1: Summary of the difference between MAC and RRC control
MAC control
RRC control
MAC
RRC
Control entity
Signalling
L1/L2 control channel
MAC control PDU
Signalling reliability
~ 10 (no retransmission)
~ 10 (after HARQ)
~ 10 (after ARQ)
Control delay
Very short
Short
Longer
Extensibility
None or very limited
Limited
High
Security
No integrity protection
No ciphering
No integrity protection
No ciphering
Integrity protected
Ciphering (FFS)
-2
-3
RRC message
-6
The main difference between MAC and RRC control lies in the signalling reliability. Due to the signalling reliability,
signalling involving state transitions and radio bearer configurations should be performed by RRC. Basically, all
signalling performed by RRC in UTRA should also be performed by RRC also for E-UTRA.
B.2
Classification of MAC and RRC control functions
The table below illustrates the classification of MAC and RRC control functions for E-UTRAN.
Table B.2: Classification of MAC and RRC control functions
Controlled configuration/parameters
MAC
control
signalling
L1/L2
control
channel
MAC control
PDU
RRC control
signalling
RRC
message
Short-lived (PRB) and dynamic (MCS) allocation
Long-lived (PRB) and fixed (MCS) allocation (FFS)
Timing Advance (FFS)
Timing Advance (FFS)
RLC related control PDU (FFS)
Long-lived (PRB) and fixed (MCS) allocation (FFS)
Activation/deactivation of long-lived (PRB) and/or fixed (MCS) allocation (FFS)
TTI configuration for variable TTI length control (FFS)
Static parameter configuration for UE inactivity control within RRC_ACTIVE (e.g.
DRX/DTX periods)
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Annex C (informative):
System Information
This annex provides an overview of the classification and division of system information between static and flexible
parts. Considerations about dedicated distribution of system information are also included.
C.1
SI classification
Five categories are identified for system information classification:
1. Information valid across multiple cells;
2. Information needed at cell/PLMN search;
3. Information needed prior to cell camping;
4. Information needed before cell access;
5. Information needed while camping on a cell.
From UEs" point of view, the information that is needed at cell selection and prior to camping are very similar. Before a
UE can camp on a cell, it needs to know if the access is allowed in that cell. Thus it would be very beneficial to know
all access restrictions already at cell search phase.
C.1.1
Information valid across multiple cells
The pieces of information that can be valid across multiple cells are:
-
A-GNSS assistance data;
-
PLMN identity(ies);
-
Tracking area identity;
Note:
the above text will be revised if it is agreed that a cell can be a member of more than one tracking area.
-
Predefined configuration information;
-
System Frame Number if it does not change from cell to cell (in case of synchronized network);
-
Some measurement/mobility information (FFS).
C.1.2
Information needed at cell/PLMN search
In order to support full mobility within the serving frequency layer, the UEs need to perform cell search rather often and
thus it is seen very important that the information needed in cell search phase is readily available, thereby improving
cell search times and minimizing UE power consumption. If system information decoding is needed for identifying a
cell, fast system information reception is needed in order to avoid too long identification times. For optimising PLMN
search and make PLMN search fast and non-complex, the information needed for PLMN search should be easily
available. The pieces of information that are needed at cell/PLMN search are:
-
PLMN identity(ies): in order to acquire information to which PLMN the cell belongs, UEs need to receive
PLMN identity(ies);
NOTE:
-
There may be multiple PLMN identities for one cell.
Measurement cell identity (FFS): there needs to be a cell identity in the system information, in order to allow
UEs to identify the cell reliably for measurement purposes.
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NOTE:
UEs may identify the cell also based on the reference sequence detection;
There is another cell identity that identifies the cell within e.g. PLMN.
NOTE:
UEs may have to check possible cell access restrictions before selecting cell/PLMN;
For cell/PLMN search UEs might need some L1 parameters.
C.1.3
Information needed prior to cell camping
Before a UE can camp on a cell, it needs to know any access related parameters in order to avoid camping on cells
where access is forbidden. Thus prior to camping on a cell, a UE needs to know the following information:
-
Any cell access restriction parameters, e.g.:
-
Tracking area identity: if the forbidden TA concept is adopted from legacy systems, then the UE needs to
know whether the cell belongs to such forbidden TA.
Note:
the above text will be revised if it is agreed that a cell can be a member of more than one tracking area.
-
Cell barring status and cell reservation status (FFS if needed per PLMN): the UE needs to know whether the
cell is barred or reserved in order to avoid camping on a barred cell. Possibly also barring time might be
needed in order to avoid UE to poll barring time frequently from the system information. Another option is
that barring status is indicated also in the neighbour cell list.
-
Radio access limitation parameters:
-
Any radio condition parameters that limit the access to the cell e.g. similar to GSM C1/S criteria;
-
It is FFS if we need to have some band information indication also, in order to allow UEs to check
possible band support before camping on the cell.
NOTE:
C.1.4
UE may need some L1 parameters prior to camping.
Information needed prior to cell access
Once a UE has camped on a cell, the information needed prior to cell access (transmission/reception) includes at least:
-
System Frame Number (SFN) (FFS)
-
-
L1 information, example set of needed L1 parameters:
Note:
-
SFN is probably needed by the UE to understand the scheduling parameters (e.g. scheduling information for
secondary SI, RACH, PCH, E-MBMS etc.)
RAN1 needs to define what parameters are needed at this phase.
-
Carrier Bandwidth: FFS if separate bandwidths for UL and DL are needed;
-
Carrier center frequency (FFS);
-
Cyclic Prefix parameters: in order to decode DL-SCH UE needs to know the CP length arrangements;
-
MIMO related parameters: in order to take advantage of the multi-antenna transmissions like MIMO, the UE
needs to know parameters of number of TX antennas, DL/UL pre-coding matrices, etc...;
-
Band Information: may be needed if the same DL carrier frequency has variable UL carrier frequency;
-
L1/L2 signalling channel structure parameters: if L1/L2 signalling channel has variable configurations, the
UE may need to know its channel structure at least partly. L1/L2 signalling is crucial to receive any
allocation information. If Random Access Response is transmitted without L1/L2 signalling (e.g.
synchronous transmission with Random Access Preamble), this information might not be required;
RACH parameters (needed by the UE to start usage of RACH):
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-
RACH scheduling information: UE needs to know where in time (sub-frame) and frequency (Physical
Resource Units) the RACH channel is located;
-
RACH sequences: UE needs to know the RACH set of sequences to choose from. The sequences may not be
fully of equal meaning (e.g. CQI can be classified for the sequences in a specific way);
-
Access class restrictions: access class restrictions might be needed to limit the number of possible UEs using
RACH;
-
Persistence values: possible persistence value scheme parameters are needed for RACH usage;
-
Other parameters related to RACH: UE needs to know the timers and parameters related to RACH e.g. how
often the UE retransmits RACH and how many times the retransmission is allowed etc;
-
RACH power control parameters: UE needs to know parameters related to UL power control.
C.1.5
Information needed while camping on a cell
When a UE has camped on a cell, it needs to continue measuring the neighbouring cells in order to stay camped. The
pieces of information required for that are:
-
Measurement parameters:
-
In order for the UE to start mobility procedures, it needs to receive parameters e.g. of reporting periods,
reporting event parameters, time to trigger etc. UEs in RRC_IDLE state need cell reselection parameters.
UEs in RRC_CONNECTED state need parameters of the neighbour cells e.g. for handover and for error
recovery cases.
-
Neighbour cell lists are needed to start neighbour cell measurements. UEs in different states may use
different sets of neighbour cell lists. Neighbour cell list may contain following parameters:
-
Some L1 parameters: FFS what parameters are needed in the neighbour cell list;
-
All information that is needed for camping: see sub-clauses C.2.2 and C.2.3 (FFS);
-
Synchronization information: indicating whether the neighbouring cell is synchronized to the current cell
i.e. the cell sending the neighbour cell list (FFS);
-
PLMN identity(ies) & tracking area identity (FFS);
Note:
-
the above text will be revised if it is agreed that a cell can be a member of more than one tracking area.
-
Other 3GPP RAT information: e.g. neighbour cell information of GERAN/UTRAN cells;
-
Information of non-3GPP access systems (e.g. WIMAX).
Secondary NAS parameters:
-
An y NAS parameters that were not presented earlier e.g. cell identity uniquely identifying cell within wide
area e.g. PLMN;
-
Cell identity (PLMN level) (FFS if this should be in category 'Information needed prior to cell access').
-
Secondary UE timer values: any timer values that affect UE"s behaviour.
-
Paging parameters: UEs in EMM-IDLE state need to receive paging parameters e.g. DRX periods and
scheduling.
-
Clock time (FFS): the network might send system clock in order to let UEs update their clock time e.g. in the
user interface;
-
MBMS service parameters: any parameters needed for MBMS reception e.g. MBMS multiplexing parameters,
MBMS frequency;
NOTE:
the presence of these parameters also indicate the presence of MBMS service in the cell (dedicated or
mixed cell).
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Signalling Radio Bearer parameters: may be broadcasted unless they are standardized.
C.1.6
Thoughts about category division
From UEs" point of view the categories in sub-clauses C.1.2 and C.1.3 are very similar. Thus it is questionable whether
we need to differentiate procedures between cell search/selection/camping and PLMN search.
From UEs" point of view, the difference between the procedure for cell search during RRC_CONNECTED and the
procedure for cell search during RRC_IDLE state maybe small. When the UE is in RRC_CONNECTED state, it
measures the neighbour cell and executes handovers commanded by the network.
C.2
Division of SI between static and flexible parts
System information distribution can be classified into two distinctive parts: static and flexible. Static part is sent more
often, say once per frame, in the cell and has quite a limited capacity for information transfer. The flexible part has
flexible amount of scheduled resources available and thus most of the SI information is contained there.
C.2.1
Static part
The static parts of the System Information are:
-
L1 information in order to decode the rest of the information
Note:
detailed information on the required information will be defined by RAN1;
-
Measurement Cell identity (FFS): it may be possible that L1 channels do not identify the cell. Then some Cell
identity needs to be sent on system information part;
-
Any cell access restriction parameters e.g.:
-
Tracking area identity: if forbidden TA concept is adopted from legacy systems then UEs need to know
whether the cell belongs to forbidden TA;
Note:
the above text will be revised if it is agreed that a cell can be a member of more than one tracking area.
-
Cell barring and cell reservation status (FFS if needed per PLMN): UEs need to know whether cell is barred
or reserved in order to avoid camping on barred cell. Possibly also barring time might be needed in order to
avoid UEs to poll barring time frequently from the system information;
-
Radio access limitation parameters: any radio condition parameters that limit the access to the cell e.g.
similar to GSM C1/S criteria;
-
PLMN identity(ies): in order to acquire information to which PLMN cell belongs, UEs need to receive
PLMN identity(ies).
NOTE:
-
Scheduling parameters:
-
All of the scheduling information of flexible part or part of scheduling information (e.g. scheduling block) of
flexible part. If static part consists of multiple SI blocks then it may be necessary to have scheduling
information of those blocks in the static part.
-
-
there may be multiple PLMN identities for one cell.
Scheduling block defines, from where (time and frequency resources) to decode the SI blocks of the
scheduled flexible part. It may be possible that scheduling of scheduling block is standardized, then this
information can be omitted from the static part. If several types of scheduling blocks are defined ,
scheduling information might be sent for each scheduling block.
Value_tag(s): informs whether the information transmitted on the flexible part has changed. This is needed in
order to avoid UEs from reading any unchanged information repeatedly. Another possibility is to send this
information in L1/L2 signalling channel, but possibly it would cause too much overhead.
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NOTE:
It also is possible to include Value_tag for SI on the flexible part indicating more precisely what changes
have occurred in the system information.
NOTE:
There may be a need for indicating changes in static part with value tag also, if static part consists of
multiple SI blocks.
Table C.2.1 gives an estimate of the size of the elements mentioned above.
Table C.2.1: Initial rough estimates for static part capacity requirement
NOTE:
C.2.2
Information element
Bits
Cyclic Prefix (FFS)
Carrier BW (FFS)
MIMO parameters (FFS)
Cell Id (FFS)
Tracking Area Id (+ FFS how many additional)
Cell Barring status+ possible Time of barring
Cell reservation status
Radio access limitation parameters
PLMN id(s) maximum of 5 ( 24 bits per one) - see Note
Scheduling parameters
Value Tag
SFN (FFS)
2
3-8
2 (+ 3)
9
[16-28]
1+4
[2]
12
120
(12-108)
4
11
It might not be necessary to send the Mobile Country Code part of the PLMN identity for each indicated
PLMN to limit the number of bits.
Flexible part
The flexible part has different types of Information Elements which require independent scheduling in order to allow
fast enough reception and not to waste transmission capacity. For example, the requirement to receive cell access
parameters is very different than e.g. the clock time. Thus following flexible part division should be considered:
-
Scheduling block: scheduling information of the secondary part of the System Information.
-
Access parameters:
-
-
All parameters not present in the primary part (e.g. some L1 parameters);
-
RACH parameters;
-
Power control parameters;
-
Paging parameters;
-
Any timer values needed for operating in the cell and in the network.
Measurement related parameters:
-
Neighbour cell lists;
-
Cell selection/reselection parameters;
NOTE:
-
Some of these parameters are included in the static part element 'Radio access limitation parameters.'
Measurement control information;
Non vital information:
-
Clock time;
-
Positioning (A-GNSS etc.) information;
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Service parameters (e.g. MBMS parameters);
-
Secondary NAS parameters.
C.2.3
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Information whose location is FFS
The location of the following information is FFS:
-
System Frame Number: SFN might be needed very fast i.e. for HO purposes. SFN might be needed also for
decoding scheduling block parameters, but on the other hand it might be requested not to send often changing
information on the static part in order to be able to make time soft combining. Further investigation on the SFN
broadcasting is thus needed.
C.2.4
Dedicated part
The dedicated part is embedded in the RRC message that is meant for sending System Information Elements in unicast
mode e.g. for HO purposes, positioning purposes …. The UE needs some information for the neighbouring cell to
access it, this is needed to limit the interruption times caused by HO execution. When a UE receives a HO COMMAND
it needs at least following information from the target cell:
-
All information in the static part (see sub-clause C.2.1): may be received by the UE by itself;
-
Most of the information from the access parameters (see sub-clause C.2.2): is favourably delivered by dedicated
manner via the source cell, because the UE might not have time to get all the necessary secondary SI from the
target cell;
-
System Frame Number is needed to minimize the interruption times during the HO procedure. Most probably the
UE needs to receive (at least confirm) the SFN directly by the neighbour cell SI reading, because giving the SFN
via source cell may cause some inaccuracy to the SFN.
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Annex D (informative):
MBMS
D.1
MBMS control & functions
The E-UTRAN supporting MBMS comprises eNBs and co-ordinating functions.
The functions hosted by the eNB may be:
-
Scheduling and transmission of MBMS control information;
-
Scheduling of single-cell MBMS transmissions;
-
Transmission of single-cell and multi-cell MBMS services;
-
Radio bearer control for MBMS.
The co-ordinating functions may include:
-
Distribution of MBMS services;
-
Co-ordination of multi-cell MBMS transmissions;
-
MBMS EPS bearer control.
It is FFS which node in E-UTRAN performs the co-ordination functions.
D.2
MBMS transmission
A point-to-multipoint radio bearer is used to carry MBMS traffic. It is FFS whether a point-to-point radio bearer is also
used to carry MBMS traffic or not. Improvements for single-cell MBMS transmission (e.g. HARQ) and MCS that
would enable potential removal of p-t-p transmissions for MBMS are FFS.
A frequency layer can be dedicated to MBMS transmissions:
-
When a cell belongs to a frequency layer dedicated to MBMS transmissions (MBMS-dedicated cell):
-
The MBMS transmission (MTCH and MCCH) occurs on MCH or DL-SCH;
-
No uplink or counting mechanism supported;
-
No support for unicast data transfer in the cell;
-
The occurrence of paging messages on the frequency layer dedicated to MBMS transmission is FFS:
-
-
If paging messages were allowed, the UE could answer in a non-E-UTRA cell e.g. UTRA cell (FFS);
-
The possible multi-cell p-t-m transmission with MBSFN operation on the MCH of the MBSFN area is semistatically configured e.g. by O&M.
-
Single-cell p-t-m transmission is possible.
When a cell does not belong to a frequency layer dedicated to MBMS transmissions (MBMS/Unicast-mixed
cell):
-
Transmission of both unicast and MBMS transmissions in the cell is done in a co-ordinated manner on DLSCH and or MCH+DL-SCH (FFS);
-
The possible MBSFN operation on the MCH of the MBSFN area is semi-statically configured e.g. by O&M;
or the SFN area is dynamic and may be based on counting mechanisms (FFS).
-
Counting is possible (FFS);
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P-t-p transmission on DL-SCH is FFS.
There are two types of MBMS transmissions in E-UTRA/E-UTRAN:
a) Single-cell transmission (no MBSFN operation):
-
The MBMS service, e.g. message distribution, is transmitted only on the coverage of a specific cell;
-
The MBMS service (MTCH and MCCH) may be transmitted on DL-SCH or MCH (FFS);
-
Combining of MBMS transmission from multiple cells is not supported;
-
Counting for switching between p-t-p and p-t-m radio bearer may be supported (FFS);
-
The p-t-m/p-t-p switching points are either dynamically decided based on counting mechanism or semistatically configured by O&M (FFS).
b) Multi-cell transmission (MBSFN operation):
-
The MBMS service (MTCH and MCCH) is transmitted on MCH;
-
Combining is supported with SFN;
-
Synchronous transmission.
The BCCH indicates where the MCCH(s) are:
-
One (or none) MCCH per cell for cell specific transmission;
-
MCCH(s) sent in MBSFN area for non-cell specific transmission.
Having a feedback mechanism for MTCH transmission is FFS: statistical feedback, TTI based NACK or something
else. Also is FFS if the re-transmission is a single cell transmission in all cases.
D.3
Deployment Scenarios
In terms of deployment scenarios of MBMS in E-UTRAN, the following alternatives can be listed:
-
Carrier type: dedicated vs. mixed carrier;
-
MBSFN transmission: multi-cell vs. single-cell transmission;
-
Radio bearer type: p-t-m vs. p-t-p;
-
Counting: yes or no;
-
Audience measurement: yes or no;
-
ON/OFF control of MBMS service delivery: yes or no;
-
PTP / PTM radio bearer switching: yes or no;
Table D.3 below lists the combinations of the above alternatives that are specifically supported in E-UTRAN:
Table D.3: MBMS Deployment Scenarios
#
Carrier
Transmission
RB
Counting
1
dedicated
multi-cell
p-t-m
no
2
3
mixed
mixed
multi-cell
single-cell
p-t-m
p-t-m
no
yes
ETSI
Comments
From 1 to n cells
Audience measurement (FFS)
Audience measurement (FFS)
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MCCH Information
The following information types are proposed as candidates for inclusion on MCCH. Stage 3 work may group certain
information into, for example, modified services information and unmodified services information, and to avoid
duplication and reduce transmission size, group parameter sets into, for example, indexed common services
information. It is FFS whether the information of the same type will map to the same IE. The information types
described here are linked to the following use cases:
1. UE camping in a cell monitoring for session start(s).
2. UE powering up, entering a cell or on activation of a service, seeking to detect whether a service that it requires
is ongoing in the cell.
3. UE commencing to receive a service or required to change parameters following reconfiguration.
4. UE receiving an MBMS service and monitoring for session stop, recounting indication, reconfiguration
indication and revised parameters. Possibly also dynamic scheduling.
5. UE performing a cell reselection seeking information that aids service continuity.
Table D.4-1: Potential MCCH Information Types
Use Case
Information Type
Service and session identities
Session start – own layer
Session start – another (mixed or dedicated) layer (FFS)
Ongoing or by request (FFS)
Ongoing or by request
- own layer
- another (mixed or dedicated) layer (FFS)
1
1
2
2, 53
2,3,4,5
Short identities indexing service identities
Service parameters – radio bearer information, physical channel
configuration information, scheduling information (Note 1)
For services (MTCH) transmitted on DL-SCH
For services (MTCH) transmitted on MCH
3, 4, 5
3, 4, 5
Required action – whilst receiving a service
4
4
4
42, 52
Session stop indication
Reconfiguration indication
Recounting indication (FFS)
Change state (FFS)
3
32
Required action – service access
Make service request (FFS)
Change state (FFS)
Counting control information:
For services transmitted on DL-SCH
For services transmitted on MCH (FFS)
3, 4
3, 4
3, 4
Single-cell MTCH feedback control (FFS)
Indication of the existence of other layers (dedicated, mixed) (FFS)
Other frequency layer parameters (FFS)
Neighbour cell information e.g. service existence, MTCH or MCCH
parameters (FFS)
MBSFN area edge cell indication or identity (FFS)
Parameters that identify how to receive scheduling information(FFS)
S-MCCH parameters and scheduling (on P-MCCH)
MCCH modification indication (FFS)
ETSI
1, 2,53
1, 2, 53
5
5
3, 4, 5
2, 4, 3, 5
1, 4
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Note 1: Scheduling information may take two forms, e.g. semi-static scheduling of the TTIs in
which MTCH transmissions can take place and short-term scheduling which indicates
whether transmissions take place within these TTI, e.g. for DRx (FFS).
Note 2: The case represented here is the FFS scenario where an eNB requires a UE to enter
RRC Connected state in order to receive a service. This relates to a single-cell
transmission e.g. to perform feedback. A UE might be required to do this on taking
up the service, on transferring into a cell whilst receiving the service or whilst
receiving the service when in a cell.
Note 3: The use case represents case 2 of the service continuity requirements as described
in section 15.4.
ETSI
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Annex E (informative):
Drivers for Mobility Control
Table E.1 lists the drivers, limitations, and their applicability to intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT
scenarios. Each driver and limitation is described in Section E.1 and E.2, respectively. For inter-frequency and interRAT scenarios, the applicable drivers are shown in detail for IDLE/ACTIVE modes and their transitions in Section E.3.
Table E.1: Drivers and limitations for mobility control and applicability to mobility scenarios.
#
Drivers
Limitations
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Drivers/limitations
Best radio condition
Camp load balancing
Traffic load balancing
UE capability
Hierarchical cell structures
Network sharing
Private neworks/home cells
Subscription based mobility control
Service based mobility control
MBMS
UE battery saving
Network signalling/processing load
U-plane interruption and data loss
OAM complexity
Intrafrequency
X
X
X
X
X
Interfrequency
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Inter-RAT
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
As shown in Table E.1, the applicable drivers depend on the mobility scenario, i.e., intra-frequency, inter-frequency,
and inter-RAT:
-
Intra-frequency mobility: intra-frequency mobility is the most fundamental, indispensable, and frequent
scenario. With the frequency reuse being one in E-UTRAN, applying any driver other than the 'best radio
condition' to intra-frequency mobility control incur increased interference and hence degraded performance. As
such, only the 'best radio condition' driver is applicable to intra-frequency mobility. Note that the exact definition
of 'intra-frequency mobility' is yet unclear, and shall be clarified with RAN1.
-
Inter-frequency mobility: as in UTRAN, an operator may have multiple carriers/bands for E-UTRAN working
in parallel. The use of these frequency layers may be diverse. For example, some of these frequency layers may
utilise the same eNB sites and antenna locations (i.e., co-located configuration), whereas some may be used to
form a hierarchical cell structure (HCS), or even be used for private networks. Some frequency layers may
provide MBMS services, while some may not. Moreover, E-UTRAN carriers/bands may be extended in the
future to increase capacity. For example, as E-UTRAN gains popularity, an operator may decide to convert
existing UTRAN carriers into E-UTRAN ones. The operator may also acquire additional carriers/bands, that are
not necessarily contiguous. As a consequence, different UE band capabilities may coexist and different
carriers/bands may operate at different areas within a network. The E-UTRAN standard should readily support
such carrier/band extensions and diverse network configurations, providing flexibility and efficiency. Therefore,
a number of drivers apply to inter-frequency mobility control, in addition to the 'best radio condition' driver.
-
Inter-RAT mobility: the aspects that need to be considered for inter-RAT are similar to those for interfrequency. For mobility solutions to be complete with the inter-RAT drivers, relevant updates would be
necessary on the legacy (UTRAN/GERAN) specifications. This will add to the limitations, which are evidently
more effective in inter-RAT. Although the drivers/limitations need to be assessed per objective RAT
(UTRAN/GERAN), the solutions should be made common as much as possible to reduce any complexity.
E.1
Drivers
The drivers for mobility control are described in the following sections.
ETSI
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Best radio condition
The primary purpose of cell reselection, regardless of intra-frequency, inter-frequency, or inter-RAT, is to ensure that
the UE camps on/connects to the best cell in terms of radio condition, e.g., path loss, received reference symbol power,
or received reference symbol Es/I0. The UE should support measurements to suffice this aspect. For E-UTRAN cells,
the frequency domain scheduling and channel/symbol mapping may have some implications to designing the
measurements and reselection/reporting criteria. The UE would also have to check that the selected cell falls within the
accesible range (in terms of signal strength and possibly also in terms of propagation delay, i.e., check if it falls within
the dynamic range of timing advance, FFS).
E-UTRAN should support good mobility even when the radio environment changes suddenly, e.g., when the UE enters
a tunnel or in a Manhattan-like street cell scenario. It should be discussed whether a special mechanism is needed to
cope with such sudden changes in radio environment or it can be handled with good radio network planning practices.
In either case, the system design should minimise any side effects of counteracting the sudden changes in the radio
environment (e.g., ping-pongs).
For inter-frequency/RAT mobility, the UE needs idle gaps to perform measurements on other frequency layers/RATs.
In addition, for inter-RAT, E-UTRAN measurements while the UE is in another RAT (UTRAN/GERAN) need to be
supported. It should be discussed whether in certain cases (e.g., co-located E-UTRAN cells within the same frequency
band) the measurements can be omitted.
E.1.2
Camp load balancing
This is to distribute idle state UEs among the available bands/carriers/RATs, such that upon activation, the traffic
loading of the bands/carriers/RATs would be balanced. At least the path loss difference between different bands should
be compensated to avoid UEs concentrating to a certain frequency layer (e.g., lower frequency bands due to the
propagation nature). A deliberate mechanism would be necessary to avoid UEs concentrating to a certain RAT (e.g., EUTRAN). Various solutions have been presented including the use of Qoffset and an approach of limiting the frequency
layers for camping.
For inter-RAT, this driver also includes the aspect of balancing the loading of core network nodes of different RATs.
Nevertheless, for intra- E-UTRAN, the core network load aspect is out of scope, since MME/Serving Gateway
relocation by itself should not cause any radio mobility procedure (but only NAS procedures like NAS ID and security
updates).
E.1.3
Traffic load balancing
This is to balance the loading of active state UEs, using redirection for example. In E-UTRAN, traffic load balancing is
essential because of the shared channel nature. That is, the user throughput decreases as the number of active UEs in the
cell increases, and the loading directly impacts on the user perception. A solution is desired that causes minimum
impact on the user perception. This implies that inter-layer transitions are preferably done during data inactivity (e.g.,
DRX) or transition to the idle state. Although this driver is also applicable to inter-RAT, for inter-RAT, the 'service
dependent control' driver may be more dominant than the load balancing aspect.
E.1.4
UE capability
As E-UTRAN bands/carriers may be extended in the future, UEs having different band capabilities may coexist within
a network. It is also likely that roaming UEs have different band capabilities. Overlaying different RATs adds to this
variety. The mobility solution should cope with the coexistence of various UE capabilities in an efficient manner.
E.1.5
Hierarchical cell structures
As in UTRAN, hierarchical cell structures (HCS) may be utilised in E-UTRAN to cover for example, indoors and hot
spots efficiently. It is possible that E-UTRAN is initially deployed only at hot spots, in which case this driver becomes
essential for inter-RAT, not just for inter-frequency. Another use case would be to deploy a large umbrella cell to cover
a vast area without having to deploy a number of regular cells, while providing capacity by the regular cells on another
frequency. While HCS can be seen as a solution to reduce measurement and signalling loads, to optimise HCS usage,
mobility control should take into account the UE mobility (e.g., speed). This however implies that sufficient mobility
detection is also required. Although HCS is not addressed as a mobility driver for intra-frequency mobility, intrafrequency HCS deployment should not be restricted.
ETSI
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Network sharing
At the edge of a shared portion of a network, it will be necessary to direct UEs belonging to different PLMNs to
different target cells. The mobility solutions in both idle and active states should therefore support differentiation
between UEs of different operators.
E.1.7
Private networks/home cells
Cells that are part of a sub-network should prioritise the camping on that sub-network. UEs that do not belong to private
sub-networks should not attempt to camp or access them. Although this could be resolved by the use of forbidden TAs
as in UTRAN, a more deliberate mechanism may be needed as some of these sub-networks could be very small, e.g.,
one home.
E.1.8
Subscription based mobility control
This mobility driver aims to limit the inter-RAT mobility for certain UEs, e.g., based on subscription or other operator
policies. The system should provide means to dissallow access on certain RATs (including E-UTRAN) as done with
"LA reject" in legacy systems. It should be possible for the operator to trigger a subsequent UE action such as a cell or
PLMN selection.
E.1.9
Service based mobility control
An operator may have different policies in allocating frequencies to certain services. For example, the operator may
concentrate VoIP UEs to a certain frequency layer or RAT (e.g., UTRAN or GERAN), if evaluations prove this
effective. UEs requiring higher data rates may better be served on a frequency layer or RAT (e.g., E-UTRAN) having a
larger bandwidth. The operator may also want to accommodate premium services on a certain frequency layer or RAT,
that has better coverage or larger bandwidth.
This driver is essential for inter-RAT, due to the different QoS levels provided by different RATs. The nature of the
service being requested (e.g., QoS and traffic behaviour) should be considered in controlling mobility, so that services
are accommodated in the best suitable RAT. Note that such service dependent control shall only be based on network
decisions and not on UE decisions (i.e., no UE based service dependent cell reselection), except for MBMS scenarios.
E.1.10
MBMS
As MBMS services may be provided only in certain frequency layers, it may be beneficial/necessary to control interfrequency/RAT mobility depending on whether the UE receives a particular MBMS service or not. For MBMS
scenarios only, UE based service dependent cell reselection might be considered acceptable. This aspect also depends
on the UE capability for simultaneous reception of MBMS and unicast.
E.2
Limitations for mobility control
While the issues mentioned above drive E-UTRAN towards 'aggressive' mobility control, the limiting factors also have
to be considered. The factors listed below apply to all intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT mobility
scenarios.
E.2.1
UE battery saving
The mobility solution should not consume excessive UE battery, e.g., due to measurements, measurement reporting,
BCH reception, or TA update signalling. This could be achieved for example by setting appropriate measurement rules
such as S-criteria, hysteresis, and time-to-trigger. Adaptive control of some measurement/mobility parameters (e.g.,
based on DRX, cell size, or mobility) may also be considered as a countermeasure. To reduce TA update signalling, TA
allocations can be differentiated depending on the UE speed or the mobility vector, on top of appropriate TA planning.
Effects on additional delays (e.g., paging) should also be investigated if means such as 'long DRX' are used to achieve
these savings.
It should be investigated together with RAN4 if a coupling between measurements accuracy and DRX (as in UTRAN)
is also acceptable for E-UTRAN.
ETSI
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Network signalling/processing load
The mobility solution should not cause excessive network signalling/processing load. This includes over-the-air
signalling, S1/X2 signalling, and processing load at network nodes. Unnecessary handovers and cell reselections should
be avoided, and PCH and BCH signallings, as well as dedicated signallings, should be limited. This could be achieved
by similar countermeasures as for UE battery saving.
E.2.3
U-plane interruption and data loss
U-plane interruption and data loss caused by the mobility solution should be limited. The required QoS should be
satisfied in any case.
E.2.4
OAM complexity
The mobility solution should not demand excessive efforts in operating/maintaining a network. For example, when a
new eNB is added or an existing eNB fails, the mobility solution should not incur excessive efforts to set up or modify
the parameters. Means should be studied to integrate the mobility solutions in the concept of 'self-optimisation' to
minimise manual processes. Reducing the neighbour list information in E-UTRAN would also be a countermeasure to
this requirement.
E.3
Inter-frequency/RAT drivers
E.3.1
Mobility control during IDLE mode
This is to control the mobility of UEs during IDLE mode, i.e., cell reselection. Table E.3.1-1 summarises applicability
of the drivers for different inter-frequency/RAT scenarios and necessary features to support the drivers. Note that in
Tables E.2-E.5, an 'X' in the table indicates that the driver is essential, whereas an "(X)" indicates that the driver may be
reduced in support depending on the complexity incurred. Furthermore in Tables E.3.1-1-, E.3.2-1, E.3.3-1, E.3.4-1, the
following abbreviations are used:
-
L
L: LTE to LTE inter-frequency mobility;
-
L
U: LTE to UTRAN inter-RAT mobility;
-
U
L: UTRAN to LTE inter-RAT mobility;
-
L
G: LTE to GERAN inter-RAT mobility;
-
G
L: GERAN to LTE inter-RAT mobility.
Table E.3.1-1: Mobility control during IDLE (cell reselection).
#
Drivers
L
L
Applicability
U
U L L
L
G
G
L
1
Radio condition
X
X
X
X
X
2
Camp load
balancing
X
X
X
(X)
(X)
3
4
Traffic load
balancing
UE capability
(X)
X
X
X
X
5
HCS
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
ETSI
Necessary features to support drivers
Inter-frequency/RAT measurements (solutions to
mitigate
measurement
load
should
be
considered, e.g., S-criteria);
Cell reselection and reselection criteria.
Mechanism to prioritise cell reselection to certain
layer/RAT, depending on the loading of
layers/RATs;
Load information exchange (not needed if
balancing is inadaptive, i.e., only based on
subscriber penetration on each band/RAT.).
N/A
Mechanism to prioritise cell reselection to certain
layer/RAT, depending on the UE capability.
Mobility detection (e.g., number of crossed
cells);
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6
Network sharing
X
X
X
7
Private neworks
/ home cells
X
(X)
X
8
Subscription /
Policy based
mobility control
X
X
X
9
Service based
mobility control
MBMS
X
(X)
X
10
E.3.2
X
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
Mechanism to prioritise cell reselection to certain
layer/RAT, depending on the UE speed (e.g.,
HCS mechanism as in UTRAN).
Mechanism to direct the UE to the appropriate
PLMN at a network sharing border;
Mechanism to restrict UE measurements and
reselection to cells that are entitled to access.
Mechanism
to
prioritise
reselection
to
private/home cells that are entitled to access;
Mechanism to restrict UE measurements and
reselection to cells that are entitled to access;
Other unidentified features, FFS.
Mechanism to prioritise cell reselection to certain
layer/RAT, depending on the subscription
information or any other operator policy (e.g., for
L L there may be cases where an operator has
policy in allocating UEs to certain frequencies
due to different carrier bandwidths).
N/A
Mechanism to prioritise cell reselection to the
layer/RAT, depending on whether the UE
requires reception of a certain MBMS
transmission.
Mobility control upon IDLE to ACTIVE transition
This is to control the mobility of UEs upon IDLE to ACTIVE transition, i.e., redirection upon RRC or U-plane
establishment. Table E.3.2-1 summarises applicability of the drivers for different inter-frequency/RAT scenarios and
necessary features to support the drivers.
Table E.3.2-1: Mobility control upon IDLE to ACTIVE transition
(redirection upon RRC/U-plane establishment)
#
Drivers
1
Radio condition
2
Camp load
balancing
Traffic load
balancing
3
L
L
Applicability
U
U L L
L
(X)
(X)
X
(X)
G
G
L
Inter-frequency/RAT measurements (during
IDLE mode or upon IDLE to ACTIVE transition)
and measurement reporting upon RRC
establishment (it should be investigated whether
measurements can be omitted in some or all
cases, e.g., co-located cells).
N/A
(X)
(X)
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT (cell) upon
RRC establishment, depending on the loading of
layers/RATs;
Load information exchange (not needed if
balancing is inadaptive, i.e., only based on
subscriber penetration on each band/RAT).
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT (cell) upon
RRC establishment, depending on the UE
capability.
N/A
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT (cell) of the
preferred PLMN, upon RRC establishment.
Redirection from a certain private/home cell.
4
UE capability
X
(X)
5
6
HCS
Network sharing
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
7
Private neworks
/ home cells
Subscription /
Policy based
mobility control
(X)
X
X
(X)
(X)
(X)
Service based
mobility control
X
X
(X)
(X)
(X)
8
9
Necessary features to support drivers
(X)
ETSI
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT (cell) upon
RRC establishment, depending on the
subscription information (if available upon
establishment) or any other operator policy.
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT (cell) upon
RRC establishment, depending on the requested
service (if the service information is available
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upon establishment).
N/A
MBMS
E.3.3
Mobility control during ACTIVE mode
This is to control the mobility of UEs during ACTIVE mode (EMM-CONNECTED or UTRAN RRC Connected), i.e.,
handover. Table E.3.3-1 summarises applicability of the drivers for different inter-frequency/RAT scenarios and
necessary features to support the drivers.
Table E.3.3-1: Mobility control during ACTIVE (handover)
#
Drivers
1
Radio condition
2
Camp load
balancing
Traffic load
balancing
3
L
L
Applicability
U
U L L
L
G
X
X
X
X
X
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
G
L
(X)
4
UE capability
(X)
(X)
(X)
5
HCS
(X)
(X)
(X)
6
Network sharing
X
X
X
X
7
Private neworks
/ home cells
X
X
X
X
X
8
Subscription /
Policy based
mobility control
Service based
mobility control
(X)
X
X
X
X
(X)
X
X
X
X
MBMS
X
X
X
9
10
E.3.4
Necessary features to support drivers
Gap
assisted
inter-frequency/RAT
measurements (network controlled);
Measurement reporting and reporting criteria;
Inter-frequency/RAT handover (UE assisted
network controlled).
N/A
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled);
Load information exchange (not needed if
balancing is inadaptive, i.e., only based on
subscriber penetration on each band/RAT).
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled), depending on the UE capability.
Mobility detection (e.g., number of crossed
cells);
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled), depending on the UE speed.
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled) to a cell of the appropriate PLMN at
network sharing border;
Mechanism to restrict UE measurements to cells
that are entitled to access.
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled) to a private/home cell on another
layer/RAT, where the UE is entitled to access;
Mechanism to restrict UE measurements and
reselection to cells that are entitled to access;
Other unidentified features, FFS.
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled), depending on the subscription
information or any other operator policy.
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled), depending on the service or
combination of services being used or
requested.
Inter-frequency/RAT
handover
(network
controlled), depending on whether the UE
requires reception of a certain MBMS
transmission.
Mobility control upon ACTIVE to IDLE transition
This is to control the mobility of UEs upon ACTIVE to IDLE transition, i.e., redirection upon RRC or U-plane release.
Table E.3.4-1 summarises applicability of the drivers for different inter-frequency/RAT scenarios and necessary
features to support the drivers.
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Table E.3.4-1: Mobility control upon ACTIVE to IDLE transition (redirection upon RRC/U-plane
release)
Applicability
U
U L L
#
Drivers
1
Radio condition
X
X
X
X
X
2
Camp load
balancing
X
X
X
(X)
(X)
3
4
Traffic load
balancing
UE capability
X
X
X
(X)
(X)
5
6
HCS
Network sharing
X
X
X
X
7
Private neworks
/ home cells
Subscription /
Policy based
mobility control
Service based
mobility control
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT upon RRC
release, depending on the UE capability.
N/A
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT of the
preferred PLMN, upon RRC release.
N/A
X
X
X
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
(X)
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT upon RRC
release, depending on the subscription
information or any other operator policy.
Redirection (or maintaining) to a certain
layer/RAT upon RRC release, depending on the
service that has been used (predicting that the
UE uses the same service in the future).
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT upon stop of
an MBMS service reception.
8
9
10
MBMS
L
L
L
G
G
ETSI
L
Necessary features to support the driver
Gap
assisted
inter-frequency/RAT
measurements (it should be investigated
whether measurements can be omitted in some
or all cases, e.g., co-located cells), OR
Cell search upon redirection.
Redirection to a certain layer/RAT upon RRC
release, depending on the loading of
layers/RATs;
Load information exchange (not needed if
balancing is inadaptive, i.e., only based on
subscriber penetration on each band/RAT).
N/A
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Annex F (informative):
Mobility and Access Control Requirements associated with
Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) Cells
F.1
Access Control
The following description is provided from the perspective of the Home cell deployment, and is used as an example to
understand the general requirements of Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) Cells.
If an operator uses the 2G or 3G systems for a deployment in a home, there are some limitations imposed by mandating
that only a UE from a specific User Group can access the cell. This access restriction is needed because some backhaul
links for this type of deployment are not considered to provide adequate QoS to support a large numbers of UEs, or
there may be regulatory issues with sharing the backhaul link/eNB access in that location, and additionally the backhaul
maybe owned by the subscriber and they may not be happy to share the link with other subscribers.
In 3G, the Access Control would work based on the Location Updating or Routing Area Updating Reject for the LA or
RA which is being signalled on the cell. Each unique User Group would require its Location Area ID, however the LAC
of the LA ID is only 2 octets, which needs to be shared with the normal LAs of the PLMN.
There is an additional drawback with this solution in 3G, which is that all terminals would attempt to perform the
Location Updating procedure on a cell advertising a LA not on the list of forbidden LAs in the UE. The network would
reject the location updating procedure of those UEs which are not in the User Group associated with the LA. This would
lead to the scenario in a densely populated area, where a UE moving down the street could attempt to access a home cell
at each house, before being rejected causing a wastage of battery in the terminal, and unnecessary signalling/processing
load in the core network.
1. A UE should not camp on or access a CSG Cell if it is not part of the User Group which is allowed to
access that CSG Cell.
It shall be possible to update the User Group associated with a specific Home-eNB, e.g. based on request by the
registered owner of the Home-eNB, under the supervision of the network operator. When a subscriber is added to the
User Group for the Home-eNB, the UE of the newly added subscriber should be able to (almost) immediately camp on
the cell(s) of Home-eNB and then may acquire service through the Home-eNB. This is especially important in the
deployment scenario where this subscriber has no other means to access the network, i.e. there is no Macro-layer
coverage available. For this it might be necessary to update the list of allowed CSG cells for a particular UE by network
signalling or other means.
2. The subscriber registered as the owner of a CSG Cell or group of Cells, under supervision of the operator,
shall be able to control/modify quickly which other subscribers form part of the User Group associated
with its CSG Cell(s).
F.2
Mobility
The Home-eNB/CSG cells should form part of the network of the operator, and therefore the design needs to support
mobility of UEs between the Macro-Layer network and the Home-eNB/CSG cells. In the following text, what is called
Macro layer encompasses all the cells which are not from the CSG being considered i.e. it is not about their
size/coverage but the fact that they are not closed.
3. The system shall support bidirectional handover between CSG Cells and any eNodeB (E-UTRAN) or
RNC (UTRAN) or BSS (GERAN) or with another CSG Cell of the same or different CSG.
The Home-eNBs will be deployed to improve network coverage, improve network capacity as well as offer differential
billing models. As the User billing could be dependent on whether the UE is using the Home-eNB, it is important that
the UE when it is range of the Home-eNB automatically camps on the Home-eNB.
4. It shall be possible to allow UEs which are allowed to access a given CSG cell, to prioritise their camping
towards the CSG Cells when in coverage of the CSG cells. To achieve this it should be possible either to
set the reselection parameters accordingly or other means should allow this.
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It is important that UEs camped on the Home-eNB do not cause excessive signalling load or processing load if/when the
UE moves frequently between the Macro-Layer network and the Home-eNB.
5. The system shall avoid excessive signalling and processing load from a UE frequently reselecting in LTE
Idle between the CSG Cells and the non-CSG cells of eNodeB (E-UTRAN) or RNC (UTRAN) or BSS
(GERAN).
As discussed above, the Home-eNBs will have an associated User Group describing which UEs can access the HomeeNB. The handover procedures needs to take the User Group of the Target Home-eNB into account when deciding
whether to handover a UE to a specific Home-eNB. The solution for the mobility to/from the Home-eNB should avoid
unnecessary signalling between the RAN nodes.
6. The handover procedures shall take into account whether a UE is part of the User Group of the target
CSG Cell. The mobility procedures should allow for prioritisation of the CSG Cells in EMMCONNECTED when the UE enters coverage of a CSG Cell and the UE is part of the User Group of this
cell.
As the number of Home-eNBs in the network will become large, the proportion of measurements made by a UE which
could be wasted may become large, to the point where it affects the mobility performance of the UE/system, as well as
draining the battery of the UE. It is therefore necessary for the UE to be able to avoid unnecessary measurements of
Home-eNBs where the UE does not belong to the User Group of the Home-eNB.
7. It shall be possible to minimise the quantity of measurements which UEs perform on CSG Cells, if the UE
does not belong to the User Group of a specific CSG Cell.
Due to the high number of Home-eNBs and the nature of their deployment, it would not be practical to change the
configuration for the mobility procedures (measurements, handover, etc.) in the macro layer nodes when a Home-eNB
is deployed/dismissed.
8. The mobility procedures shall allow a large number of (small) CSG Cells to be deployed within the
coverage of e-UTRAN, UTRAN and GERAN macro-layer cells. Deployment of (additional) CSG Cells
shall not require reconfiguration of other eNodeB (E-UTRAN) or RNC (UTRAN) or BSS (GERAN).
In order to minimise the impact on UEs not allowed to use CSG cells or not allowed to use a particular CSG cell, means
shall be provided which allow the UE to either identify prior to cell reselection that the configured neighbour cell is a
CSG cell or means shall be provided which do not impact the UEs on the macro cells.
9. The mobility procedures for moving UEs to CSG cells shall minimise impact to other UEs on the same
macro cells not entitled to use CSG cells or a given CSG cell.
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Annex G (informative):
Guideline for E-UTRAN UE capabilities
Each radio access technology has defined specific 'classes' of terminals in terms of radio capabilities. E.g. in GPRS the
'multislot classes' are defined, in UMTS R"99 different dedicated bearer classes are defined and for HSDPA and
HSUPA 12 respectively 6 physical layer categories are defined. The definition of UMTS R"99 UE classes lead to 7 DL
classes and 7 UL classes for FDD out of which only 2 DL and 3 UL classes were commercially realized. Furthermore
the lower end classes (e.g. 64 UL and 64 DL) disappeared from the market with commercialization of the UMTS
networks quite soon. Besides these class definitions a huge number of possible parameter combinations (to achieve
certain data rates) exist with UMTS R"99 which lead to the huge number of RAB and RB combinations defined.
Further activities in the early phase of UMTS standardization aimed to reduce the number of possible combinations
significantly.
For HSDPA two 'simple' DL categories (11 & 12) with lowered complexity were defined with the intend to speed up
commercialization of HSDPA. Originally those categories should have been removed for Rel-6. Out of the 12 defined
categories only approx. 4 will be realized in commercial HSDPA platform products. A similar situation is likely for
HSUPA as well as for the combinations of HSDPA/HSUPA.
Generally the aim to mandate certain essential functions/requirements can help to simplify the system definition as well
as the realization options (e.g. mandating 20 MHz of DL reception as well as 20 MHz UL transmission bandwidth
significantly reduced the E-UTRAN system complexity). Especially mandating certain terminal functions could be
useful for the system design if a defined subset of parameter combinations are also supported by the systems, e.g. the
eNB scheduler. However, there is also a risk that not all the defined E-UTRA features are deployed in the networks at
the time when terminals are made commercially available on the market place. Some features are likely to be rather
large and complex, which further increases the risk of interoperability problems unless these features have undergone
sufficient interoperability testing (IOT) on real network equipment, and preferably with more than one network in order
to improve the confidence of the UE implementation. Thus, avoiding unnecessary UE mandatory features but instead
defining a limited set of UE radio classes allows simplification for the interoperability testing.
Given the discussion above, it seems beneficial for the introduction of E-UTRAN to limit the combination of radio
capabilities to a clearly defined subset and ensure that a given set of parameters is supported by certain UE classes as
well as networks for rapid E-UTRAN deployment. It seems unrealistic to mandate only one single UE class which
always mandates the maximum capability.
In order to address the different market requirements (low end, medium and high end), the definition of the following
UE classes are proposed:
Table G-1: E-UTRAN UE Classes
Class
A
B
C
NOTE:
UL
[50] Mbps
[25] Mbps
[2] Mbps
DL
[100] Mbps
[50] Mbps
[2] Mbps
For simplification reasons, the table only depict the UE capabilities in terms of uplink and downlink peak
data rates supported. However, it should be noted that further discussion on other features is expected
once the work progresses.
It may require further discussion whether there be a need for an additional terminal class between 2 Mbps and 50 Mbps
classes. It might make sense, since up to 5 MHz band allocations may be rather common in real deployments for several
years. This would point to bit rate class of 25 Mbps in DL and 10 Mbps in UL.
The above given data rates are indicative and should be subject for further discussions in 3GPP RAN working groups.
Depending on the different solutions to reach those data rates, the target should be to define [3..4] UE classes in
different data rate ranges, and other parameters affecting device complexity and cost. The definition of the required
parameters/features is for further study for each of the classes. For instance, half-duplex UEs form a specific category
that may be frequency band specific.
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ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
the support of half-duplex UEs is mandatory for the eNB where such a category is allowed in the
frequency band supported by the eNB.
The aim is to ensure on the one hand that high end E-UTRAN UEs, supporting data rates representing state of the art
level and competitive with other radio technologies are defined, while the medium and lower data rates aim to reduce
implementation cost for chipset/terminal vendors and allow adoption of most cost efficient solutions for different
market segments. It is expected that the support of the high end data rate terminals is ensured from the very beginning.
Another clear exception from this exercise is that on the low end very cheap product implementation is possible (e.g. for
the machine-to-machine market or the voice and very low data rate only segment – to substitute GSM in the medium
term) while top end performance is needed for data applications in notebooks, wireless gateways ('wireless DSL'), etc.
Another important aspect that must be ensured is that a higher capability UE can be treated in exactly the same way as
for a lower capability UE, if the network wishes to do so, e.g., in case the network does not support some higher
capability features. In HSDPA, there has been problems in this respect due to 2-stage rate matching in HARQ. Such
problems should be avoided in E-UTRAN, and E-UTRAN UE capabilities should provide the compatibility to ease
implementation and interoperability testing.
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Annex H (informative):
L1/L2 Control Signalling Performance
The target quality on L1/L2 control channels of E-UTRAN is summarized in the two tables below:
Table H-1: DL control signalling
Event
Target quality
DL scheduling information miss detection
(10 )
UL scheduling grant miss detection
(10 )
NACK to ACK error (for UL-SCH)
(10 – 10 )
ACK to NACK error (for UL-SCH)
-2
-2
-4
-3
-4
-3
(10 – 10 )
Table H-2: UL control signalling
Event
Target quality
ACK miss detection (for DL-SCH)
(10 )
DTX to ACK error (for DL-SCH)
(10 – 10 )
NACK to ACK error (for DL-SCH)
-2
-2
-1
-4
-3
(10 – 10 )
-2
CQI block error rate
-1
FFS (10 – 10 )
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Annex I (informative):
Change history
Change history (before approval)
Date
TSG #
TSG Doc. CR
2006-06 RAN2 Ad. R2-062020
2006-06 RAN2 Ad. R2-062026
2006-06 RAN2 Ad. R2-062036
2006-08 RAN2#54 R2-062206
2006-09
RAN#34 RP-060603
2006-10 RAN2#55 R2-063012
2006-10 RAN2#55 R2-063039
2006-11 RAN2#56 R2-063656
2006-11 RAN2#56 R2-063680
2006-11 RAN2#56 R2-063681
2006-11 RAN#34 RP-060806
2007-01 RAN2#56 R2-070403
bis
2007-02 RAN2#57 R2-070451
2007-02 RAN2#57 R2-071073
2007-02 RAN2#57 R2-071120
Rev Subject/Comment
Old
New
First version.
0.0.0
RLC operation clarified;
0.0.0 0.0.1
High priority and low priority SRBs listed in RRC;
New section on RRC procedures;
Organisation of paging groups explained;
New section on Support for self-configuration and self-optimisation.
Four possible types of allocation added to section 11;
0.0.1 0.0.2
New section for the support for real time IMS services.
Annex B on RRC and MAC control added.
0.0.2 0.0.3
Minor editorial clarifications.
Section 4 on 'Overall Architecture' reorganised;
0.0.3 0.0.4
Details on RLC operation included (segmentation, PDU size);
Overview of System Information and RACH procedure added.
Ciphering for RRC signalling required in eNB as agreed in SA3;
0.0.4 0.0.5
Agreements on RLC operation included: concatenation, discard,
polling and status reports;
Agreed text proposal in R3-061428 on Self Configuration added to
section 19;
Context transfer of header compression at UPE relocation listed as
FFS.
Outline of the RACH procedure described.
Miscellaneous editorial corrections;
0.0.5 0.1.0
Agreed text proposal R3-061606 on Current status of E-UTRAN
Architecture description added to section 4;
Agreed text proposal in R3-061613 on Support for selfconfiguration and self-optimisation added to section 19.
Agreed Physical layer model R2-063031 added to section 5
Annex C on system information classification added (R2-063064);
0.1.0 0.2.0
Integrity protection for the control plane only (SA3 agreement);
Agreements on PDCP and RLC PDU structure/handling reflected;
Decisions on mobility aspects such as load balancing, handover,
radio link failure and random access procedure added;
Agreed MBMS deployment scenarios listed together with MBMS
transmissions and principles from 25.813;
Agreed text proposal R3-061936 on Radio Resource Management
added to section 15;
Agreed text proposal R3-061940 on RAN Sharing added to section
10;
Agreed text proposal R3-061943 on Roaming/Area Restrictions in
SAE/LTE added to section 10;
Agreed text proposal R3-062008 on S1 C-Plane Functions and
procedures added to section 18;
Agreed text proposal R3-062011 on X2 interface added to section
19.
Incorporation of RAN1 agreement regarding the mandatory support 0.2.0 0.3.0
of 20Mhz DL bandwidth for UEs i.e. removal of sub-clause 16.1;
Editorial corrections.
Removal of the SA3 agreement on integrity protection for the user
0.3.0 0.3.1
plane;
Addition of Annex D on MBMS Transmission;
Editorial corrections.
Clean version
0.3.1 0.3.1
SA3 agreement on integrity protection for the user plane included
0.3.1 0.4.0
(R2-070016);
Annex E on drivers for mobility control added (R2-070276);
Agreements on the details of the random access procedure added
in section 10.1.5 (R2-070365);
New section on UL rate control included (R2-070410);
RRC security principles listed in section 13.1 (R2-070044);
Agreement on MAC security added to section 13 (R2-062100);
Basis for DL scheduling put in section 11.1;
Assumptions on neighbour cell list included in section 10.
Number of bits for RACH in TDD clarified;
0.4.0 0.5.0
Miscellaneous editorial corrections.
Architecture updated according to R3-070397;
0.5.0 0.6.0
Agreements from R2-070802.
RACH model for initial access described;
0.6.0 0.7.0
Mapping of the BCCH and System Information principles added;
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ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
Agreements on DRX included in section 12.
Miscellaneous clarifications
CCCH in DL listed as FFS;
SAE Gateway ID removed from section 8.2;
PDCP for the control plane listed as FFS in section 4.3.2;
Agreements on intra-E-UTRAN handover procedure included in
section 10.1.2 (R3-062020).
Agreement on Radio Access Network Sharing (R2-070551) added
to section 10.1.7;
Overview of the physical layer (R1-071251) included to section 5;
Agreed text proposals on S1 interface included in Section 19 (R3070289, R3-070402);
Agreed text proposal R3-070409 on network sharing included in
section 10.1.7;
Agreed text proposal R3-070411 on Area Restrictions included in
section 10.4;
Agreed text proposal R3-070448 on Assembly of Intra-E-UTRAN
handover command included in section 10.1.2.1.1;
Agreed text proposal R3-070451 on inter RAT HO principles
included in section 10.2.2;
Agreed text proposal R3-070472 on Addressing on S1-C and X2-C
added to sections 19.2 and 20.2;
Agreed text proposal R3-070494 on Initial Context Setup Function
and Procedure added to section 19;
Agreed text proposal R3-070495 on S1 Paging function and
procedure added to section 19
Figures for mapping between channels split into Uplink and
Downlink parts in section 5.3.1 and 6.1.3.
S1-U and S1-MME used throughout the document;
aGW replaced by EPC when still used;
Clean version for information
2007-02 RAN2#57 R2-071122
2007-02 RAN2#57 R2-071123
2007-03 RAN2#57 R2-071124
2007-03
123
RAN#35 RP-070136
0.7.0
0.7.1
0.7.1
0.8.0
0.8.0
0.9.0
0.9.0
1.0.0
Change history (after approval)
Date
2007-03
2007-06
2007-09
2007-12
TSG #
RP-35
RP-36
TSG Doc. CR
RP-070136 RP-070399
RP-36
RP-36
0001
RP-070494 0002
RP-070399 0003
RP-37
RP-070637
Rev Subject/Comment
Old
Approved at TSG-RAN #35 and placed under Change Control
1.0.0
Changes to management-, handover-, paging- and NAS
8.0.0
functions, node- synchronization, X2 UP protocol stack, X2 inter
cell load management, IP fragmentation, intra-LTE HO, and TA
1
relation to cells in eNB
1
Update on Mobility, Security, Random Access Procedure, etc… 8.0.0
New
8.0.0
8.1.0
8.0.0
8.1.0
8.1.0
8.2.0
8.1.0
8.2.0
8.2.0
8.3.0
8.2.0
8.2.0
8.3.0
8.3.0
8.2.0
8.3.0
-
0004
1
RP-37
RP-070637
1
RP-38
0005
RP-070913 0006
1
RP-38
RP-38
RP-070913 0007
RP-070913 0008
RP-38
RP-071048 0009
Update on MBMS
Update on Security, System Information, Mobility, MBMS and
DRX
Correction of synchronization, handover, trace, eMBMS
architecture, and S1 common functions and procedures
Clean up and update on security, scheduling, mobility, MBMS
and DRX
Mobility management
Correction of eMBMS functions and NAS handling during X2
handover
Update of Stage 2 to incorporate Interworking with cdma2000
ETSI
8.1.0
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History
Document history
V8.0.0
March 2007
Publication
V8.1.0
June 2007
Publication
V8.2.0
October 2007
Publication
V8.3.0
January 2008
Publication
ETSI
ETSI TS 136 300 V8.3.0 (2008-01)
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